Science.gov

Sample records for 15n-leu incorporation fidelity

  1. Incorporating medium fidelity simulation in a practical nurse education program.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, Donna D

    2010-01-01

    We frequently hear the word simulation in nursing educatioh. Research has been done on the use of high fidelity simulation in registered nursing programs. High fidelity simulators are expensive and require more than one faculty to facilitate. The question remains: Does every nursing program require a high fidelity simulation laboratory? This article will define the three levels of fidelity and describe the incorporation of a medium fidelity simulation into a practical nursing program and will describe the benefits of simulation use. The article will assist the faculty and students new to simulation, and allow them to choose the equipment and scenarios that will be most advantageous for their individual programs. The choice of equipment, scenarios, and fidelity often depends upon the space, time, funds, and faculty available. Simulation adds an important component to nursing education. Using simulation wisely helps students practice in a controlled environment without danger to living patients. The lessons learned will someday play into a "life or death" scenario, and the patient will not be a simulation mannequin.

  2. The incorporation of high fidelity simulation training into hemodialysis nursing education: an Australian unit's experience.

    PubMed

    Dunbar-Reid, Kylie; Sinclair, Peter M; Hudson, Denis

    2011-01-01

    A high-fidelity hemodialysis simulation program has been introduced and evaluated in a Far North Queensland dialysis unit. This program engages and challenges hemodialysis staff across the learning continuum. It provides a realistic, safe, and controlled learning environment for nurses to develop essential hemodialysis competencies while posing no threat to patient safety. This teaching method combined with clinical experience is a positive step forward in meeting future educational needs of the renal workforce. PMID:22338939

  3. Vaccine-derived Mutation in Motif D of Poliovirus RNA-dependent RNA Polymerase Lowers Nucleotide Incorporation Fidelity*

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xinran; Yang, Xiaorong; Lee, Cheri A.; Moustafa, Ibrahim M.; Smidansky, Eric D.; Lum, David; Arnold, Jamie J.; Cameron, Craig E.; Boehr, David D.

    2013-01-01

    All viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerases (RdRps) have a conserved structural element termed motif D. Studies of the RdRp from poliovirus (PV) have shown that a conformational change of motif D leads to efficient and faithful nucleotide addition by bringing Lys-359 into the active site where it serves as a general acid. The RdRp of the Sabin I vaccine strain has Thr-362 changed to Ile. Such a drastic change so close to Lys-359 might alter RdRp function and contribute in some way to the attenuated phenotype of Sabin type I. Here we present our characterization of the T362I RdRp. We find that the T362I RdRp exhibits a mutator phenotype in biochemical experiments in vitro. Using NMR, we show that this change in nucleotide incorporation fidelity correlates with a change in the structural dynamics of motif D. A recombinant PV expressing the T362I RdRp exhibits normal growth properties in cell culture but expresses a mutator phenotype in cells. For example, the T362I-containing PV is more sensitive to the mutagenic activity of ribavirin than wild-type PV. Interestingly, the T362I change was sufficient to cause a statistically significant reduction in viral virulence. Collectively, these studies suggest that residues of motif D can be targeted when changes in nucleotide incorporation fidelity are desired. Given the observation that fidelity mutants can serve as vaccine candidates, it may be possible to use engineering of motif D for this purpose. PMID:24085299

  4. Pre-steady state kinetic studies of the fidelity of nucleotide incorporation by yeast DNA polymerase delta.

    PubMed

    Dieckman, Lynne M; Johnson, Robert E; Prakash, Satya; Washington, M Todd

    2010-08-31

    Eukaryotic DNA polymerase delta (pol delta) is a member of the B family of polymerases and synthesizes most of the lagging strand during DNA replication. Yeast pol delta is a heterotrimer comprised of three subunits: the catalytic subunit (Pol3) and two accessory subunits (Pol31 and Pol32). Although pol delta is one of the major eukaryotic replicative polymerase, the mechanism by which it incorporates nucleotides is unknown. Here we report both steady state and pre-steady state kinetic studies of the fidelity of pol delta. We found that pol delta incorporates nucleotides with an error frequency of 10(-4) to 10(-5). Furthermore, we showed that for correct versus incorrect nucleotide incorporation, there are significant differences between both pre-steady state kinetic parameters (apparent K(d)(dNTP) and k(pol)). Somewhat surprisingly, we found that pol delta synthesizes DNA at a slow rate with a k(pol) of approximately 1 s(-1). We suggest that, unlike its prokaryotic counterparts, pol delta requires replication accessory factors like proliferating cell nuclear antigen to achieve rapid rates of nucleotide incorporation.

  5. Scattering fidelity in elastodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorin, T.; Seligman, T. H.; Weaver, R. L.

    2006-01-01

    The recent introduction of the concept of scattering fidelity causes us to revisit the experiment by Lobkis and Weaver [Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 254302 (2003)]. There, the “distortion” of the coda of an acoustic signal is measured under temperature changes. This quantity is, in fact, the negative logarithm of scattering fidelity. We reanalyze their experimental data for two samples, and we find good agreement with random matrix predictions for the standard fidelity. Usually, one may expect such an agreement for chaotic systems, only. While the first sample may indeed be assumed chaotic, for the second sample, a perfect cuboid, such an agreement is surprising. For the first sample, the random matrix analysis yields perturbation strengths compatible with semiclassical predictions. For the cuboid, the measured perturbation strengths are by a common factor of (5)/(3) too large. Apart from that, the experimental curves for the distortion are well reproduced.

  6. [Fidelity to trust].

    PubMed

    Alvarez Avello, José Manuel

    2014-01-01

    Trust in the doctor, an essential condition of medical practice throughout its history, appears to be considered as an outdated value, destined to extinction. In his work, Pellegrino analyzes the epistemological, empirical and conceptual basis of trust in professional relationships, the reasons for its weakening in an ethics of distrust, and he presents his philosophical proposal, which recovers and reappraises the fidelity to trust placed in the doctor-patient relationship, as an essential virtue for an appropriate ethical behaviour in the practice of medicine as in a moral community.

  7. RTI Fidelity of Implementation Rubric

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center on Response to Intervention, 2014

    2014-01-01

    The Response to Intervention (RTI) Fidelity Rubric is for use by individuals who are responsible for monitoring school-level fidelity of RTI implementation. The rubric is aligned with the essential components of RTI and the infrastructure that is necessary for successful implementation. It is accompanied by a worksheet with guiding questions and…

  8. Direct competition assay for transcription fidelity.

    PubMed

    Lubkowska, Lucyna; Kireeva, Maria L

    2015-01-01

    Accurate transcription is essential for faithful information flow from DNA to RNA and to the protein. Mechanisms of cognate substrate selection by RNA polymerases are currently elucidated by structural, genetic, and biochemical approaches. Here, we describe a fast and reliable approach to quantitative analyses of transcription fidelity, applicable to analyses of RNA polymerase selectivity against misincorporation, incorporation of dNMPs, and chemically modified rNMP analogues. The method is based on different electrophoretic mobility of RNA oligomers of the same length but differing in sequence.

  9. Intervention Research: The Importance of Fidelity Measurement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolery, Mark

    2011-01-01

    In this commentary, the issue of fidelity assessment is addressed as it relates to Strain and Bovey's article (2011). Four reasons are provided for measuring fidelity in intervention studies. Measuring fidelity (a) potentially allows investigators to document the findings were not due to the lack of fidelity in a study; (b) presents information…

  10. High-fidelity linear optical quantum computing with polarization encoding

    SciTech Connect

    Spedalieri, Federico M.; Lee, Hwang; Dowling, Jonathan P.

    2006-01-15

    We show that the KLM scheme [Knill, Laflamme, and Milburn, Nature 409, 46 (2001)] can be implemented using polarization encoding, thus reducing the number of path modes required by half. One of the main advantages of this new implementation is that it naturally incorporates a loss detection mechanism that makes the probability of a gate introducing a non-detected error, when non-ideal detectors are considered, dependent only on the detector dark-count rate and independent of its efficiency. Since very low dark-count rate detectors are currently available, a high-fidelity gate (probability of error of order 10{sup -6} conditional on the gate being successful) can be implemented using polarization encoding. The detector efficiency determines the overall success probability of the gate but does not affect its fidelity. This can be applied to the efficient construction of optical cluster states with very high fidelity for quantum computing.

  11. Curriculum Fidelity and Factors Affecting Fidelity in the Turkish Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bumen, Nilay T.; Cakar, Esra; Yildiz, Derya G.

    2014-01-01

    Although a centralist education system is in place in Turkey, studies show that while implementing the curriculum developed by the Ministry of Education, teachers make changes based on their own preferences or depending on students. Curriculum fidelity can be defined as the degree to which teachers or stakeholders abide by a curriculum's…

  12. Site fidelity, mate fidelity, and breeding dispersal in American kestrels

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Steenhof, K.; Peterson, B.E.

    2009-01-01

    We assessed mate fidelity, nest-box fidelity, and breeding dispersal distances of American Kestrels (falco sparverius) nesting in boxes in southwestern Idaho from 1990 through 2006. Seventy-seven percent of boxes had different males and 87% had different females where nest-box occupants were identified in consecutive years. High turnover rates were partly a result of box-switching. Forty-eight percent of males and 58% of females that nested within the study area in successive years used different boxes. The probability of changing boxes was unrelated to gender, nesting success in the prior year, or years of nesting experience. Breeding dispersal distances for birds that moved to different boxes averaged 2.2 km for males (max = 22 km) and 3.2 km for females (max = 32 km). Approximately 70% of birds that nested in consecutive years on the study area had a different mate in the second year. Mate fidelity was related to box fidelity but not to prior nesting success or years of nesting experience. Mate changes occurred 32% of the time when the previous mate was known to be alive and nesting in the area. Kestrels that switched mates and boxes did not improve or decrease their subsequent nesting success. Kestrels usually switched to mates with less experience and lower lifetime productivity than their previous mates. The costs of switching boxes and mates were low, and there were no obvious benefits to fidelity. The cost of "waiting" for a previous mate that might have died could be high in species with high annual mortality.

  13. Training Teachers to use Evidence-Based Practices for Autism: Examining Procedural Implementation fidelity

    PubMed Central

    Stahmer, Aubyn C.; Reed, Sarah; Lee, Ember; Reisinger, Erica M.; Connell, James E.; Mandell, David S.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the extent to which public school teachers implemented evidence-based interventions for students with autism in the way these practices were designed. Evidence-based practices for students with autism are rarely incorporated into community settings, and little is known about the quality of implementation. An indicator of intervention quality is procedural implementation fidelity (the degree to which a treatment is implemented as prescribed). Procedural fidelity likely affects student outcomes. This project examined procedural implementation fidelity of three evidence-based practices used in a randomized trial of a comprehensive program for students with autism in partnership with a large, urban school district. Results indicate that teachers in public school special education classrooms can learn to implement evidence-based strategies; however they require extensive training, coaching, and time to reach and maintain moderate procedural implementation fidelity. Procedural fidelity over time, and across intervention strategies is examined. PMID:25593374

  14. Molecular basis of transcriptional fidelity and DNA lesion-induced transcriptional mutagenesis

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Liang; Da, Lintai; Plouffe, Steven W.; Chong, Jenny; Kool, Eric; Wang, Dong

    2014-01-01

    Maintaining high transcriptional fidelity is essential for life. Some DNA lesions lead to significant changes in transcriptional fidelity. In this review, we will summarize recent progress towards understanding the molecular basis of RNA polymerase II (Pol II) transcriptional fidelity and DNA lesion-induced transcriptional mutagenesis. In particular, we will focus on the three key checkpoint steps of controlling Pol II transcriptional fidelity: insertion (specific nucleotide selection and incorporation), extension (differentiation of RNA transcript extension of a matched over mismatched 3'-RNA terminus), and proofreading (preferential removal of misincorporated nucleotides from the 3'-RNA end). We will also discuss some novel insights into the molecular basis and chemical perspectives of controlling Pol II transcriptional fidelity through structural, computational, and chemical biology approaches. PMID:24767259

  15. Extending the Conceptualization of Listening Fidelity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitch-Hauser, Margaret; Powers, William G.; O'Brien, Kelley; Hanson, Scott

    2007-01-01

    An exploration of variables potentially related to Listening Fidelity (LF) was conducted through two separate studies. Study 1 indicated that when the potential fidelity of the stimulus message was varied as a function of the number of words and time length, the message with lowest potential fidelity produced significantly lower LF than either the…

  16. Fidelity Criteria: Development, Measurement, and Validation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mowbray, Carol T.; Holter, Mark C.; Teague, Gregory B.; Bybee, Deborah

    2003-01-01

    Fidelity may be defined as the extent to which delivery of an intervention adheres to the protocol or program model originally developed. Fidelity measurement has increasing significance for evaluation, treatment effectiveness research, and service administration. Yet few published studies using fidelity criteria provide details on the…

  17. Intermediate Fidelity Closed Brayton Cycle Power Conversion Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lavelle, Thomas M.; Khandelwal, Suresh; Owen, Albert K.

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes the implementation of an intermediate fidelity model of a closed Brayton Cycle power conversion system (Closed Cycle System Simulation). The simulation is developed within the Numerical Propulsion Simulation System architecture using component elements from earlier models. Of particular interest, and power, is the ability of this new simulation system to initiate a more detailed analysis of compressor and turbine components automatically and to incorporate the overall results into the general system simulation.

  18. 75 FR 60838 - American Fidelity Dual Strategy Fund, Inc. and American Fidelity Assurance Company; Notice of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-01

    ... COMMISSION American Fidelity Dual Strategy Fund, Inc. and American Fidelity Assurance Company; Notice of...: American Fidelity Dual Strategy Fund, Inc. (the ``Fund'') and American Fidelity Assurance Company (the... investment strategies, (ii) evaluate, select and recommend Sub-Advisors to manage all or a part of the...

  19. Implementation Fidelity in Community-Based Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Breitenstein, Susan M.; Gross, Deborah; Garvey, Christine; Hill, Carri; Fogg, Louis; Resnick, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    Implementation fidelity is the degree to which an intervention is delivered as intended and is critical to successful translation of evidence-based interventions into practice. Diminished fidelity may be why interventions that work well in highly controlled trials may fail to yield the same outcomes when applied in real life contexts. The purpose of this paper is to define implementation fidelity and describe its importance for the larger science of implementation, discuss data collection methods and current efforts in measuring implementation fidelity in community-based prevention interventions, and present future research directions for measuring implementation fidelity that will advance implementation science. PMID:20198637

  20. Differences in observers' and teachers' fidelity assessments.

    PubMed

    Hansen, William B; Pankratz, Melinda M; Bishop, Dana C

    2014-10-01

    As evidence-based programs become disseminated, understanding the degree to which they are implemented with fidelity is crucial. This study tested the validity of fidelity ratings made by observers versus those made by teachers. We hypothesized that teachers' reports about fidelity would have a positivity bias when compared to observers' reports. Further, we hypothesized that there would generally be low correspondence between teachers' and observers' ratings of fidelity. We examined teachers' and observers' ratings as they were related to mediating variables targeted for change by the intervention. Finally, we examined the role that years of teaching experience played in achieving fidelity. Eighteen teachers and four research assistants participated in this project as raters. Teachers made video recordings of their implementation of All Stars and completed fidelity assessment forms. Trained observers independently completed parallel forms for 215 sampled classroom sessions. Both teachers and observers rated adherence, quality of delivery, attendance, and participant engagement. Teachers made more positive fidelity ratings than did observers. With the exception of ratings for attendance, teachers and observers failed to agree on fidelity ratings. Observers' ratings were significantly related to students' pretest assessments of targeted program mediators. That observers' ratings were related to students' pretest scores, suggests it is easier to teach well when students are predisposed to program success. Teachers' ratings were infrequently related to mediators, but when they were, the relationship was counterintuitive. Experienced teachers taught with greater fidelity than novice teachers. While possibly inflated and inaccurate, gathering fidelity assessments from teachers may sensitize them to issues of fidelity as a result of requiring form completion. Assessing fidelity through observers' ratings of video recordings has significant merit. As a longterm investment

  1. Differences in observers' and teachers' fidelity assessments.

    PubMed

    Hansen, William B; Pankratz, Melinda M; Bishop, Dana C

    2014-10-01

    As evidence-based programs become disseminated, understanding the degree to which they are implemented with fidelity is crucial. This study tested the validity of fidelity ratings made by observers versus those made by teachers. We hypothesized that teachers' reports about fidelity would have a positivity bias when compared to observers' reports. Further, we hypothesized that there would generally be low correspondence between teachers' and observers' ratings of fidelity. We examined teachers' and observers' ratings as they were related to mediating variables targeted for change by the intervention. Finally, we examined the role that years of teaching experience played in achieving fidelity. Eighteen teachers and four research assistants participated in this project as raters. Teachers made video recordings of their implementation of All Stars and completed fidelity assessment forms. Trained observers independently completed parallel forms for 215 sampled classroom sessions. Both teachers and observers rated adherence, quality of delivery, attendance, and participant engagement. Teachers made more positive fidelity ratings than did observers. With the exception of ratings for attendance, teachers and observers failed to agree on fidelity ratings. Observers' ratings were significantly related to students' pretest assessments of targeted program mediators. That observers' ratings were related to students' pretest scores, suggests it is easier to teach well when students are predisposed to program success. Teachers' ratings were infrequently related to mediators, but when they were, the relationship was counterintuitive. Experienced teachers taught with greater fidelity than novice teachers. While possibly inflated and inaccurate, gathering fidelity assessments from teachers may sensitize them to issues of fidelity as a result of requiring form completion. Assessing fidelity through observers' ratings of video recordings has significant merit. As a longterm investment

  2. In vitro incorporation of LNA nucleotides.

    PubMed

    Veedu, Rakesh N; Vester, Birte; Wengel, Jesper

    2007-01-01

    An LNA modified nucleoside triphosphate 1 was synthesized in order to investigate its potential to act as substrate for DNA strand synthesis by polymerases. Primer extension assays for the incorporation experiments revealed that Phusion High Fidelity DNA polymerase is an efficient enzyme for incorporation of the LNA nucleotide and for extending strand to full length. It was also observed that pfu DNA polymerase could incorporate the LNA nucleotide but it failed to extend the strand to a full length product. PMID:18058567

  3. A procedure for assessing intervention fidelity in experiments testing educational and behavioral interventions.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Michael C; Cordray, David S; Hulleman, Chris S; Darrow, Catherine L; Sommer, Evan C

    2012-10-01

    An intervention's effectiveness is judged by whether it produces positive outcomes for participants, with the randomized experiment being the gold standard for determining intervention effects. However, the intervention-as-implemented in an experiment frequently differs from the intervention-as-designed, making it unclear whether unfavorable results are due to an ineffective intervention model or the failure to implement the model fully. It is therefore vital to accurately and systematically assess intervention fidelity and, where possible, incorporate fidelity data in the analysis of outcomes. This paper elaborates a five-step procedure for systematically assessing intervention fidelity in the context of randomized controlled trials (RCTs), describes the advantages of assessing fidelity with this approach, and uses examples to illustrate how this procedure can be applied.

  4. Physiological Based Simulator Fidelity Design Guidance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schnell, Thomas; Hamel, Nancy; Postnikov, Alex; Hoke, Jaclyn; McLean, Angus L. M. Thom, III

    2012-01-01

    The evolution of the role of flight simulation has reinforced assumptions in aviation that the degree of realism in a simulation system directly correlates to the training benefit, i.e., more fidelity is always better. The construct of fidelity has several dimensions, including physical fidelity, functional fidelity, and cognitive fidelity. Interaction of different fidelity dimensions has an impact on trainee immersion, presence, and transfer of training. This paper discusses research results of a recent study that investigated if physiological-based methods could be used to determine the required level of simulator fidelity. Pilots performed a relatively complex flight task consisting of mission task elements of various levels of difficulty in a fixed base flight simulator and a real fighter jet trainer aircraft. Flight runs were performed using one forward visual channel of 40 deg. field of view for the lowest level of fidelity, 120 deg. field of view for the middle level of fidelity, and unrestricted field of view and full dynamic acceleration in the real airplane. Neuro-cognitive and physiological measures were collected under these conditions using the Cognitive Avionics Tool Set (CATS) and nonlinear closed form models for workload prediction were generated based on these data for the various mission task elements. One finding of the work described herein is that simple heart rate is a relatively good predictor of cognitive workload, even for short tasks with dynamic changes in cognitive loading. Additionally, we found that models that used a wide range of physiological and neuro-cognitive measures can further boost the accuracy of the workload prediction.

  5. The fidelity of adaptive phototaxis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drescher, Knut; Tuval, Idan; Goldstein, Raymond

    2010-03-01

    Along the evolutionary path from single cells to multicellular organisms with a central nervous system are species of intermediate complexity which move in ways suggesting high-level coordination, yet have none. Instead, organisms within this category possess many autonomous cells which are endowed with programs that have evolved to achieve concerted responses to environmental stimuli. We examine the main features of the program underlying high-fidelity phototaxis in colonial algae which spin about a body-fixed axis as they swim. Using micromanipulation and particle image velocimetry of flagella-driven flows in Volvox carteri, we show that there is an adaptive response at the single-cell level that displays a pronounced maximum in its frequency dependence for periodic light signals. Moreover, the natural rotational frequency of the colony is tuned to match this optimal response. A hydrodynamic model of phototactic steering further shows that the phototactic ability decreases dramatically when the colony does not spin at its natural frequency, a result confirmed by phototaxis assays in which colony rotation was slowed by increasing the fluid viscosity.

  6. Ground state fidelity from tensor network representations.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Huan-Qiang; Orús, Roman; Vidal, Guifre

    2008-02-29

    For any D-dimensional quantum lattice system, the fidelity between two ground state many-body wave functions is mapped onto the partition function of a D-dimensional classical statistical vertex lattice model with the same lattice geometry. The fidelity per lattice site, analogous to the free energy per site, is well defined in the thermodynamic limit and can be used to characterize the phase diagram of the model. We explain how to compute the fidelity per site in the context of tensor network algorithms, and demonstrate the approach by analyzing the two-dimensional quantum Ising model with transverse and parallel magnetic fields. PMID:18352611

  7. Fidelity imaging for atomic force microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Ghosal, Sayan Salapaka, Murti

    2015-01-05

    Atomic force microscopy is widely employed for imaging material at the nanoscale. However, real-time measures on image reliability are lacking in contemporary atomic force microscopy literature. In this article, we present a real-time technique that provides an image of fidelity for a high bandwidth dynamic mode imaging scheme. The fidelity images define channels that allow the user to have additional authority over the choice of decision threshold that facilitates where the emphasis is desired, on discovering most true features on the sample with the possible detection of high number of false features, or emphasizing minimizing instances of false detections. Simulation and experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of fidelity imaging.

  8. What Is Essential in Developmental Evaluation? On Integrity, Fidelity, Adultery, Abstinence, Impotence, Long-Term Commitment, Integrity, and Sensitivity in Implementing Evaluation Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patton, Michael Quinn

    2016-01-01

    Fidelity concerns the extent to which a specific evaluation sufficiently incorporates the core characteristics of the overall approach to justify labeling that evaluation by its designated name. Fidelity has traditionally meant implementing a model in exactly the same way each time following the prescribed steps and procedures. The essential…

  9. Exploring Interprofessional Education through a High-Fidelity Human Patient Simulation Scenario: A Mixed Methods Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rossler, Kelly Lynn

    2013-01-01

    High-fidelity human patient simulation has emerged as a valuable medium to reinforce educational content within programs of nursing. As simulation learning experiences have been identified as augmenting both didactic lecture content and clinical learning, these experiences have expanded to incorporate interprofessional education. Review of…

  10. Quantifying prediction fidelity in multiscale multiphysics simulations.

    SciTech Connect

    Adalsteinsson, Helgi

    2010-04-01

    Multiscale multiphysics problems arise in a host of application areas of significant relevance to DOE, including electrical storage systems (membranes and electrodes in fuel cells, batteries, and ultracapacitors), water surety, chemical analysis and detection systems, and surface catalysis. Multiscale methods aim to provide detailed physical insight into these complex systems by incorporating coupled effects of relevant phenomena on all scales. However, many sources of uncertainty and modeling inaccuracies hamper the predictive fidelity of multiscale multiphysics simulations. These include parametric and model uncertainties in the models on all scales, and errors associated with coupling, or information transfer, across scales/physics. This presentation introduces our work on the development of uncertainty quantification methods for spatially decomposed atomistic-to-continuum (A2C) multiscale simulations. The key thrusts of this research effort are: inference of uncertain parameters or observables from experimental or simulation data; propagation of uncertainty through particle models; propagation of uncertainty through continuum models; propagation of information and uncertainty across model/scale interfaces; and numerical and computational analysis and control. To enable the bidirectional coupling between the atomistic and continuum simulations, a general formulation has been developed for the characterization of sampling noise due to intrinsic variability in particle simulations, and for the propagation of both this sampling noise and parametric uncertainties through coupled A2C multiscale simulations. Simplified tests of noise quantification in particle computations are conducted through Bayesian inference of diffusion rates in an idealized isothermal binary material system. A proof of concept is finally presented based on application of the present formulation to the propagation of uncertainties in a model plane Couette flow, where the near wall region is

  11. How Fidelity Invests in Service Professionals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McColgan, Ellyn A.

    1997-01-01

    Fidelity Institutional Retirement Services Company reorganized, automated, and reengineered all systems related to service delivery. They created a model for the development of associates called Service Delivery University and committed each associate to 80 hours of development per year. (JOW)

  12. Roseate Tern breeding dispersal and fidelity: Responses to two newly restored colony sites

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Spendelow, Jeffrey A.; Monticelli, David; Nichols, James; Hines, James; Nisbet, Ian; Cormons, Grace; Hays, Helen; Hatch, Jeremy; Mostello, Carolyn

    2016-01-01

    We used 22 yr of capture–mark–reencounter (CMR) data collected from 1988 to 2009 on about 12,500 birds at what went from three to five coastal colony sites in Massachusetts, New York, and Connecticut, United States, to examine spatial and temporal variation in breeding dispersal/fidelity rates of adult Roseate Terns (Sterna dougallii). At the start of our study, Roseate Terns nested at only one site (Bird Island) in Buzzards Bay, Massachusetts, but two more sites in this bay (Ram and Penikese Islands) were subsequently recolonized and became incorporated into our CMR metapopulation study. We examined four major hypotheses about factors we thought might influence colony-site fidelity and movement rates in the restructured system. We found some evidence that colony-site fidelity remained higher at long-established sites compared with newer ones and that breeding dispersal was more likely to occur among nearby sites than distant ones. Sustained predation at Falkner Island, Connecticut, did not result in a sustained drop in fidelity rates of breeders. Patterns of breeding dispersal differed substantially at the two restored sites. The fidelity of Roseate Terns at Bird dropped quickly after nearby Ram was recolonized in 1994, and fidelity rates for Ram soon approached those for Bird. After an oil spill in Buzzards Bay in April 2003, hazing (deliberate disturbance) of the terns at Ram prior to the start of egg-laying resulted in lowering of fidelity at this site, a decrease in immigration from Bird, and recolonization of Penikese by Roseate Terns. Annual fidelity rates at Penikese increased somewhat several years after the initial recolonization, but they remained much lower there than at all the other sites throughout the study period. The sustained high annual rates of emigration from Penikese resulted in the eventual failure of the restoration effort there, and in 2013, no Roseate Terns nested at this site.

  13. Enhancing pediatric clinical competency with high-fidelity simulation.

    PubMed

    Birkhoff, Susan D; Donner, Carol

    2010-09-01

    In today's tertiary pediatric hospital setting, the increased complexity of patient care demands seamless coordination and collaboration among multidisciplinary team members. In an effort to enhance patient safety, clinical competence, and teamwork, simulation-based learning has become increasingly integrated into pediatric clinical practice as an innovative educational strategy. The simulated setting provides a risk-free environment where learners can incorporate cognitive, psychomotor, and affective skill acquisition without fear of harming patients. One pediatric university hospital in Southeastern Pennsylvania has enhanced the traditional American Heart Association (AHA) Pediatric Advanced Life Support (PALS) course by integrating high-fidelity simulation into skill acquisition, while still functioning within the guidelines and framework of the AHA educational standards. However, very little research with reliable standardized testing methods has been done to measure the effect of simulation-based learning. This article discusses the AHA guidelines for PALS, evaluation of PALS and nursing clinical competencies, communication among a multidisciplinary team, advantages and disadvantages of simulation, incorporation of high-fidelity simulation into pediatric practice, and suggestions for future practice.

  14. Group Prenatal Care: Model Fidelity and Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    NOVICK, Gina; REID, Allecia E.; LEWIS, Jessica; KERSHAW, Trace S.; RISING, Sharon S.; ICKOVICS, Jeannette R.

    2013-01-01

    Objective CenteringPregnancy group prenatal care has been demonstrated to improve pregnancy outcomes. However, there is likely variation in how the model is implemented in clinical practice, which may be associated with efficacy, and therefore variation, in outcomes. We examined the association of fidelity to process and content of the CenteringPregnancy group prenatal care model with outcomes previously shown to be affected in a clinical trial: preterm birth, adequacy of prenatal care and breastfeeding initiation. Study Design Participants were 519 women who received CenteringPregnancy group prenatal care. Process fidelity reflected how facilitative leaders were and how involved participants were in each session. Content fidelity reflected whether recommended content was discussed in each session. Fidelity was rated at each session by a trained researcher. Preterm birth and adequacy of care were abstracted from medical records. Participants self-reported breastfeeding initiation at 6-months postpartum. Results Controlling for important clinical predictors, greater process fidelity was associated with significantly lower odds of both preterm birth (B=−0.43, Wald χ2=8.65, P=.001) and intensive utilization of care (B=−0.29, Wald χ2=3.91, P=.05). Greater content fidelity was associated with lower odds of intensive utilization of care (B=−0.03, Wald χ2=9.31, P=.001). Conclusion Maintaining fidelity to facilitative group processes in CenteringPregnancy was associated with significant reductions in preterm birth and intensive care utilization of care. Content fidelity also was associated with reductions in intensive utilization of care. Clinicians learning to facilitate group care should receive training in facilitative leadership, emphasizing the critical role that creating a participatory atmosphere can play in improving outcomes. PMID:23524175

  15. Gate fidelity fluctuations and quantum process invariants

    SciTech Connect

    Magesan, Easwar; Emerson, Joseph; Blume-Kohout, Robin

    2011-07-15

    We characterize the quantum gate fidelity in a state-independent manner by giving an explicit expression for its variance. The method we provide can be extended to calculate all higher order moments of the gate fidelity. Using these results, we obtain a simple expression for the variance of a single-qubit system and deduce the asymptotic behavior for large-dimensional quantum systems. Applications of these results to quantum chaos and randomized benchmarking are discussed.

  16. Average fidelity between random quantum states

    SciTech Connect

    Zyczkowski, Karol; Sommers, Hans-Juergen

    2005-03-01

    We analyze mean fidelity between random density matrices of size N, generated with respect to various probability measures in the space of mixed quantum states: the Hilbert-Schmidt measure, the Bures (statistical) measure, the measure induced by the partial trace, and the natural measure on the space of pure states. In certain cases explicit probability distributions for the fidelity are derived. The results obtained may be used to gauge the quality of quantum-information-processing schemes.

  17. Is mate fidelity related to site fidelity? A comparative analysis in Ciconiiforms.

    PubMed

    Cézilly; Dubois; Pagel

    2000-06-01

    We tested for an association between divorce rate and site fidelity in 42 avian species belonging to the order Ciconiiforms, using comparative methods that account for the influences of phylogenetic relationships on the data. Our methods enabled us to detect evidence of correlated evolution and provided information on the temporal ordering of evolutionary changes in these two variables. We found a significant correlation between divorce rate and site fidelity, indicating that species with little or no site fidelity are more likely to divorce. Our data suggest that the coupled evolution of divorce and site fidelity can be summarized by three major events. The first event corresponds to a transition from species showing high divorce rate and low or no site fidelity to species that tended to reuse the same nests over consecutive breeding seasons. This was followed by a transition towards higher mate fidelity, with the preservation of pair bonds over consecutive breeding attempts. In a third stage, divorce rate and the rate of site fidelity varied, independently of each other. We discuss our results within the context of the ancestor species and the past environments in which the traits originated, and address the importance of the potential for individual recognition in shaping the observed patterns of covariation between mate fidelity and site fidelity in Ciconiiforms. Copyright 2000 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour. PMID:10877893

  18. Intervention fidelity: Ensuring application to practice for youth and families

    PubMed Central

    Faulkner, Melissa Spezia

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Limited information on intervention fidelity is available in published studies with youth and families. The components of intervention fidelity, the complexity of measurement in these studies, and strategies for measuring intervention fidelity are described. Conclusions Strategies for ensuring intervention fidelity according to the Treatment Fidelity Workgroup of the Behavior Change Consortium in the areas of study design, provider training, treatment delivery, treatment receipt, and treatment enactment provide guidance for evaluating or developing intervention fidelity plans. Practice Implications Ensuring the quality of intervention fidelity in evidence-based reviews or when developing new interventions is essential for translating findings into practice. PMID:22188270

  19. An information theoretic approach to use high-fidelity codes to calibrate low-fidelity codes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, Allison; Smith, Ralph; Williams, Brian; Figueroa, Victor

    2016-11-01

    For many simulation models, it can be prohibitively expensive or physically infeasible to obtain a complete set of experimental data to calibrate model parameters. In such cases, one can alternatively employ validated higher-fidelity codes to generate simulated data, which can be used to calibrate the lower-fidelity code. In this paper, we employ an information-theoretic framework to determine the reduction in parameter uncertainty that is obtained by evaluating the high-fidelity code at a specific set of design conditions. These conditions are chosen sequentially, based on the amount of information that they contribute to the low-fidelity model parameters. The goal is to employ Bayesian experimental design techniques to minimize the number of high-fidelity code evaluations required to accurately calibrate the low-fidelity model. We illustrate the performance of this framework using heat and diffusion examples, a 1-D kinetic neutron diffusion equation, and a particle transport model, and include initial results from the integration of the high-fidelity thermal-hydraulics code Hydra-TH with a low-fidelity exponential model for the friction correlation factor.

  20. High fidelity nanohole enhanced Raman spectroscopy.

    SciTech Connect

    Bahns, J. T.; Guo, Q.; Gray, S. K.; Jaeger, H. M.; Chen, L.; Montgomery, J. M.; Univ. of Chicago

    2009-01-01

    Surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) is a sensitive technique that can even detect single molecules. However, in many SERS applications, the strongly inhomogeneous distribution of intense local fields makes it very difficult for a quantitive assessment of the fidelity, or reproducibility of the signal, which limits the application of SERS. Herein, we report the development of exceptionally high-fidelity hole-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (HERS) from ordered, 2D hexagonal nanohole arrays. We take the fidelity f to be a measure of the percent deviation of the Raman peaks from measurement to measurement. Overall, area averaged fidelities for 12 gold array samples ranged from f {approx} 2-15% for HERS using aqueous R6G molecules. Furthermore, intensity modulations of the enhanced Raman spectra were measured for the first time as a function of polarization angle. The best of these measurements, which focus on static laser spots on the sample, could be consistent with even higher fidelities than the area-averaged results. Nanohole arrays in silver provided supporting polarization measurements and a more complete enhanced Raman fingerprint for phenylalanine molecules. We also carried out finite-difference time-domain calculations to assist in the interpretation of the experiments, identifying the polarization dependence as possibly arising from hole-hole interactions. Our results represent a step toward making quantitative and reproducible enhanced Raman measurements possible and also open new avenues for a large-scale source of highly uniform hot spots.

  1. Challenges in the development of high-fidelity LWR core neutronics tools

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, K.; Forget, B.

    2013-07-01

    Modern computing has made possible the solution of extremely large-scale reactor simulations, and the literature has numerous examples of high-resolution methods (often Monte Carlo) applied to full-core reactor problems. However, there are currently no examples in the literature of application of such 'High-Fidelity' or 'First Principles' methods to operating Light Water Reactor (LWR) analysis. This paper seeks to remind code developers, project managers, and analysts of the many important aspects of LWR simulation that must be incorporated to produce truly high-fidelity analysis tools. The authors offer a monetary prize to the first person (or group) that successfully solves a new two-cycle operational PWR depletion benchmark problem using high-fidelity tools and demonstrates acceptable accuracy by comparison with measured operational plant data (open source) provided to the reactor analysis community. (authors)

  2. Exploring chaos in the Dicke model using ground-state fidelity and Loschmidt echo.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharya, Utso; Dasgupta, Sayak; Dutta, Amit

    2014-08-01

    We study the quantum critical behavior of the Dicke Hamiltonian with finite number of atoms and explore the signature of quantum chaos using measures like the ground-state fidelity and the Loschmidt echo and the time-averaged Loschmidt echo. We show that these quantities clearly point to the classically chaotic nature of the system in the superradiant (SR) phase. While the ground-state fidelity shows aperiodic oscillations as a function of the coupling strength, the echo shows aperiodic oscillations in time and decays rapidly when the system is in the SR phase. We clearly demonstrate how the time-averaged value of the echo already incorporates the information about the ground-state fidelity and stays much less than unity, indicating the classically chaotic nature of the model in the SR phase.

  3. Unified universal quantum cloning machine and fidelities

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Yinan; Shi Handuo; Xiong Zhaoxi; Jing Li; Mu Liangzhu; Ren Xijun; Fan Heng

    2011-09-15

    We present a unified universal quantum cloning machine, which combines several different existing universal cloning machines together, including the asymmetric case. In this unified framework, the identical pure states are projected equally into each copy initially constituted by input and one half of the maximally entangled states. We show explicitly that the output states of those universal cloning machines are the same. One importance of this unified cloning machine is that the cloning procession is always the symmetric projection, which reduces dramatically the difficulties for implementation. Also, it is found that this unified cloning machine can be directly modified to the general asymmetric case. Besides the global fidelity and the single-copy fidelity, we also present all possible arbitrary-copy fidelities.

  4. Microwave fidelity studies by varying antenna coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Köber, B.; Kuhl, U.; Stöckmann, H.-J.; Gorin, T.; Savin, D. V.; Seligman, T. H.

    2010-09-01

    The fidelity decay in a microwave billiard is considered, where the coupling to an attached antenna is varied. The resulting quantity, coupling fidelity, is experimentally studied for three different terminators of the varied antenna: a hard-wall reflection, an open wall reflection, and a 50Ω load, corresponding to a totally open channel. The model description in terms of an effective Hamiltonian with a complex coupling constant is given. Quantitative agreement is found with the theory obtained from a modified VWZ approach [J. J. M. Verbaarschot , Phys. Rep. 129, 367 (1985)10.1016/0370-1573(85)90070-5].

  5. Derivation Of Probabilistic Damage Definitions From High Fidelity Deterministic Computations

    SciTech Connect

    Leininger, L D

    2004-10-26

    This paper summarizes a methodology used by the Underground Analysis and Planning System (UGAPS) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) for the derivation of probabilistic damage curves for US Strategic Command (USSTRATCOM). UGAPS uses high fidelity finite element and discrete element codes on the massively parallel supercomputers to predict damage to underground structures from military interdiction scenarios. These deterministic calculations can be riddled with uncertainty, especially when intelligence, the basis for this modeling, is uncertain. The technique presented here attempts to account for this uncertainty by bounding the problem with reasonable cases and using those bounding cases as a statistical sample. Probability of damage curves are computed and represented that account for uncertainty within the sample and enable the war planner to make informed decisions. This work is flexible enough to incorporate any desired damage mechanism and can utilize the variety of finite element and discrete element codes within the national laboratory and government contractor community.

  6. Improving the gate fidelity of capacitively coupled spin qubits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xin; Barnes, Edwin

    2015-03-01

    Precise execution of quantum gates acting on two or multiple qubits is essential to quantum computation. For semiconductor spin qubits coupled via capacitive interaction, the best fidelity for a two-qubit gate demonstrated so far is around 70%, insufficient for fault-tolerant quantum computation. In this talk we present control protocols that may substantially improve the robustness of two-qubit gates against both nuclear noise and charge noise. Our pulse sequences incorporate simultaneous dynamical decoupling protocols and are simple enough for immediate experimental realization. Together with existing control protocols for single-qubit gates, our results constitute an important step toward scalable quantum computation using spin qubits. This work is done in collaboration with Sankar Das Sarma and supported by LPS-NSA-CMTC and IARPA-MQCO.

  7. High-Fidelity Measurements of Long-Lived Flux Qubits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hover, David; Macklin, Chris; O'Brien, Kevin; Sears, Adam; Yoder, Jonilyn; Gudmundsen, Ted; Kerman, Jamie; Bolkhovsky, Vladimir; Tolpygo, Sergey; Fitch, George; Weir, Terry; Kamal, Archana; Gustavsson, Simon; Yan, Fei; Birenbaum, Jeff; Siddiqi, Irfan; Orlando, Terry; Clarke, John; Oliver, Will

    2015-03-01

    We report on high-fidelity dispersive measurements of a long-lived flux qubit using a Josephson superconducting traveling wave parametric amplifier (JTWPA). A capacitively shunted flux qubit that incorporates high-Q MBE aluminum will have longer relaxation and dephasing times when compared to a conventional flux qubit, while also maintaining the large anharmonicity necessary for complex gate operations. The JTWPA relies on a Josephson junction embedded transmission line to deliver broadband, nonreciprocal gain with large dynamic range. This research was funded in part by the Office of the Director of National Intelligence (ODNI), Intelligence Advanced Research Projects Activity (IARPA); and by the Assistant Secretary of Defense for Research & Engineering under Air Force Contract number FA8721-05-C-0002. All statements of fact, opinion or conclusions contained herein are those of the authors and should not be construed as representing the official views or policies of

  8. Study of laparoscopic forces perception for defining simulation fidelity.

    PubMed

    Lamata, Pablo; Gómez, Enrique J; Sánchez-Margallo, Francisco M; Lamata, Félix; Antolín, María; Rodríguez, Samuel; Oltra, Alfonso; Usón, Jesús

    2006-01-01

    One of the most controversial dilemmas in virtual reality laparoscopic simulators design is the incorporation of force feedback (FF). This issue is approached with an experimental design in which surgeons assess the resistance against pulling of four different tissues, which are characterized with the acquisition of interaction forces. Comparing subjective assessments with objective force parameters we aim to determine the fidelity boundary beyond which no more realism is necessary in simulation. Interaction pulling forces of four tissues have been characterized, which can constitute a basis for requirements of a FF algorithm. Results have also led to the hypothesis that surgeons are able to differentiate tissues and perceive somesthesic information although resulting interaction forces are of the same magnitude than interferences like trocar friction.

  9. Teaching the Physics of Hi-Fidelity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Kenneth W.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    Discusses the content and success of an introductory general-studies physics course that emphasizes the theory and operation of hi-fidelity audio equipment. The course avoids traditional abstract mathematics and makes frequent use of classroom demonstrations and laboratory experiments. (MLH)

  10. Information, entropy and fidelity in visual communication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huck, Friedrich O.; Fales, Carl L.; Alter-Gartenberg, Rachel; Rahman, Zia-Ur

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents an assessment of visual communication that integrates the critical limiting factors of image gathering and display with the digital processing that is used to code and restore images. The approach focuses on two mathematical criteria, information and fidelity, and on their relationships to the entropy of the encoded data and to the visual quality of the restored image.

  11. Teacher Fidelity to One Physical Education Curricular Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kloeppel, Tiffany; Kulinna, Pamela Hodges; Stylianou, Michalis; van der Mars, Hans

    2013-01-01

    This study addressed teachers' fidelity to one Physical Education curricular model. The theoretical framework guiding this study included professional development and fidelity to curricular models. In this study, teachers' fidelity to the Dynamic Physical Education (DPE) curricular model was measured for high and nonsupport district groups.…

  12. Procedural Fidelity: An Analysis of Measurement and Reporting Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ledford, Jennifer R.; Wolery, Mark

    2013-01-01

    A systematic analysis was conducted of measurement and reporting practices related to procedural fidelity in single-case research for the past 30 years. Previous reviews of fidelity primarily reported whether fidelity data were collected by authors; these reviews reported that collection was variable, but low across journals and over time. Results…

  13. Defining and Measuring Message Fidelity in Organizational Communication Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pace, R. Wayne

    The literature reporting research on message distortion in organizations is reviewed in this paper. Topics covered include: definitions of distortion/fidelity; measures of message display; measures of message interpretation; categories of distortion/fidelity derived from laboratory research; definitions of distortion/fidelity in naturalistic…

  14. Enhancing Fidelity in Adventure Education and Adventure Therapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tucker, Anita R.; Rheingold, Alison

    2010-01-01

    Although the importance of addressing and evaluating treatment and program fidelity is clearly emphasized in the literature on psychology, education, and health, little attention has been given to fidelity in adventure literature or research. Program fidelity refers to whether or not, and how well, a specific intervention or program was…

  15. Competitive environments induce shifts in host fidelity.

    PubMed

    Rova, E; Björklund, M

    2010-08-01

    Recent models support the idea of sympatric speciation as a result of the joint effects of disruptive selection and assortative mating. We present experimental data, testing models of speciation through frequency-dependent selection. We show that under high competition on a mixture of resources/hosts, strains of the Seed beetle, Callosobruchus maculatus, change their host fidelity and evolve a more generalistic behaviour in resource utilization among females. The change in host fidelity did not result in disruptive selection and was not followed by assortative mating. This means that only one of three fundamental prerequisites for sympatric speciation evolved as a result of the frequency-dependent selection. We conclude that for this process to work, a shift to a novel food resource as a result of selection must also lead to a loss of preference for the original resource such that individuals are only able to use either one of the two.

  16. Quantum Fidelity for Arbitrary Gaussian States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banchi, Leonardo; Braunstein, Samuel L.; Pirandola, Stefano

    2015-12-01

    We derive a computable analytical formula for the quantum fidelity between two arbitrary multimode Gaussian states which is simply expressed in terms of their first- and second-order statistical moments. We also show how such a formula can be written in terms of symplectic invariants and used to derive closed forms for a variety of basic quantities and tools, such as the Bures metric, the quantum Fisher information, and various fidelity-based bounds. Our result can be used to extend the study of continuous-variable protocols, such as quantum teleportation and cloning, beyond the current one-mode or two-mode analyses, and paves the way to solve general problems in quantum metrology and quantum hypothesis testing with arbitrary multimode Gaussian resources.

  17. Dynamics of Loschmidt echoes and fidelity decay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorin, Thomas; Prosen, Tomaž; Seligman, Thomas H.; Žnidarič, Marko

    2006-11-01

    Fidelity serves as a benchmark for the reliability in quantum information processes, and has recently attracted much interest as a measure of the susceptibility of dynamics to perturbations. A rich variety of regimes for fidelity decay have emerged. The purpose of the present review is to describe these regimes, to give the theory that supports them, and to show some important applications and experiments. While we mention several approaches we use time correlation functions as a backbone for the discussion. Vanicek's uniform approach to semiclassics and random matrix theory provides important alternatives or complementary aspects. Other methods will be mentioned as we go along. Recent experiments in micro-wave cavities and in elastodynamic systems as well as suggestions for experiments in quantum optics shall be discussed.

  18. Quantum Fidelity for Arbitrary Gaussian States.

    PubMed

    Banchi, Leonardo; Braunstein, Samuel L; Pirandola, Stefano

    2015-12-31

    We derive a computable analytical formula for the quantum fidelity between two arbitrary multimode Gaussian states which is simply expressed in terms of their first- and second-order statistical moments. We also show how such a formula can be written in terms of symplectic invariants and used to derive closed forms for a variety of basic quantities and tools, such as the Bures metric, the quantum Fisher information, and various fidelity-based bounds. Our result can be used to extend the study of continuous-variable protocols, such as quantum teleportation and cloning, beyond the current one-mode or two-mode analyses, and paves the way to solve general problems in quantum metrology and quantum hypothesis testing with arbitrary multimode Gaussian resources. PMID:26764978

  19. Gravity Modeling for Variable Fidelity Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Madden, Michael M.

    2006-01-01

    Aerospace simulations can model worlds, such as the Earth, with differing levels of fidelity. The simulation may represent the world as a plane, a sphere, an ellipsoid, or a high-order closed surface. The world may or may not rotate. The user may select lower fidelity models based on computational limits, a need for simplified analysis, or comparison to other data. However, the user will also wish to retain a close semblance of behavior to the real world. The effects of gravity on objects are an important component of modeling real-world behavior. Engineers generally equate the term gravity with the observed free-fall acceleration. However, free-fall acceleration is not equal to all observers. To observers on the sur-face of a rotating world, free-fall acceleration is the sum of gravitational attraction and the centrifugal acceleration due to the world's rotation. On the other hand, free-fall acceleration equals gravitational attraction to an observer in inertial space. Surface-observed simulations (e.g. aircraft), which use non-rotating world models, may choose to model observed free fall acceleration as the gravity term; such a model actually combines gravitational at-traction with centrifugal acceleration due to the Earth s rotation. However, this modeling choice invites confusion as one evolves the simulation to higher fidelity world models or adds inertial observers. Care must be taken to model gravity in concert with the world model to avoid denigrating the fidelity of modeling observed free fall. The paper will go into greater depth on gravity modeling and the physical disparities and synergies that arise when coupling specific gravity models with world models.

  20. Fidelity Analysis of Sampled Imaging Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, Stephen K.; Rahman, Zia-ur

    1999-01-01

    Many modeling, simulation and performance analysis studies of sampled imaging systems are inherently incomplete because they are conditioned on a discrete-input, discrete-output model that only accounts for blurring during image acquisition and additive noise. For those sampled imaging systems where the effects of digital image acquisition, digital filtering and reconstruction are significant, the modeling, simulation and performance analysis should be based on a more comprehensive continuous-input, discrete-processing, continuous-output end-to-end model. This more comprehensive model should properly account for the low-pass filtering effects of image acquisition prior to sampling, the potentially important noiselike effects of the aliasing caused by sampling, additive noise due to device electronics and quantization, the generally high-boost filtering effects of digital processing, and the low-pass filtering effects of image reconstruction. This model should not, however, be so complex as to preclude significant mathematical analysis, particularly the mean-square (fidelity) type of analysis so common in linear system theory. We demonstrate that, although the mathematics of such a model is more complex, the increase in complexity is not so great as to prevent a complete fidelity-metric analysis at both the component level and at the end-to-end system level: that is, computable mean-square-based fidelity metrics are developed by which both component-level and system-level performance can be quantified. In addition, we demonstrate that system performance can be assessed qualitatively by visualizing the output image as the sum of three component images, each of which relates to a corresponding fidelity metric. The cascaded, or filtered, component accounts for the end-to-end system filtering of image acquisition, digital processing, and image reconstruction; the random noise component accounts for additive random noise, modulated by digital processing and image

  1. Using a High-Fidelity Patient Simulator with First-Year Medical Students to Facilitate Learning of Cardiovascular Function Curves

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, David M.; Ryan, Kathleen; Rabuck, Cynthia

    2012-01-01

    Students are relying on technology for learning more than ever, and educators need to adapt to facilitate student learning. High-fidelity patient simulators (HFPS) are usually reserved for the clinical years of medical education and are geared to improve clinical decision skills, teamwork, and patient safety. Finding ways to incorporate HFPS into…

  2. High-Fidelity Full System Simulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lytle, John K.

    2004-01-01

    High-fidelity full system simulations have the potential for revolutionizing the way complex systems, such as propulsion systems for aerospace vehicles, are designed, developed, manufactured, and operated. Significant time and cost savings will result from simulations that will resolve deleterious component interactions early in the design process. In addition, innovative new system configurations will result from the use of new tools that enable designers to challenge traditional rules and practices. The major challenges to developing and implementing high-fidelity systems simulations are in reducing the time and effort required to build, execute, and analyze data for the high complex simulations. In addition, large scale testing with unique instrumentation is required to validate the simulations. The solution to these problems reside in the application of advanced information technologies to assist the user to effectively manage, process, and synthesize the vast amount of data. The following presentation describes in more detail the benefits of high-fidelity full system simulations, the challenges to developing and implementing large scale simulations, and one approach that is being followed by the NASA Glenn Research Center to overcome these challenges. In addition, topics for discussion by the panel and audience are suggested.

  3. A random matrix formulation of fidelity decay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorin, T.; Prosen, T.; Seligman, T. H.

    2004-02-01

    We propose to study echo dynamics in a random-matrix framework, where we assume that the perturbation is time-independent, random and orthogonally invariant. This allows us to use a basis in which the unperturbed Hamiltonian is diagonal and its properties are thus largely determined by its spectral statistics. We concentrate on the effect of spectral correlations usually associated with chaos and disregard secular variations in spectral density. We obtain analytical results for the fidelity decay in the linear-response regime. To extend the domain of validity, we heuristically exponentiate the linear-response result. The resulting expressions, exact in the perturbative limit, are accurate approximations in the transition region between the 'Fermi golden rule' and the perturbative regimes, as verified by example for a deterministic chaotic system. To sense the effect of spectral stiffness, we apply our model also to the extreme cases of random spectra and equidistant spectra. In our analytical approximations as well as in extensive Monte Carlo calculations, we find that fidelity decay is fastest for random spectra and slowest for equidistant ones, while the classical ensembles lie in between. We conclude that spectral stiffness systematically enhances fidelity.

  4. Applications of fidelity measures to complex quantum systems.

    PubMed

    Wimberger, Sandro

    2016-06-13

    We revisit fidelity as a measure for the stability and the complexity of the quantum motion of single-and many-body systems. Within the context of cold atoms, we present an overview of applications of two fidelities, which we call static and dynamical fidelity, respectively. The static fidelity applies to quantum problems which can be diagonalized since it is defined via the eigenfunctions. In particular, we show that the static fidelity is a highly effective practical detector of avoided crossings characterizing the complexity of the systems and their evolutions. The dynamical fidelity is defined via the time-dependent wave functions. Focusing on the quantum kicked rotor system, we highlight a few practical applications of fidelity measurements in order to better understand the large variety of dynamical regimes of this paradigm of a low-dimensional system with mixed regular-chaotic phase space. PMID:27140967

  5. High-Fidelity Roadway Modeling and Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Jie; Papelis, Yiannis; Shen, Yuzhong; Unal, Ozhan; Cetin, Mecit

    2010-01-01

    Roads are an essential feature in our daily lives. With the advances in computing technologies, 2D and 3D road models are employed in many applications, such as computer games and virtual environments. Traditional road models were generated by professional artists manually using modeling software tools such as Maya and 3ds Max. This approach requires both highly specialized and sophisticated skills and massive manual labor. Automatic road generation based on procedural modeling can create road models using specially designed computer algorithms or procedures, reducing the tedious manual editing needed for road modeling dramatically. But most existing procedural modeling methods for road generation put emphasis on the visual effects of the generated roads, not the geometrical and architectural fidelity. This limitation seriously restricts the applicability of the generated road models. To address this problem, this paper proposes a high-fidelity roadway generation method that takes into account road design principles practiced by civil engineering professionals, and as a result, the generated roads can support not only general applications such as games and simulations in which roads are used as 3D assets, but also demanding civil engineering applications, which requires accurate geometrical models of roads. The inputs to the proposed method include road specifications, civil engineering road design rules, terrain information, and surrounding environment. Then the proposed method generates in real time 3D roads that have both high visual and geometrical fidelities. This paper discusses in details the procedures that convert 2D roads specified in shape files into 3D roads and civil engineering road design principles. The proposed method can be used in many applications that have stringent requirements on high precision 3D models, such as driving simulations and road design prototyping. Preliminary results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  6. Framework for Multidisciplinary Analysis, Design, and Optimization with High-Fidelity Analysis Tools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orr, Stanley A.; Narducci, Robert P.

    2009-01-01

    A plan is presented for the development of a high fidelity multidisciplinary optimization process for rotorcraft. The plan formulates individual disciplinary design problems, identifies practical high-fidelity tools and processes that can be incorporated in an automated optimization environment, and establishes statements of the multidisciplinary design problem including objectives, constraints, design variables, and cross-disciplinary dependencies. Five key disciplinary areas are selected in the development plan. These are rotor aerodynamics, rotor structures and dynamics, fuselage aerodynamics, fuselage structures, and propulsion / drive system. Flying qualities and noise are included as ancillary areas. Consistency across engineering disciplines is maintained with a central geometry engine that supports all multidisciplinary analysis. The multidisciplinary optimization process targets the preliminary design cycle where gross elements of the helicopter have been defined. These might include number of rotors and rotor configuration (tandem, coaxial, etc.). It is at this stage that sufficient configuration information is defined to perform high-fidelity analysis. At the same time there is enough design freedom to influence a design. The rotorcraft multidisciplinary optimization tool is built and substantiated throughout its development cycle in a staged approach by incorporating disciplines sequentially.

  7. Nucleobase but not Sugar Fidelity is Maintained in the Sabin I RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xinran; Musser, Derek M.; Lee, Cheri A.; Yang, Xiaorong; Arnold, Jamie J.; Cameron, Craig E.; Boehr, David D.

    2015-01-01

    The Sabin I poliovirus live, attenuated vaccine strain encodes for four amino acid changes (i.e., D53N, Y73H, K250E, and T362I) in the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp). We have previously shown that the T362I substitution leads to a lower fidelity RdRp, and viruses encoding this variant are attenuated in a mouse model of poliovirus. Given these results, it was surprising that the nucleotide incorporation rate and nucleobase fidelity of the Sabin I RdRp is similar to that of wild-type enzyme, although the Sabin I RdRp is less selective against nucleotides with modified sugar groups. We suggest that the other Sabin amino acid changes (i.e., D53N, Y73H, K250E) help to re-establish nucleotide incorporation rates and nucleotide discrimination near wild-type levels, which may be a requirement for the propagation of the virus and its efficacy as a vaccine strain. These results also suggest that the nucleobase fidelity of the Sabin I RdRp likely does not contribute to viral attenuation. PMID:26516899

  8. A multievent approach to estimating pair fidelity and heterogeneity in state transitions

    PubMed Central

    Culina, Antica; Lachish, Shelly; Pradel, Roger; Choquet, Remi; Sheldon, Ben C

    2013-01-01

    Fidelity rates of pair-bonded individuals are of considerable interest to behavioral and population biologists as they can influence population structure, mating rates, population productivity, and gene flow. Estimates of fidelity rates calculated from direct observations of pairs in consecutive breeding seasons may be biased because (i) individuals that are not seen are assumed to be dead, (ii) variation in the detectability of individuals is ignored, and (iii) pair status must be known with certainty. This can lead to a high proportion of observations being ignored. This approach also restricts the way variation in fidelity rates for different types of individuals, or the covariation between fidelity and other vital rates (e.g., survival) can be analyzed. In this study, we develop a probabilistic multievent capture–mark–recapture (MECMR) modeling framework for estimating pair fidelity rates that accounts for imperfect detection rates and capture heterogeneity, explicitly incorporates uncertainty in the assessment of pair status, and allows estimates of state-dependent survival and fidelity rates to be obtained simultaneously. We demonstrate the utility of our approach for investigating patterns of fidelity in pair-bonded individuals, by applying it to 30 years of breeding data from a wild population of great tits Parus major Linnaeus. Results of model selection supported state-dependent recapture, survival, and fidelity rates. Recapture rates were higher for individuals breeding with their previous partner than for those breeding with a different partner. Faithful birds that were breeding with the same partner as in the previous breeding season (i.e., at t − 1) experienced substantially higher survival rates (between t and t + 1) and were also more likely to remain faithful to their current partner (i.e., to remain in the faithful state at t + 1). First year breeders were more likely to change partner than older birds. These findings imply that traditional

  9. Debriefing with the OPT model of clinical reasoning during high fidelity patient simulation.

    PubMed

    Kuiper, RuthAnne; Heinrich, Carol; Matthias, April; Graham, Meki J; Bell-Kotwall, Lorna

    2008-01-01

    Evidenced-based educational practices propose simulation as a valuable teaching and learning strategy to promote situated cognition and clinical reasoning to teach nursing students how to solve problems. A project that uses a structured debriefing activity, the Outcome Present State-Test Model of clinical reasoning following high fidelity patient simulation, is described in this paper. The results of this project challenge faculty to create and manage patient simulation scenarios that coordinate with didactic content and clinical experiences to direct student learning for the best reinforcement of clinical reasoning outcomes. Considerations for the future include incorporating patient simulation activities as part of student evaluation and curriculum development. The arguments for using high fidelity patient simulation in the current educational environment has obvious short term benefits, however, the long term benefit of developing clinical expertise remains to be discovered.

