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Sample records for 15owater injection 15ooxygen

  1. Pegfilgrastim Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... a pre-filled automatic injection device (On-body Injector) to inject subcutaneously (under the skin). If you ... a pre-filled automatic injection device (On-body Injector), the device will usually be applied to your ...

  2. Cabazitaxel Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... injection is used along with prednisone to treat prostate cancer (cancer of a male reproductive organ) that has ... cabazitaxel injection is usually used in men with prostate cancer. If used by pregnant women, cabazitaxel injection can ...

  3. Morphine Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Morphine injection is used to relieve moderate to severe pain. Morphine is in a class of medications called opiate ( ... Morphine injection comes as a solution (liquid) to inject intramuscularly (into a muscle) or intravenously (into a ...

  4. Romidepsin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Romidepsin injection is used to treat cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL; a group of cancers of the ... other medication given by mouth or by injection. Romidepsin injection is in a class of medications called ...

  5. Adalimumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... not improved when treated with other medications, ulcerative colitis (a condition which causes swelling and sores in ... adalimumab injection to treat Crohn's disease or ulcerative colitis, your doctor may tell you to inject the ...

  6. Denosumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... Denosumab injection (Prolia) is also used to treat bone loss in men with prostate cancer and in women with breast cancer who are receiving certain treatments that increase their risk for fractures. Denosumab injection ( ...

  7. Diphenhydramine Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... the nervous system that causes difficulties with movement, muscle control, and balance). Diphenhydramine injection should not be ... solution (liquid) to be injected intramuscularly (into a muscle) or intravenously (into a vein). Your dosing schedule ...

  8. Leucovorin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... red blood cells) caused by low levels of folic acid in the body. Leucovorin injection is also used ... injection is in a class of medications called folic acid analogs. It treats people who are receiving methotrexate ...

  9. Glatiramer Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... course of disease where symptoms flare up from time to time) of multiple sclerosis (MS; a disease in which ... to inject glatiramer, inject it around the same time every day. Follow the directions on your prescription ...

  10. Naltrexone Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Naltrexone injection is used along with counseling and social support to help people who have stopped drinking large ... injection is also used along with counseling and social support to help people who have stopped abusing opiate ...

  11. Estrogen Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... forms of estrogen injection are used to treat hot flushes (hot flashes; sudden strong feelings of heat and sweating) ... If you are using estrogen injection to treat hot flushes, your symptoms should improve within 1 to ...

  12. Cefazolin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Cefazolin injection is also sometimes used for certain penicillin allergic patients who have a heart condition and ... injection is also sometimes used to treat certain penicillin allergic women who are in labor in order ...

  13. Paclitaxel Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... with other medications. Paclitaxel injection manufactured with polyoxyethylated castor oil is used to treat ovarian cancer (cancer that ... cancer, and lung cancer. Paclitaxel injection with polyoxyethylated castor oil is also used to treat Kaposi's sarcoma (a ...

  14. Aripiprazole Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... aripiprazole injection and aripiprazole extended-release injection developed gambling problems or other intense urges or behaviors that ... even if you do not realize that your gambling or any other intense urges or unusual behaviors ...

  15. Testosterone Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... Testopel) are also used to stimulate puberty in males with delayed puberty. Testosterone enanthate (Delatestryl) injection may ... to the growth, development, and functioning of the male sexual organs and typical male characteristics. Testosterone injection ...

  16. Degarelix Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Degarelix injection is used to treat advanced prostate cancer (cancer that begins in the prostate [a male reproductive gland]). Degarelix injection is in a class of medications called gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) ...

  17. Naloxone Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... injection device.The automatic injection device has an electronic voice system that provides step by step directions ... of opiate withdrawal such as body aches, diarrhea, fast heart beat, fever, runny nose, sneezing, sweating, yawning, ...

  18. Cefoxitin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... injection is used to treat infections caused by bacteria including pneumonia and other lower respiratory tract (lung) ... medications called cephamycin antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as cefoxitin injection will not work ...

  19. Doripenem Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... tract, kidney, and abdomen that are caused by bacteria. Doripenem injection is not approved by the Food ... medications called carbapenem antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as doripenem injection will not work ...

  20. Chloramphenicol Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... treat certain types of serious infections caused by bacteria when other antibiotics cannot be used. Chloramphenicol injection ... antibiotics. It works by stopping the growth of bacteria..Antibiotics such as chloramphenicol injection will not work ...

  1. Medroxyprogesterone Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... Medroxyprogesterone subcutaneous injection is also used to treat endometriosis (a condition in which the type of tissue ... parts of the body in women who have endometriosis. Medroxyprogesterone injection is a very effective method of ...

  2. Levoleucovorin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... injection is used to prevent harmful effects of methotrexate (Rheumatrex, Trexall) when methotrexate is used to to treat certain types of ... people who have accidentally received an overdose of methotrexate or similar medications. Levoleucovorin injection is in a ...

  3. Vancomycin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Vancomycin injection is used alone or in combination with other medications to treat certain serious infections such ... infections of the lungs, skin, blood, and bones. Vancomycin injection is in a class of medications called ...

  4. Triptorelin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... response to triptorelin injection. Your blood sugar and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) should be checked regularly.Ask your pharmacist any questions you have about triptorelin injection.It is important for you to keep a written list of all of the prescription and ...

  5. Leuprolide Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... response to leuprolide injection. Your blood sugar and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) should be checked regularly.Ask your pharmacist any questions you have about leuprolide injection.It is important for you to keep a written list of all of the prescription and ...

  6. Musculoskeletal Injection

    PubMed Central

    Wittich, Christopher M.; Ficalora, Robert D.; Mason, Thomas G.; Beckman, Thomas J.

    2009-01-01

    Patients commonly present to primary care physicians with musculoskeletal symptoms. Clinicians certified in internal medicine must be knowledgeable about the diagnosis and management of musculoskeletal diseases, yet they often receive inadequate postgraduate training on this topic. The musculoskeletal problems most frequently encountered in our busy injection practice involve, in decreasing order, the knees, trochanteric bursae, and glenohumeral joints. This article reviews the clinical presentations of these problems. It also discusses musculoskeletal injections for these problems in terms of medications, indications, injection technique, and supporting evidence from the literature. Experience with joint injection and the pharmacological principles described in this article should allow primary care physicians to become comfortable and proficient with musculoskeletal injections. PMID:19720781

  7. Mipomersen Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... the refrigerator at least 30 minutes before you plan to inject it to allow the medication to ... supplements, and herbal products you are taking or plan to take. Be sure to mention the medications ...

  8. Ibritumomab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... is in a class of medications called monoclonal antibodies with radioisotopes. It works by attaching to cancer ... you receive ibritumomab injection, your body may develop antibodies (substances in the blood that help the immune ...

  9. Romiplostim Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... including other medications or surgery to remove the spleen. Romiplostim injection should not be used to treat ... tell your doctor if you have had your spleen removed.tell your doctor if you are pregnant, ...

  10. Golimumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... and swelling and scales on the skin). ulcerative colitis (a condition which causes swelling and sores in ... you are using golimumab injection to treat ulcerative colitis (a condition which causes swelling and sores in ...

  11. Colistimethate Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria that cause infection.Antibiotics such as colistimethate injection will not work for colds, flu, or other viral infections. Taking or using antibiotics when they are not needed increases your risk ...

  12. Doxycycline Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria that cause infections.Antibiotics such as doxycycline injection will not work for colds, flu, or other viral infections. Taking or using antibiotics when they are not needed increases your risk ...

  13. Tigecycline Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... in a person who was not in the hospital), skin infections, and infections of the abdomen (area between the ... that developed in people who were in a hospital or foot infections in people who have diabetes. Tigecycline injection is ...

  14. Thiotepa Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... reproductive organs where eggs are formed), breast, and bladder cancer. It is also used to treat malignant effusions ( ... how you respond to thiotepa.When used for bladder cancer, thiotepa is infused (injected slowly) into your bladder ...

  15. Ferumoxytol Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Ferumoxytol injection is used to treat iron-deficiency anemia (a lower than normal number of red blood cells due to too little iron) in adults with chronic kidney disease (damage to the kidneys which may worsen over ...

  16. Daclizumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... course of disease where symptoms flare up from time to time) of multiple sclerosis (MS; a disease in which ... injections. Before you use daclizumab yourself the first time, read the written instructions that come with it. ...

  17. Olanzapine Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Olanzapine extended-release injection is used to treat schizophrenia (a mental illness that causes disturbed or unusual ... treat episodes of agitation in people who have schizophrenia or in people who have bipolar I disorder ( ...

  18. Risperidone Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... release (long-acting) injection is used to treat schizophrenia (a mental illness that causes disturbed or unusual ... do not already have diabetes. If you have schizophrenia, you are more likely to develop diabetes than ...

  19. Acetaminophen Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... injection is also used in combination with opioid (narcotic) medications to relieve moderate to severe pain. Acetaminophen is in a class of medications called analgesics (pain relievers) and antipyretics (fever reducers). It works by changing ...

  20. Panitumumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... as a solution (liquid) to be given by infusion (injected into a vein). It is usually given ... doctor or nurse in a doctor's office or infusion center. Panitumumab is usually given once every 2 ...

  1. Dolasetron Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Dolasetron injection is used to prevent and treat nausea and vomiting that may occur after surgery. Dolasetron ... should not be used to prevent or treat nausea and vomiting in people receiving cancer chemotherapy medications. ...

  2. Teduglutide Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... syndrome in people who need additional nutrition or fluids from intravenous (IV) therapy. Teduglutide injection is in ... analogs. It works by improving the absorption of fluids and nutrients in the intestines.

  3. Ampicillin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... injection is in a class of medications called penicillins. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as ... and pharmacist if you are allergic to ampicillin; penicillins; cephalosporin antibiotics such as cefaclor, cefadroxil, cefazolin (Ancef, ...

  4. Nafcillin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... injection is in a class of medications called penicillins. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as ... and pharmacist if you are allergic to nafcillin; penicillins; cephalosporin antibiotics such as cefaclor, cefadroxil, cefazolin, cefdinir, ...

  5. Oxacillin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... injection is in a class of medications called penicillins. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as ... and pharmacist if you are allergic to oxacillin; penicillins; cephalosporin antibiotics such as cefaclor, cefadroxil, cefazolin, cefdinir, ...

  6. Lacosamide Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... drowsiness uncontrollable shaking of a part of the body problems with coordination, balance, or walking weakness itching redness, irritation, pain, or discomfort at the injection spot Some side effects can be serious. If you experience any of ...

  7. Epinephrine Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... emergency medical treatment to treat life-threatening allergic reactions caused by insect bites or stings, foods, medications, ... at the first sign of a serious allergic reaction.Use epinephrine injection exactly as directed; do not ...

  8. Vedolizumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... injection may cause serious allergic reactions during an infusion and for several hours afterward. A doctor or ... of the following symptoms during or after your infusion: rash; itching; swelling of the face, eyes, mouth, ...

  9. Mitoxantrone Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... medications to relieve pain in people with advanced prostate cancer who did not respond to other medications. Mitoxantrone ... doses). When mitoxantrone injection is used to treat prostate cancer, it is usually given once every 21 days. ...

  10. Bendamustine Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... leukemia (CLL; a type of cancer of the white blood cells). Bendamustine injection is also used to treat a ... NHL: cancer that begins in a type of white blood cell that normally fights infection) that is slow spreading, ...

  11. Moxifloxacin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... is used to treat certain infections caused by bacteria such as pneumonia; ; and , skin, and abdominal (stomach ... antibiotics called fluoroquinolones. It works by killing the bacteria that cause infections.Antibiotics such as moxifloxacin injection ...

  12. Ceftazidime Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... is used to treat certain infections caused by bacteria including pneumonia and other lower respiratory tract (lung) ... medications called cephalosporin antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as ceftazidime injection will not work ...

  13. Gentamicin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... treat certain serious infections that are caused by bacteria such as meningitis (infection of the membranes that ... medications called aminoglycoside antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as gentamicin injection will not work ...

  14. Meropenem Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... skin and abdominal (stomach area) infections caused by bacteria and meningitis (infection of the membranes that surround ... of medications called antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria that cause infection.Antibiotics such as meropenem injection ...

  15. Tobramycin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... treat certain serious infections that are caused by bacteria such as meningitis (infection of the membranes that ... medications called aminoglycoside antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as tobramycin injection will not work ...

  16. Ceftaroline Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... infections and pneumonia (lung infection) caused by certain bacteria. Ceftaroline is in a class of medications called cephalosporin antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as ceftaroline injection will not work ...

  17. Telavancin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... serious skin infections caused by certain types of bacteria. Telavancin injection is in a class of medications ... antibiotics. It works by stopping the growth of bacteria. Antibiotics will not work for colds, flu, or ...

  18. Daptomycin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... blood infections or serious skin infections caused by bacteria. Daptomycin injection is in a class of medications called cyclic lipopeptide antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria. Antibiotics will not work for treating colds, flu, ...

  19. Aztreonam Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... to treat certain infections that are caused by bacteria, including respiratory tract (including pneumonia and bronchitis), urinary ... abdominal (stomach area) infections, that are caused by bacteria. Aztreonam injection also may be used before, during, ...

  20. Cefepime Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... is used to treat certain infections caused by bacteria including pneumonia, and skin, urinary tract, and kidney ... medications called cephalosporin antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as cefepime injection will not work ...

  1. Amikacin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... treat certain serious infections that are caused by bacteria such as meningitis (infection of the membranes that ... medications called aminoglycoside antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as amikacin injection will not work ...

  2. Ertapenem Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... abdominal (stomach area) infections, that are caused by bacteria. It is also used for the prevention of ... medications called carbapenem antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as ertapenem injection will not work ...

  3. Ciprofloxacin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... Ciprofloxacin injection is also sometimes used to treat cat scratch disease (an infection that may develop after a person is bitten or scratched by a cat), Legionnaires' disease (type of lung infection), and infections of the ...

  4. Ganciclovir Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Ganciclovir injection is used to treat cytomegalovirus (CMV) retinitis (eye infection that can cause blindness) in people whose immune system is not working normally, including those people who have ...

  5. Levofloxacin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... infections. Levofloxacin injection is also used to prevent anthrax (a serious infection that may be spread on ... in people who may have been exposed to anthrax germs in the air and treat and prevent ...

  6. Ibandronate Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... Ibandronate is in a class of medications called bisphosphonates. It works by preventing bone breakdown and increasing ... while receiving this medication.Being treated with a bisphosphonate medication such as ibandronate injection for osteoporosis may ...

  7. Fondaparinux Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... the leg), which can lead to pulmonary embolism (PE; a blood clot in the lung), in people ... with warfarin (Coumadin, Jantoven) to treat DVT or PE. Fondaparinux injection is in a class of medications ...

  8. Pertuzumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... docetaxel (Taxotere) to treat a certain type of breast cancer that has spread to other parts of the body. Pertuzumab injection is in a class of medications called monoclonal antibodies. It works by stopping the growth of cancer ...

  9. Octreotide Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... injection is used to decrease the amount of growth hormone (a natural substance) produced by people with acromegaly (condition in which the body produces too much growth hormone, causing enlargement of the hands, feet, and facial ...

  10. Haloperidol Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... release injection are used to treat schizophrenia (a mental illness that causes disturbed or unusual thinking, loss of ... medications); medications for anxiety, depression, irritable bowel disease, mental illness, motion sickness, Parkinson's disease, seizures, ulcers, or urinary ...

  11. Sumatriptan Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... accompanied by nausea and sensitivity to sound and light). Sumatriptan injection is also used to treat the ... children. Store it at room temperature, away from light, excess heat, and moisture (not in the bathroom). ...

  12. Topotecan Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... organs where eggs are formed) and small cell lung cancer (a type of cancer that begins in the ... topotecan injection is used to treat ovarian or lung cancer, it is usually given once a day for ...

  13. Pembrolizumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... treat a certain type of non-small-cell lung cancer that has spread to nearby tissues or to ... successfully with other medications for non-small-cell lung cancer. Pembrolizumab injection is in a class of medications ...

  14. Oritavancin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... for at least 5 days after receiving oritavancin injection.tell your doctor and pharmacist what other prescription and nonprescription medications, vitamins, nutritional supplements, and herbal products you are taking ...

  15. Cefuroxime Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... pneumonia and other lower respiratory tract (lung) infections; meningitis (infection of the membranes that surround the brain ... hearing loss, if you are being treated for meningitis Cefuroxime injection may cause other side effects. Call ...

  16. Alirocumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... further decrease the amount of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol ('bad cholesterol') in the blood. Alirocumab injection is ... antibodies. It works by blocking the production of LDL cholesterol in the body to decrease the amount of ...

  17. Secukinumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... to see if you need to receive any vaccinations. It is important to have all vaccines appropriate ... treatment with secukinumab injection. Do not have any vaccinations during your treatment without talking to your doctor. ...

  18. Hydromorphone Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... the body, vomiting, diarrhea, or failure to gain weight.tell your doctor if you are breast-feeding.if you ... Hydromorphone injection may cause side effects. Tell your doctor if any of these ... vomiting constipation dry mouth lightheadedness dizziness drowsiness ...

  19. Eculizumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... which too many red blood cells are broken down in the body, so there are not enough healthy cells to bring oxygen to all parts of the body). Eculizumab injection is also used to treat atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome (aHUS; an inherited condition in which small blood ...

  20. Fluconazole Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... injection is used to treat fungal infections, including yeast infections of the mouth, throat, esophagus (tube leading from the mouth to the stomach), abdomen (area between the chest and waist), lungs, blood, and ... to prevent yeast infections in patients who are likely to become infected ...

  1. Tositumomab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... has not improved or that had improved after treatment with other medications, but later returned. Tositumomab injection is in a class of medications called monoclonal antibodies with radioisotopes. It works by attaching to cancer cells and releasing radiation to damage the cancer ...

  2. Lanreotide Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Lanreotide injection is used to treat people with acromegaly (condition in which the body produces too much growth hormone, causing enlargement of the hands, feet, and facial features; joint pain; and other symptoms) who have not successfully, or cannot be treated ...

  3. Eribulin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... tests to check your body's response to eribulin injection.It is important for you to keep a written list of all of the prescription and nonprescription (over-the-counter) medicines you are taking, as well as any products such as vitamins, minerals, or other dietary supplements. You should bring ...

  4. Pegaptanib Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... to 7 days after you receive each pegaptanib injection.It is important for you to keep a written list of all of the prescription and nonprescription (over-the-counter) medicines you are taking, as well as any products such as vitamins, minerals, or other dietary supplements. You should bring ...

  5. Injectable contraception.

    PubMed

    Kaunitz, A M

    1989-06-01

    The most effective, convenient, reversible method of birth control is considered to be long-acting progestogen injections. Used by over 90 countries, Depot medroxy-progesterone acetate (DMPA, Depo-Provera, Upjohn) has yet to be approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. The reluctance of the FDA to approve DMPA and much of the controversy surrounding this method revolve around the results of testing done on animals who were given large doses of the progestogen over a long period of time and developed tumors. However, the large body of research and records on this method that have been compiled over the past 30 years is positive. The injectable method works like oral contraceptives, inhibiting ovulation. Changes in menstruation have been the chief complaint of women who use this method; however, the duration and frequency of spotting and bleeding diminish over time. Other side effects of DMPA and Norethindrone enanthate (NET EN, Noristerat, Schering) are discussed. Also discussed is the history of development and testing for the 2 methods and subdermal implants, specifically Norplant.

  6. Epidural Steroid Injections

    MedlinePlus

    ... Assessment Tools Injection Treatments for Spinal Pain Epidural Steroid Injections Lumbar Zygapophysial (Facet) Joint Injections Surgical Options Nonsurgical Treatments Alternative Medicine Epidural Steroid Injections General Information Why Get an Epidural Steroid ...

  7. Hip joint injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... injected so the provider can see where to place the medicine. The steroid medicine is slowly injected into the joint. After the injection, you will remain on the table for another 5 to 10 minutes or so. ...

  8. Beam Injection into RHIC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, W.; Hahn, H.; Mackay, W. W.; Tsoupas, N.

    1997-05-01

    During the RHIC sextant test in January 1997 beam was injected into a sixth of one of the rings for the first time. We describe the injection zone and its bottlenecks, the application program to steer the beam and the injection kickers. We report on the commissioning of the injection systems and on measurements of the kickers.

  9. Slit injection device

    DOEpatents

    Alger, Terry W.; Schlitt, Leland G.; Bradley, Laird P.

    1976-06-15

    A laser cavity electron beam injection device provided with a single elongated slit window for passing a suitably shaped electron beam and means for varying the current density of the injected electron beam.

  10. Deoxycholic Acid Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Deoxycholic acid injection is used to improve the appearance and profile of moderate to severe submental fat ('double chin'; fatty tissue located under the chin). Deoxycholic acid injection is in a class of medications called ...

  11. Aminocaproic Acid Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Aminocaproic acid injection is used to control bleeding that occurs when blood clots are broken down too quickly. This ... the baby is ready to be born). Aminocaproic acid injection is also used to control bleeding in ...

  12. Calcitonin Salmon Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Calcitonin salmon injection is used to treat osteoporosis in postmenopausal women. Osteoporosis is a disease that causes bones to weaken and break more easily. Calcitonin salmon injection is also used to ...

  13. Sodium Ferric Gluconate Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Sodium ferric gluconate injection is used to treat iron-deficiency anemia (a lower than normal number of ... are also receiving the medication epoetin (Epogen, Procrit). Sodium ferric gluconate injection is in a class of ...

  14. Rich catalytic injection

    DOEpatents

    Veninger, Albert

    2008-12-30

    A gas turbine engine includes a compressor, a rich catalytic injector, a combustor, and a turbine. The rich catalytic injector includes a rich catalytic device, a mixing zone, and an injection assembly. The injection assembly provides an interface between the mixing zone and the combustor. The injection assembly can inject diffusion fuel into the combustor, provides flame aerodynamic stabilization in the combustor, and may include an ignition device.

  15. Beam injection into RHIC

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, W.; Hahn, H.; MacKay, W.W.; Satogata, T.; Tsoupas, N.; Zhang, W.

    1997-07-01

    During the RHIC sextant test in January 1997 beam was injected into a sixth of one of the rings for the first time. The authors describe the injection zone and its bottlenecks. They report on the commissioning of the injection system, on beam based measurements of the kickers and the application program to steer the beam.

  16. Strategies for safe injections.

    PubMed Central

    Battersby, A.; Feilden, R.; Stoeckel, P.; Da Silva, A.; Nelson, C.; Bass, A.

    1999-01-01

    In 1998, faced with growing international concern, WHO set out an approach for achieving injection safety that encompassed all elements from patients' expectations and doctors' prescribing habits to waste disposal. This article follows that lead and describes the implications of the approach for two injection technologies: sterilizable and disposable. It argues that focusing on any single technology diverts attention from the more fundamental need for health services to develop their own comprehensive strategies for safe injections. National health authorities will only be able to ensure that injections are administered safely if they take an approach that encompasses the whole system, and choose injection technologies that fit their circumstances. PMID:10680247

  17. Epidural injections for back pain

    MedlinePlus

    ESI; Spinal injection for back pain; Back pain injection; Steroid injection - epidural; Steroid injection - back ... pillow under your stomach. If this position causes pain, you either sit up or lie on your ...

  18. An unfortunate injection.

    PubMed

    Shah, Bhavik Sandip; Yarbrough, Chase; Price, Amy; Biswas, Rakesh

    2016-01-01

    Intramuscular injection has been used to administer medications for more than a hundred years. However, despite our profession's long experience with intramuscular administration, preventable complications such as injection nerve palsies are still prevalent in developing countries. Injections account for one-fifth of all traumatic nerve injuries. These injuries largely occur due to indiscriminate use of intramuscular injections for treating common illnesses, frequently by unlicensed or undertrained practitioners administering unnecessary treatment to impoverished patients. The sciatic nerve is the most commonly injured, and frequently the resulting muscle weakness and associated disability are irreversible. This case report includes a video of a patient with foot drop 6 weeks after gluteal intramuscular injection. Such injuries can be prevented by proper awareness and training, the implementation of safer injection techniques, and quality assurance methods. PMID:26931130

  19. Preparing injectable medicines safely.

    PubMed

    Beaney, Alison M; Black, Anne

    Risks to patients are greater when injectable medicines are prepared in clinical areas (wards, theatres, clinics or even patients' homes), rather than provided in ready-to-use form. This article describes the risks involved in preparing injectable medicines in such areas and outlines key principles to ensure they are prepared safely. It also suggests that high-risk injectable medicines be provided in ready-to-use form, either in house, by pharmacy or by pharmaceutical companies. PMID:22359855

  20. Botulinum toxin injection - larynx

    MedlinePlus

    Injection laryngoplasty; Botox-larynx: spasmodic dysphonia-BTX; Essential voice tremor (EVT)-btx; Glottic insufficiency; Percutaneous electromyography-guided botulinum toxin treatment; Percutaneous indirect laryngoscopy- ...

  1. Glenohumeral Joint Injections

    PubMed Central

    Gross, Christopher; Dhawan, Aman; Harwood, Daniel; Gochanour, Eric; Romeo, Anthony

    2013-01-01

    Context: Intra-articular injections into the glenohumeral joint are commonly performed by musculoskeletal providers, including orthopaedic surgeons, family medicine physicians, rheumatologists, and physician assistants. Despite their frequent use, there is little guidance for injectable treatments to the glenohumeral joint for conditions such as osteoarthritis, adhesive capsulitis, and rheumatoid arthritis. Evidence Acquisition: We performed a comprehensive review of the available literature on glenohumeral injections to help clarify the current evidence-based practice and identify deficits in our understanding. We searched MEDLINE (1948 to December 2011 [week 1]) and EMBASE (1980 to 2011 [week 49]) using various permutations of intra-articular injections AND (corticosteroid OR hyaluronic acid) and (adhesive capsulitis OR arthritis). Results: We identified 1 and 7 studies that investigated intra-articular corticosteroid injections for the treatment of osteoarthritis and adhesive capsulitis, respectively. Two and 3 studies investigated the use of hyaluronic acid in osteoarthritis and adhesive capsulitis, respectively. One study compared corticosteroids and hyaluronic acid injections in the treatment of osteoarthritis, and another discussed adhesive capsulitis. Conclusion: Based on existing studies and their level of evidence, there is only expert opinion to guide corticosteroid injection for osteoarthritis as well as hyaluronic acid injection for osteoarthritis and adhesive capsulitis. PMID:24427384

  2. Penicillin G Procaine Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Duracillin A-S ® ... Pfizerpen A-S® ... injection should not be used to treat gonorrhea (a sexually transmitted disease) or early in the treatment ... serious infections. Penicillin G procaine injection is in a class of medications called penicillins. It works by ...

  3. Gas injected vacuum switch

    DOEpatents

    Hardin, K. Dan

    1977-01-01

    The disclosure relates to a gas injected vacuum switch comprising a housing having an interior chamber, a conduit for evacuating the interior chamber, within the chamber an anode and a cathode spaced from the anode, and a detonator for injecting electrically conductive gas into the chamber between the anode and the cathode to provide a current path therebetween.

  4. [Intra-articular injections].

    PubMed

    Chapelle, Ch

    2015-09-01

    It is not unusual for a specialist or general practitioner to be presented with a pathology which necessitates the use of an intra-articular injection of corticosteroids, hyaluronic acid or a local anaesthetic. It would seem to be interesting to update and to precise the techniques and methods of intraarticular injections which have appeared in recent international publications, when we know that 30 % of the injections given into the knee and so called "dry" are incorrect and, therefore, inefficient. The indication of an articular injection depends, firstly, on the diagnosis which should be done with great care; after which should be an objective analysis complete with secondary effects linked to both the injection and the product used. The conditions of asepsis, the choice of needles and quantities of the injection and even the ways of the injections should be reviewed in detail. The last studies clearly question the secondary effects of the cartilage degradations of the cortisone given as an intra-articular injection and shows its efficiency on the pain and inflammatory phenomonen in osteoarthritis. Studies on hyaluronic acid are often contradictory going from a modest result to an important pain relief but it is necessary to be aware that the objective criteria are difficult to interpret. The use of local anaesthetics in intra-articular is limited by the few indications in view of the major risk of aggravating the pre-existing lesions by the disappearing signs of pain.

  5. Injection rate control cam

    SciTech Connect

    Perr, J.P.; Liang, E.; Yu, R.C.; Ghuman, A.S.

    1990-10-16

    This patent describes a cam for controlling the injection rate of fuel in a fuel injection system of an engine. The fuel injection system including a cyclically operating unit injector having a body, an injector plunger mounted for reciprocating movement in the injector body between an advanced position and a retracted portion to pump into the engine during each cycle a variable quantity of fuel up to a maximum quantity under rated engine conditions, and a drive train for converting rotational movement of the cam into reciprocating movement of the pumping plunger depending on the profile of the cam. The cam profile comprises at least a plunger retraction segment and a plunger advancement segment for controlling the velocity if injector plunger retraction and advancement, respectively, the plunger advancement segment including a pre-injection subsequent shaped to cause an initial quantity of fuel to be injected into the engine during each cycle at rated engine conditions while the pre-injection subsegment is in contact with the drive train, and an injection subsegment following the pre-injection subsegment.

  6. Health Instruction Packages: Injections.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunkleman, Ellie; And Others

    Text, illustrations, and exercises are utilized in this set of four learning modules designed to instruct nursing students in techniques and equipment utilized for intramuscular injections. The first module, "Equipment for Intramuscular Injections" by Ellie Dunkleman, presents guidelines for selecting needles of the proper length and gauge…

  7. THE RHIC INJECTION SYSTEM.

    SciTech Connect

    FISCHER,W.; GLENN,J.W.; MACKAY,W.W.; PTITSIN,V.; ROBINSON,T.G.; TSOUPAS,N.

    1999-03-29

    The RHIC injection system has to transport beam from the AGS-to-RHIC transfer line onto the closed orbits of the RHIC Blue and Yellow rings. This task can be divided into three problems. First, the beam has to be injected into either ring. Second, once injected the beam needs to be transported around the ring for one turn. Third, the orbit must be closed and coherent beam oscillations around the closed orbit should be minimized. We describe our solutions for these problems and report on system tests conducted during the RHIC Sextant test performed in 1997. The system will be fully commissioned in 1999.

  8. [Intravitreal injections of corticoids].

    PubMed

    Demols, P

    2007-01-01

    Intravitreal injections of triamcinolone acetonide are today widely performed as a therapeutic tool for a large variety of ocular diseases. The risk of toxicity of the product and its vehicle is quite real and is still at the center of investigations. Complications related to the substance and the technique of injections are already well-known (intraocular pressure rise, cataract, endophthalmitis, pseudo-endophthalmitis, vitreous haemorrhage and retinal detachment). Carefulness and rigor in the indication, realization and follow-up of these injections are therefore mandatory.

  9. OnabotulinumtoxinA Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... onabotulinumtoxinA injection may cause loss of strength or muscle weakness all over the body or impaired vision. If you have any of these symptoms, do not drive a car, operate machinery, or do other dangerous activities.

  10. AbobotulinumtoxinA Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... abobotulinumtoxinA injection may cause loss of strength or muscle weakness all over the body; blurred vision; or drooping eyelids. If you have any of these symptoms, do not drive a car, operate machinery, or do other dangerous activities.

  11. IncobotulinumtoxinA Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... incobotulinumtoxinA injection may cause loss of strength or muscle weakness all over the body or impaired vision. If you have any of these symptoms, do not drive a car, operate machinery, or do other dangerous activities.if ...

  12. RimabotulinumtoxinB Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... rimabotulinumtoxinB injection may cause loss of strength or muscle weakness all over the body or impaired vision. If you have any of these symptoms, do not drive a car, operate machinery, or do other dangerous activities.

  13. Urinary incontinence - injectable implant

    MedlinePlus

    ... deficiency repair; ISD repair; Injectable bulking agents for stress urinary incontinence ... RR, Blaivas JM, Gormley EA, et al. Female Stress Urinary Incontinence Update Panel of the American Urological Association Education ...

  14. Mouse bladder wall injection.

    PubMed

    Fu, Chi-Ling; Apelo, Charity A; Torres, Baldemar; Thai, Kim H; Hsieh, Michael H

    2011-07-12

    Mouse bladder wall injection is a useful technique to orthotopically study bladder phenomena, including stem cell, smooth muscle, and cancer biology. Before starting injections, the surgical area must be cleaned with soap and water and antiseptic solution. Surgical equipment must be sterilized before use and between each animal. Each mouse is placed under inhaled isoflurane anesthesia (2-5% for induction, 1-3% for maintenance) and its bladder exposed by making a midline abdominal incision with scissors. If the bladder is full, it is partially decompressed by gentle squeezing between two fingers. The cell suspension of interest is intramurally injected into the wall of the bladder dome using a 29 or 30 gauge needle and 1 cc or smaller syringe. The wound is then closed using wound clips and the mouse allowed to recover on a warming pad. Bladder wall injection is a delicate microsurgical technique that can be mastered with practice.

  15. Sipuleucel-T Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... doctor or nurse in a doctor's office or infusion center. It is usually given once every 2 ... injection may cause serious allergic reactions during an infusion and for about 30 minutes afterwards. A doctor ...

  16. Interferon Alfacon-1 Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... ordered interferon alfacon-1 to help treat your hepatitis C infection. The drug will be injected under your ... a synthetic interferon that helps to prevent the hepatitis C virus from growing inside your body. This medication ...

  17. Ferric Carboxymaltose Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... carboxymaltose injection is used to treat iron-deficiency anemia (a lower than normal number of red blood ... medication is also used to treat iron deficiency anemia in adults with chronic kidney disease (damage to ...

  18. Penicillin G Benzathine Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... to treat and prevent certain infections caused by bacteria. Penicillin G benzathine injection is in a class of antibiotics called penicillins. It works by killing bacteria that cause infections.Antibiotics such as penicillin G ...

  19. Corticotropin, Repository Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... position or distract the child with a noisy toy while you are injecting the medication. You can ... recognizing reality vision problems excessive tiredness increased thirst ... the Food and Drug Administration's (FDA) MedWatch Adverse Event Reporting ...

  20. Supersonic Pulsed Injection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cutler, A. D.; Harding, G. C.; Diskin, G. S.

    2001-01-01

    An injector has been developed to provide high-speed high-frequency (order 10 kHz) pulsed a supersonic crossflow. The injector nozzle is formed between the fixed internal surface of the nozzle and a freely rotating three- or four-sided wheel embedded within the device. Flow-induced rotation of the wheel causes the nozzle throat to open and close at a frequency proportional to the speed of sound of the injected gas. Measurements of frequency and mass flow rate as a function of supply pressure are discussed for various injector designs. Preliminary results are presented for wall-normal injection of helium into a Mach-2 ducted airflow. The data include schlieren images in the injectant plume in a plane normal to the flow, downstream of injection.

  1. Iron Sucrose Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... often you receive iron sucrose injection and your total number of doses based on your condition and ... hands or feet; swelling of the hands, feet, ankles, or lower legs; loss of consciousness; or seizures. ...

  2. Premixed direct injection disk

    SciTech Connect

    York, William David; Ziminsky, Willy Steve; Johnson, Thomas Edward; Lacy, Benjamin; Zuo, Baifang; Uhm, Jong Ho

    2013-04-23

    A fuel/air mixing disk for use in a fuel/air mixing combustor assembly is provided. The disk includes a first face, a second face, and at least one fuel plenum disposed therebetween. A plurality of fuel/air mixing tubes extend through the pre-mixing disk, each mixing tube including an outer tube wall extending axially along a tube axis and in fluid communication with the at least one fuel plenum. At least a portion of the plurality of fuel/air mixing tubes further includes at least one fuel injection hole have a fuel injection hole diameter extending through said outer tube wall, the fuel injection hole having an injection angle relative to the tube axis. The invention provides good fuel air mixing with low combustion generated NOx and low flow pressure loss translating to a high gas turbine efficiency, that is durable, and resistant to flame holding and flash back.

  3. Tevatron injection timing

    SciTech Connect

    Saritepe, S.; Annala, G.

    1993-06-01

    Bunched beam transfer from one accelerator to another requires coordination and synchronization of many ramped devices. During collider operation timing issues are more complicated since one has to switch from proton injection devices to antiproton injection devices. Proton and antiproton transfers are clearly distinct sequences since protons and antiprotons circulate in opposite directions in the Main Ring (MR) and in the Tevatron. The time bumps are different, the kicker firing delays are different, the kickers and lambertson magnets are different, etc. Antiprotons are too precious to be used for tuning purposes, therefore protons are transferred from the Tevatron back into the Main Ring, tracing the path of antiprotons backwards. This tuning operation is called ``reverse injection.`` Previously, the reverse injection was handled in one supercycle. One batch of uncoalesced bunches was injected into the Tevatron and ejected after 40 seconds. Then the orbit closure was performed in the MR. In the new scheme the lambertson magnets have to be moved and separator polarities have to be switched, activities that cannot be completed in one supercycle. Therefore, the reverse injection sequence was changed. This involved the redefinition of TVBS clock event $D8 as MRBS $D8 thus making it possible to inject 6 proton batches (or coalesced bunches) and eject them one at a time on command, performing orbit closure each time in the MR. Injection devices are clock event driven. The TCLK is used as the reference clock. Certain TCLK events are triggered by the MR beam synchronized clock (MRBS) events. Some delays are measured in terms of MRBS ticks and MR revolutions. See Appendix A for a brief description of the beam synchronized clocks.

  4. Injections--how safe.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Saurabh

    2005-04-01

    Injection, is a skin-piercing event performed by a syringe and needle with the purpose of introducing a curative substance or vaccine in a patient. According to WHO, safe injection is one which does not harm to the recepient, does not expose the health worker to any risk and does not result in waste that is dangerous for the community. To achieve this injection should be prepared on a clean workspace, provider should clean his hands appropriately, sterility of the syringe and needle to be maintained, skin of the recipient should be cleaned and above all sharps waste should be managed appropriately. Common danger of unsafe injection is infection. Most medication used in primary care can be administered orally. So firstly the behaviour of healthcare providers and patients must be changed so as to decrease overuse of injections, secondly provision of sufficient quantities of appropriate injection equipment and infection control supplies should be made available and thirdly a sharp waste management system should be set up. PMID:16173426

  5. Fuel injection nozzle

    SciTech Connect

    Kato, M.; Tojo, S.; Arai, K.

    1986-07-22

    A fuel injection nozzle is described connected to a fuel injection pump to inject fuel into a combustion chamber of an internal combustion engine consisting of: a nozzle housing defining therein a fuel sump chamber, an injection hole communicating with the sump chamber and opened at the outer surface of the nozzle housing, a stepped cylinder bore having a smaller diameter bore section and a larger diameter bore section and a fuel passage communicating at one end with the sump chamber and at the other end with the smaller diameter bore section of the stepped cylinder bore; a stepped plunger fitted in the stepped cylinder bore and having a smaller diameter plunger section fitted into the smaller diameter bore section and a larger diameter plunger section fitted into the larger diameter bore section in which the smaller diameter bore section together with the end face of the smaller diameter plunger section defines a pump chamber communicating with the fuel passage and the larger diameter bore section together with the end face of the larger diameter plunger section defines a main fuel chamber into which a main fuel is supplied from the fuel injection pump; auxiliary fuel supply means for supplying an auxiliary fuel into the sump chamber and pump chamber through the fuel passage; valve means for opening and closing an injection hole; communication means for permitting the main fuel chamber to communicate with the fuel passage when the main fuel is supplied from the injection pump into the main fuel chamber to cause the stepped plunger to be moved a predetermined distance in a direction in which the auxiliary fuel in the pump chamber is pressurized.

  6. Injectable Multiple Sclerosis Medications

    PubMed Central

    Tran, Zung Vu

    2012-01-01

    Although injection-site reactions (ISRs) occur with US Food and Drug Administration–approved injectable disease-modifying therapies (DMTs) for multiple sclerosis, there are currently few reports of real-world data on ISR management strategies or possible correlations between ISRs and patient demographics, disease characteristics, and missed injections. Patient-reported data on the use of DMTs, patient demographic and disease characteristics, missed injections, and ISR reduction strategies were collected via e-mail, a patient registry (www.ms-cam.org), and a Web-based survey. Of the 1380 respondents, 1201 (87%) indicated that they had used injectable DMTs, of whom 377 (31%) had used intramuscular (IM) interferon beta-1a (IFNβ-1a), 172 (14%) had used subcutaneous (SC) IFNβ-1a, 183 (15%) had used SC IFNβ-1b, and 469 (39%) had used glatiramer acetate (GA). The majority of respondents were older (73% were ≥40 years), female (79%), married or living with a partner (72%), white (94%), and nonsmoking (82%). Injection-site reaction incidence, grouped according to severity, varied among DMTs, with IM IFNβ-1a causing significantly (P < .001) fewer mild, moderate, or severe ISRs than the other therapies. Female sex and younger age were significantly (P < .05) associated with more moderate ISRs among users of IM IFNβ-1a, SC IFNβ-1b, and GA. Nonwhites reported severe ISRs more often than whites. For all DMTs injection-site massage and avoidance of sensitive sites were the most frequently used strategies to minimize ISRs. These data may help identify patients with characteristics associated with a higher risk for ISRs, allowing health-care professionals to provide anticipatory guidance to patients at risk for decreased adherence or discontinuation. PMID:24453732

  7. Syringe-injectable electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jia; Fu, Tian-Ming; Cheng, Zengguang; Hong, Guosong; Zhou, Tao; Jin, Lihua; Duvvuri, Madhavi; Jiang, Zhe; Kruskal, Peter; Xie, Chong; Suo, Zhigang; Fang, Ying; Lieber, Charles M.

    2015-07-01

    Seamless and minimally invasive three-dimensional interpenetration of electronics within artificial or natural structures could allow for continuous monitoring and manipulation of their properties. Flexible electronics provide a means for conforming electronics to non-planar surfaces, yet targeted delivery of flexible electronics to internal regions remains difficult. Here, we overcome this challenge by demonstrating the syringe injection (and subsequent unfolding) of sub-micrometre-thick, centimetre-scale macroporous mesh electronics through needles with a diameter as small as 100 μm. Our results show that electronic components can be injected into man-made and biological cavities, as well as dense gels and tissue, with >90% device yield. We demonstrate several applications of syringe-injectable electronics as a general approach for interpenetrating flexible electronics with three-dimensional structures, including (1) monitoring internal mechanical strains in polymer cavities, (2) tight integration and low chronic immunoreactivity with several distinct regions of the brain, and (3) in vivo multiplexed neural recording. Moreover, syringe injection enables the delivery of flexible electronics through a rigid shell, the delivery of large-volume flexible electronics that can fill internal cavities, and co-injection of electronics with other materials into host structures, opening up unique applications for flexible electronics.

  8. Syringe-injectable electronics.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jia; Fu, Tian-Ming; Cheng, Zengguang; Hong, Guosong; Zhou, Tao; Jin, Lihua; Duvvuri, Madhavi; Jiang, Zhe; Kruskal, Peter; Xie, Chong; Suo, Zhigang; Fang, Ying; Lieber, Charles M

    2015-07-01

    Seamless and minimally invasive three-dimensional interpenetration of electronics within artificial or natural structures could allow for continuous monitoring and manipulation of their properties. Flexible electronics provide a means for conforming electronics to non-planar surfaces, yet targeted delivery of flexible electronics to internal regions remains difficult. Here, we overcome this challenge by demonstrating the syringe injection (and subsequent unfolding) of sub-micrometre-thick, centimetre-scale macroporous mesh electronics through needles with a diameter as small as 100 μm. Our results show that electronic components can be injected into man-made and biological cavities, as well as dense gels and tissue, with >90% device yield. We demonstrate several applications of syringe-injectable electronics as a general approach for interpenetrating flexible electronics with three-dimensional structures, including (1) monitoring internal mechanical strains in polymer cavities, (2) tight integration and low chronic immunoreactivity with several distinct regions of the brain, and (3) in vivo multiplexed neural recording. Moreover, syringe injection enables the delivery of flexible electronics through a rigid shell, the delivery of large-volume flexible electronics that can fill internal cavities, and co-injection of electronics with other materials into host structures, opening up unique applications for flexible electronics.

  9. Fuel injection pump

    SciTech Connect

    Hishinuma, O.; Masuda, A.; Ohmori, T.; Miyaki, M.; Takemoto, E.

    1987-06-09

    This patent describes a fuel injection pump for an internal combustion engine comprising: a housing having a cylindrical inner surface; a shaft having a portion disposed in rotatably sliding engagement with the cylindrical inner surface and having a first axial bore and a second radial bore therein; at least one pumping plunger slidably disposed in the second radial bore to cooperate therewith to define a compression chamber; a pumping plunger is adapted to be moved in the second radial bore to vary the volume of the compression chamber; an injection plunger slidably disposed in the first axial, bore to cooperate in defining the first and second pressure chambers separated from each other by the injection plunger.

  10. Water Injected Turbomachinery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hendricks, R. C.; Shouse, D. T.; Roquemore, W. M.

    2005-01-01

    From antiquity, water has been a source of cooling, lubrication, and power for energy transfer devices. More recent applications in gas turbines demonstrate an added facet, emissions control. Fogging gas turbine inlets or direct injection of water into gas turbine combustors, decreases NOx and increases power. Herein we demonstrate that injection of water into the air upstream of the combustor reduces NOx by factors up to three in a natural gas fueled Trapped Vortex Combustor (TVC) and up to two in a liquid JP-8 fueled (TVC) for a range in water/fuel and fuel/air ratios.

