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Sample records for 15o brain pet

  1. Assessment of rodent brain activity using combined [(15)O]H2O-PET and BOLD-fMRI.

    PubMed

    Wehrl, Hans F; Martirosian, Petros; Schick, Fritz; Reischl, Gerald; Pichler, Bernd J

    2014-04-01

    The study of brain activation in small animals is of high interest for neurological research. In this study, we proposed a protocol to monitor brain activation in rats following whisker stimulation using the short half-life PET tracer [(15)O]H2O as a marker for cerebral blood flow. This technique enables the study of baseline and activation conditions in fast succession within the same scanning session. Furthermore, we compared the results obtained from PET imaging with additional BOLD-fMRI data acquired in the same animals within the same anesthetic session in immediate succession. Although the maximum relative signal changes during brain activity observed with PET were substantially higher compared to the BOLD-fMRI results, statistical analyses showed that the number of activated voxels in PET was lower compared to the fMRI measurements. Furthermore, there was a difference in the activation centers in both the shape and location between PET and fMRI. The discrepancy in the number of activated voxels could be attributed to a lower overall contrast-to-noise ratio of the PET images compared to BOLD-fMRI, whereas the difference in the spatial location indicates a more fundamental process, involving the different physiological origins of the PET and BOLD-fMRI response. This study clearly demonstrates that [(15)O]H2O-PET activation studies may be performed in small laboratory animals, and shows the complementary nature of studying brain activation using [(15)O]H2O-PET and fMRI.

  2. A Network Analysis of 15O-H2O PET Reveals Deep Brain Stimulation Effects on Brain Network of Parkinson's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hae-Jeong; Park, Bumhee; Kim, Hae Yu; Oh, Maeng-Keun; Kim, Joong Il; Yoon, Misun; Lee, Jong Doo

    2015-01-01

    Purpose As Parkinson's disease (PD) can be considered a network abnormality, the effects of deep brain stimulation (DBS) need to be investigated in the aspect of networks. This study aimed to examine how DBS of the bilateral subthalamic nucleus (STN) affects the motor networks of patients with idiopathic PD during motor performance and to show the feasibility of the network analysis using cross-sectional positron emission tomography (PET) images in DBS studies. Materials and Methods We obtained [15O]H2O PET images from ten patients with PD during a sequential finger-to-thumb opposition task and during the resting state, with DBS-On and DBS-Off at STN. To identify the alteration of motor networks in PD and their changes due to STN-DBS, we applied independent component analysis (ICA) to all the cross-sectional PET images. We analysed the strength of each component according to DBS effects, task effects and interaction effects. Results ICA blindly decomposed components of functionally associated distributed clusters, which were comparable to the results of univariate statistical parametric mapping. ICA further revealed that STN-DBS modifies usage-strengths of components corresponding to the basal ganglia-thalamo-cortical circuits in PD patients by increasing the hypoactive basal ganglia and by suppressing the hyperactive cortical motor areas, ventrolateral thalamus and cerebellum. Conclusion Our results suggest that STN-DBS may affect not only the abnormal local activity, but also alter brain networks in patients with PD. This study also demonstrated the usefulness of ICA for cross-sectional PET data to reveal network modifications due to DBS, which was not observable using the subtraction method. PMID:25837179

  3. Evaluation of the ECAT EXACT HR{sup +} 3D PET scanner in {sup 15}O-water brain activation studies

    SciTech Connect

    Moreno-Cantu, J.J.; Thompson, C.J.; Zatorre, R.J.

    1996-12-31

    We evaluated the performance of the ECAT EXACT HR{sup +} 3D whole body PET scanner when employed to measure brain function using {sup 15}O-water-bolus activation protocols in single data acquisition sessions. Using vibrotactile and auditory stimuli as independent activation tasks, we studied the scanner`s performance under different imaging conditions in four healthy volunteers. Cerebral blood flow images were acquired from each volunteer using {sup 15}O-water-bolus injections of activity varying from 5 to 20mCi. Performance characteristics. The scanner`s dead time grew linearly with injected dose from 10% to 25%. Random events varied from 30% to 50% of the detected events. Scattered events were efficiently corrected at all doses. Noise-effective-count curves plateau at about 15mCi. One-session 12-injection bolus PET activation protocol. Using an acquisition protocol that accounts for the scanner`s performance and the practical aspects of imaging volunteers and patients in one session, we assessed the correlation between the statistical significance of activation foci and the dose per injection used The one-session protocol employs 12 bolus injections per subject. We present evidence suggesting that 15-20mCi is the optimal dose per injection to be used routinely in one-time scanning sessions.

  4. Noninvasive functional brain mapping by change-distribution analysis of averaged PET images of H/sub 2//sup 15/O tissue activity

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, P.T.; Mintun, M.A.

    1989-02-01

    Change-distribution analysis and intersubject averaging of subtracted positron emission tomography (PET) images are new techniques for detecting, localizing, and quantifying state-dependent focal transients in neuronal activity. We previously described their application to cerebral blood flow images (intravenous bolus H/sub 2//sup 15/O, Kety autoradiographic model). We now describe their application to images of H/sub 2//sup 15/O regional tissue activity without conversion to units of blood flow. The sensitivity and specificity of response detection and the accuracy of response localization were virtually identical for the two types of images. Response magnitude expressed in percent change from rest was slightly, but consistently smaller in tissue-activity images. Response magnitude expressed in z-score was the same for the two-image types. Most research and clinical applications of functional brain mapping can employ images of H215O tissue activity (intravenous bolus, 40-sec nondynamic scan) without conversion to units of blood flow. This eliminates arterial blood sampling, thereby simplifying and minimizing the invasivity of the PET procedure.

  5. Cortical deactivations during gastric fundus distension in health: visceral pain-specific response or attenuation of 'default mode' brain function? A H2 15O-PET study.

    PubMed

    van Oudenhove, L; Vandenberghe, J; Dupont, P; Geeraerts, B; Vos, R; Bormans, G; van Laere, K; Fischler, B; Demyttenaere, K; Janssens, J; Tack, J

    2009-03-01

    Gastric distension activates a cerebral network including brainstem, thalamus, insula, perigenual anterior cingulate, cerebellum, ventrolateral prefrontal cortex and potentially somatosensory regions. Cortical deactivations during gastric distension have hardly been reported. To describe brain areas of decreased activity during gastric fundus distension compared to baseline, using data from our previously published study (Gastroenterology, 128, 2005 and 564). H(2) (15)O-brain positron emission tomography was performed in 11 healthy volunteers during five conditions (random order): (C(1)) no distension (baseline); isobaric distension to individual thresholds for (C(2)) first, (C(3)) marked, (C(4)) unpleasant sensation and (C(5)) sham distension. Subtraction analyses were performed (in SPM2) to determine deactivated areas during distension compared to baseline, with a threshold of P(uncorrected_voxel_level) < 0.001 and P(corrected_cluster_level) < 0.05. Baseline-maximal distension (C(1)-C(4)) yielded significant deactivations in: (i) bilateral occipital, lateral parietal and temporal cortex as well as medial parietal lobe (posterior cingulate and precuneus) and medial temporal lobe (hippocampus and amygdala), (ii) right dorsolateral and dorso- and ventromedial PFC, (iii) left subgenual ACC and bilateral caudate head. Intragastric pressure and epigastric sensation score correlated negatively with brain activity in similar regions. The right hippocampus/amygdala deactivation was specific to sham. Gastric fundus distension in health is associated with extensive cortical deactivations, besides the activations described before. Whether this represents task-independent suspension of 'default mode' activity (as described in various cognitive tasks) or an visceral pain/interoception-specific process remains to be elucidated.

  6. Evaluation of the ECAT EXACT HR+ 3-D PET scanner in H2(15)O brain activation studies: dose fractionation strategies for rCBF and signal enhancing protocols.

    PubMed

    Moreno-Cantú, J J; Thompson, C J; Zatorre, R J

    1998-12-01

    We evaluated the performance of the ECAT EXACT HR+ 3-D whole-body positron emission tomography (PET) scanner when employed to measure brain function using H2(15)O bolus activation protocols that are completed in single same-day data acquisition sessions. Using vibrotactile and auditory stimuli as independent activation tasks, we studied the scanner performance under different imaging conditions in five healthy volunteers. Cerebral blood flow images were acquired from each volunteer using H2(15)O bolus injections of activity varying from 5-20 mCi. One-session dose-fractionation strategies were analyzed for rCBF, standard activity-concentration, switched, and cold-bolus/switched protocols. Performance characteristics. The scanner dead time grew linearly with injected dose from 10% to 25%. Random events varied from 30% to 50% of the detected events. Random and scattered events were corrected adequately at all doses. Estimated noise-effective-count curves plateau at about 10 mCi. One-session 12-injection bolus PET activation protocols. Using an acquisition protocol that accounts for the scanner performance and the practical aspects of imaging volunteers and neurological patients in a single same-day session, we assessed the correlation between the significance of activation foci and the dose/injection used. The one-session protocol employs 12 bolus injections/subject. We present evidence suggesting that when an rCBF protocol is used, image noise is reduced significantly when the activity injected increases from 5 to 10 mCi. Increasing the dose from 10 to 15 or 20 mCi yielded further but smaller reductions. Our observations also suggest that image noise will be strongly reduced if a 20-mCi dose/injection is used when data are collected using protocols that employ long acquisition times such as a switched or a cold-bolus/switched protocol.

  7. Reciprocal Benefits of Mass-Univariate and Multivariate Modeling in Brain Mapping: Applications to Event-Related Functional MRI, H2 15O-, and FDG-PET

    PubMed Central

    Habeck, Christian G.

    2006-01-01

    In brain mapping studies of sensory, cognitive, and motor operations, specific waveforms of dynamic neural activity are predicted based on theoretical models of human information processing. For example in event-related functional MRI (fMRI), the general linear model (GLM) is employed in mass-univariate analyses to identify the regions whose dynamic activity closely matches the expected waveforms. By comparison multivariate analyses based on PCA or ICA provide greater flexibility in detecting spatiotemporal properties of experimental data that may strongly support alternative neuroscientific explanations. We investigated conjoint multivariate and mass-univariate analyses that combine the capabilities to (1) verify activation of neural machinery we already understand and (2) discover reliable signatures of new neural machinery. We examined combinations of GLM and PCA that recover latent neural signals (waveforms and footprints) with greater accuracy than either method alone. Comparative results are illustrated with analyses of real fMRI data, adding to Monte Carlo simulation support. PMID:23165047

  8. Cortical activation in profoundly deaf patients during cochlear implant stimulation demonstrated by H sub 2 (15)O PET

    SciTech Connect

    Herzog, H.; Lamprecht, A.; Kuehn, A.R.; Roden, W.; Vosteen, K.H.; Feinendegen, L.E. )

    1991-05-01

    Cochlear implants (CIs) are used to provide sensations of sound to profoundly deaf patients. The performance of the CI is assessed mainly by the subjective reports of patients. The aim of this study was to look for objective cortical responses to the stimulation of the CI. Two postlingually and two prelingually deaf patients were investigated by positron emission tomography (PET) using {sup 15}O-labeled water (H{sub 2}{sup 15}O) to determine the regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF). Instead of quantifying rCBF in absolute terms, it was estimated by referring the regional tissue concentration of H{sub 2}{sup 15}O to the mean whole brain concentration. CI stimulation encoded from white noise and sequential words led to an increased rCBF in the primary and secondary (Wernicke) auditory cortex. Relative elevations of up to 33% were observed bilaterally, although they were higher contralateral to the CI. These results were obtained not only in the postlingually deaf patients but also in two patients who had never been able to hear. Thus, it could be demonstrated that PET measurements of cerebral H{sub 2}{sup 15}O distribution yield objective responses of the central auditory system during electrical stimulation by CIs in profoundly deaf patients.

  9. Brain PET scan

    MedlinePlus

    ... Tell the difference between Parkinson disease and other movement disorders Several PET scans may be taken to determine ... identify where the seizures start in your brain Movement disorders (such as Parkinson disease )

  10. Validity of using a 3-dimensional PET scanner during inhalation of 15O-labeled oxygen for quantitative assessment of regional metabolic rate of oxygen in man.

    PubMed

    Hori, Yuki; Hirano, Yoshiyuki; Koshino, Kazuhiro; Moriguchi, Tetsuaki; Iguchi, Satoshi; Yamamoto, Akihide; Enmi, Junichiro; Kawashima, Hidekazu; Zeniya, Tsutomu; Morita, Naomi; Nakagawara, Jyoji; Casey, Michael E; Iida, Hidehiro

    2014-09-21

    Use of 15O labeled oxygen (15O2) and positron emission tomography (PET) allows quantitative assessment of the regional metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO2) in vivo, which is essential to understanding the pathological status of patients with cerebral vascular and neurological disorders. The method has, however, been challenging, when a 3D PET scanner is employed, largely attributed to the presence of gaseous radioactivity in the trachea and the inhalation system, which results in a large amount of scatter and random events in the PET assessment. The present study was intended to evaluate the adequacy of using a recently available commercial 3D PET scanner in the assessment of regional cerebral radioactivity distribution during an inhalation of 15O2. Systematic experiments were carried out on a brain phantom. Experiments were also performed on a healthy volunteer following a recently developed protocol for simultaneous assessment of CMRO2 and cerebral blood flow, which involves sequential administration of 15O2 and C15O2. A particular intention was to evaluate the adequacy of the scatter-correction procedures. The phantom experiment demonstrated that errors were within 3% at the practically maximum radioactivity in the face mask, with the greatest radioactivity in the lung. The volunteer experiment demonstrated that the counting rate was at peak during the 15O gas inhalation period, within a verified range. Tomographic images represented good quality over the entire FOV, including the lower part of the cerebral structures and the carotid artery regions. The scatter-correction procedures appeared to be important, particularly in the process to compensate for the scatter originating outside the FOV. Reconstructed images dramatically changed if the correction was carried out using inappropriate procedures. This study demonstrated that accurate reconstruction could be obtained when the scatter compensation was appropriately carried out. This study also suggested the

  11. Validity of using a 3-dimensional PET scanner during inhalation of 15O-labeled oxygen for quantitative assessment of regional metabolic rate of oxygen in man

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hori, Yuki; Hirano, Yoshiyuki; Koshino, Kazuhiro; Moriguchi, Tetsuaki; Iguchi, Satoshi; Yamamoto, Akihide; Enmi, Junichiro; Kawashima, Hidekazu; Zeniya, Tsutomu; Morita, Naomi; Nakagawara, Jyoji; Casey, Michael E.; Iida, Hidehiro

    2014-09-01

    Use of 15O labeled oxygen (15O2) and positron emission tomography (PET) allows quantitative assessment of the regional metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO2) in vivo, which is essential to understanding the pathological status of patients with cerebral vascular and neurological disorders. The method has, however, been challenging, when a 3D PET scanner is employed, largely attributed to the presence of gaseous radioactivity in the trachea and the inhalation system, which results in a large amount of scatter and random events in the PET assessment. The present study was intended to evaluate the adequacy of using a recently available commercial 3D PET scanner in the assessment of regional cerebral radioactivity distribution during an inhalation of 15O2. Systematic experiments were carried out on a brain phantom. Experiments were also performed on a healthy volunteer following a recently developed protocol for simultaneous assessment of CMRO2 and cerebral blood flow, which involves sequential administration of 15O2 and C15O2. A particular intention was to evaluate the adequacy of the scatter-correction procedures. The phantom experiment demonstrated that errors were within 3% at the practically maximum radioactivity in the face mask, with the greatest radioactivity in the lung. The volunteer experiment demonstrated that the counting rate was at peak during the 15O gas inhalation period, within a verified range. Tomographic images represented good quality over the entire FOV, including the lower part of the cerebral structures and the carotid artery regions. The scatter-correction procedures appeared to be important, particularly in the process to compensate for the scatter originating outside the FOV. Reconstructed images dramatically changed if the correction was carried out using inappropriate procedures. This study demonstrated that accurate reconstruction could be obtained when the scatter compensation was appropriately carried out. This study also suggested the

  12. Quantitative agreement between [(15)O]H2O PET and model free QUASAR MRI-derived cerebral blood flow and arterial blood volume.

    PubMed

    Heijtel, D F R; Petersen, E T; Mutsaerts, H J M M; Bakker, E; Schober, P; Stevens, M F; van Berckel, B N M; Majoie, C B L M; Booij, J; van Osch, M J P; van Bavel, E T; Boellaard, R; Lammertsma, A A; Nederveen, A J

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess whether there was an agreement between quantitative cerebral blood flow (CBF) and arterial cerebral blood volume (CBVA) measurements by [(15)O]H2O positron emission tomography (PET) and model-free QUASAR MRI. Twelve healthy subjects were scanned within a week in separate MRI and PET imaging sessions, after which quantitative and qualitative agreement between both modalities was assessed for gray matter, white matter and whole brain region of interests (ROI). The correlation between CBF measurements obtained with both modalities was moderate to high (r(2): 0.28-0.60, P < 0.05), although QUASAR significantly underestimated CBF by 30% (P < 0.001). CBVA was moderately correlated (r(2): 0.28-0.43, P < 0.05), with QUASAR yielding values that were only 27% of the [(15)O]H2O-derived values (P < 0.001). Group-wise voxel statistics identified minor areas with significant contrast differences between [(15)O]H2O PET and QUASAR MRI, indicating similar qualitative CBVA and CBF information by both modalities. In conclusion, the results of this study demonstrate that QUASAR MRI and [(15)O]H2O PET provide similar CBF and CBVA information, but with systematic quantitative discrepancies.

  13. The effect of activity outside the field-of-view on image signal-to-noise ratio for 3D PET with 15O

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibaraki, Masanobu; Sugawara, Shigeki; Nakamura, Kazuhiro; Kinoshita, Fumiko; Kinoshita, Toshibumi

    2011-05-01

    Activity outside the field-of-view (FOV) degrades the count rate performance of 3D PET and consequently reduces signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) of reconstructed images. The aim of this study was to evaluate a neck-shield installed in a 3D PET scanner for reducing the effect of the outside FOV activity. Specifically, we compared brain PET scans (15O2 and H215O) with and without the use of the neck-shield. Image SNRs were directly estimated by a sinogram bootstrap method. The bootstrap analysis showed that the use of the neck-shield improved the SNR by 8% and 19% for H215O and 15O2, respectively. The SNR improvements were predominantly due to the reduction of the random count rates. Noise equivalent count rate (NECR) analysis provided SNR estimates that were very similar with the bootstrap-based results for H215O, but not for 15O2. This discrepancy may be due to the fundamental difference between the two methods: the bootstrap method directly calculates the local SNR of reconstructed images, whereas the NECR calculation is based on the whole-gantry count rates, indicating a limitation of the conventional NECR-based method as a tool for assessing the image SNR. Although quantitative parameters, e.g. cerebral blood flow, did not differ when examined with and without the neck-shield, the use of the shield for brain 15O study is recommended in terms of the image SNR.

  14. Production of an 15O beam using a stable oxygen ion beam for in-beam PET imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohammadi, Akram; Yoshida, Eiji; Tashima, Hideaki; Nishikido, Fumihiko; Inaniwa, Taku; Kitagawa, Atsushi; Yamaya, Taiga

    2017-03-01

    In advanced ion therapy, the 15O ion beam is a promising candidate to treat hypoxic tumors and simultaneously monitor the delivered dose to a patient using PET imaging. This study aimed at production of an 15O beam by projectile fragmentation of a stable 16O beam in an optimal material, followed by in-beam PET imaging using a prototype OpenPET system, which was developed in the authors' group. The study was carried out in three steps: selection of the optimal target based on the highest production rate of 15O fragments; experimental production of the beam using the optimal target in the Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator Chiba (HIMAC) secondary beam course; and realization of in-beam PET imaging for the produced beam. The optimal target evaluations were done using the Monte Carlo simulation code PHITS. The fluence and mean energy of the secondary particles were simulated and the optimal target was selected based on the production rate of 15O fragments. The highest production rate of 15O was observed for a liquid hydrogen target, 3.27% for a 53 cm thick target from the 16O beam of 430 MeV/u. Since liquid hydrogen is not practically applicable in the HIMAC secondary beam course a hydrogen-rich polyethylene material, which was the second optimal target from the simulation results, was selected as the experimental target. Three polyethylene targets with thicknesses of 5, 11 or 14 cm were used to produce the 15O beam without any degrader in the beam course. The highest production rate was measured as around 0.87% for the 11 cm thick polyethylene target from the 16O beam of 430 MeV/u when the angular acceptance and momentum acceptance were set at ±13 mrad and ±2.5%, respectively. The purity of the produced beam for the three targets were around 75%, insufficient for clinical application, but it was increased to 97% by inserting a wedge shape aluminum degrader with a thickness of 1.76 cm into the beam course and that is sufficiently high. In-beam PET imaging was also

  15. Activation of a residual cortical network during painful stimulation in long-term postanoxic vegetative state: a 15O-H2O PET study.

    PubMed

    Kassubek, Jan; Juengling, Freimut D; Els, Thomas; Spreer, Joachim; Herpers, Martin; Krause, Thomas; Moser, Ernst; Lücking, Carl H

    2003-08-15

    Survivors of prolonged cerebral anoxia often remain in the persistent vegetative state (PVS). In this study, long-term PVS patients were investigated by 15O-H(2)O PET to analyze their central processing of pain. The study was approved by the local Ethics Committee, the experiments were performed in accordance with the Helsinki Declaration of 2000. Seven patients remaining in PVS of anoxic origin for a mean of 1.6 years (range 0.25-4 years) were investigated. We performed functional PET of the brain using 15O-labelled water during electrical nociceptive stimulation. Additionally, a brain metabolism study using 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET and multi-sequence MRI (including a 3-D data set) were acquired in all patients. PET data were analyzed by means of Statistical Parametric Mapping (SPM99) and coregistered to a study-specific brain template. MRI and FDG PET showed severe cortical impairment at the structural and the functional level, that is, general atrophy of various degrees and a widespread significant hypometabolism, respectively. Pain-induced activation (hyperperfusion) was found in the posterior insula/secondary somatosensory cortex (SII), postcentral gyrus/primary somatosensory cortex (SI), and the cingulate cortex contralateral to the stimulus and in the posterior insula ipsilateral to the stimulus (P<0.05, small-volume-corrected). No additional areas of the complex pain-processing matrix were significantly activated. In conclusion, the regional activity found at the cortical level indicates that a residual pain-related cerebral network remains active in long-term PVS patients.

  16. Evaluation of coronary endothelial dysfunction in healthy young smokers: Cold pressor test using [(15)O]H(2)O PET.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Kyung Hoon; Lee, Byeong-Il; Kim, Su Jin; Lee, Jae Sung; Lee, Dong Soo

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate coronary endothelial dysfunction in young healthy smokers by measuring myocardial blood flow (MBF) using [(15)O]H(2)O-PET. The study population was 18 young male volunteers consisted of 9 smokers (age: 23.8+/-1.1yr) and 9 non-smokers (age: 25.0+/-2.5yr). The smokers had been smoking cigarettes for 6.6+/-2.5 pack years. Myocardial [(15)O]H(2)O-PET was performed at rest, during cold (5 degrees C) pressor stimulation and during adenosine infusion. Left ventricular (LV) input function and tissue time-activity curves were obtained by drawing region of interest (ROI) on the LV blood pool and myocardium images obtained by non-negative matrix factorization (NMF) of dynamic [(15)O]H(2)O-PET data, and MBF was calculated using these time-activity curves and single compartmental model. There were no significant difference in resting MBF between two groups (smokers: 1.43+/-0.41 and non-smokers: 1.37+/-0.41ml/g/min; P=NS). However, during cold pressor stimulation, MBF in smokers was significantly lower than that in non-smokers (1.25+/-0.33 vs. 1.59+/-0.29ml/g/min; P=0.019). MBF changed to 90+/-24% of resting MBF in smokers and 122+/-28% in non-smokers. The difference in the ratio of cold pressor MBF to basal MBF between two groups was also significant (P=0.024). During adenosine infusion, however, hyperemic MBF did not differ significantly between smokers and non-smokers (5.81+/-1.99 vs. 5.03+/-1.27ml/g/min; P=NS). This study shows that [(15)O]H(2)O PET analysis can reveal that endothelial dysfunction occurs in even young smokers of about 6 pack years.

  17. Optimization of methods for quantification of rCBF using high-resolution [15O]H2O PET images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, M. D.; Feldmann, M.; Matthews, J. C.; Anton-Rodriguez, J. M.; Wang, S.; Koepp, M. J.; Asselin, M.-C.

    2012-04-01

    This study aimed to derive accurate estimates of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) from noisy dynamic [15O]H2O PET images acquired on the high-resolution research tomograph, while retaining as much as possible the high spatial resolution of this brain scanner (2-3 mm) in parametric maps of rCBF. The PET autoradiographic method and generalized linear least-squares (GLLS), with fixed or extended to include spatially variable estimates of the dispersion of the measured input function, were compared to nonlinear least-squares (NLLS) for rCBF estimation. Six healthy volunteers underwent two [15O]H2O PET scans with continuous arterial blood sampling. rCBF estimates were obtained from three image reconstruction methods (one analytic and two iterative, of which one includes a resolution model) to which a range of post-reconstruction filters (3D Gaussian: 2, 4 and 6 mm FWHM) were applied. The optimal injected activity was estimated to be around 11 MBq kg-1 (800 MBq) by extrapolation of patient-specific noise equivalent count rates. Whole-brain rCBF values were found to be relatively insensitive to the method of reconstruction and rCBF quantification. The grey and white matter rCBF for analytic reconstruction and NLLS were 0.44 ± 0.03 and 0.15 ± 0.03 mL min-1 cm-3, respectively, in agreement with literature values. Similar values were obtained from the other methods. For generation of parametric images using GLLS or the autoradiographic method, a filter of ⩾4 mm was required in order to suppress noise in the PET images which otherwise produced large biases in the rCBF estimates.

  18. An apparatus for the preparation of [{sup 15}O]-H{sub 2}O for rapid repetitive PET studies

    SciTech Connect

    Dahl, J. R.; Chaly, T. C.; Matacchieri, R. A.; Yee, A.; Dhawan, V.; Horowitz, S.; Jespersen, K.; Margouleff, D.; Eidelberg, D.

    1999-06-10

    The use of [{sup 15}O]-H{sub 2}O to follow changes in cerebral blood flow using PET has become frequent and widespread, requiring an apparatus easily operated by personnel unfamiliar with the physics and chemistry involved. Oxygen-15 is prepared by the {sup 14}N(d,n){sup 15}O nuclear reaction using a target of UHP nitrogen with 1% UHP hydrogen added, contained in a target chamber similar to that reported for the preparation of [{sup 18}F]-F{sub 2}. Nucleogenic {sup 15}O reacts with hydrogen in the target gas to produce [{sup 15}O]-H{sub 2}O. Some of the N target reacts with hydrogen to produce NH{sub 3}, which must be removed. At the end of bombardment (minimum 6 min.) the target gas is released through a small amount of parenteral water which then flows through approximately 50 mg Dowex 50W-X8 resin (100-200 mesh) to remove the NH{sub 3}. Sufficient 23.4% NaCl solution is added to produce an isotonic solution. The isotonic solution is sterilized by filtration through a 0.22 micron filter into an injection syringe which is sent via pneumatic transport to the PET imaging room. The apparatus, which uses a programmable logic controller and four switches to allow the operator to select standby, refill, collect activity, or deliver dose operations of the production process, provides doses of [{sup 15}O]-H{sub 2}O up to 35 mCi/dose at intervals as frequent as seven minutes with minimal radiation exposure to the operators.

  19. Cerebral blood flow with [15O]water PET studies using an image-derived input function and MR-defined carotid centerlines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fung, Edward K.; Carson, Richard E.

    2013-03-01

    Full quantitative analysis of brain PET data requires knowledge of the arterial input function into the brain. Such data are normally acquired by arterial sampling with corrections for delay and dispersion to account for the distant sampling site. Several attempts have been made to extract an image-derived input function (IDIF) directly from the internal carotid arteries that supply the brain and are often visible in brain PET images. We have devised a method of delineating the internal carotids in co-registered magnetic resonance (MR) images using the level-set method and applying the segmentations to PET images using a novel centerline approach. Centerlines of the segmented carotids were modeled as cubic splines and re-registered in PET images summed over the early portion of the scan. Using information from the anatomical center of the vessel should minimize partial volume and spillover effects. Centerline time-activity curves were taken as the mean of the values for points along the centerline interpolated from neighboring voxels. A scale factor correction was derived from calculation of cerebral blood flow (CBF) using gold standard arterial blood measurements. We have applied the method to human subject data from multiple injections of [15O]water on the HRRT. The method was assessed by calculating the area under the curve (AUC) of the IDIF and the CBF, and comparing these to values computed using the gold standard arterial input curve. The average ratio of IDIF to arterial AUC (apparent recovery coefficient: aRC) across 9 subjects with multiple (n = 69) injections was 0.49 ± 0.09 at 0-30 s post tracer arrival, 0.45 ± 0.09 at 30-60 s, and 0.46 ± 0.09 at 60-90 s. Gray and white matter CBF values were 61.4 ± 11.0 and 15.6 ± 3.0 mL/min/100 g tissue using sampled blood data. Using IDIF centerlines scaled by the average aRC over each subjects’ injections, gray and white matter CBF values were 61.3 ± 13.5 and 15.5 ± 3.4 mL/min/100 g tissue. Using global

  20. A new approach of weighted integration technique based on accumulated images using dynamic PET and H2(15)O

    SciTech Connect

    Yokoi, T.; Kanno, I.; Iida, H.; Miura, S.; Uemura, K. )

    1991-05-01

    We developed a new technique of weighted integration for the measurement of local cerebral blood flow (LCBF) and the blood-tissue partition coefficient (p) using dynamic positron emission tomography (PET) and H2(15)O. The weighted integration in the new technique is carried out on the equation of the first time integration of the Kety-Schmidt differential equation. Practically, serially accumulated images with sequentially prolonged accumulation times are weighted by two arbitrary functions. The weighting functions do not have to be differentiated because of the exclusion of the differential term in the starting equation. Consequently, the method does not require data at the end of the scan. The technique was applied to H2(15)O dynamic PET performed on four normal subjects, and was verified to provide a better signal-to-noise ratio than the previously developed integrated projection (IP) technique. Computer simulations were carried out to investigate the effects of statistical noise, tissue heterogeneity, and time delay and dispersion in arterial input function. The simulation showed that the new technique provided about a 1.4 times lower statistical error in both LCBF and p at 50 ml 100 g-1 min-1 compared to the IP technique, and it should be noted that the new technique was less sensitive to the shape of the weighting functions. The new technique provides a new strategy with respect to the statistical error for estimation of LCBF and p.

  1. Production of {sup 17}F, {sup 15}O and other radioisotopes for PET using a 3 MV electrostatic tandem accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, A. D.; Davidson, R. J.; Nickles, R. J.

    1999-06-10

    Target systems for the production of positron emitting radioisotopes used for medical research with positron emission tomography (PET) are under development for a 3 MV electrostatic tandem accelerator (NEC 9SDH-2). This machine is intended primarily for the continuous production of short lived tracers labeled with {sup 15}O (t{sub 1/2}=122 s) or {sup 17}F (t{sub 1/2}=65 s) for determining regional cerebral blood flow in humans. Simple gas, liquid, and solid target systems are presented for the production of [{sup 15}O]H{sub 2}O (yield at saturation 13 mCi/{mu}A), [{sup 17}F]F{sub 2} (22 mCi/{mu}A), [{sup 17}F] fluoride (aq.) (12 mCi/{mu}A), [{sup 18}F]fluoride (aq.) (21 mCi/{mu}A), [{sup 13}N] in graphite (25 mCi/{mu}A), and [{sup 11}C]CO{sub 2} (2.3 mCi/{mu}A). Current limitations on single window targets for each production are discussed.

  2. Is perivetricular hyperintensity region caused by decreased cerebral blood flow?; assessment by {sup 15}O-PET study

    SciTech Connect

    Kaminaga, T.; Hayashida, K.; Ishida, Y.

    1994-05-01

    The clinical significance of the regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) and oxygen metabolism has not been established in patients who had periventricular hyperintensity (PVH) by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The aim of this study is to correlate the results of rCBF and oxygen metabolism by positron emission tomography (PET) with PVH by MRI. The subjects were 27 patients; 16 patient (group I) (male; 7, female; 9, age; 56.8{plus_minus}18.6) with PVH and age matched 11 patients (group II) (male; 6, female; 5, age; 55.3{plus_minus}13.6) without PVH. {sup 15}O-PET study was carried out by Headtome IV and rCBF, cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO{sub 2}), oxygen extraction fraction (OEF) of PVH and cerebellum was calculated. T1- and T2-weighted images were obtained in all patients. Angiography was performed over 11 patients. The mean rCBF of group I in PVH (28.5{plus_minus}7.5 ml/100g/min) was significantly (p<0.01) lower than that of group II (38.6{plus_minus}5.7). The mean rCBF of group I and group II in cerebellum were 49.5{plus_minus}9.9 ml/100g/min and 50.2{plus_minus}8.9 respectively. There was no significant difference on CMRO{sub 2} and OEF between group I and group II. In MRI examination, PVH was detected in all group I patients and multiple high intensities were also detected in 7 patients of group I and 4 patients of group II on T2-weighted images. No significant stenosis (more than 75%) was detected in 11 patients by angiography. These data strongly indicate that PVH might be caused by decreased cerebral blood flow.

  3. Assessment of blood flow with 68Ga-DOTA PET in experimental inflammation: a validation study using 15O-water

    PubMed Central

    Autio, Anu; Saraste, Antti; Kudomi, Nobuyuki; Saanijoki, Tiina; Johansson, Jarkko; Liljenbäck, Heidi; Tarkia, Miikka; Oikonen, Vesa; Sipilä, Hannu T; Roivainen, Anne

    2014-01-01

    Increased blood flow and vascular permeability are key events in inflammation. Based on the fact that Gadolinium-1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-N,N‘,N‘‘,N‘‘‘-tetraacetic acid (Gd-DOTA) is commonly used in magnetic resonance (MR) imaging of blood flow (perfusion), we evaluated the feasibility of its Gallium-68 labeled DOTA analog (68Ga-DOTA) for positron emission tomography (PET) imaging of blood flow in experimental inflammation. Adult, male Sprague-Dawley rats with turpentine oil induced sterile skin/muscle inflammation were anesthetized with isoflurane, and imaged under rest and adenosine-induced hyperemia by means of dynamic 2-min Oxygen-15 labeled water (H2 15O) and 30-min 68Ga-DOTA PET. For the quantification of PET data, regions of interest (ROIs) were defined in the focus of inflammation, healthy muscle, myocardium and heart left ventricle. Radioactivity concentration in the ROIs versus time after injection was determined for both tracers and blood flow was calculated using image-derived input. According to the H2 15O PET, blood flow was 0.69 ± 0.15 ml/min/g for inflammation and 0.15 ± 0.03 ml/min/g for muscle during rest. The blood flow remained unchanged during adenosine-induced hyperemia 0.67 ± 0.11 and 0.12 ± 0.03 ml/min/g for inflammation and muscle, respectively, indicating that adenosine has little effect on blood flow in peripheral tissues in rats. High focal uptake of 68Ga-DOTA was seen at the site of inflammation throughout the 30-min PET imaging. According to the 68Ga-DOTA PET, blood flow measured as the blood-to-tissue transport rate (K1) was 0.60 ± 0.07 ml/min/g for inflammation and 0.14 ± 0.06 ml/min/g for muscle during rest and 0.63 ± 0.08 ml/min/g for inflammation and 0.09 ± 0.04 ml/min/g for muscle during adenosine-induced hyperemia. The H2 15O-based blood flow and 68Ga-DOTA-based K1 values correlated well (r = 0.94, P < 0.0001). These results show that 68Ga-DOTA PET imaging is useful for the quantification of increased

  4. Assessment of blood flow with (68)Ga-DOTA PET in experimental inflammation: a validation study using (15)O-water.

    PubMed

    Autio, Anu; Saraste, Antti; Kudomi, Nobuyuki; Saanijoki, Tiina; Johansson, Jarkko; Liljenbäck, Heidi; Tarkia, Miikka; Oikonen, Vesa; Sipilä, Hannu T; Roivainen, Anne

    2014-01-01

    Increased blood flow and vascular permeability are key events in inflammation. Based on the fact that Gadolinium-1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-N,N',N'',N'''-tetraacetic acid (Gd-DOTA) is commonly used in magnetic resonance (MR) imaging of blood flow (perfusion), we evaluated the feasibility of its Gallium-68 labeled DOTA analog ((68)Ga-DOTA) for positron emission tomography (PET) imaging of blood flow in experimental inflammation. Adult, male Sprague-Dawley rats with turpentine oil induced sterile skin/muscle inflammation were anesthetized with isoflurane, and imaged under rest and adenosine-induced hyperemia by means of dynamic 2-min Oxygen-15 labeled water (H2 (15)O) and 30-min (68)Ga-DOTA PET. For the quantification of PET data, regions of interest (ROIs) were defined in the focus of inflammation, healthy muscle, myocardium and heart left ventricle. Radioactivity concentration in the ROIs versus time after injection was determined for both tracers and blood flow was calculated using image-derived input. According to the H2 (15)O PET, blood flow was 0.69 ± 0.15 ml/min/g for inflammation and 0.15 ± 0.03 ml/min/g for muscle during rest. The blood flow remained unchanged during adenosine-induced hyperemia 0.67 ± 0.11 and 0.12 ± 0.03 ml/min/g for inflammation and muscle, respectively, indicating that adenosine has little effect on blood flow in peripheral tissues in rats. High focal uptake of (68)Ga-DOTA was seen at the site of inflammation throughout the 30-min PET imaging. According to the (68)Ga-DOTA PET, blood flow measured as the blood-to-tissue transport rate (K1) was 0.60 ± 0.07 ml/min/g for inflammation and 0.14 ± 0.06 ml/min/g for muscle during rest and 0.63 ± 0.08 ml/min/g for inflammation and 0.09 ± 0.04 ml/min/g for muscle during adenosine-induced hyperemia. The H2 (15)O-based blood flow and (68)Ga-DOTA-based K1 values correlated well (r = 0.94, P < 0.0001). These results show that (68)Ga-DOTA PET imaging is useful for the quantification of

  5. Quantitative PET imaging with the 3T MR-BrainPET

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weirich, C.; Scheins, J.; Lohmann, P.; Tellmann, L.; Byars, L.; Michel, C.; Rota Kops, E.; Brenner, D.; Herzog, H.; Shah, N. J.

    2013-02-01

    The new hybrid imaging technology of MR-PET allows for simultaneous acquisition of versatile MRI contrasts and the quantitative metabolic imaging with PET. In order to achieve the quantification of PET images with minimal residual error the application of several corrections is crucial. In this work we present our results on quantification with the 3T MR BrainPET scanner.

  6. Rapid quantitative CBF and CMRO2 measurements from a single PET scan with sequential administration of dual 15O-labeled tracers

    PubMed Central

    Kudomi, Nobuyuki; Hirano, Yoshiyuki; Koshino, Kazuhiro; Hayashi, Takuya; Watabe, Hiroshi; Fukushima, Kazuhito; Moriwaki, Hiroshi; Teramoto, Noboru; Iihara, Koji; Iida, Hidehiro

    2013-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) with 15O tracers provides essential information in patients with cerebral vascular disorders, such as cerebral blood flow (CBF), oxygen extraction fraction (OEF), and metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO2). However, most of techniques require an additional C15O scan for compensating cerebral blood volume (CBV). We aimed to establish a technique to calculate all functional images only from a single dynamic PET scan, without losing accuracy or statistical certainties. The technique was an extension of previous dual-tracer autoradiography (DARG) approach, but based on the basis function method (DBFM), thus estimating all functional parametric images from a single session of dynamic scan acquired during the sequential administration of H215O and 15O2. Validity was tested on six monkeys by comparing global OEF by PET with those by arteriovenous blood sampling, and tested feasibility on young healthy subjects. The mean DBFM-derived global OEF was 0.57±0.06 in monkeys, in an agreement with that by the arteriovenous method (0.54±0.06). Image quality was similar and no significant differences were seen from DARG; 3.57%±6.44% and 3.84%±3.42% for CBF, and −2.79%±11.2% and −6.68%±10.5% for CMRO2. A simulation study demonstrated similar error propagation between DBFM and DARG. The DBFM method enables accurate assessment of CBF and CMRO2 without additional CBV scan within significantly shortened examination period, in clinical settings. PMID:23232945

  7. Temporal alignment of tissue and arterial data and selection of integration start times for the H[sub 2] [sup 15]O autoradiographic CBF model in PET

    SciTech Connect

    Muzic, R.F. Jr. . Dept. of Biomedical Engineering); Nelson, A.D.; Miraldi, F. . Div. of Nuclear Medicine)

    1993-09-01

    A technique has been developed and tested that provides an automated method of temporally aligning the PET tissue activity curve with the arterial activity curve for quantification of cerebral blood flow using the H[sub 2] [sup 15]O autoradiographic model. This technique not only determines the relative time delay between the two curves, but also provides the start time of integration. Variability in computing global cerebral blood flow using this technique is shown to be less than that obtained by trained observers manually selecting parameters and at least as good as that obtained by using another automated alignment technique.

  8. Quantification of pulmonary blood flow (PBF): validation of perfusion MRI and nonlinear contrast agent (CA) dose correction with H(2)15O positron emission tomography (PET).

    PubMed

    Neeb, Daniel; Kunz, Rainer Peter; Ley, Sebastian; Szábo, Gábor; Strauss, Ludwig G; Kauczor, Hans-Ulrich; Kreitner, Karl-Friedrich; Schreiber, Laura Maria

    2009-08-01

    Validation of quantification of pulmonary blood flow (PBF) with dynamic, contrast-enhanced MRI is still missing. A possible reason certainly lies in difficulties based on the nonlinear dependence of signal intensity (SI) from contrast agent (CA) concentration. Both aspects were addressed in this study. Nine healthy pigs were examined by first-pass perfusion MRI using gadolinium diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (Gd-DTPA) and H(2)(15)O positron emission tomography (PET) imaging. Calculations of hemodynamic parameters were based on a one-compartment model (MR) and a two-compartment model (PET). Simulations showed a significant error when assuming a linear relation between MR SI and CA dose in the arterial input function (AIF), even at low doses of 0.025 mmol/kg body weight (BW). To correct for nonlinearity, a calibration curve was calculated on the basis of the signal equation. The required accuracy of equation parameters (like longitudinal relaxation time) was evaluated. Error analysis estimates <5% over-/underestimation of the corrected SI. Comparison of PET and MR flow values yielded a significant correlation (P < 0.001) in dorsal regions where signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) was sufficient. Changes in PBF due to the correction method were significant (P < 0.001) and resulted in a better agreement: mean values (standard deviation) in units of ml/min/100 ml lung tissue were 59 (15) for PET, 112 (28) for uncorrected MRI, and 80 (21) for corrected MRI.

  9. Brain PET in the Diagnosis of Alzheimer’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Marcus, Charles; Mena, Esther; Subramaniam, Rathan M.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this article was to review the current role of brain PET in the diagnosis of Alzheimer dementia. The characteristic patterns of glucose metabolism on brain FDG-PET can help in differentiating Alzheimer’s disease from other causes of dementia such as frontotemporal dementia and dementia of Lewy body. Amyloid brain PET may exclude significant amyloid deposition and thus Alzheimer’s disease in appropriate clinical setting. Conclusions FDG-PET and amyloid PET imaging are valuable in the assessment of patients with Alzheimer’s disease. PMID:25199063

  10. Relative 11C-PiB Delivery as a Proxy of Relative CBF: Quantitative Evaluation Using Single-Session 15O-Water and 11C-PiB PET

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yin J.; Rosario, Bedda L.; Mowrey, Wenzhu; Laymon, Charles M.; Lu, Xueling; Lopez, Oscar L.; Klunk, William E.; Lopresti, Brian J.; Mathis, Chester A.; Price, Julie C.

    2016-01-01

    The primary goal of this study was to assess the suitability of 11C-Pittsburgh compound B (11C-PiB) blood–brain barrier delivery (K1) and relative delivery (R1) parameters as surrogate indices of cerebral blood flow (CBF), with a secondary goal of directly examining the extent to which simplified uptake measures of 11C-PiB retention (amyloid-β load) may be influenced by CBF, in a cohort of controls and patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer disease (AD). Methods Nineteen participants (6 controls, 5 AD, 8 MCI) underwent MR imaging, 15O-water PET, and 11C-PiB PET in a single session. Fourteen regions of interest (including cerebellar reference region) were defined on MR imaging and applied to dynamic coregistered PET to generate time–activity curves. Multiple analysis approaches provided regional 15O-water and 11C-PiB measures of delivery and 11C-PiB retention that included compartmental modeling distribution volume ratio (DVR), arterial- and reference-based Logan DVR, simplified reference tissue modeling 2 (SRTM2) DVR, and standardized uptake value ratios. Spearman correlation was performed among delivery measures (i.e., 15O-water K1 and 11C-PiB K1, relative K1 normalized to cerebellum [Rel-K1-Water and Rel-K1-PiB], and 11C-PiB SRTM2-R1) and between delivery measures and 11C-PiB retention, using the Bonferroni method for multiple-comparison correction. Results Primary analysis showed positive correlations (ρ ≈0.2–0.5) between 15O-water K1 and 11C-PiB K1 that did not survive Bonferroni adjustment. Significant positive correlations were found between Rel-K1-Water and Rel-K1-PiB and between Rel-K1-Water and 11C-PiB SRTM2-R1 (ρ ≈0.5–0.8, P < 0.0036) across primary cortical regions. Secondary analysis showed few significant correlations between 11C-PiB retention and relative 11C-PiB delivery measures (but not 15O-water delivery measures) in primary cortical areas that arose only after accounting for cerebrospinal fluid dilution

  11. Development of PET/MRI with insertable PET for simultaneous PET and MR imaging of human brain

    SciTech Connect

    Jung, Jin Ho; Choi, Yong Jung, Jiwoong; Kim, Sangsu; Lim, Hyun Keong; Im, Ki Chun; Oh, Chang Hyun; Park, Hyun-wook; Kim, Kyung Min; Kim, Jong Guk

    2015-05-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to develop a dual-modality positron emission tomography (PET)/magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with insertable PET for simultaneous PET and MR imaging of the human brain. Methods: The PET detector block was composed of a 4 × 4 matrix of detector modules, each consisting of a 4 × 4 array LYSO coupled to a 4 × 4 Geiger-mode avalanche photodiode (GAPD) array. The PET insert consisted of 18 detector blocks, circularly mounted on a custom-made plastic base to form a ring with an inner diameter of 390 mm and axial length of 60 mm. The PET gantry was shielded with gold-plated conductive fabric tapes with a thickness of 0.1 mm. The charge signals of PET detector transferred via 4 m long flat cables were fed into the position decoder circuit. The flat cables were shielded with a mesh-type aluminum sheet with a thickness of 0.24 mm. The position decoder circuit and field programmable gate array-embedded DAQ modules were enclosed in an aluminum box with a thickness of 10 mm and located at the rear of the MR bore inside the MRI room. A 3-T human MRI system with a Larmor frequency of 123.7 MHz and inner bore diameter of 60 cm was used as the PET/MRI hybrid system. A custom-made radio frequency (RF) coil with an inner diameter of 25 cm was fabricated. The PET was positioned between gradient and the RF coils. PET performance was measured outside and inside the MRI scanner using echo planar imaging, spin echo, turbo spin echo, and gradient echo sequences. MRI performance was also evaluated with and without the PET insert. The stability of the newly developed PET insert was evaluated and simultaneous PET and MR images of a brain phantom were acquired. Results: No significant degradation of the PET performance caused by MR was observed when the PET was operated using various MR imaging sequences. The signal-to-noise ratio of MR images was slightly degraded due to the PET insert installed inside the MR bore while the homogeneity was

  12. Neural correlates of strategic processes underlying episodic memory in women with major depression: A 15O-PET study.

    PubMed

    Ottowitz, William E; Deckersbach, Thilo; Savage, Cary R; Lindquist, Martin A; Dougherty, Darin D

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate the functional integrity of brain regions underlying strategic mnemonic processing in patients with major depressive disorder, the authors administered a modified version of the California Verbal Learning Test to depressed patients during presentation of lists of unrelated words and, conversely, during presentation of lists of related words with and without orientation regarding the relatedness of the words (eight healthy females, IQ=122, and eight depressed females, IQ=107). Brain function evaluated across all three conditions showed that patients with major depressive disorder revealed activation of the right anterior cingulate cortex, left ventrolateral prefrontal cortex, both hippocampi, and the left orbitofrontal cortex. Further analysis showed that patients with major depressive disorder had greater activation of the right anterior cingulate cortex during semantic organization and the right ventrolateral prefrontal cortex during strategy initiation.

  13. Metabolic brain PET pattern underlying hyperkinetic seizures.

    PubMed

    Guedj, Eric; McGonigal, Aileen; Vaugier, Lisa; Mundler, Olivier; Bartolomei, Fabrice

    2012-09-01

    This study aims to contribute to the identification of selective brain regions involved in hyperkinetic behaviors. We studied the whole-brain voxel-based interictal metabolic 18FDG-PET pattern of 23 patients with hyperkinetic seizures, in comparison with both 15 healthy subjects similar for age and gender, and 23 patients without hyperkinetic seizures. Patients were in particular similar for the localization of the epileptogenic zone, this having been defined using stereoelectroencephalography (SEEG) when clinically indicated (15/23 patients with hyperkinetic seizures and 13/23 patients without hyperkinetic seizures). Using conjunction voxel-based analysis, patients with hyperkinetic seizures exhibited significant hypometabolism within bilateral midbrain and the right caudate head, in comparison both to healthy subjects (p<0.05, FDR-corrected for the voxel) and to patients without hyperkinetic seizures (p<0.0167, uncorrected for the voxel). Findings were secondarily confirmed separately in each subgroup of patients with frontal, temporal or posterior epilepsy. These findings argue for a specific subcortical metabolic impairment in patients with hyperkinetic seizures, within brain structures supposed to be involved in the generation of primitive motor programs.

  14. A potential role for the midbrain in integrating fat-free mass determined energy needs: An H2 (15) O PET study.

    PubMed

    Weise, Christopher M; Thiyyagura, Pradeep; Reiman, Eric M; Chen, Kewei; Krakoff, Jonathan

    2015-06-01

    Little is known on how sensing of energy needs is centrally represented, integrated, and translated into the behavioral aspects of energy homeostasis. Fat free mass (FFM) is the major determinant of energy expenditure. We investigated how interindividual variances in FFM relate to neuronal activity in humans. Healthy adults (n = 64, 21F/43M; age 31.3 ± 9.1y; percentage of body fat [PFAT] 25.6 ± 10.7%; BMI 30.4 ± 9) underwent a 36h fast and subsequent H(2) (15) O positron emission tomographic (PET) measurement of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF). Multiple variable regression analysis revealed significant associations of FFM with rCBF within the midbrain [including parts of the periaqueductal gray (PAG), ventral tegmental area (VTA), thalamic and hypothalamic regions], the bilateral parahippocampal region, left anterior cingulate, left insular cortex, right cerebellum, and distinct regions within the temporal and occipital cortex. In contrast, no significant associations were found for fat mass (FM). We investigated the potential functional-anatomical link between FFM and central regulation of food intake by performing a conjunction analysis of FFM and the perceived hunger feelings. This showed a significant overlap within the midbrain PAG. Mediation analysis demonstrated a significant indirect effect of FFM on hunger with PAG rCBF as mediator. Most regions we found to be associated with FFM form part in ascending homeostatic pathways and cortical circuitries implicated in the regulation of basic bodily functions indicating a potential role of these central networks in the integration of FFM determined energy needs.

  15. PET radiopharmaceuticals for probing enzymes in the brain

    PubMed Central

    Holland, Jason P; Cumming, Paul; Vasdev, Neil

    2013-01-01

    Biologically important processes in normal brain function and brain disease involve the action of various protein-based receptors, ion channels, transporters and enzymes. The ability to interrogate the location, abundance and activity of these entities in vivo using non-invasive molecular imaging can provide unprecedented information about the spatio-temporal dynamics of brain function. Indeed, positron emission tomography (PET) imaging is transforming our understanding of the central nervous system and brain disease. Great emphasis has historically been placed on developing radioligands for the non-invasive detection of neuroreceptors. In contrast, relatively few enzymes have been amenable to examination by PET imaging procedures based upon trapping or accumulation of enzymatic products, because only a subset of enzymes have sufficient catalytic rate to produce measureable accumulation within the practical time-limit of PET recordings. However, high affinity inhibitors are now serving as tracers for enzymes, particularly for measuring the abundance of enzymes mediating intracellular signal transduction in the brain, which offer a rich diversity of potential targets for drug discovery. The purpose of this review is to summarize well-known radiotracers for brain enzymes, and draw attention to recent developments in PET radiotracers for imaging signal transduction pathways in the brain. The review is organized by target class and focuses on structural chemistry of the best-established radiotracers identified in each class. PMID:23638333

  16. Biological Interpretation of Quantitative PET Brain Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sossi, Vesna

    2002-11-01

    The variety of available positron emission tomography (PET) radiotracers and the ability of providing quantitative estimates of radiotracer concentrations make PET an invaluable tool in the in-vivo investigation of biological processes. Mathematical descriptions of the processes under investigation are used to extract relevant kinetic parameters from the time course of radioactivity concentrations. Such kinetic parameters can provide a quantitative description of both, the characteristics of a particular process, and its changes due to various disease states.

  17. Fourier-wavelet restoration in PET/CT brain studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knešaurek, Karin

    2012-10-01

    Our goal is to improve brain PET imaging through the application of a novel, hybrid Fourier-wavelet (WFT) restoration technique. The major limitation of PET studies is a relatively poor resolution in comparison with MRI and CT imaging and there is a need for improved PET imaging. A GE DLS PET/CT 16 slice system was used to acquire the studies. In order to create restoration filters the point source study was performed. The 6-fillable spheres and 3D Hoffman brain phantom studies were acquired and used to test and optimize the restoration approach. The patient data used in the study were acquired in a 3D PET mode, using the standard clinical protocol. Here, we have implemented Fourier-wavelet regularized restoration. In the Fourier domain, the inverse of modulation transfer function was multiplied by a Butterworth low-pass filter, order n=6 and cut-off frequency f=0.35 cycles/pixel. In addition, wavelet (Daubechies, order 2) noise suppression was applied by “hard threshold”. Hot spheres and 3D Hoffman brain studies showed that the restoration process not only improves resolution and contrast but also improves quantification in 3D PET/CT imaging. The average contrast increase was 19% and the quantification improved in the range 8-20% depending on sphere size. In the restored images, there was no significant increase in noise when compared with the original images. The clinical studies followed brain phantom findings, i.e., the restored images had better contrast and resolution properties, when compared with the original images. The results of the study demonstrate that the quality and quantification of 3D brain 18F FDG PET images can be significantly improved by Fourier-wavelet (WFT) restoration filtering.

  18. Prediction of standard-dose brain PET image by using MRI and low-dose brain [{sup 18}F]FDG PET images

    SciTech Connect

    Kang, Jiayin; Gao, Yaozong; Shi, Feng; Lalush, David S.; Lin, Weili; Shen, Dinggang

    2015-09-15

    Purpose: Positron emission tomography (PET) is a nuclear medical imaging technology that produces 3D images reflecting tissue metabolic activity in human body. PET has been widely used in various clinical applications, such as in diagnosis of brain disorders. High-quality PET images play an essential role in diagnosing brain diseases/disorders. In practice, in order to obtain high-quality PET images, a standard-dose radionuclide (tracer) needs to be used and injected into a living body. As a result, it will inevitably increase the patient’s exposure to radiation. One solution to solve this problem is predicting standard-dose PET images using low-dose PET images. As yet, no previous studies with this approach have been reported. Accordingly, in this paper, the authors propose a regression forest based framework for predicting a standard-dose brain [{sup 18}F]FDG PET image by using a low-dose brain [{sup 18}F]FDG PET image and its corresponding magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) image. Methods: The authors employ a regression forest for predicting the standard-dose brain [{sup 18}F]FDG PET image by low-dose brain [{sup 18}F]FDG PET and MRI images. Specifically, the proposed method consists of two main steps. First, based on the segmented brain tissues (i.e., cerebrospinal fluid, gray matter, and white matter) in the MRI image, the authors extract features for each patch in the brain image from both low-dose PET and MRI images to build tissue-specific models that can be used to initially predict standard-dose brain [{sup 18}F]FDG PET images. Second, an iterative refinement strategy, via estimating the predicted image difference, is used to further improve the prediction accuracy. Results: The authors evaluated their algorithm on a brain dataset, consisting of 11 subjects with MRI, low-dose PET, and standard-dose PET images, using leave-one-out cross-validations. The proposed algorithm gives promising results with well-estimated standard-dose brain [{sup 18}F]FDG PET

  19. [The advantages and limitations of brain function analyses by PET].

    PubMed

    Kato, M; Taniwaki, T; Kuwabara, Y

    2000-12-01

    PET has been proved to be a powerful tool for exploring the brain function. We discussed the advantages and limitations of PET for analyzing the brain function on the basis of our clinical and experimental experiences of functional imaging. A multimodality PET study measuring cerebral energy metabolism (CMRO2 and CMRglc), cerebral blood flow (CBF), oxygen extraction fraction (OEF) and neurotransmitter function (presynaptic and postsynaptic) opens up a closer insight into a precise pathophysiology of the brain dysfunction: In cerebral infarction, it reveals a state of "misery perfusion" in the acute stage, "luxury perfusion" in the intermediate stage, and proportionately decreased CBF and CMRO2 in the chronic stage. Neurotransmitter function may identify specifically a neuronal subgroup of dysfunction. Owing to the low temporal resolution of PET, a neuronal activity may propagate transsynaptically to remote areas during the period of scanning, resulting in an obscured primary site of the neuronal activity. Uncoupling between neuronal activities and cerebral energy metabolism/CBF may occur under a certain state of brain pathology, particularly after an acute destructive lesion, according to our experimental studies. Neurotransmitter function may reveal the effect of drugs on the brain function, and may be useful for developing a new method of drug therapy for brain diseases in the future.

  20. Study of the production yields of 18F, 11C, 13N and 15O positron emitters from plasma-laser proton sources at ELI-Beamlines for labeling of PET radiopharmaceuticals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amato, Ernesto; Italiano, Antonio; Margarone, Daniele; Pagano, Benedetta; Baldari, Sergio; Korn, Georg

    2016-03-01

    The development of novel compact PET radionuclide production systems is of great interest to promote the diffusion of PET diagnostics, especially in view of the continuous development of microfluidics labeling approaches. We studied the feasibility to produce clinically-relevant amounts of PET isotopes by means of laser-accelerated proton sources such that expected at the ELI-Beamlines facility. 18F, 11C, 13N and 15O production yields were calculated through the TALYS software, by taking into account the broad proton spectra expected. With the hypothesized proton fluencies, clinically-relevant amounts of radionuclides can be obtained, suitable to prepare single doses of 18F-, 11C- and 13N-labeled radiopharmaceuticals exploiting fast and efficient microfluidic labeling systems.

  1. PET evaluation of the dopamine system of the human brain

    SciTech Connect

    Volkow, N.D.; Fowler, J.S.; Gatley, S. |

    1996-07-01

    Dopamine plays a pivotal role in the regulation and control of movement, motivation and cognition. It also is closely linked to reward, reinforcement and addiction. Abnormalities in brain dopamine are associated with many neurological and psychiatric disorders including Parkinson`s disease, schizophrenia and substance abuse. This close association between dopamine and neurological and psychiatric diseases and with substance abuse make it an important topic in research in the neurosciences and an important molecular target in drug development. PET enables the direct measurement of components of the dopamine system in the living human brain. It relies on radiotracers which label dopamine receptors, dopamine transporters, precursors of dopamine or compounds which have specificity for the enzymes which degrade dopamine. Additionally, by using tracers that provide information on regional brain metabolism or blood flow as well as neurochemically specific pharmacological interventions, PET can be used to assess the functional consequences of change in brain dopamine activity. PET dopamine measurements have been used to investigate the normal human brain and its involvement in psychiatric and neurological diseases. It has also been used in psychopharmacological research to investigate dopamine drugs used in the treatment of Parkinson`s disease and of schizophrenia as well as to investigate the effects of drugs of abuse on the dopamine system. Since various functional and neurochemical parameters can be studied in the same subject, PET enables investigation of the functional integrity of the dopamine system in the human brain and investigation of the interactions of dopamine with other neurotransmitters. This paper summarizes the different tracers and experimental strategies developed to evaluate the various elements of the dopamine system in the human brain with PET and their applications to clinical research. 254 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  2. Compact and mobile high resolution PET brain imager

    DOEpatents

    Majewski, Stanislaw [Yorktown, VA; Proffitt, James [Newport News, VA

    2011-02-08

    A brain imager includes a compact ring-like static PET imager mounted in a helmet-like structure. When attached to a patient's head, the helmet-like brain imager maintains the relative head-to-imager geometry fixed through the whole imaging procedure. The brain imaging helmet contains radiation sensors and minimal front-end electronics. A flexible mechanical suspension/harness system supports the weight of the helmet thereby allowing for patient to have limited movements of the head during imaging scans. The compact ring-like PET imager enables very high resolution imaging of neurological brain functions, cancer, and effects of trauma using a rather simple mobile scanner with limited space needs for use and storage.

  3. Brain blood flow measured with intravenous H/sub 2/ /sup 15/O. II. Implementation and validation

    SciTech Connect

    Raichle, M.E.; Martin, W.R.W.; Herscovitch, P.; Mintun, M.A.; Markham, J.

    1983-09-01

    The well-known tissue autoradiographic technique for the measurement of regional cerebral blood flow (CBF), originally proposed by Kety and his colleagues has been adapted for the measurement of CBF in human subjects using positron emission tomography (PET) and intravenously administered oxygen-15-labeled water. This report describes the steps necessary for the implementation of this PET/autoradiographic technique. In order to establish the accuracy of the method, we measured CBF with intravenously administered oxygen-15-labeled water and PET in anesthetized adult baboons and compared the results with blood flow measured by a standard tracer technique that uses residue detection of a bolus of oxygen-15-labeled water injected into the internal carotid artery. The correlation between CBF measured with PET and the true CBF for the same cerebral hemisphere was excellent.

  4. Sensitivity of measurements of regional brain activation with oxygen-15-water and PET to time of stimulation and period of image reconstruction

    SciTech Connect

    Volkow, N.D.; Mullani, N.; Gould, L.K.; Adler, S.S.; Gatley, S.J. )

    1991-01-01

    Measurement of oxygen-15- (15O) water uptake with positron emission tomography (PET) is a sensitive technique to monitor regional brain activation secondary to stimulation paradigms. In order to investigate data acquisition times that show maximal changes in regional activation and to assess the optimal time for stimulus presentation, we investigated 10 controls with 15O-water and PET during baseline and stroboscopic light stimulation. Sequential scans were done varying the time of stimulus presentation. The images were reconstructed using three different periods of data acquisition: uptake phase (initial 30-35 sec), washout phase (40 sec following peak activity in brain), and total activity (3 min). The images reconstructed during the uptake phase showed the largest changes in occipital cortex from stimulation. Maximal changes in occipital cortex were obtained when the visual stimulus was maintained during the uptake phase only.

  5. Stereotactic PET atlas of the human brain: Aid for visual interpretation of functional brain images

    SciTech Connect

    Minoshima, S.; Koeppe, R.A.; Frey, A.; Ishihara, M.; Kuhl, D.E.

    1994-06-01

    In the routine analysis of functional brain images obtained by PET, subjective visual interpretation is often used for anatomic localization. To enhance the accuracy and consistency of the anatomic interpretation, a PET stereotactic atlas and localization approach was designed for functional brain images. The PET atlas was constructed from a high-resolution [{sup 18}F]fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) image set of a normal volunteer (a 41-yr-ld woman). The image set was reoriented stereotactically, according to the intercommissural (anterior and posterior commissures) line and transformed to the standard stereotactic atlas coordinates. Cerebral structures were annotated on the transaxial planes using a proportional grid system and surface-rendered images. The stereotactic localization technique was applied to image sets from patients with Alzheimer`s disease, and areas of functional alteration were localized visually by referring to the PET atlas. Major brain structures were identified on both transaxial planes and surface-rendered images. In the stereotactic system, anatomic correspondence between the PET atlas and stereotactically reoriented individual image sets of patients with Alzheimer`s disease facilitated both indirect and direct localization of the cerebral structures. Because rapid stereotactic alignment methods for PET images are now available for routine use, the PET atlas will serve as an aid for visual interpretation of functional brain images in the stereotactic system. Widespread application of stereotactic localization may be used in functional brain images, not only in the research setting, but also in routine clinical situations. 41 refs., 3 figs.

  6. Hybrid PET/MR Imaging and Brain Connectivity

    PubMed Central

    Aiello, Marco; Cavaliere, Carlo; Salvatore, Marco

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, brain connectivity is gaining ever-increasing interest from the interdisciplinary research community. The study of brain connectivity is characterized by a multifaceted approach providing both structural and functional evidence of the relationship between cerebral regions at different scales. Although magnetic resonance (MR) is the most established imaging modality for investigating connectivity in vivo, the recent advent of hybrid positron emission tomography (PET)/MR scanners paved the way for more comprehensive investigation of brain organization and physiology. Due to the high sensitivity and biochemical specificity of radiotracers, combining MR with PET imaging may enrich our ability to investigate connectivity by introducing the concept of metabolic connectivity and cometomics and promoting new insights on the physiological and molecular bases underlying high-level neural organization. This review aims to describe and summarize the main methods of analysis of brain connectivity employed in MR imaging and nuclear medicine. Moreover, it will discuss practical aspects and state-of-the-art techniques for exploiting hybrid PET/MR imaging to investigate the relationship of physiological processes and brain connectivity. PMID:26973446

  7. Alterations in CNS Activity Induced by Botulinum Toxin Treatment in Spasmodic Dysphonia: An H[subscript 2][superscript 15]O PET Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ali, S. Omar; Thomassen, Michael; Schulz, Geralyn M.; Hosey, Lara A.; Varga, Mary; Ludlow, Christy L.; Braun, Allen R.

    2006-01-01

    Speech-related changes in regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) were measured using H[subscript 2][superscript 15]O positron-emission tomography in 9 adults with adductor spasmodic dysphonia (ADSD) before and after botulinum toxin (BTX) injection and 10 age- and gender-matched volunteers without neurological disorders. Scans were acquired at rest…

  8. Simultaneous MRI and PET imaging of a rat brain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raylman, Raymond R.; Majewski, Stan; Lemieux, Susan K.; Sendhil Velan, S.; Kross, Brian; Popov, Vladimir; Smith, Mark F.; Weisenberger, Andrew G.; Zorn, Carl; Marano, Gary D.

    2006-12-01

    Multi-modality imaging is rapidly becoming a valuable tool in the diagnosis of disease and in the development of new drugs. Functional images produced with PET fused with anatomical structure images created by MRI will allow the correlation of form with function. Our group is developing a system to acquire MRI and PET images contemporaneously. The prototype device consists of two opposed detector heads, operating in coincidence mode. Each MRI-PET detector module consists of an array of LSO detector elements coupled through a long fibre optic light guide to a single Hamamatsu flat panel position-sensitive photomultiplier tube (PSPMT). The use of light guides allows the PSPMTs to be positioned outside the bore of a 3T MRI scanner where the magnetic field is relatively small. To test the device, simultaneous MRI and PET images of the brain of a male Sprague Dawley rat injected with FDG were successfully obtained. The images revealed no noticeable artefacts in either image set. Future work includes the construction of a full ring PET scanner, improved light guides and construction of a specialized MRI coil to permit higher quality MRI imaging.

  9. Regional cerebral blood flow imaging: A quantitative comparison of technetium-99m-HMPAO SPECT with C15O2 PET

    SciTech Connect

    Gemmell, H.G.; Evans, N.T.; Besson, J.A.; Roeda, D.; Davidson, J.; Dodd, M.G.; Sharp, P.F.; Smith, F.W.; Crawford, J.R.; Newton, R.H. )

    1990-10-01

    The aim of this study was to compare technetium-99m-hexamethylpropyleneamineoxime ({sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO) single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) with regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) imaging using positron emission tomography (PET). As investigation of dementia is likely to be one of the main uses of routine rCBF imaging, 18 demented patients were imaged with both techniques. The PET data were compared quantitatively with three versions of the SPECT data. These were, first, data normalized to the SPECT cerebellar uptake, second, data linearly corrected using the PET cerebellar value and, finally, data Lassen corrected for washout from the high flow areas. Both the linearly-corrected (r = 0.81) and the Lassen-corrected (r = 0.79) HMPAO SPECT data showed good correlation with the PET rCBF data. The relationship between the normalized HMPAO SPECT data and the PET data was nonlinear. It is not yet possible to obtain rCBF values in absolute units from HMPAO SPECT without knowledge of the true rCBF in one reference region for each patient.

  10. Performance modeling of a wearable brain PET (BET) camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidtlein, C. R.; Turner, J. N.; Thompson, M. O.; Mandal, K. C.; Häggström, I.; Zhang, J.; Humm, J. L.; Feiglin, D. H.; Krol, A.

    2016-03-01

    Purpose: To explore, by means of analytical and Monte Carlo modeling, performance of a novel lightweight and low-cost wearable helmet-shaped Brain PET (BET) camera based on thin-film digital Geiger Avalanche Photo Diode (dGAPD) with LSO and LaBr3 scintillators for imaging in vivo human brain processes for freely moving and acting subjects responding to various stimuli in any environment. Methods: We performed analytical and Monte Carlo modeling PET performance of a spherical cap BET device and cylindrical brain PET (CYL) device, both with 25 cm diameter and the same total mass of LSO scintillator. Total mass of LSO in both the BET and CYL systems is about 32 kg for a 25 mm thick scintillator, and 13 kg for 10 mm thick scintillator (assuming an LSO density of 7.3 g/ml). We also investigated a similar system using an LaBr3 scintillator corresponding to 22 kg and 9 kg for the 25 mm and 10 mm thick systems (assuming an LaBr3 density of 5.08 g/ml). In addition, we considered a clinical whole body (WB) LSO PET/CT scanner with 82 cm ring diameter and 15.8 cm axial length to represent a reference system. BET consisted of distributed Autonomous Detector Arrays (ADAs) integrated into Intelligent Autonomous Detector Blocks (IADBs). The ADA comprised of an array of small LYSO scintillator volumes (voxels with base a×a: 1.0 <= a <= 2.0 mm and length c: 3.0 <= c <= 6.0 mm) with 5-65 μm thick reflective layers on its five sides and sixth side optically coupled to the matching array of dGAPDs and processing electronics with total thickness of 50 μm. Simulated energy resolution was 10.8% and 3.3% for LSO and LaBr3 respectively and the coincidence window was set at 2 ns. The brain was simulated as a sphere of uniform F-18 activity with diameter of 10 cm embedded in a center of water sphere with diameter of 10 cm. Results: Analytical and Monte Carlo models showed similar results for lower energy window values (458 keV versus 445 keV for LSO, and 492 keV versus 485 keV for LaBr3

  11. Analysis and correction of count rate reduction during simultaneous MR-PET measurements with the BrainPET scanner.

    PubMed

    Weirich, Christoph; Brenner, Daniel; Scheins, Jürgen; Besancon, Etienne; Tellmann, Lutz; Herzog, Hans; Shah, N Jon

    2012-07-01

    In hybrid magnetic resonance-positron emission tomography (MR-PET) studies with the Siemens 3T MR-BrainPET scanner an instantaneous reduction of the PET sensitivity was observed during execution of certain MR sequences. This interference was investigated in detail with custom-made as well as standard clinical MR sequences. The radio-frequency pulses, the switched gradient fields and the constant magnetic field were examined as the relevant parameters of the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) system as well as the air temperature within the PET detectors. Our investigation comprised the analysis of the analog PET signals, the total count rates, the geometric distribution of the count rate reduction within the BrainPET detector as well as reconstructed images. The fast switching magnetic field gradients were identified to distort the analog PET detector signals. The measured count rate reduction was found to be less than 3%, but only up to 2% in the case of echo planar imaging sequences, as applied in functional MRI. For clinical sequences routinely used in hybrid MR-BrainPET measurements, a correction method has been designed, implemented, and evaluated .

  12. Optimising rigid motion compensation for small animal brain PET imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spangler-Bickell, Matthew G.; Zhou, Lin; Kyme, Andre Z.; De Laat, Bart; Fulton, Roger R.; Nuyts, Johan

    2016-10-01

    Motion compensation (MC) in PET brain imaging of awake small animals is attracting increased attention in preclinical studies since it avoids the confounding effects of anaesthesia and enables behavioural tests during the scan. A popular MC technique is to use multiple external cameras to track the motion of the animal’s head, which is assumed to be represented by the motion of a marker attached to its forehead. In this study we have explored several methods to improve the experimental setup and the reconstruction procedures of this method: optimising the camera-marker separation; improving the temporal synchronisation between the motion tracker measurements and the list-mode stream; post-acquisition smoothing and interpolation of the motion data; and list-mode reconstruction with appropriately selected subsets. These techniques have been tested and verified on measurements of a moving resolution phantom and brain scans of an awake rat. The proposed techniques improved the reconstructed spatial resolution of the phantom by 27% and of the rat brain by 14%. We suggest a set of optimal parameter values to use for awake animal PET studies and discuss the relative significance of each parameter choice.

  13. Weight Gain following Pallidal Deep Brain Stimulation: A PET Study.

    PubMed

    Sauleau, Paul; Drapier, Sophie; Duprez, Joan; Houvenaghel, Jean-François; Dondaine, Thibaut; Haegelen, Claire; Drapier, Dominique; Jannin, Pierre; Robert, Gabriel; Le Jeune, Florence; Vérin, Marc

    2016-01-01

    The mechanisms behind weight gain following deep brain stimulation (DBS) surgery seem to be multifactorial and suspected depending on the target, either the subthalamic nucleus (STN) or the globus pallidus internus (GPi). Decreased energy expenditure following motor improvement and behavioral and/or metabolic changes are possible explanations. Focusing on GPi target, our objective was to analyze correlations between changes in brain metabolism (measured with PET) and weight gain following GPi-DBS in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). Body mass index was calculated and brain activity prospectively measured using 2-deoxy-2[18F]fluoro-D-glucose PET four months before and four months after the start of GPi-DBS in 19 PD patients. Dopaminergic medication was included in the analysis to control for its possible influence on brain metabolism. Body mass index increased significantly by 0.66 ± 1.3 kg/m2 (p = 0.040). There were correlations between weight gain and changes in brain metabolism in premotor areas, including the left and right superior gyri (Brodmann area, BA 6), left superior gyrus (BA 8), the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (right middle gyrus, BAs 9 and 46), and the left and right somatosensory association cortices (BA 7). However, we found no correlation between weight gain and metabolic changes in limbic and associative areas. Additionally, there was a trend toward a correlation between reduced dyskinesia and weight gain (r = 0.428, p = 0.067). These findings suggest that, unlike STN-DBS, motor improvement is the major contributing factor for weight gain following GPi-DBS PD, confirming the motor selectivity of this target.

  14. Weight Gain following Pallidal Deep Brain Stimulation: A PET Study

    PubMed Central

    Sauleau, Paul; Drapier, Sophie; Duprez, Joan; Houvenaghel, Jean-François; Dondaine, Thibaut; Haegelen, Claire; Drapier, Dominique; Jannin, Pierre; Robert, Gabriel; Le Jeune, Florence; Vérin, Marc

    2016-01-01

    The mechanisms behind weight gain following deep brain stimulation (DBS) surgery seem to be multifactorial and suspected depending on the target, either the subthalamic nucleus (STN) or the globus pallidus internus (GPi). Decreased energy expenditure following motor improvement and behavioral and/or metabolic changes are possible explanations. Focusing on GPi target, our objective was to analyze correlations between changes in brain metabolism (measured with PET) and weight gain following GPi-DBS in patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD). Body mass index was calculated and brain activity prospectively measured using 2-deoxy-2[18F]fluoro-D-glucose PET four months before and four months after the start of GPi-DBS in 19 PD patients. Dopaminergic medication was included in the analysis to control for its possible influence on brain metabolism. Body mass index increased significantly by 0.66 ± 1.3 kg/m2 (p = 0.040). There were correlations between weight gain and changes in brain metabolism in premotor areas, including the left and right superior gyri (Brodmann area, BA 6), left superior gyrus (BA 8), the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (right middle gyrus, BAs 9 and 46), and the left and right somatosensory association cortices (BA 7). However, we found no correlation between weight gain and metabolic changes in limbic and associative areas. Additionally, there was a trend toward a correlation between reduced dyskinesia and weight gain (r = 0.428, p = 0.067). These findings suggest that, unlike STN-DBS, motor improvement is the major contributing factor for weight gain following GPi-DBS PD, confirming the motor selectivity of this target. PMID:27070317

  15. Measuring dopamine release in the human brain with PET

    SciTech Connect

    Volkow, N.D. |; Fowler, J.S.; Logan, J.; Wang, G.J.

    1995-12-01

    The dopamine system is involved in the regulation of brain regions that subserve motor, cognitive and motivational behaviors. Disruptions of dopamine (DA) function have ben implicated in neurological and psychiatric illnesses including substance abuse as well as on some of the deficits associated with aging of the human brain. This has made the DA system an important topic in research in the neurosciences and neuroimaging as well as an important molecular target for drug development. Positron Emission Tomography (PET), was the first technology that enabled direct measurement of components of the DA system in the living human brain. Imaging studies of DA in the living brain have been indirect, relying on the development of radiotracers to label DA receptors, DA transporters, compounds which have specificity for the enzymes which degrade synaptic DA. Additionally, through the use of tracers that provide information on regional brain activity (ie brain glucose metabolism and cerebral blood flow) and of appropriate pharmacological interventions, it has been possible to assess the functional consequences of changes in brain DA activity. DA specific ligands have been useful in the evaluation of patients with neuropsychiatric illnesses as well as to investigate receptor blockade by antipsychotic drugs. A limitation of strategies that rely on the use of DA specific ligands is that the measures do not necessarily reflect the functional state of the dopaminergic system and that there use to study the effects of drugs is limited to the investigation of receptor or transporter occupancy. Newer strategies have been developed in an attempt to provide with information on dopamine release and on the functional responsivity of the DA system in the human brain. This in turn allows to investigate the effects of pharmacological agent in an analogous way to what is done with microdialysis techniques.