  10. How Fidelity invests in service professionals.

    PubMed

    McColgan, E A

    1997-01-01

    If you're in the business of service delivery, investment in the training and development of your staff is one of the keys to your company's success. But what's the best way to design and implement your investment? In 1994, Fidelity Institutional Retirement Services Company (FIRSCo) needed to ensure that its rapidly expanding staff maintained the company's high levels of customer satisfaction. The solution, according to Ellyn McColgan, formerly an executive vice president of FIRSCo and now the president of Fidelity Investments Tax-Exempt Services Company, was to reach out to its service associates with a powerful new model for training and development called Service Delivery University. SDU is a virtual university with a content-based core curriculum and five colleges that focus on business concepts and skills. It is driven by three principles. First, all training must be directly aligned with the company's strategic and financial objectives and focused on customer needs. Second, service delivery is a profession and should be taught as such. And finally, professional development should be the primary responsibility of line managers rather than the human resources department. McColgan explains how FIRSCo overcame resistance to this sweeping change in employee education. (Time was one obstacle: each associate receives 80 hours of training per year.) In addition, the author discusses the fine art of measuring the success of a program like SDU. She finds that the company's investment has paid dividends to the staff, to the organization as a whole, and to FIRSCo's customers.

  11. High-Fidelity Flash Lidar Model Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hines, Glenn D.; Pierrottet, Diego F.; Amzajerdian, Farzin

    2014-01-01

    NASA's Autonomous Landing and Hazard Avoidance Technologies (ALHAT) project is currently developing the critical technologies to safely and precisely navigate and land crew, cargo and robotic spacecraft vehicles on and around planetary bodies. One key element of this project is a high-fidelity Flash Lidar sensor that can generate three-dimensional (3-D) images of the planetary surface. These images are processed with hazard detection and avoidance and hazard relative navigation algorithms, and then are subsequently used by the Guidance, Navigation and Control subsystem to generate an optimal navigation solution. A complex, high-fidelity model of the Flash Lidar was developed in order to evaluate the performance of the sensor and its interaction with the interfacing ALHAT components on vehicles with different configurations and under different flight trajectories. The model contains a parameterized, general approach to Flash Lidar detection and reflects physical attributes such as range and electronic noise sources, and laser pulse temporal and spatial profiles. It also provides the realistic interaction of the laser pulse with terrain features that include varying albedo, boulders, craters slopes and shadows. This paper gives a description of the Flash Lidar model and presents results from the Lidar operating under different scenarios.

  12. Toward fidelity between specification and implementation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callahan, John R.; Montgomery, Todd L.; Morrison, Jeff; Wu, Yunqing

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes the methods used to specify and implement a complex communications protocol that provides reliable delivery of data in multicast-capable, packet-switching telecommunication networks. The protocol, called the Reliable Multicasting Protocol (RMP), was developed incrementally by two complementary teams using a combination of formal and informal techniques in an attempt to ensure the correctness of the protocol implementation. The first team, called the Design team, initially specified protocol requirements using a variant of SCR requirements tables and implemented a prototype solution. The second team, called the V&V team, developed a state model based on the requirements tables and derived test cases from these tables to exercise the implementation. In a series of iterative steps, the Design team added new functionality to the implementation while the V&V team kept the state model in fidelity with the implementation through testing. Test cases derived from state transition paths in the formal model formed the dialogue between teams during development and served as the vehicles for keeping the model and implementation in fidelity with each other. This paper describes our experiences in developing our process model, details of our approach, and some example problems found during the development of RMP.

  13. Image gathering and processing - Information and fidelity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huck, F. O.; Fales, C. L.; Halyo, N.; Samms, R. W.; Stacy, K.

    1985-01-01

    In this paper we formulate and use information and fidelity criteria to assess image gathering and processing, combining optical design with image-forming and edge-detection algorithms. The optical design of the image-gathering system revolves around the relationship among sampling passband, spatial response, and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). Our formulations of information, fidelity, and optimal (Wiener) restoration account for the insufficient sampling (i.e., aliasing) common in image gathering as well as for the blurring and noise that conventional formulations account for. Performance analyses and simulations for ordinary optical-design constraints and random scences indicate that (1) different image-forming algorithms prefer different optical designs; (2) informationally optimized designs maximize the robustness of optimal image restorations and lead to the highest-spatial-frequency channel (relative to the sampling passband) for which edge detection is reliable (if the SNR is sufficiently high); and (3) combining the informationally optimized design with a 3 by 3 lateral-inhibitory image-plane-processing algorithm leads to a spatial-response shape that approximates the optimal edge-detection response of (Marr's model of) human vision and thus reduces the data preprocessing and transmission required for machine vision.

  14. Toward the Effective and Efficient Measurement of Implementation Fidelity

    PubMed Central

    Schoenwald, Sonja K.; Garland, Ann F.; Chapman, Jason E.; Frazier, Stacy L.; Sheidow, Ashli J.; Southam-Gerow, Michael A.

    2011-01-01

    Implementation science in mental health is informed by other academic disciplines and industries. Conceptual and methodological territory charted in psychotherapy research is pertinent to two elements of the conceptual model of implementation posited by Aarons and colleagues (2010)—implementation fidelity and innovation feedback systems. Key characteristics of scientifically validated fidelity instruments, and of the feasibility of their use in routine care, are presented. The challenges of ensuring fidelity measurement methods are both effective (scientifically validated) and efficient (feasible and useful in routine care) are identified as are examples of implementation research attempting to balance these attributes of fidelity measurement. PMID:20957425

  15. High-Fidelity Micromechanics Model Enhanced for Multiphase Particulate Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pindera, Marek-Jerzy; Arnold, Steven M.

    2003-01-01

    This 3-year effort involves the development of a comprehensive micromechanics model and a related computer code, capable of accurately estimating both the average response and the local stress and strain fields in the individual phases, assuming both elastic and inelastic behavior. During the first year (fiscal year 2001) of the investigation, a version of the model called the High-Fidelity Generalized Method of Cells (HFGMC) was successfully completed for the thermo-inelastic response of continuously reinforced multiphased materials with arbitrary periodic microstructures (refs. 1 and 2). The model s excellent predictive capability for both the macroscopic response and the microlevel stress and strain fields was demonstrated through comparison with exact analytical and finite element solutions. This year, HFGMC was further extended in two technologically significant ways. The first enhancement entailed the incorporation of fiber/matrix debonding capability into the two-dimensional version of HFGMC for modeling the response of unidirectionally reinforced composites such as titanium matrix composites, which exhibit poor fiber/matrix bond. Comparison with experimental data validated the model s predictive capability. The second enhancement entailed further generalization of HFGMC to three dimensions to enable modeling the response of particulate-reinforced (discontinuous) composites in the elastic material behavior domain. Next year, the three-dimensional version will be generalized to encompass inelastic effects due to plasticity, viscoplasticity, and damage, as well as coupled electromagnetothermomechanical (including piezoelectric) effects.

  16. Medium Fidelity Simulation of Oxygen Tank Venting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sweet, Adam; Kurien, James; Lau, Sonie (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The item to he cleared is a medium-fidelity software simulation model of a vented cryogenic tank. Such tanks are commonly used to transport cryogenic liquids such as liquid oxygen via truck, and have appeared on liquid-fueled rockets for decades. This simulation model works with the HCC simulation system that was developed by Xerox PARC and NASA Ames Research Center. HCC has been previously cleared for distribution. When used with the HCC software, the model generates simulated readings for the tank pressure and temperature as the simulated cryogenic liquid boils off and is vented. Failures (such as a broken vent valve) can be injected into the simulation to produce readings corresponding to the failure. Release of this simulation will allow researchers to test their software diagnosis systems by attempting to diagnose the simulated failure from the simulated readings. This model does not contain any encryption software nor can it perform any control tasks that might be export controlled.

  17. Experimental quantum error correction with high fidelity

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Jingfu; Gangloff, Dorian; Moussa, Osama; Laflamme, Raymond

    2011-09-15

    More than ten years ago a first step toward quantum error correction (QEC) was implemented [Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 2152 (1998)]. The work showed there was sufficient control in nuclear magnetic resonance to implement QEC, and demonstrated that the error rate changed from {epsilon} to {approx}{epsilon}{sup 2}. In the current work we reproduce a similar experiment using control techniques that have been since developed, such as the pulses generated by gradient ascent pulse engineering algorithm. We show that the fidelity of the QEC gate sequence and the comparative advantage of QEC are appreciably improved. This advantage is maintained despite the errors introduced by the additional operations needed to protect the quantum states.

  18. Visual communication - Information and fidelity. [of images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huck, Freidrich O.; Fales, Carl L.; Alter-Gartenberg, Rachel; Rahman, Zia-Ur; Reichenbach, Stephen E.

    1993-01-01

    This assessment of visual communication deals with image gathering, coding, and restoration as a whole rather than as separate and independent tasks. The approach focuses on two mathematical criteria, information and fidelity, and on their relationships to the entropy of the encoded data and to the visual quality of the restored image. Past applications of these criteria to the assessment of image coding and restoration have been limited to the link that connects the output of the image-gathering device to the input of the image-display device. By contrast, the approach presented in this paper explicitly includes the critical limiting factors that constrain image gathering and display. This extension leads to an end-to-end assessment theory of visual communication that combines optical design with digital processing.

  19. How Fidelity invests in service professionals.

    PubMed

    McColgan, E A

    1997-01-01

    If you're in the business of service delivery, investment in the training and development of your staff is one of the keys to your company's success. But what's the best way to design and implement your investment? In 1994, Fidelity Institutional Retirement Services Company (FIRSCo) needed to ensure that its rapidly expanding staff maintained the company's high levels of customer satisfaction. The solution, according to Ellyn McColgan, formerly an executive vice president of FIRSCo and now the president of Fidelity Investments Tax-Exempt Services Company, was to reach out to its service associates with a powerful new model for training and development called Service Delivery University. SDU is a virtual university with a content-based core curriculum and five colleges that focus on business concepts and skills. It is driven by three principles. First, all training must be directly aligned with the company's strategic and financial objectives and focused on customer needs. Second, service delivery is a profession and should be taught as such. And finally, professional development should be the primary responsibility of line managers rather than the human resources department. McColgan explains how FIRSCo overcame resistance to this sweeping change in employee education. (Time was one obstacle: each associate receives 80 hours of training per year.) In addition, the author discusses the fine art of measuring the success of a program like SDU. She finds that the company's investment has paid dividends to the staff, to the organization as a whole, and to FIRSCo's customers. PMID:10174451

  20. Fidelity and Promiscuity of a Mycobacterial Glycosyltransferase.

    PubMed

    Yamatsugu, Kenzo; Splain, Rebecca A; Kiessling, Laura L

    2016-07-27

    Members of the genus Mycobacterium cause devastating human diseases, including tuberculosis. Mycobacterium tuberculosis can resist some antibiotics because of its durable and impermeable cell envelope. This barrier is assembled from saccharide building blocks not found in mammals, including galactofuranose (Galf). Within the cell envelope, Galf residues are linked together to afford an essential polysaccharide, termed the galactan. The formation of this polymer is catalyzed by the glycosyltransferase GlfT2, a processive carbohydrate polymerase, which generates a sequence-specific polysaccharide with alternating regioisomeric β(1-5) and β(1-6) Galf linkages. GlfT2 exhibits high fidelity in linkage formation, as it will terminate polymerization rather than deviate from its linkage pattern. These findings suggest that GlfT2 would prefer an acceptor with a canonical alternating β(1-5) and β(1-6) Galf sequence. To test this hypothesis, we devised a synthetic route to assemble oligosaccharides with natural and non-natural sequences. GlfT2 could elongate each of these acceptors, even those with non-natural linkage patterns. These data indicate that the glycosyltransferase is surprisingly promiscuous in its substrate preferences. However, GlfT2 did favor some substrates: it preferentially acted on those in which the lipid-bearing Galf residue was connected to the sequence by a β(1-6) glycosidic linkage. The finding that the relative positioning of the lipid and the non-reducing end of the acceptor influences substrate selectivity is consistent with a role for the lipid in acceptor binding. The data also suggest that the fidelity of GlfT2 for generating an alternating β(1-5) and β(1-6) pattern of Galf residues arises not from preferential substrate binding but during processive elongation. These observations suggest that inhibiting the action of GlfT2 will afford changes in cell wall structure. PMID:27302377

  1. Decay of fidelity in terms of correlation functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alicki, R.; Fannes, M.

    2009-01-01

    We consider, within the algebraic formalism, the time dependence of fidelity for qubits encoded in an open physical system. We relate the decay of fidelity to the evolution of correlation functions and, in the particular case of a Markovian dynamics, to the spectral gap of the generator of the semigroup. The results are applicable to the analysis of models of quantum memories.

  2. Assessing Fidelity of Implementation of an Unprescribed, Diagnostic Mathematics Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munter, Charles; Wilhelm, Anne Garrison; Cobb, Paul; Cordray, David S.

    2014-01-01

    This article draws on previously employed methods for conducting fidelity studies and applies them to an evaluation of an unprescribed intervention. We document the process of assessing the fidelity of implementation of the Math Recovery first-grade tutoring program, an unprescribed, diagnostic intervention. We describe how we drew on recent…

  3. Intervention Fidelity in Special and General Education Research Journals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swanson, Elizabeth; Wanzek, Jeanne; Haring, Christa; Ciullo, Stephen; McCulley, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    Treatment fidelity reporting practices are described for journals that published general and special education intervention research with high impact factors from 2005 through 2009. The authors reviewed research articles, reported the proportion of intervention studies that described fidelity measurement, detailed the components of fidelity…

  4. A Narrative Review of Generic Intervention Fidelity Measures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Di Rezze, Briano; Law, Mary; Gorter, Jan Willem; Eva, Kevin; Pollock, Nancy

    2012-01-01

    To increase the rigor of pediatric rehabilitation research, there is a need to evaluate the degree to which an intervention is conducted as planned (i.e., fidelity). Generic fidelity measures evaluate more than one intervention and often include nonspecific attributes of the therapy process common to both interventions. The objective of this study…

  5. Treatment Fidelity: Relation to Treatment Acceptability and Change over Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tanol, Gizem

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was: (a) to examine the relation between acceptability and fidelity of an intervention package in natural classroom settings, and (b) to examine how fidelity of implementation varies in relation to high vs. low treatment acceptability over the course of an academic school year. Participants were 44 teachers, from 15…

  6. Multifractality in fidelity sequences of optimized Toffoli gates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moqadam, Jalil Khatibi; Welter, Guilherme S.; Esquef, Paulo A. A.

    2016-07-01

    We analyze the multifractality in the fidelity sequences of several engineered Toffoli gates. Using quantum control methods, we consider several optimization problems whose global solutions realize the gate in a chain of three qubits with XY Heisenberg interaction. Applying a minimum number of control pulses assuring a fidelity above 99 % in the ideal case, we design stable gates that are less sensitive to variations in the interqubits couplings. The most stable gate has the fidelity above 91 % with variations about 0.1 %, for up to 10 % variation in the nominal couplings. We perturb the system by introducing a single source of 1 / f noise that affects all the couplings. In order to quantify the performance of the proposed optimized gates, we calculate the fidelity of a large set of optimized gates under prescribed levels of coupling perturbation. Then, we run multifractal analysis on the sequence of attained fidelities. This way, gate performance can be assessed beyond mere average results, since the chosen multifractality measure (the width of the multifractal spectrum) encapsulates into a single performance indicator the spread of fidelity values around the mean and the presence of outliers. The higher the value of the performance indicator the more concentrated around the mean the fidelity values are and rarer is the occurrence of outliers. The results of the multifractal analysis on the fidelity sequences demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed optimized gate implementations, in the sense they are rendered less sensitive to variations in the interqubits coupling strengths.

  7. Fidelity amplitude of the scattering matrix in microwave cavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schäfer, R.; Gorin, T.; Seligman, T. H.; Stöckmann, H.-J.

    2005-06-01

    The concept of fidelity decay is discussed from the point of view of the scattering matrix, and the 'scattering fidelity' is introduced as the parametric cross-correlation of a given S-matrix element, taken in the time domain, normalized by the corresponding autocorrelation function. We show that for chaotic systems, this quantity represents the usual fidelity amplitude, if appropriate ensemble and/or energy averages are taken. We present a microwave experiment where the scattering fidelity is measured for an ensemble of chaotic systems. The results are in excellent agreement with random matrix theory for the standard fidelity amplitude. The only parameter, namely the perturbation strength, could be determined independently from level dynamics of the system, thus providing agreement between theory and experiment without any free fit parameter.

  8. Objective fidelity evaluation in multisensory virtual environments: auditory cue fidelity in flight simulation.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Georg F; Wong, Li Ting; Timson, Emma; Perfect, Philip; White, Mark D

    2012-01-01

    We argue that objective fidelity evaluation of virtual environments, such as flight simulation, should be human-performance-centred and task-specific rather than measure the match between simulation and physical reality. We show how principled experimental paradigms and behavioural models to quantify human performance in simulated environments that have emerged from research in multisensory perception provide a framework for the objective evaluation of the contribution of individual cues to human performance measures of fidelity. We present three examples in a flight simulation environment as a case study: Experiment 1: Detection and categorisation of auditory and kinematic motion cues; Experiment 2: Performance evaluation in a target-tracking task; Experiment 3: Transferrable learning of auditory motion cues. We show how the contribution of individual cues to human performance can be robustly evaluated for each task and that the contribution is highly task dependent. The same auditory cues that can be discriminated and are optimally integrated in experiment 1, do not contribute to target-tracking performance in an in-flight refuelling simulation without training, experiment 2. In experiment 3, however, we demonstrate that the auditory cue leads to significant, transferrable, performance improvements with training. We conclude that objective fidelity evaluation requires a task-specific analysis of the contribution of individual cues.

  9. Objective Fidelity Evaluation in Multisensory Virtual Environments: Auditory Cue Fidelity in Flight Simulation

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Georg F.; Wong, Li Ting; Timson, Emma; Perfect, Philip; White, Mark D.

    2012-01-01

    We argue that objective fidelity evaluation of virtual environments, such as flight simulation, should be human-performance-centred and task-specific rather than measure the match between simulation and physical reality. We show how principled experimental paradigms and behavioural models to quantify human performance in simulated environments that have emerged from research in multisensory perception provide a framework for the objective evaluation of the contribution of individual cues to human performance measures of fidelity. We present three examples in a flight simulation environment as a case study: Experiment 1: Detection and categorisation of auditory and kinematic motion cues; Experiment 2: Performance evaluation in a target-tracking task; Experiment 3: Transferrable learning of auditory motion cues. We show how the contribution of individual cues to human performance can be robustly evaluated for each task and that the contribution is highly task dependent. The same auditory cues that can be discriminated and are optimally integrated in experiment 1, do not contribute to target-tracking performance in an in-flight refuelling simulation without training, experiment 2. In experiment 3, however, we demonstrate that the auditory cue leads to significant, transferrable, performance improvements with training. We conclude that objective fidelity evaluation requires a task-specific analysis of the contribution of individual cues. PMID:22957068

  10. Sustaining Fidelity Following the Nationwide PMTO™ Implementation in Norway

    PubMed Central

    Forgatch, Marion S.; DeGarmo, David S.

    2011-01-01

    This report describes three studies from the nationwide Norwegian implementation of Parent Management Training – Oregon Model (PMTO™), an empirically supported treatment for families of children with behavior problems (Forgatch and Patterson 2010). Separate stages of the implementation were evaluated using a fidelity measure based on direct observation of intervention sessions. Study 1 assessed growth in fidelity observed early, mid, and late in the training of a group of practitioners. We hypothesized increased fidelity and decreased variability in practice. Study 2 evaluated method fidelity over the course of three generations of practitioners trained in PMTO. Generation 1 (G1) was trained by the PMTO developer/purveyors; Generation 2 (G2) was trained by selected G1 Norwegian trainers; and Generation 3 (G3) was trained by G1 and G2 trainers. We hypothesized decrease in fidelity with each generation. Study 3 tested the predictive validity of fidelity in a cross-cultural replication, hypothesizing that higher fidelity scores would correlate with improved parenting practices observed in parent-child interactions before and after treatment. In Study 1, trainees' performance improved and became more homogeneous as predicted. In Study 2, a small decline in fidelity followed the transfer from the purveyor trainers to Norwegian trainers in G2, but G3 scores were equivalent to those attained by G1. Thus, the hypothesis was not fully supported. Finally, the FIMP validity model replicated; PMTO fidelity significantly contributed to improvements in parenting practices from pre- to post-treatment. The data indicate that PMTO was transferred successfully to Norwegian implementation with sustained fidelity and cross-cultural generalization. PMID:21671090

  11. DNA Polymerase Conformational Dynamics and the Role of Fidelity-Conferring Residues: Insights from Computational Simulations

    PubMed Central

    Meli, Massimiliano; Sustarsic, Marko; Craggs, Timothy D.; Kapanidis, Achillefs N.; Colombo, Giorgio

    2016-01-01

    Herein we investigate the molecular bases of DNA polymerase I conformational dynamics that underlie the replication fidelity of the enzyme. Such fidelity is determined by conformational changes that promote the rejection of incorrect nucleotides before the chemical ligation step. We report a comprehensive atomic resolution study of wild type and mutant enzymes in different bound states and starting from different crystal structures, using extensive molecular dynamics (MD) simulations that cover a total timespan of ~5 ms. The resulting trajectories are examined via a combination of novel methods of internal dynamics and energetics analysis, aimed to reveal the principal molecular determinants for the (de)stabilization of a certain conformational state. Our results show that the presence of fidelity-decreasing mutations or the binding of incorrect nucleotides in ternary complexes tend to favor transitions from closed toward open structures, passing through an ensemble of semi-closed intermediates. The latter ensemble includes the experimentally observed ajar conformation which, consistent with previous experimental observations, emerges as a molecular checkpoint for the selection of the correct nucleotide to incorporate. We discuss the implications of our results for the understanding of the relationships between the structure, dynamics, and function of DNA polymerase I at the atomistic level. PMID:27303671

  12. Five checkpoints maintaining the fidelity of transcription by RNA polymerases in structural and energetic details.

    PubMed

    Wang, Beibei; Opron, Kristopher; Burton, Zachary F; Cukier, Robert I; Feig, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Transcriptional fidelity, which prevents the misincorporation of incorrect nucleoside monophosphates in RNA, is essential for life. Results from molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of eukaryotic RNA polymerase (RNAP) II and bacterial RNAP with experimental data suggest that fidelity may involve as many as five checkpoints. Using MD simulations, the effects of different active site NTPs in both open and closed trigger loop (TL) structures of RNAPs are compared. Unfavorable initial binding of mismatched substrates in the active site with an open TL is proposed to be the first fidelity checkpoint. The leaving of an incorrect substrate is much easier than a correct one energetically from the umbrella sampling simulations. Then, the closing motion of the TL, required for catalysis, is hindered by the presence of mismatched NTPs. Mismatched NTPs also lead to conformational changes in the active site, which perturb the coordination of magnesium ions and likely affect the ability to proceed with catalysis. This step appears to be the most important checkpoint for deoxy-NTP discrimination. Finally, structural perturbations in the template DNA and the nascent RNA in the presence of mismatches likely hinder nucleotide addition and provide the structural foundation for backtracking followed by removing erroneously incorporated nucleotides during proofreading.

  13. High-Fidelity Micromechanics Model Developed for the Response of Multiphase Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aboudi, Jacob; Pindera, Marek-Jerzy; Arnold, Steven M.

    2002-01-01

    A new high-fidelity micromechanics model has been developed under funding from the NASA Glenn Research Center for predicting the response of multiphase materials with arbitrary periodic microstructures. The model's analytical framework is based on the homogenization technique, but the method of solution for the local displacement and stress fields borrows concepts previously employed in constructing the higher order theory for functionally graded materials. The resulting closed-form macroscopic and microscopic constitutive equations, valid for both uniaxial and multiaxial loading of periodic materials with elastic and inelastic constitutive phases, can be incorporated into a structural analysis computer code. Consequently, this model now provides an alternative, accurate method.

  14. Quantum state tomography and fidelity estimation via Phaselift

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Yiping; Liu, Huan; Zhao, Qing

    2015-09-15

    Experiments of multi-photon entanglement have been performed by several groups. Obviously, an increase on the photon number for fidelity estimation and quantum state tomography causes a dramatic increase in the elements of the positive operator valued measures (POVMs), which results in a great consumption of time in measurements. In practice, we wish to obtain a good estimation of fidelity and quantum states through as few measurements as possible for multi-photon entanglement. Phaselift provides such a chance to estimate fidelity for entangling states based on less data. In this paper, we would like to show how the Phaselift works for six qubits in comparison to the data given by Pan’s group, i.e., we use a fraction of the data as input to estimate the rest of the data through the obtained density matrix, and thus goes beyond the simple fidelity analysis. The fidelity bound is also provided for general Schrödinger Cat state. Based on the fidelity bound, we propose an optimal measurement approach which could both reduce the copies and keep the fidelity bound gap small. The results demonstrate that the Phaselift can help decrease the measured elements of POVMs for six qubits. Our conclusion is based on the prior knowledge that a pure state is the target state prepared by experiments.

  15. Measuring trainer fidelity in the transfer of suicide prevention training

    PubMed Central

    Cross, Wendi F.; Pisani, Anthony R.; Schmeelk-Cone, Karen; Xia, Yinglin; Tu, Xin; McMahon, Marcie; Munfakh, Jimmie Lou; Gould, Madelyn S.

    2014-01-01

    Background Finding effective and efficient models to train large numbers of suicide prevention interventionists, including ‘hotline’ crisis counselors, is a high priority. Train-the-trainer (TTT) models are widely used but understudied. Aims To assess the extent to which trainers following TTT delivered the Applied Suicide Intervention Skills Training (ASIST) program with fidelity, and to examine fidelity across two trainings and seven training segments. Methods We recorded and reliably rated trainer fidelity, defined as adherence to program content and competence of program delivery, for 34 newly trained ASIST trainers delivering the program to crisis center staff on two separate occasions. A total of 324 observations were coded. Trainer demographics were also collected. Results On average, trainers delivered two-thirds of the program. Previous training was associated with lower levels of trainer adherence to the program. 18% of trainers' observations were rated as solidly competent. Trainers did not improve fidelity from their first to second training. Significantly higher fidelity was found for lectures and lower fidelity was found for interactive training activities including asking about suicide and creating a safe plan. Conclusions We found wide variability in trainer fidelity to the ASIST program following TTT and few trainers had high levels of both adherence and competence. More research is needed to examine the cost-effectiveness of TTT models. PMID:24901061

  16. Measuring Implementation Fidelity in a Community-Based Parenting Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Breitenstein, Susan M.; Fogg, Louis; Garvey, Christine; Hill, Carri; Resnick, Barbara; Gross, Deborah

    2012-01-01

    Background Establishing the feasibility and validity of implementation fidelity monitoring strategies is an important methodological step in implementing evidence-based interventions on a large scale. Objectives The objective of the study was to examine the reliability and validity of the Fidelity Checklist, a measure designed to assess group leader adherence and competence delivering a parent training intervention (the Chicago Parent Program) in child care centers serving low-income families. Method The sample included 9 parent groups (12 group sessions each), 12 group leaders, and 103 parents. Independent raters reviewed 106 audiotaped parent group sessions and coded group leaders’ fidelity on the Adherence and Competence Scales of the Fidelity Checklist. Group leaders completed self-report adherence checklists and a measure of parent engagement in the intervention. Parents completed measures of consumer satisfaction and child behavior. Results High interrater agreement (Adherence Scale = 94%, Competence Scale = 85%) and adequate intraclass correlation coefficients (Adherence Scale = .69, Competence Scale = .91) were achieved for the Fidelity Checklist. Group leader adherence changed over time, but competence remained stable. Agreement between group leader self-report and independent ratings on the Adherence Scale was 85%; disagreements were more frequently due to positive bias in group leader self-report. Positive correlations were found between group leader adherence and parent attendance and engagement in the intervention and between group leader competence and parent satisfaction. Although child behavior problems improved, improvements were not related to fidelity. Discussion The results suggest that the Fidelity Checklist is a feasible, reliable, and valid measure of group leader implementation fidelity in a group-based parenting intervention. Future research will be focused on testing the Fidelity Checklist with diverse and larger samples and generalizing

  17. Fidelity of the Integrated Force Method Solution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hopkins, Dale; Halford, Gary; Coroneos, Rula; Patnaik, Surya

    2002-01-01

    The theory of strain compatibility of the solid mechanics discipline was incomplete since St. Venant's 'strain formulation' in 1876. We have addressed the compatibility condition both in the continuum and the discrete system. This has lead to the formulation of the Integrated Force Method. A dual Integrated Force Method with displacement as the primal variable has also been formulated. A modest finite element code (IFM/Analyzers) based on the IFM theory has been developed. For a set of standard test problems the IFM results were compared with the stiffness method solutions and the MSC/Nastran code. For the problems IFM outperformed the existing methods. Superior IFM performance is attributed to simultaneous compliance of equilibrium equation and compatibility condition. MSC/Nastran organization expressed reluctance to accept the high fidelity IFM solutions. This report discusses the solutions to the examples. No inaccuracy was detected in the IFM solutions. A stiffness method code with a small programming effort can be improved to reap the many IFM benefits when implemented with the IFMD elements. Dr. Halford conducted a peer-review on the Integrated Force Method. Reviewers' response is included.

  18. High-Fidelity Piezoelectric Audio Device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodward, Stanley E.; Fox, Robert L.; Bryant, Robert G.

    2003-01-01

    ModalMax is a very innovative means of harnessing the vibration of a piezoelectric actuator to produce an energy efficient low-profile device with high-bandwidth high-fidelity audio response. The piezoelectric audio device outperforms many commercially available speakers made using speaker cones. The piezoelectric device weighs substantially less (4 g) than the speaker cones which use magnets (10 g). ModalMax devices have extreme fabrication simplicity. The entire audio device is fabricated by lamination. The simplicity of the design lends itself to lower cost. The piezoelectric audio device can be used without its acoustic chambers and thereby resulting in a very low thickness of 0.023 in. (0.58 mm). The piezoelectric audio device can be completely encapsulated, which makes it very attractive for use in wet environments. Encapsulation does not significantly alter the audio response. Its small size (see Figure 1) is applicable to many consumer electronic products, such as pagers, portable radios, headphones, laptop computers, computer monitors, toys, and electronic games. The audio device can also be used in automobile or aircraft sound systems.

  19. High-Fidelity Coding with Correlated Neurons

    PubMed Central

    da Silveira, Rava Azeredo; Berry, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    Positive correlations in the activity of neurons are widely observed in the brain. Previous studies have shown these correlations to be detrimental to the fidelity of population codes, or at best marginally favorable compared to independent codes. Here, we show that positive correlations can enhance coding performance by astronomical factors. Specifically, the probability of discrimination error can be suppressed by many orders of magnitude. Likewise, the number of stimuli encoded—the capacity—can be enhanced more than tenfold. These effects do not necessitate unrealistic correlation values, and can occur for populations with a few tens of neurons. We further show that both effects benefit from heterogeneity commonly seen in population activity. Error suppression and capacity enhancement rest upon a pattern of correlation. Tuning of one or several effective parameters can yield a limit of perfect coding: the corresponding pattern of positive correlation leads to a ‘lock-in’ of response probabilities that eliminates variability in the subspace relevant for stimulus discrimination. We discuss the nature of this pattern and we suggest experimental tests to identify it. PMID:25412463

  20. A generalized fidelity amplitude for open systems.

    PubMed

    Gorin, T; Moreno, H J; Seligman, T H

    2016-06-13

    We consider a central system which is coupled via dephasing to an open system, i.e. an intermediate system which in turn is coupled to another environment. Considering the intermediate and far environment as one composite system, the coherences in the central system are given in the form of fidelity amplitudes for a certain perturbed echo dynamics in the composite environment. On the basis of the Born-Markov approximation, we derive a master equation for the reduction of that dynamics to the intermediate system alone. In distinction to an earlier paper (Moreno et al 2015 Phys. Rev. A 92, 030104. (doi:10.1103/PhysRevA.92.030104)), where we discussed the stabilizing effect of the far environment on the decoherence in the central system, we focus here on the possibility of using the measurable coherences in the central system for probing the open quantum dynamics in the intermediate system. We illustrate our results for the case of chaotic dynamics in the near environment, where we compare random matrix simulations with our analytical result.

  1. New high fidelity polymerases from Thermococcus species.

    PubMed

    Griffiths, Kate; Nayak, Sunil; Park, Kyusung; Mandelman, David; Modrell, Brett; Lee, Jun; Ng, Bernie; Gibbs, Moreland D; Bergquist, Peter L

    2007-03-01

    Two DNA polymerase genes have been isolated from Thermococcus strains, Thermococcus zilligii from New Zealand, and the other, Thermococcus 'GT', a fast-growing strain isolated from the Galapagos trench. Both genes were isolated by genomic walking PCR, a technique that does not require expression of the gene product. Phylogenetic analysis of SSU rDNA showed that the two strains were not closely related, as confirmed by an examination of the DNA polymerase sequences. Inteinless versions of each gene were generated by overlap-extension PCR and transferred into plasmid expression vectors. The proteins were produced in an Escherichia coli strain with additional copies of tRNAs corresponding to rarely used codons and purified by standard chromatographic procedures. Both enzymes were able to support PCR, but the Thermococcus 'GT' polymerase required higher concentrations of template than the enzyme from T. zilligii. Both enzymes showed 3' to 5' exonuclease activity, which was abolished in the case of T. zilligii by mutating the aspartic acid at position 141 and the glutamic acid at position 143 to alanine. Both enzymes showed a significant increase in fidelity of replication compared to the family A Thermus aquaticus DNA polymerase, in agreement with other results reported for family B polymerases with proof-reading ability. PMID:16982200

  2. Paleomagnetic recording fidelity of nonideal magnetic systems

    PubMed Central

    Muxworthy, Adrian R; Krása, David; Williams, Wyn; Almeida, Trevor P

    2014-01-01

    A suite of near-identical magnetite nanodot samples produced by electron-beam lithography have been used to test the thermomagnetic recording fidelity of particles in the 74–333 nm size range; the grain size range most commonly found in rocks. In addition to controlled grain size, the samples had identical particle spacings, meaning that intergrain magnetostatic interactions could be controlled. Their magnetic hysteresis parameters were indicative of particles thought not to be ideal magnetic recorders; however, the samples were found to be excellent thermomagnetic recorders of the magnetic field direction. They were also found to be relatively good recorders of the field intensity in a standard paleointensity experiment. The samples' intensities were all within ∼15% of the expected answer and the mean of the samples within 3% of the actual field. These nonideal magnetic systems have been shown to be reliable records of the geomagnetic field in terms of both direction and intensity even though their magnetic hysteresis characteristics indicate less than ideal magnetic grains. Key Points Nonideal magnetic systems accurately record field direction Weak-field remanences more stable than strong-field remanences PMID:26300699

  3. Methodology development for evaluation of selective-fidelity rotorcraft simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, William D.; Schrage, D. P.; Prasad, J. V. R.; Wolfe, Daniel

    1992-01-01

    This paper addressed the initial step toward the goal of establishing performance and handling qualities acceptance criteria for realtime rotorcraft simulators through a planned research effort to quantify the system capabilities of 'selective fidelity' simulators. Within this framework the simulator is then classified based on the required task. The simulator is evaluated by separating the various subsystems (visual, motion, etc.) and applying corresponding fidelity constants based on the specific task. This methodology not only provides an assessment technique, but also provides a technique to determine the required levels of subsystem fidelity for a specific task.

  4. Recommendations on Model Fidelity for Wind Turbine Gearbox Simulations: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, Y.; Keller, J.; La Cava, W.; Austin, J.; Nejad, A. R.; Halse, C.; Bastard, L.; Helsen, J.

    2015-01-01

    This work investigates the minimum level of fidelity required to accurately simulate wind turbine gearboxes using state-of-the-art design tools. Excessive model fidelity including drivetrain complexity, gearbox complexity, excitation sources, and imperfections, significantly increases computational time, but may not provide a commensurate increase in the value of the results. Essential design parameters are evaluated, including the planetary load-sharing factor, gear tooth load distribution, and sun orbit motion. Based on the sensitivity study results, recommendations for the minimum model fidelities are provided.

  5. Norovirus Polymerase Fidelity Contributes to Viral Transmission In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Thorne, Lucy; Ghurburrun, Elsa

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Intrahost genetic diversity and replication error rates are intricately linked to RNA virus pathogenesis, with alterations in viral polymerase fidelity typically leading to attenuation during infections in vivo. We have previously shown that norovirus intrahost genetic diversity also influences viral pathogenesis using the murine norovirus model, as increasing viral mutation frequency using a mutagenic nucleoside resulted in clearance of a persistent infection in mice. Given the role of replication fidelity and genetic diversity in pathogenesis, we have now investigated whether polymerase fidelity can also impact virus transmission between susceptible hosts. We have identified a high-fidelity norovirus RNA-dependent RNA polymerase mutant (I391L) which displays delayed replication kinetics in vivo but not in cell culture. The I391L polymerase mutant also exhibited lower transmission rates between susceptible hosts than the wild-type virus and, most notably, another replication defective mutant that has wild-type levels of polymerase fidelity. These results provide the first experimental evidence that norovirus polymerase fidelity contributes to virus transmission between hosts and that maintaining diversity is important for the establishment of infection. This work supports the hypothesis that the reduced polymerase fidelity of the pandemic GII.4 human norovirus isolates may contribute to their global dominance. IMPORTANCE Virus replication fidelity and hence the intrahost genetic diversity of viral populations are known to be intricately linked to viral pathogenesis and tropism as well as to immune and antiviral escape during infection. In this study, we investigated whether changes in replication fidelity can impact the ability of a virus to transmit between susceptible hosts by the use of a mouse model for norovirus. We show that a variant encoding a high-fidelity polymerase is transmitted less efficiently between mice than the wild-type strain. This

  6. Flight simulator fidelity assessment in a rotorcraft lateral translation maneuver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hess, R. A.; Malsbury, T.; Atencio, A., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    A model-based methodology for assessing flight simulator fidelity in closed-loop fashion is exercised in analyzing a rotorcraft low-altitude maneuver for which flight test and simulation results were available. The addition of a handling qualities sensitivity function to a previously developed model-based assessment criteria allows an analytical comparison of both performance and handling qualities between simulation and flight test. Model predictions regarding the existence of simulator fidelity problems are corroborated by experiment. The modeling approach is used to assess analytically the effects of modifying simulator characteristics on simulator fidelity.

  7. RB69 DNA Polymerase Structure, Kinetics, and Fidelity

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    This review will summarize our structural and kinetic studies of RB69 DNA polymerase (RB69pol) as well as selected variants of the wild-type enzyme that were undertaken to obtain a deeper understanding of the exquisitely high fidelity of B family replicative DNA polymerases. We discuss how the structures of the various RB69pol ternary complexes can be used to rationalize the results obtained from pre-steady-state kinetic assays. Our main findings can be summarized as follows. (i) Interbase hydrogen bond interactions can increase catalytic efficiency by 5000-fold; meanwhile, base selectivity is not solely determined by the number of hydrogen bonds between the incoming dNTP and the templating base. (ii) Minor-groove hydrogen bond interactions at positions n – 1 and n – 2 of the primer strand and position n – 1 of the template strand in RB69pol ternary complexes are essential for efficient primer extension and base selectivity. (iii) Partial charge interactions among the incoming dNTP, the penultimate base pair, and the hydration shell surrounding the incoming dNTP modulate nucleotide insertion efficiency and base selectivity. (iv) Steric clashes between mismatched incoming dNTPs and templating bases with amino acid side chains in the nascent base pair binding pocket (NBP) as well as weak interactions and large gaps between the incoming dNTPs and the templating base are some of the reasons that incorrect dNTPs are incorporated so inefficiently by wild-type RB69pol. In addition, we developed a tC°–tCnitro Förster resonance energy transfer assay to monitor partitioning of the primer terminus between the polymerase and exonuclease subdomains. PMID:24720884

  8. Biblical Fidelity of Christian School Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cox, William F., Jr.; Hameloth, Nancy J.; Talbot, Daniel P.

    2007-01-01

    A reasonable expectation of textbooks used in Christian schools is that they should regularly incorporate biblical content. It is also reasonable to expect the biblical content to be integrated--not segregated--to influence matters such as worldview, biblical relevance, character, and integrative skills. This expectation was tested via a…

  9. Fidelity between Gaussian mixed states with quantum state quadrature variances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hai-Long, Zhang; Chun, Zhou; Jian-Hong, Shi; Wan-Su, Bao

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, from the original definition of fidelity in a pure state, we first give a well-defined expansion fidelity between two Gaussian mixed states. It is related to the variances of output and input states in quantum information processing. It is convenient to quantify the quantum teleportation (quantum clone) experiment since the variances of the input (output) state are measurable. Furthermore, we also give a conclusion that the fidelity of a pure input state is smaller than the fidelity of a mixed input state in the same quantum information processing. Project supported by the National Basic Research Program of China (Grant No. 2013CB338002) and the Foundation of Science and Technology on Information Assurance Laboratory (Grant No. KJ-14-001).

  10. Fidelity spectrum and phase transitions of quantum systems

    SciTech Connect

    Sacramento, P. D.; Vieira, V. R.; Paunkovic, N.

    2011-12-15

    Quantum fidelity between two density matrices F({rho}{sub 1},{rho}{sub 2}) is usually defined as the trace of the operator F={radical}({radical}({rho}{sub 1}){rho}{sub 2}{radical}({rho}{sub 1})). We study the logarithmic spectrum of this operator, which we denote by the fidelity spectrum, in the cases of the XX spin chain in a magnetic field, a magnetic impurity inserted in a conventional superconductor, and a bulk superconductor at finite temperature. When the density matrices are equal, {rho}{sub 1}={rho}{sub 2}, the fidelity spectrum reduces to the entanglement spectrum. We find that the fidelity spectrum can be a useful tool in giving a detailed characterization of the different phases of many-body quantum systems.

  11. Fidelity between Gaussian mixed states with quantum state quadrature variances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hai-Long, Zhang; Chun, Zhou; Jian-Hong, Shi; Wan-Su, Bao

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, from the original definition of fidelity in a pure state, we first give a well-defined expansion fidelity between two Gaussian mixed states. It is related to the variances of output and input states in quantum information processing. It is convenient to quantify the quantum teleportation (quantum clone) experiment since the variances of the input (output) state are measurable. Furthermore, we also give a conclusion that the fidelity of a pure input state is smaller than the fidelity of a mixed input state in the same quantum information processing. Project supported by the National Basic Research Program of China (Grant No. 2013CB338002) and the Foundation of Science and Technology on Information Assurance Laboratory (Grant No. KJ-14-001).

  12. Fidelity for kicked atoms with gravity near a quantum resonance.

    PubMed

    Dubertrand, Rémy; Guarneri, Italo; Wimberger, Sandro

    2012-03-01

    Kicked atoms under a constant Stark or gravity field are investigated for experimental setups with cold and ultracold atoms. The parametric stability of the quantum dynamics is studied using the fidelity. In the case of a quantum resonance, it is shown that the behavior of the fidelity depends on arithmetic properties of the gravity parameter. Close to a quantum resonance, the long-time asymptotics of the fidelity is studied by means of a pseudoclassical approximation introduced by Fishman et al. [J. Stat. Phys. 110, 911 (2003)]. The long-time decay of fidelity arises from the tunneling out of pseudoclassical stable islands, and a simple ansatz is proposed which satisfactorily reproduces the main features observed in numerical simulations.

  13. High-fidelity synthetic IR imaging model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wegener, Michael; Drake, Richard

    2000-07-01

    This paper describes a High Fidelity Synthetic IR Imaging Model which attempts to generate accurate static images as would be seen by a defined IR sensor given the target type and the atmospheric conditions. The model attempts to be quite general in its accommodation of physical processes yet maintain radiometric accuracy. Its main application are to assist in the validation of real-time IR scene generation software, and as a tool which can be used for range performance studies of electro-optical systems. The software model allows facet modeling of targets including temperature profiles and material properties. LOWTRAN/MODTRAN is used to provide atmospheric data for transmittance and self-radiation. Optical systems are described in terms of their transmittance and point spread function, both as functions of wavelength, and a self radiation term having temperature and material properties. At each wavelength desired the model generates descriptions of the flux distribution falling on the focal plane of the sensor system. The flux from different sources is added together to form the total flux distribution on the focal plane. Pixels on the focal plane are modeled by groups of facets with associated material properties allowing the shape and wavelength sensitivity to be expressed. The raw pixel output is obtained by integrating the flux distribution over the component facets and across wavelengths. Following non-uniformity modeling a convolution is applied which models readout smearing. Bandlimited noise is then added. The model is also able to generate and apply a matched filter to the output image. The model is designed to use common commercial software tools such as Multigen for target modeling and Open GL for the rendering. The model currently executes on Silicon Graphics hardware.

  14. Body-Sized Wideband High Fidelity Invisibility Cloak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, Nathan

    2012-09-01

    A human-sized microwave invisibility cloak has been realized. The invisibility cloak uses fractal metamaterials with two cloaking layers to achieve a high fidelity re-attainment of the intensity of an unobstructed direct path over a better than 50% bandwidth. A human subject was cloaked demonstrating a new milestone in diverted imaging capabilities: electrically large; high fidelity; and broad bandwidth. Transformational optics must now be considered less limiting in the guidance of practical applications.

  15. The Need for High Fidelity Lunar Regolith Simulants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaier, James R.

    2007-01-01

    The case is made for the need to have high fidelity lunar regolith simulants to verify the performance of structures and mechanisms to be used on the lunar surface. Minor constituents will in some cases have major consequences. Small amounts of sulfur in the regolith can poison catalysts, and metallic iron on the surface of nano-sized dust particles may cause a dramatic increase in its toxicity. So the definition of a high fidelity simulant is application dependent. For example, in situ resource utilization will require high fidelity in chemistry, meaning careful attention to the minor components and phases; but some other applications, such as the abrasive effects on suit fabrics, might be relatively insensitive to minor component chemistry. The lunar environment itself will change the surface chemistry of the simulant, so to have a high fidelity simulant at must be used in a high fidelity simulated environment to get a high fidelity simulation. Research must be conducted to determine how sensitive technologies will be to minor components and environmental factors before they can be dismissed as unimportant.

  16. Multi-fidelity approach to dynamics model calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Absi, Ghina N.; Mahadevan, Sankaran

    2016-02-01

    This paper investigates the use of structural dynamics computational models with multiple levels of fidelity in the calibration of system parameters. Different types of models may be available for the estimation of unmeasured system properties, with different levels of physics fidelity, mesh resolution and boundary condition assumptions. In order to infer these system properties, Bayesian calibration uses information from multiple sources (including experimental data and prior knowledge), and comprehensively quantifies the uncertainty in the calibration parameters. Estimating the posteriors is done using Markov Chain Monte Carlo sampling, which requires a large number of computations, thus making the use of a high-fidelity model for calibration prohibitively expensive. On the other hand, use of a low-fidelity model could lead to significant error in calibration and prediction. Therefore, this paper develops an approach for model parameter calibration with a low-fidelity model corrected using higher fidelity simulations, and investigates the trade-off between accuracy and computational effort. The methodology is illustrated for a curved panel located in the vicinity of a hypersonic aircraft engine, subjected to acoustic loading. Two models (a frequency response analysis and a full time history analysis) are combined to calibrate the damping characteristics of the panel.

  17. Testing the Feasibility of Fidelity Evaluation in a Multisite, Multiprogram Initiative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cornish, Disa Lubker; Losch, Mary E.; Avery, Mitchell

    2016-01-01

    Monitoring fidelity of implementation is a critical task when initiating evidence-based programs. This pilot study sought to identify best practices in a fidelity monitoring process and determine the feasibility of continuing a fidelity monitoring process with a multisite, multiprogram initiative. A fidelity log was created for each of 11…

  18. Fidelity: An Essential Component of Evidence-Based Practice in Speech-Language Pathology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaderavek, Joan N.; Justice, Laura M.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To provide a primer regarding treatment fidelity as it affects evidence-based practice (EBP) for speech-language pathologists. Method: This tutorial defines treatment fidelity, examines the role of treatment fidelity for speech-language pathologists, provides examples of fidelity measurement, and describes approaches for assessing…

  19. Toward Right-Fidelity Rotorcraft Conceptual Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sinsay, Jeffrey D.; Johnson, Wayne

    2010-01-01

    utilized are driven by the timeline in which questions must be answered. This can range from quick "back-of-the-envelope" assessments of a configuration made in an afternoon, to more detailed tradespace explorations that can take upwards of a year to complete. A variety of spreadsheet based tools and conceptual design codes are currently in use. The in-house developed conceptual sizing code RC (Rotorcraft) has been the preferred tool of choice for CD activity for a number of years. Figure 2 illustrates the long standing coupling between RC and solid modeling tools for layout, as well as a number of ad-hoc interfaces with external analyses. RC contains a sizing routine that is built around the use of momentum theory for rotors, classic finite wing theory, a referred parameter engine model, and semi-emperical weight estimation techniques. These methods lend themselves to rapid solutions, measured in seconds and minutes. The successful use of RC, however requires careful consideration of model input parameters and judicious comparison with existing aircraft to avoid unjustified extrapolation of results. RC is in fact a legacy of a series of codes whose development started in the early 1970s, and is best suited to the study of conventional helicopters and XV-15 style tiltrotors. Other concepts have been analyzed with RC, but typically it became necessary to modify the source code and methods for each unique configuration. Recent activity has lead to the development of a new code, NASA Design and Analysis of Rotorcraft (NDARC). NDARC uses a similar level of analytical fidelity as RC, but is built on a new framework intended to improve modularity and ability to rapidly model a wider array of concepts. Critical to achieving this capability is the decomposition of the aircraft system into a series of fundamental components which can then be assembled to form a wide-array of configurations. The paper will provide an overview of NDARC and its capabilities.

  20. Multi-fidelity design optimization of Francis turbine runner blades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahrami, S.; Tribes, C.; von Fellenberg, S.; Vu, T. C.; Guibault, F.

    2014-03-01

    A robust multi-fidelity design algorithm has been developed, focusing to efficiently handle industrial hydraulic runner design considerations. The computational task is split between low- and high-fidelity phases in order to properly balance the CFD cost and required accuracy in different design stages. In the low-fidelity phase, a derivative-free optimization method employs an inviscid flow solver to obtain the major desired characteristics of a good design in a relatively fast iterative process. A limited number of candidates are selected among feasible optimization solutions by a newly developed filtering process. The main function of the filtering process is to select some promising candidates to be sent into the high-fidelity phase, which have significantly different geometries, and also are dominant in their own territories. The high-fidelity phase aims to accurately evaluate those promising candidates in order to select the one which is closest to design targets. A low-head runner case study has shown the ability of this methodology to identify an optimized blade through a relatively low computational effort, which is significantly different from the base geometry.

  1. The Need for High Fidelity Lunar Regolith Simulants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaier, James R.

    2008-01-01

    The case is made for the need to have high fidelity lunar regolith simulants to verify the performance of structures, mechanisms, and processes to be used on the lunar surface. Minor constituents will in some cases have major consequences. Small amounts of sulfur in the regolith can poison catalysts, and metallic iron on the surface of nano-sized dust particles may cause a dramatic increase in its toxicity. So the definition of a high fidelity simulant is application-dependent. For example, in situ resource utilization will require high fidelity in chemistry, meaning careful attention to the minor components and phases; but some other applications, such as the abrasive effects on suit fabrics, might be relatively insensitive to minor component chemistry while abrasion of some metal components may be highly dependent on trace components. The lunar environment itself will change the surface chemistry of the simulant, so to have a high fidelity simulant it must be used in a high fidelity simulated environment to get an accurate simulation. Research must be conducted to determine how sensitive technologies will be to minor components and environmental factors before they can be dismissed as unimportant.

  2. State-independent purity and fidelity of quantum operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, Fan-Zhen; Zong, Xiao-Lan; Yang, Ming; Cao, Zhuo-Liang

    2016-04-01

    The purity and fidelity of quantum operations are of great importance in characterizing the quality of quantum operations. The currently available definitions of the purity and fidelity of quantum operations are based on the average over all possible input pure quantum states, i.e. they are state-dependent (SD). In this paper, without resorting to quantum states, we define the state-independent (SI) purity and fidelity of a general quantum operation (evolution) in virtue of a new density matrix formalism for quantum operations, which is extended from the quantum state level to quantum operation level. The SI purity and fidelity gain more intrinsic physical properties of quantum operations than state-dependent ones, such as the purity of a one-qubit amplitude damping channel (with damping rate 1) is 1/2, which is in line with the fact that the channel is still a nonunitary operation described by two Kraus operators rather than a unitary one. But the state-dependent Haar average purity is 1 in this case. So the SI purity and fidelity proposed here can help the experimentalists to exactly quantify the implementation quality of an operation. As a byproduct, a new measure of the operator entanglement is proposed for a quantum evolution (unitary or nonunitary) in terms of the linear entropy of its density matrix on the orthonormal operator bases (OOBs) in Hilbert-Schmidt space.

  3. Path integral approach to the quantum fidelity amplitude

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The Loschmidt echo is a measure of quantum irreversibility and is determined by the fidelity amplitude of an imperfect time-reversal protocol. Fidelity amplitude plays an important role both in the foundations of quantum mechanics and in its applications, such as time-resolved electronic spectroscopy. We derive an exact path integral formula for the fidelity amplitude and use it to obtain a series of increasingly accurate semiclassical approximations by truncating an exact expansion of the path integral exponent. While the zeroth-order expansion results in a remarkably simple, yet non-trivial approximation for the fidelity amplitude, the first-order expansion yields an alternative derivation of the so-called ‘dephasing representation,’ circumventing the use of a semiclassical propagator as in the original derivation. We also obtain an approximate expression for fidelity based on the second-order expansion, which resolves several shortcomings of the dephasing representation. The rigorous derivation from the path integral permits the identification of sufficient conditions under which various approximations obtained become exact. PMID:27140973

  4. Path integral approach to the quantum fidelity amplitude.

    PubMed

    Vaníček, Jiří; Cohen, Doron

    2016-06-13

    The Loschmidt echo is a measure of quantum irreversibility and is determined by the fidelity amplitude of an imperfect time-reversal protocol. Fidelity amplitude plays an important role both in the foundations of quantum mechanics and in its applications, such as time-resolved electronic spectroscopy. We derive an exact path integral formula for the fidelity amplitude and use it to obtain a series of increasingly accurate semiclassical approximations by truncating an exact expansion of the path integral exponent. While the zeroth-order expansion results in a remarkably simple, yet non-trivial approximation for the fidelity amplitude, the first-order expansion yields an alternative derivation of the so-called 'dephasing representation,' circumventing the use of a semiclassical propagator as in the original derivation. We also obtain an approximate expression for fidelity based on the second-order expansion, which resolves several shortcomings of the dephasing representation. The rigorous derivation from the path integral permits the identification of sufficient conditions under which various approximations obtained become exact.

  5. Path integral approach to the quantum fidelity amplitude.

    PubMed

    Vaníček, Jiří; Cohen, Doron

    2016-06-13

    The Loschmidt echo is a measure of quantum irreversibility and is determined by the fidelity amplitude of an imperfect time-reversal protocol. Fidelity amplitude plays an important role both in the foundations of quantum mechanics and in its applications, such as time-resolved electronic spectroscopy. We derive an exact path integral formula for the fidelity amplitude and use it to obtain a series of increasingly accurate semiclassical approximations by truncating an exact expansion of the path integral exponent. While the zeroth-order expansion results in a remarkably simple, yet non-trivial approximation for the fidelity amplitude, the first-order expansion yields an alternative derivation of the so-called 'dephasing representation,' circumventing the use of a semiclassical propagator as in the original derivation. We also obtain an approximate expression for fidelity based on the second-order expansion, which resolves several shortcomings of the dephasing representation. The rigorous derivation from the path integral permits the identification of sufficient conditions under which various approximations obtained become exact. PMID:27140973

  6. Development of High Fidelity, Fuel-Like Thermal Simulators for Non-Nuclear Testing

    SciTech Connect

    Bragg-Sitton, Shannon M.; Dickens, Ricky; Adams, Mike; Davis, Joe; Kapernick, Richard

    2007-01-30

    Non-nuclear testing can be a valuable tool in the development of a space nuclear power or propulsion system. In a non-nuclear test bed, electric heaters are used to simulate the heat from nuclear fuel. Work at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center seeks to develop high fidelity thermal simulators that not only match the static power profile that would be observed in an operating, fueled nuclear reactor, but also match the dynamic fuel pin performance during feasible transients. Comparison between the fuel pins and thermal simulators is made at the outer fuel clad surface, which corresponds to the outer sheath surface in the thermal simulator. The thermal simulators that are currently being developed are designed to meet the geometric and power requirements of a proposed surface power reactor design, accommodate testing of various axial power profiles, and incorporate imbedded instrumentation. Static and dynamic fuel pin performances for a proposed reactor design have been determined using SINDA/FLUINT thermal analysis software, and initial comparison has been made between the expected nuclear performance and the performance of conceptual thermal simulator designs. Through a series of iterative analysis, a conceptual high fidelity design will be developed, followed by engineering design, fabrication, and testing to validate the overall design process. Although the resulting thermal simulator will be designed for a specific reactor concept, establishing this rigorous design process will assist in streamlining the thermal simulator development for other reactor concepts. This paper presents the current status of high fidelity thermal simulator design relative to a SNAP derivative reactor design that could be applied for Lunar surface power.

  7. High-fidelity phototaxis in biflagellate algae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leptos, Kyriacos; Chioccioli, Maurizio; Furlan, Silvano; Pesci, Adriana; Goldstein, Raymond

    2015-11-01

    The single-cell alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is a motile biflagellate that can swim towards light for its photosynthetic requirements, a behavior referred to as phototaxis. The cell responds upon light stimulation through its rudimentary eye - the eyespot - by changing the beating amplitude of its two flagella accordingly - a process called the photoresponse. All this occurs in a coordinated fashion as Chlamydomonas spins about its body axis while swimming, thus experiencing oscillating intensities of light. We use high-speed video microscopy to measure the flagellar dynamics of the photoresponse on immobilized cells and interpret the results with a mathematical model of adaptation similar to that used previously for Volvox. These results are incorporated into a model of phototactic steering to yield trajectories that are compared to those obtained by three-dimensional tracking. Implications of these results for the evolution of multicellularity in the Volvocales are discussed.