  11. Iron Dextran Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... called iron replacement products. It works by replenishing iron stores so that the body can make more red blood cells. ... and order certain lab tests to check your body's response to iron dextran injection.Before having any laboratory test, tell ...

  12. More than just someone to inject drugs with: injecting within primary injection partnerships

    PubMed Central

    Morris, Meghan D.; Bates, Anna; Andrew, Erin; Hahn, Judith; Page, Kimberly; Maher, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    Background Studies have shown intimate injection partners engage in higher rates of syringe and injecting equipment sharing. We examined the drug use context and development of injection drug use behaviors within intimate injection partnerships. Methods In-depth interviews (n=18) were conducted with both members of nine injecting partnerships in Sydney, Australia. Content analysis identified key domains related to the reasons for injecting with a primary injection partner and development of drug injection patterns. Main Findings Most partnerships (n=5) were also sexual; three were blood-relatives and one a friend dyad. The main drug injected was heroin (66%) with high rates of recent sharing behaviors (88%) reported within dyads. Injecting within a primary injection partnership provided perceived protection against overdose events, helped reduce stress, increased control over when, where, and how drugs were used, and promoted the development of an injecting pattern where responsibilities could be shared. Unique to injecting within primary injection partnerships was the social connection and companionship resulted in a feeling of fulfillment while also blinding one from recognizing risky behavior. Conclusions Findings illuminated the tension between protection and risks within primary injection partnerships. Primary injection partnerships provide a potential platform to expand risk reduction strategies. PMID:26460140

  13. Injection-controlled laser resonator

    DOEpatents

    Chang, J.J.

    1995-07-18

    A new injection-controlled laser resonator incorporates self-filtering and self-imaging characteristics with an efficient injection scheme. A low-divergence laser signal is injected into the resonator, which enables the injection signal to be converted to the desired resonator modes before the main laser pulse starts. This injection technique and resonator design enable the laser cavity to improve the quality of the injection signal through self-filtering before the main laser pulse starts. The self-imaging property of the present resonator reduces the cavity induced diffraction effects and, in turn, improves the laser beam quality. 5 figs.

  14. Injection-controlled laser resonator

    DOEpatents

    Chang, Jim J.

    1995-07-18

    A new injection-controlled laser resonator incorporates self-filtering and self-imaging characteristics with an efficient injection scheme. A low-divergence laser signal is injected into the resonator, which enables the injection signal to be converted to the desired resonator modes before the main laser pulse starts. This injection technique and resonator design enable the laser cavity to improve the quality of the injection signal through self-filtering before the main laser pulse starts. The self-imaging property of the present resonator reduces the cavity induced diffraction effects and, in turn, improves the laser beam quality.

  15. Injectable nanocarriers for biodetoxification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leroux, Jean-Christophe

    2007-11-01

    Hospitals routinely treat patients suffering from overdoses of drugs or other toxic chemicals as a result of illicit drug consumption, suicide attempts or accidental exposures. However, for many life-threatening situations, specific antidotes are not available and treatment is largely based on emptying the stomach, administering activated charcoal or other general measures of intoxication support. A promising strategy for managing such overdoses is to inject nanocarriers that can extract toxic agents from intoxicated tissues. To be effective, the nanocarriers must remain in the blood long enough to sequester the toxic components and/or their metabolites, and the toxin bound complex must also remain stable until it is removed from the bloodstream. Here, we discuss the principles that govern the use of injectable nanocarriers in biodetoxification and review the pharmacological performance of a number of different approaches.

  16. Fuel injection valve connection

    SciTech Connect

    Eshleman, E.S.; Field, M.J.; Penwright, J.L.

    1987-09-15

    A fuel injection valve connection is described which consists of a fuel injection valve having a cylindrical inlet fitting. The fitting has a threaded internal surface and a cylindrical external surface. A fuel connector has a projection with a threaded external surface that mates with the threaded internal surface of the fitting. The connector also has a sleeve with a cylindrical internal surface surrounding the fitting and an O-ring sealingly engaging the internal surface of the sleeve and the external surface of the fitting, whereby the valve may be rotated relative to the connector without breaking the sealing engagement between the valve and the connector, and wherein the connector also has a tab engageable with the injector to prevent unthreading of the valve from the connector.

  17. INJECTION-MOLDING APPARATUS

    DOEpatents

    Lobell, G.M.

    1958-02-11

    This patent is drawn to an injection molding apparatus for producing a tube closed at one end wherein the normally unsupported end of the core located in the cavity during the injection of the molten material to fill the space between the core and cavity wall, which supporting means is automatically removed from operation during the forming of the closed end of the tube. This support means is a plug extending through the end of the core into a recess in the bottom of the cavity where the closed end of the tube is to be formed. The plug is spring pressed into said recess and is forced out of the recess by a slidable bushing at the top of the cavity which is moved against the force of the spring by the molten material when it fills the uppormost open end portion of the cavity, thereby permitting the closed end of the tube to be formed.

  18. Magnetron injection gun scaling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawson, W.

    1988-04-01

    A set of tradeoff equations was simplified to obtain scaling laws for magnetron injection guns (MIGs). The constraints are chosen to examine the maximum-peak-power capabilities of MIGs. The scaling laws are compared with exact solutions of the design equations and are supported by MIG simulations in which each MIG is designed to double the beam power of an existing design by adjusting one of the four fundamental parameters.

  19. Spear 3 Injection Kicker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sebek, J.; Arnett, D.; Langton, J.; Pappas, C.

    2002-08-01

    The design of the SPEAR 3 injection kicker system is presented. This system will include three kicker magnets and their associated pulsers. The magnet design is based on the DELTA kicker magnets, which present a low RF impedance to the beam, and are relatively straightforward to construct. The pulsers use cascaded IGBT stages that are based on the modulator pulsers developed by a SLAC/LLNL collaboration for the NLC. Design considerations and the results of prototype tests will be discussed.

  20. Injection-induced earthquakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ellsworth, William L.

    2013-01-01

    Earthquakes in unusual locations have become an important topic of discussion in both North America and Europe, owing to the concern that industrial activity could cause damaging earthquakes. It has long been understood that earthquakes can be induced by impoundment of reservoirs, surface and underground mining, withdrawal of fluids and gas from the subsurface, and injection of fluids into underground formations. Injection-induced earthquakes have, in particular, become a focus of discussion as the application of hydraulic fracturing to tight shale formations is enabling the production of oil and gas from previously unproductive formations. Earthquakes can be induced as part of the process to stimulate the production from tight shale formations, or by disposal of wastewater associated with stimulation and production. Here, I review recent seismic activity that may be associated with industrial activity, with a focus on the disposal of wastewater by injection in deep wells; assess the scientific understanding of induced earthquakes; and discuss the key scientific challenges to be met for assessing this hazard.

  1. Snowplow Injection Front Effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, T. E.; Chandler, M. O.; Buzulukova, N.; Collinson, G. A.; Kepko, E. L.; Garcia-Sage, K. S.; Henderson, M. G.; Sitnov, M. I.

    2013-01-01

    As the Polar spacecraft apogee precessed through the magnetic equator in 2001, Polar encountered numerous substorm events in the region between geosynchronous orbit and 10 RE geocentric distance; most of them in the plasma sheet boundary layers. Of these, a small number was recorded near the neutral sheet in the evening sector. Polar/Thermal Ion Dynamics Experiment provides a unique perspective on the lowest-energy ion plasma, showing that these events exhibited a damped wavelike character, initiated by a burst of radially outward flow transverse to the local magnetic field at approximately 80 km/s. They then exhibit strongly damped cycles of inward/outward flow with a period of several minutes. After one or two cycles, they culminated in a hot plasma electron and ion injection, quite similar to those observed at geosynchronous orbit. Cold plasmaspheric plasmas comprise the outward flow cycles, while the inward flow cycles contain counterstreaming field-parallel polar wind-like flows. The observed wavelike structure, preceding the arrival of an earthward moving substorm injection front, suggests an outward displacement driven by the inward motion at local times closer to midnight, that is, a "snowplow" effect. The damped in/out flows are consistent with interchange oscillations driven by the arrival at the observed local time by an injection originating at greater radius and local time.

  2. Peginterferon Beta-1a Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... course of disease where symptoms flare up from time to time) of multiple sclerosis (MS, a disease in which ... peginterferon beta-1a injection at around the same time of day each time you inject it. Follow ...

  3. Interferon Beta-1b Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... course of disease where symptoms flare up from time to time) of multiple sclerosis (MS, a disease in which ... interferon beta-1b injection at around the same time of day each time you inject it. Follow ...

  4. Interferon Alfa-2b Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... medication either subcutaneously or intramuscularly three times a week. HBV, inject the medication either subcutaneously or intramuscularly three times a week usually for 16 weeks. hairy cell leukemia, inject ...

  5. Gaseous Fuel Injection Modeling using a Gaseous Sphere Injection Methodology

    SciTech Connect

    Hessel, R P; Aceves, S M; Flowers, D L

    2006-03-06

    The growing interest in gaseous fuels (hydrogen and natural gas) for internal combustion engines calls for the development of computer models for simulation of gaseous fuel injection, air entrainment and the ensuing combustion. This paper introduces a new method for modeling the injection and air entrainment processes for gaseous fuels. The model uses a gaseous sphere injection methodology, similar to liquid droplet in injection techniques used for liquid fuel injection. In this paper, the model concept is introduced and model results are compared with correctly- and under-expanded experimental data.

  6. Reductant injection and mixing system

    DOEpatents

    Reeves, Matt; Henry, Cary A.; Ruth, Michael J.

    2016-02-16

    A gaseous reductant injection and mixing system is described herein. The system includes an injector for injecting a gaseous reductant into an exhaust gas stream, and a mixer attached to a surface of the injector. The injector includes a plurality of apertures through which the gaseous reductant is injected into an exhaust gas stream. The mixer includes a plurality of fluid deflecting elements.

  7. Rain underscores need for injection

    SciTech Connect

    Stelling, K.F.

    1996-01-01

    Since 1987, steam production totals at The Geysers Geothermal field have fallen and water injection totals have remained quite stable, except for the unusually dry winter months of 1994 when injection fell by a record amount. The heavy rainfall in the first half of 1995 altered the long-term production and injection patterns and underscored the need to increase injection in the field. From January to June 1995, steam production at The Geysers was reduced by 37 percent form the amount produced during the same period in 1994--because the rain increased availability of hydroelectric power. At the same time, water injection in the field rose by 25 percent because more rainwater was available for injection. Consequently, both reservoir pressure and available steam reserves grew, and most power plants that returned on line in the second half of the year produced more megawatts with less steam. This confirmed findings form several injection studies at The Geyser`s.

  8. Epidemiology of Injection Drug Use

    PubMed Central

    Arruda, Nelson; Bruneau, Julie; Jutras-Aswad, Didier

    2016-01-01

    After more than 30 years of research, numerous studies have shown that injection drug use is associated with a wide range of adverse health outcomes such as drug overdoses, drug-related suicidal behaviours, comorbid psychiatric disorders, bloodborne pathogens and other infectious diseases, and traumas. This review explores new trends and prominent issues associated with injection drug use. The dynamic nature of injection drug use is underlined by examining its recent trends and changing patterns in Canada and other “high-income countries.” Three research topics that could further contribute to the development of comprehensive prevention and intervention strategies aimed at people who inject drugs are also discussed: risk behaviours associated with the injection of prescription opioids, binge injection drug use, and mental health problems as determinants of injection risk behaviours. PMID:27254088

  9. Particle beam injection system

    DOEpatents

    Jassby, Daniel L.; Kulsrud, Russell M.

    1977-01-01

    This invention provides a poloidal divertor for stacking counterstreaming ion beams to provide high intensity colliding beams. To this end, method and apparatus are provided that inject high energy, high velocity, ordered, atomic deuterium and tritium beams into a lower energy, toroidal, thermal equilibrium, neutral, target plasma column that is magnetically confined along an endless magnetic axis in a strong restoring force magnetic field having helical field lines to produce counterstreaming deuteron and triton beams that are received bent, stacked and transported along the endless axis, while a poloidal divertor removes thermal ions and electrons all along the axis to increase the density of the counterstreaming ion beams and the reaction products resulting therefrom. By balancing the stacking and removal, colliding, strong focused particle beams, reaction products and reactions are produced that convert one form of energy into another form of energy.

  10. Intracytoplasmic sperm injection.

    PubMed

    Van Steirteghem, André; Devroey, P; Liebaers, I

    2002-01-25

    Intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) with ejaculated, epididymal or testicular spermatozoa was first successful in 1992 and has since become the widely accepted treatment for couples with severe male-factor infertility. The outcome of several thousands of ICSI cycles in terms of fertilization, embryo cleavage and implantation is similar to that for conventional in-vitro fertilization in couples with tubal or idiopathic infertility. To evaluate the important issue of safety of the new technique of ICSI, a prospective follow-up study of children born after ICSI was carried out. The aim was to compile data on karyotypes, congenital malformations, growth parameters and developmental milestones. Parents' agreement to genetic counseling was obtained, as well as prenatal diagnosis, followed by a physical examination of the children at 2 months, 1 and 2 years. Important outcome data to be examined comprise information on major and minor congenital malformations obtained prenatally or after birth, as well as on the further development of the children.

  11. Premixed direct injection nozzle

    DOEpatents

    Zuo, Baifang; Johnson, Thomas Edward; Lacy, Benjamin Paul; Ziminsky, Willy Steve

    2011-02-15

    An injection nozzle having a main body portion with an outer peripheral wall is disclosed. The nozzle includes a plurality of fuel/air mixing tubes disposed within the main body portion and a fuel flow passage fluidly connected to the plurality of fuel/air mixing tubes. Fuel and air are partially premixed inside the plurality of the tubes. A second body portion, having an outer peripheral wall extending between a first end and an opposite second end, is connected to the main body portion. The partially premixed fuel and air mixture from the first body portion gets further mixed inside the second body portion. The second body portion converges from the first end toward said second end. The second body portion also includes cooling passages that extend along all the walls around the second body to provide thermal damage resistance for occasional flame flash back into the second body.

  12. Propagating substorm injection fronts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, T. E.; Arnoldy, R. L.; Feynman, J.; Hardy, D. A.

    1981-01-01

    It is argued that a series of two-satellite observations leads to a clarification of substorm plasma injection, in which boundary motion plays a major role. Emphasis is put on a type of event characterized by abrupt, dispersionless changes in electron intensity and a coincident perturbation that consists of both a field magnitude increase and a small rotation toward more dipolar orientation. Comparing plasma observations at two points, it is found that in active, preinjection conditions the two most important features of the plasma sheet are: (1) the low-energy convection boundary for near-zero energy particles, determined by the magnitude of the large-scale convection electric field; and (2) the precipitation-flow boundary layer between the hot plasma sheet and the atmospherically contaminated inner plasma sheet.

  13. Fuel injection pumping apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Rouse, J.A.; Mowbray, D.F.

    1987-10-13

    A liquid fuel injection pumping apparatus is described comprising a rotary and axially movable fuel distributor member housed within a body, a reciprocable pumping plunger housed within a bore formed in the distributor member, cam means mounted in the body for effecting inward movement of the plunger as the distributor member rotates, passage means in the body and distributor member and stop means for limiting the extent of outward movement of the plunger. The extent of outward movement depends on the axial setting of the distributor member in the body, resilient means biasing the distributor member in one axial direction, a chamber defined in the body, means for controlling the fluid pressure in the chamber to control the axial setting of the distributor member.

  14. Steam injection method

    SciTech Connect

    Watkins, D.R.

    1986-02-25

    A method is described for injecting steam into a subterranean reservoir via a well penetrating the reservoir, comprising adding to steam generator feedwater used to generate the steam or adding to the steam, or adding to both the feedwater and the steam. The mixture consists of: (a) a compound selected from the group consisting of ammonium salts of inorganic acids, ammonium salts of carboxylic acids, quaternary ammonium halides, amine or substituted amine hydrochlorides, and mixtures thereof; and (b) a compound selected from the group consisting of ammonia, salts which decompose to form acid neutralizers or buffers having alkaline pH values, amides of carbamic acid or thiocarbamic acid and derivatives of such amides, tertiary carboxylic acid amides and their substituted and alkylated derivatives, and mixtures thereof.

  15. Injectors for Multipoint Injection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prociw, Lev Alexander (Inventor); Ryon, Jason (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    An injector for a multipoint combustor system includes an inner air swirler which defines an interior flow passage and a plurality of swirler inlet ports in an upstream portion thereof. The inlet ports are configured and adapted to impart swirl on flow in the interior flow passage. An outer air cap is mounted outboard of the inner swirler. A fuel passage is defined between the inner air swirler and the outer air cap, and includes a discharge outlet between downstream portions of the inner air swirler and the outer air cap for issuing fuel for combustion. The outer air cap defines an outer air circuit configured for substantially unswirled injection of compressor discharge air outboard of the interior flow passage.

  16. Diesel fuel injection system

    SciTech Connect

    Schechter, M.M.; Simko, A.O.

    1986-04-22

    A fuel injection pump is described of the multiple plunger spill port type for an automotive type internal combustion engine, the pump including at least four axially spaced engine camshaft driven pump plungers grouped in pairs and sequentially and in succession moved in one direction through a fuel pumping stroke and oppositely through a fuel intake stroke. A fuel pressurization/supply chamber is contiquous to the end of each plunger for pressurization of the fuel therein or supply of fuel thereto from a supply passage upon coordinate movement of the plunger, fill/spill passage means connected to a single fuel return spill port and in parallel flow relationship to each of the plunger bores as a function of the position of the plungers, each plunger having a pair of internal passages connected at all times to its chamber and alternately alignable with the supply or fill/spill passage means as a function of the position of the plunger. A fuel discharge passage is operatively connecting each of the chambers to an individual engine cylinder, a single spill port control valve movable to block or permit the spill of fuel through the spill port to a return line to control the pressurization of fuel in all of the fuel chambers and associated discharge passages, a single solenoid connected to the spill control valve for moving it to block or unblock the spill port, and a single shuttle valve operatively associated with all of the fill/spill passage means and spill port reciprocably movable between positions to sequentially connect the plunger chambers one at a time in succession to the spill port during the pumping pressurization stroke of its plunger for the injection of fuel to an individual cylinder while the other chambers are in various stages of being refilled with fuel and preparing for pressurization upon successive actuation of the plungers by the camshaft.

  17. The cost of unsafe injections.

    PubMed Central

    Miller, M. A.; Pisani, E.

    1999-01-01

    Unsafe injection practices are associated with substantial morbidity and mortality, particularly from hepatitis B and C and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections. These inadvertently transmitted bloodborne diseases become manifest some considerable time after infection and hence may not be appropriately accounted for. Annually more than 1.3 million deaths and US$ 535 million are estimated to be due to current unsafe injection practices. With the global increase in the number of injections for vaccination and medical services, safer injecting technologies such as auto-disable syringes must be budgeted for. Investment in health education and safer disposal will also reduce infections associated with unsafe injecting practices. Safer injecting practices are more expensive than current less safe practices, but the additional cost is more than offset by the reduction in disease that would result. PMID:10593028

  18. Worldwide Injection Technique Questionnaire Study: Population Parameters and Injection Practices.

    PubMed

    Frid, Anders H; Hirsch, Laurence J; Menchior, Astrid R; Morel, Didier R; Strauss, Kenneth W

    2016-09-01

    From February 1, 2014, through June 30, 2015, 13,289 insulin-injecting patients from 423 centers in 42 countries took part in one of the largest surveys ever performed in diabetes. The goal was to assess patient characteristics, as well as historical and practical aspects of their injection technique. Results show that 4- and 8-mm needle lengths are each used by nearly 30% of patients and 5- and 6-mm needles each by approximately 20%. Higher consumption of insulin (as measured by total daily dose) is associated with having lipohypertrophy (LH), injecting into LH, leakage from the injection site, and failing to reconstitute cloudy insulin. Glycated hemoglobin values are, on average, 0.5% higher in patients with LH and are significantly higher with incorrect rotation of sites and with needle reuse. Glycated hemoglobin values are lower in patients who distribute their injections over larger injection areas and whose sites are inspected routinely. The frequencies of unexpected hypoglycemia and glucose variability are significantly higher in those with LH, those injecting into LH, those who incorrectly rotate sites, and those who reuse needles. Needles associated with diabetes treatment are the most commonly used medical sharps in the world. However, correct disposal of sharps after use is critically suboptimal. Many used sharps end up in public trash and constitute a major accidental needlestick risk. Use of these data should stimulate renewed interest in and commitment to optimizing injection practices in patients with diabetes.

  19. Worldwide Injection Technique Questionnaire Study: Population Parameters and Injection Practices.

    PubMed

    Frid, Anders H; Hirsch, Laurence J; Menchior, Astrid R; Morel, Didier R; Strauss, Kenneth W

    2016-09-01

    From February 1, 2014, through June 30, 2015, 13,289 insulin-injecting patients from 423 centers in 42 countries took part in one of the largest surveys ever performed in diabetes. The goal was to assess patient characteristics, as well as historical and practical aspects of their injection technique. Results show that 4- and 8-mm needle lengths are each used by nearly 30% of patients and 5- and 6-mm needles each by approximately 20%. Higher consumption of insulin (as measured by total daily dose) is associated with having lipohypertrophy (LH), injecting into LH, leakage from the injection site, and failing to reconstitute cloudy insulin. Glycated hemoglobin values are, on average, 0.5% higher in patients with LH and are significantly higher with incorrect rotation of sites and with needle reuse. Glycated hemoglobin values are lower in patients who distribute their injections over larger injection areas and whose sites are inspected routinely. The frequencies of unexpected hypoglycemia and glucose variability are significantly higher in those with LH, those injecting into LH, those who incorrectly rotate sites, and those who reuse needles. Needles associated with diabetes treatment are the most commonly used medical sharps in the world. However, correct disposal of sharps after use is critically suboptimal. Many used sharps end up in public trash and constitute a major accidental needlestick risk. Use of these data should stimulate renewed interest in and commitment to optimizing injection practices in patients with diabetes. PMID:27594185

  20. A comparison of molding procedures - Contact, injection and vacuum injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cathiard, G.

    1980-06-01

    The technical and economic aspects of the contact, injection and vacuum injection molding of reinforced plastic components are compared for the example of a tractor roof with a gel-coated surface. Consideration is given to the possibility of reinforcement, number of smooth faces, condition of the gel-coated surface, reliability, and labor and workplace requirements of the three processes, and advantages of molding between the mold and a countermold in smooth faces, reliability, labor requirements, working surface and industrial hygiene are pointed out. The times and labor requirements of each step in the molding cycles are examined, and material requirements and yields, investment costs, amortization and product cost prices of the processes are compared. It is concluded that, for the specific component examined, the processes of vacuum injection and injection molding appear very interesting, with injection molding processes resulting in lower cost prices than contact molding for any production volume.

  1. Sensor for Injection Rate Measurements

    PubMed Central

    Marcic, Milan

    2006-01-01

    A vast majority of the medium and high speed Diesel engines are equipped with multi-hole injection nozzles nowadays. Inaccuracies in workmanship and changing hydraulic conditions in the nozzles result in differences in injection rates between individual injection nozzle holes. The new deformational measuring method described in the paper allows injection rate measurement in each injection nozzle hole. The differences in injection rates lead to uneven thermal loads of Diesel engine combustion chambers. All today known measuring method, such as Bosch and Zeuch give accurate results of the injection rate in diesel single-hole nozzles. With multihole nozzles they tell us nothing about possible differences in injection rates between individual holes of the nozzle. At deformational measuring method, the criterion of the injected fuel is expressed by the deformation of membrane occurring due to the collision of the pressure wave against the membrane. The pressure wave is generated by the injection of the fuel into the measuring space. For each hole of the nozzle the measuring device must have a measuring space of its own into which fuel is injected as well as its measuring membrane and its own fuel outlet. During measurements procedure the measuring space must be filled with fuel to maintain an overpressure of 5 kPa. Fuel escaping from the measuring device is conducted into the graduated cylinders for measuring the volumetric flow through each hole of the nozzle.The membrane deformation is assessed by strain gauges. They are glued to the membrane and forming the full Wheatstone's bridge. We devoted special attention to the membrane shape and temperature compensation of the strain gauges.

  2. The RHIC Injection Kicker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hahn, H.; Tuozzolo, J. E.; Tsoupas, N.

    1997-05-01

    Beam transfer from the AGS to RHIC is performed in single-bunch mode. Close spacing of the bunches in the collider requires an injection kicker with a rise time of <95 nsec, suggesting adoption of a travelling wave solution. The required vertical kick of 0.186 T.m is provided by 4 units, each 1.12 m long with a 48.4× 48.4 mm aperture and operated at 1.6 kA. The kicker is constructed as a ``C'' cross section magnet, in which ferrite and high-permittivity ( ~ 100) dielectric sections alternate. The dielectric blocks provide the capacity necessary for the nominally 25 Ohm characteristic impedance of the travelling wave structure, but impose the practical limit on the peak voltage, and thus current, achievable. Computer studies to minimize local electric field enhancements resulted in a configuration capable of holding >50 kV, with adequate safety margin over the nominal 40 kV. Tests indicated the possibility of lowering the nominal voltage by operating mismatched into 20 Ohm terminations without degrading the pulse shape. In this paper, the experience gained in the fabrication of the four kicker units for the ``Sextant Test'' and the results from various single-unit tests and operation in beam are reported.

  3. The RHIC injection kicker

    SciTech Connect

    Hahn, H.; Tsoupas, N.; Tuozzolo, J.E.

    1997-07-01

    Beam transfer from the AGS to RHIC is performed in single-bunch mode. Close spacing of the bunches in the collider requires an injection kicker with a rise time of <90 nsec, suggesting adoption of a travelling wave structure. The required vertical kick of 0.186 t{center_dot}m is provided by 4 magnets, each 1.12 m long with a 48.4 x 48.4 mm aperture and operated at 1.6 kA. The kicker is constructed as a {open_quotes}C{close_quotes} cross section magnet, in which ferrite and high-permittivity dielectric sections alternate. The dielectric blocks provide the capacity necessary for the nominally 25 {Omega} characteristic impedance of the travelling wave structure, but impose the practical limit on the peak voltage, and thus current, achievable. Computer studies to minimize local electric field enhancements resulted in a configuration capable of holding {approximately} 50 kV, with adequate safety margin over the nominal 40 kV. Equivalent circuit analysis indicated the possibility of lowering the nominal voltage by operating mismatched into 20 {Omega} terminations without degrading the pulse shape. In this paper, the experience gained in the fabrication of the production units and the results from various single-unit tests and operation of four kickers with beam in the {open_quotes}Sextant Test{close_quotes} are reported.

  4. SNS Injection Foil Experience

    SciTech Connect

    Cousineau, Sarah M; Galambos, John D; Kim, Sang-Ho; Ladd, Peter; Luck, Chris; Peters, Charles C; Polsky, Yarom; Shaw, Robert W; Macek, Robert James; Raparia, Deepak; Plum, Michael A

    2010-01-01

    The Spallation Neutron Source comprises a 1 GeV, 1.4 MW linear accelerator followed by an accumulator ring and a liquid mercury target. To manage the beam loss caused by the H0 excited states created during the H charge exchange injection into the accumulator ring, the stripper foil is located inside one of the chicane dipoles. This has some interesting consequences that were not fully appreciated until the beam power reached about 840 kW. One consequence was sudden failure of the stripper foil system due to convoy electrons stripped from the incoming H beam, which circled around to strike the foil bracket and cause bracket failure. Another consequence is that convoy electrons can reflect back up from the electron catcher and strike the foil and bracket. An additional contributor to foil system failure is vacuum breakdown due to the charge developed on the foil by secondary electron emission. In this paper we will detail these and other interesting failure mechanisms, and describe the improvements we have made to mitigate them.

  5. Fuel injection pump

    SciTech Connect

    Iiyama, A.; Nishimura, T.

    1988-12-06

    This patent describes a fuel injection pump comprising: (a) engageable first and second cam members, the first cam member reciprocating axially as the first cam member moves angularly relative to the second cam member when the first and second cam members are in engagement; (b) means for urging the first cam member toward the second cam member to engage the first and second cam members; (c) a plunger connected to the first cam member for reciprocation with the first cam member, the plunger defining at least a part of a pumping chamber, the pumping chamber contracting and expanding as the plunger reciprocates; (d) means for allowing fuel to move into the pumping chamber as the pumping chamber expands in a fuel intake stroke; (e) means for allowing the fuel to move out of the pumping chamber as the pumping chamber contracts in a fuel compression stroke; and (f) means for resisting movement of the plunger in at least part of the fuel compression stroke and relieving resistance to the movement of the plunger in the fuel intake stroke wherein the resisting means comprises a piston slidably mounted on the plunger, a spring urging the piston to seat the piston on a shoulder on the plunger so that the piston reciprocates as the plunger reciprocates, wherein the piston is seated on the shoulder in the fuel compression stroke and separates from the shoulder against the force of the spring in the fuel intake stroke, a second fluid chamber at least partially defined by the piston.

  6. Blast furnace injection symposium: Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-31

    These proceedings contain 14 papers related to blast furnace injection issues. Topics include coal quality, coal grinding, natural gas injection, stable operation of the blast furnace, oxygen enrichment, coal conveying, and performance at several steel companies. All papers have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base.

  7. Injectable Foams for Regenerative Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Prieto, Edna M.; Page, Jonathan M.; Harmata, Andrew J.

    2013-01-01

    The design of injectable biomaterials has attracted considerable attention in recent years. Many injectable biomaterials, such as hydrogels and calcium phosphate cements, have nanoscale pores that limit the rate of cellular migration and proliferation. While introduction of macroporosity has been suggested to increase cellular infiltration and tissue healing, many conventional methods for generating macropores often require harsh processing conditions that preclude their use in injectable foams. In recent years, processes such as porogen leaching, gas foaming, and emulsion-templating have been adapted to generate macroporosity in injectable calcium phosphate cements, hydrogels, and hydrophobic polymers. While some of the more mature injectable foam technologies have been evaluated in clinical trials, there are challenges remaining to be addressed, such as the biocompatibility and ultimate fate of the sacrificial phase used to generate pores within the foam after it sets in situ. Furthermore, while implantable scaffolds can be washed extensively to remove undesirable impurities, all of the components required to synthesize injectable foams must be injected into the defect. Thus, every compound in the foam must be biocompatible and non-cytotoxic at the concentrations utilized. As future research addresses these critical challenges, injectable macroporous foams are anticipated to have an increasingly significant impact on improving patient outcomes for a number of clinical procedures. PMID:24127230

  8. Amphotericin B Lipid Complex Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Amphotericin B lipid complex injection is used to treat serious, possibly life-threatening fungal infections in people who did not respond or are ... tolerate conventional amphotericin B therapy. Amphotericin B lipid complex injection is in a class of medications called ...

  9. Main tank injection pressurization program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cady, E. C.; Kendle, D. W.

    1972-01-01

    Computer program predicts performance of fluorine-hydrogen main tank injection pressurization system for full range of liquid-hydrogen-fueled space vehicles. Analytical model includes provisions for heat transfer, injectant jet penetration, and ullage gas mixing. Analysis predicts GF2 usage, ullage gas and tank wall temperatures, and LH2 evaporation.

  10. Urine Pretreat Injection System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    A new method of introducing the OXONE (Registered Trademark) Monopersulfate Compound for urine pretreat into a two-phase urine/air flow stream has been successfully tested and evaluated. The feasibility of this innovative method has been established for purposes of providing a simple, convenient, and safe method of handling a chemical pretreat required for urine processing in a microgravity space environment. Also, the Oxone portion of the urine pretreat has demonstrated the following advantages during real time collection of 750 pounds of urine in a Space Station design two-phase urine Fan/Separator: Eliminated urine precipitate buildup on internal hardware and plumbing; Minimized odor from collected urine; and Virtually eliminated airborne bacteria. The urine pretreat, as presently defined for the Space Station program for proper downstream processing of urine, is a two-part chemical treatment of 5.0 grams of Oxone and 2.3 ml of H2SO4 per liter of urine. This study program and test demonstrated only the addition of the proper ratio of Oxone into the urine collection system upstream of the Fan/Separator. This program was divided into the following three major tasks: (1) A trade study, to define and recommend the type of Oxone injection method to pursue further; (2) The design and fabrication of the selected method; and (3) A test program using high fidelity hardware and fresh urine to demonstrate the method feasibility. The trade study was conducted which included defining several methods for injecting Oxone in different forms into a urine system. Oxone was considered in a liquid, solid, paste and powered form. The trade study and the resulting recommendation were presented at a trade study review held at Hamilton Standard on 24-25 October 94. An agreement was reached at the meeting to continue the solid tablet in a bag concept which included a series of tablets suspended in the urine/air flow stream. These Oxone tablets would slowly dissolve at a controlled rate

  11. Low-pressure injection molding

    SciTech Connect

    Mangels, J.A. )

    1994-05-01

    Ceramic injection molding experienced a revival in the 1970s and 1980s with the application of ceramics for gas turbine components. Concurrently, techniques were being developed for the injection molding of powdered metal compositions into complex shaped articles. The impetus for the development of injection molding as a ceramic fabrication process lay in the potential to produce complex-shaped components to near-net shape. In the ceramic injection molding process, ceramic powders are processed to obtain the desired particle size, distribution and morphology and blended to obtain a homogeneous distribution. These powders are then mixed with the organic binders, generally in a heated, highshear mixer at temperatures above the melting point of the organic binders. The injection molding mix is pelletized, cooled and fed into an injection molding machine. The molding mix is reheated to a fluid state and injected under high pressure (7--70 MPa) into a die cavity. The molded part is removed from the tooling after the molding mix has solidified in the die. The organic binders are then removed from the component at temperatures up to 400 C, generally by some combination of wicking and thermal decomposition. Finally, the component is sintered to obtain its final ceramic properties, using conventional ceramic processes.

  12. NEUTRAL-BEAM INJECTION

    SciTech Connect

    Kunkel, W.B.

    1980-06-01

    The emphasis in the preceding chapters has been on magnetic confinement of high temperature plasmas. The question of production and heating of such plasmas has been dealt with relatively more briefly. It should not be inferred, however, that these matters must therefore be either trivial or unimportant. A review of the history reveals that in the early days all these aspects of the controlled fusion problem were considered to be on a par, and were tackled simultaneously and with equal vigor. Only the confinement problem turned out to be much more complex than initially anticipated, and richer in challenge to the plasma physicist than the questions of plasma production and heating. On the other hand, the properties of high-temperature plasmas and plasma confinement can only be studied experimentally after the problems of production and of heating to adequate temperatures are solved. It is the purpose of this and the next chapter to supplement the preceding discussions with more detail on two important subjects: neutral-beam injection and radio-frequency heating. These are the major contenders for heating in present and future tokamak and mirror fusion experiments, and even in several proposed reactors. For neutral beams we emphasize here the technology involved, which has undergone a rather remarkable development. The physics of particle and energy deposition in the plasma, and the discussion of the resulting effects on the confined plasma, have been included in previous chapters, and some experimental results are quoted there. Other heating processes of relevance to fusion are mentioned elsewhere in this book, in connection with the experiments where they are used: i.e. ohmic heating, adiabatic compression heating, and alpha-particle heating in Chapter 3 by H.P. Furth; more ohmic heating in Chapter 7, and shock-implosion heating, laser heating, and relativistic-electron beam heating in Chapter 8, both by W. E. Quinn. These methods are relatively straightforward in

  13. The Case for Synthetic Injectables.

    PubMed

    Joseph, John H

    2015-11-01

    There are several different classes of synthetic dermal fillers and volume enhancers including semipermanent and permanent products available in the United States. Based on clinical and scientific evidence, this article reviews the chemical and polymeric properties, clinical data, patient selection, indications for use, injection technique, and adverse event profiles of permanent synthetic injectables currently used in clinical practice in the United States: medical-grade liquid injectable silicone and polymethyl methacrylate. Understanding the unique characteristics of these two products reinforces the advantages and disadvantages of each, including under what circumstances they should be used and why they perform the way they do. PMID:26505540

  14. Injection nozzle for a turbomachine

    SciTech Connect

    Uhm, Jong Ho; Johnson, Thomas Edward; Kim, Kwanwoo

    2012-09-11

    A turbomachine includes a compressor, a combustor operatively connected to the compressor, an end cover mounted to the combustor, and an injection nozzle assembly operatively connected to the combustor. The injection nozzle assembly includes a first end portion that extends to a second end portion, and a plurality of tube elements provided at the second end portion. Each of the plurality of tube elements defining a fluid passage includes a body having a first end section that extends to a second end section. The second end section projects beyond the second end portion of the injection nozzle assembly.

  15. Injectable calcium hydroxylapatite microspheres (Radiesse).

    PubMed

    Ridenour, Brock; Kontis, Theda C

    2009-05-01

    Injectable calcium hydroxylapatite (Radiesse) received FDA approval in 2006 for the correction of facial lipoatrophy and moderate to severe facial wrinkles. This product consists of microspheres of a synthetic bone suspended in a methylcellulose gel matrix. Because the product is thicker than the hyaluronic acids, it is used for the correction of moderate to severe wrinkles, such as deep nasolabial folds. It is also used "off-label" to treat multiple areas of the face, nose, and hands. Radiesse is injected into the subdermal plane, and correction lasts approximately 1 year after injection.

  16. The Case for Synthetic Injectables.

    PubMed

    Joseph, John H

    2015-11-01

    There are several different classes of synthetic dermal fillers and volume enhancers including semipermanent and permanent products available in the United States. Based on clinical and scientific evidence, this article reviews the chemical and polymeric properties, clinical data, patient selection, indications for use, injection technique, and adverse event profiles of permanent synthetic injectables currently used in clinical practice in the United States: medical-grade liquid injectable silicone and polymethyl methacrylate. Understanding the unique characteristics of these two products reinforces the advantages and disadvantages of each, including under what circumstances they should be used and why they perform the way they do.

  17. Non-plugging injection valve

    DOEpatents

    Carey, Jr., Henry S.

    1985-01-01

    A valve for injecting fluid into a conduit carrying a slurry subject to separation to form deposits capable of plugging openings into the conduit. The valve comprises a valve body that is sealed to the conduit about an aperture formed through the wall of the conduit to receive the fluid to be injected and the valve member of the valve includes a punch portion that extends through the injection aperture to the flow passage, when the valve is closed, to provide a clear channel into the conduit, when the valve is opened, through deposits which might have formed on portions of the valve adjacent the conduit.

  18. NSLS-II INJECTION CONCEPT.

    SciTech Connect

    SHAFTAN, T.; PINAYEV, I.; ROSE, J.; WANG, X.J.; ET AL.

    2005-05-16

    Currently the facility upgrade project is in progress at the NSLS (at Brookhaven National Laboratory). The goal of the NSLS-II is a 3 GeV ultra-low-emittance storage ring that will increase radiation brightness by three orders of magnitude over that of the present NSLS X-ray ring. The low emittance of the high brightness ring's lattice results in a short lifetime, so that a top-off injection mode becomes an operational necessity. Therefore, the NSLS-II injection system must provide, and efficiently inject, an electron beam at a high repetition rate. In this paper, we present our concept of the NSLS-II injection system and discuss the conditions for, and constraints on, its design.

  19. Epidural Injections for Spinal Pain

    MedlinePlus

    ... located outside the dural membrane. Steroids, anesthetics and anti-inflammatory medications are typically delivered in an epidural injection. ... create different effects for patients. Corticosteroids act as anti-inflammatory agents, reducing swelling and nerve irritation to allow ...

  20. Midface volumization with injectable fillers.

    PubMed

    Tan, Marietta; Kontis, Theda C

    2015-05-01

    The aging midface has long been overlooked in cosmetic surgery. Our understanding of facial aging in terms of 3 dimensions has placed increased importance on volume restoration. Although an "off-label" indication for most fillers in this facial region, volumization of the midface with injectable fillers is usually a safe and straightforward procedure technically. Injectors, nevertheless, need to have an excellent understanding of facial anatomy and the characteristics of the injected products should problems arise.

  1. Subcutaneous or intramuscular insulin injections.

    PubMed Central

    Smith, C P; Sargent, M A; Wilson, B P; Price, D A

    1991-01-01

    To find out whether diabetic children may inject their insulin intramuscularly rather than subcutaneously, a random sample of 32 patients aged 4.3-17.9 (median 11.3) years was studied. Distance from skin to muscle fascia was measured by ultrasonography at standard injection sites on the outer arm, anterior and lateral thigh, abdomen, buttock, and calf. Distances were greater in girls (n = 15) than in boys (n = 17). Whereas in most boys the distances were less than the length of the needle (12.5 mm) at all sites except the buttock, in most girls, the distances were greater than 12.5 mm except over the calf. Over the fascial plane just lateral to the rectus muscle the distance from skin to peritoneum was less than 12.5 mm in 14 of the 17 boys and one of the 15 girls. Twenty five of the 32 children injected at an angle of 90 degrees, and 24 children raised a skinfold before injecting. By raising a skinfold over the anterior thigh, the distance from skin to muscle fascia was increased by 19% (range 0-38%). We conclude that most boys and some girls who use the perpendicular injection technique may often inject insulin into muscle, and perhaps on occasions into the peritoneal cavity. PMID:1863105

  2. Adaptive engine injection for emissions reduction

    DOEpatents

    Reitz, Rolf D. : Sun, Yong

    2008-12-16

    NOx and soot emissions from internal combustion engines, and in particular compression ignition (diesel) engines, are reduced by varying fuel injection timing, fuel injection pressure, and injected fuel volume between low and greater engine loads. At low loads, fuel is injected during one or more low-pressure injections occurring at low injection pressures between the start of the intake stroke and approximately 40 degrees before top dead center during the compression stroke. At higher loads, similar injections are used early in each combustion cycle, in addition to later injections which preferably occur between about 90 degrees before top dead center during the compression stroke, and about 90 degrees after top dead center during the expansion stroke (and which most preferably begin at or closely adjacent the end of the compression stroke). These later injections have higher injection pressure, and also lower injected fuel volume, than the earlier injections.

  3. Fluid injection and induced seismicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kendall, Michael; Verdon, James

    2016-04-01

    The link between fluid injection, or extraction, and induced seismicity has been observed in reservoirs for many decades. In fact spatial mapping of low magnitude events is routinely used to estimate a stimulated reservoir volume. However, the link between subsurface fluid injection and larger felt seismicity is less clear and has attracted recent interest with a dramatic increase in earthquakes associated with the disposal of oilfield waste fluids. In a few cases, hydraulic fracturing has also been linked to induced seismicity. Much can be learned from past case-studies of induced seismicity so that we can better understand the risks posed. Here we examine 12 case examples and consider in particular controls on maximum event size, lateral event distributions, and event depths. Our results suggest that injection volume is a better control on maximum magnitude than past, natural seismicity in a region. This might, however, simply reflect the lack of baseline monitoring and/or long-term seismic records in certain regions. To address this in the UK, the British Geological Survey is leading the deployment of monitoring arrays in prospective shale gas areas in Lancashire and Yorkshire. In most cases, seismicity is generally located in close vicinity to the injection site. However, in some cases, the nearest events are up to 5km from the injection point. This gives an indication of the minimum radius of influence of such fluid injection projects. The most distant events are never more than 20km from the injection point, perhaps implying a maximum radius of influence. Some events are located in the target reservoir, but most occur below the injection depth. In fact, most events lie in the crystalline basement underlying the sedimentary rocks. This suggests that induced seismicity may not pose a leakage risk for fluid migration back to the surface, as it does not impact caprock integrity. A useful application for microseismic data is to try and forecast induced seismicity

  4. Staged direct injection diesel engine

    DOEpatents

    Baker, Quentin A.

    1985-01-01

    A diesel engine having staged injection for using lower cetane number fuels than No. 2 diesel fuel. The engine includes a main fuel injector and a pilot fuel injector. Pilot and main fuel may be the same fuel. The pilot injector injects from five to fifteen percent of the total fuel at timings from 20.degree. to 180.degree. BTDC depending upon the quantity of pilot fuel injected, the fuel cetane number and speed and load. The pilot fuel injector is directed toward the centerline of the diesel cylinder and at an angle toward the top of the piston, avoiding the walls of the cylinder. Stratification of the early injected pilot fuel is needed to reduce the fuel-air mixing rate, prevent loss of pilot fuel to quench zones, and keep the fuel-air mixture from becoming too fuel lean to become effective. In one embodiment, the pilot fuel injector includes a single hole for injection of the fuel and is directed at approximately 48.degree. below the head of the cylinder.