  16. PET imaging of ischemia-induced impairment of mitochondrial complex I function in monkey brain

    PubMed Central

    Tsukada, Hideo; Ohba, Hiroyuki; Nishiyama, Shingo; Kanazawa, Masakatsu; Kakiuchi, Takeharu; Harada, Norihiro

    2014-01-01

    To assess the capability of 18F-2-tert-butyl-4-chloro-5-{6-[2-(2-fluoroethoxy)-ethoxy]-pyridin-3-ylmethoxy}-2H-pyridazin-3-one (18F-BCPP-EF), a novel positron emission tomography (PET) probe for mitochondrial complex I (MC-I) activity, as a specific marker of ischemia-induced neuronal death without being disturbed by inflammation, translational research was conducted using an animal PET in ischemic brains of Cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis). Focal ischemia was induced by the right middle cerebral artery occlusion for 3 hours, then PET scans were conducted at Day-7 with 15O-gases for regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) and regional cerebral metabolism of oxygen (rCMRO2), and 18F-BCPP-EF for MC-I with arterial blood sampling. On Day-8, the additional PET scans conducted with 11C-flumazenil (11C-FMZ) for central-type benzodiazepine receptors, 11C-PBR28 for translocator protein, and 18F-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (18F-FDG) for regional cerebral metabolic rate of glucose (rCMRglc). The total distribution volume (VT) values of 18F-BCPP-EF showed the significant reduction in MC-I activity in the damaged area at Day-7. When correlated with rCBF and rCMRO2, the VT values of 18F-BCPP-EF provided better correlation with rCMRO2 than with rCBF. In the inflammatory regions (region of interest, ROIPBR) of the ischemic hemisphere detected with 11C-PBR28, higher 18F-FDG uptake and lower VT of 18F-BCPP-EF, 11C-FMZ, and rCMRO2 than those in normal contralateral hemisphere were observed. These results strongly suggested that 18F-BCPP-EF could discriminate the neuronal damaged areas with neuroinflammation, where 18F-FDG could not owing to its high uptake into the activated microglia. PMID:24447952

  17. Clinical applications of choline PET/CT in brain tumors.

    PubMed

    Giovannini, Elisabetta; Lazzeri, Patrizia; Milano, Amalia; Gaeta, Maria Chiara; Ciarmiello, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Malignant gliomas and metastatic tumors are the most common forms of brain tumors. From a clinical perspective, neuroimaging plays a significant role, in diagnosis, treatment planning, and follow-up. To date MRI is considered the current clinical gold standard for imaging, however, despite providing superior structural detail it features poor specificity in identifying viable tumors in brain treated with surgery, radiation, or chemotherapy. In the last years functional neuroimaging has become largely widespread thanks to the use of molecular tracers employed in cellular metabolism which has significantly improved the management of patients with brain tumors, especially in the post-treatment phase. Despite the considerable progress of molecular imaging in oncology its use in the diagnosis of brain tumors is still limited by a few wellknown technical problems. Because 18F-FDG, the most common radiotracer used in oncology, is avidly accumulated by normal cortex, the low tumor/background signal ratio makes it difficult to distinguish the tumor from normal surrounding tissues. By contrast, radiotracers with higher specificity for the tumor are labeled with a short half-life isotopes which restricts their use to those centers equipped with a cyclotron and radiopharmacy facility. 11C-choline has been reported as a suitable tracer for neuroimaging application. The recent availability of choline labeled with a long half-life radioisotope as 18F increases the possibility of studying this tracer's potential role in the staging of brain tumors. The present review focuses on the possible clinical applications of PET/CT with choline tracers in malignant brain tumors and brain metastases, with a special focus on malignant gliomas.

  18. Brain PET metabolic abnormalities in a case of varicella-zoster virus encephalitis.

    PubMed

    Coiffard, Benjamin; Guedj, Eric; Daumas, Aurélie; Leveque, Pierre; Villani, Patrick

    2014-09-01

    The role of brain 18F-FDG PET in the diagnostic evaluation of encephalitis has been recently suggested, especially in limbic encephalitis, but descriptions are mainly limited to small case reports. However, the evaluation of cerebral metabolism by 18F-FDG PET has never been described for varicella-zoster virus encephalitis. We report the first case of varicella-zoster virus encephalitis in which 18F-FDG PET revealed brain metabolic abnormalities. Brain metabolic PET imaging was analyzed by comparing the patient's brain 18F-FDG PET scans to that of 12 healthy subjects. Compared with healthy subjects, significant hypometabolism and hypermetabolism were found and evolved over time with treatment.

  19. Brain tissue segmentation in PET-CT images using probabilistic atlas and variational Bayes inference.

    PubMed

    Xia, Yong; Wang, Jiabin; Eberl, Stefan; Fulham, Michael; Feng, David Dagan

    2011-01-01

    PET-CT provides aligned anatomical (CT) and functional (PET) images in a single scan, and has the potential to improve brain PET image segmentation, which can in turn improve quantitative clinical analyses. We propose a statistical segmentation algorithm that incorporates the prior anatomical knowledge represented by probabilistic brain atlas into the variational Bayes inference to delineate gray matter (GM), white matter (WM) and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in brain PET-CT images. Our approach adds an additional novel aspect by allowing voxels to have variable and adaptive prior probabilities of belonging to each class. We compared our algorithm to the segmentation approaches implemented in the expectation maximization segmentation (EMS) and statistical parametric mapping (SPM8) packages in 26 clinical cases. The results show that our algorithm improves the accuracy of brain PET-CT image segmentation.

  20. Brain shaving: adaptive detection for brain PET data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grecchi, Elisabetta; Doyle, Orla M.; Bertoldo, Alessandra; Pavese, Nicola; Turkheimer, Federico E.

    2014-05-01

    The intricacy of brain biology is such that the variation of imaging end-points in health and disease exhibits an unpredictable range of spatial distributions from the extremely localized to the very diffuse. This represents a challenge for the two standard approaches to analysis, the mass univariate and the multivariate that exhibit either strong specificity but not as good sensitivity (the former) or poor specificity and comparatively better sensitivity (the latter). In this work, we develop an analytical methodology for positron emission tomography that operates an extraction (‘shaving’) of coherent patterns of signal variation while maintaining control of the type I error. The methodology operates two rotations on the image data, one local using the wavelet transform and one global using the singular value decomposition. The control of specificity is obtained by using the gap statistic that selects, within each eigenvector, a subset of significantly coherent elements. Face-validity of the algorithm is demonstrated using a paradigmatic data-set with two radiotracers, [11C]-raclopride and [11C]-(R)-PK11195, measured on the same Huntington's disease patients, a disorder with a genetic based diagnosis. The algorithm is able to detect the two well-known separate but connected processes of dopamine neuronal loss (localized in the basal ganglia) and neuroinflammation (diffusive around the whole brain). These processes are at the two extremes of the distributional envelope, one being very sparse and the latter being perfectly Gaussian and they are not adequately detected by the univariate and the multivariate approaches.

  1. Evaluation of a novel PDE10A PET radioligand, [(11) C]T-773, in nonhuman primates: brain and whole body PET and brain autoradiography.

    PubMed

    Takano, Akihiro; Stepanov, Vladimir; Gulyás, Balázs; Nakao, Ryuji; Amini, Nahid; Miura, Shotaro; Kimura, Haruhide; Taniguchi, Takahiko; Halldin, Christer

    2015-07-01

    Phosphodiesterase 10A (PDE10A) is considered to be a key target for the treatment of several neuropsychiatric diseases. The characteristics of [(11) C]T-773, a novel positron emission tomography (PET) radioligand with high binding affinity and selectivity for PDE10A, were evaluated in autoradiography and in nonhuman primate (NHP) PET. Brain PET measurements were performed under baseline conditions and after administration of a selective PDE10A inhibitor, MP-10. Total distribution volume (VT ) and binding potential (BPND ) were calculated using various kinetic models. Whole body PET measurements were performed to calculate the effective dose of [(11) C]T-773. Autoradiography studies in postmortem human and monkey brain sections showed high accumulation of [(11) C]T-773 in the striatum and substantia nigra which was blocked by MP-10. Brain PET showed high accumulation of [(11) C]T-773 in the striatum, and the data could be fitted using a two tissue compartment model. BPND was approximately 1.8 in the putamen when the cerebellum was used as the reference region. Approximately 70% of PDE10A binding was occupied by 1.8 mg/kg of MP-10. Whole body PET showed high accumulation of [(11) C]T-773 in the liver, kidney, heart, and brain in the initial phase. The radioligand was partly excreted via bile and the gastrointestinal tract, and partly excreted through the urinary tract. The calculated effective dose was 0.007 mSv/MBq. In conclusion, [(11) C]T-773 was demonstrated to be a promising PET radioligand for PDE10A with favorable brain kinetics. Dosimetry results support multiple PET measurements per person in human studies. Further research is required with [(11) C]T-773 in order to test the radioligand's potential clinical applications.

  2. Optimization of PET instrumentation for brain activation studies

    SciTech Connect

    Dahlbom, M.; Cherry, S.R.; Hoffman, E.J. . Dept. of Radiological Science); Eriksson, L. . Dept. of Clinical Neurophysiology); Wienhard, K. )

    1993-08-01

    By performing cerebral blood flow studies with positron emission tomography (PET), and comparing blood flow images of different states of activation, functional mapping of the brain is possible. The ability of current commercial instruments to perform such studies is investigated in this work, based on a comparison of noise equivalent count (NEC) rates. Differences in the NEC performance of the different scanners in conjunction with scanner design parameters, provide insights into the importance of block design (size, dead time, crystal thickness) and overall scanner design (sensitivity and scatter fraction) for optimizing data from activation studies. The newer scanners with removable septa, operating with 3-D acquisition, have much higher sensitivity, but require new methodology for optimized operation. Only by administering multiple low doses (fractionation) of the flow tracer can the high sensitivity be utilized.

  3. Multi-atlas attenuation correction supports full quantification of static and dynamic brain PET data in PET-MR.

    PubMed

    Merida, Ines; Reilhac, Anthonin; Redoute, Jerome; Heckemann, Rolf; Costes, Nicolas; Hammers, Alexander

    2017-02-09

    Introduction In simultaneous PET-MR, attenuation maps are not directly available. Essential for absolute radioactivity quantification, they need to be derived from MR or PET data to correct for gamma photon attenuation by the imaged object. We evaluate a multi-atlas attenuation correction method for brain imaging (MaxProb) on static [18F]FDG PET and, for the first time, on dynamic PET, using the serotoninergic tracer [18F]MPPF. Methods A database of 40 MR/CT image pairs (atlases) was used. The MaxProb method synthesises subject-specific pseudo-CTs by registering each atlas to the target subject space. Atlas CT intensities are then fused via label propagation and majority voting. Here, we compared these pseudo-CTs with the real CTs in a leave-one-out design, contrasting the MaxProb approach with a simplified single-atlas method (SingleAtlas). We evaluated the impact of pseudo-CT accuracy on reconstructed PET images, compared to PET data reconstructed with real CT, at the regional and voxel levels for the following: radioactivity images; time-activity curves; and kinetic parameters (non-displaceable binding potential, BPND). Results On static [18F]FDG, the mean bias for MaxProb ranged between 0 and 1% for 73 out of 84 regions assessed, and exceptionally peaked at 2.5% for only one region. Statistical parametric map analysis of MaxProb-corrected PET data showed significant differences in less than 0.02% of the brain volume, whereas SingleAtlas-corrected data showed significant differences in 20% of the brain volume. On dynamic [18F]MPPF, most regional errors on BPND ranged from -1 to +3% (maximum bias 5%) for the MaxProb method. With SingleAtlas, errors were larger and had higher variability in most regions. PET quantification bias increased over the duration of the dynamic scan for SingleAtlas, but not for MaxProb. We show that this effect is due to the interaction of the spatial tracer-distribution heterogeneity variation over time with the degree of accuracy of the

  4. Multi-atlas attenuation correction supports full quantification of static and dynamic brain PET data in PET-MR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mérida, Inés; Reilhac, Anthonin; Redouté, Jérôme; Heckemann, Rolf A.; Costes, Nicolas; Hammers, Alexander

    2017-04-01

    In simultaneous PET-MR, attenuation maps are not directly available. Essential for absolute radioactivity quantification, they need to be derived from MR or PET data to correct for gamma photon attenuation by the imaged object. We evaluate a multi-atlas attenuation correction method for brain imaging (MaxProb) on static [18F]FDG PET and, for the first time, on dynamic PET, using the serotoninergic tracer [18F]MPPF. A database of 40 MR/CT image pairs (atlases) was used. The MaxProb method synthesises subject-specific pseudo-CTs by registering each atlas to the target subject space. Atlas CT intensities are then fused via label propagation and majority voting. Here, we compared these pseudo-CTs with the real CTs in a leave-one-out design, contrasting the MaxProb approach with a simplified single-atlas method (SingleAtlas). We evaluated the impact of pseudo-CT accuracy on reconstructed PET images, compared to PET data reconstructed with real CT, at the regional and voxel levels for the following: radioactivity images; time-activity curves; and kinetic parameters (non-displaceable binding potential, BPND). On static [18F]FDG, the mean bias for MaxProb ranged between 0 and 1% for 73 out of 84 regions assessed, and exceptionally peaked at 2.5% for only one region. Statistical parametric map analysis of MaxProb-corrected PET data showed significant differences in less than 0.02% of the brain volume, whereas SingleAtlas-corrected data showed significant differences in 20% of the brain volume. On dynamic [18F]MPPF, most regional errors on BPND ranged from -1 to  +3% (maximum bias 5%) for the MaxProb method. With SingleAtlas, errors were larger and had higher variability in most regions. PET quantification bias increased over the duration of the dynamic scan for SingleAtlas, but not for MaxProb. We show that this effect is due to the interaction of the spatial tracer-distribution heterogeneity variation over time with the degree of accuracy of the attenuation maps. This

  5. Impact of metal artefacts due to EEG electrodes in brain PET/CT imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemmens, Catherine; Montandon, Marie-Louise; Nuyts, Johan; Ratib, Osman; Dupont, Patrick; Zaidi, Habib

    2008-08-01

    The goal of this study is to investigate the impact of electroencephalogram (EEG) electrodes on the visual quality and quantification of 18F-FDG PET images in neurological PET/CT examinations. For this purpose, the scans of 20 epilepsy patients with EEG monitoring were used. The CT data were reconstructed with filtered backprojection (FBP) and with a metal artefact reduction (MAR) algorithm. Both data sets were used for CT-based attenuation correction (AC) of the PET data. Also, a calculated AC (CALC) technique was considered. A volume of interest (VOI)-based analysis and a voxel-based quantitative analysis were performed to compare the different AC methods. Images were also evaluated visually by two observers. It was shown with simulations and phantom measurements that from the considered AC methods, the MAR-AC can be used as the reference in this setting. The visual assessment of PET images showed local hot spots outside the brain corresponding to the locations of the electrodes when using FBP-AC. In the brain, no abnormalities were observed. The quantitative analysis showed a very good correlation between PET-FBP-AC and PET-MAR-AC, with a statistically significant positive bias in the PET-FBP-AC images of about 5-7% in most brain voxels. There was also good correlation between PET-CALC-AC and PET-MAR-AC, but in the PET-CALC-AC images, regions with both a significant positive and negative bias were observed. EEG electrodes give rise to local hot spots outside the brain and a positive quantification bias in the brain. However, when diagnosis is made by mere visual assessment, the presence of EEG electrodes does not seem to alter the diagnosis. When quantification is performed, the bias becomes an issue especially when comparing brain images with and without EEG monitoring.

  6. Towards Implementing an MR-based PET Attenuation Correction Method for Neurological Studies on the MR-PET Brain Prototype

    PubMed Central

    Catana, Ciprian; van der Kouwe, Andre; Benner, Thomas; Michel, Christian J.; Hamm, Michael; Fenchel, Matthias; Fischl, Bruce; Rosen, Bruce; Schmand, Matthias; Sorensen, A. Gregory

    2013-01-01

    A number of factors have to be considered for implementing an accurate attenuation correction (AC) in a combined MR-PET scanner. In this work, some of these challenges were investigated and an AC method based entirely on the MR data obtained with a single dedicated sequence was developed and used for neurological studies performed with the MR-PET human brain scanner prototype. Methods The focus was on the bone/air segmentation problem, the bone linear attenuation coefficient selection and the RF coil positioning. The impact of these factors on the PET data quantification was studied in simulations and experimental measurements performed on the combined MR-PET scanner. A novel dual-echo ultra-short echo time (DUTE) MR sequence was proposed for head imaging. Simultaneous MR-PET data were acquired and the PET images reconstructed using the proposed MR-DUTE-based AC method were compared with the PET images reconstructed using a CT-based AC. Results Our data suggest that incorrectly accounting for the bone tissue attenuation can lead to large underestimations (>20%) of the radiotracer concentration in the cortex. Assigning a linear attenuation coefficient of 0.143 or 0.151 cm−1 to bone tissue appears to give the best trade-off between bias and variability in the resulting images. Not identifying the internal air cavities introduces large overestimations (>20%) in adjacent structures. Based on these results, the segmented CT AC method was established as the “silver standard” for the segmented MR-based AC method. Particular to an integrated MR-PET scanner, ignoring the RF coil attenuation can cause large underestimations (i.e. up to 50%) in the reconstructed images. Furthermore, the coil location in the PET field of view has to be accurately known. Good quality bone/air segmentation can be performed using the DUTE data. The PET images obtained using the MR-DUTE- and CT-based AC methods compare favorably in most of the brain structures. Conclusion An MR-DUTE-based AC

  7. [In vivo visualization of neurotransmitter function in the human brain by PET].

    PubMed

    Itoh, M; Yanai, K; Yamaguchi, S; Fujiwara, T; Nagasawa, H; Yokoyama, H; Iinuma, K; Ido, T

    1995-03-01

    Measurement of cerebral blood flow and energy metabolism using PET with 15O and 18F labeled tracers allows quantitative evaluation of cerebral metabolism that can be perturbed in pathological states. Neurotransmission is a new target that is visualized by labeling of substrates of enzymes that are involved in neurotransmitter synthesis or degradation. Neuronal receptors are mapped by introducing the labeled ligands that are specifically bound to the receptors in question. We developed unique tracers that label dopamine D2 or histamine H1 receptors. With other available ligands for the muscarinic cholinergic receptors and [18F] fluorodopa, we started clinical investigations to document the state of neurotransmission in patients with epilepsy, Parkinson's disease and dementia. Using [11C] doxepin we observed an increase of H1 receptors in the epileptic foci that showed decreased glucose metabolic rate at the interictal phase. This phenomenon is compatible with reported increase of mu opiate receptors in the brains of epileptic patients. Brain uptake of FDOPA (Ki), calculated by the graphical plot was found relatively stable with age both in the normal population and dementia patients. However, the striatal Ki of FDOPA of severely demented patients significantly reduced, compared with the normal aged subjects. The correlation analysis between FDOPA Ki and severity of dementia as assessed by mini-mental state examination revealed a significant reduction of Ki associated with the disease progression. Increase in D2 receptor density as assessed by the uptake of YM 09151-2 was observed in cases with reduced FDOPA uptake, which may correspond to the state of supersensitivity of the D2 receptors.

  8. Simultaneous fMRI-PET of the opioidergic pain system in human brain.

    PubMed

    Wey, Hsiao-Ying; Catana, Ciprian; Hooker, Jacob M; Dougherty, Darin D; Knudsen, Gitte M; Wang, Danny J J; Chonde, Daniel B; Rosen, Bruce R; Gollub, Randy L; Kong, Jian

    2014-11-15

    MRI and PET provide complementary information for studying brain function. While the potential use of simultaneous MRI/PET for clinical diagnostic and disease staging has been demonstrated recently; the biological relevance of concurrent functional MRI-PET brain imaging to dissect neurochemically distinct components of the blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) fMRI signal has not yet been shown. We obtained sixteen fMRI-PET data sets from eight healthy volunteers. Each subject participated in randomized order in a pain scan and a control (nonpainful pressure) scan on the same day. Dynamic PET data were acquired with an opioid radioligand, [(11)C]diprenorphine, to detect endogenous opioid releases in response to pain. BOLD fMRI data were collected at the same time to capture hemodynamic responses. In this simultaneous human fMRI-PET imaging study, we show co-localized responses in thalamus and striatum related to pain processing, while modality specific brain networks were also found. Co-localized fMRI and PET signal changes in the thalamus were positively correlated suggesting that pain-induced changes in opioid neurotransmission contribute a significant component of the fMRI signal change in this region. Simultaneous fMRI-PET provides unique opportunities allowing us to relate specific neurochemical events to functional hemodynamic activation and to investigate the impacts of neurotransmission on neurovascular coupling of the human brain in vivo.

  9. Framework for the construction of a Monte Carlo simulated brain PET-MR image database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, B. A.; Erlandsson, K.; Drobnjak, I.; Pedemonte, S.; Vunckx, K.; Bousse, A.; Reilhac-Laborde, A.; Ourselin, S.; Hutton, B. F.

    2014-01-01

    Simultaneous PET-MR acquisition reduces the possibility of registration mismatch between the two modalities. This facilitates the application of techniques, either during reconstruction or post-reconstruction, that aim to improve the PET resolution by utilising structural information provided by MR. However, in order to validate such methods for brain PET-MR studies it is desirable to evaluate the performance using data where the ground truth is known. In this work, we present a framework for the production of datasets where simulations of both the PET and MR, based on real data, are generated such that reconstruction and post-reconstruction approaches can be fairly compared.

  10. MR-Based PET Motion Correction Procedure for Simultaneous MR-PET Neuroimaging of Human Brain

    PubMed Central

    Weirich, Christoph; Rota Kops, Elena; Celik, Abdullah; Tellmann, Lutz; Stöcker, Tony; Herzog, Hans; Shah, Nadim Jon

    2012-01-01

    Positron Emission Tomography (PET) images are prone to motion artefacts due to the long acquisition time of PET measurements. Recently, simultaneous magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and PET have become available in the first generation of Hybrid MR-PET scanners. In this work, the elimination of artefacts due to head motion in PET neuroimages is achieved by a new approach utilising MR-based motion tracking in combination with PET list mode data motion correction for simultaneous MR-PET acquisitions. The method comprises accurate MR-based motion measurements, an intra-frame motion minimising and reconstruction time reducing temporal framing algorithm, and a list mode based PET reconstruction which utilises the Ordinary Poisson Algorithm and avoids axial and transaxial compression. Compared to images uncorrected for motion, an increased image quality is shown in phantom as well as in vivo images. In vivo motion corrected images show an evident increase of contrast at the basal ganglia and a good visibility of uptake in tiny structures such as superior colliculi. PMID:23189127

  11. MR-based PET motion correction procedure for simultaneous MR-PET neuroimaging of human brain.

    PubMed

    Ullisch, Marcus Görge; Scheins, Jürgen Johann; Weirich, Christoph; Rota Kops, Elena; Celik, Abdullah; Tellmann, Lutz; Stöcker, Tony; Herzog, Hans; Shah, Nadim Jon

    2012-01-01

    Positron Emission Tomography (PET) images are prone to motion artefacts due to the long acquisition time of PET measurements. Recently, simultaneous magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and PET have become available in the first generation of Hybrid MR-PET scanners. In this work, the elimination of artefacts due to head motion in PET neuroimages is achieved by a new approach utilising MR-based motion tracking in combination with PET list mode data motion correction for simultaneous MR-PET acquisitions. The method comprises accurate MR-based motion measurements, an intra-frame motion minimising and reconstruction time reducing temporal framing algorithm, and a list mode based PET reconstruction which utilises the Ordinary Poisson Algorithm and avoids axial and transaxial compression. Compared to images uncorrected for motion, an increased image quality is shown in phantom as well as in vivo images. In vivo motion corrected images show an evident increase of contrast at the basal ganglia and a good visibility of uptake in tiny structures such as superior colliculi.

  12. Evaluation of a video-based head motion tracking system for dedicated brain PET

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anishchenko, S.; Beylin, D.; Stepanov, P.; Stepanov, A.; Weinberg, I. N.; Schaeffer, S.; Zavarzin, V.; Shaposhnikov, D.; Smith, M. F.

    2015-03-01

    Unintentional head motion during Positron Emission Tomography (PET) data acquisition can degrade PET image quality and lead to artifacts. Poor patient compliance, head tremor, and coughing are examples of movement sources. Head motion due to patient non-compliance can be an issue with the rise of amyloid brain PET in dementia patients. To preserve PET image resolution and quantitative accuracy, head motion can be tracked and corrected in the image reconstruction algorithm. While fiducial markers can be used, a contactless approach is preferable. A video-based head motion tracking system for a dedicated portable brain PET scanner was developed. Four wide-angle cameras organized in two stereo pairs are used for capturing video of the patient's head during the PET data acquisition. Facial points are automatically tracked and used to determine the six degree of freedom head pose as a function of time. The presented work evaluated the newly designed tracking system using a head phantom and a moving American College of Radiology (ACR) phantom. The mean video-tracking error was 0.99±0.90 mm relative to the magnetic tracking device used as ground truth. Qualitative evaluation with the ACR phantom shows the advantage of the motion tracking application. The developed system is able to perform tracking with accuracy close to millimeter and can help to preserve resolution of brain PET images in presence of movements.

  13. System for cerebral blood flow measurement using an H/sub 2//sup 15/O autoradiographic method and positron emission tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Kanno, I.; Iida, H.; Miura, S.; Murakami, M.; Takahashi, K.; Sasaki, H.; Inugami, A.; Shishido, F.; Uemura, K.

    1987-04-01

    A system for CBF measurement using an H/sub 2//sup 15/O autoradiographic method and positron emission tomography (PET) has been designed and installed as a clinical tool. Following an intravenous injection of H/sub 2//sup 15/O, a radioactivity accumulation in the brain tissue for 60 s and a continuous record of radioactivity in arterial blood were measured by a high counting speed PET device and a beta-ray detector, respectively, and CBF was calculated by a table-lookup procedure. First, this method was compared with the C/sup 15/O/sub 2/ inhalation steady-state method on 17 cerebrovascular disease patients and four normal subjects. The two values for CBF agreed with each other when H/sub 2//sup 15/O autoradiographic method was applied by correction for the dispersion in the measured arterial radioactivity-time curve. However, without the correction, the CBF by the H/sub 2//sup 15/O autoradiographic method revealed substantial overestimation by 30.6 +/- 17.5%. A reduced gray/white ratio of CBF was also observed in the H/sub 2//sup 15/O autoradiographic method. Second, simulation was performed in order to determine optimal accumulation time by PET scan; the result was that errors due to dispersion and time mismatch became critical as the accumulation time was shortened to less than 60 s.

  14. Kinetic measurements are necessary for description of brain receptors with PET

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, M.; Me, R.

    1984-01-01

    Following injection of radiolabeled spiperone a brain PET image demonstrates a distribution of tracer similar to the known distribution of dopamine receptors. However, the usefulness of a single PET image to quantitate receptor density can be limited by the effect of local blood flow (CBF), brain permeability (P), forward receptor rate constant (k1), and the reverse receptor rate constant (k-1). Using a 3-compartment model that the authors have described and successfully employed to interpret brain receptor kinetics with PET, the authors have simulated the effect of changes in the above variables on the image contrast (IC) between receptor-containing tissue (T), and receptor-free tissue like cerebellum (C), expressing this contrast as (T-C)/C. The blood activity curve and initial values for the variables were taken from their in vivo PET work in baboons using 18-F-spiperone. The model shows IC increases directly with time, not reaching 90% of maximum until over 3 hours. Thus, the timing of a single PET scan is critical for reproducible results. While the effect of changes in CBF are very small, changes in P, k1 and k-1 at 60 minutes, and k1 and k-1 at 120 minutes result in substantial changes in the observed IC. Until more is known about the behavior of these variables reliable description of brain receptors requires dynamic PET data from sequential images, analyzed by an appropriate mathematical model.

  15. Dynamic functional imaging of brain glucose utilization using fPET-FDG

    SciTech Connect

    Villien, Marjorie; Wey, Hsiao-Ying; Mandeville, Joseph B.; Catana, Ciprian; Polimeni, Jonathan R.; Sander, Christin Y.; Zürcher, Nicole R.; Chonde, Daniel B.; Fowler, Joanna S.; Rosen, Bruce R.; Hooker, Jacob M.

    2014-06-14

    We report that glucose is the principal source of energy for the brain and yet the dynamic response of glucose utilization to changes in brain activity is still not fully understood. Positron emission tomography (PET) allows quantitative measurement of glucose metabolism using 2-[18F]-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG). However, FDG PET in its current form provides an integral (or average) of glucose consumption over tens of minutes and lacks the temporal information to capture physiological alterations associated with changes in brain activity induced by tasks or drug challenges. Traditionally, changes in glucose utilization are inferred by comparing two separate scans, which significantly limits the utility of the method. We report a novel method to track changes in FDG metabolism dynamically, with higher temporal resolution than exists to date and within a single session. Using a constant infusion of FDG, we demonstrate that our technique (termed fPET-FDG) can be used in an analysis pipeline similar to fMRI to define within-session differential metabolic responses. We use visual stimulation to demonstrate the feasibility of this method. Ultimately, this new method has a great potential to be used in research protocols and clinical settings since fPET-FDG imaging can be performed with most PET scanners and data acquisition and analysis are straightforward. fPET-FDG is a highly complementary technique to MRI and provides a rich new way to observe functional changes in brain metabolism.

  16. Dynamic functional imaging of brain glucose utilization using fPET-FDG

    DOE PAGES

    Villien, Marjorie; Wey, Hsiao-Ying; Mandeville, Joseph B.; ...

    2014-06-14

    We report that glucose is the principal source of energy for the brain and yet the dynamic response of glucose utilization to changes in brain activity is still not fully understood. Positron emission tomography (PET) allows quantitative measurement of glucose metabolism using 2-[18F]-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG). However, FDG PET in its current form provides an integral (or average) of glucose consumption over tens of minutes and lacks the temporal information to capture physiological alterations associated with changes in brain activity induced by tasks or drug challenges. Traditionally, changes in glucose utilization are inferred by comparing two separate scans, which significantly limits themore » utility of the method. We report a novel method to track changes in FDG metabolism dynamically, with higher temporal resolution than exists to date and within a single session. Using a constant infusion of FDG, we demonstrate that our technique (termed fPET-FDG) can be used in an analysis pipeline similar to fMRI to define within-session differential metabolic responses. We use visual stimulation to demonstrate the feasibility of this method. Ultimately, this new method has a great potential to be used in research protocols and clinical settings since fPET-FDG imaging can be performed with most PET scanners and data acquisition and analysis are straightforward. fPET-FDG is a highly complementary technique to MRI and provides a rich new way to observe functional changes in brain metabolism.« less

  17. Dynamic Functional Imaging of Brain Glucose Utilization using fPET-FDG

    PubMed Central

    Villien, Marjorie; Wey, Hsiao-Ying; Mandeville, Joseph B.; Catana, Ciprian; Polimeni, Jonathan R.; Sander, Christin Y.; Zürcher, Nicole R.; Chonde, Daniel B.; Fowler, Joanna S.; Rosen, Bruce R.; Hooker, Jacob M.

    2014-01-01

    Glucose is the principal source of energy for the brain and yet the dynamic response of glucose utilization to changes in brain activity is still not fully understood. Positron emission tomography (PET) allows quantitative measurement of glucose metabolism using 2-[18F]-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG). However, FDG PET in its current form provides an integral (or average) of glucose consumption over tens of minutes and lacks the temporal information to capture physiological alterations associated with changes in brain activity induced by tasks or drug challenges. Traditionally, changes in glucose utilization are inferred by comparing two separate scans, which significantly limits the utility of the method. We report a novel method to track changes in FDG metabolism dynamically, with higher temporal resolution than exists to date and within a single session. Using a constant infusion of FDG, we demonstrate that our technique (termed fPET-FDG) can be used in an analysis pipeline similar to fMRI to define within-session differential metabolic responses. We use visual stimulation to demonstrate the feasibility of this method. This new method has a great potential to be used in research protocols and clinical settings since fPET-FDG imaging can be performed with most PET scanners and data acquisition and analysis is straightforward. fPET-FDG is a highly complementary technique to MRI and provides a rich new way to observe functional changes in brain metabolism. PMID:24936683

  18. Dynamic functional imaging of brain glucose utilization using fPET-FDG.

    PubMed

    Villien, Marjorie; Wey, Hsiao-Ying; Mandeville, Joseph B; Catana, Ciprian; Polimeni, Jonathan R; Sander, Christin Y; Zürcher, Nicole R; Chonde, Daniel B; Fowler, Joanna S; Rosen, Bruce R; Hooker, Jacob M

    2014-10-15

    Glucose is the principal source of energy for the brain and yet the dynamic response of glucose utilization to changes in brain activity is still not fully understood. Positron emission tomography (PET) allows quantitative measurement of glucose metabolism using 2-[(18)F]-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG). However, FDG PET in its current form provides an integral (or average) of glucose consumption over tens of minutes and lacks the temporal information to capture physiological alterations associated with changes in brain activity induced by tasks or drug challenges. Traditionally, changes in glucose utilization are inferred by comparing two separate scans, which significantly limits the utility of the method. We report a novel method to track changes in FDG metabolism dynamically, with higher temporal resolution than exists to date and within a single session. Using a constant infusion of FDG, we demonstrate that our technique (termed fPET-FDG) can be used in an analysis pipeline similar to fMRI to define within-session differential metabolic responses. We use visual stimulation to demonstrate the feasibility of this method. This new method has a great potential to be used in research protocols and clinical settings since fPET-FDG imaging can be performed with most PET scanners and data acquisition and analysis are straightforward. fPET-FDG is a highly complementary technique to MRI and provides a rich new way to observe functional changes in brain metabolism.

  19. Changes in topological organization of functional PET brain network with normal aging.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhiliang; Ke, Lining; Liu, Huafeng; Huang, Wenhua; Hu, Zhenghui

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies about brain network have suggested that normal aging is associated with alterations in coordinated patterns of the large-scale brain functional and structural systems. However, age-related changes in functional networks constructed via positron emission tomography (PET) data are still barely understood. Here, we constructed functional brain networks composed of 90 regions in younger (mean age 36.5 years) and older (mean age 56.3 years) age groups with PET data. 113 younger and 110 older healthy individuals were separately selected for two age groups, from a physical examination database. Corresponding brain functional networks of the two groups were constructed by thresholding average cerebral glucose metabolism correlation matrices of 90 regions and analysed using graph theoretical approaches. Although both groups showed normal small-world architecture in the PET networks, increased clustering and decreased efficiency were found in older subjects, implying a degeneration process that brain system shifts from a small-world network to regular one along with normal aging. Moreover, normal senescence was related to changed nodal centralities predominantly in association and paralimbic cortex regions, e.g. increasing in orbitofrontal cortex (middle) and decreasing in left hippocampus. Additionally, the older networks were about equally as robust to random failures as younger counterpart, but more vulnerable against targeted attacks. Finally, methods in the construction of the PET networks revealed reasonable robustness. Our findings enhanced the understanding about the topological principles of PET networks and changes related to normal aging.

  20. Changes in Topological Organization of Functional PET Brain Network with Normal Aging

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Huafeng; Huang, Wenhua; Hu, Zhenghui

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies about brain network have suggested that normal aging is associated with alterations in coordinated patterns of the large-scale brain functional and structural systems. However, age-related changes in functional networks constructed via positron emission tomography (PET) data are still barely understood. Here, we constructed functional brain networks composed of regions in younger (mean age years) and older (mean age years) age groups with PET data. younger and older healthy individuals were separately selected for two age groups, from a physical examination database. Corresponding brain functional networks of the two groups were constructed by thresholding average cerebral glucose metabolism correlation matrices of regions and analysed using graph theoretical approaches. Although both groups showed normal small-world architecture in the PET networks, increased clustering and decreased efficiency were found in older subjects, implying a degeneration process that brain system shifts from a small-world network to regular one along with normal aging. Moreover, normal senescence was related to changed nodal centralities predominantly in association and paralimbic cortex regions, e.g. increasing in orbitofrontal cortex (middle) and decreasing in left hippocampus. Additionally, the older networks were about equally as robust to random failures as younger counterpart, but more vulnerable against targeted attacks. Finally, methods in the construction of the PET networks revealed reasonable robustness. Our findings enhanced the understanding about the topological principles of PET networks and changes related to normal aging. PMID:24586370

  1. Global cerebral glucose utilization is independent of brain size: a PET Study

    SciTech Connect

    Hatazawa, J.; Brooks, R.A.; Di Chiro, G.; Campbell, G.

    1987-07-01

    Cerebral glucose metabolic rates were measured in 80 normal volunteers by studying the uptake of (/sup 18/F)deoxyglucose with positron emission tomography (PET), using three PET scanners. A brain size index was determined from the PET images using either length-width or area measurements of the brain at a standard level. There was a significant negative correlation between glucose metabolism per unit volume and brain size that was well described by an inverse functional relationship, implying that the total glucose consumption of the brain is approximately constant. Analyses of men versus women revealed no sex differences in total brain glucose consumption, although there were differences in brain size and in glucose metabolism per unit volume. Similarly there was no significant correlation of total brain glucose consumption with age. The variation with brain size accounted for 46% of the logarithmic intersubject metabolic variance. When comparing global metabolic rates in different subjects, multiplying the rates by a brain size index has the dual advantage of correcting for differences related to brain size and correcting for differences in cerebrospinal fluid volume.

  2. Effect of Cyclosporin A on the Uptake of D3-Selective PET Radiotracers in Rat Brain

    PubMed Central

    Tu, Zhude; Li, Shihong; Xu, Jinbin; Chu, Wenhua; Jones, Lynne A.; Luedtke, Robert R.; Mach, Robert H.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Four benzamide analogs having a high affinity and selectivity for D3 versus D2 receptors were radiolabeled with 11C or 18F for in vivo evaluation. Methods Precursors were synthesized and the four D3 selective benzamide analogs were radiolabeled. The tissue distribution and brain uptake of the four compounds were evaluated in control rats and rats pretreated with cyclosporin A, a modulator of P-glycoprotein and an inhibitor of other ABC efflux transporters that contribute to the blood brain barrier. MicroPET imaging was carried out for [11C]6 in a control and a cyclosporin A pre-treated rat. Results All four compounds showed low brain uptake in control rats at 5 and 30 min post-injection; despite recently reported rat behavioral studies conducted on analogs 6 (WC-10) and 7 (WC-44). Following administration of cyclosporin A, increased brain uptake was observed with all four PET radiotracers at both 5 and 30 min post-i.v. injection. An increase in brain uptake following modulation/inhibition of the ABC transporters was also observed in the microPET study. Conclusions These data suggest that D3 selective conformationally-flexible benzamide analogs which contain a N-2-methoxyphenylpiperazine moiety are substrates for P-glycoprotein or other ABC transporters expressed at the blood-brain barrier, and that PET radiotracers containing this pharmacophore may display low brain uptake in rodents due to the action of these efflux transporters. PMID:21718948

  3. Simultaneous PET-MRI reveals brain function in activated and resting state on metabolic, hemodynamic and multiple temporal scales.

    PubMed

    Wehrl, Hans F; Hossain, Mosaddek; Lankes, Konrad; Liu, Chih-Chieh; Bezrukov, Ilja; Martirosian, Petros; Schick, Fritz; Reischl, Gerald; Pichler, Bernd J

    2013-09-01

    Combined positron emission tomography (PET) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a new tool to study functional processes in the brain. Here we study brain function in response to a barrel-field stimulus simultaneously using PET, which traces changes in glucose metabolism on a slow time scale, and functional MRI (fMRI), which assesses fast vascular and oxygenation changes during activation. We found spatial and quantitative discrepancies between the PET and the fMRI activation data. The functional connectivity of the rat brain was assessed by both modalities: the fMRI approach determined a total of nine known neural networks, whereas the PET method identified seven glucose metabolism-related networks. These results demonstrate the feasibility of combined PET-MRI for the simultaneous study of the brain at activation and rest, revealing comprehensive and complementary information to further decode brain function and brain networks.

  4. F18 EF5 PET/CT Imaging in Patients with Brain Metastases from Breast Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-07-01

    with Brain Metastases from Breast Cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Lilie Lin, MD CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION: University of Pennsylvania...Annual 3. DATES COVERED 01 July 2012 to 30 June 2013 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE F18 EF5 PET/CT Imaging in Patients with Brain Metastases from Breast 5a...SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT The aim of this study is to estimate the degree of residual hypoxia after whole brain radiation therapy in patients

  5. 5-HT Radioligands for Human Brain Imaging With PET and SPECT

    PubMed Central

    Paterson, Louise M.; Kornum, Birgitte R.; Nutt, David J.; Pike, Victor W.; Knudsen, Gitte M.

    2014-01-01

    The serotonergic system plays a key modulatory role in the brain and is the target for many drug treatments for brain disorders either through reuptake blockade or via interactions at the 14 subtypes of 5-HT receptors. This review provides the history and current status of radioligands used for positron emission tomography (PET) and single photon emission computerized tomography (SPECT) imaging of human brain serotonin (5-HT) receptors, the 5-HT transporter (SERT), and 5-HT synthesis rate. Currently available radioligands for in vivo brain imaging of the 5-HT system in humans include antagonists for the 5-HT1A, 5-HT1B, 5-HT2A, and 5-HT4 receptors, and for SERT. Here we describe the evolution of these radioligands, along with the attempts made to develop radioligands for additional serotonergic targets. We describe the properties needed for a radioligand to become successful and the main caveats. The success of a PET or SPECT radioligand can ultimately be assessed by its frequency of use, its utility in humans, and the number of research sites using it relative to its invention date, and so these aspects are also covered. In conclusion, the development of PET and SPECT radioligands to image serotonergic targets is of high interest, and successful evaluation in humans is leading to invaluable insight into normal and abnormal brain function, emphasizing the need for continued development of both SPECT and PET radioligands for human brain imaging. PMID:21674551

  6. MRI-guided brain PET image filtering and partial volume correction.

    PubMed

    Yan, Jianhua; Lim, Jason Chu-Shern; Townsend, David W

    2015-02-07

    Positron emission tomography (PET) image quantification is a challenging problem due to limited spatial resolution of acquired data and the resulting partial volume effects (PVE), which depend on the size of the structure studied in relation to the spatial resolution and which may lead to over or underestimation of the true tissue tracer concentration. In addition, it is usually necessary to perform image smoothing either during image reconstruction or afterwards to achieve a reasonable signal-to-noise ratio. Typically, an isotropic Gaussian filtering (GF) is used for this purpose. However, the noise suppression is at the cost of deteriorating spatial resolution. As hybrid imaging devices such as PET/MRI have become available, the complementary information derived from high definition morphologic images could be used to improve the quality of PET images. In this study, first of all, we propose an MRI-guided PET filtering method by adapting a recently proposed local linear model and then incorporate PVE into the model to get a new partial volume correction (PVC) method without parcellation of MRI. In addition, both the new filtering and PVC are voxel-wise non-iterative methods. The performance of the proposed methods were investigated with simulated dynamic FDG brain dataset and (18)F-FDG brain data of a cervical cancer patient acquired with a simultaneous hybrid PET/MR scanner. The initial simulation results demonstrated that MRI-guided PET image filtering can produce less noisy images than traditional GF and bias and coefficient of variation can be further reduced by MRI-guided PET PVC. Moreover, structures can be much better delineated in MRI-guided PET PVC for real brain data.

  7. MRI-guided brain PET image filtering and partial volume correction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Jianhua; Chu-Shern Lim, Jason; Townsend, David W.

    2015-02-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) image quantification is a challenging problem due to limited spatial resolution of acquired data and the resulting partial volume effects (PVE), which depend on the size of the structure studied in relation to the spatial resolution and which may lead to over or underestimation of the true tissue tracer concentration. In addition, it is usually necessary to perform image smoothing either during image reconstruction or afterwards to achieve a reasonable signal-to-noise ratio. Typically, an isotropic Gaussian filtering (GF) is used for this purpose. However, the noise suppression is at the cost of deteriorating spatial resolution. As hybrid imaging devices such as PET/MRI have become available, the complementary information derived from high definition morphologic images could be used to improve the quality of PET images. In this study, first of all, we propose an MRI-guided PET filtering method by adapting a recently proposed local linear model and then incorporate PVE into the model to get a new partial volume correction (PVC) method without parcellation of MRI. In addition, both the new filtering and PVC are voxel-wise non-iterative methods. The performance of the proposed methods were investigated with simulated dynamic FDG brain dataset and 18F-FDG brain data of a cervical cancer patient acquired with a simultaneous hybrid PET/MR scanner. The initial simulation results demonstrated that MRI-guided PET image filtering can produce less noisy images than traditional GF and bias and coefficient of variation can be further reduced by MRI-guided PET PVC. Moreover, structures can be much better delineated in MRI-guided PET PVC for real brain data.

  8. Quantitative Evaluation of Atlas-based Attenuation Correction for Brain PET in an Integrated Time-of-Flight PET/MR Imaging System.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jaewon; Jian, Yiqiang; Jenkins, Nathaniel; Behr, Spencer C; Hope, Thomas A; Larson, Peder E Z; Vigneron, Daniel; Seo, Youngho

    2017-02-23

    Purpose To assess the patient-dependent accuracy of atlas-based attenuation correction (ATAC) for brain positron emission tomography (PET) in an integrated time-of-flight (TOF) PET/magnetic resonance (MR) imaging system. Materials and Methods Thirty recruited patients provided informed consent in this institutional review board-approved study. All patients underwent whole-body fluorodeoxyglucose PET/computed tomography (CT) followed by TOF PET/MR imaging. With use of TOF PET data, PET images were reconstructed with four different attenuation correction (AC) methods: PET with patient CT-based AC (CTAC), PET with ATAC (air and bone from an atlas), PET with ATACpatientBone (air and tissue from the atlas with patient bone), and PET with ATACboneless (air and tissue from the atlas without bone). For quantitative evaluation, PET mean activity concentration values were measured in 14 1-mL volumes of interest (VOIs) distributed throughout the brain and statistical significance was tested with a paired t test. Results The mean overall difference (±standard deviation) of PET with ATAC compared with PET with CTAC was -0.69 kBq/mL ± 0.60 (-4.0% ± 3.2) (P < .001). The results were patient dependent (range, -9.3% to 0.57%) and VOI dependent (range, -5.9 to -2.2). In addition, when bone was not included for AC, the overall difference of PET with ATACboneless (-9.4% ± 3.7) was significantly worse than that of PET with ATAC (-4.0% ± 3.2) (P < .001). Finally, when patient bone was used for AC instead of atlas bone, the overall difference of PET with ATACpatientBone (-1.5% ± 1.5) improved over that of PET with ATAC (-4.0% ± 3.2) (P < .001). Conclusion ATAC in PET/MR imaging achieves similar quantification accuracy to that from CTAC by means of atlas-based bone compensation. However, patient-specific anatomic differences from the atlas causes bone attenuation differences and misclassified sinuses, which result in patient-dependent performance variation of ATAC. (©) RSNA, 2017

  9. Proposed helmet PET geometries with add-on detectors for high sensitivity brain imaging.

    PubMed

    Tashima, Hideaki; Yamaya, Taiga

    2016-10-07

    For dedicated brain PET, we can significantly improve sensitivity for the cerebrum region by arranging detectors in a compact hemisphere. The geometrical sensitivity for the top region of the hemisphere is increased compared with conventional cylindrical PET consisting of the same number of detectors. However, the geometrical sensitivity at the center region of the hemisphere is still low because the bottom edge of the field-of-view is open, the same as for the cylindrical PET. In this paper, we proposed a helmet PET with add-on detectors for high sensitivity brain PET imaging for both center and top regions. The key point is the add-on detectors covering some portion of the spherical surface in addition to the hemisphere. As the location of the add-on detectors, we proposed three choices: a chin detector, ear detectors, and a neck detector. For example, the geometrical sensitivity for the region-of-interest at the center was increased by 200% by adding the chin detector which increased the size by 12% of the size of the hemisphere detector. The other add-on detectors gave almost the same increased sensitivity effect as the chin detector did. Compared with standard whole-body-cylindrical PET, the proposed geometries can achieve 2.6 times higher sensitivity for brain region even with less than 1/4 detectors. In addition, we conducted imaging simulations for geometries with a diameter of 250 mm and with high resolution depth-of-interaction detectors. The simulation results showed that the proposed geometries increased image quality, and all of the add-on detectors were equivalently effective. In conclusion, the proposed geometries have high potential for widespread applications in high-sensitivity, high-resolution, and low-cost brain PET imaging.

  10. Proposed helmet PET geometries with add-on detectors for high sensitivity brain imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tashima, Hideaki; Yamaya, Taiga

    2016-10-01

    For dedicated brain PET, we can significantly improve sensitivity for the cerebrum region by arranging detectors in a compact hemisphere. The geometrical sensitivity for the top region of the hemisphere is increased compared with conventional cylindrical PET consisting of the same number of detectors. However, the geometrical sensitivity at the center region of the hemisphere is still low because the bottom edge of the field-of-view is open, the same as for the cylindrical PET. In this paper, we proposed a helmet PET with add-on detectors for high sensitivity brain PET imaging for both center and top regions. The key point is the add-on detectors covering some portion of the spherical surface in addition to the hemisphere. As the location of the add-on detectors, we proposed three choices: a chin detector, ear detectors, and a neck detector. For example, the geometrical sensitivity for the region-of-interest at the center was increased by 200% by adding the chin detector which increased the size by 12% of the size of the hemisphere detector. The other add-on detectors gave almost the same increased sensitivity effect as the chin detector did. Compared with standard whole-body-cylindrical PET, the proposed geometries can achieve 2.6 times higher sensitivity for brain region even with less than 1/4 detectors. In addition, we conducted imaging simulations for geometries with a diameter of 250 mm and with high resolution depth-of-interaction detectors. The simulation results showed that the proposed geometries increased image quality, and all of the add-on detectors were equivalently effective. In conclusion, the proposed geometries have high potential for widespread applications in high-sensitivity, high-resolution, and low-cost brain PET imaging.

  11. PET Radiotracers: crossing the blood-brain barrier and surviving metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Pike, Victor W.

    2009-01-01

    Radiotracers for imaging protein targets in living human brain with positron emission tomography (PET) are increasingly useful in clinical research and in drug development. Such radiotracers must fulfill many criteria, among which an ability to enter brain adequately and reversibly without contamination by troublesome radiometabolites is desirable for accurate measurement of the density of a target protein (e.g., neuroreceptor, transporter, enzyme or plaque). Candidate radiotracers may fail as a result of poor passive brain entry, rejection from brain by efflux transporters or undesirable metabolism. These issues are reviewed. Emerging PET radiotracers for measuring efflux transporter function, and new strategies for ameliorating radiotracer metabolism are discussed. A growing understanding of the molecular features affecting the brain penetration, metabolism and efflux transporter sensitivity of prospective radiotracers should ultimately lead to their more rational and efficient design, and also to their greater efficacy. PMID:19616318

  12. Segmentation of brain PET-CT images based on adaptive use of complementary information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Yong; Wen, Lingfeng; Eberl, Stefan; Fulham, Michael; Feng, Dagan

    2009-02-01

    Dual modality PET-CT imaging provides aligned anatomical (CT) and functional (PET) images in a single scanning session, which can potentially be used to improve image segmentation of PET-CT data. The ability to distinguish structures for segmentation is a function of structure and modality and varies across voxels. Thus optimal contribution of a particular modality to segmentation is spatially variant. Existing segmentation algorithms, however, seldom account for this characteristic of PET-CT data and the results using these algorithms are not optimal. In this study, we propose a relative discrimination index (RDI) to characterize the relative abilities of PET and CT to correctly classify each voxel into the correct structure for segmentation. The definition of RDI is based on the information entropy of the probability distribution of the voxel's class label. If the class label derived from CT data for a particular voxel has more certainty than that derived from PET data, the corresponding RDI will have a higher value. We applied the RDI matrix to balance adaptively the contributions of PET and CT data to segmentation of brain PET-CT images on a voxel-by-voxel basis, with the aim to give the modality with higher discriminatory power a larger weight. The resultant segmentation approach is distinguished from traditional approaches by its innovative and adaptive use of the dual-modality information. We compared our approach to the non-RDI version and two commonly used PET-only based segmentation algorithms for simulation and clinical data. Our results show that the RDI matrix markedly improved PET-CT image segmentation.

  13. Repurposing the Microsoft Kinect for Windows v2 for external head motion tracking for brain PET

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noonan, P. J.; Howard, J.; Hallett, W. A.; Gunn, R. N.

    2015-11-01

    Medical imaging systems such as those used in positron emission tomography (PET) are capable of spatial resolutions that enable the imaging of small, functionally important brain structures. However, the quality of data from PET brain studies is often limited by subject motion during acquisition. This is particularly challenging for patients with neurological disorders or with dynamic research studies that can last 90 min or more. Restraining head movement during the scan does not eliminate motion entirely and can be unpleasant for the subject. Head motion can be detected and measured using a variety of techniques that either use the PET data itself or an external tracking system. Advances in computer vision arising from the video gaming industry could offer significant benefits when re-purposed for medical applications. A method for measuring rigid body type head motion using the Microsoft Kinect v2 is described with results presenting  ⩽0.5 mm spatial accuracy. Motion data is measured in real-time at 30 Hz using the KinectFusion algorithm. Non-rigid motion is detected using the residual alignment energy data of the KinectFusion algorithm allowing for unreliable motion to be discarded. Motion data is aligned to PET listmode data using injected pulse sequences into the PET/CT gantry allowing for correction of rigid body motion. Pilot data from a clinical dynamic PET/CT examination is shown.

  14. Advances in PET imaging of P-glycoprotein function at the blood-brain barrier.

    PubMed

    Syvänen, Stina; Eriksson, Jonas

    2013-02-20

    Efflux transporter P-glycoprotein (P-gp) at the blood-brain barrier (BBB) restricts substrate compounds from entering the brain and may thus contribute to pharmacoresistance observed in patient groups with refractory epilepsy and HIV. Altered P-gp function has also been implicated in neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease. Positron emission tomography (PET), a molecular imaging modality, has become a promising method to study the role of P-gp at the BBB. The first PET study of P-gp function was conducted in 1998, and during the past 15 years two main categories of P-gp PET tracers have been investigated: tracers that are substrates of P-gp efflux and tracers that are inhibitors of P-gp function. PET, as a noninvasive imaging technique, allows translational research. Examples of this are preclinical investigations of P-gp function before and after administering P-gp modulating drugs, investigations in various animal and disease models, and clinical investigations regarding disease and aging. The objective of the present review is to give an overview of available PET radiotracers for studies of P-gp and to discuss how such studies can be designed. Further, the review summarizes results from PET studies of P-gp function in different central nervous system disorders.

  15. Repurposing the Microsoft Kinect for Windows v2 for external head motion tracking for brain PET.

    PubMed

    Noonan, P J; Howard, J; Hallett, W A; Gunn, R N

    2015-11-21

    Medical imaging systems such as those used in positron emission tomography (PET) are capable of spatial resolutions that enable the imaging of small, functionally important brain structures. However, the quality of data from PET brain studies is often limited by subject motion during acquisition. This is particularly challenging for patients with neurological disorders or with dynamic research studies that can last 90 min or more. Restraining head movement during the scan does not eliminate motion entirely and can be unpleasant for the subject. Head motion can be detected and measured using a variety of techniques that either use the PET data itself or an external tracking system. Advances in computer vision arising from the video gaming industry could offer significant benefits when re-purposed for medical applications. A method for measuring rigid body type head motion using the Microsoft Kinect v2 is described with results presenting  ⩽0.5 mm spatial accuracy. Motion data is measured in real-time at 30 Hz using the KinectFusion algorithm. Non-rigid motion is detected using the residual alignment energy data of the KinectFusion algorithm allowing for unreliable motion to be discarded. Motion data is aligned to PET listmode data using injected pulse sequences into the PET/CT gantry allowing for correction of rigid body motion. Pilot data from a clinical dynamic PET/CT examination is shown.

  16. PET Imaging of Tau Deposition in the Aging Human Brain

    PubMed Central

    Schonhaut, Daniel R.; O’Neil, James P.; Janabi, Mustafa; Ossenkoppele, Rik; Baker, Suzanne L.; Vogel, Jacob W.; Faria, Jamie; Schwimmer, Henry D.; Rabinovici, Gil D.; Jagust, William J.

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY Tau pathology is a hallmark of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) but also occurs in normal cognitive aging. Using the tau PET agent 18F-AV-1451, we examined retention patterns in cognitively normal older people in relation to young controls and AD patients. Age and β-amyloid (measured using PiB PET) were differentially associated with tau tracer retention in healthy aging. Older age was related to increased tracer retention in regions of the medial temporal lobe, which predicted worse episodic memory performance. PET detection of tau in other isocortical regions required the presence of cortical β-amyloid, and was associated with decline in global cognition. Furthermore, patterns of tracer retention corresponded well with Braak staging of neurofibrillary tau pathology. The present study defined patterns of tau tracer retention in normal aging in relation to age, cognition, and β-amyloid deposition. PMID:26938442

  17. Mapping {sup 15}O Production Rate for Proton Therapy Verification

    SciTech Connect

    Grogg, Kira; Alpert, Nathaniel M.; Zhu, Xuping; Min, Chul Hee; Testa, Mauro; Winey, Brian; Normandin, Marc D.; Shih, Helen A.; Paganetti, Harald; Bortfeld, Thomas; El Fakhri, Georges

    2015-06-01

    Purpose: This work was a proof-of-principle study for the evaluation of oxygen-15 ({sup 15}O) production as an imaging target through the use of positron emission tomography (PET), to improve verification of proton treatment plans and to study the effects of perfusion. Methods and Materials: Dynamic PET measurements of irradiation-produced isotopes were made for a phantom and rabbit thigh muscles. The rabbit muscle was irradiated and imaged under both live and dead conditions. A differential equation was fitted to phantom and in vivo data, yielding estimates of {sup 15}O production and clearance rates, which were compared to live versus dead rates for the rabbit and to Monte Carlo predictions. Results: PET clearance rates agreed with decay constants of the dominant radionuclide species in 3 different phantom materials. In 2 oxygen-rich materials, the ratio of {sup 15}O production rates agreed with the expected ratio. In the dead rabbit thighs, the dynamic PET concentration histories were accurately described using {sup 15}O decay constant, whereas the live thigh activity decayed faster. Most importantly, the {sup 15}O production rates agreed within 2% (P>.5) between conditions. Conclusions: We developed a new method for quantitative measurement of {sup 15}O production and clearance rates in the period immediately following proton therapy. Measurements in the phantom and rabbits were well described in terms of {sup 15}O production and clearance rates, plus a correction for other isotopes. These proof-of-principle results support the feasibility of detailed verification of proton therapy treatment delivery. In addition, {sup 15}O clearance rates may be useful in monitoring permeability changes due to therapy.

  18. ACR-ASNR Practice Parameter for Brain PET/CT Imaging Dementia.

    PubMed

    Frey, Kirk A; Lodge, Martin A; Meltzer, Carolyn Cidis; Peller, Patrick J; Wong, Terence Z; Hess, Christopher P; Petrella, Jeffrey R; Sair, Haris I; Subramaniam, Rathan M

    2016-02-01

    This practice parameter is for both FDG and amyloid brain PET or PET/computed tomography (CT) for patients with cognitive decline, and has been developed collaboratively by the American College of Radiology (ACR) and the American Society for Neuroradiology (ASNR). It is estimated that the number of people with dementia, 36.5 million worldwide in 2010, will increase to 65.7 million in 2030 and to 115 million in 2050. Four primary neurodegenerative etiologies of dementia have been defined: Alzheimer disease (AD), vascular dementia, frontotemporal dementia (FTD), and dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB). Alzheimer disease is the most common form of dementia, accounting for approximately 60%-80% of all cases. Indications for FDG and amyloid brain PET and qualifications for personnel are discussed in this practice parameter.

  19. Mapping human brain fatty acid amide hydrolase activity with PET

    PubMed Central

    Rusjan, Pablo M; Wilson, Alan A; Mizrahi, Romina; Boileau, Isabelle; Chavez, Sofia E; Lobaugh, Nancy J; Kish, Stephen J; Houle, Sylvain; Tong, Junchao

    2013-01-01

    Endocannabinoid tone has recently been implicated in a number of prevalent neuropsychiatric conditions. [11C]CURB is the first available positron emission tomography (PET) radiotracer for imaging fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH), the enzyme which metabolizes the prominent endocannabinoid anandamide. Here, we sought to determine the most suitable kinetic modeling approach for quantifying [11C]CURB that binds selectively to FAAH. Six healthy volunteers were scanned with arterial blood sampling for 90 minutes. Kinetic parameters were estimated regionally using a one-tissue compartment model (TCM), a 2-TCM with and without irreversible trapping, and an irreversible 3-TCM. The 2-TCM with irreversible trapping provided the best identifiability of PET outcome measures among the approaches studied (coefficient of variation (COV) of the net influx constant Ki and the composite parameter λk3 (λ=K1/k2) <5%, and COV(k3)<10%). Reducing scan time to 60 minutes did not compromise the identifiability of rate constants. Arterial spin labeling measures of regional cerebral blood flow were only slightly correlated with Ki, but not with k3 or λk3. Our data suggest that λk3 is sensitive to changes in FAAH activity, therefore, optimal for PET quantification of FAAH activities with [11C]CURB. Simulations showed that [11C]CURB binding in healthy subjects is far from a flow-limited uptake. PMID:23211960

  20. Validation of true low-dose (18)F-FDG PET of the brain.

    PubMed

    Fällmar, David; Lilja, Johan; Kilander, Lena; Danfors, Torsten; Lubberink, Mark; Larsson, Elna-Marie; Sörensen, Jens

    2016-01-01

    The dosage of (18)F-FDG must be sufficient to ensure adequate PET image quality. For younger patients and research controls, the lowest possible radiation dose should be used. The purpose of this study was to find a protocol for FDG-PET of the brain with reduced radiation dose and preserved quantitative characteristics. Eight patients with neurodegenerative disorders and nine controls (n=17) underwent FDG-PET/CT twice on separate occasions, first with normal-dose (3 MBq/kg), and second with low-dose (0.75 MBq/kg, 25% of the original). Five additional controls (total n=22) underwent FDG-PET twice, using normal-dose and ultra-low-dose (0.3 MBq/kg, 10% of original). All subjects underwent MRI. Ten-minute summation images were spatially normalized and intensity normalized. Regional standard uptake value ratios (SUV-r) were calculated using an automated atlas. SUV-r values from the normal- and low-dose images were compared pairwise. No clinically significant bias was found in any of the three groups. The mean absolute difference in regional SUV-r values was 0.015 (1.32%) in controls and 0.019 (1.67%) in patients. The ultra-low-dose protocol produced a slightly higher mean difference of 0.023 (2.10%). The main conclusion is that 0.75 MBq/kg (56 MBq for a 75-kg subject) is a sufficient FDG dose for evaluating regional SUV-ratios in brain PET scans in adults with or without neurodegenerative disease, resulting in a reduction of total PET/CT effective dose from 4.54 to 1.15 mSv. The ultra-low-dose (0.5 mSv) could be useful in research studies requiring serial PET in healthy controls or children.

  1. The MINDView brain PET detector, feasibility study based on SiPM arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González, Antonio J.; Majewski, Stan; Sánchez, Filomeno; Aussenhofer, Sebastian; Aguilar, Albert; Conde, Pablo; Hernández, Liczandro; Vidal, Luis F.; Pani, Roberto; Bettiol, Marco; Fabbri, Andrea; Bert, Julien; Visvikis, Dimitris; Jackson, Carl; Murphy, John; O'Neill, Kevin; Benlloch, Jose M.

    2016-05-01

    The Multimodal Imaging of Neurological Disorders (MINDView) project aims to develop a dedicated brain Positron Emission Tomography (PET) scanner with sufficient resolution and sensitivity to visualize neurotransmitter pathways and their disruptions in mental disorders for diagnosis and follow-up treatment. The PET system should be compact and fully compatible with a Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) device in order to allow its operation as a PET brain insert in a hybrid imaging setup with most MRI scanners. The proposed design will enable the currently-installed MRI base to be easily upgraded to PET/MRI systems. The current design for the PET insert consists of a 3-ring configuration with 20 modules per ring and an axial field of view of ~15 cm and a geometrical aperture of ~33 cm in diameter. When coupled to the new head Radio Frequency (RF) coil, the inner usable diameter of the complete PET-RF coil insert is reduced to 26 cm. Two scintillator configurations have been tested, namely a 3-layer staggered array of LYSO with 1.5 mm pixel size, with 35×35 elements (6 mm thickness each) and a black-painted monolithic LYSO block also covering about 50×50 mm2 active area with 20 mm thickness. Laboratory test results associated with the current MINDView PET module concept are presented in terms of key parameters' optimization, such as spatial and energy resolution, sensitivity and Depth of Interaction (DOI) capability. It was possible to resolve all pixel elements from the three scintillator layers with energy resolutions as good as 10%. The monolithic scintillator showed average detector resolutions varying from 3.5 mm in the entrance layer to better than 1.5 mm near the photosensor, with average energy resolutions of about 17%.

  2. Validation of true low-dose 18F-FDG PET of the brain

    PubMed Central

    Fällmar, David; Lilja, Johan; Kilander, Lena; Danfors, Torsten; Lubberink, Mark; Larsson, Elna-Marie; Sörensen, Jens

    2016-01-01

    The dosage of 18F-FDG must be sufficient to ensure adequate PET image quality. For younger patients and research controls, the lowest possible radiation dose should be used. The purpose of this study was to find a protocol for FDG-PET of the brain with reduced radiation dose and preserved quantitative characteristics. Eight patients with neurodegenerative disorders and nine controls (n=17) underwent FDG-PET/CT twice on separate occasions, first with normal-dose (3 MBq/kg), and second with low-dose (0.75 MBq/kg, 25% of the original). Five additional controls (total n=22) underwent FDG-PET twice, using normal-dose and ultra-low-dose (0.3 MBq/kg, 10% of original). All subjects underwent MRI. Ten-minute summation images were spatially normalized and intensity normalized. Regional standard uptake value ratios (SUV-r) were calculated using an automated atlas. SUV-r values from the normal- and low-dose images were compared pairwise. No clinically significant bias was found in any of the three groups. The mean absolute difference in regional SUV-r values was 0.015 (1.32%) in controls and 0.019 (1.67%) in patients. The ultra-low-dose protocol produced a slightly higher mean difference of 0.023 (2.10%). The main conclusion is that 0.75 MBq/kg (56 MBq for a 75-kg subject) is a sufficient FDG dose for evaluating regional SUV-ratios in brain PET scans in adults with or without neurodegenerative disease, resulting in a reduction of total PET/CT effective dose from 4.54 to 1.15 mSv. The ultra-low-dose (0.5 mSv) could be useful in research studies requiring serial PET in healthy controls or children. PMID:27766185

  3. Scatter correction for large non-human primate brain imaging using microPET

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naidoo-Variawa, S.; Lehnert, W.; Banati, R. B.; Meikle, S. R.

    2011-04-01

    The baboon is well suited to pre-clinical evaluation of novel radioligands for positron emission tomography (PET). We have previously demonstrated the feasibility of using a high resolution animal PET scanner for this application in the baboon brain. However, the non-homogenous distribution of tissue density within the head may give rise to photon scattering effects that reduce contrast and compromise quantitative accuracy. In this study, we investigated the magnitude and distribution of scatter contributing to the final reconstructed image and its variability throughout the baboon brain using phantoms and Monte Carlo simulated data. The scatter fraction is measured up to 36% at the centre of the brain for a wide energy window (350-650 keV) and 19% for a narrow (450-650 keV) window. We observed less than 3% variation in the scatter fraction throughout the brain and found that scattered events arising from radioactivity outside the field of view contribute less than 1% of measured coincidences. In a contrast phantom, scatter and attenuation correction improved contrast recovery compared with attenuation correction on its own and reduced bias to less than 10% at the expense of the reduced signal-to-noise ratio. We conclude that scatter correction is a necessary step for ensuring high quality measurements of the radiotracer distribution in the baboon brain with a microPET scanner, while it is not necessary to model out of field of view scatter or a spatially variant scatter function.

  4. Short-Term Practice Effects and Brain Hypometabolism: Preliminary Data from an FDG PET Study.

    PubMed

    Duff, Kevin; Horn, Kevin P; Foster, Norman L; Hoffman, John M

    2015-05-01

    Practice effects are improvements in cognitive test scores due to repeated exposure to the same tests. Typically viewed as error, short-term practice effects have been shown to provide valuable clinical information about diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment outcomes in older patients with mild cognitive impairments. This study examined short-term practice effects across one week and brain hypometabolism on fluoro-2-deoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) in 25 older adults (15 intact, 10 Mild Cognitive Impairment). Averaged cerebral brain metabolism on FDG PET was correlated with multiple cognitive scores at baseline in those with Mild Cognitive Impairment, and short-term practice effects accounted for additional variance in these same subjects. The relationship between brain metabolism and cognition (either at baseline or practice effects) was minimal in the intact individuals. Although needing replication in larger samples, short-term practice effects on tests of executive functioning and memory may provide valuable information about biomarkers of Alzheimer's disease.

  5. Response to Deep Brain Stimulation in Three Brain Targets with Implications in Mental Disorders: A PET Study in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Casquero-Veiga, Marta; Hadar, Ravit; Pascau, Javier; Winter, Christine; Desco, Manuel; Soto-Montenegro, María Luisa

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate metabolic changes in brain networks by deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), nucleus accumbens (NAcc) and dorsomedial thalamus (DM) using positron emission tomography (PET) in naïve rats. Methods 43 male Wistar rats underwent stereotactic surgery and concentric bipolar platinum-iridium electrodes were bilaterally implanted into one of the three brain sites. [18F]-fluoro-2-deoxy-glucose-PET (18FDG-PET) and computed tomography (CT) scans were performed at the 7th (without DBS) and 9th day (with DBS) after surgery. Stimulation period matched tracer uptake period. Images were acquired with a small-animal PET-CT scanner. Differences in glucose uptake between groups were assessed with Statistical Parametric Mapping. Results DBS induced site-specific metabolic changes, although a common increased metabolic activity in the piriform cortex was found for the three brain targets. mPFC-DBS increased metabolic activity in the striatum, temporal and amygdala, and reduced it in the cerebellum, brainstem (BS) and periaqueductal gray matter (PAG). NAcc-DBS increased metabolic activity in the subiculum and olfactory bulb, and decreased it in the BS, PAG, septum and hypothalamus. DM-DBS increased metabolic activity in the striatum, NAcc and thalamus and decreased it in the temporal and cingulate cortex. Conclusions DBS induced significant changes in 18FDG uptake in brain regions associated with the basal ganglia-thalamo-cortical circuitry. Stimulation of mPFC, NAcc and DM induced different patterns of 18FDG uptake despite interacting with the same circuitries. This may have important implications to DBS research suggesting individualized target selection according to specific neural modulatory requirements. PMID:28033356

  6. Errors in MR-based attenuation correction for brain imaging with PET/MR scanners

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rota Kops, Elena; Herzog, Hans

    2013-02-01

    AimAttenuation correction of PET data acquired by hybrid MR/PET scanners remains a challenge, even if several methods for brain and whole-body measurements have been developed recently. A template-based attenuation correction for brain imaging proposed by our group is easy to handle and delivers reliable attenuation maps in a short time. However, some potential error sources are analyzed in this study. We investigated the choice of template reference head among all the available data (error A), and possible skull anomalies of the specific patient, such as discontinuities due to surgery (error B). Materials and methodsAn anatomical MR measurement and a 2-bed-position transmission scan covering the whole head and neck region were performed in eight normal subjects (4 females, 4 males). Error A: Taking alternatively one of the eight heads as reference, eight different templates were created by nonlinearly registering the images to the reference and calculating the average. Eight patients (4 females, 4 males; 4 with brain lesions, 4 w/o brain lesions) were measured in the Siemens BrainPET/MR scanner. The eight templates were used to generate the patients' attenuation maps required for reconstruction. ROI and VOI atlas-based comparisons were performed employing all the reconstructed images. Error B: CT-based attenuation maps of two volunteers were manipulated by manually inserting several skull lesions and filling a nasal cavity. The corresponding attenuation coefficients were substituted with the water's coefficient (0.096/cm). ResultsError A: The mean SUVs over the eight templates pairs for all eight patients and all VOIs did not differ significantly one from each other. Standard deviations up to 1.24% were found. Error B: After reconstruction of the volunteers' BrainPET data with the CT-based attenuation maps without and with skull anomalies, a VOI-atlas analysis was performed revealing very little influence of the skull lesions (less than 3%), while the filled nasal

  7. Quantification of F-18 FDG PET images in temporal lobe epilepsy patients using probabilistic brain atlas.

    PubMed

    Kang, K W; Lee, D S; Cho, J H; Lee, J S; Yeo, J S; Lee, S K; Chung, J K; Lee, M C

    2001-07-01

    A probabilistic atlas of the human brain (Statistical Probabilistic Anatomical Maps: SPAM) was developed by the international consortium for brain mapping (ICBM). It is a good frame for calculating volume of interest (VOI) in many fields of brain images. After calculating the counts in VOI using the product of probability of SPAM images and counts in FDG images, asymmetric indices (AI) were calculated and used for finding epileptogenic zones in mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (mTLE). FDG PET images from 18 surgically confirmed mTLE patients and 22 age-matched controls were spatially normalized to the average brain MRI template of ICBM. Counts from normalized PET images were multiplied with the probability of 12 VOIs from SPAM images in both temporal lobes. Finally AI were calculated on each pair of VOIs, and compared with visual assessment. If AI of mTLE patients were not within 2.9 standard deviation from those of normal control group (P < 0.008; Bonferroni correction for P < 0.05), epileptogenic zones were considered to be found successfully. The counts of VOIs in the normal control group were symmetric (AI < 4.3%, paired t test P > 0.05) except for those of the inferior temporal gyrus (P < 0.001). By AIs in six pairs of VOIs, PET in mTLE had deficit on one side (P < 0.05). Lateralization was correct in only 14/18 of patients by AI, but 17/18 were consistent with visual inspection. In three patients with normal AI, PET images were symmetric on visual inspection. The asymmetric indices obtained by taking the product of the statistical probability anatomical map and FDG PET, correlated well with visual assessment in mTLE patients. SPAM is useful for the quantification of VOIs in functional images.

  8. Continuous Scintillator Detector Blocks for Simultaneous Pet-Mr Imaging of the Human Brain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rato Mendes, Pedro

    2010-04-01

    Continuous scintillator detector blocks have several advantages over pixelated designs, presenting a larger active volume and a lower cost with comparable or better energy and spatial resolutions. In this paper we describe the operation of continuous detector blocks for positron emission tomography (PET) and their suitability for multimodality imaging operating inside a magnetic resonance (MR) scanner. This detector technology is being used on a full-scale clinical scanner for human brain PET studies presently under development at Ciemat. Results will be presented on the laboratory characterization of monolithic scintillators coupled to APD matrices with ASIC readout, including images of point sources from a prototype dual-head demonstrator illustrating the potential of continuous scintillator detector blocks for high-resolution PET-MR imaging.

  9. Structured light 3D tracking system for measuring motions in PET brain imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olesen, Oline V.; Jørgensen, Morten R.; Paulsen, Rasmus R.; Højgaard, Liselotte; Roed, Bjarne; Larsen, Rasmus

    2010-02-01

    Patient motion during scanning deteriorates image quality, especially for high resolution PET scanners. A new proposal for a 3D head tracking system for motion correction in high resolution PET brain imaging is set up and demonstrated. A prototype tracking system based on structured light with a DLP projector and a CCD camera is set up on a model of the High Resolution Research Tomograph (HRRT). Methods to reconstruct 3D point clouds of simple surfaces based on phase-shifting interferometry (PSI) are demonstrated. The projector and camera are calibrated using a simple stereo vision procedure where the projector is treated as a camera. Additionally, the surface reconstructions are corrected for the non-linear projector output prior to image capture. The results are convincing and a first step toward a fully automated tracking system for measuring head motions in PET imaging.

  10. PET study of 11C-acetoacetate kinetics in rat brain during dietary treatments affecting ketosis.

    PubMed

    Bentourkia, M'hamed; Tremblay, Sébastien; Pifferi, Fabien; Rousseau, Jacques; Lecomte, Roger; Cunnane, Stephen

    2009-04-01

    Normally, the brain's fuel is glucose, but during fasting it increasingly relies on ketones (beta-hydroxybutyrate, acetoacetate, and acetone) produced in liver mitochondria from fatty acid beta-oxidation. Although moderately raised blood ketones produced on a very high fat ketogenic diet have important clinical effects on the brain, including reducing seizures, ketone metabolism by the brain is still poorly understood. The aim of the present work was to assess brain uptake of carbon-11-labeled acetoacetate (11C-acetoacetate) by positron emission tomography (PET) imaging in the intact, living rat. To vary plasma ketones, we used three dietary conditions: high carbohydrate control diet (low plasma ketones), fat-rich ketogenic diet (raised plasma ketones), and 48-h fasting (raised plasma ketones). 11C-acetoacetate metabolism was measured in the brain, heart, and tissue in the mouth area. Using 11C-acetoacetate and small animal PET imaging, we have noninvasively quantified an approximately seven- to eightfold enhanced brain uptake of ketones on a ketogenic diet or during fasting. This opens up an opportunity to study brain ketone metabolism in humans.

  11. FDG-PET imaging in mild traumatic brain injury: a critical review.

    PubMed

    Byrnes, Kimberly R; Wilson, Colin M; Brabazon, Fiona; von Leden, Ramona; Jurgens, Jennifer S; Oakes, Terrence R; Selwyn, Reed G

    2014-01-09

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) affects an estimated 1.7 million people in the United States and is a contributing factor to one third of all injury related deaths annually. According to the CDC, approximately 75% of all reported TBIs are concussions or considered mild in form, although the number of unreported mild TBIs (mTBI) and patients not seeking medical attention is unknown. Currently, classification of mTBI or concussion is a clinical assessment since diagnostic imaging is typically inconclusive due to subtle, obscure, or absent changes in anatomical or physiological parameters measured using standard magnetic resonance (MR) or computed tomography (CT) imaging protocols. Molecular imaging techniques that examine functional processes within the brain, such as measurement of glucose uptake and metabolism using [(18)F]fluorodeoxyglucose and positron emission tomography (FDG-PET), have the ability to detect changes after mTBI. Recent technological improvements in the resolution of PET systems, the integration of PET with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and the availability of normal healthy human databases and commercial image analysis software contribute to the growing use of molecular imaging in basic science research and advances in clinical imaging. This review will discuss the technological considerations and limitations of FDG-PET, including differentiation between glucose uptake and glucose metabolism and the significance of these measurements. In addition, the current state of FDG-PET imaging in assessing mTBI in clinical and preclinical research will be considered. Finally, this review will provide insight into potential critical data elements and recommended standardization to improve the application of FDG-PET to mTBI research and clinical practice.

  12. FDG-PET imaging in mild traumatic brain injury: a critical review

    PubMed Central

    Byrnes, Kimberly R.; Wilson, Colin M.; Brabazon, Fiona; von Leden, Ramona; Jurgens, Jennifer S.; Oakes, Terrence R.; Selwyn, Reed G.

    2013-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) affects an estimated 1.7 million people in the United States and is a contributing factor to one third of all injury related deaths annually. According to the CDC, approximately 75% of all reported TBIs are concussions or considered mild in form, although the number of unreported mild TBIs (mTBI) and patients not seeking medical attention is unknown. Currently, classification of mTBI or concussion is a clinical assessment since diagnostic imaging is typically inconclusive due to subtle, obscure, or absent changes in anatomical or physiological parameters measured using standard magnetic resonance (MR) or computed tomography (CT) imaging protocols. Molecular imaging techniques that examine functional processes within the brain, such as measurement of glucose uptake and metabolism using [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose and positron emission tomography (FDG-PET), have the ability to detect changes after mTBI. Recent technological improvements in the resolution of PET systems, the integration of PET with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and the availability of normal healthy human databases and commercial image analysis software contribute to the growing use of molecular imaging in basic science research and advances in clinical imaging. This review will discuss the technological considerations and limitations of FDG-PET, including differentiation between glucose uptake and glucose metabolism and the significance of these measurements. In addition, the current state of FDG-PET imaging in assessing mTBI in clinical and preclinical research will be considered. Finally, this review will provide insight into potential critical data elements and recommended standardization to improve the application of FDG-PET to mTBI research and clinical practice. PMID:24409143

  13. Development and use of a kinetic FDG-PET dataset simulated from the MNI standard brain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schottlander, David; Guimond, Alexandre; Pan, Xiao-Bo; Brady, Michael; Declerck, Jérôme; Collins, Louis; Evans, Alan C.; Reilhac, Anthonin

    2006-03-01

    Simulated data is an important tool for evaluation of reconstruction and image processing algorithms in the frequent absence of ground truth, in-vivo data from living subjects. This is especially true in the case of dynamic PET studies, in which counting statistics of the volume can vary widely over the time-course of the acquisition. Realistic simulated data-sets which model anatomy and physiology, and make explicit the spatial and temporal image acquisition characteristics, facilitate experimentation with a wide range of the conditions anticipated in practice, and which can severely challenge algorithm performance and reliability. As a first example, we have developed a realistic dynamic FDG-PET data-set using the PET-SORTEO Monte Carlo simulation code and the MNI digital brain phantom. The phantom is a three-dimensional data-set that defines the spatial distribution of different tissues. Time activity curves were calculated using an impulse response function specified by generally accepted rate constants, convolved with an input function obtained by blood sampling, and assigned to grey and white matter tissue regions. We created a dynamic PET study using PET-SORTEO configured to simulate an ECAT Exact HR+. The resulting sinograms were reconstructed with all corrections, using variations of FBP and OSEM. Having constructed the dynamic PET data-sets, we used them to evaluate the performance of intensity-based registration as part of a tool for quantifying hyper/hypo perfusion with particular application to analysis of brain dementia scans, and a study of the stability of kinetic parameter estimation.