  8. Implementation fidelity of Multidimensional Family Therapy in an international trial.

    PubMed

    Rowe, Cynthia; Rigter, Henk; Henderson, Craig; Gantner, Andreas; Mos, Kees; Nielsen, Philip; Phan, Olivier

    2013-04-01

    Implementation fidelity, a critical aspect of clinical trials research that establishes adequate delivery of the treatment as prescribed in treatment manuals and protocols, is also essential to the successful implementation of effective programs into new practice settings. Although infrequently studied in the drug abuse field, stronger implementation fidelity has been linked to better outcomes in practice but appears to be more difficult to achieve with greater distance from model developers. In the INternational CAnnabis Need for Treatment (INCANT) multi-national randomized clinical trial, investigators tested the effectiveness of Multidimensional Family Therapy (MDFT) in comparison to individual psychotherapy (IP) in Brussels, Berlin, Paris, The Hague, and Geneva with 450 adolescents with a cannabis use disorder and their parents. This study reports on the implementation fidelity of MDFT across these five Western European sites in terms of treatment adherence, dose and program differentiation, and discusses possible implications for international implementation efforts.

  9. Image-gathering system design for information and fidelity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huck, Friedrich O.; Fales, Carl L.; Mccormick, Judith A.; Park, Stephen K.

    1988-01-01

    Image gathering and processing are assessed in terms of information and fidelity, and the relationship between these two figures of merit is examined. It is assumed that the system is linear and isoplanatic and that the signal and noise amplitudes are Gaussian, wide-sense stationary, and statistically independent. Within these constraints, it is found that the combined process of image gathering and reconstruction (which is intended to reproduce the output of the image-gathering system) behaves as optical, or photographic, image formation in that the informationally optimized design of the image-gathering system ordinarily does not maximize the fidelity of the reconstructed image. The combined process of image gathering and restoration (which is intended to reproduce the input of the image-gathering system) behaves more as a communication channel in that the informationally optimized design of the image-gathering system tends to maximize the fidelity of optimally restored representations of the input.

  10. Fidelity at Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless quantum phase transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, G.; Kolezhuk, A. K.; Vekua, T.

    2015-01-01

    We clarify the long-standing controversy concerning the behavior of the ground-state fidelity in the vicinity of a quantum phase transition of the Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless type in one-dimensional systems. Contrary to the prediction based on the Gaussian approximation of the Luttinger-liquid approach, it is shown that the fidelity susceptibility does not diverge at the transition but has a cusplike peak χc-χ (λ ) ˜√{| λc-λ | } , where λ is a parameter driving the transition and χc is the peak value at the transition point λ =λc . Numerical claims of the logarithmic divergence of fidelity susceptibility with the system size (or temperature) are explained by logarithmic corrections due to marginal operators, which is supported by numerical calculations for large systems.

  11. Resourcefulness training for grandmothers raising grandchildren: establishing fidelity.

    PubMed

    Zauszniewski, Jaclene A; Musil, Carol M; Burant, Christopher J; Standing, Theresa S; Au, Tsay-Yi

    2014-02-01

    Over one million American grandmothers raise grandchildren, and many experience stress that adversely affects their mental health. Teaching resourcefulness skills can minimize this stress. However, before testing effectiveness of resourcefulness training (RT), its fidelity must be established. This pilot intervention trial examined the fidelity of two methods of RT: expressive writing (journaling) and verbal disclosure (voice recording) using a quasi-experimental design with random assignment of 80 grandmothers to RT-expressive writing, RT-verbal disclosure, or expressive writing or verbal disclosure alone. Quantitative data (Resourcefulness Scale) and qualitative data (journals, recordings) were collected. Grandmothers with RT showed greater resourcefulness over time than those without RT, with similar effects for RT-expressive writing and RT-verbal disclosure. Evidence for the use of RT skills was found in journals and recordings. The findings provide support for RT intervention fidelity and support moving forward to test RT effectiveness in reducing grandmothers' stress and promoting their mental health. PMID:23982519

  12. The natural selection of fidelity in social learning

    PubMed Central

    Sperber, Dan

    2010-01-01

    Social learning mechanisms are usually assumed to explain both the spread and the persistence of cultural behavior. In a recent article, we showed that the fidelity of social learning commonly found in transmission chain experiments is not high enough to explain cultural stability. Here we want to both enrich and qualify this conclusion by looking at the case of song transmission in song birds, which can be faithful to the point of being true replication. We argue that this high fidelity results from natural selection pressure on cognitive mechanisms. This observation strengthens our main argument. Social learning mechanisms are unlikely to be faithful enough to explain cultural stability because they are generally selected not for high fidelity but for generalization and adjustment to the individual’s needs, capacities and situation. PMID:20798823

  13. Influence of imaging resolution on color fidelity in digital archiving.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Pengchang; Toque, Jay Arre; Ide-Ektessabi, Ari

    2015-11-01

    Color fidelity is of paramount importance in digital archiving. In this paper, the relationship between color fidelity and imaging resolution was explored by calculating the color difference of an IT8.7/2 color chart with a CIELAB color difference formula for scanning and simulation images. Microscopic spatial sampling was used in selecting the image pixels for the calculations to highlight the loss of color information. A ratio, called the relative imaging definition (RID), was defined to express the correlation between image resolution and color fidelity. The results show that in order for color differences to remain unrecognizable, the imaging resolution should be at least 10 times higher than the physical dimension of the smallest feature in the object being studied.

  14. Evaluating Fidelity to the Wraparound Service Model for Youth: Application of Item Response Theory to the Wraparound Fidelity Index

    PubMed Central

    Pullmann, Michael D.; Bruns, Eric J.; Sather, April K.

    2013-01-01

    The wraparound process is a mechanism for multi-system planning and care coordination for youth with serious emotional and behavioral problems. Fidelity monitoring is critical to effective implementation of evidence-based practices in children’s mental health, as it helps ensure that complex interventions like wraparound are implemented as intended. The 40-item Wraparound Fidelity Index, version 4 (WFI-4; Bruns, Burchard, Suter, Leverentz-Brady, & Force, 2004) is the most frequently used measure of fidelity to the wraparound process, but analysis of its psychometric properties is insufficient. An item response theory approach, Rasch partial credit models for ordered polytomous data, was used on ratings from 1,234 facilitators, 1,006 caregivers, and 221 team members, focused on 1,478 youths (55% male). Results indicated the WFI-4 measured a unidimensional construct, with little evidence of item bias and good item and model fit. However, the item information curve was skewed, with most people endorsing high-fidelity responses, and several items had duplicative location estimates. A reduced 20-item measure is proposed. Internal reliability estimates for scores from this reduced measure were approximately equivalent to the longer measure. However, both versions would benefit from additional items located in the highest-fidelity area of either version of the scale where scores by greater than half of our sample fall, but only three items are located. PMID:23544392

  15. Surprising Relations between Parametric Level Correlations and Fidelity Decay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, H.; Smolyarenko, I. E.; Pineda, C.; Guhr, T.; Leyvraz, F.; Seligman, T. H.

    2008-05-01

    Relations among fidelity, cross-form-factor (i.e., parametric level correlations), and level velocity correlations are found both by deriving a Ward identity in a two-matrix model and by comparing exact results, using supersymmetry techniques, in the framework of random matrix theory. A power law decay near Heisenberg time, as a function of the relevant parameter, is shown to be at the root of revivals recently discovered for fidelity decay. For cross-form-factors the revivals are illustrated by a numerical study of a multiply kicked Ising spin chain.

  16. Fidelity Decay in Trapped Bose-Einstein Condensates

    SciTech Connect

    Manfredi, G.; Hervieux, P.-A.

    2008-02-08

    The quantum coherence of a Bose-Einstein condensate is studied using the concept of quantum fidelity (Loschmidt echo). The condensate is confined in an elongated anharmonic trap and subjected to a small random potential such as that created by a laser speckle. Numerical experiments show that the quantum fidelity stays constant until a critical time, after which it drops abruptly over a single trap oscillation period. The critical time depends logarithmically on the number of condensed atoms and on the perturbation amplitude. This behavior may be observable by measuring the interference fringes of two condensates evolving in slightly different potentials.

  17. High-fidelity teleportation between light and atoms

    SciTech Connect

    Hammerer, K.; Polzik, E. S.; Cirac, J. I.

    2006-12-15

    We show how high-fidelity quantum teleportation of light to atoms can be achieved in the same setup as was used in the recent experiment [J. Sherson et al., Nature 443, 557, 2006], where such an interspecies quantum state transfer was demonstrated for the first time. Our improved protocol takes advantage of the rich multimode entangled structure of the state of atoms and scattered light and requires simple postprocessing of homodyne detection signals and squeezed light in order to achieve fidelities up to 90% (85%) for teleportation of coherent (qubit) states under realistic experimental conditions. The remaining limitation is due to atomic decoherence and light losses.

  18. High fidelity simulation of transcritical injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soteriou, Marios; Gao, Hui; Li, Xiaoyi; Davis, Dustin

    2012-11-01

    Transcritical injection of a multi-component fluid occurs in many practical applications such as diesel and rocket engines. In this type of injection a liquid fuel at a supercritical pressure but subcritical temperature, is introduced into an environment where conditions are supercritical. The convoluted physics of the transition from the subcritical to the supercritical state is linked to thermodynamic property variations and poses challenges to numerical simulation. For example, the temporary presence of surface tension implies that both the subcritical liquid-vapor interface and the transition boundary to supercritical fluid need to be captured. In this work, numerical simulation of a binary system of a subcritical liquid injecting into a supercritical, quiescent gaseous environment is performed. A coupled level set and volume of fluid method is adopted to capture the liquid-vapor interface, across which the continuity of mass and energy fluxes is preserved. The fluid state over the range of subcritical liquid to supercritical fluid is determined by incorporating the Peng-Robinson equation of state. To efficiently account for the sharp changes in properties near the liquid-vapor interface and the transition boundary to supercritical fluid, an adaptive mesh refinement technique is employed. Analysis of results focuses on the impact of vanishing surface tension as conditions transition from sub-critical to supercritical.

  19. Estimates of movement and site fidelity using mark-resight data of wintering Canada geese

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hestbeck, J.B.; Nichols, J.D.; Malecki, R.A.

    1991-01-01

    Population ecologists have devoted disproportionate attention to the estimation and study of birth and death rates and far less effort to rates of movement. Movement and fidelity to wintering areas have important ecological and evolutionary implications for avian populations. Previous inferences about movement among and fidelity to wintering areas have been restricted by limitations of data and methodology. We use multiple observation data from a large-scale capture-resighting study of Canada Geese in the Atlantic flyway to estimate probabilities of returning to previous wintering locations and moving to new locations. Mark-resight data from 28,849 Canada Geese (Branta canadensis) banded woth individually coded neck bands in the mid-Atlantic (New York, Pennsylvania, New Jersey), Chesapeake (Delaware, Maryland, Virginia), and Carolinas (North and South Carolina) were used to estimate movement and site-fidelity. Two three-sample mark-resight models were developed and programmed using SURVIV to estimate the probability of moving among or remaining within these three wintering regions. The model (MV2) that incorporated tradition' or memory of previous wintering regions fit the data better than the model (MV1) that assumes that a first-order Markov chain described movement among regions. Considerable levels of movement occured among regions of the Atlantic flyway. The annual probability of remaining in the same region for two successive winters, used as a measure of site fidelity, was 0.710 plus or minus 0.016 (estimated mean plus or minus SE, 0.889 plus or minus 0.006, and 0.562 plus or minus 0.025, for the mid-Atlantic, Chesapeake, and Carolinas, respectively. The estimated probability of moving between years corresponded to changes in winter harshness. In warm years, geese moved north and in cold years, they moved south. Geese had a high probability of moving to and remaining in the Chesapeake. Annual changes in the movement probabilities did not correspond to annual

  20. Developing and Gathering Psychometric Evidence for a Fidelity Instrument: The Teaching Pyramid Observation Tool--Pilot Version

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyder, Patricia A.; Hemmeter, Mary Louise; Fox, Lise; Bishop, Crystal Crowe; Miller, M. David

    2013-01-01

    Fidelity assessment has received renewed attention in recent years, particularly as distinctions have been made in implementation science between intervention fidelity and implementation fidelity. Considering both types of fidelity has been recommended when developing fidelity instruments. In the present article, we describe development of the…

  1. Structural basis of high-fidelity DNA synthesis by yeast DNA polymerase [delta

    SciTech Connect

    Swan, Michael K.; Johnson, Robert E.; Prakash, Louise; Prakash, Satya; Aggarwal, Aneel K.

    2009-09-25

    DNA polymerase {delta} (Pol {delta}) is a high-fidelity polymerase that has a central role in replication from yeast to humans. We present the crystal structure of the catalytic subunit of yeast Pol {delta} in ternary complex with a template primer and an incoming nucleotide. The structure, determined at 2.0-{angstrom} resolution, catches the enzyme in the act of replication, revealing how the polymerase and exonuclease domains are juxtaposed relative to each other and how a correct nucleotide is selected and incorporated. The structure also reveals the 'sensing' interactions near the primer terminus, which signal a switch from the polymerizing to the editing mode. Taken together, the structure provides a chemical basis for the bulk of DNA synthesis in eukaryotic cells and a framework for understanding the effects of cancer-causing mutations in Pol {delta}.

  2. SWPBIS Tiered Fidelity Inventory. Version 2.1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Algozzine, B.; Barrett, S.; Eber, L.; George, H.; Horner, R.; Lewis, T.; Putnam, B.; Swain-Bradway, J.; McIntosh, K.; Sugai, G.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the SWPBIS Tiered Fidelity Inventory (TFI) is to provide a valid, reliable, and efficient measure of the extent to which school personnel are applying the core features of school-wide positive behavioral interventions and supports (SWPBIS). The TFI is divided into three sections (Tier I: Universal SWPBIS Features; Tier II: Targeted…

  3. Bounding quantum gate error rate based on reported average fidelity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanders, Yuval R.; Wallman, Joel J.; Sanders, Barry C.

    2016-01-01

    Remarkable experimental advances in quantum computing are exemplified by recent announcements of impressive average gate fidelities exceeding 99.9% for single-qubit gates and 99% for two-qubit gates. Although these high numbers engender optimism that fault-tolerant quantum computing is within reach, the connection of average gate fidelity with fault-tolerance requirements is not direct. Here we use reported average gate fidelity to determine an upper bound on the quantum-gate error rate, which is the appropriate metric for assessing progress towards fault-tolerant quantum computation, and we demonstrate that this bound is asymptotically tight for general noise. Although this bound is unlikely to be saturated by experimental noise, we demonstrate using explicit examples that the bound indicates a realistic deviation between the true error rate and the reported average fidelity. We introduce the Pauli distance as a measure of this deviation, and we show that knowledge of the Pauli distance enables tighter estimates of the error rate of quantum gates.

  4. Bounding quantum gate error rate based on reported average fidelity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanders, Yuval; Wallman, Joel; Sanders, Barry

    Remarkable experimental advances in quantum computing are exemplified by recent announcements of impressive average gate fidelities exceeding 99.9% for single-qubit gates and 99% for two-qubit gates. Although these high numbers engender optimism that fault-tolerant quantum computing is within reach, the connection of average gate fidelity with fault-tolerance requirements is not direct. Here we use reported average gate fidelity to determine an upper bound on the quantum-gate error rate, which is the appropriate metric for assessing progress towards fault-tolerant quantum computation, and we demonstrate that this bound is asymptotically tight for general noise. Although this bound is unlikely to be saturated by experimental noise, we demonstrate using explicit examples that the bound indicates a realistic deviation between the true error rate and the reported average fidelity. We introduce the Pauli-distance as a measure of this deviation, and we show that knowledge of the Pauli-distance enables tighter estimates of the error rate of quantum gates.

  5. Learning Intercultural Communication Skills with Virtual Humans: Feedback and Fidelity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lane, H. Chad; Hays, Matthew Jensen; Core, Mark G.; Auerbach, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    In the context of practicing intercultural communication skills, we investigated the role of fidelity in a game-based, virtual learning environment as well as the role of feedback delivered by an intelligent tutoring system. In 2 experiments, we compared variations on the game interface, use of the tutoring system, and the form of the feedback.…

  6. Competency: Does High Fidelity Simulation Make a Difference?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valente, Alice M.

    2010-01-01

    High fidelity simulation is a well documented adjunctive teaching method in medical and nurse practitioner programs, but few studies of effectiveness on this technology on the development of competency have emphasized pre-licensure associate degree level programs. This study explored student competency in the application of the nursing process…

  7. High Fidelity: Investing in Evaluation Training. Ask the Team

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fetters, Jenni

    2013-01-01

    High-quality training is a crucial investment in establishing and maintaining implementation fidelity as well as building educators' trust in the new process. Training approaches for educator evaluation vary both in format (i.e., how it's delivered) and content (i.e., what is provided). Train-the-trainer sessions, online professional learning…

  8. Experiential Fidelity: Leveraging the Mind to Improve the VR Experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beckhaus, Steffi; Lindeman, Robert W.

    Much of Virtual Reality (VR) is about creating environments that are believable. But though the visual and audio experiences we provide today are already of a rather high sensory fidelity, there is still something lacking; something hinders us from fully buying into the worlds we experience through VR technology. We introduce the notion of Experiential Fidelity, which is an attempt to create a deeper sense of presence by carefully designing the user experience. We suggest to guide the users' frame of mind in a way that their expectations, attitude, and attention are aligned with the actual VR experience, and that the user's own imagination is stimulated to complete the experience. This work was inspired by a collection of personal magic moments and factors that were named by leading researchers in VR. We present those magic moments and some thoughts on how we can tap into experiential fidelity. We propose to do this not through technological means, but rather through the careful use of suggestion and allusion. By priming the user's mind prior to exposure to our virtual worlds, we can assist her in entering a mental state that is more willing to believe, even using the limited actual fidelity available today.

  9. Teachers Preparation Using TPACK when Fidelity of Treatment Is Defined

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bos, Beth

    2011-01-01

    Teacher preparation for the 21st century deserves a front-end approach to addressing the use of technology in the learning environment. To study the effect of instructing with technology, pedagogy, and content knowledge (TPACK), teachers were asked to apply pedagogical, mathematical, and cognitive fidelity to technology used in an instructional…

  10. Verification of generic fidelity recovery in a dynamical system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pineda, Carlos; Schäfer, Rudi; Prosen, Tomaž; Seligman, Thomas

    2006-06-01

    We study the time evolution of fidelity in a dynamical many-body system, namely, a kicked Ising model, modified to allow for a time-reversal invariance breaking. We find good agreement with the random matrix predictions in the realm of strong perturbations. In particular for the time-reversal symmetry breaking case the predicted revival at the Heisenberg time is clearly seen.

  11. Relationship between Teacher Fidelity and Physical Education Student Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loflin, Jerry W.

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the influence of scientifically based curricula intended for the physical education (PE) classroom, researchers should consider fidelity, or the extent to which teachers who are implementing a PE curricular intervention adhere to the model of curriculum and instruction inherent in the research design. The purpose of this study was to…

  12. Replicating an Intervention: The Tension between Fidelity and Adaptation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrison, Diane M.; Hoppe, Marilyn J.; Gillmore, Mary Rogers; Kluver, Carisa; Higa, Darrel; Wells, Elizabeth A.

    2009-01-01

    Increased awareness of the importance of tailoring interventions to participants' cultures has focused attention on the limited generalizability of a single test of an intervention to determine efficacy. Adaptation is often necessary to replicate interventions across cultures. This produces a tension between fidelity to the original intervention…

  13. 77 FR 74112 - Fidelity Bond and Insurance Coverage

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-13

    ... May 31, 2012, at 77 FR 31981, is adopted as final without change. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT.... \\1\\ 77 FR 31981 (May 31, 2012). \\2\\ The Board established RegFlex in 2002. 66 FR 58656 (Nov. 23, 2001...Flex, the NCUA Board also issued an interim final rule to amend the fidelity bond rule.\\6\\ \\3\\ 76...

  14. Fidelity of an encoded [7,1,3] logical zero

    SciTech Connect

    Weinstein, Yaakov S.

    2011-07-15

    I calculate the fidelity of a [7,1,3] Calderbank-Shor-Steane quantum error correction code logical zero state constructed in a nonequiprobable Pauli operator error environment for two methods of encoding. The first method is to apply fault-tolerant error correction to an arbitrary state of seven qubits utilizing Shor states for syndrome measurement. The Shor states are themselves constructed in the nonequiprobable Pauli operator error environment, and their fidelity depends on the number of verifications done to ensure multiple errors will not propagate into the encoded quantum information. Surprisingly, performing these verifications may lower the fidelity of the constructed Shor states. The second encoding method is to simply implement the [7,1,3] encoding gate sequence also in the nonequiprobable Pauli operator error environment. Perfect error correction is applied after both methods to determine the correctability of the implemented errors. I find that which method attains higher fidelity depends on which of the Pauli operators errors is dominant. Nevertheless, perfect error correction applied after the encoding suppresses errors to at least first order for both methods.

  15. Focus on Implementation: Assessing and Promoting Treatment Fidelity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collier-Meek, Melissa A.; Fallon, Lindsay M.; Sanetti, Lisa M. H.; Maggin, Daniel M.

    2013-01-01

    Implementation, or treatment fidelity, is the link between evidence-based interventions and changes in student outcomes. Although higher levels of implementation are generally associated with more efficient improvements in student outcomes, research indicates that many adults struggle to consistently implement student interventions. As school…

  16. Simulation System Fidelity Assessment at the Vertical Motion Simulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beard, Steven D.; Reardon, Scott E.; Tobias, Eric L.; Aponso, Bimal L.

    2013-01-01

    Fidelity is a word that is often used but rarely understood when talking about groundbased simulation. Assessing the cueing fidelity of a ground based flight simulator requires a comparison to actual flight data either directly or indirectly. Two experiments were conducted at the Vertical Motion Simulator using the GenHel UH-60A Black Hawk helicopter math model that was directly compared to flight data. Prior to the experiment the simulator s motion and visual system frequency responses were measured, the aircraft math model was adjusted to account for the simulator motion system delays, and the motion system gains and washouts were tuned for the individual tasks. The tuned motion system fidelity was then assessed against the modified Sinacori criteria. The first experiments showed similar handling qualities ratings (HQRs) to actual flight for a bob-up and sidestep maneuvers. The second experiment showed equivalent HQRs between flight and simulation for the ADS33 slalom maneuver for the two pilot participants. The ADS33 vertical maneuver HQRs were mixed with one pilot rating the flight and simulation the same while the second pilot rated the simulation worse. In addition to recording HQRs on the second experiment, an experimental Simulation Fidelity Rating (SFR) scale developed by the University of Liverpool was tested for applicability to engineering simulators. A discussion of the SFR scale for use on the Vertical Motion Simulator is included in this paper.

  17. Fidelity of Implementation: Bringing Written Curriculum Materials into the Equation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Superfine, Alison Castro; Marshall, Anne Marie; Kelso, Cathy

    2015-01-01

    Fidelity of curriculum implementation (FOI) is an important area of research because of the critical role it plays in understanding how and why curriculum materials work and how they can be improved. This analysis explores written features within the Math Trailblazers curriculum that may influence the ways teachers implement mathematics curriculum…

  18. The Heart of Implementation Fidelity: Instructional Design and Intent

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kulo, Violet A.; Cates, Ward Mitchell

    2013-01-01

    Given that there is no universal way to measure implementation fidelity, instructional designers developing instructional innovations may find themselves faced with the challenge of determining the extent to which teachers' implementation of an instructional model is faithful. This article contends that a faithful implementation is one in…

  19. Linking Implementation Fidelity to Impacts in an RCT

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Unlu, Fatih; Bozzi, Laurie; Layzer, Carolyn; Smith, Arthur; Price, Cristofer; Hurtig, Richard

    2013-01-01

    In experimental studies, researchers are often interested in secondary research questions that explore important aspects of main findings, such as whether or not program effects vary according to the level of fidelity in which the program has been implemented; or according to the dosage received by individuals participated in the program. In this…

  20. Using Basal Readers: From Dutiful Fidelity to Intelligent Decision Making

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dewitz, Peter; Jones, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    When schools and teachers adopt core reading programs they can use them with fidelity or make intelligent decisions about the texts, lessons and components they select to use. The evidence suggests that these programs are not research-based documents, but rather compromises between what the research suggests about effective reading instruction and…

  1. Multi-fidelity global design optimization including parallelization potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cox, Steven Edward

    The DIRECT global optimization algorithm is a relatively new space partitioning algorithm designed to determine the globally optimal design within a designated design space. This dissertation examines the applicability of the DIRECT algorithm to two classes of design problems: unimodal functions where small amplitude, high frequency fluctuations in the objective function make optimization difficult; and multimodal functions where multiple local optima are formed by the underlying physics of the problem (as opposed to minor fluctuations in the analysis code). DIRECT is compared with two other multistart local optimization techniques on two polynomial test problems and one engineering conceptual design problem. Three modifications to the DIRECT algorithm are proposed to increase the effectiveness of the algorithm. The DIRECT-BP algorithm is presented which alters the way DIRECT searches the neighborhood of the current best point as optimization progresses. The algorithm reprioritizes which points to analyze at each iteration. This is to encourage analysis of points that surround the best point but that are farther away than the points selected by the DIRECT algorithm. This increases the robustness of the DIRECT search and provides more information on the characteristics of the neighborhood of the point selected as the global optimum. A multifidelity version of the DIRECT algorithm is proposed to reduce the cost of optimization using DIRECT. By augmenting expensive high-fidelity analysis with cheap low-fidelity analysis, the optimization can be performed with fewer high-fidelity analyses. Two correction schemes are examined using high- and low-fidelity results at one point to correct the low-fidelity result at a nearby point. This corrected value is then used in place of a high-fidelity analysis by the DIRECT algorithm. In this way the number of high-fidelity analyses required is reduced and the optimization became less expensive. Finally the DIRECT algorithm is

  2. Engineering High-Fidelity Residue Separations for Selective Harvest

    SciTech Connect

    Kevin L. Kenney; Christopher T. Wright; Reed L. Hoskinson; J. Rochard Hess; David J. Muth, Jr.

    2006-07-01

    Composition and pretreatment studies of corn stover and wheat stover anatomical fractions clearly show that some corn and wheat stover anatomical fractions are of higher value than others as a biofeedstock. This premise, along with soil sustainability and erosion control concerns, provides the motivation for the selective harvest concept for separating and collecting the higher value residue fractions in a combine during grain harvest. This study recognizes the analysis of anatomical fractions as theoretical feedstock quality targets, but not as practical targets for developing selective harvest technologies. Rather, practical quality targets were established that identified the residue separation requirements of a selective harvest combine. Data are presented that shows that a current grain combine is not capable of achieving the fidelity of residue fractionation established by the performance targets. However, using a virtual engineering approach, based on an understanding of the fluid dynamics of the air stream separation, the separation fidelity can be significantly improved without significant changes to the harvester design. A virtual engineering model of a grain combine was developed and used to perform simulations of the residue separator performance. The engineered residue separator was then built into a selective harvest test combine, and tests performed to evaluate the separation fidelity. Field tests were run both with and without the residue separator installed in the test combine, and the chaff and straw residue streams were collected during harvest of Challis soft white spring wheat. The separation fidelity accomplished both with and without the residue separator was quantified by laboratory screening analysis. The screening results showed that the engineered baffle separator did a remarkable job of effecting high-fidelity separation of the straw and chaff residue streams, improving the chaff stream purity and increasing the straw stream yield.

  3. Examining the Fidelity of Climate model via Shadowing Time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, H.; Smith, L. A.

    2015-12-01

    Fully fledged climate models provide the best available simulations for reflecting the future, yet we have scant insight into their fidelity, in particular as to the duration into the future at which the real world should be expected to evolve in a manner today's models cannot foresee. We know now that our best available models are not adequate for many sought after purposes. To throw some light on the maximum fidelity expected from a given generation of models, and thereby aid both policy making and model development, we can test the weaknesses of a model as a dynamical system to get an informed idea of its potential applicability at various lead times. Shadowing times reflect the duration on which a GCM reflects the observations; extracting the shortcomings of the model which limit shadowing times allows informed speculation regarding the fidelity of the model in the future. More specifically, the relevant phenomena limiting model fidelity can be learned by identifying the reasons models cannot shadow; the time scales on which feedbacks on the system (which are not active in the model) are likely to result in model irrelevance can be discerned. The methodology is developed in the "low dimensional laboratory" of relatively simple dynamical systems, for example Lorenz 95 systems. The results are presented in Lorenz 95 systems, high dimensional fluid dynamical simulations of rotating annulus and GCMs. There are severe limits on the light shadowing experiments can shine on GCM predictions. Never the less, they appear to be one of the brightest lights we can shine to illuminate the likely fidelity of GCM extrapolations into the future.

  4. Modeling movement and fidelity of American black ducks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zimpfer, N.L.; Conroy, M.J.

    2006-01-01

    Spatial relationships among stocks of breeding waterfowl can be an important component of harvest management. Prediction and optimal harvest management under adaptive harvest management (AHM) requires information on the spatial relationships among breeding populations (fidelity and inter-year exchange), as well as rates of movements from breeding to harvest regions. We used band-recovery data to develop a model to estimate probabilities of movement for American black ducks (Anas rubripes) among 3 Canadian breeding strata and 6 harvest regions (3 in Canada, and 3 in the United States) over the period 1965-1998. Model selection criteria suggested that models containing area-, year-, and age-specific recovery rates with area- and sex-specific movement rates were the best for modeling movement. Movement by males to southern harvest areas was variable depending on the originating area. Males from the western breeding area predominantly moved to the Mississippi Flyway or southern Atlantic Flyway (??ij = 0.353, SE = 0.0187 and ??ij = 0.473, SE = 0.037, respectively), whereas males that originated in the eastern and central breeding strata moved to the northern Atlantic flyway (??ij = 0.842, SE = 0.010 and ??ij = 0.578, SE = 0.0222, respectively). We used combined recoveries and recaptures in Program MARK to estimate fidelity to the 3 Canadian breeding strata. Information criteria identified a model containing sex- and age-specific fidelity for black ducks. Estimates of fidelity were 0.9695 (SE = 0.0249) and 0.9554 (SE = 0.0434) for adult males and females, respectively. Estimates of fidelity for juveniles were slightly lower at 0.9210 (SE = 0.0931) and 0.8870 (SE = 0.0475) for males and females, respectively. These models have application to the development of spatially stratified black duck harvest management models for use in AHM.

  5. High fidelity frictional models for MEMS.

    SciTech Connect

    Carpick, Robert W.; Reedy, Earl David, Jr.; Bitsie, Fernando; de Boer, Maarten Pieter; Corwin, Alex David; Ashurst, William Robert; Jones, Reese E.; Subhash, Ghatu S.; Street, Mark D.; Sumali, Anton Hartono; Antoun, Bonnie R.; Starr, Michael James; Redmond, James Michael; Flater, Erin E.

    2004-10-01

    roughness in such an analysis by using a homogenized contact and friction models. AFM measurements were made to determine statistical information on polysilicon surfaces with different roughnesses, and this data was used as input to a homogenized, multi-asperity contact model (the classical Greenwood and Williamson model). Extensions of the Greenwood and Williamson model are also discussed: one incorporates the effect of adhesion while the other modifies the theory so that it applies to the case of relatively few contacting asperities.

  6. Towards efficient uncertainty quantification in complex and large-scale biomechanical problems based on a Bayesian multi-fidelity scheme.

    PubMed

    Biehler, Jonas; Gee, Michael W; Wall, Wolfgang A

    2015-06-01

    In simulation of cardiovascular processes and diseases patient-specific model parameters, such as constitutive properties, are usually not easy to obtain. Instead of using population mean values to perform "patient-specific" simulations, thereby neglecting the inter- and intra-patient variations present in these parameters, these uncertainties have to be considered in the computational assessment. However, due to limited computational resources and several shortcomings of traditional uncertainty quantification approaches, parametric uncertainties, modeled as random fields, have not yet been considered in patient-specific, nonlinear, large-scale, and complex biomechanical applications. Hence, the purpose of this study is twofold. First, we present an uncertainty quantification framework based on multi-fidelity sampling and Bayesian formulations. The key feature of the presented method is the ability to rigorously exploit and incorporate information from an approximate, low fidelity model. Most importantly, response statistics of the corresponding high fidelity model can be computed accurately even if the low fidelity model provides only a very poor approximation. The approach merely requires that the low fidelity model and the corresponding high fidelity model share a similar stochastic structure, i.e., dependence on the random input. This results in a tremendous flexibility in choice of the approximate model. The flexibility and capabilities of the framework are demonstrated by performing uncertainty quantification using two patient-specific, large-scale, nonlinear finite element models of abdominal aortic aneurysms. One constitutive parameter of the aneurysmatic arterial wall is modeled as a univariate three-dimensional, non-Gaussian random field, thereby taking into account inter-patient as well as intra-patient variations of this parameter. We use direct Monte Carlo to evaluate the proposed method and found excellent agreement with this reference solution

  7. Structural and Dynamic Characterization of Polymerase κ’s Minor Groove Lesion Processing Reveals How Adduct Topology Impacts Fidelity

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    DNA lesion bypass polymerases process different lesions with varying fidelities, but the structural, dynamic, and mechanistic origins of this phenomenon remain poorly understood. Human DNA polymerase κ (Polκ), a member of the Y family of lesion bypass polymerases, is specialized to bypass bulky DNA minor groove lesions in a predominantly error-free manner, by housing them in its unique gap. We have investigated the role of the unique Polκ gap and N-clasp structural features in the fidelity of minor groove lesion processing with extensive molecular modeling and molecular dynamics simulations to pinpoint their functioning in lesion bypass. Here we consider the N2-dG covalent adduct derived from the carcinogenic aromatic amine, 2-acetylaminofluorene (dG-N2-AAF), that is produced via the combustion of kerosene and diesel fuel. Our simulations reveal how the spacious gap directionally accommodates the lesion aromatic ring system as it transits through the stages of incorporation of the predominant correct partner dCTP opposite the damaged guanine, with preservation of local active site organization for nucleotidyl transfer. Furthermore, flexibility in Polκ’s N-clasp facilitates the significant misincorporation of dTTP opposite dG-N2-AAF via wobble pairing. Notably, we show that N-clasp flexibility depends on lesion topology, being markedly reduced in the case of the benzo[a]pyrene-derived major adduct to N2-dG, whose bypass by Polκ is nearly error-free. Thus, our studies reveal how Polκ’s unique structural and dynamic properties can regulate its bypass fidelity of polycyclic aromatic lesions and how the fidelity is impacted by lesion structures. PMID:25148552

  8. A Comprehensive Examination of Preschool Teachers' Implementation Fidelity When Using a Supplemental Language and Literacy Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piasta, Shayne B.; Justice, Laura M.; McGinty, Anita; Mashburn, Andrew; Slocum, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Background: Recent curriculum studies raise a number of questions concerning teachers' implementation fidelity, including the extent to which fidelity to multiple curriculum components is achieved and measured and the extent to which fidelity serves as a mechanism for impacting children's learning. Objective: Within the context of a language and…

  9. Sequential kriging optimization using multiple-fidelity evaluations

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Deng; Allen, T. T.; Notz, W. I.; Miller, R. A.

    2006-11-01

    When cost per evaluation on a system of interest is high, surrogate systems can provide cheaper but lower-fidelity information. In the proposed extension of the sequential kriging optimization method, surrogate systems are exploited to reduce the total evaluation cost. The method utilizes data on all systems to build a kriging metamodel that provides a global prediction of the objective function and a measure of prediction uncertainty. The location and fidelity level of the next evaluation are selected by maximizing an augmented expected improvement function, which is connected with the evaluation costs. The proposed method was applied to test functions from the literature and a metal-forming process design problem via finite element simulations. The method manifests sensible search patterns, robust performance, and appreciable reduction in total evaluation cost as compared to the original method.

  10. Sequential kriging optimization using multiple-fidelity evaluations

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Deng; Allen, T. T.; Notz, W. I.; Miller, R. A.

    2006-05-23

    When cost per evaluation on a system of interest is high, surrogate systems can provide cheaper but lower-fidelity information. In the proposed extension of the sequential kriging optimization method, surrogate systems are exploited to reduce the total evaluation cost. The method utilizes data on all systems to build a kriging metamodel that provides a global prediction of the objective function and a measure of prediction uncertainty. The location and fidelity level of the next evaluation are selected by maximizing an augmented expected improvement function, which is connected with the evaluation costs. The proposed method was applied to test functions from the literature and a metal-forming process design problem via finite element simulations. The method manifests sensible search patterns, robust performance, and appreciable reduction in total evaluation cost as compared to the original method.

  11. Enhancing teleportation fidelity by means of weak measurements or reversal

    SciTech Connect

    Qiu, Liang; Tang, Gang; Yang, Xianqing; Wang, Anmin

    2014-11-15

    The enhancement of teleportation fidelity by weak measurement or quantum measurement reversal is investigated. One qubit of a maximally entangled state undergoes the amplitude damping, and the subsequent application of weak measurement or quantum measurement reversal could improve the teleportation fidelity beyond the classical region. The improvement could not be attributed to the increasing of entanglement, quantum discord, classical correlation or total correlation. We declare that it should be owed to the probabilistic nature of the method. - Highlights: • The method’s probabilistic nature should be responsible for the improvement. • Quantum or classical correlation cannot explain the improvement. • The receiver cannot apply weak measurements. • The sender’s quantum measurement reversal is only useful for |Ψ{sup ±}〉.

  12. Small convolution kernels for high-fidelity image restoration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reichenbach, Stephen E.; Park, Stephen K.

    1991-01-01

    An algorithm is developed for computing the mean-square-optimal values for small, image-restoration kernels. The algorithm is based on a comprehensive, end-to-end imaging system model that accounts for the important components of the imaging process: the statistics of the scene, the point-spread function of the image-gathering device, sampling effects, noise, and display reconstruction. Subject to constraints on the spatial support of the kernel, the algorithm generates the kernel values that restore the image with maximum fidelity, that is, the kernel minimizes the expected mean-square restoration error. The algorithm is consistent with the derivation of the spatially unconstrained Wiener filter, but leads to a small, spatially constrained kernel that, unlike the unconstrained filter, can be efficiently implemented by convolution. Simulation experiments demonstrate that for a wide range of imaging systems these small kernels can restore images with fidelity comparable to images restored with the unconstrained Wiener filter.

  13. Comparison of fusion imageries with spectral fidelity using SPOT5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Weitao; Zhang, Lin; Zhang, Zhi; Wang, Yanxin

    2009-10-01

    Gram-Schmidt and Ehlers fusion, which are well known for spectral fidelity, are described. Selecting a sandrock mine using SPOT5 as study area, spectral fidelity and high spatial information gain are used to assess the two fusion methods, which are compared with multiplication and Andorr fusion. In the whole, the Gram-Schmidt method is the best, preserving highly the original spectral information, and can provide spectrum control foundation for interpreting mine targets in the complex geology environment. Ehlers method is the second. Then Andorr method is the third, and it has the highest spatial information gain, but high frequency information is enlarged excessively, effecting on the identification of mine exploitation state. The multiplication method is the worst, because it loses the high and low frequency information, which is the most important for mine targets recognition.

  14. Optical metrology for high fidelity LCD-TV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, Michael E.; Kosmowski, Bogdan B.

    2006-02-01

    The current status of optical metrology of LCD (Liquid Crystal Display) is reviewed in general and shortcomings of characterization of the visual performance of LCD-screens when high visual fidelity is a prime issue are described. We introduce instrumentation, procedures and evaluations for assessment of the visual properties of LCD-TV screens as a solid basis for a clear and objective rating of their performance. Identification of visual artifacts, color and gray-scale fidelity over the complete viewing-cone and under realistic ambient illumination as well as balanced response times between gray-levels are topics of this paper. A novel approach for scanning of the viewing-directions with simultaneous acquisition of 9 spectra is introduced as a solution for the dilemma of speed of measurement and colorimetric precision.

  15. Improving fidelity in atomic state teleportation via cavity decay

    SciTech Connect

    Chimczak, Grzegorz; Tanas, Ryszard

    2007-02-15

    We propose a modified protocol of atomic state teleportation for the scheme proposed by Bose et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 5158 (1999)]. The modified protocol involves an additional stage in which quantum information distorted during the first stage is fully recovered by a compensation of the damping factor. The modification makes it possible to obtain a high fidelity of teleported state for cavities that are much worse than that required in the original protocol, i.e., their decay rates can be over 25 times larger. The improvement in the fidelity is possible at the expense of lowering the probability of success. We show that the modified protocol is robust against dark counts.

  16. Anomalous Slow Fidelity Decay for Symmetry-Breaking Perturbations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorin, T.; Kohler, H.; Prosen, T.; Seligman, T. H.; Stöckmann, H.-J.; Žnidarič, M.

    2006-06-01

    Symmetries as well as other special conditions can cause anomalous slowing down of fidelity decay. These situations will be characterized, and a family of random matrix models to emulate them generically presented. An analytic solution based on exponentiated linear response will be given. For one representative case the exact solution is obtained from a supersymmetric calculation. The results agree well with dynamical calculations for a kicked top.

  17. Retinex Image Processing: Improved Fidelity To Direct Visual Observation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jobson, Daniel J.; Rahman, Zia-Ur; Woodell, Glenn A.

    1996-01-01

    Recorded color images differ from direct human viewing by the lack of dynamic range compression and color constancy. Research is summarized which develops the center/surround retinex concept originated by Edwin Land through a single scale design to a multi-scale design with color restoration (MSRCR). The MSRCR synthesizes dynamic range compression, color constancy, and color rendition and, thereby, approaches fidelity to direct observation.

  18. Wet season range fidelity in a tropical migratory ungulate.

    PubMed

    Morrison, Thomas A; Bolger, Douglas T

    2012-05-01

    1. In migratory populations, the degree of fidelity and dispersal among seasonal ranges is an important population process with consequences for demography, management, sensitivity to habitat change and adaptation to local environmental conditions. 2. Characterizing patterns of range fidelity in ungulates, however, has remained challenging because of the difficulties of following large numbers of marked individuals across multiple migratory cycles and of identifying the appropriate scale of analysis. 3. We examined fidelity to wet season (i.e. breeding) ranges in a recently declining population of wildebeest Connochaetes taurinus Burchell in northern Tanzania across 3 years. We used computer-assisted photographic identification and capture-recapture to characterize return patterns to three wet season ranges that were ecologically discrete and topographically isolated from one another. 4. Among 2557 uniquely identified adult wildebeest, we observed 150 recaptures across consecutive wet seasons. Between the two migratory subpopulations, the probability of remaining faithful to wet season areas ranged between 0·82 and 1·00. Animals from a non-migratory segment of the population (near Lake Manyara National Park) were rarely observed in other wet season ranges, despite proximity to one of the migratory pathways. 5. We found no effect of sex on an individuals' probability of switching wet season ranges. However, the breeding status of females in year i had a strong influence on patterns of range selection in year i + 1, with surviving breeders over three times as likely to switch ranges as non-breeders. 6. Social-group associations between pairs of recaptured animals were random with respect to an individual's wet season range during the previous or forthcoming wet seasons, suggesting that an individual's herd identity during the dry season does not predict wet season range selection. 7. Examining fidelity and dispersal in terrestrial migrations improves

  19. Reduced Protein Synthesis Fidelity Inhibits Flagellar Biosynthesis and Motility.

    PubMed

    Fan, Yongqiang; Evans, Christopher R; Ling, Jiqiang

    2016-01-01

    Accurate translation of the genetic information from DNA to protein is maintained by multiple quality control steps from bacteria to mammals. Genetic and environmental alterations have been shown to compromise translational quality control and reduce fidelity during protein synthesis. The physiological impact of increased translational errors is not fully understood. While generally considered harmful, translational errors have recently been shown to benefit cells under certain stress conditions. In this work, we describe a novel regulatory pathway in which reduced translational fidelity downregulates expression of flagellar genes and suppresses bacterial motility. Electron microscopy imaging shows that the error-prone Escherichia coli strain lacks mature flagella. Further genetic analyses reveal that translational errors upregulate expression of a small RNA DsrA through enhancing its transcription, and deleting DsrA from the error-prone strain restores motility. DsrA regulates expression of H-NS and RpoS, both of which regulate flagellar genes. We demonstrate that an increased level of DsrA in the error-prone strain suppresses motility through the H-NS pathway. Our work suggests that bacteria are capable of switching on and off the flagellar system by altering translational fidelity, which may serve as a previously unknown mechanism to improve fitness in response to environmental cues. PMID:27468805

  20. High-fidelity gates in quantum dot spin qubits.

    PubMed

    Koh, Teck Seng; Coppersmith, S N; Friesen, Mark

    2013-12-01

    Several logical qubits and quantum gates have been proposed for semiconductor quantum dots controlled by voltages applied to top gates. The different schemes can be difficult to compare meaningfully. Here we develop a theoretical framework to evaluate disparate qubit-gating schemes on an equal footing. We apply the procedure to two types of double-dot qubits: the singlet-triplet and the semiconducting quantum dot hybrid qubit. We investigate three quantum gates that flip the qubit state: a DC pulsed gate, an AC gate based on logical qubit resonance, and a gate-like process known as stimulated Raman adiabatic passage. These gates are all mediated by an exchange interaction that is controlled experimentally using the interdot tunnel coupling g and the detuning [Symbol: see text], which sets the energy difference between the dots. Our procedure has two steps. First, we optimize the gate fidelity (f) for fixed g as a function of the other control parameters; this yields an f(opt)(g) that is universal for different types of gates. Next, we identify physical constraints on the control parameters; this yields an upper bound f(max) that is specific to the qubit-gate combination. We show that similar gate fidelities (~99:5%) should be attainable for singlet-triplet qubits in isotopically purified Si, and for hybrid qubits in natural Si. Considerably lower fidelities are obtained for GaAs devices, due to the fluctuating magnetic fields ΔB produced by nuclear spins.

  1. Perceptual Fidelity Versus Engineering Compromises in Virtual Acoustic Displays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wenzel, Elizabeth M.; Ellis, Stephen R. (Technical Monitor); Frey, Mary Anne (Technical Monitor); Schneider, Victor S. (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    Immersive, three-dimensional displays are increasingly becoming a goal of advanced human-machine interfaces. While the technology for achieving truly useful multisensory environments is still being developed, techniques for generating three-dimensional sound are now both sophisticated and practical enough to be applied to acoustic displays. The ultimate goal of virtual acoustics is to simulate the complex acoustic field experienced by a listener freely moving around within an environment. Of course, such complexity, freedom of movement and interactivity is not always possible in a 'true' virtual environment, much less in lower-fidelity multimedia systems. However, many of the perceptual and engineering constraints (and frustrations) that researchers, engineers and listeners have experienced in virtual audio are relevant to multimedia. In fact, some of the problems that have been studied will be even more of an issue for lower fidelity systems that are attempting to address the requirements of a huge, diverse and ultimately unknown audience. Examples include individual differences in head-related transfer functions, A lack of real interactively (head-tracking) in many multimedia displays, and perceptual degradation due to low sampling rates and/or low-bit compression. This paper discusses some of the engineering constraints faced during implementation of virtual acoustic environments and the perceptual consequences of these constraints. Specific examples are given for NASA applications such as telerobotic control, aeronautical displays, and shuttle launch communications. An attempt will also be made to relate these issues to low-fidelity implementations such as the internet.

  2. Perceptual Fidelity vs. Engineering Compromises In Virtual Acoustic Displays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wenzel, Elizabeth M.; Ahumada, Albert (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    Immersive, three-dimensional displays are increasingly becoming a goal of advanced human-machine interfaces. While the technology for achieving truly useful multisensory environments is still being developed, techniques for generating three-dimensional sound are now both sophisticated and practical enough to be applied to acoustic displays. The ultimate goal of virtual acoustics is to simulate the complex acoustic field experienced by a listener freely moving around within an environment. Of course, such complexity, freedom of movement and interactively is not always possible in a "true" virtual environment, much less in lower-fidelity multimedia systems. However, many of the perceptual and engineering constraints (and frustrations) that researchers, engineers and listeners have experienced in virtual audio are relevant to multimedia. In fact, some of the problems that have been studied will be even more of an issue for lower fidelity systems that are attempting to address the requirements of a huge, diverse and ultimately unknown audience. Examples include individual differences in head-related transfer functions, a lack of real interactively (head-tracking) in many multimedia displays, and perceptual degradation due to low sampling rates and/or low-bit compression. This paper discusses some of the engineering Constraints faced during implementation of virtual acoustic environments and the perceptual consequences of these constraints. Specific examples are given for NASA applications such as telerobotic control, aeronautical displays, and shuttle launch communications. An attempt will also be made to relate these issues to low-fidelity implementations such as the internet.

  3. Developing a fidelity assessment instrument for nurse home visitors.

    PubMed

    Black, Kirsten J; Wenger, Mary Beth; O' Fallon, Molly

    2015-06-01

    Fidelity monitoring is a core component for successful translation of evidence-based interventions, yet little guidance is available on developing tools to assess intervention fidelity that are valid and feasible for use in community settings. We partnered with nurses in the field to develop a fidelity monitoring instrument that would capture the essential elements of the nursing intervention that is the core of Nurse-Family Partnership, a prenatal and early childhood home visitation program. Using a grounded approach, we employed concept mapping to identify the salient behavioral characteristics associated with the program, and then, adapting Dreyfus' model of skill development, created a tool to assess nurse home visitors (NHVs) according to their stage of growth. In a pilot, the Nursing Practice Assessment (NPA) form was used to assess 188 NHVs. The average time to complete the tool was 1 hour, and skill development stage was concordant with years of NHV experience. According to surveys of supervisors and NHVs, the tool captured the essential elements of the program model. Articulating the essential elements of each skill development stage can provide a foundation for professional development for NHVs. In response to feedback, online training modules were developed prior to large-scale implementation in the field. The grounded methods used to develop the NPA enhanced its internal consistency and implementation feasibility and could be utilized by other public health nursing programs.

  4. Fidelity and over-wintering of sea turtles

    PubMed Central

    Broderick, Annette C; Coyne, Michael S; Fuller, Wayne J; Glen, Fiona; Godley, Brendan J

    2007-01-01

    While fidelity to breeding sites is well demonstrated in marine turtles, emerging knowledge of migratory routes and key foraging sites is of limited conservation value unless levels of fidelity can be established. We tracked green (Chelonia mydas, n=10) and loggerhead (Caretta caretta, n=10) turtles during their post-nesting migration from the island of Cyprus to their foraging grounds. After intervals of 2–5 years, five of these females were recaptured at the nesting beach and tracked for a second migration. All five used highly similar migratory routes to return to the same foraging and over-wintering areas. None of the females visited other foraging habitats over the study period (units lasted on average 305 days; maximum, 1356 days), moving only to deeper waters during the winter months where they demonstrated extremely long resting dives of up to 10.2 h (the longest breath-holding dive recorded for a marine vertebrate). High levels of fidelity and the relatively discrete nature of the home ranges demonstrate that protection of key migratory pathways, foraging and over-wintering sites can serve as an important tool for the future conservation of marine turtles. PMID:17456456

  5. Developing a fidelity assessment instrument for nurse home visitors.

    PubMed

    Black, Kirsten J; Wenger, Mary Beth; O' Fallon, Molly

    2015-06-01

    Fidelity monitoring is a core component for successful translation of evidence-based interventions, yet little guidance is available on developing tools to assess intervention fidelity that are valid and feasible for use in community settings. We partnered with nurses in the field to develop a fidelity monitoring instrument that would capture the essential elements of the nursing intervention that is the core of Nurse-Family Partnership, a prenatal and early childhood home visitation program. Using a grounded approach, we employed concept mapping to identify the salient behavioral characteristics associated with the program, and then, adapting Dreyfus' model of skill development, created a tool to assess nurse home visitors (NHVs) according to their stage of growth. In a pilot, the Nursing Practice Assessment (NPA) form was used to assess 188 NHVs. The average time to complete the tool was 1 hour, and skill development stage was concordant with years of NHV experience. According to surveys of supervisors and NHVs, the tool captured the essential elements of the program model. Articulating the essential elements of each skill development stage can provide a foundation for professional development for NHVs. In response to feedback, online training modules were developed prior to large-scale implementation in the field. The grounded methods used to develop the NPA enhanced its internal consistency and implementation feasibility and could be utilized by other public health nursing programs. PMID:25778796

  6. Reduced Protein Synthesis Fidelity Inhibits Flagellar Biosynthesis and Motility

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Yongqiang; Evans, Christopher R.; Ling, Jiqiang

    2016-01-01

    Accurate translation of the genetic information from DNA to protein is maintained by multiple quality control steps from bacteria to mammals. Genetic and environmental alterations have been shown to compromise translational quality control and reduce fidelity during protein synthesis. The physiological impact of increased translational errors is not fully understood. While generally considered harmful, translational errors have recently been shown to benefit cells under certain stress conditions. In this work, we describe a novel regulatory pathway in which reduced translational fidelity downregulates expression of flagellar genes and suppresses bacterial motility. Electron microscopy imaging shows that the error-prone Escherichia coli strain lacks mature flagella. Further genetic analyses reveal that translational errors upregulate expression of a small RNA DsrA through enhancing its transcription, and deleting DsrA from the error-prone strain restores motility. DsrA regulates expression of H-NS and RpoS, both of which regulate flagellar genes. We demonstrate that an increased level of DsrA in the error-prone strain suppresses motility through the H-NS pathway. Our work suggests that bacteria are capable of switching on and off the flagellar system by altering translational fidelity, which may serve as a previously unknown mechanism to improve fitness in response to environmental cues. PMID:27468805

  7. Kinetic selection vs. free energy of DNA base pairing in control of polymerase fidelity.

    PubMed

    Oertell, Keriann; Harcourt, Emily M; Mohsen, Michael G; Petruska, John; Kool, Eric T; Goodman, Myron F

    2016-04-19

    What is the free energy source enabling high-fidelity DNA polymerases (pols) to favor incorporation of correct over incorrect base pairs by 10(3)- to 10(4)-fold, corresponding to free energy differences of ΔΔGinc∼ 5.5-7 kcal/mol? Standard ΔΔG° values (∼0.3 kcal/mol) calculated from melting temperature measurements comparing matched vs. mismatched base pairs at duplex DNA termini are far too low to explain pol accuracy. Earlier analyses suggested that pol active-site steric constraints can amplify DNA free energy differences at the transition state (kinetic selection). A recent paper [Olson et al. (2013)J Am Chem Soc135:1205-1208] used Vent pol to catalyze incorporations in the presence of inorganic pyrophosphate intended to equilibrate forward (polymerization) and backward (pyrophosphorolysis) reactions. A steady-state leveling off of incorporation profiles at long reaction times was interpreted as reaching equilibrium between polymerization and pyrophosphorolysis, yielding apparent ΔG° = -RTlnKeq, indicating ΔΔG° of 3.5-7 kcal/mol, sufficient to account for pol accuracy without need of kinetic selection. Here we perform experiments to measure and account for pyrophosphorolysis explicitly. We show that forward and reverse reactions attain steady states far from equilibrium for wrong incorporations such as G opposite T. Therefore,[Formula: see text]values obtained from such steady-state evaluations ofKeqare not dependent on DNA properties alone, but depend largely on constraints imposed on right and wrong substrates in the polymerase active site.

  8. Kinetic selection vs. free energy of DNA base pairing in control of polymerase fidelity

    PubMed Central

    Oertell, Keriann; Harcourt, Emily M.; Mohsen, Michael G.; Petruska, John; Kool, Eric T.; Goodman, Myron F.

    2016-01-01

    What is the free energy source enabling high-fidelity DNA polymerases (pols) to favor incorporation of correct over incorrect base pairs by 103- to 104-fold, corresponding to free energy differences of ΔΔGinc ∼ 5.5–7 kcal/mol? Standard ΔΔG° values (∼0.3 kcal/mol) calculated from melting temperature measurements comparing matched vs. mismatched base pairs at duplex DNA termini are far too low to explain pol accuracy. Earlier analyses suggested that pol active-site steric constraints can amplify DNA free energy differences at the transition state (kinetic selection). A recent paper [Olson et al. (2013) J Am Chem Soc 135:1205–1208] used Vent pol to catalyze incorporations in the presence of inorganic pyrophosphate intended to equilibrate forward (polymerization) and backward (pyrophosphorolysis) reactions. A steady-state leveling off of incorporation profiles at long reaction times was interpreted as reaching equilibrium between polymerization and pyrophosphorolysis, yielding apparent ΔG° = −RT ln Keq, indicating ΔΔG° of 3.5–7 kcal/mol, sufficient to account for pol accuracy without need of kinetic selection. Here we perform experiments to measure and account for pyrophosphorolysis explicitly. We show that forward and reverse reactions attain steady states far from equilibrium for wrong incorporations such as G opposite T. Therefore, ΔΔGinc° values obtained from such steady-state evaluations of Keq are not dependent on DNA properties alone, but depend largely on constraints imposed on right and wrong substrates in the polymerase active site. PMID:27044101

  9. Kinetic selection vs. free energy of DNA base pairing in control of polymerase fidelity.

    PubMed

    Oertell, Keriann; Harcourt, Emily M; Mohsen, Michael G; Petruska, John; Kool, Eric T; Goodman, Myron F

    2016-04-19

    What is the free energy source enabling high-fidelity DNA polymerases (pols) to favor incorporation of correct over incorrect base pairs by 10(3)- to 10(4)-fold, corresponding to free energy differences of ΔΔGinc∼ 5.5-7 kcal/mol? Standard ΔΔG° values (∼0.3 kcal/mol) calculated from melting temperature measurements comparing matched vs. mismatched base pairs at duplex DNA termini are far too low to explain pol accuracy. Earlier analyses suggested that pol active-site steric constraints can amplify DNA free energy differences at the transition state (kinetic selection). A recent paper [Olson et al. (2013)J Am Chem Soc135:1205-1208] used Vent pol to catalyze incorporations in the presence of inorganic pyrophosphate intended to equilibrate forward (polymerization) and backward (pyrophosphorolysis) reactions. A steady-state leveling off of incorporation profiles at long reaction times was interpreted as reaching equilibrium between polymerization and pyrophosphorolysis, yielding apparent ΔG° = -RTlnKeq, indicating ΔΔG° of 3.5-7 kcal/mol, sufficient to account for pol accuracy without need of kinetic selection. Here we perform experiments to measure and account for pyrophosphorolysis explicitly. We show that forward and reverse reactions attain steady states far from equilibrium for wrong incorporations such as G opposite T. Therefore,[Formula: see text]values obtained from such steady-state evaluations ofKeqare not dependent on DNA properties alone, but depend largely on constraints imposed on right and wrong substrates in the polymerase active site. PMID:27044101

  10. High-fidelity one-qubit operations under random telegraph noise

    SciTech Connect

    Moettoenen, Mikko; Sousa, Rogerio de; Zhang Jun; Whaley, K. Birgitta

    2006-02-15

    We address the problem of implementing high-fidelity one-qubit operations subject to time-dependent noise in the qubit energy splitting. We show with explicit numerical results that high-fidelity bit flip operations may be generated by imposing bounded control fields. For noise correlation times shorter than the time for a {pi} pulse, the time-optimal {pi} pulse itself yields the highest fidelity. For very long correlation times, fidelity loss is approximately due to systematic error, which is efficiently tackled by compensation for off resonance with a pulse sequence (CORPSE). For intermediate ranges of the noise correlation time, we find that short CORPSE, which is less accurate than CORPSE in correcting systematic errors, yields higher fidelities. Numerical optimization of the pulse sequences using gradient ascent pulse engineering results in noticeable improvement of the fidelity for a bit flip operation on the computational basis states and a small but still positive fidelity enhancement for the NOT gate.