  5. Rapid response gas injection technique.

    PubMed

    Komar, J J

    1978-10-01

    A unique gas injection technique has been developed which has rapid response and is capable of supplying gas flowrates up to 5 kg/s at pressures of 3.45 x 10(6) N/m(2). Rise times to equilibrium pressure varied from 7 to 15 ms over the operating range. The reliability, excellent repeatibility, and uniform pressure have shown the system to be superior to previously utilized expansion tube gas injection techniques associated with very short duration impulse test facilities. The achievement of precise timing control of the valve opening permitted a complex electronic sequencing of facility events. An additional feature of automatic gas supply shut-off resulted in significant cost savings when rare gases were used as injectants. PMID:18698978

  6. Intravitreal injection of octreotide acetate.

    PubMed

    Robertson, J E; Westra, I; Woltering, E A; Winthrop, K L; Barrie, R; O'Dorisio, T M; Holmes, D

    1997-04-01

    This study was conducted to determine the feasibility of injecting the somatostatin analogue, octreotide acetate (OA), into the vitreous cavity. Previous work suggests that octreotide effectively inhibits angiogenesis in vitro, thus its use in vivo may slow the progression of proliferative eye disease. Fifty micrograms of aqueous OA in 50 microliters aqueous solution was injected into the mid-vitreous of kitten eyes (n = 6), and OA levels were monitored over 4 days. A long-acting release form of octreotide (OA-LAR) was also injected into the mid-vitreous of rabbit eyes at doses of 0.36 (n = 16), 1.1 (n = 1), 2.1 (n = 1), 4.05 (n = 1), 8.2 (n = 1), and 36 mg (n = 3) in solution; and octreotide concentrations were measured at various time points over 42 days. OA concentrations were determined by a highly specific radioimmunoassay. Aqueous octreotide was eliminated rapidly (t1/2 = 16 hours) from the vitreous of the kitten eye, with only negligible amounts recoverable 4 days post-injection. In the long-acting form, OA in the rabbit eye reached peak levels at 28 days. By 42 days, OA levels had declined to the 14-day level. Doses of OA-LAR of 1.1 mg or less produced no gross evidence of clinical toxicity and elicited no grossly visible ocular side effects. Doses greater than 1.1 mg produced significant toxicity, including cataracts and rubeosis. The 28-day peak release for long-acting OA implies that monthly intravitreal injections could provide continual high levels of OA. Intravitreal injection of long-acting OA provides sustained, high concentrations of drug, and deserves further study as a potential treatment of proliferative eye diseases.

  7. Line10 Charge Injection Biases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baggett, Sylvia

    2012-10-01

    Radiation damage on-orbit, in the form of charge traps, gradually reduces the charge transfer efficiency {CTE} of CCDs over time. In WFC3, one option for mitigating CTE losses is charge injection i.e. electronically inserting charge every Nth row. The benefit of this method is the significantly lower noise penalty, much less than the traditional Poissonian noise imparted by a pre- or post-flash of the same charge level. This program acquires the calibration data necessary to support science observations using charge injection.

  8. Sodium storage and injection system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keeton, A. R. (Inventor)

    1979-01-01

    A sodium storage and injection system for delivering atomized liquid sodium to a chemical reactor employed in the production of solar grade silicon is disclosed. The system is adapted to accommodate start-up, shut-down, normal and emergency operations, and is characterized by (1) a jacketed injection nozzle adapted to atomize liquefied sodium and (2) a supply circuit connected to the nozzle for delivering the liquefied sodium. The supply circuit is comprised of a plurality of replaceable sodium containment vessels, a pump interposed between the vessels and the nozzle, and a pressurizing circuit including a source of inert gas connected with the vessels for maintaining the sodium under pressure.

  9. ATF neutral beam injection system

    SciTech Connect

    Menon, M.M.; Morris, R.N.; Edmonds, P.H.

    1985-01-01

    The Advanced Toroidal Facility is a stellarator torsatron being built at Oak Ridge National Laboratory to investigate improved plasma confinement schemes. Plasmas heating will be carried out predominantly by means of neutral beam injection. This paper describes the basic parameters of the injection system. Numerical calculations were done to optimize the aiming of the injectors. The results of these calculations and their implications on the neutral power to the machine are elaborated. The effects of improving the beam optics and altering the focal length on the power transmitted to the plasma are discussed.

  10. Sciatica and epidural corticosteroid injections.

    PubMed

    2015-02-01

    According to trials conducted in hundreds of patients with sciatica, epidural corticosteroid injections have no demonstrated efficacy beyond the placebo effect, either in the short-term or the long-term. However, they expose patients to a risk of sometimes serious neurological adverse effects.

  11. Sequential injection gas guns for accelerating projectiles

    DOEpatents

    Lacy, Jeffrey M.; Chu, Henry S.; Novascone, Stephen R.

    2011-11-15

    Gas guns and methods for accelerating projectiles through such gas guns are described. More particularly, gas guns having a first injection port located proximate a breech end of a barrel and a second injection port located longitudinally between the first injection port and a muzzle end of the barrel are described. Additionally, modular gas guns that include a plurality of modules are described, wherein each module may include a barrel segment having one or more longitudinally spaced injection ports. Also, methods of accelerating a projectile through a gas gun, such as injecting a first pressurized gas into a barrel through a first injection port to accelerate the projectile and propel the projectile down the barrel past a second injection port and injecting a second pressurized gas into the barrel through the second injection port after passage of the projectile and to further accelerate the projectile are described.

  12. Diesel engine fuel injection pump capable of injection timing adjustment

    SciTech Connect

    Wakasa, S.; Okazaki, T.

    1987-12-15

    A diesel engine fuel injection pump capable of injection timing adjustment is described comprising: (a) housing means; (b) a plunger assembly reciprocably mounted within the housing means and defining a pumping chamber therein; (c) the housing means having defined therein a fuel inlet port to the pumping chamber in a predetermined position in the longitudinal direction of the pumping chamber; (d) drive means for reciprocably moving the plunger assembly within the pumping chamber between a first extreme position; (e) the plunger assembly being formed of at least two transversely split segments movable toward and away from each other within limits and including resilient means biasing the segments of the plunger assembly toward each other; and (f) the housing means further including a timing fluid inlet port for introduction of a timing fluid under variable pressure between the segments of the plunger assembly to move the plunger assembly segments away from each other to an extent that timing fluid pressure is counterbalanced by force of the resilient means for controllably varying the distance therebetween and, in consequence, for varying the prestroke of the plunger assembly solely in response to variation of the timing fluid pressure to effect adjustment of injection timing.

  13. Miniaturized flow injection analysis system

    DOEpatents

    Folta, James A.

    1997-01-01

    A chemical analysis technique known as flow injection analysis, wherein small quantities of chemical reagents and sample are intermixed and reacted within a capillary flow system and the reaction products are detected optically, electrochemically, or by other means. A highly miniaturized version of a flow injection analysis system has been fabricated utilizing microfabrication techniques common to the microelectronics industry. The microflow system uses flow capillaries formed by etching microchannels in a silicon or glass wafer followed by bonding to another wafer, commercially available microvalves bonded directly to the microflow channels, and an optical absorption detector cell formed near the capillary outlet, with light being both delivered and collected with fiber optics. The microflow system is designed mainly for analysis of liquids and currently measures 38.times.25.times.3 mm, but can be designed for gas analysis and be substantially smaller in construction.

  14. Miniaturized flow injection analysis system

    DOEpatents

    Folta, J.A.

    1997-07-01

    A chemical analysis technique known as flow injection analysis is described, wherein small quantities of chemical reagents and sample are intermixed and reacted within a capillary flow system and the reaction products are detected optically, electrochemically, or by other means. A highly miniaturized version of a flow injection analysis system has been fabricated utilizing microfabrication techniques common to the microelectronics industry. The microflow system uses flow capillaries formed by etching microchannels in a silicon or glass wafer followed by bonding to another wafer, commercially available microvalves bonded directly to the microflow channels, and an optical absorption detector cell formed near the capillary outlet, with light being both delivered and collected with fiber optics. The microflow system is designed mainly for analysis of liquids and currently measures 38{times}25{times}3 mm, but can be designed for gas analysis and be substantially smaller in construction. 9 figs.

  15. Model for pneumatic pellet injection

    SciTech Connect

    Hogan, J.T.; Milora, S.L.; Schuresko, D.D.

    1983-07-01

    A hydrodynamic code has been developed to model the performance of pneumatic pellet injection systems. The code describes one dimensional, unsteady compressible gas dynamics, including gas friction and heat transfer to the walls in a system with variable area. The mass, momentum, and energy equations are solved with an iterated Lax-Wendroff scheme with additional numerical viscosity. The code is described and comparisons with experimental data are presented.

  16. Radial lean direct injection burner

    DOEpatents

    Khan, Abdul Rafey; Kraemer, Gilbert Otto; Stevenson, Christian Xavier

    2012-09-04

    A burner for use in a gas turbine engine includes a burner tube having an inlet end and an outlet end; a plurality of air passages extending axially in the burner tube configured to convey air flows from the inlet end to the outlet end; a plurality of fuel passages extending axially along the burner tube and spaced around the plurality of air passage configured to convey fuel from the inlet end to the outlet end; and a radial air swirler provided at the outlet end configured to direct the air flows radially toward the outlet end and impart swirl to the air flows. The radial air swirler includes a plurality of vanes to direct and swirl the air flows and an end plate. The end plate includes a plurality of fuel injection holes to inject the fuel radially into the swirling air flows. A method of mixing air and fuel in a burner of a gas turbine is also provided. The burner includes a burner tube including an inlet end, an outlet end, a plurality of axial air passages, and a plurality of axial fuel passages. The method includes introducing an air flow into the air passages at the inlet end; introducing a fuel into fuel passages; swirling the air flow at the outlet end; and radially injecting the fuel into the swirling air flow.

  17. Catalytic combustion with steam injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, D. N.; Tacina, R. R.

    The effects of steam injection on (1) catalytic combustion performance, and (2) the tendency of residual fuel to burn in the premixing duct upstream of the catalytic reactor were determined. A petroleum residual, no. 2 diesel, and a blend of middle and heavy distillate coal derived fuels were tested. Fuel and steam were injected together into the preheated airflow entering a 12 cm diameter catalytic combustion test section. The inlet air velocity and pressure were constant at 10 m/s and 600 kPa, respectively. Steam flow rates were varied from 24 percent to 52 percent of the air flow rate. The resulting steam air mixture temperatures varied from 630 to 740 K. Combustion temperatures were in the range of 1200 to 1400 K. The steam had little effect on combustion efficiency or emissions. It was concluded that the steam acts as a diluent which has no adverse effect on catalytic combustion performance for no. 2 diesel and coal derived liquid fuels. Tests with the residual fuel showed that upstream burning could be eliminated with steam injection rates greater than 30 percent of the air flow rate, but inlet mixture temperatures were too low to permit stable catalytic combustion of this fuel.

  18. Catalytic combustion with steam injection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, D. N.; Tacina, R. R.

    1982-01-01

    The effects of steam injection on (1) catalytic combustion performance, and (2) the tendency of residual fuel to burn in the premixing duct upstream of the catalytic reactor were determined. A petroleum residual, no. 2 diesel, and a blend of middle and heavy distillate coal derived fuels were tested. Fuel and steam were injected together into the preheated airflow entering a 12 cm diameter catalytic combustion test section. The inlet air velocity and pressure were constant at 10 m/s and 600 kPa, respectively. Steam flow rates were varied from 24 percent to 52 percent of the air flow rate. The resulting steam air mixture temperatures varied from 630 to 740 K. Combustion temperatures were in the range of 1200 to 1400 K. The steam had little effect on combustion efficiency or emissions. It was concluded that the steam acts as a diluent which has no adverse effect on catalytic combustion performance for no. 2 diesel and coal derived liquid fuels. Tests with the residual fuel showed that upstream burning could be eliminated with steam injection rates greater than 30 percent of the air flow rate, but inlet mixture temperatures were too low to permit stable catalytic combustion of this fuel.

  19. Helpful tips for performing musculoskeletal injections.

    PubMed

    Metz, John P

    2010-01-01

    Injections are valuable procedures for managing musculoskeletal conditions commonly encountered by family physicians. Corticosteroid injections into articular, periarticular, or soft tissue structures relieve pain, reduce inflammation, and improve mobility. Injections can provide diagnostic information and are commonly used for postoperative pain control. Local anesthetics may be injected with corticosteroids to provide additional, rapid pain relief. Steroid injection is the preferred and definitive treatment for de Quervain tenosynovitis and trochanteric bursitis. Steroid injections can also be helpful in controlling pain during physical rehabilitation from rotator cuff syndrome and lateral epicondylitis. Intra-articular steroid injection provides pain relief in rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis. There is little systematic evidence to guide medication selection for therapeutic injections. The medication used and the frequency of injection should be guided by the goal of the injection (i.e., diagnostic or therapeutic), the underlying musculoskeletal diagnosis, and clinical experience. Complications from steroid injections are rare, but physicians should understand the potential risks and counsel patients appropriately. Patients with diabetes who receive periarticular or soft tissue steroid injections should closely monitor their blood glucose for two weeks following injection. PMID:20052957

  20. Musculoskeletal injections: a review of the evidence.

    PubMed

    Stephens, Mark B; Beutler, Anthony I; O'Connor, Francis G

    2008-10-15

    Injections are valuable procedures for managing musculoskeletal conditions commonly encountered by family physicians. Corticosteroid injections into articular, periarticular, or soft tissue structures relieve pain, reduce inflammation, and improve mobility. Injections can provide diagnostic information and are commonly used for postoperative pain control. Local anesthetics may be injected with corticosteroids to provide additional, rapid pain relief. Steroid injection is the preferred and definitive treatment for de Quervain tenosynovitis and trochanteric bursitis. Steroid injections can also be helpful in controlling pain during physical rehabilitation from rotator cuff syndrome and lateral epicondylitis. Intra-articular steroid injection provides pain relief in rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis. There is little systematic evidence to guide medication selection for therapeutic injections. The medication used and the frequency of injection should be guided by the goal of the injection (i.e., diagnostic or therapeutic), the underlying musculoskeletal diagnosis, and clinical experience. Complications from steroid injections are rare, but physicians should understand the potential risks and counsel patients appropriately. Patients with diabetes who receive periarticular or soft tissue steroid injections should closely monitor their blood glucose for two weeks following injection. PMID:18953975

  1. Corticosteroid Injections for Common Musculoskeletal Conditions.

    PubMed

    Foster, Zoë J; Voss, Tyler T; Hatch, Jacquelynn; Frimodig, Adam

    2015-10-15

    Family physicians considering corticosteroid injections as part of a comprehensive treatment plan for musculoskeletal diagnoses will find few high-quality studies to assist with evidence-based decision making. Most studies of corticosteroid injections for the treatment of osteoarthritis, tendinopathy, bursitis, or neuropathy include only small numbers of patients and have inconsistent long-term follow-up. Corticosteroid injections for the treatment of adhesive capsulitis result in short-term improvements in pain and range of motion. For subacromial impingement syndrome, corticosteroid injections provide short-term pain relief and improvement in function. In medial and lateral epicondylitis, corticosteroid injections offer only short-term improvement of symptoms and have a high rate of symptom recurrence. Corticosteroid injections for carpal tunnel syndrome may help patients avoid or delay surgery. Trigger finger and de Quervain tenosynovitis may be treated effectively with corticosteroid injections. Patients with hip or knee osteoarthritis may have short-term symptom relief with corticosteroid injections.

  2. Interferon Beta-1a Subcutaneous Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... course of disease where symptoms flare up from time to time) of multiple sclerosis (MS, a disease in which ... under the skin). It is usually injected three times a week. You should inject this medication on ...

  3. Side Effects of Injectable Fertility Drugs (Gonadotropins)

    MedlinePlus

    ... usually are used during fertility treatments such as intrauterine insemination (IUI) or in vitro fertilization (IVF). Injections of gonadotropins ... Gestation. When using injectable gonadotropins alone or with IUI, up to 30% of pregnancies are associated with ...

  4. A New Look at Trigger Point Injections

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Clara S. M.; Wong, Steven H. S.

    2012-01-01

    Trigger point injections are commonly practised pain interventional techniques. However, there is still lack of objective diagnostic criteria for trigger points. The mechanisms of action of trigger point injection remain obscure and its efficacy remains heterogeneous. The advent of ultrasound technology in the noninvasive real-time imaging of soft tissues sheds new light on visualization of trigger points, explaining the effect of trigger point injection by blockade of peripheral nerves, and minimizing the complications of blind injection. PMID:21969825

  5. Injectivity Testing for Vapour Dominated Feed Zones

    SciTech Connect

    Clotworthy, A.W.; Hingoyon, C.S.

    1995-01-01

    Wells with vapor dominated feed zones yield abnormal pressure data. This is caused by the condensation of vapor during water injection. A revised injectivity test procedure currently applied by PNOC at the Leyte Geothermal Power Project has improved the injectivity test results.

  6. Injection dynamics of gelled propellants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Changjin

    Gel propellants have been recognized as attractive candidates for future propulsion systems due to the reduced tendency to spill and the energy advantages over solid propellants. One of strong benefits emphasized in gel propellant applications is a throttling capability, but the accurate flow control is more complicated and difficult than with conventional Newtonian propellants because of the unique rheological behaviors of gels. This study is a computational effort directed to enhance understanding of the injector internal flow characteristics for gel propellants under rocket injection conditions. In simulations, the emphasized rheology is a shear-thinning which represents a viscosity decrease with increasing a shear rate. It is described by a generalized Newtonian fluid constitutive equation and Carreau-Yasuda model. Using this rheological model, two injection schemes are considered in the present study: axially-fed and cross-fed injection for single-element and multi-element impinging injectors, respectively. An axisymmetric model is developed to describe the axially-fed injector flows and fully three-dimensional model is utilized to simulate cross-fed injector flows. Under axially-fed injection conditions investigated, three distinct modes, an unsteady, steady, and hydraulic flip mode, are observed and mapped in terms of Reynolds number and orifice design. In an unsteady mode, quasi-periodic oscillations occur near the inlet lip leading mass pulsations and viscosity fluctuations at the orifice exit. This dynamic behavior is characterized using a time-averaged discharge coefficient, oscillation magnitude and frequency by a parametric study with respect to an orifice design, Reynolds number and rheology. As a result, orifice exit flows for gel propellants appear to be significantly influenced by a viscous damping and flow resistance due to a shear thinning behavior and these are observed in each factors considered. Under conditions driven by a manifold crossflow

  7. Acoustic fault injection tool (AFIT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schoess, Jeffrey N.

    1999-05-01

    On September 18, 1997, Honeywell Technology Center (HTC) successfully completed a three-week flight test of its rotor acoustic monitoring system (RAMS) at Patuxent River Flight Test Center. This flight test was the culmination of an ambitious 38-month proof-of-concept effort directed at demonstrating the feasibility of detecting crack propagation in helicopter rotor components. The program was funded as part of the U.S. Navy's Air Vehicle Diagnostic Systems (AVDS) program. Reductions in Navy maintenance budgets and available personnel have dictated the need to transition from time-based to 'condition-based' maintenance. Achieving this will require new enabling diagnostic technologies. The application of acoustic emission for the early detection of helicopter rotor head dynamic component faults has proven the feasibility of the technology. The flight-test results demonstrated that stress-wave acoustic emission technology can detect signals equivalent to small fatigue cracks in rotor head components and can do so across the rotating articulated rotor head joints and in the presence of other background acoustic noise generated during flight operation. During the RAMS flight test, 12 test flights were flown from which 25 Gbyte of digital acoustic data and about 15 hours of analog flight data recorder (FDR) data were collected from the eight on-rotor acoustic sensors. The focus of this paper is to describe the CH-46 flight-test configuration and present design details about a new innovative machinery diagnostic technology called acoustic fault injection. This technology involves the injection of acoustic sound into machinery to assess health and characterize operational status. The paper will also address the development of the Acoustic Fault Injection Tool (AFIT), which was successfully demonstrated during the CH-46 flight tests.

  8. Governor for fuel injection pump

    SciTech Connect

    Yogome, Y.; Itsuki, S.; Shimizu, T.; Shimizu, T.; Hamada, H.

    1987-05-19

    This patent describes double-lever type governor for a fuel injection pump comprising: a governor case; a governor lever and a tension lever rotatably supported in the case and operatively associated with each other; a start spring interposed between the governor lever and the tension lever securing a start fuel increment stroke in the governor lever; a fuel regulating rack connected to the governor lever; a supporting shaft mounted in the case supporting both the governor lever and the tension lever for rotation; and a locking mechanism which connects both levers at the time when the start fuel increment stroke of the governor lever becomes zero or approximately zero to be eliminated.

  9. Semipermanent and permanent injectable fillers.

    PubMed

    Jones, Derek H

    2009-10-01

    Today, an impressive array of injectable dermal fillers for facial soft-tissue augmentation is available in the United States. These agents, most of which were introduced in the last half decade, represent a variety of semipermanent and permanent fillers across several categories. Physicians can choose between semipermanent fillers, such as hyaluronic acid derivatives (HA), calcium hydroxylapatite (CaHA), and poly-L-lactic acid (PLA), and longer-lasting, so-called "permanent fillers," such as polymethyl methacrylate microspheres (PMMA), highly purified forms of liquid silicone, and hydrogel polymers. PMID:19850193

  10. Injectable collagen implant--update.

    PubMed

    Castrow, F F; Krull, E A

    1983-12-01

    Injectable collagen implant (ICI), a new biomaterial reportedly useful for correction of scars and certain aging skin lines (wrinkles), was recently introduced. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the safety and efficacy of this product. Data for this study were obtained from a survey which was sent to a group of cutaneous surgeons. They were asked about test site and treatment site reactions and about their satisfaction with ICI. The incidence of adverse reactions is low, and the severity of the reactions does not appear to be serious. The long-term benefit of ICI has not been established.

  11. Fuel injection device and method

    DOEpatents

    Carlson, Larry W.

    1986-02-04

    A fuel injection system and method provide for shaping a combustion plume within a combustion chamber to effectively recirculate hot combustion gases for stable combustion conditions while providing symmetrical combustion conditions. Char and molten slag are passed to the outer boundary layer to complete combustion of char while permitting initial substoichiometric combustion in a reductive atmosphere for reducing discharge of nitrogen oxides. Shaping of the plume is accomplished by an axially adjustable pintle which permits apportionment of driving pressure between elements which contribute tangential and those which contribute radial directional components to oxidant flow entering the combustion chamber.

  12. Porous media heat transfer for injection molding

    DOEpatents

    Beer, Neil Reginald

    2016-05-31

    The cooling of injection molded plastic is targeted. Coolant flows into a porous medium disposed within an injection molding component via a porous medium inlet. The porous medium is thermally coupled to a mold cavity configured to receive injected liquid plastic. The porous medium beneficially allows for an increased rate of heat transfer from the injected liquid plastic to the coolant and provides additional structural support over a hollow cooling well. When the temperature of the injected liquid plastic falls below a solidifying temperature threshold, the molded component is ejected and collected.

  13. Dependence of injection locking of a TEA CO2 laser on intensity of injected radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oppenheim, U. P.; Menzies, R. T.; Kavaya, M. J.

    1982-01-01

    The results of an experimental study to determine the minimum required injected power to control the output frequency of a TEA CO2 laser are reported. A CW CO2 waveguide laser was used as the injection oscillator. Both the power and the frequency of the injected radiation were varied, while the TEA resonator cavity length was adjusted to match the frequency of the injected signal. Single-longitudinal mode (SLM) TEA laser radiation was produced for injected power levels which are several orders of magnitude below those previously reported. The ratio of SLM output power to injection power exceeded 10 to the 12th at the lowest levels of injected intensity.

  14. Compressor Stability Enhancement Using Discrete Tip Injection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suder, Kenneth L.; Hathaway, Michael D.; Thorp, Scott A.; Strazisar, Anthony J.; Bright, Michelle B.

    2001-01-01

    Mass injection upstream of the tip of a high-speed axial compressor rotor is a stability enhancement approach known to be effective in suppressing small in tip-critical rotors. This process is examined in a transonic axial compressor rotor through experiments and time-averaged Navier-Stokes CFD simulations. Measurements and simulations for discrete injection are presented for a range of injection rates and distributions of injectors around the annulus. The simulations indicate that tip injection increases stability by unloading the rotor tip and that increasing injection velocity improves the effectiveness of tip injection. For the tested rotor, experimental results demonstrate that at 70 percent speed the stalling flow coefficient can be reduced by 30 percent using an injected mass- flow equivalent to 1 percent of the annulus flow. At design speed, the stalling flow coefficient was reduced by 6 percent using an injected mass-fiow equivalent to 2 percent of the annulus flow. The experiments show that stability enhancement is related to the mass-averaged axial velocity at the tip. For a given injected mass-flow, the mass-averaged axial velocity at the tip is increased by injecting flow over discrete portions of the circumference as opposed to full-annular injection. The implications of these results on the design of recirculating casing treatments and other methods to enhance stability will be discussed.

  15. Maximum magnitude earthquakes induced by fluid injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGarr, A.

    2014-02-01

    Analysis of numerous case histories of earthquake sequences induced by fluid injection at depth reveals that the maximum magnitude appears to be limited according to the total volume of fluid injected. Similarly, the maximum seismic moment seems to have an upper bound proportional to the total volume of injected fluid. Activities involving fluid injection include (1) hydraulic fracturing of shale formations or coal seams to extract gas and oil, (2) disposal of wastewater from these gas and oil activities by injection into deep aquifers, and (3) the development of enhanced geothermal systems by injecting water into hot, low-permeability rock. Of these three operations, wastewater disposal is observed to be associated with the largest earthquakes, with maximum magnitudes sometimes exceeding 5. To estimate the maximum earthquake that could be induced by a given fluid injection project, the rock mass is assumed to be fully saturated, brittle, to respond to injection with a sequence of earthquakes localized to the region weakened by the pore pressure increase of the injection operation and to have a Gutenberg-Richter magnitude distribution with a b value of 1. If these assumptions correctly describe the circumstances of the largest earthquake, then the maximum seismic moment is limited to the volume of injected liquid times the modulus of rigidity. Observations from the available case histories of earthquakes induced by fluid injection are consistent with this bound on seismic moment. In view of the uncertainties in this analysis, however, this should not be regarded as an absolute physical limit.

  16. Acetaminophen injection: a review of clinical information.

    PubMed

    Jones, Virginia M

    2011-01-01

    Acetaminophen injection is an antipyretic and analgesic agent recently marketed in the United States as Ofirmev. Five published trials directly compare acetaminophen injection to drugs available in the United States. For management of pain in adults, acetaminophen injection was at least as effective as morphine injection in renal colic, oral ibuprofen after cesarean delivery, and oral acetaminophen after coronary artery bypass surgery. In children (3 to 16 years old), single-dose acetaminophen injection was similar to meperidine intramuscular (i.m.) for pain after tonsillectomy; readiness for discharge from the recovery room was shorter with acetaminophen injection (median 15 minutes) compared with meperidine i.m. (median 25 minutes), P = .005. In children (2 to 5 years old) postoperative adenotonsillectomy or adenoidectomy, the time to rescue analgesia was superior with high-dose acetaminophen rectal suppository (median 10 hours) compared with acetaminophen injection (median 7 hours), P = .01. One published trial demonstrated acetaminophen injection is noninferior to propacetamol injection for fever related to infection in pediatric patients. Dosing adjustments are not required when switching between oral and injectable acetaminophen formulations in adult and adolescent patients. Acetaminophen injection represents another agent for multimodal pain management. PMID:21936636

  17. FDDI network test adaptor error injection circuit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eckenrode, Thomas (Inventor); Stauffer, David R. (Inventor); Stempski, Rebecca (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    An apparatus for injecting errors into a FDDI token ring network is disclosed. The error injection scheme operates by fooling a FORMAC into thinking it sent a real frame of data. This is done by using two RAM buffers. The RAM buffer normally accessed by the RBC/DPC becomes a SHADOW RAM during error injection operation. A dummy frame is loaded into the shadow RAM in order to fool the FORMAC. This data is just like the data that would be used if sending a normal frame, with the restriction that it must be shorter than the error injection data. The other buffer, the error injection RAM, contains the error injection frame. The error injection data is sent out to the media by switching a multiplexor. When the FORMAC is done transmitting the data, the multiplexor is switched back to the normal mode. Thus, the FORMAC is unaware of what happened and the token ring remains operational.

  18. Anthropological perspectives on injections: a review.

    PubMed Central

    Reeler, A. V.

    2000-01-01

    Qualitative studies from developing countries have pointed to the widespread popularity of injections. In addition to their use by formal and informal providers and traditional healers, there is now increasing evidence of the use of injections and injection equipment by lay people. Epidemiological research links the large number of unsafe injections to serious bloodborne infections such as viral hepatitis B and C and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). The present article examines the reasons behind the demand for injections by consumers and the administration of unnecessary or unsafe injections by different types of provider. Interventions aimed at reducing the risk of unsafe injections are discussed in relation to cultural and social factors as well as those factors associated with health systems. Suggestions are made for approaches to the design of such interventions. PMID:10686748

  19. Robotic ICSI (intracytoplasmic sperm injection).

    PubMed

    Lu, Zhe; Zhang, Xuping; Leung, Clement; Esfandiari, Navid; Casper, Robert F; Sun, Yu

    2011-07-01

    This paper is the first report of robotic intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). ICSI is a clinical procedure performed worldwide in fertility clinics, requiring pick-up of a single sperm and insertion of it into an oocyte (i.e., egg cell). Since its invention 20 years ago, ICSI has been conducted manually by a handful of highly skilled embryologists; however, success rates vary significantly among clinics due to poor reproducibility and inconsistency across operators. We leverage our work in robotic cell injection to realize robotic ICSI and aim ultimately, to standardize how clinical ICSI is performed. This paper presents some of the technical aspects of our robotic ICSI system, including a cell holding device, motion control, and computer vision algorithms. The system performs visual tracking of single sperm, robotic immobilization of sperm, aspiration of sperm with picoliter volume, and insertion of sperm into an oocyte with a high degree of reproducibility. The system requires minimal human involvement (requiring only a few computer mouse clicks), and is human operator skill independent. Using the hamster oocyte-human sperm model in preliminary trials, the robotic system demonstrated a high success rate of 90.0% and survival rate of 90.7% (n=120). PMID:21521663

  20. Robotic ICSI (intracytoplasmic sperm injection).

    PubMed

    Lu, Zhe; Zhang, Xuping; Leung, Clement; Esfandiari, Navid; Casper, Robert F; Sun, Yu

    2011-07-01

    This paper is the first report of robotic intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). ICSI is a clinical procedure performed worldwide in fertility clinics, requiring pick-up of a single sperm and insertion of it into an oocyte (i.e., egg cell). Since its invention 20 years ago, ICSI has been conducted manually by a handful of highly skilled embryologists; however, success rates vary significantly among clinics due to poor reproducibility and inconsistency across operators. We leverage our work in robotic cell injection to realize robotic ICSI and aim ultimately, to standardize how clinical ICSI is performed. This paper presents some of the technical aspects of our robotic ICSI system, including a cell holding device, motion control, and computer vision algorithms. The system performs visual tracking of single sperm, robotic immobilization of sperm, aspiration of sperm with picoliter volume, and insertion of sperm into an oocyte with a high degree of reproducibility. The system requires minimal human involvement (requiring only a few computer mouse clicks), and is human operator skill independent. Using the hamster oocyte-human sperm model in preliminary trials, the robotic system demonstrated a high success rate of 90.0% and survival rate of 90.7% (n=120).

  1. Prevalence and correlates of neck injection among people who inject drugs in Tijuana, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    RAFFUL, CLAUDIA; WAGNER, KARLA D.; WERB, DAN; GONZÁLEZ-ZÚÑIGA, PATRICIA E.; VERDUGO, SILVIA; RANGEL, GUDELIA; STRATHDEE, STEFFANIE A.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction and Aims Injecting drugs in the neck has been related to adverse health conditions such as jugular vein thrombosis, deep neck infections, aneurysm, haematomas, airway obstruction, vocal cord paralysis and wound botulism, among others. We identified prevalence and correlates of neck injection among people who inject drugs (PWID) in Tijuana, Mexico. Design and Methods Beginning in 2011, PWID aged ≥18 years who injected drugs within the last month were recruited into a prospective cohort. At baseline and semi-annually, PWID completed interviewer-administered surveys soliciting data on drug-injecting practices. Logistic regression was used to identify predictors of injecting in the neck as the most frequent injection site at a single visit. Results Of 380 PWID, 35.3% injected in the neck at least once in the past 6 months, among whom 71.6% reported it as their most common injection site, the most common injecting site after the arms (47%). Controlling for age, years injecting and injecting frequency, injecting heroin and methamphetamine two or more times per day and having sought injection assistance were associated with injecting in the neck [adjusted odds ratios (AOR): 2.12; 95% confidence intervals (CI): 1.27–3.53 and AOR: 2.65; 95% CI: 1.52–4.53 respectively]. Discussion and Conclusions Injecting in the neck was very common among PWID in Tijuana and was associated with polydrug use and seeking injection assistance. Tailoring harm reduction education interventions for individuals who provide injection assistance (‘hit doctors’) may allow for the dissemination of safe injecting knowledge to reduce injection-related morbidity and mortality. PMID:25867795

  2. Modeling injection well performance during deep-well injection of liquid wastes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saripalli, K. P.; Sharma, M. M.; Bryant, S. L.

    2000-01-01

    Deep-well injection of municipal and industrial wastes, and liquid hazardous wastes is an important waste disposal practice worldwide. Performance of injection wells during the deep-well injection of liquid wastes and waste waters is critically dependent upon the physico-chemical properties of the waste, the operational parameters such as injection rates and pressures, as well as the hydrogeologic and geochemical character of the host formation. Development of theories and models that can predict the injection well performance as a function of these parameters is a vital research need. This paper presents the development and application of a well injectivity decline (WID) simulator, that can be used to model injection well performance during deep-well injection. Injectivity decline due to particulates in the injection fluid is modeled for various types of well completions. Results from the simulator are presented with an emphasis on the resulting well plugging and injectivity decline. The significant role played by injected wastewater quality, host formation properties, injection rate and pressure, well completion type, initial damage to the well/formation and the presence of gravel packs around the wellbore is discussed. The results quantitatively show that under typical injection conditions a high total suspended solids (TSS) concentration in the waste stream, low injection rate, low injection pressures, formation heterogeneity (layering), low porosity and permeability of the formation all contribute to a rapid decline in injection well performance. The simulator provides a tool for predicting well performance during waste injection as a function of the waste, formation and operational characteristics. Such simulations can be valuable during planning and operating injection wells to achieve and sustain satisfactory well performance.

  3. Safety of intracytoplasmic sperm injection.

    PubMed

    Palermo, Gianpiero D; Neri, Queenie V; Rosenwaks, Zev

    2014-01-01

    Early follow-up studies of IVF children showed that the frequency of birth anomalies resembled those arising with natural conception. More detailed analyses confirmed these findings, reinforcing the concept of the preimplantation period as teratologically "safe." The use of intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) to achieve fertilization introduced another variable.ICSI's safety has often been criticized because the fertilizing spermatozoon neither binds to the zona pellucida nor fuses with oolemma. Bypassing these physiologic steps together with the arbitrary selection of the spermatozoon has been reason for concern. Thus far, ICSI offspring undergoing adolescence and beyond has provided sufficient information to reassure these qualms. In fact, the health of the offspring generated through ICSI, once taken into consideration the gestational order, the age and the genetic makeup of the couples are generally reassuring.

  4. Fault Injection Techniques and Tools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hsueh, Mei-Chen; Tsai, Timothy K.; Iyer, Ravishankar K.

    1997-01-01

    Dependability evaluation involves the study of failures and errors. The destructive nature of a crash and long error latency make it difficult to identify the causes of failures in the operational environment. It is particularly hard to recreate a failure scenario for a large, complex system. To identify and understand potential failures, we use an experiment-based approach for studying the dependability of a system. Such an approach is applied not only during the conception and design phases, but also during the prototype and operational phases. To take an experiment-based approach, we must first understand a system's architecture, structure, and behavior. Specifically, we need to know its tolerance for faults and failures, including its built-in detection and recovery mechanisms, and we need specific instruments and tools to inject faults, create failures or errors, and monitor their effects.

  5. Distinguishing among electron injection types

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feynman, J.

    1987-01-01

    Three types of electron injections taking place in the near-earth region of the magnetotail have been distinguished previously using SCATHA particle and field data. Defining characteristics are given here for each type of event, and the positions of the magnetosphere where they are expected to occur are discussed. These three event types can be difficult to distinguish in data sets that are more limited than the SCATHA set that carried instruments detecting magnetic fields and charged particles over an energy range from eVs to MeVs. It is suggested that determining the magnetospheric regions at which each of these event types occurs will considerably clarify the phenomenological description of substorms available for theoretical analysis.

  6. Injectable fillers: an American perspective.

    PubMed

    Curcio, N M; Parish, L C

    2009-06-01

    Since 1981, there has been a significant repertoire of United States Food and Drug Administrtion (FDA) approved fillers for both cosmetic rejuvenation and facial lipoatrophy. Currently available dermal fillers include bovine, human and porcine collagens, hyaluronic acids of animal and biosynthetic origin, poly-L-lactic acid, calcium hydroxylapatite, and polymethylmethacrylate. Many of these fillers were first available in Europe and Canada before their arrival in the United States (USA) and many of the complications known about these products have come from studies conducted both in the USA and abroad. Several of the fillers that are currently available abroad or are used in the USA off-label have been associated with significant complications. The authors review three of these fillers: liquid injectable silicone, DermaLive/DermaDeep, and Bio-Alcamid.

  7. Common rail fuel injection system

    SciTech Connect

    Hilsbos, R.L.; Wieland, H.L.; Straub, R.D.; Teerman, R.F.; Timmer, R.C.

    1993-07-27

    A high-pressure pump is described for a fuel injection system having a fuel supply means for supplying fuel at a relatively constant pressure to the pump, the pump comprising: a pump body having a pumping chamber defined therein; a mechanically driven linearly reciprocating plunger disposed in the pumping chamber, the plunger having a head end and a tail end, the plunger being linearly reciprocatable over a stroke range between an extended position and a retracted position, the pumping chamber extending beyond the extended position of the plunger to define a head portion of the pumping chamber; plunger spring means for resiliently biasing the plunger to its retracted position; an inlet valve disposed in the pump body for admitting fuel to the pumping chamber within the stroke range of the head end of the plunger; inlet valve spring means for resiliently biasing the inlet valve to a closed position, the inlet valve being opened by a pressure differential when the head end of the plunger is retracted; an outlet valve disposed in the pump body for discharging fuel from the head portion of the pumping chamber; and outlet valve spring means for resiliently biasing the outlet valve to a closed position; the inlet valve being a ball valve; a piston, the pump body further defining therein a leakage accumulator chamber, the leakage accumulator chamber being slidably divided by the piston into an anterior portion and a posterior portion, the posterior portion being at substantially atmospheric pressure, the collector groove communicating with the anterior portion of the leakage accumulator chamber, recaptured fuel from the fuel injection nozzles also being communicated to the anterior portion of the accumulator chamber; and piston spring means for resiliently biasing the piston away from the posterior portion of the leakage accumulator chamber.

  8. Injectable biomaterials: a perspective on the next wave of injectable therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Spector, Myron; Lim, Teck Chuan

    2016-02-02

    We are experiencing a new wave of injectable therapeutics (namely/injectable biomaterials) to complement injectable drugs and injectable biologics, and to serve as the basis for injectable combinatorial therapeutics. Injectable biomaterials contribute to the treatment of the fluid-filled defects which often result from disease and injury, by providing the missing physical framework (i.e. the stroma). However, while injectable matrices may be necessary for the successful treatment of certain lesions, they will not likely be sufficient. Chemoattractants for select endogenous cells, or cells themselves, may need to be incorporated into the matrix prior to its injection to ensure the necessary cellular repopulation of the cavitary defect. These agents and others (drugs and biologics) delivered by the matrix represent the new category of injectable combinatorial therapeutics.

  9. Parametric study of injection rates with solenoid injectors in an injection quantity and rate measuring device

    DOE PAGES

    Busch, Stephen; Miles, Paul C.

    2015-03-31

    A Moehwald HDA (HDA is a German acronym: Hydraulischer Druckanstieg: hydraulic pressure increase) injection quantity and rate measuring unit is used to investigate injection rates obtained with a fast-acting, preproduction diesel solenoid injector. Experimental parametric variations are performed to determine their impact on measured injection rate traces. A pilot–main injection strategy is investigated for various dwell times; these preproduction injectors can operate with very short dwell times with distinct pilot and main injection events. Dwell influences the main injection rate shape. Furthermore, a comparison between a diesel-like fuel and a gasoline-like fuel shows that injection rates are comparable for amore » single injection but dramatically different for multiple injections with short dwells.« less

  10. Parametric study of injection rates with solenoid injectors in an injection quantity and rate measuring device

    SciTech Connect

    Busch, Stephen; Miles, Paul C.

    2015-03-31

    A Moehwald HDA (HDA is a German acronym: Hydraulischer Druckanstieg: hydraulic pressure increase) injection quantity and rate measuring unit is used to investigate injection rates obtained with a fast-acting, preproduction diesel solenoid injector. Experimental parametric variations are performed to determine their impact on measured injection rate traces. A pilot–main injection strategy is investigated for various dwell times; these preproduction injectors can operate with very short dwell times with distinct pilot and main injection events. Dwell influences the main injection rate shape. Furthermore, a comparison between a diesel-like fuel and a gasoline-like fuel shows that injection rates are comparable for a single injection but dramatically different for multiple injections with short dwells.

  11. Injection molding and debinding of micro gears fabricated by micro powder injection molding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ni, Xin-lei; Yin, Hai-qing; Liu, Lin; Yi, Shan-jie; Qu, Xuan-hui

    2013-01-01

    Micro powder injection molding (μPIM) was investigated for possible mass production of micro-components at relatively low cost. However, scaling down to such a level produces challenges in injection molding and debinding. Micro gears were fabricated by μPIM from in-house feedstock. The effect of injection speed and injection pressure on the replication of the micro gear cavity was investigated. Solvent debinding and thermal debinding processes were discussed. The results show that micro gears can be successfully fabricated under the injection pressure of 70 MPa and the 60% injection speed. Either too low or too high injection speed can cause incomplete filling of micro gears. The same is the case with too low injection pressure. Too high injection pressure can bring cracks. Solvent debinding of micro gears was performed in a mixture of petroleum ether and ethanol. Subsequently, micro gears were successfully debound by a multistep heating schedule.

  12. Forum for Injection Techniques, India: The First Indian Recommendations for Best Practice in Insulin Injection Technique

    PubMed Central

    Kalra, Sanjay; Balhara, Yatan Pal Singh; Baruah, Manash P.; Chadha, Manoj; Chandalia, Hemraj B.; Chowdhury, Subhankar; Kumar, K. M. Prasanna; Modi, Sonal; Pitale, Shailesh; Shukla, Rishi; Sahay, Rakesh; Sundaram, Annamalai; Unnikrishnan, Ambika G.; Wangnoo, Subhash K.

    2012-01-01

    Advances in the treatment of diabetes have led to an increase in the number of injectable therapies, such as human insulin, insulin analogues, and glucagon-like peptide-1 analogues. The efficacy of injection therapy in diabetes depends on correct injection technique, among many other factors. Good injection technique is vital in achieving glycemic control and thus preventing complications of diabetes. From the patients’ and health-care providers’ perspective, it is essential to have guidelines to understand injections and injection techniques. The abridged version of the First Indian Insulin Injection technique guidelines developed by the Forum for Injection Technique (FIT) India presented here acknowledge good insulin injection techniques and provide evidence-based recommendations to assist diabetes care providers in improving their clinical practice. PMID:23226630

  13. Liquid injection plasma deposition method and apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Kong, Peter C.; Watkins, Arthur D.

    1999-01-01

    A liquid injection plasma torch deposition apparatus for depositing material onto a surface of a substrate may comprise a plasma torch for producing a jet of plasma from an outlet nozzle. A plasma confinement tube having an inlet end and an outlet end and a central bore therethrough is aligned with the outlet nozzle of the plasma torch so that the plasma jet is directed into the inlet end of the plasma confinement tube and emerges from the outlet end of the plasma confinement tube. The plasma confinement tube also includes an injection port transverse to the central bore. A liquid injection device connected to the injection port of the plasma confinement tube injects a liquid reactant mixture containing the material to be deposited onto the surface of the substrate through the injection port and into the central bore of the plasma confinement tube.

  14. Liquid injection plasma deposition method and apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Kong, P.C.; Watkins, A.D.

    1999-05-25

    A liquid injection plasma torch deposition apparatus for depositing material onto a surface of a substrate may comprise a plasma torch for producing a jet of plasma from an outlet nozzle. A plasma confinement tube having an inlet end and an outlet end and a central bore therethrough is aligned with the outlet nozzle of the plasma torch so that the plasma jet is directed into the inlet end of the plasma confinement tube and emerges from the outlet end of the plasma confinement tube. The plasma confinement tube also includes an injection port transverse to the central bore. A liquid injection device connected to the injection port of the plasma confinement tube injects a liquid reactant mixture containing the material to be deposited onto the surface of the substrate through the injection port and into the central bore of the plasma confinement tube. 8 figs.

  15. Optical injection in semiconductor ring lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Coomans, W.; Beri, S.; Sande, G. Van der; Gelens, L.; Danckaert, J.

    2010-03-15

    We theoretically investigate optical injection in semiconductor ring lasers and disclose several dynamical regimes. Through numerical simulations and bifurcation continuation, two separate parameter regions in which two different injection-locked solutions coexist are revealed, in addition to a region in which a frequency-locked limit cycle coexists with an injection-locked solution. Finally, an antiphase chaotic regime without the involvement of any carrier dynamics is revealed. Parallels are drawn with the onset of chaos in the periodically forced Duffing oscillator.