  14. Integrated modeling of PET and DTI information based on conformal brain mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Guangyu; Xi, Yongjian; Heckenburg, Greg; Duan, Ye; Hua, Jing; Gu, Xiangfeng

    2006-03-01

    Recent advances in imaging technologies, such as Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), Positron Emission Tomography (PET) and Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) have accelerated brain research in many aspects. In order to better understand the synergy of the many processes involved in normal brain function, integrated modeling and analysis of MRI, PET, and DTI is highly desirable. Unfortunately, the current state-of-art computational tools fall short in offering a comprehensive computational framework that is accurate and mathematically rigorous. In this paper we present a framework which is based on conformal parameterization of a brain from high-resolution structural MRI data to a canonical spherical domain. This model allows natural integration of information from co-registered PET as well as DTI data and lays the foundation for a quantitative analysis of the relationship between diverse data sets. Consequently, the system can be designed to provide a software environment able to facilitate statistical detection of abnormal functional brain patterns in patients with a large number of neurological disorders.

  15. In vivo characterization of chronic traumatic encephalopathy using [F-18]FDDNP PET brain imaging.

    PubMed

    Barrio, Jorge R; Small, Gary W; Wong, Koon-Pong; Huang, Sung-Cheng; Liu, Jie; Merrill, David A; Giza, Christopher C; Fitzsimmons, Robert P; Omalu, Bennet; Bailes, Julian; Kepe, Vladimir

    2015-04-21

    Chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) is an acquired primary tauopathy with a variety of cognitive, behavioral, and motor symptoms linked to cumulative brain damage sustained from single, episodic, or repetitive traumatic brain injury (TBI). No definitive clinical diagnosis for this condition exists. In this work, we used [F-18]FDDNP PET to detect brain patterns of neuropathology distribution in retired professional American football players with suspected CTE (n = 14) and compared results with those of cognitively intact controls (n = 28) and patients with Alzheimer's dementia (AD) (n = 24), a disease that has been cognitively associated with CTE. [F-18]FDDNP PET imaging results in the retired players suggested the presence of neuropathological patterns consistent with models of concussion wherein brainstem white matter tracts undergo early axonal damage and cumulative axonal injuries along subcortical, limbic, and cortical brain circuitries supporting mood, emotions, and behavior. This deposition pattern is distinctively different from the progressive pattern of neuropathology [paired helical filament (PHF)-tau and amyloid-β] in AD, which typically begins in the medial temporal lobe progressing along the cortical default mode network, with no or minimal involvement of subcortical structures. This particular [F-18]FDDNP PET imaging pattern in cases of suspected CTE also is primarily consistent with PHF-tau distribution observed at autopsy in subjects with a history of mild TBI and autopsy-confirmed diagnosis of CTE.

  16. In vivo characterization of chronic traumatic encephalopathy using [F-18]FDDNP PET brain imaging

    PubMed Central

    Barrio, Jorge R.; Small, Gary W.; Wong, Koon-Pong; Huang, Sung-Cheng; Liu, Jie; Merrill, David A.; Giza, Christopher C.; Fitzsimmons, Robert P.; Omalu, Bennet; Bailes, Julian; Kepe, Vladimir

    2015-01-01

    Chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) is an acquired primary tauopathy with a variety of cognitive, behavioral, and motor symptoms linked to cumulative brain damage sustained from single, episodic, or repetitive traumatic brain injury (TBI). No definitive clinical diagnosis for this condition exists. In this work, we used [F-18]FDDNP PET to detect brain patterns of neuropathology distribution in retired professional American football players with suspected CTE (n = 14) and compared results with those of cognitively intact controls (n = 28) and patients with Alzheimer’s dementia (AD) (n = 24), a disease that has been cognitively associated with CTE. [F-18]FDDNP PET imaging results in the retired players suggested the presence of neuropathological patterns consistent with models of concussion wherein brainstem white matter tracts undergo early axonal damage and cumulative axonal injuries along subcortical, limbic, and cortical brain circuitries supporting mood, emotions, and behavior. This deposition pattern is distinctively different from the progressive pattern of neuropathology [paired helical filament (PHF)-tau and amyloid-β] in AD, which typically begins in the medial temporal lobe progressing along the cortical default mode network, with no or minimal involvement of subcortical structures. This particular [F-18]FDDNP PET imaging pattern in cases of suspected CTE also is primarily consistent with PHF-tau distribution observed at autopsy in subjects with a history of mild TBI and autopsy-confirmed diagnosis of CTE. PMID:25848027

  17. Iodine-122-labeled amphetamine derivative with potential for PET brain blood-flow studies

    SciTech Connect

    Mathis, C.A.; Sargent, T. 3d.; Shulgin, A.T.

    1985-11-01

    The positron emitter SSI (t1/2 3.6 min) was collected from a xenon- SS/iodine- SS ( SSXe/ SSI) generator and incorporated into an amphetamine analog, 2,4-dimethoxy-N,N-dimethyl-5-( SSI)iodophenylisopropylamine (5-( SSI)-2,4-DNNA). The remote synthesis was achieved in 3 min with a 50% radioincorporation yield and a product radiopurity of greater than 98%. 5-( SSI)-2,4-DNNA was injected into a beagle dog and a brain section imaged with positron emission tomography (PET). The uptake and retention of 5-( SSI)-2,4-DNNA was compared to that of YSRb in the same animal. Dynamic PET activity data were obtained 0-20 min postinjection of 5-( SSI)-2,4-DNNA and showed rapid uptake by brain and good cerebral/extracerebral tissue distinction. A whole-body scan of a dog was also obtained with 5-123I-2,4-DNNA showing uptake in brain, lung, and other body organs. The feasibility of incorporating SSI into an extracted brain perfusion agent for use with PET is demonstrated.

  18. Evoked Potentials and Neuropsychological Tests Validate Positron Emission Topography (PET) Brain Metabolism in Cognitively Impaired Patients

    PubMed Central

    Braverman, Eric R.; Blum, Kenneth; Damle, Uma J.; Kerner, Mallory; Dushaj, Kristina; Oscar-Berman, Marlene

    2013-01-01

    Fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) Positron Emission Topography (PET) brain hypometabolism (HM) correlates with diminished cognitive capacity and risk of developing dementia. However, because clinical utility of PET is limited by cost, we sought to determine whether a less costly electrophysiological measure, the P300 evoked potential, in combination with neuropsychological test performance, would validate PET HM in neuropsychiatric patients. We found that patients with amnestic and non-amnestic cognitive impairment and HM (n = 43) evidenced significantly reduced P300 amplitudes, delayed latencies, and neuropsychological deficits, compared to patients with normal brain metabolism (NM; n = 187). Data from patients with missing cognitive test scores (n = 57) were removed from the final sample, and logistic regression modeling was performed on the modified sample (n = 173, p = .000004). The logistic regression modeling, based on P300 and neuropsychological measures, was used to validate membership in the HM vs. NM groups. It showed classification validation in 13/25 HM subjects (52.0%) and in 125/148 NM subjects (84.5%), correlating with total classification accuracy of 79.8%. In this paper, abnormal P300 evoked potentials coupled with cognitive test impairment validates brain metabolism and mild/moderate cognitive impairment (MCI). To this end, we cautiously propose incorporating electrophysiological and neuropsychological assessments as cost-effective brain metabolism and MCI indicators in primary care. Final interpretation of these results must await required additional studies confirming these interesting results. PMID:23526928

  19. A Factor-Image Framework to Quantification of Brain Receptor Dynamic PET Studies

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Z. Jane; Szabo, Zsolt; Lei, Peng; Varga, József; Liu, K. J. Ray

    2007-01-01

    The positron emission tomography (PET) imaging technique enables the measurement of receptor distribution or neurotransmitter release in the living brain and the changes of the distribution with time and thus allows quantification of binding sites as well as the affinity of a radioligand. However, quantification of receptor binding studies obtained with PET is complicated by tissue heterogeneity in the sampling image elements (i.e., voxels, pixels). This effect is caused by a limited spatial resolution of the PET scanner. Spatial heterogeneity is often essential in understanding the underlying receptor binding process. Tracer kinetic modeling also often requires an intrusive collection of arterial blood samples. In this paper, we propose a likelihood-based framework in the voxel domain for quantitative imaging with or without the blood sampling of the input function. Radioligand kinetic parameters are estimated together with the input function. The parameters are initialized by a subspace-based algorithm and further refined by an iterative likelihood-based estimation procedure. The performance of the proposed scheme is examined by simulations. The results show that the proposed scheme provides reliable estimation of factor time-activity curves (TACs) and the underlying parametric images. A good match is noted between the result of the proposed approach and that of the Logan plot. Real brain PET data are also examined, and good performance is observed in determining the TACs and the underlying factor images. PMID:18769527

  20. PET imaging of neurogenic activity in the adult brain: Toward in vivo imaging of human neurogenesis.

    PubMed

    Tamura, Yasuhisa; Kataoka, Yosky

    2017-01-01

    Neural stem cells are present in 2 neurogenic regions, the subventricular zone (SVZ) and the subgranular zone (SGZ) of the hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG), and continue to generate new neurons throughout life. Adult hippocampal neurogenesis is linked to a variety of psychiatric disorders such as depression and anxiety, and to the therapeutic effects of antidepressants, as well as learning and memory. In vivo imaging for hippocampal neurogenic activity may be used to diagnose psychiatric disorders and evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of antidepressants. However, these imaging techniques remain to be established until now. Recently, we established a quantitative positron emission tomography (PET) imaging technique for neurogenic activity in the adult brain with 3'-deoxy-3'-[(18)F]fluoro-L-thymidine ([(18)F]FLT) and probenecid, a drug transporter inhibitor in blood-brain barrier. Moreover, we showed that this PET imaging technique can monitor alterations in neurogenic activity in the hippocampus of adult rats with depression and following treatment with an antidepressant. This PET imaging method may assist in diagnosing depression and in monitoring the therapeutic efficacy of antidepressants. In this commentary, we discuss the possibility of in vivo PET imaging for neurogenic activity in adult non-human primates and humans.

  1. PET studies in epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Sarikaya, Ismet

    2015-01-01

    . 15O-H2O PET was reported to have a similar sensitivity to FDG-PET in detecting epileptic foci. PMID:26550535

  2. PET studies in epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Sarikaya, Ismet

    2015-01-01

    sclerosis complex. (15)O-H2O PET was reported to have a similar sensitivity to FDG-PET in detecting epileptic foci.

  3. Pharmacologic perturbation as a potential tool to increase the sensitivity of FDG-PET in the evaluation of brain tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, F.C.L.; Kim, E.E.; Yung, W.K.A.

    1994-05-01

    The usefulness of F-18 FDG PET in the study of brain tumors is limited by the high baseline cortical uptake which decreases the contrast of the tumor. Two alternatives to increase the tumor/background contrast have been reported: barbiturate-induced coma and postprandial state. This project evaluates the effects of sedation with diazepam or of oral glucose intake on the brain tumor/background contrast during F-18 FDG PET studies.

  4. Evaluation of MLACF based calculated attenuation brain PET imaging for FDG patient studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bal, Harshali; Panin, Vladimir Y.; Platsch, Guenther; Defrise, Michel; Hayden, Charles; Hutton, Chloe; Serrano, Benjamin; Paulmier, Benoit; Casey, Michael E.

    2017-04-01

    Calculating attenuation correction for brain PET imaging rather than using CT presents opportunities for low radiation dose applications such as pediatric imaging and serial scans to monitor disease progression. Our goal is to evaluate the iterative time-of-flight based maximum-likelihood activity and attenuation correction factors estimation (MLACF) method for clinical FDG brain PET imaging. FDG PET/CT brain studies were performed in 57 patients using the Biograph mCT (Siemens) four-ring scanner. The time-of-flight PET sinograms were acquired using the standard clinical protocol consisting of a CT scan followed by 10 min of single-bed PET acquisition. Images were reconstructed using CT-based attenuation correction (CTAC) and used as a gold standard for comparison. Two methods were compared with respect to CTAC: a calculated brain attenuation correction (CBAC) and MLACF based PET reconstruction. Plane-by-plane scaling was performed for MLACF images in order to fix the variable axial scaling observed. The noise structure of the MLACF images was different compared to those obtained using CTAC and the reconstruction required a higher number of iterations to obtain comparable image quality. To analyze the pooled data, each dataset was registered to a standard template and standard regions of interest were extracted. An SUVr analysis of the brain regions of interest showed that CBAC and MLACF were each well correlated with CTAC SUVrs. A plane-by-plane error analysis indicated that there were local differences for both CBAC and MLACF images with respect to CTAC. Mean relative error in the standard regions of interest was less than 5% for both methods and the mean absolute relative errors for both methods were similar (3.4%  ±  3.1% for CBAC and 3.5%  ±  3.1% for MLACF). However, the MLACF method recovered activity adjoining the frontal sinus regions more accurately than CBAC method. The use of plane-by-plane scaling of MLACF images was found to be a

  5. Dual-modality brain PET-CT image segmentation based on adaptive use of functional and anatomical information.

    PubMed

    Xia, Yong; Eberl, Stefan; Wen, Lingfeng; Fulham, Michael; Feng, David Dagan

    2012-01-01

    Dual medical imaging modalities, such as PET-CT, are now a routine component of clinical practice. Medical image segmentation methods, however, have generally only been applied to single modality images. In this paper, we propose the dual-modality image segmentation model to segment brain PET-CT images into gray matter, white matter and cerebrospinal fluid. This model converts PET-CT image segmentation into an optimization process controlled simultaneously by PET and CT voxel values and spatial constraints. It is innovative in the creation and application of the modality discriminatory power (MDP) coefficient as a weighting scheme to adaptively combine the functional (PET) and anatomical (CT) information on a voxel-by-voxel basis. Our approach relies upon allowing the modality with higher discriminatory power to play a more important role in the segmentation process. We compared the proposed approach to three other image segmentation strategies, including PET-only based segmentation, combination of the results of independent PET image segmentation and CT image segmentation, and simultaneous segmentation of joint PET and CT images without an adaptive weighting scheme. Our results in 21 clinical studies showed that our approach provides the most accurate and reliable segmentation for brain PET-CT images.

  6. Effects of magnetic fields of up to 9.4 T on resolution and contrast of PET images as measured with an MR-BrainPET.

    PubMed

    Shah, N Jon; Herzog, Hans; Weirich, Christoph; Tellmann, Lutz; Kaffanke, Joachim; Caldeira, Liliana; Kops, Elena Rota; Qaim, Syed M; Coenen, Heinz H; Iida, Hidehiro

    2014-01-01

    Simultaneous, hybrid MR-PET is expected to improve PET image resolution in the plane perpendicular to the static magnetic field of the scanner. Previous papers have reported this either by simulation or experiment with simple sources and detector arrangements. Here, we extend those studies using a realistic brain phantom in a recently installed MR-PET system comprising a 9.4 T MRI-scanner and an APD-based BrainPET insert in the magnet bore. Point and line sources and a 3D brain phantom were filled with 18F (low-energy positron emitter), 68Ga (medium energy positron emitter) or 120I, a non-standard positron emitter (high positron energies of up to 4.6 MeV). Using the BrainPET insert, emission scans of the phantoms were recorded at different positions inside and outside the magnet bore such that the magnetic field was 0 T, 3 T, 7 T or 9.4 T. Brain phantom images, with the 'grey matter' compartment filled with 18F, showed no obvious resolution improvement with increasing field. This is confirmed by practically unchanged transaxial FWHM and 'grey/white matter' ratio values between at 0T and 9.4T. Field-dependent improvements in the resolution and contrast of transaxial PET images were clearly evident when the brain phantom was filled with 68Ga or 120I. The grey/white matter ratio increased by 7.3% and 16.3%, respectively. The greater reduction of the FWTM compared to FWHM in 68Ga or 120I line-spread images was in agreement with the improved contrast of 68Ga or 120I images. Notwithstanding elongations seen in the z-direction of 68Ga or 120I point source images acquired in foam, brain phantom images show no comparable extension. Our experimental study confirms that integrated MR-PET delivers improved PET image resolution and contrast for medium- and high-energy positron emitters even though the positron range is reduced only in directions perpendicular to the magnetic field.

  7. Effects of Magnetic Fields of up to 9.4 T on Resolution and Contrast of PET Images as Measured with an MR-BrainPET

    PubMed Central

    Shah, N. Jon; Herzog, Hans; Weirich, Christoph; Tellmann, Lutz; Kaffanke, Joachim; Caldeira, Liliana; Kops, Elena Rota; Qaim, Syed M.; Coenen, Heinz H.; Iida, Hidehiro

    2014-01-01

    Simultaneous, hybrid MR-PET is expected to improve PET image resolution in the plane perpendicular to the static magnetic field of the scanner. Previous papers have reported this either by simulation or experiment with simple sources and detector arrangements. Here, we extend those studies using a realistic brain phantom in a recently installed MR-PET system comprising a 9.4 T MRI-scanner and an APD-based BrainPET insert in the magnet bore. Point and line sources and a 3D brain phantom were filled with 18F (low-energy positron emitter), 68Ga (medium energy positron emitter) or 120I, a non-standard positron emitter (high positron energies of up to 4.6 MeV). Using the BrainPET insert, emission scans of the phantoms were recorded at different positions inside and outside the magnet bore such that the magnetic field was 0 T, 3 T, 7 T or 9.4 T. Brain phantom images, with the ‘grey matter’ compartment filled with 18F, showed no obvious resolution improvement with increasing field. This is confirmed by practically unchanged transaxial FWHM and ‘grey/white matter’ ratio values between at 0T and 9.4T. Field-dependent improvements in the resolution and contrast of transaxial PET images were clearly evident when the brain phantom was filled with 68Ga or 120I. The grey/white matter ratio increased by 7.3% and 16.3%, respectively. The greater reduction of the FWTM compared to FWHM in 68Ga or 120I line-spread images was in agreement with the improved contrast of 68Ga or 120I images. Notwithstanding elongations seen in the z-direction of 68Ga or 120I point source images acquired in foam, brain phantom images show no comparable extension. Our experimental study confirms that integrated MR-PET delivers improved PET image resolution and contrast for medium- and high-energy positron emitters even though the positron range is reduced only in directions perpendicular to the magnetic field. PMID:24755872

  8. Guidelines to PET measurements of the target occupancy in the brain for drug development.

    PubMed

    Takano, Akihiro; Varrone, Andrea; Gulyás, Balázs; Salvadori, Piero; Gee, Antony; Windhorst, Albert; Vercouillie, Johnny; Bormans, Guy; Lammertsma, Adriaan A; Halldin, Christer

    2016-11-01

    This guideline summarizes the current view of the European Association of Nuclear Medicine Drug Development Committee. The purpose of this guideline is to guarantee a high standard of PET studies that are aimed at measuring target occupancy in the brain within the framework of development programs of drugs that act within the central nervous system (CNS drugs). This guideline is intended to present information specifically adapted to European practice. The information provided should be applied within the context of local conditions and regulations.

  9. (18)F-FET PET Uptake Characteristics in Patients with Newly Diagnosed and Untreated Brain Metastasis.

    PubMed

    Unterrainer, Marcus; Galldiks, Norbert; Suchorska, Bogdana; Kowalew, Lara-Caroline; Wenter, Vera; Schmid-Tannwald, Christine; Niyazi, Maximilian; Bartenstein, Peter; Langen, Karl-Josef; Albert, Nathalie L

    2017-04-01

    In patients with brain metastasis, PET using labeled amino acids has gained clinical importance, mainly regarding the differentiation of viable tumor tissue from treatment-related effects. However, there is still limited knowledge concerning the uptake characteristics in patients with newly diagnosed and untreated brain metastases. Hence, we evaluated the uptake characteristics in these patients using dynamic O-(2-(18)F-fluoroethyl)-l-tyrosine ((18)F-FET) PET. Methods: Patients with newly diagnosed brain metastases without prior local therapy and (18)F-FET PET scanning were retrospectively identified in 2 centers. Static and dynamic PET parameters (maximal/mean tumor-to-brain-ratio [TBRmax/TBRmean], biologic tumor volume [BTV], and time-activity curves with minimal time to peak [TTPmin]) were evaluated and correlated with MRI parameters (maximal lesion diameter, volume of contrast enhancement) and originating primary tumor. Results: Forty-five brain metastases in 30 patients were included. Forty of 45 metastases (89%) had a TBRmax ≥ 1.6 and were classified as (18)F-FET-positive (median TBRmax, 2.53 [range, 1.64-9.47]; TBRmean, 1.86 [range, 1.63-5.48]; and BTV, 3.59 mL [range, 0.04-23.98 mL], respectively). In 39 of 45 brain metastases eligible for dynamic analysis, a wide range of TTPmin was observed (median, 22.5 min; range, 4.5-47.5 min). All (18)F-FET-negative metastases had a diameter of ≤ 1.0 cm, whereas metastases with a > 1.0 cm diameter all showed pathologic (18)F-FET uptake, which did not correlate with lesion size. The highest variability of uptake intensity was observed within the group of melanoma metastases. Conclusion: Untreated metastases predominantly show increased (18)F-FET uptake, and only a third of metastases < 1.0 cm were (18)F-FET-negative, most likely because of scanner resolution and partial-volume effects. In metastases > 1.0 cm, (18)F-FET uptake intensity was highly variable and independent of tumor size (even intraindividually). (18

  10. PET imaging of brain inflammation during early epileptogenesis in a rat model of temporal lobe epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Recently, inflammatory cascades have been suggested as a target for epilepsy therapy. Positron emission tomography (PET) imaging offers the unique possibility to evaluate brain inflammation longitudinally in a non-invasive translational manner. This study investigated brain inflammation during early epileptogenesis in the post-kainic acid-induced status epilepticus (KASE) model with post-mortem histology and in vivo with [18F]-PBR111 PET. Methods Status epilepticus (SE) was induced (N = 13) by low-dose injections of KA, while controls (N = 9) received saline. Translocator protein (TSPO) expression and microglia activation were assessed with [125I]-CLINDE autoradiography and OX-42 immunohistochemistry, respectively, 7 days post-SE. In a subgroup of rats, [18F]-PBR111 PET imaging with metabolite-corrected input function was performed before post-mortem evaluation. [18F]-PBR111 volume of distribution (Vt) in volume of interests (VOIs) was quantified by means of kinetic modelling and a VOI/metabolite-corrected plasma activity ratio. Results Animals with substantial SE showed huge overexpression of TSPO in vitro in relevant brain regions such as the hippocampus and amygdala (P < 0.001), while animals with mild symptoms displayed a smaller increase in TSPO in amygdala only (P < 0.001). TSPO expression was associated with OX-42 signal but without obvious cell loss. Similar in vivo [18F]-PBR111 increases in Vt and the simplified ratio were found in key regions such as the hippocampus (P < 0.05) and amygdala (P < 0.01). Conclusion Both post-mortem and in vivo methods substantiate that the brain regions important in seizure generation display significant brain inflammation during epileptogenesis in the KASE model. This work enables future longitudinal investigation of the role of brain inflammation during epileptogenesis and evaluation of anti-inflammatory treatments. PMID:23136853

  11. Attenuation correction for the large non-human primate brain imaging using microPET

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naidoo-Variawa, S.; Lehnert, W.; Kassiou, M.; Banati, R.; Meikle, S. R.

    2010-04-01

    Assessment of the biodistribution and pharmacokinetics of radiopharmaceuticals in vivo is often performed on animal models of human disease prior to their use in humans. The baboon brain is physiologically and neuro-anatomically similar to the human brain and is therefore a suitable model for evaluating novel CNS radioligands. We previously demonstrated the feasibility of performing baboon brain imaging on a dedicated small animal PET scanner provided that the data are accurately corrected for degrading physical effects such as photon attenuation in the body. In this study, we investigated factors affecting the accuracy and reliability of alternative attenuation correction strategies when imaging the brain of a large non-human primate (papio hamadryas) using the microPET Focus 220 animal scanner. For measured attenuation correction, the best bias versus noise performance was achieved using a 57Co transmission point source with a 4% energy window. The optimal energy window for a 68Ge transmission source operating in singles acquisition mode was 20%, independent of the source strength, providing bias-noise performance almost as good as for 57Co. For both transmission sources, doubling the acquisition time had minimal impact on the bias-noise trade-off for corrected emission images, despite observable improvements in reconstructed attenuation values. In a [18F]FDG brain scan of a female baboon, both measured attenuation correction strategies achieved good results and similar SNR, while segmented attenuation correction (based on uncorrected emission images) resulted in appreciable regional bias in deep grey matter structures and the skull. We conclude that measured attenuation correction using a single pass 57Co (4% energy window) or 68Ge (20% window) transmission scan achieves an excellent trade-off between bias and propagation of noise when imaging the large non-human primate brain with a microPET scanner.

  12. Investigation of partial volume correction methods for brain FDG PET studies

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, J.; Huang, S.C.; Mega, M.; Toga, A.W.; Small, G.W.; Phelps, M.E.; Lin, K.P.

    1996-12-01

    The use of positron emission tomography (PET) in quantitative fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) studies of aging and dementia has been limited by partial volume effects. A general method for correction of partial volume effects (PVE) in PET involves the following common procedures; segmentation of MRI brain images into gray matter (GM), white matter (WM), cerebral spinal fluid (CSF), and muscle (MS) components; MRI PET registration; and generation of simulated PET images. Afterward, two different approaches can be taken. The first approach derives first a pixel-by-pixel correction map as the ratio of the measured image to the simulated image [with realistic full-width at half-maximum (FWHM)]. The correction map was applied to the MRI segmentation image. Regions of interest (ROI`s) can then be applied to give results free of partial volume effects. The second approach uses the ROI values of the simulated ``pure`` image (with negligible FWHM) and those of the simulated and the measured PET images to correct for the PVE effect. By varying the ratio of radiotracer concentrations for different tissue components, the in-plane FWHM`s of a three-dimensional point spread function, and the ROI size, the authors evaluated the performance of these two approaches in terms of their accuracy and sensitivity to different simulation configurations. The results showed that both approaches are more robust than the approach developed by Muller-Gartner et al., and the second approach is more accurate and more robust than the first. In conclusion, the authors recommend that the second approach should be used on FDG PET images to correct for partial volume effects and to determine whether an apparent change in GM radiotracer concentration is truly due to metabolic changes.

  13. Concurrent Low Brain and High Liver Uptake on FDG PET Are Associated with Cardiovascular Risk Factors

    PubMed Central

    Nam, Hyun-Yeol; Jun, Sungmin; Pak, Kyoungjune

    2017-01-01

    Objective Concurrent low brain and high liver uptake are sometimes observed on fluorine-18-labeled fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET). We investigated the potential clinical significance of this uptake pattern related to metabolic syndrome (MS). Materials and Methods We retrospectively reviewed data from 264 consecutive males who had undergone general health check-ups, including FDG PET/CT scans. After an overnight fast, the men had their peripheral blood drawn and the levels of various laboratory parameters measured; an FDG PET/CT scan was performed on the same day. We measured the maximum standardized uptake values of the brain and liver from regions of interest manually placed over the frontal cortex at the level of the centrum semiovale and the right lobe of the liver parenchyma, respectively. Results Fasting blood glucose (FBG; odds ratio [OR] = 1.063, p < 0.001) and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c; OR = 3.634, p = 0.010) were the strongest predictive factors for low brain FDG uptake, whereas waist circumference (OR = 1.200, p < 0.001) and γ-glutamyl transpeptidase (OR = 1.012, p = 0.001) were the strongest predictive factors for high liver uptake. Eleven subjects (4.2%) showed concurrent low brain and high liver FDG uptake, and all but one of these subjects (90.9%) had MS. Systolic blood pressure, waist circumference, FBG, triglyceride, alanine aminotransferase, insulin resistance (measured by homeostasis model assessment), insulin, HbA1c, and body mass index were higher in subjects with this FDG uptake pattern than in those without (all, p < 0.001). Conclusion Concurrent low brain and high liver FDG uptake were closely associated with MS. Moreover, subjects with this pattern had higher values for various cardiovascular risk factors than did those without. PMID:28246520

  14. Positron Emission Tomography (PET) Quantification of GABAA Receptors in the Brain of Fragile X Patients.

    PubMed

    D'Hulst, Charlotte; Heulens, Inge; Van der Aa, Nathalie; Goffin, Karolien; Koole, Michel; Porke, Kathleen; Van De Velde, Marc; Rooms, Liesbeth; Van Paesschen, Wim; Van Esch, Hilde; Van Laere, Koen; Kooy, R Frank

    2015-01-01

    Over the last several years, evidence has accumulated that the GABAA receptor is compromised in animal models for fragile X syndrome (FXS), a common hereditary form of intellectual disability. In mouse and fly models, agonists of the GABAA receptor were able to rescue specific consequences of the fragile X mutation. Here, we imaged and quantified GABAA receptors in vivo in brain of fragile X patients using Positron Emission Topography (PET) and [11C]flumazenil, a known high-affinity and specific ligand for the benzodiazepine site of GABAA receptors. We measured regional GABAA receptor availability in 10 fragile X patients and 10 control subjects. We found a significant reduction of on average 10% in GABAA receptor binding potential throughout the brain in fragile X patients. In the thalamus, the brain region showing the largest difference, the GABAA receptor availability was even reduced with 17%. This is one of the first reports of a PET study of human fragile X brain and directly demonstrates that the GABAA receptor availability is reduced in fragile X patients. The study reinforces previous hypotheses that the GABAA receptor is a potential target for rational pharmacological treatment of fragile X syndrome.

  15. Brain FDG-PET metabolic abnormalities in Macrophagic Myofasciitis: Are They Stable?

    PubMed

    Blanc-Durand, Paul; Van Der Gucht, Axel; Aoun Sebaiti, Mehdi; Abulizi, Mukedaisi; Authier, Francois-Jérome; Itti, Emmanuel

    2017-03-16

    We address this letter in addition to our recent published study (1). The aim is to add some insight to the evolution of the brain abnormalities that are observed with macrophagic myofasciitis (MMF). MMF is a chronic disease whom evolution is slow and symptoms first may occurs from months to year after a vaccination containing aluminium hydroxid adjuvants (2). Nevertheless, its evolution is not fully understood or known. MMF associated cognitive dysfunction (MACD) is based on a tripod combining dysexecutive syndrom, visual memory impairment and interhemispheric disconnection. One pilot study suggest that MACD appears clinically stable over time (3). One recent study evaluating a support vector machine classifier also suggest that the abnormalities observed with 18-fluorodeoxyglose positron emission tomography ((18)F-FDG PET) may be sensitive and could be used to monitor patients. The study population comes from cohort followed in our Reference Center for Rare Neuromuscular Diseases and data were collected retrospectively. Among those patients, 15 had two consecutives (18)F-FDG PET brain acquisitions (median age 42.1 [range 20.9 to 63.5]) following the same brain protocol acquisition as previously described (1). Median time duration between the two examinations was 2.3 years (range 0.5 to 4]. Using analysis of covariance and negative or positive contrast in SPM12, a t-test mask was generated from the comparison between the two means of the first cerebral (18)F-FDG PET images and between the mean of the second acquisition. Results of the comparison were collected at a P-value < 0.005 at the voxel level, for clusters k ≥ 200 voxels (corrected for cluster volume) with adjustment for age. Brain abnormalities maps didn't show any statistical difference between the two examinations confirming the idea that MMF is a slowly or not progressive disease and it is in concordance with the fact that neurological symptoms even if fluctuate do not worsen over time (nor ameliorate).

  16. Evaluation of MRI and cannabinoid type 1 receptor PET templates constructed using DARTEL for spatial normalization of rat brains

    SciTech Connect

    Kronfeld, Andrea; Müller-Forell, Wibke; Buchholz, Hans-Georg; Maus, Stephan; Reuss, Stefan; Schreckenberger, Mathias; Miederer, Isabelle; Lutz, Beat

    2015-12-15

    Purpose: Image registration is one prerequisite for the analysis of brain regions in magnetic-resonance-imaging (MRI) or positron-emission-tomography (PET) studies. Diffeomorphic anatomical registration through exponentiated Lie algebra (DARTEL) is a nonlinear, diffeomorphic algorithm for image registration and construction of image templates. The goal of this small animal study was (1) the evaluation of a MRI and calculation of several cannabinoid type 1 (CB1) receptor PET templates constructed using DARTEL and (2) the analysis of the image registration accuracy of MR and PET images to their DARTEL templates with reference to analytical and iterative PET reconstruction algorithms. Methods: Five male Sprague Dawley rats were investigated for template construction using MRI and [{sup 18}F]MK-9470 PET for CB1 receptor representation. PET images were reconstructed using the algorithms filtered back-projection, ordered subset expectation maximization in 2D, and maximum a posteriori in 3D. Landmarks were defined on each MR image, and templates were constructed under different settings, i.e., based on different tissue class images [gray matter (GM), white matter (WM), and GM + WM] and regularization forms (“linear elastic energy,” “membrane energy,” and “bending energy”). Registration accuracy for MRI and PET templates was evaluated by means of the distance between landmark coordinates. Results: The best MRI template was constructed based on gray and white matter images and the regularization form linear elastic energy. In this case, most distances between landmark coordinates were <1 mm. Accordingly, MRI-based spatial normalization was most accurate, but results of the PET-based spatial normalization were quite comparable. Conclusions: Image registration using DARTEL provides a standardized and automatic framework for small animal brain data analysis. The authors were able to show that this method works with high reliability and validity. Using DARTEL

  17. FDG PET brain scan demonstrated glucose hypometabolism of bilateral caudate nuclei and putamina in a patient with chorea-acanthocytosis.

    PubMed

    Cui, Ruixue; You, Hui; Niu, Na; Li, Fang

    2015-12-01

    Chorea-acanthocytosis is 1 type of neuroacanthocytosis that is a group of rare, hereditary neurodegenerative disorders. We presented a brain FDG PET finding of a 31-year-old woman with chorea-acanthocytosis. The images demonstrated significant hypometabolism in bilateral caudate nuclei and putamina. The finding of FDG PET is more prominent than that of MRI. Another interesting observation is the mildly increased FDG uptake in pituitary gland, although its relationship with the disease is unclear.

  18. Short-Term Practice Effects and Brain Hypometabolism: Preliminary Data from an FDG PET Study

    PubMed Central

    Duff, Kevin; Horn, Kevin P.; Foster, Norman L.; Hoffman, John M.

    2015-01-01

    Practice effects are improvements in cognitive test scores due to repeated exposure to the same tests. Typically viewed as error, short-term practice effects have been shown to provide valuable clinical information about diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment outcomes in older patients with mild cognitive impairments. This study examined short-term practice effects across one week and brain hypometabolism on fluoro-2-deoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) in 25 older adults (15 intact, 10 Mild Cognitive Impairment). Averaged cerebral brain metabolism on FDG PET was correlated with multiple cognitive scores at baseline in those with Mild Cognitive Impairment, and short-term practice effects accounted for additional variance in these same subjects. The relationship between brain metabolism and cognition (either at baseline or practice effects) was minimal in the intact individuals. Although needing replication in larger samples, short-term practice effects on tests of executive functioning and memory may provide valuable information about biomarkers of Alzheimer’s disease. PMID:25908614

  19. Preserved pontine glucose metabolism in Alzheimer disease: A reference region for functional brain image (PET) analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Minoshima, Satoshi; Frey, K.A.; Foster, N.L.; Kuhl, D.W.

    1995-07-01

    Our goal was to examine regional preservation of energy metabolism in Alzheimer disease (AD) and to evaluate effects of PET data normalization to reference regions. Regional metabolic rates in the pons, thalamus, putamen, sensorimotor cortex, visual cortex, and cerebellum (reference regions) were determined stereotaxically and examined in 37 patients with probable AD and 22 normal controls based on quantitative {sup 18}FDG-PET measurements. Following normalization of metabolic rates of the parietotemporal association cortex and whole brain to each reference region, distinctions of the two groups were assessed. The pons showed the best preservation of glucose metabolism in AD. Other reference regions showed relatively preserved metabolism compared with the parietotemporal association cortex and whole brain, but had significant metabolic reduction. Data normalization to the pons not only enhanced statistical significance of metabolic reduction in the parietotemporal association cortex, but also preserved the presence of global cerebral metabolic reduction indicated in analysis of the quantitative data. Energy metabolism in the pons in probable AD is well preserved. The pons is a reliable reference for data normalization and will enhance diagnostic accuracy and efficiency of quantitative and nonquantitative functional brain imaging. 39 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  20. Striatofrontal Deafferentiation in MSA-P: Evaluation with [18F]FDG Brain PET

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hae Won; Oh, Minyoung; Oh, Jungsu S.; Oh, Seung Jun; Lee, Sang Ju; Chung, Sun Ju; Kim, Jae Seung

    2017-01-01

    Background Although cognitive impairment is not a consistent feature of multiple system atrophy (MSA), increasing evidence suggests that cognitive impairment is common in MSA with predominant parkinsonism (MSA-P). It is assumed that the cognitive impairment in MSA-P is caused by the striatal dysfunction and disruption of striatofrontal connections. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between regional glucose metabolism in the frontal cortex and striatum in patients with MSA-P using [18F]FDG brain PET. Methods Twenty-nine patients with MSA-P and 28 healthy controls underwent [18F]FDG brain PET scan. The [18F]FDG brain PET images were semiquantitatively analyzed on the basis of a template in standard space. The regional glucose metabolism of the cerebral cortex and striatum were compared between MSA-P and healthy control groups. The correlations between age, symptom duration, H&Y stage, UPDRS III score, MMSE score, and glucose metabolism in the cerebellum and striatum to glucose metabolism in the frontal cortex were evaluated by multivariate analysis. Results The glucose metabolism in the frontal cortex and striatum in MSA-P patients were significantly lower than those in healthy controls. Glucose metabolism in the striatum was the most powerful determinant of glucose metabolism in the frontal cortex in MSA-P. Only age and glucose metabolism in the cerebellum were independent variables affecting the glucose metabolism in the frontal cortex in healthy controls. Conclusion The decrease in frontal glucose metabolism in MSA-P is related to the decrease in striatal glucose metabolism. This result provided evidence of striatofrontal deafferentiation in patients with MSA-P. PMID:28085923

  1. [(11)C]MADAM, a new serotonin transporter radioligand characterized in the monkey brain by PET.

    PubMed

    Halldin, Christer; Lundberg, Johan; Sóvágó, Judit; Gulyás, Balázs; Guilloteau, Denis; Vercouillie, Johnny; Emond, Patrick; Chalon, Sylvie; Tarkiainen, Jari; Hiltunen, Jukka; Farde, Lars

    2005-12-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the potential of a new selective serotonin transporter (5-HTT) inhibitor, N,N-dimethyl-2-(2-amino-4-methylphenylthio)benzylamine (MADAM, K(i)=1.65 nM), as a PET radioligand for examination of 5-HTT in the nonhuman primate brain. MADAM was radiolabeled by an N-methylation reaction using [(11)C]methyl triflate and the binding was characterized by PET in four cynomolgus monkeys. Metabolite levels in plasma were measured by gradient high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The radiochemical incorporation yield of [(11)C]MADAM was 75-80% and the specific radioactivity at the time of administration was 34-652 GBq/micromol (n=8). The highest uptake of radioactivity was observed in striatum, thalamus, mesencephalon, and the lower brainstem. Lower binding was detected in neocortex and the lowest radioactive uptake was found in the cerebellum. This distribution is in accordance with the known expression of 5-HTT in vitro. The fraction of the total radioactivity in monkey plasma representing unchanged [(11)C]MADAM was 20% at 45 min after injection, as measured by gradient HPLC. Pretreatment measurements, using unlabeled citalopram, GBR 12909, and maprotiline, as well as a displacement measurement, using unlabeled MADAM, confirmed that [(11)C]MADAM binds selectively and reversibly to 5-HTT, and support the use of the cerebellum as reference region. The present characterization of binding in the monkey brain suggests that [(11)C]MADAM is a potential PET radioligand for quantitative studies of 5-HTT binding in the human brain.

  2. Brain (18)F-FDG PET Metabolic Abnormalities in Patients with Long-Lasting Macrophagic Myofascitis.

    PubMed

    Van Der Gucht, Axel; Aoun Sebaiti, Mehdi; Guedj, Eric; Aouizerate, Jessie; Yara, Sabrina; Gherardi, Romain K; Evangelista, Eva; Chalaye, Julia; Cottereau, Anne-Ségolène; Verger, Antoine; Bachoud-Levi, Anne-Catherine; Abulizi, Mukedaisi; Itti, Emmanuel; Authier, François-Jérôme

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize brain metabolic abnormalities in patients with macrophagic myofascitis (MMF) and the relationship with cognitive dysfunction through the use of PET with (18)F-FDG. Methods:(18)F-FDG PET brain imaging and a comprehensive battery of neuropsychological tests were performed in 100 consecutive MMF patients (age [mean ± SD], 45.9 ± 12 y; 74% women). Images were analyzed with statistical parametric mapping (SPM12). Through the use of analysis of covariance, all (18)F-FDG PET brain images of MMF patients were compared with those of a reference population of 44 healthy subjects similar in age (45.4 ± 16 y; P = 0.87) and sex (73% women; P = 0.88). The neuropsychological assessment identified 4 categories of patients: those with no significant cognitive impairment (n = 42), those with frontal subcortical (FSC) dysfunction (n = 29), those with Papez circuit dysfunction (n = 22), and those with callosal disconnection (n = 7). Results: In comparison with healthy subjects, the whole population of patients with MMF exhibited a spatial pattern of cerebral glucose hypometabolism (P < 0.001) involving the occipital lobes, temporal lobes, limbic system, cerebellum, and frontoparietal cortices, as shown by analysis of covariance. The subgroup of patients with FSC dysfunction exhibited a larger extent of involved areas (35,223 voxels vs. 13,680 voxels in the subgroup with Papez circuit dysfunction and 5,453 voxels in patients without cognitive impairment). Nonsignificant results were obtained for the last subgroup because of its small population size. Conclusion: Our study identified a peculiar spatial pattern of cerebral glucose hypometabolism that was most marked in MMF patients with FSC dysfunction. Further studies are needed to determine whether this pattern could represent a diagnostic biomarker of MMF in patients with chronic fatigue syndrome and cognitive dysfunction.

  3. Region specific optimization of continuous linear attenuation coefficients based on UTE (RESOLUTE): application to PET/MR brain imaging.

    PubMed

    Ladefoged, Claes N; Benoit, Didier; Law, Ian; Holm, Søren; Kjær, Andreas; Højgaard, Liselotte; Hansen, Adam E; Andersen, Flemming L

    2015-10-21

    The reconstruction of PET brain data in a PET/MR hybrid scanner is challenging in the absence of transmission sources, where MR images are used for MR-based attenuation correction (MR-AC). The main challenge of MR-AC is to separate bone and air, as neither have a signal in traditional MR images, and to assign the correct linear attenuation coefficient to bone. The ultra-short echo time (UTE) MR sequence was proposed as a basis for MR-AC as this sequence shows a small signal in bone. The purpose of this study was to develop a new clinically feasible MR-AC method with patient specific continuous-valued linear attenuation coefficients in bone that provides accurate reconstructed PET image data. A total of 164 [(18)F]FDG PET/MR patients were included in this study, of which 10 were used for training. MR-AC was based on either standard CT (reference), UTE or our method (RESOLUTE). The reconstructed PET images were evaluated in the whole brain, as well as regionally in the brain using a ROI-based analysis. Our method segments air, brain, cerebral spinal fluid, and soft tissue voxels on the unprocessed UTE TE images, and uses a mapping of R(*)2 values to CT Hounsfield Units (HU) to measure the density in bone voxels. The average error of our method in the brain was 0.1% and less than 1.2% in any region of the brain. On average 95% of the brain was within  ±10% of PETCT, compared to 72% when using UTE. The proposed method is clinically feasible, reducing both the global and local errors on the reconstructed PET images, as well as limiting the number and extent of the outliers.

  4. Region specific optimization of continuous linear attenuation coefficients based on UTE (RESOLUTE): application to PET/MR brain imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ladefoged, Claes N.; Benoit, Didier; Law, Ian; Holm, Søren; Kjær, Andreas; Højgaard, Liselotte; Hansen, Adam E.; Andersen, Flemming L.

    2015-10-01

    The reconstruction of PET brain data in a PET/MR hybrid scanner is challenging in the absence of transmission sources, where MR images are used for MR-based attenuation correction (MR-AC). The main challenge of MR-AC is to separate bone and air, as neither have a signal in traditional MR images, and to assign the correct linear attenuation coefficient to bone. The ultra-short echo time (UTE) MR sequence was proposed as a basis for MR-AC as this sequence shows a small signal in bone. The purpose of this study was to develop a new clinically feasible MR-AC method with patient specific continuous-valued linear attenuation coefficients in bone that provides accurate reconstructed PET image data. A total of 164 [18F]FDG PET/MR patients were included in this study, of which 10 were used for training. MR-AC was based on either standard CT (reference), UTE or our method (RESOLUTE). The reconstructed PET images were evaluated in the whole brain, as well as regionally in the brain using a ROI-based analysis. Our method segments air, brain, cerebral spinal fluid, and soft tissue voxels on the unprocessed UTE TE images, and uses a mapping of R2* values to CT Hounsfield Units (HU) to measure the density in bone voxels. The average error of our method in the brain was 0.1% and less than 1.2% in any region of the brain. On average 95% of the brain was within  ±10% of PETCT, compared to 72% when using UTE. The proposed method is clinically feasible, reducing both the global and local errors on the reconstructed PET images, as well as limiting the number and extent of the outliers.

  5. Positron emission tomographic measurement of cerebral blood flow and permeability-surface area product of water using (/sup 15/O)water and (/sup 11/C)butanol

    SciTech Connect

    Herscovitch, P.; Raichle, M.E.; Kilbourn, M.R.; Welch, M.J.

    1987-10-01

    We have previously adapted Kety's tissue autoradiographic method for measuring regional CBF in laboratory animals to the measurement of CBF in humans with positron emission tomography (PET) and H/sub 2/(/sup 15/)O. Because this model assumes diffusion equilibrium between tissue and venous blood, the use of a diffusion-limited tracer, such as H/sub 2/(/sup 15/)O, may lead to an underestimation of CBF. We therefore validated the use of (/sup 11/C)butanol as an alternative freely diffusible tracer for PET. We then used it in humans to determine the underestimation of CBF that occurs with H/sub 2/(/sup 15/)O, and thereby were able to calculate the extraction Ew and permeability-surface area product PSw of H/sub 2/(/sup 15/)O. Measurements of the permeability of rhesus monkey brain to (/sup 11/C)butanol, obtained by means of an intracarotid injection, external detection technique, demonstrated that this tracer is freely diffusible up to a CBF of at least 170 ml/min-100 g. CBF measured in baboons with the PET autoradiographic method and (/sup 11/C)butanol was then compared with CBF measured in the same animals with a standard residue detection method. An excellent correspondence was obtained between both of these measurements. Finally, paired PET measurements of CBF were made with both H/sub 2/(/sup 15/)O and (/sup 11/C)butanol in 17 normal human subjects. Average global CBF was significantly greater when measured with (/sup 11/C)butanol (53.1 ml/min-100 g) than with H/sub 2/(/sup 15/)O (44.4 ml/min-100 g). Average global Ew was 0.84 and global PSw was 104 ml/min-100 g. Regional measurements showed a linear relationship between local PSw and CBF, while Ew was relatively uniform throughout the brain. Simulations were used to determine the potential error associated with the use of an incorrect value for the brain-blood partition coefficient for (/sup 11/C)butanol and to calculate the effect of tissue heterogeneity and errors in flow measurement on the calculation of PSw.

  6. 18F-labeled FECNT: a selective radioligand for PET imaging of brain dopamine transporters.

    PubMed

    Goodman, M M; Kilts, C D; Keil, R; Shi, B; Martarello, L; Xing, D; Votaw, J; Ely, T D; Lambert, P; Owens, M J; Camp, V M; Malveaux, E; Hoffman, J M

    2000-01-01

    Fluorine-18 labeled 2beta-carbomethoxy-3beta-(4-chlorophenyl)-8-(2-fluoroethyl)nort ropane (FECNT) was synthesized in the development of a dopamine transporter (DAT) imaging ligand for positron emission tomography (PET). The methods of radiolabeling and ligand synthesis of FECNT, and the results of the in vitro characterization and in vivo tissue distribution in rats and in vivo PET imaging in rhesus monkeys of [18F]FECNT are described. Fluorine-18 was introduced into 2beta-carbomethoxy-3beta-(4-chlorophenyl)-8-(2-fluoroethyl)nort ropane (4) by preparation of 1-[18F]fluoro-2-tosyloxyethane (2) followed by alkylation of 2beta-carbomethoxy-3beta-(4-chlorophenyl)nortropane (3) in 21% radiochemical yield (decay corrected to end of bombardment [EOB]). Competition binding in cells stably expressing the transfected human DAT serotonin transporter (SERT) and norepinephrine transporter (NET) labeled by [3H]WIN 35428, [3H]citalopram, and [3H]nisoxetine, respectively, indicated the following order of DAT affinity: GBR 12909 > CIT > 2beta-carbomethoxy-3beta-(4-chlorophenyl)-8-(3-fluoropropyl) nortropane (FPCT) > FECNT. The affinity of FECNT for SERT and NET was 25- and 156-fold lower, respectively, than for DAT. Blocking studies were performed in rats with a series of transporter-specific agents and demonstrated that the brain uptake of [18F]FECNT was selective and specific for DAT-rich regions. PET brain imaging studies in monkeys demonstrated high [18F]FECNT uptake in the caudate and putamen that resulted in caudate-to-cerebellum and putamen-to-cerebellum ratios of 10.5 at 60 min. [18F]FECNT uptake in the caudate/putamen peaked in less than 75 min and exhibited higher caudate- and putamen-to-cerebellum ratios at transient equilibrium than reported for 11C-WIN 35,428, [11C]CIT/RTI-55, or [18F]beta-CIT-FP. Analysis of monkey arterial plasma samples using high performance liquid chromatography determined that there was no detectable formation of lipophilic radiolabeled

  7. Radionuclide labeling and evaluation of candidate radioligands for PET imaging of histone deacetylase in the brain.

    PubMed

    Seo, Young Jun; Muench, Lisa; Reid, Alicia; Chen, Jinzhu; Kang, Yeona; Hooker, Jacob M; Volkow, Nora D; Fowler, Joanna S; Kim, Sung Won

    2013-12-15

    Histone deacetylases (HDACs) regulate gene expression by inducing conformational changes in chromatin. Ever since the discovery of a naturally occurring HDAC inhibitor, trichostatin A (TSA) stimulated the recent development of suberoylanilide (SAHA, Zolinza®), HDAC has become an important molecular target for drug development. This has created the need to develop specific in vivo radioligands to study epigenetic regulation and HDAC engagement for drug development for diseases including cancer and psychiatric disorders. 6-([(18)F]Fluoroacetamido)-1-hexanoicanilide ([(18)F]FAHA) was recently developed as a HDAC substrate and shows moderate blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability and specific signal (by metabolic trapping/or deacetylation) but rapid metabolism. Here, we report the radiosynthesis of two carbon-11 labeled candidate radiotracers (substrate- and inhibitor-based radioligand) for HDAC and their evaluation in non-human primate brain. PET studies showed very low brain uptake and rapid metabolism of both labeled compounds but revealed a surprising enhancement of brain penetration by F for H substitution when comparing one of these to [(18)F]FAHA. Further structural refinement is needed for the development of brain-penetrant, metabolically stable HDAC radiotracers and to understand the role of fluorine substitution on brain penetration.

  8. Weight gain following subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation: a PET study.

    PubMed

    Sauleau, Paul; Le Jeune, Florence; Drapier, Sophie; Houvenaghel, Jean-François; Dondaine, Thibaut; Haegelen, Claire; Lalys, Florent; Robert, Gabriel; Drapier, Dominique; Vérin, Marc

    2014-12-01

    Several hypotheses have been put forward to explain weight gain after deep brain stimulation (DBS), but none provides a fully satisfactory account of this adverse effect. We analyzed the correlation between changes in brain metabolism (using positron emission tomography [PET] imaging) and weight gain after bilateral subthalamic nucleus DBS in patients with Parkinson's disease. Body mass index was calculated and brain activity prospectively measured using 2-deoxy-2[18F]fluoro-D-glucose 3 months before and 4 months after the start of subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation in 23 patients with Parkinson's disease. Motor complications (United Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale [UPDRS]-IV scores) and dopaminergic medication were included in the analysis to control for their possible influence on brain metabolism. Mean ± standard deviation (SD) body mass index increased significantly by 0.8 ± 1.5 kg/m(2) (P = 0.03). Correlations were found between weight gain and changes in brain metabolism in limbic and associative areas, including the orbitofrontal cortex (Brodmann areas [BAs] 10 and 11), lateral and medial parts of the temporal lobe (BAs 20, 21, 22,39 and 42), anterior cingulate cortex (BA 32), and retrosplenial cortex (BA 30). However, we found no correlation between weight gain and metabolic changes in sensorimotor areas. These findings suggest that changes in associative and limbic processes contribute to weight gain after subthalamic nucleus DBS in Parkinson's disease.

  9. Designing a compact high performance brain PET scanner—simulation study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Kuang; Majewski, Stan; Kinahan, Paul E.; Harrison, Robert L.; Elston, Brian F.; Manjeshwar, Ravindra; Dolinsky, Sergei; Stolin, Alexander V.; Brefczynski-Lewis, Julie A.; Qi, Jinyi

    2016-05-01

    The desire to understand normal and disordered human brain function of upright, moving persons in natural environments motivates the development of the ambulatory micro-dose brain PET imager (AMPET). An ideal system would be light weight but with high sensitivity and spatial resolution, although these requirements are often in conflict with each other. One potential approach to meet the design goals is a compact brain-only imaging device with a head-sized aperture. However, a compact geometry increases parallax error in peripheral lines of response, which increases bias and variance in region of interest (ROI) quantification. Therefore, we performed simulation studies to search for the optimal system configuration and to evaluate the potential improvement in quantification performance over existing scanners. We used the Cramér-Rao variance bound to compare the performance for ROI quantification using different scanner geometries. The results show that while a smaller ring diameter can increase photon detection sensitivity and hence reduce the variance at the center of the field of view, it can also result in higher variance in peripheral regions when the length of detector crystal is 15 mm or more. This variance can be substantially reduced by adding depth-of-interaction (DOI) measurement capability to the detector modules. Our simulation study also shows that the relative performance depends on the size of the ROI, and a large ROI favors a compact geometry even without DOI information. Based on these results, we propose a compact ‘helmet’ design using detectors with DOI capability. Monte Carlo simulations show the helmet design can achieve four-fold higher sensitivity and resolve smaller features than existing cylindrical brain PET scanners. The simulations also suggest that improving TOF timing resolution from 400 ps to 200 ps also results in noticeable improvement in image quality, indicating better timing resolution is desirable for brain imaging.

  10. Motion correction of PET brain images through deconvolution: II. Practical implementation and algorithm optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raghunath, N.; Faber, T. L.; Suryanarayanan, S.; Votaw, J. R.

    2009-02-01

    Image quality is significantly degraded even by small amounts of patient motion in very high-resolution PET scanners. When patient motion is known, deconvolution methods can be used to correct the reconstructed image and reduce motion blur. This paper describes the implementation and optimization of an iterative deconvolution method that uses an ordered subset approach to make it practical and clinically viable. We performed ten separate FDG PET scans using the Hoffman brain phantom and simultaneously measured its motion using the Polaris Vicra tracking system (Northern Digital Inc., Ontario, Canada). The feasibility and effectiveness of the technique was studied by performing scans with different motion and deconvolution parameters. Deconvolution resulted in visually better images and significant improvement as quantified by the Universal Quality Index (UQI) and contrast measures. Finally, the technique was applied to human studies to demonstrate marked improvement. Thus, the deconvolution technique presented here appears promising as a valid alternative to existing motion correction methods for PET. It has the potential for deblurring an image from any modality if the causative motion is known and its effect can be represented in a system matrix.

  11. Ligands for SPECT and PET imaging of muscarinic-cholinergic receptors of the heart and brain

    SciTech Connect

    Knapp, F.F. Jr.; McPherson, D.W.; Luo, H.

    1995-06-01

    Interest in the potential use of cerebral SPECT and PET imaging for determination of the density and activity of muscarinic-cholinergic receptors (mAChR) has been stimulated by the changes in these receptors which occur in many neurological diseases. In addition, the important involvement of mAChR in modulating negative inotropic cardiac activity suggests that such receptor ligands may have important applications in evaluation of changes which may occur in cardiac disease. In this paper, the properties of several key muscarinic receptor ligands being developed or which have been used for clinical SPECT and PET are discussed. In addition, the ORNL development of the new iodinated IQNP ligand based on QNB and the results of in vivo biodistribution studies in rats, in vitro competitive binding studies and ex vivo autoradiographic experiments are described. The use of radioiodinated IQNP may offer several advantages in comparison to IQNB because of its easy and high yield preparation and high brain uptake and the potential usefulness of the {open_quotes}partial{close_quotes} subtype selective IONP isomers. We also describe the development of new IQNP-type analogues which offer the opportunity for radiolabeling with positron-emitting radioisotopes (carbon-11, fluorine-18 and bromine-76) for potential use with PET.

  12. Imaging of sigma1 receptors in the human brain using PET and [11C]SA4503.

    PubMed

    Toyohara, Jun; Sakata, Muneyuki; Ishiwata, Kiichi

    2009-09-01

    Sigma(1) receptors were imaged in living human brain by positron emission tomography (PET) using [(11)C] SA4503. A dynamic 90-min scan and kinetic analysis enabled quantification of receptor density in the brain. The sigma(1) receptors were distributed throughout the brain in normal subjects, but decreased in the frontal, temporal, and occipital lobes, cerebellum and thalamus in patients with early Alzheimer's disease and in the putamen in patients with Parkinson's disease. In addition, rates of receptor occupancy by the neuroleptic haloperidol and the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor fluvoxamine were evaluated by [(11)C]SA4503-PET and found to be high. [(11)C]SA4503-PET is useful for studying the pathophysiology of neurological and psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia and for evaluation of the pharmacodynamics of psychiatric drugs.

  13. A Dual Tracer PET-MRI Protocol for the Quantitative Measure of Regional Brain Energy Substrates Uptake in the Rat

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Maggie; Nugent, Scott; Tremblay, Sébastien; Descoteaux, Maxime; Beaudoin, Jean-François; Tremblay, Luc; Lecomte, Roger; Cunnane, Stephen C

    2013-01-01

    We present a method for comparing the uptake of the brain's two key energy substrates: glucose and ketones (acetoacetate [AcAc] in this case) in the rat. The developed method is a small-animal positron emission tomography (PET) protocol, in which 11C-AcAc and 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) are injected sequentially in each animal. This dual tracer PET acquisition is possible because of the short half-life of 11C (20.4 min). The rats also undergo a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) acquisition seven days before the PET protocol. Prior to image analysis, PET and MRI images are coregistered to allow the measurement of regional cerebral uptake (cortex, hippocampus, striatum, and cerebellum). A quantitative measure of 11C-AcAc and 18F-FDG brain uptake (cerebral metabolic rate; μmol/100 g/min) is determined by kinetic modeling using the image-derived input function (IDIF) method. Our new dual tracer PET protocol is robust and flexible; the two tracers used can be replaced by different radiotracers to evaluate other processes in the brain. Moreover, our protocol is applicable to the study of brain fuel supply in multiple conditions such as normal aging and neurodegenerative pathologies such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases. PMID:24430432

  14. Optimized MLAA for quantitative non-TOF PET/MR of the brain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benoit, Didier; Ladefoged, Claes N.; Rezaei, Ahmadreza; Keller, Sune H.; Andersen, Flemming L.; Højgaard, Liselotte; Hansen, Adam E.; Holm, Søren; Nuyts, Johan

    2016-12-01

    For quantitative tracer distribution in positron emission tomography, attenuation correction is essential. In a hybrid PET/CT system the CT images serve as a basis for generation of the attenuation map, but in PET/MR, the MR images do not have a similarly simple relationship with the attenuation map. Hence attenuation correction in PET/MR systems is more challenging. Typically either of two MR sequences are used: the Dixon or the ultra-short time echo (UTE) techniques. However these sequences have some well-known limitations. In this study, a reconstruction technique based on a modified and optimized non-TOF MLAA is proposed for PET/MR brain imaging. The idea is to tune the parameters of the MLTR applying some information from an attenuation image computed from the UTE sequences and a T1w MR image. In this MLTR algorithm, an {αj} parameter is introduced and optimized in order to drive the algorithm to a final attenuation map most consistent with the emission data. Because the non-TOF MLAA is used, a technique to reduce the cross-talk effect is proposed. In this study, the proposed algorithm is compared to the common reconstruction methods such as OSEM using a CT attenuation map, considered as the reference, and OSEM using the Dixon and UTE attenuation maps. To show the robustness and the reproducibility of the proposed algorithm, a set of 204 [18F]FDG patients, 35 [11C]PiB patients and 1 [18F]FET patient are used. The results show that by choosing an optimized value of {αj} in MLTR, the proposed algorithm improves the results compared to the standard MR-based attenuation correction methods (i.e. OSEM using the Dixon or the UTE attenuation maps), and the cross-talk and the scale problem are limited.

  15. Methods for the correction of vascular artifacts in PET O-15 water brain-mapping studies

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, K.; Reiman, E.M. |; Lawson, M.; Yun, L.S.; Bandy, D.

    1996-12-01

    While positron emission tomographic (PET) measurements of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) can be used to map brain regions that are involved in normal and pathological human behaviors, measurements in the anteromedial temporal lobe can be confounded by the combined effects of radiotracer activity in neighboring arteries and partial-volume averaging. The authors now describe two simple methods to address this vascular artifact. One method utilizes the early frames of a dynamic PET study, while the other method utilizes a coregistered magnetic resonance image (MRI) to characterize the vascular region of interest (VROI). Both methods subsequently assign a common value to each pixel in the VROI for the control scan and the activation scan. To study the vascular artifact and to demonstrate the ability of the proposed methods correcting the vascular artifact, four dynamic PET scans were performed in a single subject during the same behavioral state. For each of the four scans, a vascular scan containing vascular activity was computed as the summation of the images acquired 0--60 s after radiotracer administrations, and a control scan containing minimal vascular activity was computed as the summation of the images acquired 20--80 s after radiotracer administration. t-score maps calculated from the four pairs of vascular and control scans were used to characterize regional blood flow differences related to vascular activity before and after the applications of each vascular artifact correction method. Both methods eliminated the observed differences in vascular activity, as well as the vascular artifact observed in the anteromedial temporal lobes. Using PET data from a study of normal human emotion, these methods permitted us to identify rCBF increases in the anteromedial temporal lobe free from the potentially confounding, combined effects of vascular activity and partial-volume averaging.

  16. Image-derived input function obtained in a 3TMR-brainPET

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Silva, N. A.; Herzog, H.; Weirich, C.; Tellmann, L.; Rota Kops, E.; Hautzel, H.; Almeida, P.

    2013-02-01

    Aim: The combination of a high-resolution MR-compatible BrainPET insert operated within a 3 T MAGNETOM Trio MR scanner is an excellent tool for obtaining an image derived input function (IDIF), due to simultaneous imaging. In this work, we explore the possibility of obtaining an IDIF from volumes of interest (VOI) defined over the carotid arteries (CAs) using the MR data. Material and methods: FDG data from three patients without brain disorders were included. VOIs were drawn bilaterally over the CAs on a MPRAGE image using a 50% isocontour (MR50VOI). CA PET/MR co-registration was examined based on an individual and combined CA co-registration. After that, to estimate the IDIF, the MR50VOI average (IDIF-A), four hottest pixels per plane (IDIF-4H) and four hottest pixels in VOI (IDIF-4V) were considered. A model-based correction for residual partial volume effects involving venous blood samples was applied, from which partial volume (PV) and spillover (SP) coefficients were estimated. Additionally, a theoretical PV coefficient (PVt) was calculated based on MR50VOI. Results: The results show an excellent co-registration between the MR and PET, with an area under the curve ratio between both co-registration methods of 1.00±0.04. A good agreement between PV and PVt was found for IDIF-A, with PV of 0.39±0.06 and PVt 0.40±0.03, and for IDIF-4H, with PV of 0.47±0.05 and PVt 0.47±0.03. The SPs were 0.20±0.03 and 0.21±0.03 for IDIF-A and IDIF-4H, respectively. Conclusion: The integration of a high resolution BrainPET in an MR scanner allows to obtain an IDIF from an MR-based VOI. This must be corrected for a residual partial volume effect.

  17. Application of single- and dual-energy CT brain tissue segmentation to PET monitoring of proton therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berndt, Bianca; Landry, Guillaume; Schwarz, Florian; Tessonnier, Thomas; Kamp, Florian; Dedes, George; Thieke, Christian; Würl, Matthias; Kurz, Christopher; Ganswindt, Ute; Verhaegen, Frank; Debus, Jürgen; Belka, Claus; Sommer, Wieland; Reiser, Maximilian; Bauer, Julia; Parodi, Katia

    2017-03-01

    The purpose of this work was to evaluate the ability of single and dual energy computed tomography (SECT, DECT) to estimate tissue composition and density for usage in Monte Carlo (MC) simulations of irradiation induced β + activity distributions. This was done to assess the impact on positron emission tomography (PET) range verification in proton therapy. A DECT-based brain tissue segmentation method was developed for white matter (WM), grey matter (GM) and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). The elemental composition of reference tissues was assigned to closest CT numbers in DECT space (DECTdist). The method was also applied to SECT data (SECTdist). In a validation experiment, the proton irradiation induced PET activity of three brain equivalent solutions (BES) was compared to simulations based on different tissue segmentations. Five patients scanned with a dual source DECT scanner were analyzed to compare the different segmentation methods. A single magnetic resonance (MR) scan was used for comparison with an established segmentation toolkit. Additionally, one patient with SECT and post-treatment PET scans was investigated. For BES, DECTdist and SECTdist reduced differences to the reference simulation by up to 62% when compared to the conventional stoichiometric segmentation (SECTSchneider). In comparison to MR brain segmentation, Dice similarity coefficients for WM, GM and CSF were 0.61, 0.67 and 0.66 for DECTdist and 0.54, 0.41 and 0.66 for SECTdist. MC simulations of PET treatment verification in patients showed important differences between DECTdist/SECTdist and SECTSchneider for patients with large CSF areas within the treatment field but not in WM and GM. Differences could be misinterpreted as PET derived range shifts of up to 4 mm. DECTdist and SECTdist yielded comparable activity distributions, and comparison of SECTdist to a measured patient PET scan showed improved agreement when compared to SECTSchneider. The agreement between predicted and measured PET

  18. [The brain mechanism of error detection: the P.E.T. study].

    PubMed

    Kireev, M V; Korotkov, A D; Poliakov, Iu I; Anichkov, A D; Medvedev, S V

    2011-10-01

    In present research, the brain maintenance of the error detection mechanism was studied in resting condition and while subjects consciously implemented incorrect actions (i.e. deception). Assessment of the regional cerebral blood flow revealed involvement of anterior cingulated cortex in deception. The obtained data indicate that it is impossible to consciously control the activity of the error detection mechanism. PET study of patients with obsessive compulsive disorder in resting condition revealed a decrease of brain glucose metabolism in the anterior cingulated cortex in comparison with healthy subjects. These data pointed to malfunctioning of the error detection mechanism. The findings support the formerly proposed hypothesis about the impact of the error detection mechanism in formation and support of obsessive compulsive disorder.

  19. Joint factor and kinetic analysis of dynamic FDOPA PET scans of brain cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Dowson, N; Bourgeat, P; Rose, S; Daglish, M; Smith, J; Fay, M; Coulthard, A; Winter, C; MacFarlane, D; Thomas, P; Crozier, S; Salvado, O

    2010-01-01

    Kinetic analysis is an essential tool of Positron Emission Tomography image analysis. However it requires a pure tissue time activity curve (TAC) in order to calculate the system parameters. Pure tissue TACs are particularly difficult to obtain in the brain as the low resolution of PET means almost all voxels are a mixture of tissues. Factor analysis explicitly accounts for mixing but is an underdetermined problem that can give arbitrary results. A joint factor and kinetic analysis is proposed whereby factor analysis explicitly accounts for mixing of tissues. Hence, more meaningful parameters are obtained by the kinetic models, which also ensure a less ambiguous solution to the factor analysis. The method was tested using a cylindrical phantom and the 18F-DOPA data of a brain cancer patient.

  20. Preclinical Properties of 18F-AV-45: A PET Agent for Aβ Plaques in the Brain

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Seok Rye; Golding, Geoff; Zhuang, Zhiping; Zhang, Wei; Lim, Nathaniel; Hefti, Franz; Benedum, Tyler E.; Kilbourn, Michael R.; Skovronsky, Daniel; Kung, Hank F.

    2011-01-01

    β-amyloid plaques (Aβ plaques) in the brain, containing predominantly fibrillary Aβ peptide aggregates, represent a defining pathologic feature of Alzheimer disease (AD). Imaging agents targeting the Aβ plaques in the living human brain are potentially valuable as biomarkers of pathogenesis processes in AD. (E)-4-(2-(6-(2-(2-(2-18F-fluoroethoxy)ethoxy)ethoxy)pyridin-3-yl)vinyl)-N-methyl benzenamine (18F-AV-45) is such as an agent currently in phase III clinical studies for PET of Aβ plaques in the brain. Methods In vitro binding of 18F-AV-45 to Aβ plaques in the postmortem AD brain tissue was evaluated by in vitro binding assay and autoradiography. In vivo biodistribution of 18F-AV-45 in mice and ex vivo autoradiography of AD transgenic mice (APPswe/PSEN1) with Aβ aggregates in the brain were performed. Small-animal PET of a monkey brain after an intravenous injection of 18F-AV-45 was evaluated. Results 18F-AV-45 displayed a high binding affinity and specificity to Aβ plaques (Kd, 3.72 ± 0.30 nM). In vitro autoradiography of postmortem human brain sections showed substantial plaque labeling in AD brains and not in the control brains. Initial high brain uptake and rapid washout from the brain of healthy mice and monkey were observed. Metabolites produced in the blood of healthy mice after an intravenous injection were identified. 18F-AV-45 displayed excellent binding affinity to Aβ plaques in the AD brain by ex vivo autoradiography in transgenic AD model mice. The results lend support that 18F-AV-45 may be a useful PET agent for detecting Aβ plaques in the living human brain. PMID:19837759

  1. Brain metabolic changes in Hodgkin disease patients following diagnosis and during the disease course: An 18F-FDG PET/CT study

    PubMed Central

    CHIARAVALLOTI, AGOSTINO; PAGANI, MARCO; CANTONETTI, MARIA; DI PIETRO, BARBARA; TAVOLOZZA, MARIO; TRAVASCIO, LAURA; DI BIAGIO, DANIELE; DANIELI, ROBERTA; SCHILLACI, ORAZIO

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate brain glucose metabolism in patients with Hodgkin disease (HD) after diagnosis and during chemotherapy treatment. Following the administration of first-line doxorubicin, bleomycin, vinblastine and dacarbazine (ABVD) chemotherapy, 74 HD patients underwent 18F-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (18F-FDG) positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography brain scans, both baseline (PET0) and interim (PET2) at the Department of Biomedicine and Prevention, University of Rome Tor Vergata (Rome, Italy). Fifty-seven patients were further evaluated 15±6 days after four additional cycles (PET6). Furthermore, a control group (CG) of 40 chemotherapy-naïve subjects was enrolled. Differences in brain 18F-FDG uptake between the CG, PET0, PET2 and PET6 scans were analyzed using statistical parametric mapping. Compared with the PET0 and CG scans, the PET2 scan demonstrated a higher metabolic activity in Brodmann area (BA) 39, and a metabolic reduction in BA 11 bilaterally and in left BA 32. All of these changes disappeared at PET6. The results of the present study indicate that ABVD chemotherapy has a limited impact on brain metabolism. PMID:25621038

  2. Plasma based markers of [11C] PiB-PET brain amyloid burden.

    PubMed

    Kiddle, Steven John; Thambisetty, Madhav; Simmons, Andrew; Riddoch-Contreras, Joanna; Hye, Abdul; Westman, Eric; Pike, Ian; Ward, Malcolm; Johnston, Caroline; Lupton, Michelle Katharine; Lunnon, Katie; Soininen, Hilkka; Kloszewska, Iwona; Tsolaki, Magda; Vellas, Bruno; Mecocci, Patrizia; Lovestone, Simon; Newhouse, Stephen; Dobson, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Changes in brain amyloid burden have been shown to relate to Alzheimer's disease pathology, and are believed to precede the development of cognitive decline. There is thus a need for inexpensive and non-invasive screening methods that are able to accurately estimate brain amyloid burden as a marker of Alzheimer's disease. One potential method would involve using demographic information and measurements on plasma samples to establish biomarkers of brain amyloid burden; in this study data from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative was used to explore this possibility. Sixteen of the analytes on the Rules Based Medicine Human Discovery Multi-Analyte Profile 1.0 panel were found to associate with [(11)C]-PiB PET measurements. Some of these markers of brain amyloid burden were also found to associate with other AD related phenotypes. Thirteen of these markers of brain amyloid burden--c-peptide, fibrinogen, alpha-1-antitrypsin, pancreatic polypeptide, complement C3, vitronectin, cortisol, AXL receptor kinase, interleukin-3, interleukin-13, matrix metalloproteinase-9 total, apolipoprotein E and immunoglobulin E--were used along with co-variates in multiple linear regression, and were shown by cross-validation to explain >30% of the variance of brain amyloid burden. When a threshold was used to classify subjects as PiB positive, the regression model was found to predict actual PiB positive individuals with a sensitivity of 0.918 and a specificity of 0.545. The number of APOE [Symbol: see text] 4 alleles and plasma apolipoprotein E level were found to contribute most to this model, and the relationship between these variables and brain amyloid burden was explored.

  3. Long-term effects of 'ecstasy' abuse on the human brain studied by FDG PET.

    PubMed

    Buchert, R; Obrocki, J; Thomasius, R; Väterlein, O; Petersen, K; Jenicke, L; Bohuslavizki, K H; Clausen, M

    2001-08-01

    The popular recreational drug, 'ecstasy', mainly contains 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) as the psychotropic agent. MDMA is suspected of causing neurotoxic lesions to the serotonergic system as demonstrated by animal studies, examinations of human cerebrospinal fluid, and the first positron emission tomography (PET) studies using the serotonin transporter ligand [11C]-McN5652. Damage of serotonergic afferents might mediate long-lasting alterations of cerebral glucose metabolism as a secondary effect. To study a relationship between ecstasy use and long-lasting alterations, PET using 2-[18F]-fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose (FDG) was performed in 93 ecstasy users and 27 subjects without any known history of illicit-drug abuse. As an index of glucose metabolism, mean normalized FDG uptake was determined in both groups using a computerized brain atlas, and was compared for a selected number of brain regions. FDG uptake was normalized in each individual by dividing local FDG uptake by the maximum FDG uptake in the individual's brain. Within the group of ecstasy users we examined the relationship between FDG uptake and cumulative ecstasy dose, time since last ecstasy ingestion at the time of PET scanning, and age at first ecstasy use, respectively. Normalized FDG uptake was reduced within the striatum and amygdala of ecstasy users when compared to controls. No statistically significant correlation of the FDG uptake and the cumulative dose of ecstasy was detected. A positive correlation was found in the cingulate between FDG uptake and the time since last ecstasy ingestion. As compared to the control group, normalized FDG uptake in the cingulate was reduced in ecstasy users who took ecstasy during the last 6 months, while it was elevated in former ecstasy users who did not consume ecstasy for more than 1 year. FDG uptake was significantly more affected in ecstasy users who started to consume ecstasy before the age of 18 years. In conclusion, ecstasy abuse causes long

  4. Specification and estimation of sources of bias affecting neurological studies in PET/MR with an anatomical brain phantom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teuho, J.; Johansson, J.; Linden, J.; Saunavaara, V.; Tolvanen, T.; Teräs, M.

    2014-01-01

    Selection of reconstruction parameters has an effect on the image quantification in PET, with an additional contribution from a scanner-specific attenuation correction method. For achieving comparable results in inter- and intra-center comparisons, any existing quantitative differences should be identified and compensated for. In this study, a comparison between PET, PET/CT and PET/MR is performed by using an anatomical brain phantom, to identify and measure the amount of bias caused due to differences in reconstruction and attenuation correction methods especially in PET/MR. Differences were estimated by using visual, qualitative and quantitative analysis. The qualitative analysis consisted of a line profile analysis for measuring the reproduction of anatomical structures and the contribution of the amount of iterations to image contrast. The quantitative analysis consisted of measurement and comparison of 10 anatomical VOIs, where the HRRT was considered as the reference. All scanners reproduced the main anatomical structures of the phantom adequately, although the image contrast on the PET/MR was inferior when using a default clinical brain protocol. Image contrast was improved by increasing the amount of iterations from 2 to 5 while using 33 subsets. Furthermore, a PET/MR-specific bias was detected, which resulted in underestimation of the activity values in anatomical structures closest to the skull, due to the MR-derived attenuation map that ignores the bone. Thus, further improvements for the PET/MR reconstruction and attenuation correction could be achieved by optimization of RAMLA-specific reconstruction parameters and implementation of bone to the attenuation template.

  5. Radionecrosis versus disease progression in brain metastasis. Value of (18)F-DOPA PET/CT/MRI.

    PubMed

    Hernández Pinzón, J; Mena, D; Aguilar, M; Biafore, F; Recondo, G; Bastianello, M

    2016-01-01

    The use of (18)F-DOPA PET/CT with magnetic resonance imaging fusion and the use of visual methods and quantitative analysis helps to differentiate between changes post-radiosurgery vs. suspicion of disease progression in a patient with brain metastases from melanoma, thus facilitating taking early surgical action.

  6. Quantitative imaging of protein targets in the human brain with PET

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gunn, Roger N.; Slifstein, Mark; Searle, Graham E.; Price, Julie C.

    2015-11-01

    PET imaging of proteins in the human brain with high affinity radiolabelled molecules has a history stretching back over 30 years. During this period the portfolio of protein targets that can be imaged has increased significantly through successes in radioligand discovery and development. This portfolio now spans six major categories of proteins; G-protein coupled receptors, membrane transporters, ligand gated ion channels, enzymes, misfolded proteins and tryptophan-rich sensory proteins. In parallel to these achievements in radiochemical sciences there have also been significant advances in the quantitative analysis and interpretation of the imaging data including the development of methods for image registration, image segmentation, tracer compartmental modeling, reference tissue kinetic analysis and partial volume correction. In this review, we analyze the activity of the field around each of the protein targets in order to give a perspective on the historical focus and the possible future trajectory of the field. The important neurobiology and pharmacology is introduced for each of the six protein classes and we present established radioligands for each that have successfully transitioned to quantitative imaging in humans. We present a standard quantitative analysis workflow for these radioligands which takes the dynamic PET data, associated blood and anatomical MRI data as the inputs to a series of image processing and bio-mathematical modeling steps before outputting the outcome measure of interest on either a regional or parametric image basis. The quantitative outcome measures are then used in a range of different imaging studies including tracer discovery and development studies, cross sectional studies, classification studies, intervention studies and longitudinal studies. Finally we consider some of the confounds, challenges and subtleties that arise in practice when trying to quantify and interpret PET neuroimaging data including motion artifacts

  7. Imaging Epigenetic Regulation by Histone Deacetylases in the Brain using PET/MRI with 18F-FAHA

    PubMed Central

    Yeh, Hsien-Hsien; Tian, Mei; Hinz, Rainer; Young, Daniel; Shavrin, Alexander; Mukhapadhyay, Uday; Flores, Leo G.; Balatoni, Julius; Soghomonyan, Suren; Jeong, Hwan J.; Pal, Ashutosh; Uthamanthil, Rajesh; Jackson, James N.; Nishii, Ryuichi; Mizuma, Hiroshi; Onoe, Hirotaka; Kagawa, Shinya; Higashi, Tatsuya; Fukumitsu, Nobuyoshi; Alauddin, Mian; Tong, William; Herholz, Karl; Gelovani, Juri G.