  11. Assessment of Intervention Fidelity and Recommendations for Researchers Conducting Studies on the Diagnosis and Treatment of Chronic Cough in the Adult

    PubMed Central

    Diekemper, Rebecca L.; Irwin, Richard S.; Adams, Todd M.; Altman, Kenneth W.; Barker, Alan F.; Birring, Surinder S.; Blackhall, Fiona; Bolser, Donald C.; Boulet, Louis-Philippe; Braman, Sidney S.; Brightling, Christopher; Callahan-Lyon, Priscilla; Canning, Brendan J.; Chang, Anne B.; Coeytaux, Remy; Cowley, Terrie; Davenport, Paul; Diekemper, Rebecca L.; Ebihara, Satoru; El Solh, Ali A.; Escalante, Patricio; Feinstein, Anthony; Field, Stephen K.; Fisher, Dina; French, Cynthia T.; Gibson, Peter; Gold, Philip; Gould, Michael K.; Grant, Cameron; Harding, Susan M.; Harnden, Anthony; Hill, Adam T.; Irwin, Richard S.; Kahrilas, Peter J.; Keogh, Karina A.; Lane, Andrew P.; Lim, Kaiser; Malesker, Mark A.; Mazzone, Peter; Mazzone, Stuart; McCrory, Douglas C.; McGarvey, Lorcan; Molasiotis, Alex; Murad, M. Hassan; Newcombe, Peter; Nguyen, Huong Q.; Oppenheimer, John; Prezant, David; Pringsheim, Tamara; Restrepo, Marcos I.; Rosen, Mark; Rubin, Bruce; Ryu, Jay H.; Smith, Jaclyn; Tarlo, Susan M.; Vertigan, Anne E.; Wang, Gang; Weinberger, Miles; Weir, Kelly

    2015-01-01

    treatment recommended, and zero of 23 mentioned measuring enactment of treatment, with three of 23 measuring side effects and two of 23 measuring adherence. The overall average intervention fidelity score for all 23 studies was poor (20.74 out of 48). CONCLUSIONS: Only low-quality evidence supports that intervention fidelity strategies were used when conducting primary research in diagnosing and managing chronic cough in adults. This supports the contention that some of the variability in the reporting of patients with unexplained or unresolved chronic cough may be due to lack of intervention fidelity. By following the recommendations and suggestions in this article, researchers will likely be better able to incorporate strategies to address intervention fidelity, thereby strengthening the validity and generalizability of their results that provide the basis for the development of trustworthy guidelines. PMID:25764280

  12. Coupled Solid Rocket Motor Ballistics and Trajectory Modeling for Higher Fidelity Launch Vehicle Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ables, Brett

    2014-01-01

    Multi-stage launch vehicles with solid rocket motors (SRMs) face design optimization challenges, especially when the mission scope changes frequently. Significant performance benefits can be realized if the solid rocket motors are optimized to the changing requirements. While SRMs represent a fixed performance at launch, rapid design iterations enable flexibility at design time, yielding significant performance gains. The streamlining and integration of SRM design and analysis can be achieved with improved analysis tools. While powerful and versatile, the Solid Performance Program (SPP) is not conducive to rapid design iteration. Performing a design iteration with SPP and a trajectory solver is a labor intensive process. To enable a better workflow, SPP, the Program to Optimize Simulated Trajectories (POST), and the interfaces between them have been improved and automated, and a graphical user interface (GUI) has been developed. The GUI enables real-time visual feedback of grain and nozzle design inputs, enforces parameter dependencies, removes redundancies, and simplifies manipulation of SPP and POST's numerous options. Automating the analysis also simplifies batch analyses and trade studies. Finally, the GUI provides post-processing, visualization, and comparison of results. Wrapping legacy high-fidelity analysis codes with modern software provides the improved interface necessary to enable rapid coupled SRM ballistics and vehicle trajectory analysis. Low cost trade studies demonstrate the sensitivities of flight performance metrics to propulsion characteristics. Incorporating high fidelity analysis from SPP into vehicle design reduces performance margins and improves reliability. By flying an SRM designed with the same assumptions as the rest of the vehicle, accurate comparisons can be made between competing architectures. In summary, this flexible workflow is a critical component to designing a versatile launch vehicle model that can accommodate a volatile

  13. Anuran Host Species Influences Site Fidelity of Halipegus occidualis.

    PubMed

    Stigge, Heather A; Bolek, Matthew G

    2016-02-01

    Helminths often demonstrate preferential site selection in which a parasite will only occur in 1 microhabitat or a restricted portion of its fundamental niche within its host. However, factors responsible for helminth site specificity are poorly understood, and very little is known about how these factors vary among multiple host species. Some helminths, such as Halipegus occidualis, have been reported from different habitats (stomach or under the tongue) within multiple anuran host species, suggesting that the site selected varies within anuran species. This study examined the site selection by H. occidualis in 7 definitive anuran host species using experimental infections. Then, the site fidelity of H. occidualis was further tested by transplanting worms from under the tongue to the stomach and vice versa in different anuran host combinations, and the movement of worms was recorded. Halipegus occidualis individuals occupied the habitat under the tongue in 6 of 7 anuran species. However, worms always occupied the stomach of American bullfrogs (Lithobates catesbeianus) and were never found under the tongue or in the mouth of these hosts. More importantly, all worms remained in the original habitat when transplanted from the stomach to the stomach or the buccal cavity to the buccal cavity within another individual of the same amphibian species. However, when worms were transplanted from the stomach to the buccal cavity or vice versa in the same host species, the worms always migrated back to the original habitat. The main contribution of this study is that it experimentally documented the variability in the site fidelity of H. occidualis within multiple definitive host species and determined that site fidelity is not as strongly conserved in this genus as suggested previously. Additionally, this work suggests that the variation in site selection in different host species could lead to speciation of the parasites. PMID:26412569

  14. Anuran Host Species Influences Site Fidelity of Halipegus occidualis.

    PubMed

    Stigge, Heather A; Bolek, Matthew G

    2016-02-01

    Helminths often demonstrate preferential site selection in which a parasite will only occur in 1 microhabitat or a restricted portion of its fundamental niche within its host. However, factors responsible for helminth site specificity are poorly understood, and very little is known about how these factors vary among multiple host species. Some helminths, such as Halipegus occidualis, have been reported from different habitats (stomach or under the tongue) within multiple anuran host species, suggesting that the site selected varies within anuran species. This study examined the site selection by H. occidualis in 7 definitive anuran host species using experimental infections. Then, the site fidelity of H. occidualis was further tested by transplanting worms from under the tongue to the stomach and vice versa in different anuran host combinations, and the movement of worms was recorded. Halipegus occidualis individuals occupied the habitat under the tongue in 6 of 7 anuran species. However, worms always occupied the stomach of American bullfrogs (Lithobates catesbeianus) and were never found under the tongue or in the mouth of these hosts. More importantly, all worms remained in the original habitat when transplanted from the stomach to the stomach or the buccal cavity to the buccal cavity within another individual of the same amphibian species. However, when worms were transplanted from the stomach to the buccal cavity or vice versa in the same host species, the worms always migrated back to the original habitat. The main contribution of this study is that it experimentally documented the variability in the site fidelity of H. occidualis within multiple definitive host species and determined that site fidelity is not as strongly conserved in this genus as suggested previously. Additionally, this work suggests that the variation in site selection in different host species could lead to speciation of the parasites.

  15. High fidelity wireless network evaluation for heterogeneous cognitive radio networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Lei; Sagduyu, Yalin; Yackoski, Justin; Azimi-Sadjadi, Babak; Li, Jason; Levy, Renato; Melodia, Tammaso

    2012-06-01

    We present a high fidelity cognitive radio (CR) network emulation platform for wireless system tests, measure- ments, and validation. This versatile platform provides the configurable functionalities to control and repeat realistic physical channel effects in integrated space, air, and ground networks. We combine the advantages of scalable simulation environment with reliable hardware performance for high fidelity and repeatable evaluation of heterogeneous CR networks. This approach extends CR design only at device (software-defined-radio) or lower-level protocol (dynamic spectrum access) level to end-to-end cognitive networking, and facilitates low-cost deployment, development, and experimentation of new wireless network protocols and applications on frequency- agile programmable radios. Going beyond the channel emulator paradigm for point-to-point communications, we can support simultaneous transmissions by network-level emulation that allows realistic physical-layer inter- actions between diverse user classes, including secondary users, primary users, and adversarial jammers in CR networks. In particular, we can replay field tests in a lab environment with real radios perceiving and learning the dynamic environment thereby adapting for end-to-end goals over distributed spectrum coordination channels that replace the common control channel as a single point of failure. CR networks offer several dimensions of tunable actions including channel, power, rate, and route selection. The proposed network evaluation platform is fully programmable and can reliably evaluate the necessary cross-layer design solutions with configurable op- timization space by leveraging the hardware experiments to represent the realistic effects of physical channel, topology, mobility, and jamming on spectrum agility, situational awareness, and network resiliency. We also provide the flexibility to scale up the test environment by introducing virtual radios and establishing seamless signal

  16. Connection between decoherence and fidelity decay in echo dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorin, T.; Prosen, T.; Seligman, T. H.; Strunz, W. T.

    2004-10-01

    Entanglement between a quantum system and its environment leads to loss of coherence in the former. In general, the temporal fate of coherences is complicated. Here, we establish the connection between decoherence of a central system and fidelity decay in the environment for a variety of situations, including both energy conserving and dissipative couplings. We show how properties of unitary time evolution of the environment can be inferred from the nonunitary evolution of coherences in the central system. This opens up promising ways for measuring Loschmidt echoes in a variety of situations.

  17. Simulation Basics: How to Conduct a High-Fidelity Simulation.

    PubMed

    Willhaus, Janet

    2016-02-01

    Well-planned and conducted health care simulation scenarios provide opportunities for staff development in areas such as communication, patient care, and teamwork. Consideration of resources, the location for the training, preparation of learners, and use of either a high-fidelity mannequin or a trained actor (eg, a standardized patient) are all part of the operational attentions needed to conduct a simulation training scenario. In order for participants to meet training objectives, the execution of the simulation session must be both planned and purposeful. PMID:26909456

  18. Using data to improve fidelity when implementing evidence-based programs.

    PubMed

    Kershner, Sarah; Flynn, Shannon; Prince, Mary; Potter, Susan C; Craft, Lesley; Alton, Forrest

    2014-03-01

    In fall 2011, the South Carolina Campaign to Prevent Teen Pregnancy (SC Campaign), with funding from Office of Adolescent Health, began replicating an evidence-based curriculum, It's Your Game, Keep It Real in 12 middle schools across South Carolina. Fidelity of the curriculum was monitored by the use of lesson fidelity logs completed by curriculum facilitators and lesson observation logs submitted by independent classroom observers. These data were monitored weekly to identify possible threats to fidelity. The innovative model Fidelity Through Informed Technical Assistance and Training was developed by SC Campaign to react to possible fidelity threats in real time, through a variety of technical assistance modalities. Fidelity Through Informed Technical Assistance and Training guided the 55 hours of technical assistance delivered by the SC Campaign during the first year of It's Your Game, Keep It Real implementation to 18 facilitators across 12 SC middle schools, and achieved 98.4% curriculum adherence and a high quality of implementation scores.

  19. Image gathering and digital restoration for fidelity and visual quality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huck, Friedrich O.; Alter-Gartenberg, Rachel; Rahman, Zia-Ur

    1991-01-01

    The fidelity and resolution of the traditional Wiener restorations given in the prevalent digital processing literature can be significantly improved when the transformations between the continuous and discrete representations in image gathering and display are accounted for. However, the visual quality of these improved restorations also is more sensitive to the defects caused by aliasing artifacts, colored noise, and ringing near sharp edges. In this paper, these visual defects are characterized, and methods for suppressing them are presented. It is demonstrated how the visual quality of fidelity-maximized images can be improved when (1) the image-gathering system is specifically designed to enhance the performance of the image-restoration algorithm, and (2) the Wiener filter is combined with interactive Gaussian smoothing, synthetic high edge enhancement, and nonlinear tone-scale transformation. The nonlinear transformation is used primarily to enhance the spatial details that are often obscurred when the normally wide dynamic range of natural radiance fields is compressed into the relatively narrow dynamic range of film and other displays.

  20. DNA precursor asymmetries, replication fidelity, and variable genome evolution.

    PubMed

    Mathews, C K; Ji, J

    1992-05-01

    Balanced pools of deoxyribonucleoside triphosphates (dNTPs) are essential for DNA replication to occur with maximum fidelity. Conditions that create biased dNTP pools stimulate mutagenesis, as well as other phenomena, such as recombination or cell death. In this essay we consider the effective dNTP concentrations at replication sites under normal conditions, and we ask how maintenance of these levels contributes toward the natural fidelity of DNA replication. We focus upon two questions. (1) In prokaryotic systems, evidence suggests that replication is driven by small, localized, rapidly replenished dNTP pools that do not equilibrate with the bulk dNTP pools in the cell. Since these pools cannot be analyzed directly, what indirect approaches can illuminate the nature of these replication-active pools? (2) In eukaryotic cells, the normal dNTP pools are highly asymmetric, with dGTP being the least abundant nucleotide. Moreover, the composition of the dNTP pools changes as cells progress through the cell cycle. To what extent might these natural asymmetries contribute toward a recently described phenomenon, the differential rate of evolution of different genes in the same genome?

  1. Geographical variation in mutualistic networks: similarity, turnover and partner fidelity

    PubMed Central

    Trøjelsgaard, Kristian; Jordano, Pedro; Carstensen, Daniel W.; Olesen, Jens M.

    2015-01-01

    Although species and their interactions in unison represent biodiversity and all the ecological and evolutionary processes associated with life, biotic interactions have, contrary to species, rarely been integrated into the concepts of spatial β-diversity. Here, we examine β-diversity of ecological networks by using pollination networks sampled across the Canary Islands. We show that adjacent and distant communities are more and less similar, respectively, in their composition of plants, pollinators and interactions than expected from random distributions. We further show that replacement of species is the major driver of interaction turnover and that this contribution increases with distance. Finally, we quantify that species-specific partner compositions (here called partner fidelity) deviate from random partner use, but vary as a result of ecological and geographical variables. In particular, breakdown of partner fidelity was facilitated by increasing geographical distance, changing abundances and changing linkage levels, but was not related to the geographical distribution of the species. This highlights the importance of space when comparing communities of interacting species and may stimulate a rethinking of the spatial interpretation of interaction networks. Moreover, geographical interaction dynamics and its causes are important in our efforts to anticipate effects of large-scale changes, such as anthropogenic disturbances. PMID:25632001

  2. Designing Struts for the Low-Fidelity Orion Cockpit Mockup

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lucienne, Runa A.

    2009-01-01

    The objective of the project was to design and construct nine struts to be installed in the low-fidelity Orion cockpit mockup (Rev F; located at NASA s Johnson Space Center in Houston, TX) as simplified representations of the existing flight designed struts designed by engineers at Lockheed Martin (the primary contractor of the Orion). The project design included: researching the existing flight designs, brainstorming design upgrades, developing three unrelated three-dimensional (3D) strut designs using Pro/Engineer Wildfire 3.0, choosing the best fit design, locating materials and their sources, implementing the chosen design, and making design modifications. The project resulted in making simple modifications to the existing struts used in the last Orion cockpit mockup. The project is relevant to NASA, because upgrades to the low-fidelity Orion cockpit mockup progresses NASA s goals of developing and testing a new spacecraft, conducting the spacecraft's first crewed mission by 2015, returning to the moon by 2020, and exploring Mars and other planets in the future.

  3. High-fidelity geometric modeling for biomedical applications

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, Zeyun; Holst, Michael J.; Andrew McCammon, J.

    2008-05-19

    In this paper, we describe a combination of algorithms for high-fidelity geometric modeling and mesh generation. Although our methods and implementations are application-neutral, our primary target application is multiscale biomedical models that range in scales across the molecular, cellular, and organ levels. Our software toolchain implementing these algorithms is general in the sense that it can take as input a molecule in PDB/PQR forms, a 3D scalar volume, or a user-defined triangular surface mesh that may have very low quality. The main goal of our work presented is to generate high quality and smooth surface triangulations from the aforementioned inputs, and to reduce the mesh sizes by mesh coarsening. Tetrahedral meshes are also generated for finite element analysis in biomedical applications. Experiments on a number of bio-structures are demonstrated, showing that our approach possesses several desirable properties: feature-preservation, local adaptivity, high quality, and smoothness (for surface meshes). Finally, the availability of this software toolchain will give researchers in computational biomedicine and other modeling areas access to higher-fidelity geometric models.

  4. PEDOT Electrochemical Polymerization Improves Electrode Fidelity and Sensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Frost, Christopher M.; Wei, Benjamin; Baghmanli, Ziya; Cederna, Paul S.; Urbanchek, Melanie G.

    2015-01-01

    Background The goal of the authors is to restore fine motor control and sensation for high-arm amputees. They developed a regenerative peripheral nerve interface with the aim of attaining closed loop neural control by integrating directly with the amputee's residual motor and sensory peripheral nerves. PEDOT, poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene), has both electrical and ionic conduction characteristics. This hybrid character could help bridge the salutatory conduction of the nervous system to an electrode. The purpose of this study was to determine whether electrodes polymerized with PEDOT have improved ability to both record and stimulate peripheral nerve action potentials. Methods Impedance spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetry were performed on electrodes before and after polymerization to measure electrode impedance and charge capacity. Both recording needle and bipolar stimulating electrodes were polymerized with PEDOT. Plain and PEDOT electrodes were tested using rat (n = 18) in situ nerve conduction studies. The peroneal nerve was stimulated using a bipolar electrode at multiple locations along the nerve. Action potentials were measured in the extensor digitorum longus muscle. Results Bench testing showed PEDOT electrodes had a higher charge capacity and lower impedance than plain electrodes, indicating significantly improved electrode fidelity. Nerve conduction testing indicated a significant reduction in the stimulus threshold for both PEDOT recording and PEDOT stimulatory electrodes when compared with plain electrodes, indicating an increase in sensitivity. Conclusions PEDOT electrochemical polymerization improves electrode fidelity. Electrodes that have been electropolymerized with PEDOT show improved sensitivity when recording or stimulating action potentials at the tissue–electrode interface. PMID:22456363

  5. Patterns of communication in high-fidelity simulation.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Judy K; Nelson, Kimberly

    2015-01-01

    High-fidelity simulation is commonplace in nursing education. However, critical thinking, decision making, and psychomotor skills scenarios are emphasized. Scenarios involving communication occur in interprofessional or intraprofessional settings. The importance of effective nurse-patient communication is reflected in statements from the American Nurses Association and Quality and Safety Education for Nurses, and in the graduate outcomes of most nursing programs. This qualitative study examined the patterns of communication observed in video recordings of a medical-surgical scenario with 71 senior students in a baccalaureate program. Thematic analysis revealed patterns of (a) focusing on tasks, (b) communicating-in-action, and (c) being therapeutic. Additional categories under the patterns included missing opportunities, viewing the "small picture," relying on informing, speaking in "medical tongues," offering choices…okay?, feeling uncomfortable, and using therapeutic techniques. The findings suggest the importance of using high-fidelity simulation to develop expertise in communication. In addition, the findings reinforce the recommendation to prioritize communication aspects of scenarios and debriefing for all simulations. PMID:25545143

  6. Molecular basis for maintenance of fidelity during the CCA-adding reaction by a CCA-adding enzyme

    PubMed Central

    Toh, Yukimatsu; Numata, Tomoyuki; Watanabe, Kazunori; Takeshita, Daijiro; Nureki, Osamu; Tomita, Kozo

    2008-01-01

    CCA-adding enzyme builds the 3′-end CCA of tRNA without a nucleic acid template. The mechanism for the maintenance of fidelity during the CCA-adding reaction remains elusive. Here, we present almost a dozen complex structures of the class I CCA-adding enzyme and tRNA mini-helices (mini-D73N74, mini-D73N74C75 and mini-D73C74N75; D73 is a discriminator nucleotide and N is either A, G, or U). The mini-D73N74 complexes adopt catalytically inactive open forms, and CTP shifts the enzymes to the active closed forms and allows N74 to flip for CMP incorporation. In contrast, unlike the catalytically active closed form of the mini-D73C74C75 complex, the mini-D73N74C75 and mini-D73C74N75 complexes adopt inactive open forms. Only the mini-D73C74U75 accepts AMP to a similar extent as mini-D73C74C75, and ATP shifts the enzyme to a closed, active form and allows U75 to flip for AMP incorporation. These findings suggest that the 3′-region of RNA is proofread, after two nucleotide additions, in the closed, active form of the complex at the AMP incorporation stage. This proofreading is a prerequisite for the maintenance of fidelity for complete CCA synthesis. PMID:18583961

  7. Is high fidelity to supported employment equally attainable in small and large communities?

    PubMed

    Luciano, Alison; Bond, Gary R; Drake, Robert E; Becker, Deborah R

    2014-01-01

    Individual Placement and Support (IPS) is an evidence-based model to help people with serious mental illness achieve employment. This study examined variation in model adherence in small and large communities. We compared program-level ratings on a standardized 25-item IPS fidelity scale (range = 25-125) for 79 sites in eight states categorized by local community size. Programs in large and small communities achieved comparable fidelity scores (mean = 100 and 104, respectively). Fidelity-outcome correlations within the two groups were both of moderate size. As a practical guide, the IPS fidelity scale is suitable for use in both small and large communities.

  8. Development of high-fidelity multiphysics system for light water reactor analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magedanz, Jeffrey W.

    codes into a single executable, they are usually still developed and maintained separately. It should thus be a design objective to minimize the changes to those codes, and keep the changes to each code free of dependence on the details of the other codes. This will ease the incorporation of new versions of the code into the coupling, as well as re-use of parts of the coupling to couple with different codes. In order to fulfill this objective, an interface for each code was created in the form of an object-oriented abstract data type. Object-oriented programming is an effective method for enforcing a separation between different parts of a program, and clarifying the communication between them. The interfaces enable the main program to control the codes in terms of high-level functionality. This differs from the established practice of a master/slave relationship, in which the slave code is incorporated into the master code as a set of subroutines. While this PhD research continues previous work with a coupling between CTF and TORT-TD, it makes two major original contributions: (1) using a fuel-performance code, instead of a thermal-hydraulics code's simplified built-in models, to model the feedback from the fuel rods, and (2) the design of an object-oriented interface as an innovative method to interact with a coupled code in a high-level, easily-understandable manner. The resulting code system will serve as a tool to study the question of under what conditions, and to what extent, these higher-fidelity methods will provide benefits to reactor core analysis. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

  9. Use of High Fidelity Human Simulation to Teach Physical Therapist Decision-Making Skills for the Intensive Care Setting

    PubMed Central

    Riemersma, Lena; Perkins, Ron

    2009-01-01

    Introduction and Purpose: There is a paucity of discussion in the professional literature about the use of high fidelity human simulation (HFHS) as a teaching intervention in physical therapist educational programs. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to provide an example of the design and use of high fidelity human simulation (HFHS) to facilitate teaching of cardiopulmonary and intensive care concepts in a physical therapist education program. Case Description: HFHS was used at the end of the fourth of 9 semesters in a Doctor of Physical Therapy program. An intensive care unit case scenario was developed that required students to perform procedural skills and apply biomedical knowledge/concepts to clinical decision-making during simulated patient mobilization. Outcomes: Students successfully completed the HFHS session objectives, though there was variability in how quickly they recognized and responded to alarms and changes in patient status. Psychomotor performance of skills was generally correct but awkward, consistent with novice performance. Students were universally positive about HFHS as a teaching strategy for preparing for an acute care clinical education experience. Discussion: One session using HFHS as a laboratory activity may have a substantial impact on students' perceptions and confidence prior to entering an acute care clinical experience. Physical therapist educational programs with access to HFHS resources should consider its incorporation into cardiopulmonary or acute care content. Given the high cost of acquiring and maintaining HFHS resources, programs without such resources should carefully consider the extent to which they would use HFHS in their curricula. PMID:20467529

  10. An Immersed Boundary - Adaptive Mesh Refinement solver (IB-AMR) for high fidelity fully resolved wind turbine simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angelidis, Dionysios; Sotiropoulos, Fotis

    2015-11-01

    The geometrical details of wind turbines determine the structure of the turbulence in the near and far wake and should be taken in account when performing high fidelity calculations. Multi-resolution simulations coupled with an immersed boundary method constitutes a powerful framework for high-fidelity calculations past wind farms located over complex terrains. We develop a 3D Immersed-Boundary Adaptive Mesh Refinement flow solver (IB-AMR) which enables turbine-resolving LES of wind turbines. The idea of using a hybrid staggered/non-staggered grid layout adopted in the Curvilinear Immersed Boundary Method (CURVIB) has been successfully incorporated on unstructured meshes and the fractional step method has been employed. The overall performance and robustness of the second order accurate, parallel, unstructured solver is evaluated by comparing the numerical simulations against conforming grid calculations and experimental measurements of laminar and turbulent flows over complex geometries. We also present turbine-resolving multi-scale LES considering all the details affecting the induced flow field; including the geometry of the tower, the nacelle and especially the rotor blades of a wind tunnel scale turbine. This material is based upon work supported by the Department of Energy under Award Number DE-EE0005482 and the Sandia National Laboratories.

  11. Comparison of simulator fidelity model predictions with in-simulator evaluation data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parrish, R. V.; Mckissick, B. T.; Ashworth, B. R.

    1983-01-01

    A full factorial in simulator experiment of a single axis, multiloop, compensatory pitch tracking task is described. The experiment was conducted to provide data to validate extensions to an analytic, closed loop model of a real time digital simulation facility. The results of the experiment encompassing various simulation fidelity factors, such as visual delay, digital integration algorithms, computer iteration rates, control loading bandwidths and proprioceptive cues, and g-seat kinesthetic cues, are compared with predictions obtained from the analytic model incorporating an optimal control model of the human pilot. The in-simulator results demonstrate more sensitivity to the g-seat and to the control loader conditions than were predicted by the model. However, the model predictions are generally upheld, although the predicted magnitudes of the states and of the error terms are sometimes off considerably. Of particular concern is the large sensitivity difference for one control loader condition, as well as the model/in-simulator mismatch in the magnitude of the plant states when the other states match.

  12. REPLICATING AN INTERVENTION: THE TENSION BETWEEN FIDELITY AND ADAPTATION

    PubMed Central

    Morrison, Diane M.; Hoppe, Marilyn J.; Gillmore, Mary Rogers; Kluver, Carisa; Higa, Darrel; Wells, Elizabeth A.

    2010-01-01

    Increased awareness of the importance of tailoring interventions to participants’ cultures has focused attention on the limited generalizability of a single test of an intervention to determine efficacy. Adaptation is often necessary to replicate interventions across cultures. This produces a tension between fidelity to the original intervention and adaptations necessary to make the intervention relevant to the culture and circumstances of participants. This article discusses issues that arise during the course of replication, with illustrations from a replication to test the efficacy of an HIV prevention intervention for youth, using a randomized controlled design. Analysis of the issues raised leads us to suggest that a “science of replication” needs to be developed. PMID:19397435

  13. Fidelity under isospectral perturbations: a random matrix study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leyvraz, F.; García, A.; Kohler, H.; Seligman, T. H.

    2013-07-01

    The set of Hamiltonians generated by all unitary transformations from a single Hamiltonian is the largest set of isospectral Hamiltonians we can form. Taking advantage of the fact that the unitary group can be generated from Hermitian matrices we can take the ones generated by the Gaussian unitary ensemble with a small parameter as small perturbations. Similarly, the transformations generated by Hermitian antisymmetric matrices from orthogonal matrices form isospectral transformations among symmetric matrices. Based on this concept we can obtain the fidelity decay of a system that decays under a random isospectral perturbation with well-defined properties regarding time-reversal invariance. If we choose the Hamiltonian itself also from a classical random matrix ensemble, then we obtain solutions in terms of form factors in the limit of large matrices.

  14. High Fidelity Simulations of Unsteady Flow through Turbopumps and Flowliners

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kiris, Cetin C.; Kwak, dochan; Chan, William; Housman, Jeff

    2006-01-01

    High fidelity computations were carried out to analyze the orbiter LH2 feedline flowliner. Computations were performed on the Columbia platform which is a 10,240-processor supercluster consisting of 20 Altix nodes with 512 processor each. Various computational models were used to characterize the unsteady flow features in the turbopump, including the orbiter Low-Pressure-Fuel-Turbopump (LPFTP) inducer, the orbiter manifold and a test article used to represent the manifold. Unsteady flow originating from the orbiter LPFTP inducer is one of the major contributors to the high frequency cyclic loading that results in high cycle fatigue damage to the gimbal flowliners just upstream of the LPFTP. The flow fields for the orbiter manifold and representative test article are computed and analyzed for similarities and differences. The incompressible Navier-Stokes flow solver INS3D, based on the artificial compressibility method, was used to compute the flow of liquid hydrogen in each test article.

  15. Mixed-state fidelity susceptibility through iterated commutator series expansion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tonchev, N. S.

    2014-11-01

    We present a perturbative approach to the problem of computation of mixed-state fidelity susceptibility (MFS) for thermal states. The mathematical techniques used provide an analytical expression for the MFS as a formal expansion in terms of the thermodynamic mean values of successively higher commutators of the Hamiltonian with the operator involved through the control parameter. That expression is naturally divided into two parts: the usual isothermal susceptibility and a constituent in the form of an infinite series of thermodynamic mean values which encodes the noncommutativity in the problem. If the symmetry properties of the Hamiltonian are given in terms of the generators of some (finite-dimensional) algebra, the obtained expansion may be evaluated in a closed form. This issue is tested on several popular models, for which it is shown that the calculations are much simpler if they are based on the properties from the representation theory of the Heisenberg or SU(1, 1) Lie algebra.

  16. High Fidelity Modeling of Evolutionary Structures in IMOS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Melody, James W.; Levine-West, Marie

    1994-01-01

    A methodology is proposed for testing, modal identification, and model correlation of structures which are assembled in an evolutionary manner. The methodology prescribes initial testing of a base structure without any attached components. The experimental modal properties are used to update the physical properties of the base structure finite element model using a Bayesian Estimation Technique (BET). The BET is implemented in METLAB using IMOS functions. As components are added to the base structure, additional tests are performed. Three testing options are proposed, all of which enable estimation of the physical parameters of the components alone. Furthermore, improvements to the original BET implementation have been made, which contribute to higher fidelity models and more efficient computational times.

  17. Classical broadcasting is possible with arbitrarily high fidelity and resolution.

    PubMed

    Walker, Thomas A; Braunstein, Samuel L

    2007-02-23

    We quantify the resolution with which any probability distribution may be distinguished from a displaced copy of itself in terms of a characteristic width. This width, which we call the resolution, is well defined for any normalizable probability distribution. We use this concept to study the broadcasting of classical probability distributions. Ideal classical broadcasting creates two (or more) output random variables each of which has the same distribution as the input random variable. We show that the universal broadcasting of probability distributions may be achieved with arbitrarily high fidelities for any finite resolution. By restricting probability distributions to any finite resolution we have therefore shown that the classical limit of quantum broadcasting is consistent with the actual classical case.

  18. Implementation science: issues of fidelity to consider in community nursing.

    PubMed

    Hanafin, Sinead; O'Reilly, Emma Dwan

    2015-09-01

    Programme implementation is a complex process, and literature around the area of implementation science is growing, particularly with respect to programme fidelity (Dusenbury et al, 2003; Carroll et al, 2007). This paper draws on the findings from an evaluation in one area involving restructuring of the Public Health Nursing service from a generalist, geographically based service, to a team-based specialist approach. From this evaluation, it is clear that careful consideration must be given to a number of key issues that could arise in moving from a pilot project to a more mainstream or widescale implementation. These issues could relate to workforce planning; the role of the team leader; formation, maintenance, and development of teams; expertise and knowledge, including knowledge of local communities; active caseload management; continuity across a range of areas; alignment with primary care teams; co-location; and the need for support, particularly in the IT infrastructure. PMID:26322991

  19. Mixed-state fidelity susceptibility through iterated commutator series expansion.

    PubMed

    Tonchev, N S

    2014-11-01

    We present a perturbative approach to the problem of computation of mixed-state fidelity susceptibility (MFS) for thermal states. The mathematical techniques used provide an analytical expression for the MFS as a formal expansion in terms of the thermodynamic mean values of successively higher commutators of the Hamiltonian with the operator involved through the control parameter. That expression is naturally divided into two parts: the usual isothermal susceptibility and a constituent in the form of an infinite series of thermodynamic mean values which encodes the noncommutativity in the problem. If the symmetry properties of the Hamiltonian are given in terms of the generators of some (finite-dimensional) algebra, the obtained expansion may be evaluated in a closed form. This issue is tested on several popular models, for which it is shown that the calculations are much simpler if they are based on the properties from the representation theory of the Heisenberg or SU(1, 1) Lie algebra. PMID:25493736

  20. Some applications of H.264/AVC fidelity range extensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Topiwala, Pankaj

    2005-08-01

    H.264/MPEG-4 AVC Fidelity Range Extensions (FRExt), Amendment 1 to the new video standard, was created to allow for higher quality, higher bit depth coding with richer color space support. A key impact of this extension has been to also create an important new profile (High Profile) which supports the traditional 8-bit, 4:2:0 color space, but with improved performance. Finished in July, 2004, this new standard is being aggressively adopted by industry, especially for future high-definition TV and DVD applications. In this paper, we provide a high-level snapshot of what is new in the FRExt Amendment relative to the base standard, and indicate the many applications that now rely on it.

  1. Fidelity optimization for holonomic quantum gates in dissipative environments

    SciTech Connect

    Parodi, Daniele; Solinas, Paolo; Zanghi, Nino; Sassetti, Maura; Zanardi, Paolo

    2006-05-15

    We analyze the performance of holonomic quantum gates in semiconductor quantum dots, driven by ultrafast lasers, under the effect of a dissipative environment. The environment is modeled as a thermal bath of oscillators linearly coupled with the electron states of the quantum dot. Standard techniques make the problem amenable to a numerical treatment and allow one to determine the fidelity as a function of all the relevant physical parameters. As a consequence of our analysis, we show that the disturbance of the environment can be (approximately) suppressed and the performance of the gate optimized--provided that the thermal bath is purely super-Ohmic. We conclude by showing that such an optimization is impossible for Ohmic environments.

  2. The theatre of high-fidelity simulation education.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Debbie; Greene, Leah

    2011-10-01

    High-fidelity simulation is a useful mechanism to aid progression, development and skill acquisition in nurse education. However, nurse lecturers are daunted by sophisticated simulation technology. This paper presents a new method of introducing human patient simulation to students and educators, whilst seeking to demystify the roles, responsibilities and underpinning pedagogy. The analogy of simulation as theatre outlines the concepts of the theatre and stage (simulation laboratory); the play itself (Simulated Clinical Experience, SCE); the actors (nursing students); audience (peer review panel); director (session facilitator); and the production team (technical coordinators). Performing in front of people in a safe environment, repeated practice and taking on a new role teaches students to act, think and be like a nurse. This in turn supports student learning and enhances self confidence.

  3. Light fidelity (Li-Fi): towards all-optical networking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsonev, Dobroslav; Videv, Stefan; Haas, Harald

    2013-12-01

    Motivated by the looming radio frequency (RF) spectrum crisis, this paper aims at demonstrating that optical wireless communication (OWC) has now reached a state where it can demonstrate that it is a viable and matured solution to this fundamental problem. In particular, for indoor communications where most mobile data traffic is consumed, light fidelity (Li-Fi) which is related to visible light communication (VLC) offers many key advantages, and effective solutions to the issues that have been posed in the last decade. This paper discusses all key component technologies required to realize optical cellular communication systems referred to here as optical attocell networks. Optical attocells are the next step in the progression towards ever smaller cells, a progression which is known to be the most significant contributor to the improvements in network spectral efficiencies in RF wireless networks.

  4. Protocol Development, Treatment Fidelity, Adherence to Treatment, and Quality Control

    PubMed Central

    Page, Stephen J.

    2013-01-01

    Occupational therapy leaders have emphasized the importance of intervention effectiveness research. The CONSORT and TREND checklists have been suggested as useful tools for reporting the results of randomized and nonrandomized studies, respectively. Despite such recommendations, research protocols and reports continue to underutilize the available tools, a situation reflecting limited resources for and experience with the conduct of effectiveness research. To address this issue, and using the CONSORT statement to structure the analysis, this article discusses strategies for optimization of protocol development, treatment fidelity, adherence to treatment, and quality control. We recommend several approaches to increase the quality of research throughout these various processes. Examples of implementation from our laboratory provide evidence of the utility of these strategies. PMID:23433268

  5. Noise effect on fidelity of two-qubit teleportation

    SciTech Connect

    Hu Xueyuan; Gu Ying; Gong Qihuang; Guo Guangcan

    2010-05-15

    We investigate the effect of noise on a class of four-qubit entangled channels for two-qubit teleportation from Alice to Bob. These entangled channels include both parallel Bell pairs and inseparable channels with genuine multipartite entanglement. For the situation where only Bob's share of the entangled channel is subject to decoherence, we show by deriving a general expression for the teleported state that teleportation using noisy inseparable channels is equivalent to teleportation using noisy Bell pairs. When Alice's qubits are also subject to noise, we find that the inseparable channels never give a higher teleportation fidelity than Bell pairs, even in the presence of collective noise. Our results can shed some light on practical two-qubit teleportation.

  6. Hand ultrasound: a high-fidelity simulation of lung sliding.

    PubMed

    Shokoohi, Hamid; Boniface, Keith

    2012-09-01

    Simulation training has been effectively used to integrate didactic knowledge and technical skills in emergency and critical care medicine. In this article, we introduce a novel model of simulating lung ultrasound and the features of lung sliding and pneumothorax by performing a hand ultrasound. The simulation model involves scanning the palmar aspect of the hand to create normal lung sliding in varying modes of scanning and to mimic ultrasound features of pneumothorax, including "stratosphere/barcode sign" and "lung point." The simple, reproducible, and readily available simulation model we describe demonstrates a high-fidelity simulation surrogate that can be used to rapidly illustrate the signs of normal and abnormal lung sliding at the bedside.

  7. Process to Create High-Fidelity Lunar Dust Simulants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gustafson, Robert

    2010-01-01

    A method was developed to create high-fidelity lunar dust simulants that better match the unique properties of lunar dust than the existing simulants. The new dust simulant is designed to more closely approximate the size, morphology, composition, and other important properties of lunar dust (including the presence of nanophase iron). A two-step process is required to create this dust simulant. The first step is to prepare a feedstock material that contains a high percentage of agglutinate-like particles with iron globules (including nanophase iron). The raw material selected must have the proper mineralogical composition. In the second processing step, the feedstock material from the first step is jet-milled to reduce the particle size to a range consistent with lunar dust.

  8. Observational Requirements for High-Fidelity Reverberation Mapping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horne, Keith; Peterson, Bradley M.; Collier, Stefan J.; Netzer, Hagai

    2004-01-01

    We present a series of simulations to demonstrate that high-fidelity velocity-delay maps of the emission-line regions in active galactic nuclei can be obtained from time-resolved spectrophotometric data sets like those that will arise from the proposed Kronos satellite. While previous reverberation-mapping experiments have established the size scale R of the broad emission-line regions from the mean time delay tau = R/c between the line and continuum variations and have provided strong evidence for supermassive black holes, the detailed structure and kinematics of the broad-line region remain ambiguous and poorly constrained. Here we outline the technical improvements that will be required to successfully map broad-line regions by reverberation techniques. For typical AGN continuum light curves, characterized by power-law power spectra P (f) is proportional to f(exp -alpha) with a = -1.5 +/- 0.5, our simulations show that a small UV/optical spectrometer like Kronos will clearly distinguish between currently viable alternative kinematic models. From spectra sampled at time intervals Delta t and sustained for a total duration T(sub dur), we can reconstruct high-fidelity velocity-delay maps with velocity resolution comparable to that of the spectra, and delay resolution Delta tau approx. 2 Delta t, provided T(sub dur) exceeds the broad-line region light crossing time by at least a factor of three. Even very complicated kinematical models, such as a Keplerian flow with superimposed spiral wave pattern, are resolved in maps from our simulated Kronos datasets. Reverberation mapping with Kronos data is therefore likely deliver the first clear maps of the geometry and kinematics in the broad emission-line regions 1-100 microarcseconds from supermassive black holes.

  9. Measuring Fidelity of Implementation--Methodological and Conceptual Issues and Challenges. CRESST Report 811

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osmundson, Ellen; Herman, Joan; Ringstaff, Cathy; Dai, Yunyun; Timms, Mike

    2012-01-01

    A central challenge in efficacy studies centers on the issue of "fidelity of implementation," that is, the extent to which participants use the curriculum specified by curriculum developers. In this study, we describe and discuss a "fidelity of implementation" model using multiple methods and instruments to compare two versions of a science…

  10. Blending Qualitative and Computational Linguistics Methods for Fidelity Assessment: Experience with the Familias Unidas Preventive Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Gallo, Carlos; Pantin, Hilda; Villamar, Juan; Prado, Guillermo; Tapia, Maria; Ogihara, Mitsunori; Cruden, Gracelyn; Brown, C Hendricks

    2014-01-01

    Careful fidelity monitoring and feedback are critical to implementing effective interventions. A wide range of procedures exist to assess fidelity; most are derived from observational assessments (Schoenwald et al, 2013). However, these fidelity measures are resource intensive for research teams in efficacy/effectiveness trials, and are often unattainable or unmanageable for the host organization to rate when the program is implemented on a large scale. We present a first step towards automated processing of linguistic patterns in fidelity monitoring of a behavioral intervention using an innovative mixed methods approach to fidelity assessment that uses rule-based, computational linguistics to overcome major resource burdens. Data come from an effectiveness trial of the Familias Unidas intervention, an evidence-based, family-centered preventive intervention found to be efficacious in reducing conduct problems, substance use and HIV sexual risk behaviors among Hispanic youth. This computational approach focuses on “joining,” which measures the quality of the working alliance of the facilitator with the family. Quantitative assessments of reliability are provided. Kappa scores between a human rater and a machine rater for the new method for measuring joining reached .83. Early findings suggest that this approach can reduce the high cost of fidelity measurement and the time delay between fidelity assessment and feedback to facilitators; it also has the potential for improving the quality of intervention fidelity ratings. PMID:24500022

  11. Assessment of Fidelity in Interventions to Improve Hand Hygiene of Healthcare Workers: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Musuuza, Jackson S.; Barker, Anna; Ngam, Caitlyn; Vellardita, Lia; Safdar, Nasia

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Compliance with hand hygiene in healthcare workers is fundamental to infection prevention yet remains a challenge to sustain. We examined fidelity reporting in interventions to improve hand hygiene compliance, and we assessed 5 measures of intervention fidelity: (1) adherence, (2) exposure or dose, (3) quality of intervention delivery, (4) participant responsiveness, and (5) program differentiation. DESIGN Systematic review METHODS A librarian performed searches of the literature in PubMed, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health (CINAHL), Cochrane Library, and Web of Science of material published prior to June 19, 2015. The review protocol was registered in PROSPERO International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews, and assessment of study quality was conducted for each study reviewed. RESULTS A total of 100 studies met the inclusion criteria. Only 8 of these 100 studies reported all 5 measures of intervention fidelity. In addition, 39 of 100 (39%) failed to include at least 3 fidelity measures; 20 of 100 (20%) failed to include 4 measures; 17 of 100 (17%) failed to include 2 measures, while 16 of 100 (16%) of the studies failed to include at least 1 measure of fidelity. Participant responsiveness and adherence to the intervention were the most frequently unreported fidelity measures, while quality of the delivery was the most frequently reported measure. CONCLUSIONS Almost all hand hygiene intervention studies failed to report at least 1 fidelity measurement. To facilitate replication and effective implementation, reporting fidelity should be standard practice when describing results of complex behavioral interventions such as hand hygiene. PMID:26861117

  12. Physical Education Teachers Fidelity to and Perspectives of a Standardized Curricular Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kloeppel, Tiffany; Stylianou, Michalis; Kulinna, Pamela Hodges

    2014-01-01

    Relatively little is known about the use of standardized physical education curricular models and teachers perceptions of and fidelity to such curricula. The purpose of this study was to examine teachers perceptions of and fidelity to a standardized physical education curricular model (i.e., Dynamic Physical Education [DPE]). Participants for this…

  13. Fidelity in After-School Program Intervention Research: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maynard, Brandy R.; Peters, Kristen E.; Vaughn, Michael G.; Sarteschi, Christine M.

    2014-01-01

    Over the past 2 decades, the number of after-school programs (ASP) and the number of students attending ASPs has markedly increased. Although several reviews and meta-analyses have examined the outcomes of ASPs, ASP intervention study reviews have not specifically examined intervention fidelity. Establishing intervention fidelity is critically…

  14. Enhancing Therapeutic Gains: Examination of Fidelity to the Model for the Intensive Mental Health Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Randall, Camille J.; Biggs, Bridget K.

    2008-01-01

    Given that the development of treatment fidelity assessment protocol is an integral but too frequently ignored aspect of clinical trials for psychological treatments, the Intensive Mental Health Program (IMHP) sought to build fidelity activities into training, program evaluation, and clinical recordkeeping from the outset of a 3 year study period.…

  15. Sources of variation in breeding-ground fidelity of mallards (Anas platyrhynchos)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Doherty, P.F.; Nichols, J.D.; Tautin, J.; Voelzer, J.E.; Smith, G.W.; Benning, D.S.; Bentley, V.R.; Bidwell, J.K.; Bollinger, K.S.; Brazda, A.R.; Buelna, E.K.; Goldsberry, J.R.; King, R.J.; Roetker, F.H.; Solberg, J.W.; Thorpe, P.P.; Wortham, J.S.

    2002-01-01

    Generalizations used to support hypotheses about the evolution of fidelity to breeding areas in birds include the tendency for fidelity to be greater in adult birds than in yearlings. In ducks, in contrast to most bird species, fidelity is thought to be greater among females than males. Researchers have suggested that fidelity in ducks is positively correlated with pond availability. However, most estimates of fidelity on which these inferences have been based represent functions of survival and recapture-resighting probabilities in addition to fidelity. We applied the modeling approach developed by Burnham to recapture and band recovery data of mallard ducks to test the above hypotheses about fidelity. We found little evidence of sex differences in adult philopatry, with females being slightly more philopatric than males in one study area, but not in a second study area. However, yearling females were more philopatric than yearling males in both study areas. We found that adults were generally more philopatric than yearlings. We could find no relationship between fidelity and pond availability. Our results, while partially supporting current theory concerning sex and age differences in philopatry, suggest that adult male mallards are more philopatric than once thought, and we recommend that other generalizations about philopatry be revisited with proper estimation techniques.

  16. Validation of a Fidelity Rating Instrument for Consumer-Operated Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mowbray, Carol T.; Bybee, Deborah; Holter, Mark; Lewandowski, Lisa

    2006-01-01

    With the emphasis on the use of evidence-based practices has come a need to measure the fidelity of replications to the operations and principles of original models. Recent reviews have focused on methods to develop fidelity measures for evidence-based program models. However, the issue of how to validate such measures has been given scant…

  17. A Fidelity Rating Instrument for Consumer-Run Drop-In Centers (FRI-CRDI)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mowbray, Carol T.; Holter, Mark C.; Stark, Lori; Pfeffer, Carla; Bybee, Deborah

    2005-01-01

    Objective: Given the present emphasis on accountability and maintaining quality, the objective of this study was to develop, apply, and assess the reliability of a fidelity rating instrument for consumer-operated services--a promising model, but one for which fidelity criteria are not yet established. Method: Based on observations, documents, and…

  18. Academic Fidelity and Integrity as Attributes of University Online Degree Program Offerings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gambescia, Stephen F.; Paolucci, Rocco

    2009-01-01

    As stakeholders continue to discuss, debate, and advocate their positions related to the value of online learning at colleges and universities, one element that will continue to be discussed, regardless of the specific issue at hand, is "academic integrity and fidelity". Academic fidelity of online degree program offerings is defined in this study…

  19. The Effectiveness and Precision of Intervention Fidelity Measures in Preschool Intervention Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darrow, Catherine L.

    2013-01-01

    A quantifiable measure of teachers' intervention fidelity when delivering curriculum-based interventions allows researchers to interpret the effectiveness of the curricula under scrutiny. Fidelity measures, however, must accurately represent the critical components of an intervention to confirm that the intervention was delivered as intended…

  20. The Use of Concept Mapping for Assessing Fidelity of Model Transfer: An Example from Psychiatric Rehabilitation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shern, David L.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Concept mapping was used to assess the fidelity of an experimental program model for psychiatrically disabled street dwellers. Concept maps portrayed the program as conceptualized by its Boston University developers and program staff. Quantitative and descriptive analyses of the maps indicated good fidelity of model transfer. (SLD)

  1. Specification of Training Simulator Fidelity: A Research Plan. Technical Report 558.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baum, David R.; And Others

    This report presents a research plan to guide the determination of the empirical relationship between level of maintenance training simulator fidelity and training effectiveness. Chapter I describes data collection and analysis activities undertaken to provide guidance for fidelity decision making by the training simulator development community.…

  2. Designing and Applying Project Fidelity Assessment for a Teacher Implemented Middle School Instructional Improvement Pilot Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skolits, Gary J.; Richards, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    This article argues that intervention pilot test evaluations have focused insufficient attention on the measurement of project fidelity and the subsequent use of fidelity results for (a) interpreting variations in project outcomes and (b) understanding the rationale for teachers' deviations from implementation protocols. The authors report on the…

  3. Blending Qualitative and Computational Linguistics Methods for Fidelity Assessment: Experience with the Familias Unidas Preventive Intervention.

    PubMed

    Gallo, Carlos; Pantin, Hilda; Villamar, Juan; Prado, Guillermo; Tapia, Maria; Ogihara, Mitsunori; Cruden, Gracelyn; Brown, C Hendricks

    2015-09-01

    Careful fidelity monitoring and feedback are critical to implementing effective interventions. A wide range of procedures exist to assess fidelity; most are derived from observational assessments (Schoenwald and Garland, Psycholog Assess 25:146-156, 2013). However, these fidelity measures are resource intensive for research teams in efficacy/effectiveness trials, and are often unattainable or unmanageable for the host organization to rate when the program is implemented on a large scale. We present a first step towards automated processing of linguistic patterns in fidelity monitoring of a behavioral intervention using an innovative mixed methods approach to fidelity assessment that uses rule-based, computational linguistics to overcome major resource burdens. Data come from an effectiveness trial of the Familias Unidas intervention, an evidence-based, family-centered preventive intervention found to be efficacious in reducing conduct problems, substance use and HIV sexual risk behaviors among Hispanic youth. This computational approach focuses on "joining," which measures the quality of the working alliance of the facilitator with the family. Quantitative assessments of reliability are provided. Kappa scores between a human rater and a machine rater for the new method for measuring joining reached 0.83. Early findings suggest that this approach can reduce the high cost of fidelity measurement and the time delay between fidelity assessment and feedback to facilitators; it also has the potential for improving the quality of intervention fidelity ratings.

  4. Response to Intervention: An Investigation of Training, Perceptions, and Fidelity of Implementation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carpenter, Karen L.

    2013-01-01

    The authors investigated the extent to which the amount of training in Response to Intervention (RtI) impacts staff members' perceptions of RtI, how staff members' perceptions of RtI relate to their fidelity of implementation, and to what degree staff members' involvement in training influences their fidelity of implementation. A convenience…

  5. Using Indices of Fidelity to Intervention Core Components to Identify Program Active Ingredients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abry, Tashia; Hulleman, Chris S.; Rimm-Kaufman, Sara E.

    2015-01-01

    Identifying the active ingredients of an intervention--intervention-specific components serving as key levers of change--is crucial for unpacking the intervention black box. Measures of intervention fidelity can be used to identify specific active ingredients, yet such applications are rare. We illustrate how fidelity measures can be used to…

  6. Differences in Fidelity of Implementation Measures: What Videos and Surveys Reveal about Algebra Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Durkin, Kelley; Pollack, Courtney; Star, Jon R.; Rittle-Johnson, Bethany

    2012-01-01

    The current paper investigated the following research questions regarding measures of fidelity: (1) Is there a significant relationship between two different measures of fidelity of implementation: a survey of instructional practices and coded videos of classroom lessons? Does the strength of this relationship differ between treatment and control…

  7. Implementation Fidelity in Adolescent Family-Based Prevention Programs: Relationship to Family Engagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrnes, Hilary F.; Miller, Brenda A.; Aalborg, Annette E.; Plasencia, Ana V.; Keagy, Carolyn D.

    2010-01-01

    Reliability and validity of intervention studies are impossible without adequate program fidelity, as it ensures that the intervention was implemented as designed and allows for accurate conclusions about effectiveness (Bellg AJ, Borrelli B, Resnick B "et al." Enhancing treatment fidelity in health behavior change studies: best practices and…

  8. Computer-Based versus High-Fidelity Mannequin Simulation in Developing Clinical Judgment in Nursing Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Beverly J.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if students learn clinical judgment as effectively using computer-based simulations as when using high-fidelity mannequin simulations. There was a single research questions for this study: What is the difference in clinical judgment between participants completing high-fidelity human simulator mannequin…

  9. A Randomized-Controlled Trial of the Effects of Online Training on Implementation Fidelity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drake, Pamela M.; Firpo-Triplett, Regina; Glassman, Jill R.; Ong, Seow Ling; Unti, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    The effectiveness of evidence-based programs can be compromised if the program is not implemented with fidelity. This article describes the evaluation of an online training to improve implementation fidelity to an evidence-based HIV prevention curriculum, Reducing the Risk, through online skills-based instruction and support. Educators were…

  10. Assessing Implementation Fidelity: Challenges as Seen through the Lens of Two Experimental Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vig, Rozy; Taylor, Megan W.; Star, Jon R.; Chao, Theodore

    2014-01-01

    The concept of "implementation fidelity" is broadly used to capture the extent to which an intervention is executed as intended by the designers of the intervention (Century, Rudnick, & Freeman, 2010; Huntley, 2005, McNaught, Tarr, & Sears, 2010, Munter, 2010). Though implementation fidelity instruments are often used to assess…

  11. An Analysis of the Fidelity Implementation Policies of the What Works Clearinghouse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stockard, Jean

    2010-01-01

    A large body of literature documents the central importance of fidelity of program implementation in creating an internally valid research design and considering such fidelity in judgments of research quality. The What Works Clearinghouse (WWC) provides web-based summary ratings of educational innovations and is the only rating group that is…

  12. Complete tomography of a high-fidelity solid-state entangled spin-photon qubit pair.

    PubMed

    De Greve, Kristiaan; McMahon, Peter L; Yu, Leo; Pelc, Jason S; Jones, Cody; Natarajan, Chandra M; Kim, Na Young; Abe, Eisuke; Maier, Sebastian; Schneider, Christian; Kamp, Martin; Höfling, Sven; Hadfield, Robert H; Forchel, Alfred; Fejer, M M; Yamamoto, Yoshihisa

    2013-01-01

    Entanglement between stationary quantum memories and photonic qubits is crucial for future quantum communication networks. Although high-fidelity spin-photon entanglement was demonstrated in well-isolated atomic and ionic systems, in the solid-state, where massively parallel, scalable networks are most realistically conceivable, entanglement fidelities are typically limited due to intrinsic environmental interactions. Distilling high-fidelity entangled pairs from lower-fidelity precursors can act as a remedy, but the required overhead scales unfavourably with the initial entanglement fidelity. With spin-photon entanglement as a crucial building block for entangling quantum network nodes, obtaining high-fidelity entangled pairs becomes imperative for practical realization of such networks. Here we report the first results of complete state tomography of a solid-state spin-photon-polarization-entangled qubit pair, using a single electron-charged indium arsenide quantum dot. We demonstrate record-high fidelity in the solid-state of well over 90%, and the first (99.9%-confidence) achievement of a fidelity that will unambiguously allow for entanglement distribution in solid-state quantum repeater networks.

  13. Impact of ribonucleotide incorporation by DNA polymerases β and λ on oxidative base excision repair

    PubMed Central

    Crespan, Emmanuele; Furrer, Antonia; Rösinger, Marcel; Bertoletti, Federica; Mentegari, Elisa; Chiapparini, Giulia; Imhof, Ralph; Ziegler, Nathalie; Sturla, Shana J.; Hübscher, Ulrich; van Loon, Barbara; Maga, Giovanni

    2016-01-01

    Oxidative stress is a very frequent source of DNA damage. Many cellular DNA polymerases (Pols) can incorporate ribonucleotides (rNMPs) during DNA synthesis. However, whether oxidative stress-triggered DNA repair synthesis contributes to genomic rNMPs incorporation is so far not fully understood. Human specialized Pols β and λ are the important enzymes involved in the oxidative stress tolerance, acting both in base excision repair and in translesion synthesis past the very frequent oxidative lesion 7,8-dihydro-8-oxoguanine (8-oxo-G). We found that Pol β, to a greater extent than Pol λ can incorporate rNMPs opposite normal bases or 8-oxo-G, and with a different fidelity. Further, the incorporation of rNMPs opposite 8-oxo-G delays repair by DNA glycosylases. Studies in Pol β- and λ-deficient cell extracts suggest that Pol β levels can greatly affect rNMP incorporation opposite oxidative DNA lesions. PMID:26917111

  14. Plasmon effects on the entanglement fidelity for elastic collisions in hot quantum plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Jung, Young-Dae

    2011-11-15

    The plasmon and screening effects on the entanglement fidelity for the elastic electron-ion collision are investigated in hot quantum plasmas. The partial wave analysis and effective interaction including the plasmon couplings are employed to obtain the entanglement fidelity function in hot quantum plasmas. It is shown that the plasmon effect enhances the entanglement fidelity in quantum plasmas for 0<{beta}({identical_to}({Dirac_h}/2{pi}){omega}{sub p}/k{sub B}T)<0.8 and, however, suppresses the entanglement fidelity for 0.8<{beta}<1, where {omega}{sub p} is the plasmon frequency, k{sub B} is the Boltzmann constant, and T is the plasma temperature. It is also found that the entanglement fidelity decreases with increasing Debye length and collision energy.

  15. High-fidelity state detection and tomography of a single-ion Zeeman qubit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keselman, A.; Glickman, Y.; Akerman, N.; Kotler, S.; Ozeri, R.

    2011-07-01

    We demonstrate high-fidelity Zeeman qubit state detection in a single trapped 88Sr+ ion. Qubit readout is performed by shelving one of the qubit states to a metastable level using a narrow linewidth diode laser at 674 nm, followed by state-selective fluorescence detection. The average fidelity reached for the readout of the qubit state is 0.9989(1). We then measure the fidelity of state tomography, averaged over all possible single-qubit states, which is 0.9979(2). We also fully characterize the detection process using quantum process tomography. This readout fidelity is compatible with recent estimates of the detection error threshold required for fault-tolerant computation, whereas high-fidelity state tomography opens the way for high-precision quantum process tomography.