  16. INJECTION CHOICE FOR SPALLATION NEUTRON SOURCE RING.

    SciTech Connect

    WEI,J.; BEEBE-WANG,J.; BLASKIEWICZ,M.; BRODOWSKI,J.; FEDOTOV,A.; GARDNER,C.; LEE,Y.Y.; RAPARIA,D.; DANILOV,V.; HOLMES,J.; PRIOR,C.; REES,G.; MACHIDA,S.

    2001-06-18

    Injection is key in the low-loss design of high-intensity proton facilities like the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS). During the design of both the accumulator and the rapid-cycling-synchrotron version of the SNS, extensive comparison has been made to select injection scenarios that satisfy SNS's low-loss design criteria. This paper presents issues and considerations pertaining to the final choice of the SNS injection systems.

  17. Injected Water Augments Cooling In Turboshaft Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biesiadny, Thomas J.; Berger, Brett; Klann, Gary A.; Clark, David A.

    1989-01-01

    Report describes experiments in which water injected into compressor-bleed cooling air of aircraft turboshaft engine. Injection of water previously suggested as way to provide additional cooling needed to sustain operation at power levels higher than usual. Involves turbine-inlet temperatures high enough to shorten lives of first-stage high-pressure turbine blades. Latent heat of vaporization of injected water serves as additional heat sink to maintain blades at design operating temperatures during high-power operation.

  18. Fuel injection system for internal combustion engine

    SciTech Connect

    Nagao, A.; Yoshioka, S.; Oda, H.; Tokushima, T.

    1988-11-22

    This patent describes a fuel injection system for an internal combustion engine having a crankshaft and a combustion chamber, the system comprising (a) an intake passage for introducing an intake gas into the combustion chamber and provided with an intake valve; (b) a fuel injection valve for injecting fuel into the intake passage in the vicinity of the combustion chamber; (c) operating condition detecting means for detecting the operating condition of the engine and outputting a signal corresponding to the thus detected operating condition; (d) fuel injection amount determining means which receives an output signal of the operating conditions detecting means, thereby determining the amount of fuel to be supplied to the combustion chamber, and outputs a signal corresponding to thus determined amount; (e) crankshaft angle detecting means for detecting the rotation angle of the crankshaft; (f) injection timing control means which receives signals from the fuel injection amount determining means and crankshaft angle detecting means, outputs a start signal for actuating the fuel injection valve and a termination signal for terminating the actuation of the fuel injection valve, and actuates the fuel injection valve for the duration between the start and termination signals, thereby supplying an amount of fuel determined by the fuel injection amount determining means; (g) the start and termination signals being set against the crankshaft angle so that the whole fuel injection from the injection valve to the intake passage under light load operation of the engine reaches the combustion chamber substantially in the latter half of the intake stroke before the intake valve is closed.

  19. Corrosion control in water injection systems

    SciTech Connect

    Patton, C.C. )

    1993-08-01

    Corrosion control in water injection systems encompasses a wide range of technologies, including chemicals (corrosion inhibitors, biocides, and oxygen scavengers); corrosion-resistant materials (metallic and nonmetallic); internal coatings and linings; mechanical removal of dissolved oxygen; velocity control; and prevention of oxygen entry and galvanic couples. This article reviews the way that these technologies are used in modern water-injection systems (both seawater and produced water) to provide an acceptable service life and high-quality injection water.

  20. Potential Risk Factors for Injecting Among Mexican American Non-Injecting Heroin Users

    PubMed Central

    Valdez, Avelardo; Neaigus, Alan; Cepeda, Alice

    2008-01-01

    SUMMARY This study examines potential risk factors for resuming and transitioning to injecting among a prospective cohort of 300 Mexican American non-injecting heroin users (NIUs) with distinct injecting histories (i.e., never vs. former injectors). Overall. findings revealed NIUs with an injecting history are more likely to be at greater risk for resuming injecting practices. Of interest, scoring high on acculturation decreased the risk of being a former injector. The present analysis supports previous research, and more importantly further identifies potential risk factors for injecting that are unique to the cultural and social context of the Mexican American community. PMID:18192204

  1. Polyacrylamide hydrogel injection for breast augmentation: Another injectable failure

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhenxiang; Li, Shirong; Wang, Lingli; Zhang, Shu; Jiang, Yan; Chen, Jinping; Luo, Donglin

    2012-01-01

    Summary Background Increasing complications of polyacrylamide hydrogel (PAAG) augmentation mammoplasty, such as chronic persistent infection, have recently caught the attention of both the medical field and the general public. Material/Methods A total of 96 patients with severe chronic infection following PAAG augmentation mammoplasty were treated in the present study including 63 cases with infection confined to the breast and 33 with systemic infection. Endoscopy and surgery were performed to completely remove the materials and clear the infected tissues followed by drug-irrigation and vacuum-assisted closure for several days. Results In patients with severe infection there were large amounts of PAAG, fibers and infiltration of numerous neutrophils and macrophages. The infection-inducing materials were extensively dispersed in the mammary and subcutaneous tissues, pectoral fascia and intermuscular space. In addition, there was scattered distribution of PAAG materials in the armpit, chest wall and abdominal wall, which were mixed with necrotic tissues and surrounded by lymphocytes, giant cells, macrophages and other inflammatory cells, forming chronic granulomatous and fibrous lesions. Infection was controlled following surgical intervention. No residual infectious foci or recurrent infections were noted among these patients. Although the severe infection did not result in mastectomy, patients had breast atrophy and various degrees of deformation. Conclusions Chronic infection following PAAG augmentation mammaplasty usually causes systemic infection and other devastating adverse reactions. This study confirms PAAG augmentation mammaplasty is another failed attempt. More attention should be paid to the injection of large doses of liquid filler. PMID:22648256

  2. Precision injection molding of freeform optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Fengzhou; Zhang, Nan; Zhang, Xiaodong

    2016-08-01

    Precision injection molding is the most efficient mass production technology for manufacturing plastic optics. Applications of plastic optics in field of imaging, illumination, and concentration demonstrate a variety of complex surface forms, developing from conventional plano and spherical surfaces to aspheric and freeform surfaces. It requires high optical quality with high form accuracy and lower residual stresses, which challenges both optical tool inserts machining and precision injection molding process. The present paper reviews recent progress in mold tool machining and precision injection molding, with more emphasis on precision injection molding. The challenges and future development trend are also discussed.

  3. Creating fluid injectivity in tar sands formations

    DOEpatents

    Stegemeier, George Leo; Beer, Gary Lee; Zhang, Etuan

    2010-06-08

    Methods for treating a tar sands formation are described herein. Methods for treating a tar sands may include heating a portion of a hydrocarbon layer in the formation from one or more heaters located in the portion. The heat may be controlled to increase the permeability of at least part of the portion to create an injection zone in the portion with an average permeability sufficient to allow injection of a fluid through the injection zone. A drive fluid and/or an oxidizing fluid may be provided into the injection zone. At least some hydrocarbons are produced from the portion.

  4. Creating fluid injectivity in tar sands formations

    DOEpatents

    Stegemeier, George Leo; Beer, Gary Lee; Zhang, Etuan

    2012-06-05

    Methods for treating a tar sands formation are described herein. Methods for treating a tar sands may include heating a portion of a hydrocarbon layer in the formation from one or more heaters located in the portion. The heat may be controlled to increase the permeability of at least part of the portion to create an injection zone in the portion with an average permeability sufficient to allow injection of a fluid through the injection zone. A drive fluid and/or an oxidizing fluid may be provided into the injection zone. At least some hydrocarbons including mobilized hydrocarbons are produced from the portion.

  5. Optical pure spin current injection in graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rioux, Julien; Burkard, Guido

    2013-03-01

    Pure spin current injection by optical methods is investigated in single-layer and bilayer graphene within the tight-binding model, including bias and interlayer coupling effects. Interlayer coupling in bilayer graphene has a distinct qualitative effect on the polarization dependence of the spin current injection. In combination with interlayer coupling, which induces trigonal warping of the electronic bands, the bias voltage allows to control the warping at the Fermi surface. The resulting implications for the spin current injection are presented. Unlike the previously presented charge current injection [J. Rioux et al., PRB 83, 195406 (2011)], the effect presented here relies on a single monochromatic beam.

  6. Teriparatide (rDNA origin) Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... fainting difficulty breathing nausea vomiting constipation lack of energy muscle weakness Teriparatide injection may cause other side ... lightheadedness and fainting on standing constipation lack of energy muscle weakness

  7. Injection molding ceramics to high green densities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mangels, J. A.; Williams, R. M.

    1983-01-01

    The injection molding behavior of a concentrated suspension of Si powder in wax was studied. It was found that the injection molding behavior was a function of the processing techniques used to generate the powder. Dry ball-milled powders had the best molding behavior, while air classified and impact-milled powders demonstrated poorer injection moldability. The relative viscosity of these molding batches was studied as a function of powder properties: distribution shape, surface area, packing density, and particle morphology. The experimental behavior, in all cases, followed existing theories. The relative viscosity of an injection molding composition composed of dry ball-milled powders could be expressed using Farris' relation.

  8. Addendum 2: Forum for Injection Technique, India

    PubMed Central

    Kalra, Sanjay; Balhara, Yatan Pal Singh; Baruah, Manash P.; Chadha, Manoj; Chandalia, Hemraj B.; Chowdhury, Subhankar; Kesavadev, Jothydev; Prasanna Kumar, K. M.; Modi, Sonal; Pitale, Shailesh; Rishi, Shukla; Sahay, Rakesh; Sundaram, Annamalai; Unnikrishnan, Ambika G.; Wangnoo, Subhash K.

    2014-01-01

    The second addendum to the Forum for Injection Techniques (FIT), India recommendations, first published in 2012 and followed by an addendum in 2013, covers various important issues. It describes how the impact of the so-called non-modifiable factors, which influence the injection technique, can be modulated; provides fresh information on timing of glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor agonist injections, methods of minimizing pain during injections, amyloidosis, and factors that impact adherence to insulin therapy. The addendum also lists semantic changes made to keep the FIT recommendations updated.

  9. Fuel injector train with variable injection rate

    SciTech Connect

    Perr, J.P.

    1990-07-31

    This patent describes a fuel injection train for injecting fuel at a reduced rate during a portion of a fuel injection cycle. It comprises: a fuel injector having a plunger and plunger biasing means having a predetermined spring rate for biasing the plunger to control the injection rate of the injector, a rocker arm for applying force to the plunger in response to force applied thereto, cam assembly means, and a elongate push rod means mounted between the cam assembly means and the rocker means. The cam assembly means operating to apply force to the push rod means to cause the push rod means to apply force to the rocker arm.

  10. Border crossing to inject drugs in Mexico among injection drug users in San Diego, California.

    PubMed

    Volkmann, Tyson; Shin, Sanghyuk S; Garfein, Richard S; Patterson, Thomas L; Pollini, Robin A; Wagner, Karla D; Artamanova, Irina; Strathdee, Steffanie A

    2012-04-01

    We examined correlates of ever injecting drugs in Mexico among residents of San Diego, California. From 2007 to 2010, injecting drug users (IDUs) in San Diego underwent an interviewer-administered survey. Logistic regression identified correlates of injection drug use in Mexico. Of 302 IDUs, 38% were Hispanic, 72% male and median age was 37; 27% ever injected in Mexico; 43% reported distributive syringe sharing there. Factors independently associated with ever injecting drugs in Mexico included being younger at first injection, injecting heroin, distributive syringe sharing at least half of the time, and transporting drugs over the last 6 months. One-quarter of IDUs reported ever injecting drugs in Mexico, among whom syringe sharing was common, suggesting possible mixing between IDUs in the Mexico-US border region. Prospective studies should monitor trends in cross-border drug use in light of recent Mexican drug policy reforms partially decriminalizing drug possession.

  11. Border crossing to inject drugs in Mexico among injection drug users in San Diego, California.

    PubMed

    Volkmann, Tyson; Shin, Sanghyuk S; Garfein, Richard S; Patterson, Thomas L; Pollini, Robin A; Wagner, Karla D; Artamanova, Irina; Strathdee, Steffanie A

    2012-04-01

    We examined correlates of ever injecting drugs in Mexico among residents of San Diego, California. From 2007 to 2010, injecting drug users (IDUs) in San Diego underwent an interviewer-administered survey. Logistic regression identified correlates of injection drug use in Mexico. Of 302 IDUs, 38% were Hispanic, 72% male and median age was 37; 27% ever injected in Mexico; 43% reported distributive syringe sharing there. Factors independently associated with ever injecting drugs in Mexico included being younger at first injection, injecting heroin, distributive syringe sharing at least half of the time, and transporting drugs over the last 6 months. One-quarter of IDUs reported ever injecting drugs in Mexico, among whom syringe sharing was common, suggesting possible mixing between IDUs in the Mexico-US border region. Prospective studies should monitor trends in cross-border drug use in light of recent Mexican drug policy reforms partially decriminalizing drug possession. PMID:21442300

  12. Fuel injection apparatus for automobile

    SciTech Connect

    De Grazia, T.W. Jr.

    1987-09-22

    This patent describes a fuel injection adapter for use on a vehicle including a carburetor having a throat, a fuel pump, a throttle and a throttle control lever. In consists of: chamber means adapted for mounting adjacent the carburetor; metering jet means, including an orifice with different size internal diameters and a longitudinal needle movable within the orifice for varying the volume of fuel delivered. Fuel inlet means on the chamber means adapted for connection to the fuel pump; adjustment means mechanically coupled to the throttle lever and responsive to movement to control movement of the metering jet means to vary the amount of fuel delivered by the nozzle means. The adjustment includes an operating lever coupled to the throttle lever, a needle plate coupled to the operating lever and means on the needle plate for engaging the needle; and fuel shutoff means coupled in series with the fuel inlet means for cutting off fuel to the chamber means when the operating lever is moved to a position corresponding to a throttle wide-open position.

  13. 21 CFR 522.1086 - Guaifenesin injection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Guaifenesin injection. 522.1086 Section 522.1086... Guaifenesin injection. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter of sterile aqueous solution contains 50 milligrams of guaifenesin and 50 milligrams of dextrose. (b) Sponsor. See Nos. 037990 and 059130 in §...

  14. Comparative study of injection locked FET oscillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacob, Arne

    1991-07-01

    A study of injection locked FET oscillators (ILO) is presented. Starting from large signal design considerations a comparison between reflection- and transmission-type injection locking is drawn. Bandwidth capabilities and the transfer of modulated signals are investigated by both experiments and computer simulations. In the examples studied the reflection type ILO shows superior preformances.

  15. 21 CFR 522.1182 - Iron injection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... oxide; or (iii) Elemental iron. (2) 200 mg of elemental iron derived from ferric hydroxide. (b) Sponsors... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Iron injection. 522.1182 Section 522.1182 Food and..., FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS IMPLANTATION OR INJECTABLE DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 522.1182...

  16. 21 CFR 522.1182 - Iron injection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... oxide; or (iii) Elemental iron. (2) 200 mg of elemental iron derived from ferric hydroxide. (b) Sponsors... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Iron injection. 522.1182 Section 522.1182 Food and..., FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS IMPLANTATION OR INJECTABLE DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 522.1182...

  17. 21 CFR 522.1182 - Iron injection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... oxide; or (iii) Elemental iron. (2) 200 mg of elemental iron derived from ferric hydroxide. (b) Sponsors... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Iron injection. 522.1182 Section 522.1182 Food and..., FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS IMPLANTATION OR INJECTABLE DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 522.1182...

  18. 21 CFR 522.1182 - Iron injection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Iron injection. 522.1182 Section 522.1182 Food and..., FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS IMPLANTATION OR INJECTABLE DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 522.1182 Iron... equivalent of: (1) 100 milligrams (mg) of elemental iron derived from: (i) Ferric hydroxide; (ii)...

  19. 21 CFR 522.1182 - Iron injection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Iron injection. 522.1182 Section 522.1182 Food and..., FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS IMPLANTATION OR INJECTABLE DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 522.1182 Iron... equivalent of: (1) 100 milligrams (mg) of elemental iron derived from: (i) Ferric hydroxide; (ii)...

  20. Closure of shallow underground injection wells

    SciTech Connect

    Veil, J.A.; Grunewald, B.

    1993-10-01

    Shallow injection wells have long been used for disposing liquid wastes. Some of these wells have received hazardous or radioactive wastes. According to US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) regulations, Class IV wells are those injection wells through which hazardous or radioactive wastes are injected into or above an underground source of drinking water (USDW). These wells must be closed. Generally Class V wells are injection wells through which fluids that do not contain hazardous or radioactive wastes are injected into or above a USDW. Class V wells that are responsible for violations of drinking water regulations or that pose a threat to human health must also be closed. Although EPA regulations require closure of certain types of shallow injection wells, they do not provide specific details on the closure process. This paper describes the regulatory background, DOE requirements, and the steps in a shallow injection well closure process: Identification of wells needing closure; monitoring and disposal of accumulated substances; filling and sealing of wells; and remediation. In addition, the paper describes a major national EPA shallow injection well enforcement initiative, including closure plan guidance for wells used to dispose of wastes from service station operations.

  1. Laboratory studies of injection into horizonal fractures

    SciTech Connect

    Fitzgerald, Shaun D.; Pruess, Karsten; van Rappard, Diederik M.

    1996-01-24

    Most geothermal reservoirs are extensively fractured and injected fluids usually enter the reservoir formation at distinct feed points. As the cold water passes through the hot rock, it is heated, and may be recovered at production wells for power production. The influence of fractures is two-fold. Firstly, preferential pathways exist along major faults and the general motion of fluids away from injection wells is controlled by the effective permeability structure. Secondly, since fractures can be spaced several metres or more apart and the flow rates within each fracture can be relatively high, the injected fluid does not necessarily attain thermal equilibrium will all of the host rock at a given distance from the injection well. It is important that sufficient heat transfer between the fluid and rock occurs before the injected fluid is recovered at an injection well in order to prevent thermal breakthrough. In this paper we present preliminary results of an experimental research program examining the effects of injection into fractures. We build upon previous theoretical work by seeking to confirm the results and then discuss the initial results of injection into superheated reservoirs.

  2. A prototype space flight intravenous injection system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colombo, G. V.

    1985-01-01

    Medical emergencies, especially those resulting from accidents, frequently require the administration of intravenous fluids to replace lost body liquids. The development of a prototype space flight intravenous injection system is presented. The definition of requirements, injectable concentrates development, water polisher, reconstitution hardware development, administration hardware development, and prototype fabrication and testing are discussed.

  3. Patient safety considerations regarding dermal filler injections.

    PubMed

    Jones, Jill K

    2006-01-01

    Today's population is seeking procedures that enhance or improve its appearance, that require little or no downtime, and that provide immediate results. Dermal filler injections are among the top five procedures performed for this purpose. Patient safety must remain the ultimate goal of any practitioner delivering such procedures. This column will examine pertinent safety considerations in relation to the delivery of dermal filler injections.

  4. 21 CFR 522.1720 - Phenylbutazone injection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Register citations affecting § 522.1720, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Phenylbutazone injection. 522.1720 Section 522....1720 Phenylbutazone injection. (a) Specifications. The drug contains 100 or 200 milligrams...

  5. 21 CFR 522.1720 - Phenylbutazone injection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Register citations affecting § 522.1720, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Phenylbutazone injection. 522.1720 Section 522....1720 Phenylbutazone injection. (a) Specifications. The drug contains 100 or 200 milligrams...

  6. Resilient Children of Injection Drug Users.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pilowsky, Daniel J.; Zybert, Patricia A.; Vlahov, David

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To examine associations between resilience in children of injection drug users and children's coping strategies, parenting stress, and children's social support. Method: Injection drug-using parents (n = 91) and their children aged 6 to 11 (n = 117) were recruited in Baltimore (1997-1999). Resilience was defined as scoring in the lowest…

  7. Injection Molding of Plastics from Agricultural Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Bhattacharya, M.; Ruan, R.

    2001-02-22

    The objective of this research was to conduct a systematic study to relate injection molding parameters to properties of blends of starch and synthetic polymer. From this study, we wished to develop a thorough understanding of the injection molding process and gain significant insight into designing molds and aiding in developing products cheaply and efficiently.

  8. Two Cases of Accidental Injection of Epinephrine into a Digit Treated with Subcutaneous Phentolamine Injections

    PubMed Central

    Bodkin, Ryan P.; Acquisto, Nicole M.; Wiegand, Timothy J.

    2013-01-01

    Accidental injection into the digit from an epinephrine autoinjection device can cause discoloration, pain, and paresthesias. Although loss of digit is rare, treatment in the emergency department is commonly aimed at vasodilation of the affected tissue. We report two cases of accidental injection of epinephrine into the digits that were successfully treated with subcutaneous phentolamine injection with no adverse events. PMID:24024046

  9. Advanced diesel electronic fuel injection and turbocharging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beck, N. J.; Barkhimer, R. L.; Steinmeyer, D. C.; Kelly, J. E.

    1993-12-01

    The program investigated advanced diesel air charging and fuel injection systems to improve specific power, fuel economy, noise, exhaust emissions, and cold startability. The techniques explored included variable fuel injection rate shaping, variable injection timing, full-authority electronic engine control, turbo-compound cooling, regenerative air circulation as a cold start aid, and variable geometry turbocharging. A Servojet electronic fuel injection system was designed and manufactured for the Cummins VTA-903 engine. A special Servojet twin turbocharger exhaust system was also installed. A series of high speed combustion flame photos was taken using the single cylinder optical engine at Michigan Technological University. Various fuel injection rate shapes and nozzle configurations were evaluated. Single-cylinder bench tests were performed to evaluate regenerative inlet air heating techniques as an aid to cold starting. An exhaust-driven axial cooling air fan was manufactured and tested on the VTA-903 engine.

  10. Ketorolac, an injectable nonnarcotic analgesic.

    PubMed

    Litvak, K M; McEvoy, G K

    1990-12-01

    Clinical studies of the injectable nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agent (NSAIA) ketorolac tromethamine are reviewed, and the chemistry, pharmacology, pharmacokinetics, drug interactions, and adverse effects of ketorolac are described. Ketorolac exhibits anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and antipyretic activity. Although the exact mechanisms of action have not been determined, its effects appear to be associated principally with the inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis. After oral, i.m., or i.v. administration, ketorolac and its metabolites are excreted mainly in urine. Ketorolac tromethamine has been used for the symptomatic relief of moderate to severe postoperative pain, including that associated with abdominal, gynecologic, oral, orthopedic, or urologic surgery. Ketorolac has also been used for the relief of acute renal colic, pain associated with trauma, and visceral pain associated with cancer. When administered i.m., ketorolac produced analgesia comparable to that of i.m. doses of meperidine, pentazocine, or morphine. The most common adverse effects associated with short-term administration are nervous system and gastrointestinal effects; these are usually mild and occur in about 39% of patients. Unlike opiate analgesics, ketorolac does not appear to cause tolerance or physical dependence in patients receiving long-term therapy. Ketorolac tromethamine has been administered concomitantly with morphine or meperidine without apparent adverse interaction. For short-term pain management, an initial i.m. ketorolac tromethamine loading dose of 30 or 60 mg is recommended. Ketorolac tromethamine appears to be as effective as morphine or meperidine for short-term management of moderate to severe postoperative pain. It lacks the respiratory depressant effects of opiate analgesics but shares the toxic potentials of other NSAIAs.

  11. Best vaccination practice and medically attended injection site events following deltoid intramuscular injection

    PubMed Central

    Cook, Ian F

    2015-01-01

    Analysis of medically attended injection site events data provides a vehicle to appreciate the inadequacies of vaccination practice for deltoid intramuscular injection and to develop best practice procedures. These data can be divided into 3 groups; nerve palsies, musculoskeletal injuries and cutaneous reactions and reflect inappropriate site of injection, needle over or under penetration, local sepsis and vascular complications. The aim of this review is to formulate best vaccination practice procedures for deltoid intramuscular injection of vaccines through the collation and analysis of medically attended injection site events. PMID:25868476

  12. Multiturn injection of EBIS ions in booster

    SciTech Connect

    Gardner, C.J.

    2010-09-01

    Ions from EBIS are injected into Booster after acceleration by an RFQ and a Linac. The velocity of the ions at Booster injection is c{beta} where c is the velocity of light and (1) {beta} = 0.0655. The kinetic energy is (2) W = mc{sup 2}({gamma}-1) where m is the ion mass and (3) {gamma} = (1-{beta}{sup 2}){sup -1/2}. Putting in numbers one gets a kinetic energy of approximately 2 MeV per nucleon for each ion. The revolution period at injection is 10.276 {micro}s. The ions in the EBIS trap are delivered in a beam pulse that ranges from 10 to 40 {micro}s in length. This amounts to 1 to 4 turns around the machine. The transverse emittance (un-normalized) of EBIS beams just prior to injection into Booster is 11{pi} mm milliradians in both planes. This is an order of magnitude larger than the nominal 1{pi} mm milliradians for Tandem beams. Injection proceeds by means of an electrostatic inflector in the C3 straight section and four programmable injection dipoles in the C1, C3, C7, and D1 straights. These devices have been in use for many years for the injection of ions from Tandem as described in [1] and [2]. The inflector brings the incoming beam to the edge of the Booster acceptance and the dipoles produce a closed orbit bump that initially places the closed orbit near the septum at the in ector exit. During injection the orbit bump must be collapsed at a rate that keeps the injected beam from hitting the septum while continuing to allow beam to be injected into the machine acceptance. The process is discussed in [2] and [3]. There it is assumed that the injected beam moves with the closed orbit as the bump collapses. In the present report this is shown to be a valid approximation if the bump collapses sufficiently slowly. It is also shown that by judiciously choosing the horizontal tune and the initial distance of the closed orbit from the septum one can inject up to 4 turns of EBIS beams without loss on the septum. The reason for wanting to inject over a period of

  13. Injection practices in southern part of India.

    PubMed

    Rajasekaran, M; Sivagnanam, G; Thirumalaikolundusubramainan, P; Namasivayam, K; Ravindranath, C

    2003-05-01

    The World Health Organization defines 'a safe injection' as one that does not harm the recipient, does not expose the provider to any avoidable risk, and does not result in any waste that is dangerous to the community. Irrational and unsafe injection practices are rife in developing countries. The objective of the present study was to assess the injection practices in the state of Tamilnadu, India, using the Rapid assessment and response guide of the Safe Injection Global Network of the World Health Organization. Thirty-nine prescribers, 62 providers, and 175 members of the general public were interviewed. The areas were chosen out of convenience while at the same time adhering to the guidelines. The study was carried out between April and June 2001. The per capita injection rate was 2.4 per year. The ratio of therapeutic to immunization injections was 6.5:1, and the proportion of injections given with a disposable syringe and needle was 35.4%. Knowledge about diseases transmitted by unsafe injections, for example involving human immunodeficiency virus and hepatitis B virus, was greater among all the study groups. The annual incidence of needlestick injuries among providers was 23.6, which is extremely high. It is concluded that there are deficiencies in practice such as an excessive, unwarranted usage of injections, a sizeable prevalence of unsafe injection practices, the short supply of injection equipment leading to a high incidence of needlestick injuries, a low proportion of hepatitis B virus immunization among providers, and a lack of adequate sharps containers and disposal facilities in this part of India. It is suggested that immediate and long-term remedial measures, such as the education of prescribers to reduce the number of injections to a bare minimum, an adequate supply of injection equipment, provider protection with immunization for hepatitis B virus, the provision of adequate sharps containers with safe disposal facilities and, not least, community

  14. Injection practices in Nepal: health policymakers’ perceptions

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The unnecessary and unsafe use of injections is common in developing countries like Nepal. Policymakers have an important role in promoting rational and safe injection use. Hence, the present study was carried out to explore the perception of health policymakers regarding safe injection practice in Nepal. Methods An exploratory qualitative study design was used in this study. Key policymakers from both the central and regional level were selected using purposive sampling. A semi-structured questionnaire advocated by the World Health Organization (WHO) was used after modifying the context. Interviews were conducted to clarify doubts and obtain additional information. The data was analyzed manually using deductive content analysis technique. Results In total, eleven policymakers participated. All unanimously agreed that injection safety is a problem and seven participants reported that injections are overused. They shared the opinion that injections are administered by various providers, including formal and informal health providers, and also quacks. Almost half the respondents reported that the National Drug Policy discourages injection overuse, while others reported that the policy contains no provisions regarding injection overuse. Most policymakers stated that only single-use disposable injection equipment is used to provide injection, while others thought that sterilizable glass syringe is also used. More than half of the participants believed that the quality of injection equipment available in the Nepalese market is not regulated by any government institution. Almost two-third of the policymakers stated that syringes and needles are not reused, while the rest thought syringes might be reused without sterilization in some parts of the country. Almost half of the respondents stated that illegal commercialization of used syringes exists in Nepal. Almost all respondents thought that health care institutions have a waste management plan, while more than

  15. First injection of ketamine among young injection drug users (IDUs) in three U.S. cities

    PubMed Central

    Lankenau, Stephen E.; Sanders, Bill; Bloom, Jennifer Jackson; Hathazi, Dodi; Alarcon, Erica; Tortu, Stephanie; Clatts, Michael C.

    2007-01-01

    Ketamine, a dissociative anesthetic, has emerged as an increasingly common drug among subgroups of young injection drug users (IDUs) in cities across the United States. In-depth qualitative interviews were conducted with 213 young IDUs aged 16–28 years recruited in New York, New Orleans, and Los Angeles between 2004 and 2006. While some initiated injection drug use with ketamine, the drug was more frequently injected by IDUs with extensive polydrug using histories. IDUs initiating with ketamine commonly self-injected via an intramuscular mode of administration. The injection group provided crucial knowledge and material resources that enabled the injection event to occur, including ketamine, syringes, and injection skills. Injection paraphernalia was commonly shared during the first injection of ketamine, particularly vials of pharmaceutically-packaged liquid ketamine. Injection events infrequently occurred in a rave or club and more typically in a private home, which challenges ketamine’s designation as a ‘club’ drug. The first injection of ketamine was a noteworthy event since it introduced a novel drug or new mode of administration to be further explored by some, or exposed others to a drug to be avoided in the future. Risk reduction messages directed towards young IDUs should be expanded to include ketamine. PMID:16979848

  16. Reduction of ammonia emission by shallow slurry injection: injection efficiency and additional energy demand.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Martin N; Sommer, Sven G; Madsen, Niels P

    2003-01-01

    Ammonia (NH3) emission from livestock production causes undesirable environmental effects and a loss of plant-available nitrogen. Much atmospheric NH3 is lost from livestock manure applied in the field. The NH3 emission may be reduced by slurry injection, but slurry injection in general, and especially on grassland, increases the energy demand and places heavy demands on the slurry injection techniques used. The reduction in NH3 emission, injection efficiency, and energy demand of six different shallow slurry-injection techniques was examined. The NH3 emission from cattle slurry applied to grassland was reduced by all the injectors tested in the study, but there were major differences in the NH3 reduction potential of the different types of injectors. Compared with the trailing hose spreading technique, the NH3 loss was reduced by 75% when cattle slurry was injected using the most efficient slurry injection technique, and by 20% when incorporated by the least efficient injection technique. The reduction in NH3 emission was correlated with injection depth and the volume of the slot created. The additional energy demand for reducing ammonia emissions by slurry injection was approximately 13 000 kJ ha(-1) for a 20% reduction and 34 000 kJ ha(-1) for a 75% reduction. The additional energy demand corresponds to additional emissions of, respectively, 5.6 and 14.5 kg CO2 per ha injected.

  17. Impulsive Injection for Compressor Stator Separation Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Culley, Dennis E.; Braunscheidel, Edward P.; Bright, Michelle M.

    2005-01-01

    Flow control using impulsive injection from the suction surface of a stator vane has been applied in a low speed axial compressor. Impulsive injection is shown to significantly reduce separation relative to steady injection for vanes that were induced to separate by an increase in vane stagger angle of 4 degrees. Injected flow was applied to the airfoil suction surface using spanwise slots pitched in the streamwise direction. Injection was limited to the near-hub region, from 10 to 36 percent of span, to affect the dominant loss due to hub leakage flow. Actuation was provided externally using high-speed solenoid valves closely coupled to the vane tip. Variations in injected mass, frequency, and duty cycle are explored. The local corrected total pressure loss across the vane at the lower span region was reduced by over 20 percent. Additionally, low momentum fluid migrating from the hub region toward the tip was effectively suppressed resulting in an overall benefit which reduced corrected area averaged loss through the passage by 4 percent. The injection mass fraction used for impulsive actuation was typically less than 0.1 percent of the compressor through flow.

  18. Soft Tissue Injections in the Athlete

    PubMed Central

    Nepple, Jeffrey J.; Matava, Matthew J.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Injections into or adjacent to soft tissue structures, including muscle, tendon, bursa, and fascia, for pain relief and an earlier return to play have become common in the field of sports medicine. Study Design: Clinical review. Results: Corticosteroids, local anesthetics, and ketorolac tromethamine (Toradol) are the most commonly used injectable agents in athletes. The use of these injectable agents have proven efficacy in some disorders, whereas the clinical benefit for others remain questionable. All soft tissue injections performed for pain control and/or an anti-inflammatory effect have potentially serious side effects, which must be considered, especially in the pregame setting. Conclusions: The primary concern regarding corticosteroid and local anesthetic injections is an increased risk of tendon rupture associated with the direct injection into the tendon. Intramuscular Toradol injections provide significant analgesia, as well as an anti-inflammatory effect via its inhibitory effect on the cyclooxygenase pathway. The risk of bleeding associated with Toradol use is recognized but not accurately quantified. PMID:23015899

  19. Injectables in the Nose: Facts and Controversies.

    PubMed

    Thomas, William Walsh; Bucky, Lou; Friedman, Oren

    2016-08-01

    Nasal injectables and surface treatments alter the appearance of the nose both primarily and following nasal surgery. Fillers such as hyaluronic acids, calcium hydroxyapatite, and fat have a variety of advantages and disadvantages in eliminating small asymmetries postrhinoplasty. All nasal injectables have rare but severe ocular and cerebral ischemic complications. The injection of steroids following nasal reconstruction has a role in preventing supratip swelling and can improve the appearance of grafts to the nose. Resurfacing techniques reduce the appearance of autotransplanted grafts to the nose; there is little controversy about their benefit but surgeon preference for timing is varied. PMID:27400851

  20. Massive Preperitoneal Hematoma after a Subcutaneous Injection

    PubMed Central

    Yoshikawa, Kentaro; Lefor, Alan Kawarai; Kubota, Tadao; Mizokami, Ken

    2016-01-01

    Preperitoneal hematomas are rare and can develop after surgery or trauma. A 74-year-old woman, receiving systemic anticoagulation, developed a massive preperitoneal hematoma after a subcutaneous injection of teriparatide using a 32-gauge, 4 mm needle. In this patient, there were two factors, the subcutaneous injection of teriparatide and systemic anticoagulation, associated with development of the hematoma. These two factors are especially significant, because they are widely used clinically. Although extremely rare, physicians must consider this potentially life-threatening complication after subcutaneous injections, especially in patients receiving anticoagulation. PMID:27738545

  1. Assessing Atmospheric Water Injection from Oceanic Impacts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pierazzo, E.

    2005-01-01

    Collisions of asteroids and comets with the Earth s surface are rare events that punctuate the geologic record. Due to the vastness of Earth s oceans, oceanic impacts of asteroids or comets are expected to be about 4 times more frequent than land impacts. The resulting injections of oceanic water into the upper atmosphere can have important repercussions on Earth s climate and atmospheric circulation. However, the duration and overall effect of these large injections are still unconstrained. This work addresses atmospheric injections of large amounts of water in oceanic impacts.

  2. Vibration of safety injection pump motors

    SciTech Connect

    Wattrelos, D.

    1996-12-01

    This paper covers a fault encountered in the safety injection pump motors of the French 900 MWe unit nuclear power stations. This fault was not revealed either during the low pressure safety injection and containment spray system pump qualification tests under accident conditions or during the special tests on a test bench carried out to attempt to replicate the fault and to identify ways of remedying it. This constitutes a potential common mode of failure of the safety injection system and the containment spray system pumps. The vibration phenomena illustrate the importance of carrying out tests in the plants under conditions as close as possible to those of actual accident situations.

  3. Liquid injection system with venturi injector

    SciTech Connect

    Waechter, K.F.

    1987-06-09

    This patent describes a liquid injection system for used with an internal combustion engine having a carburetor and an air cleaner housing, the system being designed to inject a predetermined amount of an external liquid, responsive to changes in vacuum in the air cleaner housing and in the carburetor, into at least one of the carburetors of the internal combustion engine from the proximity of the air cleaner and through the carburetor's air intake and within the air cleaner housing, and within the air cleaner, comprising: a venturi injection; a liquid level control chamber; a remote liquid tank; pressure pumping means; a connecting tube; and a liquid control chamber with pumping means.

  4. Alkaline sorbent injection for mercury control

    DOEpatents

    Madden, Deborah A.; Holmes, Michael J.

    2003-01-01

    A mercury removal system for removing mercury from combustion flue gases is provided in which alkaline sorbents at generally extremely low stoichiometric molar ratios of alkaline earth or an alkali metal to sulfur of less than 1.0 are injected into a power plant system at one or more locations to remove at least between about 40% and 60% of the mercury content from combustion flue gases. Small amounts of alkaline sorbents are injected into the flue gas stream at a relatively low rate. A particulate filter is used to remove mercury-containing particles downstream of each injection point used in the power plant system.

  5. Alkaline sorbent injection for mercury control

    DOEpatents

    Madden, Deborah A.; Holmes, Michael J.

    2002-01-01

    A mercury removal system for removing mercury from combustion flue gases is provided in which alkaline sorbents at generally extremely low stoichiometric molar ratios of alkaline earth or an alkali metal to sulfur of less than 1.0 are injected into a power plant system at one or more locations to remove at least between about 40% and 60% of the mercury content from combustion flue gases. Small amounts of alkaline sorbents are injected into the flue gas stream at a relatively low rate. A particulate filter is used to remove mercury-containing particles downstream of each injection point used in the power plant system.

  6. Integrated injection-locked semiconductor diode laser

    DOEpatents

    Hadley, G. Ronald; Hohimer, John P.; Owyoung, Adelbert

    1991-01-01

    A continuous wave integrated injection-locked high-power diode laser array is provided with an on-chip independently-controlled master laser. The integrated injection locked high-power diode laser array is capable of continuous wave lasing in a single near-diffraction limited output beam at single-facet power levels up to 125 mW (250 mW total). Electronic steering of the array emission over an angle of 0.5 degrees is obtained by varying current to the master laser. The master laser injects a laser beam into the slave array by reflection of a rear facet.

  7. Integrated injection-locked semiconductor diode laser

    DOEpatents

    Hadley, G.R.; Hohimer, J.P.; Owyoung, A.

    1991-02-19

    A continuous wave integrated injection-locked high-power diode laser array is provided with an on-chip independently-controlled master laser. The integrated injection locked high-power diode laser array is capable of continuous wave lasing in a single near-diffraction limited output beam at single-facet power levels up to 125 mW (250 mW total). Electronic steering of the array emission over an angle of 0.5 degrees is obtained by varying current to the master laser. The master laser injects a laser beam into the slave array by reflection of a rear facet. 18 figures.

  8. Worldwide Injection Technique Questionnaire Study: Injecting Complications and the Role of the Professional.

    PubMed

    Frid, Anders H; Hirsch, Laurence J; Menchior, Astrid R; Morel, Didier R; Strauss, Kenneth W

    2016-09-01

    From February 1, 2014, through June 30, 2015, 13,289 insulin-injecting patients from 423 centers in 42 countries participated in one of the largest surveys ever performed in diabetes. The first results of this survey are published elsewhere in this issue. Herein we report that the most common complication of injecting insulin is lipohypertrophy (LH), which was self-reported by 29.0% of patients and found by physical examination in 30.8% by health care professionals (HCPs). Patients with LH consumed a mean of 10.1 IU more insulin daily than patients without LH. Glycated hemoglobin levels averaged 0.55% higher in patients with vs without LH. Lipohypertrophy was associated with higher rates of unexplained hypoglycemia and glycemic variability as well as more frequent diabetic ketoacidosis, incorrect rotation of injection sites, use of smaller injection zones, longer duration of insulin use, and reuse of pen needles (each P<.05). Routine inspection of injection sites by the HCP was associated with lower glycated hemoglobin levels, less LH, and more correct injection site rotation. Patients were also more likely to rotate correctly if they received injection instructions from their HCP in the past 6 months. Fewer than 40% of patients claimed to have gotten such instructions in the past 6 months, and 10% said that they have never received training on how to inject correctly despite injecting for a mean of nearly 9 years. Use of these data should stimulate renewed commitment to optimizing insulin injection practices. PMID:27594186

  9. Worldwide Injection Technique Questionnaire Study: Injecting Complications and the Role of the Professional.

    PubMed

    Frid, Anders H; Hirsch, Laurence J; Menchior, Astrid R; Morel, Didier R; Strauss, Kenneth W

    2016-09-01

    From February 1, 2014, through June 30, 2015, 13,289 insulin-injecting patients from 423 centers in 42 countries participated in one of the largest surveys ever performed in diabetes. The first results of this survey are published elsewhere in this issue. Herein we report that the most common complication of injecting insulin is lipohypertrophy (LH), which was self-reported by 29.0% of patients and found by physical examination in 30.8% by health care professionals (HCPs). Patients with LH consumed a mean of 10.1 IU more insulin daily than patients without LH. Glycated hemoglobin levels averaged 0.55% higher in patients with vs without LH. Lipohypertrophy was associated with higher rates of unexplained hypoglycemia and glycemic variability as well as more frequent diabetic ketoacidosis, incorrect rotation of injection sites, use of smaller injection zones, longer duration of insulin use, and reuse of pen needles (each P<.05). Routine inspection of injection sites by the HCP was associated with lower glycated hemoglobin levels, less LH, and more correct injection site rotation. Patients were also more likely to rotate correctly if they received injection instructions from their HCP in the past 6 months. Fewer than 40% of patients claimed to have gotten such instructions in the past 6 months, and 10% said that they have never received training on how to inject correctly despite injecting for a mean of nearly 9 years. Use of these data should stimulate renewed commitment to optimizing insulin injection practices.

  10. Subsurface injection of liquid waste with emphasis on injection practices in Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hickey, John J.; Vecchioli, John

    1986-01-01

    Subsurface injection of liquid waste is used as a disposal method in many parts of the country. It is used particularly when other methods for managing liquid waste are either not possible or too costly. Interest in subsurface injection as a waste-disposal method stems partly from recognition that surface disposal of liquid waste may establish a potential for degrading freshwater resources. Where hydrogeologic conditions are suitable and where surface disposal may cause contamination, subsurface injection is considered an attractive alternative for waste disposal. Decisions to use subsurface injection need to be made with care because, where hydrogeologic conditions are not suitable for injection, the risk to water resources, particularly ground water, could be great. Selection of subsurface injection as a waste-disposal method requires thoughtful deliberation and, in some instances, extensive data collection and analyses. Subsurface injection is a geological method of waste disposal. Therefore, many State and local governmental officials and environmentally concerned citizens who make decisions about waste-disposal alternatives may know little about it. This report serves as an elemental/guide to subsurface injection and presents subsurface injection practices in Florida as an example of how one State is managing injection.

  11. Interferon Beta-1a Intramuscular Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... course of disease where symptoms flare up from time to time) of multiple sclerosis (MS, a disease in which ... interferon beta-1a intramuscular at around the same time of day on your injection days. Follow the ...

  12. LABORATORY SCALE STEAM INJECTION TREATABILITY STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Laboratory scale steam injection treatability studies were first developed at The University of California-Berkeley. A comparable testing facility has been developed at USEPA's Robert S. Kerr Environmental Research Center. Experience has already shown that many volatile organic...

  13. Adverse reactions to injectable soft tissue fillers.

    PubMed

    Requena, Luis; Requena, Celia; Christensen, Lise; Zimmermann, Ute S; Kutzner, Heinz; Cerroni, Lorenzo

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, injections with filler agents are often used for wrinkle-treatment and soft tissue augmentation by dermatologists and plastic surgeons. Unfortunately, the ideal filler has not yet been discovered and all of them may induce adverse reactions. Quickly biodegradable or resorbable agents may induce severe complications, but they will normally disappear spontaneously in a few months. Slowly biodegradable or nonresorbable fillers may give rise to severe reactions that show little or no tendency to spontaneous improvement. They may appear several years after the injection, when the patient does not remember which product was injected, and treatment is often insufficient. In this review, we discuss the most commonly used fillers, their most frequent adverse reactions as well as the characteristic histopathologic findings that allow the identification of the injected filler agent. In conclusion, histopathologic study remains as the gold standard technique to identify the responsible filler.

  14. 21 CFR 522.2220 - Sulfadimethoxine injection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...)(iii) of this section. (3) Conditions of use. (i) It is used or intended for use in dogs and cats as... disease caused by Streptococcus equi (strangles). (b) It is administered by intravenous injection at...

  15. 21 CFR 522.2220 - Sulfadimethoxine injection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...)(iii) of this section. (3) Conditions of use. (i) It is used or intended for use in dogs and cats as... disease caused by Streptococcus equi (strangles). (b) It is administered by intravenous injection at...