    2012-01-01

    Epigenetic modifications mediated by histone deacetylases (HDACs) play important roles in the mechanisms of different neurologic diseases and HDAC inhibitors (HDACIs) have shown promise in therapy. However, pharmacodynamic profiles of many HDACIs in the brain remain largely unknown due to the lack of validated methods for noninvasive imaging of HDACs expression-activity. In this study, dynamic PET/CT imaging was performed in 4 rhesus macaques using [18F]FAHA, a novel HDAC substrate, and [18F]fluoroacetate, the major radio-metabolite of [18F]FAHA, and fused with corresponding MR images of the brain. Quantification of [18F]FAHA accumulation in the brain was performed using a customized dual-tracer pharmacokinetic model. Immunohistochemical analyses of brain tissue revealed the heterogeneity of expression of individual HDACs in different brain structures and cell types and confirmed that PET/CT/MRI with [18F]FAHA reflects the level of expression-activity of HDAC class IIa enzymes. Furthermore, PET/CT/MRI with [18F]FAHA enabled non-invasive, quantitative assessment of pharmacodynamics of HDACs inhibitor SAHA in the brain. PMID:22995777

  8. Including anatomical and functional information in MC simulation of PET and SPECT brain studies. Brain-VISET: a voxel-based iterative method.

    PubMed

    Marti-Fuster, Berta; Esteban, Oscar; Thielemans, Kris; Setoain, Xavier; Santos, Andres; Ros, Domenec; Pavia, Javier

    2014-10-01

    Monte Carlo (MC) simulation provides a flexible and robust framework to efficiently evaluate and optimize image processing methods in emission tomography. In this work we present Brain-VISET (Voxel-based Iterative Simulation for Emission Tomography), a method that aims to simulate realistic [ (99m) Tc]-SPECT and [ (18) F]-PET brain databases by including anatomical and functional information. To this end, activity and attenuation maps generated using high-resolution anatomical images from patients were used as input maps in a MC projector to simulate SPECT or PET sinograms. The reconstructed images were compared with the corresponding real SPECT or PET studies in an iterative process where the activity inputs maps were being modified at each iteration. Datasets of 30 refractory epileptic patients were used to assess the new method. Each set consisted of structural images (MRI and CT) and functional studies (SPECT and PET), thereby allowing the inclusion of anatomical and functional variability in the simulation input models. SPECT and PET sinograms were obtained using the SimSET package and were reconstructed with the same protocols as those employed for the clinical studies. The convergence of Brain-VISET was evaluated by studying the behavior throughout iterations of the correlation coefficient, the quotient image histogram and a ROI analysis comparing simulated with real studies. The realism of generated maps was also evaluated. Our findings show that Brain-VISET is able to generate realistic SPECT and PET studies and that four iterations is a suitable number of iterations to guarantee a good agreement between simulated and real studies.

  9. Positron emission tomography (PET) studies of dopaminergic/cholinergic interactions in the baboon brain

    SciTech Connect

    Dewey, S.L.; Brodie, J.D.; Fowler, J.S.; MacGregor, R.R.; Schlyer, D.J.; King, P.T.; Alexoff, D.L.; Volkow, N.D.; Shiue, C.Y.; Wolf, A.P. )

    1990-01-01

    Interactions between the dopaminergic D2 receptor system and the muscarinic cholinergic system in the corpus striatum of adult female baboons (Papio anubis) were examined using positron emission tomography (PET) combined with (18F)N-methylspiroperidol (( 18F)NMSP) (to probe D2 receptor availability) and (N-11C-methyl)benztropine (to probe muscarinic cholinergic receptor availability). Pretreatment with benztropine, a long-lasting anticholinergic drug, bilaterally reduced the incorporation of radioactivity in the corpus striatum but did not alter that observed in the cerebellum or the rate of metabolism of (18F)NMSP in plasma. Pretreatment with unlabelled NMSP, a potent dopaminergic antagonist, reduced the incorporation of (N-11C-methyl)benztropine in all brain regions, with the greatest effect being in the corpus striatum greater than cortex greater than thalamus greater than cerebellum, but did not alter the rate of metabolism of the labelled benztropine in the plasma. These reductions in the incorporation of either (18F)NMSP or (N-11C-methyl)benztropine exceeded the normal variation in tracer incorporation in repeated studies in the same animal. This study demonstrates that PET can be used as a tool for investigating interactions between neurochemically different yet functionally linked neurotransmitters systems in vivo and provides insight into the consequences of multiple pharmacologic administration.

  10. Marker-less multi-frame motion tracking and compensation in PET-brain imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindsay, C.; Mukherjee, J. M.; Johnson, K.; Olivier, P.; Song, X.; Shao, L.; King, M. A.

    2015-03-01

    In PET brain imaging, patient motion can contribute significantly to the degradation of image quality potentially leading to diagnostic and therapeutic problems. To mitigate the image artifacts resulting from patient motion, motion must be detected and tracked then provided to a motion correction algorithm. Existing techniques to track patient motion fall into one of two categories: 1) image-derived approaches and 2) external motion tracking (EMT). Typical EMT requires patients to have markers in a known pattern on a rigid too attached to their head, which are then tracked by expensive and bulky motion tracking camera systems or stereo cameras. This has made marker-based EMT unattractive for routine clinical application. Our main contributions are the development of a marker-less motion tracking system that uses lowcost, small depth-sensing cameras which can be installed in the bore of the imaging system. Our motion tracking system does not require anything to be attached to the patient and can track the rigid transformation (6-degrees of freedom) of the patient's head at a rate 60 Hz. We show that our method can not only be used in with Multi-frame Acquisition (MAF) PET motion correction, but precise timing can be employed to determine only the necessary frames needed for correction. This can speeds up reconstruction by eliminating the unnecessary subdivision of frames.

  11. MRI-based elastic-mapping method for inter-subject comparison of brain FDG-PET images

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, J.; Huang, S.C.; Lin, K.P.; Small, G.; Phelps, M.E.

    1996-12-31

    Inter-subject anatomic differences prohibits direct image-wise statistical evaluation of brain FDG-PET images of Alzheimer`s disease (AD) patients. In this study, we propose a MRI-based elastic-mapping method which enables image-wise evaluation. The method involves intra-subject MR-PET registration, 3-D elastic mapping of two set of MR images, and elastically transforming the co-registered PET images. The MR-PET registration used simulated PET images, which were based on segmentation of MR images. In the 3-D elastic mapping stage, first a global linear scaling was applied to compensate for brain size difference, then a deformation field was obtained by minimizing the regional sum of squared difference between the two sets of MR images. Two groups (AD patient and normal control), each with three subjects, were included in the current study. After processing, images from all subjects have similar shapes. Averaging the images across all subjects (either within the individual group or for both groups) give images indistinguishable from original single subject FDG images (i.e. without much spatial resolution loss), except with lower image noise level. The method is expected to allow statistical image-wise analysis to be performed across different subjects.

  12. Validating novel tau PET tracer [F-18]-AV-1451 (T807) on postmortem brain tissue

    PubMed Central

    Marquie, Marta; Normandin, Marc D.; Vanderburg, Charles R.; Costantino, Isabel; Bien, Elizabeth A.; Rycyna, Lisa G.; Klunk, William E.; Mathis, Chester A.; Ikonomovic, Milos D.; Debnath, Manik L.; Vasdev, Neil; Dickerson, Bradford C.; Gomperts, Stephen N.; Growdon, John H.; Johnson, Keith A.; Frosch, Matthew P.; Hyman, Bradley T.; Gomez-Isla, Teresa

    2016-01-01

    Objective To examine region and substrate-specific autoradiographic and in vitro binding patterns of PET tracer [F-18]-AV-1451 (previously known as T807), tailored to allow in vivo detection of paired helical filament tau-containing lesions, and to determine whether there is off-target binding to other amyloid/non-amyloid proteins. Methods We applied [F-18]-AV-1451 phosphor screen autoradiography, [F-18]-AV-1451 nuclear emulsion autoradiography and [H-3]-AV-1451 in vitro binding assays to the study of postmortem samples from patients with a definite pathological diagnosis of Alzheimer’s disease, frontotemporal lobar degeneration-tau, frontotemporal lobar degeneration-TDP-43, progressive supranuclear palsy, corticobasal degeneration, dementia with Lewy bodies, multiple system atrophy, cerebral amyloid angiopathy and elderly controls free of pathology. Results Our data suggest that AV-1451 strongly binds to tau lesions primarily made of paired helical filaments in Alzheimer’s brains e.g. intra and extraneuronal tangles and dystrophic neurites, but does not seem to bind to a significant extent to neuronal and glial inclusions mainly composed of straight tau filaments in non-Alzheimer tauopathy brains or to β-amyloid, α-synuclein or TDP-43-containing lesions. AV-1451 off-target binding to neuromelanin- and melanin-containing cells and, to a lesser extent, to brain hemorrhagic lesions was identified. Interpretation Our data suggest that AV-1451 holds promise as surrogate marker for the detection of brain tau pathology in the form of tangles and paired helical filament-tau-containing neurites in Alzheimer’s brains but also point to its relatively lower affinity for lesions primarily made of straight tau filaments in non-Alzheimer tauopathy cases and to the existence of some AV-1451 off-target binding. These findings provide important insights for interpreting in vivo patterns of [F-18]-AV-1451 retention. PMID:26344059

  13. [(18)F]FDG-PET Combined with MRI Elucidates the Pathophysiology of Traumatic Brain Injury in Rats.

    PubMed

    Brabazon, Fiona; Wilson, Colin M; Shukla, Dinesh K; Mathur, Sanjeev; Jaiswal, Shalini; Bermudez, Sara; Byrnes, Kimberly R; Selwyn, Reed

    2017-03-01

    Non-invasive measurements of brain metabolism using (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) with positron emission tomography (PET) may provide important information about injury severity following traumatic brain injury (TBI). There is growing interest in the potential of combining functional PET imaging with anatomical and functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). This study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of combining clinically available FDG-PET with T2 and diffusion MR imaging, with a particular focus on inflammation and the influence of glial alterations after injury. Adult male Sprague Dawley rats underwent a moderate controlled cortical impact (CCI) injury followed by FDG-PET, MRI, and histological evaluation. FDG uptake showed significant alterations in the corpus callosum, hippocampus, and amygdala after TBI, demonstrating that a relatively "focal" CCI injury can result in global alterations. Analysis of MRI T2 intensity and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) also showed significant alterations in these regions to include cytotoxic and vasogenic edema. Histology showed increased glial activation in the corpus callosum and hippocampus that was associated with increased FDG uptake at sub-acute time-points. Glial activation was not detected in the amygdala but neuronal damage was evident, as the amygdala was the only region to show a reduction in both FDG uptake and ADC at sub-acute time-points. Overall, FDG-PET detected glial activation but was confounded by the presence of cell damage, whereas MRI consistently detected cell damage but was confounded by glial activation. These results demonstrate that FDG-PET and MRI can be used together to improve our understanding of the complex alterations in the brain after TBI.

  14. Optimization of PET activation studies based on the SNR measured in the 3-D Hoffman brain phantom.

    PubMed

    Li, H H; Votaw, J R

    1998-08-01

    This work investigates the noise properties of O-15 water PET images in an attempt to increase the sensitivity of activation studies. A method for computing the amount of noise within a region of interest (ROI) from the uncertainty in the raw data was implemented for three-dimensional (3-D) positron emission tomography (PET). The method was used to study the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of regions-of-interest (ROI's) inside a 3-D Hoffman brain phantom. Saturation occurs at an activity concentration of 2.2 mCi/l which corresponds to a 75-mCi O-15 water injection into a normal person of average weight. This establishes the upper limit for injections for human brain studies using 3-D PET on the Siemens ECAT 921 EXACT scanner. Data from human brain activation studies on four normal volunteers using two-dimensional (2-D) PET were analyzed. The biological variation was found to be 5% in 1-ml ROI's. The variance for a complete activation study was calculated, for a variety of protocols, by combining the Poisson noise propagated from the raw data in the phantom experiments with the biological variation. A protocol that is predicted to maximize the SNR in dual-condition activation experiments while remaining below the radiation safety limit is: ten scans with 45 mCi per injection. The data should not be corrected for random or scatter events since they do not help in the identification of activation sites while they do add noise to the image. Due to the lower noise level of 3-D PET, the threshold for detecting a true change in activity concentration is 10%-20% lower than 2-D PET. Because of this, a 3-D activation experiment using the Siemens 921 scanner requires fewer subjects for equal statistical power.

  15. NEMA and clinical evaluation of a novel brain PET-CT scanner

    PubMed Central

    Grogg, Kira S.; Toole, Terrence; Ouyang, Jinsong; Zhu, Xuping; Normandin, Marc; Johnson, Keith; Alpert, Nathaniel M.; Fakhri, Georges El

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the performance of a novel mobile human brain/small animal PET-CT system, developed by Photo Diagnostic Systems Inc. The scanner has a 35.7-cm diameter bore and a 22-cm axial extent. The detector ring has 7 modules each with 3×4 cerium-doped lutetium yttrium orthosilicate crystal blocks, each consisting of 22×22 outer layer and 21×21 inner layer crystals, each layer 1 cm thick. Light is collected by 12×12 SiPMs. The integrated CT can be used for attenuation correction and anatomical localization. The scanner was designed as a low-cost device that nevertheless produces high-quality PET images with the unique capability of battery-powered propulsion, enabling use in many settings. Methods Spatial resolution, sensitivity and noise-equivalent count rate (NECR) were measured based on the National Electrical Manufacturers Association NU2-2012 procedures. Reconstruction was done with tight energy and timing cuts: 400-650 keV and 7ns, and loose cuts: 350-700 keV and 10ns. Additional image quality measurements were made from phantoms, human, and animal studies. Performance was compared to a reference scanner (ECAT Exact HR+) with comparable imaging properties. Results The full-width half-max transverse resolution at 1 cm (10 cm) radius is 3.2 mm (5.2 mm radial, 3.1 mm tangential) and the axial resolution is 3.5 mm (4.0 mm). For tight (loose) cuts, a sensitivity of 7.5 (11.7) kcps/MBq at the center increases to 8.8 (13.9) kcps/MBq at a 10 cm radial offset. The maximum NECR of 19.5 (22.7) kcps was achieved for an activity concentration of 2.9 kBq/ml. Contrast recovery for 4:1 hot cylinder to warm background was 76% for the 25 mm diameter cylinder, but decreased with decreasing cylinder size. The quantitation agrees within 2% of the known activity distribution and concentration. Brain phantom and human scans have shown agreement in SUV values and image quality with the HR+. Conclusion We have characterized the performance of the NeuroPET

  16. Parkinson's disease-related perfusion and glucose metabolic brain patterns identified with PCASL-MRI and FDG-PET imaging

    PubMed Central

    Teune, Laura K.; Renken, Remco J.; de Jong, Bauke M.; Willemsen, Antoon T.; van Osch, Matthias J.; Roerdink, Jos B.T.M.; Dierckx, Rudi A.; Leenders, Klaus L.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Under normal conditions, the spatial distribution of resting cerebral blood flow and cerebral metabolic rate of glucose are closely related. A relatively new magnetic resonance (MR) technique, pseudo-continuous arterial spin labeling (PCASL), can be used to measure regional brain perfusion. We identified a Parkinson's disease (PD)-related perfusion and metabolic covariance pattern in the same patients using PCASL and FDG-PET imaging and assessed (dis)similarities in the disease-related pattern between perfusion and metabolism in PD patients. Methods Nineteen PD patients and seventeen healthy controls underwent [18F]-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) imaging. Of 14 PD patients and all healthy controls PCASL-MRI could be obtained. Data were analyzed using scaled subprofile model/principal component analysis (SSM/PCA). Results Unique Parkinson's disease-related perfusion and metabolic covariance patterns were identified using PCASL and FDG-PET in the same patients. The PD-related metabolic covariance brain pattern is in high accordance with previously reports. Also our disease-related perfusion pattern is comparable to the earlier described perfusion pattern. The most marked difference between our perfusion and metabolic patterns is the larger perfusion decrease in cortical regions including the insula. Conclusion We identified PD-related perfusion and metabolic brain patterns using PCASL and FDG-PET in the same patients which were comparable with results of existing research. In this respect, PCASL appears to be a promising addition in the early diagnosis of individual parkinsonian patients. PMID:25068113

  17. 18F-FDG PET/CT Brain Imaging on a Patient With Paraneoplastic Opsoclonus-Myoclonus Syndrome Arising out of a Mature Cystic Teratoma.

    PubMed

    Na, Chang Ju; Jeong, Young Jin; Lim, Seok Tae; Sohn, Myung-Hee; Jeong, Hwan-Jeong

    2016-02-01

    Opsoclonus-myoclonus syndrome (OMS) is an involuntary multidirectional eye movement accompanied by myoclonic jerks and a subtype of paraneoplastic neurological syndromes. Clinical features of OMS include opsoclonus with myoclonic jerks and cerebellar ataxia. Although there have been a few studies on brain FDG PET in paraneoplastic neurological syndrome associated with some kinds of malignancies such as lung and gastric cancer, brain FDG PET of patients with OMS caused by a mature cystic teratoma has not been reported. Here, we described a case of brain FDG PET/CT studies performed in a woman with OMS provoked from a mature cystic teratoma.

  18. Epileptic Activity Increases Cerebral Amino Acid Transport Assessed by 18F-Fluoroethyl-l-Tyrosine Amino Acid PET: A Potential Brain Tumor Mimic.

    PubMed

    Hutterer, Markus; Ebner, Yvonne; Riemenschneider, Markus J; Willuweit, Antje; McCoy, Mark; Egger, Barbara; Schröder, Michael; Wendl, Christina; Hellwig, Dirk; Grosse, Jirka; Menhart, Karin; Proescholdt, Martin; Fritsch, Brita; Urbach, Horst; Stockhammer, Guenther; Roelcke, Ulrich; Galldiks, Norbert; Meyer, Philipp T; Langen, Karl-Josef; Hau, Peter; Trinka, Eugen

    2017-01-01

    O-(2-(18)F-fluoroethyl)-l-tyrosine ((18)F-FET) PET is a well-established method increasingly used for diagnosis, treatment planning, and monitoring in gliomas. Epileptic activity, frequently occurring in glioma patients, can influence MRI findings. Whether seizures also affect (18)F-FET PET imaging is currently unknown. The aim of this retrospective analysis was to investigate the brain amino acid metabolism during epileptic seizures by (18)F-FET PET and to elucidate the pathophysiologic background.

  19. Factors affecting bilateral temporal lobe hypometabolism on 18F-FDG PET brain scan in unilateral medial temporal lobe epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Tepmongkol, Supatporn; Srikijvilaikul, Teeradej; Vasavid, Pataramon

    2013-11-01

    Bilateral temporal lobe hypometabolism (BTH) on (18)F-FDG PET brain scan is frequently seen in unilateral medial temporal lobe epilepsy (mTLE). This study aimed to identify the factors that influence BTH in patients with mTLE in order to minimize the significant factor(s) prior to performing a FDG-PET brain scan. Forty patients with unilateral mTLE who underwent (18)F-FDG PET scan for presurgical epilepsy workup were included. Bilateral temporal lobe hypometabolism of the anterior and medial parts of the temporal lobe was identified by a semiquantitative visual scale. Lateralization of TLE was identified by either intracranial EEG (22/40 cases) and/or improvement of seizure 2 years after temporal lobectomy (37/40 cases). The factors analyzed included basic demographic characteristics (age, sex, occupation, years of education, and handedness), history related to seizure (age at epilepsy onset and epilepsy duration, history of febrile seizure and head injury, frequency of seizure with impaired cognition in the last 3 months, presence of secondarily generalized tonic-clonic seizure, automatism side, presence of postictal confusion, and side of MRI temporal abnormality), information during video-EEG monitoring (clinical lateralization, interictal scalp EEG lateralization (interictal epileptiform discharge), and ictal scalp EEG lateralization), and information during the FDG-PET study (duration from the last seizure (≤2 days or >2 days), last seizure type, and the presence of slow waves or sharp waves during the FDG uptake period). Significant factors related to BTH were analyzed using multivariate analysis. Only the ≤2-day duration from the last seizure to the PET scan shows a significant effect (p=0.021) on BTH finding with 15 times greater incidence compared to a duration >2 days. Bilateral temporal lobe hypometabolism, which causes conflict in lateralizing the epileptogenic zone in temporal lobe epilepsy, can be avoided by performing PET scan more than 2 days

  20. Unexpected detection of melanoma brain metastasis by PET with iodine-124 betaCIT.

    PubMed

    Cascini, Giuseppe Lucio; Ciarmiello, Andrea; Labate, Angelo; Tamburrini, Stefania; Quattrone, Aldo

    2009-10-01

    To study the potential impact of iodine-124-beta-carbomethoxy-3beta(4-iodophenyl)tropane (I-124 betaCIT) in Parkinson disease, a I-124 betaCIT-PET scan was performed in 30-year-old man with suspected early Parkinson disease. The scan showed normal striatum uptake together with a focal spot in the left parietal cortex. The subsequent magnetic resonance imaging of the brain revealed a corresponding nodular lesion, presumably representing a metastasis. After clinical and diagnostic evaluation, a malignant metastatic melanoma was discovered. betaCIT is a cocaine derivative with a high affinity for dopamine and serotonin transporters mainly used to image the density of the dopamine reuptake transporter. In fact the role of I-123 betaCIT is typically represented by Parkinsonian syndromes of uncertain classification. The iodine-124 betaCIT uptake is a marker of dopamine transporters density, and the presence of focal uptake corresponding to a lesion on magnetic resonance images suggests a specific binding in this case of melanoma brain metastasis.

  1. Application of single- and dual-energy CT brain tissue segmentation to PET monitoring of proton therapy.

    PubMed

    Berndt, Bianca; Landry, Guillaume; Schwarz, Florian; Tessonnier, Thomas; Kamp, Florian; Dedes, Georgios; Thieke, Christian; Wuerl, Matthias; Kurz, Christopher; Ganswindt, Ute; Verhaegen, Frank; Debus, Juergen; Belka, Claus; Sommer, Wieland; Reiser, Maximilian; Bauer, Julia; Parodi, Katia

    2017-02-09

    The purpose of this work was to evaluate the ability of single and dual energy computed tomography (SECT, DECT) to estimate tissue composition and density for usage in Monte Carlo (MC) simulations of irradiation induced β+ activity distributions. This was done to assess the impact on positron emission tomography (PET) range verification in proton therapy. A DECT-based brain tissue segmentation method was developed for white matter (WM), grey matter (GM) and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). The elemental composition of reference tissues was assigned to closest CT numbers in DECT space (DECTdist). The method was also applied to SECT data (SECTdist). In a validation experiment, the proton irradiation induced PET activity of three brain equivalent solutions (BES) was compared to simulations based on different tissue segmentations. Five patients scanned with a dual source DECT scanner were analyzed to compare the different segmentation methods. A single magnetic resonance (MR) scan was used for comparison with an established segmentation toolkit. Additionally, one patient with SECT and post-treatment PET scans was investigated. For BES, DECTdist and SECTdist reduced differences to the reference simulation by up to 62% when compared to the conventional stoichiometric segmentation (SECTSchneider). In comparison to MR brain segmentation, Dice similarity coefficients for WM, GM and CSF were 0.61, 0.67 and 0.66 for DECTdist and 0.54, 0.41 and 0.66 for SECTdist. MC simulations of PET treatment verification in patients showed important differences between DECTdist/SECTdist and SECTSchneider for patients with large CSF areas within the treatment field but not in WM and GM. Differences could be misinterpreted as PET derived range shifts of up to 4 mm. DECTdist and SECTdist yielded comparable activity distributions, and comparison of SECT

  2. Markerless rat head motion tracking using structured light for brain PET imaging of unrestrained awake small animals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miranda, Alan; Staelens, Steven; Stroobants, Sigrid; Verhaeghe, Jeroen

    2017-03-01

    Preclinical positron emission tomography (PET) imaging in small animals is generally performed under anesthesia to immobilize the animal during scanning. More recently, for rat brain PET studies, methods to perform scans of unrestrained awake rats are being developed in order to avoid the unwanted effects of anesthesia on the brain response. Here, we investigate the use of a projected structure stereo camera to track the motion of the rat head during the PET scan. The motion information is then used to correct the PET data. The stereo camera calculates a 3D point cloud representation of the scene and the tracking is performed by point cloud matching using the iterative closest point algorithm. The main advantage of the proposed motion tracking is that no intervention, e.g. for marker attachment, is needed. A manually moved microDerenzo phantom experiment and 3 awake rat [18F]FDG experiments were performed to evaluate the proposed tracking method. The tracking accuracy was 0.33 mm rms. After motion correction image reconstruction, the microDerenzo phantom was recovered albeit with some loss of resolution. The reconstructed FWHM of the 2.5 and 3 mm rods increased with 0.94 and 0.51 mm respectively in comparison with the motion-free case. In the rat experiments, the average tracking success rate was 64.7%. The correlation of relative brain regional [18F]FDG uptake between the anesthesia and awake scan reconstructions was increased from on average 0.291 (not significant) before correction to 0.909 (p  <  0.0001) after motion correction. Markerless motion tracking using structured light can be successfully used for tracking of the rat head for motion correction in awake rat PET scans.

  3. Neurobehavioural dysfunction following mild traumatic brain injury in childhood: a case report with positive findings on positron emission tomography (PET).

    PubMed

    Roberts, M A; Manshadi, F F; Bushnell, D L; Hines, M E

    1995-07-01

    The present case study describes the neurobehavioural, neurodiagnostic, and positron emission tomography (PET) scan findings in a child who sustained a whiplash-type injury in a motor vehicle accident. Although neck and back pain were reported immediately, neurobehavioural symptoms, such as staring spells, gradually increased in frequency over a 2-year period following the accident. At 4 years after the accident the patient's symptoms persisted, as reported by teachers and parents, and more extensive diagnostic work-up was initiated. Standard EEG was normal while two ambulatory EEGs were abnormal and interpreted as epileptiform. A PET scan showed evidence of marked hypometabolism in both temporal lobes. Neuropsychological findings were consistent with PET findings and reflected verbal and visual memory deficits in the context of high average intelligence. Treatment with carbamazepine, verapamil, and fluoxetine greatly improved the patient's symptoms. The present case illustrates an example of a poor outcome in a paediatric case of mild traumatic brain injury, the importance of PET in demonstrating definitive evidence of brain dysfunction, and the child's positive response to anticonvulsant medication.

  4. Free-running ADC- and FPGA-based signal processing method for brain PET using GAPD arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Wei; Choi, Yong; Hong, Key Jo; Kang, Jihoon; Jung, Jin Ho; Huh, Youn Suk; Lim, Hyun Keong; Kim, Sang Su; Kim, Byung-Tae; Chung, Yonghyun

    2012-02-01

    Currently, for most photomultiplier tube (PMT)-based PET systems, constant fraction discriminators (CFD) and time to digital converters (TDC) have been employed to detect gamma ray signal arrival time, whereas anger logic circuits and peak detection analog-to-digital converters (ADCs) have been implemented to acquire position and energy information of detected events. As compared to PMT the Geiger-mode avalanche photodiodes (GAPDs) have a variety of advantages, such as compactness, low bias voltage requirement and MRI compatibility. Furthermore, the individual read-out method using a GAPD array coupled 1:1 with an array scintillator can provide better image uniformity than can be achieved using PMT and anger logic circuits. Recently, a brain PET using 72 GAPD arrays (4×4 array, pixel size: 3 mm×3 mm) coupled 1:1 with LYSO scintillators (4×4 array, pixel size: 3 mm×3 mm×20 mm) has been developed for simultaneous PET/MRI imaging in our laboratory. Eighteen 64:1 position decoder circuits (PDCs) were used to reduce GAPD channel number and three off-the-shelf free-running ADC and field programmable gate array (FPGA) combined data acquisition (DAQ) cards were used for data acquisition and processing. In this study, a free-running ADC- and FPGA-based signal processing method was developed for the detection of gamma ray signal arrival time, energy and position information all together for each GAPD channel. For the method developed herein, three DAQ cards continuously acquired 18 channels of pre-amplified analog gamma ray signals and 108-bit digital addresses from 18 PDCs. In the FPGA, the digitized gamma ray pulses and digital addresses were processed to generate data packages containing pulse arrival time, baseline value, energy value and GAPD channel ID. Finally, these data packages were saved to a 128 Mbyte on-board synchronous dynamic random access memory (SDRAM) and then transferred to a host computer for coincidence sorting and image reconstruction. In order to

  5. 55Cobalt (Co) as a PET-tracer in stroke, compared with blood flow, oxygen metabolism, blood volume and gadolinium-MRI.

    PubMed

    Stevens, H; Jansen, H M; De Reuck, J; Lemmerling, M; Strijckmans, K; Goethals, P; Lemahieu, I; de Jong, B M; Willemsen, A T; Korf, J

    1999-12-01

    Several studies have shown the feasibility of divalent cobalt (Co)-isotopes (55Co and 57Co) in imaging of neuronal damage in stroke, multiple sclerosis, cerebral tumors and traumatic brain injury. Little is known how regional Co uptake relates to other pathophysiological changes after stroke. Therefore, we compared 55Co-PET with functional parameters such as regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) using C(15)O(2), regional oxygen metabolism (rCMRO(2)) using 15O(2), regional cerebral blood volume (rCBV) and post-gadolinium (Gd) T(1)w-MRI to assess the permeability of the blood-brain-barrier (BBB). Sixteen patients (10 female; six male) aged 43 to 84 (mean 69) years with first ever stroke, as shown by CT or MRI, were examined with 55Co-PET and C(15)O(2)-, 15O(2)- and C(15)O-PET in one single session, in a period varying from 0 to 30 days after stroke-onset. Regions of infarction on C(15)O(2)- and 15O(2)-PET (defined by rCMRO(2)<65% or rCBF<45% of the contralateral value) were subsequently superimposed on the 55Co-PET scan. Clinical status was established using the Orgogozo stroke scale, which was assessed both at day 1 and at discharge (at least 6 weeks after day 1). Accumulation of 55Co was seen in eight out of 16 patients, occurring in areas showing a diminished oxygen metabolism, was only partially related to blood flow, and was located mainly outside the extent of the infarction or luxury perfusion as seen on post-Gd T(1)w-MRI. Statistical analysis showed a negative correlation between the Orgogozo score at discharge and the uptake of radioactive cobalt.

  6. PET quantification of the norepinephrine transporter in human brain with (S,S)-18F-FMeNER-D2.

    PubMed

    Moriguchi, Sho; Kimura, Yasuyuki; Ichise, Masanori; Arakawa, Ryosuke; Takano, Harumasa; Seki, Chie; Ikoma, Yoko; Takahata, Keisuke; Nagashima, Tomohisa; Yamada, Makiko; Mimura, Masaru; Suhara, Tetsuya

    2016-12-15

    Norepinephrine transporter (NET) in the brain plays important roles in human cognition and the pathophysiology of psychiatric disorders. Two radioligands, (S,S)-(11)C-MRB and (S,S)-(18)F-FMeNER-D2, have been used for imaging NETs in the thalamus and midbrain (including locus coeruleus) using positron emission topography (PET) in humans. However, NET density in the equally important cerebral cortex has not been well quantified because of unfavorable kinetics with (S,S)-(11)C-MRB and defluorination with (S,S)-(18)F-FMeNER-D2, which can complicate NET quantification in the cerebral cortex adjacent to the skull containing defluorinated (18)F radioactivity. In this study, we have established analysis methods of quantification of NET density in the brain including cerebral cortex using (S,S)-(18)F-FMeNER-D2 PET.

  7. Can brain thallium 201 SPECT substitute for F-18-FDG PET in detecting recurrent brain tumor in the presence of radiation necrosis; correlation with biopsy/surgery results

    SciTech Connect

    Antar, M.A.; Barnett, G.H.; McIntyre, W.J.

    1994-05-01

    F-18-FDG PET man has been largely successful in differentiating between radiation necrosis and recurrent brain tumors. Because of the expense and unavailability of PET scanners in most clinical centers, Tl-201 SPECT scan may offer an alternative. Therefore, we have evaluated both techniques in 18 patients (13 men and 5 women) whose ages range from 28 to 74 year old. Eleven patients had glioblastoma multiformi and 4 patients high grade astrocytoma and 3 patient meningiosarcoma. All patients received radiation therapy (5500-6000 Rad) and 13 patients received also chemotherapy. PET scan was performed 40-60 min. after 5-10 mCi of F-18 FDG (i.v.) and SPECT 30 min. after 4.6 mCi of Tl-201 chloride (i.v.). Severe FDG hypometabolism was evident in the irradiated regions, in all patients. Evidence of tumor recurrence was seen in 15 patients by both FDG PET and Thallium 201 SPECT. The ratio of peak pixel uptake of suspected tumor to that of normal cortex for FDG ranged from 0.67 to 1.5 with a mean of 1.02. The ratio of peak pixel uptake of thallium 201 in the suspected lesion to that of the contralateral scalp area ranges from 0.8 to 1.9 with mean of 1.1. There was concordance between the findings of PET and SPECT in 16/18 patients. However, the volume of involvement differs in these patients; most likely secondary to different mechanisms of uptake and both studies may complement each other. Subsequent biopsy/surgery in 11 patients confirmed tumor recurrence in 10 out of 11 patients. The findings suggest that thallium 201 brain SPECT scan can provide similar (but not identical) information regarding brain tumor recurrence in these patients.

  8. Evaluation of the Dopamine Hypothesis of ADHD with PET Brain Imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Swanson, James

    2010-04-28

    The Dopamine (DA) Hypothesis of ADHD (Wender, 1971; Levy, 1990) suggests that abnormalities in the synaptic mechanisms of DA transmission may be disrupted, and specific abnormalities in DA receptors and DA transporters (DAT) have been proposed (see Swanson et al, 1998). Early studies with small samples (e.g., n = 6, Dougherty et al, 1999) used single photon emission tomography (SPECT) and the radioligand (123I Altropane) to test a theory that ADHD may be caused by an over expression of DAT and reported 'a 70% increase in age-corrected dopamine transporter density in patients with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder compared with healthy controls' and suggested that treatment with stimulant medication decreased DAT density in ADHD patients and corrected an underlying abnormality (Krause et al, 2000). The potential importance of these findings was noted by Swanson (1999): 'If true, this is a major finding and points the way for new investigations of the primary pharmacological treatment for ADHD (with the stimulant drugs - e.g., methylphenidate), for which the dopamine transporter is the primary site of action. The potential importance of this finding demands special scrutiny'. This has been provided over the past decade using Positron Emission Tomography (PET). Brain imaging studies were conducted at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) in a relatively large sample of stimulant-naive adults assessed for DAT (11C cocaine) density and DA receptors (11C raclopride) availability. These studies (Volkow et al, 2007; Volkow et al, 2009) do not confirm the hypothesis of increased DAT density and suggest the opposite (i.e., decreased rather than increased DAT density), and follow-up after treatment (Wang et al, 2010) does not confirm the hypothesis that therapeutic doses of methylphenidate decrease DAT density and suggests the opposite (i.e., increased rather than decreased DAT density). The brain regions implicated by these PET imaging studies also suggest that a

  9. Evaluation of the Dopamine Hypothesis of ADHD with PET Brain Imaging

    ScienceCinema

    Swanson, James [University of California, Irvine, California, United States

    2016-07-12

    The Dopamine (DA) Hypothesis of ADHD (Wender, 1971; Levy, 1990) suggests that abnormalities in the synaptic mechanisms of DA transmission may be disrupted, and specific abnormalities in DA receptors and DA transporters (DAT) have been proposed (see Swanson et al, 1998). Early studies with small samples (e.g., n = 6, Dougherty et al, 1999) used single photon emission tomography (SPECT) and the radioligand (123I Altropane) to test a theory that ADHD may be caused by an over expression of DAT and reported 'a 70% increase in age-corrected dopamine transporter density in patients with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder compared with healthy controls' and suggested that treatment with stimulant medication decreased DAT density in ADHD patients and corrected an underlying abnormality (Krause et al, 2000). The potential importance of these findings was noted by Swanson (1999): 'If true, this is a major finding and points the way for new investigations of the primary pharmacological treatment for ADHD (with the stimulant drugs - e.g., methylphenidate), for which the dopamine transporter is the primary site of action. The potential importance of this finding demands special scrutiny'. This has been provided over the past decade using Positron Emission Tomography (PET). Brain imaging studies were conducted at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) in a relatively large sample of stimulant-naive adults assessed for DAT (11C cocaine) density and DA receptors (11C raclopride) availability. These studies (Volkow et al, 2007; Volkow et al, 2009) do not confirm the hypothesis of increased DAT density and suggest the opposite (i.e., decreased rather than increased DAT density), and follow-up after treatment (Wang et al, 2010) does not confirm the hypothesis that therapeutic doses of methylphenidate decrease DAT density and suggests the opposite (i.e., increased rather than decreased DAT density). The brain regions implicated by these PET imaging studies also suggest that a

  10. Classification of Parkinsonian Syndromes from FDG-PET Brain Data Using Decision Trees with SSM/PCA Features

    PubMed Central

    Mudali, D.; Teune, L. K.; Renken, R. J.; Leenders, K. L.; Roerdink, J. B. T. M.

    2015-01-01

    Medical imaging techniques like fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) have been used to aid in the differential diagnosis of neurodegenerative brain diseases. In this study, the objective is to classify FDG-PET brain scans of subjects with Parkinsonian syndromes (Parkinson's disease, multiple system atrophy, and progressive supranuclear palsy) compared to healthy controls. The scaled subprofile model/principal component analysis (SSM/PCA) method was applied to FDG-PET brain image data to obtain covariance patterns and corresponding subject scores. The latter were used as features for supervised classification by the C4.5 decision tree method. Leave-one-out cross validation was applied to determine classifier performance. We carried out a comparison with other types of classifiers. The big advantage of decision tree classification is that the results are easy to understand by humans. A visual representation of decision trees strongly supports the interpretation process, which is very important in the context of medical diagnosis. Further improvements are suggested based on enlarging the number of the training data, enhancing the decision tree method by bagging, and adding additional features based on (f)MRI data. PMID:25918550

  11. Automated reference region extraction and population-based input function for brain [11C]TMSX PET image analyses

    PubMed Central

    Rissanen, Eero; Tuisku, Jouni; Luoto, Pauliina; Arponen, Eveliina; Johansson, Jarkko; Oikonen, Vesa; Parkkola, Riitta; Airas, Laura; Rinne, Juha O

    2015-01-01

    [11C]TMSX ([7-N-methyl-11C]-(E)-8-(3,4,5-trimethoxystyryl)-1,3,7-trimethylxanthine) is a selective adenosine A2A receptor (A2AR) radioligand. In the central nervous system (CNS), A2AR are linked to dopamine D2 receptor function in striatum, but they are also important modulators of inflammation. The golden standard for kinetic modeling of brain [11C]TMSX positron emission tomography (PET) is to obtain arterial input function via arterial blood sampling. However, this method is laborious, prone to errors and unpleasant for study subjects. The aim of this work was to evaluate alternative input function acquisition methods for brain [11C]TMSX PET imaging. First, a noninvasive, automated method for the extraction of gray matter reference region using supervised clustering (SCgm) was developed. Second, a method for obtaining a population-based arterial input function (PBIF) was implemented. These methods were created using data from 28 study subjects (7 healthy controls, 12 multiple sclerosis patients, and 9 patients with Parkinson's disease). The results with PBIF correlated well with original plasma input, and the SCgm yielded similar results compared with cerebellum as a reference region. The clustering method for extracting reference region and the population-based approach for acquiring input for dynamic [11C]TMSX brain PET image analyses appear to be feasible and robust methods, that can be applied in patients with CNS pathology. PMID:25370856

  12. Automated reference region extraction and population-based input function for brain [(11)C]TMSX PET image analyses.

    PubMed

    Rissanen, Eero; Tuisku, Jouni; Luoto, Pauliina; Arponen, Eveliina; Johansson, Jarkko; Oikonen, Vesa; Parkkola, Riitta; Airas, Laura; Rinne, Juha O

    2015-01-01

    [(11)C]TMSX ([7-N-methyl-(11)C]-(E)-8-(3,4,5-trimethoxystyryl)-1,3,7-trimethylxanthine) is a selective adenosine A2A receptor (A2AR) radioligand. In the central nervous system (CNS), A2AR are linked to dopamine D2 receptor function in striatum, but they are also important modulators of inflammation. The golden standard for kinetic modeling of brain [(11)C]TMSX positron emission tomography (PET) is to obtain arterial input function via arterial blood sampling. However, this method is laborious, prone to errors and unpleasant for study subjects. The aim of this work was to evaluate alternative input function acquisition methods for brain [(11)C]TMSX PET imaging. First, a noninvasive, automated method for the extraction of gray matter reference region using supervised clustering (SCgm) was developed. Second, a method for obtaining a population-based arterial input function (PBIF) was implemented. These methods were created using data from 28 study subjects (7 healthy controls, 12 multiple sclerosis patients, and 9 patients with Parkinson's disease). The results with PBIF correlated well with original plasma input, and the SCgm yielded similar results compared with cerebellum as a reference region. The clustering method for extracting reference region and the population-based approach for acquiring input for dynamic [(11)C]TMSX brain PET image analyses appear to be feasible and robust methods, that can be applied in patients with CNS pathology.

  13. FDG-PET in the Evaluation of Brain Metabolic Changes Induced by Cognitive Stimulation in aMCI Subjects.

    PubMed

    Ciarmiello, Andrea; Gaeta, Maria Chiara; Benso, Francesco; Del Sette, Massimo

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive training has reported to improve cognitive performance in Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) as well as in older healthy subjects. 18F-FDG-PET is widely used in the diagnoses of dementia for its ability to identify early metabolic changes. This study was aimed to assess the effect of cognitive stimulation on brain metabolic network and clinical cognitive performance. Thirty aMCI subjects were enrolled in the study and allocated in two groups matched for cognitive profile, sex and schooling and then randomly assigned to the training arm or to the placebo arm. All subjects underwent neuropsychological assessment and PET imaging before and after intervention. We found significant association between brain metabolism and cognitive stimulation in treated aMCI subjects. Brain metabolic changes included Brodmann areas reported to be involved in working memory and attentive processes as well as executive functions. Our study shows that metabolic changes occur earlier than possible clinical changes related to the intervention. 18F-FDG-PET could provide a useful biomarker of response to identify a population of aMCI suitable to respond to treatment, according to most recent data on default network mode and its adaptivity to external stimuli.

  14. Evaluation of regional differences of tracer appearance time in cerebral tissues using (/sup 15/O) water and dynamic positron emission tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Iida, H.; Higano, S.; Tomura, N.; Shishido, F.; Kanno, I.; Miura, S.; Murakami, M.; Takahashi, K.; Sasaki, H.; Uemura, K.

    1988-04-01

    The tracer appearance time relative to the radial artery-sampling site has been evaluated in six brain locations in five human subjects using dynamic positron emission tomography (PET) following the bolus injection of H/sub 2/(/sup 15/)O. There was a maximum difference of +/- 2 s from the average in each location. To globally adjust the timing difference between the measured arterial curve and the PET scan, a correction method was developed based on a nonlinear least-squares fitting procedure. This new technique determined the global time delay with an accuracy of +/- 0.5 s. On the other hand, the linear backward extrapolation method resulted in a systematic error of 4 s.

  15. High-resolution imaging of the large non-human primate brain using microPET: a feasibility study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naidoo-Variawa, S.; Hey-Cunningham, A. J.; Lehnert, W.; Kench, P. L.; Kassiou, M.; Banati, R.; Meikle, S. R.

    2007-11-01

    The neuroanatomy and physiology of the baboon brain closely resembles that of the human brain and is well suited for evaluating promising new radioligands in non-human primates by PET and SPECT prior to their use in humans. These studies are commonly performed on clinical scanners with 5 mm spatial resolution at best, resulting in sub-optimal images for quantitative analysis. This study assessed the feasibility of using a microPET animal scanner to image the brains of large non-human primates, i.e. papio hamadryas (baboon) at high resolution. Factors affecting image accuracy, including scatter, attenuation and spatial resolution, were measured under conditions approximating a baboon brain and using different reconstruction strategies. Scatter fraction measured 32% at the centre of a 10 cm diameter phantom. Scatter correction increased image contrast by up to 21% but reduced the signal-to-noise ratio. Volume resolution was superior and more uniform using maximum a posteriori (MAP) reconstructed images (3.2-3.6 mm3 FWHM from centre to 4 cm offset) compared to both 3D ordered subsets expectation maximization (OSEM) (5.6-8.3 mm3) and 3D reprojection (3DRP) (5.9-9.1 mm3). A pilot 18F-2-fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose ([18F]FDG) scan was performed on a healthy female adult baboon. The pilot study demonstrated the ability to adequately resolve cortical and sub-cortical grey matter structures in the baboon brain and improved contrast when images were corrected for attenuation and scatter and reconstructed by MAP. We conclude that high resolution imaging of the baboon brain with microPET is feasible with appropriate choices of reconstruction strategy and corrections for degrading physical effects. Further work to develop suitable correction algorithms for high-resolution large primate imaging is warranted.

  16. Brain metastases detectability of routine whole body (18)F-FDG PET and low dose CT scanning in 2502 asymptomatic patients with solid extracranial tumors.

    PubMed

    Bochev, Pavel; Klisarova, Aneliya; Kaprelyan, Ara; Chaushev, Borislav; Dancheva, Zhivka

    2012-01-01

    As fluorine-18-fluorodesoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography ( (18)F-FDG PET/CT) is gaining wider availability, more and more patients with malignancies undergo whole body PET/CT, mostly to assess tumor spread in the rest of the body, but not in the brain. Brain is a common site of metastatic spread in patients with solid extracranial tumors. Gold standard in the diagnosis of brain metastases remains magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). However MRI is not routinely indicated and is not available for all cancer patients. Fluorine-18-FDG PET is considered as having poor sensitivity in detecting brain metastases, but this may not be true for PET/CT. The aim of our study was to assess the value of (18)F-FDG PET/CT in the detection of brain metastases found by whole body scan including the brain, in patients with solid extracranial neoplasms. A total of 2502 patients with solid extracranial neoplasms were studied. All patients underwent a routine whole body (18)F-FDG PET/CT scan with the whole brain included in the scanned field. Patients with known or suspected brain metastases were preliminary excluded from the study. Hypermetabolic and ring-like brain lesions on the PET scan were considered as metastases. Lesions with CT characteristics of brain metastases were regarded as such irrespective of their metabolic pattern. Lesions in doubt were verified by MRI during first testing or on follow-up or by operation. Our results showed that brain lesions, indicative of and verified to be metastases were detected in 25 out of the 2502 patients (1%), with lung cancer being the most common primary. Twenty three out of these 25 patients had no neurological symptoms by the time of the scan. The detection rate of brain metastases was relatively low, but information was obtained with a minimum increase of radiation burden. In conclusion, whole body (18)F-FDG PET/CT detected brain metastases in 1% of the patients if brain was included in the scanned field. Brain

  17. Development of a New Radiofluorinated Quinoline Analog for PET Imaging of Phosphodiesterase 5 (PDE5) in Brain

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jianrong; Wenzel, Barbara; Dukic-Stefanovic, Sladjana; Teodoro, Rodrigo; Ludwig, Friedrich-Alexander; Deuther-Conrad, Winnie; Schröder, Susann; Chezal, Jean-Michel; Moreau, Emmanuel; Brust, Peter; Maisonial-Besset, Aurélie

    2016-01-01

    Phosphodiesterases (PDEs) are enzymes that play a major role in cell signalling by hydrolysing the secondary messengers cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and/or cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) throughout the body and brain. Altered cyclic nucleotide-mediated signalling has been associated with a wide array of disorders, including neurodegenerative disorders. Recently, PDE5 has been shown to be involved in neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer’s disease, but its precise role has not been elucidated yet. To visualize and quantify the expression of this enzyme in brain, we developed a radiotracer for specific PET imaging of PDE5. A quinoline-based lead compound has been structurally modified resulting in the fluoroethoxymethyl derivative ICF24027 with high inhibitory activity towards PDE5 (IC50 = 1.86 nM). Radiolabelling with fluorine-18 was performed by a one-step nucleophilic substitution reaction using a tosylate precursor (RCY(EOB) = 12.9% ± 1.8%; RCP > 99%; SA(EOS) = 70–126 GBq/μmol). In vitro autoradiographic studies of [18F]ICF24027 on different mouse tissue as well as on porcine brain slices demonstrated a moderate specific binding to PDE5. In vivo studies in mice revealed that [18F]ICF24027 was metabolized under formation of brain penetrable radiometabolites making the radiotracer unsuitable for PET imaging of PDE5 in brain. PMID:27110797

  18. Performance Enhancement of the RatCAP Awake Rate Brain PET System

    SciTech Connect

    Vaska, P.; Vaska, P.; Woody, C.; Schlyer, D.; Radeka, V.; O'Connor, P.; Park, S.-J.; Pratte, J.-F.; Junnarkar, M.; Purschke, S.; Southekal, S.; Stoll, S.; Schiffer, W.; Neill, J.; Wharton, D.; Myers, N.; Wiley, S.; Kandasamy, A.; Fried, J.; Krishnamoorthy, S. Kriplani, A.; Maramraju, S.; Lecomte, R.; Fontaine, R.

    2011-03-01

    The first full prototype of the RatCAP PET system, designed to image the brain of a rat while conscious, has been completed. Initial results demonstrated excellent spatial resolution, 1.8 mm FWHM with filtered backprojection and <1.5 mm FWHM with a Monte Carlo based MLEM method. However, noise equivalent countrate studies indicated the need for better timing to mitigate the effect of randoms. Thus, the front-end ASIC has been redesigned to minimize time walk, an accurate coincidence time alignment method has been implemented, and a variance reduction technique for the randoms is being developed. To maximize the quantitative capabilities required for neuroscience, corrections are being implemented and validated for positron range and photon noncollinearity, scatter (including outside the field of view), attenuation, randoms, and detector efficiency (deadtime is negligible). In addition, a more robust and compact PCI-based optical data acquisition system has been built to replace the original VME-based system while retaining the linux-based data processing and image reconstruction codes. Finally, a number of new animal imaging experiments have been carried out to demonstrate the performance of the RatCAP in real imaging situations, including an F-18 fluoride bone scan, a C-11 raclopride scan, and a dynamic C-11 methamphetamine scan.

  19. Improved attenuation correction for freely moving animal brain PET studies using a virtual scanner geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angelis, Georgios I.; Ryder, William J.; Kyme, Andre Z.; Fulton, Roger R.; Meikle, Steven R.

    2014-03-01

    Attenuation correction in positron emission tomography brain imaging of freely moving animals can be very challenging since the body of the animal is often within the field of view and introduces a non negligible atten- uating factor that can degrade the quantitative accuracy of the reconstructed images. An attractive approach that avoids the need for a transmission scan involves the generation of the convex hull of the animal's head based on the reconstructed emission images. However, this approach ignores the potential attenuation introduced by the animal's body. In this work, we propose a virtual scanner geometry, which moves in synchrony with the animal's head and discriminates between those events that traverse only the animal's head (and therefore can be accurately compensated for attenuation) and those that might have also traversed the animal's body. For each pose a new virtual scanner geometry was defined and therefore a new system matrix was calculated leading to a time-varying system matrix. This new approach was evaluated on phantom data acquired on the microPET Focus 220 scanner using a custom-made rat phantom. Results showed that when the animal's body is within the FOV and not accounted for during attenuation correction it can lead to bias of up to 10%. On the contrary, at- tenuation correction was more accurate when the virtual scanner was employed leading to improved quantitative estimates (bias <2%), without the need to account for the animal's body.

  20. Motion correction of PET brain images through deconvolution: I. Theoretical development and analysis in software simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faber, T. L.; Raghunath, N.; Tudorascu, D.; Votaw, J. R.

    2009-02-01

    Image quality is significantly degraded even by small amounts of patient motion in very high-resolution PET scanners. Existing correction methods that use known patient motion obtained from tracking devices either require multi-frame acquisitions, detailed knowledge of the scanner, or specialized reconstruction algorithms. A deconvolution algorithm has been developed that alleviates these drawbacks by using the reconstructed image to estimate the original non-blurred image using maximum likelihood estimation maximization (MLEM) techniques. A high-resolution digital phantom was created by shape-based interpolation of the digital Hoffman brain phantom. Three different sets of 20 movements were applied to the phantom. For each frame of the motion, sinograms with attenuation and three levels of noise were simulated and then reconstructed using filtered backprojection. The average of the 20 frames was considered the motion blurred image, which was restored with the deconvolution algorithm. After correction, contrast increased from a mean of 2.0, 1.8 and 1.4 in the motion blurred images, for the three increasing amounts of movement, to a mean of 2.5, 2.4 and 2.2. Mean error was reduced by an average of 55% with motion correction. In conclusion, deconvolution can be used for correction of motion blur when subject motion is known.

  1. Image derived input functions for dynamic High Resolution Research Tomograph PET brain studies.

    PubMed

    Mourik, Jurgen E M; van Velden, Floris H P; Lubberink, Mark; Kloet, Reina W; van Berckel, Bart N M; Lammertsma, Adriaan A; Boellaard, Ronald

    2008-12-01

    The High Resolution Research Tomograph (HRRT) is a dedicated human brain positron emission tomography (PET) scanner. The aim of the present study was to validate the use of image derived input functions (IDIF) as an alternative for arterial sampling for HRRT human brain studies. To this end, IDIFs were extracted from 3D ordinary Poisson ordered subsets expectation maximization (OP-OSEM) and reconstruction based partial volume corrected (PVC) OP-OSEM images. IDIFs, either derived directly from regions of interest or further calibrated using manual samples taken during scans, were evaluated for dynamic [(11)C]flumazenil data (n=6). Results obtained with IDIFs were compared with those obtained using blood sampler input functions (BSIF). These comparisons included areas under the curve (AUC) for peak (0-3.3 min) and tail (3.3-55.0 min). In addition, slope, intercept and Pearson's correlation coefficient of tracer kinetic analysis results based on IDIF and BSIF were calculated for each subject. Good peak AUC ratios (0.83+/-0.21) between IDIF and BSIF were found for calibrated IDIFs extracted from OP-OSEM images. This combination of IDIFs and images also provided good slope values (1.07+/-0.11). Improved resolution, as obtained with PVC OP-OSEM, changed AUC ratios to 1.14+/-0.35 and, for tracer kinetic analysis, slopes changed to 0.95+/-0.13. For all reconstructions, non-calibrated IDIFs gave poorer results (>61+/-34% higher slopes) compared with calibrated IDIFs. The results of this study indicate that the use of IDIFs, extracted from OP-OSEM or PVC OP-OSEM images, is feasible for dynamic HRRT data, thereby obviating the need for online arterial sampling.

  2. Cerebral 5-HT release correlates with [(11)C]Cimbi36 PET measures of 5-HT2A receptor occupancy in the pig brain.

    PubMed

    Jørgensen, Louise M; Weikop, Pia; Villadsen, Jonas; Visnapuu, Tanel; Ettrup, Anders; Hansen, Hanne D; Baandrup, Anders O; Andersen, Flemming L; Bjarkam, Carsten R; Thomsen, Carsten; Jespersen, Bo; Knudsen, Gitte M

    2017-02-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) can, when used with appropriate radioligands, non-invasively generate temporal and spatial information about acute changes in brain neurotransmitter systems. We for the first time evaluate the novel 5-HT2A receptor agonist PET radioligand, [(11)C]Cimbi-36, for its sensitivity to detect changes in endogenous cerebral 5-HT levels, as induced by different pharmacological challenges. To enable a direct translation of PET imaging data to changes in brain 5-HT levels, we calibrated the [(11)C]Cimbi-36 PET signal in the pig brain by simultaneous measurements of extracellular 5-HT levels with microdialysis and [(11)C]Cimbi-36 PET after various acute interventions (saline, citalopram, citalopram + pindolol, fenfluramine). In a subset of pigs, para-chlorophenylalanine pretreatment was given to deplete cerebral 5-HT. The interventions increased the cerebral extracellular 5-HT levels to 2-11 times baseline, with fenfluramine being the most potent pharmacological enhancer of 5-HT release, and induced a varying degree of decline in [(11)C]Cimbi-36 binding in the brain, consistent with the occupancy competition model. The observed correlation between changes in the extracellular 5-HT level in the pig brain and the 5-HT2A receptor occupancy indicates that [(11)C]Cimbi-36 binding is sensitive to changes in endogenous 5-HT levels, although only detectable with PET when the 5-HT release is sufficiently high.

  3. One-step preparation of [(18)F]FPBM for PET imaging of serotonin transporter (SERT) in the brain.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Hongwen; Zhang, Yan; Wu, Zehui; Zhu, Lin; Choi, Seok Rye; Ploessl, Karl; Kung, Hank F

    2016-08-01

    Serotonin transporters (SERT) in the brain play an important role in normal brain function. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors such as fluoxetine, sertraline, paroxetine, escitalopram, etc., specifically target SERT binding in the brain. Development of SERT imaging agents may be useful for studying the function of SERT by in vivo imaging. A one-step preparation of [(18)F]FPBM, 2-(2'-(dimethylamino)methyl)-4'-(3-([(18)F]fluoropropoxy)phenylthio)benzenamine, for positron emission tomography (PET) imaging of SERT binding in the brain was achieved. An active OTs intermediate, 9, was reacted with [(18)F]F(-)/K222 to produce [(18)F]FPBM in one step and in high radiochemical yield. This labeling reaction was evaluated and optimized under different temperatures, bases, solvents, and varying amounts of precursor 9. The radiolabeling reaction led to the desired [(18)F]FPBM in one step and the crude product was purified by HPLC purification to give no-carrier-added [(18)F]FPBM (radiochemical yield, 24-33%, decay corrected; radiochemical purity >99%). PET imaging studies in normal monkeys (n=4) showed fast, pronounced uptakes in the midbrain and thalamus, regions known to be rich in SERT binding sites. A displacement experiment with escitalopram (5mg/kg iv injection at 30min after [(18)F]FPBM injection) showed a rapid and complete reversal of SERT binding, suggesting that binding by [(18)F]FPBM was highly specific and reversible. A one-step radiolabeling method coupled with HPLC purification for preparation of [(18)F]FPBM was developed. Imaging studies suggest that it is feasible to use this method to prepare [(18)F]FPBM for in vivo PET imaging of SERT binding in the brain.

  4. Feedback-controlled bolus plus infusion (FC-B/I) method for quantitative drug assessment in living brain with PET

    PubMed Central

    Ohba, Hiroyuki; Harada, Norihiro; Nishiyama, Shingo; Kakiuchi, Takeharu; Kimura, Yuichi; Tsukada, Hideo

    2013-01-01

    We have developed a feedback-controlled bolus plus infusion (FC-B/I) method for monitoring the interaction between positron emission tomography (PET) ligands and their specific target molecules with PET. The usefulness of the FC-B/I method was evaluated by the direct interaction between [11C]raclopride, a dopamine D2 receptor (D2R) ligand, and cold raclopride (10 and 100 μg/kg) in the brains of conscious monkeys. The present results demonstrated that the FC-B/I method could achieve the equilibrium state of [11C]raclopride in the striatum of monkey brain, and also that the cold raclopride-induced reduction of [11C]raclopride binding to D2R was observed in a dose-dependent manner. Good correlations of distribution volume ratio of the striatum to cerebellum between the conventional bolus plus infusion (B/I) method and the FC-B/I method as well as between the conventional bolus injection method and the FC-B/I method were observed. These results indicated that the system could be a useful tool for the evaluation of interaction between drug candidates and their target molecules like enzymes, receptors, and transporters by using of their specific PET ligands. PMID:22968323

  5. Advancing PET science for new measures of brain function. Progress report, January 1, 1994--December 31, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Kuhl, D.E.

    1994-10-01

    This project has continued the development of new chemistry and imaging physics applicable to PET studies of the human brain. In basic radiochemistry research, the authors have developed a modified approach to solid-phase supported [{sup 11}C]methylation system, in part dependent on the design, fabrication and validation of new small, sensitive and accurate positron detectors useful in tracking the flow of radioactivity through the synthesis apparatus. Radiopharmaceutical efforts have resulted in synthesis of new tracers of mitochondrial enzymes. For evaluation of new PET radiotracers, the authors have applied new models of unilateral brain lesions using quinolinic acid and MPP+, as models of neurodegenerative diseases. In the physics and data analysis research area the authors have developed faster and more accurate means of performing image reconstruction for use with both emission and transmission data. The authors are optimizing acquisition and kinetic modeling strategies for new radiotracers. The authors also have implemented and proven the utility of performing task switching during PET CBF activation studies for the purpose of enhancing signal-to-noise and greater detectability of areas of activation. The authors also working on routines for standardization of analysis strategies for group vs. group and individual vs. group comparisons.

  6. Comparison of brain MRI and 18F-FDG PET in the differential diagnosis of multiple system atrophy from Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Kyum-Yil; Choi, Choong G; Kim, Jae S; Lee, Myoung C; Chung, Sun J

    2007-12-01

    To investigate the diagnostic value of brain magnetic resonance image (MRI) and (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography ((18)F-FDG PET) in the differentiation of multiple system atrophy (MSA) from Parkinson's disease (PD). Thirty-five patients with MSA (23 MSA-P and 12 MSA-C) and 17 patients with PD were included in this study. Overall correct diagnosis rates between clinical and imaging diagnosis among MSA-P, MSA-C, and PD patients were 80% for visual MRI analysis, 88.5% for visual (18)F-FDG PET analysis, and 84.3% for SPM-supported analysis of (18)F-FDG PET. The sensitivity of brain MRI, and visual and SPM analysis of (18)F-FDG PET in differentiating MSA from PD was 72.7%, 90.9%, and 95.5%, respectively, the specificity was 100% for each imaging analysis, the positive predictive value was 100% for each imaging analysis, and the negative predictive value was 60%, 81.8%, and 90%, respectively. Our results suggest that brain MRI and (18)F-FDG PET are diagnostically useful in differentiating MSA (MSA-P and MSA-C) from PD, and indicate that (18)F-FDG PET has a tendency toward higher sensitivity compared to brain MRI, but a larger longitudinal study including pathological data will be required to confirm our findings.

  7. Predicting conversion from MCI to AD with FDG-PET brain images at different prodromal stages.

    PubMed

    Cabral, Carlos; Morgado, Pedro M; Campos Costa, Durval; Silveira, Margarida

    2015-03-01

    Early diagnosis of Alzheimer disease (AD), while still at the stage known as mild cognitive impairment (MCI), is important for the development of new treatments. However, brain degeneration in MCI evolves with time and differs from patient to patient, making early diagnosis a very challenging task. Despite these difficulties, many machine learning techniques have already been used for the diagnosis of MCI and for predicting MCI to AD conversion, but the MCI group used in previous works is usually very heterogeneous containing subjects at different stages. The goal of this paper is to investigate how the disease stage impacts on the ability of machine learning methodologies to predict conversion. After identifying the converters and estimating the time of conversion (TC) (using neuropsychological test scores), we devised 5 subgroups of MCI converters (MCI-C) based on their temporal distance to the conversion instant (0, 6, 12, 18 and 24 months before conversion). Next, we used the FDG-PET images of these subgroups and trained classifiers to distinguish between the MCI-C at different stages and stable non-converters (MCI-NC). Our results show that MCI to AD conversion can be predicted as early as 24 months prior to conversion and that the discriminative power of the machine learning methods decreases with the increasing temporal distance to the TC, as expected. These findings were consistent for all the tested classifiers. Our results also show that this decrease arises from a reduction in the information contained in the regions used for classification and by a decrease in the stability of the automatic selection procedure.

  8. Attenuation correction for freely moving small animal brain PET studies based on a virtual scanner geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angelis, G. I.; Kyme, A. Z.; Ryder, W. J.; Fulton, R. R.; Meikle, S. R.

    2014-10-01

    Attenuation correction in positron emission tomography brain imaging of freely moving animals is a very challenging problem since the torso of the animal is often within the field of view and introduces a non negligible attenuating factor that can degrade the quantitative accuracy of the reconstructed images. In the context of unrestrained small animal imaging, estimation of the attenuation correction factors without the need for a transmission scan is highly desirable. An attractive approach that avoids the need for a transmission scan involves the generation of the hull of the animal’s head based on the reconstructed motion corrected emission images. However, this approach ignores the attenuation introduced by the animal’s torso. In this work, we propose a virtual scanner geometry which moves in synchrony with the animal’s head and discriminates between those events that traversed only the animal’s head (and therefore can be accurately compensated for attenuation) and those that might have also traversed the animal’s torso. For each recorded pose of the animal’s head a new virtual scanner geometry is defined and therefore a new system matrix must be calculated leading to a time-varying system matrix. This new approach was evaluated on phantom data acquired on the microPET Focus 220 scanner using a custom-made phantom and step-wise motion. Results showed that when the animal’s torso is within the FOV and not appropriately accounted for during attenuation correction it can lead to bias of up to 10% . Attenuation correction was more accurate when the virtual scanner was employed leading to improved quantitative estimates (bias < 2%), without the need to account for the attenuation introduced by the extraneous compartment. Although the proposed method requires increased computational resources, it can provide a reliable approach towards quantitatively accurate attenuation correction for freely moving animal studies.

  9. Measuring specific receptor binding of a PET radioligand in human brain without pharmacological blockade: The genomic plot.

    PubMed

    Veronese, Mattia; Zanotti-Fregonara, Paolo; Rizzo, Gaia; Bertoldo, Alessandra; Innis, Robert B; Turkheimer, Federico E

    2016-04-15

    PET studies allow in vivo imaging of the density of brain receptor species. The PET signal, however, is the sum of the fraction of radioligand that is specifically bound to the target receptor and the non-displaceable fraction (i.e. the non-specifically bound radioligand plus the free ligand in tissue). Therefore, measuring the non-displaceable fraction, which is generally assumed to be constant across the brain, is a necessary step to obtain regional estimates of the specific fractions. The nondisplaceable binding can be directly measured if a reference region, i.e. a region devoid of any specific binding, is available. Many receptors are however widely expressed across the brain, and a true reference region is rarely available. In these cases, the nonspecific binding can be obtained after competitive pharmacological blockade, which is often contraindicated in humans. In this work we introduce the genomic plot for estimating the nondisplaceable fraction using baseline scans only. The genomic plot is a transformation of the Lassen graphical method in which the brain maps of mRNA transcripts of the target receptor obtained from the Allen brain atlas are used as a surrogate measure of the specific binding. Thus, the genomic plot allows the calculation of the specific and nondisplaceable components of radioligand uptake without the need of pharmacological blockade. We first assessed the statistical properties of the method with computer simulations. Then we sought ground-truth validation using human PET datasets of seven different neuroreceptor radioligands, where nonspecific fractions were either obtained separately using drug displacement or available from a true reference region. The population nondisplaceable fractions estimated by the genomic plot were very close to those measured by actual human blocking studies (mean relative difference between 2% and 7%). However, these estimates were valid only when mRNA expressions were predictive of protein levels (i

  10. Measuring specific receptor binding of a PET radioligand in human brain without pharmacological blockade: The genomic plot

    PubMed Central

    Veronese, Mattia; Zanotti-Fregonara, Paolo; Rizzo, Gaia; Bertoldo, Alessandra; Innis, Robert B.; Turkheimer, Federico E.

    2016-01-01

    PET studies allow in vivo imaging of the density of brain receptor species. The PET signal, however, is the sum of the fraction of radioligand that is specifically bound to the target receptor and the non-displaceable fraction (i.e. the non-specifically bound radioligand plus the free ligand in tissue). Therefore, measuring the non-displaceable fraction, which is generally assumed to be constant across the brain, is a necessary step to obtain regional estimates of the specific fractions. The nondisplaceable binding can be directly measured if a reference region, i.e. a region devoid of any specific binding, is available. Many receptors are however widely expressed across the brain, and a true reference region is rarely available. In these cases, the nonspecific binding can be obtained after competitive pharmacological blockade, which is often contraindicated in humans. In this work we introduce the genomic plot for estimating the nondisplaceable fraction using baseline scans only. The genomic plot is a transformation of the Lassen graphical method in which the brain maps of mRNA transcripts of the target receptor obtained from the Allen brain atlas are used as a surrogate measure of the specific binding. Thus, the genomic plot allows the calculation of the specific and nondisplaceable components of radioligand uptake without the need of pharmacological blockade. We first assessed the statistical properties of the method with computer simulations. Then we sought ground-truth validation using human PET datasets of seven different neuroreceptor radioligands, where nonspecific fractions were either obtained separately using drug displacement or available from a true reference region. The population nondisplaceable fractions estimated by the genomic plot were very close to those measured by actual human blocking studies (mean relative difference between 2% and 7%). However, these estimates were valid only when mRNA expressions were predictive of protein levels (i

  11. Conflict Processing in the Rat Brain: Behavioral Analysis and Functional μPET Imaging Using [F]Fluorodeoxyglucose.

    PubMed

    Marx, Christine; Lex, Björn; Calaminus, Carsten; Hauber, Wolfgang; Backes, Heiko; Neumaier, Bernd; Mies, Günter; Graf, Rudolf; Endepols, Heike

    2012-01-01

    Conflicts in spatial stimulus-response tasks occur when the task-relevant feature of a stimulus implies a response toward a certain location which does not match the location of stimulus presentation. This conflict leads to increased error rates and longer reaction times, which has been termed Simon effect. A model of dual route processing (automatic and intentional) of stimulus features has been proposed, predicting response conflicts if the two routes are incongruent. Although there is evidence that the prefrontal cortex, notably the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), plays a crucial role in conflict processing, the neuronal basis of dual route architecture is still unknown. In this study, we pursue a novel approach using positron emission tomography (PET) to identify relevant brain areas in a rat model of an auditory Simon task, a neuropsychological interference task, which is commonly used to study conflict processing in humans. For combination with PET we used the metabolic tracer [(18)F]fluorodeoxyglucose, which accumulates in metabolically active brain cells during the behavioral task. Brain areas involved in conflict processing are supposed to be activated when automatic and intentional route processing lead to different responses (dual route model). Analysis of PET data revealed specific activation patterns for different task settings applicable to the dual route model as established for response conflict processing. The rat motor cortex (M1) may be part of the automatic route or involved in its facilitation, while premotor (M2), prelimbic, and ACC seemed to be essential for inhibiting the incorrect, automatic response, indicating conflict monitoring functions. Our findings and the remarkable similarities to the pattern of activated regions reported during conflict processing in humans demonstrate that our rodent model opens novel opportunities to investigate the anatomical basis of conflict processing and dual route architecture.

  12. P-glycoprotein Function in the Rodent Brain Displays a Daily Rhythm, a Quantitative In Vivo PET Study.

    PubMed

    Savolainen, Heli; Meerlo, Peter; Elsinga, Philip H; Windhorst, Albert D; Dierckx, Rudi A J O; Colabufo, Nicola A; van Waarde, Aren; Luurtsema, Gert

    2016-11-01

    The blood-brain barrier (BBB) contributes to brain homeostasis by protecting the brain from harmful compounds. P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is one of the major efflux transporters at the BBB. In the present study, we assessed whether (1) P-gp function in the brain is constant or fluctuates across the day and (2) if it is affected by sleep deprivation. Four groups of rats were PET scanned with a radiolabeled P-gp substrate [(18)F]MC225, each at a different moment of the 12-h light-dark cycle to study diurnal variations: early sleep phase (ZT3), late sleep phase (ZT9), early active phase (ZT15), and late active phase (ZT21). In two additional groups, controls were allowed to sleep normally while experimental animals were sleep-deprived for 10 h in a slowly rotating drum during the sleep phase. Kinetic modeling with a one-tissue compartment model fit resulted for all brain regions in 1.2-1.8-fold higher distribution volumes (V T ) at ZT15 than at other time points. V T -values at ZT3, ZT9, and ZT21 were not significantly different from each other. Regional tracer distribution volumes in controls and sleep-deprived animals were also not significantly different. Our results indicate that P-gp function in rats displays a daily rhythm with reduced function at the beginning of the active phase. This rhythm is not dependent on sleep since acute sleep deprivation had no effect. Knowing the diurnal variation of P-gp function could be important for the design of PET studies and for choosing the correct administration time for P-gp-dependent drugs.

  13. Design considerations for a C-shaped PET system, dedicated to small animal brain imaging, using GATE Monte Carlo simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Efthimiou, N.; Papadimitroulas, P.; Kostou, T.; Loudos, G.

    2015-09-01

    Commercial clinical and preclinical PET scanners rely on the full cylindrical geometry for whole body scans as well as for dedicated organs. In this study we propose the construction of a low cost dual-head C-shaped PET system dedicated for small animal brain imaging. Monte Carlo simulation studies were performed using GATE toolkit to evaluate the optimum design in terms of sensitivity, distortions in the FOV and spatial resolution. The PET model is based on SiPMs and BGO pixelated arrays. Four different configurations with C- angle 0°, 15°, 30° and 45° within the modules, were considered. Geometrical phantoms were used for the evaluation process. STIR software, extended by an efficient multi-threaded ray tracing technique, was used for the image reconstruction. The algorithm automatically adjusts the size of the FOV according to the shape of the detector's geometry. The results showed improvement in sensitivity of ∼15% in case of 45° C-angle compared to the 0° case. The spatial resolution was found 2 mm for 45° C-angle.

  14. Implementation and evaluation of a calculated attenuation correction for PET

    SciTech Connect

    Siegel, S.; Dahlbom, M. . Dept. of Radiological Sciences)

    1992-08-01

    A limiting factor in PET is the necessity of a transmission scan for attenuation correction (AC). In areas of uniform attenuation, this measured AC can be replaced by a calculated AC. This paper presents an accurate and efficient method based on estimating the object contour from the emission sinograms. The method relies on a robust algorithm to determine the border between activity and scatter background. In this work, the authors present an algorithm that has been consistent in finding the object outline for a variety of tracers ([sup 18]F-FDG, [sup 18]F-FDOPA, [sup 15]O-water and [sup 13]N-ammonia), extreme uptake distributions (brain tumors and hemispherectomies) and system geometries, with little operator intervention. FDG brain scans using this algorithm were compared to images corrected using measured AC, showing a maximum deviation of [plus minus] 8.9%. The algorithm has been extended to abdominal PET scans and 3-D acquisitions.

  15. Exploratory Evaluation of MR Permeability with 18F-FDG PET Mapping in Pediatric Brain Tumors: A Report from the Pediatric Brain Tumor Consortium

    PubMed Central

    Zukotynski, Katherine A.; Fahey, Frederic H.; Vajapeyam, Sridhar; Ng, Sarah S.; Kocak, Mehmet; Gururangan, Sridharan; Kun, Larry E.; Poussaint, Tina Y.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a method of registering 18F-FDG PET with MR permeability images for investigating the correlation of 18F-FDG uptake, permeability, and cerebral blood volume (CBV) in children with pediatric brain tumors and their relationship with outcome. Methods Twenty-four children with brain tumors in a phase II study of bevacizumab and irinotecan underwent brain MR and 18F-FDG PET within 2 wk. Tumor types included supratentorial high-grade astrocytoma (n = 7), low-grade glioma (n = 9), brain stem glioma (n = 4), medulloblastoma (n = 2), and ependymoma (n = 2). There were 33 cases (pretreatment only [n = 12], posttreatment only [n = 3], and both pretreatment [n = 9] and posttreatment [n = 9]). 18F-FDG PET images were registered to MR images from the last time point of the T1 perfusion time series using mutual information. Three-dimensional regions of interest (ROIs) drawn on permeability images were automatically transferred to registered PET images. The quality of ROI registration was graded (1, excellent; 2, very good; 3, good; 4, fair; and 5, poor) by 3 independent experts. Spearman rank correlations were used to assess correlation of maximum tumor permeability (Kpsmax), maximum CBV (CBVmax), and maximum 18F-FDG uptake normalized to white matter (T/Wmax). Cox proportional hazards models were used to investigate associations of these parameters with progression-free survival (PFS). Results The quality of ROI registration between PET and MR was good to excellent in 31 of 33 cases. There was no correlation of baseline Kpsmax with CBVmax (Spearman rank correlation =0.018 [P =0.94]) or T/Wmax (Spearman rank correlation = 0.07 [P = 0.76]). Baseline CBVmax was correlated with T/Wmax (Spearman rank correlation = 0.47 [P = 0.036]). Baseline Kpsmax, CBVmax, and T/Wmax were not significantly associated with PFS (P = 0.42, hazard ratio [HR] = 0.97, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.90–1.045, and number of events [nevents] = 15 for Kpsmax; P = 0

  16. PET measurement of C-11-methylphenidate pharmacokinetics and distribution in the human brain

    SciTech Connect

    Ding, Y.S.; Fowler, J.S.; Wang, G.J.

    1994-05-01

    Methylphenidate (MP), a psychostimulant drug which binds to the dopamine transporter (DAT), is the most commonly prescribed psychotropic medication for children in the USA yet little is known about its pharmacokinetics and distribution in the human brain. PET was used to measure the pharmacokinetics of d,l-threo-[{sup 11}C]methylphenidate (MP*) the labelled form of the prescribed drug (ritalin) in eight normal male subjects (age range 20-74 years). Four subjects had 2 repeated scans to assess test/retest reproducibility and 4 had one wan as baseline and the second 10 minutes after administration of 0.5 mg/kg MP to assess specific to nonspecific binding. Dynamic scans were started immediately after injection of MP*(5-10 mCi) for 90 min on the CTI-931 (6 x 6 x 6.5 mm FWHM). Time activity curves for tissue concentration and for unchanged tracer in plasma were used to calculate the distribution volume (DV) in basal ganglia (BG), cerebellum (CB) and global (GL) regions using graphical analysis. Binding of MP* was highest in the BG (0.008% dose/cc) uptake in CB corresponded to (0.006) and in GL to (0.005). Kinetic analysis revealed fast uptake of MP* with peak uptake in BG occurring 5-20 min PI, and in CB and GL at 5-13 min PI. Half time clearance for MP* occurred 90 min PI for BG and 60 min for CB and GL. Test/retest variability was <10% (range -0.5 to +7.0% for the DV ratio (BG/CB)). Pretreatment with MP selectively reduced uptake in BG wherein it did not affect uptake in CB or GL. The ratio of the DV in BG to that in CB changed from 2.12{plus_minus}0.1 to 1.35{plus_minus}0.04. The lack of an effect of MP in CB an area with a high density of norepinephrine (NE) transporters suggests that MP* is not binding to the NE transporter.

  17. Non-invasive PET imaging of brain inflammation at disease onset predicts spontaneous recurrent seizures and reflects comorbidities.

    PubMed

    Bertoglio, Daniele; Verhaeghe, Jeroen; Santermans, Eva; Amhaoul, Halima; Jonckers, Elisabeth; Wyffels, Leonie; Van Der Linden, Annemie; Hens, Niel; Staelens, Steven; Dedeurwaerdere, Stefanie

    2017-03-01

    Brain inflammation is an important factor in the conversion of a healthy brain into an epileptic one, a phenomenon known as epileptogenesis, offering a new entry point for prognostic tools. The development of anti-epileptogenic therapies to treat before or at disease onset is hampered by our inability to predict the severity of the disease outcome. In a rat model of temporal lobe epilepsy we aimed to assess whether in vivo non-invasive imaging of brain inflammation at disease onset was predictive of spontaneous recurrent seizures (SRS) frequency and severity of depression-like and sensorimotor-related comorbidities. To this end, translocator protein, a biomarker of inflammation, was imaged by means of positron emission tomography (PET) 2 and 4weeks post-status epilepticus using [(18)F]-PBR111. Translocator protein was highly upregulated 2weeks post-status epilepticus in limbic structures (up to 2.1-fold increase compared to controls in temporal lobe, P<0.001), whereas 4weeks post-status epilepticus, upregulation decreased (up to 1.6-fold increase compared to controls in temporal lobe, P<0.01) and was only apparent in a subset of these regions. Animals were monitored with video-electroencephalography during all stages of disease (acute, latent - first seizures appearing around 2weeks post-status epilepticus - and chronic phases), for a total of 12weeks, in order to determine SRS frequency for each subject (range 0.00-0.83SRS/day). We found that regional PET uptake at 2 and 4weeks post-status epilepticus correlated with the severity of depression-like and sensorimotor-related comorbidities during chronic epilepsy (P<0.05 for each test). Regional PET imaging did not correlate with SRS frequency, however, by applying a multivariate data-driven modeling approach based on translocator protein PET imaging at 2weeks post-status epilepticus, we accurately predicted the frequency of SRS (R=0.92; R(2)=0.86; P<0.0001) at the onset of epilepsy. This study not only demonstrates

  18. Possible role of an error detection mechanism in brain processing of deception: PET-fMRI study.

    PubMed

    Kireev, Maxim; Korotkov, Alexander; Medvedeva, Natalia; Medvedev, Svyatoslav

    2013-12-01

    To investigate brain maintenance of deliberate deception the positron emission tomography and the event related functional MRI studies were performed. We used an experimental paradigm that presupposed free choices between equally beneficial deceptive or honest actions. Experimental task simulated the "Cheat" card game which aims to defeat an opponent by sequential deceptive and honest claims. Results of both the PET and the fMRI studies revealed that execution of both deliberately deceptive and honest claims is associated with fronto-parietal brain network comprised of inferior and middle frontal gyri, precentral gyrus (BA 6), caudate nucleus, and inferior parietal lobule. Direct comparison between those claims, balanced in terms of decision making and action outcome (gain and losses), revealed activation of areas specifically associated with deception execution: precentral gyrus (BA 6), caudate nuclei, thalamus and inferior parietal lobule (BA 39/40). The obtained experimental data were discussed in relation to a possible role of an error detection system in processing deliberate deception.

