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Sample records for 15owater injection 15ooxygen

  1. Etanercept Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... injection comes as a solution (liquid) in a prefilled syringe and an automatic injection device, and as a ... etanercept injection.If your medication comes in a prefilled syringe or automatic injection device, use each syringe or ...

  2. Pegfilgrastim Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Pegfilgrastim comes as a solution (liquid) in prefilled injection syringes and in a pre-filled automatic injection device (On-body Injector) to inject subcutaneously (under the skin). If you are using pegfilgrastim to ...

  3. Cabazitaxel Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... injection is used along with prednisone to treat prostate cancer (cancer of a male reproductive organ) that has ... cabazitaxel injection is usually used in men with prostate cancer. If used by pregnant women, cabazitaxel injection can ...

  4. Ondansetron Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Zofran® Injection ... Ondansetron injection is used to prevent nausea and vomiting caused by cancer chemotherapy and surgery. Ondansetron is in a ... medications: or any of the ingredients in ondansetron injection. Ask your pharmacist for a list of the ...

  5. Ibandronate Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Boniva® Injection ... Ibandronate injection is used to treat osteoporosis (a condition in which the bones become thin and weak and break ... Ibandronate injection comes as a solution (liquid) to be injected into a vein by a doctor or nurse in ...

  6. Leuprolide Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Leuprolide injection comes as a long-acting suspension (Lupron) that is injected intramuscularly (into a muscle) by a doctor or nurse in a medical ... Depot-4 month, Lupron Depot-6 Month). Leuprolide injection also comes as a long-acting suspension (Eligard) that is injected subcutaneously (just under ...

  7. Golimumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... body and causes pain, swelling, and damage) including: rheumatoid arthritis (condition in which the body attacks its own ... doctor.If golimumab injection is used to treat rheumatoid arthritis, it may also be injected intravenously (into a ...

  8. Adalimumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... causes pain, swelling, and damage) including the following: rheumatoid arthritis (a condition in which the body attacks its ... If you are using adalimumab injection to treat rheumatoid arthritis, your doctor may tell you to inject the ...

  9. Ipilimumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... are pregnant, plan to become pregnant, or are breast-feeding. If you become pregnant while receiving ipilimumab injection, call your doctor. Ipilimumab injection may cause your baby to be born too early or to die before birth.

  10. Teniposide Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... in men. You should not become pregnant or breast-feed while you are receiving teniposide injection. If you or your partner become pregnant while receiving teniposide injection, call your doctor. Teniposide may harm the fetus.

  11. Dexrazoxane Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... Dexrazoxane injection (Zinecard) is used to prevent or decrease heart damage caused by doxorubicin in women who ... with doxorubicin. Dexrazoxane injection (Totect) is used to decrease damage to the skin and tissues that may ...

  12. Colistimethate Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... is used to treat certain infections caused by bacteria. Colistimethate injection is in a class of medications called antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as colistimethate injection will not work ...

  13. Chloramphenicol Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... treat certain types of serious infections caused by bacteria when other antibiotics cannot be used. Chloramphenicol injection ... antibiotics. It works by stopping the growth of bacteria..Antibiotics such as chloramphenicol injection will not work ...

  14. Natalizumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... your condition. Keep all appointments to receive natalizumab injection even if you feel well. ... tests to check your body's response to natalizumab injection.It is important ... you are taking, as well as any products such as vitamins, minerals, or ...

  15. Methylnaltrexone Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... taking opioid medications, you should stop using methylnaltrexone injection as well.You should stop taking other laxative medications when you start using methylnaltrexone injection. However, be sure to let your doctor know ...

  16. Triptorelin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... used to treat the symptoms associated with advanced prostate cancer. Triptorelin injection (Triptodur) is used to treat central ... a medical office or clinic. When used for prostate cancer, an injection of 3.75 mg of triptorelin ( ...

  17. Degarelix Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Degarelix injection is used to treat advanced prostate cancer (cancer that begins in the prostate [a male reproductive gland]). Degarelix injection is in a class of medications called gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) ...

  18. Medroxyprogesterone Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... Medroxyprogesterone injection is a very effective method of birth control but does not prevent the spread of human ... you have been using a different method of birth control and are switching to medroxyprogesterone injection, your doctor ...

  19. Dolasetron Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... treat nausea and vomiting that may occur after surgery. Dolasetron injection should not be used to prevent ... a single injection just before the end of surgery or as soon as nausea or vomiting occurs. ...

  20. Levoleucovorin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Levoleucovorin injection is used to prevent harmful effects of methotrexate (Rheumatrex, Trexall) when methotrexate is used to to treat certain types of cancer. Levoleucovorin injection is also used to treat people ...

  1. Etelcalcetide Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Etelcalcetide injection is used to treat secondary hyperparathyroidism (condition in which the body produces too much parathyroid ... blood when the kidneys are not working properly.) Etelcalcetide injection is in a class of medications called ...

  2. Dupilumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... injection is used to treat the symptoms of eczema (atopic dermatitis; a skin disease that causes the ... use other medications for their condition or whose eczema has not responded to other medications. Dupilumab injection ...

  3. Methylprednisolone Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... allergic reactions. Methylprednisolone injection is used in the management of multiple sclerosis (a disease in which the ... laboratory test, tell your doctor and the laboratory personnel that you are using methylprednisolone injection.If you ...

  4. Clindamycin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... your treatment with clindamycin injection or during the first several months after your treatment is finished: watery or bloody stools, diarrhea, stomach cramps, or fever.Talk to your doctor about the risks of receiving clindamycin injection.

  5. Obinutuzumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Obinutuzumab injection is used with chlorambucil (Leukeran) to treat chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL; a type of cancer of the white blood cells). Obinutuzumab injection is in a class of medications called ...

  6. Ferumoxytol Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Ferumoxytol injection is used to treat iron-deficiency anemia (a lower than normal number of red blood ... and may cause the kidneys to stop working). Ferumoxytol injection is in a class of medications called ...

  7. Pralatrexate Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Pralatrexate injection is used to treat peripheral T-cell lymphoma (PTCL; a form of cancer that begins in a ... come back after treatment with other medications. Pralatrexate injection has not been shown to help people who ...

  8. Cyanocobalamin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Cyanocobalamin injection is used to treat and prevent a lack of vitamin B12 that may be caused by any ... organs) and permanent damage to the nerves. Cyanocobalamin injection also may be given as a test to ...

  9. Paclitaxel Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Paclitaxel injection manufactured with human albumin is used to treat breast cancer that has not improved or that has come back after treatment with other medications. Paclitaxel injection manufactured with polyoxyethylated castor oil is used to ...

  10. Peramivir Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Peramivir injection is used to treat some types of influenza infection ('flu') in people who have had symptoms of ... flu for no longer than 2 days. Peramivir injection is in a class of medications called neuraminidase ...

  11. Cefotetan Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Cefotetan injection is used to treat infections of the lungs, skin, bones, joints, stomach area, blood, female reproductive organs, and urinary tract. Cefotetan injection is also used before surgery to prevent infections. ...

  12. Mipomersen Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Mipomersen injection is used to decrease levels of cholesterol and other fatty substances in the blood in people who ... that removes LDL from the blood), but mipomersen injection should not be used along with this treatment. ...

  13. Romiplostim Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Romiplostim injection is used to increase the number of platelets (cells that help the blood to clot) in order ... low number of platelets in the blood). Romiplostim injection should only be used in people who cannot ...

  14. Hydrocortisone Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Hydrocortisone injection is used to treat symptoms of low corticosteroid levels (lack of certain substances that are usually produced ... also used to treat severe allergic reactions. Hydrocortisone injection is used in the management of multiple sclerosis ( ...

  15. Palivizumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Palivizumab injection is used to help prevent respiratory syncytial virus (RSV; common virus that can cause serious lung infections) ... or have certain heart or lung diseases. Palivizumab injection is not used to treat the symptoms of ...

  16. Naltrexone Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Naltrexone injection is used along with counseling and social support to help people who have stopped drinking large amounts of alcohol to avoid drinking again. Naltrexone injection is also used along with counseling and social ...

  17. Tesamorelin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Tesamorelin injection is used to decrease the amount of extra fat in the stomach area in adults with human ... fat in certain areas of the body). Tesamorelin injection is not used to help with weight loss. ...

  18. Tigecycline Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Tigecycline injection used to treat certain serious infections including community acquired pneumonia (a lung infection that developed in a ... area between the chest and the waist). Tigecycline injection should not be used to treat pneumonia that ...

  19. Eculizumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Eculizumab injection is used to treat paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH: a type of anemia in which too many red ... oxygen to all parts of the body). Eculizumab injection is also used to treat atypical hemolytic uremic ...

  20. Pembrolizumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Pembrolizumab injection is used to treat melanoma (a type of skin cancer) that cannot be treated with surgery or ... spread to other parts of the body. Pembrolizumab injection is also used to treat a certain type ...

  1. Oxacillin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... is used to treat infections caused by certain bacteria. Oxacillin injection is in a class of medications called penicillins. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as oxacillin injection will not work ...

  2. Cefoxitin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... injection is used to treat infections caused by bacteria including pneumonia and other lower respiratory tract (lung) ... medications called cephamycin antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as cefoxitin injection will not work ...

  3. Nafcillin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... to treat infections caused by certain types of bacteria. Nafcillin injection is in a class of medications called penicillins. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as nafcillin injection will not work ...

  4. Doripenem Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... tract, kidney, and abdomen that are caused by bacteria. Doripenem injection is not approved by the Food ... medications called carbapenem antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as doripenem injection will not work ...

  5. Cidofovir Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... in babies whose mothers received cidofovir injection during pregnancy. You should not use cidofovir injection while you are pregnant or plan to become pregnant unless your doctor decides that this is the best treatment for your condition.Cidofovir injection has caused tumors ...

  6. Albiglutide Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... blood) when other medications did not control levels well enough. Albiglutide injection is not used to treat type 1 diabetes ( ... does not cure it. Continue to use albiglutide injection even if you feel well. Do not stop using albiglutide injection without talking ...

  7. Nalbuphine Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... Your doctor may adjust your dose of nalbuphine injection during your treatment, depending on how well your pain is controlled and on the side effects that you experience. Talk to your doctor about how you are feeling ... nalbuphine injection.You may receive nalbuphine injection in a hospital, ...

  8. Liraglutide Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... blood) when other medications did not control levels well enough. Liraglutide injection (Victoza) is not used to treat type 1 ... does not cure it. Continue to use liraglutide injection even if you feel well. Do not stop using liraglutide injection without talking ...

  9. Meperidine Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... Your doctor may adjust your dose of meperidine injection during your treatment, depending on how well your pain is controlled and on the side effects that you experience. Talk to your doctor about how you are feeling ... meperidine injection.If you have used meperidine injection for longer ...

  10. Dulaglutide Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... blood) when other medications did not control levels well enough. Dulaglutide injection is not used to treat type 1 diabetes ( ... does not cure it. Continue to use dulaglutide injection even if you feel well. Do not stop using dulaglutide injection without talking ...

  11. Morphine Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... Your doctor may adjust your dose of morphine injection during your treatment, depending on how well your pain is controlled and on the side effects that you experience. Talk to your doctor about how you are feeling ... with morphine injection.If you have used morphine injection for longer ...

  12. Busulfan Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Busulfex® Injection ... Busulfan injection is used to treat a certain type of chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML; a type of cancer of ... of 16 doses) before bone marrow transplant.Busulfan injection may cause seizures during therapy with the medication. ...

  13. Hydromorphone Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... Your doctor may adjust your dose of hydromorphone injection during your treatment, depending on how well your pain is controlled and on the side ... to have pain after you finish the hydromorphone injection, call your doctor.It ... you are taking, as well as any products such as vitamins, minerals, or ...

  14. Ixabepilone Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... doctor will order laboratory tests to see how well your liver is working before and during your treatment. If the tests show that you have liver problems, your doctor will probably not give you ixabepilone injection and capecitabine (Xeloda). Treatment with both ixabepilone injection ...

  15. Romidepsin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... group of cancers of the immune system that first appear as skin rashes) in people who have already been treated with at least one other medication given by mouth or by injection. Romidepsin injection is in a class of medications called histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors. It ...

  16. Nusinersen Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Nusinersen injection is used for the treatment of spinal muscular atrophy (an inherited condition that reduces muscle strength and movement). Nusinersen injection is in a class of medications called antisense ... a certain protein necessary for the muscles and nerves to work normally.

  17. Musculoskeletal Injection

    PubMed Central

    Wittich, Christopher M.; Ficalora, Robert D.; Mason, Thomas G.; Beckman, Thomas J.

    2009-01-01

    Patients commonly present to primary care physicians with musculoskeletal symptoms. Clinicians certified in internal medicine must be knowledgeable about the diagnosis and management of musculoskeletal diseases, yet they often receive inadequate postgraduate training on this topic. The musculoskeletal problems most frequently encountered in our busy injection practice involve, in decreasing order, the knees, trochanteric bursae, and glenohumeral joints. This article reviews the clinical presentations of these problems. It also discusses musculoskeletal injections for these problems in terms of medications, indications, injection technique, and supporting evidence from the literature. Experience with joint injection and the pharmacological principles described in this article should allow primary care physicians to become comfortable and proficient with musculoskeletal injections. PMID:19720781

  18. Abaloparatide Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... of a natural human hormone called parathyroid hormone (PTH). It works by causing the body to build ... container.You should know that abaloparatide injection may cause dizziness, lightheadedness, and fainting when you get up ...

  19. Sumatriptan Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... accompanied by nausea and sensitivity to sound and light). Sumatriptan injection is also used to treat the ... children. Store it at room temperature, away from light, excess heat, and moisture (not in the bathroom). ...

  20. Certolizumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... has not improved when treated with other medications, rheumatoid arthritis (a condition in which the body attacks its ... continues. When certolizumab injection is used to treat rheumatoid arthritis, it is usually given every other week and ...

  1. Acyclovir Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... chickenpox in the past) in people with weak immune systems. It is also used to treat first-time ... from time to time) in people with normal immune systems. Acyclovir injection is used to treat herpes simplex ...

  2. Doxercalciferol Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Doxercalciferol injection is used to treat secondary hyperparathyroidism (a condition in which the body produces too much parathyroid hormone [PTH; a natural substance needed to control the amount of calcium in ...

  3. Evolocumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... how to inject this medication.Remove the prefilled syringe or prefilled autoinjector from the refrigerator and allow it to ... before using it. Do not warm the prefilled syringe or prefilled autoinjector in hot water, microwave, or place in ...

  4. Ixekizumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... as a as a solution (liquid) in a prefilled syringe, and as a prefilled autoinjector to inject subcutaneously ( ... dispose of the puncture-resistant container.Remove the prefilled syringe or autoinjector from the refrigerator. Place it on ...