  16. Optimal fidelity of teleportation with continuous variables using three tunable parameters in a realistic environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Li-Yun; Liao, Zeyang; Ma, Shengli; Zubairy, M. Suhail

    2016-03-01

    We introduce three tunable parameters to optimize the fidelity of quantum teleportation with continuous variables in a nonideal scheme. By using the characteristic-function formalism, we present the condition that the teleportation fidelity is independent of the amplitude of input coherent states for any entangled resource. Then we investigate the effects of tunable parameters on the fidelity with or without the presence of the environment and imperfect measurements by analytically deriving the expression of fidelity for three different input coherent-state distributions. It is shown that, for the linear distribution, the optimization with three tunable parameters is the best one with respect to single- and two-parameter optimization. Our results reveal the usefulness of tunable parameters for improving the fidelity of teleportation and the ability against decoherence.

  17. Ethnography, fidelity, and the evidence that anthropology adds: supplementing the fidelity process in a clinical trial of supported employment.

    PubMed

    Smith-Morris, Carolyn; Lopez, Gilberto; Ottomanelli, Lisa; Goetz, Lance; Dixon-Lawson, Kimberly

    2014-06-01

    This discussion considers the role and findings of ethnographic research within a clinical trial of supported employment for veterans with spinal cord injury. Contributing to qualitative evaluation research and to debates over anthropological evidence vis-à-vis clinical trials, we demonstrate how enactors of a randomized controlled trial can simultaneously attend to both the trial's evidentiary and procedural requirements and to the lived experiences and needs of patients and clinicians. Three major findings are described: (1) contextual information essential to fidelity efforts within the trial; (2) the role of human interrelationships and idiosyncratic networks in the trial's success; and (3) a mapping of the power and authority structures relevant to the staff's ability to perform the protocol. We emphasize strengths of anthropological ethnography in clinical trials that include the provision of complementary, qualitative data, the capture of otherwise unmeasured parts of the trial, and the realization of important information for the translation of the clinical findings into new settings.

  18. Sources of variation in survival and breeding site fidelity in three species of European ducks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blums, P.; Nichols, J.D.; Hines, J.E.

    2002-01-01

    1. We used long-term capture-recapture-recovery data and a modelling approach developed by Burnham (1993) to test a priori predictions about sources of variation in annual survival rates and fidelity within a population of individually marked females in three species of European ducks from a breeding ground study site in Latvia. 2. True annual survival was higher for diving ducks (tufted duck 0-72, common pochard 0-65) and lower for northern shoveler (0-52). Survival of female diving ducks was positively correlated with mean winter temperatures at Western European wintering areas, the relationship being much stronger for pochard. 3. We present the first unbiased estimates of breeding fidelity and permanent emigration in European ducks. Estimated fidelity rates were high (0'88-1-0) and emigration rates low (0-0-12) for all three species, and we found strong evidence for age-specific differences in fidelity of pochards. Unusual long-distance (up to 2500 km) breeding dispersal movements that we found in female tufted ducks have not been documented in any other European waterfowl and are most probably a result of saturated nesting habitats. 4. Fidelity was a function of patch reproductive success in the previous year for all three species providing support for the idea that patch success is an important cue influencing fidelity. 5. Fidelity probability increased to 1.0 for shovelers during the last 12 years of study following provision of critical improvements in nesting habitats and suggested that habitat conditions and reproductive success determined site fidelity and settling patterns for shoveler and probably also influenced fidelity of the two other species. In predictable habitats, fidelity is a parameter that reflects the integration of fitness components and is thus a good quantity for assessing the effectiveness of habitat management actions.

  19. The Effects of Implementation Fidelity in the Towards No Drug Abuse Dissemination Trial

    PubMed Central

    Little, Melissa A.; Sussman, Steve; Sun, Ping; Rohrbach, Louise Ann

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The current study examines the influence of contextual and provider-level factors on the implementation fidelity of a research-based substance abuse prevention program. Also, it investigates whether two provider-level factors, self-efficacy and beliefs about the value of the program, statistically moderate and mediate the effects of a provider training intervention on implementation fidelity. Design/methodology/approach Using generalized mixed-linear modeling, we examine relationships between program provider-, organizational, and community-level factors and implementation fidelity in a sample of 50 high school teachers from 43 high schools in 8 states across the U.S. Fidelity of implementation was assessed utilizing an observation procedure. Findings Implementation fidelity was negatively associated with the urbanicity of the community and the level of teachers’ beliefs about the value of the program, and positively predicted by the organizational capacity of the school. Comprehensive training significantly increased teachers’ self-efficacy, which resulted in an increase in implementation fidelity. Research implications School-based prevention program implementation is influenced by a variety of contextual factors occurring at multiple ecological levels. Future effectiveness and dissemination studies need to account for the complex nature of schools in analyses of implementation fidelity and outcomes. Practical implications Our findings suggest that both provider- and organizational-level factors are influential in promoting implementation fidelity. Before implementation begins, as well as throughout the implementation process, training and ongoing technical assistance should be conducted to increase teachers’ skills, self-efficacy, and comfort with prevention curricula. Originality/value The present study is one of the few to examine contextual and provider-level correlates of implementation fidelity and use mediation analyses to explore whether

  20. Increasing the Rigor of Procedural Fidelity Assessment: An Empirical Comparison of Direct Observation and Permanent Product Review Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanetti, Lisa M. Hagermoser; Collier-Meek, Melissa A.

    2014-01-01

    Although it is widely accepted that procedural fidelity data are important for making valid decisions about intervention effectiveness, there is little empirical guidance for researchers and practitioners regarding how to assess procedural fidelity. A first step in moving procedural fidelity assessment research forward is to develop a…

  1. Evidence-Based Practice in School Substance Use Prevention: Fidelity of Implementation under Real-World Conditions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ennett, S. T.; Haws, S.; Ringwalt, C. L.; Vincus, A. A.; Hanley, S.; Bowling, J. M.; Rohrbach, L. A.

    2011-01-01

    Fidelity of program implementation under real-world conditions is a critical issue in the dissemination of evidence-based school substance use prevention curricula. Program effects are diminished when programs are implemented with poor fidelity. We assessed five domains of fidelity--adherence, exposure (dosage), quality of delivery, participant…

  2. First-Order Model Management With Variable-Fidelity Physics Applied to Multi-Element Airfoil Optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexandrov, N. M.; Nielsen, E. J.; Lewis, R. M.; Anderson, W. K.

    2000-01-01

    First-order approximation and model management is a methodology for a systematic use of variable-fidelity models or approximations in optimization. The intent of model management is to attain convergence to high-fidelity solutions with minimal expense in high-fidelity computations. The savings in terms of computationally intensive evaluations depends on the ability of the available lower-fidelity model or a suite of models to predict the improvement trends for the high-fidelity problem, Variable-fidelity models can be represented by data-fitting approximations, variable-resolution models. variable-convergence models. or variable physical fidelity models. The present work considers the use of variable-fidelity physics models. We demonstrate the performance of model management on an aerodynamic optimization of a multi-element airfoil designed to operate in the transonic regime. Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations represent the high-fidelity model, while the Euler equations represent the low-fidelity model. An unstructured mesh-based analysis code FUN2D evaluates functions and sensitivity derivatives for both models. Model management for the present demonstration problem yields fivefold savings in terms of high-fidelity evaluations compared to optimization done with high-fidelity computations alone.

  3. Creation of a Rapid High-Fidelity Aerodynamics Module for a Multidisciplinary Design Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Srinivasan, Muktha; Whittecar, William; Edwards, Stephen; Mavris, Dimitri N.

    2012-01-01

    In the traditional aerospace vehicle design process, each successive design phase is accompanied by an increment in the modeling fidelity of the disciplinary analyses being performed. This trend follows a corresponding shrinking of the design space as more and more design decisions are locked in. The correlated increase in knowledge about the design and decrease in design freedom occurs partly because increases in modeling fidelity are usually accompanied by significant increases in the computational expense of performing the analyses. When running high fidelity analyses, it is not usually feasible to explore a large number of variations, and so design space exploration is reserved for conceptual design, and higher fidelity analyses are run only once a specific point design has been selected to carry forward. The designs produced by this traditional process have been recognized as being limited by the uncertainty that is present early on due to the use of lower fidelity analyses. For example, uncertainty in aerodynamics predictions produces uncertainty in trajectory optimization, which can impact overall vehicle sizing. This effect can become more significant when trajectories are being shaped by active constraints. For example, if an optimal trajectory is running up against a normal load factor constraint, inaccuracies in the aerodynamic coefficient predictions can cause a feasible trajectory to be considered infeasible, or vice versa. For this reason, a trade must always be performed between the desired fidelity and the resources available. Apart from this trade between fidelity and computational expense, it is very desirable to use higher fidelity analyses earlier in the design process. A large body of work has been performed to this end, led by efforts in the area of surrogate modeling. In surrogate modeling, an up-front investment is made by running a high fidelity code over a Design of Experiments (DOE); once completed, the DOE data is used to create a

  4. Fidelity decay of the two-level bosonic embedded ensembles of random matrices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benet, Luis; Hernández-Quiroz, Saúl; Seligman, Thomas H.

    2010-12-01

    We study the fidelity decay of the k-body embedded ensembles of random matrices for bosons distributed over two single-particle states. Fidelity is defined in terms of a reference Hamiltonian, which is a purely diagonal matrix consisting of a fixed one-body term and includes the diagonal of the perturbing k-body embedded ensemble matrix, and the perturbed Hamiltonian which includes the residual off-diagonal elements of the k-body interaction. This choice mimics the typical mean-field basis used in many calculations. We study separately the cases k = 2 and 3. We compute the ensemble-averaged fidelity decay as well as the fidelity of typical members with respect to an initial random state. Average fidelity displays a revival at the Heisenberg time, t = tH = 1, and a freeze in the fidelity decay, during which periodic revivals of period tH are observed. We obtain the relevant scaling properties with respect to the number of bosons and the strength of the perturbation. For certain members of the ensemble, we find that the period of the revivals during the freeze of fidelity occurs at fractional times of tH. These fractional periodic revivals are related to the dominance of specific k-body terms in the perturbation.

  5. DISTRIBUTED AMPLIFIER INCORPORATING FEEDBACK

    DOEpatents

    Bell, P.R. Jr.

    1958-10-21

    An improved distributed amplifier system employing feedback for stabilization is presented. In accordance with the disclosed invention, a signal to be amplified is applled to one end of a suitable terminated grid transmission line. At intervals along the transmission line, the signal is fed to stable, resistance-capacitance coupled amplifiers incorporating feedback loops therein. The output current from each amplifier is passed through an additional tube to minimize the electrostatic capacitance between the tube elements of the last stage of the amplifier, and fed to appropriate points on an output transmission line, similar to the grid line, but terminated at the opposite (input) end. The output taken from the unterminated end of the plate transmission line is proportional to the input voltage impressed upon the grid line.

  6. Methods for Streamlining Intervention Fidelity Checklists: An Example from the Chronic Disease Self-Management Program

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, SangNam; Smith, Matthew Lee; Altpeter, Mary; Belza, Basia; Post, Lindsey; Ory, Marcia G.

    2015-01-01

    Maintaining intervention fidelity should be part of any programmatic quality assurance (QA) plan and is often a licensure requirement. However, fidelity checklists designed by original program developers are often lengthy, which makes compliance difficult once programs become widely disseminated in the field. As a case example, we used Stanford’s original Chronic Disease Self-Management Program (CDSMP) fidelity checklist of 157 items to demonstrate heuristic procedures for generating shorter fidelity checklists. Using an expert consensus approach, we sought feedback from active master trainers registered with the Stanford University Patient Education Research Center about which items were most essential to, and also feasible for, assessing fidelity. We conducted three sequential surveys and one expert group-teleconference call. Three versions of the fidelity checklist were created using different statistical and methodological criteria. In a final group-teleconference call with seven national experts, there was unanimous agreement that all three final versions (e.g., a 34-item version, a 20-item version, and a 12-item version) should be made available because the purpose and resources for administering a checklist might vary from one setting to another. This study highlights the methodology used to generate shorter versions of a fidelity checklist, which has potential to inform future QA efforts for this and other evidence-based programs (EBP) for older adults delivered in community settings. With CDSMP and other EBP, it is important to differentiate between program fidelity as mandated by program developers for licensure, and intervention fidelity tools for providing an “at-a-glance” snapshot of the level of compliance to selected program indicators. PMID:25964941

  7. Biosensor architectures for high-fidelity reporting of cellular signaling.

    PubMed

    Dushek, Omer; Lellouch, Annemarie C; Vaux, David J; Shahrezaei, Vahid

    2014-08-01

    Understanding mechanisms of information processing in cellular signaling networks requires quantitative measurements of protein activities in living cells. Biosensors are molecular probes that have been developed to directly track the activity of specific signaling proteins and their use is revolutionizing our understanding of signal transduction. The use of biosensors relies on the assumption that their activity is linearly proportional to the activity of the signaling protein they have been engineered to track. We use mechanistic mathematical models of common biosensor architectures (single-chain FRET-based biosensors), which include both intramolecular and intermolecular reactions, to study the validity of the linearity assumption. As a result of the classic mechanism of zero-order ultrasensitivity, we find that biosensor activity can be highly nonlinear so that small changes in signaling protein activity can give rise to large changes in biosensor activity and vice versa. This nonlinearity is abolished in architectures that favor the formation of biosensor oligomers, but oligomeric biosensors produce complicated FRET states. Based on this finding, we show that high-fidelity reporting is possible when a single-chain intermolecular biosensor is used that cannot undergo intramolecular reactions and is restricted to forming dimers. We provide phase diagrams that compare various trade-offs, including observer effects, which further highlight the utility of biosensor architectures that favor intermolecular over intramolecular binding. We discuss challenges in calibrating and constructing biosensors and highlight the utility of mathematical models in designing novel probes for cellular signaling.

  8. High fidelity microelectromechanical system electrodynamic micro-speaker characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sturtzer, E.; Shahosseini, I.; Pillonnet, G.; Lefeuvre, E.; Lemarquand, G.

    2013-06-01

    This paper deals with the heterogeneous characterization of a microelectromechanical system (MEMS) electrodynamic micro-speaker. This MEMS micro-speaker consists of an optimized silicon structure based on a very light but very stiff membrane. The mobile part is suspended using soft suspension beams, also made of silicon, which enable large out-of-plane displacement. The electromagnetic motor is composed of a micro-assembly permanent ring magnet and of a deposit mobile planar coil fixed on the top of the silicon membrane. Previous publications have presented the MEMS as theoretically able to produce high fidelity and high efficiency over a wide bandwidth. The present study intends to validate the electrical, the mechanical, and the acoustic performance improvements. The characterization of the microfabricated micro-speaker showed that the electric impedance is flat over the entire audio bandwidth. Some results validates the performance improvements in terms of audio quality as compared to state of the art of the MEMS micro-speakers, such as the high out-of-plane membrane displacement over ±400 μm, the 80 dBSPL sound pressure level at 10 cm, the 2% maximal distortion level, and the useful bandwidth from 335 Hz to cutoff frequency.

  9. The Creation of a CPU Timer for High Fidelity Programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dick, Aidan A.

    2011-01-01

    Using C and C++ programming languages, a tool was developed that measures the efficiency of a program by recording the amount of CPU time that various functions consume. By inserting the tool between lines of code in the program, one can receive a detailed report of the absolute and relative time consumption associated with each section. After adapting the generic tool for a high-fidelity launch vehicle simulation program called MAVERIC, the components of a frequently used function called "derivatives ( )" were measured. Out of the 34 sub-functions in "derivatives ( )", it was found that the top 8 sub-functions made up 83.1% of the total time spent. In order to decrease the overall run time of MAVERIC, a launch vehicle simulation program, a change was implemented in the sub-function "Event_Controller ( )". Reformatting "Event_Controller ( )" led to a 36.9% decrease in the total CPU time spent by that sub-function, and a 3.2% decrease in the total CPU time spent by the overarching function "derivatives ( )".

  10. Increased Fidelity in Prediction Methods For Landing Gear Noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lopes, Leonard V.; Brentner, Kenneth S.; Morris, Philip J.; Lockhard, David P.

    2006-01-01

    An aeroacoustic prediction scheme has been developed for landing gear noise. The method is designed to handle the complex landing gear geometry of current and future aircraft. The gear is represented by a collection of subassemblies and simple components that are modeled using acoustic elements. These acoustic elements are generic, but generate noise representative of the physical components on a landing gear. The method sums the noise radiation from each component of the undercarriage in isolation accounting for interference with adjacent components through an estimate of the local upstream and downstream flows and turbulence intensities. The acoustic calculations are made in the code LGMAP, which computes the sound pressure levels at various observer locations. The method can calculate the noise from the undercarriage in isolation or installed on an aircraft for both main and nose landing gear. Comparisons with wind tunnel and flight data are used to initially calibrate the method, then it may be used to predict the noise of any landing gear. In this paper, noise predictions are compared with wind tunnel data for model landing gears of various scales and levels of fidelity, as well as with flight data on fullscale undercarriages. The present agreement between the calculations and measurements suggests the method has promise for future application in the prediction of airframe noise.

  11. Single-Cell Based Quantitative Assay of Chromosome Transmission Fidelity.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jin; Heinecke, Dominic; Mulla, Wahid A; Bradford, William D; Rubinstein, Boris; Box, Andrew; Haug, Jeffrey S; Li, Rong

    2015-06-01

    Errors in mitosis are a primary cause of chromosome instability (CIN), generating aneuploid progeny cells. Whereas a variety of factors can influence CIN, under most conditions mitotic errors are rare events that have been difficult to measure accurately. Here we report a green fluorescent protein-based quantitative chromosome transmission fidelity (qCTF) assay in budding yeast that allows sensitive and quantitative detection of CIN and can be easily adapted to high-throughput analysis. Using the qCTF assay, we performed genome-wide quantitative profiling of genes that affect CIN in a dosage-dependent manner and identified genes that elevate CIN when either increased (icCIN) or decreased in copy number (dcCIN). Unexpectedly, qCTF screening also revealed genes whose change in copy number quantitatively suppress CIN, suggesting that the basal error rate of the wild-type genome is not minimized, but rather, may have evolved toward an optimal level that balances both stability and low-level karyotype variation for evolutionary adaptation.

  12. Paracrine communication maximizes cellular response fidelity in wound signaling

    PubMed Central

    Handly, L Naomi; Pilko, Anna; Wollman, Roy

    2015-01-01

    Population averaging due to paracrine communication can arbitrarily reduce cellular response variability. Yet, variability is ubiquitously observed, suggesting limits to paracrine averaging. It remains unclear whether and how biological systems may be affected by such limits of paracrine signaling. To address this question, we quantify the signal and noise of Ca2+ and ERK spatial gradients in response to an in vitro wound within a novel microfluidics-based device. We find that while paracrine communication reduces gradient noise, it also reduces the gradient magnitude. Accordingly we predict the existence of a maximum gradient signal to noise ratio. Direct in vitro measurement of paracrine communication verifies these predictions and reveals that cells utilize optimal levels of paracrine signaling to maximize the accuracy of gradient-based positional information. Our results demonstrate the limits of population averaging and show the inherent tradeoff in utilizing paracrine communication to regulate cellular response fidelity. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.09652.001 PMID:26448485

  13. Single-Cell Based Quantitative Assay of Chromosome Transmission Fidelity

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Jin; Heinecke, Dominic; Mulla, Wahid A.; Bradford, William D.; Rubinstein, Boris; Box, Andrew; Haug, Jeffrey S.; Li, Rong

    2015-01-01

    Errors in mitosis are a primary cause of chromosome instability (CIN), generating aneuploid progeny cells. Whereas a variety of factors can influence CIN, under most conditions mitotic errors are rare events that have been difficult to measure accurately. Here we report a green fluorescent protein−based quantitative chromosome transmission fidelity (qCTF) assay in budding yeast that allows sensitive and quantitative detection of CIN and can be easily adapted to high-throughput analysis. Using the qCTF assay, we performed genome-wide quantitative profiling of genes that affect CIN in a dosage-dependent manner and identified genes that elevate CIN when either increased (icCIN) or decreased in copy number (dcCIN). Unexpectedly, qCTF screening also revealed genes whose change in copy number quantitatively suppress CIN, suggesting that the basal error rate of the wild-type genome is not minimized, but rather, may have evolved toward an optimal level that balances both stability and low-level karyotype variation for evolutionary adaptation. PMID:25823586

  14. Supporting the lecturer to deliver high-fidelity simulation.

    PubMed

    Dowie, Iwan; Phillips, Cheryl

    In response to a shortage of clinical practice placements for pre-registration nurses and midwives, nursing faculties have been examining alternative ways to support students to develop their clinical skills, with simulation being one of the more popular methods. In a nursing context, simulation is often used to replicate a clinical setting, such as a hospital ward or the patient's home. Some universities have introduced clinical suites that enable replication of clinical environments and offer the use of human patient simulators to mimic patient-focused scenarios. This article describes a small informal review that aimed to identify how lecturers felt about simulation in one faculty using high-fidelity simulated scenarios to inform the development of a subsequent research study. The results indicate that although many staff use simulation and believe it is a beneficial approach to learning, many also lack confidence and do not feel sufficiently prepared in its use. Most participants felt that the development of a simulation module for lecturers would increase their confidence. PMID:21905378

  15. Novel, Synergistic Antifungal Combinations that Target Translation Fidelity.

    PubMed

    Moreno-Martinez, Elena; Vallieres, Cindy; Holland, Sara L; Avery, Simon V

    2015-11-17

    There is an unmet need for new antifungal or fungicide treatments, as resistance to existing treatments grows. Combination treatments help to combat resistance. Here we develop a novel, effective target for combination antifungal therapy. Different aminoglycoside antibiotics combined with different sulphate-transport inhibitors produced strong, synergistic growth-inhibition of several fungi. Combinations decreased the respective MICs by ≥8-fold. Synergy was suppressed in yeast mutants resistant to effects of sulphate-mimetics (like chromate or molybdate) on sulphate transport. By different mechanisms, aminoglycosides and inhibition of sulphate transport cause errors in mRNA translation. The mistranslation rate was stimulated up to 10-fold when the agents were used in combination, consistent with this being the mode of synergistic action. A range of undesirable fungi were susceptible to synergistic inhibition by the combinations, including the human pathogens Candida albicans, C. glabrata and Cryptococcus neoformans, the food spoilage organism Zygosaccharomyces bailii and the phytopathogens Rhizoctonia solani and Zymoseptoria tritici. There was some specificity as certain fungi were unaffected. There was no synergy against bacterial or mammalian cells. The results indicate that translation fidelity is a promising new target for combinatorial treatment of undesirable fungi, the combinations requiring substantially decreased doses of active components compared to each agent alone.

  16. Tumor suppressor VHL functions in the control of mitotic fidelity.

    PubMed

    Hell, Michael P; Duda, Maria; Weber, Thomas C; Moch, Holger; Krek, Wilhelm

    2014-05-01

    The von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) tumor suppressor protein pVHL is commonly mutated in clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) and has been implicated in the control of multiple cellular processes that might be linked to tumor suppression, including promoting proper spindle orientation and chromosomal stability. However, it is unclear whether pVHL exerts these mitotic regulatory functions in vivo as well. Here, we applied ischemic kidney injury to stimulate cell division in otherwise quiescent mouse adult kidneys. We show that in the short term (5.5 days after surgery), Vhl-deficient kidney cells demonstrate both spindle misorientation and aneuploidy. The spindle misorientation phenotype encompassed changes in directed cell division, which may manifest in the development of cystic lesions, whereas the aneuploidy phenotype involved the occurrence of lagging chromosomes but not chromosome bridges, indicative of mitotic checkpoint impairment. Intriguingly, in the long term (4 months after the ischemic insult), Vhl-deficient kidneys displayed a heterogeneous pattern of ccRCC precursor lesions, including cysts, clear cell-type cells, and dysplasia. Together, these data provide direct evidence for a key role of pVHL in mediating oriented cell division and faithful mitotic checkpoint function in the renal epithelium, emphasizing the importance of pVHL as a controller of mitotic fidelity in vivo.

  17. The Fidelity of Ocean Models With Explicit Eddies (Chapter 17)

    SciTech Connect

    McClean, J; Jayne, S; Maltrud, M; Ivanova, D

    2007-08-01

    Current practices within the oceanographic community have been reviewed with regard to the use of metrics to assess the realism of the upper-ocean circulation, ventilation processes diagnosed by time-evolving mixed layer depth and mode water formation, and eddy heat fluxes in large-scale fine resolution ocean model simulations. We have striven to understand the fidelity of these simulations in the context of their potential use in future fine-resolution coupled climate system studies. A variety of methodologies are used to assess the veracity of the numerical simulations. Sea surface height variability and the location of western boundary current paths from altimetry have been used routinely as basic indicators of fine-resolution model performance. Drifters and floats have also been used to provide pseudo-Eulerian measures of the mean and variability of surface and sub-surface flows, while statistical comparisons of observed and simulated means have been carried out using James tests. Probability density functions have been used to assess the Gaussian nature of the observed and simulated flows. Length and time scales have been calculated in both Eulerian and Lagrangian frameworks from altimetry and drifters, respectively. Concise measures of multiple model performance have been obtained from Taylor diagrams. The time-evolution of the mixed layer depth at monitoring stations has been compared with simulated time series. Finally, eddy heat fluxes are compared to climatological inferences.

  18. High Fidelity Failure Analysis for a Composite Fuselage Section

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Jain; Davila, Carlos G.; Chen, Tzi-Kang

    2001-01-01

    A high fidelity delamination failure analysis was developed by combining a local failure analysis with a global full-scale finite element structural analysis to address strength and delamination failure in a single package. The methodology was demonstrated through a local three-dimensional pull-off failure analysis and a geometrically nonlinear structural analysis of a five-foot composite helicopter fuselage section. Pull-off specimens were used to identify potential debonding failure of co-cured skin-stringer/frame fuselage structures. An investigation of the failed pull-off specimens was performed to determine the location of the failure initiation. Three-dimensional strain energy release rate analysis indicates that the delamination initiation and growth is controlled by Mode 1 opening mode. The bending moment at the delamination tip was identified as the crucial factor controlling the failure. The geometrically nonlinear structural analysis of a five-foot composite fuselage section was performed using a detailed finite element model. Loads were applied along the periphery of the subcomponent using displacement fields generated from solutions of a full-vehicle model.

  19. High fidelity, radiation tolerant analog-to-digital converters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Charles Chang-I (Inventor); Linscott, Ivan Richard (Inventor); Inan, Umran S. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    Techniques for an analog-to-digital converter (ADC) using pipeline architecture includes a linearization technique for a spurious-free dynamic range (SFDR) over 80 deciBels. In some embodiments, sampling rates exceed a megahertz. According to a second approach, a switched-capacitor circuit is configured for correct operation in a high radiation environment. In one embodiment, the combination yields high fidelity ADC (>88 deciBel SFDR) while sampling at 5 megahertz sampling rates and consuming <60 milliWatts. Furthermore, even though it is manufactured in a commercial 0.25-.mu.m CMOS technology (1 .mu.m=12.sup.-6 meters), it maintains this performance in harsh radiation environments. Specifically, the stated performance is sustained through a highest tested 2 megarad(Si) total dose, and the ADC displays no latchup up to a highest tested linear energy transfer of 63 million electron Volts square centimeters per milligram at elevated temperature (131 degrees C.) and supply (2.7 Volts, versus 2.5 Volts nominal).

  20. EBT Fidelity Trajectories Across Training Cohorts Using the Interagency Collaborative Team Strategy.

    PubMed

    Chaffin, Mark; Hecht, Debra; Aarons, Greg; Fettes, Danielle; Hurlburt, Michael; Ledesma, Karla

    2016-03-01

    The Interdisciplinary Collaborative Team (ICT) strategy uses front-line providers as adaptation, training and quality control agents for multi-agency EBT implementation. This study tests whether an ICT transmits fidelity to subsequent provider cohorts. SafeCare was implemented by home visitors from multiple community-based agencies contracting with child welfare. Client-reported fidelity trajectories for 5,769 visits, 957 clients and 45 providers were compared using three-level growth models. Provider cohorts trained and live-coached by the ICT attained benchmark fidelity after 12 weeks, and this was sustained. Hispanic clients reported high cultural competency, supporting a cultural adaptation crafted by the ICT.

  1. How to Measure Motivational Interviewing Fidelity in Randomized Controlled Trials: Practical Recommendations.

    PubMed

    Jelsma, Judith G M; Mertens, Vera-Christina; Forsberg, Lisa; Forsberg, Lars

    2015-07-01

    Many randomized controlled trials in which motivational interviewing (MI) is a key intervention make no provision for the assessment of treatment fidelity. This methodological shortcoming makes it impossible to distinguish between high- and low-quality MI interventions, and, consequently, to know whether MI provision has contributed to any intervention effects. This article makes some practical recommendations for the collection, selection, coding and reporting of MI fidelity data, as measured using the Motivational Interviewing Treatment Integrity Code. We hope that researchers will consider these recommendations and include MI fidelity measures in future studies.

  2. Recommendations on Model Fidelity for Wind Turbine Gearbox Simulations; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect

    Keller, J.; Lacava, W.; Austin, J.; Nejad, A.; Halse, C.; Bastard, L.; Helsen, J.

    2015-02-01

    This work investigates the minimum level of fidelity required to accurately simulate wind turbine gearboxes using state-of-the-art design tools. Excessive model fidelity including drivetrain complexity, gearbox complexity, excitation sources, and imperfections, significantly increases computational time, but may not provide a commensurate increase in the value of the results. Essential designparameters are evaluated, including the planetary load-sharing factor, gear tooth load distribution, and sun orbit motion. Based on the sensitivity study results, recommendations for the minimum model fidelities are provided.

  3. Random matrix models for decoherence and fidelity decay in quantum information systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pineda, Carlos; Seligman, Thomas H.

    2008-03-01

    This course aims to introduce the student to random matrix models for decoherence and fidelity decay. They present a very powerful alternate approach, that emphasizes the disordered character of many environments and uncontrollable perturbations/couplings. The inherent integrability of such models makes analytic studies possible. We limit our considerations to linear response treatment, as high fidelity and small decoherence are the backbone of quantum information processes. For fidelity decay, where experimental results are available, a comparison with experiments shows excellent agreement with random matrix theory predictions.

  4. Equivalence between entanglement and the optimal fidelity of continuous variable teleportation.

    PubMed

    Adesso, Gerardo; Illuminati, Fabrizio

    2005-10-01

    We devise the optimal form of Gaussian resource states enabling continuous-variable teleportation with maximal fidelity. We show that a nonclassical optimal fidelity of N-user teleportation networks is necessary and sufficient for N-party entangled Gaussian resources, yielding an estimator of multipartite entanglement. The entanglement of teleportation is equivalent to the entanglement of formation in a two-user protocol, and to the localizable entanglement in a multiuser one. Finally, we show that the continuous-variable tangle, quantifying entanglement sharing in three-mode Gaussian states, is defined operationally in terms of the optimal fidelity of a tripartite teleportation network.

  5. High-fidelity teleportation of continuous-variable quantum states using delocalized single photons.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Ulrik L; Ralph, Timothy C

    2013-08-01

    Traditional continuous-variable teleportation can only approach unit fidelity in the limit of an infinite (and unphysical) amount of squeezing. We describe a new method for continuous-variable teleportation that approaches unit fidelity with finite resources. The protocol is not based on squeezed states as in traditional teleportation but on an ensemble of single photon entangled states. We characterize the teleportation scheme with coherent states, mesoscopic superposition states, and two-mode squeezed states and we find several situations in which near-unity teleportation fidelity can be obtained with modest resources. PMID:23952378

  6. RNA polymerase II transcriptional fidelity control and its functional interplay with DNA modifications

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Liang; Wang, Wei; Chong, Jenny; Shin, Ji Hyun; Xu, Jun; Wang, Dong

    2016-01-01

    Accurate genetic information transfer is essential for life. As a key enzyme involved in the first step of gene expression, RNA polymerase II (Pol II) must maintain high transcriptional fidelity while it reads along DNA template and synthesizes RNA transcript in a stepwise manner during transcription elongation. DNA lesions or modifications may lead to significant changes in transcriptional fidelity or transcription elongation dynamics. In this review, we will summarize recent progress towards understanding the molecular basis of RNA Pol II transcriptional fidelity control and impacts of DNA lesions and modifications on Pol II transcription elongation. PMID:26392149

  7. EBT Fidelity Trajectories Across Training Cohorts Using the Interagency Collaborative Team Strategy

    PubMed Central

    Hecht, Debra; Aarons, Greg; Fettes, Danielle; Hurlburt, Michael; Ledesma, Karla

    2015-01-01

    The Interdisciplinary Collaborative Team (ICT) strategy uses front-line providers as adaptation, training and quality control agents for multi-agency EBT implementation. This study tests whether an ICT transmits fidelity to subsequent provider cohorts. SafeCare was implemented by home visitors from multiple community-based agencies contracting with child welfare. Client-reported fidelity trajectories for 5,769 visits, 957 clients and 45 providers were compared using three-level growth models. Provider cohorts trained and live-coached by the ICT attained benchmark fidelity after 12 weeks, and this was sustained. Hispanic clients reported high cultural competency, supporting a cultural adaptation crafted by the ICT. PMID:25586878

  8. SPARSE REPRESENTATIONS WITH DATA FIDELITY TERM VIA AN ITERATIVELY REWEIGHTED LEAST SQUARES ALGORITHM

    SciTech Connect

    WOHLBERG, BRENDT; RODRIGUEZ, PAUL

    2007-01-08

    Basis Pursuit and Basis Pursuit Denoising, well established techniques for computing sparse representations, minimize an {ell}{sup 2} data fidelity term subject to an {ell}{sup 1} sparsity constraint or regularization term on the solution by mapping the problem to a linear or quadratic program. Basis Pursuit Denoising with an {ell}{sup 1} data fidelity term has recently been proposed, also implemented via a mapping to a linear program. They introduce an alternative approach via an iteratively Reweighted Least Squares algorithm, providing greater flexibility in the choice of data fidelity term norm, and computational advantages in certain circumstances.

  9. High-fidelity teleportation of continuous-variable quantum states using delocalized single photons.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Ulrik L; Ralph, Timothy C

    2013-08-01

    Traditional continuous-variable teleportation can only approach unit fidelity in the limit of an infinite (and unphysical) amount of squeezing. We describe a new method for continuous-variable teleportation that approaches unit fidelity with finite resources. The protocol is not based on squeezed states as in traditional teleportation but on an ensemble of single photon entangled states. We characterize the teleportation scheme with coherent states, mesoscopic superposition states, and two-mode squeezed states and we find several situations in which near-unity teleportation fidelity can be obtained with modest resources.

  10. Equivalence between entanglement and the optimal fidelity of continuous variable teleportation.

    PubMed

    Adesso, Gerardo; Illuminati, Fabrizio

    2005-10-01

    We devise the optimal form of Gaussian resource states enabling continuous-variable teleportation with maximal fidelity. We show that a nonclassical optimal fidelity of N-user teleportation networks is necessary and sufficient for N-party entangled Gaussian resources, yielding an estimator of multipartite entanglement. The entanglement of teleportation is equivalent to the entanglement of formation in a two-user protocol, and to the localizable entanglement in a multiuser one. Finally, we show that the continuous-variable tangle, quantifying entanglement sharing in three-mode Gaussian states, is defined operationally in terms of the optimal fidelity of a tripartite teleportation network. PMID:16241708

  11. Characterization of Flap Edge Noise Radiation from a High-Fidelity Airframe Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Humphreys, William M., Jr.; Khorrami, Mehdi R.; Lockhard, David P.; Neuhart, Dan H.; Bahr, Christopher J.

    2015-01-01

    The results of an experimental study of the noise generated by a baseline high-fidelity airframe model are presented. The test campaign was conducted in the open-jet test section of the NASA Langley 14- by 22-foot Subsonic Tunnel on an 18%-scale, semi-span Gulfstream airframe model incorporating a trailing edge flap and main landing gear. Unsteady surface pressure measurements were obtained from a series of sensors positioned along the two flap edges, and far field acoustic measurements were obtained using a 97-microphone phased array that viewed the pressure side of the airframe. The DAMAS array deconvolution method was employed to determine the locations and strengths of relevant noise sources in the vicinity of the flap edges and the landing gear. A Coherent Output Power (COP) spectral method was used to couple the unsteady surface pressures measured along the flap edges with the phased array output. The results indicate that outboard flap edge noise is dominated by the flap bulb seal cavity with very strong COP coherence over an approximate model-scale frequency range of 1 to 5 kHz observed between the array output and those unsteady pressure sensors nearest the aft end of the cavity. An examination of experimental COP spectra for the inboard flap proved inconclusive, most likely due to a combination of coherence loss caused by decorrelation of acoustic waves propagating through the thick wind tunnel shear layer and contamination of the spectra by tunnel background noise at lower frequencies. Directivity measurements obtained from integration of DAMAS pressure-squared values over defined geometric zones around the model show that the baseline flap and landing gear are only moderately directional as a function of polar emission angle.

  12. High Fidelity? Temporal and spatial scales of stratigraphic incompleteness and how they compare to environmental forcings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Straub, K. M.; Li, Q.; Esposito, C. R.

    2015-12-01

    Stratigraphy contains the most complete record of information necessary to quantitatively reconstruct paleolandscape dynamics, but this record contains significant gaps over a range of time and space scales. These gaps result from stasis on geomorphic surfaces and from erosional events. We examine stratigraphic completeness in a suite of 11 physical experiments where the topography of aggrading deltas was monitored at high temporal and spatial scales. These experiments cover a range of boundary conditions, with both constant and dynamic forcings. Our analysis centers on three time scales: (1) the time at which a record is discretized (t), (2) the time necessary to build a deposit with mean thickness equivalent to the maximum topographic roughness (Tc), and (3) the time necessary for channelized flow to migrate over the entire basin (Tch). These time scales incorporate information pertaining to the evolving topography of actively changing surfaces, kinematics by which the surfaces are changing, and net deposition rate. In constant boundary condition experiments, we find that stratigraphic completeness increases as a power law function of t/Tc until reaching 100% completeness at time scales equal to Tc. The relationship between completeness and t/Tc in experiments experiencing base-level cycles is complex and related to characteristics of the base level cycles. We observe that in our experiments the mean and standard deviation of the width of stratigraphic gaps scales with Tc/Tch. These results place quantitative limits on the fidelity of the stratigraphic record, and thus aid prediction of a depositional environment's capacity to store environmental signals.

  13. High-fidelity simulation capability for virtual testing of seismic and acoustic sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, D. Keith; Moran, Mark L.; Ketcham, Stephen A.; Lacombe, James; Anderson, Thomas S.; Symons, Neill P.; Aldridge, David F.; Marlin, David H.; Collier, Sandra L.; Ostashev, Vladimir E.

    2005-05-01

    This paper describes development and application of a high-fidelity, seismic/acoustic simulation capability for battlefield sensors. The purpose is to provide simulated sensor data so realistic that they cannot be distinguished by experts from actual field data. This emerging capability provides rapid, low-cost trade studies of unattended ground sensor network configurations, data processing and fusion strategies, and signatures emitted by prototype vehicles. There are three essential components to the modeling: (1) detailed mechanical signature models for vehicles and walkers, (2) high-resolution characterization of the subsurface and atmospheric environments, and (3) state-of-the-art seismic/acoustic models for propagating moving-vehicle signatures through realistic, complex environments. With regard to the first of these components, dynamic models of wheeled and tracked vehicles have been developed to generate ground force inputs to seismic propagation models. Vehicle models range from simple, 2D representations to highly detailed, 3D representations of entire linked-track suspension systems. Similarly detailed models of acoustic emissions from vehicle engines are under development. The propagation calculations for both the seismics and acoustics are based on finite-difference, time-domain (FDTD) methodologies capable of handling complex environmental features such as heterogeneous geologies, urban structures, surface vegetation, and dynamic atmospheric turbulence. Any number of dynamic sources and virtual sensors may be incorporated into the FDTD model. The computational demands of 3D FDTD simulation over tactical distances require massively parallel computers. Several example calculations of seismic/acoustic wave propagation through complex atmospheric and terrain environments are shown.

  14. Renormalization plasma shielding effects on scattering entanglement fidelity in dense plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Gyeong Won; Shim, Jaewon; Jung, Young-Dae

    2014-10-15

    The influence of renormalization plasma screening on the entanglement fidelity for the elastic electron-atom scattering is investigated in partially ionized dense hydrogen plasmas. The partial wave analysis and effective interaction potential are employed to obtain the scattering entanglement fidelity in dense hydrogen plasmas as functions of the collision energy, the Debye length, and the renormalization parameter. It is found that the renormalization plasma shielding enhances the scattering entanglement fidelity. Hence, we show that the transmission of the quantum information can be increased about 10% due to the renormalization shielding effect in dense hydrogen plasmas. It is also found that the renormalization shielding effect on the entanglement fidelity for the electron-atom collision increases with an increase of the collision energy. In addition, the renormalization shielding function increases with increasing collision energy and saturates to the unity with an increase of the Debye length.

  15. High-Fidelity Simulation for Neonatal Nursing Education: An Integrative Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Allyson

    2015-01-01

    The lack of safe avenues to develop neonatal nursing competencies using human subjects leads to the notion that simulation education for neonatal nurses might be an ideal form of education. This integrative literature review compares traditional, teacher-centered education with high-fidelity simulation education for neonatal nurses. It examines the theoretical frameworks used in neonatal nursing education and outlines the advantages of this type of training, including improving communication and teamwork; providing an innovative pedagogical approach; and aiding in skill acquisition, confidence, and participant satisfaction. The importance of debriefing is also examined. High-fidelity simulation is not without disadvantages, including its significant cost, the time associated with training, the need for very complex technical equipment, and increased faculty resource requirements. Innovative uses of high-fidelity simulation in neonatal nursing education are suggested. High-fidelity simulation has great potential but requires additional research to fully prove its efficacy.

  16. Visual long-term memory has the same limit on fidelity as visual working memory.

    PubMed

    Brady, Timothy F; Konkle, Talia; Gill, Jonathan; Oliva, Aude; Alvarez, George A

    2013-06-01

    Visual long-term memory can store thousands of objects with surprising visual detail, but just how detailed are these representations, and how can one quantify this fidelity? Using the property of color as a case study, we estimated the precision of visual information in long-term memory, and compared this with the precision of the same information in working memory. Observers were shown real-world objects in random colors and were asked to recall the colors after a delay. We quantified two parameters of performance: the variability of internal representations of color (fidelity) and the probability of forgetting an object's color altogether. Surprisingly, the fidelity of color information in long-term memory was comparable to the asymptotic precision of working memory. These results suggest that long-term memory and working memory may be constrained by a common limit, such as a bound on the fidelity required to retrieve a memory representation. PMID:23630219

  17. Comparison of Assertive Community Treatment Fidelity Assessment Methods: Reliability and Validity.

    PubMed

    Rollins, Angela L; McGrew, John H; Kukla, Marina; McGuire, Alan B; Flanagan, Mindy E; Hunt, Marcia G; Leslie, Doug L; Collins, Linda A; Wright-Berryman, Jennifer L; Hicks, Lia J; Salyers, Michelle P

    2016-03-01

    Assertive community treatment is known for improving consumer outcomes, but is difficult to implement. On-site fidelity measurement can help ensure model adherence, but is costly in large systems. This study compared reliability and validity of three methods of fidelity assessment (on-site, phone-administered, and expert-scored self-report) using a stratified random sample of 32 mental health intensive case management teams from the Department of Veterans Affairs. Overall, phone, and to a lesser extent, expert-scored self-report fidelity assessments compared favorably to on-site methods in inter-rater reliability and concurrent validity. If used appropriately, these alternative protocols hold promise in monitoring large-scale program fidelity with limited resources. PMID:25721146

  18. The influence of user expertise and prototype fidelity in usability tests.

    PubMed

    Sauer, Jürgen; Seibel, Katrin; Rüttinger, Bruno

    2010-01-01

    An empirical study examined the impact of user expertise and prototype fidelity on the outcomes of a usability test. User expertise (expert vs. novice) and prototype fidelity (paper prototype, 3D mock-up, and fully operational appliance) were manipulated as independent variables in a 2x3 between-subjects design. Employing a floor scrubber as a model product, 48 users carried out several cleaning tasks. Usability problems identified by participants were recorded. Furthermore, performance, system management strategies and perceived usability were measured. The results showed that experts reported more usability problems than novices but these were considered to be less severe than those reported by novices. Reduced fidelity prototypes were generally suitable to predict product usability of the real appliance. The implications for the running of usability tests are specific to the fidelity of the prototype.

  19. Distribution patterns during winter and fidelity to wintering areas of American black ducks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Diefenbach, D.R.; Nichols, J.D.; Hines, J.E.

    1988-01-01

    The distribution patterns during winter of American black ducks were compared among age-sex classes using band recivery data. In addition, fidelity to wintering areas was compared between sexes and between coastal and inland wintering sites.

  20. Comparison of Assertive Community Treatment Fidelity Assessment Methods: Reliability and Validity.

    PubMed

    Rollins, Angela L; McGrew, John H; Kukla, Marina; McGuire, Alan B; Flanagan, Mindy E; Hunt, Marcia G; Leslie, Doug L; Collins, Linda A; Wright-Berryman, Jennifer L; Hicks, Lia J; Salyers, Michelle P

    2016-03-01

    Assertive community treatment is known for improving consumer outcomes, but is difficult to implement. On-site fidelity measurement can help ensure model adherence, but is costly in large systems. This study compared reliability and validity of three methods of fidelity assessment (on-site, phone-administered, and expert-scored self-report) using a stratified random sample of 32 mental health intensive case management teams from the Department of Veterans Affairs. Overall, phone, and to a lesser extent, expert-scored self-report fidelity assessments compared favorably to on-site methods in inter-rater reliability and concurrent validity. If used appropriately, these alternative protocols hold promise in monitoring large-scale program fidelity with limited resources.

  1. An Olfactory Circuit Increases the Fidelity of Visual Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Chow, Dawnis M.; Theobald, Jamie C.; Frye, Mark A.

    2013-01-01

    Multimodal integration allows neural circuits to be activated in a behaviorally context-specific manner. In the case of odor plume tracking by Drosophila, an attractive odorant increases the influence of yaw-optic flow on steering behavior in flight, which enhances visual stability reflexes, resulting in straighter flight trajectories within an odor plume. However, it is not well understood whether context-specific changes in optomotor behavior are the result of an increased sensitivity to motion inputs (e.g., through increased visual attention) or direct scaling of motor outputs (i.e., increased steering gain). We address this question by examining the optomotor behavior of Drosophila melanogaster in a tethered flight assay and demonstrate that whereas olfactory cues decrease the gain of the optomotor response to sideslip optic flow, they concomitantly increase the gain of the yaw optomotor response by enhancing the animal's ability to follow transient visual perturbations. Furthermore, ablating the mushroom bodies (MBs) of the fly brain via larval hydroxyurea (HU) treatment results in a loss of olfaction-dependent increase in yaw optomotor fidelity. By expressing either tetanus toxin light chain or diphtheria toxin in gal4-defined neural circuits, we were able to replicate the loss of function observed in the HU treatment within the lines expressing broadly in the mushroom bodies, but not within specific mushroom body lobes. Finally, we were able to genetically separate the yaw responses and sideslip responses in our behavioral assay. Together, our results implicate the MBs in a fast-acting, memory-independent olfactory modification of a visual reflex that is critical for flight control. PMID:22016537

  2. Cultured High-Fidelity Three-Dimensional Human Urogenital Tract Carcinomas and Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodwin, Thomas J. (Inventor); Prewett, Tacey L. (Inventor); Spaulding, Glenn F. (Inventor); Wolf, David A. (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    Artificial high-fidelity three-dimensional human urogenital tract carcinomas are propagated under in vitro-microgravity conditions from carcinoma cells. Artificial high-fidelity three-dimensional human urogenital tract carcinomas are also propagated from a coculture of normal urogenital tract cells inoculated with carcinoma cells. The microgravity culture conditions may be microgravity or simulated microgravity created in a horizontal rotating wall culture vessel.

  3. High-Fidelity Teleportation beyond the No-Cloning Limit and Entanglement Swapping for Continuous Variables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takei, Nobuyuki; Yonezawa, Hidehiro; Aoki, Takao; Furusawa, Akira

    2005-06-01

    We experimentally demonstrate continuous-variable quantum teleportation beyond the no-cloning limit. We teleport a coherent state and achieve the fidelity of 0.70±0.02 that surpasses the no-cloning limit of 2/3. Surpassing the limit is necessary to transfer the nonclassicality of an input quantum state. By using our high-fidelity teleporter, we demonstrate entanglement swapping, namely, teleportation of quantum entanglement, as an example of transfer of nonclassicality.

  4. High-fidelity teleportation beyond the no-cloning limit and entanglement swapping for continuous variables.

    PubMed

    Takei, Nobuyuki; Yonezawa, Hidehiro; Aoki, Takao; Furusawa, Akira

    2005-06-10

    We experimentally demonstrate continuous-variable quantum teleportation beyond the no-cloning limit. We teleport a coherent state and achieve the fidelity of 0.70 +/- 0.02 that surpasses the no-cloning limit of 2/3. Surpassing the limit is necessary to transfer the nonclassicality of an input quantum state. By using our high-fidelity teleporter, we demonstrate entanglement swapping, namely, teleportation of quantum entanglement, as an example of transfer of nonclassicality. PMID:16090375

  5. High-fidelity teleportation beyond the no-cloning limit and entanglement swapping for continuous variables.

    PubMed

    Takei, Nobuyuki; Yonezawa, Hidehiro; Aoki, Takao; Furusawa, Akira

    2005-06-10

    We experimentally demonstrate continuous-variable quantum teleportation beyond the no-cloning limit. We teleport a coherent state and achieve the fidelity of 0.70 +/- 0.02 that surpasses the no-cloning limit of 2/3. Surpassing the limit is necessary to transfer the nonclassicality of an input quantum state. By using our high-fidelity teleporter, we demonstrate entanglement swapping, namely, teleportation of quantum entanglement, as an example of transfer of nonclassicality.

  6. Simple proof of the quantum benchmark fidelity for continuous-variable quantum devices

    SciTech Connect

    Namiki, Ryo

    2011-04-15

    An experimental success criterion for continuous-variable quantum teleportation and memory is to surpass the limit of the average fidelity achieved by classical measure-and-prepare schemes with respect to a Gaussian-distributed set of coherent states. We present an alternative proof of the classical limit based on the familiar notions of state-channel duality and partial transposition. The present method enables us to produce a quantum-domain criterion associated with a given set of measured fidelities.

  7. Fidelity assessment of a UH-60A simulation on the NASA Ames vertical motion simulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atencio, Adolph, Jr.

    1993-01-01

    Helicopter handling qualities research requires that a ground-based simulation be a high-fidelity representation of the actual helicopter, especially over the frequency range of the investigation. This experiment was performed to assess the current capability to simulate the UH-60A Black Hawk helicopter on the Vertical Motion Simulator (VMS) at NASA Ames, to develop a methodology for assessing the fidelity of a simulation, and to find the causes for lack of fidelity. The approach used was to compare the simulation to the flight vehicle for a series of tasks performed in flight and in the simulator. The results show that subjective handling qualities ratings from flight to simulator overlap, and the mathematical model matches the UH-60A helicopter very well over the range of frequencies critical to handling qualities evaluation. Pilot comments, however, indicate a need for improvement in the perceptual fidelity of the simulation in the areas of motion and visual cuing. The methodology used to make the fidelity assessment proved useful in showing differences in pilot work load and strategy, but additional work is needed to refine objective methods for determining causes of lack of fidelity.

  8. Engagement in Training as a Mechanism to Understanding Fidelity of Implementation of the Responsive Classroom Approach.

    PubMed

    Wanless, Shannon B; Rimm-Kaufman, Sara E; Abry, Tashia; Larsen, Ross A; Patton, Christine L

    2015-11-01

    Fidelity of implementation of classroom interventions varies greatly, a reality that is concerning because higher fidelity of implementation relates to greater effectiveness of the intervention. We analyzed 126 fourth and fifth grade teachers from the treatment group of a randomized controlled trial of the Responsive Classroom® (RC) approach. Prior to training in the intervention, we assessed factors that had the potential to represent a teacher's readiness to implement with fidelity. These included teachers' observed emotional support, teacher-rated use of intervention practices, teacher-rated self-efficacy, teacher-rated collective responsibility, education level, and years of experience, and they were not directly related to observed fidelity of implementation 2 years later. Further analyses indicated, however, that RC trainers' ratings of teachers' engagement in the initial weeklong RC training mediated the relation between initial observed emotional support and later observed fidelity of implementation. We discuss these findings as a way to advance understanding of teachers' readiness to implement new interventions with fidelity.

  9. A multi-fidelity framework for physics based rotor blade simulation and optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collins, Kyle Brian

    New helicopter rotor designs are desired that offer increased efficiency, reduced vibration, and reduced noise. Rotor Designers in industry need methods that allow them to use the most accurate simulation tools available to search for these optimal designs. Computer based rotor analysis and optimization have been advanced by the development of industry standard codes known as "comprehensive" rotorcraft analysis tools. These tools typically use table look-up aerodynamics, simplified inflow models and perform aeroelastic analysis using Computational Structural Dynamics (CSD). Due to the simplified aerodynamics, most design studies are performed varying structural related design variables like sectional mass and stiffness. The optimization of shape related variables in forward flight using these tools is complicated and results are viewed with skepticism because rotor blade loads are not accurately predicted. The most accurate methods of rotor simulation utilize Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) but have historically been considered too computationally intensive to be used in computer based optimization, where numerous simulations are required. An approach is needed where high fidelity CFD rotor analysis can be utilized in a shape variable optimization problem with multiple objectives. Any approach should be capable of working in forward flight in addition to hover. An alternative is proposed and founded on the idea that efficient hybrid CFD methods of rotor analysis are ready to be used in preliminary design. In addition, the proposed approach recognizes the usefulness of lower fidelity physics based analysis and surrogate modeling. Together, they are used with high fidelity analysis in an intelligent process of surrogate model building of parameters in the high fidelity domain. Closing the loop between high and low fidelity analysis is a key aspect of the proposed approach. This is done by using information from higher fidelity analysis to improve predictions made

  10. Engagement in Training as a Mechanism to Understanding Fidelity of Implementation of the Responsive Classroom Approach.

    PubMed

    Wanless, Shannon B; Rimm-Kaufman, Sara E; Abry, Tashia; Larsen, Ross A; Patton, Christine L

    2015-11-01

    Fidelity of implementation of classroom interventions varies greatly, a reality that is concerning because higher fidelity of implementation relates to greater effectiveness of the intervention. We analyzed 126 fourth and fifth grade teachers from the treatment group of a randomized controlled trial of the Responsive Classroom® (RC) approach. Prior to training in the intervention, we assessed factors that had the potential to represent a teacher's readiness to implement with fidelity. These included teachers' observed emotional support, teacher-rated use of intervention practices, teacher-rated self-efficacy, teacher-rated collective responsibility, education level, and years of experience, and they were not directly related to observed fidelity of implementation 2 years later. Further analyses indicated, however, that RC trainers' ratings of teachers' engagement in the initial weeklong RC training mediated the relation between initial observed emotional support and later observed fidelity of implementation. We discuss these findings as a way to advance understanding of teachers' readiness to implement new interventions with fidelity. PMID:25351865

  11. Relationships between pair formation, site fidelity and sex in a coral reef cardinalfish.

    PubMed

    Rueger, Theresa; Gardiner, Naomi M; Jones, Geoffrey P

    2014-09-01

    Coral reef fishes are characterised by extreme site fidelity and are often socially monogamous, forming pair bonds within larger social groups. Despite this, the strong link between reproductive behaviour and site fidelity in such social species is poorly understood. We examine these relationships in the cardinalfish Ostorhinchus cyanosoma on the central Great Barrier Reef. We tagged and followed over 100 individuals for 5 weeks to investigate pair fidelity, and behavioural differences between pairs and singles and between sexes, and we experimentally tested the strength of site and mate fidelity. Tagged pairs were typically highly site attached, and lasted throughout the study period. Sex had very little effect on pairing behaviour or habitat use. Paired individuals showed three times higher site fidelity than single ones, with singles frequently relocating. There was a two-fold increase in the movement of individuals that had their partners experimentally removed. Paired individuals exhibited greater homing success, and homed regardless of whether their mate had been displaced with them or was left on the home site. These results suggest that individuals of this species form at least seasonally stable monogamous pair bonds within larger groups, and that pair formation is closely associated with site fidelity.

  12. The Relationship Between Fidelity and Learning in Aviation Training and Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noble, Cliff

    2002-01-01

    Flight simulators can be designed to train pilots or assess their flight performance. Low-Fidelity simulators maximize the initial learning rate of novice pilots and minimize initial costs; whereas, expensive, high-fidelity simulators predict the realworld in-flight performance of expert pilots (Fink & Shriver, 1978 Hays & Singer 1989; Kinkade & Wheaton. 1972). Although intuitively appealing and intellectually convenient to generalize concepts of learning and assessment, what holds true for the role of fidelity in assessment may not always hold true for learning, and vice versa. To bring clarity to this issue, the author distinguishes the role of fidelity in learning from its role in assessment as a function of skill level by applying the hypothesis of Alessi (1988) and reviewing the Laughery, Ditzian, and Houtman (1982) study on simulator validity. Alessi hypothesized that there is it point beyond which one additional unit of flight-simulator fidelity results in a diminished rate of learning. The author of this current paper also suggests the existence of an optimal point beyond which one additional unit of flight-simulator fidelity results in a diminished rate of practical assessment of nonexpert pilot performance.

  13. The tug-of-war: fidelity versus adaptation throughout the health promotion program life cycle.

    PubMed

    Bopp, Melissa; Saunders, Ruth P; Lattimore, Diana

    2013-06-01

    Researchers across multiple fields have described the iterative and nonlinear phases of the translational research process from program development to dissemination. This process can be conceptualized within a "program life cycle" framework that includes overlapping and nonlinear phases: development, adoption, implementation, maintenance, sustainability or termination, and dissemination or diffusion, characterized by tensions between fidelity to the original plan and adaptation for the setting and population. In this article, we describe the life cycle (phases) for research-based health promotion programs, the key influences at each phase, and the issues related to the tug-of-war between fidelity and adaptation throughout the process using a fictionalized case study based on our previous research. This article suggests the importance of reconceptualizing intervention design, involving stakeholders, and monitoring fidelity and adaptation throughout all phases to maintain implementation fidelity and completeness. Intervention fidelity should be based on causal mechanisms to ensure effectiveness, while allowing for appropriate adaption to ensure maximum implementation and sustainability. Recommendations for future interventions include considering the determinants of implementation including contextual factors at each phase, the roles of stakeholders, and the importance of developing a rigorous, adaptive, and flexible definition of implementation fidelity and completeness.

  14. Conformational landscapes of DNA polymerase I and mutator derivatives establish fidelity checkpoints for nucleotide insertion.