  16. 21 CFR 522.2220 - Sulfadimethoxine injection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...)(iii) of this section. (3) Conditions of use. (i) It is used or intended for use in dogs and cats as... disease caused by Streptococcus equi (strangles). (b) It is administered by intravenous injection at...

  17. 21 CFR 522.2220 - Sulfadimethoxine injection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...)(iii) of this section. (3) Conditions of use. (i) It is used or intended for use in dogs and cats as... disease caused by Streptococcus equi (strangles). (b) It is administered by intravenous injection at...

  18. A Multi-Layered Needle Injection Simulator.

    PubMed

    Laufer, Shlomi; Kempton, Steve J; Maciolek, Kimberly; Terry, Aliyya; Ray, Rebeca D; Pugh, Carla M; Afifi, Ahmed M

    2016-01-01

    Insuring correct needle location is crucial in many medical procedures. This can be even more challenging for physicians injecting in a new location for the first time. Since they do not necessarily know how the tissue is supposed to feel, finding the correct location and correct depth can be difficult. In this study we designed a simulator for training needle injection. The simulator was fabricated to give a realistic feeling of injecting Botox® in the temporalis and the semispinalis muscles as part of migraine treatment. In addition the simulator provided real-time feedback of correct needle location. Nine residents and medical students evaluated the simulator. They made several errors that were corrected real time using the real time feedback provided. They found the simulator to be very useful and that the training significantly improved their confidence. The methods described in this study can easily be implemented for developing needle injection simulators for other anatomical locations.

  19. Infiltration and Injection Sites and Example Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Mark Rockhold

    2007-04-19

    The objectives of this paper are: (1) design a characterization and monitoring strategy for vadose zone infiltration and aquifer injection sites; and (2) track spatial and temporal evolution of water and reactive chemicals through vadose zone and aquifer.

  20. Opioids by Injection May Drive HIV Outbreaks

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_159978.html Opioids by Injection May Drive HIV Outbreaks Indiana case ... cooked down the extended-release form of the opioid pain pill oxymorphone (Opana ER). The result was ...

  1. Antiproton Production beam and Reverse Injection System

    SciTech Connect

    Chadwick, G.

    1981-08-16

    The objectives of this project are two fold: (1) To extract high energy protons from the Main Ring (MR) and target them to produce antiprotons which are subsequently captured in the existing Booster accelerator; and (2) to provide a channel for injecting either protons or antiprotons into the MR from the booster in a direction opposite to that of the normal proton acceleration as colliding beams can be created. The present design, therefore, is in support of two separate larger projects, viz., the collisions of protons in the Tevatron (normal circulation direction) with 'reverse injected' protons in the MR, and the collision of normal direction protons with reverse injected antiprotons either in the MR or in the Tevatron. Figure 1 shows the layout of the project area. It spans the shortest distance between possible injection/ejection points in the existing accelerator structures, hence minimizing costs. The tunnel will lie underground at the level of the MR and booster.

  2. Carbon injection proves effective in removing dioxins

    SciTech Connect

    Roeck, D.R.; Sigg, A.

    1996-01-01

    The last several years concerns have grown about the emission of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans, both byproducts of the combustion effluent-gas stream. In Europe carbon injection is widley used to effectively control dioxin emissions from hazardous-waste incinerators. Waste Technologies Industries, a hazardous waste incinerator in Ohio, recently completed extensive testing of the effectiveness of carbon injection technology. This article discusses the testing. 1 tab.

  3. Plasticising and injecting lowest quantities of plastic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hopmann, Ch.; Neuß, A.; Weber, M.; Fischer, T.

    2014-05-01

    For an economic production of thermoplastic micro parts a reproducible quality is one of the key aspects. Therefore, injection moulding is one of the most common production technologies. The material and process oriented plasticising of the required amount of plastic material are still challenging. Due to the concept of standard injection moulding machines the plasticising screw with a non-return valve is used as the injection plunger. This principle can only realise injection volumes which arise directly from the screw diameter D and the injection stroke. Miniaturisation of this design is limited, since the screw core must absorb the required torque while a feeding of the granules is to ensure by a sufficient flight depth. Even the smallest standard diameters of 14 mm and minimum injection strokes result in shot volumes, which account for multiples of the component volume of common micro parts. At present a new plasticising concept is developed by the Institute of Plastics Processing (IKV), Aachen, Germany. The concept is characterised by the position of the screw flights, which are attached to the inside of the plasticising cylinder. The injection piston is mounted coaxially within the cylinder. The so-called 'inverted plastication' is based on the kinematic reversal of the screw flights' arrangement. As the injection piston does not have to feature neither a special feed section nor screw flights, it is exposed to lower mechanical stresses. It therefore features a smaller diameter than common plasticising screws. Thus, the entire plasticising unit can be adapted to the volume of micro parts. Currently, an experimental setup is built which allows a systematical analysis of the different influencing parameters.

  4. Smart Materials for Fuel Injection Actuation

    SciTech Connect

    Hakim, Nabil

    2000-08-20

    The demands of stringent emissions and a robust engine dynamic torque response characteristic require innovative, accurate and repeatable control of the fuel injection event. Recent advances in piezo-material actuators have warranted the pursuit of its application to advanced heavy-duty truck fuel injection systems. This presentation will report on design and testing of an advanced electronic unit injector for the Detroit Diesel Series 60 truck engine.

  5. Electron injection in semiconductor drift detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Rehak, P. ); Gatti, E.; Longoni, A.; Sampietro, M.; Castoldi, A. ); Vacchi, A. )

    1990-01-01

    The paper reports the first successful results of a simple MOS structure to inject electrons at a given position in Silicon Drift Detectors. The structure allows on-line calibration of the drift velocity of electrons within the detector. The calibration is a practical method to trace the temperature dependence of the electron mobility. Several of these injection structures can be implemented in silicon drift detectors without additional steps in the fabrication process. 5 refs., 11 figs.

  6. Fluidized bed injection assembly for coal gasification

    DOEpatents

    Cherish, Peter; Salvador, Louis A.

    1981-01-01

    A coaxial feed system for fluidized bed coal gasification processes including an inner tube for injecting particulate combustibles into a transport gas, an inner annulus about the inner tube for injecting an oxidizing gas, and an outer annulus about the inner annulus for transporting a fluidizing and cooling gas. The combustibles and oxidizing gas are discharged vertically upward directly into the combustion jet, and the fluidizing and cooling gas is discharged in a downward radial direction into the bed below the combustion jet.

  7. 21 CFR 522.1680 - Oxytocin injection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Oxytocin injection. 522.1680 Section 522.1680 Food... Oxytocin injection. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter (mL) of solution contains 20 USP units oxytocin. (b... 10 to 20. Sows 0.25 to 1.0 5 to 20. (2) Indications for use. Oxytocin may be used as a...

  8. On lethal injections and the death penalty.

    PubMed

    1982-10-01

    A brief account is given of the recent adoption by several states of capital punishment by lethal injection and the objections that this move has aroused. Critics argue that, because of difficulties in administering the drugs and in determining the proper dosage, this method may actually be less humane than other means of execution. Articles in medical journals have forcefully expressed the profession's opposition to lethal injections and to physician involvement in their administration.

  9. Orthogonal ion injection apparatus and process

    SciTech Connect

    Kurulugama, Ruwan T; Belov, Mikhail E

    2014-04-15

    An orthogonal ion injection apparatus and process are described in which ions are directly injected into an ion guide orthogonal to the ion guide axis through an inlet opening located on a side of the ion guide. The end of the heated capillary is placed inside the ion guide such that the ions are directly injected into DC and RF fields inside the ion guide, which efficiently confines ions inside the ion guide. Liquid droplets created by the ionization source that are carried through the capillary into the ion guide are removed from the ion guide by a strong directional gas flow through an inlet opening on the opposite side of the ion guide. Strong DC and RF fields divert ions into the ion guide. In-guide orthogonal injection yields a noise level that is a factor of 1.5 to 2 lower than conventional inline injection known in the art. Signal intensities for low m/z ions are greater compared to convention inline injection under the same processing conditions.

  10. Blast furnace injection developments in British Steel

    SciTech Connect

    Jukes, M.H.

    1996-12-31

    British Steel has four integrated steel works, i.e., Llanwern, Port Talbot, Scunthorpe, Teesside, with a total of ten blast furnaces, nine of which are currently operating. The furnaces range in size from the 14 meters (45 feet 11 inches) hearth diameter Redcar No. 1 furnace at Teesside (a single furnace works) to the 8.33 meters (27 feet 4 inches) hearth Queen Mary and Queen Bess furnaces at Schunthorpe, with a total of four furnaces at that works. All have injection systems installed, those at Scunthorpe being equipped with granular coal injection and all others currently working with oil injection. The driving force behind the development of blast furnace injection has been as a means for introducing reducing agents (British Steel now refers to coke plus hydrocarbon injectants as total reductants) into the process as a part substitute/supplement for top charged coke and the technology is still being developed and used for that purpose. By utilizing practical experience and observing the work of others, British Steel has been assessing blast furnace injection technology experimentally for purposes other than the introduction of reducing agents.

  11. Magnetic detection of ferrofluid injection zones

    SciTech Connect

    Borglin, S.; Moridis, G.; Becker, A.

    1998-03-01

    Ferrofluids are stable colloidal suspensions of magnetic particles that can be stabilized in various carrier liquids. In this study the authors investigate the potential of ferrofluids to trace the movement and position of liquids injected in the subsurface using geophysical methods. An ability to track and monitor the movement and position of injected liquids is essential in assessing the effectiveness of the delivery system and the success of the process. Ferrofluids can also provide a significant detection and verification tool in containment technologies, where they can be injected with the barrier liquids to provide a strong signature allowing determination of the barrier geometry, extent, continuity and integrity. Finally, ferrofluids may have unique properties as tracers for detecting preferential flow features (such as fractures) in the subsurface, and thus allow the design of more effective remediation systems. In this report the authors review the results of the investigation of the potential of ferrofluids to trace the movement and position of liquids injected in the subsurface using geophysical methods. They demonstrate the feasibility of using conventional magnetometry for detecting subsurface zones of injected ferrofluids used to trace liquids injected for remediation or barrier formation. The geometrical shapes considered were a sphere, a thin disk, a rectangular horizontal slab, and a cylinder. Simple calculations based on the principles of magnetometry are made to determine the detection depths of FTs. Experiments involving spherical, cylindrical and horizontal slabs show a very good agreement between predictions and measurements.

  12. Fuel injection system for internal combustion engines

    SciTech Connect

    Yamaguchi, S.

    1986-10-28

    A fuel injection system is described for an internal combustion engine, comprising: (a) a fuel injection pump driven by the engine for fuel injection thereto and including a plunger reciprocably movable at a non-uniform speed and a control sleeve slidably fitted on the plunger; (b) first drive means operatively connected with the plunger for rotating the latter to thereby adjust the effective stroke of the plunger; (c) second drive means operatively connected with the control sleeve for displacing the latter in an axial direction to thereby adjust the pre-stroke of the control sleeve; (d) an operation sensor for detecting operating conditions of the engine; (e) a position sensor for detecting a position of the control sleeve; (f) first arithmetic means responsive to the engine operating conditions detected by the operation sensor, for computing an object injection quantity; (g) second arithmetic means responsive to the position of the control sleeve detected by the position sensor, for computing an object pre-stroke of the plunger; (h) third arithmetic means responsive to the engine operating conditions detected and the position of the control sleeve detected, for computing a correction amount; (i) first control means responsive to the correction amount computed by the third arithmetic means, for correcting the object injection quantity and for delivering a control signal to the first drive means; and (j) second control means responsive to the object injection quantity computed by the second arithmetic means, for delivering a control signal to the second drive means.

  13. Assessing the variability of injectate distribution following carpal tunnel injection--a cadaveric study.

    PubMed

    Jariwala, A; Zaliunaite, R; Soames, R; Wigderowitz, C A

    2013-01-01

    This anatomical study was designed to assess the distribution of a solution (injectate) made up using local anesthetic, steroid and dye into the carpal tunnel using a commonly used injection technique. Dissections were undertaken in 29 embalmed cadaveric wrists. The cadaveric specimens were dissected 24 hours after injection to observe the effect of time on diffusion patterns in both superficial and deep planes. Eighteen of the 29 specimens showed the presence of the injectate in the superficial plane and three preferential patterns of distribution were noted in the deep plane: free in the carpal tunnel, exclusively in the tendon sheath and mixed. This is the first study investigating the delayed diffusion pattern of injectate in the carpal tunnel and illustrates its variability. The findings of variable degree of superficial diffusion and different patterns of intracarpal spread help to offer some explanation regarding the variability of the response following carpal tunnel injection.

  14. Treatment of severe motion sickness with antimotion sickness drug injections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graybiel, Ashton; Lackner, James R.

    1987-01-01

    This report concerns the use of intramuscular injections of scopolamine, promethazine, and dramamine to treat severely motion sick individuals participating in parabolic flight experiments. The findings indicate that a majority of individuals received benefit from 50-mg injections of promethazine or 0.5 mg-injections of scopolamine. By contrast, 50-mg injections of dramamine and 25-mg injections of promethazine were nonbeneficial. The use of antimotion drug injections for treating space motion sickness is discussed.

  15. Injectable contraceptives: how safe are they?

    PubMed

    1979-01-01

    Controversy still surrounds the use of the injectable contraceptive, Depo-Provera, in 3rd world countries, when it has yet to be approved in the US, Canada, Japan, and other developed nations. Some medical professionals maintain Depo is both safe and effective and could curb rapid population growth worldwide. With no conclusive decision made, some countries have approved Depo while others have not yet decided. Originally approved for a variety of uses, Depo is approved in the US only as a treatment for advanced endometrial cancer; however, it is now available in 65 countries and is used as a contraceptive in the Philippines. Depo and its companion Norigest are both progestonogenic injectables and were developed in the late 1950s. Injectables inhibit ovulation and thicken cervical mucus, thereby preventing fertilization. The reservoir usually lasts from 3-6 months, and its action cannot be reversed until the body has completely absorbed the drug. Injectables are highly effective; most accidental pregnancies occur shortly after the 1st injection before the drug has taken effect or at the end of an interval when its effect is wearing off. Overall the rate of fertility return corresponds to the rates for the pill and the IUD. Injectables have the advantage of preventing side effects brought on by estrogens; thus they would be beneficial to women desiring to use contraception but who cannot manage pill side effects. They do not interfere with lactation and have the lowest failure rate of the reversible methods. Important to developing countries is that injectables require no effort on the part of the user. Injectables do disrupt the menstrual pattern and Depo use often results in weight gain. Little is known about the longterm risks of Depo; however, in 1973 the US Food and Drug Administration withdrew approval of Depo for pregnancy-related uses because of links to birth defects. Other recent studies have uncovered other possible effects including uncertainty about

  16. Application of Gaseous Sphere Injection Method for Modeling Under-expanded H2 Injection

    SciTech Connect

    Whitesides, R; Hessel, R P; Flowers, D L; Aceves, S M

    2010-12-03

    A methodology for modeling gaseous injection has been refined and applied to recent experimental data from the literature. This approach uses a discrete phase analogy to handle gaseous injection, allowing for addition of gaseous injection to a CFD grid without needing to resolve the injector nozzle. This paper focuses on model testing to provide the basis for simulation of hydrogen direct injected internal combustion engines. The model has been updated to be more applicable to full engine simulations, and shows good agreement with experiments for jet penetration and time-dependent axial mass fraction, while available radial mass fraction data is less well predicted.

  17. INJECTING EQUPMENT SHARING AND PERCEPTION OF HIV AND HEPATITIS RISK AMONG INJECTING DRUG USERS IN BUDAPEST

    PubMed Central

    Gyarmathy, V. Anna; Neaigus, Alan; Ujhelyi, Eszter

    2008-01-01

    In Central European states, rates of HIV among IDUs have been low although HCV infection is widespread. The goal of our study was to assess HIV infection, risk perceptions and injecting equipment sharing among injection drug users in Budapest, Hungary. Altogether 150 IDUs were interviewed (121 structured between 1999-2000 and 29 ethnographic between 2003-2004). The majority of them injected heroin (52% and 79%) and many injected amphetamines (51% and 35%). One person tested positive for HIV. Two thirds (68% of 121) shared injecting equipment (syringes, cookers and filters). Some participants said they shared syringes because they were not carrying them for fear of police harassment, and that they reused filters as a backup drug supply. In multivariate analysis, sharing of injecting equipment was associated with higher perceived susceptibility to HIV/AIDS, lower self-efficacy for sterile equipment use, higher motivation to comply with peer pressure to use dirty injecting equipment, and with having a criminal record. The high levels of injecting risk behaviors found in this study are a cause for serious concern. HIV prevention interventions need to address not only sharing syringes but also sharing and reusing other injecting equipment and drug filters. PMID:17129858

  18. Active VLF wave injection experiments with DEMETER

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inan, U.

    The comprehensive suite of electromagnetic wave receivers as well as the highly sensitive energetic electron detector on DEMETER provide outstanding opportunities for a range of ELF VLF wave-injection experiments These experiments are aimed at understanding physical mechanisms of wave-growth amplification and emission triggering and the loss of energetic radiation belt particles by injected coherent signals of known characteristics One class of experiments involves the use of the High-frequency Active Auroral Research Program HAARP HF ionospheric heating facility located in Gakona Alaska which is used to inject signals in the frequency range of few tens of Hz to few kHz for detection on DEMETER during its overpasses of either HAARP or its geomagnetically conjugate region HAARP is the only controlled signal source which can inject signals in the frequency range below 1 2 kHz so that all six components of the injected signals can be simultaneously measured A second class of experiments is carried out with the 21 4 kHz NPM transmitter facility in Hawaii which operates at a radiated power of 464 kW injecting signals of intensity in the several tens of pT in situ over the range of L-shells of 1 5 to 2 0 Using specialized ON OFF patterns to modulate the amplitude of the injected signals the NPM-induced precipitation is detected with the DEMETER IDP instrument both in terms of its temporal and energy spectral signatures Several examples of direct observations of NPM-induced precipitation has been observed so far with the

  19. Model study of historical injection in the southeast Geysers

    SciTech Connect

    Faulder, D.D.

    1992-08-01

    A three component model study of the historical injection of two wells in the Unit 13 area demonstrates that the recovery of injection derived steam is influenced by the geologic structure of the bottom of the reservoir and the relative location of injection wells. The migration of injectate from the first injection well, located up structure from the second, quenched the area around the second injector before it started operation. While both wells had similar cumulative mass injected, nearly five times more injection derived steam is recovered from the first injector than the-second. Sensitivity runs were made to three cases of increasing matrix capillary pressure. The recovery of injection derived steam increases with higher values of capillarity. The interaction of structure at the bottom of the reservoir, injection well locations, and matrix capillarity all influence the recovery efficiency of injected as steam. The model developed in this study will be used to evaluate injection strategies at The Geysers.

  20. Model study of historical injection in the southeast Geysers

    SciTech Connect

    Faulder, D.D.

    1992-01-01

    A three component model study of the historical injection of two wells in the Unit 13 area demonstrates that the recovery of injection derived steam is influenced by the geologic structure of the bottom of the reservoir and the relative location of injection wells. The migration of injectate from the first injection well, located up structure from the second, quenched the area around the second injector before it started operation. While both wells had similar cumulative mass injected, nearly five times more injection derived steam is recovered from the first injector than the-second. Sensitivity runs were made to three cases of increasing matrix capillary pressure. The recovery of injection derived steam increases with higher values of capillarity. The interaction of structure at the bottom of the reservoir, injection well locations, and matrix capillarity all influence the recovery efficiency of injected as steam. The model developed in this study will be used to evaluate injection strategies at The Geysers.

  1. Model study of historical injection in the Southeast Geysers

    SciTech Connect

    Faulder, D.D.

    1992-01-01

    A three component model study of the historical injection of two wells in the Unit 13 area demonstrates that the recovery of injection derived steam is influenced by the geologic structure of the bottom of the reservoir and the relative location of injection wells. the migration of injectate from the first injection well, located up structure from the second, quenched the area around the second injector before it started operation. while both wells had similar cumulative mass injected, nearly five times more injection derived steam is recovered from the first injector than the second. Sensitivity runs were made to three cases of increasing matrix capillary pressure. The recovery of injection derived steam increases with higher values of capillarity. The interaction of structure at the bottom of the reservoir, injection well locations, and matrix capillarity all influence the recovery efficiency of injectate as steam. The model developed in this study will be used to evaluate injection strategies at The Geysers.

  2. Procedural and Physical Interventions for Vaccine Injections

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Vibhuti; McMurtry, C. Meghan; MacDonald, Noni E.; Ipp, Moshe; Riddell, Rebecca Pillai; Noel, Melanie; Chambers, Christine T.

    2015-01-01

    Background: This systematic review evaluated the effectiveness of physical and procedural interventions for reducing pain and related outcomes during vaccination. Design/Methods: Databases were searched using a broad search strategy to identify relevant randomized and quasi-randomized controlled trials. Data were extracted according to procedure phase (preprocedure, acute, recovery, and combinations of these) and pooled using established methods. Results: A total of 31 studies were included. Acute infant distress was diminished during intramuscular injection without aspiration (n=313): standardized mean difference (SMD) −0.82 (95% confidence interval [CI]: −1.18, −0.46). Injecting the most painful vaccine last during vaccinations reduced acute infant distress (n=196): SMD −0.69 (95% CI: −0.98, −0.4). Simultaneous injections reduced acute infant distress compared with sequential injections (n=172): SMD −0.56 (95% CI: −0.87, −0.25). There was no benefit of simultaneous injections in children. Less infant distress during the acute and recovery phases combined occurred with vastus lateralis (vs. deltoid) injections (n=185): SMD −0.70 (95% CI: −1.00, −0.41). Skin-to-skin contact in neonates (n=736) reduced acute distress: SMD −0.65 (95% CI: −1.05, −0.25). Holding infants reduced acute distress after removal of the data from 1 methodologically diverse study (n=107): SMD −1.25 (95% CI: −2.05, −0.46). Holding after vaccination (n=417) reduced infant distress during the acute and recovery phases combined: SMD −0.65 (95% CI: −1.08, −0.22). Self-reported fear was reduced for children positioned upright (n=107): SMD −0.39 (95% CI: −0.77, −0.01). Non-nutritive sucking (n=186) reduced acute distress in infants: SMD −1.88 (95% CI: −2.57, −1.18). Manual tactile stimulation did not reduce pain across the lifespan. An external vibrating device and cold reduced pain in children (n=145): SMD −1.23 (95% CI: −1.58, −0

  3. Injectable controlled release depots for large molecules

    PubMed Central

    Schwendeman, Steven P.; Shah, Ronak B.; Bailey, Brittany A.; Schwendeman, Anna S.

    2014-01-01

    Biodegradable, injectable depot formulations for long-term controlled drug release have improved therapy for a number of drug molecules and led to over a dozen highly successful pharmaceutical products. Until now, success has been limited to several small molecules and peptides, although remarkable improvements have been accomplished in some of these cases. For example, twice-a-year depot injections with leuprolide are available compared to the once-a-day injection of the solution dosage form. Injectable depots are typically prepared by encapsulation of the drug in poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA), a polymer that is used in children every day as a resorbable suture material, and therefore, highly biocompatible. PLGAs remain today as one of the few “real world” biodegradable synthetic biomaterials used in US FDA-approved parenteral long-acting-release (LAR) products. Despite their success, there remain critical barriers to the more widespread use of PLGA LAR products, particularly for delivery of more peptides and other large molecular drugs, namely proteins. In this review, we describe key concepts in the development of injectable PLGA controlled-release depots for peptides and proteins, and then use this information to identify key issues impeding greater widespread use of PLGA depots for this class of drugs. Finally, we examine important approaches, particularly those developed in our research laboratory, toward overcoming these barriers to advance commercial LAR development. PMID:24929039

  4. Diagnosing the PEP-II Injection System

    SciTech Connect

    Decker, F.-J.; Donald, M.H.; Iverson, R.H.; Kulikov, A.; Pappas, G.C.; Weaver, M.; /SLAC

    2005-05-09

    The injection of beam into the PEP-II B-Factory, especially into the High Energy Ring (HER) has some challenges. A high background level in the BaBar detector has for a while inhibited us from trickling charge into the HER similar to the Low Energy Ring (LER). Analyzing the injection system has revealed many issues which could be improved. The injection bump between two kickers was not closed, mainly because the phase advance wasn't exactly 180{sup o} and the two kicker strengths were not balanced. Additionally we found reflections which kick the stored beam after the main kick and cause the average luminosity to drop about 3% for a 10 Hz injection rate. The strength of the overall kick is nearly twice as high as the design, indicating a much bigger effective septum thickness. Compared with single beam the background is worse when the HER beam is colliding with the LER beam. This hints that the beam-beam force and the observed vertical blow-up in the HER pushes the beam and especially the injected beam further out to the edge of the dynamic aperture or beyond.

  5. Complications Following BellaGen™ Injection.

    PubMed

    Park, Mi Kyung; Kim, Hyun Kyu; Park, Kui Young; Li, Kapsok; Seo, Seong Jun; Hong, Chang Kwun

    2011-12-01

    BellaGen™ is an injectable acellular dermal matrix granule derived from donated human skin tissue that was recently developed for soft tissue augmentation. Its use has been sporadically reported in penile girth enhancement procedures. Many cases of complications have been reported after injecting acellular dermal matrices like AlloDerm or SureDerm™ but few reports on complications associated with BellaGen™ injection. We report here on penile skin inflammation and necrosis following augmentation phalloplasty with BellaGen™, which developed 3 days after the injection and persisted for more than 2 weeks. The patient had a 15 year history of type 2 diabetes mellitus, and he was treated with oral antibiotics and wet dressings with KMNO4 solution to combine preservation of the remaining penile soft tissue with debridement of avascular tissue. The lesion improved with this treatment, but the patient experienced pain for about 2 weeks. All patients should be informed of the potential complications with the use of injectable acellular dermal matrices before treatment. Patient selection for augmentation is also important to have the most desirable results. PMID:22346264

  6. Supported-sorbent injection. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, S. Jr.

    1997-07-01

    A new retrofitable, wastefree acid-rain control concept was pilot-tested at Ohio Edison`s high-sulfur coal-fired R.E. Burger generating station at the 2-MWe level. During the project, moistened {open_quotes}supported{close_quotes} sorbents, made from a combination of lime and vermiculite or perlite, were injected into a humidified 6,500-acfm flue-gas slipstream. After the sorbents reacted with the sulfur dioxide in the flue gas, they were removed from ductwork with a cyclone and baghouse. The $1.0 million project was co-funded by Sorbent Technologies Corporation, the Ohio Edison Company, and the Ohio Coal Development Office. The project included a preliminary bench-scale testing phase, construction of the pilot plant, parametric studies, numerous series of recycle tests, and a long-term run. The project proceeded as anticipated and achieved its expected results. This duct injection technology successfully demonstrated SO{sub 2}-removal rates of 80 to 90% using reasonable stoichiometric injection ratios (2:1 Ca:S) and approach temperatures (20-25F). Under similar conditions, dry injection of hydrated lime alone typically only achieves 40 to 50% SO{sub 2} removal. During the testing, no difficulties were encountered with deposits in the ductwork or with particulate control, which have been problems in tests of other duct-injection schemes.

  7. Analyzing, solving offshore seawater injection problems

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Rubale, J.S.; Muhsin, A.A.; Shaker, H.A.; Washash, I.

    1988-01-01

    Changes in seawater treatment, necessary cleaning of injection lines, and modifying well completion practices have reduced injection well plugging on pressure maintenance projects operated by Abu Dhabi Marine Operating Co., (Adma-Opco) in Zakum and Umm Shaif fields, offshore Abu Dhabi, in the Arabian Gulf. Plugging was caused primarily by iron sulfide and corrosion products that were displaced down hole after being formed in the water distribution system. These materials, in turn, resulted from O/sub 2/ inadvertently entering the injection system where it combined with corrosive H/sub 2/S generated by sulfate-reducing bacteria. The problem was further compounded by debris peeling from the interior of well tubulars, a high solids content of brine used to complete injectors, and slime formation in injection pipe lines. Acidizing wells proved a quick method for partially restoring injectivity, but a continuing concerted effort is being made to achieve more permanent results by eliminating the O/sub 2/ and H/sub 2/S, which are at the root of the difficulty.

  8. Fuel injection pump for internal combustion engines

    SciTech Connect

    Kato, Y.; Suzuki, S.; Inoue, A.

    1987-03-24

    A fuel injection pump is described for an internal combustion engine having fuel injection nozzles, comprising: a plunger disposed to be rotated and reciprocated; cam means having a camming surface operatively coupled with the plunger and disposed to be rotatively driven for causing rotation and reciprocation of the plunger to cause same to pressurize drawn fuel and distribute the pressurized fuel, to thereby deliver the pressurized fuel to the engine; the camming surface of the cam means having such a configuration as to include a first angular region for causing the plunger to be lifted for pressurizing drawn fuel during idling of the engine at a first, substantially constant velocity. It has a second angular region subsequent to the first angular region for causing the plunger to be lifted for pressurizing drawn fuel at a second velocity higher than the first velocity; a plurality of delivery valves each disposed such that fuel pressurized by the plunger is supplied to the engine through the delivery valve; and injection pipes connected, respectively, to the delivery valves to feed pressurized fuel discharged from the respective delivery valves; the delivery valves each being adapted to maintain a residual pressure within a corresponding one of the injection pipes at a value that enables to attain injection initiation pressure within an extent of rotation of the cam means corresponding to the first angular region.

  9. Powder Injection Molding of Titanium Components

    SciTech Connect

    Simmons, Kevin L.; Nyberg, Eric A.; Weil, K. Scott; Miller, Megan R.

    2005-01-01

    Powder injection molding (PIM) is a well-established, cost-effective method of fabricating small-to-moderate size metal components. Derived from plastic injection molding and employing a mixture of metal powder and plastic binder, the process has been used with great success in manufacturing a wide variety of metal products, including those made from stainless steel, nickel-based superalloys, and copper alloys. Less progress has been achieved with titanium and other refractory metal alloys because of problems with alloy impurities that are directly attributable to the injection molding process. Specifically, carbon, oxygen, and nitrogen are left behind during binder removal and become incorporated into the chemistry and microstructure of the material during densification. Even at low concentration, these impurities can cause severe degradation in the mechanical properties of titanium and its alloys. We have developed a unique blend of PIM constituents where only a small volume fraction of binder (~5 – 10 vol%) is required for injection molding; the remainder of the mixture consists of the metal powder and binder solvent. Because of the nature of decomposition in the binder system and the relatively small amount used, the binder is eliminated almost completely from the pre-sintered component during the initial stage of a two-step heat treatment process. Results will be presented on the first phase of this research, in which the binder, injection molding, de-binding and sintering schedule were developed. Additional data on the mechanical and physical properties of the material produced will be discussed.

  10. Persulfate injection into a gasoline source zone.

    PubMed

    Sra, Kanwartej S; Thomson, Neil R; Barker, Jim F

    2013-07-01

    One pore volume of unactivated sodium persulfate was delivered into an emplaced gasoline residual source zone at CFB Borden. Concentrations of inorganic species (S2O8(2-), SO4(2-), Na(+), dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC)) and selected gasoline compounds (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylenes, trimethylbenzenes and naphthalene) were monitored across a transect equipped with 90 multilevel sampling points for >10months post-injection. Mass loading (M˙) of compounds constructed from the transect data was used for assessment purposes. Breakthrough of inorganic species was observed when the injection slug crossed the monitoring transect. An increase in [Formula: see text] indicated persulfate consumption during oxidation of gasoline compounds or degradation due to the interaction with aquifer materials. M˙DIC increased by >100% suggesting some mineralization of gasoline compounds during treatment. Mass loading for all the monitored gasoline compounds reduced by 46 to 86% as the inorganic slug crossed the monitoring transect. The cumulative mass discharge across the monitoring transect was 19 to 58% lower than that expected without persulfate injection. After the inorganic injection slug was flushed from the source zone a partial rebound (40 to 80% of baseline levels) of mass discharge of the monitored gasoline compounds was observed. The ensemble of data collected provides insight into the fate and transport of the injected persulfate solution, and the accompanying treatment of a gasoline the source zone.

  11. Assistive Device for Efficient Intravitreal Injections.

    PubMed

    Ullrich, Franziska; Michels, Stephan; Lehmann, Daniel; Pieters, Roel S; Becker, Matthias; Nelson, Bradley J

    2016-08-01

    Intravitreal therapy is the most common treatment for many chronic ophthalmic diseases, such as age-related macular degeneration. Due to the increasing worldwide demand for intravitreal injections, there exists a need to render this medical procedure more time- and cost-efficient while increasing patient safety. The authors propose a medical assistive device that injects medication intravitreally. Compared to the manual intravitreal injection procedure, an automated device has the potential to increase safety for patients, decrease procedure times, allow for integrated data storage and documentation, and reduce costs for medical staff and expensive operating rooms. This work demonstrates the development of an assistive injection system that is coarsely positioned over the patient's head by the human operator, followed by automatic fine positioning and intravitreal injection through the pars plana. Several safety features, such as continuous eye tracking and iris recognition, have been implemented. The functioning system is demonstrated through ex vivo experiments with porcine eyes. [Ophthalmic Surg Lasers Imaging Retina. 2016;47:752-762.]. PMID:27548453

  12. Numerical simulation of transverse fuel injection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mao, Marlon; Riggins, David W.; Mcclinton, Charles R.

    1991-01-01

    A review of recent work at NASA Langley Research Center to compare the predictions of transverse fuel injector flow fields and mixing performance with experimental results is presented. Various cold (non-reactive) mixing studies were selected for code calibration which include the effects of boundary layer thickness and injection angle for sonic hydrogen injection into supersonic air. Angled injection of helium is also included. This study was performed using both the three-dimensional elliptic and the parabolized Navier-Stokes (PNS) versions of SPARK. Axial solution planes were passed from PNS to elliptic and elliptic to PNS in order to efficiently generate solutions. The PNS version is used both upstream and far downstream of the injector where the flow can be considered parabolic in nature. The comparisons are used to identify experimental deficiencies and computational procedures to improve agreement.

  13. Excipients and their use in injectable products.

    PubMed

    Nema, S; Washkuhn, R J; Brendel, R J

    1997-01-01

    Formulation of a new drug product with excipients, that have been previously added to an approved injectable product, may save pharmaceutical companies developmental time and cost. The Physicians' Desk Reference (PDR) and Handbook on Injectable Drugs were reviewed, extracting all information on excipients. The information was consolidated into eight tables, categorizing excipients as 1) Solvents and Co-solvents, 2) Solubilizing, Wetting, Suspending, Emulsifying or Thickening agents, 3) Chelating Agents, 4) Antioxidants and Reducing Agents. 5) Antimicrobial Preservatives, 6) Buffers and pH Adjusting Agents, 7) Bulking Agents, Protectants, and Tonicity Adjustors, and 8) Special Additives. Where applicable, tables list frequency of use, concentration, and an example of a commercial product containing the excipient. Excipients which are included in the 1996 FDA 'Inactive Ingredient Guide,' but do not appear in the PDR or Handbook on Injectable Drugs, were included as a separate list.

  14. Ultrafast and Gigantic Spin Injection in Semiconductors.

    PubMed

    Battiato, M; Held, K

    2016-05-13

    The injection of spin currents in semiconductors is one of the big challenges of spintronics. Motivated by the ultrafast demagnetization and spin injection into metals, we propose an alternative femtosecond route based on the laser excitation of superdiffusive spin currents in a ferromagnet such as Ni. Our calculations show that even though only a fraction of the current crosses the Ni-Si interface, the laser-induced creation of strong transient electrical fields at a ferromagnet-semiconductor interface allows for the injection of chargeless spin currents with record spin polarizations of 80%. Beyond that they are pulsed on the time scale of 100 fs which opens the door for new experiments and ultrafast spintronics. PMID:27232029

  15. Multistaged stokes injected Raman capillary waveguide amplifier

    DOEpatents

    Kurnit, Norman A.

    1980-01-01

    A multistaged Stokes injected Raman capillary waveguide amplifier for providing a high gain Stokes output signal. The amplifier uses a plurality of optically coupled capillary waveguide amplifiers and one or more regenerative amplifiers to increase Stokes gain to a level sufficient for power amplification. Power amplification is provided by a multifocused Raman gain cell or a large diameter capillary waveguide. An external source of CO.sub.2 laser radiation can be injected into each of the capillary waveguide amplifier stages to increase Raman gain. Devices for injecting external sources of CO.sub.2 radiation include: dichroic mirrors, prisms, gratings and Ge Brewster plates. Alternatively, the CO.sub.2 input radiation to the first stage can be coupled and amplified between successive stages.

  16. Electrically Injected UV-Visible Nanowire Lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, George T.; Li, Changyi; Li, Qiming; Liu, Sheng; Wright, Jeremy Benjamin; Brener, Igal; Luk, Ting -Shan; Chow, Weng W.; Leung, Benjamin; Figiel, Jeffrey J.; Koleske, Daniel D.; Lu, Tzu-Ming

    2015-09-01

    There is strong interest in minimizing the volume of lasers to enable ultracompact, low-power, coherent light sources. Nanowires represent an ideal candidate for such nanolasers as stand-alone optical cavities and gain media, and optically pumped nanowire lasing has been demonstrated in several semiconductor systems. Electrically injected nanowire lasers are needed to realize actual working devices but have been elusive due to limitations of current methods to address the requirement for nanowire device heterostructures with high material quality, controlled doping and geometry, low optical loss, and efficient carrier injection. In this project we proposed to demonstrate electrically injected single nanowire lasers emitting in the important UV to visible wavelengths. Our approach to simultaneously address these challenges is based on high quality III-nitride nanowire device heterostructures with precisely controlled geometries and strong gain and mode confinement to minimize lasing thresholds, enabled by a unique top-down nanowire fabrication technique.

  17. Energy optimization aspects by injection process technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tulbure, A.; Ciortea, M.; Hutanu, C.; Farcas, V.

    2016-08-01

    In the proposed paper, the authors examine the energy aspects related to the injection moulding process technology in the automotive industry. Theoretical considerations have been validated by experimental measurements on the manufacturing process, for two types of injections moulding machines, hydraulic and electric. Practical measurements have been taken with professional equipment separately on each technological operation: lamination, compression, injection and expansion. For results traceability, the following parameters were, whenever possible, maintained: cycle time, product weight and the relative time. The aim of the investigations was to carry out a professional energy audit with accurate losses identification. Base on technological diagram for each production cycle, at the end of this contribution, some measure to reduce the energy consumption were proposed.

  18. Intracytoplasmic morphology-selected sperm injection.

    PubMed

    Simon, Luke; Wilcox, Aaron; Carrell, Douglas T

    2013-01-01

    Approximately 40% of sterility in couples can be attributed to male subfertility and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) has become a powerful tool in assisted reproduction to overcome male infertility. Intracytoplasmic morphologically selected sperm injection (IMSI) is an advanced and sophisticated method of ICSI, where prior to sperm injection the morphology of the sperm is evaluated under high magnification. In addition, the IMSI procedure involves a few minor modifications in sperm preparation which are not carried out during the conventional ICSI procedure, such as the use of MSOME criteria, the requirement for a glass-bottomed dish for selection, prolonged sperm manipulation following separation from the seminal fluid, and sperm storage prior to microinjection. These variations are discussed in this chapter.

  19. AN INJECTION/EXTRACTION SCENARIO FOR EMMA

    SciTech Connect

    Berg, J.S.

    2009-05-04

    EMMA is an experiment to study beam dynamics in a linear non-scaling fixed-field alternating gradient accelerator (FFAG). It accelerates an electron beam from 10 to 20 MeV kinetic energy. To optimally perform these studies, one must be able to inject the beam at any energy within the machine's energy range. Furthermore, because we wish to study the behavior of large-emittance beams in such a machine, the injection systems must be able to inject the beam anywhere within a transverse phase space ellipse with a normalized acceptance of 3 mm, and the extraction systems must be able to extract from that same ellipse. I describe a computation of kicker and septum fields to achieve all of these requirements, and discuss how this interacts with the hardware constraints.

  20. [Chemical constituents of bufadienolides in cinobufacino injection].

    PubMed

    Han, Ling-Yu; Si, Nan; Liu, Jun-Qiu; Zhao, Hai-Yu; Yang, Jian; Bian, Bao-Lin; Wang, Hong-Jie

    2014-11-01

    Cinobufacino injection is purified from water extraction of the skin of Bufo bufo gargarizans, which has been widely used for various cancers in clinic with significant anti-tumor effects. Bufadienolides were regarded as the main active constituents of cinobufacino injection in previous reports. In present study, 6 bufadienolides were isolated and purified from Cinobufacino injection. Their structures were identified as 3-epi-ψ-bufarenogin (1), ψ-bufarenogin (2), 3-epi-arenobufagin (3), arenobufagin (4), 3-epi-gamabufotalin (5), and 3-oxo-arenobufagin (6), separately. Among them, 1 and 3 were new compounds, 5 and 6 were new natural products. Compounds 1, 2 and compounds 3, 4 were two pairs configuration isomers at C-3, separately. PMID:25757284

  1. Signal Injection as a Fault Detection Technique

    PubMed Central

    Cusidó, Jordi; Romeral, Luis; Ortega, Juan Antonio; Garcia, Antoni; Riba, Jordi

    2011-01-01

    Double frequency tests are used for evaluating stator windings and analyzing the temperature. Likewise, signal injection on induction machines is used on sensorless motor control fields to find out the rotor position. Motor Current Signature Analysis (MCSA), which focuses on the spectral analysis of stator current, is the most widely used method for identifying faults in induction motors. Motor faults such as broken rotor bars, bearing damage and eccentricity of the rotor axis can be detected. However, the method presents some problems at low speed and low torque, mainly due to the proximity between the frequencies to be detected and the small amplitude of the resulting harmonics. This paper proposes the injection of an additional voltage into the machine being tested at a frequency different from the fundamental one, and then studying the resulting harmonics around the new frequencies appearing due to the composition between injected and main frequencies. PMID:22163801

  2. Treatment of lipoma by injection lipolysis.

    PubMed

    Nanda, Soni

    2011-05-01

    Injection lipolysis or lipodissolve is the practice of injecting phosphatidyl choline/ sodium deoxycholate (PDC/DC) compounds in the subcutaneous fat. Though this practice is being used extensively for nonsurgical contouring of body and dissolving localized collections of excess fat, it's use as a treatment modality for lipomas needs further evaluation. We present a case where this technique was used for treating a lipoma, with no recurrence after 9 months of follow up. Injection lipolysis as a treatment modality for lipomas needs to be evaluated for safety and efficacy in trials on larger population. This could prove to be a very valuable adjunct to the current practice of excision, if done by a trained person in a properly selected patient. Also the side effects and the controversies regarding this procedure have been discussed in detail in the present paper.

  3. Commercial air travel after intraocular gas injection.

    PubMed

    Houston, Stephen; Graf, Jürgen; Sharkey, James

    2012-08-01

    Passengers with intraocular gas are at risk of profound visual loss when exposed to reduced absolute pressure within the cabin of a typical commercial airliner. Information provided on the websites of the world's 10 largest airlines offer a considerable range of opinion as to when it might be safe to fly after gas injection. Physicians responsible for clearing pseassengers as 'fit to fly' should be aware modern retinal surgical techniques increasingly employ long-acting gases as vitreous substitutes. The kinetics of long-acting intraocular gases must be considered when deciding how long after surgery it is safe to travel. It is standard practice to advise passengers not to fly in aircraft until the gas is fully resorbed. To achieve this, it may be necessary to delay travel for approximately 2 wk after intraocular injection of sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) and for 6 wk after injection of perfluoropropane (C3F8).

  4. Injection-locking optimization in unstable resonators.

    PubMed

    Kedmi, J; Treves, D

    1981-06-15

    The problem of transverse-mode matching between the lowest-loss mode of a confocal unstable resonator and a Gaussian beam, which is injected into the resonator through a coupling hole in its back mirror, is analyzed. It is found that in resonators having equivalent Fresnel number >0.5, there is a value of the coupling hole diameter for which a mode transition occurs. Below this value the coupling coefficient between the mode and the injected signal increases with the hole diameter. The optimal coupling hole diameter for injection locking lies somewhat below the transition value, where the low-order mode is still dominant and the coupling coefficient is high (~0.25-0.30). The power loss through the coupling hole is negligible (~2%) compared to the output coupling, which is ~50-70%. PMID:20332894

  5. Current injection and transport in polyfluorene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Chieh-Kai; Yang, Chia-Ming; Liao, Hua-Hsien; Horng, Sheng-Fu; Meng, Hsin-Fei

    2007-08-01

    A comprehensive numerical model is established for the electrical processes in a sandwich organic semiconductor device with high carrier injection barrier. The charge injection at the anode interface with 0.8eV energy barrier is dominated by the hopping among the gap states of the semiconductor caused by disorders. The Ohmic behavior at low voltage is demonstrated to be not due to the background doping but the filaments formed by conductive clusters. In bipolar devices with low work function cathode it is shown that near the anode the electron traps significantly enhance hole injection through Fowler-Nordheim tunneling, resulting in rapid increases of the hole carrier and current in comparison with the hole-only devices.