  5. Alirocumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... how to inject this medication.Remove the prefilled syringe or prefilled dosing pen from the refrigerator and allow it ... hours or longer. Do not put the prefilled syringe or prefilled dosing pen back in the refrigerator after it ...

  6. Daclizumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Daclizumab comes as a solution (liquid) in a prefilled syringe to inject subcutaneously (under the skin). It is ... or tattooed.Never reuse or share needles or prefilled syringes of medication. Throw away used syringes in a ...

  7. Sarilumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... receive any vaccines. You should not receive any vaccinations while you are using sarilumab injection without talking ... pregnant, tellyour doctor before the baby receives any vaccinations.if you are having surgery, including dental surgery, ...

  8. Zidovudine Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... zidovudine injection does not cure HIV, it may decrease your chance of developing acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) ... sex and making other life-style changes may decrease the risk of transmitting (spreading) the HIV virus ...

  9. Rasburicase Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... as tumors break down) in people with certain types of cancer who are being treated with chemotherapy medications. Rasburicase injection is in a class of medications called enzymes. It works by breaking down uric acid so ...

  10. Haloperidol Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... release injection are used to treat schizophrenia (a mental illness that causes disturbed or unusual thinking, loss of ... medications); medications for anxiety, depression, irritable bowel disease, mental illness, motion sickness, Parkinson's disease, seizures, ulcers, or urinary ...

  11. Risperidone Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... acting) injection is used to treat schizophrenia (a mental illness that causes disturbed or unusual thinking, loss of ... ropinirole (Requip); medications for anxiety, blood pressure, or mental illness; medications for seizures such as carbamazepine (Carbatrol, Epitol, ...

  12. Thiotepa Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... that begins in the female reproductive organs where eggs are formed), breast, and bladder cancer. It is ... comes as a powder to be mixed with liquid to be injected intravenously (into a vein) by ...

  13. Methotrexate Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... Methotrexate injection is also used to treat severe psoriasis (a skin disease in which red, scaly patches ... slowing the growth of cancer cells. Methotrexate treats psoriasis by slowing the growth of skin cells to ...

  14. Cefazolin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... is used to treat certain infections caused by bacteria including skin, bone, joint, genital, blood, heart valve, ... medications called cephalosporin antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as cefazolin injection will not work ...

  15. Trastuzumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... completed for up to 52 weeks. When trastuzumab injection is used to treat stomach cancer, it is usually given once every 3 weeks. The length of your treatment depends on how well your body responds to the medication and the ...

  16. Bendamustine Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... leukemia (CLL; a type of cancer of the white blood cells). Bendamustine injection is also used to treat a ... NHL: cancer that begins in a type of white blood cell that normally fights infection) that is slow spreading, ...

  17. Palonosetron Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... that may occur several days after receiving certain chemotherapy medications. Palonosetron injection is in a class of medications called 5-HT3 receptor antagonists. It works by blocking the action of serotonin, a natural ...

  18. Doxycycline Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... injection is in a class of medications called tetracycline antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria that cause ... are allergic to doxycycline, minocycline (Dynacin, Minocin, Solodyn), tetracycline (Achromycin V), any other medications, or any of ...

  19. Dexamethasone Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... severe allergic reactions. It is used in the management of certain types of edema (fluid retention and ... needed for normal body functioning) and in the management of certain types of shock. Dexamethasone injection is ...

  20. Levofloxacin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... infections. Levofloxacin injection is also used to prevent anthrax (a serious infection that may be spread on ... in people who may have been exposed to anthrax germs in the air and treat and prevent ...

  1. Omalizumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... steroids. Omalizumab is also used to treat chronic hives without a known cause that cannot successfully be ... is not used to treat other forms of hives or allergic conditions. Omalizumab injection is in a ...

  2. Plerixafor Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... used along with a granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) medication such as filgrastim (Neupogen) or pegfilgrastim ( ... injection will begin after you have received a G-CSF medication once a day for 4 days, ...

  3. Avelumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... doctor or nurse in a medical facility or infusion center. It is usually given once every 2 ... Avelumab injection may cause serious reactions during the infusion of the medication. You may be given other ...

  4. Alemtuzumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... injection, the medication is usually given three times weekly on alternate days (usually Monday, Wednesday, and Friday) ... that you eat foods that are rich in iron such as meats, leafy green vegetables, and fortified ...

  5. Dinutuximab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... treat neuroblastoma (a cancer that begins in nerve cells) in children who have responded to other treatments. Dinutuximab injection is in a class of medications called monoclonal antibodies. It works by killing cancer cells.

  6. Cyclosporine Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... transplanted organ by the immune system of the person receiving the organ) in people who have received kidney, liver, and heart transplants. Cyclosporine injection should only be used to treat people who are unable to take cyclosporine by mouth. ...

  7. Denosumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... menstrual periods), who have an increased risk for fractures (broken bones) or who cannot take or did ... receiving certain treatments that increase their risk for fractures. Denosumab injection (Xgeva) is used to reduce fractures ...

  8. Epinephrine Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... emergency medical treatment to treat life-threatening allergic reactions caused by insect bites or stings, foods, medications, ... at the first sign of a serious allergic reaction. Use epinephrine injection exactly as directed; do not ...

  9. Aflibercept Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... injection is used to treat wet age-related macular degeneration (AMD; an ongoing disease of the eye that ... that leads to blurry vision and vision loss), diabetic macular edema (an eye disease caused by diabetes that can ...

  10. Fondaparinux Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... the leg), which can lead to pulmonary embolism (PE; a blood clot in the lung), in people ... with warfarin (Coumadin, Jantoven) to treat DVT or PE. Fondaparinux injection is in a class of medications ...

  11. Panitumumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... as a solution (liquid) to be given by infusion (injected into a vein). It is usually given ... doctor or nurse in a doctor's office or infusion center. Panitumumab is usually given once every 2 ...

  12. Topotecan Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... organs where eggs are formed) and small cell lung cancer (a type of cancer that begins in the ... topotecan injection is used to treat ovarian or lung cancer, it is usually given once a day for ...

  13. Gemcitabine Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... with surgery. Gemcitabine is also used to treat cancer of the pancreas that has spread to other parts of the ... 4 weeks. When gemcitabine is used to treat cancer of pancreas it may be injected once every week. The ...

  14. Lacosamide Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... with other medications to control certain types of seizures in people who cannot take oral medications. Lacosamide ... If you suddenly stop using lacosamide injection, your seizures may happen more often. Your doctor will probably ...

  15. Pegloticase Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... doctor if you have glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency (an inherited blood disease). Your doctor may test you for G6PD deficiency before you start to receive pegloticase injection. If ...

  16. Ibritumomab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... is in a class of medications called monoclonal antibodies with radioisotopes. It works by attaching to cancer ... you receive ibritumomab injection, your body may develop antibodies (substances in the blood that help the immune ...

  17. Oxytocin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Oxytocin injection is used to begin or improve contractions during labor. Oxytocin also is used to reduce bleeding after childbirth. ... other medications or procedures to end a pregnancy. Oxytocin is in a class of medications called oxytocic ...

  18. Edaravone Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Edaravone injection is used to treat amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS, Lou Gehrig's disease; a condition in which the nerves that control muscle movement slowly die, causing the muscles to shrink and ...

  19. Pentamidine Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Pentamidine injection is used to treat pneumonia caused by a fungus called Pneumocystis carinii. It is in a class of medications called antiprotozoals. It works by stopping the growth of protozoa that can cause pneumonia.

  20. Diphenhydramine Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... or along with other medications to control abnormal movements in people who have Parkinsonian syndrome (a disorder of the nervous system that causes difficulties with movement, muscle control, and balance). Diphenhydramine injection should not ...

  1. Docetaxel Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... allergic to docetaxel injection or drugs made with polysorbate 80, an ingredient found in some medications. Ask ... if a medication you are allergic to contains polysorbate 80. If you experience any of the following ...

  2. Octreotide Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... hormone (a natural substance) produced by people with acromegaly (condition in which the body produces too much ... Octreotide long-acting injection is used to control acromegaly, carcinoid tumors, and VIP-omas in people who ...

  3. Vedolizumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... injection may cause serious allergic reactions during an infusion and for several hours afterward. A doctor or ... of the following symptoms during or after your infusion: rash; itching; swelling of the face, eyes, mouth, ...

  4. Granisetron Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... that may occur after surgery. Granisetron extended-release (long-acting) injection is used with other medications to prevent nausea and vomiting caused by cancer chemotherapy that may occur immediately ...

  5. Fluconazole Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... injection is used to treat fungal infections, including yeast infections of the mouth, throat, esophagus (tube leading ... by fungus. Fluconazole is also used to prevent yeast infections in patients who are likely to become ...

  6. Intravitreal injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... You may have this procedure if you have: Macular degeneration : An eye disorder that slowly destroys sharp, central ... injection References American Academy of Ophthalmology. Age-related macular degeneration PPP - updated 2015. Aao.org web site. Updated ...

  7. Ciprofloxacin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... is used to treat certain infections caused by bacteria such as pneumonia; and infections of the skin, ... of antibiotics called fluoroquinolones. It works by killing bacteria that cause infections.Antibiotics such as ciprofloxacin injection ...

  8. Tobramycin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... treat certain serious infections that are caused by bacteria such as meningitis (infection of the membranes that ... medications called aminoglycoside antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as tobramycin injection will not work ...

  9. Ceftriaxone Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... is used to treat certain infections caused by bacteria such as gonorrhea (a sexually transmitted disease), pelvic ... medications called cephalosporin antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as ceftriaxone injection will not work ...

  10. Moxifloxacin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... is used to treat certain infections caused by bacteria such as pneumonia; ; and , skin, and abdominal (stomach ... antibiotics called fluoroquinolones. It works by killing the bacteria that cause infections.Antibiotics such as moxifloxacin injection ...

  11. Daptomycin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... in adults or serious skin infections caused by bacteria in adults and children 1 year of age ... called cyclic lipopeptide antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as daptomycin injection will not work ...

  12. Amikacin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... treat certain serious infections that are caused by bacteria such as meningitis (infection of the membranes that ... medications called aminoglycoside antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as amikacin injection will not work ...

  13. Meropenem Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... skin and abdominal (stomach area) infections caused by bacteria and meningitis (infection of the membranes that surround ... of medications called antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria that cause infection.Antibiotics such as meropenem injection ...

  14. Cefepime Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... is used to treat certain infections caused by bacteria including pneumonia, and skin, urinary tract, and kidney ... medications called cephalosporin antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as cefepime injection will not work ...

  15. Ertapenem Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... abdominal (stomach area) infections, that are caused by bacteria. It is also used for the prevention of ... medications called carbapenem antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as ertapenem injection will not work ...

  16. Aztreonam Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... to treat certain infections that are caused by bacteria, including respiratory tract (including pneumonia and bronchitis), urinary ... abdominal (stomach area) infections, that are caused by bacteria. Aztreonam injection also may be used before, during, ...

  17. Ceftaroline Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... infections and pneumonia (lung infection) caused by certain bacteria. Ceftaroline is in a class of medications called cephalosporin antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as ceftaroline injection will not work ...

  18. Cefotaxime Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... is used to treat certain infections caused by bacteria including pneumonia and other lower respiratory tract (lung) ... medications called cephalosporin antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as cefotaxime injection will not work ...

  19. Cefuroxime Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... is used to treat certain infections caused by bacteria including pneumonia and other lower respiratory tract (lung) ... medications called cephalosporin antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as cefuroxime injection will not work ...

  20. Ampicillin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... to treat certain infections that are caused by bacteria such as meningitis (infection of the membranes that ... of medications called penicillins. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as ampicillin injection will not work ...

  1. Gentamicin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... treat certain serious infections that are caused by bacteria such as meningitis (infection of the membranes that ... medications called aminoglycoside antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as gentamicin injection will not work ...

  2. MEDICAL INJECTION

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1963-06-10

    S62-08371 (1962) --- The automatic medical injectors carried on the Mercury-Atlas 9 flight. The injectors provide the astronaut with injection tubes of Tigan, for preventing motion sickness and Demerol, for relieving pain. The tubes encased in the block are stowed in the astronauts survival kit. The single injection tubes are placed in a pocket of the astronauts spacesuit. Photo credit: NASA

  3. Injection overview

    SciTech Connect

    Prestwich, S.

    1983-12-01

    The test program was initiated at the Raft River Geothermal Field in southern Idaho in September 1982. A series of eight short-term injection and backflow tests, followed by a long-term injection test, were conducted on one well in the field. Tracers were added during injection and monitored during backflow as well. The principal objective was to determine if tracers could be effectively used as a means to assess reservoir characteristics in a one-well test. The test program resulted in a unique data set which shows promise as a means to improve understanding of the reservoir characteristics. In December 1982, an RFP was issued to obtain an industrial partner to obtain follow-on data on the injection/backflow technique in a second field, and to study any alternate advanced concepts for injection testing which the industrial community might recommend. The East Mesa Geothermal Field was selected for the second test series. Two wells were utilized for testing, and a series of ten tests were conducted in July and August 1983, aimed principally at further evaluation of the injection/backflow technique.

  4. Ganciclovir Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... tests to check your body's response to ganciclovir injection.It is important for you to keep a written list of all of the prescription and nonprescription (over-the-counter) medicines you are taking, as well as any products such as vitamins, minerals, or ...

  5. Pertuzumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... tests to check your body's response to pertuzumab injection.It is important for you to keep a written list of all of the prescription and nonprescription (over-the-counter) medicines you are taking, as well as any products such as vitamins, minerals, or ...

  6. Mitoxantrone Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... to the treatment.If you are using mitoxantrone injection for MS, you should know that it controls MS but does not cure it. Continue to receive treatments even if you feel well. Talk to your doctor if you no longer ...

  7. Olaratumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... your pharmacist any questions you have about olaratumab injection.It is important for you to keep a written list of all of the prescription and nonprescription (over-the-counter) medicines you are taking, as well as any products such as vitamins, minerals, or ...

  8. Reslizumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... the infusion or for a short period of time after the infusion has finished.You will receive each injection of reslizumab in a doctor's office or medical facility. You will stay in the office for some time after you receive the medication so your doctor ...

  9. Teduglutide Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... syndrome in people who need additional nutrition or fluids from intravenous (IV) therapy. Teduglutide injection is in a class of medications called glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2) analogs. It works by improving the absorption of fluids and nutrients in the intestines.

  10. Pegaptanib Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... if you have or have ever had diabetes, high blood pressure, a heart attack, or a stroke.tell your doctor if you are pregnant, plan to become pregnant, or are breast-feeding. If you become pregnant while using pegaptanib injection, ...