    PubMed

    Hohlbein, Johannes; Aigrain, Louise; Craggs, Timothy D; Bermek, Oya; Potapova, Olga; Shoolizadeh, Pouya; Grindley, Nigel D F; Joyce, Catherine M; Kapanidis, Achillefs N

    2013-01-01

    The fidelity of DNA polymerases depends on conformational changes that promote the rejection of incorrect nucleotides before phosphoryl transfer. Here, we combine single-molecule FRET with the use of DNA polymerase I and various fidelity mutants to highlight mechanisms by which active-site side chains influence the conformational transitions and free-energy landscape that underlie fidelity decisions in DNA synthesis. Ternary complexes of high fidelity derivatives with complementary dNTPs adopt mainly a fully closed conformation, whereas a conformation with a FRET value between those of open and closed is sparsely populated. This intermediate-FRET state, which we attribute to a partially closed conformation, is also predominant in ternary complexes with incorrect nucleotides and, strikingly, in most ternary complexes of low-fidelity derivatives for both correct and incorrect nucleotides. The mutator phenotype of the low-fidelity derivatives correlates well with reduced affinity for complementary dNTPs and highlights the partially closed conformation as a primary checkpoint for nucleotide selection.

  15. High Fidelity System Simulation of Multiple Components in Support of the UEET Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plybon, Ronald C.; VanDeWall, Allan; Sampath, Rajiv; Balasubramaniam, Mahadevan; Mallina, Ramakrishna; Irani, Rohinton

    2006-01-01

    The High Fidelity System Simulation effort has addressed various important objectives to enable additional capability within the NPSS framework. The scope emphasized High Pressure Turbine and High Pressure Compressor components. Initial effort was directed at developing and validating intermediate fidelity NPSS model using PD geometry and extended to high-fidelity NPSS model by overlaying detailed geometry to validate CFD against rig data. Both "feedforward" and feedback" approaches of analysis zooming was employed to enable system simulation capability in NPSS. These approaches have certain benefits and applicability in terms of specific applications "feedback" zooming allows the flow-up of information from high-fidelity analysis to be used to update the NPSS model results by forcing the NPSS solver to converge to high-fidelity analysis predictions. This apporach is effective in improving the accuracy of the NPSS model; however, it can only be used in circumstances where there is a clear physics-based strategy to flow up the high-fidelity analysis results to update the NPSS system model. "Feed-forward" zooming approach is more broadly useful in terms of enabling detailed analysis at early stages of design for a specified set of critical operating points and using these analysis results to drive design decisions early in the development process.

  16. High-fidelity human patient simulators compared with human actors in an unannounced mass-casualty exercise.

    PubMed

    Schulz, Christian M; Skrzypczak, Matthias; Raith, Stefan; Hinzmann, Dominik; Krautheim, Veronika; Heuser, Fabian; Mayer, Valentin; Kreuzer, Christoph; Himsl, Meike; Holl, Michael; Lipp, Christina; Kochs, Eberhard F; Wagner, Klaus J

    2014-04-01

    High-fidelity simulators (HFSs) have been shown to prompt critical actions at a level equal to that of trained human actors (HAs) and increase perceived realism in intrahospital mass-casualty incident (MCI) exercises. For unannounced prehospital MCI exercises, however, no data are available about the feasibility of incorporating HFSs. This case report describes the integration of HFSs in such an unannounced prehospital MCI drill with HAs and provides data about the differences concerning triage, treatment, and transport of HFSs and HAs with identical injury patterns. For this purpose, 75 actors and four high-fidelity simulators were subdivided into nine groups defined by a specific injury pattern. Four HFSs and six HAs comprised a group suffering from traumatic brain injury and blunt abdominal trauma. Triage results, times for transport, and number of diagnostic and therapeutic tasks were recorded. Means were compared by t test or one-way ANOVA. Triage times and results did not differ between actors and simulators. The number of diagnostic (1.25, SD = 0.5 in simulators vs 3.5, SD = 1.05 in HAs; P = .010) and therapeutic tasks (2.0, SD = 1.6 in simulators vs 4.8, SD = 0.4 in HAs; P = .019) were significantly lower in simulators. Due to difficulties in treating and evacuating the casualties from the site of the accident in a timely manner, all simulators died. Possible causal factors and strategies are discussed, with the aim of increasing the utility of simulators in emergency medicine training. PMID:24650543

  17. Nepal CRS project incorporates.

    PubMed

    1983-01-01

    The Nepal Contraceptive Retail Sales (CRS) Project, 5 years after lauching product sales in June 1978, incorporated as a private, nonprofit company under Nepalese management. The transition was finalized in August 1983. The Company will work through a cooperative agreement with USAID/Kathmandu to complement the national family planning goals as the program continues to provide comtraceptives through retail channels at subsidized prices. Company objectives include: increase contraceptive sales by at least 15% per year; make CRS cost effective and move towards self sufficiency; and explore the possibility of marketing noncontraceptive health products to improve primary health care. After only5 years the program can point to some impressive successes. The number of retial shops selling family planning products increased from 100 in 1978 to over 8000, extending CRS product availability to 66 of the country's 75 districts. Retail sales have climbed dramatically in the 5-year period, from Rs 46,817 in 1978 to Rs 271,039 in 1982. Sales in terms of couple year protection CYP) have grown to 24,451 CYP(1982), a 36% increase over 1980 CYP. Since the beginning of the CRS marketing program, total distribution of contraceptives--through both CRS and the Family Planning Maternal and Child Haelth (FP/MCH) Project--has been increasing. While the FP/MCH program remains the largest distributor,contribution of CRS Products is increasing, indicating that CRS is creating new product acceptors. CRS market share in 1982 was 43% for condoms and 16% for oral contraceptives (OCs). CRS markets 5 products which are subsidized in order to be affordable to consumers as well as attractive to sellers. The initial products launched in June 1978 were Gulaf standard dose OCs and Dhaal lubricated colored condoms. A less expensive lubricates, plain Suki-Dhaal condom was introduced in June 1980 in an attempt to reach poorer rural populations, but rural distribution costs are excessive and Suki

  18. Assessing fidelity of delivery of smoking cessation behavioural support in practice

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Effectiveness of evidence-based behaviour change interventions is likely to be undermined by failure to deliver interventions as planned. Behavioural support for smoking cessation can be a highly cost-effective, life-saving intervention. However, in practice, outcomes are highly variable. Part of this may be due to variability in fidelity of intervention implementation. To date, there have been no published studies on this. The present study aimed to: evaluate a method for assessing fidelity of behavioural support; assess fidelity of delivery in two English Stop-Smoking Services; and compare the extent of fidelity according to session types, duration, individual practitioners, and component behaviour change techniques (BCTs). Methods Treatment manuals and transcripts of 34 audio-recorded behavioural support sessions were obtained from two Stop-Smoking Services and coded into component BCTs using a taxonomy of 43 BCTs. Inter-rater reliability was assessed using percentage agreement. Fidelity was assessed by examining the proportion of BCTs specified in the manuals that were delivered in individual sessions. This was assessed by session type (i.e., pre-quit, quit, post-quit), duration, individual practitioner, and BCT. Results Inter-coder reliability was high (87.1%). On average, 66% of manual-specified BCTs were delivered per session (SD 15.3, range: 35% to 90%). In Service 1, average fidelity was highest for post-quit sessions (69%) and lowest for pre-quit (58%). In Service 2, fidelity was highest for quit-day (81%) and lowest for post-quit sessions (56%). Session duration was not significantly correlated with fidelity. Individual practitioner fidelity ranged from 55% to 78%. Individual manual-specified BCTs were delivered on average 63% of the time (SD 28.5, range: 0 to 100%). Conclusions The extent to which smoking cessation behavioural support is delivered as specified in treatment manuals can be reliably assessed using transcripts of audiotaped

  19. Structure-Function Relationships Underlying the Replication Fidelity of Viral RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerases

    PubMed Central

    Campagnola, Grace; McDonald, Seth; Beaucourt, Stéphanie; Vignuzzi, Marco

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerases are considered to be low-fidelity enzymes, providing high mutation rates that allow for the rapid adaptation of RNA viruses to different host cell environments. Fidelity is tuned to provide the proper balance of virus replication rates, pathogenesis, and tissue tropism needed for virus growth. Using our structures of picornaviral polymerase-RNA elongation complexes, we have previously engineered more than a dozen coxsackievirus B3 polymerase mutations that significantly altered virus replication rates and in vivo fidelity and also provided a set of secondary adaptation mutations after tissue culture passage. Here we report a biochemical analysis of these mutations based on rapid stopped-flow kinetics to determine elongation rates and nucleotide discrimination factors. The data show a spatial separation of fidelity and replication rate effects within the polymerase structure. Mutations in the palm domain have the greatest effects on in vitro nucleotide discrimination, and these effects are strongly correlated with elongation rates and in vivo mutation frequencies, with faster polymerases having lower fidelity. Mutations located at the top of the finger domain, on the other hand, primarily affect elongation rates and have relatively minor effects on fidelity. Similar modulation effects are seen in poliovirus polymerase, an inherently lower-fidelity enzyme where analogous mutations increase nucleotide discrimination. These findings further our understanding of viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase structure-function relationships and suggest that positive-strand RNA viruses retain a unique palm domain-based active-site closure mechanism to fine-tune replication fidelity. IMPORTANCE Positive-strand RNA viruses represent a major class of human and animal pathogens with significant health and economic impacts. These viruses replicate by using a virally encoded RNA-dependent RNA polymerase enzyme that has low fidelity, generating

  20. High Fidelity Virtual Environments: Does Shader Quality or Higher Polygon Count Models Increase Presence and Learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horton, Scott

    This research study investigated the effects of high fidelity graphics on both learning and presence, or the "sense of being there," inside a Virtual Learning Environment (VLE). Four versions of a VLE on the subject of the element mercury were created, each with a different combination of high and low fidelity polygon models and high and low fidelity shaders. A total of 76 college age (18+ years of age) participants were randomly assigned to one of the four conditions. The participants interacted with the VLE and then completed several posttest measures on learning, presence, and attitudes towards the VLE experience. Demographic information was also collected, including age, computer gameplay experience, number of virtual environments interacted with, gender and time spent in this virtual environment. The data was analyzed as a 2 x 2 between subjects ANOVA. The main effects of shader fidelity and polygon fidelity were both non-significant for both learning and all presence subscales inside the VLE. In addition, there was no significant interaction between shader fidelity and model fidelity. However, there were two significant results on the supplementary variables. First, gender was found to have a significant main effect on all the presence subscales. Females reported higher average levels of presence than their male counterparts. Second, gameplay hours, or the number of hours a participant played computer games per week, also had a significant main effect on participant score on the learning measure. The participants who reported playing 15+ hours of computer games per week, the highest amount of time in the variable, had the highest score as a group on the mercury learning measure while those participants that played 1-5 hours per week had the lowest scores.

  1. The assessment of fidelity in a motor speech-treatment approach

    PubMed Central

    Hayden, Deborah; Namasivayam, Aravind Kumar; Ward, Roslyn

    2015-01-01

    Objective To demonstrate the application of the constructs of treatment fidelity for research and clinical practice for motor speech disorders, using the Prompts for Restructuring Oral Muscular Phonetic Targets (PROMPT) Fidelity Measure (PFM). Treatment fidelity refers to a set of procedures used to monitor and improve the validity and reliability of behavioral intervention. While the concept of treatment fidelity has been emphasized in medical and allied health sciences, documentation of procedures for the systematic evaluation of treatment fidelity in Speech-Language Pathology is sparse. Methods The development and iterative process to improve the PFM, is discussed. Further, the PFM is evaluated against recommended measurement strategies documented in the literature. This includes evaluating the appropriateness of goals and objectives; and the training of speech–language pathologists, using direct and indirect procedures. Three expert raters scored the PFM to examine inter-rater reliability. Results Three raters, blinded to each other's scores, completed fidelity ratings on three separate occasions. Inter-rater reliability, using Krippendorff's Alpha, was >80% for the PFM on the final scoring occasion. This indicates strong inter-rater reliability. Conclusion The development of fidelity measures for the training of service providers and treatment delivery is important in specialized treatment approaches where certain ‘active ingredients’ (e.g. specific treatment targets and therapeutic techniques) must be present in order for treatment to be effective. The PFM reflects evidence-based practice by integrating treatment delivery and clinical skill as a single quantifiable metric. PFM enables researchers and clinicians to objectively measure treatment outcomes within the PROMPT approach. PMID:26213623

  2. Nucleocapsid Protein Annealing of a Primer-Template Enhances (+)-Strand DNA Synthesis and Fidelity by HIV-1 Reverse Transcriptase†

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jiae; Roberts, Anne; Yuan, Hua; Xiong, Yong; Anderson, Karen S.

    2012-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) requires reverse transcriptase (RT) and HIV-1 nucleocapsid protein (NCp7) for proper viral replication. HIV-1 NCp7 has been shown to enhance various steps in reverse transcription including tRNA initiation and strand transfer which may be mediated through interactions with RT as well as RNA and DNA oligonucleotides. With the use of DNA oligonucleotides, we have examined the interaction of NCp7 with RT and the kinetics of reverse transcription during (+)-strand synthesis with an NCp7-facilitated annealed primer-template. Using a pre-steady state kinetics approach, the NCp7-annealed primer-template has a substantial increase (3-7 fold) in the rate of incorporation (kpol) by RT as compared to heat annealed primer-template with single nucleotide incorporation. There was also a 2-fold increase in the binding affinity constant (Kd) of the nucleotide. These differences in kpol and Kd were not through direct interactions between HIV-1 RT and NCp7. When examining extension by RT, the data suggests that the NCp7-annealed primer-template facilitates the formation of a longer product more quickly compared to the heat annealed primer-template. This enhancement in rate is mediated through interactions with NCp7’s zinc fingers and N-terminal domain and nucleic acids. The NCp7-annealed primer-template also enhances the fidelity of RT (3-fold) by slowing the rate of incorporation of an incorrect nucleotide. Taken together, this study elucidates a new role of NCp7 by facilitating DNA-directed DNA synthesis during reverse transcription by HIV-1 RT that may translate into enhanced viral fitness and offers an avenue to exploit for targeted therapeutic intervention against HIV. PMID:22210155

  3. Topographic and other effects on EUV pattern fidelity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarma, Chandra; Graves, Trey; Neisser, Mark; Robertson, Stewart

    2014-03-01

    The ability to incorporate topographic and other effects of previously patterned layers in ground rule formulation could potentially lead to significant cost savings and shortened time needed for technology ramp-up. The effect of topgraphy coupled with the diminishing depth of focus (DOF) associated with design node shrinks could become a significant yield detractor. With migration of transistor architecture from planer CMOS to 3-D FINFETs, such topographic effect could potentially pose a major challenge for future EUV processes even with significantly lower NA (Numerical Aperture) compared to current immersion DUV processes. We review how resist parameters for a given layer can be optimized to minimize imaging artifacts caused by underlying topography of previous layers. We also demonstrate how residual effects after resist parameter optimization could be handled by a sets of interlayer groundrules or novel OPC methods. Initially we study standard immersion ArF processing, then we extend the methodology to evaluate the potential issues with EUV lithography in the presence of topography. We compare the the nature and magnitude of the topography effects of such results with DUV imaging and show how we can design a new resist system to minimize such effects. We also show how future ground rule development might need to incorporate the layout information of the previously patterned layers.

  4. High fidelity chemistry and radiation modeling for oxy -- combustion scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdul Sater, Hassan A.

    Dissipation Concept (EDC) employing a 41-step detailed chemistry mechanism, the non-adiabatic extension of the equilibrium Probability Density Function (PDF) based mixture-fraction model and a two-step global finite rate chemistry model with modified rate constants proposed to work well in oxy-methane flames. Based on the results from this section, the equilibrium PDF model in conjunction with a high-fidelity non-gray model for the radiative properties of the gas-phase may be deemed as accurate to capture the major gas species concentrations, temperatures and flame lengths in oxy-methane flames. The third section examines the variations in radiative transfer predictions due to the choice of chemistry and gas-phase radiative property models. The radiative properties were estimated employing four weighted-sum-of-gray-gases models (WSGGM) that were formulated employing different spectroscopic/model databases. An average variation of 14 -- 17% in the wall incident radiative fluxes was observed between the EDC and equilibrium mixture fraction chemistry models, due to differences in their temperature predictions within the flame. One-dimensional, line-of-sight radiation calculations showed a 15 -- 25 % reduction in the directional radiative fluxes at lower axial locations as a result of ignoring radiation from CO and CH4. Under the constraints of fixed temperature and species distributions, the flame radiant power estimates and average wall incident radiative fluxes varied by nearly 60% and 11% respectively among the different WSGG models.

  5. An Automatic Medium to High Fidelity Low-Thrust Global Trajectory Toolchain; EMTG-GMAT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beeson, Ryne T.; Englander, Jacob A.; Hughes, Steven P.; Schadegg, Maximillian

    2015-01-01

    Solving the global optimization, low-thrust, multiple-flyby interplanetary trajectory problem with high-fidelity dynamical models requires an unreasonable amount of computational resources. A better approach, and one that is demonstrated in this paper, is a multi-step process whereby the solution of the aforementioned problem is solved at a lower-fidelity and this solution is used as an initial guess for a higher-fidelity solver. The framework presented in this work uses two tools developed by NASA Goddard Space Flight Center: the Evolutionary Mission Trajectory Generator (EMTG) and the General Mission Analysis Tool (GMAT). EMTG is a medium to medium-high fidelity low-thrust interplanetary global optimization solver, which now has the capability to automatically generate GMAT script files for seeding a high-fidelity solution using GMAT's local optimization capabilities. A discussion of the dynamical models as well as thruster and power modeling for both EMTG and GMAT are given in this paper. Current capabilities are demonstrated with examples that highlight the toolchains ability to efficiently solve the difficult low-thrust global optimization problem with little human intervention.

  6. A new paradigm for variable-fidelity stochastic simulation and information fusion in fluid mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venturi, Daniele; Parussini, Lucia; Perdikaris, Paris; Karniadakis, George

    2015-11-01

    Predicting the statistical properties of fluid systems based on stochastic simulations and experimental data is a problem of major interest across many disciplines. Even with recent theoretical and computational advancements, no broadly applicable techniques exist that could deal effectively with uncertainty propagation and model inadequacy in high-dimensions. To address these problems, we propose a new paradigm for variable-fidelity stochastic modeling, simulation and information fusion in fluid mechanics. The key idea relies in employing recursive Bayesian networks and multi-fidelity information sources (e.g., stochastic simulations at different resolution) to construct optimal predictors for quantities of interest, e.g., the random temperature field in stochastic Rayleigh-Bénard convection. The object of inference is the quantity of interest at the highest possible level of fidelity, for which we can usually afford only few simulations. To compute the optimal predictors, we developed a multivariate recursive co-kriging approach that simultaneously takes into account variable fidelity in the space of models (e.g., DNS vs. potential flow solvers), as well as variable-fidelity in probability space. Numerical applications are presented and discussed. This research was supported by AFOSR and DARPA.

  7. Evaluating the implementation fidelity of a multicomponent intervention for oral health promotion in preschool children.

    PubMed

    Van den Branden, S; Van den Broucke, S; Leroy, R; Declerck, D; Hoppenbrouwers, K

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluates the process of implementation of a longitudinal intervention program to promote oral health in preschool children in Flanders, Belgium. As the program was implemented in an existing preventive health care organization, the study also evaluates this setting as the context for implementation. Qualitative and quantitative methods were used to evaluate implementation fidelity, based on Carroll's theoretical framework of implementation fidelity (Carroll et al., Implementation Science 2:40, 2007). Questionnaire data from participants and health workers were analyzed, and document analyses were performed to compare registrations of the actions with the planning manual. Results were mixed. Whereas more than 88 % of all parents attended all home visits, only 57 % received at least 9 of the 11 planned consultations. Fifty-two percent of the families received all supporting materials, and on average, 73 % of all attending families received all information at a contact as described in the manual. Moderating factors such as the adequate use of facilitators and high participant responsiveness had a positive impact on implementation fidelity, whereas the quality of delivery differed to a great extent between the nurses who were involved during the entire intervention period and those who gave only a few sessions. Implementing an intervention in an existing well-baby program has many advantages, although lack of time presents a challenge to implementation fidelity. The results of this process evaluation allow a better understanding of the contribution of implementation fidelity to the effectiveness of health promotion programs.

  8. Empowerment implementation: enhancing fidelity and adaptation in a psycho-educational intervention.

    PubMed

    van Daele, Tom; van Audenhove, Chantal; Hermans, Dirk; van den Bergh, Omer; van den Broucke, Stephan

    2014-06-01

    Implementation is an emerging research topic in the field of health promotion. Most of the implementation research adheres to one of two paradigms: implementing interventions with maximum fidelity or designing interventions that are responsive to the needs of a local community. While fidelity and adaptation are often considered as contradictory, they are both essential elements of preventive interventions. An innovative program design strategy is therefore to develop hybrid programs that 'build in' adaptation to enhance program fit, while also maximizing the implementation fidelity. The present article presents guidelines for this hybrid approach to program implementation and illustrates them with a concrete psycho-educational group intervention. The approach, which is referred to as 'empowerment implementation' on the analogy of empowerment evaluation, builds on theory of implementation fidelity and community-based participatory research. To demonstrate the use of these guidelines, a psycho-educational course aimed at stress reduction and the prevention of depression and anxiety was implemented according to these guidelines. The main focus lies on how an intervention can benefit from adaptations guided by local expertise, while maintaining the core program components and still respecting the implementation fidelity.

  9. Spawning site fidelity of wild and hatchery lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) in northern Lake Huron

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Binder, Thomas; Riley, Stephen C.; Holbrook, Christopher; Hansen, Michael J.; Bergstedt, Roger A.; Bronte, Charles R.; He, Ji; Krueger, Charles C.

    2016-01-01

    Fidelity to high-quality spawning sites helps ensure that adults repeatedly spawn at sites that maximize reproductive success. Fidelity is also an important behavioural characteristic to consider when hatchery-reared individuals are stocked for species restoration, because artificial rearing environments may interfere with cues that guide appropriate spawning site selection. Acoustic telemetry was used in conjunction with Cormack–Jolly–Seber capture–recapture models to compare degree of spawning site fidelity of wild and hatchery-reared lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) in northern Lake Huron. Annual survival was estimated to be between 77% and 81% and did not differ among wild and hatchery males and females. Site fidelity estimates were high in both wild and hatchery-reared lake trout (ranging from 0.78 to 0.94, depending on group and time filter), but were slightly lower in hatchery-reared fish than in wild fish. The ecological implication of the small difference in site fidelity between wild and hatchery-reared lake trout is unclear, but similarities in estimates suggest that many hatchery-reared fish use similar spawning sites to wild fish and that most return to those sites annually for spawning.

  10. Evolution Properties of Atomic Fidelity in the Combined Multi-Atom-Cavity Field System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ju-Xia; Zhang, Xiao-Juan; Zhang, Xiu-Xing

    2015-06-01

    The atom fidelity is investigated in a system consisting of Mtwo-level atoms and M single-mode fields by use of complete quantum theory and numerical evaluation method. The influences of various system parameters on the evolution of atomic fidelity are studied. The results show that the atomic fidelity evolves in a Rabi oscillation manner. The oscillation frequency is mainly modulated by the coupling strength between atoms and light field, the atomic transition probabilities and the average photon numbers. Other factors hardly impact on the atomic fidelity. The present results may provide a useful approach to the maintenance of the atomic fidelity in the atom cavity field systems. Supported by the National Nature Science Foundation of China under Grant No. 11304230, Nature Science Foundation of Shaanxi Province under Grant No. 2013JM1006, the Project of Education Department of Shaanxi Provincial Government under Grant No. 2013JK0634, the Special Subject Construction of Weinan Normal University under Grant Nos. 14TSXK06 and 15ZRRC14

  11. Fidelity decay in interacting two-level boson systems: Freezing and revivals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benet, Luis; Hernández-Quiroz, Saúl; Seligman, Thomas H.

    2011-05-01

    We study the fidelity decay in the k-body embedded ensembles of random matrices for bosons distributed in two single-particle states, considering the reference or unperturbed Hamiltonian as the one-body terms and the diagonal part of the k-body embedded ensemble of random matrices and the perturbation as the residual off-diagonal part of the interaction. We calculate the ensemble-averaged fidelity with respect to an initial random state within linear response theory to second order on the perturbation strength and demonstrate that it displays the freeze of the fidelity. During the freeze, the average fidelity exhibits periodic revivals at integer values of the Heisenberg time tH. By selecting specific k-body terms of the residual interaction, we find that the periodicity of the revivals during the freeze of fidelity is an integer fraction of tH, thus relating the period of the revivals with the range of the interaction k of the perturbing terms. Numerical calculations confirm the analytical results.

  12. Evaluating Measures of Fidelity for Substance Abuse Group Treatment With Incarcerated Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Bassett, Shayna S; Stein, L A R; Rossi, Joseph S; Martin, Rosemarie A

    2016-07-01

    The evaluation of treatment fidelity has become increasingly important as the demand for evidence-based practice grows. The purpose of the present study is to describe the psychometric properties of two measures of treatment fidelity that can be used by therapists and supervisors - one for group-based cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) and one for combined Substance Education and Twelve-Step Introduction (SET) for adolescent substance use. At the end of group sessions (CBT n=307; SET n=279), therapists and supervisors completed an evaluation measure assessing adherence to certain core components of the intervention. The supervisor version of the fidelity measure also included items for rating the level of competency the therapist demonstrated when providing each component of the intervention. Results from split-half cross-validation analyses provide strong support for an 11-item, three-factor CBT fidelity measure. Somewhat less consistent but adequate support for a nine-item, two-factor SET fidelity measure was found. Internal consistencies ranged from acceptable to good for both the CBT and SET adherence scales and from acceptable to good for the CBT and SET competency scales, with the exception of the CBT practices competency scale. Preliminary validation of the measures suggests that both measures have adequate to strong factor structure, reliability, and concurrent and discriminant validity. The results of this study have implications for research and clinical settings, including the supervision process.

  13. Evaluating Measures of Fidelity for Substance Abuse Group Treatment With Incarcerated Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Bassett, Shayna S; Stein, L A R; Rossi, Joseph S; Martin, Rosemarie A

    2016-07-01

    The evaluation of treatment fidelity has become increasingly important as the demand for evidence-based practice grows. The purpose of the present study is to describe the psychometric properties of two measures of treatment fidelity that can be used by therapists and supervisors - one for group-based cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) and one for combined Substance Education and Twelve-Step Introduction (SET) for adolescent substance use. At the end of group sessions (CBT n=307; SET n=279), therapists and supervisors completed an evaluation measure assessing adherence to certain core components of the intervention. The supervisor version of the fidelity measure also included items for rating the level of competency the therapist demonstrated when providing each component of the intervention. Results from split-half cross-validation analyses provide strong support for an 11-item, three-factor CBT fidelity measure. Somewhat less consistent but adequate support for a nine-item, two-factor SET fidelity measure was found. Internal consistencies ranged from acceptable to good for both the CBT and SET adherence scales and from acceptable to good for the CBT and SET competency scales, with the exception of the CBT practices competency scale. Preliminary validation of the measures suggests that both measures have adequate to strong factor structure, reliability, and concurrent and discriminant validity. The results of this study have implications for research and clinical settings, including the supervision process. PMID:27211991

  14. High fidelity simian immunodeficiency virus reverse transcriptase mutants have impaired replication in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Lloyd, Sarah B; Lichtfuss, Marit; Amarasena, Thakshila H; Alcantara, Sheilajen; De Rose, Robert; Tachedjian, Gilda; Alinejad-Rokny, Hamid; Venturi, Vanessa; Davenport, Miles P; Winnall, Wendy R; Kent, Stephen J

    2016-05-01

    The low fidelity of HIV replication facilitates immune and drug escape. Some reverse transcriptase (RT) inhibitor drug-resistance mutations increase RT fidelity in biochemical assays but their effect during viral replication is unclear. We investigated the effect of RT mutations K65R, Q151N and V148I on SIV replication and fidelity in vitro, along with SIV replication in pigtailed macaques. SIVmac239-K65R and SIVmac239-V148I viruses had reduced replication capacity compared to wild-type SIVmac239. Direct virus competition assays demonstrated a rank order of wild-type>K65R>V148I mutants in terms of viral fitness. In single round in vitro-replication assays, SIVmac239-K65R demonstrated significantly higher fidelity than wild-type, and rapidly reverted to wild-type following infection of macaques. In contrast, SIVmac239-Q151N was replication incompetent in vitro and in pigtailed macaques. Thus, we showed that RT mutants, and specifically the common K65R drug-resistance mutation, had impaired replication capacity and higher fidelity. These results have implications for the pathogenesis of drug-resistant HIV. PMID:26896929

  15. A Mixed-Fidelity Approach for Design of Low-Boom Supersonic Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Wu; Shields, Elwood; Geiselhart, Karl A.

    2010-01-01

    This paper documents a mixed-fidelity approach for the design of low-boom supersonic aircraft as a viable approach for designing a practical low-boom supersonic configuration. A low-boom configuration that is based on low-fidelity analysis is used as the baseline. Tail lift is included to help tailor the aft portion of the ground signature. A comparison of low- and high-fidelity analysis results demonstrates the necessity of using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis in a low-boom supersonic configuration design process. The fuselage shape is modified iteratively to obtain a configuration with a CFD equivalent-area distribution that matches a predetermined low-boom target distribution. The mixed-fidelity approach can easily refine the low-fidelity low-boom baseline into a low-boom configuration with the use of CFD equivalent-area analysis. The ground signature of the final configuration is calculated by using a state-of-the-art CFD-based boom analysis method that generates accurate midfield pressure distributions for propagation to the ground with ray tracing. The ground signature that is propagated from a midfield pressure distribution has a shaped ramp front, which is similar to the ground signature that is propagated from the CFD equivalent-area distribution. This result confirms the validity of the low-boom supersonic configuration design by matching a low-boom equivalent-area target, which is easier to accomplish than matching a low-boom midfield pressure target.

  16. Early Influences and Later Outcomes Associated With Developmental Trajectories of Eriksonian Fidelity

    PubMed Central

    Brittian, Aerika S.; Lerner, Richard M.

    2014-01-01

    Although Eriksonian theory suggests that adolescents’ sense of fidelity is a key component of healthy development, research on this psychosocial construct has been limited. The current study developed an index of youth fidelity, examined the developmental course of this construct, explored the influence of contextual factors on different fidelity trajectories, and tested if trajectories were associated with later indicators of adolescents’ positive development. Participants included 1,941 ethnically diverse youth (61% female) participants in the 4-H Study of Positive Youth Development who were recruited from schools and youth development programs across the United States. Results suggested that three types of developmental trajectories existed among youth: high and increasing, moderate and increasing, and low and decreasing. Fidelity group membership varied in relation to social relationships and psychosocial and behavioral characteristics (i.e., contribution, substance use, and delinquency). Girls were more likely than boys to be in the highest fidelity trajectories. Directions for future research and implications for enhancing the thriving of adolescents are discussed. PMID:22545838

  17. Physicochemical characterization of surfactant incorporating vesicles that incorporate colloidal magnetite.

    PubMed

    de Melo Barbosa, Raquel; Luna Finkler, Christine L; Bentley, Maria Vitória L B; Santana, Maria Helena A

    2013-03-01

    Drug administration through the transdermal route has optimized for the comfort of patients and easy application. However, the main limitation of transdermal drug delivery is the impermeability of the human skin. Recent advances on improvement of drug transport through the skin include elastic liposomes as a penetration enhancer. Entrapment of ferrofluids in the core of liposomes produces magnetoliposomes, which can be driven by a high-gradient magnetic field. The association of both strategies could enhance the penetration of elastic liposomes. This work relies on the preparation and characterization of elastic-magnetic liposomes designed to permeate through the skin. The incorporation of colloidal magnetite and the elastic component, octaethylene glycol laurate (PEG-8-L), in the structure of liposomes were evaluated. The capability of the elastic magnetoliposomes for permeation through nanopores of two stacked polycarbonate membranes was compared to conventional and elastic liposomes. Magnetite incorporation was dependent on vesicle diameter and size distribution as well as PEG-8-L incorporation into liposomes, demonstrating the capability of the fluid bilayer to accommodate the surfactant without disruption. On the contrary, PEG-8-L incorporation into magnetoliposomes promoted a decrease of average diameter and a lower PEG-8-L incorporation percentage as a result of reduction on the fluidity of the bilayer imparted by iron incorporation into the lipid structure. Elastic liposomes demonstrated an enhancement of the deformation capability, as compared with conventional liposomes. Conventional and elastic magnetoliposomes presented a reduced capability for deformation and permeation. PMID:23363304

  18. Mismatched DNTP Incorporation By DNA Polymerase Beta Does Not Proceed Via Globally Different Conformational Pathways

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, K.-H.; Niebuhr, M.; Tung, C.-S.; Chan, H.-c.; Chou, C.-C.; Tsai, M.-D.

    2009-05-26

    Understanding how DNA polymerases control fidelity requires elucidation of the mechanisms of matched and mismatched dNTP incorporations. Little is known about the latter because mismatched complexes do not crystallize readily. In this report, we employed small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and structural modeling to probe the conformations of different intermediate states of mammalian DNA polymerase {beta} (Pol {beta}) in its wild-type and an error-prone variant, I260Q. Our structural results indicate that the mismatched ternary complex lies in-between the open and the closed forms, but more closely resembles the open form for WT and the closed form for I260Q. On the basis of molecular modeling, this over-stabilization of mismatched ternary complex of I260Q is likely caused by formation of a hydrogen bonding network between the side chains of Gln{sup 260}, Tyr{sup 296}, Glu{sup 295} and Arg{sup 258}, freeing up Asp{sup 192} to coordinate MgdNTP. These results argue against recent reports suggesting that mismatched dNTP incorporations follow a conformational path distinctly different from that of matched dNTP incorporation, or that its conformational closing is a major contributor to fidelity.

  19. Role of technology in supporting quality control and treatment fidelity in a family caregiver clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Farran, Carol J; Etkin, Caryn D; McCann, Judith J; Paun, Olimpia; Eisenstein, Amy R; Wilbur, Joellen

    2011-11-01

    This article describes how a family caregiver lifestyle physical activity clinical trial uses research technology to enhance quality control and treatment fidelity. This trial uses a range of Internet, Blaise(®) Windows-based software and Echo Server technologies to support quality control issues, such as data collection, data entry, and study management advocated by the clinical trials literature, and to ensure treatment fidelity concerning intervention implementation (i.e., design, training, delivery, receipt, and enactment) as proposed by the National Institutes of Health Behavior Change Consortium. All research staff are trained to use these technologies. Strengths of this technological approach to support quality control and treatment fidelity include the comprehensive plan, involvement of all staff, and ability to maintain accurate and timely data. Limitations include the upfront time and costs for developing and testing these technological methods, and having support staff readily available to address technological issues if they occur.

  20. Measuring fidelity to a culturally adapted HIV prevention intervention for men in substance abuse treatment

    PubMed Central

    Hatch-Maillette, Mary; Burlew, A. Kathleen; Turnbull, Sharriann; Robinson, Michael; Calsyn, Donald A.

    2013-01-01

    A fidelity measure was developed for use with Real Men Are Safe-Culturally Adapted (REMAS-CA), an HIV prevention intervention for ethnically diverse men in substance abuse treatment. The aims of this analysis were to: 1) assess the reliability of the Fidelity Rating and Skill Evaluation (FRASE); 2) measure improvement in therapist competence and adherence over time while delivering REMAS-CA; and 3) identify which modules of REMAS-CA were most difficult to deliver. Results showed that, 1) the FRASE was a reliable instrument; 2) therapists achieved adequate adherence and competence after training and demonstrated significant improvement over time in Global Empathy; and 3) Sessions 4 and 5 of REMAS-CA contained the most challenging modules for therapists to deliver. Recommendations for future REMAS-CA therapist trainings and fidelity monitoring are made. PMID:23810229

  1. Entanglement sudden death as an indicator of fidelity in a four-qubit cluster state

    SciTech Connect

    Weinstein, Yaakov S.

    2009-05-15

    I explore the entanglement evolution of a four-qubit cluster state in a dephasing environment concentrating on the phenomenon of entanglement sudden death (ESD). Specifically, I ask whether the onset of ESD has an effect on the utilization of this cluster state as a means of implementing a single-qubit rotation in the measurement-based cluster state model of quantum computation. To do this, I compare the evolution of the entanglement to the fidelity, a measure of how accurately the desired state (after the measurement-based operations) is achieved. I find that ESD does not cause a change in behavior or discontinuity in the fidelity but may indicate for certain states when the fidelity goes to 0.5.

  2. Universal fidelity near quantum and topological phase transitions in finite one-dimensional systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    König, E. J.; Levchenko, A.; Sedlmayr, N.

    2016-06-01

    We study the quantum fidelity (ground-state overlap) near quantum phase transitions of the Ising universality class in one-dimensional (1D) systems of finite-size L . Prominent examples occur in magnetic systems (e.g., spin-Peierls, the anisotropic X Y model) and in 1D topological insulators of any topologically nontrivial Altland-Zirnbauer-Kitaev universality class. The rescaled fidelity susceptibility is a function of the only dimensionless parameter L M , where 2 M is the gap in the fermionic spectrum. We present analytic expressions for the fidelity susceptibility for periodic and open boundaries conditions with zero, one, or two edge states. The latter are shown to have a crucial impact and alter the susceptibility both quantitatively and qualitatively. We support our analytical solutions with numerical data.

  3. Illustrating the multiple facets and levels of fidelity of implementation to a teacher classroom management intervention.

    PubMed

    Reinke, Wendy M; Herman, Keith C; Stormont, Melissa; Newcomer, Lori; David, Kimberly

    2013-11-01

    Many school-based interventions to promote student mental health rely on teachers as implementers. Thus, understanding the interplay between the multiple domains of fidelity to the intervention and intervention support systems such as coaching and teacher implementation of new skills is an important aspect of implementation science. This study describes a systematic process for assessing multiple domains of fidelity. Data from a larger efficacy trial of the Incredible Years Teacher Classroom Management (IY TCM) program are utilized. Data on fidelity to the IY TCM workshop training sessions and onsite weekly coaching indicate that workshop leaders and the IY TCM coach implemented the training and coaching model with adequate adherence. Further, workshop leaders' ratings of engagement were associated with teacher implementation of specific praise, following training on this content. Lastly, the IY TCM coach differentiation of teacher exposure to coaching was evaluated and found to be associated with teacher implementation of classroom management practices and student disruptive behavior.

  4. High Fidelity Tape Transfer Printing Based On Chemically Induced Adhesive Strength Modulation

    PubMed Central

    Sim, Kyoseung; Chen, Song; Li, Yuhang; Kammoun, Mejdi; Peng, Yun; Xu, Minwei; Gao, Yang; Song, Jizhou; Zhang, Yingchun; Ardebili, Haleh; Yu, Cunjiang

    2015-01-01

    Transfer printing, a two-step process (i.e. picking up and printing) for heterogeneous integration, has been widely exploited for the fabrication of functional electronics system. To ensure a reliable process, strong adhesion for picking up and weak or no adhesion for printing are required. However, it is challenging to meet the requirements of switchable stamp adhesion. Here we introduce a simple, high fidelity process, namely tape transfer printing(TTP), enabled by chemically induced dramatic modulation in tape adhesive strength. We describe the working mechanism of the adhesion modulation that governs this process and demonstrate the method by high fidelity tape transfer printing several types of materials and devices, including Si pellets arrays, photodetector arrays, and electromyography (EMG) sensors, from their preparation substrates to various alien substrates. High fidelity tape transfer printing of components onto curvilinear surfaces is also illustrated. PMID:26553110

  5. Bacterial global regulators DksA/ppGpp increase fidelity of transcription.

    PubMed

    Roghanian, Mohammad; Zenkin, Nikolay; Yuzenkova, Yulia

    2015-02-18

    Collisions between paused transcription elongation complexes and replication forks inevitably happen, which may lead to collapse of replication fork and could be detrimental to cells. Bacterial transcription factor DksA and its cofactor alarmone ppGpp were proposed to contribute to prevention of such collisions, although the mechanism of this activity remains elusive. Here we show that DksA/ppGpp do not destabilise transcription elongation complexes or inhibit their backtracking, as was proposed earlier. Instead, we show, both in vitro and in vivo, that DksA/ppGpp increase fidelity of transcription elongation by slowing down misincorporation events. As misincorporation events cause temporary pauses, contribution to fidelity suggests the mechanism by which DksA/ppGpp contribute to prevention of collisions of transcription elongation complexes with replication forks. DksA is only the second known accessory factor, after transcription factor Gre, that increases fidelity of RNA synthesis in bacteria.

  6. Technical Basis for Physical Fidelity of NRC Control Room Training Simulators for Advanced Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Minsk, Brian S.; Branch, Kristi M.; Bates, Edward K.; Mitchell, Mark R.; Gore, Bryan F.; Faris, Drury K.

    2009-10-09

    The objective of this study is to determine how simulator physical fidelity influences the effectiveness of training the regulatory personnel responsible for examination and oversight of operating personnel and inspection of technical systems at nuclear power reactors. It seeks to contribute to the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission’s (NRC’s) understanding of the physical fidelity requirements of training simulators. The goal of the study is to provide an analytic framework, data, and analyses that inform NRC decisions about the physical fidelity requirements of the simulators it will need to train its staff for assignment at advanced reactors. These staff are expected to come from increasingly diverse educational and experiential backgrounds.

  7. High Fidelity Tape Transfer Printing Based On Chemically Induced Adhesive Strength Modulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sim, Kyoseung; Chen, Song; Li, Yuhang; Kammoun, Mejdi; Peng, Yun; Xu, Minwei; Gao, Yang; Song, Jizhou; Zhang, Yingchun; Ardebili, Haleh; Yu, Cunjiang

    2015-11-01

    Transfer printing, a two-step process (i.e. picking up and printing) for heterogeneous integration, has been widely exploited for the fabrication of functional electronics system. To ensure a reliable process, strong adhesion for picking up and weak or no adhesion for printing are required. However, it is challenging to meet the requirements of switchable stamp adhesion. Here we introduce a simple, high fidelity process, namely tape transfer printing(TTP), enabled by chemically induced dramatic modulation in tape adhesive strength. We describe the working mechanism of the adhesion modulation that governs this process and demonstrate the method by high fidelity tape transfer printing several types of materials and devices, including Si pellets arrays, photodetector arrays, and electromyography (EMG) sensors, from their preparation substrates to various alien substrates. High fidelity tape transfer printing of components onto curvilinear surfaces is also illustrated.

  8. Strong entanglement causes low gate fidelity in inaccurate one-way quantum computation

    SciTech Connect

    Morimae, Tomoyuki

    2010-06-15

    We study how entanglement among the register qubits affects the gate fidelity in the one-way quantum computation if a measurement is inaccurate. We derive an inequality that shows that the mean gate fidelity is upper bounded by a decreasing function of the magnitude of the error of the measurement and the amount of the entanglement between the measured qubit and other register qubits. The consequence of this inequality is that, for a given amount of entanglement, which is theoretically calculated once the algorithm is fixed, we can estimate from this inequality how small the magnitude of the error should be in order not to make the gate fidelity below a threshold, which is specified by a technical requirement in a particular experimental setup or by the threshold theorem of the fault-tolerant quantum computation.

  9. Balancing physiology, anatomy and immersion: how much biological fidelity is necessary in a medical simulation?

    PubMed

    Talbot, Thomas B

    2013-10-01

    Physiology and anatomy can be depicted at varying levels of fidelity in a medical simulation or training encounter. Another factor in a medical simulation concerns design features intended to engage the learner through a sense of immersion. Physiology can be simulated by various means including physiology engines, complex state machines, simple state machines, kinetic models, and static readouts. Each approach has advantages in terms of complexity of development and impact on the learner. Such factors are detailed within the article. Various other biological, hardware-based, and virtual models are used in medical training with varying levels of fidelity. For many medical simulation-based educational experiences, low-fidelity approaches are often adequate if not preferable. PMID:24084303

  10. A quantum fidelity study of the anisotropic next-nearest-neighbour triangular lattice Heisenberg model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thesberg, Mischa; Sørensen, Erik S.

    2014-10-01

    Ground- and excited-state quantum fidelities in combination with generalized quantum fidelity susceptibilites, obtained from exact diagonalizations, are used to explore the phase diagram of the anisotropic next-nearest-neighbour triangular Heisenberg model. Specifically, the J‧ - J2 plane of this model, which connects the J1 - J2 chain and the anisotropic triangular lattice Heisenberg model, is explored using these quantities. Through the use of a quantum fidelity associated with the first excited-state, in addition to the conventional ground-state fidelity, the BKT-type transition and Majumdar-Ghosh point of the J1 - J2 chain (J‧ = 0) are found to extend into the J‧ - J2 plane and connect with points on the J2 = 0 axis thereby forming bounded regions in the phase diagram. These bounded regions are then explored through the generalized quantum fidelity susceptibilities χρ, χ120\\circ , χD and χCAF which are associated with the spin stiffness, 120° spiral order parameter, dimer order parameter and collinear antiferromagnetic order parameter respectively. These quantities are believed to be extremely sensitive to the underlying phase and are thus well suited for finite-size studies. Analysis of the fidelity susceptibilities suggests that the J‧, J2 ≪ J phase of the anisotropic triangular model is either a collinear antiferromagnet or possibly a gapless disordered phase that is directly connected to the Luttinger phase of the J1 - J2 chain. Furthermore, the outer region is dominated by incommensurate spiral physics as well as dimer order.

  11. High Fidelity System Modeling for High Quality Image Reconstruction in Clinical CT

    PubMed Central

    Do, Synho; Karl, William Clem; Singh, Sarabjeet; Kalra, Mannudeep; Brady, Tom; Shin, Ellie; Pien, Homer

    2014-01-01

    Today, while many researchers focus on the improvement of the regularization term in IR algorithms, they pay less concern to the improvement of the fidelity term. In this paper, we hypothesize that improving the fidelity term will further improve IR image quality in low-dose scanning, which typically causes more noise. The purpose of this paper is to systematically test and examine the role of high-fidelity system models using raw data in the performance of iterative image reconstruction approach minimizing energy functional. We first isolated the fidelity term and analyzed the importance of using focal spot area modeling, flying focal spot location modeling, and active detector area modeling as opposed to just flying focal spot motion. We then compared images using different permutations of all three factors. Next, we tested the ability of the fidelity terms to retain signals upon application of the regularization term with all three factors. We then compared the differences between images generated by the proposed method and Filtered-Back-Projection. Lastly, we compared images of low-dose in vivo data using Filtered-Back-Projection, Iterative Reconstruction in Image Space, and the proposed method using raw data. The initial comparison of difference maps of images constructed showed that the focal spot area model and the active detector area model also have significant impacts on the quality of images produced. Upon application of the regularization term, images generated using all three factors were able to substantially decrease model mismatch error, artifacts, and noise. When the images generated by the proposed method were tested, conspicuity greatly increased, noise standard deviation decreased by 90% in homogeneous regions, and resolution also greatly improved. In conclusion, the improvement of the fidelity term to model clinical scanners is essential to generating higher quality images in low-dose imaging. PMID:25390888

  12. High fidelity qubit readout with the superconducting low-inductance undulatory galvanometer microwave amplifier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hover, D.; Zhu, S.; Thorbeck, T.; Ribeill, G. J.; Sank, D.; Kelly, J.; Barends, R.; Martinis, John M.; McDermott, R.

    2014-04-01

    We describe the high fidelity dispersive measurement of a superconducting qubit using a microwave amplifier based on the Superconducting Low-inductance Undulatory Galvanometer (SLUG). The SLUG preamplifier achieves gain of 19 dB and yields a signal-to-noise ratio improvement of 9 dB over a state-of-the-art HEMT amplifier. We demonstrate a separation fidelity of 99% at 700 ns compared to 59% with the HEMT alone. The SLUG displays a large dynamic range, with an input saturation power corresponding to 700 photons in the readout cavity.

  13. High-Fidelity Quantum Logic Gates Using Trapped-Ion Hyperfine Qubits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballance, C. J.; Harty, T. P.; Linke, N. M.; Sepiol, M. A.; Lucas, D. M.

    2016-08-01

    We demonstrate laser-driven two-qubit and single-qubit logic gates with respective fidelities 99.9(1)% and 99.9934(3)%, significantly above the ≈99 % minimum threshold level required for fault-tolerant quantum computation, using qubits stored in hyperfine ground states of calcium-43 ions held in a room-temperature trap. We study the speed-fidelity trade-off for the two-qubit gate, for gate times between 3.8 μ s and 520 μ s , and develop a theoretical error model which is consistent with the data and which allows us to identify the principal technical sources of infidelity.

  14. A Hybrid Process Fidelity Assessment in a Home-based Randomized Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    WILDE, MARY H.; LIEBEL, DIANNE; FAIRBANKS, EILEEN; WILSON, PAULA; LASH, MARGARET; SHAH, SHIVANI; McDONALD, MARGARET V.; BRASCH, JUDITH; ZHANG, FENG; SCHEID, EILEEN; McMAHON, JAMES M.

    2016-01-01

    A process fidelity assessment was conducted as a nested study within a home-based randomized clinical trial teaching self-management to 101 long-term indwelling urinary catheter users in the treatment group. Our hybrid model combined external assessments (outside observations and tape recordings) with internal evaluation methods (through study nurse forms and notes) for a comprehensive process fidelity assessment. Barriers, patient-related issues, and nurse perspectives were identified demonstrating the complexity in home care intervention research. The complementary and synergistic approaches provided in depth information about the context of the delivery and the impact of the intervention on study outcomes. PMID:25894688

  15. High-fidelity readout in circuit quantum electrodynamics using the Jaynes-Cummings nonlinearity.

    PubMed

    Reed, M D; DiCarlo, L; Johnson, B R; Sun, L; Schuster, D I; Frunzio, L; Schoelkopf, R J

    2010-10-22

    We demonstrate a qubit readout scheme that exploits the Jaynes-Cummings nonlinearity of a superconducting cavity coupled to transmon qubits. We find that, in the strongly driven dispersive regime of this system, there is the unexpected onset of a high-transmission "bright" state at a critical power which depends sensitively on the initial qubit state. A simple and robust measurement protocol exploiting this effect achieves a single-shot fidelity of 87% using a conventional sample design and experimental setup, and at least 61% fidelity to joint correlations of three qubits.

  16. Experimental Verification of Fidelity Decay: From Perturbative to Fermi Golden Rule Regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schäfer, R.; Stöckmann, H.-J.; Gorin, T.; Seligman, T. H.

    2005-10-01

    The scattering matrix was measured for a flat microwave cavity with classically chaotic dynamics. The system can be perturbed by small changes of the geometry. We define the “scattering fidelity” in terms of parametric correlation functions of scattering matrix elements. In chaotic systems and for weak coupling, the scattering fidelity approaches the fidelity of the closed system. Without free parameters, the experimental results agree with random matrix theory in a wide range of perturbation strengths, reaching from the perturbative to the Fermi golden rule regime.

  17. High fidelity qubit readout with the superconducting low-inductance undulatory galvanometer microwave amplifier

    SciTech Connect

    Hover, D.; Zhu, S.; Thorbeck, T.; Ribeill, G. J.; McDermott, R.; Sank, D.; Kelly, J.; Barends, R.; Martinis, John M.

    2014-04-14

    We describe the high fidelity dispersive measurement of a superconducting qubit using a microwave amplifier based on the Superconducting Low-inductance Undulatory Galvanometer (SLUG). The SLUG preamplifier achieves gain of 19 dB and yields a signal-to-noise ratio improvement of 9 dB over a state-of-the-art HEMT amplifier. We demonstrate a separation fidelity of 99% at 700 ns compared to 59% with the HEMT alone. The SLUG displays a large dynamic range, with an input saturation power corresponding to 700 photons in the readout cavity.

  18. Show Me, Don’t Tell Me: Behavioral Rehearsal as a Training and Analogue Fidelity Tool

    PubMed Central

    Beidas, Rinad S.; Cross, Wendi; Dorsey, Shannon

    2013-01-01

    Behavioral rehearsal, when a trainee engages in a simulated interaction with another individual, is an underutilized but potentially cost-effective and feasible solution for two difficult questions in implementation science: how to improve training, a commonly used implementation strategy, and how to feasibly measure fidelity using analogue methods in community settings. This paper provides practical information on how to develop and use behavioral rehearsal for both of these purposes to implementation researchers. Therefore, we focus on development and use of behavioral rehearsal as a training and analogue fidelity tool in the context of three illustrative studies. PMID:25382963

  19. Efficient Calibration of Computationally Intensive Groundwater Models through Surrogate Modelling with Lower Levels of Fidelity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Razavi, S.; Anderson, D.; Martin, P.; MacMillan, G.; Tolson, B.; Gabriel, C.; Zhang, B.

    2012-12-01

    Many sophisticated groundwater models tend to be computationally intensive as they rigorously represent detailed scientific knowledge about the groundwater systems. Calibration (model inversion), which is a vital step of groundwater model development, can require hundreds or thousands of model evaluations (runs) for different sets of parameters and as such demand prohibitively large computational time and resources. One common strategy to circumvent this computational burden is surrogate modelling which is concerned with developing and utilizing fast-to-run surrogates of the original computationally intensive models (also called fine models). Surrogates can be either based on statistical and data-driven models such as kriging and neural networks or simplified physically-based models with lower fidelity to the original system (also called coarse models). Fidelity in this context refers to the degree of the realism of a simulation model. This research initially investigates different strategies for developing lower-fidelity surrogates of a fine groundwater model and their combinations. These strategies include coarsening the fine model, relaxing the numerical convergence criteria, and simplifying the model geological conceptualisation. Trade-offs between model efficiency and fidelity (accuracy) are of special interest. A methodological framework is developed for coordinating the original fine model with its lower-fidelity surrogates with the objective of efficiently calibrating the parameters of the original model. This framework is capable of mapping the original model parameters to the corresponding surrogate model parameters and also mapping the surrogate model response for the given parameters to the original model response. This framework is general in that it can be used with different optimization and/or uncertainty analysis techniques available for groundwater model calibration and parameter/predictive uncertainty assessment. A real-world computationally

  20. Kraus representation of quantum evolution and fidelity as manifestations of Markovian and non-Markovian forms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajagopal, A. K.; Usha Devi, A. R.; Rendell, R. W.

    2010-10-01

    It is shown that the fidelity of the dynamically evolved system with its earlier time-density matrix provides a signature of non-Markovian dynamics. Also, the fidelity associated with the initial state and the dynamically evolved state is shown to be larger in the non-Markovian evolution compared to that in the corresponding Markovian case. Starting from the Kraus representation of quantum evolution, the Markovian and non-Markovian features are discerned in its short-time structure. These two features are in concordance with each other and they are illustrated with the help of four models of interaction of the system with its environment.

  1. Robust high-fidelity teleportation of an atomic state through the detection of cavity decay

    SciTech Connect

    Yu Bo; Zhou Zhengwei; Zhang Yong; Xiang Guoyong; Guo Guangcan

    2004-07-01

    We propose a scheme for the quantum teleportation of an atomic state based on the detection of cavity decay. The internal state of an atom trapped in a cavity can be disembodiedly transferred to another atom trapped in a distant cavity by measuring interference of polarized photons through single-photon detectors. In comparison with the original proposal by Bose, Knight, Plenio, and Vedral [Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 5158 (1999)], our protocol of teleportation has a high fidelity of almost unity, and inherent robustness, such as the insensitivity of fidelity to randomness in the atom's position, and to detection inefficiency. All these favorable features make the scheme feasible with the current experimental technology.

  2. Simulator fidelity and training effectiveness: a comprehensive bibliography with selected annotations

    SciTech Connect

    Rankin, W.L.; Bolton, P.A.; Shikiar, R.; Saari, L.M.

    1984-05-01

    This document contains a comprehensive bibliography on the topic of simulator fidelity and training effectiveness, prepared during the preliminary phases of work on an NRC-sponsored project on the Role of Nuclear Power Plant Simulators in Operator Licensing and Training. Section A of the document is an annotated bibliography consisting of articles and reports with relevance to the psychological aspects of simulator fidelity and the effectiveness of training simulators in a variety of settings, including military. The annotated items are drawn from a more comprehensive bibliography, presented in Section B, listing documents treating the role of simulators in operator training both in the nuclear industry and elsewhere.

  3. A possible mechanism for the dynamics of transition between polymerase and exonuclease sites in a high-fidelity DNA polymerase.

    PubMed

    Xie, Ping

    2009-08-01

    The fidelity of DNA synthesis by DNA polymerase is significantly increased by a mechanism of proofreading that is performed at the exonuclease active site separate from the polymerase active site. Thus, the transition of DNA between the two active sites is an important activity of DNA polymerase. Here, based on our proposed model, the rates of DNA transition between the two active sites are theoretically studied. With the relevant parameters, which are determined from the available crystal structure and other experimental data, the calculated transfer rate of correctly base-paired DNA from the polymerase to exonuclease sites and the transfer rate after incorporation of a mismatched base are in good agreement with the available experimental data. The transfer rates in the presence of two and three mismatched bases are also consistent with the previous experimental data. In addition, the calculated transfer rate from the exonuclease to polymerase sites has a large value even with the high binding affinity of 3'-5' ssDNA for the exonuclease site, which is also consistent with the available experimental value. Moreover, we also give some predictive results for the transfer rate of DNA containing only A:T base pairs and that of DNA containing only G:C base pairs.

  4. Validation and verification of a high-fidelity computational model for a bounding robot's parallel actuated elastic spine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pusey, Jason L.; Yoo, Jin-Hyeong

    2014-06-01

    We document the design and preliminary numerical simulation study of a high fidelity model of Canid, a recently introduced bounding robot. Canid is a free-standing, power-autonomous quadrupedal machine constructed from standard commercially available electromechanical and structural elements, incorporating compliant C-shaped legs like those of the decade old RHex design, but departing from that standard (and, to the best of our knowledge, from any prior) robot platform in its parallel actuated elastic spine. We have used a commercial modeling package to develop a finite-element model of the actuated, cable-driven, rigid-plate-reinforced harness for the carbon-fiber spring that joins the robot's fore- and hind-quarters. We compare a numerical model of this parallel actuated elastic spine with empirical data from preliminary physical experiments with the most important component of the spine assembly: the composite leaf spring. Specifically, we report our progress in tuning the mechanical properties of a standard modal approximation to a conventional compliant beam model whose boundary conditions represent constraints imposed by the actuated cable driven vertebral plates that comprise the active control affordance over the spine. We conclude with a brief look ahead at near-term future experiments that will compare predictions of this fitted composite spring model with data taken from the physical spine flexed in isolation from the actuated harness.

  5. The Validity and Incremental Validity of Knowledge Tests, Low-Fidelity Simulations, and High-Fidelity Simulations for Predicting Job Performance in Advanced-Level High-Stakes Selection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lievens, Filip; Patterson, Fiona

    2011-01-01

    In high-stakes selection among candidates with considerable domain-specific knowledge and experience, investigations of whether high-fidelity simulations (assessment centers; ACs) have incremental validity over low-fidelity simulations (situational judgment tests; SJTs) are lacking. Therefore, this article integrates research on the validity of…

  6. High fidelity modeling of thermal relaxation and dissociation of oxygen

    SciTech Connect

    Andrienko, Daniil A. Boyd, Iain D.