  19. Anatomy-guided brain PET imaging incorporating a joint prior model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Lijun; Ma, Jianhua; Feng, Qianjin; Chen, Wufan; Rahmim, Arman

    2015-03-01

    We proposed a maximum a posterior (MAP) framework for incorporating information from co-registered anatomical images into PET image reconstruction through a novel anato-functional joint prior. The characteristic of the utilized hyperbolic potential function is determinate by the voxel intensity differences within the anatomical image, while the penalization is computed based on voxel intensity differences in reconstructed PET images. Using realistic simulated 18FDG PET scan data, we optimized the performance of the proposed MAP reconstruction with the joint prior (JP-MAP) and compared its performance with conventional 3D MLEM and 3D MAP reconstructions. The proposed JP-MAP reconstruction algorithm resulted in quantitatively enhanced reconstructed images, as demonstrated in extensive FDG PET simulation study. The proposed method was also tested on a 20 min Florbetapir patient study performed on the high-resolution research tomograph. It was shown to outperform conventional methods in visual as well as quantitative accuracy assessment (in terms of regional noise versus activity value performance). The JP-MAP method was also compared with another MR-guided MAP reconstruction method, utilizing the Bowsher prior and was seen to result in some quantitative enhancements, especially in the case of MR-PET mis-registrations, and a definitive improvement in computational performance.

  20. Search for PET probes for imaging the globus pallidus studied with rat brain ex vivo autoradiography.

    PubMed

    Ishiwata, K; Ogi, N; Shimada, J; Wang, W; Ishii, K; Tanaka, A; Suzuki, F; Senda, M

    2000-12-01

    We have evaluated the feasibility of using four positron emission tomography (PET) tracers for imaging the globus pallidus by ex vivo autoradiography in rats. The tracers investigated were [11C]KF18446, [11C]SCH 23390 and [11C]raclopride for mapping adenosine A2A, dopamine D1 and dopamine D2 receptors, respectively, and [18F]FDG. The highest uptake by the globus pallidus was found for [11C]SCH 23390, followed by [18F]FDG, [11C]KF18446 and [11C]raclopride. The receptor-specific uptake by the globus pallidus was observed in [11C]KF18446 and [11C]SCH 23390, but not in [11C]raclopride. Uptake ratios of globus pallidus to the striatum for [18F]FDG and [11C]KF18446 were approximately 0.6, which was twice as large as that for [11C]SCH 23390. In a rat model of degeneration of striatopallidal gamma-aminobutyric acid-ergic-enkephalin neurons induced by intrastriatal injection of quinolinic acid, the uptake of [11C]KF18446 by the striatum and globus pallidus was remarkably reduced. To prove the visualization of the globus pallidus by PET with [18F]FDG and [11C]KF18446, PET-MRI registration technique and advances in PET technologies providing high-resolution PET scanner will be required. The metabolic activity of the globus pallidus could then be measured by PET with [18F]FDG, and [11C]KF18446 may be a candidate tracer for imaging the pallidal terminals projecting from the striatum.

  1. Characterization and performance of monolithic detector blocks with a dedicated ASIC front-end readout for PET imaging of the human brain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rato Mendes, Pedro; Sarasola Martín, Icíar; Cañadas, Mario; de Acilu, Paz García; Cuypers, Robin; Manuel Pérez, José; Willmott, Carlos

    2011-05-01

    We are developing a human brain PET scanner prototype compatible with MRI based on monolithic scintillator crystals, APD matrices and a dedicated ASIC front-end readout. In this work we report on the performance of individual detector modules and on the operation of such modules in PET coincidence. Results will be presented on the individual characterization of detector blocks and its ASIC front-end readout, with measured energy resolutions of 13% full-width half-maximum (FWHM) at 511 keV and spatial resolutions of the order of 2 mm FWHM. First results on PET coincidence performance indicate spatial resolutions as good as 2.1 mm FWHM for SSRB/FBP reconstruction of tomographic data obtained using a simple PET demonstrator based on a pair of monolithic detector blocks with ASIC readout.

  2. Evaluation of a potential generator-produced PET tracer for cerebral perfusion imaging: single-pass cerebral extraction measurements and imaging with radiolabeled Cu-PTSM.

    PubMed

    Mathias, C J; Welch, M J; Raichle, M E; Mintun, M A; Lich, L L; McGuire, A H; Zinn, K R; John, E K; Green, M A

    1990-03-01

    Copper(II) pyruvaldehyde bis(N4-methylthiosemicarbazone) (Cu-PTSM), copper(II) pyruvaldehyde bis(N4-dimethylthiosemicarbazone) (Cu-PTSM2), and copper(II) ethylglyoxal bis(N4-methylthiosemicarbazone) (Cu-ETSM), have been proposed as PET tracers for cerebral blood flow (CBF) when labeled with generator-produced 62Cu (t1/2 = 9.7 min). To evaluate the potential of Cu-PTSM for CBF PET studies, baboon single-pass cerebral extraction measurements and PET imaging were carried out with the use of 67Cu (t1/2 = 2.6 days) and 64Cu (t1/2 = 12.7 hr), respectively. All three chelates were extracted into the brain with high efficiency. There was some clearance of all chelates in the 10-50-sec time frame and Cu-PTSM2 continued to clear. Cu-PTSM and Cu-ETSM have high residual brain activity. PET imaging of baboon brain was carried out with the use of [64Cu]-Cu-PTSM. For comparison with the 64Cu brain image, a CBF (15O-labeled water) image (40 sec) was first obtained. Qualitatively, the H2(15)O and [64Cu]-Cu-PTSM images were very similar; for example, a comparison of gray to white matter uptake resulted in ratios of 2.42 for H2(15)O and 2.67 for Cu-PTSM. No redistribution of 64Cu was observed in 2 hr of imaging, as was predicted from the single-pass study results. Quantitative determination of blood flow using Cu-PTSM showed good agreement with blood flow determined with H2(15)O. This data suggests that [62Cu]-Cu-PTSM may be a useful generator-produced radiopharmaceutical for blood flow studies with PET.

  3. Real-time 3D motion tracking for small animal brain PET

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kyme, A. Z.; Zhou, V. W.; Meikle, S. R.; Fulton, R. R.

    2008-05-01

    High-resolution positron emission tomography (PET) imaging of conscious, unrestrained laboratory animals presents many challenges. Some form of motion correction will normally be necessary to avoid motion artefacts in the reconstruction. The aim of the current work was to develop and evaluate a motion tracking system potentially suitable for use in small animal PET. This system is based on the commercially available stereo-optical MicronTracker S60 which we have integrated with a Siemens Focus-220 microPET scanner. We present measured performance limits of the tracker and the technical details of our implementation, including calibration and synchronization of the system. A phantom study demonstrating motion tracking and correction was also performed. The system can be calibrated with sub-millimetre accuracy, and small lightweight markers can be constructed to provide accurate 3D motion data. A marked reduction in motion artefacts was demonstrated in the phantom study. The techniques and results described here represent a step towards a practical method for rigid-body motion correction in small animal PET. There is scope to achieve further improvements in the accuracy of synchronization and pose measurements in future work.

  4. ROC (Receiver Operating Characteristics) study of maximum likelihood estimator human brain image reconstructions in PET (Positron Emission Tomography) clinical practice

    SciTech Connect

    Llacer, J.; Veklerov, E.; Nolan, D. ); Grafton, S.T.; Mazziotta, J.C.; Hawkins, R.A.; Hoh, C.K.; Hoffman, E.J. )

    1990-10-01

    This paper will report on the progress to date in carrying out Receiver Operating Characteristics (ROC) studies comparing Maximum Likelihood Estimator (MLE) and Filtered Backprojection (FBP) reconstructions of normal and abnormal human brain PET data in a clinical setting. A previous statistical study of reconstructions of the Hoffman brain phantom with real data indicated that the pixel-to-pixel standard deviation in feasible MLE images is approximately proportional to the square root of the number of counts in a region, as opposed to a standard deviation which is high and largely independent of the number of counts in FBP. A preliminary ROC study carried out with 10 non-medical observers performing a relatively simple detectability task indicates that, for the majority of observers, lower standard deviation translates itself into a statistically significant detectability advantage in MLE reconstructions. The initial results of ongoing tests with four experienced neurologists/nuclear medicine physicians are presented. Normal cases of {sup 18}F -- fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) cerebral metabolism studies and abnormal cases in which a variety of lesions have been introduced into normal data sets have been evaluated. We report on the results of reading the reconstructions of 90 data sets, each corresponding to a single brain slice. It has become apparent that the design of the study based on reading single brain slices is too insensitive and we propose a variation based on reading three consecutive slices at a time, rating only the center slice. 9 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Prediction of CT Substitutes from MR Images Based on Local Diffeomorphic Mapping for Brain PET Attenuation Correction.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yao; Yang, Wei; Lu, Lijun; Lu, Zhentai; Zhong, Liming; Huang, Meiyan; Feng, Yanqiu; Feng, Qianjin; Chen, Wufan

    2016-10-01

    Attenuation correction is important for PET reconstruction. In PET/MR, MR intensities are not directly related to attenuation coefficients that are needed in PET imaging. The attenuation coefficient map can be derived from CT images. Therefore, prediction of CT substitutes from MR images is desired for attenuation correction in PET/MR.

  6. Joint penalized-likelihood reconstruction of time-activity curves and regions-of-interest from projection data in brain PET.

    PubMed

    Krestyannikov, E; Tohka, J; Ruotsalainen, U

    2008-06-07

    This paper presents a novel statistical approach for joint estimation of regions-of-interest (ROIs) and the corresponding time-activity curves (TACs) from dynamic positron emission tomography (PET) brain projection data. It is based on optimizing the joint objective function that consists of a data log-likelihood term and two penalty terms reflecting the available a priori information about the human brain anatomy. The developed local optimization strategy iteratively updates both the ROI and TAC parameters and is guaranteed to monotonically increase the objective function. The quantitative evaluation of the algorithm is performed with numerically and Monte Carlo-simulated dynamic PET brain data of the 11C-Raclopride and 18F-FDG tracers. The results demonstrate that the method outperforms the existing sequential ROI quantification approaches in terms of accuracy, and can noticeably reduce the errors in TACs arising due to the finite spatial resolution and ROI delineation.

  7. SU-D-9A-04: Brain PET/CT Imaging On a Scanner with a Large Axial Field-Of-View

    SciTech Connect

    Park, M; Gerbaudo, V; Hamberg, L; Seaver, K; Kijewski, M

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Large axial field-of-view (FOV) PET/CT scanners are valued for high sensitivity. Brain PET image quality may depend on the head position within the FOV. We investigated the precision of activity estimation for brain PET imaging when the brain was positioned at the end (END) and in the middle (CEN) of the FOV. The additional CT dose for the CEN position was recorded. Methods: An image quality (Jaszczak) phantom and a striatal phantom were filled with F-18 and positioned in END and CEN locations. For each phantom and each location, we acquired a ∼1-hr listmode PET, rebinned the data into 10 frames with equal number of coincidence events, and reconstructed each frame using an iterative algorithm. For the striatal phantom, END and CEN were compared by drawing on each image three regions of interest (ROI) in axially separated uniform areas. The standard deviation of the activity estimation within each ROI was averaged over the 10 images. The coefficient of variation (CV) for activity estimation was calculated at each position. Image quality was assessed by inspecting the resolution bar pattern in the Jaszczak phantom at two different head positions. Results: The CV was the lowest for ROIs near the center of the FOV. For slices near the end, not only was the CV highest, but also the resolution pattern was degraded. CTDIvol summarized in the dose report indicated that the CT dose was ∼ 10% higher for CEN as compared to END position. Conclusion: Positioning the brain in the middle of the FOV in a large FOV PET/CT scanner allows more precise measurement of tracer uptake and better image quality at the cost of increased CT dose. For the end location longer scan times may minimize image quality degradation without any additional CT dose.

  8. WE-EF-303-06: Feasibility of PET Image-Based On-Line Proton Beam-Range Verification with Simulated Uniform Phantom and Human Brain Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Lou, K; Sun, X; Zhu, X; Grosshans, D; Clark, J; Shao, Y

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To study the feasibility of clinical on-line proton beam range verification with PET imaging Methods: We simulated a 179.2-MeV proton beam with 5-mm diameter irradiating a PMMA phantom of human brain size, which was then imaged by a brain PET with 300*300*100-mm{sup 3} FOV and different system sensitivities and spatial resolutions. We calculated the mean and standard deviation of positron activity range (AR) from reconstructed PET images, with respect to different data acquisition times (from 5 sec to 300 sec with 5-sec step). We also developed a technique, “Smoothed Maximum Value (SMV)”, to improve AR measurement under a given dose. Furthermore, we simulated a human brain irradiated by a 110-MeV proton beam of 50-mm diameter with 0.3-Gy dose at Bragg peak and imaged by the above PET system with 40% system sensitivity at the center of FOV and 1.7-mm spatial resolution. Results: MC Simulations on the PMMA phantom showed that, regardless of PET system sensitivities and spatial resolutions, the accuracy and precision of AR were proportional to the reciprocal of the square root of image count if image smoothing was not applied. With image smoothing or SMV method, the accuracy and precision could be substantially improved. For a cylindrical PMMA phantom (200 mm diameter and 290 mm long), the accuracy and precision of AR measurement could reach 1.0 and 1.7 mm, with 100-sec data acquired by the brain PET. The study with a human brain showed it was feasible to achieve sub-millimeter accuracy and precision of AR measurement with acquisition time within 60 sec. Conclusion: This study established the relationship between count statistics and the accuracy and precision of activity-range verification. It showed the feasibility of clinical on-line BR verification with high-performance PET systems and improved AR measurement techniques. Cancer Prevention and Research Institute of Texas grant RP120326, NIH grant R21CA187717, The Cancer Center Support (Core) Grant CA

  9. Reversal of brain metabolic abnormalities following treatment of AIDS dementia complex with 3'-azido-2',3'-dideoxythymidine (AZT, zidovudine): a PET-FDG study

    SciTech Connect

    Brunetti, A.; Berg, G.; Di Chiro, G.; Cohen, R.M.; Yarchoan, R.; Pizzo, P.A.; Broder, S.; Eddy, J.; Fulham, M.J.; Finn, R.D.

    1989-05-01

    Brain glucose metabolism was evaluated in four patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) dementia complex using (/sup 18/F)fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) and positron emission tomography (PET) scans at the beginning of therapy with 3'-azido-2',3'-dideoxythymidine (AZT, zidovudine), and later in the course of therapy. In two patients, baseline, large focal cortical abnormalities of glucose utilization were reversed during the course of therapy. In the other two patients, the initial PET study did not reveal pronounced focal alterations, while the post-treatment scans showed markedly increased cortical glucose metabolism. The improved cortical glucose utilization was accompanied in all patients by immunologic and neurologic improvement. PET-FDG studies can detect cortical metabolic abnormalities associated with AIDS dementia complex, and may be used to monitor the metabolic improvement in response to AZT treatment.

  10. Reconstruction of an input function from a dynamic PET water image using multiple tissue curves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kudomi, Nobuyuki; Maeda, Yukito; Yamamoto, Yuka; Nishiyama, Yoshihiro

    2016-08-01

    Quantification of cerebral blood flow (CBF) is important for the understanding of normal and pathologic brain physiology. When CBF is assessed using PET with {{\\text{H}}2} 15O or C15O2, its calculation requires an arterial input function, which generally requires invasive arterial blood sampling. The aim of the present study was to develop a new technique to reconstruct an image derived input function (IDIF) from a dynamic {{\\text{H}}2} 15O PET image as a completely non-invasive approach. Our technique consisted of using a formula to express the input using tissue curve with rate constant parameter. For multiple tissue curves extracted from the dynamic image, the rate constants were estimated so as to minimize the sum of the differences of the reproduced inputs expressed by the extracted tissue curves. The estimated rates were used to express the inputs and the mean of the estimated inputs was used as an IDIF. The method was tested in human subjects (n  =  29) and was compared to the blood sampling method. Simulation studies were performed to examine the magnitude of potential biases in CBF and to optimize the number of multiple tissue curves used for the input reconstruction. In the PET study, the estimated IDIFs were well reproduced against the measured ones. The difference between the calculated CBF values obtained using the two methods was small as around  <8% and the calculated CBF values showed a tight correlation (r  =  0.97). The simulation showed that errors associated with the assumed parameters were  <10%, and that the optimal number of tissue curves to be used was around 500. Our results demonstrate that IDIF can be reconstructed directly from tissue curves obtained through {{\\text{H}}2} 15O PET imaging. This suggests the possibility of using a completely non-invasive technique to assess CBF in patho-physiological studies.

  11. Large Variation in Brain Exposure of Reference CNS Drugs: a PET Study in Nonhuman Primates

    PubMed Central

    Varnäs, Katarina; Lundquist, Stefan; Nakao, Ryuji; Amini, Nahid; Takano, Akihiro; Finnema, Sjoerd J.; Halldin, Christer; Farde, Lars

    2015-01-01

    Background: Positron emission tomography microdosing of radiolabeled drugs allows for noninvasive studies of organ exposure in vivo. The aim of the present study was to examine and compare the brain exposure of 12 commercially available CNS drugs and one non-CNS drug. Methods: The drugs were radiolabeled with 11C (t 1/2 = 20.4 minutes) and examined using a high resolution research tomograph. In cynomolgus monkeys, each drug was examined twice. In rhesus monkeys, a first positron emission tomography microdosing measurement was repeated after preadministration with unlabeled drug to examine potential dose-dependent effects on brain exposure. Partition coefficients between brain and plasma (K P) were calculated by dividing the AUC0-90 min for brain with that for plasma or by a compartmental analysis (V T). Unbound K P (K P u,u) was obtained by correction for the free fraction in brain and plasma. Results: After intravenous injection, the maximum radioactivity concentration (C max, %ID) in brain ranged from 0.01% to 6.2%. For 10 of the 12 CNS drugs, C max, %ID was >2%, indicating a preferential distribution to brain. A lower C max, %ID was observed for morphine, sulpiride, and verapamil. K P ranged from 0.002 (sulpiride) to 68 (sertraline) and 7 of 13 drugs had K P u,u close to unity. For morphine, sulpiride, and verapamil, K P u,u was <0.3, indicating impaired diffusion and/or active efflux. Brain exposure at microdosing agreed with pharmacological dosing conditions for the investigated drugs. Conclusions: This study represents the largest positron emission tomography study on brain exposure of commercially available CNS drugs in nonhuman primates and may guide interpretation of positron emission tomography microdosing data for novel drug candidates. PMID:25813017

  12. Insights into Intrinsic Brain Networks based on Graph Theory and PET in right- compared to left-sided Temporal Lobe Epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Vanicek, Thomas; Hahn, Andreas; Traub-Weidinger, Tatjana; Hilger, Eva; Spies, Marie; Wadsak, Wolfgang; Lanzenberger, Rupert; Pataraia, Ekaterina; Asenbaum-Nan, Susanne

    2016-01-01

    The human brain exhibits marked hemispheric differences, though it is not fully understood to what extent lateralization of the epileptic focus is relevant. Preoperative [18F]FDG-PET depicts lateralization of seizure focus in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy and reveals dysfunctional metabolic brain connectivity. The aim of the present study was to compare metabolic connectivity, inferred from inter-regional [18F]FDG PET uptake correlations, in right-sided (RTLE; n = 30) and left-sided TLE (LTLE; n = 32) with healthy controls (HC; n = 31) using graph theory based network analysis. Comparing LTLE and RTLE and patient groups separately to HC, we observed higher lobar connectivity weights in RTLE compared to LTLE for connections of the temporal and the parietal lobe of the contralateral hemisphere (CH). Moreover, especially in RTLE compared to LTLE higher local efficiency were found in the temporal cortices and other brain regions of the CH. The results of this investigation implicate altered metabolic networks in patients with TLE specific to the lateralization of seizure focus, and describe compensatory mechanisms especially in the CH of patients with RTLE. We propose that graph theoretical analysis of metabolic connectivity using [18F]FDG-PET offers an important additional modality to explore brain networks. PMID:27349503

  13. Insights into Intrinsic Brain Networks based on Graph Theory and PET in right- compared to left-sided Temporal Lobe Epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Vanicek, Thomas; Hahn, Andreas; Traub-Weidinger, Tatjana; Hilger, Eva; Spies, Marie; Wadsak, Wolfgang; Lanzenberger, Rupert; Pataraia, Ekaterina; Asenbaum-Nan, Susanne

    2016-06-28

    The human brain exhibits marked hemispheric differences, though it is not fully understood to what extent lateralization of the epileptic focus is relevant. Preoperative [(18)F]FDG-PET depicts lateralization of seizure focus in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy and reveals dysfunctional metabolic brain connectivity. The aim of the present study was to compare metabolic connectivity, inferred from inter-regional [(18)F]FDG PET uptake correlations, in right-sided (RTLE; n = 30) and left-sided TLE (LTLE; n = 32) with healthy controls (HC; n = 31) using graph theory based network analysis. Comparing LTLE and RTLE and patient groups separately to HC, we observed higher lobar connectivity weights in RTLE compared to LTLE for connections of the temporal and the parietal lobe of the contralateral hemisphere (CH). Moreover, especially in RTLE compared to LTLE higher local efficiency were found in the temporal cortices and other brain regions of the CH. The results of this investigation implicate altered metabolic networks in patients with TLE specific to the lateralization of seizure focus, and describe compensatory mechanisms especially in the CH of patients with RTLE. We propose that graph theoretical analysis of metabolic connectivity using [(18)F]FDG-PET offers an important additional modality to explore brain networks.

  14. PET with radiolabeled aminoacid.

    PubMed

    Crippa, F; Alessi, A; Serafini, G L

    2012-04-01

    Since the clinical introduction of FDG, neuroimaging has been the first area of PET application in oncology. Later, while FDG-PET became progressively a key imaging modality in the management of the majority of malignancies outside the brain, its neuro-oncologic indications faced some limitations because of the unfavourable characteristics of FDG as brain tumor-seeking agent. PET applications in neuro-oncology have received new effectiveness by the advent of positron-emission labelled amino acids, so that it has been coined the term "Amino acid PET" to differentiate this imaging tool from FDG-PET. Radiolabeled amino acids are a very interesting class of PET tracers with great diagnostic potential in neuro-oncology because of their low uptake in normal brain and, conversely, high uptake in most brain tumors including low-grade gliomas. The present article surveys the results obtained using L-[methyl-11C]Methionine (MET), that has been the ancestor of PET amino acid tracers and is still the most popular amino acid imaging modality in oncology, and stresses the important role that this diagnostic modality can play in the evaluation of brain tumors. However, the use of MET is restricted to PET centers with an in-house cyclotron and radiochemistry facility, because of the short half-life (20 min) of 11C. The promising results of MET have stimulated the development of 18F-labelled aminoacid tracers, particularly O-(2-18F-fluoeoethyl1)-L-tyrosine (FET), that has the same properties of MET and, thanks to the longer half-life of 18F (about 110 min), allows a distribution strategy from a production tracer site to user satellite PET centers. Considering a more widespread use of Amino acid PET, together with the recent development of integrated PET-MRI imaging systems, and the oncoming clinical validation of other interesting PET tracers, i.e. FMISO or 18F-FAZA for hypoxia imaging and FLT for tumor proliferation imaging, it can be reasonably expected that metabolic imaging

  15. Brain metabolism in patients with hepatic encephalopathy studied by PET and MR.

    PubMed

    Keiding, Susanne; Pavese, Nicola

    2013-08-15

    We review PET- and MR studies on hepatic encephalopathy (HE) metabolism in human subjects from the point of views of methods, methodological assumptions and use in studies of cirrhotic patients with clinically overt HE, cirrhotic patients with minimal HE, cirrhotic patients with no history of HE and healthy subjects. Key results are: (1) Cerebral oxygen uptake and blood flow are reduced to 2/3 in cirrhotic patients with clinically overt HE but not in cirrhotic patients with minimal HE or no HE compared to healthy subjects. (2) Cerebral ammonia metabolism is enhanced due to increased blood ammonia in cirrhotic patients but the kinetics of cerebral ammonia uptake and metabolism is not affected by hyperammonemia. (3) Recent advantages in MR demonstrate low-grade cerebral oedema not only in astrocytes but also in the white matter in cirrhotic patients with HE.

  16. Pilot PET Study to Assess the Functional Interplay Between ABCB1 and ABCG2 at the Human Blood–Brain Barrier

    PubMed Central

    Bauer, M; Römermann, K; Karch, R; Wulkersdorfer, B; Stanek, J; Philippe, C; Maier‐Salamon, A; Haslacher, H; Jungbauer, C; Wadsak, W; Jäger, W; Löscher, W; Hacker, M; Zeitlinger, M

    2016-01-01

    ABCB1 and ABCG2 work together at the blood–brain barrier (BBB) to limit brain distribution of dual ABCB1/ABCG2 substrates. In this pilot study we used positron emission tomography (PET) to assess brain distribution of two model ABCB1/ABCG2 substrates ([11C]elacridar and [11C]tariquidar) in healthy subjects without (c.421CC) or with (c.421CA) the ABCG2 single‐nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) c.421C>A. Subjects underwent PET scans under conditions when ABCB1 and ABCG2 were functional and during ABCB1 inhibition with high‐dose tariquidar. In contrast to the ABCB1‐selective substrate (R)‐[11C]verapamil, [11C]elacridar and [11C]tariquidar showed only moderate increases in brain distribution during ABCB1 inhibition. This provides evidence for a functional interplay between ABCB1 and ABCG2 at the human BBB and suggests that both ABCB1 and ABCG2 need to be inhibited to achieve substantial increases in brain distribution of dual ABCB1/ABCG2 substrates. During ABCB1 inhibition c.421CA subjects had significantly higher increases in [11C]tariquidar brain distribution than c.421CC subjects, pointing to impaired cerebral ABCG2 function. PMID:26940368

  17. Blood-brain barrier permeability of ginkgolide: Comparison of the behavior of PET probes 7α-[(18)F]fluoro- and 10-O-p-[(11)C]methylbenzyl ginkgolide B in monkey and rat brains.

    PubMed

    Doi, Hisashi; Sato, Kengo; Shindou, Hideo; Sumi, Kengo; Koyama, Hiroko; Hosoya, Takamitsu; Watanabe, Yasuyoshi; Ishii, Satoshi; Tsukada, Hideo; Nakanishi, Koji; Suzuki, Masaaki

    2016-11-01

    The blood-brain barrier permeability of ginkgolide B was examined using positron emission tomography (PET) probes of a (18)F-incorporated ginkgolide B ([(18)F]-2) and a (11)C-incorporated methylbenzyl-substituted ginkgolide B ([(11)C]-3). PET studies in monkeys showed low uptake of [(18)F]-2 into the brain, but small amounts of [(11)C]-3 were accumulated in the parenchyma. Furthermore, when cyclosporine A was preadministered to rats, the accumulation of [(18)F]-2 in the rat brain did not significantly change, however, the accumulation of [(11)C]-3 was five times higher than that in the control rat. These results provide effective approaches for investigating the drug potential of ginkgolides.

  18. A follow-up ¹⁸F-FDG brain PET study in a case of Hashimoto's encephalopathy causing drug-resistant status epilepticus treated with plasmapheresis.

    PubMed

    Pari, Elisa; Rinaldi, Fabrizio; Premi, Enrico; Codella, Maria; Rao, Renata; Paghera, Barbara; Panarotto, Maria Beatrice; De Maria, Giovanni; Padovani, Alessandro

    2014-04-01

    Hashimoto's encephalopathy (HE) is a rare neuropsychiatric syndrome associated with antithyroid antibodies. It may have an acute onset (episodes of cerebral ischemia, seizure, and psychosis) or it may present as an indolent form (depression, cognitive decline, myoclonus, tremors, and fluctuations in level of consciousness). We here describe a case of encephalopathy presenting as non-convulsive status epilepticus associated with Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT), unresponsive to corticosteroid therapy, with improvement after plasma exchange treatment. A previously healthy 19-year-old woman, presented generalized tonic-clonic seizures. About a month later, she manifested a speech disorder characterized by difficulties in the production and comprehension of language. Within a few days she also developed confusion and difficulties in recognizing familiar places, with gradual worsening over time. EEG revealed a non-convulsive status epilepticus (NCSE). CSF examination showed slightly elevated cell count and four oligoclonal bands. MRI was unremarkable, and (18)F-FDG brain PET showed widespread hypometabolism, mostly in posterior regions bilaterally. Laboratory and ultrasound findings showed signs of HT. Treatment with steroid was introduced without any improvement. After five sessions of plasma exchange there was a decrease of antithyroid antibodies, as well as EEG and clinical improvement. Three months after discharge (18)F-FDG brain PET showed a complete normalization of the picture, and the patient was asymptomatic. This report emphasizes the successful treatment of HE with plasma exchange in a patient who presented with NCSE. Based on the actual evidence, the term "Encephalopathy associated with Hashimoto's thyroiditis" may be the most proper. Furthermore, to our knowledge, this is the first case of an adult patient studied twice with an (18)F-FDG brain PET: prior to treatment with plasma exchange, and at 3 months follow-up when the patient was clinically completely

  19. F18 EF5 PET/CT Imaging in Patients with Brain Metastases from Breast Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-01

    Pennsylvania, where more patients are offered gamma knife radiotherapy upfront rather than whole brain radiotherapy which has impacted our accrual rates...to follow. Furthermore, patients with better performance status often receive upfront gamma knife radiotherapy instead. These patients were...four weeks post treatment. Additionally, opening up the protocol enrollment to include patients receiving gamma knife radiotherapy was done

  20. STRATEGIES FOR QUANTIFYING PET IMAGING DATA FROM TRACER STUDIES OF BRAIN RECEPTORS AND ENZYMES.

    SciTech Connect

    Logan, J.

    2001-04-02

    A description of some of the methods used in neuroreceptor imaging to distinguish changes in receptor availability has been presented in this chapter. It is necessary to look beyond regional uptake of the tracer since uptake generally is affected by factors other than the number of receptors for which the tracer has affinity. An exception is the infusion method producing an equilibrium state. The techniques vary in complexity some requiring arterial blood measurements of unmetabolized tracer and multiple time uptake data. Others require only a few plasma and uptake measurements and those based on a reference region require no plasma measurements. We have outlined some of the limitations of the different methods. Laruelle (1999) has pointed out that test/retest studies to which various methods can be applied are crucial in determining the optimal method for a particular study. The choice of method will also depend upon the application. In a clinical setting, methods not involving arterial blood sampling are generally preferred. In the future techniques for externally measuring arterial plasma radioactivity with only a few blood samples for metabolite correction will extend the modeling options of clinical PET. Also since parametric images can provide information beyond that of ROI analysis, improved techniques for generating such images will be important, particularly for ligands requiring more than a one-compartment model. Techniques such as the wavelet transform proposed by Turkheimer et al. (2000) may prove to be important in reducing noise and improving quantitation.

  1. Development of a High Precision Axial 3-D PET for Brain Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolle, E.; Braem, A.; Casella, C.; Chesi, E.; Clinthorne, N.; Cochran, E.; De Leo, R.; Dissertori, G.; Djambazov, L.; Honscheid, K.; Huh, S.; Johnson, I.; Joram, C.; Kagan, H.; Lacasta, C.; Lustermann, W.; Meddi, F.; Nappi, E.; Nessi-Tedaldi, F.; Oliver, J. F.; Pauss, F.; Rafecas, M.; Renker, D.; Rudge, A.; Schinzel, D.; Schneider, T.; Séguinot, J.; Smith, S.; Solevi, P.; Stapnes, S.; Vilardi, I.; Weilhammer, P.

    2009-12-01

    We describe a PET device based on a novel method to extract the coordinates of the interaction point of the 511keV γ rays from 100 mm long and thin LYSO (Lutetium Yttrium OxyorthoSilicate) scintillator bars, positioned axially in the tomograph. The coordinate along the hit crystal is measured by using a hodoscope of Wave Length Shifting (WLS) plastic strips mounted perpendicularly to each plane of scintillators. As photodetectors, new Geiger mode Avalanche PhotoDetectors (G-APDs) with integrated electronics are being used to detect both the hit crystal in a block (x and y coordinates) and the interaction point in the crystal (z coordinate) through the light escaping from the crystal and transmitted to the WLS strips. In this way, the γ interaction point can be determined with a spatial resolution of few cubic millimeters down to a minimum deposited energy of about 50 keV, resulting in a volumetric precision very close to the limits imposed by the physics of the positron annihilation. The method allows to increase the detection efficiency without affecting the spatial resolution by adding scintillator planes in the radial direction. A demonstrator scanner, based on two matrices of 8 × 6 LYS crystals and 312 WLS strips, slotted in between the crystals, is under construction. Preliminary results from the feasibility studies of the various components will be presented.

  2. Unique Distribution of Aromatase in the Human Brain: In Vivo Studies With PET and [N-Methyl-11C]Vorozole

    SciTech Connect

    Biegon, A.; Biegon, A.; Kim, S.W.; Alexoff, D.; Millard, J.; Carter, P.; Hubbard, B.; King, P.; Logan, J.; Muench, L.; Pareto, D.; Schlyer, D.; Shea, C.; Telang, F.; Wang, G.-J.; Xu, Y.; Fowler, J.

    2010-10-01

    Aromatase catalyzes the last step in estrogen biosynthesis. Brain aromatase is involved in diverse neurophysiological and behavioral functions including sexual behavior, aggression, cognition, and neuroprotection. Using positron emission tomography (PET) with the radiolabeled aromatase inhibitor [N-methyl-{sup 11}C]vorozole, we characterized the tracer distribution and kinetics in the living human brain. Six young, healthy subjects, three men and three women, were administered the radiotracer alone on two separate occasions. Women were scanned in distinct phases of the menstrual cycle. Specificity was confirmed by pretreatment with a pharmacological (2.5 mg) dose of the aromatase inhibitor letrozole. PET data were acquired over a 90-min period and regions of interest placed over selected brain regions. Brain and plasma time activity curves, corrected for metabolites, were used to derive kinetic parameters. Distribution volume (V{sub T}) values in both men and women followed the following rank order: thalamus > amygdala = preoptic area > medulla (inferior olive) > accumbens, pons, occipital and temporal cortex, putamen, cerebellum, and white matter. Pretreatment with letrozole reduced VT in all regions, though the size of the reduction was region-dependent, ranging from {approx}70% blocking in thalamus andpreoptic area to {approx}10% in cerebellum. The high levels of aromatase in thalamus and medulla (inferior olive) appear to be unique to humans. These studies set the stage for the noninvasive assessment of aromatase involvement in various physiological and pathological processes affecting the human brain.

  3. A critical period of brain development: studies of cerebral glucose utilization with PET.

    PubMed

    Chugani, H T

    1998-01-01

    Studies with positron emission tomography indicate that the human brain undergoes a period of postnatal maturation that is much more protracted than previously suspected. In the newborn, the highest degree of glucose metabolism (representative of functional activity) is in primary sensory and motor cortex, cingulate cortex, thalamus, brain stem, cerebellar vermis, and hippocampal region. At 2 to 3 months of age, glucose utilization increases in the parietal, temporal, and primary visual cortex; basal ganglia; and cerebellar hemispheres. Between 6 and 12 months, glucose utilization increases in frontal cortex. These metabolic changes correspond to the emergence of various behaviors during the first year of life. The measurement of absolute rates of glucose utilization during development indicates that the cerebral cortex undergoes a dynamic course of metabolic maturation that persists until ages 16-18 years. Initially, there is a rise in the rates of glucose utilization from birth until about age 4 years, at which time the child's cerebral cortex uses over twice as much glucose as that of adults. From age 4 to 10 years, these very high rates of glucose consumption are maintained, and only after then is there a gradual decline of glucose metabolic rates to reach adult values by age 16-18 years. Correlations between glucose utilization rates and synaptogenesis are discussed, and the argument is made that these findings have important implications with respect to human brain plasticity following injury as well as to "critical periods" of maximal learning capacity.

  4. Unexpectedly high affinity of a novel histamine H3 receptor antagonist, GSK239512, in vivo in human brain, determined using PET

    PubMed Central

    Ashworth, S; Berges, A; Rabiner, E A; Wilson, A A; Comley, R A; Lai, R Y K; Boardley, R; Searle, G; Gunn, R N; Laruelle, M; Cunningham, V J

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE This study aimed to investigate the relationship between the plasma concentration (PK) of the novel histamine H3 receptor antagonist, GSK239512, and the brain occupancy of H3 receptors (RO) in healthy human volunteers. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH PET scans were obtained after i.v. administration of the H3-specific radioligand [11C]GSK189254. Each subject was scanned before and after single oral doses of GSK239512, at 4 and 24 h after dose. PET data were analysed by compartmental analysis, and regional RO estimates were obtained by graphical analysis of changes in the total volumes of distribution of the radioligand, followed by a correction for occupancy by the high affinity radioligand. The PK/RO relationship was analysed by a population-modelling approach, using the average PK of GSK239512 during each scan. KEY RESULTS Following administration of GSK239512, there was a reduction in the brain uptake of [11C]GSK189254 in all regions, including cerebellum. RO at 4 h was higher than at 24 h, and the PK/RO model estimated a PK associated with 50% of RO of 0.0068 ng·mL−1. This corresponds to a free concentration of 4.50 × 10−12 M (pK = 11.3). CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS The affinity of GSK239512 for brain H3 receptors in humans in vivo is much higher than that expected from studies in vitro, and higher than that observed in PET studies in pigs. The study illustrates the utility of carrying out PET studies in humans early in drug development, providing accurate quantification of GSK239512 RO in vivo as a function of time and dose. PMID:24670146

  5. Low brain CB1 receptor occupancy by a second generation CB1 receptor antagonist TM38837 in comparison with rimonabant in nonhuman primates: a PET study.

    PubMed

    Takano, Akihiro; Gulyás, Balázs; Varnäs, Katarina; Little, Paul Brian; Noerregaard, Pia K; Jensen, Niels Ole; Elling, Christian E; Halldin, Christer

    2014-03-01

    Both central and peripheral cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB1R) have been considered to be among the key targets for obesity treatment. First generation CB1R antagonists/inverse agonists such as rimonabant and taranabant exhibited severe CNS side effects such as anxiety and depression, which are considered to be related to the compounds' ability to access central CB1R. Recently, several compounds have been developed as second generation antagonists with a profile of restriction to peripheral CB1R. We evaluated the distribution of TM38837, a second generation CB1R antagonist, using brain and whole body PET in three cynomolgus monkeys, and established the relationship between CB1R occupancy and dose/plasma concentration of TM38837 in comparison with rimonabant. A brain PET study was performed using [(11) C]MePPEP, a PET radioligand for CB1R, to evaluate the brain CB1R occupancy of TM38837 at various plasma concentrations in comparison with rimonabant at known efficacious plasma concentrations. A whole body PET study was performed to investigate the change of peripheral distribution of [(11) C]MePPEP by TM38837 administration, which indirectly estimated the effects to the peripheral CB1R by TM38837. CB1R occupancy by both TM38837 and rimonabant increased in a dose/plasma concentration-dependent manner. However, in vivo affinity by plasma level was more than 100 times lower for TM38837. Peripherally, [(11) C]MePPEP accumulation decreased in gall bladder and brown adipose tissue by TM38837 administration. TM38837 showed rather lower CB1R occupancy than rimonabant at the expected therapeutic plasma level, which is expected to reduce CNS side effects in clinical situations. Further clinical development of TM38837 is warranted.

  6. An Interindividual Comparison of O-(2- [{sup 18}F]Fluoroethyl)-L-Tyrosine (FET)- and L-[Methyl-{sup 11}C]Methionine (MET)-PET in Patients With Brain Gliomas and Metastases

    SciTech Connect

    Grosu, Anca-Ligia; Astner, Sabrina T.; Riedel, Eva; Nieder, Carsten; Wiedenmann, Nicole; Heinemann, Felix; Schwaiger, Markus; and others

    2011-11-15

    Purpose: L-[methyl-{sup 11}C]methionine (MET)-positron emission tomography (PET) has a high sensitivity and specificity for imaging of gliomas and metastatic brain tumors. The short half-life of {sup 11}C (20 minutes) limits the use of MET-PET to institutions with onsite cyclotron. O-(2- [{sup 18}F]fluoroethyl)-L-tyrosine (FET) is labeled with {sup 18}F (half-life, 120 minutes) and could be used much more broadly. This study compares the uptake of FET and MET in gliomas and metastases, as well as treatment-induced changes. Furthermore, it evaluates the gross tumor volume (GTV) of gliomas defined on PET and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Methods and Materials: We examined 42 patients with pretreated gliomas (29 patients) or brain metastases (13 patients) prospectively by FET- and MET-PET on the same day. Uptake of FET and MET was quantified by standardized uptake values. Imaging contrast was assessed by calculating lesion-to-gray matter ratios. Tumor extension was quantified by contouring GTV in 17 patients with brain gliomas. Gross tumor volume on PET was compared with GTV on MRI. Sensitivity and specificity of MET- and FET-PET for differentiation of viable tumor from benign changes were evaluated by comparing the PET result with histology or clinical follow-up. Results: There was a strong linear correlation between standardized uptake values calculated for both tracers in cortex and lesions: r = 0.78 (p = 0.001) and r = 0.84 (p < 0.001), respectively. Image contrast was similar for MET- and FET-PET (lesion-to-gray matter ratios of 2.36 {+-} 1.01 and 2.33 {+-} 0.77, respectively). Mean GTV in 17 glioma patients was not significantly different on MET- and FET-PET. Both MET- and FET-PET delineated tumor tissue outside of MRI changes. Both tracers provided differentiated tumor tissue and treatment-related changes with a sensitivity of 91% at a specificity of 100%. Conclusions: O-(2- [{sup 18}F]fluoroethyl)-L-tyrosine-PET and MET-PET provide comparable diagnostic

  7. Segmentation of 3D microPET images of the rat brain via the hybrid gaussian mixture method with kernel density estimation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Tai-Been; Chen, Jyh-Cheng; Lu, Henry Horng-Shing

    2012-01-01

    Segmentation of positron emission tomography (PET) is typically achieved using the K-Means method or other approaches. In preclinical and clinical applications, the K-Means method needs a prior estimation of parameters such as the number of clusters and appropriate initialized values. This work segments microPET images using a hybrid method combining the Gaussian mixture model (GMM) with kernel density estimation. Segmentation is crucial to registration of disordered 2-deoxy-2-fluoro-D-glucose (FDG) accumulation locations with functional diagnosis and to estimate standardized uptake values (SUVs) of region of interests (ROIs) in PET images. Therefore, simulation studies are conducted to apply spherical targets to evaluate segmentation accuracy based on Tanimoto's definition of similarity. The proposed method generates a higher degree of similarity than the K-Means method. The PET images of a rat brain are used to compare the segmented shape and area of the cerebral cortex by the K-Means method and the proposed method by volume rendering. The proposed method provides clearer and more detailed activity structures of an FDG accumulation location in the cerebral cortex than those by the K-Means method.

  8. Synthesis of (R)- and (S)-[C-11]L-365,260 for PET studies of brain cholecystokinin (CCK) receptors

    SciTech Connect

    Haradahira, T.; Suzuki, K.; Inoue, O.

    1994-05-01

    Cholecystokinin (CCK) is a recognized peptide hormone in the gut and proposed as a neurotransmitter or neuromodulator in the central nervous system. Two distinct CCK receptors termed CCK-A and CCK-B have been characterized. CCK-A receptor is primarily distributed in the peripheral tissues including pancreas and gallbladder and also known to be distributed in a few brain regions. CCK-B receptor is widely distributed in the brain and has been proposed to be involved in anxiety, satiety and nociception. To investigate the functional roles of the CCK receptors in the brain by positron emission tomography, we have synthesized an enantiomeric pair of C-11 labeled non-peptide antagonists against the CCK receptors. L-365,260 [3R(+)-N-(2,3-dihydro-1-methyl-2-oxo-5-phenyl-1H-1,4-benzodiazepine-3-yl)-N`-(3-methylpheny lurea)] is a potent CCK-B selective non-peptide antagonist (CCK-A/CCK-B ratio of IC50, 140), whereas its (S)-enantiomer is selective toward CCK-A receptor (CCK-A/CCK-B ratio of IC50, 0.02). We have synthesized the (R)- and (S)-enantiomers of [C-11]-365,260 by N-methylation (50{degrees}C for 5 min) of the racemic desmethyl precursor with [C-11]iodomethane using sodium hydride as a base and subsequent optical resolution with HPLC (column: ChiraSpher, 250 x 10 mm, Merck; eluent: n-hexane / 1,4-dioxane / 2-propanol / triethylamine = 70 / 25 / 5 / 0.1). Radiochemical yields (decay corrected) and optical purities were 34%, 99% for R-enantiomer and 36%, 99% for S-enantiomer, respectively. The total synthesis time was 40 min and specific activity was about 37 GBq/{mu}mol. In PET studies on rhesus monkey (R)-enantiomer showed a high uptake of radioactivity in the cerebral cortex, region known to have a high concentration of CCK-B receptor.

  9. Changes of Brain Glucose Metabolism in the Pretreatment Patients with Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer: A Retrospective PET/CT Study

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Weishan; Ning, Ning; Li, Xianjun; Niu, Gang; Bai, Lijun; Guo, Youmin; Yang, Jian

    2016-01-01

    Objective The tumor-to-brain communication has been emphasized by recent converging evidences. This study aimed to compare the difference of brain glucose metabolism between patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and control subjects. Methods NSCLC patients prior to oncotherapy and control subjects without malignancy confirmed by 6 months follow-up were collected and underwent the resting state 18F-fluoro-D-glucose (FDG) PET/CT. Normalized FDG metabolism was calculated by a signal intensity ratio of each brain region to whole brain. Brain glucose metabolism was compared between NSCLC patients and control group using two samples t-test and multivariate test by statistical parametric maps (SPM) software. Results Compared with the control subjects (n = 76), both brain glucose hyper- and hypometabolism regions with significant statistical differences (P<0.01) were found in the NSCLC patients (n = 83). The hypermetabolism regions (bilateral insula, putamen, pallidum, thalamus, hippocampus and amygdala, the right side of cerebellum, orbital part of right inferior frontal gyrus and vermis) were component parts of visceral to brain signal transduction pathways, and the hypometabolism regions (the left superior parietal lobule, bilateral inferior parietal lobule and left fusiform gyrus) lied in dorsal attention network and visuospatial function areas. Conclusions The changes of brain glucose metabolism exist in NSCLC patients prior to oncotherapy, which might be attributed to lung-cancer related visceral sympathetic activation and decrease of dorsal attention network function. PMID:27529342

  10. Bias in iterative reconstruction of low-statistics PET data: benefits of a resolution model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, M. D.; Asselin, M.-C.; Julyan, P. J.; Feldmann, M.; Talbot, P. S.; Jones, T.; Matthews, J. C.

    2011-02-01

    Iterative image reconstruction methods such as ordered-subset expectation maximization (OSEM) are widely used in PET. Reconstructions via OSEM are however reported to be biased for low-count data. We investigated this and considered the impact for dynamic PET. Patient listmode data were acquired in [11C]DASB and [15O]H2O scans on the HRRT brain PET scanner. These data were subsampled to create many independent, low-count replicates. The data were reconstructed and the images from low-count data were compared to the high-count originals (from the same reconstruction method). This comparison enabled low-statistics bias to be calculated for the given reconstruction, as a function of the noise-equivalent counts (NEC). Two iterative reconstruction methods were tested, one with and one without an image-based resolution model (RM). Significant bias was observed when reconstructing data of low statistical quality, for both subsampled human and simulated data. For human data, this bias was substantially reduced by including a RM. For [11C]DASB the low-statistics bias in the caudate head at 1.7 M NEC (approx. 30 s) was -5.5% and -13% with and without RM, respectively. We predicted biases in the binding potential of -4% and -10%. For quantification of cerebral blood flow for the whole-brain grey- or white-matter, using [15O]H2O and the PET autoradiographic method, a low-statistics bias of <2.5% and <4% was predicted for reconstruction with and without the RM. The use of a resolution model reduces low-statistics bias and can hence be beneficial for quantitative dynamic PET.

  11. Glucose Metabolic Changes in the Brain and Muscles of Patients with Nonspecific Neck Pain Treated by Spinal Manipulation Therapy: A [18F]FDG PET Study

    PubMed Central

    Inami, Akie; Ogura, Takeshi; Watanuki, Shoichi; Masud, Md. Mehedi; Shibuya, Katsuhiko; Miyake, Masayasu; Matsuda, Rin; Hiraoka, Kotaro; Itoh, Masatoshi; Fuhr, Arlan W.; Yanai, Kazuhiko

    2017-01-01

    Objective. The aim of this study was to investigate changes in brain and muscle glucose metabolism that are not yet known, using positron emission tomography with [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose ([18F]FDG PET). Methods. Twenty-one male volunteers were recruited for the present study. [18F]FDG PET scanning was performed twice on each subject: once after the spinal manipulation therapy (SMT) intervention (treatment condition) and once after resting (control condition). We performed the SMT intervention using an adjustment device. Glucose metabolism of the brain and skeletal muscles was measured and compared between the two conditions. In addition, we measured salivary amylase level as an index of autonomic nervous system (ANS) activity, as well as muscle tension and subjective pain intensity in each subject. Results. Changes in brain activity after SMT included activation of the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex, cerebellar vermis, and somatosensory association cortex and deactivation of the prefrontal cortex and temporal sites. Glucose uptake in skeletal muscles showed a trend toward decreased metabolism after SMT, although the difference was not significant. Other measurements indicated relaxation of cervical muscle tension, decrease in salivary amylase level (suppression of sympathetic nerve activity), and pain relief after SMT. Conclusion. Brain processing after SMT may lead to physiological relaxation via a decrease in sympathetic nerve activity. PMID:28167971

  12. Brain MRI, Tc-99m HMPAO SPECT and F-18 FP-CIT PET/CT Findings in a Patient with Wilson Disease: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seungyoo; Song, In Uk; Chung, Yong An; Choi, Eun Kyung; Oh, Jin Kyoung

    2014-12-01

    A 34-year-old female had experienced head and hand tremors with a dystonic component for 8 months. Brain MRI showed T2 high signal intensity in the periaqueductal region, dorsal midbrain and dorsal upper pons. No abnormal uptake was noted on Tc-99m HMPAO SPECT or F-18 FP-CIT PET/CT. Wilson disease was diagnosed according to the 2008 consensus guideline from the American Association for the Study of Liver Disease and 2012 guideline from the European Association for the Study of the Liver. This case demonstrates T2 signal change in the basal ganglia, excluding the putamen, in a Wilson disease patient with relatively severe clinical findings, but normal Tc-99m HMPAO SPECT and F-18 FP-CIT PET/CT.

  13. Correlation of (18)F-FDG PET and MR Apparent Diffusion Coefficient (ADC) Histogram Metrics with Survival in Diffuse Intrinsic Pontine Glioma: A Report from the Pediatric Brain Tumor Consortium.

    PubMed

    Zukotynski, Katherine; Vajapeyam, Sridhar; Fahey, Frederic H; Kocak, Mehmet; Brown, Douglas; Ricci, Kelsey; Onar-Thomas, Arzu; Fouladi, Maryam; Poussaint, Tina Young

    2017-03-30

    Rationale: To describe baseline (18)F-labeled 2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) voxel characteristics in pediatric diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma (DIPG) and to correlate these metrics with baseline magnetic resonance (MR) apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) histogram metrics, progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS). Methods: Baseline brain FDG-PET and MR scans were obtained in 33 children from Pediatric Brain Tumor Consortium (PBTC) clinical DIPG trials. FDG-PET, post-gadolinium (PG) and ADC images were registered to baseline fluid attenuation inversion recovery (FLAIR) images. Three-dimensional regions of interest on FLAIR and PG images and FDG-PET and ADC histograms were generated. Metrics evaluated included peak number, skewness and kurtosis. Correlation between PET and ADC histogram metrics was evaluated. PET pixel values within the ROI for each tumor were plotted against ADC values. Association of these imaging markers with survival was described. Results: PET histograms were almost always unimodal (94% vs. 6% bimodal). None of the PET histogram parameters (skewness or kurtosis) had a significant association with PFS, although a higher PET PG skewness tended towards less favorable PFS (Hazard Ratio (95% CI)=3.48 (0.75, 16.28); P = 0.11). There was a significant association of higher ADC PG skewness with shorter PFS (Hazard Ratio (95% CI)=2.56 (1.11, 5.91); P = 0.028) and the suggestion that this also led to shorter OS (Hazard Ratio (95% CI)=2.18 (0.95, 5.04); P = 0.067). Higher ADC PG kurtosis tended towards shorter PFS (Hazard Ratio (95% CI)=1.30 (0.98, 1.74); P = 0.073). In a number of cases, PET and ADC pixel values were negatively correlated using the Pearson correlation coefficient. Further, the level of PET and ADC correlation was significantly positively associated with PFS; tumors with higher values of ADC-PET correlation had more favorable PFS (Hazard Ratio (95% CI)=0.17 (0.03, 0.89), P = 0

  14. Intra-individual comparison of 18F-FET and 18F-DOPA in PET imaging of recurrent brain tumors

    PubMed Central

    Kratochwil, Clemens; Combs, Stephanie E.; Leotta, Karin; Afshar-Oromieh, Ali; Rieken, Stefan; Debus, Jürgen; Haberkorn, Uwe; Giesel, Frederik L.

    2014-01-01

    Background Both 18F-fluorodihydroxyphenylalanine (18F-DOPA) and 18F-fluoroethyltyrosine (18F-FET) have already been used successfully for imaging of brain tumors. The aim of this study was to evaluate differences between these 2 promising tracers to determine the consequences for imaging protocols and the interpretation of findings. Methods Forty minutes of dynamic PET imaging were performed on 2 consecutive days with both 18F-DOPA and 18F-FET in patients with recurrent low-grade astrocytoma (n = 8) or high-grade glioblastoma (n = 8). Time-activity-curves (TACs), standardized uptake values (SUVs) and compartment modeling of both tracers were analyzed, respectively. Results The TAC of DOPA-PET peaked at 8 minutes p.i. with SUV 5.23 in high-grade gliomas and 10 minutes p.i. with SUV 4.92 in low-grade gliomas. FET-PET peaked at 9 minutes p.i. with SUV 3.17 in high-grade gliomas and 40 minutes p.i. with SUV 3.24 in low-grade gliomas. Neglecting the specific uptake of DOPA into the striatum, the tumor-to-brain and tumor-to-blood ratios were higher for DOPA-PET. Kinetic modeling demonstrated a high flow constant k1 (mL/ccm/min), representing cellular internalization through AS-transporters, for DOPA in both high-grade (k1 = 0.59) and low-grade (k1 = 0.55) tumors, while lower absolute values and a relevant dependency from tumor-grading (high-grade k1 = 0.43; low-grade k1 = 0.33) were observed with FET. Conclusions DOPA-PET demonstrates superior contrast ratios for lesions outside the striatum, but SUVs do not correlate with grading. FET-PET can provide additional information on tumor grading and benefits from lower striatal uptake but presents lower contrast ratios and requires prolonged imaging if histology is not available in advance due to a more variable time-to-peak. PMID:24305717

  15. Approaching complete inhibition of P-glycoprotein at the human blood-brain barrier: an (R)-[11C]verapamil PET study.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Martin; Karch, Rudolf; Zeitlinger, Markus; Philippe, Cécile; Römermann, Kerstin; Stanek, Johann; Maier-Salamon, Alexandra; Wadsak, Wolfgang; Jäger, Walter; Hacker, Marcus; Müller, Markus; Langer, Oliver

    2015-05-01

    As P-glycoprotein (Pgp) inhibition at the blood-brain barrier (BBB) after administration of a single dose of tariquidar is transient, we performed positron emission tomography (PET) scans with the Pgp substrate (R)-[(11)C]verapamil in five healthy volunteers during continuous intravenous tariquidar infusion. Total distribution volume (VT) of (R)-[(11)C]verapamil in whole-brain gray matter increased by 273 ± 78% relative to baseline scans without tariquidar, which was higher than previously reported VT increases. During tariquidar infusion whole-brain VT was comparable to VT in the pituitary gland, a region not protected by the BBB, which suggested that we were approaching complete Pgp inhibition at the human BBB.

  16. Reduced grey matter metabolism due to white matter edema allows optimal assessment of brain tumors on 18F-FDG-PET.

    PubMed

    Pourdehnad, Michael; Basu, Sandip; Duarte, Paulo; Okpaku, Aubrey S; Saboury, Babak; Hustinx, Roland; Alavi, Abass

    2011-01-01

    The main aim of this research was to demonstrate that the cortical and subcortical grey matter hypometabolism as revealed by fluorine-18 fluorodesoxyglucose-positron emission tomography ((18)F-FDG-PET) imaging in brain tumors is related to associated edema as demonstrated by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). This in turn enhances the ability to assess disease activity in the tumor and the degree of loss of cerebral function in the adjacent and distant structures. We evaluated brain T1 and T2 weighted MRI and (18)F-FDG-PET scans of 29 patients (19 adult, 10 pediatric) with history of brain tumor. Tumor histology types included 21 gliomas, 1 melanoma, 1 primitive neuroectodermal tumor, 3 medulloblastomas and 3 ependymomas. The majority of scans were performed within the same week (94% <1 month. The extent of hypo and hypermetabolism was assessed on the (18)F-FDG-PET scans. A template of 12 regions of interest (ROI) was applied and the laterality indices of the regional counts (signal intensity) were computed. Extent of edema, enhancement, and anatomical change were assessed on the MRI scans. Extent of edema in the same ROI was evaluated by a 6-point semiquantitative scale and laterality indices were generated. Metabolic activity of the grey matter was correlated with the extent of edema using these indices. In all cases where edema was present, significant hypometabolism was observed in the adjacent structures. Overall, there was a strong correlation between the extent of edema and severity of hypometabolism (r=0.92, P=0.01). This was true regardless of the location of edema, whether there was history of radiation treatment (r=0.91, P=0.03), or not (r=0.97, P=0.17). In conclusion, edema independent of underlying variables appeared to contribute significantly to cortical and sub-cortical grey matter hypometabolism observed in patients with brain tumors. This would indicate that brain tumors can be successfully assessed by (18)F-FDG-PET and therefore the efforts for

  17. Clinical Value of [{sup 11}C]Methionine PET for Stereotactic Radiation Therapy With Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy to Metastatic Brain Tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Miwa, Kazuhiro; Matsuo, Masayuki; Shinoda, Jun; Aki, Tatsuki; Yonezawa, Shingo; Ito, Takeshi; Asano, Yoshitaka; Yamada, Mikito; Yokoyama, Kazutoshi; Yamada, Jitsuhiro; Yano, Hirohito; Iwama, Toru

    2012-12-01

    Purpose: This study investigated the clinical impact of {sup 11}C-labeled methionine-positron emission tomography (MET-PET) for stereotactic radiation therapy with intensity modulated radiation therapy (SRT-IMRT) in metastatic brain tumors. Methods and Materials: Forty-two metastatic brain tumors were examined. All tumors were treated with SRT-IMRT using a helical tomotherapy system. Gross tumor volume (GTV) was defined and drawn on the stereotactic magnetic resonance (MR) image, taking into account the respective contributions of MR imaging and MET-PET. Planning target volume (PTV) encompassed the GTV-PET plus a 2-mm margin. SRT-IMRT was performed, keeping the dose for PTV at 25-35 Gy in 5 fractions. The ratio of the mean value of MET uptake to the contralateral normal brain (L/N ratio) was plotted for the PTV prior to SRT-IMRT, at 3 months following SRT-IMRT, and at 6 months following SRT-IMRT. Tumor characteristic changes of MET uptake before and after SRT-IMRT were evaluated quantitatively, comparing them with MRI examination. Results: Mean {+-} SD L/N ratios were 1.95 {+-} 0.83, 1.18 {+-} 0.21, and 1.12 {+-} 0.25 in the pre-SRT-IMRT group, in the 3 months post-SRT-IMRT group, and in the 6 months post-SRT-IMRT group, respectively. Differences in the mean L/N ratio between the pre-SRT-IMRT group and the 3-month post-SRT-IMRT group and between the pre-SRT-IMRT group and the 6 month post-SRT-IMRT group were statistically significant, irrespective of MRI examination. Conclusions: We showed examples of metastatic lesions demonstrating significant decreases in MET uptake following SRT-IMRT. MET-PET seems to have a potential role in providing additional information, although MRI remains the gold standard for diagnosis and follow-up after SRT-IMRT. The present study is a preliminary approach, but to more clearly define the impact of PET-based radiosurgical assessment, further experimental and clinical analyses are required.

  18. Brain PET imaging in obesity and food addiction: current evidence and hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Iozzo, Patricia; Guiducci, Letizia; Guzzardi, Maria Angela; Pagotto, Uberto

    2012-01-01

    The ongoing epidemics of obesity is one main health concern of the present time. Overeating in some obese individuals shares similarities with the loss of control and compulsive behavior observed in drug-addicted subjects, suggesting that obesity may involve food addiction. Here, we review the contributions provided by the use of positron emission tomography to the current understanding of the cerebral control of obesity and food intake in humans. The available studies have shown that multiple areas in the brain are involved with the reward properties of food, such as prefrontal, orbitofrontal, somatosensory cortices, insula, thalamus, hypothalamus, amygdala, and others. This review summarizes the current evidence, supporting the concepts that i) regions involved in the somatosensory response to food sight, taste, and smell are activated by palatable foods and may be hyperresponsive in obese individuals, ii) areas controlling executive drive seem to overreact to the anticipation of pleasure during cue exposure, and iii) those involved in cognitive control and inhibitory behavior may be resistant to the perception of reward after food exposure in obese subjects. All of these features may stimulate, for different reasons, ingestion of highly palatable and energy-rich foods. Though these same regions are similarly involved in drug abusers and game-addicted individuals, any direct resemblance may be an oversimplification, especially as the heterogeneities between studies and the prevalent exclusion of sensitive groups still limit a coherent interpretation of the findings. Further work is required to comprehensively tackle the multifaceted phenotype of obesity and identify the role of food dependency in its pathophysiology.

  19. Visualization of early infarction in rat brain after ischemia using a translocator protein (18 kDa) PET ligand [11C]DAC with ultra-high specific activity.

    PubMed

    Yui, Joji; Hatori, Akiko; Kawamura, Kazunori; Yanamoto, Kazuhiko; Yamasaki, Tomoteru; Ogawa, Masanao; Yoshida, Yuichiro; Kumata, Katsushi; Fujinaga, Masayuki; Nengaki, Nobuki; Fukumura, Toshimitsu; Suzuki, Kazutoshi; Zhang, Ming-Rong

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to visualize early infarction in the rat brain after ischemia using a translocator protein (TSPO) (18 kDa) PET ligand [(11)C]DAC with ultra-high specific activity (SA) of 3670-4450 GBq/μmol. An infarction model of rat brain was prepared by ischemic surgery and evaluated 2 days after ischemia using small-animal PET and in vitro autoradiography. Early infarction with a small increase of TSPO expression in the brain was visualized using PET with high SA [(11)C]DAC (average 4060 GBq/μmol), but was not distinguished clearly with usually reported SA [(11)C]DAC (37 GBq/μmol). Infarction in the rat brain 4 days after ischemia was visualized using high and usually reported SAs [(11)C]DAC. Displacement experiments with unlabeled TSPO-selective AC-5216 or PK11195 diminished the difference in radioactivity between ipsilateral and contralateral sides, confirming that the increased uptake on the infracted brain was specific to TSPO. In vitro autoradiography with high SA [(11)C]DAC showed that the TSPO expression increased on early infarction in the rat brain. High SA [(11)C]DAC is a useful and sensitive biomarker for the visualization of early infarction and the characterization of TSPO expression which was slightly elevated in the infarcted brain using PET.

  20. [11C]SMe-ADAM, an imaging agent for the brain serotonin transporter: synthesis, pharmacological characterization and microPET studies in rats.

    PubMed

    Zessin, Jörg; Deuther-Conrad, Winnie; Kretzschmar, Marion; Wüst, Frank; Pawelke, Beate; Brust, Peter; Steinbach, Jörg; Bergmann, Ralf

    2006-01-01

    N,N-Dimethyl-2-(2-amino-4-methylthiophenylthio)benzylamine (SMe-ADAM, 1) is a highly potent and selective inhibitor of the serotonin transporter (SERT). This compound was labeled with carbon-11 by methylation of the S-desmethyl precursor 10 with [(11)C]methyl iodide to obtain the potential positron emission tomography (PET) radioligand [(11)C]SMe-ADAM. The radiochemical yield was 27 +/- 5%, and the specific radioactivity was 26-40 GBq/micromol at the end of synthesis. Ex vivo and in vivo biodistribution experiments in rats demonstrated a rapid accumulation of the radiotracer in brain regions known to be rich in SERT, such as the thalamus/hypothalamus region (3.59 +/- 0.41%ID/g at 5 min after injection). The specific uptake reached a thalamus to cerebellum ratio of 6.74 +/- 0.95 at 60 min postinjection. The [(11)C]SMe-ADAM uptake in the thalamus was significantly decreased by pretreatment with fluoxetine to 38 +/- 11% of the control value. Furthermore, no metabolites of [(11)C]SMe-ADAM could be detected in the SERT-rich regions of the rat brain. It is concluded that [(11)C]SMe-ADAM may be a suitable PET ligand for SERT imaging in the living brain.

  1. Positron emission tomography (PET) analysis of the effects of auditory stimulation on the distribution of /sup 11/C-N-methylchlorphentermine in the brain

    SciTech Connect

    Paschal, C.B.

    1986-06-01

    This experimental work was launched to study how auditory stimulation effects blood flow in the brain. The technique used was Positron Emission Tomography (PET) with /sup 11/C-N-methylchlorphentermine (/sup 11/C-NMCP) as the tracer. /sup 11/C-NMCP acts as a molecular microsphere and thus measures blood flow. The objectives of this work were: to develop, test, and refine an experimental procedure, to design and construct a universally applicable positioning device, and to develop and test a synthesis for a radiopure solution of /sup 11/C-NMCP; all were accomplished. PET was used to observe the brain distribution of /sup 11/C-NMCP during binaural and monaural stimulation states. The data was analyzed by finding the signal intensity in regions of the image that represented the left and right interior colliculi (IC's), brain structures dedicated to the processing of auditory signals. The binaural tests indicated a statistically significant tendency for slightly higher concentration of the tracer in the left IC than in the right IC. The monaural tests combined with those of the binaural state were not solidly conclusive, however, three of the four cases showed a decrease in tracer uptake in the IC opposite the zero-stimulus ear, as expected. There is some indication that the anesthesia used in the majority of this work may have interferred with blood flow response to auditory stimulation. 39 refs., 17 figs., 3 tabs.

  2. Examination of assumptions for local cerebral blood flow studies in PET

    SciTech Connect

    Koeppe, R.A.; Hutchins, G.D.; Rothley, J.M.; Hichwa, R.D.

    1987-11-01

    Two common assumptions made in most positron emission tomography (PET) cerebral blood flow techniques have been examined in detail. These are (1) that the blood-borne radioactivity component in the measured PET data is negligible, and (2) that differences in arrival time of the arterial bolus across the brain cause insignificant biases in the estimated cerebral blood flow (CBF) values. Biases in CBF values due to partial failure of these assumptions have been predicted by computer simulation studies and also quantitated for both dynamic and single scan PET methods using H/sub 2/ /sup 15/O. Both computer simulations and measured PET data indicate that these assumptions can sometimes cause significant errors in the estimated flow values. The magnitude of these errors depends on the PET technique used (dynamic or static) and on the interval of data included in the flow calculations. The bias caused when these assumptions fail can be considerably reduced by omitting approximately 40 sec of data immediately following tracer administration from the CBF calculations.

  3. [C-11]{beta}CNT: A new monoamine uptake ligand for studying serotonin and dopamine transporter sites in the living brain with PET

    SciTech Connect

    Mulholland, G.K.; Zheng, Q.H.; Zhou, F.C.

    1996-05-01

    There is considerable interest in measuring serotonin (5HT) and dopamine (DA) function in the human brain. Altered levels of 5HT and DA are recognized in drug abuse, neurotoxicities, psychiatric disorders, and neurodegenerative conditions including Alzheimer`s and Parkinson`s disease. Several phenyltropane analogs of cocaine bind tightly to both DA and 5HT uptake proteins. We have made a new agent from this class called {beta}CNT, 2{beta}-carboxymethyl-3{beta}-(2-naphthyl)-tropane, the isosteric O-for-CH{sub 2} analog of a compound reported to have among the highest measured affinities for DA and 5HT transporters and studied its in vivo brain distributions in animals for the first time. Optically pure {beta}CNT was made from cocaine, and labeled at the O-methyl position by esterification of {beta}CNT-acid with [C-11]CH{sub 3}OTfl under conditions similar to Wilson`s. HPLC-purified (99+%) final products (15-50% eob yield from CO{sub 2}, 40 min synth) had specific activities 0.1-1.2 Ci/{mu}mol at the time of injection. Preliminary [C-11]{beta}{beta}CNT rodent distribution showed very high brain uptake (3% ID at 60 min) and localization (striat: fr cort: hypo: cer: blood, 11: 5: 4: 1: 06). {beta}CNT-PET studies in juvenile pigs (5-20 mCi, 20-35 kg) found rapid brain uptake, and prominent retention (85 min) in midbrain, anterior brainstem and striatum, followed by cortex and olfactory bulb. Paroxetine pretreatment (5HT uptake blocker, 2mg/kg), diminished retention in most brain areas; nomifensine (DA/NE uptake blocker, 6 mg/kg) reduced striatum selectively. Direct comparisons of [C-11]{beta}CNT with other PET transporter radioligands {beta}CFT, {beta}CIT, and {beta}CTT (RTI-32) in the same pig found {beta}CNT had highest overall brain uptake among the agents. These initial results suggest {beta}CNT has favorable properties for imaging both 5HT and DA transporters in vivo, and further evaluation of its potential as a human PET agent is warranted.

  4. Quantification of [(11)C]PIB PET for imaging myelin in the human brain: a test-retest reproducibility study in high-resolution research tomography.

    PubMed

    Veronese, Mattia; Bodini, Benedetta; García-Lorenzo, Daniel; Battaglini, Marco; Bongarzone, Salvatore; Comtat, Claude; Bottlaender, Michel; Stankoff, Bruno; Turkheimer, Federico E

    2015-11-01

    An accurate in vivo measure of myelin content is essential to deepen our insight into the mechanisms underlying demyelinating and dysmyelinating neurological disorders, and to evaluate the effects of emerging remyelinating treatments. Recently [(11)C]PIB, a positron emission tomography (PET) tracer originally conceived as a beta-amyloid marker, has been shown to be sensitive to myelin changes in preclinical models and humans. In this work, we propose a reference-region methodology for the voxelwise quantification of brain white-matter (WM) binding for [(11)C]PIB. This methodology consists of a supervised procedure for the automatic extraction of a reference region and the application of the Logan graphical method to generate distribution volume ratio (DVR) maps. This approach was assessed on a test-retest group of 10 healthy volunteers using a high-resolution PET tomograph. The [(11)C]PIB PET tracer binding was shown to be up to 23% higher in WM compared with gray matter, depending on the image reconstruction. The DVR estimates were characterized by high reliability (outliers <1%) and reproducibility (intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) >0.95). [(11)C]PIB parametric maps were also found to be significantly correlated (R(2)>0.50) to mRNA expressions of the most represented proteins in the myelin sheath. On the contrary, no correlation was found between [(11)C]PIB imaging and nonmyelin-associated proteins.

  5. Quantitative evaluation of two scatter correction techniques for (18)F-FDG brain PET/MR imaging in regard to MR-based attenuation correction.

    PubMed

    Teuho, Jarmo; Saunavaara, Virva; Tolvanen, Tuula; Tuokkola, Terhi; Karlsson, Antti; Tuisku, Jouni; Teräs, Mika

    2017-03-23

    In positron emission tomography (PET), corrections for photon scatter and attenuation are essential for visual and quantitative consistency. Magnetic resonance attenuation correction (MRAC) is generally conducted by image segmentation and assignment of discrete attenuation coefficients, which offers limited accuracy compared to computed tomography attenuation correction (CTAC). Potential inaccuracies in MRAC may affect scatter correction, as the attenuation image (µ-map) is used in single scatter simulation (SSS) to calculate the scatter estimate. We assessed the impact of MRAC to scatter correction by using two scatter correction techniques and three µ-maps for MRAC. Methods: The SSS and a Monte Carlo - based single scatter simulation (MCSSS) algorithm implementations on the Philips Ingenuity TF PET/MR were used with one CT-based and two MR-based µ-maps. Data from seven subjects were used in the clinical evaluation while a phantom study using an anatomical brain phantom was conducted. Scatter correction sinograms were evaluated for each scatter correction method and µ-map. Absolute image quantification was investigated with the phantom data. Quantitative assessment of PET images was performed by volume of interest (VOI) and ratio image analysis. Results: MRAC did not result in large differences in scatter algorithm performance, especially with SSS. Scatter sinograms and scatter fractions did not reveal large differences regardless of the µ-map used. SSS showed slightly higher absolute quantification. The differences in VOI analysis between SSS and MCSSS were 3 % at maximum in the phantom and 4 % in the patient study. Both algorithms showed excellent correlation with each other with no visual differences between PET images. MCSSS showed a slight dependency on the µ-map used, with difference of 2 % on average and 4 % at maximum when using a µ-map without bone. Conclusion: The effect of different MR-based µ-maps to the performance of scatter correction was

  6. MO-F-CAMPUS-J-03: Development of a Human Brain PET for On-Line Proton Beam-Range Verification

    SciTech Connect

    Shao, Yiping

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To develop a prototype PET for verifying proton beam-range before each fractionated therapy that will enable on-line re-planning proton therapy. Methods: Latest “edge-less” silicon photomultiplier arrays and customized ASIC readout electronics were used to develop PET detectors with depth-of-interaction (DOI) measurement capability. Each detector consists of one LYSO array with each end coupled to a SiPM array. Multiple detectors can be seamlessly tiled together to form a large detector panel. Detectors with 1.5×1.5 and 2.0×2.0 mm crystals at 20 or 30 mm lengths were studied. Readout of individual SiPM or signal multiplexing was used to transfer 3D interaction position-coded analog signals through flexible-print-circuit cables or PCB board to dedicated ASIC front-end electronics to output digital timing pulses that encode interaction information. These digital pulses can be transferred to, through standard LVDS cables, and decoded by a FPGA-based data acquisition of coincidence events and data transfer. The modular detector and scalable electronics/data acquisition will enable flexible PET system configuration for different imaging geometry. Results: Initial detector performance measurement shows excellent crystal identification even with 30 mm long crystals, ∼18% and 2.8 ns energy and timing resolutions, and around 2–3 mm DOI resolution. A small prototype PET scanner with one detector ring has been built and evaluated, validating the technology and design. A large size detector panel has been fabricated by scaling up from modular detectors. Different designs of resistor and capacitor based signal multiplexing boards were tested and selected based on optimal crystal identification and timing performance. Stackable readout electronics boards and FPGA-based data acquisition boards were developed and tested. A brain PET is under construction. Conclusion: Technology of large-size DOI detector based on SiPM array and advanced readout has been

  7. Detecting a dexmedetomidine-evoked reduction of noradrenaline release in the human brain with the alpha2C-adrenoceptor PET ligand [11C]ORM-13070.

    PubMed

    Lehto, Jussi; Scheinin, Annalotta; Johansson, Jarkko; Marjamäki, Päivi; Arponen, Eveliina; Scheinin, Harry; Scheinin, Mika

    2016-02-01

    PET imaging can for some neurotransmitters be used to measure synaptic neurotransmitter concentrations. The objective of this study was to test whether the receptor binding of the α2C -AR antagonist PET tracer [(11)C]ORM-13070 would increase in response to reductions in synaptic noradrenaline, evoked by dexmedetomidine as a sympatholytic drug challenge. Six subjects underwent a control PET scan and two dexmedetomidine PET scans. Dexmedetomidine was infused with target plasma concentrations of 0.6 and 0.2 ng/ml. Tracer binding was measured by voxel-based analysis of bound per free (B/F) images. ROI-based analysis was performed in the dorsal striatum and in the thalamus. Vital signs and drug concentrations in plasma were measured and the sedative effect was estimated with the visual analog scale. In the voxel-based analysis, dexmedetomidine administration was associated with a tendency to increased B/F tracer in the right thalamus (mean, +17%, P = 0.14, and +19%, P = 0.05, with the low and high dose, respectively). Tracer binding in the dorsal striatum was unaffected by dexmedetomidine. A cluster with significantly increased B/F tracer (+42%, P = 0.01) was seen in the right superior temporal gyrus with low-dose dexmedetomidine, but not after the high dose. Brain uptake of [(11)C]ORM-13070 has previously been shown to be reduced in conditions of increased synaptic noradrenaline concentrations. In this study, tracer binding in the thalamus tended to increase in accordance with reduced activity of noradrenergic projections from the locus coeruleus, but statistical significance was not reached.

  8. Comparison of [11C]cocaine binding at tracer and pharmacological doses of baboon brain: A PET study

    SciTech Connect

    Volkow, N.D.; Fowler, J.S.; Logan, J.

    1994-05-01

    In vitro studies have shown that cocaine (C) binds to both high and low affinity sites on the dopamine transporter (DAT). We have previously characterized the binding of tracer doses of [{sup 11}C]cocaine (C*)to a high affinity site on the DAT. To assess if in vivo C also binds to low affinity sites we used PET to compare binding of tracer doses (17.8{plus_minus}12.2 {mu}g C) of C* to pharmacological doses (8 mg of C coadministered with C*). Sixteen paired studies were done to assess test/retest variability, specific versus non specific binding and to characterize binding profile. Dynamic scans were started immediately after injection of C* (5-8 mCi) for 50 min on the CTI-931 (6 x 6 x 6.5 mm FWHM). Time activity curves for tissue concentration and for unchanged tracer in plasma were used to calculate the transport constant between plasma and tissue (K1) and to obtain the distribution volume (DV). The ratio of the DV in striatum (ST) to that in cerebellum (CB) (which corresponds to Bmax/Kd-1) was used as model parameter. Peak brain uptake of C* was significantly higher for tracer than for pharmacological doses (0.041 versus 0.033 % dose/cc), as were the values for K1 (1.07{plus_minus}0.21 versus 0.68{plus_minus}0.26 (t=3.0 p<0.01)). Repeated measures were reproducible for tracer ({plus_minus}2%) and pharmacological doses of C* ({plus_minus}4%). Tracer dose C* showed highest binding and slowest clearance in ST which was reduced by C (0.5-2.0 mg/kg iv, -25 to -30%) and by drugs that inhibit DAT (2mg/kg nomifensine - 21%, 0.5 mg/kg methylphenidate -12%) and was increased by serotonin transporter inhibitors (5HT-Ti) (2 mg/kg citalopram +11%, 0.5 mg/kg fluoxetine +6%) and not changed by NE transporter inhibitors (0.5 mg/kg desipramine or 2 mg/kg tomoxetine). The increase with (5HT-Ti) may reflect neurotransmitter interactions or changes in bioavailability. At pharmacological doses C* showed homogeneous distribution and was not changed by C nor by any of the above drugs.