  11. Subcutaneous (SQ) injections

    MedlinePlus

    SQ injections; Sub-Q injections; Diabetes subcutaneous injection; Insulin subcutaneous injection ... NIH. Giving a subcutaneous injection . Rockville, MD. National ... of Health and Human Services NIH publications; 2015. Available ...

  12. Darbepoetin Alfa Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... to inject it.Darbepoetin alfa injection comes in prefilled syringes and in vials to be used with disposable ... solution before injecting it. Be sure that the prefilled syringe or vial is labeled with the correct name ...

  13. Epidural Injections for Spinal Pain

    MedlinePlus

    ... Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Epidural Injections An epidural injection provides temporary or prolonged relief ... limitations of Epidural Injection? What is an Epidural Injection? An epidural injection is an injection of medication ...

  14. Beam Injection into RHIC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, W.; Hahn, H.; Mackay, W. W.; Tsoupas, N.

    1997-05-01

    During the RHIC sextant test in January 1997 beam was injected into a sixth of one of the rings for the first time. We describe the injection zone and its bottlenecks, the application program to steer the beam and the injection kickers. We report on the commissioning of the injection systems and on measurements of the kickers.

  15. Antigen injection (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Leprosy is caused by the organism Mycobacterium leprae . The leprosy test involves injection of an antigen just under ... if your body has a current or recent leprosy infection. The injection site is labeled and examined ...

  16. Amphotericin B Liposomal Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Amphotericin B liposomal injection is used to treat fungal infections such as cryptococcal meningitis (a fungal infection of the ... infections in people who cannot receive conventional amphotericin B therapy. Amphotericin B liposomal injection is in a ...

  17. Calcitonin Salmon Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Calcitonin salmon injection is used to treat osteoporosis in postmenopausal women. Osteoporosis is a disease that causes bones to weaken and break more easily. Calcitonin salmon injection is also used to treat Paget's disease ...

  18. Deoxycholic Acid Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Deoxycholic acid injection is used to improve the appearance and profile of moderate to severe submental fat ('double chin'; fatty tissue located under the chin). Deoxycholic acid injection is in a class of medications called ...

  19. Aminocaproic Acid Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Aminocaproic acid injection is used to control bleeding that occurs when blood clots are broken down too quickly. This ... the baby is ready to be born). Aminocaproic acid injection is also used to control bleeding in ...

  20. Collagenase Clostridium Histolyticum Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Collagenase Clostridium histolyticum injection is used to treat Dupuytren's contracture (a painless thickening and tightening of tissue [cord] beneath ... of tissue can be felt upon examination. Collagenase Clostridium histolyticum injection is also used to treat Peyronie's ...

  1. Brentuximab Vedotin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... healthy bone marrow) or at least two treatment periods of chemotherapy. Brentuximab vedotin injection is also used ... lymphoma) who did not respond to another treatment period of chemotherapy. Brentuximab vedotin injection is in a ...

  2. Sodium Ferric Gluconate Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Sodium ferric gluconate injection is used to treat iron-deficiency anemia (a lower than normal number of ... are also receiving the medication epoetin (Epogen, Procrit). Sodium ferric gluconate injection is in a class of ...

  3. OnabotulinumtoxinA Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Botox® Cosmetic ... OnabotulinumtoxinA injection (Botox, Botox Cosmetic) is used to treat a number of conditions.OnabotulinumtoxinA injection (Botox) is used to relieve the symptoms of cervical dystonia ( ...

  4. Slit injection device

    DOEpatents

    Alger, Terry W.; Schlitt, Leland G.; Bradley, Laird P.

    1976-06-15

    A laser cavity electron beam injection device provided with a single elongated slit window for passing a suitably shaped electron beam and means for varying the current density of the injected electron beam.

  5. Urinary incontinence - injectable implant

    MedlinePlus

    Intrinsic sphincter deficiency repair; ISD repair; Injectable bulking agents for stress urinary incontinence ... Urine leakage that gets worse Pain where the injection was done Allergic reaction to the material Implant ...

  6. Hip joint injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007633.htm Hip joint injection To use the sharing features on this ... injection is a shot of medicine into the hip joint. The medicine helps relieve pain and inflammation. It ...

  7. Rich catalytic injection

    SciTech Connect

    Veninger, Albert

    2008-12-30

    A gas turbine engine includes a compressor, a rich catalytic injector, a combustor, and a turbine. The rich catalytic injector includes a rich catalytic device, a mixing zone, and an injection assembly. The injection assembly provides an interface between the mixing zone and the combustor. The injection assembly can inject diffusion fuel into the combustor, provides flame aerodynamic stabilization in the combustor, and may include an ignition device.

  8. Beam injection into RHIC

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, W.; Hahn, H.; MacKay, W.W.; Satogata, T.; Tsoupas, N.; Zhang, W.

    1997-07-01

    During the RHIC sextant test in January 1997 beam was injected into a sixth of one of the rings for the first time. The authors describe the injection zone and its bottlenecks. They report on the commissioning of the injection system, on beam based measurements of the kickers and the application program to steer the beam.

  9. Strategies for safe injections.

    PubMed Central

    Battersby, A.; Feilden, R.; Stoeckel, P.; Da Silva, A.; Nelson, C.; Bass, A.

    1999-01-01

    In 1998, faced with growing international concern, WHO set out an approach for achieving injection safety that encompassed all elements from patients' expectations and doctors' prescribing habits to waste disposal. This article follows that lead and describes the implications of the approach for two injection technologies: sterilizable and disposable. It argues that focusing on any single technology diverts attention from the more fundamental need for health services to develop their own comprehensive strategies for safe injections. National health authorities will only be able to ensure that injections are administered safely if they take an approach that encompasses the whole system, and choose injection technologies that fit their circumstances. PMID:10680247

  10. Fuel injection apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Omori, T.; Sakakibara, S.; Kato, M.; Masuda, A.

    1986-06-10

    A fuel injection apparatus is described for supplying fuel from a fuel tank to at least one combustion chamber of an internal combustion engine, comprising: an injector housing defining therein a pressure cylinder bore, an injection cylinder bore and a timing cylinder bore connected in series with the pressure cylinder bore; a pressure plunger, fitted in the pressure cylinder bore and having one end defining, in the pressure cylinder bore, a pressure pump chamber communicating with the injection cylinder bore and the timing cylinder bore; first fuel supply means for supplying fuel from the fuel tank to the pressure pump chamber; pressurizing means for reciprocating the pressure plunger in the pressure cylinder bore in synchronism with the engine operation so as to pressurize fuel in the pressure pump chamber; an injection plunger, having a diameter smaller than the pressure plunger, fitted in the injection cylinder bore and having two ends defining, in the injection cylinder bore, an injection pump chamber and a first communicating chamber communicating with the pressure pump chamber; second fuel supply means for adjusting the quantity of the fuel from the fuel tank in accordance with engine operation conditions so as to supply the adjusted fuel quantity to the injection pump chamber; injection valve means for injecting the fuel into the fuel pump chamber toward a combustion chamber of the engine when the pressure in the pressure pump chamber is applied to the injection plunger through the first communicating chamber, and the fuel pressure in the injection pump chamber reaches a predetermined injection pressure.

  11. [Stability of liensinine injection].

    PubMed

    Hu, X M; Zhou, B H; Luo, S D

    1993-06-01

    The stability of liensinine injection was studied by accelarating test with classical isothermal method. Results of the study showed that the decomposition of the injection was found to be a first-order reaction. The activation energy was 75030 J.mol-1. The shelf life at 10 degrees C and 25 degrees C was predicted to be about 15 months and 3 months respectively. This experiment provides a reference for the storage of the injection.

  12. Injection-water quality

    SciTech Connect

    Patton, C.C. )

    1990-10-01

    Ideally, injection water should enter the reservoir free of suspended solids or oil. It should also be compatible with the reservoir rock and fluids and would be sterile and nonscaling. This paper discusses how the objective of any water-injection operation is to inject water into the reservoir rock without plugging or permeability reduction from particulates, dispersed oil, scale formation, bacterial growth, or clay swelling. In addition, souring of sweet reservoirs by sulfate-reducing bacteria should be prevented if possible.

  13. Underground Injection Control (UIC)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Provide information on: individual injection well classes; regulations specific to each well class; technical guidance; compliance assistance; federal, state, and tribal/territory roles and responsibilities.

  14. Lumbar retrodiscal transforaminal injection.

    PubMed

    Jasper, Joseph F

    2007-05-01

    Spinal injections are commonly used to treat lumbar radiculitis and back pain. Delivery of medication to specific targeted pathology is considered important for a successful therapeutic outcome. A variety of routes of injection have been devised for epidural injection of corticosteroid. The author demonstrates a variation of the transforaminal injection technique. The radiographic spread of contrast is described using a more oblique and ventral caudad approach in the epidural space "retrodiscal." It is suggested that the radiographic findings of this technique for discogenic causes of induced radiculitis and/or back pain may yield more precise targeting of putative pathologic sources of radiculopathy and back pain in selected patients. In patients with disc pathology and radiculitis, the anatomy of the lumbar epidural space is reviewed for its potential effect on the flow of injectate. Contrast spread was documented for lumbar transforaminal injection using a needle placement more oblique and behind the disc rather than in the cranial portion. Comparison is made to a typical contrast spread of an infra-pedicular placed transforaminal injection. Retrodiscal contrast injection results in reliable coverage of the retrodiscal region, the exiting nerve at that foraminal level and the proximal portion of the transiting segmental neural sleeve. The radiographic findings demonstrate a difference between classic infra-pedicular versus retrodiscal transforaminal epidural contrast injection patterns, particularly at relatively low volumes. The clinical advantage of one technique versus the other should be established in randomized prospective studies.

  15. Botulinum toxin injection - larynx

    MedlinePlus

    Injection laryngoplasty; Botox - larynx: spasmodic dysphonia-BTX; Essential voice tremor (EVT)-btx; Glottic insufficiency; Percutaneous electromyography - guided botulinum toxin treatment; Percutaneous indirect laryngoscopy - ...

  16. Piezoelectric Injection Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mock, R.; Lubitz, K.

    The origin of direct injection can be doubtlessly attributed to Rudolf Diesel who used air assisted injection for fuel atomisation in his first self-ignition engine. Although it became apparent already at that time that direct injection leads to reduced specific fuel consumption compared to other methods of fuel injection, it was not used in passenger cars for the moment because of its disadvantageous noise generation as the requirements with regard to comfort were seen as more important than a reduced specific consumption.

  17. Corticotropin, Repository Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... condition being treated and how well the medication works to treat the condition. Inject corticotropin repository injection at around the same ... eye, heart failure, high blood pressure, or any condition that affects the way ... next to the kidneys) work. Also tell your doctor if you have recently ...

  18. Injection rate control cam

    SciTech Connect

    Perr, J.P.; Liang, E.; Yu, R.C.; Ghuman, A.S.

    1990-10-16

    This patent describes a cam for controlling the injection rate of fuel in a fuel injection system of an engine. The fuel injection system including a cyclically operating unit injector having a body, an injector plunger mounted for reciprocating movement in the injector body between an advanced position and a retracted portion to pump into the engine during each cycle a variable quantity of fuel up to a maximum quantity under rated engine conditions, and a drive train for converting rotational movement of the cam into reciprocating movement of the pumping plunger depending on the profile of the cam. The cam profile comprises at least a plunger retraction segment and a plunger advancement segment for controlling the velocity if injector plunger retraction and advancement, respectively, the plunger advancement segment including a pre-injection subsequent shaped to cause an initial quantity of fuel to be injected into the engine during each cycle at rated engine conditions while the pre-injection subsegment is in contact with the drive train, and an injection subsegment following the pre-injection subsegment.

  19. Multipoint Fuel Injection Arrangements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prociw, Lev Alexander (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    A multipoint fuel injection system includes a plurality of fuel manifolds. Each manifold is in fluid communication with a plurality of injectors arranged circumferentially about a longitudinal axis for multipoint fuel injection. The injectors of separate respective manifolds are spaced radially apart from one another for separate radial staging of fuel flow to each respective manifold.

  20. Health Instruction Packages: Injections.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunkleman, Ellie; And Others

    Text, illustrations, and exercises are utilized in this set of four learning modules designed to instruct nursing students in techniques and equipment utilized for intramuscular injections. The first module, "Equipment for Intramuscular Injections" by Ellie Dunkleman, presents guidelines for selecting needles of the proper length and…

  1. Gas injected vacuum switch

    DOEpatents

    Hardin, K. Dan

    1977-01-01

    The disclosure relates to a gas injected vacuum switch comprising a housing having an interior chamber, a conduit for evacuating the interior chamber, within the chamber an anode and a cathode spaced from the anode, and a detonator for injecting electrically conductive gas into the chamber between the anode and the cathode to provide a current path therebetween.

  2. THE RHIC INJECTION SYSTEM.

    SciTech Connect

    FISCHER,W.; GLENN,J.W.; MACKAY,W.W.; PTITSIN,V.; ROBINSON,T.G.; TSOUPAS,N.

    1999-03-29

    The RHIC injection system has to transport beam from the AGS-to-RHIC transfer line onto the closed orbits of the RHIC Blue and Yellow rings. This task can be divided into three problems. First, the beam has to be injected into either ring. Second, once injected the beam needs to be transported around the ring for one turn. Third, the orbit must be closed and coherent beam oscillations around the closed orbit should be minimized. We describe our solutions for these problems and report on system tests conducted during the RHIC Sextant test performed in 1997. The system will be fully commissioned in 1999.

  3. Common injections in musculoskeletal medicine.

    PubMed

    Monseau, Aaron J; Nizran, Parminder Singh

    2013-12-01

    Musculoskeletal injections are a common procedure in primary care and sports medicine but can be intimidating for some clinicians. This article addresses current evidence for corticosteroid injections, and common injection indications and techniques, namely knee, subacromial bursa, glenohumeral joint, lateral epicondyle, de Quervain tenosynovitis, and greater trochanteric bursa injections. Preparation for injections and some evidence for ultrasound guidance are also reviewed.

  4. Premixed direct injection disk

    SciTech Connect

    York, William David; Ziminsky, Willy Steve; Johnson, Thomas Edward; Lacy, Benjamin; Zuo, Baifang; Uhm, Jong Ho

    2013-04-23

    A fuel/air mixing disk for use in a fuel/air mixing combustor assembly is provided. The disk includes a first face, a second face, and at least one fuel plenum disposed therebetween. A plurality of fuel/air mixing tubes extend through the pre-mixing disk, each mixing tube including an outer tube wall extending axially along a tube axis and in fluid communication with the at least one fuel plenum. At least a portion of the plurality of fuel/air mixing tubes further includes at least one fuel injection hole have a fuel injection hole diameter extending through said outer tube wall, the fuel injection hole having an injection angle relative to the tube axis. The invention provides good fuel air mixing with low combustion generated NOx and low flow pressure loss translating to a high gas turbine efficiency, that is durable, and resistant to flame holding and flash back.