    2015-11-15

    A master equation study of vibrational relaxation and dissociation of oxygen is conducted using state-specific O{sub 2}–O transition rates, generated by extensive trajectory simulations. Both O{sub 2}–O and O{sub 2}–O{sub 2} collisions are concurrently simulated in the evolving nonequilibrium gas system under constant heat bath conditions. The forced harmonic oscillator model is incorporated to simulate the state-to-state relaxation of oxygen in O{sub 2}–O{sub 2} collisions. The system of master equations is solved to simulate heating and cooling flows. The present study demonstrates the importance of atom-diatom collisions due to the extremely efficient energy randomization in the intermediate O{sub 3} complex. It is shown that the presence of atomic oxygen has a significant impact on vibrational relaxation time at temperatures observed in hypersonic flow. The population of highly-excited O{sub 2} vibrational states is affected by the amount of atomic oxygen when modeling the relaxation under constant heat bath conditions. A model of coupled state-to-state vibrational relaxation and dissociation of oxygen is also discussed.

  7. High fidelity modeling of thermal relaxation and dissociation of oxygen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrienko, Daniil A.; Boyd, Iain D.

    2015-11-01

    A master equation study of vibrational relaxation and dissociation of oxygen is conducted using state-specific O2-O transition rates, generated by extensive trajectory simulations. Both O2-O and O2-O2 collisions are concurrently simulated in the evolving nonequilibrium gas system under constant heat bath conditions. The forced harmonic oscillator model is incorporated to simulate the state-to-state relaxation of oxygen in O2-O2 collisions. The system of master equations is solved to simulate heating and cooling flows. The present study demonstrates the importance of atom-diatom collisions due to the extremely efficient energy randomization in the intermediate O3 complex. It is shown that the presence of atomic oxygen has a significant impact on vibrational relaxation time at temperatures observed in hypersonic flow. The population of highly-excited O2 vibrational states is affected by the amount of atomic oxygen when modeling the relaxation under constant heat bath conditions. A model of coupled state-to-state vibrational relaxation and dissociation of oxygen is also discussed.

  8. The Impact of Child and Family Team Composition on Wraparound Fidelity: Examining Links between Team Attendance Consistency and Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palamaro Munsell, Eylin; Cook, James R.; Kilmer, Ryan P.; Vishnevsky, Tanya; Strompolis, Melissa

    2011-01-01

    Although a growing body of literature has examined wraparound implementation and fidelity, child and family team (CFT) members' levels of participation and the consistency of their attendance have not been systematically examined. This study explored the relationship between CFT member attendance consistency and the fidelity of wraparound team…

  9. Relationship between Systems Coaching and Problem-Solving Implementation Fidelity in a Response-to-Intervention Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    March, Amanda L.; Castillo, Jose M.; Batsche, George M.; Kincaid, Donald

    2016-01-01

    The literature on RTI has indicated that professional development and coaching are critical to facilitating problem-solving implementation with fidelity. This study examined the extent to which systems coaching related to the fidelity of problem-solving implementation in 31 schools from six districts. Schools participated in three years of a…

  10. Comparison of Intervention Fidelity between COPE TEEN and an Attention-Control Program in a Randomized Controlled Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Stephanie A.; Oswalt, Krista; Melnyk, Bernadette Mazurek; Jacobson, Diana

    2015-01-01

    Fidelity in implementing an intervention is critical to accurately determine and interpret the effects of an intervention. It is important to monitor the manner in which the behavioral intervention is implemented (e.g. adaptations, delivery as intended and dose). Few interventions are implemented with 100% fidelity. In this study, high school…

  11. Engineering description of the OMS/RCS/DAP modes used in the HP-9825A High Fidelity Relative Motion Program (HFRMP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, S. W.

    1978-01-01

    Simplified mathematical models are reported for the space shuttle's Orbital Maneuvering System (OMS), Reaction Control System (RCS), and on-orbit Digital Autopilot (DAP) that have been incorporated in the High-Fidelity Relative Motion Program (HFRMP) for the HP-9825A desk-top calculator. Comparisons were made between data generated by the HFRMP and by the Space Shuttle Functional Simulator (SSFS), which models the cited shuttle systems in much greater detail. These data include propellant requirements for representative translational maneuvers, rotational maneuvers, and attitude maintenance options. Also included are data relating to on-orbit trajectory deviations induced by RCS translational cross coupling. Potential close-range stationkeeping problems that are suggested by HFRMP simulations of 80 millisecond (as opposed to 40 millisecond) DAP cycle effects are described. The principal function of the HFRMP is to serve as a flight design tool in the area of proximity operations.

  12. Device-Task Fidelity and Transfer of Training: Aircraft Cockpit Procedures Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prophet, Wallace W.; Boyd, H. Alton

    An evaluation was made of the training effectiveness of two cockpit procedures training devices, differing greatly in physical fidelity and cost, for use on the ground for a twin-engine, turboprop, fixed-wing aircraft. One group of students received training in cockpit procedures in a relatively expensive, sophisticated, computerized trainer,…

  13. Measuring Fidelity and Adaptation: Reliability of a Instrument for School-Based Prevention Programs.

    PubMed

    Bishop, Dana C; Pankratz, Melinda M; Hansen, William B; Albritton, Jordan; Albritton, Lauren; Strack, Joann

    2014-06-01

    There is a need to standardize methods for assessing fidelity and adaptation. Such standardization would allow program implementation to be examined in a manner that will be useful for understanding the moderating role of fidelity in dissemination research. This article describes a method for collecting data about fidelity of implementation for school-based prevention programs, including measures of adherence, quality of delivery, dosage, participant engagement, and adaptation. We report about the reliability of these methods when applied by four observers who coded video recordings of teachers delivering All Stars, a middle school drug prevention program. Interrater agreement for scaled items was assessed for an instrument designed to evaluate program fidelity. Results indicated sound interrater reliability for items assessing adherence, dosage, quality of teaching, teacher understanding of concepts, and program adaptations. The interrater reliability for items assessing potential program effectiveness, classroom management, achievement of activity objectives, and adaptation valences was improved by dichotomizing the response options for these items. The item that assessed student engagement demonstrated only modest interrater reliability and was not improved through dichotomization. Several coder pairs were discordant on items that overall demonstrated good interrater reliability. Proposed modifications to the coding manual and protocol are discussed.

  14. Fidelity of Implementation and Instructional Alignment in Response to Intervention Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, David R.; King, Seth A.; Lemons, Christopher J.; Partanen, Jane N.

    2012-01-01

    In this review, we explore the extent to which researchers evaluating the efficacy of Tier 2 elementary reading interventions within the framework of Response to Intervention reported on fidelity of implementation and alignment of instruction between tiers. A literature search identified 22 empirical studies from which conclusions were drawn.…

  15. Treatment Fidelity of Motivational Interviewing Delivered by a School Nurse to Increase Girls' Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robbins, Lorraine B.; Pfeiffer, Karin A.; Maier, Kimberly S.; LaDrig, Stacey M.; Berg-Smith, Steven Malcolm

    2012-01-01

    Motivational interviewing, which involves the use of person-centered, directive counseling techniques, shows promise for changing adolescent behaviors. The purpose of this article was to describe the methodology and findings related to the treatment fidelity of three face-to-face motivational interviewing sessions involving middle school girls and…

  16. Individual fluctuations in toxin levels affect breeding site fidelity in a chemically defended amphibian.

    PubMed

    Bucciarelli, Gary M; Green, David B; Shaffer, H Bradley; Kats, Lee B

    2016-05-25

    Behaviours that influence habitat selection strongly determine species movement patterns. One component of animal behaviour that largely influences movement patterns and habitat choice is site fidelity. California newts (family Salamandridae) demonstrate remarkable site fidelity, typically homing to the same pool of a stream each breeding season. Individuals often occupy a specific pool throughout the breeding season, but some males shift among breeding pools, altering their set of potential mates, competitors, and predators. In this study, we measured dermal concentrations of the chemical defence compound tetrodotoxin (TTX) in recaptured male California newts (Taricha torosa) over five breeding seasons to evaluate whether relative TTX concentrations are associated with breeding site fidelity in the field. Our five years of field sampling indicates that TTX concentrations of individuals and group means fluctuate tremendously, implying that TTX is not a stable phenotypic trait. Despite such fluctuations, we found that an individual's relative TTX concentration explains fidelity to a breeding pool and suggests that newts may be able to assess both their own concentrations of TTX and that of conspecifics to make decisions about remaining in or abandoning a breeding pool. These results provide us a novel dimension to chemical defence phenotypes in nature and their ecological consequences, potentially requiring a re-evaluation of the coevolutionary dynamics of predation pressure on toxin-laden organisms. PMID:27194704

  17. A Randomized Controlled Study of Manikin Simulator Fidelity on Neonatal Resuscitation Program Learning Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curran, Vernon; Fleet, Lisa; White, Susan; Bessell, Clare; Deshpandey, Akhil; Drover, Anne; Hayward, Mark; Valcour, James

    2015-01-01

    The neonatal resuscitation program (NRP) has been developed to educate physicians and other health care providers about newborn resuscitation and has been shown to improve neonatal resuscitation skills. Simulation-based training is recommended as an effective modality for instructing neonatal resuscitation and both low and high-fidelity manikin…

  18. DksA involvement in transcription fidelity buffers stochastic epigenetic change.

    PubMed

    Satory, Dominik; Gordon, Alasdair J E; Wang, Mengyu; Halliday, Jennifer A; Golding, Ido; Herman, Christophe

    2015-12-01

    DksA is an auxiliary transcription factor that interacts with RNA polymerase and influences gene expression. Depending on the promoter, DksA can be a positive or negative regulator of transcription initiation. Moreover, DksA has a substantial effect on transcription elongation where it prevents the collision of transcription and replication machineries, plays a key role in maintaining transcription elongation when translation and transcription are uncoupled and has been shown to be involved in transcription fidelity. Here, we assessed the role of DksA in transcription fidelity by monitoring stochastic epigenetic switching in the lac operon (with and without an error-prone transcription slippage sequence), partial phenotypic suppression of a lacZ nonsense allele, as well as monitoring the number of lacI mRNA transcripts produced in the presence and absence of DksA via an operon fusion and single molecule fluorescent in situ hybridization studies. We present data showing that DksA acts to maintain transcription fidelity in vivo and the role of DksA seems to be distinct from that of the GreA and GreB transcription fidelity factors.

  19. Progress in the utilization of high-fidelity simulation in basic science education.

    PubMed

    Helyer, Richard; Dickens, Peter

    2016-06-01

    High-fidelity patient simulators are mainly used to teach clinical skills and remain underutilized in teaching basic sciences. This article summarizes our current views on the use of simulation in basic science education and identifies pitfalls and opportunities for progress.

  20. An Assessment of Intervention Fidelity in Published Social Work Intervention Research Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corley, Nicole A.; Kim, Irang

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Intervention fidelity is a critical strategy to help advance the usefulness and integrity of social work research. This study assessed the extent to which a selected sample of published social work intervention researchers reported its intervention protocols. Methods: Six core social work journals were reviewed in this analysis. The…

  1. High-Fidelity Simulation Meets Athletic Training Education: An Innovative Collaborative Teaching Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, Elizabeth; Edwards, Taylor; Racchini, James

    2014-01-01

    High-fidelity simulation is frequently used in nursing education to provide students with simulated experiences prior to and throughout clinical coursework that involves direct patient care. These high-tech exercises take advantage of the benefits of a standardized patient or mock patient encounter, while eliminating some of the drawbacks…

  2. Zero-Fidelity Simulation: Engaging Team Coordination without Physical, Functional, or Psychological Re-Creation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Toups, Zachary O.; Hamilton, William A.; Kerne, Andruid

    2012-01-01

    Team coordination is essential across domains, enabling efficiency and safety. As technology improves, our temptation is to simulate with ever-higher fidelity, by making simulators re-create reality through their physical interfaces, functionality, and by making participants believe they are undertaking the simulated task. However, high-fidelity simulations often miss salient human-human work practices. We introduce the concept of zero-fidelity simulation (ZFS), a move away from literal high-fidelity mimesis of the concrete environment. ZFS alternatively models cooperation and communication as the basis of simulation. The ZFS Team Coordination Game (TeC) is developed from observation of fire emergency response work practice. We identify ways in which team members are mutually dependent on one another for information, and use these as the basis for the ZFS game design. The design creates a need for cooperation by restricting individual activity and requiring communication. The present research analyzes the design of interdependence in the validated ZFS TeC game. We successfully simulate interdependence between roles in emergency response without simulating the concrete environment.

  3. Fidelity of RNA polymerase II transcription controlled by elongation factor TFIIS

    PubMed Central

    Jeon, ChoonJu; Agarwal, Kan

    1996-01-01

    Fidelity of DNA and protein synthesis is regulated by a proofreading mechanism but function of a similar mechanism during RNA synthesis has not been demonstrated. Analysis of transcriptional fidelity and its control has been hampered by the necessity to employ complex DNA templates requiring either a promoter and initiation factors or 3′-extended templates. To circumvent this difficulty, we have created an RNA–DNA dumbbell template that can be recognized as a template-primer and extended by RNA polymerase II. By employing this system, we demonstrate that RNA polymerase II can misincorporate a nucleotide and carry out template-dependent elongation at the mispaired end. The transcripts containing misincorporated residues can be cleaved by the very slow 3′ → 5′ ribonuclease activity of the RNA polymerase II, but enhancement of this activity by the elongation factor TFIIS generates RNA with a high degree of fidelity. This enhanced preferential cleavage of misincorporated transcripts suggests an important role for TFIIS in maintaining transcriptional fidelity. PMID:8942993

  4. Becoming a High-Fidelity--"Super"--Imitator: What Are the Contributions of Social and Individual Learning?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Subiaul, Francys; Patterson, Eric M.; Schilder, Brian; Renner, Elizabeth; Barr, Rachel

    2015-01-01

    In contrast to other primates, human children's imitation performance goes from low to high fidelity soon after infancy. Are such changes associated with the development of other forms of learning? We addressed this question by testing 215 children (26-59 months) on two social conditions (imitation, emulation)--involving a demonstration--and two…

  5. Validity as Process: A Construct Driven Measure of Fidelity of Implementation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Ryan Seth

    2013-01-01

    Estimates of fidelity of implementation are essential to interpret the effects of educational interventions in randomized controlled trials (RCTs). While random assignment protects against many threats to validity, and therefore provides the best approximation to a true counterfactual condition, it does not ensure that the treatment condition…

  6. High-Fidelity Single-Qubit Gates for Two-Electron Spin Qubits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Botzem, Tim; Cerfontaine, Pascal; Divincenzo, David P.; Bluhm, Hendrik

    2014-03-01

    High fidelity gate operations for manipulating individual and multiple qubits in the presence of decoherence are a prerequisite for fault-tolerant quantum information processing. However, the control methods used in earlier experiments on semiconductor two-electron spin qubits are based on unrealistic approximations which preclude reaching the required fidelities. An attractive remedy is to use control pulses found in numerical simulations that minimize the infidelity from decoherence and take the experimentally important imperfections and constraints into account. Using this approach and experimentally determined noise spectra, we find pulses for singlet-triplet qubits in GaAs double quantum dots with fidelities as high as 99.9%. Fully eliminating systematic pulse errors will likely require a calibration of the pulses on the experiment using some form of self-consistent approach. Starting with inaccurate control pulses we show that elimination of individual systematic gate errors is possible by applying a modification of the bootstrap protocol proposed by Dobrovitski et al. (PRL 105, 2010) while still retaining the pulses' high fidelities.

  7. Within-Year Fidelity Growth of SWPBIS during Installation and Initial Implementation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaper, Andrew; McIntosh, Kent; Hoselton, Robert

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to document within-year fidelity growth during installation and initial implementation of School-Wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (SWPBIS). Participants included school teams from schools throughout the United States that were in years 1 to 4 of SWPBIS implementation and routinely evaluated their…

  8. An optical method for evaluation of geometric fidelity for anatomically shaped tissue-engineered constructs.

    PubMed

    Ballyns, Jeffrey J; Cohen, Daniel L; Malone, Evan; Maher, Suzanne A; Potter, Hollis G; Wright, Timothy; Lipson, Hod; Bonassar, Lawrence J

    2010-08-01

    Quantification of shape fidelity of complex geometries for tissue-engineered constructs has not been thoroughly investigated. The objective of this study was to quantitatively describe geometric fidelities of various approaches to the fabrication of anatomically shaped meniscal constructs. Ovine menisci (n = 4) were imaged using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and microcomputed tomography (microCT). Acrylonitrile butadiene styrene plastic molds were designed from each imaging modality and three-dimensional printed on a Stratasys FDM 3000. Silastic impression molds were fabricated directly from ovine menisci. These molds were used to generate shaped constructs using 2% alginate with 2% CaSO(4). Solid freeform fabrication was conducted on a custom open-architecture three-dimensional printing platform. Printed samples were made using 2% alginate with 0.75% CaSO(4). Hydrogel constructs were scanned via laser triangulation distance sensor. The point cloud images were analyzed to acquire computational measurements for key points of interest (e.g., height, width, and volume). Silastic molds were within + or - 10% error with respect to the native tissue for seven key measurements, microCT molds for six of seven, microCT prints for four of seven, MRI molds for five of seven, and MRI prints for four of seven. This work shows the ability to generate and quantify anatomically shaped meniscal constructs of high geometric fidelity and lends insight into the relative geometric fidelities of several tissue engineering techniques.

  9. Designing High Fidelity Simulation to Maximize Student Registered Nursing Decision-Making Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deckers, Cathleen

    2011-01-01

    The current healthcare environment is a complex system of patients, procedures, and equipment that strives to deliver safe and effective medical care. High fidelity simulation provides healthcare educators with a tool to create safety conscious practitioners utilizing an environment that replicates practice without risk to patients. Using HFS…

  10. Developing High-Fidelity Health Care Simulation Scenarios: A Guide for Educators and Professionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alinier, Guillaume

    2011-01-01

    The development of appropriate scenarios is critical in high-fidelity simulation training. They need to be developed to address specific learning objectives, while not preventing other learning points from emerging. Buying a patient simulator, finding a volunteer to act as the patient, or even obtaining ready-made scenarios from another simulation…

  11. Advancements in Procedural Fidelity Assessment and Intervention: Introduction to the Special Issue

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiGennaro Reed, Florence D.; Codding, Robin S.

    2014-01-01

    Interest in procedural fidelity has grown rapidly since 1981 as evidenced by the growing numbers of research publications across disciplines on this topic. As a result, the past 30 years of research has yielded a variety of procedures to guide research and practice, which we hope translates into better educational practices and services. Despite…

  12. Program Fidelity and Teacher Decisions: A Case Study of the Renaissance Learning Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Putnam, Jennifer D.

    2011-01-01

    This dissertation was designed to examine the degree to which the fidelity of implementation of the Renaissance Learning program impacts teacher instruction, as well as teacher perception of student reading motivation and achievement. The teachers at a western North Carolina elementary school used the Renaissance Learning program for over 15…

  13. Implementation Fidelity of Packaged Teen Smoking Cessation Treatments Delivered in Community-Based Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sterling, Kymberle; Curry, Susan; Sporer, Amy; Emery, Sherry; Mermelstein, Robin

    2009-01-01

    Efficacious "packaged" teen smoking cessation treatment programs, those developed by national organizations, are widely disseminated to local communities to help teens quit smoking. The implementation fidelity of these programs in community settings has not been documented. The efficacy of these programs could be lessened if they are not…

  14. A Systematic Review of Fidelity of Implementation in Parent-Mediated Early Communication Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lieberman-Betz, Rebecca G.

    2015-01-01

    This article examined the reporting of four elements of fidelity of implementation (FOI) in parent-mediated early communication treatment studies. Thirty-five studies were reviewed to extract information regarding reporting of dosage, adherence, quality, and participant responsiveness for both practitioners and parents involved in parent-delivered…

  15. Fidelity in After-School Program Intervention Research: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maynard, Brandy R.; Peters, Kristen E.; Vaughn, Michael G.; Sarteschi, Christine M.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: This study examined whether and to what extent researchers addressed intervention fidelity in research of after-school programs serving at-risk students. Method: Systematic review procedures were used to search, retrieve, select, and analyze studies for this review. Fifty-five intervention studies were assessed on the following…

  16. Model Fidelity and Students' Responses to an Authenticated Unit of Cooperative Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casey, Ashley; Goodyear, Victoria A.; Dyson, Ben

    2015-01-01

    A wealth of school-based interventions report on students' positive responses to the use of models-based practice in physical education. However, research that examines the effectiveness of models-based practice rarely reports on the fidelity of implementation i.e. when all of the characteristics of a model are implemented. The purpose of this…

  17. Assessing Implementation Fidelity and Adaptation in a Community-Based Childhood Obesity Prevention Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards, Zoe; Kostadinov, Iordan; Jones, Michelle; Richard, Lucie; Cargo, Margaret

    2014-01-01

    Little research has assessed the fidelity, adaptation or integrity of activities implemented within community-based obesity prevention initiatives. To address this gap, a mixed-method process evaluation was undertaken in the context of the South Australian Obesity Prevention and Lifestyle (OPAL) initiative. An ecological coding procedure assessed…

  18. Evaluating the Implementation of the Empowering Coaching™ Programme: Balancing Fidelity and Adaptation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Søvik, Margaret L.; Larsen, Torill; Tjomsland, Hege; Samdal, Oddrun

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore the implementation of a theoretically grounded coach education training programme for youth football coaches in Norway, through observational methods. In particular, it focuses on implementation fidelity and programme adaptation, and possible differences between the coach educators (CEs) according…

  19. High-Fidelity Patient Simulators to Expose Undergraduate Students to the Clinical Relevance of Physiology Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, David M.; Bellew, Christine; Cheng, Zixi J.; Cendán, Juan C.; Kibble, Jonathan D.

    2014-01-01

    The use of high-fidelity patient simulators (HFPSs) has expanded throughout medical, nursing, and allied health professions education in the last decades. These manikins can be programmed to represent pathological states and are used to teach clinical skills as well as clinical reasoning. First, the students are typically oriented either to the…

  20. Intervention Fidelity for a Complex Behaviour Change Intervention in Community Pharmacy Addressing Cardiovascular Disease Risk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNamara, K. P.; O'Reilly, S. L.; George, J.; Peterson, G. M.; Jackson, S. L.; Duncan, G.; Howarth, H.; Dunbar, J. A.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Delivery of cardiovascular disease (CVD) prevention programs by community pharmacists appears effective and enhances health service access. However, their capacity to implement complex behavioural change processes during patient counselling remains largely unexplored. This study aims to determine intervention fidelity by pharmacists…

  1. Evaluating the Implementation Fidelity of Technology Immersion and Its Relationship with Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shapley, Kelly S.; Sheehan, Daniel; Maloney, Catherine; Caranikas-Walker, Fanny

    2010-01-01

    In a pilot study of the Technology Immersion model, high-need middle schools were "immersed" in technology by providing a laptop for each student and teacher, wireless Internet access, curricular and assessment resources, professional development, and technical and pedagogical support. This article examines the fidelity of model implementation and…

  2. The Eeffects of Implementation Fidelity in the "Towards No Drug Abuse" Dissemination Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Little, Melissa A.; Sussman, Steven; Sun, Ping; Rohrbach, Louise A.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The current study aims to examine the influence of contextual and provider-level factors on the implementation fidelity of a research-based substance abuse prevention program. Also, it aims to investigate whether two provider-level factors, self-efficacy and beliefs about the value of the program, statistically moderate and mediate the…

  3. An Analysis of the Educational Value of Low-Fidelity Anatomy Models as External Representations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Lap Ki; Cheng, Maurice M. W.

    2011-01-01

    Although high-fidelity digital models of human anatomy based on actual cross-sectional images of the human body have been developed, reports on the use of physical models in anatomy teaching continue to appear. This article aims to examine the common features shared by these physical models and analyze their educational value based on the…

  4. Customizing a Research-Based Reading Practice: Balancing the Importance of Implementation Fidelity with Professional Judgment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMaster, Kristen L.; Jung, Pyung-Gang; Brandes, Dana; Pinto, Viveca; Fuchs, Douglas; Kearns, Devin; Lemons, Christopher; Sáenz, Laura; Yen, Loulee

    2014-01-01

    Teachers are often asked to implement research-based instructional programs with fidelity and to ensure that all students reach high academic standards. These requests sometimes conflict when teachers find that not all their students are benefiting from the research-backed programs. In this article, we suggest that researchers and teachers can…

  5. Analyzing clonal fidelity of micropropagated Psidium guajava L. plants using simple sequence repeat markers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Micropropagation of Psidium guajava L. (guava) is a viable alternative to currently adopted techniques for large-scale plant propagation of commercial cultivars. Assessment of clonal fidelity in micropropagated plants is the first step towards ensuring genetic uniformity in mass production of planti...

  6. The Value of Fidelity of Implementation Criteria to Evaluate School-Based Science Curriculum Innovations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Yew-Jin; Chue, Shien

    2013-01-01

    School-based curriculum innovations, including those in science education, are usually not adequately evaluated, if at all. Furthermore, current procedures and instruments for programme evaluations are often unable to support evidence-based decision-making. We suggest that adopting fidelity of implementation (FOI) criteria from healthcare research…

  7. Debriefing after High-Fidelity Simulation and Knowledge Retention: A Quasi-Experimental Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Susan L.

    2013-01-01

    High-fidelity simulation (HFS) use in nursing education has been a frequent research topic in recent years. Previous research included studies on the use of HFS with nursing students, focusing on their feelings of self-confidence and anxiety. However, research focused specifically on the debriefing portion of HFS was limited. This quantitative,…

  8. Treatment Fidelity: Its Importance and Reported Frequency in Aphasia Treatment Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinckley, Jacqueline J.; Douglas, Natalie F.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Treatment fidelity is a measure of the reliability of the administration of an intervention in a treatment study. It is an important aspect of the validity of a research study, and it has implications for the ultimate implementation of evidence-supported interventions in typical clinical settings. Method: Aphasia treatment studies…

  9. Developing a Fidelity of Implementation Measure for the "Responsive Classroom" Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nathanson, Lori

    2009-01-01

    This study examines the psychometric properties, reliability, and validity of a measure designed to assess fidelity of implementation of the "Responsive Classroom"[R] ("RC") approach. The Classroom Practices Teacher Survey (CPTS) assesses teachers' use of the "RC" approach, a social and emotional learning (SEL) intervention currently under…

  10. Genetic fidelity and variability of micropropagated cassava plants (Manihot esculenta Crantz) evaluated using ISSR markers.

    PubMed

    Vidal, Á M; Vieira, L J; Ferreira, C F; Souza, F V D; Souza, A S; Ledo, C A S

    2015-07-14

    Molecular markers are efficient for assessing the genetic fidelity of various species of plants after in vitro culture. In this study, we evaluated the genetic fidelity and variability of micropropagated cassava plants (Manihot esculenta Crantz) using inter-simple sequence repeat markers. Twenty-two cassava accessions from the Embrapa Cassava & Fruits Germplasm Bank were used. For each accession, DNA was extracted from a plant maintained in the field and from 3 plants grown in vitro. For DNA amplification, 27 inter-simple sequence repeat primers were used, of which 24 generated 175 bands; 100 of those bands were polymorphic and were used to study genetic variability among accessions of cassava plants maintained in the field. Based on the genetic distance matrix calculated using the arithmetic complement of the Jaccard's index, genotypes were clustered using the unweighted pair group method using arithmetic averages. The number of bands per primer was 2-13, with an average of 7.3. For most micropropagated accessions, the fidelity study showed no genetic variation between plants of the same accessions maintained in the field and those maintained in vitro, confirming the high genetic fidelity of the micropropagated plants. However, genetic variability was observed among different accessions grown in the field, and clustering based on the dissimilarity matrix revealed 7 groups. Inter-simple sequence repeat markers were efficient for detecting the genetic homogeneity of cassava plants derived from meristem culture, demonstrating the reliability of this propagation system.

  11. Structural Basis of High-Fidelity DNA Synthesis by Yeast DNA Polymerase δ

    SciTech Connect

    Swan, M.; Johnson, R; Prakash, L; Prakash, S; Aggarwal, A

    2009-01-01

    DNA polymerase ? (Pol ?) has a crucial role in eukaryotic replication. Now the crystal structure of the yeast DNA Pol ? catalytic subunit in complex with template primer and incoming nucleotide is presented at 2.0-A resolution, providing insight into its high fidelity and a framework to understand the effects of mutations involved in tumorigenesis.

  12. A Fidelity Scale for the Individual Placement and Support Model of Supported Employment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bond, Gary R.; Becker, Deborah R.; Drake, Robert E.; Vogler, Kathleen M.

    1997-01-01

    Developed a 15-item fidelity scale to assess the extent to which vocational programs for people with severe mental illness followed the Individual Placement and Support model of supported employment. Results indicate that interrater reliability and internal consistency were adequate. Should help differentiate programs following a specific model…

  13. Teacher Agency and Professional Learning: Rethinking Fidelity of Implementation as Multiplicities of Enactment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buxton, Cory A.; Allexsaht-Snider, Martha; Kayumova, Shakhnoza; Aghasaleh, Rouhollah; Choi, Youn-Jeng; Cohen, Allan

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we use practice theory, with its focus on the interplay of structure and agency, to theorize about teacher engagement in professional learning and teacher enactment of pedagogical practices as an alternative to framing implementation research in terms of program adherence and fidelity of implementation. Practice theory allowed us to…

  14. Information Processing, Specificity of Practice, and the Transfer of Learning: Considerations for Reconsidering Fidelity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grierson, Lawrence E. M.

    2014-01-01

    Much has been made in the recent medical education literature of the incorrect characterization of simulation along a continuum of low to high fidelity (Cook et al. "JAMA" 306(9): 978-988, 2011; Norman et al. "Med Educ" 46(7): 636-647, 2012; Teteris et al. "Adv Health Sci Educ" 17(1): 137-144, 2012). For the most…

  15. The Effects of Child Behavior Problems on the Maintenance of Intervention Fidelity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McConnachie, Gene; Carr, Edward G.

    1997-01-01

    Investigates the effects of child behavior problems on teachers' (N=3) intervention fidelity across two intervention protocols: escape extinction and functional communication training. Results indicate that a high rate of behavior problems during escape extinction appeared to punish teachers' efforts. A low rate of behavior problems was evident…

  16. The essential mycobacterial amidotransferase GatCAB is a modulator of specific translational fidelity.

    PubMed

    Su, Hong-Wei; Zhu, Jun-Hao; Li, Hao; Cai, Rong-Jun; Ealand, Christopher; Wang, Xun; Chen, Yu-Xiang; Kayani, Masood Ur Rehman; Zhu, Ting F; Moradigaravand, Danesh; Huang, Hairong; Kana, Bavesh D; Javid, Babak

    2016-01-01

    Although regulation of translation fidelity is an essential process(1-7), diverse organisms and organelles have differing requirements of translational accuracy(8-15), and errors in gene translation serve an adaptive function under certain conditions(16-20). Therefore, optimal levels of fidelity may vary according to context. Most bacteria utilize a two-step pathway for the specific synthesis of aminoacylated glutamine and/or asparagine tRNAs, involving the glutamine amidotransferase GatCAB(21-25), but it had not been appreciated that GatCAB may play a role in modulating mistranslation rates. Here, by using a forward genetic screen, we show that the mycobacterial GatCAB enzyme complex mediates the translational fidelity of glutamine and asparagine codons. We identify mutations in gatA that cause partial loss of function in the holoenzyme, with a consequent increase in rates of mistranslation. By monitoring single-cell transcription dynamics, we demonstrate that reduced gatCAB expression leads to increased mistranslation rates, which result in enhanced rifampicin-specific phenotypic resistance. Consistent with this, strains with mutations in gatA from clinical isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis show increased mistranslation, with associated antibiotic tolerance, suggesting a role for mistranslation as an adaptive strategy in tuberculosis. Together, our findings demonstrate a potential role for the indirect tRNA aminoacylation pathway in regulating translational fidelity and adaptive mistranslation. PMID:27564922

  17. Progress in the Utilization of High-Fidelity Simulation in Basic Science Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helyer, Richard; Dickens, Peter

    2016-01-01

    High-fidelity patient simulators are mainly used to teach clinical skills and remain underutilized in teaching basic sciences. This article summarizes our current views on the use of simulation in basic science education and identifies pitfalls and opportunities for progress.

  18. Intervention Fidelity in Family-Based Prevention Counseling for Adolescent Problem Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hogue, Aaron; Liddle, Howard A.; Singer, Alisa; Leckrone, Jodi

    2005-01-01

    This study examined fidelity in multidimensional family prevention (MDFP), a family-based prevention counseling model for adolescents at high risk for substance abuse and related behavior problems, in comparison to two empirically based treatments for adolescent drug abuse: multidimensional family therapy (MDFT) and cognitive-behavioral therapy…

  19. Robustness-to-uncertainty, fidelity-to-data, prediction-looseness of models

    SciTech Connect

    Ben-Haim, Yakov,; Hemez, F. M.

    2004-01-01

    A key aspect of science-based predictive modeling is to assess the credibility of predictions. To gain confidence in predictions, one should demonstrate consistency between physical observations, expert judgments, and the predictions of equally credible models. This suggests a relationship between fidelity-to-data , robustness-to-uncertainty, and confidence in prediction. The purpose of this work is to explore the interaction between these three aspects of predictive modeling. The concepts of fidelity, robustness, and confidence are first defined in a broad sense. A Theorem is then proven that establishes that these three objectives are antagonistic. This means that high-fidelity models cannot, at the same time, be made robust to uncertainty and lack-of-knowledge. Similarly, equally robust models cannot provide consistent predictions, hence reducing confidence. The conclusion of this theoretical investigation is that, in assessing the predictive accuracy of numerical models, one should never focus on a single aspect only. Instead, the trade-offs between fidelity-to-data, robustness-to-uncertainty, and confidence in prediction should be explored.

  20. FURTHER EVALUATION OF BOOTSTRAP RESAMPLING AS A TOOL FOR RADIO-INTERFEROMETRIC IMAGING FIDELITY ASSESSMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Kemball, Athol; Mitra, Modhurita; Chiang, H.-F.

    2010-01-15

    We report on a broader evaluation of statistical bootstrap resampling methods as a tool for pixel-level calibration and imaging fidelity assessment in radio interferometry. Pixel-level imaging fidelity assessment is a challenging problem, important for the value it holds in robust scientific interpretation of interferometric images, enhancement of automated pipeline reduction systems needed to broaden the user community for these instruments, and understanding leading-edge direction-dependent calibration and imaging challenges for future telescopes such as the Square Kilometre Array. This new computational approach is now possible because of advances in statistical resampling for data with long-range dependence and the available performance of contemporary high-performance computing resources. We expand our earlier numerical evaluation to span a broader domain subset in simulated image fidelity and source brightness distribution morphologies. As before, we evaluate the statistical performance of the bootstrap resampling methods against direct Monte Carlo simulation. We find that both model-based and subsample bootstrap methods continue to show significant promise for the challenging problem of interferometric imaging fidelity assessment when evaluated over the broader domain subset. We report on their measured statistical performance and guidelines for their use and application in practice. We also examine the performance of the underlying polarization self-calibration algorithm used in this study over a range of parallactic angle coverage.

  1. Preliminary Validation of the Implementation Phases Inventory for Assessing Fidelity of Schoolwide Positive Behavior Supports

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradshaw, Catherine P.; Debnam, Katrina; Koth, Christine W.; Leaf, Philip

    2009-01-01

    Schoolwide positive behavioral interventions and supports (SWPBIS) are becoming increasingly popular with schools across the country to help create safer learning environments for students. An important aspect of SWPBIS is the ongoing monitoring and evaluation of implementation fidelity. Although a few measures have been created to assess the…

  2. System Performance and Policymaking in West European Education: Effectiveness, Efficiency, Responsiveness, and Fidelity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coombs, Fred S.; Luschen, Gunther

    1976-01-01

    One cannot gauge or understand the performance of an educational system by examining the output of that system alone. Presents and discusses four constructs--effectiveness, efficiency, responsiveness, and fidelity--which relate the output of an educational system to the important educational, economic, political and social factors which influence…

  3. The Effects of Utilizing High-Fidelity Simulation in Medical Residency Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saleta, Jennifer M.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of utilizing high-fidelity simulation on the team performance, perceived level of learning, and satisfaction of resident physicians in a simulated cardiac resuscitation scenario. This study was significant because it filled a gap in the literature about how methods of education impact healthcare…

  4. Evidence for wing molt and breeding site fidelity in King Eiders

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Phillips, Laura M.; Powell, A.N.

    2006-01-01

    Fidelity of King Eiders (Somateria spectabilis) to breeding and wing molt sites was examined using satellite telemetry data obtained opportunistically when battery life of transmitters provided locations in a second year. Consecutive breeding locations were obtained for eleven female and 23 male King Eiders. All females exhibited breeding site fidelity by returning to sites within 15 km of first year breeding areas on the North Slope of Alaska. Breeding locations of males in a subsequent year were located on average >1000 km from their prior breeding sites and were primarily outside Alaska, on the coasts of Russia and Canada. Second-year wing molt locations were obtained for two female and six male King Eiders. Wing molt sites of males were located 6.2 ?? 3.1 km apart on average in successive years, while female wing molt locations averaged almost 50 km apart. Our results demonstrate site fidelity of female King Eiders to a breeding area on the North Slope of Alaska, document the dispersal of male King Eiders between breeding seasons, and present the first evidence for wing molt site fidelity in males.

  5. An Investigation of the Impact of Aerodynamic Model Fidelity on Close-In Combat Effectiveness Prediction in Piloted Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Persing, T. Ray; Bellish, Christine A.; Brandon, Jay; Kenney, P. Sean; Carzoo, Susan; Buttrill, Catherine; Guenther, Arlene

    2005-01-01

    Several aircraft airframe modeling approaches are currently being used in the DoD community for acquisition, threat evaluation, training, and other purposes. To date there has been no clear empirical study of the impact of airframe simulation fidelity on piloted real-time aircraft simulation study results, or when use of a particular level of fidelity is indicated. This paper documents a series of piloted simulation studies using three different levels of airframe model fidelity. This study was conducted using the NASA Langley Differential Maneuvering Simulator. Evaluations were conducted with three pilots for scenarios requiring extensive maneuvering of the airplanes during air combat. In many cases, a low-fidelity modified point-mass model may be sufficient to evaluate the combat effectiveness of the aircraft. However, in cases where high angle-of-attack flying qualities and aerodynamic performance are a factor or when precision tracking ability of the aircraft must be represented, use of high-fidelity models is indicated.

  6. A Preliminary Analysis of the Effects of Coaching Feedback on Teacher Implementation Fidelity of First Step to Success

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez, Billie Jo; Loman, Sheldon L; Horner, Robert H

    2009-01-01

    First Step to Success (FSS) is a “manualized” intervention with documented effectiveness in reducing problem behaviors for young children at risk for school failure. This study is a preliminary analysis focusing on the role of performance feedback from FSS coaches on the fidelity with which teachers implemented FSS. Three typically developing students (2 kindergarten and 1 first grade) and their respective teachers served as participants. Student behavior and teacher implementation fidelity were assessed using a nonconcurrent multiple baseline design across student/teacher dyads, in which a no coaching baseline was followed by a performance feedback condition. The baseline phase showed modest levels of implementation fidelity and initial low levels of problem behavior followed by gradually increasing trends. A relation was demonstrated between coaching feedback and improved implementation fidelity. In addition, improved fidelity was associated with improvements in student problem behavior. Implications are drawn for clinical application of FSS and other “manualized” interventions. PMID:22477703

  7. High-fidelity simulation in the nonmedical domain: practices and potential transferable competencies for the medical field

    PubMed Central

    Carron, Pierre-Nicolas; Trueb, Lionel; Yersin, Bertrand

    2011-01-01

    Simulation is a promising pedagogical tool in the area of medical education. High- fidelity simulators can reproduce realistic environments or clinical situations. This allows for the practice of teamwork and communication skills, thereby enhancing reflective reasoning and experiential learning. Use of high-fidelity simulators is not limited to the medical and aeronautical fields, but has developed in a large number of nonmedical organizations as well. The techniques and pedagogical tools which have evolved through the use of nonmedical simulations serve not only as teaching examples but also as avenues which can help further the evolution of the concept of high-fidelity simulation in the field of medicine. This paper presents examples of high-fidelity simulations in the military, maritime, and aeronautical fields. We compare the implementation of high-fidelity simulation in the medical and nonmedical domains, and discuss the possibilities and limitations of simulators in medicine, based on recent nonmedical applications. PMID:23745086

  8. Host thin films incorporating nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qureshi, Uzma

    The focus of this research project was the investigation of the functional properties of thin films that incorporate a secondary nanoparticulate phase. In particular to assess if the secondary nanoparticulate material enhanced a functional property of the coating on glass. In order to achieve this, new thin film deposition methods were developed, namely use of nanopowder precursors, an aerosol assisted transport technique and an aerosol into atmospheric pressure chemical vapour deposition system. Aerosol assisted chemical vapour deposition (AACVD) was used to deposit 8 series of thin films on glass. Five different nanoparticles silver, gold, ceria, tungsten oxide and zinc oxide were tested and shown to successfully deposit thin films incorporating nanoparticles within a host matrix. Silver nanoparticles were synthesised and doped within a titania film by AACVD. This improved solar control properties. A unique aerosol assisted chemical vapour deposition (AACVD) into atmospheric pressure chemical vapour deposition (APCVD) system was used to deposit films of Au nanoparticles and thin films of gold nanoparticles incorporated within a host titania matrix. Incorporation of high refractive index contrast metal oxide particles within a host film altered the film colour. The key goal was to test the potential of nanopowder forms and transfer the suspended nanopowder via an aerosol to a substrate in order to deposit a thin film. Discrete tungsten oxide nanoparticles or ceria nanoparticles within a titanium dioxide thin film enhanced the self-cleaning and photo-induced super-hydrophilicity. The nanopowder precursor study was extended by deposition of zinc oxide thin films incorporating Au nanoparticles and also ZnO films deposited from a ZnO nanopowder precursor. Incorporation of Au nanoparticles within a VO: host matrix improved the thermochromic response, optical and colour properties. Composite VC/TiC and Au nanoparticle/V02/Ti02 thin films displayed three useful

  9. Selenium incorporation using recombinant techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Walden, Helen

    2010-04-01

    An overview of techniques for recombinant incorporation of selenium and subsequent purification and crystallization of the resulting labelled protein. Using selenomethionine to phase macromolecular structures is common practice in structure determination, along with the use of selenocysteine. Selenium is consequently the most commonly used heavy atom for MAD. In addition to the well established recombinant techniques for the incorporation of selenium in prokaryal expression systems, there have been recent advances in selenium labelling in eukaryal expression, which will be discussed. Tips and things to consider for the purification and crystallization of seleno-labelled proteins are also included.

  10. Annual survival and site fidelity of northern pintails banded on the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nicolai, Christopher A.; Flint, Paul L.; Wege, Michael L.

    2005-01-01

    We banded northern pintails (Anas acuta; n = 13,645) at a single site on the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta (YKD), Alaska, USA, from 1990 to 2001. We used recaptures from our site in combination with hunter recoveries to model annual survival, recovery rates, and fidelity to our capture location. Most recoveries (>90%) occurred in the Pacific Flyway with 64% reported from California's Central Valley. Our top candidate models allowed survival to vary by sex but not by age or year. Estimated annual survival was 77.6% (95% CI: 73.9-81.0%) for males and 60.2% (95% CI: 53.2-67.0%) for females. Reporting rates varied by age, sex, and year; estimates for adult males exceeded those for adult females by 3.5 times. Within sexes, reporting rates of hatch-year pintails exceeded those of adults. Estimated recovery rates were considerably lower than those estimated during the 1950s-1970s for winter banded pintails (Hestbeck 1993b), but there were no differences in survival rates. This suggests that changes in harvest regulations may not have influenced annual survival in this population. The propensity of banded pintails to return to our capture site (fidelity rate) varied between sexes and was positively correlated with water conditions in prairie Canada. Our estimates of fidelity rates varied from 77.4% to 87.2% for males and 89.8% to 94.3% for females. Our fidelity estimates suggest that some level of subpopulation structuring may exist for northern pintails. Additionally, our estimates of fidelity support previous observations of northern pintails overflying poor wetland habitat conditions on the Canadian prairies.

  11. Mate fidelity and breeding site tenacity in a monogamous sandpiper, the black turnstone

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Handel, C.M.; Gill, R.E.

    2000-01-01

    We examined the relationship between mate fidelity and breeding site tenacity during a 5-year study of the black turnstone, Arenaria melanocephala, a socially monogamous sandpiper breeding in subarctic Alaska. We tested the predictions of several hypotheses regarding the incidence of divorce and the benefits of fidelity to mate and breeding site. Interannual return rates to the breeding grounds (88% for males, 79% for females) were among the highest yet recorded for any scolopacid sandpiper, and 88% of returning birds nested on their previous year's territory. The annual divorce rate was only 11%, and mate fidelity was significantly linked to fidelity to territory but independent of sex and year. Males arrived in spring significantly earlier than their mates and interannual fidelity was influenced by the relative timing of arrival of pair members. Reunited pairs had significantly higher fledging success than new pairs formed after death or divorce. The incidence of divorce was unrelated to reproductive success the previous year, although birds nested significantly further away after failure than after a successful nesting attempt. Sightings of marked individuals suggested that members of pairs do not winter together, and breeding site tenacity provides a mechanism through which pair members can reunite. We reject the 'incompatibility' hypothesis for divorce in turnstones, and our data contradict predictions of the 'better option' hypothesis. Alternatively, we propose the 'bet-hedging' hypothesis to explain the occurrence of divorce, which transpires when an individual pairs with a new mate to avoid the cost of waiting for a previous mate to return. Such costs can include remaining unmated, if the former mate has died, or experiencing lower reproductive success because of delayed breeding.

  12. Mate fidelity and breeding site tenacity in a monogamous sandpiper, the black turnstone.

    PubMed

    Handel; Gill

    2000-10-01

    We examined the relationship between mate fidelity and breeding site tenacity during a 5-year study of the black turnstone, Arenaria melanocephala, a socially monogamous sandpiper breeding in subArctic Alaska. We tested the predictions of several hypotheses regarding the incidence of divorce and the benefits of fidelity to mate and breeding site. Interannual return rates to the breeding grounds (88% for males, 79% for females) were among the highest yet recorded for any scolopacid sandpiper, and 88% of returning birds nested on their previous year's territory. The annual divorce rate was only 11%, and mate fidelity was significantly linked to fidelity to territory but independent of sex and year. Males arrived in spring significantly earlier than their mates and interannual fidelity was influenced by the relative timing of arrival of pair members. Reunited pairs had significantly higher fledging success than new pairs formed after death or divorce. The incidence of divorce was unrelated to reproductive success the previous year, although birds nested significantly further away after failure than after a successful nesting attempt. Sightings of marked individuals suggested that members of pairs do not winter together, and breeding site tenacity provides a mechanism through which pair members can reunite. We reject the 'incompatibility' hypothesis for divorce in turnstones, and our data contradict predictions of the 'better option' hypothesis. Alternatively, we propose the 'bet-hedging' hypothesis to explain the occurrence of divorce, which transpires when an individual pairs with a new mate to avoid the cost of waiting for a previous mate to return. Such costs can include remaining unmated, if the former mate has died, or experiencing lower reproductive success because of delayed breeding. Copyright 2000 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour. PMID:11032650

  13. Incorporating Argumentation through Forensic Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wheeler, Lindsay B.; Maeng, Jennifer L.; Smetana, Lara K.

    2014-01-01

    This article outlines how to incorporate argumentation into a forensic science unit using a mock trial. Practical details of the mock trial include: (1) a method of scaffolding students' development of their argument for the trial, (2) a clearly outlined set of expectations for students during the planning and implementation of the mock…

  14. Attenuation of Human Enterovirus 71 High-Replication-Fidelity Variants in AG129 Mice

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Tao

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT In a screen for ribavirin resistance, a novel high-fidelity variant of human enterovirus 71 (EV71) with the single amino acid change L123F in its RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp or 3D) was identified. Based on the crystal structure of EV71 RdRp, L123 locates at the entrance of the RNA template binding channel, which might form a fidelity checkpoint. EV71 RdRp-L123F variants generated less progeny in a guanidine resistance assay and virus populations with lower mutation frequencies in cell culture passage due to their higher replication fidelity. However, compared with wild-type viruses, they did not show growth defects. In vivo infections further revealed that high-fidelity mutations L123F and G64R (previously reported) negatively impacted EV71 fitness and greatly reduced viral pathogenicity alone or together in AG129 mice. Interestingly, a variant with double mutations, RG/B4-G64R/L123F (where RG/B4 is an EV71 genotype B4 virus constructed by reverse genetics [RG])showed higher fidelity in vitro and less virulence in vivo than any one of the above two single mutants. The 50% lethal dose (LD50) of the double mutant increased more than 500 times compared with the LD50 of wild-type RG/B4 in mice. The results indicated that these high-fidelity variants exhibited an attenuated pathogenic phenotype in vivo and offer promise as a live attenuated EV71 vaccine. IMPORTANCE The error-prone nature of the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) of RNA viruses during replication results in quasispecies and aids survival of virus populations under a wide range of selective pressures. Virus variants with higher replication fidelity exhibit lower genetic diversity and attenuated pathogenicity in vivo. Here, we identified a novel high-fidelity mutation L123F in the RdRp of human enterovirus 71 (EV71). We further elucidated that EV71 variants with the RdRp-L123F mutation and/or the previously identified high-fidelity mutation RdRp-G64R were attenuated in an AG129 mouse model

  15. Aerodynamic design applying automatic differentiation and using robust variable fidelity optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takemiya, Tetsushi

    In modern aerospace engineering, the physics-based computational design method is becoming more important, as it is more efficient than experiments and because it is more suitable in designing new types of aircraft (e.g., unmanned aerial vehicles or supersonic business jets) than the conventional design method, which heavily relies on historical data. To enhance the reliability of the physics-based computational design method, researchers have made tremendous efforts to improve the fidelity of models. However, high-fidelity models require longer computational time, so the advantage of efficiency is partially lost. This problem has been overcome with the development of variable fidelity optimization (VFO). In VFO, different fidelity models are simultaneously employed in order to improve the speed and the accuracy of convergence in an optimization process. Among the various types of VFO methods, one of the most promising methods is the approximation management framework (AMF). In the AMF, objective and constraint functions of a low-fidelity model are scaled at a design point so that the scaled functions, which are referred to as "surrogate functions," match those of a high-fidelity model. Since scaling functions and the low-fidelity model constitutes surrogate functions, evaluating the surrogate functions is faster than evaluating the high-fidelity model. Therefore, in the optimization process, in which gradient-based optimization is implemented and thus many function calls are required, the surrogate functions are used instead of the high-fidelity model to obtain a new design point. The best feature of the AMF is that it may converge to a local optimum of the high-fidelity model in much less computational time than the high-fidelity model. However, through literature surveys and implementations of the AMF, the author xx found that (1) the AMF is very vulnerable when the computational analysis models have numerical noise, which is very common in high-fidelity models

  16. Bison distribution under conflicting foraging strategies: site fidelity vs. energy maximization.

    PubMed

    Merkle, Jerod A; Cherry, Seth G; Fortin, Daniel

    2015-07-01

    Foraging strategies based on site fidelity and maximization of energy intake rate are two adaptive forces shaping animal behavior. Whereas these strategies can both be evolutionarily stable, they predict conflicting optimal behaviors when population abundance is in decline. In such a case, foragers employing an energy-maximizing strategy should reduce their use of low-quality patches as interference competition becomes less intense for high-quality patches. Foragers using a site fidelity strategy, however, should continue to use familiar patches. Because natural fluctuations in population abundance provide the only non-manipulative opportunity to evaluate adaptation to these evolutionary forces, few studies have examined these foraging strategies simultaneously. Using abundance and space use data from a free-ranging bison (Bison bison) population living in a meadow-forest matrix in Prince Albert National Park, Canada, we determined how individuals balance the trade-off between site fidelity and energy-maximizing patch choice strategies with respect to changes in population abundance. From 1996 to 2005, bison abundance increased from 225 to 475 and then decreased to 225 by 2013. During the period of population increase, population range size increased. This expansion involved the addition of relatively less profitable areas and patches, leading to a decrease in the mean expected profitability of the range. Yet, during the period of population decline, we detected neither a subsequent retraction in population range size nor an increase in mean expected profitability of the range. Further, patch selection models. during the population decline indicated that, as density decreased, bison portrayed stronger fidelity to previously visited meadows, but no increase in selection strength for profitable meadows. Our analysis reveals that an energy-maximizing patch choice strategy alone cannot explain the distribution ofindividuals and populations, and site fidelity is an

  17. Bison distribution under conflicting foraging strategies: site fidelity vs. energy maximization.

    PubMed

    Merkle, Jerod A; Cherry, Seth G; Fortin, Daniel

    2015-07-01

    Foraging strategies based on site fidelity and maximization of energy intake rate are two adaptive forces shaping animal behavior. Whereas these strategies can both be evolutionarily stable, they predict conflicting optimal behaviors when population abundance is in decline. In such a case, foragers employing an energy-maximizing strategy should reduce their use of low-quality patches as interference competition becomes less intense for high-quality patches. Foragers using a site fidelity strategy, however, should continue to use familiar patches. Because natural fluctuations in population abundance provide the only non-manipulative opportunity to evaluate adaptation to these evolutionary forces, few studies have examined these foraging strategies simultaneously. Using abundance and space use data from a free-ranging bison (Bison bison) population living in a meadow-forest matrix in Prince Albert National Park, Canada, we determined how individuals balance the trade-off between site fidelity and energy-maximizing patch choice strategies with respect to changes in population abundance. From 1996 to 2005, bison abundance increased from 225 to 475 and then decreased to 225 by 2013. During the period of population increase, population range size increased. This expansion involved the addition of relatively less profitable areas and patches, leading to a decrease in the mean expected profitability of the range. Yet, during the period of population decline, we detected neither a subsequent retraction in population range size nor an increase in mean expected profitability of the range. Further, patch selection models. during the population decline indicated that, as density decreased, bison portrayed stronger fidelity to previously visited meadows, but no increase in selection strength for profitable meadows. Our analysis reveals that an energy-maximizing patch choice strategy alone cannot explain the distribution ofindividuals and populations, and site fidelity is an

  18. Female mate fidelity in a Lek mating system and its implications for the evolution of cooperative lekking behavior.

    PubMed

    DuVal, E H

    2013-02-01

    The extent and importance of female mate fidelity in polygynous mating systems are poorly known. Fidelity may contribute to high variance in male reproductive success when it favors attractive mates or may stabilize social interactions if females are faithful to mating sites rather than males. Using 12 years of data on genetic mate choice in the cooperatively lekking lance-tailed manakin (Chiroxiphia lanceolata), I investigated the frequency of fidelity within and between years, whether females were faithful to individual males or to mating sites across years, and whether fidelity favored attractive males. Mate fidelity occurred in 41.7% of 120 between-year comparisons and was observed for 41.1% of 73 individual females that had the opportunity to mate faithfully. Females were not more likely to mate at prior mating sites when previous mates were replaced. Faithful females mated with the same male in up to four consecutive years but were not disproportionately faithful to attractive partners. Mating history influences current mate choice, and fidelity in this lekking system apparently represents active mate choice by females but little is not cited in the text. Please provide a citation or mark this reference for deletion.consensus in mate choices among faithful females. This study underscores the prevalence of mate fidelity in polygynous mating systems and emphasizes the need to consider the larger context of lifetime reproductive behavior when interpreting patterns of female choice.

  19. Improving variable-fidelity modelling by exploring global design space and radial basis function networks for aerofoil design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tyan, Maxim; Van Nguyen, Nhu; Lee, Jae-Woo

    2015-07-01

    The global variable-fidelity modelling (GVFM) method presented in this article extends the original variable-complexity modelling (VCM) algorithm that uses a low-fidelity and scaling function to approximate a high-fidelity function for efficiently solving design-optimization problems. GVFM uses the design of experiments to sample values of high- and low-fidelity functions to explore global design space and to initialize a scaling function using the radial basis function (RBF) network. This approach makes it possible to remove high-fidelity-gradient evaluation from the process, which makes GVFM more efficient than VCM for high-dimensional design problems. The proposed algorithm converges with 65% fewer high-fidelity function calls for a one-dimensional problem than VCM and approximately 80% fewer for a two-dimensional numerical problem. The GVFM method is applied for the design optimization of transonic and subsonic aerofoils. Both aerofoil design problems show design improvement with a reasonable number of high- and low-fidelity function evaluations.

  20. Female mate fidelity in a Lek mating system and its implications for the evolution of cooperative lekking behavior.

    PubMed

    DuVal, E H

    2013-02-01

    The extent and importance of female mate fidelity in polygynous mating systems are poorly known. Fidelity may contribute to high variance in male reproductive success when it favors attractive mates or may stabilize social interactions if females are faithful to mating sites rather than males. Using 12 years of data on genetic mate choice in the cooperatively lekking lance-tailed manakin (Chiroxiphia lanceolata), I investigated the frequency of fidelity within and between years, whether females were faithful to individual males or to mating sites across years, and whether fidelity favored attractive males. Mate fidelity occurred in 41.7% of 120 between-year comparisons and was observed for 41.1% of 73 individual females that had the opportunity to mate faithfully. Females were not more likely to mate at prior mating sites when previous mates were replaced. Faithful females mated with the same male in up to four consecutive years but were not disproportionately faithful to attractive partners. Mating history influences current mate choice, and fidelity in this lekking system apparently represents active mate choice by females but little is not cited in the text. Please provide a citation or mark this reference for deletion.consensus in mate choices among faithful females. This study underscores the prevalence of mate fidelity in polygynous mating systems and emphasizes the need to consider the larger context of lifetime reproductive behavior when interpreting patterns of female choice. PMID:23348775

  1. Balancing "fidelity" and community context in the adaptation of asthma evidence-based interventions in the "real world".

    PubMed

    Lara, Marielena; Bryant-Stephens, Tyra; Damitz, Maureen; Findley, Sally; Gavillán, Jesús González; Mitchell, Herman; Ohadike, Yvonne U; Persky, Victoria W; Valencia, Gilberto Ramos; Smith, Lucia Rojas; Rosenthal, Michael; Thyne, Shannon; Uyeda, Kimberly; Viswanathan, Meera; Woodell, Carol

    2011-11-01

    The Merck Childhood Asthma Network (MCAN) initiative selected five sites (New York City, Puerto Rico, Chicago, Los Angeles, and Philadelphia) to engage in translational research to adapt evidence-based interventions (EBIs) to improve childhood asthma outcomes. The authors summarize the sites' experience by describing criteria defining the fidelity of translation, community contextual factors serving as barriers or enablers to fidelity, types of adaptation conducted, and strategies used to balance contextual factors and fidelity in developing a "best fit" for EBIs in the community. A conceptual model captures important structural and process-related factors and helps frame lessons learned. Site implementers and intervention developers reached consensus on qualitative rankings of the levels of fidelity of implementation for each of the EBI core components: low fidelity, adaptation (major vs. minor), or high fidelity. MCAN sites were successful in adapting core EBI components based on their understanding of structural and other contextual barriers and enhancers in their communities. Although the sites varied regarding both the EBI components they implemented and their respective levels of fidelity, all sites observed improvement in asthma outcomes. Our collective experiences of adapting and implementing asthma EBIs highlight many of the factors affecting translation of evidenced-based approaches to chronic disease management in real community settings. PMID:22068362

  2. Incorporating Handling Qualities Analysis into Rotorcraft Conceptual Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawrence, Ben

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the initial development of a framework to incorporate handling qualities analyses into a rotorcraft conceptual design process. In particular, the paper describes how rotorcraft conceptual design level data can be used to generate flight dynamics models for handling qualities analyses. Also, methods are described that couple a basic stability augmentation system to the rotorcraft flight dynamics model to extend analysis to beyond that of the bare airframe. A methodology for calculating the handling qualities characteristics of the flight dynamics models and for comparing the results to ADS-33E criteria is described. Preliminary results from the application of the handling qualities analysis for variations in key rotorcraft design parameters of main rotor radius, blade chord, hub stiffness and flap moment of inertia are shown. Varying relationships, with counteracting trends for different handling qualities criteria and different flight speeds are exhibited, with the action of the control system playing a complex part in the outcomes. Overall, the paper demonstrates how a broad array of technical issues across flight dynamics stability and control, simulation and modeling, control law design and handling qualities testing and evaluation had to be confronted to implement even a moderately comprehensive handling qualities analysis of relatively low fidelity models. A key outstanding issue is to how to 'close the loop' with an overall design process, and options for the exploration of how to feedback handling qualities results to a conceptual design process are proposed for future work.