  6. Cyanide and arsenic poisoning by intravenous injection.

    PubMed

    DiNapoli, J; Hall, A H; Drake, R; Rumack, B H

    1989-03-01

    A 29-year-old man was found unresponsive a few minutes after self-injecting undetermined amounts of potassium cyanide and sodium arsenite intravenously in a suicide attempt. Treatment with the Lilly Cyanide Antidote kit rapidly resolved the initial coma, despite a whole blood cyanide level of 4.4 micrograms/mL. A 12-hour urine arsenic collection begun on admission showed 10,065 micrograms arsenic/12 hr. The patient received intramuscular BAL initially, which was followed by two ten-day courses of oral D-penicillamine. Complications included upper gastrointestinal tract bleeding requiring transfusion, transient elevations of liver function tests, self-limited complaints of decreased vision with conjunctival hyperemia and photophobia, and an abscess at the injection site. Although specific antidote therapy completely resolved the cyanide toxicity, early and prolonged arsenic chelation did not prevent a mild sensory peripheral neuropathy from developing with onset about 17 days after self-injection.

  7. Inadequate anaesthesia in lethal injection for execution.

    PubMed

    Koniaris, Leonidas G; Zimmers, Teresa A; Lubarsky, David A; Sheldon, Jonathan P

    Anaesthesia during lethal injection is essential to minimise suffering and to maintain public acceptance of the practice. Lethal injection is usually done by sequential administration of thiopental, pancuronium, and potassium chloride. Protocol information from Texas and Virginia showed that executioners had no anaesthesia training, drugs were administered remotely with no monitoring for anaesthesia, data were not recorded and no peer-review was done. Toxicology reports from Arizona, Georgia, North Carolina, and South Carolina showed that post-mortem concentrations of thiopental in the blood were lower than that required for surgery in 43 of 49 executed inmates (88%); 21 (43%) inmates had concentrations consistent with awareness. Methods of lethal injection anaesthesia are flawed and some inmates might experience awareness and suffering during execution.

  8. Commercial air travel after intraocular gas injection.

    PubMed

    Houston, Stephen; Graf, Jürgen; Sharkey, James

    2012-08-01

    Passengers with intraocular gas are at risk of profound visual loss when exposed to reduced absolute pressure within the cabin of a typical commercial airliner. Information provided on the websites of the world's 10 largest airlines offer a considerable range of opinion as to when it might be safe to fly after gas injection. Physicians responsible for clearing pseassengers as 'fit to fly' should be aware modern retinal surgical techniques increasingly employ long-acting gases as vitreous substitutes. The kinetics of long-acting intraocular gases must be considered when deciding how long after surgery it is safe to travel. It is standard practice to advise passengers not to fly in aircraft until the gas is fully resorbed. To achieve this, it may be necessary to delay travel for approximately 2 wk after intraocular injection of sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) and for 6 wk after injection of perfluoropropane (C3F8). PMID:22872998

  9. Signal injection as a fault detection technique.

    PubMed

    Cusidó, Jordi; Romeral, Luis; Ortega, Juan Antonio; Garcia, Antoni; Riba, Jordi

    2011-01-01

    Double frequency tests are used for evaluating stator windings and analyzing the temperature. Likewise, signal injection on induction machines is used on sensorless motor control fields to find out the rotor position. Motor Current Signature Analysis (MCSA), which focuses on the spectral analysis of stator current, is the most widely used method for identifying faults in induction motors. Motor faults such as broken rotor bars, bearing damage and eccentricity of the rotor axis can be detected. However, the method presents some problems at low speed and low torque, mainly due to the proximity between the frequencies to be detected and the small amplitude of the resulting harmonics. This paper proposes the injection of an additional voltage into the machine being tested at a frequency different from the fundamental one, and then studying the resulting harmonics around the new frequencies appearing due to the composition between injected and main frequencies. PMID:22163801

  10. Ultrafast and Gigantic Spin Injection in Semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Battiato, M.; Held, K.

    2016-05-01

    The injection of spin currents in semiconductors is one of the big challenges of spintronics. Motivated by the ultrafast demagnetization and spin injection into metals, we propose an alternative femtosecond route based on the laser excitation of superdiffusive spin currents in a ferromagnet such as Ni. Our calculations show that even though only a fraction of the current crosses the Ni-Si interface, the laser-induced creation of strong transient electrical fields at a ferromagnet-semiconductor interface allows for the injection of chargeless spin currents with record spin polarizations of 80%. Beyond that they are pulsed on the time scale of 100 fs which opens the door for new experiments and ultrafast spintronics.

  11. Hydrogeology and results of injection tests at waste-injection test sites in Pinellas County, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hickey, John J.

    1982-01-01

    Potential benefits or hazards to freshwater resources could result from subsurface injection of treated wastewater. Recognizing this, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with Pinellas County and the city of St. Petersburg, undertook an evaluation of the hydrogeology and injection of wastewater at proposed test sites on the Pinellas peninsula. The injection sites are underlain by sedimentary rocks ranging in age from Cretaceous to Pleistocene. Lower Eocene carbonate rocks were penetrated to a maximum depth of 3,504 feet and were found to have relatively low water yields. The most permeable part of the investigated section was in rocks of middle Eocene age within the Floridan aquifer. At the injection sites, the Floridan aquifer was subdivided into four permeable zones and three semiconfining beds. The test injection zone is within the Avon Park Limestone, the most productive of the identified permeable zones, with a transmissivity of about 1,000,000 feet squared per day. Two semiconfining beds are above the injection zone in the Suwannee Limestone and Ocala Limestone and have vertical hydraulic conductivities estimated to range from about 0.1 to 1 foot per day where these beds do not contain clay. Limited fresh ground-water supplies exist in the Floridan aquifer within the Pinellas peninsula. At all test sites, chloride concentration in the injection zone ranged from 19,000 to 20,000 milligrams per liter. Injection tests ranging in duration from 3 to 91.1 days were run at three different sites. Pressure buildup occurred in permeable zones above and below the injection zone during these tests. Calculated pressure buildup in observation wells close to and at some distance from the test wells was typically less than 1 pound per square inch. Injection and formation water will probably move slowly through the semiconfining bed overlying the injection zone, and long-term injection tests will be needed to determine the effectiveness of these beds to retard flow. The

  12. Injectant mole fraction measurements of transverse injection in constant area supersonic ducts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hollo, Steven D.; Hartfield, Roy J., Jr.; Mcdaniel, James C.

    1990-01-01

    Planar measurements of the injectant mole fraction distribution in a nonreacting model SCRAMJET combustor have been made using a nonintrusive optical technique, laser-induced iodine fluorescence. The combustor geometry investigated in this work was staged, transverse sonic injection of air into Mach 2 and Mach 2.9 freestreams. Accurate three-dimensional surveys of the injectant mole fraction distribution for both freestream Mach numbers have been generated. These experimental measurements provide valuable insight into the fluid mechanics of the mixing process. The existence of streamwise vortices is shown to dominate the mixing in the injector nearfield while shock wave interactions with the injectant plume are seen to significantly enhance mixing downstream of the injectors. The effect of combustor Mach number on injectant mixing is found to be small for this geometry. These measurements provide an accurate data set for the validation of computational fluid dynamics codes being developed for the calculation of highly three-dimensional nonreacting supersonic combustor flow fields.

  13. Correlates of Seeking Injection Assistance among Injection Drug Users in Tijuana, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Robertson, Angela M.; Vera, Alicia Y.; Gallardo, Manuel; Pollini, Robin A.; Patterson, Thomas L.; Case, Patricia; Nguyen, Lucie; Strathdee, Steffanie A.

    2010-01-01

    Assisted injection among injection drug users (IDUs) remains understudied. We recruited 1056 injecting drug users (IDUs) using respondent driven sampling in Tijuana, Mexico. Participants underwent HIV and syphilis testing and structured interviews. One quarter (25%) sought injection assistance in the past 6 months. Seeking injection assistance was independently associated with being female [Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR)=2.59; 95% Confidence Interval (CI)=1.73–3.90], being born outside Baja California (AOR=1.75; CI=1.26–2.42), having recent abscesses (AOR=2.59; CI=1.93–3.47), using syringes previously used by others in the past six months (AOR=1.99; CI=1.45–2.71), and ever being arrested for carrying sterile syringes (AOR=1.55; CI=1.15–2.09). PMID:20653644

  14. Fuel injection pump having voltage variation compensation

    SciTech Connect

    Takemoto, E.; Miyaki, M.; Norimatsu, H.; Hobo, N.; Tsuzuki, Y.; Konishi, Y.

    1986-08-05

    A fuel injection pump is described for internal combustion engine, comprising: an enclosure; pump means including a plunger rotatingly and reciprocally movable in the enclosure to define a compression chamber of variable volume, the pump means coupling the compression chamber to a fuel inlet during an intake stroke of the plunger and connecting the compression chamber to a fuel outlet during a compression stroke of the plunger to thereby initiate injection of fuel to the outlet, the pump means being responsive to the speed of rotation of the engine to pressurize the fuel in the inlet; means for detecting the speed of the engine; a source of voltage having a tendency to vary; solenoid valve means operable when a voltage is applied thereto from the source for providing a pressure relief action of the fuel in the compression chamber to terminate the injection of fuel; a memory storing trimming data in locations addressable as a function of the detected voltage and as a function of the detected engine speed; and control means for detecting the voltage of the source and responsive to the initiation of the fuel injection for determining the basic timing at which the fuel injection is to be terminated, reading trimming data out of the memory as a function of the detected voltage and as a function of the detected engine speed, correcting the basic timing in accordance with the trimming data and applying the voltage of the source to the solenoid valve means at the corrected timing to thereby terminate the fuel injection.

  15. Autologous fat injection in Poland's syndrome.

    PubMed

    Pinsolle, V; Chichery, A; Grolleau, J-L; Chavoin, J P

    2008-07-01

    Poland's syndrome is a deformity of the breast and sometimes of the chest wall. Several techniques, which may be combined if necessary, are generally used to treat the forms involving both the breast and chest wall (breast implants, customised chest wall implants, latissimus dorsi pedicled flap). For some years, we have also grafted autologous fat cells according to Coleman's method to treat this rare disorder. We report the preliminary results of this technique and demonstrate its value in the treatment of Poland's syndrome. We studied patients treated for Poland's syndrome by autologous fat injection between 1 January 2003 and 31 December 2005. We recorded their age, gender, the other surgical techniques used, and grade of Poland's syndrome according to the classification of Foucras. Concerning fat injections, we recorded the number of sessions, volumes injected and complications. The series was composed of seven women and one man, mean age 25 years (range 13 to 40 years). Four patients were grade I, three were grade II and one grade III. The mean number of fat injection sessions was 2.1 (range 1-5) and mean volume injected 96 cc (range 25-200 cc). Lipofilling was used alone in one case and associated with other reconstruction techniques in seven. We had one complication, fat necrosis which progressed favourably after surgical drainage. Autologous fat injection appears to us to be a treatment which can be used alone, or more often associated with traditional reconstruction techniques in all grades of Poland's syndrome. This technique is useful to add volume and especially to correct the contour defects of this syndrome such as the subclavicular hollow and absence of anterior axillary fold.

  16. Positive displacement electronic fuel injection pump

    SciTech Connect

    Schechter, M.M.

    1986-04-22

    A fuel injection pump is described of the plunger, spill port type, including a single plunger reciprocably and rotatably mounted in a plunger barrel, an engine driven camshaft having gear means and a number of camlobes thereon for reciprocating and rotating the plunger a number of times for each revolution of the camshaft through a number of pumping upstrokes and fuel intake downstrokes for injecting fuel sequentially into a number of engine cylinders. The plunger barrel defines a fuel fill-spill chamber at the end of the plunger connected to a solenoid valve controlled spill port for pressurization of the chamber during the upstroke of the plunger upon closure of the spill port by the valve, the plunger having a number of internal axially spaced passages connected to the chamber for filling the chamber with fuel on the fuel intake upstroke of the plunger or alternately directing fuel from the chamber to a fuel injection nozzle during pressurization of the chamber, means connecting one of the internal passages to a fuel supply passage and another passage to a fuel injection nozzle line past a check valve in the other passage. The passages are spaced such that rotation and reciprocation of the plunger through one stroke connects the chamber to one passage which disconnecting the chamber from the other passage, and vice-versa during the next successive stroke of the plunger, the other passage being connected successively one at a time to each injection line in the engine upon rotation of the camshaft, the engine having at least four cylinders, and the camshaft having four camlobes on a single cam, the lobes each being 90% in extent with a peak and an essentially long flat surface inbetween peaks providing a slower upstroke of the plunger than the downstroke thereby providing a longer time for injection than for fuel intake.

  17. Mixed Mode Fuel Injector And Injection System

    DOEpatents

    Stewart, Chris Lee; Tian, Ye; Wang, Lifeng; Shafer, Scott F.

    2005-12-27

    A fuel injector includes a homogenous charge nozzle outlet set and a conventional nozzle outlet set that are controlled respectively by first and second three way needle control valves. Each fuel injector includes first and second concentric needle valve members. One of the needle valve members moves to an open position for a homogenous charge injection event, while the other needle valve member moves to an open position for a conventional injection event. The fuel injector has the ability to operate in a homogenous charge mode with a homogenous charge spray pattern, a conventional mode with a conventional spray pattern or a mixed mode.

  18. Passive injection control for microfluidic systems

    DOEpatents

    Paul, Phillip H.; Arnold, Don W.; Neyer, David W.

    2004-12-21

    Apparatus for eliminating siphoning, "dead" regions, and fluid concentration gradients in microscale analytical devices. In its most basic embodiment, the present invention affords passive injection control for both electric field-driven and pressure-driven systems by providing additional fluid flow channels or auxiliary channels disposed on either side of a sample separation column. The auxiliary channels are sized such that volumetric fluid flow rate through these channels, while sufficient to move the sample away from the sample injection region in a timely fashion, is less than that through the sample separation channel or chromatograph.

  19. Injected Beam Dynamics in SPEAR3

    SciTech Connect

    Corbett, Jeff; Fisher, Alan; Huang, Xiaobiao; Safranek, James; Westerman, Stuart; Cheng, Weixing; Mok, Walter; /Unlisted

    2012-06-21

    For the top-off operation it is important to understand the time evolution of charge injected into the storage ring. The large-amplitude horizontal oscillation quickly filaments and decoheres, and in some cases exhibits non-linear x-y coupling before damping to the stored orbit. Similarly, in the longitudinal dimension, any mismatch in beam arrival time, beam energy or phase-space results in damped, non-linear synchrotron oscillations. In this paper we report on measurements of injection beam dynamics in the transverse and longitudinal planes using turn-by-turn BPMs, a fast-gated, image-intensified CCD camera and a Hamamatsu C5680 streak camera.

  20. Parametric injection for monoenergetic electron acceleration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oguchi, A.; Zhidkov, A.; Takano, K.; Hotta, E.; Nemoto, K.; Nakajima, K.

    2008-05-01

    Electrons are accelerated in the laser wakefield (LWFA). This mechanism has been studied by 2D or 3D Particle In Cell simulation. However, how the electrons are injected in the wakefield is not understood. In this paper, we consider about the process of self -injection and propose new scheme. When plasma electron density modulates, parametric resonance of electron momentum is induced. The parametric resonance depends on laser waist modulation. We carried out 2D PIC simulation with the initial condition decided from resonance condition. Moreover, we analyze experimental result that generated 200-250 MeV monoenergetic electron beam with 400TW intense laser in CAEP in China.

  1. Anaphylaxis after intramuscular injection of diclofenac sodium.

    PubMed

    Colak, Sahin; Gunes, Harun; Afacan, Mustafa Ahmet; Kandis, Hayati; Erdogan, Mehmet Ozgur; Ayranci, Mehmet; Saritas, Ayhan

    2014-07-01

    Diclofenac sodium is a 2-arylacetic acid, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug. It is widely used in pain management. Side effects such as urticaria, asthmatic attack, vasospastic angina, ischemic stroke, and Kounis syndrome may be seen after the use of diclofenac sodium. However, anaphylactic shock is rare. Anaphylactic shock secondary to injection of diclofenac sodium can be treated successfully with intramuscular injection of adrenaline. Because diclofenac sodium is commonly used in analgesic treatment in emergency departments, we present this case report to emphasize that anaphylactic shock may be seen after the use of that drug. PMID:24581886

  2. Testing Distributed ABS System with Fault Injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trawczyński, Dawid; Sosnowski, Janusz; Gawkowski, Piotr

    The paper deals with the problem of adapting software implemented fault injection technique (SWIFI) to evaluate dependability of reactive microcontroller systems. We present an original methodology of disturbing controller operation and analyzing fault effects taking into account reactions of the controlled object and the impact of the system environment. Faults can be injected randomly (in space and time) or targeted at the most sensitive elements of the controller to check it at high stresses. This approach allows identifying rarely encountered problems, usually missed in classical approaches. The developed methodology has been used successfully to verify dependability of ABS system. Experimental results are commented in the paper.

  3. Analysis of rocket engine injection combustion processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salmon, J. W.

    1976-01-01

    A critique is given of the JANNAF sub-critical propellant injection/combustion process analysis computer models and application of the models to correlation of well documented hot fire engine data bases. These programs are the distributed energy release (DER) model for conventional liquid propellants injectors and the coaxial injection combustion model (CICM) for gaseous annulus/liquid core coaxial injectors. The critique identifies model inconsistencies while the computer analyses provide quantitative data on predictive accuracy. The program is comprised of three tasks: (1) computer program review and operations; (2) analysis and data correlations; and (3) documentation.

  4. 30 CFR 250.118 - Will MMS approve gas injection?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Will MMS approve gas injection? 250.118 Section... Performance Standards § 250.118 Will MMS approve gas injection? The Regional Supervisor may authorize you to... waste. (a) To receive MMS approval for injection, you must: (1) Show that the injection will not...

  5. Childhood Factors that Precede Drug Injection: Is There a Link?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corsi, Karen F.; Winch, Peter J.; Kwiatkowski, Carol F.; Booth, Robert E.

    2007-01-01

    Examination of childhood risk factors for injection drug use may provide clues as to why people progress to injection drug use and it can promote identification of at-risk youth. We surveyed current injection drug users (IDUs) and individuals who never injected drugs (non-IDUs), recruited through street outreach and snowball sampling in Denver,…

  6. 21 CFR 522.2424 - Sodium thiamylal for injection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... § 522.2424 Sodium thiamylal for injection. (a) Specifications. The drug is a sterile dry powder. It is reconstituted aseptically with sterile distilled water, water for injection, or sodium chloride injection, to a... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium thiamylal for injection. 522.2424...

  7. 21 CFR 522.2424 - Sodium thiamylal for injection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... § 522.2424 Sodium thiamylal for injection. (a) Specifications. The drug is a sterile dry powder. It is reconstituted aseptically with sterile distilled water, water for injection, or sodium chloride injection, to a... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium thiamylal for injection. 522.2424...

  8. Autologous Growth Factor Injections in Chronic Tendinopathy

    PubMed Central

    Sandrey, Michelle A.

    2014-01-01

    Reference: de Vos RJ, van Veldhoven PLJ, Moen MH, Weir A, Tol JL. Autologous growth factor injections in chronic tendinopathy: a systematic review. Br Med Bull. 2010;95:63–77. Clinical Question: The authors of this systematic review evaluated the literature to critically consider the effects of growth factors delivered through autologous whole-blood and platelet-rich–plasma (PRP) injections in managing wrist-flexor and -extensor tendinopathies, plantar fasciopathy, and patellar tendinopathy. The primary question was, according to the published literature, is there sufficient evidence to support the use of growth factors delivered through autologous whole-blood and PRP injections for chronic tendinopathy? Data Sources: The authors performed a comprehensive, systematic literature search in October 2009 using PubMed, MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, and the Cochrane library without time limits. The following key words were used in different combinations: tendinopathy, tendinosis, tendinitis, tendons, tennis elbow, plantar fasciitis, platelet rich plasma, platelet transfusion, and autologous blood or injection. The search was limited to human studies in English. All bibliographies from the initial literature search were also viewed to identify additional relevant studies. Study Selection: Studies were eligible based on the following criteria: (1) Articles were suitable (inclusion criteria) if the participants had been clinically diagnosed as having chronic tendinopathy; (2) the design had to be a prospective clinical study, randomized controlled trial, nonrandomized clinical trial, or prospective case series; (3) a well-described intervention in the form of a growth factor injection with either PRP or autologous whole blood was used; and (4) the outcome was reported in terms of pain or function (or both). Data Extraction: All titles and abstracts were assessed by 2 researchers, and all relevant articles were obtained. Two researchers independently read the full text of

  9. Diesel engine emissions reduction by multiple injections having increasing pressure

    DOEpatents

    Reitz, Rolf D.; Thiel, Matthew P.

    2003-01-01

    Multiple fuel charges are injected into a diesel engine combustion chamber during a combustion cycle, and each charge after the first has successively greater injection pressure (a higher injection rate) than the prior charge. This injection scheme results in reduced emissions, particularly particulate emissions, and can be implemented by modifying existing injection system hardware. Further enhancements in emissions reduction and engine performance can be obtained by using known measures in conjunction with the invention, such as Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR).

  10. Neighborhood poverty and injection cessation in a sample of injection drug users.

    PubMed

    Nandi, Arijit; Glass, Thomas A; Cole, Stephen R; Chu, Haitao; Galea, Sandro; Celentano, David D; Kirk, Gregory D; Vlahov, David; Latimer, William W; Mehta, Shruti H

    2010-02-15

    Neighborhood socioeconomic environment may be a determinant of injection drug use cessation. The authors used data from a prospective cohort study of Baltimore City, Maryland, injection drug users assessed between 1990 and 2006. The study examined the relation between living in a poorer neighborhood and the probability of injection cessation among active injectors, independent of individual characteristics and while respecting the temporality of potential confounders, exposure, and outcome. Participants' residences were geocoded, and the crude, adjusted, and inverse probability of exposure weighted associations between neighborhood poverty and injection drug use cessation were estimated. Weighted models showed a strong association between neighborhood poverty and injection drug use cessation; living in a neighborhood with fewer than 10%, compared with more than 30%, of residents in poverty was associated with a 44% increased odds of not injecting in the prior 6 months (odds ratio = 1.44, 95% confidence interval: 1.14, 1.82). Results show that neighborhood environment may be an important determinant of drug injection behavior independent of individual-level characteristics. PMID:20093307

  11. Swirling base injection for supersonic combustion ramjets.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Povinelli, L. A.; Ehlers, R. C.

    1972-01-01

    Experimental evaluation of the swirling base injection proposed by Swithenbank and Chigier (1969) for application in supersonic combustion ramjets or scramjets. This concept of accelerated mixing in supersonic streams through swirl was tested, but the results indicate that swirl does not produce any enhancement of mixing.

  12. CHARACTERIZATION OF FRACTURED BEDROCK FOR STEAM INJECTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The most difficult setting in which to conduct groundwater remediation is that where chlorinated solvents have penetrated fractured bedrock. To demonstrate the potential viability of steam injection as a means of groundwater clean-up in this type of environment, steam will be in...

  13. Optimal transfer trajectories with intermediate velocity injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srivastava, T. N.; Nangia, A. K.

    An analytical optimization technique for spacecraft transfer trajectories is developed and demonstrated. The optimization criterion is defined as the minimum impulsive velocity change at initial, intermediate, and final points of the trajectory. Numerical results for earth-Mars transfer are presented in tables and graphs, and the case of injection at the initial point only is considered separately.

  14. Fluid-Injection Tool for Inaccessible Areas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myers, J. E.

    1982-01-01

    New tool injects liquids or gases into narrow crevices. Can be used to apply caulking and waterproofing compounds, adhesives, detergent, undercoats and oil and to aerate hard-to-reach places. Nozzle can reach into opening 1/32 inch wide to depth of more than 4 inches. Although thin, device is rigid and strong.

  15. Self-Injection Locking Of Diode Lasers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hemmati, H.

    1991-01-01

    Simple optical coupling scheme locks array of gain-guided diode lasers into oscillation in single mode and with single-lobed output beam. Selective feedback from thin etalon self-injection-locks array into desired mode. One application of new scheme for pumping of neodymium: yttrium aluminum garnet lasers with diode-laser arrays.

  16. 21 CFR 522.1150 - Hydrochlorothiazide injection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Hydrochlorothiazide injection. 522.1150 Section 522.1150 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... electrolyte imbalance. Take appropriate countermeasures if this should occur. Milk taken from dairy...

  17. 21 CFR 522.2005 - Propofol injection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... indicated for use as an anesthetic as follows: As a single injection to provide general anesthesia for procedures lasting up to 5 minutes; for induction and maintenance of general anesthesia using incremental doses to effect; for induction of general anesthesia where maintenance is provided by...

  18. LIFAC sorbent injection desulfurization demonstration project

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    LIFAC combines upper-furnace limestone injection followed by post-furnace humidification in an activation reactor located between the air preheater and the ESP. The process produces a dry and stable waste product that is partially removed from the bottom of the activation reactor and partially removed at the ESP.

  19. Injectable Biomaterials for Adipose Tissue Engineering

    PubMed Central

    Young, D. Adam; Christman, Karen L.

    2012-01-01

    Adipose tissue engineering has recently gained significant attention from materials scientists as a result of the exponential growth of soft tissue filler procedures being performed within the clinic. While several injectable materials are currently being marketed for filling subcutaneous voids, they often face limited longevity due to rapid resorption. Their inability to encourage natural adipose formation or ingrowth necessitates repeated injections for a prolonged effect, and thus classifies them as temporary fillers. As a result, a significant need for injectable materials that not only act as fillers, but also promote in vivo adipogenesis is beginning to be realized. This review will discuss the advantages and disadvantages of commercially available soft tissue fillers. It will then summarize the current state of research using injectable synthetic materials, biopolymers, and extracellular matrix-derived materials for adipose tissue engineering. Furthermore, the successful attributes observed across each of these materials will be outlined along with a discussion of the current difficulties and future directions for adipose tissue engineering. PMID:22456805

  20. 21 CFR 522.1680 - Oxytocin injection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS IMPLANTATION OR INJECTABLE DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 522.1680... resistance to the large inflow of blood. It will contract smooth muscle cells of the mammary gland for...

  1. 21 CFR 522.1680 - Oxytocin injection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS IMPLANTATION OR INJECTABLE DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 522.1680... resistance to the large inflow of blood. It will contract smooth muscle cells of the mammary gland for...

  2. High productivity injection practices at Rouge Steel

    SciTech Connect

    Barker, D.H.; Hegler, G.L.; Falls, C.E.

    1995-12-01

    Rouge Steel Company, located in Dearborn, Michigan, operates two blast furnaces. The smaller of the pair, ``B`` Furnace, has a hearth diameter of 20 feet and 12 tuyeres. It has averaged 2,290 NTHM (net ton of hot metal) per day of 8.2 NTHM per 100 cubic feet of working volume. ``C`` Furnace has a hearth diameter of 29 feet and 20 tuyeres. Both of these furnaces are single tap hole furnaces. Prior to its reline in 1991, ``C`` Furnace was producing at a rate of 3,300 NTHM/day or about 6.25 NTHM/100 cfwv. In November, 1994 it averaged 5,106 NTHM/day or 9.6 NTHM/100 cfwv. This paper discusses how the current production rates were achieved. Also, the areas that needed to be addressed as production increased will be described. These areas include casthouse arrangement and workload, hot metal ladle capacity, slag pot capacity and charging capability. Coupled with the high blast temperature capability, the furnace was provided with a new natural gas injection system that injected the gas through the blowpipes and a natural gas injection system to enrich the stove gas. Following the furnace reline, natural gas has been used in three ways: tuyere level control; combination injection; and stove gas enrichment. Coke consumption rate has also decreased per NTHM.

  3. 21 CFR 878.4520 - Polytetrafluoroethylene injectable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Polytetrafluoroethylene injectable. 878.4520 Section 878.4520 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices §...

  4. 21 CFR 878.4520 - Polytetrafluoroethylene injectable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Polytetrafluoroethylene injectable. 878.4520 Section 878.4520 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices §...

  5. 21 CFR 878.4520 - Polytetrafluoroethylene injectable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Polytetrafluoroethylene injectable. 878.4520 Section 878.4520 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices §...

  6. 21 CFR 878.4520 - Polytetrafluoroethylene injectable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Polytetrafluoroethylene injectable. 878.4520 Section 878.4520 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices §...

  7. 21 CFR 878.4520 - Polytetrafluoroethylene injectable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Polytetrafluoroethylene injectable. 878.4520 Section 878.4520 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices §...

  8. Purification and Injection of Retroviral Vectors.

    PubMed

    Tashiro, Ayumu; Zhao, Chunmei; Suh, Hoonkyo; Gage, Fred H

    2015-10-01

    Retroviral vectors are powerful tools for genetic manipulation. This protocol discusses the production, purification, and use of replication-deficient retroviral vectors based on Moloney murine leukemia virus and lentivirus. It also describes the injection of a retroviral vector into the dentate gyrus of young adult mice to fluorescently label live murine brain tissue.

  9. Needle Exchange Programs and Drug Injection Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeSimone, Jeff

    2005-01-01

    This study examines how drug injection and needle sharing propensities respond when a needle exchange program (NEP) is introduced into a city. I analyze 1989-1995 Drug Use Forecasting data on adult male arrestees from 24 large U.S. cities, in nine of which NEPs opened during the sample period. After controlling for cocaine and heroin prices, AIDS…

  10. Fuel injection pump with adjustable timing

    SciTech Connect

    Nakamura, H.; Abe, N.

    1987-04-28

    A fuel injection pump is described comprising: a pump body; a plunger disposed in the pump body for reciprocating within the pump body; and a pre-stroke adjusting mechanism disposed in the pump body and operatively connected with the plunger for adjusting an effective pre-stroke of the plunger.

  11. Local Erythropoietin Injection in Tibiofibular Fracture Healing

    PubMed Central

    Bakhshi, Hooman; Kazemian, Gholamhossein; Emami, Mohammad; Nemati, Ali; Karimi Yarandi, Hossein; Safdari, Farshad

    2013-01-01

    Background Erythropoietin (EPO), in addition to its function as an erythropoiesis regulator has a regenerative activity on some nonhematopoietic tissues. Animal studies have suggested a role for erythropoietin in bone healing. Objectives The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of local EPO injection in healing of tibiofibular fractures. Materials and Methods In a prospective double blind study, 60 patients with tibiofibular fracture were divided to equal EPO or placebo groups, randomly. Patients received local injection of either EPO or a placebo to the site of fracture two weeks after surgical fixation. Patients were followed by clinical and radiographic examination to determine the union rate. The period of fracture union and incidence of nonunion were compared between the two groups. Results The demographic data and types of fractures were similar in the both groups. The mean duration of the fracture union was 2.1 weeks shorter in those treated with EPO (P = 0.01). Nonunion was observed in 6 patients of the control group and 2 receiving EPO (P = 0.02). No patient experienced any adverse effect from local EPO injections. Conclusions EPO injection into the site of tibiofibular fractures may possibly accelerate healing. PMID:24350133

  12. SODIUM DITHIONITE INJECTIONS USED FOR CHROMIUM REDUCTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    A field-scale pilot study was conducted in 1999 at the U.S. Coast Guard Support Center in Elizabeth City, NC, to evaluate the effectiveness of injecting sodium dithionite into the upper aquifer and lower vadose zone to create a permeable reactive barrier (PRB) system utilizing na...

  13. Passive safety injection system using borated water

    SciTech Connect

    Conway, Lawrence E.; Schulz, Terry L.

    1993-01-01

    A passive safety injection system relies on differences in water density to induce natural circulatory flow patterns which help maintain prescribed concentrations of boric acid in borated water, and prevents boron from accumulating in the reactor vessel and possibly preventing heat transfer.

  14. Reestablishment of Proper Injectivity of the CO2-Injection Well Ketzin-201

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zettlitzer, M.; Möller, F.; Würdemann, H.; Lokay, P.

    2009-04-01

    The onshore CO2 storage site Ketzin consists of one CO2 injection well Ktzi 201 and of two observation wells, Ktzi-200 and Ktzi-202. A production test at the Ktzi-201-in-jector in September 2007 revealed a productivity index of 0.06 m³/d*kPa. After installation of the CO2 injection string, an injection test with water in the begin¬ning of October 2007 yielded a significantly lower injectivity of 0.002 m³/d*kPa while the observation wells showed an injectivity consistent with the results of production tests. Sev¬eral possible reasons for the severe decline in injectivity were discussed, ranging from - possible precipitation of iron oxide/hydroxide by contact of the formation brine with oxygen from air - clay swelling by fresh water used to activate the packer - gelling of remaining biopolymer from drilling mud with iron - fines migration - precipitation of iron sulphide by microbial processes. Several different measures to re-establish the required injectivity of the injection well were considered: acidizing the reservoir interval, in¬jection at high wellhead pressure, controlled mini-fracs, backproduction of the well to remove plugging material. For reasons to be discussed in detail in the presentation, it was finally decided to carry out a nitrogen lift and to thoroughly analyse the back-produced fluids. The water produced by this procedure was dark-black in the begin¬ning. Chemical and XRD-analysis proved the black solids to consist mainly of iron sulphide which had been formed by sulphate reducing bacteria (SRB) using the organic compounds of the drilling mud as an energy source (cf. Wandrey et al. AGU General Assembly 2009). The lift of Ktzi-201 resulted in full restoration of the well productivity and injectivity.

  15. Individual and socio-environmental factors associated with unsafe injection practices among young adult injection drug users in San Diego

    PubMed Central

    Muñoz, Fátima; Burgos, José Luis; Cuevas-Mota, Jazmine; Teshale, Eyasu; Garfein, Richard S.

    2014-01-01

    Unsafe injection practices significantly increase the risk of hepatitis C virus and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection among injection drug users (IDUs). We examined individual and socio-environmental factors associated with unsafe injection practices in young adult IDUs in San Diego, California. Of 494 IDUs, 46.9% reported receptive syringe sharing and 68.8% sharing drug preparation paraphernalia in the last 3 months. Unsafe injection practices were associated with increased odds of having friends who injected drugs with used syringes, injecting with friends, sexual partners, and injecting heroin. Perceived high susceptibility to HIV and perceived barriers to obtaining sterile syringes were associated with increased odds of receptive syringe sharing, but not with sharing injection paraphernalia. Over half IDUs reported unsafe injection practices, and our results suggest that personal relationships might influence IDUs’ perceptions that dictate behavior. Integrated interventions addressing individual and socio-environmental factors are needed to promote safe injection practices in this population. PMID:24920342

  16. Individual and socio-environmental factors associated with unsafe injection practices among young adult injection drug users in San Diego.

    PubMed

    Muñoz, Fátima; Burgos, José Luis; Cuevas-Mota, Jazmine; Teshale, Eyasu; Garfein, Richard S

    2015-01-01

    Unsafe injection practices significantly increase the risk of hepatitis C virus (HCV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection among injection drug users (IDUs). We examined individual and socio-environmental factors associated with unsafe injection practices in young adult IDUs in San Diego, California. Of 494 IDUs, 46.9 % reported receptive syringe sharing and 68.8 % sharing drug preparation paraphernalia in the last 3 months. Unsafe injection practices were associated with increased odds of having friends who injected drugs with used syringes, injecting with friends or sexual partners, and injecting heroin. Perceived high susceptibility to HIV and perceived barriers to obtaining sterile syringes were associated with increased odds of receptive syringe sharing, but not with sharing injection paraphernalia. Over half the IDUs reported unsafe injection practices. Our results suggest that personal relationships might influence IDUs' perceptions that dictate behavior. Integrated interventions addressing individual and socio-environmental factors are needed to promote safe injection practices in this population. PMID:24920342

  17. Acupoint Injection of Onabotulinumtoxin A for Migraines

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Min; Xie, Jun-Fan; Kong, Xiang-Pan; Zhang, Yi; Shao, Yu-Feng; Wang, Can; Ren, Wen-Ting; Cui, Guang-Fu; Xin, Le; Hou, Yi-Ping

    2015-01-01

    Onabotulinumtoxin A (BoNTA) has been reported to be effective in the therapy for migraines. Acupuncture has been used worldwide for the treatment of migraine attacks. Injection of a small amount of drug at acupuncture points is an innovation as compared to traditional acupuncture. The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare the effectiveness of fixed (muscle)-site and acupoint-site injections of BoNTA for migraine therapy in a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled clinical trial extending over four months. Subjects with both episodic and chronic migraines respectively received a placebo (n = 19) or BoNTA (2.5 U each site, 25 U per subject) injection at fixed-sites (n = 41) including occipitofrontalis, corrugator supercilii, temporalis and trapeziue, or at acupoint-sites (n = 42) including Yintang (EX-HN3), Taiyang (EX-HN5), Baihui (GV20), Shuaigu (GB8), Fengchi (GB20) and Tianzhu (BL10). The variations between baseline and BoNTA post-injection for four months were calculated monthly as outcome measures. BoNTA injections at fixed-sites and acupoint-sites significantly reduced the migraine attack frequency, intensity, duration and associated symptoms for four months compared with placebo (p < 0.01). The efficacy of BoNTA for migraines in the acupoint-site group (93% improvement) was more significant than that in the fixed-site group (85% improvement) (p < 0.01). BoNTA administration for migraines is effective, and at acupoint-sites shows more efficacy than at fixed-sites. Further blinded studies are necessary to establish the efficacy of a low dose toxin (25 U) introduced with this methodology in chronic and episodic migraines. PMID:26529014

  18. Acupoint injection of onabotulinumtoxin A for migraines.

    PubMed

    Hou, Min; Xie, Jun-Fan; Kong, Xiang-Pan; Zhang, Yi; Shao, Yu-Feng; Wang, Can; Ren, Wen-Ting; Cui, Guang-Fu; Xin, Le; Hou, Yi-Ping

    2015-11-01

    Onabotulinumtoxin A (BoNTA) has been reported to be effective in the therapy for migraines. Acupuncture has been used worldwide for the treatment of migraine attacks. Injection of a small amount of drug at acupuncture points is an innovation as compared to traditional acupuncture. The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare the effectiveness of fixed (muscle)-site and acupoint-site injections of BoNTA for migraine therapy in a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled clinical trial extending over four months. Subjects with both episodic and chronic migraines respectively received a placebo (n = 19) or BoNTA (2.5 U each site, 25 U per subject) injection at fixed-sites (n = 41) including occipitofrontalis, corrugator supercilii, temporalis and trapeziue, or at acupoint-sites (n = 42) including Yintang (EX-HN3), Taiyang (EX-HN5), Baihui (GV20), Shuaigu (GB8), Fengchi (GB20) and Tianzhu (BL10). The variations between baseline and BoNTA post-injection for four months were calculated monthly as outcome measures. BoNTA injections at fixed-sites and acupoint-sites significantly reduced the migraine attack frequency, intensity, duration and associated symptoms for four months compared with placebo (p < 0.01). The efficacy of BoNTA for migraines in the acupoint-site group (93% improvement) was more significant than that in the fixed-site group (85% improvement) (p < 0.01). BoNTA administration for migraines is effective, and at acupoint-sites shows more efficacy than at fixed-sites. Further blinded studies are necessary to establish the efficacy of a low dose toxin (25 U) introduced with this methodology in chronic and episodic migraines.

  19. Correlates of shared methamphetamine injection among methamphetamine-injecting treatment seekers: the first report from Iran.

    PubMed

    Mehrjerdi, Zahra Alam; Abarashi, Zohreh; Noroozi, Alireza; Arshad, Leila; Zarghami, Mehran

    2014-05-01

    Shared methamphetamine injection is an emerging route of drug use among Iranian methamphetamine injectors. It is a primary vector for blood-borne infections. The aim of the current study is to determine the prevalence and correlates of shared methamphetamine injection in a sample of Iranian methamphetamine injecting treatment seekers in the south of Tehran. We surveyed male and female methamphetamine injectors at three drop-in centres and 18 drug-use community treatment programmes. Participants reported socio-demographic characteristics, drug use, high-risk behaviours, current status of viral infections and service use for drug treatment. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression models were used to test associations between participants' characteristics and shared methamphetamine injection. Overall, 209 clients were recruited; 90.9% were male; 52.6% reported current methamphetamine injection without any shared injection behaviour and 47.4% reported current shared methamphetamine injection. Shared methamphetamine injection was found to be primarily associated with living with sex partners (AOR 1.25, 95% CI 1.13-1.98), reporting ≥3 years of dependence on methamphetamine injection (AOR 1.61, 95% CI 1.27-2.12), injection with pre-filled syringes in the past 12 months (AOR 1.96, 95% CI 1.47-2.42), homosexual sex without condom use in the past 12 months (AOR 1.85, 95% CI 1.21-2.25), the paucity of NA group participation in the past 12 months (AOR 0.67, 95% CI 0.41-0.99), the paucity of attending psychotherapeutic sessions in the past 12 months (AOR 0.44, 95% CI 0.28-0.96) and positive hepatitis C status (AOR 1.98, 95% CI 1.67-2.83). Deeper exploration of the relationship between shared methamphetamine injection and sexual risk among Iranian methamphetamine injectors would benefit HIV/sexually transmitted infection prevention efforts. In addition, existing psychosocial interventions for methamphetamine-injecting population may need to be adapted to better meet the

  20. Compressor Stall Recovery Through Tip Injection Assessed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suder, Ken L.

    2001-01-01

    Aerodynamic stability is a fundamental limit in the compressor design process. The development of robust techniques for increasing stability has several benefits: enabling higher loading and fewer blades, increasing safety throughout a mission, increasing tolerance to stage mismatch during part-speed operation and speed transients, and providing an opportunity to match stages at the compressor maximum efficiency point, thus reducing fuel burn. Mass injection upstream of the tip of a high-speed axial compressor rotor is a stability enhancement approach known to be effective in suppressing stall in tip-critical rotors if the injection is activated before stall occurs. This approach to stall suppression requires that a reliable stall warning system be available. Tests have recently been performed to assess whether steady injection can also be used to recover from fully developed stall. If mass injection is effective in recovering from stall quickly enough to avoid structural damage or loss of engine power, then a stall warning system may not be required. The stall recovery tests were performed on a transonic compressor rotor at its design tip speed of 1475 ft/sec using four injectors evenly spaced around the compressor case upstream of the rotor. The injectors were connected to an external air source. In an actual engine application, the injected air would be supplied with compressor bleed air. The injectors were isolated from the air source by a fast-acting butterfly valve. With the injectors turned off, the compressor was throttled into stall. Air injection was then activated with no change in throttle setting by opening the butterfly valve. The compressor recovered from stall at a fixed throttle setting with the aid of tip injection. The unsteady operating characteristic of the rotor was measured during these tests using high-response pressure sensors located upstream and downstream of the rotor. The figure shows the results, where the unsteady pressure and mass

  1. Subcutaneous Injection Volume of Biopharmaceuticals-Pushing the Boundaries.

    PubMed

    Mathaes, Roman; Koulov, Atanas; Joerg, Susanne; Mahler, Hanns-Christian

    2016-08-01

    Administration into the subcutaneous (SC) tissue is a typical route of delivery for therapeutic proteins, especially for frequent treatments, long-term regimens, or self-administration. It is currently believed that the maximum volume for SC injections is approximately 1.5 mL. Larger SC injection volumes are considered to be associated with injection pain and adverse events at the injection site. However, no controlled clinical studies and actual evidence exist to support this assumption. In this review, we discuss current and publically available data related to SC administration volumes. We conclude that injection volumes higher than 3.5 mL are worth exploring if required for the development of efficacious drug treatments. Studying tissue back pressure, injection site leakage, local tolerability, and injection-related adverse events, such as injection pain, should be considered for the development of higher SC injection volumes. PMID:27378678

  2. 76 FR 55908 - Underground Injection Control Program; Hazardous Waste Injection Restrictions; Petition for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-09

    ...: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice of a final decision on a no migration petition reissuance... migration of hazardous constituents from the injection zone for as long as the waste remains hazardous....

  3. 78 FR 76294 - Underground Injection Control Program; Hazardous Waste Injection Restrictions; Petition for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-17

    ... Exemption--Class I Hazardous Waste Injection; Mosaic Fertilizer, LLC Uncle Sam, LA AGENCY: Environmental... Waste Amendments to the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, has been granted to Mosaic...

  4. Tracer injection techniques in flowing surface water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wörman, A.

    2009-04-01

    Residence time distributions for flowing water and reactive matter are commonly used integrated properties of the transport process for determining technical issues of water resource management and in eco-hydrological science. Two general issues for tracer techniques are that the concentration-vs-time relation following a tracer injection (the breakthrough curve) gives unique transport information in different parts of the curve and separation of hydromechanical and reactive mechanisms often require simultaneous tracer injections. This presentation discusses evaluation methods for simultaneous tracer injections based on examples of tracer experiments in small rivers, streams and wetlands. Tritiated water is used as a practically inert substance to reflect the actual hydrodynamics, but other involved tracers are Cr(III)-51, P-32 and N-15. Hydromechanical, in-stream dispersion is reflected as a symmetrical spreading of the spatial concentration distribution. This requires that the transport distance over water depth is larger than about five times the flow Peclet number. Transversal retention of both inert and reactive solutes is reflected in terms of the tail of the breakthrough curve. Especially, reactive solutes can have a substantial magnification of the tailing behaviour depending on reaction rates or partitioning coefficients. To accurately discriminate between the effects of reactions and hydromechanical mixing its is relevant to use simultaneous injections of inert and reactive tracers with a sequential or integrated evaluation procedure. As an example, the slope of the P-32 tailing is consistently smaller than that of a simultaneous tritium injection in Ekeby wetland, Eskilstuna. The same applies to N-15 injected in the same experiment, but nitrogen is affected also by a systematic loss due to denitrification. Uptake in stream-bed sediments can be caused by a pumping effect arising when a variable pressure field is created on the stream bottom due to bed

  5. CALIOP-derived Smoke Plume Injection Height

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soja, A. J.; Winker, D. M.; Choi, H. D.; Fairlie, T. D.; Westberg, D. J.; Roller, C. M.; Pouliot, G.; Vaughan, M.; Pierce, T. E.; Trepte, C. R.; Rao, V.