  9. A Standardized Method for the Construction of Tracer Specific PET and SPECT Rat Brain Templates: Validation and Implementation of a Toolbox

    PubMed Central

    Vállez Garcia, David; Casteels, Cindy; Schwarz, Adam J.; Dierckx, Rudi A. J. O.; Koole, Michel; Doorduin, Janine

    2015-01-01

    High-resolution anatomical image data in preclinical brain PET and SPECT studies is often not available, and inter-modality spatial normalization to an MRI brain template is frequently performed. However, this procedure can be challenging for tracers where substantial anatomical structures present limited tracer uptake. Therefore, we constructed and validated strain- and tracer-specific rat brain templates in Paxinos space to allow intra-modal registration. PET [18F]FDG, [11C]flumazenil, [11C]MeDAS, [11C]PK11195 and [11C]raclopride, and SPECT [99mTc]HMPAO brain scans were acquired from healthy male rats. Tracer-specific templates were constructed by averaging the scans, and by spatial normalization to a widely used MRI-based template. The added value of tracer-specific templates was evaluated by quantification of the residual error between original and realigned voxels after random misalignments of the data set. Additionally, the impact of strain differences, disease uptake patterns (focal and diffuse lesion), and the effect of image and template size on the registration errors were explored. Mean registration errors were 0.70±0.32mm for [18F]FDG (n = 25), 0.23±0.10mm for [11C]flumazenil (n = 13), 0.88±0.20 mm for [11C]MeDAS (n = 15), 0.64±0.28mm for [11C]PK11195 (n = 19), 0.34±0.15mm for [11C]raclopride (n = 6), and 0.40±0.13mm for [99mTc]HMPAO (n = 15). These values were smallest with tracer-specific templates, when compared to the use of [18F]FDG as reference template (p&0.001). Additionally, registration errors were smallest with strain-specific templates (p&0.05), and when images and templates had the same size (p≤0.001). Moreover, highest registration errors were found for the focal lesion group (p&0.005) and the diffuse lesion group (p = n.s.). In the voxel-based analysis, the reported coordinates of the focal lesion model are consistent with the stereotaxic injection procedure. The use of PET/SPECT strain- and tracer-specific templates allows

  10. Discovery of a highly selective glycogen synthase kinase-3 inhibitor (PF-04802367) that modulates tau phosphorylation in brain: Translation for PET neuroimaging

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Steven H.; Chen, Jinshan Michael; Normandin, Marc D.; Chang, Jeanne S.; Chang, George C.; Taylor, Christine K.; Trapa, Patrick; Plummer, Mark S.; Para, Kimberly S.; Conn, Edward L.; Lopresti-Morrow, Lori; Lanyon, Lorraine F.; Cook, James M.; Richter, Karl E. G.; Nolan, Charlie E.; Schachter, Joel B.; Janat, Fouad; Che, Ye; Shanmugasundaram, Veerabahu; Lefker, Bruce A.; Enerson, Bradley E.; Livni, Elijahu; Wang, Lu; Guehl, Nicolas; Patnaik, Debasis; Wagner, Florence F.; Perlis, Roy; Holson, Edward B.; Haggarty, Stephen J.; Fakhri, Georges El

    2016-01-01

    Glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3) regulates multiple cellular processes in diabetes, oncology and neurology. We have identified N-(3-(1H-1,2,4-triazol-1-yl)propyl)-5-(3-chloro-4-methoxyphenyl)oxazole-4-carboxamide (PF-04802367 or PF-367) as a highly potent inhibitor, which is among the most selective antagonists of GSK-3 to date. We demonstrated its efficacy in modulation of tau phosphorylation in vitro and in vivo. Whereas the kinetics of PF-367 binding in brain tissues are too fast for an effective therapeutic agent, the pharmacokinetic profile of PF-367 is ideal for discovery of radiopharmaceuticals for GSK-3 in the central nervous system. A 11C-isotopologue of PF-367 was synthesized and preliminary PET imaging studies in non-human primates confirmed that we have overcome the two major obstacles for imaging GSK-3, namely, reasonable brain permeability and displaceable binding. PMID:27355874

  11. Brain translocator protein occupancy by ONO-2952 in healthy adults: A Phase 1 PET study using [(11) C]PBR28.

    PubMed

    Frankle, William G; Narendran, Rajesh; Wood, Andrew T; Suto, Fumitaka; Himes, Michael L; Kobayashi, Michiyoshi; Ohno, Tomoya; Yamauchi, Akinori; Mitsui, Katsukuni; Duffy, Kevin; Mark, Bruce

    2017-02-28

    ONO-2952, a novel antagonist of translocator protein 18 kDa (TSPO), binds with high affinity to TSPO in rat brain and human tumor cell line membrane preparations. This study used the TSPO-specific PET radioligand [(11) C]PBR28 to confirm binding of ONO-2952 to brain TSPO in human subjects, and evaluate brain TSPO occupancy and its relationship with ONO-2952 plasma concentration. Sixteen healthy subjects received a single oral dose of 200, 60, 20, or 6 mg ONO-2952 (n=4 per dose). Two PET scans with [(11) C]PBR28 were conducted ≤7 days apart: at baseline and 24 hours after ONO-2952 administration. [(11) C]PBR28 regional distribution volume (VT ) was derived with kinetic modelling using the arterial input function and a two tissue compartment model. Nonspecific binding (VND ) was obtained on an individual basis for each subject using linear regression as the x-intercept of the Lassen plot. The binding potential relative to VND (BPND ) was derived as the difference between VT in the ROI (VT ROI) and VND , normalized to VND ; BPND = (VT ROI - VND )/VND . TSPO occupancy was calculated as the change in BPND (ΔBPND ) from individual's baseline scan to the on-medication scan to the baseline BPND value. TSPO occupancy by ONO-2952 was dose dependent between 20-200 mg, approaching saturation at 200 mg both in the whole brain and in 15 anatomic regions of interest (ROI). Estimated Ki values ranged from 24.1 - 72.2 nM. This open-label, single-center, single-dose study demonstrated engagement of ONO-2952 to brain TSPO. The relationship between pharmacokinetics and TSPO occupancy observed in this study support the hypothesis that ONO-2952 could potentially modulate neurosteroid production by binding to brain TSPO. This open-label, single-center, single-dose study demonstrated engagement of ONO-2952 to brain TSPO. The relationship between pharmacokinetics and TSPO occupancy observed in this study support the hypothesis that ONO-2952 could potentially modulate neurosteroid

  12. Amphetamine Decreases α2C-Adrenoceptor Binding of [11C]ORM-13070: A PET Study in the Primate Brain

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, Zoë A; Haaparanta-Solin, Merja; Stepanov, Vladimir; Nakao, Ryuji; Varnäs, Katarina; Varrone, Andrea; Arponen, Eveliina; Marjamäki, Päivi; Pohjanoksa, Katariina; Vuorilehto, Lauri; Babalola, Phebian A; Solin, Olof; Grimwood, Sarah; Sallinen, Jukka; Farde, Lars; Scheinin, Mika; Halldin, Christer

    2015-01-01

    Background: The neurotransmitter norepinephrine has been implicated in psychiatric and neurodegenerative disorders. Examination of synaptic norepinephrine concentrations in the living brain may be possible with positron emission tomography (PET), but has been hampered by the lack of suitable radioligands. Methods: We explored the use of the novel α2C-adrenoceptor antagonist PET tracer [11C]ORM-13070 for measurement of amphetamine-induced changes in synaptic norepinephrine. The effect of amphetamine on [11C]ORM-13070 binding was evaluated ex vivo in rat brain sections and in vivo with PET imaging in monkeys. Results: Microdialysis experiments confirmed amphetamine-induced elevations in rat striatal norepinephrine and dopamine concentrations. Regional [11C]ORM-13070 receptor binding was high in the striatum and low in the cerebellum. After injection of [11C]ORM-13070 in rats, mean striatal specific binding ratios, determined using cerebellum as a reference region, were 1.4±0.3 after vehicle pretreatment and 1.2±0.2 after amphetamine administration (0.3mg/kg, subcutaneous). Injection of [11C]ORM-13070 in non-human primates resulted in mean striatal binding potential (BP ND) estimates of 0.65±0.12 at baseline. Intravenous administration of amphetamine (0.5 and 1.0mg/kg, i.v.) reduced BP ND values by 31–50%. Amphetamine (0.3mg/kg, subcutaneous) increased extracellular norepinephrine (by 400%) and dopamine (by 270%) in rat striata. Conclusions: Together, these results indicate that [11C]ORM-13070 may be a useful tool for evaluation of synaptic norepinephrine concentrations in vivo. Future studies are required to further understand a potential contribution of dopamine to the amphetamine-induced effect. PMID:25522417

  13. Guidelines for brain radionuclide imaging. Perfusion single photon computed tomography (SPECT) using Tc-99m radiopharmaceuticals and brain metabolism positron emission tomography (PET) using F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose. The Belgian Society for Nuclear Medicine.

    PubMed

    Vander Borght, T; Laloux, P; Maes, A; Salmon, E; Goethals, I; Goldman, S

    2001-12-01

    The purpose of these guidelines is to assist nuclear medicine practitioners in recommending, performing, interpreting, and reporting the results of brain perfusion SPECT studies using Tc-99m radiopharmaceuticals and brain metabolism PET studies using F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG). These guidelines have been adapted and extended from those produced by the Society of Nuclear Medicine (Juni et al., 1998) and the European Association of Nuclear Medicine by a Belgian group of experts in the field trained in neurology and/or nuclear medicine. Some indications are not universally approved (e.g. brain death), but largely supported by the literature. They have been included in these guidelines in order to provide recommendations and a standardised protocol.

  14. Regional specific binding of (/sup 11/C)RO 15 1788 to central type benzodiazepine receptors in human brain: quantitative evaluation by PET

    SciTech Connect

    Pappata, S.; Samson, Y.; Chavoix, C.; Prenant, C.; Maziere, M.; Baron, J.C.

    1988-06-01

    The central type benzodiazepine receptors were studied in 17 healthy human subjects with /sup 11/C-RO 15 1788 and positron emission tomography (PET). The brain regional distribution of the tracer in eight control studies performed after injection of trace doses of /sup 11/C-RO 15 1788 was consistent with that of benzodiazepine receptors. Saturation studies with co-injected cold RO 15 1788 in the remaining subjects showed a dose-dependent decrease of brain radiotracer until full inhibition of specific binding was achieved with doses above 0.1 mg/kg (four studies). Based on the results, a simple method to estimate the specifically bound /sup 11/C-RO 15 1788 regionally in a single PET study is proposed, using the data from the full-saturation studies as a stable estimate of the nondisplaceable radioligand concentration. Using this method, it was found that quasiequilibrium between the estimated specifically bound and nondisplaceable components was achieved at times equal to or longer than 20 min after tracer administration. The validity of this method was partly supported by further results, showing a good agreement between the regional specific binding so calculated and postmortem data of receptor density.

  15. Equivalent dynamic human brain NK1-receptor occupancy following single-dose i.v. fosaprepitant vs. oral aprepitant as assessed by PET imaging.

    PubMed

    Van Laere, K; De Hoon, J; Bormans, G; Koole, M; Derdelinckx, I; De Lepeleire, I; Declercq, R; Sanabria Bohorquez, S M; Hamill, T; Mozley, P D; Tatosian, D; Xie, W; Liu, Y; Liu, F; Zappacosta, P; Mahon, C; Butterfield, K L; Rosen, L B; Murphy, M G; Hargreaves, R J; Wagner, J A; Shadle, C R

    2012-08-01

    The type 1 neurokinin receptor (NK1R) antagonist aprepitant and its i.v. prodrug fosaprepitant have been approved for prevention of acute and delayed nausea and vomiting associated with chemotherapy. This study evaluated the magnitude and duration of brain NK1R occupancy over a period of 5 days after single-dose i.v. infusion of 150-mg fosaprepitant and single-dose oral administration of 165-mg aprepitant, using serial [(18)F]MK-0999 positron emission tomography (PET) in 16 healthy subjects. Each subject underwent three scans. Brain NK1R occupancy rates after i.v. fosaprepitant at time to peak concentration (T(max); ~30 min), 24, 48, and 120 h after the dose were 100, 100, ≥97, and 41-75%, respectively. After aprepitant, NK1R occupancy rates at these time points (T(max) ~4 h) were ≥99, ≥99, ≥97, and 37-76%, respectively. Aprepitant plasma concentration profiles were comparable for the two dosage forms. The study illustrates the utility of PET imaging in determining central bioequivalence in a limited number of subjects.

  16. Washout rate in rat brain irradiated by a 11C beam after acetazolamide loading using a small single-ring OpenPET prototype

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirano, Yoshiyuki; Takuwa, Hiroyuki; Yoshida, Eiji; Nishikido, Fumihiko; Nakajima, Yasunori; Wakizaka, Hidekatsu; Yamaya, Taiga

    2016-03-01

    In dose verification techniques of particle therapies based on in-beam positron emission tomography (PET), the causes of washout of positron emitters by physiological effects should be clarified to correct washout for accurate verification. As well, the quantitative washout rate has a potential usefulness as a diagnostic index which should be explored. Therefore, we measured washout rates of rat brain after vasodilator acetazolamide loading to investigate the possible effects of blood flow on washout. Six rat brains were irradiated by a radioisotope 11C beam and time activity curves on the whole brains were obtained with a small single-ring OpenPET prototype. Then, washout rates were calculated with the Mizuno model, where two washout rates (k 2m and k 2s ) were assumed, and a two-compartment model including efflux from tissue to blood (k 2) and influx (k 3) and efflux (k 4) between the two tissue compartments. Before the irradiations, we used laser-Doppler flowmetry to confirm that acetazolamide increased cerebral blood flow (CBF) of a rat. We compared means of k 2m , k 2s and k 2, k 3 and k 4 without acetazolamide loading (Rest) and with acetazolamide loading (ACZ). For all k values, ACZ values were lower than Rest values. In other words, though CBF increased, washout rates were decreased. This may be attributed to the implanted 11C reacting to form 11CO2. Because acetazolamide increased the concentration of CO2 in brain, suppressed diffusion of 11CO2 and decomposition of 11CO2 into ions were prevented.

  17. Evaluation in Monkey of Two Candidate PET Radioligands, [11C]RX-1 and [18F]RX-2, for Imaging Brain 5-HT4 Receptors

    PubMed Central

    LOHITH, TALAKAD G.; XU, RONG; TSUJIKAWA, TETSUYA; MORSE, CHERYL L.; ANDERSON, KACEY B.; GLADDING, ROBERT L.; ZOGHBI, SAMI S.; FUJITA, MASAHIRO; INNIS, ROBERT B.; PIKE, VICTOR W.

    2014-01-01

    The serotonin subtype-4 (5-HT4) receptor, which is known to be involved physiologically in learning and memory, and pathologically in Alzheimer’s disease, anxiety and other neuropsychiatric disorders – has few radioligands readily available for imaging in vivo. We have previously reported two novel 5-HT4 receptor radioligands, namely [methoxy-11C](1-butylpiperidin-4-yl)methyl 4-amino-3-methoxybenzoate; [11C]RX-1) and the [18F]3-fluoromethoxy analog ([18F]RX-2), and in this study we evaluated them by PET in rhesus monkey. Brain scans were performed at baseline, receptor preblock or displacement conditions using SB 207710, a 5-HT4 receptor antagonist, on the same day for [11C]RX-1 and on different days for [18F]RX-2. Specific-to-nondisplaceable ratio (BPND) was measured with the simplified reference tissue model from all baseline scans. To determine specific binding, total distribution volume (VT) was also measured in some monkeys by radiometabolite-corrected arterial input function after ex vivo inhibition of esterases from baseline and blocked scans. Both radioligands showed moderate to high peak brain uptake of radioactivity (2–6 SUV). Regional BPND values were in the rank order of known 5-HT4 receptor distribution with a trend for higher BPND values from [18F]RX-2. One-tissue compartmental model provided good fits with well identified VT values for both radioligands. In the highest 5-HT4 receptor density region, striatum, 50–60% of total binding was specific. The VT in receptor-poor cerebellum reached stable values by about 60 min for both radioligands indicating little influence of radiometabolites on brain signal. In conclusion, both [11C]RX-1 and [18F]RX-2 showed positive attributes for PET imaging of brain 5-HT4 receptors, validating the radioligand design strategy. PMID:25088028

  18. Human Brain Imaging of α7 nAChR with [18F]ASEM: a New PET Radiotracer for Neuropsychiatry and Determination of Drug Occupancy

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Dean F.; Kuwabara, Hiroto; Pomper, Martin; Holt, Daniel P.; Brasic, James R.; George, Noble; Frolov, Boris; Willis, William; Gao, Yongjun; Valentine, Heather; Nandi, Ayon; Gapasin, Lorena; Dannals, Robert F.; Horti, Andrew G.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Using the α7-nAChR radiotracer, [18F]ASEM, we present the first successful human positron emission tomography (PET) studies. Rodent occupancy with three clinically employed α7-nAChR drugs confirms the specificity of the radiotracer. Procedures Five healthy male subjects were imaged for 90 min following IV [18F]ASEM. Two subjects were scanned for the second time (test/retest; TRV). Mouse biodistribution of [18F]ASEM was carried out in CD1 mice injected with using human equivalent doses of DMXB-A, EVP-6124, and varenicline to block specific binding. Results [18F]ASEM readily entered the brain and peaked at 15 min post-injection with reversible kinetics and a peak %SUV of about 400 %. The regional human brain distribution of [18F]ASEM matched previous in vitro data and baboon PET results. The precuneus, parietal, occipital, cingulate cortexes, putamen, and thalamus showed high values of distribution volume (>20 ml/ml) and binding potentials >1 with TRV averaged 10.8±5.1 %. In mouse distribution studies, there was significant dose-dependent blockade in the mouse brain with DMXB-A as well as the other two α7-nAChR drugs. Conclusions The characteristics of [18F]ASEM are consistent with the ability to quantify α7-nAChR in the human brain. [18F]ASEM is suitable for imaging neuropsychiatric disorders and target engagement (receptor occupancy) of potential α7-nAChR drugs. PMID:25145965

  19. Construction and Evaluation of Quantitative Small-Animal PET Probabilistic Atlases for [18F]FDG and [18F]FECT Functional Mapping of the Mouse Brain

    PubMed Central

    Casteels, Cindy; Vunckx, Kathleen; Aelvoet, Sarah-Ann; Baekelandt, Veerle; Bormans, Guy; Van Laere, Koen; Koole, Michel

    2013-01-01

    Automated voxel-based or pre-defined volume-of-interest (VOI) analysis of small-animal PET data in mice is necessary for optimal information usage as the number of available resolution elements is limited. We have mapped metabolic ([18F]FDG) and dopamine transporter ([18F]FECT) small-animal PET data onto a 3D Magnetic Resonance Microscopy (MRM) mouse brain template and aligned them in space to the Paxinos co-ordinate system. In this way, ligand-specific templates for sensitive analysis and accurate anatomical localization were created. Next, using a pre-defined VOI approach, test-retest and intersubject variability of various quantification methods were evaluated. Also, the feasibility of mouse brain statistical parametric mapping (SPM) was explored for [18F]FDG and [18F]FECT imaging of 6-hydroxydopamine-lesioned (6-OHDA) mice. Methods Twenty-three adult C57BL6 mice were scanned with [18F]FDG and [18F]FECT. Registrations and affine spatial normalizations were performed using SPM8. [18F]FDG data were quantified using (1) an image-derived-input function obtained from the liver (cMRglc), using (2) standardized uptake values (SUVglc) corrected for blood glucose levels and by (3) normalizing counts to the whole-brain uptake. Parametric [18F]FECT binding images were constructed by reference to the cerebellum. Registration accuracy was determined using random simulated misalignments and vectorial mismatch determination. Results Registration accuracy was between 0.21–1.11 mm. Regional intersubject variabilities of cMRglc ranged from 15.4% to 19.2%, while test-retest values were between 5.0% and 13.0%. For [18F]FECT uptake in the caudate-putamen, these values were 13.0% and 10.3%, respectively. Regional values of cMRglc positively correlated to SUVglc measured within the 45–60 min time frame (spearman r = 0.71). Next, SPM analysis of 6-OHDA-lesioned mice showed hypometabolism in the bilateral caudate-putamen and cerebellum, and an unilateral striatal decrease in DAT

  20. Dose-response assessment of tariquidar and elacridar and regional quantification of P-glycoprotein inhibition at the rat blood-brain barrier using (R)-[11C]verapamil PET

    PubMed Central

    Kuntner, Claudia; Bankstahl, Jens P.; Bankstahl, Marion; Stanek, Johann; Wanek, Thomas; Stundner, Gloria; Karch, Rudolf; Brauner, Rebecca; Meier, Martin; Ding, Xiaoqi; Müller, Markus; Löscher, Wolfgang; Langer, Oliver

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Overactivity of the multidrug efflux transporter P-glycoprotein (P-gp) at the blood-brain barrier (BBB) is believed to play an important role in resistance to central nervous system drug treatment. (R)-[11C]verapamil (VPM) PET can be used to measure the function of P-gp at the BBB, but low brain uptake of VPM hampers the mapping of regional differences in cerebral P-gp function and expression. The aim of this study was to evaluate the dose-response relationship of two potent P-gp inhibitors and to investigate if increased brain uptake of VPM mediated by P-gp inhibition can be used to assess regional differences in P-gp activity. Methods Two groups of Sprague-Dawley rats (n=12) underwent single VPM PET scans at 120 min after administration of different doses of the P-gp inhibitors tariquidar and elacridar. In an additional 6 rats, paired VPM PET scans were performed before and after administration of 3 mg/kg tariquidar. Results Inhibitor administration resulted in an up to 11-fold increase in VPM brain distribution volumes (DV) with ED50 values of 3.0±0.2 and 1.2±0.1 mg/kg for tariquidar and elacridar, respectively. In paired PET scans, 3 mg/kg tariquidar resulted in regionally different enhancement of brain activity distribution, with lowest DV in cerebellum and highest DV in thalamus. Conclusion Our data show that tariquidar and elacridar are able to increase VPM brain distribution in rat brain up to 11-fold over baseline at maximum effective doses, with elacridar being about 3 times more potent than tariquidar. Regional differences in tariquidar-induced modulation of VPM brain uptake point to regional differences in cerebral P-gp function and expression in rat brain. PMID:20016890

  1. SU-E-QI-03: Compartment Modeling of Dynamic Brain PET - The Effect of Scatter and Random Corrections On Parameter Errors

    SciTech Connect

    Häggström, I; Karlsson, M; Larsson, A; Schmidtlein, C

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: To investigate the effects of corrections for random and scattered coincidences on kinetic parameters in brain tumors, by using ten Monte Carlo (MC) simulated dynamic FLT-PET brain scans. Methods: The GATE MC software was used to simulate ten repetitions of a 1 hour dynamic FLT-PET scan of a voxelized head phantom. The phantom comprised six normal head tissues, plus inserted regions for blood and tumor tissue. Different time-activity-curves (TACs) for all eight tissue types were used in the simulation and were generated in Matlab using a 2-tissue model with preset parameter values (K1,k2,k3,k4,Va,Ki). The PET data was reconstructed into 28 frames by both ordered-subset expectation maximization (OSEM) and 3D filtered back-projection (3DFBP). Five image sets were reconstructed, all with normalization and different additional corrections C (A=attenuation, R=random, S=scatter): Trues (AC), trues+randoms (ARC), trues+scatters (ASC), total counts (ARSC) and total counts (AC). Corrections for randoms and scatters were based on real random and scatter sinograms that were back-projected, blurred and then forward projected and scaled to match the real counts. Weighted non-linearleast- squares fitting of TACs from the blood and tumor regions was used to obtain parameter estimates. Results: The bias was not significantly different for trues (AC), trues+randoms (ARC), trues+scatters (ASC) and total counts (ARSC) for either 3DFBP or OSEM (p<0.05). Total counts with only AC stood out however, with an up to 160% larger bias. In general, there was no difference in bias found between 3DFBP and OSEM, except in parameter Va and Ki. Conclusion: According to our results, the methodology of correcting the PET data for randoms and scatters performed well for the dynamic images where frames have much lower counts compared to static images. Generally, no bias was introduced by the corrections and their importance was emphasized since omitting them increased bias extensively.

  2. Implementation and analysis of list mode algorithm using tubes of response on a dedicated brain and breast PET

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moliner, L.; Correcher, C.; González, A. J.; Conde, P.; Hernández, L.; Orero, A.; Rodríguez-Álvarez, M. J.; Sánchez, F.; Soriano, A.; Vidal, L. F.; Benlloch, J. M.

    2013-02-01

    In this work we present an innovative algorithm for the reconstruction of PET images based on the List-Mode (LM) technique which improves their spatial resolution compared to results obtained with current MLEM algorithms. This study appears as a part of a large project with the aim of improving diagnosis in early Alzheimer disease stages by means of a newly developed hybrid PET-MR insert. At the present, Alzheimer is the most relevant neurodegenerative disease and the best way to apply an effective treatment is its early diagnosis. The PET device will consist of several monolithic LYSO crystals coupled to SiPM detectors. Monolithic crystals can reduce scanner costs with the advantage to enable implementation of very small virtual pixels in their geometry. This is especially useful for LM reconstruction algorithms, since they do not need a pre-calculated system matrix. We have developed an LM algorithm which has been initially tested with a large aperture (186 mm) breast PET system. Such an algorithm instead of using the common lines of response, incorporates a novel calculation of tubes of response. The new approach improves the volumetric spatial resolution about a factor 2 at the border of the field of view when compared with traditionally used MLEM algorithm. Moreover, it has also shown to decrease the image noise, thus increasing the image quality.

  3. Relationship between baseline brain metabolism measured using [¹⁸F]FDG PET and memory and executive function in prodromal and early Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Habeck, Christian; Risacher, Shannon; Lee, Grace J; Glymour, M Maria; Mormino, Elizabeth; Mukherjee, Shubhabrata; Kim, Sungeun; Nho, Kwangsik; DeCarli, Charles; Saykin, Andrew J; Crane, Paul K

    2012-12-01

    Differences in brain metabolism as measured by FDG-PET in prodromal and early Alzheimer's disease (AD) have been consistently observed, with a characteristic parietotemporal hypometabolic pattern. However, exploration of brain metabolic correlates of more nuanced measures of cognitive function has been rare, particularly in larger samples. We analyzed the relationship between resting brain metabolism and memory and executive functioning within diagnostic group on a voxel-wise basis in 86 people with AD, 185 people with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and 86 healthy controls (HC) from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI). We found positive associations within AD and MCI but not in HC. For MCI and AD, impaired executive functioning was associated with reduced parietotemporal metabolism, suggesting a pattern consistent with known AD-related hypometabolism. These associations suggest that decreased metabolic activity in the parietal and temporal lobes may underlie the executive function deficits in AD and MCI. For memory, hypometabolism in similar regions of the parietal and temporal lobes were significantly associated with reduced performance in the MCI group. However, for the AD group, memory performance was significantly associated with metabolism in frontal and orbitofrontal areas, suggesting the possibility of compensatory metabolic activity in these areas. Overall, the associations between brain metabolism and cognition in this study suggest the importance of parietal and temporal lobar regions in memory and executive function in the early stages of disease and an increased importance of frontal regions for memory with increasing impairment.

  4. Early and late stage positron emission tomography (PET) studies on the haemocirculation and metabolism of seemingly normal brain tissue in patients with gliomas following radiochemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Mineura, K; Suda, Y; Yasuda, T; Kowada, M; Ogawa, T; Shishido, F; Uemura, K

    1988-01-01

    Haemocirculatory and metabolic changes in seemingly normal brain tissue following radiochemotherapy including nimustine hydrochloride (ACNU) and tegafur (FT) were analyzed using oxygen-15 and fluorine-18 positron emission tomography (PET) in seven patients with gliomas. At an early stage (within one month) after radiochemotherapy, marginal increases in regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) and cerebral blood volume (rCBV) were found contralateral to the tumour in gray matter which was apparently normal brain structure, as seen on computerized tomography (CT). The oxygen extraction fraction (rOEF) decreased significantly (p less than 0.05 by a paired-t test) from that of the pretreatment study, due to surgical decompression and radiochemotherapy. At the late stage (three to thirty-one months with a mean of thirteen months), rCBF decreased significantly from the early stage study (p less than 0.05); oxygen consumption (rCMRO2) fell in all cases significantly from the pretreatment study (p less than 0.01) and from the early stage study (p less than 0.05); consequently, rOEF remained unchanged at a level similar to the early stage study. Glucose consumption (rCMRG1) increased slightly as compared with the early stage study but failed to be restored to the level of the pretreatment study. Noteworthy was a coupling reduction of rCBF and rCMRO2--presumably, a late delayed effect of radiochemotherapy. These preliminary results indicate that with PET studies it may be possible to predict damage to normal brain tissue after radiochemotherapy.

  5. Pet Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... Before getting a pet, think carefully about which animal is best for your family. What is each ... Does anyone have pet allergies? What type of animal suits your lifestyle and budget? Once you own ...

  6. Evaluation of brain SERT occupancy by resveratrol against MDMA-induced neurobiological and behavioral changes in rats: A 4-[¹⁸F]-ADAM/small-animal PET study.

    PubMed

    Shih, Jui-Hu; Ma, Kuo-Hsing; Chen, Chien-Fu F; Cheng, Cheng-Yi; Pao, Li-Heng; Weng, Shao-Ju; Huang, Yuahn-Sieh; Shiue, Chyng-Yann; Yeh, Ming-Kung; Li, I-Hsun

    2016-01-01

    The misuse of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) has drawn a growing concern worldwide for its psychophysiological impacts on humans. MDMA abusers are often accompanied by long-term serotonergic neurotoxicity, which is associated with reduced density of cerebral serotonin transporters (SERT) and depressive disorders. Resveratrol (RSV) is a natural polyphenolic phytoalexin that has been known for its antidepressant and neuroprotective effects. However, biological targets of RSV as well as its neuroprotective effects against MDMA remained largely unknown. In this study, we examined binding potency of RSV and MDMA to SERT using small-animal positron emission tomography (PET) with the SERT radioligand, N,N-dimethyl-2-(2-amino-4-[(18)F]fluorophenylthio)benzylamine (4-[(18)F]-ADAM) and investigated the protection of RSV against the acute and long-term adverse effects of MDMA. We found that RSV exhibit binding potentials to SERT in vivo in a dose-dependent manner with variation among brain regions. When the MDMA-treated rats (10mg/kg, s.c.) were co-injected with RSV (20mg/kg, i.p.) twice daily for 4 consecutive days, MDMA-induced acute elevation in plasma corticosterone was significantly reduced. Further, 4-[(18)F]-ADAM PET imaging revealed that RSV protected against the MDMA-induced decrease in SERT availability in the midbrain and the thalamus 2 weeks following the co-treatment. The PET data were comparable to the observation from the forced swim test that RSV sufficiently ameliorated the depressive-like behaviors of the MDMA-treated rats. Together, these findings suggest that RSV is a potential antidepressant and may confer protection against neurobiological and behavioral changes induced by MDMA.

  7. Positron emission tomography/magnetic resonance hybrid scanner imaging of cerebral blood flow using (15)O-water positron emission tomography and arterial spin labeling magnetic resonance imaging in newborn piglets.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Julie B; Henning, William S; Lindberg, Ulrich; Ladefoged, Claes N; Højgaard, Liselotte; Greisen, Gorm; Law, Ian

    2015-11-01

    Abnormality in cerebral blood flow (CBF) distribution can lead to hypoxic-ischemic cerebral damage in newborn infants. The aim of the study was to investigate minimally invasive approaches to measure CBF by comparing simultaneous (15)O-water positron emission tomography (PET) and single TI pulsed arterial spin labeling (ASL) magnetic resonance imaging (MR) on a hybrid PET/MR in seven newborn piglets. Positron emission tomography was performed with IV injections of 20 MBq and 100 MBq (15)O-water to confirm CBF reliability at low activity. Cerebral blood flow was quantified using a one-tissue-compartment-model using two input functions: an arterial input function (AIF) or an image-derived input function (IDIF). The mean global CBF (95% CI) PET-AIF, PET-IDIF, and ASL at baseline were 27 (23; 32), 34 (31; 37), and 27 (22; 32) mL/100 g per minute, respectively. At acetazolamide stimulus, PET-AIF, PET-IDIF, and ASL were 64 (55; 74), 76 (70; 83) and 79 (67; 92) mL/100 g per minute, respectively. At baseline, differences between PET-AIF, PET-IDIF, and ASL were 22% (P<0.0001) and -0.7% (P=0.9). At acetazolamide, differences between PET-AIF, PET-IDIF, and ASL were 19% (P=0.001) and 24% (P=0.0003). In conclusion, PET-IDIF overestimated CBF. Injected activity of 20 MBq (15)O-water had acceptable concordance with 100 MBq, without compromising image quality. Single TI ASL was questionable for regional CBF measurements. Global ASL CBF and PET CBF were congruent during baseline but not during hyperperfusion.

  8. Effects of estrogen and testosterone treatment on serotonin transporter binding in the brain of surgically postmenopausal women--a PET study.

    PubMed

    Jovanovic, Hristina; Kocoska-Maras, Ljiljana; Rådestad, Angelique Flöter; Halldin, Christer; Borg, Jacqueline; Hirschberg, Angelica Lindén; Nordström, Anna-Lena

    2015-02-01

    Sex hormones and the serotonergic system interact in the regulation of mood, learning, memory and sexual behaviour. However, the mechanisms have not been fully explored. The serotonin transporter protein (5-HTT) regulates synaptic concentrations of serotonin and is a primary target for selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors. The aim of this study was to explore how estrogen treatment alone or in combination with testosterone affects 5-HTT binding potentials measured by positron emission tomography (PET) in specific brain regions of postmenopausal women. Ten healthy surgically postmenopausal women (years since oophorectomy 7.5 ± 4.0, mean ± SD) underwent PET examinations at baseline, after three months of estrogen treatment (transdermal estradiol 100 μg/24 hours) and after another three months of combined estrogen and testosterone (testosterone undecanoate 40 mg daily) treatment using the radioligand [(11)C] MADAM developed for examination of the serotonin transporter. The 5-HTT binding potentials decreased significantly in several cortical regions, as well as in limbic and striatal regions after both estrogen treatment alone and combined estrogen/testosterone treatment in comparison to baseline. The observed decrease in 5-HTT could either be due to direct effects on serotonin transporter expression or be the result of indirect adaptation to estrogen and /or testosterone effects on synaptic serotonin levels. Although the mechanism still needs further exploration, the study supports the view that gonadal hormones play a role in serotonin regulated mood disorders.

  9. Fast and accurate water content and T2* mapping in brain tumours localised with FET-PET

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oros-Peusquens, A.-M.; Keil, F.; Langen, K. J.; Herzog, H.; Stoffels, G.; Weiss, C.; Shah, N. J.

    2014-01-01

    The availability of combined MR-PET scanners opens new opportunities for the characterisation of tumour environment. In this study, water content and relaxation properties of glioblastoma were investigated in five patients using advanced MRI. The region containing metabolically active tumour tissue was defined by simultaneously measured FET-PET uptake. The mean value of water content in tumour tissue - obtained noninvasively with high precision and accuracy for the first time - amounted to 84.5%, similar to the value for normal grey matter. Constancy of water content contrasted with a large variability of T2* values in tumour tissue, qualitatively related to the magnetic inhomogeneity of tissue created by blood vessels and/or microbleeds. The quantitative MRI protocol takes 71/2 > min of measurement time and is proposed for extended clinical use.

  10. A method of semi-quantifying β-AP in brain PET-CT 11C-PiB images.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Jiehui; Lin, Xiaoman; Wen, Junlin; Huang, Zhemin; Yan, Zhuangzhi

    2014-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a common health problem for elderly populations. Positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT)11C-PiB for beta-P (amyloid-β peptide, β-AP) imaging is an advanced method to diagnose AD in early stage. However, in practice radiologists lack a standardized value to semi-quantify β-AP. This paper proposes such a standardized value: SVβ-AP. This standardized value measures the mean ratio between the dimension of β-AP areas in PET and CT images. A computer aided diagnosis approach is also proposed to achieve SVβ-AP. A simulation experiment was carried out to pre-test the technical feasibility of the CAD approach and SVβ-AP. The experiment results showed that it is technically feasible.

  11. [F-18]FDDNP microPET imaging correlates with brain Aβ burden in a transgenic rat model of Alzheimer disease: effects of aging, in vivo blockade, and anti-Aβ antibody treatment.

    PubMed

    Teng, Edmond; Kepe, Vladimir; Frautschy, Sally A; Liu, Jie; Satyamurthy, Nagichettiar; Yang, Fusheng; Chen, Ping-Ping; Cole, Graham B; Jones, Mychica R; Huang, Sung-Cheng; Flood, Dorothy G; Trusko, Stephen P; Small, Gary W; Cole, Gregory M; Barrio, Jorge R

    2011-09-01

    In vivo detection of Alzheimer's disease (AD) neuropathology in living patients using positron emission tomography (PET) in conjunction with high affinity molecular imaging probes for β-amyloid (Aβ) and tau has the potential to assist with early diagnosis, evaluation of disease progression, and assessment of therapeutic interventions. Animal models of AD are valuable for exploring the in vivo binding of these probes, particularly their selectivity for specific neuropathologies, but prior PET experiments in transgenic mice have yielded conflicting results. In this work, we utilized microPET imaging in a transgenic rat model of brain Aβ deposition to assess [F-18]FDDNP binding profiles in relation to age-associated accumulation of neuropathology. Cross-sectional and longitudinal imaging demonstrated that [F-18]FDDNP binding in the hippocampus and frontal cortex progressively increases from 9 to 18months of age and parallels age-associated Aβ accumulation. Specificity of in vivo [F-18]FDDNP binding was assessed by naproxen pretreatment, which reversibly blocked [F-18]FDDNP binding to Aβ aggregrates. Both [F-18]FDDNP microPET imaging and neuropathological analyses revealed decreased Aβ burden after intracranial anti-Aβ antibody administration. The combination of this non-invasive imaging method and robust animal model of brain Aβ accumulation allows for future longitudinal in vivo assessments of potential therapeutics for AD that target Aβ production, aggregation, and/or clearance. These results corroborate previous analyses of [F-18]FDDNP PET imaging in clinical populations.

  12. Neural Correlates of the Severity of Cocaine, Heroin, Alcohol, MDMA and Cannabis Use in Polysubstance Abusers: A Resting-PET Brain Metabolism Study

    PubMed Central

    Moreno-López, Laura; Stamatakis, Emmanuel A.; Fernández-Serrano, Maria José; Gómez-Río, Manuel; Rodríguez-Fernández, Antonio; Pérez-García, Miguel; Verdejo-García, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Functional imaging studies of addiction following protracted abstinence have not been systematically conducted to look at the associations between severity of use of different drugs and brain dysfunction. Findings from such studies may be relevant to implement specific interventions for treatment. The aim of this study was to examine the association between resting-state regional brain metabolism (measured with 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography (FDG-PET) and the severity of use of cocaine, heroin, alcohol, MDMA and cannabis in a sample of polysubstance users with prolonged abstinence from all drugs used. Methods Our sample consisted of 49 polysubstance users enrolled in residential treatment. We conducted correlation analyses between estimates of use of cocaine, heroin, alcohol, MDMA and cannabis and brain metabolism (BM) (using Statistical Parametric Mapping voxel-based (VB) whole-brain analyses). In all correlation analyses conducted for each of the drugs we controlled for the co-abuse of the other drugs used. Results The analysis showed significant negative correlations between severity of heroin, alcohol, MDMA and cannabis use and BM in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and temporal cortex. Alcohol use was further associated with lower metabolism in frontal premotor cortex and putamen, and stimulants use with parietal cortex. Conclusions Duration of use of different drugs negatively correlated with overlapping regions in the DLPFC, whereas severity of cocaine, heroin and alcohol use selectively impact parietal, temporal, and frontal-premotor/basal ganglia regions respectively. The knowledge of these associations could be useful in the clinical practice since different brain alterations have been associated with different patterns of execution that may affect the rehabilitation of these patients. PMID:22768136

  13. Evaluation of the dependence of the exposure dose on the attenuation correction in brain PET/CT scans using 18F-FDG

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Eun-Jin; Jeong, Moon-Taeg; Jang, Seong-Joo; Choi, Nam-Gil; Han, Jae-Bok; Yang, Nam-Hee; Dong, Kyung-Rae; Chung, Woon-Kwan; Lee, Yun-Jong; Ryu, Young-Hwan; Choi, Sung-Hyun; Seong, Kyeong-Jeong

    2014-01-01

    This study examined whether scanning could be performed with minimum dose and minimum exposure to the patient after an attenuation correction. A Hoffman 3D Brain Phantom was used in BIO_40 and D_690 PET/CT scanners, and the CT dose for the equipment was classified as a low dose (minimum dose), medium dose (general dose for scanning) and high dose (dose with use of contrast medium) before obtaining the image at a fixed kilo-voltage-peak (kVp) and milliampere (mA) that were adjusted gradually in 17-20 stages. A PET image was then obtained to perform an attenuation correction based on an attenuation map before analyzing the dose difference. Depending on tube current in the range of 33-190 milliampere-second (mAs) when BIO_40 was used, a significant difference in the effective dose was observed between the minimum and the maximum mAs (p < 0.05). According to a Scheffe post-hoc test, the ratio of the minimum to the maximum of the effective dose was increased by approximately 5.26-fold. Depending on the change in the tube current in the range of 10-200 mA when D_690 was used, a significant difference in the effective dose was observed between the minimum and the maximum of mA (p < 0.05). The Scheffe posthoc test revealed a 20.5-fold difference. In conclusion, because effective exposure dose increases with increasing operating current, it is possible to reduce the exposure limit in a brain scan can be reduced if the CT dose can be minimized for a transmission scan.

  14. GABAA receptor subtypes in the mouse brain: Regional mapping and diazepam receptor occupancy by in vivo [(18)F]flumazenil PET.

    PubMed

    Müller Herde, Adrienne; Benke, Dietmar; Ralvenius, William T; Mu, Linjing; Schibli, Roger; Zeilhofer, Hanns Ulrich; Krämer, Stefanie D

    2017-04-15

    Classical benzodiazepines, which are widely used as sedatives, anxiolytics and anticonvulsants, exert their therapeutic effects through interactions with heteropentameric GABAA receptors composed of two α, two β and one γ2 subunit. Their high affinity binding site is located at the interface between the γ2 and the adjacent α subunit. The α-subunit gene family consists of six members and receptors can be homomeric or mixed with respect to the α-subunits. Previous work has suggested that benzodiazepine binding site ligands with selectivity for individual GABAA receptor subtypes, as defined by the benzodiazepine-binding α subunit, may have fewer side effects and may even be effective in diseases, such as schizophrenia, autism or chronic pain, that do not respond well to classical benzodiazepines. The distributions of the individual α subunits across the CNS have been extensively characterized. However, as GABAA receptors may contain two different α subunits, the distribution of the subunits does not necessarily reflect the distribution of receptor subtypes with respect to benzodiazepine pharmacology. In the present study, we have used in vivo [(18)F]flumazenil PET and in vitro [(3)H]flumazenil autoradiography in combination with GABAA receptor point-mutated mice to characterize the distribution of the two most prevalent GABAA receptor subtypes (α1 and α2) throughout the mouse brain. The results were in agreement with published in vitro data. High levels of α2-containing receptors were found in brain regions of the neuronal network of anxiety. The α1/α2 subunit combinations were predictable from the individual subunit levels. In additional experiments, we explored in vivo [(18)F]flumazenil PET to determine the degree of receptor occupancy at GABAA receptor subtypes following oral administration of diazepam. The dose to occupy 50% of sensitive receptors, independent of the receptor subtype(s), was 1-2mg/kg, in agreement with published data from ex vivo

  15. Structural and Functional Brain Repair Studies of PD Models by Novel Neurosurgical, PET and MRI/MRS Methods

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-09-01

    BROWNELL 1,3 , BRUCE G. JENKINS1, DAVID R. ELMALEH1, TERRENCE W. DEACON3, ROGER D. SPEALMAN4 & OLE ISACSON2,3 ’Department of Radiology and...administration (0.6 mg/kg intravenously, every 2 weeks until behavioral stability) of the mito - chondrial complex 1 inhibitor 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6...40 Gunn RN, Lammertsma AA, Hume SP, Cunningham VJ. Para- metric imaging of ligand-recptor binding in PET using a sim- plified reference region

  16. Simulation of the expected performance of a seamless scanner for brain PET based on highly pixelated CdTe detectors.

    PubMed

    Mikhaylova, Ekaterina; De Lorenzo, Gianluca; Chmeissani, Mokhtar; Kolstein, Machiel; Cañadas, Mario; Arce, Pedro; Calderón, Yonatan; Uzun, Dilber; Ariño, Gerard; Macias-Montero, José Gabriel; Martinez, Ricardo; Puigdengoles, Carles; Cabruja, Enric

    2014-02-01

    The aim of this work is the evaluation of the design for a nonconventional PET scanner, the voxel imaging PET (VIP), based on pixelated room-temperature CdTe detectors yielding a true 3-D impact point with a density of 450 channels/cm(3), for a total 6 336 000 channels in a seamless ring shaped volume. The system is simulated and evaluated following the prescriptions of the NEMA NU 2-2001 and the NEMA NU 4-2008 standards. Results show that the excellent energy resolution of the CdTe detectors (1.6% for 511 keV photons), together with the small voxel pitch (1 × 1 × 2 mm(3)), and the crack-free ring geometry, give the design the potential to overcome the current limitations of PET scanners and to approach the intrinsic image resolution limits set by physics. The VIP is expected to reach a competitive sensitivity and a superior signal purity with respect to values commonly quoted for state-of-the-art scintillating crystal PETs. The system can provide 14 cps/kBq with a scatter fraction of 3.95% and 21 cps/kBq with a scatter fraction of 0.73% according to NEMA NU 2-2001 and NEMA NU 4-2008, respectively. The calculated NEC curve has a peak value of 122 kcps at 5.3 kBq/mL for NEMA NU 2-2001 and 908 kcps at 1.6 MBq/mL for NEMA NU 4-2008. The proposed scanner can achieve an image resolution of ~ 1 mm full-width at half-maximum in all directions. The virtually noise-free data sample leads to direct positive impact on the quality of the reconstructed images. As a consequence, high-quality high-resolution images can be obtained with significantly lower number of events compared to conventional scanners. Overall, simulation results suggest the VIP scanner can be operated either at normal dose for fast scanning and high patient throughput, or at low dose to decrease the patient radioactivity exposure. The design evaluation presented in this work is driving the development and the optimization of a fully operative prototype to prove the feasibility of the VIP concept.

  17. Simulation of the Expected Performance of a Seamless Scanner for Brain PET Based on Highly Pixelated CdTe Detectors

    PubMed Central

    Mikhaylova, Ekaterina; De Lorenzo, Gianluca; Chmeissani, Mokhtar; Kolstein, Machiel; Cañadas, Mario; Arce, Pedro; Calderón, Yonatan; Uzun, Dilber; Ariño, Gerard; Macias-Montero, José Gabriel; Martinez, Ricardo; Puigdengoles, Carles; Cabruja, Enric

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this work is the evaluation of the design for a nonconventional PET scanner, the voxel imaging PET (VIP), based on pixelated room-temperature CdTe detectors yielding a true 3-D impact point with a density of 450 channels cm3, for a total 6 336 000 channels in a seamless ring shaped volume. The system is simulated and evaluated following the prescriptions of the NEMA NU 2-2001 and the NEMA NU 4-2008 standards. Results show that the excellent energy resolution of the CdTe detectors (1.6% for 511 keV photons), together with the small voxel pitch (1×1×2 mm3), and the crack-free ring geometry, give the design the potential to overcome the current limitations of PET scanners and to approach the intrinsic image resolution limits set by physics. The VIP is expected to reach a competitive sensitivity and a superior signal purity with respect to values commonly quoted for state-of-the-art scintillating crystal PETs. The system can provide 14 cps/kBq with a scatter fraction of 3.95% and 21 cps/kBq with a scatter fraction of 0.73% according to NEMA NU 2-2001 and NEMA NU 4-2008, respectively. The calculated NEC curve has a peak value of 122 kcps at 5.3 kBq/mL for NEMA NU 2-2001 and 908 kcps at 1.6 MBq/mL for NEMA NU 4-2008. The proposed scanner can achieve an image resolution of ~ 1 mm full-width at half-maximum in all directions. The virtually noise-free data sample leads to direct positive impact on the quality of the reconstructed images. As a consequence, high-quality high-resolution images can be obtained with significantly lower number of events compared to conventional scanners. Overall, simulation results suggest the VIP scanner can be operated either at normal dose for fast scanning and high patient throughput, or at low dose to decrease the patient radioactivity exposure. The design evaluation presented in this work is driving the development and the optimization of a fully operative prototype to prove the feasibility of the VIP concept. PMID:24108750

  18. A detector insert based on continuous scintillators for hybrid MR-PET imaging of the human brain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rato Mendes, P.; Cuerdo, R.; Sarasola, I.; García de Acilu, P.; Navarrete, J.; Vela, O.; Oller, J. C.; Cela, J. M.; Núñez, L.; Pastrana, M.; Romero, L.; Willmott, C.

    2013-02-01

    We are developing a positron emission tomography (PET) insert for existing magnetic resonance (MR) equipment, aiming at hybrid MR-PET imaging. Our detector block design is based on trapezoid-shaped LYSO:Ce monolithic scintillators coupled to magnetically compatible Hamamatsu S8550-02 silicon avalanche photodiode (APD) matrices with a dedicated ASIC front-end readout from GammaMedica-Ideas (Fornebu, Norway). The detectors are position sensitive, capable of determining the incidence point of 511 keV gammas with an intrinsic spatial resolution on the order of 2 mm by means of supervised learning neural-network (NN) algorithms. These algorithms, apart from providing continuous coordinates, are also intrinsically corrected for depth of interaction effects and thus parallax-free. Recently we have implemented an advanced prototype featuring two heads with four detector blocks each and final front-end and readout electronics, improving the spatial resolution of reconstructed point source images down to 1.7 mm full width at half maximum (FWHM). Presently we are carrying out operational tests of components and systems under magnetic fields using a 3 T MR scanner. In this paper we present a description of our project, a summary of the results obtained with laboratory prototypes, and the strategy to build and install the complete system at the nuclear medicine department of a collaborating hospital.

  19. Influence of the partial volume correction method on 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose brain kinetic modelling from dynamic PET images reconstructed with resolution model based OSEM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowen, Spencer L.; Byars, Larry G.; Michel, Christian J.; Chonde, Daniel B.; Catana, Ciprian

    2013-10-01

    Kinetic parameters estimated from dynamic 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) PET acquisitions have been used frequently to assess brain function in humans. Neglecting partial volume correction (PVC) for a dynamic series has been shown to produce significant bias in model estimates. Accurate PVC requires a space-variant model describing the reconstructed image spatial point spread function (PSF) that accounts for resolution limitations, including non-uniformities across the field of view due to the parallax effect. For ordered subsets expectation maximization (OSEM), image resolution convergence is local and influenced significantly by the number of iterations, the count density, and background-to-target ratio. As both count density and background-to-target values for a brain structure can change during a dynamic scan, the local image resolution may also concurrently vary. When PVC is applied post-reconstruction the kinetic parameter estimates may be biased when neglecting the frame-dependent resolution. We explored the influence of the PVC method and implementation on kinetic parameters estimated by fitting 18F-FDG dynamic data acquired on a dedicated brain PET scanner and reconstructed with and without PSF modelling in the OSEM algorithm. The performance of several PVC algorithms was quantified with a phantom experiment, an anthropomorphic Monte Carlo simulation, and a patient scan. Using the last frame reconstructed image only for regional spread function (RSF) generation, as opposed to computing RSFs for each frame independently, and applying perturbation geometric transfer matrix PVC with PSF based OSEM produced the lowest magnitude bias kinetic parameter estimates in most instances, although at the cost of increased noise compared to the PVC methods utilizing conventional OSEM. Use of the last frame RSFs for PVC with no PSF modelling in the OSEM algorithm produced the lowest bias in cerebral metabolic rate of glucose estimates, although by less than 5% in most

  20. A simulation study of a C-shaped in-beam PET system for dose verification in carbon ion therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung An, Su; Beak, Cheol-Ha; Lee, Kisung; Hyun Chung, Yong

    2013-01-01

    The application of hadrons such as carbon ions is being developed for the treatment of cancer. The effectiveness of such a technique is due to the eligibility of charged particles in delivering most of their energy near the end of the range, called the Bragg peak. However, accurate verification of dose delivery is required since misalignment of the hadron beam can cause serious damage to normal tissue. PET scanners can be utilized to track the carbon beam to the tumor by imaging the trail of the hadron-induced positron emitters in the irradiated volume. In this study, we designed and evaluated (through Monte Carlo simulations) an in-beam PET scanner for monitoring patient dose in carbon beam therapy. A C-shaped PET and a partial-ring PET were designed to avoid interference between the PET detectors and the therapeutic carbon beam delivery. Their performance was compared with that of a full-ring PET scanner. The C-shaped, partial-ring, and full-ring scanners consisted of 14, 12, and 16 detector modules, respectively, with a 30.2 cm inner diameter for brain imaging. Each detector module was composed of a 13×13 array of 4.0 mm×4.0 mm×20.0 mm LYSO crystals and four round 25.4 mm diameter PMTs. To estimate the production yield of positron emitters such as 10C, 11C, and 15O, a cylindrical PMMA phantom (diameter, 20 cm; thickness, 20 cm) was irradiated with 170, 290, and 350 AMeV 12C beams using the GATE code. Phantom images of the three types of scanner were evaluated by comparing the longitudinal profile of the positron emitters, measured along the carbon beam as it passed a simulated positron emitter distribution. The results demonstrated that the development of a C-shaped PET scanner to characterize carbon dose distribution for therapy planning is feasible.

  1. A voxel-based analysis of FDG-PET in traumatic brain injury: regional metabolism and relationship between the thalamus and cortical areas.

    PubMed

    García-Panach, Javier; Lull, Nuria; Lull, Juan José; Ferri, Joan; Martínez, Carlos; Sopena, Pablo; Robles, Montserrat; Chirivella, Javier; Noé, Enrique

    2011-09-01

    The objective was to study the correlations and the differences in glucose metabolism between the thalamus and cortical structures in a sample of severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) patients with different neurological outcomes. We studied 49 patients who had suffered a severe TBI and 10 healthy control subjects using 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (18F-FDG-PET). The patients were divided into three groups: a vegetative or minimally-conscious state (MCS&VS) group (n=17), which included patients who were in a vegetative or a minimally conscious state; an In-post-traumatic amnesia (In-PTA) group (n=12), which included patients in PTA; and an Out-PTA group (n=20), which included patients who had recovered from PTA. SPM5 software was used to determine the metabolic differences between the groups. FDG-PET images were normalized and four regions of interest were generated around the thalamus, precuneus, and the frontal and temporal lobes. The groups were parameterized using Student's t-test. Principal component analysis was used to obtain an intensity-estimated-value per subject to correlate the function between the structures. Differences in glucose metabolism in all structures were related to the neurological outcome, and the most severe patients showed the most severe hypometabolism. We also found a significant correlation between the cortico-thalamo-cortical metabolism in all groups. Voxel-based analysis suggests a functional correlation between these four areas, and decreased metabolism was associated with less favorable outcomes. Higher levels of activation of the cortico-cortical connections appear to be related to better neurological condition. Differences in the thalamo-cortical correlations between patients and controls may be related to traumatic dysfunction due to focal or diffuse lesions.

  2. A Monte Carlo investigation of the spatial resolution performance of a small-animal PET scanner designed for mouse brain imaging studies.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Villafuerte, Mercedes; Yang, Yongfeng; Cherry, Simon R

    2014-02-01

    Our laboratory has developed PET detectors with depth-encoding accuracy of ∼2 mm based on finely pixelated crystals with a tapered geometry, readout at both ends with position-sensitive avalanche photodiodes (PSAPDs). These detectors are currently being used in our laboratory to build a one-ring high resolution PET scanner for mouse brain imaging studies. Due to the inactive areas around the PSAPDs, large gaps exist between the detector modules which can degrade the image spatial resolution obtained using analytical reconstruction with filtered backprojection (FBP). In this work, the Geant4-based GATE Monte Carlo package was used to assist in determining whether gantry rotation was necessary and to assess the expected spatial resolution of the system. The following factors were investigated: rotating vs. static gantry modes with and without compensation of missing data using the discrete cosine transform (DCT) method, two levels of depth-encoding, and positron annihilation effects for (18)F. Our results indicate that while the static scanner produces poor quality FBP images with streak and ring artifacts, the image quality was greatly improved after compensation of missing data. The simulation indicates that the expected FWHM system spatial resolution is 0.70 ± 0.05 mm, which approaches the predicted limit of 0.5 mm FWHM due to positron range, photon non-colinearity and physical detector element size effects. We conclude that excellent reconstructed resolution without gantry rotation is possible even using FBP if the gaps are appropriately handled and that this design can approach the resolution limits set by positron annihilation physics.

  3. In vitro positron emission tomography (PET): use of positron emission tracers in functional imaging in living brain slices.

    PubMed

    Matsumura, K; Bergström, M; Onoe, H; Takechi, H; Westerberg, G; Antoni, G; Bjurling, P; Jacobson, G B; Långström, B; Watanabe, Y

    1995-05-01

    Positron-emitting radionuclides have short half-lives and high radiation energies compared with radioisotopes generally used in biomedical research. We examined the possibility of applying positron emitter-labeled compounds to functional imaging in brain slices kept viable in an oxygenated buffer solution. Brain slices (300 microns thick) containing the striatum were incubated with positron emitter-labeled tracers for 30-45 min. The slices were then rinsed and placed on the bottom of a Plexiglas chamber filled with oxygenated Krebs-Ringer solution. The bottom of the chamber consisted of a thin polypropylene film to allow good penetration of beta+ particles from the brain slices. The chamber was placed on a storage phosphor screen, which has a higher sensitivity and a wider dynamic range than X-ray films. After an exposure period of 15-60 min, the screen was scanned by the analyzer and radioactivity images of brain slices were obtained within 20 min. We succeeded in obtaining quantitative images of (1) [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose uptake, (2) dopamine D2 receptor binding, (3) dopa-decarboxylase activity, and (4) release of [11C]dopamine preloaded as L-[11C]DOPA in the brain slice preparation. These results demonstrate that positron emitter-labeled tracers in combination with storage phosphor screens are useful for functional imaging of living brain slices as a novel neuroscience technique.

  4. Behavior problems in geriatric pets.

    PubMed

    Landsberg, Gary; Araujo, Joseph A

    2005-05-01

    Aging pets often suffer a decline in cognitive function (eg, memory,learning, perception, awareness) likely associated with age-dependent brain alterations. Clinically, cognitive dysfunction may result in various behavioral signs, including disorientation; forgetting of previously learned behaviors, such as house training; alterations in the manner in which the pet interacts with people or other pets;onset of new fears and anxiety; decreased recognition of people, places, or pets; and other signs of deteriorating memory and learning ability. Many medical problems, including other forms of brain pathologic conditions, can contribute to these signs. The practitioner must first determine the cause of the behavioral signs and then determine an appropriate course of treatment, bearing in mind the constraints of the aging process. A diagnosis of cognitive dysfunction syndrome is made once other medical and behavioral causes are ruled out.

  5. Dynamic PET reconstruction using temporal patch-based low rank penalty for ROI-based brain kinetic analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Kyungsang; Son, Young Don; Bresler, Yoram; Cho, Zang Hee; Ra, Jong Beom; Ye, Jong Chul

    2015-03-01

    Dynamic positron emission tomography (PET) is widely used to measure changes in the bio-distribution of radiopharmaceuticals within particular organs of interest over time. However, to retain sufficient temporal resolution, the number of photon counts in each time frame must be limited. Therefore, conventional reconstruction algorithms such as the ordered subset expectation maximization (OSEM) produce noisy reconstruction images, thus degrading the quality of the extracted time activity curves (TACs). To address this issue, many advanced reconstruction algorithms have been developed using various spatio-temporal regularizations. In this paper, we extend earlier results and develop a novel temporal regularization, which exploits the self-similarity of patches that are collected in dynamic images. The main contribution of this paper is to demonstrate that the correlation of patches can be exploited using a low-rank constraint that is insensitive to global intensity variations. The resulting optimization framework is, however, non-Lipschitz and non-convex due to the Poisson log-likelihood and low-rank penalty terms. Direct application of the conventional Poisson image deconvolution by an augmented Lagrangian (PIDAL) algorithm is, however, problematic due to its large memory requirements, which prevents its parallelization. Thus, we propose a novel optimization framework using the concave-convex procedure (CCCP) by exploiting the Legendre-Fenchel transform, which is computationally efficient and parallelizable. In computer simulation and a real in vivo experiment using a high-resolution research tomograph (HRRT) scanner, we confirm that the proposed algorithm can improve image quality while also extracting more accurate region of interests (ROI) based kinetic parameters. Furthermore, we show that the total reconstruction time for HRRT PET is significantly accelerated using our GPU implementation, which makes the algorithm very practical in clinical environments.

  6. A Prediction Method for P-glycoprotein-Mediated Drug-Drug Interactions at the Human Blood-Brain Barrier from Blood Concentration-Time Profiles, Validated with PET Data.

    PubMed

    Matsuda, Akihiro; Karch, Rudolf; Bauer, Martin; Traxl, Alexander; Zeitlinger, Markus; Langer, Oliver

    2017-04-03

    The purpose of this study was to establish physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models to predict in humans the brain concentration-time profiles and P-glycoprotein (Pgp)-mediated brain drug-drug interactions (DDIs) between the model Pgp substrate (R)-[(11)C]verapamil (VPM), the model dual Pgp/breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) substrate [(11)C]tariquidar (TQD) and the Pgp inhibitor tariquidar. The model predictions were validated with results from positron emission tomography (PET) studies in humans. Using these PBPK models, the differences between predicted and observed areas under the concentration-time curves (AUC) of VPM and TQD in the brain were within a 1.2-fold and 2.5-fold range, respectively. Also, brain AUC increases of VPM and TQD following Pgp inhibitor administration were predicted with 2.5-fold accuracy when in vitro inhibition constant or half-maximum inhibitory concentration values of tariquidar were used. The predicted rank order of the magnitude of AUC increases reflected the results of the clinical PET studies. Our results suggest that the established models can predict brain exposure from the respective blood concentration-time profiles and rank the magnitude of the Pgp-mediated brain DDI potential for both Pgp and Pgp/BCRP substrates in humans.

  7. Topological Organization of Metabolic Brain Networks in Pre-Chemotherapy Cancer with Depression: A Resting-State PET Study

    PubMed Central

    An, Jianping; Chen, Xuejiao; Xie, Yuanwei; Zhao, Hui; Mao, Junfeng; Liang, Wangsheng; Ma, Xiangxing

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the metabolic brain network and its relationship with depression symptoms using 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography data in 78 pre-chemotherapy cancer patients with depression and 80 matched healthy subjects. Functional and structural imbalance or disruption of brain networks frequently occur following chemotherapy in cancer patients. However, few studies have focused on the topological organization of the metabolic brain network in cancer with depression, especially those without chemotherapy. The nodal and global parameters of the metabolic brain network were computed for cancer patients and healthy subjects. Significant decreases in metabolism were found in the frontal and temporal gyri in cancer patients compared with healthy subjects. Negative correlations between depression and metabolism were found predominantly in the inferior frontal and cuneus regions, whereas positive correlations were observed in several regions, primarily including the insula, hippocampus, amygdala, and middle temporal gyri. Furthermore, a higher clustering efficiency, longer path length, and fewer hubs were found in cancer patients compared with healthy subjects. The topological organization of the whole-brain metabolic networks may be disrupted in cancer. Finally, the present findings may provide a new avenue for exploring the neurobiological mechanism, which plays a key role in lessening the depression effects in pre-chemotherapy cancer patients. PMID:27832148

  8. Kinetic modeling in the context of cerebral blood flow quantification by H2(15)O positron emission tomography: the meaning of the permeability coefficient in Renkin-Crone׳s model revisited at capillary scale.

    PubMed

    Lorthois, Sylvie; Duru, Paul; Billanou, Ian; Quintard, Michel; Celsis, Pierre

    2014-07-21

    One the one hand, capillary permeability to water is a well-defined concept in microvascular physiology, and linearly relates the net convective or diffusive mass fluxes (by unit area) to the differences in pressure or concentration, respectively, that drive them through the vessel wall. On the other hand, the permeability coefficient is a central parameter introduced when modeling diffusible tracers transfer from blood vessels to tissue in the framework of compartmental models, in such a way that it is implicitly considered as being identical to the capillary permeability. Despite their simplifying assumptions, such models are at the basis of blood flow quantification by H2(15)O Positron Emission Tomgraphy. In the present paper, we use fluid dynamic modeling to compute the transfers of H2(15)O between the blood and brain parenchyma at capillary scale. The analysis of the so-obtained kinetic data by the Renkin-Crone model, the archetypal compartmental model, demonstrates that, in this framework, the permeability coefficient is highly dependent on both flow rate and capillary radius, contrarily to the central hypothesis of the model which states that it is a physiological constant. Thus, the permeability coefficient in Renkin-Crone׳s model is not conceptually identical to the physiologic permeability as implicitly stated in the model. If a permeability coefficient is nevertheless arbitrarily chosen in the computed range, the flow rate determined by the Renkin-Crone model can take highly inaccurate quantitative values. The reasons for this failure of compartmental approaches in the framework of brain blood flow quantification are discussed, highlighting the need for a novel approach enabling to fully exploit the wealth of information available from PET data.

  9. PET Studies on P-glycoprotein function in the blood-brain barrier: how it affects uptake and binding of drugs within the CNS.

    PubMed

    Elsinga, Philip H; Hendrikse, N Harry; Bart, Joost; Vaalburg, Willem; van Waarde, Aren

    2004-01-01

    Permeability of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) is one of the factors determining the bioavailability of therapeutic drugs. The BBB only allows entry of lipophilic compounds with low molecular weights by passive diffusion. However, many lipophilic drugs show negligible brain uptake. They are substrates for transporters such as P-glycoprotein (P-gp), multidrug-resistance associated protein (MRP) and organic anion transporting polypeptides (OATPs). The action of these carrier systems results in rapid efflux of xenobiotics from the central nervous system (CNS). Classification of candidate drugs as substrates or inhibitors of such carrier proteins is of crucial importance in drug development. Positron emission tomography (PET) can play an important role in the screening process by providing in vivo information, after the putative drug has passed in vitro tests. Although radiolabeled probes for MRP and OATP function are not yet available, many radiotracers have been prepared to study P-glycoprotein function in vivo with PET. These include alkaloids ((11)C-colchicine), antineoplastic agents ((11)C-daunorubicin, (18)F-paclitaxel), modulators of L-type calcium channels ((11)C-(+/-)verapamil, (11)C-R(+)-verapamil), beta-adrenoceptor antagonists ((11)C-(S)-carazolol, (18)F-(S)-1'-fluorocarazolol, (11)C-carvedilol), serotonin 5-HT(1A) receptor antagonists ((18)F-MPPF), opioid receptor antagonists ((11)C-loperamide, (11)C-carfentanyl), and various (64)Cu-labeled copper complexes. Studies in experimental animals have indicated that it is possible to assess P-glycoprotein function in the BBB and its effect on the uptake and binding of drugs within the intact CNS, using suitable P-gp modulators labeled with positron emitters. Provided that radiopharmaceuticals (and P-gp modulators) can be developed for human use, several exciting fields of study may be explored, viz. (i) direct evaluation of the effect of modulators on the cerebral uptake of therapeutic drugs; (ii) assessment of

  10. Application of feedback-controlled bolus plus infusion (FC-B/I) method for quantitative PET imaging of dopamine transporters with [(18)F]β-CFT-FE in conscious monkey brain.

    PubMed

    Harada, Norihiro; Ohba, Hiroyuki; Kakiuchi, Takeharu; Tsukada, Hideo

    2013-01-01

    The competitive inhibition of dopamine transporters (DAT) with cocaine, a specific DAT inhibitor, was evaluated with a feedback-controlled bolus plus infusion (FC-B/I) method using animal positron emission tomography (PET) in the living brain of conscious monkey. 2β-Carbomethoxy-3β-(4-fluorophenyl)-8-(2-[(18)F]fluoroethyl) nortropane ([(18)F]β-CFT-FE; Harada et al. [2004] Synapse 54:37-45) was used for this study because it provided specific, fast, and reversible kinetic properties to DAT in the striatum. In FC-B/I method, the real-time image reconstruction was started just after intravenous bolus injection of [(18)F]β-CFT-FE to generate a time-activity curve in the striatum, and the infusion rate was adjusted to achieve an equilibrium state of the striatal radioactivity concentrations by means of a feedback-control algorithm. The first equilibrium state in the brain was reached within 20 min after the infusion start. Intravenous administration of cocaine at the doses of 0.02, 0.1, and 0.5 mg/kg shifted the equilibrium radioactivity level to the second equilibrium state in a dose-dependent manner, while no significant alterations was observed in the cerebellum. The present results demonstrated that the combined use of FC-B/I method and PET probe with fast kinetics like [(18)F]β-CFT-FE could be useful to assess the occupancy of drugs in the living brain with PET.

  11. Preliminary research on 1-(4-bromo-2-nitroimidazol-1-yl)-3-[(18)F]fluoropropan-2-ol as a novel brain hypoxia PET tracer in a rodent model of stroke.

    PubMed

    Nieto, Elena; Delgado, Mercedes; Sobrado, Mónica; de Ceballos, María L; Alajarín, Ramón; García-García, Luis; Kelly, James; Lizasoain, Ignacio; Pozo, Miguel A; Álvarez-Builla, Julio

    2015-08-28

    The synthesis of the new radiotracer precursor 4-Br-NITTP and the radiolabeling of the new tracer 1-(4-bromo-2-nitroimidazol-1-yl)-3-[(18)F]fluoropropan-2-ol (4-Br-[(18)F]FMISO) is reported. The cyclic voltammetry behaviour, neuronal cell toxicity, transport through the brain endothelial cell monolayer, in vivo PET imaging and preliminary calculations of the tracer uptake for a rodent model of stroke were studied for the new compound and the results were compared to those obtained with [(18)F]FMISO, the current gold standard PET hypoxia tracer. The new PET brain hypoxia tracer is more easily reduced, has higher CLogP than [(18)F]FMISO and it diffuses more rapidly through brain endothelial cells. The new compound is non-toxic to neuronal cells and it allows the in vivo mapping of stroke in mice with higher sensitivity. 4-Br-[(18)F]FMISO is a good candidate for further development in ischemic stroke.

  12. Dynamic PET reconstruction using temporal patch-based low rank penalty for ROI-based brain kinetic analysis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyungsang; Son, Young Don; Bresler, Yoram; Cho, Zang Hee; Ra, Jong Beom; Ye, Jong Chul

    2015-03-07

    Dynamic positron emission tomography (PET) is widely used to measure changes in the bio-distribution of radiopharmaceuticals within particular organs of interest over time. However, to retain sufficient temporal resolution, the number of photon counts in each time frame must be limited. Therefore, conventional reconstruction algorithms such as the ordered subset expectation maximization (OSEM) produce noisy reconstruction images, thus degrading the quality of the extracted time activity curves (TACs). To address this issue, many advanced reconstruction algorithms have been developed using various spatio-temporal regularizations. In this paper, we extend earlier results and develop a novel temporal regularization, which exploits the self-similarity of patches that are collected in dynamic images. The main contribution of this paper is to demonstrate that the correlation of patches can be exploited using a low-rank constraint that is insensitive to global intensity variations. The resulting optimization framework is, however, non-Lipschitz and nonconvex due to the Poisson log-likelihood and low-rank penalty terms. Direct application of the conventional Poisson image deconvolution by an augmented Lagrangian (PIDAL) algorithm is, however, problematic due to its large memory requirements, which prevents its parallelization. Thus, we propose a novel optimization framework using the concave-convex procedure (CCCP)

  13. Noninvasive measurement of regional cerebral blood flow change with H[sub 2][sup 15]O and positron and emission tomography using a mechanical injector and a standard arterial input function

    SciTech Connect

    Sadato, Norihiro; Magata, Yasuhiro; Iwasaki, Yasushi; Matoba, Naoki; Tsuchida, Tatsuro; Tamaki, Nagara; Konishi, Junji . Dept. of Nuclear Medicine); Yonekura, Yoshiharu; Shibasaki, Hiroshi . Dept. of Brain Pathophysiology); Senda, Michio )

    1993-12-01

    To estimate changes in regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) without arterial sampling in the study of functional-anatomical correlations in the human brain, using [sup 15]O-labeled water and PET, a standard arterial input function was generated from the input function in 10 normal volunteers with dose calibration and peak time normalization. The speed and volume of injection were precisely controlled with a mechanical injector. After global normalization of each tissue activity image, the standard arterial input function was applied to obtain estimated CBF images. Relative changes in estimated rCBF to whole brain mean CBF([delta]Fest) and those in regional tissue activity ([delta]C) were compared with true relative rCBF changes ([delta]F) in 40 pairs of images obtained from 6 normal volunteers. [delta]Fest correlated well with [delta]F, whereas [delta]C consistently underestimated [delta]F. This noninvasive method simplifies the activation studies and provides the accurate estimation of relative flow changes.

  14. Optimization of supervised cluster analysis for extracting reference tissue input curves in (R)-[11C]PK11195 brain PET studies

    PubMed Central

    Yaqub, Maqsood; van Berckel, Bart NM; Schuitemaker, Alie; Hinz, Rainer; Turkheimer, Federico E; Tomasi, Giampaolo; Lammertsma, Adriaan A; Boellaard, Ronald

    2012-01-01

    Performance of two supervised cluster analysis (SVCA) algorithms for extracting reference tissue curves was evaluated to improve quantification of dynamic (R)-[11C]PK11195 brain positron emission tomography (PET) studies. Reference tissues were extracted from images using both a manually defined cerebellum and SVCA algorithms based on either four (SVCA4) or six (SVCA6) kinetic classes. Data from controls, mild cognitive impairment patients, and patients with Alzheimer's disease were analyzed using various kinetic models including plasma input, the simplified reference tissue model (RPM) and RPM with vascular correction (RPMVb). In all subject groups, SVCA-based reference tissue curves showed lower blood volume fractions (Vb) and volume of distributions than those based on cerebellum time-activity curve. Probably resulting from the presence of specific signal from the vessel walls that contains in normal condition a significant concentration of the 18 kDa translocation protein. Best contrast between subject groups was seen using SVCA4-based reference tissues as the result of a lower number of kinetic classes and the prior removal of extracerebral tissues. In addition, incorporation of Vb in RPM improved both parametric images and binding potential contrast between groups. Incorporation of Vb within RPM, together with SVCA4, appears to be the method of choice for analyzing cerebral (R)-[11C]PK11195 neurodegeneration studies. PMID:22588187

  15. Optimization of supervised cluster analysis for extracting reference tissue input curves in (R)-[(11)C]PK11195 brain PET studies.

    PubMed

    Yaqub, Maqsood; van Berckel, Bart N M; Schuitemaker, Alie; Hinz, Rainer; Turkheimer, Federico E; Tomasi, Giampaolo; Lammertsma, Adriaan A; Boellaard, Ronald

    2012-08-01

    Performance of two supervised cluster analysis (SVCA) algorithms for extracting reference tissue curves was evaluated to improve quantification of dynamic (R)-[(11)C]PK11195 brain positron emission tomography (PET) studies. Reference tissues were extracted from images using both a manually defined cerebellum and SVCA algorithms based on either four (SVCA4) or six (SVCA6) kinetic classes. Data from controls, mild cognitive impairment patients, and patients with Alzheimer's disease were analyzed using various kinetic models including plasma input, the simplified reference tissue model (RPM) and RPM with vascular correction (RPMV(b)). In all subject groups, SVCA-based reference tissue curves showed lower blood volume fractions (V(b)) and volume of distributions than those based on cerebellum time-activity curve. Probably resulting from the presence of specific signal from the vessel walls that contains in normal condition a significant concentration of the 18 kDa translocation protein. Best contrast between subject groups was seen using SVCA4-based reference tissues as the result of a lower number of kinetic classes and the prior removal of extracerebral tissues. In addition, incorporation of V(b) in RPM improved both parametric images and binding potential contrast between groups. Incorporation of V(b) within RPM, together with SVCA4, appears to be the method of choice for analyzing cerebral (R)-[(11)C]PK11195 neurodegeneration studies.

  16. Senior Pets

    MedlinePlus

    ... Health Awareness Events About AVMA Who We Are Governance AVMA Careers AVMF Student AVMA (SAVMA) Allied Organizations ... Although senior pets may develop age-related problems, good care allows them to live happy, healthy and ...

  17. Giardia & Pets

    MedlinePlus

    ... items (for example, bedding and cloth toys) and linens (sheets and towels) can be washed in the ... and food bowls, pet bedding, floors, dog crates, linens, towels, litter box, etc.) regularly for as long ...

  18. PET scan

    MedlinePlus

    ... may have an allergic reaction to the tracer material. Some people have pain, redness, or swelling at ... with diabetes. Most PET scans are now performed along with a CT scan. This combination scan ...

  19. Efficacy of 68Ga-DOTATOC Positron Emission Tomography (PET) CT in Children and Young Adults With Brain Tumors

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-09-07

    Acoustic Schwannoma; Adult Anaplastic Astrocytoma; Adult Anaplastic Ependymoma; Adult Anaplastic Meningioma; Adult Anaplastic Oligodendroglioma; Adult Brain Stem Glioma; Adult Choroid Plexus Tumor; Adult Craniopharyngioma; Adult Diffuse Astrocytoma; Adult Ependymoblastoma; Adult Ependymoma; Adult Giant Cell Glioblastoma; Adult Glioblastoma; Adult Gliosarcoma; Adult Grade I Meningioma; Adult Grade II Meningioma; Adult Medulloblastoma; Adult Meningeal Hemangiopericytoma; Adult Mixed Glioma; Adult Myxopapillary Ependymoma; Adult Oligodendroglioma; Adult Papillary Meningioma; Adult Pilocytic Astrocytoma; Adult Pineal Gland Astrocytoma; Adult Pineoblastoma; Adult Pineocytoma; Adult Subependymal Giant Cell Astrocytoma; Adult Subependymoma; Adult Supratentorial Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor (PNET); Childhood Choroid Plexus Tumor; Childhood Craniopharyngioma; Childhood Ependymoblastoma; Childhood Grade I Meningioma; Childhood Grade II Meningioma; Childhood Grade III Meningioma; Childhood High-grade Cerebellar Astrocytoma; Childhood High-grade Cerebral Astrocytoma; Childhood Infratentorial Ependymoma; Childhood Low-grade Cerebellar Astrocytoma; Childhood Low-grade Cerebral Astrocytoma; Childhood Medulloepithelioma; Childhood Supratentorial Ependymoma; Meningeal Melanocytoma; Newly Diagnosed Childhood Ependymoma; Recurrent Adult Brain Tumor; Recurrent Childhood Anaplastic Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Anaplastic Oligoastrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Anaplastic Oligodendroglioma; Recurrent Childhood Brain Stem Glioma; Recurrent Childhood Cerebellar Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Cerebral Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Diffuse Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Ependymoma; Recurrent Childhood Fibrillary Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Gemistocytic Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Giant Cell Glioblastoma; Recurrent Childhood Glioblastoma; Recurrent Childhood Gliomatosis Cerebri; Recurrent Childhood Gliosarcoma; Recurrent Childhood Medulloblastoma; Recurrent Childhood

  20. Opposite brain emotion-regulation patterns in identity states of dissociative identity disorder: a PET study and neurobiological model.