  5. Talimogene Laherparepvec Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Talimogene laherparepvec injection is used to treat certain melanoma (a type of skin cancer) tumors that cannot ... had radiation treatment in the area of the melanoma tumors, multiple myeloma (cancer of the plasma cells ...

  6. Insulin Lispro Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... a solution (liquid) and a suspension (liquid with particles that will settle on standing) to inject subcutaneously ( ... if it is colored, cloudy, or contains solid particles. If you are using insulin lispro suspension, the ...

  7. Penicillin G Benzathine Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... to treat and prevent certain infections caused by bacteria. Penicillin G benzathine injection is in a class of antibiotics called penicillins. It works by killing bacteria that cause infections.Antibiotics such as penicillin G ...

  8. Mouse bladder wall injection.

    PubMed

    Fu, Chi-Ling; Apelo, Charity A; Torres, Baldemar; Thai, Kim H; Hsieh, Michael H

    2011-07-12

    Mouse bladder wall injection is a useful technique to orthotopically study bladder phenomena, including stem cell, smooth muscle, and cancer biology. Before starting injections, the surgical area must be cleaned with soap and water and antiseptic solution. Surgical equipment must be sterilized before use and between each animal. Each mouse is placed under inhaled isoflurane anesthesia (2-5% for induction, 1-3% for maintenance) and its bladder exposed by making a midline abdominal incision with scissors. If the bladder is full, it is partially decompressed by gentle squeezing between two fingers. The cell suspension of interest is intramurally injected into the wall of the bladder dome using a 29 or 30 gauge needle and 1 cc or smaller syringe. The wound is then closed using wound clips and the mouse allowed to recover on a warming pad. Bladder wall injection is a delicate microsurgical technique that can be mastered with practice.

  9. Epoetin Alfa Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... surgery to decrease the chance that blood transfusions (transfer of one person's blood to another person's body) ... wheezing difficulty breathing or swallowing hoarseness lack of energy dizziness fainting Epoetin alfa injection may cause other ...

  10. Supersonic Pulsed Injection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cutler, A. D.; Harding, G. C.; Diskin, G. S.

    2001-01-01

    An injector has been developed to provide high-speed high-frequency (order 10 kHz) pulsed a supersonic crossflow. The injector nozzle is formed between the fixed internal surface of the nozzle and a freely rotating three- or four-sided wheel embedded within the device. Flow-induced rotation of the wheel causes the nozzle throat to open and close at a frequency proportional to the speed of sound of the injected gas. Measurements of frequency and mass flow rate as a function of supply pressure are discussed for various injector designs. Preliminary results are presented for wall-normal injection of helium into a Mach-2 ducted airflow. The data include schlieren images in the injectant plume in a plane normal to the flow, downstream of injection.

  11. Joint Injection/Aspiration

    MedlinePlus

    ... osteoarthritis. What usually is injected into the joint space? Corticosteroids (such as methylprednisolone and triamcinolone formulated to ... for producing inflammation and pain within the joint space. Although corticosteroids may also be successfully used in ...

  12. Iron Dextran Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... the area where the medication was injected brown skin discoloration numbness, burning, or tingling in the arms, hands, feet, or legs sweating changes in taste Some side effects can be serious. If you experience these symptoms ...

  13. Albumin injection (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... a nuclear scan test that is performed to measure the supply of blood through the lungs. After the injection, the lungs are scanned to detect the location of the radioactive particles as blood flows through the lungs.

  14. RimabotulinumtoxinB Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... the nerve signals that cause uncontrollable tightening and movement of the muscles. ... in which abnormal muscle tightening causes pain, abnormal movements, or other symptoms. RimabotulinumtoxinB injection is also sometimes ...

  15. Sipuleucel-T Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... doctor or nurse in a doctor's office or infusion center. It is usually given once every 2 ... injection may cause serious allergic reactions during an infusion and for about 30 minutes afterwards. A doctor ...

  16. Penicillin G Procaine Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... is used to treat certain infections caused by bacteria. Penicillin G procaine injection should not be used ... of medications called penicillins. It works by killing bacteria that cause infections.Antibiotics such as penicillin G ...

  17. Co-trimoxazole Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... to treat certain infections that are caused by bacteria such as infection of the intestine, lungs (pneumonia), ... of medications called sulfonamides. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as co-trimoxazole injection will not ...

  18. Fuel injection system

    SciTech Connect

    Herth, H.; Kraus, B.; Sautter, W.; Wessel, W.

    1983-03-15

    A fuel injection system for an internal combustion engine includes electromagnetic injection valves controlled by a fuel control unit which receives signals from a camshaft actuated switch, a position-dependent throttle transducer and an oxygen sensor. When the oxygen sensor changes output levels, the transmission of this information is delayed, by the action of a switching transistor controlled by a monostable multivibrator, for a period of time equal to the internal time constant of the multivibrator.

  19. Gas chromatograph injection system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pollock, G. E.; Henderson, M. E.; Donaldson, R. W., Jr. (Inventor)

    1975-01-01

    An injection system for a gas chromatograph is described which uses a small injector chamber (available in various configurations). The sample is placed in the chamber while the chamber is not under pressure and is not heated, and there is no chance of leakage caused by either pressure or heat. It is injected into the apparatus by changing the position of a valve and heating the chamber, and is volatilized and swept by a carrier gas into the analysis apparatus.

  20. Session 20: Injection Overview

    SciTech Connect

    Prestwich, Susan

    1983-12-01

    The test program was initiated at the Raft River Geothermal Field in southern Idaho in September 1982. A series of eight short-term injection and backflow tests, followed by a long-term injection test, were conducted on one well in the field. Tracers were added during injection and monitored during backflow as well. The principal objective was to determine if tracers could be effectively used as a means to assess reservoir characteristics in a one-well test. The test program resulted in a unique data set which shows promise as a means to improve understanding of the reservoir characteristics. In December 1982, an RFP was issued to obtain an industrial partner to obtain follow-on data on the injection/backflow technique in a second field, and to study any alternate advanced concepts for injection testing which the industrial community might recommend. The East Mesa Geothermal Field was selected for the second test series. Two wells were utilized for testing, and a series of ten tests were conducted in July and August 1983, aimed principally at further evaluation of the injection/backflow technique.

  1. Peginterferon Beta-1a Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... a solution (liquid) in a dosing pen or prefilled syringe to inject subcutaneously (under the skin). It is ... how to inject the medication.Use a new prefilled syringe or dosing pen each time you inject your ...

  2. Fuel injection nozzle

    SciTech Connect

    Kato, M.; Tojo, S.; Arai, K.

    1986-07-22

    A fuel injection nozzle is described connected to a fuel injection pump to inject fuel into a combustion chamber of an internal combustion engine consisting of: a nozzle housing defining therein a fuel sump chamber, an injection hole communicating with the sump chamber and opened at the outer surface of the nozzle housing, a stepped cylinder bore having a smaller diameter bore section and a larger diameter bore section and a fuel passage communicating at one end with the sump chamber and at the other end with the smaller diameter bore section of the stepped cylinder bore; a stepped plunger fitted in the stepped cylinder bore and having a smaller diameter plunger section fitted into the smaller diameter bore section and a larger diameter plunger section fitted into the larger diameter bore section in which the smaller diameter bore section together with the end face of the smaller diameter plunger section defines a pump chamber communicating with the fuel passage and the larger diameter bore section together with the end face of the larger diameter plunger section defines a main fuel chamber into which a main fuel is supplied from the fuel injection pump; auxiliary fuel supply means for supplying an auxiliary fuel into the sump chamber and pump chamber through the fuel passage; valve means for opening and closing an injection hole; communication means for permitting the main fuel chamber to communicate with the fuel passage when the main fuel is supplied from the injection pump into the main fuel chamber to cause the stepped plunger to be moved a predetermined distance in a direction in which the auxiliary fuel in the pump chamber is pressurized.

  3. Storage ring injection

    SciTech Connect

    Burke, R.J.

    1980-01-01

    Some basic issues involved in injecting the beam into storage rings with the principal parameters of those studied at the workshop have been considered. The main conclusion is that straightforward adjustments of the storage ring parameters makes injection easy. The largest number of injected turns is fourteen, and the phase space dilution allowance seems adequate to ensure very small beam loss during injection. The adjustments also result in lower bending magnet fields, and high field superconducting magnets (e.g., 5 Tesla) are not necessary. The design changes do not necessarily affect the Keil-Schnell criterion for stability of the longitudinal microwave instability, although that criterion appears to be irrelevant. Because the beams are expected to be unstable, but with slow growth rates, the vacuum chamber impedances required to give equal risetimes for the various designs are compared for systems posing various degrees of difficulty for injection. Finally, the impact of the parameters on cost is noted, and a system is considered that cuts the length of the linac in half by using doubly charged ions.

  4. Fuel injection nozzle

    SciTech Connect

    Kato, M.; Nakatsuka, H.; Tojo, S.; Arai, K.

    1986-12-09

    A fuel injection nozzle is described which is adapted to be connected to a fuel injection pump and which serves to inject fuel into a combustion chamber in an internal combustion engine. The nozzle consists of: a body in which a suction passage and an accumulating chamber are defined, the suction passage being adapted to be connected with a fuel injection pump and the accumulating chamber being connected with the suction passage; a non-return valve means for allowing the fuel to flow from the suction passage to the accumulating chamber but prohibiting the fuel from flowing from the accumulating chamber to the suction passage; a needle valve means for injecting the fuel stored in the accumulating chamber into a combustion chamber in an engine, the needle valve means including a nozzle needle arranged coaxially and in series with the valve with end portions thereof being adjacent; a damping plunger coaxially fitted into the valve member in the manner that the damping plunger is urged toward the nozzle needle and has one end protruding into the damping chamber and engageable by the nozzle needle, throttle means disposed in the through hole in the damping plunger, for restricting the fuel flow between the damping chamber and the connector recess.

  5. Fuel injection pump

    SciTech Connect

    Luscomb, D.A.

    1984-05-22

    A fuel injection pump including a plunger and a piston movably disposed in a pumping chamber, means for initiating fuel injection and means for terminating fuel injection, the plunger periodically pressurizing fuel in a pressure chamber and the piston spaced from the plunger and allowing a metering chamber to fill with a metered quantity of fuel to be injected to an engine. The means for initiating injection comprises a pilot valve having a solenoid to selectively operate between either of two states and a control valve movable between first and second positions in response to the state of pilot valve, the first position filling the metering chamber with the metered quantity of fuel. The pilot valve determines the fuel quantity to be delivered to the engine relative to a signal from an electronic controller. An accumulator is pressurized during each cycle of the plunger to provide pressurized fuel during a metering phase. A variable orifice adjusts the rate of flow during the time fuel is being metered to metering chamber.

  6. Syringe injectable electronics

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Guosong; Zhou, Tao; Jin, Lihua; Duvvuri, Madhavi; Jiang, Zhe; Kruskal, Peter; Xie, Chong; Suo, Zhigang; Fang, Ying; Lieber, Charles M.

    2015-01-01

    Seamless and minimally-invasive three-dimensional (3D) interpenetration of electronics within artificial or natural structures could allow for continuous monitoring and manipulation of their properties. Flexible electronics provide a means for conforming electronics to non-planar surfaces, yet targeted delivery of flexible electronics to internal regions remains difficult. Here, we overcome this challenge by demonstrating syringe injection and subsequent unfolding of submicrometer-thick, centimeter-scale macroporous mesh electronics through needles with a diameter as small as 100 micrometers. Our results show that electronic components can be injected into man-made and biological cavities, as well as dense gels and tissue, with > 90% device yield. We demonstrate several applications of syringe injectable electronics as a general approach for interpenetrating flexible electronics with 3D structures, including (i) monitoring of internal mechanical strains in polymer cavities, (ii) tight integration and low chronic immunoreactivity with several distinct regions of the brain, and (iii) in vivo multiplexed neural recording. Moreover, syringe injection enables delivery of flexible electronics through a rigid shell, delivery of large volume flexible electronics that can fill internal cavities and co-injection of electronics with other materials into host structures, opening up unique applications for flexible electronics. PMID:26053995

  7. Syringe-injectable electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jia; Fu, Tian-Ming; Cheng, Zengguang; Hong, Guosong; Zhou, Tao; Jin, Lihua; Duvvuri, Madhavi; Jiang, Zhe; Kruskal, Peter; Xie, Chong; Suo, Zhigang; Fang, Ying; Lieber, Charles M.

    2015-07-01

    Seamless and minimally invasive three-dimensional interpenetration of electronics within artificial or natural structures could allow for continuous monitoring and manipulation of their properties. Flexible electronics provide a means for conforming electronics to non-planar surfaces, yet targeted delivery of flexible electronics to internal regions remains difficult. Here, we overcome this challenge by demonstrating the syringe injection (and subsequent unfolding) of sub-micrometre-thick, centimetre-scale macroporous mesh electronics through needles with a diameter as small as 100 μm. Our results show that electronic components can be injected into man-made and biological cavities, as well as dense gels and tissue, with >90% device yield. We demonstrate several applications of syringe-injectable electronics as a general approach for interpenetrating flexible electronics with three-dimensional structures, including (1) monitoring internal mechanical strains in polymer cavities, (2) tight integration and low chronic immunoreactivity with several distinct regions of the brain, and (3) in vivo multiplexed neural recording. Moreover, syringe injection enables the delivery of flexible electronics through a rigid shell, the delivery of large-volume flexible electronics that can fill internal cavities, and co-injection of electronics with other materials into host structures, opening up unique applications for flexible electronics.

  8. Syringe-injectable electronics.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jia; Fu, Tian-Ming; Cheng, Zengguang; Hong, Guosong; Zhou, Tao; Jin, Lihua; Duvvuri, Madhavi; Jiang, Zhe; Kruskal, Peter; Xie, Chong; Suo, Zhigang; Fang, Ying; Lieber, Charles M

    2015-07-01

    Seamless and minimally invasive three-dimensional interpenetration of electronics within artificial or natural structures could allow for continuous monitoring and manipulation of their properties. Flexible electronics provide a means for conforming electronics to non-planar surfaces, yet targeted delivery of flexible electronics to internal regions remains difficult. Here, we overcome this challenge by demonstrating the syringe injection (and subsequent unfolding) of sub-micrometre-thick, centimetre-scale macroporous mesh electronics through needles with a diameter as small as 100 μm. Our results show that electronic components can be injected into man-made and biological cavities, as well as dense gels and tissue, with >90% device yield. We demonstrate several applications of syringe-injectable electronics as a general approach for interpenetrating flexible electronics with three-dimensional structures, including (1) monitoring internal mechanical strains in polymer cavities, (2) tight integration and low chronic immunoreactivity with several distinct regions of the brain, and (3) in vivo multiplexed neural recording. Moreover, syringe injection enables the delivery of flexible electronics through a rigid shell, the delivery of large-volume flexible electronics that can fill internal cavities, and co-injection of electronics with other materials into host structures, opening up unique applications for flexible electronics.