  3. Finite grid instability and spectral fidelity of the electrostatic Particle-In-Cell algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, C.-K.; Zeng, Y.; Wang, Y.; Meyers, M. D.; Yi, S.; Albright, B. J.

    2016-10-01

    The origin of the Finite Grid Instability (FGI) is studied by resolving the dynamics in the 1D electrostatic Particle-In-Cell (PIC) model in the spectral domain at the single particle level and at the collective motion level. The spectral fidelity of the PIC model is contrasted with the underlying physical system or the gridless model. The systematic spectral phase and amplitude errors from the charge deposition and field interpolation are quantified for common particle shapes used in the PIC models. It is shown through such analysis and in simulations that the lack of spectral fidelity relative to the physical system due to the existence of aliased spatial modes is the major cause of the FGI in the PIC model.

  4. High-Fidelity Qubit Measurement using a Superconducting Low-Inductance Undulatory Galvanometer Microwave Amplifier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thorbeck, Ted; Hover, David; Zhu, Shaojiang; Ribeill, Guilhem; Sank, Daniel; Barends, Rami; Martinis, John; McDermott, Robert

    2014-03-01

    We describe a high-fidelity dispersive measurement of a superconducting Xmon qubit using a microwave amplifier based on the Superconducting Low-inductance Undulatory Galvanometer (SLUG). We will show a qubit measurement fidelity of 99% in 700 ns with the SLUG, compared to 60% without the SLUG. The SLUG amplifier has a gain of 19 dB at 6.6 GHZ. It also improves the signal-to-noise ratio by 9 dB, compared the same circuit without the SLUG. Also, the SLUG amplifier has a large dynamic range, with an input saturation power corresponding to around 600 photons in the readout cavity. All of these properties make the SLUG a promising microwave amplifier for more complex quantum circuits.

  5. High-fidelity pulse density modulation in neuromorphic electric circuits utilizing natural heterogeneity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Utagawa, Akira; Asai, Tetsuya; Amemiya, Yoshihito

    Hospedales et al. have recently proposed a neural network model of the “vestibulo-ocular reflex” (VOR) in which a common input was given to multiple nonidentical spiking neurons that were exposed to uncorrelated temporal noise, and the output was represented by the sum of these neurons. Although the function of the VOR network is equivalent to pulse density modulation, the neurons' non-uniformity and temporal noises given to the neurons were shown to improve the output spike's fidelity to the analog input. In this paper, we propose a CMOS analog circuit for implementing the VOR network that exploits the non-uniformity of real MOS devices. Through extensive laboratory experiments using discrete MOS devices, we show that the output's fidelity to the input pulses is clearly improved by using multiple neuron circuits, in which the non-uniformity is naturally embedded into the devices.

  6. Advancing methods for reliably assessing motivational interviewing fidelity using the motivational interviewing skills code.

    PubMed

    Lord, Sarah Peregrine; Can, Doğan; Yi, Michael; Marin, Rebeca; Dunn, Christopher W; Imel, Zac E; Georgiou, Panayiotis; Narayanan, Shrikanth; Steyvers, Mark; Atkins, David C

    2015-02-01

    The current paper presents novel methods for collecting MISC data and accurately assessing reliability of behavior codes at the level of the utterance. The MISC 2.1 was used to rate MI interviews from five randomized trials targeting alcohol and drug use. Sessions were coded at the utterance-level. Utterance-based coding reliability was estimated using three methods and compared to traditional reliability estimates of session tallies. Session-level reliability was generally higher compared to reliability using utterance-based codes, suggesting that typical methods for MISC reliability may be biased. These novel methods in MI fidelity data collection and reliability assessment provided rich data for therapist feedback and further analyses. Beyond implications for fidelity coding, utterance-level coding schemes may elucidate important elements in the counselor-client interaction that could inform theories of change and the practice of MI.

  7. Creation of a High-fidelity, Low-cost Pediatric Skull Fracture Ultrasound Phantom.

    PubMed

    Soucy, Zachary P; Mills, Lisa; Rose, John S; Kelley, Kenneth; Ramirez, Francisco; Kuppermann, Nathan

    2015-08-01

    Over the past decade, point-of-care ultrasound has become a common tool used for both procedures and diagnosis. Developing high-fidelity phantoms is critical for training in new and novel point-of-care ultrasound applications. Detecting skull fractures on ultrasound imaging in the younger-than-2-year-old patient is an emerging area of point-of-care ultrasound research. Identifying a skull fracture on ultrasound imaging in this age group requires knowledge of the appearance and location of sutures to distinguish them from fractures. There are currently no commercially available pediatric skull fracture models. We outline a novel approach to building a cost-effective, simple, high-fidelity pediatric skull fracture phantom to meet a unique training requirement.

  8. Association patterns and shoal fidelity in the three-spined stickleback.

    PubMed Central

    Ward, Ashley J W; Botham, Marc S; Hoare, Daniel J; James, Richard; Broom, Mark; Godin, Jean-Guy J; Krause, Jens

    2002-01-01

    We investigated pairwise association patterns and shoal fidelity in free-ranging, individual three-spine sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus) by capturing entire shoals of sticklebacks and tagging each shoal member with a unique individual mark before releasing the shoal at the point of capture. We recaptured tagged fishes in the study area on five subsequent days, noting their identity, their location and the individuals with which they were associated. Stable partner associations between fishes were observed which might provide the basis for shoal fidelity via social networks. These results suggest the potential for the kinds of inter-individual association patterns assumed by models of predator inspection and 'tit-for-tat' behaviours in free-ranging fishes. PMID:12495488

  9. Terascale High-Fidelity Simulations of Turbulent Combustion with Detailed Chemistry: Spray Simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Rutland, Christopher J.

    2009-04-26

    The Terascale High-Fidelity Simulations of Turbulent Combustion (TSTC) project is a multi-university collaborative effort to develop a high-fidelity turbulent reacting flow simulation capability utilizing terascale, massively parallel computer technology. The main paradigm of the approach is direct numerical simulation (DNS) featuring the highest temporal and spatial accuracy, allowing quantitative observations of the fine-scale physics found in turbulent reacting flows as well as providing a useful tool for development of sub-models needed in device-level simulations. Under this component of the TSTC program the simulation code named S3D, developed and shared with coworkers at Sandia National Laboratories, has been enhanced with new numerical algorithms and physical models to provide predictive capabilities for turbulent liquid fuel spray dynamics. Major accomplishments include improved fundamental understanding of mixing and auto-ignition in multi-phase turbulent reactant mixtures and turbulent fuel injection spray jets.

  10. High-Fidelity Quantum Logic Gates Using Trapped-Ion Hyperfine Qubits.

    PubMed

    Ballance, C J; Harty, T P; Linke, N M; Sepiol, M A; Lucas, D M

    2016-08-01

    We demonstrate laser-driven two-qubit and single-qubit logic gates with respective fidelities 99.9(1)% and 99.9934(3)%, significantly above the ≈99% minimum threshold level required for fault-tolerant quantum computation, using qubits stored in hyperfine ground states of calcium-43 ions held in a room-temperature trap. We study the speed-fidelity trade-off for the two-qubit gate, for gate times between 3.8  μs and 520  μs, and develop a theoretical error model which is consistent with the data and which allows us to identify the principal technical sources of infidelity. PMID:27541450

  11. High-fidelity single-shot three-qubit gates via machine learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zahedinejad, Ehsan; Ghosh, Joydip; Sanders, Barry C.

    Three-qubit quantum gates play a crucial role in quantum error correction and quantum information processing. Here I discuss how to generate policies for quantum control to design three-qubit gates namely, Toffoli, Controlled-Not-Not and Fredkin gates for an architecture of nearest-neighbor-coupled superconducting artificial atoms. The resulted fidelity for each gate is above the 99.9% which is the threshold fidelity for fault-tolerant quantum computing. We test our policy in the presence of decoherence-induced noise as well as show its robustness under random external noise. The three-qubit gates are designed via our machine learning algorithm called Subspace-Selective Self-Adaptive Differential Evolution (SuSSADE). NSERC, AITF and University of Calgarys Eyes High Fellowship Program.

  12. High-Fidelity Resonator-Induced Phase Gate with Single-Mode Squeezing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puri, Shruti; Blais, Alexandre

    2016-05-01

    We propose to increase the fidelity of two-qubit resonator-induced phase gates in circuit QED by the use of narrow-band single-mode squeezing. We show that there exists an optimal squeezing angle and strength that erases qubit "which-path" information leaking out of the cavity and thereby minimizes qubit dephasing during these gates. Our analytical results for the gate fidelity are in excellent agreement with numerical simulations of a cascaded master equation that takes into account the dynamics of the source of squeezed radiation. With realistic parameters, we find that it is possible to realize a controlled-phase gate with a gate time of 200 ns and average infidelity of 1 0-5.

  13. Effect of laser phase noise on the fidelity of optomechanical quantum memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farman, F.; Bahrampour, A. R.

    2015-03-01

    Optomechanical and electromechanical cavities have been widely used in quantum memories and quantum transducers. We theoretically investigate the robustness of optomechanical and electromechanical quantum memories against the noise of the control laser. By solving the Langevin equations and using the covariance matrix formalism in the presence of laser noise, the storing fidelity of Gaussian states is obtained. It is shown that the destructive effect of phase noise is more significant in higher values of coupling laser amplitude and optomechanical coupling strength G . However, by further increasing the coupling coefficient, the interaction time between photons and phonons decreases below the coherence time of laser frequency noise and the destructive effect of laser phase noise on the storing fidelity drops as well.

  14. Fidelity of Histone Gene Regulation Is Obligatory for Genome Replication and Stability

    PubMed Central

    Ghule, Prachi N.; Xie, Rong-Lin; Medina, Ricardo; Colby, Jennifer L.; Jones, Stephen N.; Lian, Jane B.; Stein, Janet L.; van Wijnen, Andre J.

    2014-01-01

    Fidelity of chromatin organization is crucial for normal cell cycle progression, and perturbations in packaging of DNA may predispose to transformation. Histone H4 protein is the most highly conserved chromatin protein, required for nucleosome assembly, with multiple histone H4 gene copies encoding identical protein. There is a long-standing recognition of the linkage of histone gene expression and DNA replication. A fundamental and unresolved question is the mechanism that couples histone biosynthesis with DNA replication and fidelity of cell cycle control. Here, we conditionally ablated the obligatory histone H4 transcription factor HINFP to cause depletion of histone H4 in mammalian cells. Deregulation of histone H4 results in catastrophic cellular and molecular defects that lead to genomic instability. Histone H4 depletion increases nucleosome spacing, impedes DNA synthesis, alters chromosome complement, and creates replicative stress. Our study provides functional evidence that the tight coupling between DNA replication and histone synthesis is reciprocal. PMID:24797072

  15. Model Fidelity Study of Dynamic Transient Loads in a Wind Turbine Gearbox: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, Y.; Keller, J.; Moan, T.; Xing, Y.

    2013-04-01

    Transient events cause high loads in the drivetrain components so measuring and calculating these loads can improve confidence in drivetrain design. This paper studies the Gearbox Reliability Collaborative 750kW wind turbine gearbox response during transient events using a combined experimental and modeling approach. The transient events include emergency shut-downs and start-ups measured during a field testing period in 2009. The drivetrain model is established in the multibody simulation tool Simpack. A detailed study of modeling fidelity required for accurate load prediction is performed and results are compared against measured loads. A high fidelity model that includes shaft and housing flexibility and accurate bearing stiffnesses is important for the higher-speed stage bearing loads. Each of the transient events has different modeling requirements.

  16. High-speed and high-fidelity system and method for collecting network traffic

    DOEpatents

    Weigle, Eric H.

    2010-08-24

    A system is provided for the high-speed and high-fidelity collection of network traffic. The system can collect traffic at gigabit-per-second (Gbps) speeds, scale to terabit-per-second (Tbps) speeds, and support additional functions such as real-time network intrusion detection. The present system uses a dedicated operating system for traffic collection to maximize efficiency, scalability, and performance. A scalable infrastructure and apparatus for the present system is provided by splitting the work performed on one host onto multiple hosts. The present system simultaneously addresses the issues of scalability, performance, cost, and adaptability with respect to network monitoring, collection, and other network tasks. In addition to high-speed and high-fidelity network collection, the present system provides a flexible infrastructure to perform virtually any function at high speeds such as real-time network intrusion detection and wide-area network emulation for research purposes.

  17. Finite grid instability and spectral fidelity of the electrostatic Particle-In-Cell algorithm

    DOE PAGES

    Huang, C. -K.; Zeng, Y.; Wang, Y.; Meyers, M. D.; Yi, S.; Albright, B. J.

    2016-06-07

    The origin of the Finite Grid Instability (FGI) is studied by resolving the dynamics in the 1D electrostatic Particle-In-Cell (PIC) model in the spectral domain at the single particle level and at the collective motion level. The spectral fidelity of the PIC model is contrasted with the underlying physical system or the gridless model. The systematic spectral phase and amplitude errors from the charge deposition and field interpolation are quantified for common particle shapes used in the PIC models. Lastly, it is shown through such analysis and in simulations that the lack of spectral fidelity relative to the physical systemmore » due to the existence of aliased spatial modes is the major cause of the FGI in the PIC model.« less

  18. Sexual fidelity trade-offs promote regulatory variation in the prairie vole brain.

    PubMed

    Okhovat, Mariam; Berrio, Alejandro; Wallace, Gerard; Ophir, Alexander G; Phelps, Steven M

    2015-12-11

    Individual variation in social behavior seems ubiquitous, but we know little about how it relates to brain diversity. Among monogamous prairie voles, levels of vasopressin receptor (encoded by the gene avpr1a) in brain regions related to spatial memory predict male space use and sexual fidelity in the field. We find that trade-offs between the benefits of male fidelity and infidelity are reflected in patterns of territorial intrusion, offspring paternity, avpr1a expression, and the evolutionary fitness of alternative avpr1a alleles. DNA variation at the avpr1a locus includes polymorphisms that reliably predict the epigenetic status and neural expression of avpr1a, and patterns of DNA diversity demonstrate that avpr1a regulatory variation has been favored by selection. In prairie voles, trade-offs in the fitness consequences of social behaviors seem to promote neuronal and molecular diversity.

  19. High-Fidelity Resonator-Induced Phase Gate with Single-Mode Squeezing.

    PubMed

    Puri, Shruti; Blais, Alexandre

    2016-05-01

    We propose to increase the fidelity of two-qubit resonator-induced phase gates in circuit QED by the use of narrow-band single-mode squeezing. We show that there exists an optimal squeezing angle and strength that erases qubit "which-path" information leaking out of the cavity and thereby minimizes qubit dephasing during these gates. Our analytical results for the gate fidelity are in excellent agreement with numerical simulations of a cascaded master equation that takes into account the dynamics of the source of squeezed radiation. With realistic parameters, we find that it is possible to realize a controlled-phase gate with a gate time of 200 ns and average infidelity of 10^{-5}. PMID:27203311

  20. Numerical evaluation of the fidelity error threshold for the surface code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jouzdani, Pejman; Mucciolo, Eduardo R.

    2014-07-01

    We study how the resilience of the surface code is affected by the coupling to a non-Markovian environment at zero temperature. The qubits in the surface code experience an effective dynamics due to the coupling to the environment that induces correlations among them. The range of the effective induced qubit-qubit interaction depends on parameters related to the environment and the duration of the quantum error correction cycle. We show numerically that different interaction ranges set different intrinsic bounds on the fidelity of the code. These bounds are unrelated to the error thresholds based on stochastic error models. We introduce a definition of stabilizers based on logical operators that allows us to efficiently implement a Metropolis algorithm to determine upper bounds to the fidelity error threshold.

  1. A New Design for Airway Management Training with Mixed Reality and High Fidelity Modeling.

    PubMed

    Shen, Yunhe; Hananel, David; Zhao, Zichen; Burke, Daniel; Ballas, Crist; Norfleet, Jack; Reihsen, Troy; Sweet, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Restoring airway function is a vital task in many medical scenarios. Although various simulation tools have been available for learning such skills, recent research indicated that fidelity in simulating airway management deserves further improvements. In this study, we designed and implemented a new prototype for practicing relevant tasks including laryngoscopy, intubation and cricothyrotomy. A large amount of anatomical details or landmarks were meticulously selected and reconstructed from medical scans, and 3D-printed or molded to the airway intervention model. This training model was augmented by virtually and physically presented interactive modules, which are interoperable with motion tracking and sensor data feedback. Implementation results showed that this design is a feasible approach to develop higher fidelity airway models that can be integrated with mixed reality interfaces. PMID:27046605

  2. Experimental generation of a high-fidelity four-photon linear cluster state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Chao; Huang, Yun-Feng; Liu, Bi-Heng; Li, Chuan-Feng; Guo, Guang-Can

    2016-06-01

    Cluster state plays a crucial role in one-way quantum computation. Here, we propose and experimentally demonstrate a scheme to prepare an ultrahigh-fidelity four-photon linear cluster state via a spontaneous parametric down-conversion process. The state fidelity is measured to be 0.9517 ±0.0027 . Our scheme can be directly extended to more photons to generate an N -qubit linear cluster state. Furthermore, our scheme is optimal for generating photonic linear cluster states in the sense of achieving the maximal success probability and having the simplest strategy. The key idea is that the photon pairs are prepared in some special nonmaximally entangled states instead of the normal Bell states. To generate a 2 N -qubit linear cluster state from N pairs of entangled photons, only (N -1 ) Hong-Ou-Mandel interferences are needed and a success probability of (1/4) N -1 is achieved.

  3. Islands in the sea: extreme female natal site fidelity in the Australian sea lion, Neophoca cinerea.

    PubMed

    Campbell, R A; Gales, N J; Lento, G M; Baker, C S

    2008-02-23

    Pinnipeds (seals, fur seals, sea lions and walrus) form large breeding aggregations with females often remaining faithful to a natal site or area. In these cases, females are philopatric to regional areas on broad geographical scales of hundreds to thousands of kilometers. An investigation of variation in a control region sequence of mtDNA in the Australian sea lion (Neophoca cinerea) has shown a case of extreme female natal site fidelity that has resulted in almost fixed population differentiation across its range (PhiST=0.93). This high level of population subdivision over short geographical distances (approx. 60 km) is unparalleled in any social marine mammal and reflects the unique life-history traits of this rare species. The high level of population subdivision and exclusive female natal site fidelity has important ramifications for conservation management, and poses many interesting questions of both academic and applied interest. PMID:18042512

  4. Efficient high-fidelity quantum computation using matter qubits and linear optics

    SciTech Connect

    Barrett, Sean D.; Kok, Pieter

    2005-06-15

    We propose a practical, scalable, and efficient scheme for quantum computation using spatially separated matter qubits and single-photon interference effects. The qubit systems can be nitrogen-vacancy centers in diamond, Pauli-blockade quantum dots with an excess electron, or trapped ions with optical transitions, which are each placed in a cavity and subsequently entangled using a double-heralded single-photon detection scheme. The fidelity of the resulting entanglement is extremely robust against the most important errors such as detector loss, spontaneous emission, and mismatch of cavity parameters. We demonstrate how this entangling operation can be used to efficiently generate cluster states of many qubits, which, together with single-qubit operations and readout, can be used to implement universal quantum computation. Existing experimental parameters indicate that high-fidelity clusters can be generated with a moderate constant overhead.

  5. Replication fidelity assessment of large area sub-μm structured polymer surfaces using scatterometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calaon, M.; Madsen, M. H.; Weirich, J.; Hansen, H. N.; Tosello, G.; Hansen, P. E.; Garnaes, J.; Tang, P. T.

    2015-12-01

    The present study addresses one of the key challenges in the product quality control of transparent structured polymer substrates, the replication fidelity of sub-μm structures over a large area. Additionally the work contributes to the development of new techniques focused on in-line characterization of large nanostructured surfaces using scatterometry. In particular an approach to quantify the replication fidelity of high volume manufacturing processes such as polymer injection moulding is presented. Both periodic channels and semi-spherical structures were fabricated on nickel shims used for later injection moulding of Cyclic-olefin-copolymer (COC) substrate were the sub-μm features where ultimately transferred. The scatterometry system was validated using calibrated atomic force microscopy measurements and a model based on scalar diffraction theory employed to calculate the expected angular distribution of the reflected and the transmitted intensity for the nickel surfaces and structured COC and, respectively.

  6. High-fidelity Rydberg-blockade entangling gate using shaped, analytic pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Theis, L. S.; Motzoi, F.; Wilhelm, F. K.; Saffman, M.

    2016-09-01

    We show that the use of shaped pulses improves the fidelity of a Rydberg-blockade two-qubit entangling gate by several orders of magnitude compared to previous protocols based on square pulses or optimal control pulses. Using analytical derivative removal by adiabatic gate (DRAG) pulses that reduce excitation of primary leakage states and an analytical method of finding the optimal Rydberg blockade, we generate Bell states with a fidelity of F >0.9999 in a 300 K environment for a gate time of only 50 ns , which is an order of magnitude faster than previous protocols. These results establish the potential of neutral atom qubits with Rydberg-blockade gates for scalable quantum computation.

  7. High Fidelity Singlet-Triplet S-T_ Qubits in Inhomogeneous Magnetic Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Clement; Eriksson, Mark; Coppersmith, Sue; Friesen, Mark

    2015-03-01

    We propose an optimal set of quantum gates for a singlet-triplet qubit in a double quantum dot with two electrons utilizing the S-T- subspace. Qubit rotations are driven by the applied magnetic field and an orthogonal field gradient provided by a micromagnet. We optimize the fidelity of this qubit as a function of magnetic fields, taking advantage of ``sweet spots'' where the rotation frequencies are independent of the energy level detuning, providing protection against charge noise. We simulate gate operations and qubit rotations in the presence of quasistatic noise from charge and nuclear spins as well as leakage to nonqubit states, and predict that in silicon quantum dots gate fidelities greater than 99 % can be achieved for two nearly-orthogonal rotation axes. This work was supported in part by NSF, ARO, UW-Madison Bridge Funding, and the Intelligence Community Postdoctoral Research Fellowship Program.

  8. Difference mapping method using least square support vector regression for variable-fidelity metamodelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Jun; Shao, Xinyu; Gao, Liang; Jiang, Ping; Qiu, Haobo

    2015-06-01

    Engineering design, especially for complex engineering systems, is usually a time-consuming process involving computation-intensive computer-based simulation and analysis methods. A difference mapping method using least square support vector regression is developed in this work, as a special metamodelling methodology that includes variable-fidelity data, to replace the computationally expensive computer codes. A general difference mapping framework is proposed where a surrogate base is first created, then the approximation is gained by a mapping the difference between the base and the real high-fidelity response surface. The least square support vector regression is adopted to accomplish the mapping. Two different sampling strategies, nested and non-nested design of experiments, are conducted to explore their respective effects on modelling accuracy. Different sample sizes and three approximation performance measures of accuracy are considered.

  9. Experimental demonstration of high fidelity entanglement distribution over decoherence channels via qubit transduction

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Hyang-Tag; Hong, Kang-Hee; Kim, Yoon-Ho

    2015-01-01

    Quantum coherence and entanglement, which are essential resources for quantum information, are often degraded and lost due to decoherence. Here, we report a proof-of-principle experimental demonstration of high fidelity entanglement distribution over decoherence channels via qubit transduction. By unitarily switching the initial qubit encoding to another, which is insensitive to particular forms of decoherence, we have demonstrated that it is possible to avoid the effect of decoherence completely. In particular, we demonstrate high-fidelity distribution of photonic polarization entanglement over quantum channels with two types of decoherence, amplitude damping and polarization-mode dispersion, via qubit transduction between polarization qubits and dual-rail qubits. These results represent a significant breakthrough in quantum communication over decoherence channels as the protocol is input-state independent, requires no ancillary photons and symmetries, and has near-unity success probability. PMID:26487083

  10. Room temperature high-fidelity holonomic single-qubit gate on a solid-state spin

    PubMed Central

    Arroyo-Camejo, Silvia; Lazariev, Andrii; Hell, Stefan W.; Balasubramanian, Gopalakrishnan

    2014-01-01

    At its most fundamental level, circuit-based quantum computation relies on the application of controlled phase shift operations on quantum registers. While these operations are generally compromised by noise and imperfections, quantum gates based on geometric phase shifts can provide intrinsically fault-tolerant quantum computing. Here we demonstrate the high-fidelity realization of a recently proposed fast (non-adiabatic) and universal (non-Abelian) holonomic single-qubit gate, using an individual solid-state spin qubit under ambient conditions. This fault-tolerant quantum gate provides an elegant means for achieving the fidelity threshold indispensable for implementing quantum error correction protocols. Since we employ a spin qubit associated with a nitrogen-vacancy colour centre in diamond, this system is based on integrable and scalable hardware exhibiting strong analogy to current silicon technology. This quantum gate realization is a promising step towards viable, fault-tolerant quantum computing under ambient conditions. PMID:25216026

  11. Analysis procedures and subjective flight results of a simulator validation and cue fidelity experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carr, Peter C.; Mckissick, Burnell T.

    1988-01-01

    A joint experiment to investigate simulator validation and cue fidelity was conducted by the Dryden Flight Research Facility of NASA Ames Research Center (Ames-Dryden) and NASA Langley Research Center. The primary objective was to validate the use of a closed-loop pilot-vehicle mathematical model as an analytical tool for optimizing the tradeoff between simulator fidelity requirements and simulator cost. The validation process includes comparing model predictions with simulation and flight test results to evaluate various hypotheses for differences in motion and visual cues and information transfer. A group of five pilots flew air-to-air tracking maneuvers in the Langley differential maneuvering simulator and visual motion simulator and in an F-14 aircraft at Ames-Dryden. The simulators used motion and visual cueing devices including a g-seat, a helmet loader, wide field-of-view horizon, and a motion base platform.

  12. High-fidelity continuous-variable quantum teleportation toward multistep quantum operations

    SciTech Connect

    Yukawa, Mitsuyoshi; Furusawa, Akira; Benichi, Hugo

    2008-02-15

    The progress in quantum operations of continuous-variable (CV) schemes can be reduced to that in CV quantum teleportation. The fidelity of quantum teleportation of an optical setup is limited by the finite degree of quantum correlation that can be prepared with a pair of finitely squeezed states. Reports of improvement of squeezing level have appeared recently, and we adopted the improved methods in our experimental system of quantum teleportation. As a result, we teleported a coherent state with a fidelity F=0.83{+-}0.01, which is better than any other figures reported to date, to our knowledge. In this paper, we introduce a measure n{sub s}, the number of teleportations expected to be carried out sequentially. Our result corresponds to n{sub s}=5.0{+-}0.4. It suggests that our improvement would enable us to proceed toward more advanced quantum operations involving multiple steps.

  13. Teleportation fidelity as a probe of sub-Planck phase-space structure

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, A.J. Caves, Carlton M.

    2008-11-15

    We investigate the connection between sub-Planck structure in the Wigner function and the output fidelity of continuous-variable teleportation protocols. When the teleporting parties share a two-mode squeezed state as an entangled resource, high fidelity in the output state requires a squeezing large enough that the smallest sub-Planck structures in an input pure state are teleported faithfully. We formulate this relationship, which leads to an explicit relation between the fine-scale structure in the Wigner function and large-scale extent of the Wigner function, and we treat specific examples, including coherent, number, and random states and states produced by chaotic dynamics. We generalize the pure-state results to teleportation of mixed states.

  14. Band-selective shaped pulse for high fidelity quantum control in diamond

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Yan-Chun; Xing, Jian; Liu, Gang-Qin; Jiang, Qian-Qing; Li, Wu-Xia; Zhang, Fei-Hao; Gu, Chang-Zhi; Pan, Xin-Yu; Long, Gui-Lu

    2014-06-30

    High fidelity quantum control of qubits is crucially important for realistic quantum computing, and it becomes more challenging when there are inevitable interactions between qubits. We introduce a band-selective shaped pulse, refocusing BURP (REBURP) pulse, to cope with the problems. The electron spin of nitrogen-vacancy centers in diamond is flipped with high fidelity by the REBURP pulse. In contrast with traditional rectangular pulses, the shaped pulse has almost equal excitation effect in a sharply edged region (in frequency domain). So the three sublevels of host {sup 14}N nuclear spin can be flipped accurately simultaneously, while unwanted excitations of other sublevels (e.g., of a nearby {sup 13}C nuclear spin) is well suppressed. Our scheme can be used for various applications such as quantum metrology, quantum sensing, and quantum information process.

  15. Sexual fidelity trade-offs promote regulatory variation in the prairie vole brain.

    PubMed

    Okhovat, Mariam; Berrio, Alejandro; Wallace, Gerard; Ophir, Alexander G; Phelps, Steven M

    2015-12-11

    Individual variation in social behavior seems ubiquitous, but we know little about how it relates to brain diversity. Among monogamous prairie voles, levels of vasopressin receptor (encoded by the gene avpr1a) in brain regions related to spatial memory predict male space use and sexual fidelity in the field. We find that trade-offs between the benefits of male fidelity and infidelity are reflected in patterns of territorial intrusion, offspring paternity, avpr1a expression, and the evolutionary fitness of alternative avpr1a alleles. DNA variation at the avpr1a locus includes polymorphisms that reliably predict the epigenetic status and neural expression of avpr1a, and patterns of DNA diversity demonstrate that avpr1a regulatory variation has been favored by selection. In prairie voles, trade-offs in the fitness consequences of social behaviors seem to promote neuronal and molecular diversity. PMID:26659055

  16. The Fidelity Index provides a systematic quantitation of star activity of DNA restriction endonucleases

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Hua; Therrien, Caitlin; Blanchard, Aine; Guan, Shengxi; Zhu, Zhenyu

    2008-01-01

    Restriction endonucleases are the basic tools of molecular biology. Many restriction endonucleases show relaxed sequence recognition, called star activity, as an inherent property under various digestion conditions including the optimal ones. To quantify this property we propose the concept of the Fidelity Index (FI), which is defined as the ratio of the maximum enzyme amount showing no star activity to the minimum amount needed for complete digestion at the cognate recognition site for any particular restriction endonuclease. Fidelity indices for a large number of restriction endonucleases are reported here. The effects of reaction vessel, reaction volume, incubation mode, substrate differences, reaction time, reaction temperature and additional glycerol, DMSO, ethanol and Mn2+ on the FI are also investigated. The FI provides a practical guideline for the use of restriction endonucleases and defines a fundamental property by which restriction endonucleases can be characterized. PMID:18413342

  17. Problems affecting the fidelity of pressure measuring instruments for planetary probes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hudson, J. B.

    1972-01-01

    Determination is made of the nature and magnitude of surface-related effects that cause errors in pressure measuring instruments, with special reference being made to instruments intended for use in planetary probes. The interaction of gases with clean surfaces of metals likely to be used as gage construction materials was studied. Special emphasis was placed on the adsorption, chemical reaction, and electron-induced desorption processes. The results indicated that all metals tested were subject to surface processes which would degrade gage fidelity. It was also found, however, that the formation of inert adsorbed layers on these metal surfaces, such as carbon on platinum, greatly reduced or eliminated these effects. This process, combined with a system design which avoids contact between reactive gases and hot filaments, appears to offer the most promising solution to the gage fidelity problem.

  18. SOWFA Super-Controller: A High-Fidelity Tool for Evaluating Wind Plant Control Approaches

    SciTech Connect

    Fleming, P.; Gebraad, P.; van Wingerden, J. W.; Lee, S.; Churchfield, M.; Scholbrock, A.; Michalakes, J.; Johnson, K.; Moriarty, P.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a new tool for testing wind plant controllers in the Simulator for Offshore Wind Farm Applications (SOWFA). SOWFA is a high-fidelity simulator for the interaction between wind turbine dynamics and the fluid flow in a wind plant. The new super-controller testing environment in SOWFA allows for the implementation of the majority of the wind plant control strategies proposed in the literature.

  19. Progress report on development of intermediate fidelity full assembly analysis methods.

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, R.; Fanning, T. H.

    2011-09-30

    While high fidelity modeling capabilities for various physics phenomena are being pursued under advanced modeling and simulation initiatives under the DOE Office of Nuclear Energy, they generally rely on high-performance computation facilities and are too expensive to be used for parameter-space exploration or design analysis. One-dimensional system codes have been used for a long time and have reached a degree of maturity, but limit their validity to specific applications. Thus, an intermediate fidelity (IF) modeling method is being pursued in this work for a fast-running, modest-fidelity, whole-core transient analyses capability. The new approach is essential for design scoping and engineering analyses and could lead to improvements in the design of the new generations of reactors and to the reduction of uncertainties in safety analysis. This report summarizes the initial effort on the development of the intermediate-fidelity full assembly modeling method. The requirements and the desired merits of the IF approach have been defined. A three-dimensional momentum source model has been developed to model the anisotropic flow in the wire-wrapped rod bundle without the need to resolve the geometric details. It has been confirmed that the momentum source model works well if its affecting region is accurately imposed. The validity of the model is further verified by mesh and parameter sensitivity studies. The developed momentum source model, in principle, can be applied to any wire-wrapped bundle geometries and any flow regimes; while the modeling strategy can be applied to other conditions with complex or distorted geometry, such as flow in blocked channels.

  20. Fluid/Structure Interaction Studies of Aircraft Using High Fidelity Equations on Parallel Computers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guruswamy, Guru; VanDalsem, William (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    Abstract Aeroelasticity which involves strong coupling of fluids, structures and controls is an important element in designing an aircraft. Computational aeroelasticity using low fidelity methods such as the linear aerodynamic flow equations coupled with the modal structural equations are well advanced. Though these low fidelity approaches are computationally less intensive, they are not adequate for the analysis of modern aircraft such as High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) and Advanced Subsonic Transport (AST) which can experience complex flow/structure interactions. HSCT can experience vortex induced aeroelastic oscillations whereas AST can experience transonic buffet associated structural oscillations. Both aircraft may experience a dip in the flutter speed at the transonic regime. For accurate aeroelastic computations at these complex fluid/structure interaction situations, high fidelity equations such as the Navier-Stokes for fluids and the finite-elements for structures are needed. Computations using these high fidelity equations require large computational resources both in memory and speed. Current conventional super computers have reached their limitations both in memory and speed. As a result, parallel computers have evolved to overcome the limitations of conventional computers. This paper will address the transition that is taking place in computational aeroelasticity from conventional computers to parallel computers. The paper will address special techniques needed to take advantage of the architecture of new parallel computers. Results will be illustrated from computations made on iPSC/860 and IBM SP2 computer by using ENSAERO code that directly couples the Euler/Navier-Stokes flow equations with high resolution finite-element structural equations.

  1. Terascale High-Fidelity Simulations of Turbulent Combustion with Detailed Chemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Raghurama Reddy; Roberto Gomez; Junwoo Lim; Yang Wang; Sergiu Sanielevici

    2004-10-15

    This SciDAC project enabled a multidisciplinary research consortium to develop a high fidelity direct numerical simulation (DNS) software package for the simulation of turbulent reactive flows. Within this collaboration, the authors, based at CMU's Pittsburgh Supercomputing Center (PSC), focused on extensive new developments in Sandia National Laboratories' "S3D" software to address more realistic combustion features and geometries while exploiting Terascale computational possibilities. This work significantly advances the state-of-the-art of DNS of turbulent reacting flows.

  2. Scaling up the evaluation of psychotherapy: evaluating motivational interviewing fidelity via statistical text classification

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Behavioral interventions such as psychotherapy are leading, evidence-based practices for a variety of problems (e.g., substance abuse), but the evaluation of provider fidelity to behavioral interventions is limited by the need for human judgment. The current study evaluated the accuracy of statistical text classification in replicating human-based judgments of provider fidelity in one specific psychotherapy—motivational interviewing (MI). Method Participants (n = 148) came from five previously conducted randomized trials and were either primary care patients at a safety-net hospital or university students. To be eligible for the original studies, participants met criteria for either problematic drug or alcohol use. All participants received a type of brief motivational interview, an evidence-based intervention for alcohol and substance use disorders. The Motivational Interviewing Skills Code is a standard measure of MI provider fidelity based on human ratings that was used to evaluate all therapy sessions. A text classification approach called a labeled topic model was used to learn associations between human-based fidelity ratings and MI session transcripts. It was then used to generate codes for new sessions. The primary comparison was the accuracy of model-based codes with human-based codes. Results Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analyses of model-based codes showed reasonably strong sensitivity and specificity with those from human raters (range of area under ROC curve (AUC) scores: 0.62 – 0.81; average AUC: 0.72). Agreement with human raters was evaluated based on talk turns as well as code tallies for an entire session. Generated codes had higher reliability with human codes for session tallies and also varied strongly by individual code. Conclusion To scale up the evaluation of behavioral interventions, technological solutions will be required. The current study demonstrated preliminary, encouraging findings regarding the utility

  3. Survival, site and mate fidelity in south polar skuas Catharacta maccormicki at Anvers Island, Antarctica

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pietz, P.J.; Parmelee, D.F.

    1993-01-01

    In 1974-1975, 34 adult South Polar Skuas Catharacta maccormicki were colour-ringed on 18 nest territories at Bonaparte Point, Anvers Island, near Palmer Station along the Antarctic Peninsula. Subsequently, the area was searched for these birds during the austral summers of 1975-1976 to 1984-1985 and in 1987-1988 and 1989-1990. Fifty-three percent were seen in 1984-1985, 32% in 1987-1988 and 21% in 1989-1990. Annual survival rate averaged 95% from 1974-1975 to 1984-1985; no sexual differences were detected (n = 28 of known sex). Strong territory and mate fidelity were apparent; 34 skuas averaged 1.1 nest territories and 1.7 mates each in 16 years. Only 4 of 34 individuals (all females) were known to change territories, and each territory change involved a change of mates. Although males showed higher territory fidelity than females (P < 0.01), most females (four of five) retained their territories when previous mates failed to return. Seventeen of 34 birds changed mates a total of 24 times; at least 20 mate changes followed the death or disappearance of the former mate. Males showed slightly higher mate fidelity than females (P < 0.04). Female South Polar and Brown Skuas Catharacta lonnbergi did not differ in territory or mate fidelity. From 1974-1975 to 1984-1985, 120 South Polar Skua chicks were ringed on 18 nest territories on Bonaparte Point; 17 were resighted in the Palmer area when they were 3-10 years old. All 17 returnees were found within 3 km of their natal nest sites, and four of them occupied nest territories on Bonaparte Point.

  4. Observational measures of implementer fidelity for a school-based preventive intervention: development, reliability, and validity.

    PubMed

    Cross, Wendi; West, Jennifer; Wyman, Peter A; Schmeelk-Cone, Karen; Xia, Yinglin; Tu, Xin; Teisl, Michael; Brown, C Hendricks; Forgatch, Marion

    2015-01-01

    Current measures of implementer fidelity often fail to adequately measure core constructs of adherence and competence, and their relationship to outcomes can be mixed. To address these limitations, we used observational methods to assess these constructs and their relationships to proximal outcomes in a randomized trial of a school-based preventive intervention (Rochester Resilience Project) designed to strengthen emotion self-regulation skills in first-third graders with elevated aggressive-disruptive behaviors. Within the intervention group (n = 203), a subsample (n = 76) of students was selected to reflect the overall sample. Implementers were 10 paraprofessionals. Videotaped observations of three lessons from year 1 of the intervention (14 lessons) were coded for each implementer-child dyad on adherence (content) and competence (quality). Using multilevel modeling, we examined how much of the variance in the fidelity measures was attributed to implementer and to the child within implementer. Both measures had large and significant variance accounted for by implementer (competence, 68 %; adherence, 41 %); child within implementer did not account for significant variance indicating that ratings reflected stable qualities of the implementer rather than the child. Raw adherence and competence scores shared 46 % of variance (r = .68). Controlling for baseline differences and age, the amount (adherence) and quality (competence) of program delivered predicted children's enhanced response to the intervention on both child and parent reports after 6 months, but not on teacher report of externalizing behavior. Our findings support the use of multiple observations for measuring fidelity and that adherence and competence are important components of fidelity which could be assessed by many programs using these methods. PMID:24736951

  5. A Hi Fidelity Asymptotic Theory For Local Field Recovery Inside Pre-stressed Composite Media

    SciTech Connect

    Breitzman, Timothy; Lipton, Robert; Iarve, Endel

    2008-02-15

    We introduce a new mathematically rigorous high fidelity asymptotic theory for recovering the local field behavior inside complex composite architectures. The theory applies to zones containing strong spatial variance of local material properties. The method is used to recover the local field across ply interfaces for a pre-stressed multi-ply fiber reinforced composite. The results are shown to be in good agreement with direct numerical simulations for realistic fiber sizes and fiber-matrix elastic properties.

  6. Transmission fidelity is the key to the build-up of cumulative culture.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Hannah M; Laland, Kevin N

    2012-08-01

    Many animals have socially transmitted behavioural traditions, but human culture appears unique in that it is cumulative, i.e. human cultural traits increase in diversity and complexity over time. It is often suggested that high-fidelity cultural transmission is necessary for cumulative culture to occur through refinement, a process known as 'ratcheting', but this hypothesis has never been formally evaluated. We discuss processes of information transmission and loss of traits from a cognitive viewpoint alongside other cultural processes of novel invention (generation of entirely new traits), modification (refinement of existing traits) and combination (bringing together two established traits to generate a new trait). We develop a simple cultural transmission model that does not assume major evolutionary changes (e.g. in brain architecture) and show that small changes in the fidelity with which information is passed between individuals can lead to cumulative culture. In comparison, modification and combination have a lesser influence on, and novel invention appears unimportant to, the ratcheting process. Our findings support the idea that high-fidelity transmission is the key driver of human cumulative culture, and that progress in cumulative culture depends more on trait combination than novel invention or trait modification. PMID:22734060

  7. Improving fidelity of quantum cloning via the Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction in a spin network

    SciTech Connect

    Chen Yuhan; Zhu Aidong; Shao Xiaoqiang; Yeon, Kyu-Hwang; Yu, Seong-Cho

    2010-03-15

    We investigate the effect of the Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya (DM) interaction on the fidelity of the 1{yields}M phase-covariant cloning machine (PCCM) in a spin star network. The results of numerical calculation show that the DM interaction can further improve the cloning fidelity to reach the optimal value. Furthermore, the physical mechanism is investigated by analyzing the effect of the DM interaction on the populations of the qubits. It is shown that the DM interaction leads to the populations of states |1>|S(M,k+1)> and |1>|S(M,k)>[or |0>|S(M,k)> and |0>|S(M,k-1)>] simultaneously reaching the maximum or minimum value periodically, where the first ket |i> ( is an element of 0,1) in |i>|S(M,k)> denotes the state of central spin with |0> and |1> representing the spin-up and spin-down states, respectively, while the second ket |S(M,k)> denotes the state of outer spins with M being the total number of outer spins and k the number of up spins. At these extreme overlapping points of two states, the fidelity of quantum cloning can reach optimal value. Finally the forms of these two different 1{yields}M optimal cloning transformations are presented.

  8. High-Fidelity Buckling Analysis of Composite Cylinders Using the STAGS Finite Element Code

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilburger, Mark W.

    2014-01-01

    Results from previous shell buckling studies are presented that illustrate some of the unique and powerful capabilities in the STAGS finite element analysis code that have made it an indispensable tool in structures research at NASA over the past few decades. In particular, prototypical results from the development and validation of high-fidelity buckling simulations are presented for several unstiffened thin-walled compression-loaded graphite-epoxy cylindrical shells along with a discussion on the specific methods and user-defined subroutines in STAGS that are used to carry out the high-fidelity simulations. These simulations accurately account for the effects of geometric shell-wall imperfections, shell-wall thickness variations, local shell-wall ply-gaps associated with the fabrication process, shell-end geometric imperfections, nonuniform applied end loads, and elastic boundary conditions. The analysis procedure uses a combination of nonlinear quasi-static and transient dynamic solution algorithms to predict the prebuckling and unstable collapse response characteristics of the cylinders. Finally, the use of high-fidelity models in the development of analysis-based shell-buckling knockdown (design) factors is demonstrated.

  9. A Methodology for Evaluating the Fidelity of Ground-Based Flight Simulators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zeyada, Y.; Hess, R. A.

    1999-01-01

    An analytical and experimental investigation was undertaken to model the manner in which pilots perceive and utilize visual, proprioceptive, and vestibular cues in a ground-based flight simulator. The study was part of a larger research effort which has the creation of a methodology for determining flight simulator fidelity requirements as its ultimate goal. The study utilized a closed-loop feedback structure of the pilot/simulator system which included the pilot, the cockpit inceptor, the dynamics of the simulated vehicle and the motion system. With the exception of time delays which accrued in visual scene production in the simulator, visual scene effects were not included in this study. The NASA Ames Vertical Motion Simulator was used in a simple, single-degree of freedom rotorcraft bob-up/down maneuver. Pilot/vehicle analysis and fuzzy-inference identification were employed to study the changes in fidelity which occurred as the characteristics of the motion system were varied over five configurations. The data from three of the five pilots that participated in the experimental study were analyzed in the fuzzy-inference identification. Results indicate that both the analytical pilot/vehicle analysis and the fuzzy-inference identification can be used to reflect changes in simulator fidelity for the task examined.

  10. Becoming a high-fidelity - super - imitator: what are the contributions of social and individual learning?

    PubMed

    Subiaul, Francys; Patterson, Eric M; Schilder, Brian; Renner, Elizabeth; Barr, Rachel

    2015-11-01

    In contrast to other primates, human children's imitation performance goes from low to high fidelity soon after infancy. Are such changes associated with the development of other forms of learning? We addressed this question by testing 215 children (26-59 months) on two social conditions (imitation, emulation) - involving a demonstration - and two asocial conditions (trial-and-error, recall) - involving individual learning - using two touchscreen tasks. The tasks required responding to either three different pictures in a specific picture order (Cognitive: Airplane→Ball→Cow) or three identical pictures in a specific spatial order (Motor-Spatial: Up→Down→Right). There were age-related improvements across all conditions and imitation, emulation and recall performance were significantly better than trial-and-error learning. Generalized linear models demonstrated that motor-spatial imitation fidelity was associated with age and motor-spatial emulation performance, but cognitive imitation fidelity was only associated with age. While this study provides evidence for multiple imitation mechanisms, the development of one of those mechanisms - motor-spatial imitation - may be bootstrapped by the development of another social learning skill - motor-spatial emulation. Together, these findings provide important clues about the development of imitation, which is arguably a distinctive feature of the human species.

  11. A Structure Fidelity Approach for Big Data Collection in Wireless Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Mou; Tan, Liansheng; Xiong, Naixue

    2015-01-01

    One of the most widespread and important applications in wireless sensor networks (WSNs) is the continuous data collection, such as monitoring the variety of ambient temperature and humidity. Due to the sensor nodes with a limited energy supply, the reduction of energy consumed in the continuous observation of physical phenomenon plays a significant role in extending the lifetime of WSNs. However, the high redundancy of sensing data leads to great waste of energy as a result of over-deployed sensor nodes. In this paper, we develop a structure fidelity data collection (SFDC) framework leveraging the spatial correlations between nodes to reduce the number of the active sensor nodes while maintaining the low structural distortion of the collected data. A structural distortion based on the image quality assessment approach is used to perform the nodes work/sleep scheduling, such that the number of the working nodes is reduced while the remainder of nodes can be put into the low-power sleep mode during the sampling period. The main contribution of SFDC is to provide a unique perspective on how to maintain the data fidelity in term of structural similarity in the continuous sensing applications for WSNs. The simulation results based on synthetic and real world datasets verify the effectiveness of SFDC framework both on energy saving and data fidelity. PMID:25609045

  12. Fidelity decay and entropy production in many-particle systems after random interaction quench

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haldar, Sudip Kumar; Chavda, N. D.; Vyas, Manan; Kota, V. K. B.

    2016-04-01

    We analyze the effect of spin degree of freedom on fidelity decay and entropy production of a many-particle fermionic (bosonic) system in a mean-field, quenched by a random two-body interaction preserving many-particle spin S. The system Hamiltonian is represented by embedded Gaussian orthogonal ensemble (EGOE) of random matrices (for time-reversal and rotationally invariant systems) with one plus two-body interactions preserving S for fermions/bosons. EGOE are paradigmatic models to study the dynamical transition from integrability to chaos in interacting many-body quantum systems. A simple general picture, in which the variances of the eigenvalue density play a central role, is obtained for describing the short-time dynamics of fidelity decay and entropy production. Using some approximations, an EGOE formula for the time (t sat) for the onset of saturation of entropy, is also derived. These analytical EGOE results are in good agreement with numerical calculations. Moreover, both fermion and boson systems show significant spin dependence on the relaxation dynamics of the fidelity and entropy.

  13. Modeling human pilot cue utilization with applications to simulator fidelity assessment.

    PubMed

    Zeyada, Y; Hess, R A

    2000-01-01

    An analytical investigation to model the manner in which pilots perceive and utilize visual, proprioceptive, and vestibular cues in a ground-based flight simulator was undertaken. Data from a NASA Ames Research Center vertical motion simulator study of a simple, single-degree-of-freedom rotorcraft bob-up/down maneuver were employed in the investigation. The study was part of a larger research effort that has the creation of a methodology for determining flight simulator fidelity requirements as its ultimate goal. The study utilized a closed-loop feedback structure of the pilot/simulator system that included the pilot, the cockpit inceptor, the dynamics of the simulated vehicle, and the motion system. With the exception of time delays that accrued in visual scene production in the simulator, visual scene effects were not included in this study. Pilot/vehicle analysis and fuzzy-inference identification were employed to study the changes in fidelity that occurred as the characteristics of the motion system were varied over five configurations. The data from three of the five pilots who participated in the experimental study were analyzed in the fuzzy-inference identification. Results indicate that both the analytical pilot/vehicle analysis and the fuzzy-inference identification can be used to identify changes in simulator fidelity for the task examined.

  14. High-Fidelity Simulation: Preparing Dental Hygiene Students for Managing Medical Emergencies.

    PubMed

    Bilich, Lisa A; Jackson, Sarah C; Bray, Brenda S; Willson, Megan N

    2015-09-01

    Medical emergencies can occur at any time in the dental office, so being prepared to properly manage the situation can be the difference between life and death. The entire dental team must be properly trained regarding all aspects of emergency management in the dental clinic. The aim of this study was to evaluate a new educational approach using a high-fidelity simulator to prepare dental hygiene students for medical emergencies. This study utilized high-fidelity simulation (HFS) to evaluate the abilities of junior dental hygiene students at Eastern Washington University to handle a medical emergency in the dental hygiene clinic. Students were given a medical emergency scenario requiring them to assess the emergency and implement life-saving protocols in a simulated "real-life" situation using a high-fidelity manikin. Retrospective data were collected for four years from the classes of 2010 through 2013 (N=114). The results indicated that learning with simulation was effective in helping the students identify the medical emergency in a timely manner, implement emergency procedures correctly, locate and correctly utilize contents of the emergency kit, administer appropriate intervention/treatment for a specific patient, and provide the patient with appropriate follow-up instructions. For dental hygiene programs seeking to enhance their curricula in the area of medical emergencies, this study suggests that HFS is an effective tool to prepare students to appropriately handle medical emergencies. Faculty calibration is essential to standardize simulation.

  15. Experimental estimation of average fidelity of a Clifford gate on a 7-qubit quantum processor.

    PubMed

    Lu, Dawei; Li, Hang; Trottier, Denis-Alexandre; Li, Jun; Brodutch, Aharon; Krismanich, Anthony P; Ghavami, Ahmad; Dmitrienko, Gary I; Long, Guilu; Baugh, Jonathan; Laflamme, Raymond

    2015-04-10

    One of the major experimental achievements in the past decades is the ability to control quantum systems to high levels of precision. To quantify the level of control we need to characterize the dynamical evolution. Full characterization via quantum process tomography is impractical and often unnecessary. For most practical purposes, it is enough to estimate more general quantities such as the average fidelity. Here we use a unitary 2-design and twirling protocol for efficiently estimating the average fidelity of Clifford gates, to certify a 7-qubit entangling gate in a nuclear magnetic resonance quantum processor. Compared with more than 10^{8} experiments required by full process tomography, we conducted 1656 experiments to satisfy a statistical confidence level of 99%. The average fidelity of this Clifford gate in experiment is 55.1%, and rises to at least 87.5% if the signal's decay due to decoherence is taken into account. The entire protocol of certifying Clifford gates is efficient and scalable, and can easily be extended to any general quantum information processor with minor modifications.

  16. Controlled tunneling-induced dephasing of Rabi rotations for high-fidelity hole spin initialization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ardelt, P.-L.; Simmet, T.; Müller, K.; Dory, C.; Fischer, K. A.; Bechtold, A.; Kleinkauf, A.; Riedl, H.; Finley, J. J.

    2015-09-01

    We report the subpicosecond initialization of a single heavy hole spin in a self-assembled quantum dot with >98.5 % fidelity and without external magnetic field. Using an optically addressable charge and spin storage device we tailor the relative electron and hole tunneling escape time scales from the dot and simultaneously achieve high-fidelity initialization, long hole storage times, and high-efficiency readout via a photocurrent signal. We measure electric-field-dependent Rabi oscillations of the neutral and charged exciton transitions in the ultrafast tunneling regime and demonstrate that tunneling-induced dephasing (TID) of excitonic Rabi rotations is the major source for the intensity damping of Rabi oscillations in the low Rabi frequency, low temperature regime. Our results are in very good quantitative agreement with quantum-optical simulations revealing that TID can be used to precisely measure tunneling escape times and extract changes in the Coulomb binding energies for different charge configurations of the quantum dot. Finally, we demonstrate that for subpicosecond electron tunneling escape, TID of a coherently driven exciton transition facilitates ultrafast hole spin initialization with near-unity fidelity.

  17. Ribosomes in the balance: structural equilibrium ensures translational fidelity and proper gene expression.

    PubMed

    Musalgaonkar, Sharmishtha; Moomau, Christine A; Dinman, Jonathan D

    2014-12-01

    At equilibrium, empty ribosomes freely transit between the rotated and un-rotated states. In the cell, the binding of two translation elongation factors to the same general region of the ribosome stabilizes one state over the other. These stabilized states are resolved by expenditure of energy in the form of GTP hydrolysis. A prior study employing mutants of a late assembling peripheral ribosomal protein suggested that ribosome rotational status determines its affinity for elongation factors, and hence translational fidelity and gene expression. Here, mutants of the early assembling integral ribosomal protein uL2 are used to test the generality of this hypothesis. rRNA structure probing analyses reveal that mutations in the uL2 B7b bridge region shift the equilibrium toward the rotated state, propagating rRNA structural changes to all of the functional centers of ribosome. Structural disequilibrium unbalances ribosome biochemically: rotated ribosomes favor binding of the eEF2 translocase and disfavor that of the elongation ternary complex. This manifests as specific translational fidelity defects, impacting the expression of genes involved in telomere maintenance. A model is presented describing how cyclic intersubunit rotation ensures the unidirectionality of translational elongation, and how perturbation of rotational equilibrium affects specific aspects of translational fidelity and cellular gene expression.

  18. Transmission fidelity is the key to the build-up of cumulative culture

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Hannah M.; Laland, Kevin N.

    2012-01-01

    Many animals have socially transmitted behavioural traditions, but human culture appears unique in that it is cumulative, i.e. human cultural traits increase in diversity and complexity over time. It is often suggested that high-fidelity cultural transmission is necessary for cumulative culture to occur through refinement, a process known as ‘ratcheting’, but this hypothesis has never been formally evaluated. We discuss processes of information transmission and loss of traits from a cognitive viewpoint alongside other cultural processes of novel invention (generation of entirely new traits), modification (refinement of existing traits) and combination (bringing together two established traits to generate a new trait). We develop a simple cultural transmission model that does not assume major evolutionary changes (e.g. in brain architecture) and show that small changes in the fidelity with which information is passed between individuals can lead to cumulative culture. In comparison, modification and combination have a lesser influence on, and novel invention appears unimportant to, the ratcheting process. Our findings support the idea that high-fidelity transmission is the key driver of human cumulative culture, and that progress in cumulative culture depends more on trait combination than novel invention or trait modification. PMID:22734060

  19. Adaptive variable-fidelity wavelet-based eddy-capturing approaches for compressible turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown-Dymkoski, Eric; Vasilyev, Oleg V.

    2015-11-01

    Multiresolution wavelet methods have been developed for efficient simulation of compressible turbulence. They rely upon a filter to identify dynamically important coherent flow structures and adapt the mesh to resolve them. The filter threshold parameter, which can be specified globally or locally, allows for a continuous tradeoff between computational cost and fidelity, ranging seamlessly between DNS and adaptive LES. There are two main approaches to specifying the adaptive threshold parameter. It can be imposed as a numerical error bound, or alternatively, derived from real-time flow phenomena to ensure correct simulation of desired turbulent physics. As LES relies on often imprecise model formulations that require a high-quality mesh, this variable-fidelity approach offers a further tool for improving simulation by targeting deficiencies and locally increasing the resolution. Simultaneous physical and numerical criteria, derived from compressible flow physics and the governing equations, are used to identify turbulent regions and evaluate the fidelity. Several benchmark cases are considered to demonstrate the ability to capture variable density and thermodynamic effects in compressible turbulence. This work was supported by NSF under grant No. CBET-1236505.

  20. Information transfer fidelity in spin networks and ring-based quantum routers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jonckheere, E.; Langbein, F. C.; Schirmer, S. G.

    2015-12-01

    Spin networks are endowed with an information transfer fidelity (ITF), which defines an absolute upper bound on the probability of transmission of an excitation from one spin to another. The ITF is easily computable, but the bound can be reached asymptotically in time only under certain conditions. General conditions for attainability of the bound are established, and the process of achieving the maximum transfer probability is given a dynamical model, the translation on the torus. The time to reach the maximum probability is estimated using the simultaneous Diophantine approximation, implemented using a variant of the Lenstra-Lenstra-Lovász (LLL) algorithm. For a ring with uniform couplings, the network can be made into a metric space by defining a distance (satisfying the triangle inequality) that quantifies the lack of transmission fidelity between two nodes. It is shown that transfer fidelities and transfer times can be improved significantly by means of simple controls taking the form of nondynamic, spatially localized bias fields, opening up the possibility for intelligent design of spin networks and dynamic routing of information encoded in them, while being more flexible than engineering fixed couplings to favor some transfers, and less demanding than control schemes requiring fast dynamic controls.