    PubMed

    Reinders, Antje A T S; Willemsen, Antoon T M; den Boer, Johan A; Vos, Herry P J; Veltman, Dick J; Loewenstein, Richard J

    2014-09-30

    Imaging studies in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) have shown differing neural network patterns between hypo-aroused/dissociative and hyper-aroused subtypes. Since dissociative identity disorder (DID) involves different emotional states, this study tests whether DID fits aspects of the differing brain-activation patterns in PTSD. While brain activation was monitored using positron emission tomography, DID individuals (n=11) and matched DID-simulating healthy controls (n=16) underwent an autobiographic script-driven imagery paradigm in a hypo-aroused and a hyper-aroused identity state. Results were consistent with those previously found in the two PTSD subtypes for the rostral/dorsal anterior cingulate, the prefrontal cortex, and the amygdala and insula, respectively. Furthermore, the dissociative identity state uniquely activated the posterior association areas and the parahippocampal gyri, whereas the hyper-aroused identity state uniquely activated the caudate nucleus. Therefore, we proposed an extended PTSD-based neurobiological model for emotion modulation in DID: the hypo-aroused identity state activates the prefrontal cortex, cingulate, posterior association areas and parahippocampal gyri, thereby overmodulating emotion regulation; the hyper-aroused identity state activates the amygdala and insula as well as the dorsal striatum, thereby undermodulating emotion regulation. This confirms the notion that DID is related to PTSD as hypo-aroused and hyper-arousal states in DID and PTSD are similar.

  1. Clinical Evaluation of Zero-Echo-Time Attenuation Correction for Brain 18F-FDG PET/MRI: Comparison with Atlas Attenuation Correction.

    PubMed

    Sekine, Tetsuro; Ter Voert, Edwin E G W; Warnock, Geoffrey; Buck, Alfred; Huellner, Martin; Veit-Haibach, Patrick; Delso, Gaspar

    2016-12-01

    Accurate attenuation correction (AC) on PET/MR is still challenging. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical feasibility of AC based on fast zero-echo-time (ZTE) MRI by comparing it with the default atlas-based AC on a clinical PET/MR scanner.

  2. Positron Emission Tomography (PET)

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Welch, M. J.

    1990-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) assesses biochemical processes in the living subject, producing images of function rather than form. Using PET, physicians are able to obtain not the anatomical information provided by other medical imaging techniques, but pictures of physiological activity. In metaphoric terms, traditional imaging methods supply a map of the body's roadways, its, anatomy; PET shows the traffic along those paths, its biochemistry. This document discusses the principles of PET, the radiopharmaceuticals in PET, PET research, clinical applications of PET, the cost of PET, training of individuals for PET, the role of the United States Department of Energy in PET, and the futures of PET.

  3. Positron Emission Tomography (PET)

    SciTech Connect

    Welch, M.J.

    1990-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) assesses biochemical processes in the living subject, producing images of function rather than form. Using PET, physicians are able to obtain not the anatomical information provided by other medical imaging techniques, but pictures of physiological activity. In metaphoric terms, traditional imaging methods supply a map of the body's roadways, its, anatomy; PET shows the traffic along those paths, its biochemistry. This document discusses the principles of PET, the radiopharmaceuticals in PET, PET research, clinical applications of PET, the cost of PET, training of individuals for PET, the role of the United States Department of Energy in PET, and the futures of PET. 22 figs.

  4. Brain heterotopia.

    PubMed

    Modarresifar, Homayoun; Ho, Linh

    2009-03-01

    We present a case with intractable partial complex seizures in a 14-year-old girl who was found to have brain heterotopia on MRI and PET-CT. The patient presented with intractable partial complex seizures and a normal electroencephalogram. Her brain magnetic resonance imaging showed heterotopic gray matter lining the ventricular margin of the right occipital horn. Subsequent PET-CT demonstrated moderate tracer localization in the heterotopic gray matter surrounding the ventricular margin of the right occipital horn. Heterotopia may demonstrate normal or increased FDG uptake on PET, therefore its appearance may be deceiving when other pathologies are being considered.

  5. Signal-to-noise ratio in neuro activation PET studies

    SciTech Connect

    Votaw, J.R.

    1996-04-01

    It has become commonplace to compare scanner sensitivity characteristics by comparing noise equivalent count rate curves. However, because a 20-cm diameter uniform phantom is drastically difference from a human brain, these curves give misleading information when planning a neuro activation PET experiment. Signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) calculations have been performed using measured data (Siemens 921 scanner) from the three-dimensional (3-D) Hoffman brain phantom for the purpose of determining the optimal injection and scanning protocol for [{sup 15}O] labeled activation experiments. Region of interest (ROI) values along with the variance due to prompt (trues plus randoms) and random events were determined for various regions and radioactivity concentrations. Calculated attenuation correction was used throughout. Scatter correction was not used when calculating the SNR in activation studies because the number of scattered events is almost identical in each data acquisition and hence cancels. The results indicate that randoms correction should not be performed and that rather than being limited by the scanner capabilities, neuro activation experiments are limited by the amount of radioactivity that can be injected and the length of time the patient can stay in the scanner.

  6. Design and evaluation of radiotracers for determination of regional cerebral blood flow with PET

    SciTech Connect

    Lambrecht, R.M.; Duncan, C.C.; Shiue, C.Y.

    1982-01-01

    The tracer kinetics of 4-Fluoro(/sup 18/F)-, 4-Bromo(/sup 82/Br)- and 4-Iodo(/sup 125/I)-antipyrine and /sup 15/O-water were compared in a cat or baboon animal model. First-pass cerebral extraction and clearance with alterations in PaCO/sub 2/ were measured for whole brain. The Renkin/Crone model was used to evaluate brain capillary permeability-surface area product for 4-/sup 18/FAP in cats. Positron-emission-tomographic measurements required development of an instrument and technique for control of the arterial concentration of the radiotracer as a ramp function, so that tracer concentration changes due to radioactive decay or altered physiological processes could be accurately described with PET. Pharmacokinetic and tissue-distribution studies in cats were used to determine dosimetry for 4-/sup 18/FAP. 4-Bromoantipyrine labeled with /sup 78/Br (t = 6.5 m) is suggested as a tracer for determination of rCBF with PET.

  7. Music and language side by side in the brain: a PET study of the generation of melodies and sentences.

    PubMed

    Brown, Steven; Martinez, Michael J; Parsons, Lawrence M

    2006-05-01

    Parallel generational tasks for music and language were compared using positron emission tomography. Amateur musicians vocally improvised melodic or linguistic phrases in response to unfamiliar, auditorily presented melodies or phrases. Core areas for generating melodic phrases appeared to be in left Brodmann area (BA) 45, right BA 44, bilateral temporal planum polare, lateral BA 6, and pre-SMA. Core areas for generating sentences seemed to be in bilateral posterior superior and middle temporal cortex (BA 22, 21), left BA 39, bilateral superior frontal (BA 8, 9), left inferior frontal (BA 44, 45), anterior cingulate, and pre-SMA. Direct comparisons of the two tasks revealed activations in nearly identical functional brain areas, including the primary motor cortex, supplementary motor area, Broca's area, anterior insula, primary and secondary auditory cortices, temporal pole, basal ganglia, ventral thalamus, and posterior cerebellum. Most of the differences between melodic and sentential generation were seen in lateralization tendencies, with the language task favouring the left hemisphere. However, many of the activations for each modality were bilateral, and so there was significant overlap. While clarification of this overlapping activity awaits higher-resolution measurements and interventional assessments, plausible accounts for it include component sharing, interleaved representations, and adaptive coding. With these and related findings, we outline a comparative model of shared, parallel, and distinctive features of the neural systems supporting music and language. The model assumes that music and language show parallel combinatoric generativity for complex sound structures (phonology) but distinctly different informational content (semantics).

  8. Sex differences in the serotonin 1A receptor and serotonin transporter binding in the human brain measured by PET.

    PubMed

    Jovanovic, Hristina; Lundberg, Johan; Karlsson, Per; Cerin, Asta; Saijo, Tomoyuki; Varrone, Andrea; Halldin, Christer; Nordström, Anna-Lena

    2008-02-01

    Women and men differ in serotonin associated psychiatric conditions, such as depression, anxiety and suicide. Despite this, very few studies focus on sex differences in the serotonin system. Of the biomarkers in the serotonin system, serotonin(1A) (5-HT(1A)) receptor is implicated in depression, and anxiety and serotonin transporter (5-HTT) is a target for selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, psychotropic drugs used in the treatment of these disorders. The objective of the present study was to study sex related differences in the 5-HT(1A) receptor and 5-HTT binding potentials (BP(ND)s) in healthy humans, in vivo. Positron emission tomography and selective radioligands [(11)C]WAY100635 and [(11)C]MADAM were used to evaluate binding potentials for 5-HT(1A) receptors (14 women and 14 men) and 5-HTT (8 women and 10 men). The binding potentials were estimated both on the level of anatomical regions and voxel wise, derived by the simplified reference tissue model and wavelet/Logan plot parametric image techniques respectively. Compared to men, women had significantly higher 5-HT(1A) receptor and lower 5-HTT binding potentials in a wide array of cortical and subcortical brain regions. In women, there was a positive correlation between 5-HT(1A) receptor and 5-HTT binding potentials for the region of hippocampus. Sex differences in 5-HT(1A) receptor and 5-HTT BP(ND) may reflect biological distinctions in the serotonin system contributing to sex differences in the prevalence of psychiatric disorders such as depression and anxiety. The result of the present study may help in understanding sex differences in drug treatment responses to drugs affecting the serotonin system.

  9. The application of PET imaging in psychoneuroimmunology research.

    PubMed

    Hannestad, Jonas

    2012-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) imaging is a research tool that allows in vivo measurements of brain metabolism and specific target molecules. PET imaging can be used to measure these brain variables in a variety of species, including human and non-human primates, and rodents. PET imaging can therefore be combined with various experimental and clinical model systems that are commonly used in psychoneuroimmunology research.

  10. SU-D-BRF-02: In Situ Verification of Radiation Therapy Dose Distributions From High-Energy X-Rays Using PET Imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Q; Kai, L; Wang, X; Hua, B; Chui, L; Wang, Q; Ma, C

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To study the possibility of in situ verification of radiation therapy dose distributions using PET imaging based on the activity distribution of 11C and 15O produced via photonuclear reactions in patient irradiated by 45MV x-rays. Methods: The method is based on the photonuclear reactions in the most elemental composition {sup 12}C and {sup 16}O in body tissues irradiated by bremsstrahlung photons with energies up to 45 MeV, resulting primarily in {sup 11}C and {sup 15}O, which are positron-emitting nuclei. The induced positron activity distributions were obtained with a PET scanner in the same room of a LA45 accelerator (Top Grade Medical, Beijing, China). The experiments were performed with a brain phantom using realistic treatment plans. The phantom was scanned at 20min and 2-5min after irradiation for {sup 11}C and {sup 15}, respectively. The interval between the two scans was 20 minutes. The activity distributions of {sup 11}C and {sup 15}O within the irradiated volume can be separated from each other because the half-life is 20min and 2min for {sup 11}C and {sup 15}O, respectively. Three x-ray energies were used including 10MV, 25MV and 45MV. The radiation dose ranged from 1.0Gy to 10.0Gy per treatment. Results: It was confirmed that no activity was detected at 10 MV beam energy, which was far below the energy threshold for photonuclear reactions. At 25 MV x-ray activity distribution images were observed on PET, which needed much higher radiation dose in order to obtain good quality. For 45 MV photon beams, good quality activation images were obtained with 2-3Gy radiation dose, which is the typical daily dose for radiation therapy. Conclusion: The activity distribution of {sup 15}O and {sup 11}C could be used to derive the dose distribution of 45MV x-rays at the regular daily dose level. This method can potentially be used to verify in situ dose distributions of patients treated on the LA45 accelerator.

  11. PET Imaging in Huntington's Disease.

    PubMed

    Roussakis, Andreas-Antonios; Piccini, Paola

    2015-01-01

    To date, little is known about how neurodegeneration and neuroinflammation propagate in Huntington's disease (HD). Unfortunately, no treatment is available to cure or reverse the progressive decline of function caused by the disease, thus considering HD a fatal disease. Mutation gene carriers typically remain asymptomatic for many years although alterations in the basal ganglia and cortex occur early on in mutant HD gene-carriers. Positron Emission Tomography (PET) is a functional imaging technique of nuclear medicine which enables in vivo visualization of numerous biological molecules expressed in several human tissues. Brain PET is most powerful to study in vivo neuronal and glial cells function as well as cerebral blood flow in a plethora of neurodegenerative disorders including Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's and HD. In absence of HD-specific biomarkers for monitoring disease progression, previous PET studies in HD were merely focused on the study of dopaminergic terminals, cerebral blood flow and glucose metabolism in manifest and premanifest HD-gene carriers. More recently, research interest has been exploring novel PET targets in HD including the state of phosphodiesterse expression and the role of activated microglia. Hence, a better understanding of the HD pathogenesis mechanisms may lead to the development of targeted therapies. PET imaging follow-up studies with novel selective PET radiotracers such as 11C-IMA-107 and 11C-PBR28 may provide insight on disease progression and identify prognostic biomarkers, elucidate the underlying HD pathology and assess novel pharmaceutical agents and over time.

  12. Effect of α-Methyl versus α-Hydrogen Substitution on Brain Availability and Tumor Imaging Properties of Heptanoic [F-18]Fluoroalkyl Amino Acids for Positron Emission Tomography (PET).

    PubMed

    Bouhlel, Ahlem; Alyami, Wadha; Li, Aixiao; Yuan, Liya; Rich, Keith; McConathy, Jonathan

    2016-04-14

    Two [(18)F]fluoroalkyl substituted amino acids differing only by the presence or absence of a methyl group on the α-carbon, (S)-2-amino-7-[(18)F]fluoro-2-methylheptanoic acid ((S)-[(18)F]FAMHep, (S)-[(18)F]14) and (S)-2-amino-7-[(18)F]fluoroheptanoic acid ((S)-[(18)F]FAHep, (S)-[(18)F]15), were developed for brain tumor imaging and compared to the well-established system L amino acid tracer, O-(2-[(18)F]fluoroethyl)-l-tyrosine ([(18)F]FET), in the delayed brain tumor (DBT) mouse model of high-grade glioma. Cell uptake, biodistribution, and PET/CT imaging studies showed differences in amino acid transport of these tracer by DBT cells. Recognition of (S)-[(18)F]15 but not (S)-[(18)F]14 by system L amino acid transporters led to approximately 8-10-fold higher uptake of the α-hydrogen substituted analogue (S)-[(18)F]15 in normal brain. (S)-[(18)F]15 had imaging properties similar to those of (S)-[(18)F]FET in the DBT tumor model while (S)-[(18)F]14 afforded higher tumor to brain ratios due to much lower uptake by normal brain. These results have important implications for the future development of α-alkyl and α,α-dialkyl substituted amino acids for brain tumor imaging.

  13. Pet Therapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kavanagh, Kim

    1994-01-01

    This resource guide presents information on a variety of ways that animals can be used as a therapeutic modality with people having disabilities. Aspects addressed include: pet ownership and selection criteria; dogs (including service dogs, hearing/signal dogs, seeing leader dogs, and social/specialty dogs); horseriding for both therapy and fun;…

  14. Further evaluation of [11C]MP-10 as a radiotracer for phosphodiesterase 10A (PDE10A): PET imaging study in rhesus monkeys and brain tissue metabolite analysis

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Shu-fei; Labaree, David; Chen, Ming-Kai; Holden, Daniel; Gallezot, Jean-Dominique; Kapinos, Michael; Teng, Jo-Ku; Najafzadeh, Soheila; Plisson, Christophe; Rabiner, Eugenii A.; Gunn, Roger N.; Carson, Richard E.; Huang, Yiyun

    2014-01-01

    [11C]MP-10 is a potent and specific PET tracer previously shown to be suitable for imaging the PDE10A in baboons with reversible kinetics and high specific binding. However, another report indicated that [11C]MP-10 displayed seemingly irreversible kinetics in rhesus monkeys, potentially due to the presence of a radiolabeled metabolite capable of penetrating the blood-brain-barrier (BBB) into the brain. This study was designed to address the discrepancies between the species by re-evaluating [11C]MP-10 in vivo in rhesus monkey with baseline scans to assess tissue uptake kinetics and self-blocking scans with unlabeled MP-10 to determine binding specificity. Ex vivo studies with one rhesus monkey and 4 Sprague-Dawley rats were also performed to investigate the presence of radiolabeled metabolites in the brain. Our results indicated that [11C]MP-10 displayed reversible uptake kinetics in rhesus monkeys, albeit slower than in baboons. Administration of unlabeled MP-10 reduced the binding of [11C]MP-10 in a dose-dependent manner in all brain regions including the cerebellum. Consequently, the cerebellum appeared not to be a suitable reference tissue in rhesus monkeys. Regional volume of distribution (VT) was mostly reliably derived with the multilinear analysis (MA1) method. In ex vivo studies in the monkey and rats only negligible (< 2.7%) amount of radiometabolites was seen in the brain of either species. In summary, results from the present study strongly support the suitability of [11C]MP-10 as a radiotracer for PET imaging and quantification of PDE10A in non-human primates. PMID:25450608

  15. Analysis of the Metabolic and Structural Brain Changes in Patients With Torture-Related Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (TR-PTSD) Using ¹⁸F-FDG PET and MRI.

    PubMed

    Zandieh, Shahin; Bernt, Reinhard; Knoll, Peter; Wenzel, Thomas; Hittmair, Karl; Haller, Joerg; Hergan, Klaus; Mirzaei, Siroos

    2016-04-01

    Many people exposed to torture later suffer from torture-related post-traumatic stress disorder (TR-PTSD). The aim of this study was to analyze the morphologic and functional brain changes in patients with TR-PTSD using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and positron emission tomography (PET). This study evaluated 19 subjects. Thirteen subcortical brain structures were evaluated using FSL software. On the T1-weighted images, normalized brain volumes were measured using SIENAX software. The study compared the volume of the brain and 13 subcortical structures in 9 patients suffering from TR-PTSD after torture and 10 healthy volunteers (HV). Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) was performed in the transverse plane. In addition, the 18F-FDG PET data were evaluated to identify the activity of the elected regions. The mean left hippocampal volume for the TR-PTSD group was significantly lower than in the HV group (post hoc test (Bonferroni) P < 0.001). There was a significant difference between the gray matter volume of the patients with TR-PTSD and the HV group (post hoc test (Bonferroni) P < 0.001). The TR-PTSD group showed low significant expansion of the ventricles in contrast to the HV group (post hoc test (Bonferroni) P < 0.001). Diffusion-weighted imaging revealed significant differences in the right frontal lobe and the left occipital lobe between the TR-PTSD and HV group (post hoc test (Bonferroni) P < 0.001). Moderate hypometabolism was noted in the occipital lobe in 6 of the 9 patients with TR-PTSD, in the temporal lobe in 1 of the 9 patients, and in the caudate nucleus in 5 of the 9 patients. In 2 cases, additional hypometabolism was observed in the posterior cingulate cortex and in the parietal and frontal lobes. The findings from this study show that TR-PTSD might have a deleterious influence on a set of specific brain structures. This study also demonstrated that PET combined with MRI is sensitive in detecting possible metabolic and structural

  16. Analysis of the Metabolic and Structural Brain Changes in Patients With Torture-Related Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (TR-PTSD) Using 18F-FDG PET and MRI

    PubMed Central

    Zandieh, Shahin; Bernt, Reinhard; Knoll, Peter; Wenzel, Thomas; Hittmair, Karl; Haller, Joerg; Hergan, Klaus; Mirzaei, Siroos

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Many people exposed to torture later suffer from torture-related post-traumatic stress disorder (TR-PTSD). The aim of this study was to analyze the morphologic and functional brain changes in patients with TR-PTSD using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and positron emission tomography (PET). This study evaluated 19 subjects. Thirteen subcortical brain structures were evaluated using FSL software. On the T1-weighted images, normalized brain volumes were measured using SIENAX software. The study compared the volume of the brain and 13 subcortical structures in 9 patients suffering from TR-PTSD after torture and 10 healthy volunteers (HV). Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) was performed in the transverse plane. In addition, the 18F-FDG PET data were evaluated to identify the activity of the elected regions. The mean left hippocampal volume for the TR-PTSD group was significantly lower than in the HV group (post hoc test (Bonferroni) P < 0.001). There was a significant difference between the gray matter volume of the patients with TR-PTSD and the HV group (post hoc test (Bonferroni) P < 0.001). The TR-PTSD group showed low significant expansion of the ventricles in contrast to the HV group (post hoc test (Bonferroni) P < 0.001). Diffusion-weighted imaging revealed significant differences in the right frontal lobe and the left occipital lobe between the TR-PTSD and HV group (post hoc test (Bonferroni) P < 0.001). Moderate hypometabolism was noted in the occipital lobe in 6 of the 9 patients with TR-PTSD, in the temporal lobe in 1 of the 9 patients, and in the caudate nucleus in 5 of the 9 patients. In 2 cases, additional hypometabolism was observed in the posterior cingulate cortex and in the parietal and frontal lobes. The findings from this study show that TR-PTSD might have a deleterious influence on a set of specific brain structures. This study also demonstrated that PET combined with MRI is sensitive in detecting possible metabolic and

  17. Birds Kept as Pets

    MedlinePlus

    ... Pets Pets Birds Cats Dogs Farm Animals Backyard Poultry Ferrets Fish Horses Reptiles and Amphibians Turtles Kept ... as pets can be found on the backyard poultry page. Overview Diseases Prevention More Information Boy admiring ...

  18. Assessment of glutamine synthetase activity by [13N]ammonia uptake in living rat brain.

    PubMed

    Momosaki, Sotaro; Ito, Miwa; Tonomura, Misato; Abe, Kohji

    2015-01-01

    Glutamine synthetase (GS) plays an important role in glutamate neurotransmission or neurological disorder in the brain. [(13) N]Ammonia blood flow tracer has been reported to be metabolically trapped in the brain via the glutamate-glutamine pathway. The present study investigated the effect of an inhibitor of GS on [(13) N]ammonia uptake in order to clarify the feasibility of measuring GS activity in the living brain. l-Methionine sulfoximine (MSO), a selective GS inhibitor was microinjected into the ipsilateral striatum in rats. [(13) N]Ammonia uptake was quantified by autoradiography method as well as small animal positron emission tomography (PET) scans. The GS activity of the brain homogenate was assayed from the γ-glutamyl transferase reaction. Autoradiograms showed a decrease of [(13) N]ammonia radioactivity on the MSO-injected side compared with the saline-injected side of the striatum. This reduction could be detected with a small animal PET scanner. MSO had no effect on cerebral blood flow measured by uptake of [(15) O]H2 O. The reduction of [(13) N]ammonia uptake was closely related to the results of GS activity assay. These results indicated that [(13) N]ammonia may enable measurement of GS activity in the living brain.

  19. Pet Problems at Home: Pet Problems in the Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soltow, Willow

    1984-01-01

    Discusses problems of pets in the community, examining the community's role related to disruptive pets and pet overpopulation. Also discusses pet problems at home, offering advice on selecting a pet, meeting a pet's needs, and disciplining pets. Includes a list of books, films/filmstrips, teaching materials, and various instructional strategies.…

  20. Comparison of cerebral blood flow measurement with [15O]-water positron emission tomography and arterial spin labeling magnetic resonance imaging: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Fan, Audrey P; Jahanian, Hesamoddin; Holdsworth, Samantha J; Zaharchuk, Greg

    2016-05-01

    Noninvasive imaging of cerebral blood flow provides critical information to understand normal brain physiology as well as to identify and manage patients with neurological disorders. To date, the reference standard for cerebral blood flow measurements is considered to be positron emission tomography using injection of the [(15)O]-water radiotracer. Although [(15)O]-water has been used to study brain perfusion under normal and pathological conditions, it is not widely used in clinical settings due to the need for an on-site cyclotron, the invasive nature of arterial blood sampling, and experimental complexity. As an alternative, arterial spin labeling is a promising magnetic resonance imaging technique that magnetically labels arterial blood as it flows into the brain to map cerebral blood flow. As arterial spin labeling becomes more widely adopted in research and clinical settings, efforts have sought to standardize the method and validate its cerebral blood flow values against positron emission tomography-based cerebral blood flow measurements. The purpose of this work is to critically review studies that performed both [(15)O]-water positron emission tomography and arterial spin labeling to measure brain perfusion, with the aim of better understanding the accuracy and reproducibility of arterial spin labeling relative to the positron emission tomography reference standard.

  1. Pets for Handicapped Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frith, Greg H.

    1982-01-01

    Pets can provide valuable learning for handicapped children, but selection of a type of pet should consider cost, availability and care, parents' attitudes, locality, the animal's susceptibility to training, pet's life expectancy, and the child's handicap and emotional maturity. Suggested pet-related activities are listed. (CL)

  2. Validation of an electronic image reader training programme for interpretation of [18F]flutemetamol β-amyloid PET brain images

    PubMed Central

    Sherwin, Paul F.; Smith, Adrian P.L.; Wolber, Jan; Weick, Sharon M.; Brooks, David J.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives An electronic training programme (ETP) was developed for interpretation of images during routine clinical use of the PET amyloid imaging agent [18F]flutemetamol injection (VIZAMYL). This study was carried out to validate the ETP. Materials and methods Five nuclear medicine technologists (NMTs) and five readers previously inexperienced in amyloid image interpretation were required to self-train using the ETP and pass a test to participate. A total of 305 [18F]flutemetamol PET images were then tested as the validation set, following preassessment and reorientation (where required) by one of five NMTs. Next, a new set of readers blinded to clinical information independently assessed all 305 images. Images had been acquired in previous studies from patients representing the full spectrum of cognitive capacity. When available, a standard of truth determined by histopathology or clinical history was used to derive sensitivity and specificity for image interpretation from this validation set. Randomly selected images (n=29) were read in duplicate to measure intrareader reproducibility. Images were read first without, and subsequently with anatomic images, if available. Results All NMTs and all readers scored 100% on the qualifying test. The interpretation of 135 cases without anatomic image support resulted in sensitivity ranging from 84% to 94% (majority 94%, median 92%) and specificity ranging from 77% to 96% (majority 92%, median 81%). Inter-reader agreement was very high, with most κ scores more than 0.8. Intrareader reproducibility ranged from 93 to 100%. Conclusion The self-guided ETP effectively trained new amyloid PET image readers to accurately and reproducibly interpret [18F]flutemetamol PET images. PMID:27984539

  3. Dynamic neurotransmitter interactions measured with PET

    SciTech Connect

    Schiffer, W.K.; Dewey, S.L.

    2001-04-02

    Positron emission tomography (PET) has become a valuable interdisciplinary tool for understanding physiological, biochemical and pharmacological functions at a molecular level in living humans, whether in a healthy or diseased state. The utility of tracing chemical activity through the body transcends the fields of cardiology, oncology, neurology and psychiatry. In this, PET techniques span radiochemistry and radiopharmaceutical development to instrumentation, image analysis, anatomy and modeling. PET has made substantial contributions in each of these fields by providing a,venue for mapping dynamic functions of healthy and unhealthy human anatomy. As diverse as the disciplines it bridges, PET has provided insight into an equally significant variety of psychiatric disorders. Using the unique quantitative ability of PET, researchers are now better able to non-invasively characterize normally occurring neurotransmitter interactions in the brain. With the knowledge that these interactions provide the fundamental basis for brain response, many investigators have recently focused their efforts on an examination of the communication between these chemicals in both healthy volunteers and individuals suffering from diseases classically defined as neurotransmitter specific in nature. In addition, PET can measure the biochemical dynamics of acute and sustained drug abuse. Thus, PET studies of neurotransmitter interactions enable investigators to describe a multitude of specific functional interactions in the human brain. This information can then be applied to understanding side effects that occur in response to acute and chronic drug therapy, and to designing new drugs that target multiple systems as opposed to single receptor types. Knowledge derived from PET studies can be applied to drug discovery, research and development (for review, see (Fowler et al., 1999) and (Burns et al., 1999)). Here, we will cover the most substantial contributions of PET to understanding

  4. Atlas construction for dynamic (4D) PET using diffeomorphic transformations.

    PubMed

    Bieth, Marie; Lombaert, Hervé; Reader, Andrew J; Siddiqi, Kaleem

    2013-01-01

    A novel dynamic (4D) PET to PET image registration procedure is proposed and applied to multiple PET scans acquired with the high resolution research tomograph (HRRT), the highest resolution human brain PET scanner available in the world. By extending the recent diffeomorphic log-demons (DLD) method and applying it to multiple dynamic [11C]raclopride scans from the HRRT, an important step towards construction of a PET atlas of unprecedented quality for [11C]raclopride imaging of the human brain has been achieved. Accounting for the temporal dimension in PET data improves registration accuracy when compared to registration of 3D to 3D time-averaged PET images. The DLD approach was chosen for its ease in providing both an intensity and shape template, through iterative sequential pair-wise registrations with fast convergence. The proposed method is applicable to any PET radiotracer, providing 4D atlases with useful applications in high accuracy PET data simulations and automated PET image analysis.

  5. Simultaneous water activation and glucose metabolic rate imaging with PET

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verhaeghe, Jeroen; Reader, Andrew J.

    2013-02-01

    A novel imaging and signal separation strategy is proposed to be able to separate [18F]FDG and multiple [15O]H2O signals from a simultaneously acquired dynamic PET acquisition of the two tracers. The technique is based on the fact that the dynamics of the two tracers are very distinct. By adopting an appropriate bolus injection strategy and by defining tailored sets of basis functions that model either the FDG or water component, it is possible to separate the FDG and water signal. The basis functions are inspired from the spectral analysis description of dynamic PET studies and are defined as the convolution of estimated generating functions (GFs) with a set of decaying exponential functions. The GFs are estimated from the overall measured head curve, while the decaying exponential functions are pre-determined. In this work, the time activity curves (TACs) are modelled post-reconstruction but the model can be incorporated in a global 4D reconstruction strategy. Extensive PET simulation studies are performed considering single [18F]FDG and 6 [15O]H2O bolus injections for a total acquisition time of 75 min. The proposed method is evaluated at multiple noise levels and different parameters were estimated such as [18F]FDG uptake and blood flow estimated from the [15O]H2O component, requiring a full dynamic analysis of the two components, static images of [18F]FDG and the water components as well as [15O]H2O activation. It is shown that the resulting images and parametric values in ROIs are comparable to images obtained from separate imaging, illustrating the feasibility of simultaneous imaging of [18F]FDG and [15O]H2O components. For more information on this article, see medicalphysicsweb.org

  6. Age- and Brain Region-Specific Changes of Glucose Metabolic Disorder, Learning, and Memory Dysfunction in Early Alzheimer’s Disease Assessed in APP/PS1 Transgenic Mice Using 18F-FDG-PET

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xue-Yuan; Men, Wei-Wei; Zhu, Hua; Lei, Jian-Feng; Zuo, Fu-Xing; Wang, Zhan-Jing; Zhu, Zhao-Hui; Bao, Xin-Jie; Wang, Ren-Zhi

    2016-01-01

    Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a leading cause of dementia worldwide, associated with cognitive deficits and brain glucose metabolic alteration. However, the associations of glucose metabolic changes with cognitive dysfunction are less detailed. Here, we examined the brains of APP/presenilin 1 (PS1) transgenic (Tg) mice aged 2, 3.5, 5 and 8 months using 18F-labed fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) microPET to assess age- and brain region-specific changes of glucose metabolism. FDG uptake was calculated as a relative standardized uptake value (SUVr). Morris water maze (MWM) was used to evaluate learning and memory dysfunction. We showed a glucose utilization increase in multiple brain regions of Tg mice at 2 and 3.5 months but not at 5 and 8 months. Comparisons of SUVrs within brains showed higher glucose utilization than controls in the entorhinal cortex, hippocampus, and frontal cortex of Tg mice at 2 and 3.5 months but in the thalamus and striatum at 3.5, 5 and 8 months. By comparing SUVrs in the entorhinal cortex and hippocampus, Tg mice were distinguished from controls at 2 and 3.5 months. In MWM, Tg mice aged 2 months shared a similar performance to the controls (prodromal-AD). By contrast, Tg mice failed training tests at 3.5 months but failed all MWM tests at 5 and 8 months, suggestive of partial or complete cognitive deficits (symptomatic-AD). Correlation analyses showed that hippocampal SUVrs were significantly correlated with MWM parameters in the symptomatic-AD stage. These data suggest that glucose metabolic disorder occurs before onset of AD signs in APP/PS1 mice with the entorhinal cortex and hippocampus affected first, and that regional FDG uptake increase can be an early biomarker for AD. Furthermore, hippocampal FDG uptake is a possible indicator for progression of Alzheimer’s cognition after cognitive decline, at least in animals. PMID:27763550

  7. Age- and Brain Region-Specific Changes of Glucose Metabolic Disorder, Learning, and Memory Dysfunction in Early Alzheimer's Disease Assessed in APP/PS1 Transgenic Mice Using (18)F-FDG-PET.

    PubMed

    Li, Xue-Yuan; Men, Wei-Wei; Zhu, Hua; Lei, Jian-Feng; Zuo, Fu-Xing; Wang, Zhan-Jing; Zhu, Zhao-Hui; Bao, Xin-Jie; Wang, Ren-Zhi

    2016-10-18

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a leading cause of dementia worldwide, associated with cognitive deficits and brain glucose metabolic alteration. However, the associations of glucose metabolic changes with cognitive dysfunction are less detailed. Here, we examined the brains of APP/presenilin 1 (PS1) transgenic (Tg) mice aged 2, 3.5, 5 and 8 months using (18)F-labed fluorodeoxyglucose ((18)F-FDG) microPET to assess age- and brain region-specific changes of glucose metabolism. FDG uptake was calculated as a relative standardized uptake value (SUVr). Morris water maze (MWM) was used to evaluate learning and memory dysfunction. We showed a glucose utilization increase in multiple brain regions of Tg mice at 2 and 3.5 months but not at 5 and 8 months. Comparisons of SUVrs within brains showed higher glucose utilization than controls in the entorhinal cortex, hippocampus, and frontal cortex of Tg mice at 2 and 3.5 months but in the thalamus and striatum at 3.5, 5 and 8 months. By comparing SUVrs in the entorhinal cortex and hippocampus, Tg mice were distinguished from controls at 2 and 3.5 months. In MWM, Tg mice aged 2 months shared a similar performance to the controls (prodromal-AD). By contrast, Tg mice failed training tests at 3.5 months but failed all MWM tests at 5 and 8 months, suggestive of partial or complete cognitive deficits (symptomatic-AD). Correlation analyses showed that hippocampal SUVrs were significantly correlated with MWM parameters in the symptomatic-AD stage. These data suggest that glucose metabolic disorder occurs before onset of AD signs in APP/PS1 mice with the entorhinal cortex and hippocampus affected first, and that regional FDG uptake increase can be an early biomarker for AD. Furthermore, hippocampal FDG uptake is a possible indicator for progression of Alzheimer's cognition after cognitive decline, at least in animals.

  8. Regional brain activity change predicts responsiveness to treatment for stuttering in adults.

    PubMed

    Ingham, Roger J; Wang, Yuedong; Ingham, Janis C; Bothe, Anne K; Grafton, Scott T

    2013-12-01

    Developmental stuttering is known to be associated with aberrant brain activity, but there is no evidence that this knowledge has benefited stuttering treatment. This study investigated whether brain activity could predict progress during stuttering treatment for 21 dextral adults who stutter (AWS). They received one of two treatment programs that included periodic H2(15)O PET scanning (during oral reading, monologue, and eyes-closed rest conditions). All participants successfully completed an initial treatment phase and then entered a phase designed to transfer treatment gains; 9/21 failed to complete this latter phase. The 12 pass and 9 fail participants were similar on speech and neural system variables before treatment, and similar in speech performance after the initial phase of their treatment. At the end of the initial treatment phase, however, decreased activation within a single region, L. putamen, in all 3 scanning conditions was highly predictive of successful treatment progress.

  9. Neurosarcoidosis on FET and FDG PET/CT.

    PubMed

    Chan, Mico; Hsiao, Edward

    2017-03-01

    O-(2-fluoroethyl)-L-tyrosine (FET) PET/CT is a promising imaging modality for brain tumor imaging because of its reported high sensitivity for biologically active tumor tissue. We present a case of biopsy-proven neurosarcoidosis showing FET uptake. It is an important cause of false-positive uptake on FET PET/CT.

  10. Lifetime Measurement of the 6.79 MeV State in 15O to Help Constrain the 14N(p,gamma)15O Reaction Rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galinski, Naomi; Sjue, Sky; Davids, Barry; Kanungo, Rituparna; Ruiz, Chris; Hager, Ulrike

    2014-03-01

    The 14N(p, γ)15O reaction is the slowest reaction in the CNO cycle. The rate of this reaction is an important input into calculating the ages of globular cluster stars, determining the primordial core composition of our Sun and affects the amount of He ash produced in H burning shells in red giant stars and hence the nucleosynthesis of heavier elements. The largest remaining uncertainty in calculating the reaction rate is the lifetime of the 6.79 MeV excited state of 15O. We report an upper limit of 1.84 fs on this lifetime. In addition we measured the lifetime of the 6.86 MeV state of 15O to be 13.3-1. 2 + 0 . 8 fs. I am a recipient of a DOC-FFORTE-fellowship of the Austrian Academy of Sciences and thank them for their generous support.

  11. On the accuracy of a mutual information algorithm for PET-MR image registration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karaiskos, P.; Malamitsi, J.; Andreou, J.; Prassopoulos, V.; Valotassiou, V.; Laspas, F.; Sandilos, P.; Torrens, M.

    2009-07-01

    Image registration has been increasingly used in radiation diagnosis and treatment planning as a means of information integration from different imaging modalities (e.g. MRI, PET, CT). Especially for brain lesions, accurate 3D registration and fusion of MR and PET images can provide comprehensive information about the patient under study by relating functional information from PET images to the detailed anatomical information available in MR images. However, direct PET-MR image fusion in soft tissue is complicated mainly due to the lack of conspicuous anatomical features in PET images. This study describes the implementation and validation of a mutual information registration algorithm for this purpose. Ten patients with brain lesions underwent MR and PET/CT scanning. MR-PET registration was performed a) based on the well validated MR-CT registration technique and copying the transformation to the PET images derived from the PET/CT scan (MR/PET/CT registration method) and b) directly from the MR and PET images without taking into account the CT images (MR/PET registration method). In order to check the registration accuracy of the MR/PET method, the lesion (target) was contoured in the PET images and it was transferred to the MR images using both the above methods. The MR/PET/CT method served as the gold standard for target contouring. Target contours derived by the MR/PET method were compared with the gold standard target contours for each patient and the deviation between the two contours was used to estimate the accuracy of the PET-MR registration method. This deviation was less than 3 mm (i.e. comparable to the imaging voxel of the PET/CT scanning) for 9/10 of the cases studied. Results show that the mutual information algorithm used is able to perform the PET-MR registration reliably and accurately.

  12. Active transport of C-11-Methyl-D-Glucose and 3-F-18-Deoxyglucose in acute ischemic brain disease and Huntington's chorea, studied by positron-emission-tomography (PET)

    SciTech Connect

    Vyska, K.; Magloire, R.; Schuier, F.; Machulla, H.J.; Knust, E.J.; Lange, W.; Becker, V.; Spohr, G.; Notohamiprodjo, G.; Feinendegen, L.E.

    1984-01-01

    C-11-Methyl-D-Glucose (CMG) and 3-F-18-Deoxyglucose (3FDG) were demonstrated to be non-metabolizable glucose analogues which are transported across the blood-brain-barrier into and out of tissue via the glucose carrier system (GCS). These two substances were used as indicators for determining the perfusion-independent rate constant of GCS in the brain. Five normals with informed consent, 12 patients with acute ischemic brain disease and 9 patients with initial and advanced Huntington's chorea were examined by PET after i.v. application of 5 mCi of GMG or 3FDG. In each patient 30 transaxial images were registered in 1 selected plane, image collection time being 1 min. Time-activity curves were created from different regions of interest. The slope to tracer steady state between tissue and blood yields the perfusion-independent rate constant of GCS from tissue to blood (k/sub 2/). In normals k/sub 2/ for CMG was 0.235 +- 0.03/min, as expected, and for 3FDG 0.47 +- 0.07/min indicating a higher affinity to GCS for 3FDG than CMG. In acute ischemic brain disease k/sub 2/ was normal or reduced at the site of insult for both CMG and 3FDG. In Huntington's chorea, k/sub 2/ was reduced in the basal ganglia but normal or occasionally significantly increased in frontal or occipital cortical areas, for CMG and 3FDG. The authors conclude that CMG permits noninvasive analysis of the perfusion-independent rate constant of CCS. 3FDG shows a higher affinity for CCS than CMC but gives comparable information.

  13. Brain and Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Damasio, Antonio R., Damasio, Hanna

    1992-01-01

    Discusses the advances made in understanding the brain structures responsible for language. Presents findings made using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and positron emission tomographic (PET) scans to study brain activity. These findings map the structures in the brain that manipulate concepts and those that turn concepts into words. (MCO)

  14. Leptospirosis and Pets

    MedlinePlus

    ... Bacterial Special Pathogens Branch (BSPB) BSPB Laboratory Submissions Pets Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Leptospirosis is ... that can affect human and animals, including your pets. All animals can potentially become infected with Leptospirosis. ...

  15. Synthesis and Evaluation in Monkey of [18F]4-Fluoro-N-methyl-N-(4-(6- (methylamino)pyrimidin-4-yl)thiazol-2-yl)benzamide ([18F]FIMX), a Promising Radioligand for PET Imaging of Brain Metabotropic Glutamate Receptor 1 (mGluR1)

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Rong; Zanotti-Fregonara, Paolo; Zoghbi, Sami S.; Gladding, Robert L.; Woock, Alicia; Innis, Robert B.; Pike, Victor W

    2013-01-01

    We sought to develop a PET radioligand that would be useful for imaging human brain metabotropic subtype 1 receptors (mGluR1) in neuropsychiatric disorders and in drug development. 4-Fluoro-N-methyl-N-(4-(6-(methylamino)pyrimidin-4-yl)thiazol-2-yl)benzamide (FIMX, 11) was identified as having favorable properties for development as a PET radioligand. We developed a method for preparing [18F]11 in useful radiochemical yield and in high specific activity from [18F]fluoride ion and an N-Boc-protected (phenyl)aryliodonium salt precursor (15). In baseline experiments in rhesus monkey, [18F]11 gave high brain radioactivity uptake reflecting the expected distribution of mGluR1 with notably high uptake in cerebellum which became 47% lower by 120 min after radioligand injection. Pharmacological challenges demonstrated a very high proportion of the radioactivity in monkey brain to be bound specifically and reversibly to mGluR1. [18F]11 is concluded to be an effective PET radioligand for imaging mGluR1 in monkey brain and therefore merits further evaluation in human subjects. PMID:24147864

  16. Miniature 'Wearable' PET Scanner Ready for Use

    SciTech Connect

    Paul Vaska

    2011-03-09

    Scientists from BNL, Stony Brook University, and collaborators have demonstrated the efficacy of a "wearable," portable PET scanner they've developed for rats. The device will give neuroscientists a new tool for simultaneously studying brain function and behavior in fully awake, moving animals.

  17. Miniature 'Wearable' PET Scanner Ready for Use

    ScienceCinema

    Paul Vaska

    2016-07-12

    Scientists from BNL, Stony Brook University, and collaborators have demonstrated the efficacy of a "wearable," portable PET scanner they've developed for rats. The device will give neuroscientists a new tool for simultaneously studying brain function and behavior in fully awake, moving animals.

  18. Monitoring proton radiation therapy with in-room PET imaging.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xuping; España, Samuel; Daartz, Juliane; Liebsch, Norbert; Ouyang, Jinsong; Paganetti, Harald; Bortfeld, Thomas R; El Fakhri, Georges

    2011-07-07

    We used a mobile positron emission tomography (PET) scanner positioned within the proton therapy treatment room to study the feasibility of proton range verification with an in-room, stand-alone PET system, and compared with off-line equivalent studies. Two subjects with adenoid cystic carcinoma were enrolled into a pilot study in which in-room PET scans were acquired in list-mode after a routine fractionated treatment session. The list-mode PET data were reconstructed with different time schemes to generate in-room short, in-room long and off-line equivalent (by skipping coincidences from the first 15 min during the list-mode reconstruction) PET images for comparison in activity distribution patterns. A phantom study was followed to evaluate the accuracy of range verification for different reconstruction time schemes quantitatively. The in-room PET has a higher sensitivity compared to the off-line modality so that the PET acquisition time can be greatly reduced from 30 to <5 min. Features in deep-site, soft-tissue regions were better retained with in-room short PET acquisitions because of the collection of (15)O component and lower biological washout. For soft tissue-equivalent material, the distal fall-off edge of an in-room short acquisition is deeper compared to an off-line equivalent scan, indicating a better coverage of the high-dose end of the beam. In-room PET is a promising low cost, high sensitivity modality for the in vivo verification of proton therapy. Better accuracy in Monte Carlo predictions, especially for biological decay modeling, is necessary.

  19. Lifetime Measurement of the 6.79 MeV Excited State of 15O to Help Constrain the 14N(p,gamma)15O Reaction Rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galinski, Naomi

    2013-12-01

    In main sequence stars such as our Sun, the source of energy comes from converting hydrogen into helium. There are two competing mechanisms via which this can happen: the pp chain and CNO cycle. The latter is a cycle of reactions involving carbon, nitrogen and oxygen which are catalysts for the conversion of hydrogen into helium. The slowest reaction 14N(p, gamma) 15O in the cycle will affect the energy generation timescale and the amount of helium ash produced via the CNO cycle. This has several astrophysical impacts. It affects the evolutionary timescale of main sequence stars from which the ages of globular clusters can be calculated, the nucleosynthesis of heavier elements in H burning shells of red giant stars, and the fraction of energy produced by the CNO cycle compared to the pp chain in our Sun which helps determine the interior composition of the Sun. For main sequence stars the CNO cycle dominates over the pp chain for core temperatures T ≳ 0.02 GK. For the 14N(p, gamma)15O reaction this corresponds to a low center of mass energy Ecm = 30 keV. This is lower than the low energy limit of the reaction rate measurable in the laboratory. This means that we need to extrapolate down to low energy using theory. The largest remaining uncertainty in the theoretical calculations is due to the lifetime tau of the 6.79 MeV state of 15O. In this work the lifetimes of three excited states of 15O were measured using the Doppler shift attenuation method (DSAM) populating the states via the 3He(16O,alpha)15O reaction at a beam energy of 50 MeV. The low lifetime limit measurable using the DSAM is ˜1 fs. The lifetime of the 6.79 MeV state is near that limit, making this measurement challenging. A 1.8 fs upper limit (68.3% C.L.) on this lifetime is reported here. In addition we measured the lifetimes of the 6.17 and 6.86 MeV state in 15O which were < 2.5 fs and 13.3+0.8-1.2 fs (68.3% C.L.) respectively. iii Acknowledgments

  20. PET and SPECT imaging in veterinary medicine.

    PubMed

    LeBlanc, Amy K; Peremans, Kathelijne

    2014-01-01

    Veterinarians have gained increasing access to positron emission tomography (PET and PET/CT) imaging facilities, allowing them to use this powerful molecular imaging technique for clinical and research applications. SPECT is currently being used more in Europe than in the United States and has been shown to be useful in veterinary oncology and in the evaluation of orthopedic diseases. SPECT brain perfusion and receptor imaging is used to investigate behavioral disorders in animals that have interesting similarities to human psychiatric disorders. This article provides an overview of the potential applications of PET and SPECT. The use of commercially available and investigational PET radiopharmaceuticals in the management of veterinary disease has been discussed. To date, most of the work in this field has utilized the commercially available PET tracer, (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose for oncologic imaging. Normal biodistribution studies in several companion animal species (cats, dogs, and birds) have been published to assist in lesion detection and interpretation for veterinary radiologists and clinicians. Studies evaluating other (18)F-labeled tracers for research applications are underway at several institutions and companion animal models of human diseases are being increasingly recognized for their value in biomarker and therapy development. Although PET and SPECT technologies are in their infancy for clinical veterinary medicine, increasing access to and interest in these applications and other molecular imaging techniques has led to a greater knowledge and collective body of expertise for veterinarians worldwide. Initiation and fostering of physician-veterinarian collaborations are key components to the forward movement of this field.

  1. MEG Frequency Analysis Depicts the Impaired Neurophysiological Condition of Ischemic Brain

    PubMed Central

    Ikeda, Hidetoshi; Tsuyuguchi, Naohiro; Uda, Takehiro; Okumura, Eiichi; Asakawa, Takashi; Haruta, Yasuhiro; Nishiyama, Hideki; Okada, Toyoji; Kamada, Hajime; Ohata, Kenji; Miki, Yukio

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Quantitative imaging of neuromagnetic fields based on automated region of interest (ROI) setting was analyzed to determine the characteristics of cerebral neural activity in ischemic areas. Methods Magnetoencephalography (MEG) was used to evaluate spontaneous neuromagnetic fields in the ischemic areas of 37 patients with unilateral internal carotid artery (ICA) occlusive disease. Voxel-based time-averaged intensity of slow waves was obtained in two frequency bands (0.3–4 Hz and 4–8 Hz) using standardized low-resolution brain electromagnetic tomography (sLORETA) modified for a quantifiable method (sLORETA-qm). ROIs were automatically applied to the anterior cerebral artery (ACA), anterior middle cerebral artery (MCAa), posterior middle cerebral artery (MCAp), and posterior cerebral artery (PCA) using statistical parametric mapping (SPM). Positron emission tomography with 15O-gas inhalation (15O-PET) was also performed to evaluate cerebral blood flow (CBF) and oxygen extraction fraction (OEF). Statistical analyses were performed using laterality index of MEG and 15O-PET in each ROI with respect to distribution and intensity. Results MEG revealed statistically significant laterality in affected MCA regions, including 4–8 Hz waves in MCAa, and 0.3–4 Hz and 4–8 Hz waves in MCAp (95% confidence interval: 0.020–0.190, 0.030–0.207, and 0.034–0.213), respectively. We found that 0.3–4 Hz waves in MCAp were highly correlated with CBF in MCAa and MCAp (r = 0.74, r = 0.68, respectively), whereas 4–8 Hz waves were moderately correlated with CBF in both the MCAa and MCAp (r = 0.60, r = 0.63, respectively). We also found that 4–8 Hz waves in MCAp were statistically significant for misery perfusion identified on 15O-PET (p<0.05). Conclusions Quantitatively imaged spontaneous neuromagnetic fields using the automated ROI setting enabled clear depiction of cerebral ischemic areas. Frequency analysis may reveal unique neural activity that is distributed in

  2. MO-G-17A-07: Improved Image Quality in Brain F-18 FDG PET Using Penalized-Likelihood Image Reconstruction Via a Generalized Preconditioned Alternating Projection Algorithm: The First Patient Results

    SciTech Connect

    Schmidtlein, CR; Beattie, B; Humm, J; Li, S; Wu, Z; Xu, Y; Zhang, J; Shen, L; Vogelsang, L; Feiglin, D; Krol, A

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: To investigate the performance of a new penalized-likelihood PET image reconstruction algorithm using the 1{sub 1}-norm total-variation (TV) sum of the 1st through 4th-order gradients as the penalty. Simulated and brain patient data sets were analyzed. Methods: This work represents an extension of the preconditioned alternating projection algorithm (PAPA) for emission-computed tomography. In this new generalized algorithm (GPAPA), the penalty term is expanded to allow multiple components, in this case the sum of the 1st to 4th order gradients, to reduce artificial piece-wise constant regions (“staircase” artifacts typical for TV) seen in PAPA images penalized with only the 1st order gradient. Simulated data were used to test for “staircase” artifacts and to optimize the penalty hyper-parameter in the root-mean-squared error (RMSE) sense. Patient FDG brain scans were acquired on a GE D690 PET/CT (370 MBq at 1-hour post-injection for 10 minutes) in time-of-flight mode and in all cases were reconstructed using resolution recovery projectors. GPAPA images were compared PAPA and RMSE-optimally filtered OSEM (fully converged) in simulations and to clinical OSEM reconstructions (3 iterations, 32 subsets) with 2.6 mm XYGaussian and standard 3-point axial smoothing post-filters. Results: The results from the simulated data show a significant reduction in the 'staircase' artifact for GPAPA compared to PAPA and lower RMSE (up to 35%) compared to optimally filtered OSEM. A simple power-law relationship between the RMSE-optimal hyper-parameters and the noise equivalent counts (NEC) per voxel is revealed. Qualitatively, the patient images appear much sharper and with less noise than standard clinical images. The convergence rate is similar to OSEM. Conclusions: GPAPA reconstructions using the 1{sub 1}-norm total-variation sum of the 1st through 4th-order gradients as the penalty show great promise for the improvement of image quality over that currently achieved

  3. Mild experimental ketosis increases brain uptake of 11C-acetoacetate and 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose: a dual-tracer PET imaging study in rats.

    PubMed

    Pifferi, Fabien; Tremblay, Sébastien; Croteau, Etienne; Fortier, Mélanie; Tremblay-Mercier, Jennifer; Lecomte, Roger; Cunnane, Stephen C

    2011-03-01

    Brain glucose and ketone uptake was investigated in Fisher rats subjected to mild experimental ketonemia induced by a ketogenic diet (KD) or by 48 hours fasting (F). Two tracers were used, (11)C-acetoacetate ((11)C-AcAc) for ketones and (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose for glucose, in a dual-tracer format for each animal. Thus, each animal was its own control, starting first on the normal diet, then undergoing 48 hours F, followed by 2 weeks on the KD. In separate rats on the same diet conditions, expression of the transporters of glucose and ketones (glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1) and monocarboxylic acid transporter (MCT1)) was measured in brain microvessel preparations. Compared to controls, uptake of (11)C-AcAc increased more than 2-fold while on the KD or after 48 hours F (P < 0.05). Similar trends were observed for (18)FDG uptake with a 1.9-2.6 times increase on the KD and F, respectively (P < 0.05). Compared to controls, MCT1 expression increased 2-fold on the KD (P < 0.05) but did not change during F. No significant difference was observed across groups for GLUT1 expression. Significant differences across the three groups were observed for plasma beta-hydroxybutyrate (beta-HB), AcAc, glucose, triglycerides, glycerol, and cholesterol (P < 0.05), but no significant differences were observed for free fatty acids, insulin, or lactate. Although the mechanism by which mild ketonemia increases brain glucose uptake remains unclear, the KD clearly increased both the blood-brain barrier expression of MCT1 and stimulated brain (11)C-AcAc uptake. The present dual-tracer positron emission tomography approach may be particularly interesting in neurodegenerative pathologies such as Alzheimer's disease where brain energy supply appears to decline critically.

  4. Brain glucose overexposure and lack of acute metabolic flexibility in obesity and type 2 diabetes: a PET-[18F]FDG study in Zucker and ZDF rats.

    PubMed

    Liistro, Tiziana; Guiducci, Letizia; Burchielli, Silvia; Panetta, Daniele; Belcari, Nicola; Pardini, Silvia; Del Guerra, Alberto; Salvadori, Piero A; Iozzo, Patricia

    2010-05-01

    Brain glucose exposure may complicate diabetes and obesity. We used positron emission tomography with (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose in Zucker obese, diabetic, and control rats to determine the contributions of blood glucose mass action versus local mechanisms in regulating central glucose disposal in fasted and acutely glucose-stimulated states, and their adaptations in obesity and diabetes. Our study data indicate that brain glucose uptake is dependent on both local and mass action components, and is stimulated by acute glucose intake in healthy rats. In diseased animals, the organ was chronically overexposed to glucose, due to high fasting glucose uptake, almost abolishing the physiologic response to glucose loading.

  5. Electroacupuncture Treatment Improves Learning-Memory Ability and Brain Glucose Metabolism in a Mouse Model of Alzheimer's Disease: Using Morris Water Maze and Micro-PET

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Jing; Gao, Kai; Zhou, Yuan; Xu, Anping; Shi, Suhua; Liu, Gang; Li, Zhigang

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Alzheimer's disease (AD) causes progressive hippocampus dysfunctions leading to the impairment of learning and memory ability and low level of uptake rate of glucose in hippocampus. What is more, there is no effective treatment for AD. In this study, we evaluated the beneficial and protective effects of electroacupuncture in senescence-accelerated mouse prone 8 (SAMP8). Method. In the electroacupuncture paradigm, electroacupuncture treatment was performed once a day for 15 days on 7.5-month-old SAMP8 male mice. In the normal control paradigm and AD control group, 7.5-month-old SAMR1 male mice and SAMP8 male mice were grabbed and bandaged while electroacupuncture group therapy, in order to ensure the same treatment conditions, once a day, 15 days. Results. From the Morris water maze (MWM) test, we found that the treatment of electroacupuncture can improve the spatial learning and memory ability of SAMP8 mouse, and from the micro-PET test, we proved that after the electroacupuncture treatment the level of uptake rate of glucose in hippocampus was higher than normal control group. Conclusion. These results suggest that the treatment of electroacupuncture may provide a viable treatment option for AD. PMID:25821477

  6. Quantitative characterization of brain β-amyloid in 718 normal subjects using a joint PiB/FDG PET image histogram

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camp, Jon J.; Hanson, Dennis P.; Lowe, Val J.; Kemp, Bradley J.; Senjem, Matthew L.; Murray, Melissa E.; Dickson, Dennis W.; Parisi, Joseph E.; Petersen, Ronald C.; Robb, Richard A.; Holmes, David R.

    2016-03-01

    We have previously described an automated system for the co-registration of PiB and FDG PET images with structural MRI and a neurological anatomy atlas to produce region-specific quantization of cortical activity and amyloid burden. We also reported a global joint PiB/FDG histogram-based measure (FDG-Associated PiB Uptake Ratio - FAPUR) that performed as well as regional PiB ratio in stratifying Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Lewy Body Dementia (LBD) patients from normal subjects in an autopsy-verified cohort of 31. In this paper we examine results of this analysis on a clinically-verified cohort of 718 normal volunteers. We found that the global FDG ratio correlated negatively with age (r2 = 0.044) and global PiB ratio correlated positively with age (r2=0.038). FAPUR also correlated negatively with age (r2-.025), and in addition, we introduce a new metric - the Pearson's correlation coefficient (r2) of the joint PiB/FDG histogram which correlates positively (r2=0.014) with age. We then used these measurements to construct age-weighted Z-scores for all measurements made on the original autopsy cohort. We found similar stratification using Z-scores compared to raw values; however, the joint PiB/FDG r2 Z-score showed the greatest stratification ability.

  7. Pet-Related Infections.

    PubMed

    Day, Michael J

    2016-11-15

    Physicians and veterinarians have many opportunities to partner in promoting the well-being of people and their pets, especially by addressing zoonotic diseases that may be transmitted between a pet and a human family member. Common cutaneous pet-acquired zoonoses are dermatophytosis (ringworm) and sarcoptic mange (scabies), which are both readily treated. Toxoplasmosis can be acquired from exposure to cat feces, but appropriate hygienic measures can minimize the risk to pregnant women. Persons who work with animals are at increased risk of acquiring bartonellosis (e.g., cat-scratch disease); control of cat fleas is essential to minimize the risk of these infections. People and their pets share a range of tick-borne diseases, and exposure risk can be minimized with use of tick repellent, prompt tick removal, and appropriate tick control measures for pets. Pets such as reptiles, amphibians, and backyard poultry pose a risk of transmitting Salmonella species and are becoming more popular. Personal hygiene after interacting with these pets is crucial to prevent Salmonella infections. Leptospirosis is more often acquired from wildlife than infected dogs, but at-risk dogs can be protected with vaccination. The clinical history in the primary care office should routinely include questions about pets and occupational or other exposure to pet animals. Control and prevention of zoonoses are best achieved by enhancing communication between physicians and veterinarians to ensure patients know the risks of and how to prevent zoonoses in themselves, their pets, and other people.

  8. Sensory analysis of pet foods.

    PubMed

    Koppel, Kadri

    2014-08-01

    Pet food palatability depends first and foremost on the pet and is related to the pet food sensory properties such as aroma, texture and flavor. Sensory analysis of pet foods may be conducted by humans via descriptive or hedonic analysis, pets via acceptance or preference tests, and through a number of instrumental analysis methods. Sensory analysis of pet foods provides additional information on reasons behind palatable and unpalatable foods as pets lack linguistic capabilities. Furthermore, sensory analysis may be combined with other types of information such as personality and environment factors to increase understanding of acceptable pet foods. Most pet food flavor research is proprietary and, thus, there are a limited number of publications available. Funding opportunities for pet food studies would increase research and publications and this would help raise public awareness of pet food related issues. This mini-review addresses current pet food sensory analysis literature and discusses future challenges and possibilities.

  9. Antibody-based PET imaging of amyloid beta in mouse models of Alzheimer's disease

    PubMed Central

    Sehlin, Dag; Fang, Xiaotian T.; Cato, Linda; Antoni, Gunnar; Lannfelt, Lars; Syvänen, Stina

    2016-01-01

    Owing to their specificity and high-affinity binding, monoclonal antibodies have potential as positron emission tomography (PET) radioligands and are currently used to image various targets in peripheral organs. However, in the central nervous system, antibody uptake is limited by the blood–brain barrier (BBB). Here we present a PET ligand to be used for diagnosis and evaluation of treatment effects in Alzheimer's disease. The amyloid β (Aβ) antibody mAb158 is radiolabelled and conjugated to a transferrin receptor antibody to enable receptor-mediated transcytosis across the BBB. PET imaging of two different mouse models with Aβ pathology clearly visualize Aβ in the brain. The PET signal increases with age and correlates closely with brain Aβ levels. Thus, we demonstrate that antibody-based PET ligands can be successfully used for brain imaging. PMID:26892305

  10. System A Amino Acid Transport-Targeted Brain and Systemic Tumor PET Imaging Agents 2-Amino-3-[18F]Fluoro-2-Methylpropanoic Acid and 3-[18F]Fluoro-2-Methyl-2-(Methylamino)propanoic Acid

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Weiping; McConathy, Jonathan; Olson, Jeffrey J.; Goodman, Mark M.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Amino acid based radiotracers target tumor cells through increased uptake by membrane-associated amino acid transport (AAT) systems. In the present study, four structurally related non-natural 18F-labeled amino acids, (R)- and (S)-[18F]FAMP 1 and (R)- and (S)-[18F]MeFAMP 2 have been prepared and evaluated in vitro and in vivo for their potential utility in brain and systemic tumor imaging based upon primarily system A transport with positron emission tomography (PET). Methods The transport of enantiomers of [18F]FAMP 1 and [18F]MeFAMP 2 was measured through in vitro uptake assays in human derived cancer cells including A549 (lung), DU145 (prostate), SKOV3 (ovary), MDA MB468 (breast) and U87 (brain) in the presence and absence of amino acid transporter inhibitors. The in vivo biodistribution of these tracers was evaluated using tumor mice xenografts at 15, 30, 60 and 120 min post injection. Results All four tracers showed moderate to high levels of uptake (1- 9 %ID/5×105 cells) by the cancer cell lines tested in vitro. AAT cell inhibition assays demonstrated that (R)-[18F]1 and (S)-[18F]1 entered these tumor cells via mixed AATs, likely but not limited to system A and system L. In contrast, (R)-[18F]2 and (S)-[18F]2 showed high selectivity for system A AAT. Similar to the results of in vitro cell studies, the tumor uptake of all four tracers was good to high and persisted over the 2 hours time course of in vivo studies. The accumulation of these tracers was higher in tumor than most normal tissues including blood, brain, muscle, bone, heart, and lung, and the tracers with the highest in vitro selectivity for system A AAT generally demonstrated the best tumor imaging properties. Higher uptake of these tracers was observed in the pancreas, kidney and spleen compared to tumors. Conclusions These preclinical studies demonstrate good imaging properties in a wide range of tumors for all four amino acids evaluated with (R)-[18F]2 having the highest

  11. Dual time point method for the quantification of irreversible tracer kinetics: A reference tissue approach applied to [(18)F]-FDOPA brain PET.

    PubMed

    Alves, Isadora L; Meles, Sanne K; Willemsen, Antoon Tm; Dierckx, Rudi A; Marques da Silva, Ana M; Leenders, Klaus L; Koole, Michel

    2016-01-01

    The Patlak graphical analysis (PGAREF) for quantification of irreversible tracer binding with a reference tissue model was approximated by a dual time point imaging approach (DTPREF). The DTPREF was applied to 18 [(18)F]-FDOPA brain scans using the occipital cortex as reference region (DTPOCC) and compared to both PGAOCC and striatal-to-occipital ratios (SOR). Pearson correlation analysis and Bland-Altman plots showed an excellent correlation and good agreement between DTPOCC and PGAOCC, while correlations between SOR and PGAOCC were consistently lower. Linear discriminant analysis (LDA) demonstrated a similar performance for all methods in differentiating patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) from healthy controls (HC). Specifically for [(18)F]-FDOPA brain imaging, these findings validate DTPOCC as an approximation for PGAOCC, providing the same quantitative information while reducing the acquisition time to two short static scans. For PD patients, this approach can greatly improve patient comfort while reducing motion artifacts and increasing image quality. In general, DTPREF can improve the clinical applicability of tracers with irreversible binding characteristics when a reference tissue is available.

  12. Brain imaging in psychiatry

    SciTech Connect

    Morihisa, J.M.

    1984-01-01

    This book contains the following five chapters: Positron Emission Tomography (PET) in Psychiatry; Regional Cerebral Blood Flow (CBF) in Psychiatry: Methodological Issues; Regional Cerebral Blood Flow in Psychiatry: Application to Clinical Research; Regional Cerebral Blood Flow in Psychiatry: The Resting and Activated Brains of Schizophrenic Patients; and Brain Electrical Activity Mapping (BEAM) in Psychiatry.

  13. Striatal and extrastriatal microPET imaging of D2/D3 dopamine receptors in rat brain with [¹⁸F]fallypride and [¹⁸F]desmethoxyfallypride.

    PubMed

    Constantinescu, Cristian C; Coleman, Robert A; Pan, Min-Liang; Mukherjee, Jogeshwar

    2011-08-01

    In this study, we compared two different D(2/3) receptor ligands, [¹⁸F]fallypride and [¹⁸F]desmethoxyfallypride ([¹⁸F]DMFP) with respect to the duration of the scan, visualization of extrastriatal receptors, and binding potentials (BP(ND) ) in the rat brain. In addition, we studied the feasibility of using these tracers following a period of awake tracer uptake, during which the animal may perform a behavioral task. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were imaged with [¹⁸F]fallypride and with [¹⁸F]DMFP in four different studies using microPET. All scans were performed under isoflurane anesthesia. The first (test) and second (retest) study were 150-min baseline scans. No retest scans were performed with [¹⁸F]DMFP. A third study was a 60-min awake uptake of radiotracer followed by a 90-min scan. A fourth study was a 150-min competition scan with haloperidol (0.2 mg/kg) administered via tail vein at 90-min post-[¹⁸F]fallypride injection and 60-min post-[¹⁸F]DMFP. For the test-retest studies, BP(ND) was measured using both Logan noninvasive (LNI) method and the interval ratios (ITR) method. Cerebellum was used as a reference region. For the third study, the binding was measured only with the ITR method, and the results were compared to the baseline results. Studies showed that the average transient equilibrium time in the dorsal striatum (DSTR) was at 90 min for [¹⁸F]fallypride and 30 min for [¹⁸F]DMFP. The average BP(ND) for [¹⁸F]fallypride was 14.4 in DSTR, 6.8 in ventral striatum (VSTR), 1.3 in substantia nigra/ventral tegmental area (SN/VTA), 1.4 in colliculi (COL), and 1.5 in central gray area. In the case of [¹⁸F]DMFP, the average BP(ND) values were 2.2 in DSTR, 2.7 in VSTR, and 0.8 in SN/VTA. The haloperidol blockade showed detectable decrease in binding of both tracers in striatal regions with a faster displacement of [¹⁸F]DMFP. No significant changes in BP(ND) of [¹⁸F]fallypride due to the initial awake state of the animal were

  14. Measurement of human cerebral blood flow with (15O)butanol and positron emission tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Berridge, M.S.; Adler, L.P.; Nelson, A.D.; Cassidy, E.H.; Muzic, R.F.; Bednarczyk, E.M.; Miraldi, F. )

    1991-09-01

    Although H2(15)O is widely used for CBF measurement by positron tomography, it underestimates CBF, especially at elevated flow rates. Several tracers, including butanol, overcome this problem, but the short half-life of 15O provides advantages that cause water to remain the tracer of choice. The authors report the first use and evaluation of 15O-labeled butanol for CBF measurement. Flow measurements made in a similar fashion with water and butanol at 10-min intervals were compared in normal volunteers under resting and hypercapnic conditions. Regional analysis showed good agreement between the tracers at low flows, and significant underestimation of flow by water relative to butanol in regions of elevated flow. The observed relationship between the tracers and the curve-fitted permeability-surface area product for water (133 ml.100 g-1.min-1) follow the known relationship between water and true flow. These observations indicate that (15O)-butanol provided accurate measurements of human regional CBF under conditions of elevated perfusion. They conclude that butanol is a convenient and accurate method for routine CBF determination by positron emission tomography.

  15. My Pet Rock

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lark, Adam; Kramp, Robyne; Nurnberger-Haag, Julie

    2008-01-01

    Many teachers and students have experienced the classic pet rock experiment in conjunction with a geology unit. A teacher has students bring in a "pet" rock found outside of school, and the students run geologic tests on the rock. The tests include determining relative hardness using Mohs scale, checking for magnetization, and assessing luster.…

  16. Improving Instruction through PET.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Pamela Roland

    1982-01-01

    Outlines the content and training methods used in the Program for Effective Teaching (PET), the successful staff development program of Newport News (Virginia). PET promotes application of five instructional skills: selecting learning objectives, teaching to the objectives, establishing learner focus, monitoring learner progress, and enhancing…

  17. Mobile PET Center Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryzhikova, O.; Naumov, N.; Sergienko, V.; Kostylev, V.

    2017-01-01

    Positron emission tomography is the most promising technology to monitor cancer and heart disease treatment. Stationary PET center requires substantial financial resources and time for construction and equipping. The developed mobile solution will allow introducing PET technology quickly without major investments.

  18. Fusion of PET and MRI for Hybrid Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Zang-Hee; Son, Young-Don; Kim, Young-Bo; Yoo, Seung-Schik

    Recently, the development of the fusion PET-MRI system has been actively studied to meet the increasing demand for integrated molecular and anatomical imaging. MRI can provide detailed anatomical information on the brain, such as the locations of gray and white matter, blood vessels, axonal tracts with high resolution, while PET can measure molecular and genetic information, such as glucose metabolism, neurotransmitter-neuroreceptor binding and affinity, protein-protein interactions, and gene trafficking among biological tissues. State-of-the-art MRI systems, such as the 7.0 T whole-body MRI, now can visualize super-fine structures including neuronal bundles in the pons, fine blood vessels (such as lenticulostriate arteries) without invasive contrast agents, in vivo hippocampal substructures, and substantia nigra with excellent image contrast. High-resolution PET, known as High-Resolution Research Tomograph (HRRT), is a brain-dedicated system capable of imaging minute changes of chemicals, such as neurotransmitters and -receptors, with high spatial resolution and sensitivity. The synergistic power of the two, i.e., ultra high-resolution anatomical information offered by a 7.0 T MRI system combined with the high-sensitivity molecular information offered by HRRT-PET, will significantly elevate the level of our current understanding of the human brain, one of the most delicate, complex, and mysterious biological organs. This chapter introduces MRI, PET, and PET-MRI fusion system, and its algorithms are discussed in detail.

  19. PET Imaging - from Physics to Clinical Molecular Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majewski, Stan

    2008-03-01

    From the beginnings many years ago in a few physics laboratories and first applications as a research brain function imager, PET became lately a leading molecular imaging modality used in diagnosis, staging and therapy monitoring of cancer, as well as has increased use in assessment of brain function (early diagnosis of Alzheimer's, etc) and in cardiac function. To assist with anatomic structure map and with absorption correction CT is often used with PET in a duo system. Growing interest in the last 5-10 years in dedicated organ specific PET imagers (breast, prostate, brain, etc) presents again an opportunity to the particle physics instrumentation community to contribute to the important field of medical imaging. In addition to the bulky standard ring structures, compact, economical and high performance mobile imagers are being proposed and build. The latest development in standard PET imaging is introduction of the well known TOF concept enabling clearer tomographic pictures of the patient organs. Development and availability of novel photodetectors such as Silicon PMT immune to magnetic fields offers an exciting opportunity to use PET in conjunction with MRI and fMRI. As before with avalanche photodiodes, particle physics community plays a leading role in developing these devices. The presentation will mostly focus on present and future opportunities for better PET designs based on new technologies and methods: new scintillators, photodetectors, readout, software.

  20. [carbonyl-11C]4-Fluoro-N-methyl-N-(4-(6-(methylamino)pyrimidin-4-yl)thiazol-2-yl)benzamide ([11C]FIMX) is an effective radioligand for PET imaging of metabotropic glutamate receptor 1 (mGluR1) in monkey brain

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Jinsoo; Lu, Shuiyu; Xu, Rong; Liow, Jeih-San; Woock, Alicia E.; Jenko, Kimberly J.; Gladding, Robert L.; Zoghbi, Sami S.; Innis, Robert B.; Pike, Victor W.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Metabotropic glutamate subtype receptor 1 (mGluR1) is implicated in several neuropsychiatric disorders and is a target for drug development. [18F]FIMX ([18F]4-fluoro-N-methyl-N-(4-(6-(methylamino)pyrimidin-4-yl)thiazol-2-yl)benzamide) is an effective radioligand for imaging brain mGluR1 with PET. A similarly effective radioligand with a shorter half-life would usefully allow PET studies of mGluR1 at baseline and after pharmacological or other challenge on the same day. Here we describe the preparation of [11C]FIMX for evaluation in monkey with PET. Methods [11C]FIMX was prepared via Pd-promoted carbonylation of 1-fluoro-4-iodobenzene with [11C]carbon monoxide, aminolysis of the [11C]acyl-palladium complex with the requisite Boc-protected amine, and deprotection with HCl in THF. PET scans of [11C]FIMX injected into a monkey were performed at baseline and after preblock of mGluR1 with measurement of the arterial input function. Results The radiosynthesis required 42 min and gave [11C]FIMX in about 5% overall decay-corrected radiochemical yield and with a specific activity of about 100 GBq/μmol. PET in rhesus monkey at baseline showed that radioactivity peaked high in receptor-rich cerebellum and much lower in receptor-poor occipital cortex. Radioactivity in cerebellum declined to 32% of peak at 85 min. VT at baseline appeared stable in all brain regions after 60 min. Under mGluR1 pre-blocked condition, radioactivity uptake in all regions declined more rapidly to a low level. Receptor pre-block reduced VT from 13.0 to 1.5 in cerebellum and from 2.9 to 1.4 in occipital cortex. Conclusion [11C]FIMX is an effective radioligand for imaging mGluR1 in monkey with PET. PMID:26320813

  1. A new graphic plot analysis for cerebral blood flow and partition coefficient with iodine-123-iodoamphetamine and dynamic SPECT validation studies using oxygen-15-water and PET.

    PubMed

    Yokoi, T; Iida, H; Itoh, H; Kanno, I

    1993-03-01

    To estimate regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) and brain-blood partition coefficient (lambda) using a dynamic measurement, a new graphic plot analysis is proposed. By assuming a two-compartment model for tracer kinetics, we derived the linear relationship as Y(t) = K1 - k2 X(t), where Y(t) is the ratio of brain tissue activity-to-time-integrated arterial blood activity and X(t) is the ratio of time-integrated brain tissue activity-to-time-integrated arterial blood activity. A plot of Y(t) against X(t) yields a straight line and the y- and x-intercept of the regression line represent rCBF (K1) and lambda, respectively. The slope is a washout constant (-k2). This method was applied to 14 subjects with N-isopropyl-p-iodine-123 iodoamphetamine ([123I]IMP). The mean values of K1 and lambda for normal subjects were 41.3 +/- 6.7 ml/100 g/min and 29.6 +/- 6.5 ml/g, respectively, in the gray matter. A comparative study with positron emission tomography (PET) using an H2(15)O autoradiographic method revealed good correlation between IMP K1 and PET rCBF [r = 0.822; K1 = 0.842 rCBF + 0.030 (ml/g/min)]. The values of K1 using the graphical method were in excellent agreement with those using a nonlinear least-squares fitting technique (r = 0.992 for K1; r = 0.941 for lambda). The estimated K1 values in the graphical method were not changed when scanning times were varied. We conclude that a two-compartment model is acceptable for IMP kinetics within a scan time of 60 min. The graphical method gives a reliable and rapid estimation of rCBF when applied to dynamic data.

  2. Reading the dyslexic brain: multiple dysfunctional routes revealed by a new meta-analysis of PET and fMRI activation studies

    PubMed Central

    Paulesu, Eraldo; Danelli, Laura; Berlingeri, Manuela

    2014-01-01

    Developmental dyslexia has been the focus of much functional anatomical research. The main trust of this work is that typical developmental dyslexics have a dysfunction of the phonological and orthography to phonology conversion systems, in which the left occipito-temporal cortex has a crucial role. It remains to be seen whether there is a systematic co-occurrence of dysfunctional patterns of different functional systems perhaps converging on the same brain regions associated with the reading deficit. Such evidence would be relevant for theories like, for example, the magnocellular/attentional or the motor/cerebellar ones, which postulate a more basic and anatomically distributed disorder in dyslexia. We addressed this issue with a meta-analysis of all the imaging literature published until September 2013 using a combination of hierarchical clustering and activation likelihood estimation methods. The clustering analysis on 2360 peaks identified 193 clusters, 92 of which proved spatially significant. Following binomial tests on the clusters, we found left hemispheric network specific for normal controls (i.e., of reduced involvement in dyslexics) including the left inferior frontal, premotor, supramarginal cortices and the left infero-temporal and fusiform regions: these were preferentially associated with reading and the visual-to-phonology processes. There was also a more dorsal left fronto-parietal network: these clusters included peaks from tasks involving phonological manipulation, but also motoric or visuo-spatial perception/attention. No cluster was identified in area V5 for no task, nor cerebellar clusters showed a reduced association with dyslexics. We conclude that the examined literature demonstrates a specific lack of activation of the left occipito-temporal cortex in dyslexia particularly for reading and reading-like behaviors and for visuo-phonological tasks. Additional deficits of motor and attentional systems relevant for reading may be associated

  3. Automated Movement Correction for Dynamic PET/CT Images: Evaluation with Phantom and Patient Data

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Hu; Wong, Koon-Pong; Wardak, Mirwais; Dahlbom, Magnus; Kepe, Vladimir; Barrio, Jorge R.; Nelson, Linda D.; Small, Gary W.; Huang, Sung-Cheng

    2014-01-01

    Head movement during a dynamic brain PET/CT imaging results in mismatch between CT and dynamic PET images. It can cause artifacts in CT-based attenuation corrected PET images, thus affecting both the qualitative and quantitative aspects of the dynamic PET images and the derived parametric images. In this study, we developed an automated retrospective image-based movement correction (MC) procedure. The MC method first registered the CT image to each dynamic PET frames, then re-reconstructed the PET frames with CT-based attenuation correction, and finally re-aligned all the PET frames to the same position. We evaluated the MC method's performance on the Hoffman phantom and dynamic FDDNP and FDG PET/CT images of patients with neurodegenerative disease or with poor compliance. Dynamic FDDNP PET/CT images (65 min) were obtained from 12 patients and dynamic FDG PET/CT images (60 min) were obtained from 6 patients. Logan analysis with cerebellum as the reference region was used to generate regional distribution volume ratio (DVR) for FDDNP scan before and after MC. For FDG studies, the image derived input function was used to generate parametric image of FDG uptake constant (Ki) before and after MC. Phantom study showed high accuracy of registration between PET and CT and improved PET images after MC. In patient study, head movement was observed in all subjects, especially in late PET frames with an average displacement of 6.92 mm. The z-direction translation (average maximum = 5.32 mm) and x-axis rotation (average maximum = 5.19 degrees) occurred most frequently. Image artifacts were significantly diminished after MC. There were significant differences (P<0.05) in the FDDNP DVR and FDG Ki values in the parietal and temporal regions after MC. In conclusion, MC applied to dynamic brain FDDNP and FDG PET/CT scans could improve the qualitative and quantitative aspects of images of both tracers. PMID:25111700

  4. Automated movement correction for dynamic PET/CT images: evaluation with phantom and patient data.

    PubMed

    Ye, Hu; Wong, Koon-Pong; Wardak, Mirwais; Dahlbom, Magnus; Kepe, Vladimir; Barrio, Jorge R; Nelson, Linda D; Small, Gary W; Huang, Sung-Cheng

    2014-01-01

    Head movement during a dynamic brain PET/CT imaging results in mismatch between CT and dynamic PET images. It can cause artifacts in CT-based attenuation corrected PET images, thus affecting both the qualitative and quantitative aspects of the dynamic PET images and the derived parametric images. In this study, we developed an automated retrospective image-based movement correction (MC) procedure. The MC method first registered the CT image to each dynamic PET frames, then re-reconstructed the PET frames with CT-based attenuation correction, and finally re-aligned all the PET frames to the same position. We evaluated the MC method's performance on the Hoffman phantom and dynamic FDDNP and FDG PET/CT images of patients with neurodegenerative disease or with poor compliance. Dynamic FDDNP PET/CT images (65 min) were obtained from 12 patients and dynamic FDG PET/CT images (60 min) were obtained from 6 patients. Logan analysis with cerebellum as the reference region was used to generate regional distribution volume ratio (DVR) for FDDNP scan before and after MC. For FDG studies, the image derived input function was used to generate parametric image of FDG uptake constant (Ki) before and after MC. Phantom study showed high accuracy of registration between PET and CT and improved PET images after MC. In patient study, head movement was observed in all subjects, especially in late PET frames with an average displacement of 6.92 mm. The z-direction translation (average maximum = 5.32 mm) and x-axis rotation (average maximum = 5.19 degrees) occurred most frequently. Image artifacts were significantly diminished after MC. There were significant differences (P<0.05) in the FDDNP DVR and FDG Ki values in the parietal and temporal regions after MC. In conclusion, MC applied to dynamic brain FDDNP and FDG PET/CT scans could improve the qualitative and quantitative aspects of images of both tracers.