  9. Fuel injection pump

    SciTech Connect

    Hishinuma, O.; Masuda, A.; Ohmori, T.; Miyaki, M.; Takemoto, E.

    1987-06-09

    This patent describes a fuel injection pump for an internal combustion engine comprising: a housing having a cylindrical inner surface; a shaft having a portion disposed in rotatably sliding engagement with the cylindrical inner surface and having a first axial bore and a second radial bore therein; at least one pumping plunger slidably disposed in the second radial bore to cooperate therewith to define a compression chamber; a pumping plunger is adapted to be moved in the second radial bore to vary the volume of the compression chamber; an injection plunger slidably disposed in the first axial, bore to cooperate in defining the first and second pressure chambers separated from each other by the injection plunger.

  10. Water Injected Turbomachinery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hendricks, R. C.; Shouse, D. T.; Roquemore, W. M.

    2005-01-01

    From antiquity, water has been a source of cooling, lubrication, and power for energy transfer devices. More recent applications in gas turbines demonstrate an added facet, emissions control. Fogging gas turbine inlets or direct injection of water into gas turbine combustors, decreases NOx and increases power. Herein we demonstrate that injection of water into the air upstream of the combustor reduces NOx by factors up to three in a natural gas fueled Trapped Vortex Combustor (TVC) and up to two in a liquid JP-8 fueled (TVC) for a range in water/fuel and fuel/air ratios.

  11. Magnetron injection gun scaling

    SciTech Connect

    Lawson, W.

    1988-04-01

    Existing analytic design equations for magnetron injection guns (MIG's) are approximated to obtain a set of scaling laws. The constraints are chosen to examine the maximum peak power capabilities of MIG's. The scaling laws are compared with exact solutions of the design equations and are supported by MIG simulations.

  12. Parathyroid Hormone Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... the body does not produce enough parathyroid hormone [PTH; a natural substance needed to control the amount ... Parathyroid hormone injection may cause side effects. Tell your doctor if any of these symptoms are severe or do not go away: tingling, tickling, or ...

  13. Corticosteroid injections and arthrocentesis.

    PubMed Central

    Dooley, Paul; Martin, Rod

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To review current standards of practice of arthrocentesis and corticosteroid injections in soft tissue and joints in managing common musculoskeletal conditions. To outline common indications, contraindications, and possible complications of these therapeutic modalities and to describe common techniques used in them. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE: Many of our recommendations are based on expert opinion and surveys of clinical practice by experts in the field. Where appropriate, randomized controlled trials are used to support various aspects of corticosteroid injection and joint aspiration. MAIN MESSAGE: Many complaints to primary care physicians are musculoskeletal in origin, and many are related to infectious or inflammatory conditions of joints or soft tissues. Arthrocentesis and intra-articular and soft tissue corticosteroid injection are therapeutic techniques readily available to family practitioners. There is no consensus on best practice for patient preparation, choice of corticosteroid, or specific injection technique. There are, however, accepted standards of practice and universal precautions. CONCLUSION: Family physicians have an important role in managing many common musculoskeletal conditions. PMID:11889888

  14. Fuel injection device

    SciTech Connect

    Ohmori, T.; Nakatsuka, H.; Kanou, H.

    1987-03-31

    A fuel injection device is described for injecting fuel into a combustion chamber of an internal combustion engine, comprising: a body having first and second bores formed therein and extending in the axial direction thereof; a delivering plunger fitted into the first bore and defining a delivering pump chamber therein; driving means for reciprocating the delivering plunger in synchronism to the engine; pressurized medium supplying means for supplying a pressurized medium under a constant pressure to the delivering pump chamber, the pressurized medium supplying means including a pressurized medium source and a control passage linking the pressurized medium source to the delivering pump chamber; an electromagnetic valve provided on the control passage for opening and closing the control passage; and an injection plunger fitted into the second bore and defining, in the second bore, a linking chamber communicating with the delivering pump chamber and an injection pump chamber, the linking chamber and the delivering chamber becoming a liquid-tight chamber when the electromagnetic valve closes the control passage.

  15. The VIRGO injection system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bondu, F.; Brillet, A.; Cleva, F.; Heitmann, H.; Loupias, M.; Man, C. N.; Trinquet, H.; Virgo Collaboration

    2002-04-01

    The VIRGO injection system, designed to provide a stable single-frequency 20 W laser to the VIRGO interferometer, is under commissioning. All functions have been demonstrated to work close to requirements, and the integration of all of them is in progress.

  16. More than just someone to inject drugs with: Injecting within primary injection partnerships.

    PubMed

    Morris, Meghan D; Bates, Anna; Andrew, Erin; Hahn, Judith; Page, Kimberly; Maher, Lisa

    2015-11-01

    Studies have shown intimate injection partners engage in higher rates of syringe and injecting equipment sharing. We examined the drug use context and development of injection drug use behaviors within intimate injection partnerships. In-depth interviews (n=18) were conducted with both members of nine injecting partnerships in Sydney, Australia. Content analysis identified key domains related to the reasons for injecting with a primary injection partner and development of drug injection patterns. Most partnerships (n=5) were also sexual; three were blood-relatives and one a friend dyad. The main drug injected was heroin (66%) with high rates of recent sharing behaviors (88%) reported within dyads. Injecting within a primary injection partnership provided perceived protection against overdose events, helped reduce stress, increased control over when, where, and how drugs were used, and promoted the development of an injecting pattern where responsibilities could be shared. Unique to injecting within primary injection partnerships was the social connection and companionship resulted in a feeling of fulfillment while also blinding one from recognizing risky behavior. Findings illuminated the tension between protection and risks within primary injection partnerships. Primary injection partnerships provide a potential platform to expand risk reduction strategies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. More than just someone to inject drugs with: injecting within primary injection partnerships

    PubMed Central

    Morris, Meghan D.; Bates, Anna; Andrew, Erin; Hahn, Judith; Page, Kimberly; Maher, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    Background Studies have shown intimate injection partners engage in higher rates of syringe and injecting equipment sharing. We examined the drug use context and development of injection drug use behaviors within intimate injection partnerships. Methods In-depth interviews (n=18) were conducted with both members of nine injecting partnerships in Sydney, Australia. Content analysis identified key domains related to the reasons for injecting with a primary injection partner and development of drug injection patterns. Main Findings Most partnerships (n=5) were also sexual; three were blood-relatives and one a friend dyad. The main drug injected was heroin (66%) with high rates of recent sharing behaviors (88%) reported within dyads. Injecting within a primary injection partnership provided perceived protection against overdose events, helped reduce stress, increased control over when, where, and how drugs were used, and promoted the development of an injecting pattern where responsibilities could be shared. Unique to injecting within primary injection partnerships was the social connection and companionship resulted in a feeling of fulfillment while also blinding one from recognizing risky behavior. Conclusions Findings illuminated the tension between protection and risks within primary injection partnerships. Primary injection partnerships provide a potential platform to expand risk reduction strategies. PMID:26460140

  18. Injection-controlled laser resonator

    DOEpatents

    Chang, J.J.

    1995-07-18

    A new injection-controlled laser resonator incorporates self-filtering and self-imaging characteristics with an efficient injection scheme. A low-divergence laser signal is injected into the resonator, which enables the injection signal to be converted to the desired resonator modes before the main laser pulse starts. This injection technique and resonator design enable the laser cavity to improve the quality of the injection signal through self-filtering before the main laser pulse starts. The self-imaging property of the present resonator reduces the cavity induced diffraction effects and, in turn, improves the laser beam quality. 5 figs.

  19. Injection-controlled laser resonator

    DOEpatents

    Chang, Jim J.

    1995-07-18

    A new injection-controlled laser resonator incorporates self-filtering and self-imaging characteristics with an efficient injection scheme. A low-divergence laser signal is injected into the resonator, which enables the injection signal to be converted to the desired resonator modes before the main laser pulse starts. This injection technique and resonator design enable the laser cavity to improve the quality of the injection signal through self-filtering before the main laser pulse starts. The self-imaging property of the present resonator reduces the cavity induced diffraction effects and, in turn, improves the laser beam quality.

  20. Injectable nanocarriers for biodetoxification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leroux, Jean-Christophe

    2007-11-01

    Hospitals routinely treat patients suffering from overdoses of drugs or other toxic chemicals as a result of illicit drug consumption, suicide attempts or accidental exposures. However, for many life-threatening situations, specific antidotes are not available and treatment is largely based on emptying the stomach, administering activated charcoal or other general measures of intoxication support. A promising strategy for managing such overdoses is to inject nanocarriers that can extract toxic agents from intoxicated tissues. To be effective, the nanocarriers must remain in the blood long enough to sequester the toxic components and/or their metabolites, and the toxin bound complex must also remain stable until it is removed from the bloodstream. Here, we discuss the principles that govern the use of injectable nanocarriers in biodetoxification and review the pharmacological performance of a number of different approaches.

  1. INJECTION-MOLDING APPARATUS

    DOEpatents

    Lobell, G.M.

    1958-02-11

    This patent is drawn to an injection molding apparatus for producing a tube closed at one end wherein the normally unsupported end of the core located in the cavity during the injection of the molten material to fill the space between the core and cavity wall, which supporting means is automatically removed from operation during the forming of the closed end of the tube. This support means is a plug extending through the end of the core into a recess in the bottom of the cavity where the closed end of the tube is to be formed. The plug is spring pressed into said recess and is forced out of the recess by a slidable bushing at the top of the cavity which is moved against the force of the spring by the molten material when it fills the uppormost open end portion of the cavity, thereby permitting the closed end of the tube to be formed.

  2. Workshop on injectable contraceptives.

    PubMed

    1994-01-01

    At a workshop in Dhaka on February 10, 1994, district and thana level managers discussed the problems associated with a project that delivers injectable contraceptives to the doorsteps of clients. The workshop, which was organized by the Bangladesh government and the Maternal and Child Health-Family Planning (MCH-FP) Extension Project of the International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh (ICDDR,B), identified lack of appropriate training, inefficient supervision, and inadequate knowledge about and facilities for the disposal of used syringes and needles as problems. There was agreement among participants that use of the injectables, depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA) and norethisterone enanthate (NET-EN), had led to increases in contraceptive use. The 6-month old project had been initiated in 8 thanas by the Directorate of Family Planning of the government of Bangladesh, with the technical assistance of the MCH-FP Extension Project, after ICDDR,B noticed that the rates of use for all types of contraceptives had increased in the rural areas of Matlab, Abhoynagar, and Sirajganj with doorstep delivery by field workers. During the same period, use of injectables that were offered by female paramedics at static centers had remained low. At the workshop, Dr. Rushikesh Maru of the Extension Project spoke about the effective administration of the injectables within 15 days before or after the due date. Mr. AKM Rafiquz Zaman, former director general of Family Planning, government of Bangladesh, requested further expansion in at least 1 thana of each district and in all municipalities and urban slums.

  3. SPEAR 3 INJECTION KICKER

    SciTech Connect

    Armett, Donald W.

    2002-08-20

    The design of the SPEAR 3 injection kicker system is presented. This system will include three kicker magnets and their associated pulsers. The magnet design is based on the DELTA kicker magnets, which present a low RF impedance to the beam, and are relatively straight-forward to construct. The pulsers use cascaded IGBT stages that are based on the modulator pulsers developed by a SLAC/LLNL collaboration for the NLC. Design considerations and the results of prototype tests will be discussed.

  4. Magnetron injection gun scaling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawson, W.

    1988-04-01

    A set of tradeoff equations was simplified to obtain scaling laws for magnetron injection guns (MIGs). The constraints are chosen to examine the maximum-peak-power capabilities of MIGs. The scaling laws are compared with exact solutions of the design equations and are supported by MIG simulations in which each MIG is designed to double the beam power of an existing design by adjusting one of the four fundamental parameters.

  5. Injection-induced earthquakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ellsworth, William L.

    2013-01-01

    Earthquakes in unusual locations have become an important topic of discussion in both North America and Europe, owing to the concern that industrial activity could cause damaging earthquakes. It has long been understood that earthquakes can be induced by impoundment of reservoirs, surface and underground mining, withdrawal of fluids and gas from the subsurface, and injection of fluids into underground formations. Injection-induced earthquakes have, in particular, become a focus of discussion as the application of hydraulic fracturing to tight shale formations is enabling the production of oil and gas from previously unproductive formations. Earthquakes can be induced as part of the process to stimulate the production from tight shale formations, or by disposal of wastewater associated with stimulation and production. Here, I review recent seismic activity that may be associated with industrial activity, with a focus on the disposal of wastewater by injection in deep wells; assess the scientific understanding of induced earthquakes; and discuss the key scientific challenges to be met for assessing this hazard.

  6. Air injection system diagnostic

    SciTech Connect

    Kotzan, J.M.; Labus, G.E.

    1992-05-19

    This patent describes a method for diagnosing failures in an air control system that controls a quantity of air admitted into an exhaust path of an internal combustion engine. It comprises sensing the oxygen content of the exhaust gas of the engine at predetermined time intervals at a first predetermined point in the exhaust path of the engine, the oxygen content normally oscillating between a rich oxygen condition and a lean oxygen condition in the absence of air injected into the exhaust path above the first predetermined point; injecting a quantity of air into the exhaust path of the engine at a second predetermined point in the exhaust port, the second predetermined point being above the first predetermined point; counting the number of intervals at which the sensed oxygen content indicates a rich oxygen condition over a predetermined period of time; comparing the counted number of rich oxygen intervals to a predetermined threshold value, the threshold value being greater than a counted number of rich oxygen intervals over the predetermined period of time resulting from the normal oscillations between rich and lean oxygen conditions in the absence of air injected into the exhaust path; indicating the existence of a fault in the air control system when the number of rich oxygen intervals does not exceed the predetermined threshold value.

  7. Alkaline flooding injection strategy

    SciTech Connect

    French, T.R.; Josephson, C.B.

    1992-03-01

    The objective of this project is to improved alkali-surfactant flooding methods, and this includes determining the proper design of injection strategy. Several different injection strategies have been used or suggested for recovering heavy oils with surfactant-enhanced alkaline flooding methods. Oil recovery was compared for four different injection strategies: (1) surfactant followed by polymer, (2) surfactant followed by alkaline polymer, (3) alkaline surfactant followed by polymer, and (4) alkali, surfactant, and polymer mixed in a single formulation. The effect of alkaline preflush was also studied under two different conditions. All of the oil recovery experiments were conducted under optimal conditions with a viscous, non-acidic oil from Hepler (KS) oil field. The coreflood experiments were conducted with Berea sandstone cores since field core was not available in sufficient quantity for coreflood tests. The Tucker sand of Hepler field is a Class I fluvial dominated deltaic reservoir, as classified by the Department of Energy, which has been selected as the site of a DOE-sponsored field pilot test.