    2014-12-01

    Biomass burning is a dominant natural and anthropogenic disturbance that feeds back to the climate system. Fire regimes, ecosystem fuels, fire severity and intensity vary widely, even within the same system, largely under the control of weather and climate. These strongly influence fire plume injection height and thus the transport of related biomass burning emissions, affecting air quality, human health and the climate system. If our knowledge of plume injection height is incorrect, transport models of those emissions will likewise be incorrect, adversely affecting our ability to analyze and predict climate feedbacks (i.e. black carbon to the Arctic, precipitation, cloud-radiation relationships) and public health (air quality forecast). Historically, plume height was based on the pioneering work of G.A. Briggs [1969; 1971] and verified with limited field campaigns. However, we currently have two satellite instruments, Cloud-Aerosol LIdar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP) onboard CALIPSO (afternoon overpass) and Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) onboard TERRA (morning overpass), that can provide the statistics necessary to verify our assumptions and improve fire plume injection height estimates for use in both small- and large-scale models. We have developed a methodology to assess fire plume injection height using the Langley Trajectory Model (LaTM), CALIOP, Hazard Mapping System (HMS) smoke plume, and MODerate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) thermal anomaly data that is capable of generating two distinct types of verification data. A single CALIOP smoke-filled aerosol envelop can be traced back to numerous fire events, and using multiple CALIOP transects from numerous days, a daily smoke plume injection height evolution from a single fire can be defined. Additionally, we have linked the smoke plumes to ecosystems and the meteorological variables that define fire weather. In concert, CALIOP and MISR data can produce the statistical knowledge

  6. The Harm Inside: Injection during incarceration among male injection drug users in Tijuana, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Pollini, Robin A.; Alvelais, Jorge; Gallardo, Manuel; Vera, Alicia; Lozada, Remedios; Magis-Rodriquez, Carlos; Strathdee, Steffanie A.

    2009-01-01

    Limited access to sterile syringes and condoms in correctional facilities make these settings high risk environments for HIV transmission. Although incarceration among injection drug users (IDUs) is common, there is limited information regarding specific IDU risk behaviors inside. We examined correlates of incarceration, injection inside and syringe sharing inside among male IDUs recruited in Tijuana, Mexico, using respondent driven sampling (RDS) (n=898). An interviewer administered survey collected data on sociodemographic, behavioral and contextual characteristics. Associations with a) history of incarceration, b) injection inside, and c) syringe sharing inside were identified using univariate and multiple logistic regression models with RDS adjustment. Seventy-six percent of IDUs had been incarcerated, of whom 61% injected inside. Three quarters (75%) of those who injected shared syringes. U.S. deportation [adjusted odds ratio (AOR)=1.61; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.07, 2.43] and migration (AOR=1.81; 95% CI: 1.12, 2.95) were independently associated with incarceration. Injection inside was independently associated with recent receptive syringe sharing (AOR=2.46; 95% CI: 1.75, 3.45) and having sex with a man while incarcerated (AOR=43.59; 95% CI: 1.65, 7.83). Sharing syringes inside was independently associated with having sex with a man while incarcerated (AOR=6.18; 95% CI: 1.78, 21.49). A majority of incarcerated IDUs reported injecting and syringe sharing during incarceration, and these IDUs were more likely to engage in sex with other men. Corrections-based interventions to reduce injection and syringe sharing are urgently needed, as are risk reduction interventions for male IDUs who have sex with men while incarcerated. PMID:19386448

  7. Liquid injection in confined co-flow: Application to portal vein embolization by glue injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandulache, M.-C.; Paullier, P.; Bouzerar, R.; Yzet, T.; Balédent, O.; Salsac, A.-V.

    2012-08-01

    Drop formation in liquid-liquid systems has received considerable attention over the last century owing to its many industrial applications. More recent applications may be found in the field of endovascular/percutaneous treatments. The present study focuses on portal vein embolization (PVE), which consists in the blockage of part of the portal trunk though the injection of surgical glue. The short-time injection is dominated by fluid dynamic effects: the influence of polymerization is secondary owing to the presence of ethiodized oil in the injected mixture. If the mechanism of liquid injection is well understood for injections in unconfined fluids at rest, fewer studies have so far considered the case of outer liquids flowing in confined environments. The objective is therefore to conduct a large range parametric study of liquid injections in confined co-flows. An experimental setup has been designed to simulate in vitro the injection in an immiscible liquid flowing in a cylindrical tube. The transition from the dripping to the jetting regimes is found to be independent of confinement, but to depend on the ratio of the inertial forces of the injected liquid to the surface tension, i.e., the Weber number of the inner flow Wei. The confinement, however, has an influence on the drop size in the dripping regime. Its influence diminishes in the first phase of the jetting regime, as the drop size largely decreases. In the fully established jetting regime, the drop size is finally only a function of the ejection tube diameter. To predict the size of the drops in the dripping regime, we have developed a semiempirical model that takes into account the effects of both the tube confinement and outer flow. It will help the interventional radiologists predict the drop size depending on the geometrical and velocimetric conditions at the site of embolization. All these results can then serve as a base to optimize the PVE technique during clinical practice.

  8. Injection and Non-Injection Drug Use and Infectious Disease in Baltimore City: Differences by Race

    PubMed Central

    Keen, Larry; Khan, Maria; Clifford, Lisa; Harrell, Paul T.; Latimer, William W.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The current study examines differences in the prevalence of biologically-confirmed hepatitis C virus (HCV), HIV, and coinfection between Black and White adult cocaine/heroin users across three drug use subgroups identified in previous research (Harrell et al, 2012): non-injection smoking crack/nasal heroin users, heroin injectors, and polydrug injectors. Results 59% of the 482 participants in the study were male. Significant race differences emerged between drug use subgroup memberships. Non-injection smoking crack/nasal heroin users were predominantly Black (75%), while heroin injectors and polydrug injectors were predominantly White (69% and 72%, respectively). Polydrug injectors accounted for nearly three quarters of the HCV positive diagnoses in Whites. Though HIV disease status, stratified by race, did not differ significantly between drug use subgroups, the non-injection smoking crack/nasal heroin subgroup contained over half of the HIV positive diagnoses in the sample and was predominantly Black. Despite much lower rates of injection, Blacks (8%) had a higher prevalence of coinfection than Whites (3%; X2 (2) = 6.18, p = .015). Conclusions The current findings are consistent with trends in recent HIV transmission statistics where sexual activity has overtaken injection drug use as a HIV risk factor. The current findings also provide further support to the notion of injection drug use as an exceedingly high-risk behavior for HCV and coinfection, specifically those who are polysubstance injectors. PMID:24837755

  9. Temporal fossa defects: techniques for injecting hyaluronic acid filler and complications after hyaluronic acid filler injection.

    PubMed

    Juhász, Margit Lai Wun; Marmur, Ellen S

    2015-09-01

    Facial changes with aging include thinning of the epidermis, loss of skin elasticity, atrophy of muscle, and subcutaneous fat and bony changes, all which result in a loss of volume. As temporal bones become more concave, and the temporalis atrophies and the temporal fat pad decreases, volume loss leads to an undesirable, gaunt appearance. By altering the temporal fossa and upper face with hyaluronic acid filler, those whose specialty is injecting filler can achieve a balanced and more youthful facial structure. Many techniques have been described to inject filler into the fossa including a "fanned" pattern of injections, highly diluted filler injection, and the method we describe using a three-injection approach. Complications of filler in the temporal fossa include bruising, tenderness, swelling, Tyndall effect, overcorrection, and chewing discomfort. Although rare, more serious complications include infection, foreign body granuloma, intravascular necrosis, and blindness due to embolization into the ophthalmic artery. Using reversible hyaluronic acid fillers, hyaluronidase can be used to relieve any discomfort felt by the patient. Injectors must be aware of the complications that may occur and provide treatment readily to avoid morbidities associated with filler injection into this sensitive area. PMID:26311237

  10. Dense Plasma Injection Experiment at MCX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uzun-Kaymak, I.; Messer, S.; Bomgardner, R.; Case, A.; Clary, R.; Ellis, R.; Elton, R.; Hassam, A.; Teodorescu, C.; Witherspoon, D.; Young, W.

    2009-09-01

    We present preliminary results of the High Density Plasma Injection Experiment at the Maryland Centrifugal Experiment (MCX). HyperV Technologies Corp. has designed, built, and installed a prototype coaxial gun to drive rotation in MCX. This gun has been designed to avoid the blow-by instability via a combination of electrode shaping and a tailored plasma armature. An array of diagnostics indicates the gun is capable of plasma jets with a mass of 160 μg at 70 km/s with an average plasma density above 1015 cm-3. Preliminary measurements are underway at MCX to understand the penetration of the plasma jet through the MCX magnetic field and the momentum transfer from the jet to the MCX plasma. Data will be presented for a wide range of MCX field parameters, and the prospects for future injection experiments will be evaluated.

  11. Hepatitis B vaccination and injecting drug users

    PubMed Central

    Budd, John; Robertson, Roy; Elton, Rob

    2004-01-01

    This study seeks to test the feasibility of vaccinating injecting drug users for hepatitis B in primary care and to identify predictors of poor immune response. Two hundred and seventy-five injecting drug users were identified from the case notes of a large general practice in an area of high multiple deprivation in northwest Edinburgh and, where appropriate, offered hepatitis B vaccination followed by a post-vaccination serological test. We concluded that hepatitis B vaccination of drug users in primary care is both feasible and effective. This study was unable to identify a group at risk of vaccine failure, however, it found post-vaccination serological testing to be problematic and potentially misleading. Therefore, we would not recommend its routine use in a primary care setting. Significantly, prolonged primary courses were not associated with reduced efficacy. The findings indicate that an appropriate vaccination schedule for primary care should be flexible to maximise compliance. PMID:15186567

  12. Combustion oscillation control by cyclic fuel injection

    SciTech Connect

    Richards, G.A.; Yip, M.J.; Robey, E.; Cowell, L.; Rawlins, D.

    1995-04-01

    A number of recent articles have demonstrated the use of active control to mitigate the effects of combustion instability in afterburner and dump combustor applications. In these applications, cyclic injection of small quantities of control fuel has been proposed to counteract the periodic heat release that contributes to undesired pressure oscillations. This same technique may also be useful to mitigate oscillations in gas turbine combustors, especially in test rig combustors characterized by acoustic modes that do not exist in the final engine configuration. To address this issue, the present paper reports on active control of a subscale, atmospheric pressure nozzle/combustor arrangement. The fuel is natural gas. Cyclic injection of 14% control fuel in a premix fuel nozzle is shown to reduce oscillating pressure amplitude by a factor of 0.30 (i.e., {approximately}10 dB) at 300 Hz. Measurement of the oscillating heat release is also reported.

  13. Operator-free flow injection analyser

    PubMed Central

    de Faria, Lourival C.

    1991-01-01

    A flow injection analyser has been constructed to allow an operator-free determination of up to 40 samples. Besides the usual FIA apparatus, the analyser includes a home-made sample introduction device made with three electromechanical three-way valves and an auto-sampler from Technicon which has been adapted to be commanded by an external digital signal. The analyser is controlled by a single board SDK-8085 microcomputer. The necessary interface to couple the analyser components to the microcomputer is also described. The analyser was evaluated for a Cr(VI)-FIA determination showing a very good performance with a relative standard deviation for 15 signals from the injection of 100 μl of a 1.0 mg.ml-1 standard Cr(VI) solution being equal to 0.5%. PMID:18924899

  14. EPA proposes new rules for injection wells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has proposed rule changes to strengthen regulations protecting underground sources of drinking water from underground injection of hazardous wastes. The action is authorized by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and the Safe Drinking Water Act. The proposed rules were published in Federal Register August 27, 1987.“This proposal assures that hazardous wastes will either be properly treated or placed in an area where they can't contaminate underground sources of drinking water,” said Lawrence J. Jensen, EPA Assistant Administrator for Water. “The regulations would prohibit the migration of untreated hazardous waste out of the injection zone.”

  15. Terahertz graphene lasers: Injection versus optical pumping

    SciTech Connect

    Ryzhii, Victor; Otsuji, Taiichi; Ryzhii, Maxim; Mitin, Vladimir

    2013-12-04

    We analyze the formation of nonequilibrium states in optically pumped graphene layers and in forward-biased graphene structures with lateral p-i-n junctions and consider the conditions of population inversion and lasing. The model used accounts for intraband and interband relaxation processes as well as deviation of the optical phonon system from equilibrium. As shown, optical pumping suffers from a significant heating of both the electron-hole plasma and the optical phonon system, which can suppress the formation of population inversion. In the graphene structures with p-i-n junction, the injected electrons and holes have relatively low energies, so that the effect of cooling can be rather pronounced, providing a significant advantage of the injection pumping in realization of graphene terahertz lasers.

  16. LIFAC Sorbent Injection Desulfurization Demonstration Project

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    Sorbent injection is a potentially important alternative to conventional wet lime and limestone scrubbing, and this project is another effort to test alternative sorbent injection approaches. In comparison to wet systems, LIFAC, with recirculation of the sorbent, removes less sulfur dioxide - 75--85% relative to 90% or greater for conventional scrubbers -- and requires more reagent material. However, if the demonstration is wet scrubbing systems: LIFAC is relatively easy to retrofit to an existing boiler and requires less area than conventional wet FGD systems. LIFAC is less expensive to install than conventional wet FGD processes. LIFAC's overall costs measured on a dollar-per-ton SO[sub 2] removed basis are less, an important advantage in a regulatory regime with trading of emission allocations. LIFAC produces a dry, readily disposable waste by-product versus a wet product. LIFAC is relatively simple to operate.

  17. VLF wave injections from the ground

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helliwell, R. A.

    1983-01-01

    Experiments on wave-particle interactions using VLF whistler-mode waves injected into the magnetosphere from Antartica are described. The injected signals are single-frequency coherent waves whose amplitudes and frequencies may be changed slowly with time, or else two or more coherent wave trains transmitted simultaneously to determine the nature of the response to multifrequency excitation. The waves may be amplified 30 dB or more and may trigger intense emissions having bandwidths that vary from a few to several hundred Hertz. In most cases significant growth and triggering occur only when the driving signal is essentially monochromatic (bandwidth 10 Hz). If two frequencies are transmitted simultaneously the signal at the lower frequency tends to be suppressed by 20 dB or more. These results are interpreted in terms of a feedback interaction between the waves and counter-streaming cyclotron resonant electrons in a region several hundred wavelengths long, centered on the magnetic equator.

  18. An injectable acoustic transmitter for juvenile salmon

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Z. D.; Carlson, T. J.; Li, H.; Xiao, J.; Myjak, M. J.; Lu, J.; Martinez, J. J.; Woodley, C. M.; Weiland, M. A.; Eppard, M. B.

    2015-01-01

    Salmon recovery and the potential detrimental effects of dams on fish have been attracting national attention due to the environmental and economic implications. In recent years acoustic telemetry has been the primary method for studying salmon passage. However, the size of the existing transmitters limits the minimum size of fish that can be studied, introducing a bias to the study results. We developed the first acoustic fish transmitter that can be implanted by injection instead of surgery. The new injectable transmitter lasts four times longer and weighs 30% less than other transmitters. Because the new transmitter costs significantly less to use and may substantially reduce adverse effects of implantation and tag burden, it will allow for study of migration behavior and survival of species and sizes of fish that have never been studied before. The new technology will lead to critical information needed for salmon recovery and the development of fish-friendly hydroelectric systems. PMID:25630763

  19. An injectable acoustic transmitter for juvenile salmon.

    PubMed

    Deng, Z D; Carlson, T J; Li, H; Xiao, J; Myjak, M J; Lu, J; Martinez, J J; Woodley, C M; Weiland, M A; Eppard, M B

    2015-01-01

    Salmon recovery and the potential detrimental effects of dams on fish have been attracting national attention due to the environmental and economic implications. In recent years acoustic telemetry has been the primary method for studying salmon passage. However, the size of the existing transmitters limits the minimum size of fish that can be studied, introducing a bias to the study results. We developed the first acoustic fish transmitter that can be implanted by injection instead of surgery. The new injectable transmitter lasts four times longer and weighs 30% less than other transmitters. Because the new transmitter costs significantly less to use and may substantially reduce adverse effects of implantation and tag burden, it will allow for study of migration behavior and survival of species and sizes of fish that have never been studied before. The new technology will lead to critical information needed for salmon recovery and the development of fish-friendly hydroelectric systems. PMID:25630763

  20. An injectable acoustic transmitter for juvenile salmon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Z. D.; Carlson, T. J.; Li, H.; Xiao, J.; Myjak, M. J.; Lu, J.; Martinez, J. J.; Woodley, C. M.; Weiland, M. A.; Eppard, M. B.

    2015-01-01

    Salmon recovery and the potential detrimental effects of dams on fish have been attracting national attention due to the environmental and economic implications. In recent years acoustic telemetry has been the primary method for studying salmon passage. However, the size of the existing transmitters limits the minimum size of fish that can be studied, introducing a bias to the study results. We developed the first acoustic fish transmitter that can be implanted by injection instead of surgery. The new injectable transmitter lasts four times longer and weighs 30% less than other transmitters. Because the new transmitter costs significantly less to use and may substantially reduce adverse effects of implantation and tag burden, it will allow for study of migration behavior and survival of species and sizes of fish that have never been studied before. The new technology will lead to critical information needed for salmon recovery and the development of fish-friendly hydroelectric systems.

  1. Injection of iodine to the stratosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saiz-Lopez, A.; Baidar, S.; Cuevas, C. A.; Koenig, T. K.; Fernandez, R. P.; Dix, B.; Kinnison, D. E.; Lamarque, J.-F.; Rodriguez-Lloveras, X.; Campos, T. L.; Volkamer, R.

    2015-08-01

    We report a new estimation of the injection of iodine into the stratosphere based on novel daytime (solar zenith angle < 45°) aircraft observations in the tropical tropopause layer and a global atmospheric model with the most recent knowledge about iodine photochemistry. The results indicate that significant levels of total reactive iodine (0.25-0.7 parts per trillion by volume), between 2 and 5 times larger than the accepted upper limits, can be injected into the stratosphere via tropical convective outflow. At these iodine levels, modeled iodine catalytic cycles account for up to 30% of the contemporary ozone loss in the tropical lower stratosphere and can exert a stratospheric ozone depletion potential equivalent to, or even larger than, that of very short-lived bromocarbons. Therefore, we suggest that iodine sources and chemistry need to be considered in assessments of the historical and future evolution of the stratospheric ozone layer.

  2. An injectable acoustic transmitter for juvenile salmon.

    PubMed

    Deng, Z D; Carlson, T J; Li, H; Xiao, J; Myjak, M J; Lu, J; Martinez, J J; Woodley, C M; Weiland, M A; Eppard, M B

    2015-01-29

    Salmon recovery and the potential detrimental effects of dams on fish have been attracting national attention due to the environmental and economic implications. In recent years acoustic telemetry has been the primary method for studying salmon passage. However, the size of the existing transmitters limits the minimum size of fish that can be studied, introducing a bias to the study results. We developed the first acoustic fish transmitter that can be implanted by injection instead of surgery. The new injectable transmitter lasts four times longer and weighs 30% less than other transmitters. Because the new transmitter costs significantly less to use and may substantially reduce adverse effects of implantation and tag burden, it will allow for study of migration behavior and survival of species and sizes of fish that have never been studied before. The new technology will lead to critical information needed for salmon recovery and the development of fish-friendly hydroelectric systems.

  3. An injectable acoustic transmitter for juvenile salmon

    SciTech Connect

    Deng, Zhiqun; Carlson, Thomas J.; Li, Huidong; Xiao, Jie; Myjak, Mitchell J.; Lu, Jun; Martinez, Jayson J.; Woodley, Christa M.; Weiland, Mark A.; Eppard, Matthew B.

    2015-01-29

    Salmon recovery, and the potential detrimental effects of dams on fish, has been attracting national attention in due to great environmental and economic implications. Acoustic Telemetry has been the primary method for studying salmon passage. However, the size of the existing transmitters limits the minimum size of fish that can be studied, introducing bias to the study results. We developed the first acoustic fish transmitter that can be implanted by injection instead of surgery. The new injectable transmitter offers improved performance and 30% weight reduction. Because the new transmitter costs significantly less to use, substantially reduces adverse effects of implantation, and provides additional biological benefits for tagged fish, it will become the enabling technology for studying migration behavior and survival of species and sizes of fish that have never been studied before. This will lead to critical information for salmon recovery and the development of fish-friendly hydroelectric systems.

  4. An injectable acoustic transmitter for juvenile salmon

    DOE PAGES

    Deng, Zhiqun; Carlson, Thomas J.; Li, Huidong; Xiao, Jie; Myjak, Mitchell J.; Lu, Jun; Martinez, Jayson J.; Woodley, Christa M.; Weiland, Mark A.; Eppard, Matthew B.

    2015-01-29

    Salmon recovery, and the potential detrimental effects of dams on fish, has been attracting national attention in due to great environmental and economic implications. Acoustic Telemetry has been the primary method for studying salmon passage. However, the size of the existing transmitters limits the minimum size of fish that can be studied, introducing bias to the study results. We developed the first acoustic fish transmitter that can be implanted by injection instead of surgery. The new injectable transmitter offers improved performance and 30% weight reduction. Because the new transmitter costs significantly less to use, substantially reduces adverse effects of implantation,more » and provides additional biological benefits for tagged fish, it will become the enabling technology for studying migration behavior and survival of species and sizes of fish that have never been studied before. This will lead to critical information for salmon recovery and the development of fish-friendly hydroelectric systems.« less

  5. Waterflooding injectate design systems and methods

    SciTech Connect

    Brady, Patrick V.; Krumhansl, James L.

    2014-08-19

    A method of designing an injectate to be used in a waterflooding operation is disclosed. One aspect includes specifying data representative of chemical characteristics of a liquid hydrocarbon, a connate, and a reservoir rock, of a subterranean reservoir. Charged species at an interface of the liquid hydrocarbon are determined based on the specified data by evaluating at least one chemical reaction. Charged species at an interface of the reservoir rock are determined based on the specified data by evaluating at least one chemical reaction. An extent of surface complexation between the charged species at the interfaces of the liquid hydrocarbon and the reservoir rock is determined by evaluating at least one surface complexation reaction. The injectate is designed and is operable to decrease the extent of surface complexation between the charged species at interfaces of the liquid hydrocarbon and the reservoir rock. Other methods, apparatus, and systems are disclosed.

  6. Water alternating gas injection maximizes recoverable reserves

    SciTech Connect

    Opdal, S.T.

    1995-10-01

    In the North Sea, water alternating gas injection (WAG) can be an alternative to water flooding. The Gullfaks field is located in Block 34/10 in the Norwegian North Sea. Different methods have been investigated to improve the recovery from Gullfaks, including polymers, surfactants, WAG, hydraulic fracturing and horizontal wells. Several of these methods have been laboratory and field tested. Both horizontal wells and hydraulic fracturing are used on a regular basis. In addition, an area in the Lower Brent Formation was selected in 1991 as a pilot for the WAG method. WAG was initially proposed for gas-flooded fields as a method of controlling gas fingering and improving vertical sweep, particularly for miscible CO{sub 2} displacements. Effective at improving immiscible gas injection, WAG can also be beneficiary to fields that are being water flooded. This paper reviews the design problems associated with the WAG operation. It discusses the performance and sweep efficiency which resulted from the WAG.

  7. Simulation of the injection moulding process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, J.; Christensen, T.

    1993-12-01

    Simulation of the injection molding process is a helpful way for the engineers who work with plastics processing. By simulation, they will get some important parameters which sometimes are highly necessary for the mold design and processing. Thus, the engineers will save much time to do experiments for the parameters. Two simulation programs are used in this report, namely CADMOULD and CADMOULD MEFISTO which are designed by Institut fur Kunststoffverarbeitung (IKV) in Aachen, W. Germany. CADMOULD works with 2-D geometry and is specialized for rheological, thermal and mechanical calculation. It is installed on a personal computer, while CADMOULD MEFISTO works in 3-D and is installed on a VAX 8530 computer at SINTEF. A PC version of this program is also available. This report deals with CADMOULD and CADMOULD MEFISTO. The construction of flow lines, balancing of sprue system, the optimizing of injection time, and gate(s) optimizing are mainly included.

  8. BEAMS3D Neutral Beam Injection Model

    SciTech Connect

    Lazerson, Samuel

    2014-04-14

    With the advent of applied 3D fi elds in Tokamaks and modern high performance stellarators, a need has arisen to address non-axisymmetric effects on neutral beam heating and fueling. We report on the development of a fully 3D neutral beam injection (NBI) model, BEAMS3D, which addresses this need by coupling 3D equilibria to a guiding center code capable of modeling neutral and charged particle trajectories across the separatrix and into the plasma core. Ionization, neutralization, charge-exchange, viscous velocity reduction, and pitch angle scattering are modeled with the ADAS atomic physics database [1]. Benchmark calculations are presented to validate the collisionless particle orbits, neutral beam injection model, frictional drag, and pitch angle scattering effects. A calculation of neutral beam heating in the NCSX device is performed, highlighting the capability of the code to handle 3D magnetic fields.

  9. The Mechanism of Atomization Accompanying Solid Injection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Castleman, R A , Jr

    1933-01-01

    A brief historical and descriptive account of solid injection is followed by a detailed review of the available theoretical and experimental data that seem to throw light on the mechanism of this form of atomization. It is concluded that this evidence indicates that (1) the atomization accompanying solid injection occurs at the surface of the liquid after it issues as a solid stream from the orifice; and (2) that such atomization has a mechanism physically identical with the atomization which takes place in an air stream, both being due merely to the formation, at the gas-liquid interface, of fine ligaments under the influence of the relative motion of gas and liquid, and to their collapse, under the influence of surface tension, to form the drops in the spray.

  10. Dosimetric implications of the infiltrated injection

    SciTech Connect

    Castronovo, F.P.; McKusick, K.A.; Strauss, H.W.

    1984-01-01

    Following inadvertent infiltration of a radiopharmaceutical, there is variable and uncertain uptake in target tissue. Concomitantly, there is also a concern for the radiation dose to the infiltrated site. This investigation determined the clearance and radiation burdens from various radiopharmaceutical infiltrates in a rat model. Nine separate sites were studied for: Tc-99m microspheres; Tc-99m MDP; Ga-67 citrate; and Tl-201 chloride. Following sc injection on the shaven posteriors of anesthetized adult male Sprague-Dawley rats, gamma camera and computer data were collected up to 24 hours. The resulting data were expressed semilogarithmically as the mean (N = 9) of the ''% retained at site'' as a f(time) after injection. Nonparticulate agents showed a tri-exponential release pattern from each site, whereas the microspheres remained for an extended period of time. Using these pharma-cokinetic curves, the % remaining at each site for various times, and rems/mCi per lcc infiltrate was determined.

  11. Cervical Meningomyelitis After Lumbar Epidural Steroid Injection

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Joon-Sung; Kim, Ji Yeon

    2015-01-01

    Epidural steroid injections (ESI) are a common treatment for back pain management. ESI-related complications have increased with the growing number of procedures. We report a case of cervical meningomyelitis followed by multiple lumbar ESI. A 60-year-old male with diabetes mellitus presented to our hospital with severe neck pain. He had a history of multiple lumbar injections from a local pain clinic. After admission, high fever and elevated inflammatory values were detected. L-spine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed hematoma in the S1 epidural space. Antibiotic treatment began under the diagnosis of a lumbar epidural abscess. Despite the treatment, he started to complain of weakness in both lower extremities. Three days later, the weakness progressed to both upper extremities. C-spine MRI revealed cervical leptomeningeal enhancement in the medulla oblongata and cervical spinal cord. Removal of the epidural abscess was performed, but there was no neurological improvement. PMID:26161360

  12. Small barium rail gun for plasma injection.

    PubMed

    Kiwamoto, Y

    1980-03-01

    A small rail gun with a barium electrode can be operated at higher than one shot per second to produce more than 2x10(16) barium ions with energy 10-20 eV. The operation of the gun takes advantage of the external magnetic field for cross-field plasma injection into a trap. Up to 7 kG of the magnetic field examined, the gun performance improves with the increased magnetic field strength.

  13. Water Injection Feasibility for Boeing 747 Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daggett, David L.

    2005-01-01

    Can water injection be offered at a reasonable cost to large airplane operators to reduce takeoff NO( sub x) emissions? This study suggests it may be possible. This report is a contract deliverable to NASA Glenn Research Center from the prime contractor, The Boeing Commercial Airplane Company of Seattle, WA. This study was supported by a separate contract to the Pratt & Whitney Engine Company of Hartford, CT (contract number NNC04QB58P). Aviation continues to grow and with it, environmental pressures are increasing for airports that service commercial airplanes. The feasibility and performance of an emissions-reducing technology, water injection, was studied for a large commercial airplane (e.g., Boeing 747 with PW4062 engine). The primary use of the water-injection system would be to lower NOx emissions while an important secondary benefit might be to improve engine turbine life. A tradeoff exists between engine fuel efficiency and NOx emissions. As engines improve fuel efficiency, by increasing the overall pressure ratio of the engine s compressor, the resulting increased gas temperature usually results in higher NOx emissions. Low-NO(sub x) combustors have been developed for new airplanes to control the increases in NO(sub x) emissions associated with higher efficiency, higher pressure ratio engines. However, achieving a significant reduction of NO(sub x) emissions at airports has been challenging. Using water injection during takeoff has the potential to cut engine NO(sub x) emissions some 80 percent. This may eliminate operating limitations for airplanes flying into airports with emission constraints. This study suggests an important finding of being able to offer large commercial airplane owners an emission-reduction technology that may also save on operating costs.

  14. Stanford Geothermal Program, reservoir and injection technology

    SciTech Connect

    Horne, R.; Ramey, H.J. Jr.; Miller, F.G.; Brigham, W.E.; Kruger, P.

    1988-12-01

    This annual report of the Stanford Geothermal Program presents major projects in reservoir and injection technology. The four include: (1) an application of the boundary element method to front tracking and pressure transient testing; (2) determination of fracture aperture, a multi-tracer approach; (3) an analysis of tracer and thermal transients during reinjection; and, (4) pressure transient modeling of a non-uniformly fractured reservoir. (BN)

  15. Periorbital Injectables: Understanding and Avoiding Complications

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Catherine J

    2016-01-01

    Periorbital rejuvenation with neurotoxins and dermal fillers address several aging changes. Safe and effective results require a thorough understanding of periorbital anatomy, proper injection techniques, and complications of these products. Prompt recognition and treatment of complications can minimize their adverse impacts. Complications can be divided into ischaemic and non-ischaemic effects. Hylauronidase, an enzyme that degrades hyaluronic acid, may improve outcomes after intravascular hyaluronic acid fillers. PMID:27398006

  16. Continuous injection of corrosion-inhibiting liquids

    SciTech Connect

    Spivey, M.F.

    1987-01-13

    A portable system is described for the continuous injection of corrosion-inhibiting chemical into a production well, comprising: a portable skid; a corrosion-inhibiting chemical tank, and a water tank, mounted on the skid; pump means for pumping an desired amounts and proportions of chemical and water from the tanks for injection into a production well. The pump means is mounted on the skid. A conduit means operatively interconnects is the pumps and tanks for delivery of corrosion-inhibiting chemical to a production well, the conduit means including an end conduit for operative interconnection to a production well. A control means is mounted on the skid for controlling the operation of the pump means to provide desired amounts and proportions of a mix of corrosion-inhibiting chemical and water to the end conduit. A method is described for delivering a mix of corrosion-inhibiting chemical and water to a production well utilizing a portable skid having a chemical tank and water tank mounted thereon, comprising: transporting the skid to a single production well site; operatively interconnecting the chemical and water tanks to an injection tube string, or an annulus associated with a side mandrel, of the production well; and controlling delivery of a mix of corrosion-inhibiting chemical and water from the tanks to the production well so that any desired amounts and proportions of a mix of chemical and water are continuously injected into the well to provide corrosion-inhibiting of a production tube string of the well without interruption of production through the production tube string.

  17. Small barium rail gun for plasma injection

    SciTech Connect

    Kiwamoto, Y.

    1980-03-01

    A small rail gun with a barium electrode can be operated at higher than one shot per second to produce more than 2 x 10/sup 16/ barium ions with energy 10--20 eV. The operation of the gun takes advantage of the external magnetic field for cross-field plasma injection into a trap. Up to 7 kG of the magnetic field examined, the gun performance improves with the increased magnetic field strength.

  18. Small barium rail gun for plasma injection.

    PubMed

    Kiwamoto, Y

    1980-03-01

    A small rail gun with a barium electrode can be operated at higher than one shot per second to produce more than 2x10(16) barium ions with energy 10-20 eV. The operation of the gun takes advantage of the external magnetic field for cross-field plasma injection into a trap. Up to 7 kG of the magnetic field examined, the gun performance improves with the increased magnetic field strength. PMID:18647050

  19. Subacromial Injection Results in Further Scapular Dyskinesis

    PubMed Central

    Ettinger, Luke; Shapiro, Matthew; Karduna, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Background: Scapular kinematic movement patterns between patients with subacromial impingement and healthy controls have been extensively investigated. However, a high degree of variability has been reported in the literature pertaining to differences between these 2 groups. Purpose: To investigate the influence of subacromial pain on scapular kinematics. Study Design: Controlled laboratory study. Methods: A total of 21 patients with stage 2 subacromial impingement who received local anesthetic injections as part of their normal treatment were recruited for this study. The postinjection kinematic data from these patients were compared with those of healthy age-, sex-, and arm dominance–matched controls. Results: Subacromial injections of anesthetics resulted in increased scapular anterior tilting; however, no changes were noted in upward or internal rotation. When compared with healthy controls, patients had greater anterior tilting and upward rotation of the scapula. Conclusion: The study findings indicate that the removal of pain in patients with impingement results in further dyskinesis of the scapula. Clinical Relevance: Pain may be causing patients with subacromial impingement to limit scapular tilt and upward rotation, and movement limitations may continue after an anesthetic injection. PMID:26535353

  20. Overview of the Helicity Injected Torus Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, B. A.; Jarboe, T. R.; Hamp, W. T.; Izzo, V. A.; O'Neill, R. G.; Redd, A. J.; Sieck, P. E.; Smith, R. J.

    2004-11-01

    The Helicity Injected Torus with Steady Inductive Helicity Injection (SIHI) spheromak experiment (HIT-SI) [Jarboe, Fus. Tech., (36)1, p.85, 1999] addresses critical issues for spheromaks, including current drive, operation at high beta, and confinement. HIT-SI features an optimal high-beta plasma shape and current profile, steady-state operation, minimal plasma-wall interaction, and injected power always flowing into the plasma. HIT-SI has a ``bow-tie'' shaped 1 cm thick Cu flux conserver with major radius R = 0.33 m and axial extent of 0.57 m. A half torus helicity injector at each end of the flux conserver produces conjugate sinusoidal flux (4 MW peak) and loop voltages (20 MW peak) at 5 kHz by IGBT-based switching power amplifiers. Injector flux and loop voltages are phase controlled to maintain power flow always inward. Insulating breaks for the oscillating flux and loop voltage are provided by a novel double viton o-ring system. HIT-SI uses the diagnostic suite previously used by the HIT-II experiment, (presented in an accompanying poster.) Results and 3D MHD simulations will be presented.

  1. Injection of new technology into space systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curto, Paul A.; Hornstein, Rhoda Shaller

    2005-07-01

    Small satellite systems appear to be antithetical to human spaceflight systems and flagship robotic satellite systems: Small satellite missions have more focused scientific objectives, lower cost, far less complexity, and shorter development and deployment schedules. The shorter schedules offer an opportunity for injecting new technology into their design as a means for keeping costs and schedule under control, for enabling cost-effective operations, and for taking advantage of innovative ideas. It is often the case that small satellite missions benefit from technologies specifically targeted for their application, but benefits may also be realized by adopting or injecting technologies originally developed for human spaceflight systems, especially if these technologies were conceived using multi-use and multi-disciplinary development principles. In this paper, the authors discuss the precedent of injecting new technology developed for human spaceflight systems into small satellite missions. More importantly, the authors will present five new technologies recently proposed for making the NASA Space Shuttle safer to fly, all of which are directly applicable to small satellite mission design and operations. The technologies, when matured, will provide a means to create new generations of ultra-reliable flight hardware and software. The technologies are all currently at the developmental phase and require modest investment to achieve operational status.

  2. PEP-II injection timing and controls

    SciTech Connect

    Bharadwaj, V.; Browne, M.; Crane, M.; Gromme, T.; Himel, T.; Ross, M.; Stanek, M.; Ronan, M.

    1997-07-01

    Hardware has been built and software written and incorporated in the existing SLC accelerator control system to control injection of beam pulses from the accelerator into the PEP-II storage rings currently under construction. Hardware includes a CAMAC module to delay the machine timing fiducial in order that a beam pulse extracted from a damping ring will be injected into a selected group of four 476 MHz buckets in a PEP-II ring. Further timing control is accomplished by shifting the phase of the bunches stored in the damping rings before extraction while leaving the phase of the PEP-II stored beam unchanged. The software which drives timing devices on a pulse-to-pulse basis relies on a dedicated communication link on which one scheduling microprocessor broadcasts a 128-bit message to all distributed control microprocessors at 360 Hz. PEP-II injection will be driven by the scheduling microprocessor according to lists specifying bucket numbers in arbitrary order, and according to scheduling constraints maximizing the useful beam delivered to the SLC collider currently in operation. These lists will be generated by a microprocessor monitoring the current stored per bucket in each of the PEP-II rings.

  3. Injectable silk foams for soft tissue regeneration.

    PubMed

    Bellas, Evangelia; Lo, Tim J; Fournier, Eric P; Brown, Joseph E; Abbott, Rosalyn D; Gil, Eun S; Marra, Kacey G; Rubin, J Peter; Leisk, Gary G; Kaplan, David L

    2015-02-18

    Soft tissue fillers are needed for restoration of a defect or augmentation of existing tissues. Autografts and lipotransfer have been under study for soft tissue reconstruction but yield inconsistent results, often with considerable resorption of the grafted tissue. A minimally invasive procedure would reduce scarring and recovery time as well as allow the implant and/or grafted tissue to be placed closer to existing vasculature. Here, the feasibility of an injectable silk foam for soft tissue regeneration is demonstrated. Adipose-derived stem cells survive and migrate through the foam over a 10-d period in vitro. The silk foams are also successfully injected into the subcutaneous space in a rat and over a 3-month period integrating with the surrounding native tissue. The injected foams are palpable and soft to the touch through the skin and returning to their original dimensions after pressure is applied and then released. The foams readily absorb lipoaspirate making the foams useful as a scaffold or template for existing soft tissue filler technologies, useful either as a biomaterial alone or in combination with the lipoaspirate.

  4. Double intensity injection for antiproton production

    SciTech Connect

    King-Yuen Ng

    2002-09-30

    A way to increase the luminosity of the Fermilab Tevatron during Run IIa [1] is to increase the number protons delivered to the target for antiproton production. In Ref. [2], a method to inject continuously 12 booster batches into the Main Injector is described in detail. The injection will fill 6/7 of the Main Injector with double intensity, for both antiproton production and the Numi neutrino project in Run IIb [3]. In this paper, they address the special case of filling only one booster-batch length of the Main Injector with double intensity in Run IIa. The problem we are facing is to limit the length of the final proton batch to within a booster-batch length, which is the circumferential length of the antiproton accumulator. Otherwise, losses will occur either at the Main Injector or the antiproton production area. With reasonable sizes of the barrier waves, simulations show that they are able to restrict the double-density protons to 5.9% longer than the booster-batch length before adiabatic capture. After adiabatic capture with 53-MHz rf, 90 buckets are occupied. The protons in the extra 6 buckets at the sides will be lost eventually. However, these amount to only 0.51% of the total proton batch. Some injection parameters of the Main Injector are listed in a table.

  5. Injection-induced Microseismicity in Colorado Shales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talebi, S.; Boone, T. J.; Eastwood, J. E.

    Imperial Oil Resources Limited uses cyclic steam stimulation to recover oil from their Cold Lake oil field in Alberta. This operation, in particular situations, can be associated with the failure of well casings in the Colorado shales above the oil-bearing formation. A number of fluid injection operations was undertaken at this site and the associated microseismicity was detected using two three-component geophones and fifteen hydrophones. The purpose of this experiment was to simulate the occurrence of a casing failure, determine the feasibility of monitoring in a shallow environment, and characterize the microseismic activity. A calibration survey provided values of 1786 +/- 108 m/s for P-wave velocity, 643 +/- 56 m/s for S-wave velocity and 0.428 +/- 0.017 for Poisson's ratio in the shale formation. Estimates of the quality factor QP were 15 for the horizontal direction and 38 for the vertical direction, corroborating the evidence of velocity anisotropy. Calibration shots were located to within 10 m of the actual shot points using triangulation and polarization techniques. Several hundred microseis mic events were recorded and 135 events were located. The results showed that microseismic activity was confined to depths within 10 meters of the injection depth. The experiment clearly established the feasibility of detecting microseismicity induced by fluid injection rates typical of casing failures in shales at distances over 100 m.

  6. High fidelity simulation of transcritical injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soteriou, Marios; Gao, Hui; Li, Xiaoyi; Davis, Dustin

    2012-11-01

    Transcritical injection of a multi-component fluid occurs in many practical applications such as diesel and rocket engines. In this type of injection a liquid fuel at a supercritical pressure but subcritical temperature, is introduced into an environment where conditions are supercritical. The convoluted physics of the transition from the subcritical to the supercritical state is linked to thermodynamic property variations and poses challenges to numerical simulation. For example, the temporary presence of surface tension implies that both the subcritical liquid-vapor interface and the transition boundary to supercritical fluid need to be captured. In this work, numerical simulation of a binary system of a subcritical liquid injecting into a supercritical, quiescent gaseous environment is performed. A coupled level set and volume of fluid method is adopted to capture the liquid-vapor interface, across which the continuity of mass and energy fluxes is preserved. The fluid state over the range of subcritical liquid to supercritical fluid is determined by incorporating the Peng-Robinson equation of state. To efficiently account for the sharp changes in properties near the liquid-vapor interface and the transition boundary to supercritical fluid, an adaptive mesh refinement technique is employed. Analysis of results focuses on the impact of vanishing surface tension as conditions transition from sub-critical to supercritical.

  7. Injection of iodine to the stratosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saiz-Lopez, Alfonso; Baidar, Sunil; Cuevas, Carlos A.; Koening, Theodore; Fernandez, Rafael P.; Dix, Barbara; Kinnison, Douglas E.; Lamarque, Jean-Francois; Rodriguez-Lloveras, Xavier; Campos, Teresa L.; Volkamer, Rainer

    2016-04-01

    There are still many uncertainties about the influence of iodine chemistry in the stratosphere, as the real amount of reactive iodine injected to this layer the troposphere and the partitioning of iodine species are still unknown. In this work we report a new estimation of the injection of iodine into the stratosphere based on novel daytime (SZA < 45°) aircraft observations in the tropical tropopause layer (TORERO campaign) and a 3D global chemistry-climate model (CAM-Chem) with the most recent knowledge about iodine photochemistry. The results indicate that significant levels of total reactive iodine (0.25-0.7 pptv), between 2 and 5 times larger than the accepted upper limits, could be injected into the stratosphere via tropical convective outflow. At these iodine levels, modelled iodine catalytic cycles account for up to 30% of the contemporary ozone loss in the tropical lower stratosphere and can exert a stratospheric ozone depletion potential equivalent or even larger than that of very short-lived bromocarbons. Therefore, we suggest that iodine sources and chemistry need to be considered in assessments of the historical and future evolution of the stratospheric ozone layer.

  8. Injectable Silk Foams for Soft Tissue Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Bellas, E.; Lo, T.J.; Fournier, E.P.; Brown, J.E.; Abbott, R.D.; Gil, E.S.; Marra, K.G.; Rubin, J.P.; Leisk, G.G.; Kaplan, D.L.

    2015-01-01

    Soft tissue fillers are needed for restoration of a defect or augmentation of existing tissues. Autografts and lipotransfer have been under study for soft tissue reconstruction but yield inconsistent results, often with considerable resorption of the grafted tissue. A minimally invasive procedure would reduce scarring and recovery time as well as allow for the implant and/or grafted tissue to be placed closer to existing vasculature. Here, we demonstrate the feasibility of an injectable silk foam for soft tissue regeneration. Adipose derived stem cells survive and migrate through the foam over a 10 day period in vitro. The silk foams are also successfully injected into the subcutaneous space in a rat and over a 3 month period integrating with the surrounding native tissue. The injected foams are palpable and soft to the touch through the skin and returning to their original dimensions after pressure was applied and then released. The foams readily absorb lipoaspirate making the foams useful as a scaffold or template for existing soft tissue filler technologies, useful either as a biomaterial alone or in combination with the lipoaspirate. PMID:25323438

  9. Stokes injected Raman capillary waveguide amplifier

    DOEpatents

    Kurnit, Norman A.