  5. IMAGING SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION VIA ARACHIDONIC ACID IN THE HUMAN BRAIN DURING VISUAL STIMULATION, BY MEANS OF POSITRON EMISSION TOMOGRAPHY

    PubMed Central

    Esposito, Giuseppe; Giovacchini, Giampiero; Der, Margaret; Liow, Jeih-San; Bhattacharjee, Abesh K.; Ma, Kaizong; Herscovitch, Peter; Channing, Michael; Eckelman, William C.; Hallett, Mark; Carson, Richard E.; Rapoport, Stanley I.

    2007-01-01

    Background Arachidonic acid (AA, 20:4n-6), an important second messenger, is released from membrane phospholipid following receptor mediated activation of phospholipase A2 (PLA2). This signaling process can be imaged in brain as a regional brain AA incorporation coefficient K*. Hypothesis K* will be increased in brain visual areas of subjects submitted to visual stimulation. Subjects and methods Regional values of K* were measured with positron emission tomography (PET), following the intravenous injection of [1-11C]AA, in 16 healthy volunteers subjected to visual stimulation at flash frequencies 2.9 Hz (8 subjects) or 7.8 Hz (8 subjects), compared with the dark (0 Hz) condition. Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was measured with intravenous [15O]water under comparable conditions. Results During flash stimulation at 2.9 Hz or 7.8 Hz vs. 0 Hz, K* was increased significantly by 2.3–8.9% in Brodmann areas 17, 18 and 19, and in additional frontal, parietal and temporal cortical regions. rCBF was increased significantly by 3.1% – 22%, often in comparable regions. Increments at 7.8 Hz often exceeded those at 2.9 Hz for both K* and rCBF. Decrements in both parameters also were produced, particularly in frontal brain regions. Conclusions AA plays a role in signaling processes provoked by visual stimulation, since visual stimulation at flash frequencies of 2.9 and 7.8 Hz compared to 0 Hz modifies both K* for AA and rCBF in visual and related areas of the human brain. The two-stimulus condition paradigm of this study might be used with PET to image effects of other functional activations and of drugs on brain signaling via AA. PMID:17196833

  6. 15O(alpha,gamma)19Ne breakout reaction and impact on X-ray bursts.

    PubMed

    Tan, W P; Fisker, J L; Görres, J; Couder, M; Wiescher, M

    2007-06-15

    The breakout reaction 15O(alpha,gamma)19Ne, which regulates the flow between the hot CNO cycle and the rp process, is critical for the explanation of the burst amplitude and periodicity of x-ray bursters. We report on the first successful measurement of the critical alpha-decay branching ratios of relevant states in 19Ne populated via 19F(3He,t)19Ne. Based on the experimental results and our previous lifetime measurements of these states, we derive the first experimental rate of 15O(alpha,gamma)19Ne. The impact of our experimental results on the burst pattern and periodicity for a range of accretion rates is analyzed.

  7. PET Imaging in Huntington’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Roussakis, Andreas-Antonios; Piccini, Paola

    2015-01-01

    To date, little is known about how neurodegeneration and neuroinflammation propagate in Huntington’s disease (HD). Unfortunately, no treatment is available to cure or reverse the progressive decline of function caused by the disease, thus considering HD a fatal disease. Mutation gene carriers typically remain asymptomatic for many years although alterations in the basal ganglia and cortex occur early on in mutant HD gene–carriers. Positron Emission Tomography (PET) is a functional imaging technique of nuclear medicine which enables in vivo visualization of numerous biological molecules expressed in several human tissues. Brain PET is most powerful to study in vivo neuronal and glial cells function as well as cerebral blood flow in a plethora of neurodegenerative disorders including Parkinson’s disease, Alzheimer’s and HD. In absence of HD–specific biomarkers for monitoring disease progression, previous PET studies in HD were merely focused on the study of dopaminergic terminals, cerebral blood flow and glucose metabolism in manifest and premanifest HD–gene carriers. More recently, research interest has been exploring novel PET targets in HD including the state of phosphodiesterse expression and the role of activated microglia. Hence, a better understanding of the HD pathogenesis mechanisms may lead to the development of targeted therapies. PET imaging follow–up studies with novel selective PET radiotracers such as 11C-IMA–107 and 11C-PBR28 may provide insight on disease progression and identify prognostic biomarkers, elucidate the underlying HD pathology and assess novel pharmaceutical agents and over time. PMID:26683130

  8. Production of [15O]Water at Low-Energy Proton Cyclotrons

    SciTech Connect

    Powell, James; O'Neil, James P.

    2005-12-12

    We report a simple system for producing [15O]H2O from nitrogen-15 in a nitrogen/hydrogen gas target with recycling of the target nitrogen, allowing production on low-energy proton-only accelerators with minimal consumption of isotopically enriched nitrogen-15. The radiolabeled water is separated from the target gas and radiolytically produced ammonia by temporary freezing in a small trap at -40 C.

  9. MR-based motion correction for PET imaging using wired active MR microcoils in simultaneous PET-MR: Phantom study

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Chuan; Brady, Thomas J.; El Fakhri, Georges; Ouyang, Jinsong; Ackerman, Jerome L.; Petibon, Yoann

    2014-04-15

    Purpose: Artifacts caused by head motion present a major challenge in brain positron emission tomography (PET) imaging. The authors investigated the feasibility of using wired active MR microcoils to track head motion and incorporate the measured rigid motion fields into iterative PET reconstruction. Methods: Several wired active MR microcoils and a dedicated MR coil-tracking sequence were developed. The microcoils were attached to the outer surface of an anthropomorphic{sup 18}F-filled Hoffman phantom to mimic a brain PET scan. Complex rotation/translation motion of the phantom was induced by a balloon, which was connected to a ventilator. PET list-mode and MR tracking data were acquired simultaneously on a PET-MR scanner. The acquired dynamic PET data were reconstructed iteratively with and without motion correction. Additionally, static phantom data were acquired and used as the gold standard. Results: Motion artifacts in PET images were effectively removed by wired active MR microcoil based motion correction. Motion correction yielded an activity concentration bias ranging from −0.6% to 3.4% as compared to a bias ranging from −25.0% to 16.6% if no motion correction was applied. The contrast recovery values were improved by 37%–156% with motion correction as compared to no motion correction. The image correlation (mean ± standard deviation) between the motion corrected (uncorrected) images of 20 independent noise realizations and static reference was R{sup 2} = 0.978 ± 0.007 (0.588 ± 0.010, respectively). Conclusions: Wired active MR microcoil based motion correction significantly improves brain PET quantitative accuracy and image contrast.

  10. PET examination in intracranial tumor diagnosis of a cat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angyal, G.; Csepura, G.; Balkay, L.; Galuska, L.; Molnár, J.; Valastyán, I.

    2008-12-01

    This paper shows the significance of the Positron Emission Tomography (PET) in the veterinary medication through a case study of a cat brain tumor. A castrated male cat with bilateral mydriasis and blindness arrived at the veterinary clinic. After physical, laboratory and neurological investigations other sickness was ruled out and the inkling of the intracranial lesion had come to light. Brain tumor seemed the most likely to cause the illness because other symptoms appeared (for example: anorexia, depression) and they progrediated fast. PET examination, using 18F-FDG isotope, was performed to confirm the possible causes of the cat's symptoms

  11. PET examination in intracranial tumor diagnosis of a cat

    SciTech Connect

    Angyal, G.; Csepura, G.; Balkay, L.; Galuska, L.; Molnar, J.; Valastyan, I.

    2008-12-08

    This paper shows the significance of the Positron Emission Tomography (PET) in the veterinary medication through a case study of a cat brain tumor. A castrated male cat with bilateral mydriasis and blindness arrived at the veterinary clinic. After physical, laboratory and neurological investigations other sickness was ruled out and the inkling of the intracranial lesion had come to light. Brain tumor seemed the most likely to cause the illness because other symptoms appeared (for example: anorexia, depression) and they progrediated fast. PET examination, using {sup 18}F-FDG isotope, was performed to confirm the possible causes of the cat's symptoms.

  12. Cerebellar Metastases From Prostate Cancer on 68Ga-PSMA PET/CT.

    PubMed

    Chan, Mico; Hsiao, Edward; Turner, Jennifer

    2017-03-01

    Ga prostate-specific membrane antigen PET/CT is increasingly used to evaluate extent of disease in prostate carcinoma. Parenchymal brain metastases originating from prostate cancer have highly variable imaging appearance. We present a 77-year-old man with cerebellar metastasis from prostate cancer showing focal uptake on prostate-specific membrane antigen PET/CT.

  13. Heart PET scan

    MedlinePlus

    Heart nuclear medicine scan; Heart positron emission tomography; Myocardial PET scan ... Udelson JE, Dilsizian V, Bonow RO. Nuclear cardiology. In: Mann DL, ... A Textbook of Cardiovascular Medicine . 10th ed. Philadelphia, ...

  14. Pets and Pasteurella Infections

    MedlinePlus

    ... Ear Nose & Throat Emotional Problems Eyes Fever From Insects or Animals Genitals and Urinary Tract Glands & Growth ... Preventable Diseases Healthy Children > Health Issues > Conditions > From Insects or Animals > Pets and Pasteurella Infections Health Issues ...

  15. Appropriate and Inappropriate Pets.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soltow, Willow

    1985-01-01

    Presents an 11-lesson mini unit overview on wild and domestic pets. Lessons contain teacher preparation information and student activities. Skills, discipline orientation, and the humane concept associated with each lesson are also outlined. (ML)

  16. Healthy Pets and People

    MedlinePlus

    ... Pregnant women should avoid adopting or handling stray cats, especially kittens. They particularly should not clean litter ... may be sick. Many pets, such as dogs, cats, reptiles, rodents, and birds, carry germs that can ...

  17. [A 15oxygen positron study of relative local perfusion and oxygen extraction of the brain in lacunar hemiparesis (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Rougemont, D; Baron, J C; Lebrun-Grandié, P; Bousser, M G; Soisson, T; Comar, D

    1982-05-01

    The oxygen-15 non-invasive continuous inhalation technique coupled with positron emission tomography (PET) allows the local study of cerebral blood flow and oxygen metabolism. Recent PET studied have demonstrated the frequent occurrence of widespread metabolic depression remote from the site of middle cerebral artery territory infarct per se, especially over the cortical mantle and thalamus ipsilaterally, and over the cerebellar hemisphere contralaterally. These phenomena have been taken as indicative of a transneural depression (i.e. diaschisis). We thought interesting to study the possible occurrence of such abnormalities in patients with lacunar syndromes. We have applied the 15O technique to seven patients (2 with pure motor hemiplegia, 5 with ataxic hemiparesis) in whom no large causal ischemic lesion could be demonstrated on CT Scans; in only one patient was a lacunar lesion, presumably responsible for the clinical deficit, evidenced. Compared to a set of 19 patients without brain disease, the semi-quantitative results (analyzed in terms of asymmetry indices between homologous brain regions) in our patients did not disclose any pathophysiologically significant abnormality. More specifically, no evidence of physiological dysfunction similar to that reported in internal carotid artery territory infarcts, was detected over the cerebral or the cerebellar cortices. These original findings are commented upon in view of the presumably small size and the uncertain topography of the causal lesion.

  18. A small animal PET based on GAPDs and charge signal transmission approach for hybrid PET-MR imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Jihoon; Choi, Yong; Hong, Key Jo; Hu, Wei; Jung, Jin Ho; Huh, Yoonsuk; Kim, Byung-Tae

    2011-08-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) employing Geiger-mode avalanche photodiodes (GAPDs) and charge signal transmission approach was developed for small animal imaging. Animal PET contained 16 LYSO and GAPD detector modules that were arranged in a 70 mm diameter ring with an axial field of view of 13 mm. The GAPDs charge output signals were transmitted to a preamplifier located remotely using 300 cm flexible flat cables. The position decoder circuits (PDCs) were used to multiplex the PET signals from 256 to 4 channels. The outputs of the PDCs were digitized and further-processed in the data acquisition unit. The cross-compatibilities of the PET detectors and MRI were assessed outside and inside the MRI. Experimental studies of the developed full ring PET were performed to examine the spatial resolution and sensitivity. Phantom and mouse images were acquired to examine the imaging performance. The mean energy and time resolution of the PET detector were 17.6% and 1.5 ns, respectively. No obvious degradation on PET and MRI was observed during simultaneous PET-MRI data acquisition. The measured spatial resolution and sensitivity at the CFOV were 2.8 mm and 0.7%, respectively. In addition, a 3 mm diameter line source was clearly resolved in the hot-sphere phantom images. The reconstructed transaxial PET images of the mouse brain and tumor displaying the glucose metabolism patterns were imaged well. These results demonstrate GAPD and the charge signal transmission approach can allow the development of high performance small animal PET with improved MR compatibility.

  19. FDG-PET Contributions to the Pathophysiology of Memory Impairment.

    PubMed

    Segobin, Shailendra; La Joie, Renaud; Ritz, Ludivine; Beaunieux, Hélène; Desgranges, Béatrice; Chételat, Gaël; Pitel, Anne Lise; Eustache, Francis

    2015-09-01

    Measurement of synaptic activity by Positron Emission Tomography (PET) and its relation to cognitive functions such as episodic memory, working memory and executive functions in healthy humans and patients with neurocognitive disorders have been well documented. In this review, we introduce the concept of PET imaging that allows the observation of a particular biological process in vivo through the use of radio-labelled compounds, its general use to the medical world and its contributions to the understanding of memory systems. We then focus on [(18)F]-2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG-PET), the radiotracer that is used to measure local cerebral metabolic rate of glucose that is indicative of synaptic activity in the brain. FDG-PET at rest has been at the forefront of functional neuroimaging over the past 3 decades, contributing to the understanding of cognitive functions in healthy humans and how these functional patterns change with cognitive alterations. We discuss methodological considerations that are important for optimizing FDG-PET imaging data prior to analysis. We then highlight the contribution of FDG-PET to the understanding of the patterns of functional differences in non-degenerative pathologies, normal ageing, and age-related neurodegenerative disorders. Through reasonable temporal and spatial resolution, its ability to measure synaptic activity in the whole brain, independently of any specific network and disease, makes it ideal to observe regional functional changes associated with memory impairment.

  20. Inhibition of [11C]mirtazapine binding by alpha2-adrenoceptor antagonists studied by positron emission tomography in living porcine brain.

    PubMed

    Smith, Donald F; Dyve, Suzan; Minuzzi, Luciano; Jakobsen, Steen; Munk, Ole L; Marthi, Katalin; Cumming, Paul

    2006-06-15

    We have developed [(11)C]mirtazapine as a ligand for PET studies of antidepressant binding in living brain. However, previous studies have determined neither optimal methods for quantification of [(11)C]mirtazapine binding nor the pharmacological identity of this binding. To obtain that information, we have now mapped the distribution volume (V(d)) of [(11)C]mirtazapine relative to the arterial input in the brain of three pigs, in a baseline condition and after pretreatment with excess cold mirtazapine (3 mg/kg). Baseline V(d) ranged from 6 ml/ml in cerebellum to 18 ml/ml in frontal cortex, with some evidence for a small self-displaceable binding component in the cerebellum. Regional binding potentials (pBs) obtained by a constrained two-compartment model, using the V(d) observation in cerebellum, were consistently higher than pBs obtained by other arterial input or reference tissue methods. We found that adequate quantification of pB was obtained using the simplified reference tissue method. Concomitant PET studies with [(15)O]-water indicated that mirtazapine challenge increased CBF uniformly in cerebellum and other brain regions, supporting the use of this reference tissue for calculation of [(11)C]mirtazapine pB. Displacement by mirtazapine was complete in the cerebral cortex, but only 50% in diencephalon, suggesting the presence of multiple binding sites of differing affinities in that tissue. Competition studies with yohimbine and RX 821002 showed decreases in [(11)C]mirtazapine pB throughout the forebrain; use of the multireceptor version of the Michaelis-Menten equation indicated that 42% of [(11)C]mirtazapine binding in cortical regions is displaceable by yohimbine. Thus, PET studies confirm that [(11)C]mirtazapine affects alpha(2)-adrenoceptor binding sites in living brain.

  1. [18F FDG PET-Applications in Oncology].

    PubMed

    Răileanu, Irena; Rusu, V; Stefănescu, Cipriana; Cinotti, L; Hountis, D

    2002-01-01

    In the first part our intention was, essentially, to present the particularities of glucose tumoral cells metabolism, PET components, the synthesis of 18F FDG and the detection of unknown cancers. This second part makes reference about mainly types of tumors who benefit by FDG-PET indications. Clinical PET has a rapid growth because of its use in cancer diagnosis and management. According with published studies all over the world, the sensibility and specificity of FDG-PET, noninvasive method, is higher than that of the conventional methods like CT, IRM, ultrasonography. PET is en excellent detection method of most of common cancer types and depends not on the histological neoplasm type; the more aggressive is the tumor, more it will uptake the radiotracer. The cost is significant, so the indications must be very precise: evaluating the malignity of solitary pulmonary nodules, evaluating the recurrences of melanoma, colon cancer diagnosis, differentiation between recurrent brain tumor and radiation injury, differential diagnosis of the benign lymph and malign lymph nodes, staging of Hodgkin's and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, evaluation the response to therapy. Because the PET images are difficult to interpret, appears the necessity of correlation with anatomic images: this was the fusion images beginnings (the PET and CT images combination); now the physiologic information has precise anatomic localization. The growing of this method is very probably, both using 18F FDG -thanks to its highly favorable physical characteristics- and other new radiopharmaceuticals. The clinical cases that illustrate the applications are investigated at CERMEP, Lyon, France.

  2. Imaging of Cyclosporine Inhibition of P-Glycoprotein Activity Using 11C-Verapamil in the Brain: Studies of Healthy Humans

    PubMed Central

    Muzi, Mark; Mankoff, David A.; Link, Jeanne M.; Shoner, Steve; Collier, Ann C.; Sasongko, Lucy; Unadkat, Jashvant D.

    2009-01-01

    The multiple-drug resistance (MDR) transporter P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is highly expressed at the human blood–brain barrier (BBB). P-gp actively effluxes a wide variety of drugs from the central nervous system, including anticancer drugs. We have previously demonstrated P-gp activity at the human BBB using PET of 11C-verapamil distribution into the brain in the absence and presence of the P-gp inhibitor cyclosporine-A (CsA). Here we extend the initial noncompartmental analysis of these data and apply compartmental modeling to these human verapamil imaging studies. Methods Healthy volunteers were injected with 15O-water to assess blood flow, followed by 11C-verapamil to assess BBB P-gp activity. Arterial blood samples and PET images were obtained at frequent intervals for 5 and 45 min, respectively, after injection. After a 60-min infusion of CsA (intravenously, 2.5 mg/kg/h) to inhibit P-gp, a second set of water and verapamil PET studies was conducted, followed by 11C-CO imaging to measure regional blood volume. Blood flow was estimated using dynamic 15O-water data and a flow-dispersion model. Dynamic 11C-verapamil data were assessed by a 2-tissue-compartment (2C) model of delivery and retention and a 1-tissue-compartment model using the first 10 min of data (1C10). Results The 2C model was able to fit the full dataset both before and during P-pg inhibition. CsA modulation of P-gp increased blood–brain transfer (K1) of verapamil into the brain by 73% (range, 30%–118%; n = 12). This increase was significantly greater than changes in blood flow (13%; range, 12%–49%; n = 12, P < 0.001). Estimates of K1 from the 1C10 model correlated to estimates from the 2C model (r = 0.99, n = 12), indicating that a short study could effectively estimate P-gp activity. Conclusion 11C-verapamil and compartmental analysis can estimate P-gp activity at the BBB by imaging before and during P-gp inhibition by CsA, indicated by a change in verapamil transport (K1). Inhibition of P

  3. Regional cerebral blood flow measurement with intravenous ( sup 15 O)water bolus and ( sup 18 F)fluoromethane inhalation

    SciTech Connect

    Herholz, K.; Pietrzyk, U.; Wienhard, K.; Hebold, I.; Pawlik, G.; Wagner, R.; Holthoff, V.; Klinkhammer, P.; Heiss, W.D. )

    1989-09-01

    In 20 patients with ischemic cerebrovascular disease, classic migraine, or angiomas, we compared paired dynamic positron emission tomographic measurements of regional cerebral blood flow using both ({sup 15}O)water and ({sup 18}F)fluoromethane as tracers. Cerebral blood flow was also determined according to the autoradiographic technique with a bolus injection of ({sup 15}O)water. There were reasonable overall correlations between dynamic ({sup 15}O)water and ({sup 18}F)fluoromethane values for cerebral blood flow (r = 0.82) and between dynamic and autoradiographic ({sup 15}O)water values for cerebral blood flow (r = 0.83). We found a close correspondence between abnormal pathologic findings and visually evaluated cerebral blood flow tomograms obtained with the two tracers. On average, dynamic ({sup 15}O)water cerebral blood flow was 6% lower than that measured with ({sup 18}F)fluoromethane. There also was a general trend toward a greater underestimation with ({sup 15}O)water in high-flow areas, particularly in hyperemic areas, probably due to incomplete first-pass extraction of ({sup 15}O)water. Underestimation was not detected in low-flow areas or in the cerebellum. Absolute cerebral blood flow values were less closely correlated between tracers and techniques than cerebral blood flow patterns. The variability of the relation between absolute flow values was probably caused by confounding effects of the variation in the circulatory delay time. The autoradiographic technique was most sensitive to this type error.

  4. Trojan Horse method and radioactive ion beams: study of 18F(p,α)15O reaction at astrophysical energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gulino, M.; Cherubini, S.; Rapisarda, G. G.; Kubono, S.; Lamia, L.; La Cognata, M.; Yamaguchi, H.; Hayakawa, S.; Wakabayashi, Y.; Iwasa, N.; Kato, S.; Komatsubara, H.; Teranishi, T.; Coc, A.; De Séréville, N.; Hammache, F.; Spitaleri, C.

    2013-03-01

    The Trojan Horse Method was applied for the first time to a Radioactive Ion Beam induced reaction to study the reaction 18F(p,α)15O via the three body reaction 18F(d,α 15O)n at the low energies relevant for astrophysics. The abundance of 18F in Nova explosions is an important issue for the understanding of this astrophysical phenomenon. For this reason it is necessary to study the nuclear reactions that produce or destroy 18F in Novae. 18F(p,α)15O is one of the main 18F destruction channels. Preliminary results are presented in this paper.

  5. Brain ¹⁸F-FDG and ¹¹C-PiB PET findings in two siblings with FTD/ALS associated with the C9ORF72 repeat expansion.

    PubMed

    Martikainen, Mika H; Gardberg, Maria; Jansson, Lilja; Röyttä, Matias; Rinne, Juha O; Kaasinen, Valtteri

    2014-04-01

    The C9ORF72 hexanucleotide expansion is a major pathological expansion pattern found in patients with frontotemporal dementia (FTD) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (C9FTD/ALS). We describe a patient in whom early clinical evaluation, MRI and fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) findings failed to definitively differentiate between FTD and Alzheimer's disease (AD), whereas (11)C-Pittsburgh compound B (PiB) PET was negative for amyloid pathology. He later developed ALS symptoms, and post mortem neuropathological findings were diagnostic of FTD-ALS, while no findings suggested AD. His sister was diagnosed with FTD, and the C9ORF72 expansion was detected in both siblings. We conclude that ¹¹C-PiB PET imaging may help the early differential diagnosis between AD and FTD, including C9FTD/ALS.

  6. The ADNI PET Core: 2015

    PubMed Central

    Jagust, William J.; Landau, Susan M.; Koeppe, Robert A.; Reiman, Eric M.; Chen, Kewei; Mathis, Chester A.; Price, Julie C.; Foster, Norman L.; Wang, Angela Y.

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION This paper reviews the work done in the ADNI PET core over the past 5 years, largely concerning techniques, methods, and results related to amyloid imaging in ADNI. METHODS The PET Core has utilized [18F]florbetapir routinely on ADNI participants, with over 1600 scans available for download. Four different laboratories are involved in data analysis, and have examined factors such as longitudinal florbetapir analysis, use of FDG-PET in clinical trials, and relationships between different biomarkers and cognition. RESULTS Converging evidence from the PET Core has indicated that cross-sectional and longitudinal florbetapir analyses require different reference regions. Studies have also examined the relationship between florbetapir data obtained immediately after injection, which reflects perfusion, and FDG-PET results. Finally, standardization has included the translation of florbetapir PET data to a centiloid scale. CONCLUSION The PET Core has demonstrated a variety of methods for standardization of biomarkers such as florbetapir PET in a multicenter setting. PMID:26194311

  7. Disaster Preparedness for Your Pet

    MedlinePlus

    ... put pets, pet owners, and first responders in danger. Even if you try to create a safe ... Contact local veterinary clinics, boarding facilities, and local animal shelters. Visit the Humane Society website to find ...

  8. NCCN task force: clinical utility of PET in a variety of tumor types.

    PubMed

    Podoloff, Donald A; Ball, Douglas W; Ben-Josef, Edgar; Benson, Al B; Cohen, Steven J; Coleman, R Edward; Delbeke, Dominique; Ho, Maria; Ilson, David H; Kalemkerian, Gregory P; Lee, Richard J; Loeffler, Jay S; Macapinlac, Homer A; Morgan, Robert J; Siegel, Barry Alan; Singhal, Seema; Tyler, Douglas S; Wong, Richard J

    2009-06-01

    Use of PET is widespread and increasing in the United States, mainly for oncologic applications. In November 2006, the National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) gathered a panel of experts to review the literature and develop clinical recommendations for using PET scans in lymphoma and non-small cell lung, breast, and colorectal cancers. However, because its use is not restricted to these diseases, and evidence is accumulating for its application in other types of cancers, NCCN convened a second meeting in December 2008 to expand on the initial report. A multidisciplinary panel met to discuss the current data on PET application for various tumor types, including genitourinary, gynecologic, pancreatic, hepatobiliary, thyroid, brain, small cell lung, gastric, and esophageal cancers, and sarcoma and myeloma. This report summarizes the proceedings of this meeting, including discussions of the background of PET, the role of PET in oncology, principles of PET use, emerging applications, and possible future developments.

  9. How to Design PET Experiments to Study Neurochemistry: Application to Alcoholism

    PubMed Central

    Morris, Evan D.; Lucas, Molly V.; Petrulli, J. Ryan; Cosgrove, Kelly P.

    2014-01-01

    Positron Emission Tomography (PET) (and the related Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography) is a powerful imaging tool with a molecular specificity and sensitivity that are unique among imaging modalities. PET excels in the study of neurochemistry in three ways: 1) It can detect and quantify neuroreceptor molecules; 2) it can detect and quantify changes in neurotransmitters; and 3) it can detect and quantify exogenous drugs delivered to the brain. To carry out any of these applications, the user must harness the power of kinetic modeling. Further, the quality of the information gained is only as good as the soundness of the experimental design. This article reviews the concepts behind the three main uses of PET, the rationale behind kinetic modeling of PET data, and some of the key considerations when planning a PET experiment. Finally, some examples of PET imaging related to the study of alcoholism are discussed and critiqued. PMID:24600335

  10. Occipital Hypometabolism on FDG PET/CT Scan in a Child with Hodgkin's Lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Tatci, Ebru; Ozmen, Ozlem; Gokcek, Atila; Demir, Haci Ahmet; Gulleroglu, Nadide Basak

    2016-01-01

    It is known that Fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) Positron Emission/Computed Tomography (PET/CT) images may be helpful for evaluation of brain function in newborns. Here we described the fluorine-18 [18-F] FDG PET/CT imaging findings of encephalomalacia due to perinatal asphyxia in a child with refractory Hodgkin's Lymphoma (HL) who underwent PET/CT scan to stage the primary disease. Prominent hypometabolism was incidentally detected in the occipital regions bilaterally apart from the FDG uptakes in the malign lymphatic infiltrations. This case highlights the potential coexistence of a malignancy and a functional brain disorder. PMID:27965911

  11. PET scans relate clinical picture to more specific nerve function

    SciTech Connect

    Ziporyn, T.

    1985-02-15

    This article describes the historical development of the use of positron emission tomography in studies of brain chemistry and the specific pathways associated with specific disease states. Fluorine-18 is used to label dopa since dopa can cross the blood-brain barrier. This radiopharmaceutical has been used to study the role of dopamine in Parkinson's disease and other motor disorders. The new PET technologies may also allow insight into the cause of variable responses to levo-dopa therapy.

  12. An Educational PET Camera Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johansson, K. E.; Nilsson, Ch.; Tegner, P. E.

    2006-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) cameras are now in widespread use in hospitals. A model of a PET camera has been installed in Stockholm House of Science and is used to explain the principles of PET to school pupils as described here.

  13. Plant-PET Scans: In Vivo Mapping of Xylem and Phloem Functioning.

    PubMed

    Hubeau, Michiel; Steppe, Kathy

    2015-10-01

    Medical imaging techniques are rapidly expanding in the field of plant sciences. Positron emission tomography (PET) is advancing as a powerful functional imaging technique to decipher in vivo the function of xylem water flow (with (15)O or (18)F), phloem sugar flow (with (11)C or (18)F), and the importance of their strong coupling. However, much remains to be learned about how water flow and sugar distribution are coordinated in intact plants, both under present and future climate regimes. We propose to use PET analysis of plants (plant-PET) to visualize and generate these missing data about integrated xylem and phloem transport. These insights are crucial to understanding how a given environment will affect plant physiological processes and growth.

  14. Reversal of focal "misery-perfusion syndrome" by extra-intracranial arterial bypass in hemodynamic cerebral ischemia. A case study with 15O positron emission tomography.

    PubMed

    Baron, J C; Bousser, M G; Rey, A; Guillard, A; Comar, D; Castaigne, P

    1981-01-01

    Tomographic images of cerebral blood flow (CBF) and oxygen extraction fraction (OEF) using the 15O continuous inhalation technique, and positron emission tomography, were obtained from a patient with cerebral ischemia distal to an occluded left internal carotid artery. There was a focal mismatch between CBF and oxygen metabolism in the brain supplied by the middle cerebral artery where CBF was decreased and OEF increased ("misery-perfusion syndrome" as opposed to "luxury-perfusion syndrome"). These abnormalities were most marked in the parieto-occipital watershed area. After left superficial temporal to middle cerebral artery anastomosis, the clinical attacks ceased and a repeat study did not demonstrate the previous CBF and OEF abnormalities. This suggests that this pattern of abnormalities indicates potential viable tissue. The concept of "misery-perfusion" may be of some importance in the pathophysiological mechanisms of hemodynamic cerebral ischemia and serve as a rational basis for revascularization procedures.

  15. Deep brain stimulation of the periaqueductal gray releases endogenous opioids in humans.

    PubMed

    Sims-Williams, Hugh; Matthews, Julian C; Talbot, Peter S; Love-Jones, Sarah; Brooks, Jonathan Cw; Patel, Nikunj K; Pickering, Anthony E

    2017-02-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the periaqueductal gray (PAG) is used in the treatment of severe refractory neuropathic pain. We tested the hypothesis that DBS releases endogenous opioids to exert its analgesic effect using [(11)C]diprenorphine (DPN) positron emission tomography (PET). Patients with de-afferentation pain (phantom limb pain or Anaesthesia Dolorosa (n=5)) who obtained long-lasting analgesic benefit from DBS were recruited. [(11)C]DPN and [(15)O]water PET scanning was performed in consecutive sessions; first without, and then with PAG stimulation. The regional cerebral tracer distribution and kinetics were quantified for the whole brain and brainstem. Analysis was performed on a voxel-wise basis using statistical parametric mapping (SPM) and also within brainstem regions of interest and correlated to the DBS-induced improvement in pain score and mood. Brain-wide analysis identified a single cluster of reduced [(11)C]DPN binding (15.5% reduction) in the caudal, dorsal PAG following DBS from effective electrodes located in rostral dorsal/lateral PAG. There was no evidence for an accompanying focal change in blood flow within the PAG. No correlation was found between the change in PAG [(11)C]DPN binding and the analgesic effect or the effect on mood (POMSSV) of DBS. The analgesic effect of DBS in these subjects was not altered by systemic administration of the opioid antagonist naloxone (400ug). These findings indicate that DBS of the PAG does indeed release endogenous opioid peptides focally within the midbrain of these neuropathic pain patients but we are unable to further resolve the question of whether this release is responsible for the observed analgesic benefit.

  16. Changes in brain function occur years before the onset of cognitive impairment.

    PubMed

    Beason-Held, Lori L; Goh, Joshua O; An, Yang; Kraut, Michael A; O'Brien, Richard J; Ferrucci, Luigi; Resnick, Susan M

    2013-11-13

    To develop targeted intervention strategies for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease, we first need to identify early markers of brain changes that occur before the onset of cognitive impairment. Here, we examine changes in resting-state brain function in humans from the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging. We compared longitudinal changes in regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF), assessed by (15)O-water PET, over a mean 7 year period between participants who eventually developed cognitive impairment (n = 22) and those who remained cognitively normal (n = 99). Annual PET assessments began an average of 11 years before the onset of cognitive impairment in the subsequently impaired group, so all participants were cognitively normal during the scanning interval. A voxel-based mixed model analysis was used to compare groups with and without subsequent impairment. Participants with subsequent impairment showed significantly greater longitudinal rCBF increases in orbitofrontal, medial frontal, and anterior cingulate regions, and greater longitudinal decreases in parietal, temporal, and thalamic regions compared with those who maintained cognitive health. These changes were linear in nature and were not influenced by longitudinal changes in regional tissue volume. Although all participants were cognitively normal during the scanning interval, most of the accelerated rCBF changes seen in the subsequently impaired group occurred within regions thought to be critical for the maintenance of cognitive function. These changes also occurred within regions that show early accumulation of pathology in Alzheimer's disease, suggesting that there may be a connection between early pathologic change and early changes in brain function.

  17. Changes in Brain Function Occur Years before the Onset of Cognitive Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Goh, Joshua O.; An, Yang; Kraut, Michael A.; O'Brien, Richard J.; Ferrucci, Luigi; Resnick, Susan M.

    2013-01-01

    To develop targeted intervention strategies for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease, we first need to identify early markers of brain changes that occur before the onset of cognitive impairment. Here, we examine changes in resting-state brain function in humans from the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging. We compared longitudinal changes in regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF), assessed by 15O-water PET, over a mean 7 year period between participants who eventually developed cognitive impairment (n = 22) and those who remained cognitively normal (n = 99). Annual PET assessments began an average of 11 years before the onset of cognitive impairment in the subsequently impaired group, so all participants were cognitively normal during the scanning interval. A voxel-based mixed model analysis was used to compare groups with and without subsequent impairment. Participants with subsequent impairment showed significantly greater longitudinal rCBF increases in orbitofrontal, medial frontal, and anterior cingulate regions, and greater longitudinal decreases in parietal, temporal, and thalamic regions compared with those who maintained cognitive health. These changes were linear in nature and were not influenced by longitudinal changes in regional tissue volume. Although all participants were cognitively normal during the scanning interval, most of the accelerated rCBF changes seen in the subsequently impaired group occurred within regions thought to be critical for the maintenance of cognitive function. These changes also occurred within regions that show early accumulation of pathology in Alzheimer's disease, suggesting that there may be a connection between early pathologic change and early changes in brain function. PMID:24227712

  18. Sparsity-constrained PET image reconstruction with learned dictionaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Jing; Yang, Bao; Wang, Yanhua; Ying, Leslie

    2016-09-01

    PET imaging plays an important role in scientific and clinical measurement of biochemical and physiological processes. Model-based PET image reconstruction such as the iterative expectation maximization algorithm seeking the maximum likelihood solution leads to increased noise. The maximum a posteriori (MAP) estimate removes divergence at higher iterations. However, a conventional smoothing prior or a total-variation (TV) prior in a MAP reconstruction algorithm causes over smoothing or blocky artifacts in the reconstructed images. We propose to use dictionary learning (DL) based sparse signal representation in the formation of the prior for MAP PET image reconstruction. The dictionary to sparsify the PET images in the reconstruction process is learned from various training images including the corresponding MR structural image and a self-created hollow sphere. Using simulated and patient brain PET data with corresponding MR images, we study the performance of the DL-MAP algorithm and compare it quantitatively with a conventional MAP algorithm, a TV-MAP algorithm, and a patch-based algorithm. The DL-MAP algorithm achieves improved bias and contrast (or regional mean values) at comparable noise to what the other MAP algorithms acquire. The dictionary learned from the hollow sphere leads to similar results as the dictionary learned from the corresponding MR image. Achieving robust performance in various noise-level simulation and patient studies, the DL-MAP algorithm with a general dictionary demonstrates its potential in quantitative PET imaging.

  19. Sparsity-constrained PET image reconstruction with learned dictionaries.

    PubMed

    Tang, Jing; Yang, Bao; Wang, Yanhua; Ying, Leslie

    2016-09-07

    PET imaging plays an important role in scientific and clinical measurement of biochemical and physiological processes. Model-based PET image reconstruction such as the iterative expectation maximization algorithm seeking the maximum likelihood solution leads to increased noise. The maximum a posteriori (MAP) estimate removes divergence at higher iterations. However, a conventional smoothing prior or a total-variation (TV) prior in a MAP reconstruction algorithm causes over smoothing or blocky artifacts in the reconstructed images. We propose to use dictionary learning (DL) based sparse signal representation in the formation of the prior for MAP PET image reconstruction. The dictionary to sparsify the PET images in the reconstruction process is learned from various training images including the corresponding MR structural image and a self-created hollow sphere. Using simulated and patient brain PET data with corresponding MR images, we study the performance of the DL-MAP algorithm and compare it quantitatively with a conventional MAP algorithm, a TV-MAP algorithm, and a patch-based algorithm. The DL-MAP algorithm achieves improved bias and contrast (or regional mean values) at comparable noise to what the other MAP algorithms acquire. The dictionary learned from the hollow sphere leads to similar results as the dictionary learned from the corresponding MR image. Achieving robust performance in various noise-level simulation and patient studies, the DL-MAP algorithm with a general dictionary demonstrates its potential in quantitative PET imaging.

  20. [Pets, veterinarians, and multicultural society].

    PubMed

    Klumpers, M; Endenburg, N

    2009-01-15

    Dutch society comprises a growing percentage of non-Western ethnic minority groups. Little is known about pet ownership among these groups. This study explores some aspects of pet ownership, and the position of veterinarians, among the four largest non-Western ethnic minority groups in the Netherlands. Information was gathered through street interviews with people from a Moroccan, Turkish, Surinamese, or Antillean (including Aruban) background. Five hundred people where interviewed, including 41 pet owners. Results showed that people from non-Western ethnic minorities kept pets less often than Dutch people, with fish and birds being the most frequently kept pets. The number of visits to the veterinary clinic was comparable to that of Dutch pet owners; however, reasons given for the last visit were different. People from non-Western ethnic minorities mostly visited a veterinarian if their pet was ill whereas Dutch people visited the veterinarian if their pet needed to be vaccinated. People from non-Western ethnic minorities were positive about veterinarians, considering that they had sufficient knowledge about and concern for their pets. Moreover, veterinarians were trusted and provided understandable information--the respondents felt that they could go to their veterinarian with any question or problem regarding their pets. Although most respondents considered a visit to the veterinarian expensive, they were more than willing to invest in their pet's health.

  1. Pet Allergy Quiz

    MedlinePlus

    ... term treatment for pet allergies. True False False: Allergy shots therapy (immunotherapy) has a proven track record as an effective form of long term treatment. Talk to your allergist / immunologist about whether this treatment approach is right for you. ... Utility navigation Donate ...

  2. Pets and Parenting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mullis, Ann K.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    The authors describe a method for teaching parenting skills and helping students decide whether they want children by having them adopt a puppy or kitten for a 6-10 week period. They discuss how to use the pet adoption project in a family life education unit. (CH)

  3. Brain-Based Learning. Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Karen

    2005-01-01

    What does brain-based research say about how adolescents learn? The 1990s was declared as the Decade of the Brain by President Bush and Congress. With the advancement of MRIs (Magnetic Resonance Imagining) and PET (positron emission tomography) scans, it has become much easier to study live healthy brains. As a result, the concept of…

  4. MR/PET or PET/MRI: does it matter?

    PubMed

    Beyer, Thomas; Moser, Ewald

    2013-02-01

    After the very successful clinical introduction of combined PET/CT imaging a decade ago, a hardware combination of PET and MR is following suit. Today, three different approaches towards integrated PET/MR have been proposed: (1) a triple-modality system with a 3T MRI and a time-of-flight PET/CT installed in adjacent rooms, (2) a tandem system with a 3T MRI and a time-of-flight PET/CT in a co-planar installation with a joint patient handling system, and (3) a fully-integrated system with a whole-body PET system mounted inside a 3T MRI system. This special issue of MAGMA brings together contributions from key experts in the field of PET/MR, PET/CT and CT. The various papers share the author's perspectives on the state-of-the-art PET/MR imaging with any of the three approaches mentioned above. In addition to several reviews discussing advantages and challenges of combining PET and MRI for clinical diagnostics, first clinical data are also presented. We expect this special issue to nurture future improvements in hardware, clinical protocols, and efficient post-processing strategies to further assess the diagnostic value of combined PET/MR imaging. It remains to be seen whether a so-called "killer application" for PET/MRI will surface. In that case PET/MR is likely to excel in pre-clinical and selected research applications for now. This special issue helps the readers to stay on track of this exciting development.

  5. Incidental finding of meningioma on C11-PIB PET.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hee-Young; Kim, Jaeseung; Lee, Jae-Hong

    2012-02-01

    As a healthy volunteer for amyloid imaging study, a 83-year-old woman with no history of neurologic or psychiatric illness underwent carbon 11-labeled Pittsburgh compound-B (PIB) PET, which showed focal increased PIB binding in the right anterior temporal region. This focal PIB uptake turned out to be a mass lesion on MRI, which was consistent with a benign meningioma. This is the first case report on the incidentally found intracranial meningioma by PIB PET scan, highlighting the excellent sensitivity of PIB radiotracer in detecting brain amyloid deposition.

  6. Pharmacokinetic evaluation of the tau PET radiotracer [18F]T807 ([18F]AV-1451) in human subjects.

    PubMed

    Wooten, Dustin; Guehl, Nicolas J; Verwer, Eline E; Shoup, Timothy M; Yokell, Daniel L; Zubcevik, Nevena; Vasdev, Neil; Zafonte, Ross D; Johnson, Keith A; El Fakhri, Georges; Normandin, Marc David

    2016-09-22

    [(18)F]T807 is a PET radiotracer developed for imaging tau protein aggregates, which are implicated in neurological disorders including Alzheimer's disease (AD) and traumatic brain injury (TBI). The current study characterizes [(18)F]T807 pharmacokinetics in human subjects using dynamic PET imaging and metabolite-corrected arterial input functions.

  7. Rare Sites of Metastases in Prostate Cancer Detected on Ga-68 PSMA PET/CT Scan—A Case Series

    PubMed Central

    Dureja, Sugandha; Thakral, Parul; Pant, Vineet; Sen, Ishita

    2017-01-01

    Ga-68 labeled prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) whole body PET/CT scan is a novel upcoming modality for the evaluation of prostate cancer. We present three cases of prostate cancer showing rare sites of metastases like brain, penis, and liver detected on Ga-68 PSMA PET/CT scan thus emphasizing its role in lesion detection and staging. PMID:28242977

  8. Talking with Children about Furry Classroom Pets.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Child Care, 1994

    1994-01-01

    Notes that rodents and rabbits share many characteristics that make them suitable classroom pets and gives background information on rabbits, guinea pigs, hamsters, and gerbils. Offers advice on buying a classroom pet, the pet's home, feeding, helping the children handle the pet, and pet health and family planning. (TJQ)

  9. [Modern methods of functional tomographic brain imaging for brain function reseaching in norm and pathology].

    PubMed

    Kireev, M V; Zakhs, D V; Korotkov, A D; Medvedev, S V

    2013-01-01

    For many years the modern methods of functional tomographic brain imaging (fMRI and PET) were actively used not only for the research of basic brain functions, but also in clinical practice. In present paper we described the basic characteristics of the signal registered with fMRI and PET, the principles of image reconstruction, as well as the methodological requirements, which are necessary to obtain reliable results. The advantages and limitations of modem tomographic methods of the brain functions investigation are discussed. The need of the complex approach use in brain study is emphasized and methods for the study of functional integration of the brain are suggested.

  10. Performance evaluation of neuro-PET using silicon photomultipliers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Jiwoong; Choi, Yong; Jung, Jin Ho; Kim, Sangsu; Im, Ki Chun

    2016-05-01

    Recently, we have developed the second prototype Silicon photomultiplier (SiPM) based positron emission tomography (PET) scanner for human brain imaging. The PET system was comprised of detector block which consisted of 4×4 SiPMs and 4×4 Lutetium Yttrium Orthosilicate arrays, charge signal transmission method, high density position decoder circuit and FPGA-embedded ADC boards. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the performance of the newly developed neuro-PET system. The energy resolution, timing resolution, spatial resolution, sensitivity, stability of the photo-peak position and count rate performance were measured. Tomographic image of 3D Hoffman brain phantom was also acquired to evaluate imaging capability of the neuro-PET. The average energy and timing resolutions measured for 511 keV gamma rays were 17±0.1% and 3±0.3 ns, respectively. Spatial resolution and sensitivity at the center of field of view (FOV) were 3.1 mm and 0.8%, respectively. The average scatter fraction was 0.4 with an energy window of 350-650 keV. The maximum true count rate and maximum NECR were measured as 43.3 kcps and 6.5 kcps at an activity concentration of 16.7 kBq/ml and 5.5 kBq/ml, respectively. Long-term stability results show that there was no significant change in the photo-peak position, energy resolution and count rate for 60 days. Phantom imaging studies were performed and they demonstrated the feasibility for high quality brain imaging. The performance tests and imaging results indicate that the newly developed PET is useful for brain imaging studies, if the axial FOV is extended to improve the system sensitivity.

  11. Small animal simultaneous PET/MRI: initial experiences in a 9.4T microMRI

    SciTech Connect

    Maramraju, S.H.; Schlyer, D.; Maramraju, S.H.; Smith, S.D.; Junnarkar, S.S.; Schulz, D.; Stoll, S.; Ravindranath, B.; Purschke, M.L.; Rescia, S.; Southekal, S.; Pratte, J.-F.; Vaska, P.; Woody, C.L.; Schlyer, D.J.

    2011-03-25

    We developed a non-magnetic positron-emission tomography (PET) device based on the rat conscious animal PET that operates in a small-animal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanner, thereby enabling us to carry out simultaneous PET/MRI studies. The PET detector comprises 12 detector blocks, each being a 4 x 8 array of lutetium oxyorthosilicate crystals (2.22 x 2.22 x 5 mm{sup 3}) coupled to a matching non-magnetic avalanche photodiode array. The detector blocks, housed in a plastic case, form a 38 mm inner diameter ring with an 18 mm axial extent. Custom-built MRI coils fit inside the positron-emission tomography (PET) device, operating in transceiver mode. The PET insert is integrated with a Bruker 9.4 T 210 mm clear-bore diameter MRI scanner. We acquired simultaneous PET/MR images of phantoms, of in vivo rat brain, and of cardiac-gated mouse heart using [{sup 11}C]raclopride and 2-deoxy-2-[{sup 18}F]fluoro-d-glucose PET radiotracers. There was minor interference between the PET electronics and the MRI during simultaneous operation, and small effects on the signal-to-noise ratio in the MR images in the presence of the PET, but no noticeable visual artifacts. Gradient echo and high-duty-cycle spin echo radio frequency (RF) pulses resulted in a 7% and a 28% loss in PET counts, respectively, due to high PET counts during the RF pulses that had to be gated out. The calibration of the activity concentration of PET data during MR pulsing is reproducible within less than 6%. Our initial results demonstrate the feasibility of performing simultaneous PET and MRI studies in adult rats and mice using the same PET insert in a small-bore 9.4 T MRI.

  12. Small animal simultaneous PET/MRI: initial experiences in a 9.4 T microMRI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harsha Maramraju, Sri; Smith, S. David; Junnarkar, Sachin S.; Schulz, Daniela; Stoll, Sean; Ravindranath, Bosky; Purschke, Martin L.; Rescia, Sergio; Southekal, Sudeepti; Pratte, Jean-François; Vaska, Paul; Woody, Craig L.; Schlyer, David J.

    2011-04-01

    We developed a non-magnetic positron-emission tomography (PET) device based on the rat conscious animal PET that operates in a small-animal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanner, thereby enabling us to carry out simultaneous PET/MRI studies. The PET detector comprises 12 detector blocks, each being a 4 × 8 array of lutetium oxyorthosilicate crystals (2.22 × 2.22 × 5 mm3) coupled to a matching non-magnetic avalanche photodiode array. The detector blocks, housed in a plastic case, form a 38 mm inner diameter ring with an 18 mm axial extent. Custom-built MRI coils fit inside the positron-emission tomography (PET) device, operating in transceiver mode. The PET insert is integrated with a Bruker 9.4 T 210 mm clear-bore diameter MRI scanner. We acquired simultaneous PET/MR images of phantoms, of in vivo rat brain, and of cardiac-gated mouse heart using [11C]raclopride and 2-deoxy-2-[18F]fluoro-d-glucose PET radiotracers. There was minor interference between the PET electronics and the MRI during simultaneous operation, and small effects on the signal-to-noise ratio in the MR images in the presence of the PET, but no noticeable visual artifacts. Gradient echo and high-duty-cycle spin echo radio frequency (RF) pulses resulted in a 7% and a 28% loss in PET counts, respectively, due to high PET counts during the RF pulses that had to be gated out. The calibration of the activity concentration of PET data during MR pulsing is reproducible within less than 6%. Our initial results demonstrate the feasibility of performing simultaneous PET and MRI studies in adult rats and mice using the same PET insert in a small-bore 9.4 T MRI.

  13. Simultaneous acquisition of magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) data and positron emission tomography (PET) images with a prototype MR-compatible, small animal PET imager

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raylman, Raymond R.; Majewski, Stan; Velan, S. Sendhil; Lemieux, Susan; Kross, Brian; Popov, Vladimir; Smith, Mark F.; Weisenberger, Andrew G.

    2007-06-01

    Multi-modality imaging (such as PET-CT) is rapidly becoming a valuable tool in the diagnosis of disease and in the development of new drugs. Functional images produced with PET, fused with anatomical images created by MRI, allow the correlation of form with function. Perhaps more exciting than the combination of anatomical MRI with PET, is the melding of PET with MR spectroscopy (MRS). Thus, two aspects of physiology could be combined in novel ways to produce new insights into the physiology of normal and pathological processes. Our team is developing a system to acquire MRI images and MRS spectra, and PET images contemporaneously. The prototype MR-compatible PET system consists of two opposed detector heads (appropriate in size for small animal imaging), operating in coincidence mode with an active field-of-view of ˜14 cm in diameter. Each detector consists of an array of LSO detector elements coupled through a 2-m long fiber optic light guide to a single position-sensitive photomultiplier tube. The use of light guides allows these magnetic field-sensitive elements of the PET imager to be positioned outside the strong magnetic field of our 3T MRI scanner. The PET scanner imager was integrated with a 12-cm diameter, 12-leg custom, birdcage coil. Simultaneous MRS spectra and PET images were successfully acquired from a multi-modality phantom consisting of a sphere filled with 17 brain relevant substances and a positron-emitting radionuclide. There were no significant changes in MRI or PET scanner performance when both were present in the MRI magnet bore. This successful initial test demonstrates the potential for using such a multi-modality to obtain complementary MRS and PET data.

  14. Predicting standard-dose PET image from low-dose PET and multimodal MR images using mapping-based sparse representation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yan; Zhang, Pei; An, Le; Ma, Guangkai; Kang, Jiayin; Shi, Feng; Wu, Xi; Zhou, Jiliu; Lalush, David S.; Lin, Weili; Shen, Dinggang

    2016-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) has been widely used in clinical diagnosis for diseases and disorders. To obtain high-quality PET images requires a standard-dose radionuclide (tracer) injection into the human body, which inevitably increases risk of radiation exposure. One possible solution to this problem is to predict the standard-dose PET image from its low-dose counterpart and its corresponding multimodal magnetic resonance (MR) images. Inspired by the success of patch-based sparse representation (SR) in super-resolution image reconstruction, we propose a mapping-based SR (m-SR) framework for standard-dose PET image prediction. Compared with the conventional patch-based SR, our method uses a mapping strategy to ensure that the sparse coefficients, estimated from the multimodal MR images and low-dose PET image, can be applied directly to the prediction of standard-dose PET image. As the mapping between multimodal MR images (or low-dose PET image) and standard-dose PET images can be particularly complex, one step of mapping is often insufficient. To this end, an incremental refinement framework is therefore proposed. Specifically, the predicted standard-dose PET image is further mapped to the target standard-dose PET image, and then the SR is performed again to predict a new standard-dose PET image. This procedure can be repeated for prediction refinement of the iterations. Also, a patch selection based dictionary construction method is further used to speed up the prediction process. The proposed method is validated on a human brain dataset. The experimental results show that our method can outperform benchmark methods in both qualitative and quantitative measures.

  15. Cross section measurement of 14N(p ,γ )15O in the CNO cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Q.; Görres, J.; deBoer, R. J.; Imbriani, G.; Best, A.; Kontos, A.; LeBlanc, P. J.; Uberseder, E.; Wiescher, M.

    2016-05-01

    Background: The CNO cycle is the main energy source in stars more massive than our sun; it defines the energy production and the cycle time that lead to the lifetime of massive stars, and it is an important tool for the determination of the age of globular clusters. In our sun about 1.6% of the total solar neutrino flux comes from the CNO cycle. The largest uncertainty in the prediction of this CNO flux from the standard solar model comes from the uncertainty in the 14N(p ,γ )15O reaction rate; thus, the determination of the cross section at astrophysical temperatures is of great interest. Purpose: The total cross section of the 14N(p ,γ )15O reaction has large contributions from the transitions to the Ex=6.79 MeV excited state and the ground state of 15O. The Ex=6.79 MeV transition is dominated by radiative direct capture, while the ground state is a complex mixture of direct and resonance capture components and the interferences between them. Recent studies have concentrated on cross-section measurements at very low energies, but broad resonances at higher energy may also play a role. A single measurement has been made that covers a broad higher-energy range but it has large uncertainties stemming from uncorrected summing effects. Furthermore, the extrapolations of the cross section vary significantly depending on the data sets considered. Thus, new direct measurements have been made to improve the previous high-energy studies and to better constrain the extrapolation. Methods: Measurements were performed at the low-energy accelerator facilities of the nuclear science laboratory at the University of Notre Dame. The cross section was measured over the proton energy range from Ep=0.7 to 3.6 MeV for both the ground state and the Ex=6.79 MeV transitions at θlab=0∘ , 45∘, 90∘, 135∘, and 150∘. Both TiN and implanted-14N targets were utilized. γ rays were detected by using an array of high-purity germanium detectors. Results: The excitation function as

  16. Activity of P-glycoprotein, a β-amyloid Transporter at the Blood-Brain Barrier, is Compromised in Patients with Mild Alzheimer’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Deo, Anand K.; Borson, Soo; Link, Jeanne M.; Domino, Karen; Eary, Janet F.; Ke, Ban; Richards, Todd L.; Mankoff, David A.; Minoshima, Satoshi; O’Sullivan, Finbarr; Eyal, Sara; Hsiao, Peng; Maravilla, Ken; Unadkat, Jashvant D.

    2015-01-01

    Animal and histopathological studies of human brain support a role for P-glycoprotein (P-gp) in clearance of cerebral β-amyloid (Aβ) across the blood brain barrier (BBB). We tested the hypothesis that BBB P-gp activity is diminished in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) by accounting for AD-related reduction in regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF). Methods We compared P-gp activity in mild AD patients (n=9) and cognitively normal, age-matched controls (n=9) using positron emission tomography (PET) with a labeled P-gp substrate, [11C]-verapamil, and [15O]-water to measure rCBF. BBB P-gp activity was expressed as the [11C]-verapamil radioactivity extraction ratio (ER={[11C]-verapamil brain distributional clearance, K1}/rCBF). Results Compared to controls, BBB P-gp activity was significantly lower in the parietotemporal, frontal, posterior cingulate cortices and hippocampus of mild AD subjects. Conclusion BBB P-gp activity in brain regions affected by AD is reduced and is independent of rCBF. This study improves on prior work by eliminating the confounding effect that reduced rCBF has on assessment of BBB P-gp activity and suggests that impaired P-gp activity may contribute to cerebral Aβ accumulation in AD. P-gp induction/activation to increase cerebral Aβ clearance could constitute a novel preventive or therapeutic strategy for AD. PMID:24842892

  17. Extended suicide with a pet.

    PubMed

    Cooke, Brian K

    2013-01-01

    The combination of the killing of a pet and a suicide is a perplexing scenario that is largely unexplored in the literature. Many forensic psychiatrists and psychologists may be unaccustomed to considering the significance of the killing of a pet. The subject is important, however, because many people regard their pets as members of their family. A case is presented of a woman who killed her pet dog and herself by carbon monoxide poisoning. The purpose of this article is to provide an initial exploration of the topic of extended suicide with a pet. Forensic mental health evaluations may have a role in understanding the etiology of this event and in opining as to the culpability of individuals who attempt to or successfully kill a pet and then commit suicide. Because the scientific literature is lacking, there is a need to understand this act from a variety of perspectives. First, a social and anthropological perspective will be presented that summarizes the history of the practice of killing of one's pet, with a focus on the ancient Egyptians. A clinical context will examine what relationship animals have to mental illness. A vast body of existing scientific data showing the relevance of human attachment to pets suggests that conclusions from the phenomena of homicide-suicide and filicide-suicide are applicable to extended suicide with a pet. Finally, recommendations will be proposed for both clinical and forensic psychiatrists faced with similar cases.

  18. MR-based motion correction for PET imaging using wired active MR microcoils in simultaneous PET-MR: Phantom study1

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Chuan; Ackerman, Jerome L.; Petibon, Yoann; Brady, Thomas J.; El Fakhri, Georges; Ouyang, Jinsong

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Artifacts caused by head motion present a major challenge in brain positron emission tomography (PET) imaging. The authors investigated the feasibility of using wired active MR microcoils to track head motion and incorporate the measured rigid motion fields into iterative PET reconstruction. Methods: Several wired active MR microcoils and a dedicated MR coil-tracking sequence were developed. The microcoils were attached to the outer surface of an anthropomorphic 18F-filled Hoffman phantom to mimic a brain PET scan. Complex rotation/translation motion of the phantom was induced by a balloon, which was connected to a ventilator. PET list-mode and MR tracking data were acquired simultaneously on a PET-MR scanner. The acquired dynamic PET data were reconstructed iteratively with and without motion correction. Additionally, static phantom data were acquired and used as the gold standard. Results: Motion artifacts in PET images were effectively removed by wired active MR microcoil based motion correction. Motion correction yielded an activity concentration bias ranging from −0.6% to 3.4% as compared to a bias ranging from −25.0% to 16.6% if no motion correction was applied. The contrast recovery values were improved by 37%–156% with motion correction as compared to no motion correction. The image correlation (mean ± standard deviation) between the motion corrected (uncorrected) images of 20 independent noise realizations and static reference was R2 = 0.978 ± 0.007 (0.588 ± 0.010, respectively). Conclusions: Wired active MR microcoil based motion correction significantly improves brain PET quantitative accuracy and image contrast. PMID:24694141

  19. Diagnostic accuracy of CSF Ab42 and florbetapir PET for Alzheimer's disease

    PubMed Central

    Mattsson, Niklas; Insel, Philip S; Landau, Susan; Jagust, William; Donohue, Michael; Shaw, Leslie M; Trojanowski, John Q; Zetterberg, Henrik; Blennow, Kaj; Weiner, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Background Reduced cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) β-amyloid42 (Aβ42) and increased florbetapir positron emission tomography (PET) uptake reflects brain Aβ accumulation. These biomarkers are correlated with each other and altered in Alzheimer's disease (AD), but no study has directly compared their diagnostic performance. Methods We examined healthy controls (CN, N = 169) versus AD dementia patients (N = 118), and stable (sMCI; no dementia, followed up for at least 2 years, N = 165) versus progressive MCI (pMCI; conversion to AD dementia, N = 59). All subjects had florbetapir PET (global and regional; temporal, frontal, parietal, and cingulate) and CSF Aβ42 measurements at baseline. We compared area under the curve (AUC), sensitivity, and specificity (testing a priori and optimized cutoffs). Clinical diagnosis was the reference standard. Results CSF Aβ42 and (global or regional) PET florbetapir did not differ in AUC (CN vs. AD, CSF 84.4%; global PET 86.9%; difference [95% confidence interval] −6.7 to 1.5). CSF Aβ42 and global PET florbetapir did not differ in sensitivity, but PET had greater specificity than CSF in most comparisons. Sixteen CN progressed to MCI and AD (six Aβ negative, seven Aβ positive, and three PET positive but CSF negative). Interpretation The overall diagnostic accuracies of CSF Aβ42 and PET florbetapir were similar, but PET had greater specificity. This was because some CN and sMCI subjects appear pathological using CSF but not using PET, suggesting that low CSF Aβ42 not always translates to cognitive decline or brain Aβ accumulation. Other factors, including costs and side effects, may also be considered when determining the optimal modality for different applications. PMID:25356425

  20. Development of dose delivery verification by PET imaging of photonuclear reactions following high energy photon therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janek, S.; Svensson, R.; Jonsson, C.; Brahme, A.

    2006-11-01

    A method for dose delivery monitoring after high energy photon therapy has been investigated based on positron emission tomography (PET). The technique is based on the activation of body tissues by high energy bremsstrahlung beams, preferably with energies well above 20 MeV, resulting primarily in 11C and 15O but also 13N, all positron-emitting radionuclides produced by photoneutron reactions in the nuclei of 12C, 16O and 14N. A PMMA phantom and animal tissue, a frozen hind leg of a pig, were irradiated to 10 Gy and the induced positron activity distributions were measured off-line in a PET camera a couple of minutes after irradiation. The accelerator used was a Racetrack Microtron at the Karolinska University Hospital using 50 MV scanned photon beams. From photonuclear cross-section data integrated over the 50 MV photon fluence spectrum the predicted PET signal was calculated and compared with experimental measurements. Since measured PET images change with time post irradiation, as a result of the different decay times of the radionuclides, the signals from activated 12C, 16O and 14N within the irradiated volume could be separated from each other. Most information is obtained from the carbon and oxygen radionuclides which are the most abundant elements in soft tissue. The predicted and measured overall positron activities are almost equal (-3%) while the predicted activity originating from nitrogen is overestimated by almost a factor of two, possibly due to experimental noise. Based on the results obtained in this first feasibility study the great value of a combined radiotherapy-PET-CT unit is indicated in order to fully exploit the high activity signal from oxygen immediately after treatment and to avoid patient repositioning. With an RT-PET-CT unit a high signal could be collected even at a dose level of 2 Gy and the acquisition time for the PET could be reduced considerably. Real patient dose delivery verification by means of PET imaging seems to be

  1. Development of dose delivery verification by PET imaging of photonuclear reactions following high energy photon therapy.

    PubMed

    Janek, S; Svensson, R; Jonsson, C; Brahme, A

    2006-11-21

    A method for dose delivery monitoring after high energy photon therapy has been investigated based on positron emission tomography (PET). The technique is based on the activation of body tissues by high energy bremsstrahlung beams, preferably with energies well above 20 MeV, resulting primarily in 11C and 15O but also 13N, all positron-emitting radionuclides produced by photoneutron reactions in the nuclei of 12C, 16O and 14N. A PMMA phantom and animal tissue, a frozen hind leg of a pig, were irradiated to 10 Gy and the induced positron activity distributions were measured off-line in a PET camera a couple of minutes after irradiation. The accelerator used was a Racetrack Microtron at the Karolinska University Hospital using 50 MV scanned photon beams. From photonuclear cross-section data integrated over the 50 MV photon fluence spectrum the predicted PET signal was calculated and compared with experimental measurements. Since measured PET images change with time post irradiation, as a result of the different decay times of the radionuclides, the signals from activated 12C, 16O and 14N within the irradiated volume could be separated from each other. Most information is obtained from the carbon and oxygen radionuclides which are the most abundant elements in soft tissue. The predicted and measured overall positron activities are almost equal (-3%) while the predicted activity originating from nitrogen is overestimated by almost a factor of two, possibly due to experimental noise. Based on the results obtained in this first feasibility study the great value of a combined radiotherapy-PET-CT unit is indicated in order to fully exploit the high activity signal from oxygen immediately after treatment and to avoid patient repositioning. With an RT-PET-CT unit a high signal could be collected even at a dose level of 2 Gy and the acquisition time for the PET could be reduced considerably. Real patient dose delivery verification by means of PET imaging seems to be

  2. MR-guided PET motion correction in LOR space using generic projection data for image reconstruction with PRESTO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheins, J.; Ullisch, M.; Tellmann, L.; Weirich, C.; Rota Kops, E.; Herzog, H.; Shah, N. J.

    2013-02-01

    The BrainPET scanner from Siemens, designed as hybrid MR/PET system for simultaneous acquisition of both modalities, provides high-resolution PET images with an optimum resolution of 3 mm. However, significant head motion often compromises the achievable image quality, e.g. in neuroreceptor studies of human brain. This limitation can be omitted when tracking the head motion and accurately correcting measured Lines-of-Response (LORs). For this purpose, we present a novel method, which advantageously combines MR-guided motion tracking with the capabilities of the reconstruction software PRESTO (PET Reconstruction Software Toolkit) to convert motion-corrected LORs into highly accurate generic projection data. In this way, the high-resolution PET images achievable with PRESTO can also be obtained in presence of severe head motion.

  3. Voxelwise lp-ntPET for detecting localized, transient dopamine release of unknown timing: sensitivity analysis and application to cigarette smoking in the PET scanner.

    PubMed

    Kim, Su Jin; Sullivan, Jenna M; Wang, Shuo; Cosgrove, Kelly P; Morris, Evan D

    2014-09-01

    The "linear parametric neurotransmitter PET" (lp-ntPET) model estimates time variation in endogenous neurotransmitter levels from dynamic PET data. The pattern of dopamine (DA) change over time may be an important element of the brain's response to addictive substances such as cigarettes or alcohol. We have extended the lp-ntPET model from the original region of interest (ROI) - based implementation to be able to apply the model at the voxel level. The resulting endpoint is a dynamic image, or movie, of transient neurotransmitter changes. Simulations were performed to select threshold values to reduce the false positive rate when applied to real (11)C-raclopride PET data. We tested the new voxelwise method on simulated data, and finally, we applied it to (11)C-raclopride PET data of subjects smoking cigarettes in the PET scanner. In simulation, the temporal precision of neurotransmitter response was shown to be similar to that of ROI-based lp-ntPET (standard deviation ∼ 3 min). False positive rates for the voxelwise method were well controlled by combining a statistical threshold (the F-test) with a new spatial (cluster-size) thresholding operation. Sensitivity of detection for the new algorithm was greater than 80% for the case of short-lived DA changes that occur in subregions of the striatum as might be the case with cigarette smoking. Finally, in (11)C-raclopride PET data, DA movies reveal for the first time that different temporal patterns of the DA response to smoking may exist in different subregions of the striatum. These spatiotemporal patterns of neurotransmitter change created by voxelwise lp-ntPET may serve as novel biomarkers for addiction and/or treatment efficacy.

  4. A Student Project to use Geant4 Simulations for a TMS-PET combination

    SciTech Connect

    Altamirano, A.; Chamorro, A.; Hurtado, K.; Romero, C.; Wahl, D.; Zamudio, A.; Rueda, A.; Solano Salinas, C. J.

    2007-10-26

    Geant4 is one of the most powerful tools for MC simulation of detectors and their applications. We present a student project to simulate a combined Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation-Positron Emission Tomography (TMS-PET) system using Geant4. This project aims to study PET-TMS systems by implementing a model for the brain response to the TMS pulse and studying the simulated PET response. In order to increase the speed of the simulations we parallelise our programs and investigate the possibility of using GRID computing.

  5. New targets for the development of PET tracers for imaging neurodegeneration in Alzheimer disease.

    PubMed

    Mach, Robert H

    2014-08-01

    The field of molecular imaging has experienced significant advances in the area of Alzheimer disease (AD), the most significant being the development of PET radiotracers for imaging β-amyloid burden in the brain of individuals at risk for or in the early stages of AD. More recent advances include the development of PET radiotracers for imaging aggregates of hyperphosphorylated tau protein in neurofibrillary tangles, a process that occurs late in the disease process. This article highlights advances in the neurobiology of AD and describes how PET can be used to study the mechanisms of neurodegeneration in AD.

  6. Studies of the brain cannabinoid system using positron emission tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Gatley, S.J.; Volkow, N.D.

    1995-10-01

    Studies using radiolabeled psychoactive drugs in conjunction with positron emission tomography (PET) have permitted the imaging of binding sites in the human brain. Similar studies of marijuana have been hampered by the unsuitability of radiolabeled THC for PET studies, and the current unavailability of other in vivo imaging agents for cannabinoid receptors. Recent developments in medicinal chemistry suggest that a PET radiotracer for cannabinoid receptors will soon become available. This chapter briefly reviews these developments, together with the results of PET studies of the effects of marijuana and other abused drugs on brain metabolism. It also reviews PET studies of cocaine binding sites, to demonstrate the kind of investigations that will be possible when a cannabinoid receptor PET radioligand becomes available.

  7. Structural and functional characterization of TRI3 trichothecene 15-O-acetyltransferase from Fusarium sporotrichioides

    SciTech Connect

    Garvey, Graeme S.; McCormick, Susan P.; Alexander, Nancy J.; Rayment, Ivan

    2009-08-14

    Fusarium head blight is a devastating disease of cereal crops whose worldwide incidence is increasing and at present there is no satisfactory way of combating this pathogen or its associated toxins. There is a wide variety of trichothecene mycotoxins and they all contain a 12,13-epoxytrichothecene skeleton but differ in their substitutions. Indeed, there is considerable variation in the toxin profile across the numerous Fusarium species that has been ascribed to differences in the presence or absence of biosynthetic enzymes and their relative activity. This article addresses the source of differences in acetylation at the C15 position of the trichothecene molecule. Here, we present the in vitro structural and biochemical characterization of TRI3, a 15-O-trichothecene acetyltransferase isolated from F. sporotrichioides and the 'in vivo' characterization of Deltatri3 mutants of deoxynivalenol (DON) producing F. graminearum strains. A kinetic analysis shows that TRI3 is an efficient enzyme with the native substrate, 15-decalonectrin, but is inactive with either DON or nivalenol. The structure of TRI3 complexed with 15-decalonectrin provides an explanation for this specificity and shows that Tri3 and Tri101 (3-O-trichothecene acetyltransferase) are evolutionarily related. The active site residues are conserved across all sequences for TRI3 orthologs, suggesting that differences in acetylation at C15 are not due to differences in Tri3. The tri3 deletion mutant shows that acetylation at C15 is required for DON biosynthesis even though DON lacks a C15 acetyl group. The enzyme(s) responsible for deacetylation at the 15 position of the trichothecene mycotoxins have not been identified.

  8. Supplements for exotic pets.

    PubMed

    Mejia-Fava, Johanna; Colitz, Carmen M H

    2014-09-01

    The use of supplements has become commonplace in an effort to complement traditional therapy and as part of long-term preventive health plans. This article discusses historical and present uses of antioxidants, vitamins, and herbs. By complementing traditional medicine with holistic and alternative nutrition and supplements, the overall health and wellness of exotic pets can be enhanced and balanced. Further research is needed for understanding the strengths and uses of supplements in exotic species. Going back to the animals' origin and roots bring clinicians closer to nature and its healing powers.

  9. Chronic manganism: A long-term follow-up study with a new dopamine terminal biomarker of 18F-FP-(+)-DTBZ (18F-AV-133) brain PET scan.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chu-Yun; Liu, Chi-Hung; Tsao, Eusden; Hsieh, Chia-Ju; Weng, Yi-Hsin; Hsiao, Ing-Tsung; Yen, Tzu-Chen; Lin, Kun-Ju; Huang, Chin-Chang

    2015-01-01

    Recent experimental studies revealed that dopamine neuron dysfunction in chronic manganism may be due to a reduced capacity of dopamine release in the striatum. The findings imposed further difficulty in the differential diagnosis between manganism and IPD. We conducted a long-term clinical follow-up study of 4 manganism patients, applying a new tracer (18)F-9-fluoropropyl-(+)-dihydrotetrabenazine ((18)F-AV-133) with positron emission tomography (PET). Twenty age-matched subjects including 4 manganism patients, 8 idiopathic Parkinson's disease (IPD) patients, and 8 healthy controls were enrolled for comparison. Volumes of interest of the bilateral putamen, caudate nuclei and occipital cortex as the reference region were delineated from individual magnetic resonance images. The clinical features of the manganism patients still progressed, with increased scores on the Unified Parkinson Disease Rating Scale. The (18)F-AV-133 uptake in the IPD patients decreased at the bilateral striatum, compared with the healthy controls. In the manganism patients, there was no decreased uptake of radioactivity involving the bilateral striatum, except Patient 4, who had a stroke with decreased uptake in the right posterior putamen. The (18)F-AV-133 PET finding reveals that nigrostriatum neurons are not degenerated in chronic manganism and can provide a useful neuroimage biomarker in the differential diagnosis.

  10. Recent Developments in PET Instrumentation

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Hao; Levin, Craig S.

    2013-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) is used in the clinic and in vivo small animal research to study molecular processes associated with diseases such as cancer, heart disease, and neurological disorders, and to guide the discovery and development of new treatments. This paper reviews current challenges of advancing PET technology and some of newly developed PET detectors and systems. The paper focuses on four aspects of PET instrumentation: high photon detection sensitivity; improved spatial resolution; depth-of-interaction (DOI) resolution and time-of-flight (TOF). Improved system geometry, novel non-scintillator based detectors, and tapered scintillation crystal arrays are able to enhance the photon detection sensitivity of a PET system. Several challenges for achieving high resolution with standard scintillator-based PET detectors are discussed. Novel detectors with 3-D positioning capability have great potential to be deployed in PET for achieving spatial resolution better than 1 mm, such as cadmium-zinc-telluride (CZT) and position-sensitive avalanche photodiodes (PSAPDs). DOI capability enables a PET system to mitigate parallax error and achieve uniform spatial resolution across the field-of-view (FOV). Six common DOI designs, as well as advantages and limitations of each design, are discussed. The availability of fast scintillation crystals such as LaBr3, and the silicon photomultiplier (SiPM) greatly advances TOF-PET development. Recent instrumentation and initial results of clinical trials are briefly presented. If successful, these technology advances, together with new probe molecules, will substantially enhance the molecular sensitivity of PET and thus increase its role in preclinical and clinical research as well as evaluating and managing disease in the clinic. PMID:20497121

  11. PET IMAGING STUDIES IN DRUG ABUSE RESEARCH.

    SciTech Connect

    Fowler, J.S.; Volkow, N.D.; Ding, Y.S.; Logan, J.; Wang, G.J.

    2001-01-29

    There is overwhelming evidence that addiction is a disease of the brain (Leshner, 1997). Yet public perception that addiction is a reflection of moral weakness or a lack of willpower persists. The insidious consequence of this perception is that we lose sight of the fact that there are enormous medical consequences of addiction including the fact that a large fraction of the total deaths from cancer and heart disease are caused by smoking addiction. Ironically the medical school that educates physicians in addiction medicine and the cancer hospital that has a smoking cessation clinic are vanishingly rare and efforts at harm reduction are frequently met with a public indignation. Meanwhile the number of people addicted to substances is enormous and increasing particularly the addictions to cigarettes and alcohol. It is particularly tragic that addiction usually begins in adolescence and becomes a chronic relapsing problem and there are basically no completely effective treatments. Clearly we need to understand how drugs of abuse affect the brain and we need to be creative in using this information to develop effective treatments. Imaging technologies have played a major role in the conceptualization of addiction as a disease of the brain (Fowler et al., 1998a; Fowler et al., 1999a). New knowledge has been driven by advances in radiotracer design and chemistry and positron emission tomography (PET) instrumentation and the integration of these scientific tools with the tools of biochemistry, pharmacology and medicine. This topic cuts across the medical specialties of neurology, psychiatry, cancer and heart disease because of the high medical, social and economic toll that drugs of abuse, including and especially the legal drugs, cigarettes and alcohol, take on society. In this chapter we will begin by highlighting the important role that chemistry has played in making it possible to quantitatively image the movement of drugs as well as their effects on the human brain

  12. Differentiation of radioligand delivery and binding in the brain: Validation of a two-compartment model for (11C)flumazenil

    SciTech Connect

    Holthoff, V.A.; Koeppe, R.A.; Frey, K.A.; Paradise, A.H.; Kuhl, D.E. )

    1991-09-01

    The authors recently developed a two-compartment, two-parameter tracer kinetic model to estimate the in vivo ligand transport rate (K1) and distribution volume (DV) for the benzodiazepine antagonist (11C)flumazenil (FMZ) as measured by positron emission tomography (PET). The aim of the present study was to validate that this simplified model provides a stable measure of regional benzodiazepine receptor availability even when ligand delivery is altered. Six young normal volunteers underwent two PET studies subsequent to intravenous injections of (11C)FMZ. Each FMZ study was immediately preceded by measurements of CBF following injection of (15O)water. One set of scans (water/FMZ) was acquired under resting conditions and the other set during audiovisual stimulation. Six additional volunteers underwent two FMZ studies under identical resting conditions. Parametric images were analyzed and a comparison of test-retest studies in the stimulation group revealed a significant increase of CBF and K1 of FMZ in the occipital cortex evoked by visual activation, whereas no regional changes were noted for the DV of FMZ. No significant changes were noted for either K1 or DV of FMZ when comparing studies in the rest-rest setting. The results indicate that the use of a simple two-compartment model for the tracer kinetic analysis of (11C)FMZ makes it possible to separate high-affinity binding from altered radio-ligand delivery to the human brain.

  13. PET Imaging of Angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Niu, Gang; Chen, Xiaoyuan

    2009-01-01

    Synopsis Angiogenesis is a highly-controlled process that is dependent on the intricate balance of both promoting and inhibiting factors, involved in various physiological and pathological processes. A comprehensive understanding of the molecular mechanisms that regulate angiogenesis has resulted in the design of new and more effective therapeutic strategies. Due to insufficient sensitivity to detect therapeutic effects by using standard clinical endpoints or by looking for physiological improvement, a multitude of imaging techniques have been developed to assess tissue vasculature on the structural, functional and molecular level. Imaging is expected to provide a novel approach to noninvasively monitor angiogenesis, to optimize the dose of new antiangiogenic agents and to assess the efficacy of therapies directed at modulation of the angiogeni