  8. Snowplow Injection Front Effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, T. E.; Chandler, M. O.; Buzulukova, N.; Collinson, G. A.; Kepko, E. L.; Garcia-Sage, K. S.; Henderson, M. G.; Sitnov, M. I.

    2013-01-01

    As the Polar spacecraft apogee precessed through the magnetic equator in 2001, Polar encountered numerous substorm events in the region between geosynchronous orbit and 10 RE geocentric distance; most of them in the plasma sheet boundary layers. Of these, a small number was recorded near the neutral sheet in the evening sector. Polar/Thermal Ion Dynamics Experiment provides a unique perspective on the lowest-energy ion plasma, showing that these events exhibited a damped wavelike character, initiated by a burst of radially outward flow transverse to the local magnetic field at approximately 80 km/s. They then exhibit strongly damped cycles of inward/outward flow with a period of several minutes. After one or two cycles, they culminated in a hot plasma electron and ion injection, quite similar to those observed at geosynchronous orbit. Cold plasmaspheric plasmas comprise the outward flow cycles, while the inward flow cycles contain counterstreaming field-parallel polar wind-like flows. The observed wavelike structure, preceding the arrival of an earthward moving substorm injection front, suggests an outward displacement driven by the inward motion at local times closer to midnight, that is, a "snowplow" effect. The damped in/out flows are consistent with interchange oscillations driven by the arrival at the observed local time by an injection originating at greater radius and local time.

  9. Injection-induced earthquakes.

    PubMed

    Ellsworth, William L

    2013-07-12

    Earthquakes in unusual locations have become an important topic of discussion in both North America and Europe, owing to the concern that industrial activity could cause damaging earthquakes. It has long been understood that earthquakes can be induced by impoundment of reservoirs, surface and underground mining, withdrawal of fluids and gas from the subsurface, and injection of fluids into underground formations. Injection-induced earthquakes have, in particular, become a focus of discussion as the application of hydraulic fracturing to tight shale formations is enabling the production of oil and gas from previously unproductive formations. Earthquakes can be induced as part of the process to stimulate the production from tight shale formations, or by disposal of wastewater associated with stimulation and production. Here, I review recent seismic activity that may be associated with industrial activity, with a focus on the disposal of wastewater by injection in deep wells; assess the scientific understanding of induced earthquakes; and discuss the key scientific challenges to be met for assessing this hazard.

  10. Steroid injections - tendon, bursa, joint

    MedlinePlus

    ... ency/article/007678.htm Steroid injections - tendon, bursa, joint To use the sharing features on this page, ... often painful. It can be injected into a joint, tendon, or bursa. Description Your health care provider ...

  11. Interferon Alfa-2b Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... medication either subcutaneously or intramuscularly three times a week. HBV, inject the medication either subcutaneously or intramuscularly three times a week usually for 16 weeks. hairy cell leukemia, inject ...

  12. Amphotericin B Lipid Complex Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Amphotericin B lipid complex injection is used to treat serious, possibly life-threatening fungal infections in people who did not respond ... to tolerate conventional amphotericin B therapy. Amphotericin B lipid complex injection is in a class of medications ...

  13. Gaseous Fuel Injection Modeling using a Gaseous Sphere Injection Methodology

    SciTech Connect

    Hessel, R P; Aceves, S M; Flowers, D L

    2006-03-06

    The growing interest in gaseous fuels (hydrogen and natural gas) for internal combustion engines calls for the development of computer models for simulation of gaseous fuel injection, air entrainment and the ensuing combustion. This paper introduces a new method for modeling the injection and air entrainment processes for gaseous fuels. The model uses a gaseous sphere injection methodology, similar to liquid droplet in injection techniques used for liquid fuel injection. In this paper, the model concept is introduced and model results are compared with correctly- and under-expanded experimental data.

  14. Portable Liquid-Injecting System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shuck, T.; Chin, F.; Hansen, M.

    1988-01-01

    Portable injecting-gun system dispenses predetermined amount of liquid at moderately high pressure. Tool belt holds components of liquid-injecting system. Pump and four-way valve combined in nylon housing. Connected to injecting nozzle and other components by polyvinyl tubing.

  15. Reductant injection and mixing system

    SciTech Connect

    Reeves, Matt; Henry, Cary A.; Ruth, Michael J.

    2016-02-16

    A gaseous reductant injection and mixing system is described herein. The system includes an injector for injecting a gaseous reductant into an exhaust gas stream, and a mixer attached to a surface of the injector. The injector includes a plurality of apertures through which the gaseous reductant is injected into an exhaust gas stream. The mixer includes a plurality of fluid deflecting elements.

  16. Acupuncture Injection Combined with Electrokinetic Injection for Polydimethylsiloxane Microfluidic Devices

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    We recently reported acupuncture sample injection that leads to reproducible injection of nL-scale sample segments into a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microchannel for microchip capillary electrophoresis. The advantages of the acupuncture injection in microchip capillary electrophoresis include capability of minimizing sample loss and voltage control hardware and capability of introducing sample plugs into any desired position of a microchannel. However, the challenge in the previous study was to achieve reproducible, pL-scale sample injections into PDMS microchannels. In the present study, we introduce an acupuncture injection technique combined with electrokinetic injection (AICEI) technique to inject pL-scale sample segments for microchip capillary electrophoresis. We carried out the capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) separation of FITC and fluorescein, and the mixture of 10 μM FITC and 10 μM fluorescein was separated completely by using the AICEI method. PMID:28326222

  17. Neutral beam injection system

    SciTech Connect

    Duesing, G.; Altmann, H.; Falter, H.; Goede, A.; Haange, R.; Hemsworth, R.S.; Kupschus, P.; Stork, D.; Thompson, E.

    1987-01-01

    The development of the neutral injection (NI) system for the Joint European Torus and its status in 1985 are reported. First the system parameters are discussed and the layout is described, followed by a summary of the physics design calculations, the development, production, and testing of the components and the subsystem assembly. The system commissioning is presented, including a description of the function and the realization of the NI test bed. A summary of performance predictions for 80-keV beam heating experiments, and of the experimental evidence on balanced versus coinjection, is presented. The operational experience with the first injector and the plasma physics results obtained so far are summarized.

  18. Injection moulded hydroxyapatite ceramics.

    PubMed

    Cihlár, J; Trunec, M

    1996-10-01

    The injection moulding of hydroxyapatite (HA) and properties (relative density, shrinkage, microstructure, thermal strength and phase composition) of HA ceramics sintered at temperatures of 1373-1773 K were studied. Particles of oval shape and size of 0.5 microns were most suitable for injection moulding. Polymer/HA mixture contained 63 vol% of the HA powder. Maximum relative density (98.7%) and shrinkage (16%) of HA ceramics were obtained at a sintering temperature of 1523 K. Maximum flexural strength (60 MPa) of HA ceramics occurred at a sintering temperature of 1473 K. The strength of these ceramics decreased at sintering temperatures higher than 1473 K. Loss in strength was owing to the grain growth and decomposition of HA ceramics. The relationship between grain size and strength is described by the equation: sigma = 53.3d1/2. The calculated activation energy of grain growth obtained was 215kJ mol-1 K-1. The decomposition of HA to alpha-tricalcium phosphate was important at temperatures greater than 1573 K.

  19. Rain underscores need for injection

    SciTech Connect

    Stelling, K.F.

    1996-01-01

    Since 1987, steam production totals at The Geysers Geothermal field have fallen and water injection totals have remained quite stable, except for the unusually dry winter months of 1994 when injection fell by a record amount. The heavy rainfall in the first half of 1995 altered the long-term production and injection patterns and underscored the need to increase injection in the field. From January to June 1995, steam production at The Geysers was reduced by 37 percent form the amount produced during the same period in 1994--because the rain increased availability of hydroelectric power. At the same time, water injection in the field rose by 25 percent because more rainwater was available for injection. Consequently, both reservoir pressure and available steam reserves grew, and most power plants that returned on line in the second half of the year produced more megawatts with less steam. This confirmed findings form several injection studies at The Geyser`s.

  20. Epidemiology of Injection Drug Use

    PubMed Central

    Arruda, Nelson; Bruneau, Julie; Jutras-Aswad, Didier

    2016-01-01

    After more than 30 years of research, numerous studies have shown that injection drug use is associated with a wide range of adverse health outcomes such as drug overdoses, drug-related suicidal behaviours, comorbid psychiatric disorders, bloodborne pathogens and other infectious diseases, and traumas. This review explores new trends and prominent issues associated with injection drug use. The dynamic nature of injection drug use is underlined by examining its recent trends and changing patterns in Canada and other “high-income countries.” Three research topics that could further contribute to the development of comprehensive prevention and intervention strategies aimed at people who inject drugs are also discussed: risk behaviours associated with the injection of prescription opioids, binge injection drug use, and mental health problems as determinants of injection risk behaviours. PMID:27254088

  1. Fuel injection pumps

    SciTech Connect

    Howes, P.

    1985-04-02

    A fuel injection pump of the rotary distributor type includes a cam actuated plunger housing in a bore and an adjustable fuel control member which varies the amount of fuel supplied to the bore. The pump also includes a timing piston connected to the cam, the piston being biased by a spring against the action of fuel under pressure. In order to vary the timing under certain conditions a control piston serves as an abutment for the spring and the application of pressure to the control piston is controlled by a valve which has a valve element coupled to a throttle member of the pump the valve having a housing which is secured on the exterior of the pump.

  2. Particle beam injection system

    DOEpatents

    Jassby, Daniel L.; Kulsrud, Russell M.

    1977-01-01

    This invention provides a poloidal divertor for stacking counterstreaming ion beams to provide high intensity colliding beams. To this end, method and apparatus are provided that inject high energy, high velocity, ordered, atomic deuterium and tritium beams into a lower energy, toroidal, thermal equilibrium, neutral, target plasma column that is magnetically confined along an endless magnetic axis in a strong restoring force magnetic field having helical field lines to produce counterstreaming deuteron and triton beams that are received bent, stacked and transported along the endless axis, while a poloidal divertor removes thermal ions and electrons all along the axis to increase the density of the counterstreaming ion beams and the reaction products resulting therefrom. By balancing the stacking and removal, colliding, strong focused particle beams, reaction products and reactions are produced that convert one form of energy into another form of energy.

  3. Propagating substorm injection fronts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, T. E.; Arnoldy, R. L.; Feynman, J.; Hardy, D. A.

    1981-01-01

    It is argued that a series of two-satellite observations leads to a clarification of substorm plasma injection, in which boundary motion plays a major role. Emphasis is put on a type of event characterized by abrupt, dispersionless changes in electron intensity and a coincident perturbation that consists of both a field magnitude increase and a small rotation toward more dipolar orientation. Comparing plasma observations at two points, it is found that in active, preinjection conditions the two most important features of the plasma sheet are: (1) the low-energy convection boundary for near-zero energy particles, determined by the magnitude of the large-scale convection electric field; and (2) the precipitation-flow boundary layer between the hot plasma sheet and the atmospherically contaminated inner plasma sheet.

  4. Premixed direct injection nozzle

    DOEpatents

    Zuo, Baifang [Simpsonville, SC; Johnson, Thomas Edward [Greer, SC; Lacy, Benjamin Paul [Greer, SC; Ziminsky, Willy Steve [Simpsonville, SC

    2011-02-15

    An injection nozzle having a main body portion with an outer peripheral wall is disclosed. The nozzle includes a plurality of fuel/air mixing tubes disposed within the main body portion and a fuel flow passage fluidly connected to the plurality of fuel/air mixing tubes. Fuel and air are partially premixed inside the plurality of the tubes. A second body portion, having an outer peripheral wall extending between a first end and an opposite second end, is connected to the main body portion. The partially premixed fuel and air mixture from the first body portion gets further mixed inside the second body portion. The second body portion converges from the first end toward said second end. The second body portion also includes cooling passages that extend along all the walls around the second body to provide thermal damage resistance for occasional flame flash back into the second body.

  5. Injectors for Multipoint Injection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prociw, Lev Alexander (Inventor); Ryon, Jason (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    An injector for a multipoint combustor system includes an inner air swirler which defines an interior flow passage and a plurality of swirler inlet ports in an upstream portion thereof. The inlet ports are configured and adapted to impart swirl on flow in the interior flow passage. An outer air cap is mounted outboard of the inner swirler. A fuel passage is defined between the inner air swirler and the outer air cap, and includes a discharge outlet between downstream portions of the inner air swirler and the outer air cap for issuing fuel for combustion. The outer air cap defines an outer air circuit configured for substantially unswirled injection of compressor discharge air outboard of the interior flow passage.

  6. Diesel fuel injection system

    SciTech Connect

    Schechter, M.M.; Simko, A.O.

    1986-04-22

    A fuel injection pump is described of the multiple plunger spill port type for an automotive type internal combustion engine, the pump including at least four axially spaced engine camshaft driven pump plungers grouped in pairs and sequentially and in succession moved in one direction through a fuel pumping stroke and oppositely through a fuel intake stroke. A fuel pressurization/supply chamber is contiquous to the end of each plunger for pressurization of the fuel therein or supply of fuel thereto from a supply passage upon coordinate movement of the plunger, fill/spill passage means connected to a single fuel return spill port and in parallel flow relationship to each of the plunger bores as a function of the position of the plungers, each plunger having a pair of internal passages connected at all times to its chamber and alternately alignable with the supply or fill/spill passage means as a function of the position of the plunger. A fuel discharge passage is operatively connecting each of the chambers to an individual engine cylinder, a single spill port control valve movable to block or permit the spill of fuel through the spill port to a return line to control the pressurization of fuel in all of the fuel chambers and associated discharge passages, a single solenoid connected to the spill control valve for moving it to block or unblock the spill port, and a single shuttle valve operatively associated with all of the fill/spill passage means and spill port reciprocably movable between positions to sequentially connect the plunger chambers one at a time in succession to the spill port during the pumping pressurization stroke of its plunger for the injection of fuel to an individual cylinder while the other chambers are in various stages of being refilled with fuel and preparing for pressurization upon successive actuation of the plungers by the camshaft.