    1980-01-01

    A device for producing stimulated Raman scattering of CO.sub.2 laser radiation by rotational states in a diatomic molecular gas utilizing a Stokes injection signal. The system utilizes a cryogenically cooled waveguide for extending focal interaction length. The waveguide, in conjunction with the Stokes injection signal, reduces required power density of the CO.sub.2 radiation below the breakdown threshold for the diatomic molecular gas. A Fresnel rhomb is employed to circularly polarize the Stokes injection signal and CO.sub.2 laser radiation in opposite circular directions. The device can be employed either as a regenerative oscillator utilizing optical cavity mirrors or as a single pass amplifier. Additionally, a plurality of Raman gain cells can be staged to increase output power magnitude. Also, in the regenerative oscillator embodiment, the Raman gain cell cavity length and CO.sub.2 cavity length can be matched to provide synchronism between mode locked CO.sub.2 pulses and pulses produced within the Raman gain cell.

  10. HIV surveillance among injecting drug users.

    PubMed

    Des Jarlais, D C; Dehne, K; Casabona, J

    2001-04-01

    Injecting drug users (IDUs) should be considered a 'partially hidden population' at high risk for HIV infection. In almost all locations it should be possible to locate and conduct research with IDUs, but it will probably never be possible to enumerate or draw random samples from an IDU population. Surveillance research studies with IDUs should include risk behaviors, as surveillance of HIV infection only will not be sufficiently time sensitive, and be used to develop and refine HIV prevention programming for the population. Contacts with IDUs can be developed at multiple settings, including voluntary treatment programs, law enforcement settings, and through 'street outreach.' Each type of setting has different advantages, disadvantages and ethical concerns. HIV testing as part of surveillance also raises additional important ethical concerns. The primary risk behaviors that should be included in surveillance studies are 'sharing' of drug injection equipment, the potential for rapid partner change among risk partners, and sexual risk behavior. Additional important objectives for surveillance research include: (1) the size of the local IDU population, (2) patterns of drug use, (3) availability injection equipment, (4) participation in prevention activities, and (5) access to and use of anti-retroviral treatments. HIV incidence is an ultimate objective for surveillance research, but there are no currently available cost-efficient methods for studying HIV incidence, so estimation from indirect measurements is usually required. PMID:11421178

  11. Improved Water Flooding through Injection Brine Modification

    SciTech Connect

    Robertson, Eric Partridge; Thomas, Charles Phillip; Morrow, Norman

    2003-01-01

    Crude oil/brine/rock interactions can lead to large variations in the displacement efficiency of waterflooding, by far the most widely applied method of improved oil recovery. Laboratory waterflood tests show that injection of dilute brine can increase oil recovery. Numerous fields in the Powder River basin have been waterflooded using low salinity brine (about 500 ppm) from the Madison limestone or Fox Hills sandstone. Although many uncertainties arise in the interpretation and comparison of field production data, injection of low salinity brine appears to give higher recovery compared to brine of moderate salinity (about 7,000 ppm). Laboratory studies of the effect of brine composition on oil recovery cover a wide range of rock types and crude oils. Oil recovery increases using low salinity brine as the injection water ranged from a low of no notable increase to as much as 37.0% depending on the system being studied. Recovery increases using low salinity brine after establishing residual oil saturation (tertiary mode) ranged from no significant increase to 6.0%. Tests with two sets of reservoir cores and crude oil indicated slight improvement in recovery for low salinity brine. Crude oil type and rock type (particularly the presence and distribution of kaolinite) both play a dominant role in the effect that brine composition has on waterflood oil recovery.

  12. European Lean Gasoline Direct Injection Vehicle Benchmark

    SciTech Connect

    Chambon, Paul H; Huff, Shean P; Edwards, Kevin Dean; Norman, Kevin M; Prikhodko, Vitaly Y; Thomas, John F

    2011-01-01

    Lean Gasoline Direct Injection (LGDI) combustion is a promising technical path for achieving significant improvements in fuel efficiency while meeting future emissions requirements. Though Stoichiometric Gasoline Direct Injection (SGDI) technology is commercially available in a few vehicles on the American market, LGDI vehicles are not, but can be found in Europe. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) obtained a European BMW 1-series fitted with a 2.0l LGDI engine. The vehicle was instrumented and commissioned on a chassis dynamometer. The engine and after-treatment performance and emissions were characterized over US drive cycles (Federal Test Procedure (FTP), the Highway Fuel Economy Test (HFET), and US06 Supplemental Federal Test Procedure (US06)) and steady state mappings. The vehicle micro hybrid features (engine stop-start and intelligent alternator) were benchmarked as well during the course of that study. The data was analyzed to quantify the benefits and drawbacks of the lean gasoline direct injection and micro hybrid technologies from a fuel economy and emissions perspectives with respect to the US market. Additionally that data will be formatted to develop, substantiate, and exercise vehicle simulations with conventional and advanced powertrains.

  13. SNS Laser Stripping for H- Injection

    SciTech Connect

    V.V. Danilov, Y. Liu, K.B. Beard, V.G. Dudnikov, R.P. Johnson, Michelle D. Shinn

    2009-05-01

    The ORNL spallation neutron source (SNS) user facility requires a reliable, intense beams of protons. The technique of H- charge exchange injection into a storage ring or synchrotron has the potential to provide the needed beam currents, but it will be limited by intrinsic limitations of carbon and diamond stripping foils. A laser in combination with magnetic stripping has been used to demonstrate a new technique for high intensity proton injection, but several problems need to be solved before a practical system can be realized. Technology developed for use in Free Electron Lasers is being used to address the remaining challenges to practical implementation of laser controlled H- charge exchange injection for the SNS. These technical challenges include (1) operation in vacuum, (2) the control of the UV laser beam to synchronize with the H- beam and to shape the proton beam, (3) the control and stabilization of the Fabry-Perot resonator, and (4) protection of the mirrors from radiation.

  14. Target injection methods for inertial fusion energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petzoldt, Ronald W.; Moir, Ralph W.

    1994-06-01

    We have studied four methods to inject IFE targets: the gas gun, electrostatic accelerator, induction accelerator, and rail gun. We recommend a gas gun for indirect drive targets because they can support a gas pressure load on one end and can slide along the gun barrel without damage. With the gas gun, the amount of gas required for each target (about 10 to 100 mg) is acceptable; for other types of targets, a sabot would be necessary. A cam and poppet valve arrangement is recommended for gas flow control. An electrostatic accelerator is attractive for use with lightweight spherical direct drive targets. Since there is no physical contact between the target and the injector, there will be no wear of either component during the injection process. An induction accelerator has an advantage of no electrical contact between the target and the injector. Physical contact is not even necessary, so the wear should be minimal. It requires a cylindrical conductive target sleeve which is a substantial added mass. A rail gun is a simpler device than an electrostatic accelerator or induction accelerator. It requires electrical contact between the target and the rails and may have a significant wear rate. The wear in a vacuum could be reduced by use of a solid lubricant such as MoS2. The total required accuracy of target injection, tracking and beam pointing of +/- 0.4 mm appears achievable but will require development and experimental verification.

  15. Target injection methods for inertial fusion energy

    SciTech Connect

    Petzoldt, R.W.; Moir, R.W.

    1994-06-01

    We have studied four methods to inject IFE targets: the gas gun, electrostatic accelerator, induction accelerator, and rail gun. We recommend a gas gun for indirect drive targets because they can support a gas pressure load on one end and can slide along the gun barrel without damage. With the gas gun, the amount of gas required for each target (about 10 to 100 mg) is acceptable; for other types of targets, a sabot would be necessary. A cam and poppet valve arrangement is recommended for gas flow control. An electrostatic accelerator is attractive for use with lightweight spherical direct drive targets. Since there is no physical contact between the target and the injector, there will be no wear of either component during the injection process. An induction accelerator has an advantage of no electrical contact between the target and the injector. Physical contact is not even necessary, so the wear should be minimal. It requires a cylindrical conductive target sleeve which is a substantial added mass. A rail gun is a simpler device than an electrostatic accelerator or induction accelerator. It requires electrical contact between the target and the rails and may have a significant wear rate. The wear in a vacuum could be reduced by use of a solid lubricant such as MoS{sub 2}. The total required accuracy of target injection, tracking and beam pointing of {plus_minus}0.4 mm appears achievable but will require development and experimental verification.

  16. Injection- Seeded Optoplasmonic Amplifier in the Visible

    PubMed Central

    Gartia, Manas Ranjan; Seo, Sujin; Kim, Junhwan; Chang, Te-Wei; Bahl, Gaurav; Lu, Meng; Liu, Gang Logan; Eden, J. Gary

    2014-01-01

    A hybrid optoplasmonic amplifier, injection-seeded by an internally-generated Raman signal and operating in the visible (563–675 nm), is proposed and evidence for amplification is presented. Comprising a gain medium tethered to a whispering gallery mode (WGM) resonator with a protein, and a plasmonic surface, the optical system described here selectively amplifies a single (or a few) Raman line(s) produced within the WGM resonator and is well-suited for routing narrowband optical power on-a-chip. Over the past five decades, optical oscillators and amplifiers have typically been based on the buildup of the field from the spontaneous emission background. Doing so limits the temporal coherence of the output, lengthens the time required for the optical field intensity to reach saturation, and often is responsible for complex, multiline spectra. In addition to the spectral control afforded by injection-locking, the effective Q of the amplifier can be specified by the bandwidth of the injected Raman signal. This characteristic contrasts with previous WGM-based lasers and amplifiers for which the Q is determined solely by the WGM resonator. PMID:25156810

  17. Injectable Biomaterials for Regenerating Complex Craniofacial Tissues**

    PubMed Central

    Kretlow, James D.; Young, Simon; Klouda, Leda; Wong, Mark; Mikos, Antonios G.

    2009-01-01

    Engineering complex tissues requires a precisely formulated combination of cells, spatiotemporally released bioactive factors, and a specialized scaffold support system. Injectable materials, particularly those delivered in aqueous solution, are considered ideal delivery vehicles for cells and bioactive factors and can also be delivered through minimally invasive methods and fill complex 3D shapes. In this review, we examine injectable materials that form scaffolds or networks capable of both replacing tissue function early after delivery and supporting tissue regeneration over a time period of weeks to months. The use of these materials for tissue engineering within the craniofacial complex is challenging but ideal as many highly specialized and functional tissues reside within a small volume in the craniofacial structures and the need for minimally invasive interventions is desirable due to aesthetic considerations. Current biomaterials and strategies used to treat craniofacial defects are examined, followed by a review of craniofacial tissue engineering, and finally an examination of current technologies used for injectable scaffold development and drug and cell delivery using these materials. PMID:19750143

  18. Injection-site lesions in carcasses of cattle receiving injections at branding and at weaning.

    PubMed

    George, M H; Heinrich, P E; Dexter, D R; Morgan, J B; Odde, K G; Glock, R D; Tatum, J D; Cowman, G L; Smith, G C

    1995-11-01

    Crossbred steer and heifer calves (n = 84) were given injections at branding and at weaning (using a completely randomized block design); 225 to 376 d later, pairs of two subprimal cuts from each animal were evaluated for incidence and severity of injection-site lesions. The four products compared were 1) a 2-mL clostridial, 2) a 5-mL clostridial, 3) vitamin AD3, and 4) a long-acting oxytetracycline antibiotic (OTC). Branding-age calves (mean 48.3 d of age) received intramuscular injections of two of the four products, in the semimembranosus (inside round) muscles (one in the left muscle and one in the right); at weaning age (mean 199.3 d of age), calves received injections of the remaining two products in the gluteus medius (top sirloin butt) muscles (one in the left and the other in the right). Injections at branding of 2 mL of clostridial, 5 mL of clostridial, vitamin AD3, and OTC caused injection-site lesions in 72.5, 92.7, 5.3, and 51.2%, respectively, of inside rounds from slaughter cattle. Incidence of injection-site lesions was lowest (P < .05) among inside rounds and top sirloin butts from animals given vitamin AD3 (as calves, and at both branding and weaning times) and was highest (P < .05) in inside rounds from cattle given, as calves, injections of 5 mL of clostridial at branding or of OTC at weaning. Less trimming was required to remove the lesions resulting from injections of all four products when they were given at weaning time. Before completion of the present study, it was thought that injection-site lesions were from damage that subsisted only briefly following an inoculation; these results make it abundantly clear that intramuscular administration of clostridials and certain antibiotics will cause damage so severe that it will be evident in beef muscle 7.5 to 12 mo later.

  19. Factors Associated with Initiating Someone into Illicit Drug Injection

    PubMed Central

    Bluthenthal, Ricky N; Wenger, Lynn; Chu, Daniel; Quinn, Brendan; Thing, James; Kral, Alex H

    2014-01-01

    Aims Most people who inject drugs (PWID) were first initiated into injection by a current PWID. Few studies have examined PWID who assist others into drug injection. Our goal is to describe the prevalence of and risk factors for initiating someone into injection in the last 12 months. Methods We recruited a cross-sectional sample of PWID (N=605) in California from 2011 to 2013. We examined bivariate and multivariate risk factors for initiating someone into injection with a focus on behaviors that might encourage injection initiation such as injecting in front of non-PWID, describing how to inject to non-PWID, and willingness to initiate someone into drug injection. Results Having initiated someone into injection was reported by 34% of PWID overall and 7% in the last 12 months. Forty-four PWID had assisted 431 people into injection in the past year. Factors independently associated with initiating someone into injection in the last 12 months were having injected any person in past month – referred to as being a street doctor‟ -- (Adjusted Odds Ratio [AOR]=3.49; 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.72, 7.08), having described how to inject to non-injectors (2.76; 95% CI=1.28, 5.93), self-reported likelihood of initiating someone in the future (AOR=6.37; 95% CI=3.12, 13.01), and non-injection powder cocaine use in past month (AOR=4.40; 95% CI= 1.90, 10.19). Conclusion Active PWID are important in facilitating the process of drug injection uptake. Interventions to reduce initiation should include efforts to change behaviors and intentions among PWID that are associated with injection uptake among others. PMID:25282308

  20. Painful fat necrosis resulting from insulin injections

    PubMed Central

    Pandit, M; Menon, V; Roberts, S; Barber, T M

    2014-01-01

    Summary The case is a 34-year-old woman with long-standing type 1 diabetes mellitus with existing follow-up in the outpatient clinic at the Warwickshire Institute for the Study of Diabetes, Endocrinology and Metabolism, UHCW. She had maintained good glycaemic control and glycaemic stability with basal bolus regimen for many years. She had not developed any diabetes-related complications and had no other co-morbidities. Six months ago, she presented to A&E with sudden-onset, well-localised and severe pain in the right iliac fossa, just lateral to the para-umbilical area. Her biochemistry was normal. Ultrasound scan, however, revealed a right-sided ovarian cyst, which was thought to have caused pain to her. She was discharged from A&E with simple analgesia. On subsequent gynaecological follow-up 4 weeks later, her pain remained severe and examination revealed an exquisitely tender subcutaneous nodule at the same location measuring 2 cm in diameter. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan at the time revealed a 1 cm mass in the subcutaneous adipose tissue, which co-localised to her pain. The mass demonstrated a central fat signal surrounded by a peripheral ring: observations consistent with fat necrosis. There were other smaller subcutaneous nodules also observed in the left para-umbilical area. Subsequent surgical resection of the main area of fat necrosis was performed. The patient made an excellent recovery and her pain resolved post-operatively. Histology confirmed the presence of fat necrosis. Fat necrosis is a rare complication of s.c. insulin injection. This case illustrates the importance of considering this diagnosis in patients who inject insulin and develop localised injection-site pain. Learning points Fat necrosis is a rare complication of insulin injections that can manifest with severe, persistent and well-localised pain.Fat necrosis can masquerade as other pathologies causing diagnostic confusion.The imaging modality of choice for accurate diagnosis

  1. INJECTION STRAIGHT PULSED MAGNET ERROR TOLERANCE STUDY FOR TOP-OFF INJECTION

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, G.M.; Shaftan; T.: Fliller; R.; Parker; B.; Heese; R.; Kowalski; S.; Willeke; F.

    2011-03-28

    NSLS II is designed to work in top-off injection mode. The injection straight includes a septum and four fast kicker magnets. The pulsed magnet errors will excite a betatron oscillation. This paper gives the formulas of each error contribution to the oscillation amplitude at various source points in the ring. These are compared with simulation results. Based on the simple formulas, we can specify the error tolerances on the pulsed magnets with the goal to minimize the injection transient and scale it to similar machines. The NSLS-II is a 3 GeV third generation synchrotron light source under construction at Brookhaven National Laboratory. Due to its short lifetime, NSLS-II storage ring requires the top-off injection (once per minute) during which the stored beam orbit is highly desired as transparent. But the errors, from the SR pulsed magnets at the injection straight - kickers (non-closed injection bump) and pulsed septum (time-dependent stray field), excite a stored beam betatron oscillation. The magnitude of the perturbation can be large disturning some of the user experiments. In 2010 injection straight review, based on the experts experiences in ALS, DIAMOND, SLS and SPEAR, we came to the conclusion that the acceptable oscillation amplitude at the long straight is set as 100 {micro}m (i.e. 0.7 {sigma}x) in horizontal plane and 12 {micro}m, 2.5 {sigma}y, in vertical plane for NSLS II. This paper gives the analysis estimate of the different error source tolerance from the pulse magnets and scales it to our requirements. The result is compared with simulation.

  2. Surgical versus injection treatment for injection-confirmed chronic sacroiliac joint pain

    PubMed Central

    Spiker, William Ryan; Lawrence, Brandon D.; Raich, Annie L.; Skelly, Andrea C.; Brodke, Darrel S.

    2012-01-01

    Study design: Systematic review. Study rationale: Chronic sacroiliac joint pain (CSJP) is a common clinical entity with highly controversial treatment options. A recent systematic review compared surgery with denervation, but the current systematic review compares outcomes of surgical intervention with therapeutic injection for the treatment of CSJP and serves as the next step for evaluating current evidence on the comparative effectiveness of treatments for non-traumatic sacroiliac joint pain. Objective or clinical question: In adult patients with injection-confirmed CSJP, does surgical treatment lead to better outcomes and fewer complications than injection therapy? Methods: A systematic review of the English-language literature was undertaken for articles published between 1970 and June 2012. Electronic databases and reference lists of key articles were searched to identify studies evaluating surgery or injection treatment for injection-confirmed CSJP. Studies involving traumatic onset or non-injection–confirmed CSJP were excluded. Two independent reviewers assessed the level of evidence quality using the grading of recommendations assessment, development and evaluation (GRADE) system, and disagreements were resolved by consensus. Results: We identified twelve articles (seven surgical and five injection treatment) meeting our inclusion criteria. Regardless of the type of treatment, most studies reported over 40% improvement in pain as measured by Visual Analog Scale or Numeric rating Scale score. Regardless of the type of treatment, most studies reported over 20% improvement in functionality. Most complications were reported in the surgical studies. Conclusion: Surgical fusion and therapeutic injections can likely provide pain relief, improve quality of life, and improve work status. The comparative effectiveness of these interventions cannot be evaluated with the current literature. PMID:23526911

  3. Investigation of potential injectable polymeric biomaterials for bone regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Dreifke, Michael B.; Ebraheim, Nabil A.; Jayasuriya, Ambalangodage C.

    2014-01-01

    This article reviews the potential injectable polymeric biomaterial scaffolds currently being investigated for application in bone tissue regeneration. Two types of injectable biomaterial scaffolds are focused in this review, including injectable microspheres and injectable gels. The injectable microspheres section covers several polymeric materials, including poly(l-lactide-co-glycolide)-PLGA, poly (propylene fumarate), and chitosan. The injectable gel section covers alginate gels, hyaluronan hydrogels, poly(ethylene-glycol)-PEG hydrogels, and PEG-PLGA copolymer hydrogels. This review focuses on the effect of cellular behaviorin vitro andin vivo in terms of material properties of polymers, such as biodegradation, biocompatibility, porosity, microsphere size, and cross-linking nature. Injectable polymeric biomaterials offer a major advantage for orthopedic applications by allowing the ability to use noninvasive or minimally invasive treatment methods. Therefore, combining injectable polymeric biomaterial scaffolds with cells have a significant potential to treat orthopedic bone defects, including spine fusion, and craniofacial and periodontal defects. PMID:23401336

  4. Near-surface groundwater responses to injection of geothermal wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Arnold, S.C.

    1984-06-01

    Experiences with injecting geothermal fluids have identified technical problems associated with geothermal waste disposal. This report assesses the feasibility of injection as an alternative for geothermal wastewater disposal and analyzes hydrologic controls governing the upward migration of injected fluids. Injection experiences at several geothermal developments are presented, including: Raft River, Salton Sea, East Mesa, Otake and Hatchobaru in Japan, and Ahuachapan in El Salvador. Hydrogeologic and design/operational factors affecting the success of an injection program are identified. Hydrogeologic factors include subsidence, near-surface effects of injected fluids, and seismicity. Design/operational factors include hydrodynamic breakthrough, condition of the injection system and reservoir maintenance. Existing and potential effects of production/injection on these factors are assessed.

  5. Cervical Myelopathy Caused by Injections into the Neck

    PubMed Central

    Ralph, Jeffrey W.; Layzer, Robert B.

    2015-01-01

    Three cases of longitudinally extensive cervical myelopathies temporally associated with neck injections are presented. The spinal cord injury was similar radiographically, despite a number of different needle approaches and substances injected. In recent years, there have been reports of an acute cervical myelopathy immediately following an injection procedure in the neck. Various explanations have been offered for this unfortunate complication, including (1) direct injection into the cord leading to traumatic injury, (2) injection of particulate matter into the arterial supply of the cord causing microvascular embolism and spinal cord infarction, and (3) intraneural injection of the chemical with centripetal spread of the injectant from the nerve trunk to the substance of the cord. The merits of each of these 3 mechanisms in explaining these cases are discussed. Albeit rare, acute cervical myelopathy should be considered a potential complication from any deep injection of chemicals into the neck. PMID:26425248

  6. Closed-Loop Control of Chemical Injection Rate for a Direct Nozzle Injection System.

    PubMed

    Cai, Xiang; Walgenbach, Martin; Doerpmond, Malte; Schulze Lammers, Peter; Sun, Yurui

    2016-01-20

    To realize site-specific and variable-rate application of agricultural pesticides, accurately metering and controlling the chemical injection rate is necessary. This study presents a prototype of a direct nozzle injection system (DNIS) by which chemical concentration transport lag was greatly reduced. In this system, a rapid-reacting solenoid valve (RRV) was utilized for injecting chemicals, driven by a pulse-width modulation (PWM) signal at 100 Hz, so with varying pulse width the chemical injection rate could be adjusted. Meanwhile, a closed-loop control strategy, proportional-integral-derivative (PID) method, was applied for metering and stabilizing the chemical injection rate. In order to measure chemical flow rates and input them into the controller as a feedback in real-time, a thermodynamic flowmeter that was independent of chemical viscosity was used. Laboratory tests were conducted to assess the performance of DNIS and PID control strategy. Due to the nonlinear input-output characteristics of the RRV, a two-phase PID control process obtained better effects as compared with single PID control strategy. Test results also indicated that the set-point chemical flow rate could be achieved within less than 4 s, and the output stability was improved compared to the case without control strategy.

  7. Closed-Loop Control of Chemical Injection Rate for a Direct Nozzle Injection System.

    PubMed

    Cai, Xiang; Walgenbach, Martin; Doerpmond, Malte; Schulze Lammers, Peter; Sun, Yurui

    2016-01-01

    To realize site-specific and variable-rate application of agricultural pesticides, accurately metering and controlling the chemical injection rate is necessary. This study presents a prototype of a direct nozzle injection system (DNIS) by which chemical concentration transport lag was greatly reduced. In this system, a rapid-reacting solenoid valve (RRV) was utilized for injecting chemicals, driven by a pulse-width modulation (PWM) signal at 100 Hz, so with varying pulse width the chemical injection rate could be adjusted. Meanwhile, a closed-loop control strategy, proportional-integral-derivative (PID) method, was applied for metering and stabilizing the chemical injection rate. In order to measure chemical flow rates and input them into the controller as a feedback in real-time, a thermodynamic flowmeter that was independent of chemical viscosity was used. Laboratory tests were conducted to assess the performance of DNIS and PID control strategy. Due to the nonlinear input-output characteristics of the RRV, a two-phase PID control process obtained better effects as compared with single PID control strategy. Test results also indicated that the set-point chemical flow rate could be achieved within less than 4 s, and the output stability was improved compared to the case without control strategy. PMID:26805833

  8. Closed-Loop Control of Chemical Injection Rate for a Direct Nozzle Injection System

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Xiang; Walgenbach, Martin; Doerpmond, Malte; Schulze Lammers, Peter; Sun, Yurui

    2016-01-01

    To realize site-specific and variable-rate application of agricultural pesticides, accurately metering and controlling the chemical injection rate is necessary. This study presents a prototype of a direct nozzle injection system (DNIS) by which chemical concentration transport lag was greatly reduced. In this system, a rapid-reacting solenoid valve (RRV) was utilized for injecting chemicals, driven by a pulse-width modulation (PWM) signal at 100 Hz, so with varying pulse width the chemical injection rate could be adjusted. Meanwhile, a closed-loop control strategy, proportional-integral-derivative (PID) method, was applied for metering and stabilizing the chemical injection rate. In order to measure chemical flow rates and input them into the controller as a feedback in real-time, a thermodynamic flowmeter that was independent of chemical viscosity was used. Laboratory tests were conducted to assess the performance of DNIS and PID control strategy. Due to the nonlinear input–output characteristics of the RRV, a two-phase PID control process obtained better effects as compared with single PID control strategy. Test results also indicated that the set-point chemical flow rate could be achieved within less than 4 s, and the output stability was improved compared to the case without control strategy. PMID:26805833

  9. 21 CFR 522.1704 - Sodium pentobarbital injection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium pentobarbital injection. 522.1704 Section... § 522.1704 Sodium pentobarbital injection. (a)(1) Specifications. Sodium pentobarbital injection is sterile and contains in each milliliter 64.8 milligrams of sodium pentobarbital. (2) Sponsor. See...

  10. 21 CFR 522.995 - Fluprostenol sodium injection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Fluprostenol sodium injection. 522.995 Section 522.995 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS IMPLANTATION OR INJECTABLE DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 522.995 Fluprostenol sodium injection....

  11. 21 CFR 522.960b - Flumethasone acetate injection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Flumethasone acetate injection. 522.960b Section 522.960b Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS IMPLANTATION OR INJECTABLE DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 522.960b Flumethasone acetate injection....

  12. 21 CFR 522.800 - Droperidol and fentanyl citrate injection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Droperidol and fentanyl citrate injection. 522.800... § 522.800 Droperidol and fentanyl citrate injection. (a) Specifications. Droperidol and fentanyl citrate injection is a sterile solution containing 20 milligrams of droperidol and 0.4 milligram of fentanyl...

  13. 21 CFR 522.800 - Droperidol and fentanyl citrate injection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Droperidol and fentanyl citrate injection. 522.800... § 522.800 Droperidol and fentanyl citrate injection. (a) Specifications. Droperidol and fentanyl citrate injection is a sterile solution containing 20 milligrams of droperidol and 0.4 milligram of fentanyl...

  14. 21 CFR 510.440 - Injectable iron preparations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Injectable iron preparations. 510.440 Section 510... § 510.440 Injectable iron preparations. There has been an increasing interest in the use of injectable iron compounds for the prevention or treatment of iron-deficiency anemia in animals. Although some...

  15. 21 CFR 510.440 - Injectable iron preparations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Injectable iron preparations. 510.440 Section 510... § 510.440 Injectable iron preparations. There has been an increasing interest in the use of injectable iron compounds for the prevention or treatment of iron-deficiency anemia in animals. Although some...

  16. Multiple-orifice liquid injection into hypersonic air streams.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weaver, W. L.

    1972-01-01

    Review of oblique water and fluorocarbon injection test results obtained in experimental studies of the effects of multiple-orifice liquid injection into hypersonic air streams. The results include the finding that maximum lateral penetration from such injections increases linearly with the square root of the jet-to-freestream dynamic-pressure ratio and is proportional to an equivalent orifice diameter.

  17. 21 CFR 522.1620 - Orgotein for injection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Orgotein for injection. 522.1620 Section 522.1620 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS IMPLANTATION OR INJECTABLE DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 522.1620 Orgotein for injection. (a)...

  18. Injection of beam shaped locally with nonlinear optics.

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, C.-X.; Accelerator Systems Division

    2007-01-01

    We discuss nonlinear beam shaping by octupole and sextupole to fold the tails of a Gaussian beam into its core, for the purpose of improving betatron injection in storage rings by significantly reducing the beam width at the injection septurn and thus reducing beam centroid offset from the stored beam. Necessary conditions as well as challenges for such nonlinear injections are explored.

  19. Sensitization of locomotion following repeated ventral tegmental injections of cytisine.

    PubMed

    Museo, E; Wise, R A

    1994-06-01

    Systemic injections of nicotine increase locomotion, and repeating these injections brings about a sensitization of the locomotor response. Ventral tegmental injections of the nicotinic agonist cytisine also increase locomotion. In the present study cytisine was administered repeatedly into the ventral tegmentum to determine whether sensitization of its locomotor-activating effects would develop. Four groups of animals were tested; each group received a total of six injections at a rate of one injection every 48 h. Two of these groups received injections of cytisine (10 nmol/side): one group received injections into the ventral tegmentum, and, to insure the anatomical specificity of the locomotor effect, a second group received injections dorsal to the ventral tegmentum. The remaining two groups received vehicle injections: one group received injections into the ventral tegmentum, and the other received injections into more dorsal sites. The group of animals that received injections of cytisine into the ventral tegmentum locomoted more than any other group. In addition, only with this group was a progressive increase in the locomotor response evident across test days. These findings raise the possibility that a neural substrate in the ventral tegmentum mediates the locomotor-activating and sensitizing effects associated with the systemic administration of nicotine.

  20. Near-surface groundwater responses to injection of geothermal wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Arnold, S.C.

    1984-06-01

    This report assesses the feasibility of injection as an alternative for geothermal wastewater disposal and analyzes hydrologic controls governing the upward migration of injected fluids. Injection experiences at several geothermal developments are presented including the following: Raft River Valley, Salton Sea, East Mesa, Otake, Hatchobaru, and Ahuachapan geothermal fields.

  1. 21 CFR 510.440 - Injectable iron preparations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Injectable iron preparations. 510.440 Section 510... § 510.440 Injectable iron preparations. There has been an increasing interest in the use of injectable iron compounds for the prevention or treatment of iron-deficiency anemia in animals. Although some...

  2. 21 CFR 510.440 - Injectable iron preparations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Injectable iron preparations. 510.440 Section 510... § 510.440 Injectable iron preparations. There has been an increasing interest in the use of injectable iron compounds for the prevention or treatment of iron-deficiency anemia in animals. Although some...

  3. 21 CFR 510.440 - Injectable iron preparations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Injectable iron preparations. 510.440 Section 510... § 510.440 Injectable iron preparations. There has been an increasing interest in the use of injectable iron compounds for the prevention or treatment of iron-deficiency anemia in animals. Although some...

  4. 21 CFR 872.4730 - Dental injecting needle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Dental injecting needle. 872.4730 Section 872.4730...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Surgical Devices § 872.4730 Dental injecting needle. (a) Identification. A dental injecting needle is a slender, hollow metal device with a sharp point intended to be attached to...

  5. 21 CFR 522.2474 - Tolazoline hydrochloride injection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Tolazoline hydrochloride injection. 522.2474... § 522.2474 Tolazoline hydrochloride injection. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter of sterile aqueous...—(i) Amount. Administer slowly by intravenous injection 4 milligrams per kilogram of body weight or...

  6. 21 CFR 522.1468 - Naproxen for injection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Naproxen for injection. (a) Specifications. The drug is a lyophilized powder which is reconstituted with sterile water for injection to form a 10 percent sterile aqueous solution (100 milligrams per milliliter... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Naproxen for injection. 522.1468 Section...

  7. 21 CFR 522.1468 - Naproxen for injection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Naproxen for injection. (a) Specifications. The drug is a lyophilized powder which is reconstituted with sterile water for injection to form a 10 percent sterile aqueous solution (100 milligrams per milliliter... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Naproxen for injection. 522.1468 Section...

  8. 21 CFR 522.2474 - Tolazoline hydrochloride injection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Tolazoline hydrochloride injection. 522.2474... § 522.2474 Tolazoline hydrochloride injection. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter of sterile aqueous...—(i) Amount. Administer slowly by intravenous injection 4 milligrams per kilogram of body weight or...

  9. 21 CFR 522.995 - Fluprostenol sodium injection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Fluprostenol sodium injection. 522.995 Section 522....995 Fluprostenol sodium injection. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter of sterile aqueous solution.... (3) Limitations. Administer by intramuscular injection only. Warning: Not for use in horses...

  10. Injection Seeding Of A Q-Switched Alexandrite Laser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zukowski, Barbara J. K.; Glesne, Thomas R.; Schwemmer, Geary; Czechanski, James P.; Kay, Richard B.

    1992-01-01

    Experiment demonstrates that standing-wave, Q-switched, tunable alexandrite laser can be injection-seeded to increase stability of output frequency and significantly reduce bandwidth from 750 GHz to 180 MHz. Injecting laser acts as oscillator or master, while Q-switched laser into which ouput of seed laser injected acts as amplifier or slave.

  11. 21 CFR 872.4730 - Dental injecting needle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Dental injecting needle. 872.4730 Section 872.4730...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Surgical Devices § 872.4730 Dental injecting needle. (a) Identification. A dental injecting needle is a slender, hollow metal device with a sharp point intended to be attached to...

  12. 21 CFR 872.4730 - Dental injecting needle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Dental injecting needle. 872.4730 Section 872.4730...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Surgical Devices § 872.4730 Dental injecting needle. (a) Identification. A dental injecting needle is a slender, hollow metal device with a sharp point intended to be attached to...

  13. Intraperitoneal injection (IP), Intravenous injection (IV) or anal injection (AI)? Best way for mesenchymal stem cells transplantation for colitis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Min; Liang, Cong; Hu, Hao; Zhou, Lin; Xu, Bing; Wang, Xin; Han, Ying; Nie, Yongzhan; Jia, Shuyun; Liang, Jie; Wu, Kaichun

    2016-01-01

    Stem cell transplantation showed promising results in IBD management. However, the therapeutic impacts of cell delivery route that is critical for clinical translation are currently poorly understood. Here, three different MSCs delivery routes: intraperitoneal (IP), intravenous (IV), and anal injection (AI) were compared on DSS-induced colitic mice model. The overall therapeutic factors, MSCs migration and targeting as well as local immunomodulatory cytokines and FoxP3+ cells infiltration were analyzed. Colitis showed varying degrees of alleviation after three ways of MSCs transplantation, and the IP injection showed the highest survival rate of 87.5% and displayed the less weight loss and quick weight gain. The fecal occult blood test on the day 3 also showed nearly complete absence of occult blood in IP group. The fluorescence imaging disclosed higher intensity of engrafted cells in inflamed colon and the corresponding mesentery lymph nodes (MLNs) in IP and AI groups than the IV group. Real time-PCR and ELISA also demonstrate lower TNF-α and higher IL-10, TSG-6 levels in IP group. The immunohistochemistry indicated higher repair proliferation (Ki-67) and more FoxP3+ cells accumulation of IP group. IP showed better colitis recovery and might be the optimum MSCs delivery route for the treatment of DSS-induced colitis. PMID:27488951

  14. Forum for Injection Technique (FIT), India: The Indian recommendations 2.0, for best practice in Insulin Injection Technique, 2015.

    PubMed

    Tandon, Nikhil; Kalra, Sanjay; Balhara, Yatan Pal Singh; Baruah, Manash P; Chadha, Manoj; Chandalia, Hemraj B; Chowdhury, Subhankar; Jothydev, Kesavadev; Kumar, Prasanna K M; V, Madhu S; Mithal, Ambrish; Modi, Sonal; Pitale, Shailesh; Sahay, Rakesh; Shukla, Rishi; Sundaram, Annamalai; Unnikrishnan, Ambika G; Wangnoo, Subhash K

    2015-01-01

    As injectable therapies such as human insulin, insulin analogs, and glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists are used to manage diabetes, correct injection technique is vital for the achievement of glycemic control. The forum for injection technique India acknowledged this need for the first time in India and worked to develop evidence-based recommendations on insulin injection technique, to assist healthcare practitioners in their clinical practice.

  15. Forum for Injection Technique (FIT), India: The Indian recommendations 2.0, for best practice in Insulin Injection Technique, 2015

    PubMed Central

    Tandon, Nikhil; Kalra, Sanjay; Balhara, Yatan Pal Singh; Baruah, Manash P.; Chadha, Manoj; Chandalia, Hemraj B.; Chowdhury, Subhankar; Jothydev, Kesavadev; Kumar, Prasanna K. M.; V., Madhu S.; Mithal, Ambrish; Modi, Sonal; Pitale, Shailesh; Sahay, Rakesh; Shukla, Rishi; Sundaram, Annamalai; Unnikrishnan, Ambika G.; Wangnoo, Subhash K.

    2015-01-01

    As injectable therapies such as human insulin, insulin analogs, and glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists are used to manage diabetes, correct injection technique is vital for the achievement of glycemic control. The forum for injection technique India acknowledged this need for the first time in India and worked to develop evidence-based recommendations on insulin injection technique, to assist healthcare practitioners in their clinical practice. PMID:25932385

  16. Dermal injection of immunocytes induces psoriasis.

    PubMed Central

    Wrone-Smith, T; Nickoloff, B J

    1996-01-01

    Establishing direct and causal relationships among the confederacy of activated cell types present in psoriasis has been hampered by lack of an animal model. Within psoriatic plaques there are hyperplastic keratinocytes, infiltrating immunocytes, and activated endothelial cells. The purpose of this study was to determine if psoriasis is primarily a disorder of keratinocytes or the immune system. Using a newly developed experimental system in which full-thickness human skin is orthotopically transferred onto severe combined immunodeficient mice, autologous immunocytes were injected into dermis, and the resultant phenotype characterized by clinical, histologic, and immunophenotypic analyses. Engraftment of samples included both uninvolved/ symptomless (PN) skin removed from patients with psoriasis elsewhere, or from healthy individuals with no skin disease (NN skin). In 10 different experiments involving 6 different psoriasis patients, every PN skin was converted to a full-fledged psoriatic plaque skin by injection of autologous blood-derived immunocytes. In all but one psoriatic patient, the immunocytes required preactivation with IL-2 and superantigens to convert PN skin into psoriatic plaque skin. In every case, resultant plaques were characterized by visible presence of flaking and thickened skin, loss of the granular cell layer, prominent elongation of rete pegs with a dermal angiogenic tissue reaction, and infiltration within the epidermis by T cells. Lesional skin displayed 20 different antigenic determinants of the psoriatic phenotype. None of the four NN skin samples injected with autologous immunocytes converted to psoriatic plaques. We conclude that psoriasis is caused primarily by the ability of pathogenetic blood-derived immunocytes to induce secondary activation and disordered growth of endogenous cutaneous cells including keratinocytes and vascular endothelium. PMID:8878440

  17. Needle free injection technology: A complete insight

    PubMed Central

    Ravi, Ansh Dev; Sadhna, D; Nagpaal, D; Chawla, L

    2015-01-01

    Needle free injection technology (NFIT)is an extremely broad concept which include a wide range of drug delivery systems that drive drugs through the skin using any of the forces as Lorentz, Shock waves, pressure by gas or electrophoresis which propels the drug through the skin, virtually nullifying the use of hypodermic needle. This technology is not only touted to be beneficial for the pharma industry but developing world too find it highly useful in mass immunization programmes, bypassing the chances of needle stick injuries and avoiding other complications including those arising due to multiple use of single needle. The NFIT devices can be classified based on their working, type of load, mechanism of drug delivery and site of delivery. To administer a stable, safe and an effective dose through NFIT, the sterility, shelf life and viscosity of drug are the main components which should be taken care of. Technically superior needle-free injection systems are able to administer highly viscous drug products which cannot be administered by traditional needle and syringe systems, further adding to the usefulness of the technology. NFIT devices can be manufactured in a variety of ways; however the widely employed procedure to manufacture it is by injection molding technique. There are many variants of this technology which are being marketed, such as Bioject® ZetaJetTM, Vitajet 3, Tev-Tropin® and so on. Larger investment has been made in developing this technology with several devices already being available in the market post FDA clearance and a great market worldwide. PMID:26682189

  18. Cascadable excitability in optically injected microdisks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Vaerenbergh, Thomas; Alexander, Koen; Fiers, Martin; Mechet, Pauline; Dambre, Joni; Bienstman, Peter

    2014-05-01

    All-optical spiking neural networks would allow high speed parallelized processing of time-encoded information, using the same energy efficient computational principles as our brain. As the neurons in these networks need to be able to process pulse trains, they should be excitable. Using simulations, we demonstrate Class 1 excitability in optically injected microdisk lasers, and propose a cascadable optical spiking neuron design. The neuron has a clear threshold and an integrating behavior. In addition, we show that the optical phase of the input pulses can be used to create inhibitory, as well as excitatory perturbations. Furthermore, we incorporate our optical neuron design in a topology that allows a disk to react on excitations from other disks. Phase tuning of the intermediate connections allows to control the disk response. Additionally, we investigate the sensitivity of the disk circuit to deviations in driving current and locking signal wavelength detuning. Using state-of-the-art fabrication techniques for microdisk laser, the standard deviation of the lasing wavelength is still about one order of magnitude too large. Finally, as the dynamical behavior of the microdisks is identical to the behavior in Semiconductor Ring Lasers (SRL), we compare the excitability mechanism due to optically injection with the previously proposed excitability due to asymmetry in the intermodal coupling in SRLs, as the latter mechanism can also be induced in disks due to, e.g., asymmetry in the external reaction. In both cases, the symmetry between the two counter-propagating modes of the cavity needs to be broken to prevent switching to the other mode, and allow the system to relax to its initial state after a perturbation. However, the asymmetry due to optical injection results in an integrating spiking neuron, whereas the asymmetry in the intermodal coupling is known to result in a resonating spiking neuron.

  19. Needle free injection technology: A complete insight.

    PubMed

    Ravi, Ansh Dev; Sadhna, D; Nagpaal, D; Chawla, L

    2015-01-01

    Needle free injection technology (NFIT)is an extremely broad concept which include a wide range of drug delivery systems that drive drugs through the skin using any of the forces as Lorentz, Shock waves, pressure by gas or electrophoresis which propels the drug through the skin, virtually nullifying the use of hypodermic needle. This technology is not only touted to be beneficial for the pharma industry but developing world too find it highly useful in mass immunization programmes, bypassing the chances of needle stick injuries and avoiding other complications including those arising due to multiple use of single needle. The NFIT devices can be classified based on their working, type of load, mechanism of drug delivery and site of delivery. To administer a stable, safe and an effective dose through NFIT, the sterility, shelf life and viscosity of drug are the main components which should be taken care of. Technically superior needle-free injection systems are able to administer highly viscous drug products which cannot be administered by traditional needle and syringe systems, further adding to the usefulness of the technology. NFIT devices can be manufactured in a variety of ways; however the widely employed procedure to manufacture it is by injection molding technique. There are many variants of this technology which are being marketed, such as Bioject(®) ZetaJetTM, Vitajet 3, Tev-Tropin(®) and so on. Larger investment has been made in developing this technology with several devices already being available in the market post FDA clearance and a great market worldwide.

  20. Electronically controlled distributor type fuel injection pump

    SciTech Connect

    Kobayashi, M.; Nozaki, S.; Kobayashi, T.

    1986-05-06

    A distributor type fuel injection pump is described which consists of: a plunger barrel; a plunger received within the plunger barrel for concurrent reciprocating and rotative motion for suction, pressure delivery and distribution of fuel; a pair of cut-off ports formed in the plunger and the plunger barrel at a predetermined axial location and registrable with each other to spill pressurized fuel in the plunger into a zone under lower pressure; a communication passageway communicating a pump working chamber defined by the plunger at one end thereof with the zone under lower pressure; a fuel suction passage extending between the pump working chamber and the zone under lower pressure; the communication passageway extending between the pump working chamber and an intermediate portion of the fuel suction passage; a solenoid valve arranged across the communication passageway for blocking same; and control means for controlling means for controlling the solenoid valve to cause same to selectively assume an open position and a closed position; wherein while the plunger moves toward the pump working chamber, the solenoid valve is closed by the control means to start injection of fuel present in the pump working chamber, and upon registration of the cut-off ports with each other, the fuel injection is terminated; the solenoid valve including a valve body disposed opposite an end face of the one end of the plunger; the control means including means for selectively energizing or deenergizing the solenoid for causing the valve body to selectively assume the closed position or the open position.