  7. Evaluation of the impact of viscosity, injection volume, and injection flow rate on subcutaneous injection tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Berteau, Cecile; Filipe-Santos, Orchidée; Wang, Tao; Rojas, Humberto E; Granger, Corinne; Schwarzenbach, Florence

    2015-01-01

    Aim The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of fluid injection viscosity in combination with different injection volumes and flow rates on subcutaneous (SC) injection pain tolerance. Methods The study was a single-center, comparative, randomized, crossover, Phase I study in 24 healthy adults. Each participant received six injections in the abdomen area of either a 2 or 3 mL placebo solution, with three different fluid viscosities (1, 8–10, and 15–20 cP) combined with two different injection flow rates (0.02 and 0.3 mL/s). All injections were performed with 50 mL syringes and 27G, 6 mm needles. Perceived injection pain was assessed using a 100 mm visual analog scale (VAS) (0 mm/no pain, 100 mm/extreme pain). The location and depth of the injected fluid was assessed through 2D ultrasound echography images. Results Viscosity levels had significant impact on perceived injection pain (P=0.0003). Specifically, less pain was associated with high viscosity (VAS =12.6 mm) than medium (VAS =16.6 mm) or low (VAS =22.1 mm) viscosities, with a significant difference between high and low viscosities (P=0.0002). Target injection volume of 2 or 3 mL was demonstrated to have no significant impact on perceived injection pain (P=0.89). Slow (0.02 mL/s) or fast (0.30 mL/s) injection rates also showed no significant impact on perceived pain during SC injection (P=0.79). In 92% of injections, the injected fluid was located exclusively in SC tissue whereas the remaining injected fluids were found located in SC and/or intradermal layers. Conclusion The results of this study suggest that solutions of up to 3 mL and up to 15–20 cP injected into the abdomen within 10 seconds are well tolerated without pain. High viscosity injections were shown to be the most tolerated, whereas injection volume and flow rates did not impact perceived pain. PMID:26635489

  8. Evaluation of the impact of viscosity, injection volume, and injection flow rate on subcutaneous injection tolerance.

    PubMed

    Berteau, Cecile; Filipe-Santos, Orchidée; Wang, Tao; Rojas, Humberto E; Granger, Corinne; Schwarzenbach, Florence

    2015-01-01

    The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of fluid injection viscosity in combination with different injection volumes and flow rates on subcutaneous (SC) injection pain tolerance. The study was a single-center, comparative, randomized, crossover, Phase I study in 24 healthy adults. Each participant received six injections in the abdomen area of either a 2 or 3 mL placebo solution, with three different fluid viscosities (1, 8-10, and 15-20 cP) combined with two different injection flow rates (0.02 and 0.3 mL/s). All injections were performed with 50 mL syringes and 27G, 6 mm needles. Perceived injection pain was assessed using a 100 mm visual analog scale (VAS) (0 mm/no pain, 100 mm/extreme pain). The location and depth of the injected fluid was assessed through 2D ultrasound echography images. Viscosity levels had significant impact on perceived injection pain (P=0.0003). Specifically, less pain was associated with high viscosity (VAS =12.6 mm) than medium (VAS =16.6 mm) or low (VAS =22.1 mm) viscosities, with a significant difference between high and low viscosities (P=0.0002). Target injection volume of 2 or 3 mL was demonstrated to have no significant impact on perceived injection pain (P=0.89). Slow (0.02 mL/s) or fast (0.30 mL/s) injection rates also showed no significant impact on perceived pain during SC injection (P=0.79). In 92% of injections, the injected fluid was located exclusively in SC tissue whereas the remaining injected fluids were found located in SC and/or intradermal layers. The results of this study suggest that solutions of up to 3 mL and up to 15-20 cP injected into the abdomen within 10 seconds are well tolerated without pain. High viscosity injections were shown to be the most tolerated, whereas injection volume and flow rates did not impact perceived pain.

  9. The cost of unsafe injections.

    PubMed Central

    Miller, M. A.; Pisani, E.

    1999-01-01

    Unsafe injection practices are associated with substantial morbidity and mortality, particularly from hepatitis B and C and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections. These inadvertently transmitted bloodborne diseases become manifest some considerable time after infection and hence may not be appropriately accounted for. Annually more than 1.3 million deaths and US$ 535 million are estimated to be due to current unsafe injection practices. With the global increase in the number of injections for vaccination and medical services, safer injecting technologies such as auto-disable syringes must be budgeted for. Investment in health education and safer disposal will also reduce infections associated with unsafe injecting practices. Safer injecting practices are more expensive than current less safe practices, but the additional cost is more than offset by the reduction in disease that would result. PMID:10593028

  10. [Physicochemical incompatibilities of injectable drugs].

    PubMed

    Hofmann, Christelle; Rouault, Médéric; Cailleteau, Jérémy

    2016-02-01

    The physicochemical interactions of injectable drugs administered through a Y-site injection port are little known phenomena, poorly documented but very frequent. Physicochemical incompatibility is defined as a chemical reaction between two injectable drugs which come into contact with each other. This chemical reaction may be visible on a macroscopic level or completely invisible. The risks of these interactions are not harmless, ranging from inefficacy to the toxicity of the newly-formed compounds.

  11. Injectable barriers for waste isolation

    SciTech Connect

    Persoff, P.; Finsterle, S.; Moridis, G.J.; Apps, J.; Pruess, K.; Muller, S.J.

    1995-03-01

    In this paper the authors report laboratory work and numerical simulation done in support of development and demonstration of injectable barriers formed from either of two fluids: colloidal silica or polysiloxane. Two principal problems addressed here are control of gel time and control of plume emplacement in the vadose zone. Gel time must be controlled so that the viscosity of the barrier fluid remains low long enough to inject the barrier, but increases soon enough to gel the barrier in place. During injection, the viscosity must be low enough to avoid high injection pressures which could uplift or fracture the formation. To test the grout gel time in the soil, the injection pressure was monitored as grouts were injected into sandpacks. When grout is injected into the vadose zone, it slumps under the influence of gravity, and redistributes due to capillary forces as it gels. The authors have developed a new module for the reservoir simulator TOUGH2 to model grout injection into the vadose zone, taking into account the increase of liquid viscosity as a function of gel concentration and time. They have also developed a model to calculate soil properties after complete solidification of the grout. The numerical model has been used to design and analyze laboratory experiments and field pilot tests. The authors present the results of computer simulations of grout injection, redistribution, and solidification.

  12. New perspectives on substorm injections

    SciTech Connect

    Reeves, G.D.

    1998-12-01

    There has been significant progress in understanding substorm injections since the Third International Conference on Substorms in 1996. Progress has come from a combination of new theories, quantitative modeling, and observations--particularly multi-satellite observations. There is now mounting evidence that fast convective flows are the mechanism that directly couples substorm processes in the mid tail, where reconnection occurs, with substorm processes the inner magnetosphere where Pi2 pulsations, auroral breakups, and substorm injections occur. This paper presents evidence that those flows combined with an earthward-propagating compressional wave are responsible for substorm injections and discusses how that model can account for various substorm injection signatures.

  13. Supersonic Jet Noise Reduction Using Flapping Injection and Pulsed Injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hafsteinsson, Haukur; Eriksson, Lars-Erik; Cuppoletti, Daniel; Gutmark, Ephraim; Department of Applied Mechanics, Chalmers University of Technology Team; Department of Aerospace Engineering, University of Cincinatti Team; Swedish Defence Material Administration, Sweden Team

    2013-11-01

    Aircraft are in general noisy and there is a high demand for reducing their noise levels. The jet exhaust is in most cases the main noise source of the aircraft, especially for low bypass ratio jet engines. Fluidic injection affecting the shear layer close to the nozzle exit is a promising noise reduction technique as it can be turned of while not needed and thus the negative effect on the engine performance will be minimized. In the presented work, LES is used to compare steady-state mass flow injection with steady-state mass flow flapping jet injection. The work is a direct continuation of a previous LES study on pulsed injection which showed that the pulsed injection induced pressure pulses in the jet which caused increased tonal noise in the downstream directions. The injection system considered in the presented work consists of eight evenly distributed injectors at the nozzle exit plane with a 90° injection angle relative to the flow direction. Flapping jet injection is believed to minimize the creation of these pressure pulses since it provides steady-state mass flow. This work is funded by Swedish Defense Material Administration (FMV).

  14. A comparison of molding procedures - Contact, injection and vacuum injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cathiard, G.

    1980-06-01

    The technical and economic aspects of the contact, injection and vacuum injection molding of reinforced plastic components are compared for the example of a tractor roof with a gel-coated surface. Consideration is given to the possibility of reinforcement, number of smooth faces, condition of the gel-coated surface, reliability, and labor and workplace requirements of the three processes, and advantages of molding between the mold and a countermold in smooth faces, reliability, labor requirements, working surface and industrial hygiene are pointed out. The times and labor requirements of each step in the molding cycles are examined, and material requirements and yields, investment costs, amortization and product cost prices of the processes are compared. It is concluded that, for the specific component examined, the processes of vacuum injection and injection molding appear very interesting, with injection molding processes resulting in lower cost prices than contact molding for any production volume.

  15. Sensor for Injection Rate Measurements

    PubMed Central

    Marcic, Milan

    2006-01-01

    A vast majority of the medium and high speed Diesel engines are equipped with multi-hole injection nozzles nowadays. Inaccuracies in workmanship and changing hydraulic conditions in the nozzles result in differences in injection rates between individual injection nozzle holes. The new deformational measuring method described in the paper allows injection rate measurement in each injection nozzle hole. The differences in injection rates lead to uneven thermal loads of Diesel engine combustion chambers. All today known measuring method, such as Bosch and Zeuch give accurate results of the injection rate in diesel single-hole nozzles. With multihole nozzles they tell us nothing about possible differences in injection rates between individual holes of the nozzle. At deformational measuring method, the criterion of the injected fuel is expressed by the deformation of membrane occurring due to the collision of the pressure wave against the membrane. The pressure wave is generated by the injection of the fuel into the measuring space. For each hole of the nozzle the measuring device must have a measuring space of its own into which fuel is injected as well as its measuring membrane and its own fuel outlet. During measurements procedure the measuring space must be filled with fuel to maintain an overpressure of 5 kPa. Fuel escaping from the measuring device is conducted into the graduated cylinders for measuring the volumetric flow through each hole of the nozzle.The membrane deformation is assessed by strain gauges. They are glued to the membrane and forming the full Wheatstone's bridge. We devoted special attention to the membrane shape and temperature compensation of the strain gauges.

  16. Rapid injection of rocuronium reduces withdrawal movement on injection.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yong Cheol; Jang, Young Ho; Kim, Jin Mo; Lee, Sang Gyu

    2009-09-01

    To test whether rapid injection of rocuronium reduces withdrawal movement on injection. Randomized, prospective trial. Operating room in a university hospital. 150 ASA physical status I and II patients aged 18 to 60 years, undergoing general anesthesia. Patients were randomized to three groups. After undergoing anesthesia induction with thiopental sodium, then 5 seconds later receiving a rubber tourniquet applied to the mid-forearm to stop intravenous (IV) flow by gravity, the pretreatment drug was injected. The tourniquet was held for 15 seconds then released, and 1.0 mg/kg of 1% rocuronium was injected IV. Group C patients (n = 50) were pretreated with 0.1 mL/kg of 0.9% NaCl and then injected with rocuronium slowly within 10 seconds. Group L patients (n = 50) were pretreated with 0.1 mL/kg of preservative-free 1% lidocaine and then injected with rocuronium slowly within 10 seconds. Group R patients (n = 50) were pretreated with 0.1 mL/kg of 0.9% NaCl and then rapidly injected with rocuronium within approximately one second (as quickly as possible). After injection of the patient with the study drug, a single anesthesiologist with no knowledge of the study protocol graded each patient's response as follows: 0 = no response; 1 = mild movement limited to the wrist only; 2 = moderate movement involving the elbow and shoulder; and 3 = severe movement involving more than one extremity. Group C had the most intense and frequent withdrawal response. The frequency and intensity of withdrawal movement was significantly less in Groups L and R than Group C. No significant difference in withdrawal response between Groups L and R was noted. Withdrawal response can be significantly reduced for rocuronium injection without lidocaine pretreatment, simply through rapid injection.

  17. Prevalence and correlates of jugular injections among injection drug users.

    PubMed

    Hoda, Zia; Kerr, Thomas; Li, Kathy; Montaner, Julio S G; Wood, Evan

    2008-07-01

    Jugular injection of drugs has been reported, although little is known about the prevalence of and risk factors associated with this behaviour. We evaluated factors associated with jugular injection among a cohort of injection drug users (IDU) in Vancouver, Canada. We used univariate statistics and logistic regression to examine factors associated with jugular injection among participants in the Vancouver Injecting Drug Users Study (VIDUS), a large prospective cohort study of IDU recruited through snowball sampling methods in Vancouver, Canada. Between December 2004 and November 2005, 780 IDU were followed up as part of VIDUS and 198 (25%) reported jugular injection in the previous 6 months. In multivariate analyses, factors associated independently with jugular injection included: being of the female gender [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 1.72, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.14-2.59; p = 0.010], daily heroin use (aOR = 2.89, 95% CI: 1.93-4.34; p < 0.001), daily cocaine use (aOR = 1.76, 95% CI: 1.12-2.76; p = 0.014], requiring help injecting (aOR = 4.44, 95% CI: 2.64-7.46; p < 0.001), and involvement in the sex-trade (aOR = 2.71, 95% CI: 1.6-4.55; p < 0.001). Reporting a history of jugular injecting was alarmingly high in the cohort and was associated with several identifiable demographic and drug-using characteristics. Given previous reports demonstrating the risk of infection and vascular trauma due to this behaviour, these populations should be considered seriously as a target for safer injecting education.

  18. SNS Injection Foil Experience

    SciTech Connect

    Cousineau, Sarah M; Galambos, John D; Kim, Sang-Ho; Ladd, Peter; Luck, Chris; Peters, Charles C; Polsky, Yarom; Shaw, Robert W; Macek, Robert James; Raparia, Deepak; Plum, Michael A

    2010-01-01

    The Spallation Neutron Source comprises a 1 GeV, 1.4 MW linear accelerator followed by an accumulator ring and a liquid mercury target. To manage the beam loss caused by the H0 excited states created during the H charge exchange injection into the accumulator ring, the stripper foil is located inside one of the chicane dipoles. This has some interesting consequences that were not fully appreciated until the beam power reached about 840 kW. One consequence was sudden failure of the stripper foil system due to convoy electrons stripped from the incoming H beam, which circled around to strike the foil bracket and cause bracket failure. Another consequence is that convoy electrons can reflect back up from the electron catcher and strike the foil and bracket. An additional contributor to foil system failure is vacuum breakdown due to the charge developed on the foil by secondary electron emission. In this paper we will detail these and other interesting failure mechanisms, and describe the improvements we have made to mitigate them.

  19. Fuel injection system

    SciTech Connect

    Miyaki, M.; Iwanaga, T.; Fujisawa, H.

    1988-10-18

    This patent describes a fuel injection system for a diesel engine comprising: condition detection means for detecting operating conditions of the diesel engine including a rotational position thereof; low pressure fuel supply means for supplying fuel at a low pressure at an output port thereof; high pressure fuel pump means, having a pump chamber communicating with the output port of the low pressure fuel supply means, and plunger means reciprocable within the pump chamber for introducing fuel from the output port of the low pressure fuel supply means into the pump chamber during a movement in a predetermined direction of the plunger means and for pressurizing the introduced fuel during a movement of the plunger means in the opposite direction so that pressurized fuel is delivered from the high pressure fuel pump means at an output port thereof; common rail fuel storage means, connected to the output port of the high pressure fuel pump means, for storing pressurized fuel delivered from the high pressure pump therein at a substantially continuous pressure.

  20. Fuel injection pump

    SciTech Connect

    Miyaki, M.

    1986-01-07

    This patent describes a fuel injection pump for delivering fuel to the cylinders of an internal combustion engine consisting of: a pump housing with a fuel chamber therein to which fuel is supplied from a fuel tank; means for compressing fuel in the pump chamber and delivering the compressed fuel to the engine cylinders with such means including a pump plunger adapted to be reciprocated so as to introduce fuel into the pump chamber and to pressurize the introduced fuel; spill means for spilling to a low-pressure side on a fuel tank side the compressed fuel which was pressurized in the pump chamber to be delivered from the pump chamber to the engine cylinders, the spill mechanism including a spill passage communicating with the pump chamber and including a solenoid valve located in the spill passage for opening and closing the spill passage with predetermined timing; escape for allowing the compressed fuel pressurized in the pump chamber to escape to the low-pressure side of the fuel tank side.

  1. Fuel injection pump

    SciTech Connect

    Iiyama, A.; Nishimura, T.

    1988-12-06

    This patent describes a fuel injection pump comprising: (a) engageable first and second cam members, the first cam member reciprocating axially as the first cam member moves angularly relative to the second cam member when the first and second cam members are in engagement; (b) means for urging the first cam member toward the second cam member to engage the first and second cam members; (c) a plunger connected to the first cam member for reciprocation with the first cam member, the plunger defining at least a part of a pumping chamber, the pumping chamber contracting and expanding as the plunger reciprocates; (d) means for allowing fuel to move into the pumping chamber as the pumping chamber expands in a fuel intake stroke; (e) means for allowing the fuel to move out of the pumping chamber as the pumping chamber contracts in a fuel compression stroke; and (f) means for resisting movement of the plunger in at least part of the fuel compression stroke and relieving resistance to the movement of the plunger in the fuel intake stroke wherein the resisting means comprises a piston slidably mounted on the plunger, a spring urging the piston to seat the piston on a shoulder on the plunger so that the piston reciprocates as the plunger reciprocates, wherein the piston is seated on the shoulder in the fuel compression stroke and separates from the shoulder against the force of the spring in the fuel intake stroke, a second fluid chamber at least partially defined by the piston.

  2. The RHIC Injection Kicker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hahn, H.; Tuozzolo, J. E.; Tsoupas, N.

    1997-05-01

    Beam transfer from the AGS to RHIC is performed in single-bunch mode. Close spacing of the bunches in the collider requires an injection kicker with a rise time of <95 nsec, suggesting adoption of a travelling wave solution. The required vertical kick of 0.186 T.m is provided by 4 units, each 1.12 m long with a 48.4× 48.4 mm aperture and operated at 1.6 kA. The kicker is constructed as a ``C'' cross section magnet, in which ferrite and high-permittivity ( ~ 100) dielectric sections alternate. The dielectric blocks provide the capacity necessary for the nominally 25 Ohm characteristic impedance of the travelling wave structure, but impose the practical limit on the peak voltage, and thus current, achievable. Computer studies to minimize local electric field enhancements resulted in a configuration capable of holding >50 kV, with adequate safety margin over the nominal 40 kV. Tests indicated the possibility of lowering the nominal voltage by operating mismatched into 20 Ohm terminations without degrading the pulse shape. In this paper, the experience gained in the fabrication of the four kicker units for the ``Sextant Test'' and the results from various single-unit tests and operation in beam are reported.

  3. The RHIC injection kicker

    SciTech Connect

    Hahn, H.; Tsoupas, N.; Tuozzolo, J.E.

    1997-07-01

    Beam transfer from the AGS to RHIC is performed in single-bunch mode. Close spacing of the bunches in the collider requires an injection kicker with a rise time of <90 nsec, suggesting adoption of a travelling wave structure. The required vertical kick of 0.186 t{center_dot}m is provided by 4 magnets, each 1.12 m long with a 48.4 x 48.4 mm aperture and operated at 1.6 kA. The kicker is constructed as a {open_quotes}C{close_quotes} cross section magnet, in which ferrite and high-permittivity dielectric sections alternate. The dielectric blocks provide the capacity necessary for the nominally 25 {Omega} characteristic impedance of the travelling wave structure, but impose the practical limit on the peak voltage, and thus current, achievable. Computer studies to minimize local electric field enhancements resulted in a configuration capable of holding {approximately} 50 kV, with adequate safety margin over the nominal 40 kV. Equivalent circuit analysis indicated the possibility of lowering the nominal voltage by operating mismatched into 20 {Omega} terminations without degrading the pulse shape. In this paper, the experience gained in the fabrication of the production units and the results from various single-unit tests and operation of four kickers with beam in the {open_quotes}Sextant Test{close_quotes} are reported.

  4. Injectable Foams for Regenerative Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Prieto, Edna M.; Page, Jonathan M.; Harmata, Andrew J.

    2013-01-01

    The design of injectable biomaterials has attracted considerable attention in recent years. Many injectable biomaterials, such as hydrogels and calcium phosphate cements, have nanoscale pores that limit the rate of cellular migration and proliferation. While introduction of macroporosity has been suggested to increase cellular infiltration and tissue healing, many conventional methods for generating macropores often require harsh processing conditions that preclude their use in injectable foams. In recent years, processes such as porogen leaching, gas foaming, and emulsion-templating have been adapted to generate macroporosity in injectable calcium phosphate cements, hydrogels, and hydrophobic polymers. While some of the more mature injectable foam technologies have been evaluated in clinical trials, there are challenges remaining to be addressed, such as the biocompatibility and ultimate fate of the sacrificial phase used to generate pores within the foam after it sets in situ. Furthermore, while implantable scaffolds can be washed extensively to remove undesirable impurities, all of the components required to synthesize injectable foams must be injected into the defect. Thus, every compound in the foam must be biocompatible and non-cytotoxic at the concentrations utilized. As future research addresses these critical challenges, injectable macroporous foams are anticipated to have an increasingly significant impact on improving patient outcomes for a number of clinical procedures. PMID:24127230

  5. VECTORCARDIOGRAPHIC CHANGES DURING INTRACORONARY INJECTIONS.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    artery blood with the changes in the surface electrocardiogram, simultaneous recordings were made from Frank leads X, Y, and Z during intracoronary ...could be produced by intracoronary injections of saline solutions, but minimal or no changes were observed with injections of hypertonic mannitol

  6. Blast furnace injection symposium: Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-31

    These proceedings contain 14 papers related to blast furnace injection issues. Topics include coal quality, coal grinding, natural gas injection, stable operation of the blast furnace, oxygen enrichment, coal conveying, and performance at several steel companies. All papers have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base.

  7. Giving an IM (intramuscular) injection

    MedlinePlus

    To give an IM injection: Make sure you have the right amount of the right medicine in the syringe. Wash your hands well with soap and water. Dry them. Carefully find the spot where you will give the injection. Clean the skin at ...

  8. Injectable foams for regenerative medicine.

    PubMed

    Prieto, Edna M; Page, Jonathan M; Harmata, Andrew J; Guelcher, Scott A

    2014-01-01

    The design of injectable biomaterials has attracted considerable attention in recent years. Many injectable biomaterials, such as hydrogels and calcium phosphate cements (CPCs), have nanoscale pores that limit the rate of cellular migration and proliferation. While introduction of macroporosity has been suggested to increase cellular infiltration and tissue healing, many conventional methods for generating macropores often require harsh processing conditions that preclude their use in injectable foams. In recent years, processes such as porogen leaching, gas foaming, and emulsion-templating have been adapted to generate macroporosity in injectable CPCs, hydrogels, and hydrophobic polymers. While some of the more mature injectable foam technologies have been evaluated in clinical trials, there are challenges remaining to be addressed, such as the biocompatibility and ultimate fate of the sacrificial phase used to generate pores within the foam after it sets in situ. Furthermore, while implantable scaffolds can be washed extensively to remove undesirable impurities, all of the components required to synthesize injectable foams must be injected into the defect. Thus, every compound in the foam must be biocompatible and noncytotoxic at the concentrations utilized. As future research addresses these critical challenges, injectable macroporous foams are anticipated to have an increasingly significant impact on improving patient outcomes for a number of clinical procedures.

  9. Urine Pretreat Injection System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    A new method of introducing the OXONE (Registered Trademark) Monopersulfate Compound for urine pretreat into a two-phase urine/air flow stream has been successfully tested and evaluated. The feasibility of this innovative method has been established for purposes of providing a simple, convenient, and safe method of handling a chemical pretreat required for urine processing in a microgravity space environment. Also, the Oxone portion of the urine pretreat has demonstrated the following advantages during real time collection of 750 pounds of urine in a Space Station design two-phase urine Fan/Separator: Eliminated urine precipitate buildup on internal hardware and plumbing; Minimized odor from collected urine; and Virtually eliminated airborne bacteria. The urine pretreat, as presently defined for the Space Station program for proper downstream processing of urine, is a two-part chemical treatment of 5.0 grams of Oxone and 2.3 ml of H2SO4 per liter of urine. This study program and test demonstrated only the addition of the proper ratio of Oxone into the urine collection system upstream of the Fan/Separator. This program was divided into the following three major tasks: (1) A trade study, to define and recommend the type of Oxone injection method to pursue further; (2) The design and fabrication of the selected method; and (3) A test program using high fidelity hardware and fresh urine to demonstrate the method feasibility. The trade study was conducted which included defining several methods for injecting Oxone in different forms into a urine system. Oxone was considered in a liquid, solid, paste and powered form. The trade study and the resulting recommendation were presented at a trade study review held at Hamilton Standard on 24-25 October 94. An agreement was reached at the meeting to continue the solid tablet in a bag concept which included a series of tablets suspended in the urine/air flow stream. These Oxone tablets would slowly dissolve at a controlled rate

  10. NEUTRAL-BEAM INJECTION

    SciTech Connect

    Kunkel, W.B.

    1980-06-01

    The emphasis in the preceding chapters has been on magnetic confinement of high temperature plasmas. The question of production and heating of such plasmas has been dealt with relatively more briefly. It should not be inferred, however, that these matters must therefore be either trivial or unimportant. A review of the history reveals that in the early days all these aspects of the controlled fusion problem were considered to be on a par, and were tackled simultaneously and with equal vigor. Only the confinement problem turned out to be much more complex than initially anticipated, and richer in challenge to the plasma physicist than the questions of plasma production and heating. On the other hand, the properties of high-temperature plasmas and plasma confinement can only be studied experimentally after the problems of production and of heating to adequate temperatures are solved. It is the purpose of this and the next chapter to supplement the preceding discussions with more detail on two important subjects: neutral-beam injection and radio-frequency heating. These are the major contenders for heating in present and future tokamak and mirror fusion experiments, and even in several proposed reactors. For neutral beams we emphasize here the technology involved, which has undergone a rather remarkable development. The physics of particle and energy deposition in the plasma, and the discussion of the resulting effects on the confined plasma, have been included in previous chapters, and some experimental results are quoted there. Other heating processes of relevance to fusion are mentioned elsewhere in this book, in connection with the experiments where they are used: i.e. ohmic heating, adiabatic compression heating, and alpha-particle heating in Chapter 3 by H.P. Furth; more ohmic heating in Chapter 7, and shock-implosion heating, laser heating, and relativistic-electron beam heating in Chapter 8, both by W. E. Quinn. These methods are relatively straightforward in

  11. Injection nozzle for a turbomachine

    DOEpatents

    Uhm, Jong Ho; Johnson, Thomas Edward; Kim, Kwanwoo

    2012-09-11

    A turbomachine includes a compressor, a combustor operatively connected to the compressor, an end cover mounted to the combustor, and an injection nozzle assembly operatively connected to the combustor. The injection nozzle assembly includes a first end portion that extends to a second end portion, and a plurality of tube elements provided at the second end portion. Each of the plurality of tube elements defining a fluid passage includes a body having a first end section that extends to a second end section. The second end section projects beyond the second end portion of the injection nozzle assembly.

  12. Non-plugging injection valve

    DOEpatents

    Carey, Jr., Henry S.

    1985-01-01

    A valve for injecting fluid into a conduit carrying a slurry subject to separation to form deposits capable of plugging openings into the conduit. The valve comprises a valve body that is sealed to the conduit about an aperture formed through the wall of the conduit to receive the fluid to be injected and the valve member of the valve includes a punch portion that extends through the injection aperture to the flow passage, when the valve is closed, to provide a clear channel into the conduit, when the valve is opened, through deposits which might have formed on portions of the valve adjacent the conduit.

  13. Financial methods for waterflooding injectate design

    DOEpatents

    Heneman, Helmuth J.; Brady, Patrick V.

    2017-08-08

    A method of selecting an injectate for recovering liquid hydrocarbons from a reservoir includes designing a plurality of injectates, calculating a net present value of each injectate, and selecting a candidate injectate based on the net present value. For example, the candidate injectate may be selected to maximize the net present value of a waterflooding operation.

  14. Peginterferon Alfa-2a Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... as a solution (liquid) in a vial, a prefilled syringe, and a disposable autoinjector to inject subcutaneously (into ... or switch between peginterferon alfa-2a in vials, prefilled syringes, and disposable autoinjectors without talking to your doctor. ...

  15. General Information About Injection Wells

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This webpage provides general background information on injection wells used to place fluids in the subsurface. It also provides information on use, different categories, and how they are regulated. Information on the protection is also provided.

  16. Epidural Injections for Spinal Pain

    MedlinePlus

    ... back or leg pain after spinal surgery) Other injuries to spinal nerves, vertebrae and surrounding tissues Bone ... Bleeding if a blood vessel is inadvertently damaged. Injury to the nerves at the injection site. Temporary ...

  17. NSLS-II INJECTION CONCEPT.

    SciTech Connect

    SHAFTAN, T.; PINAYEV, I.; ROSE, J.; WANG, X.J.; ET AL.

    2005-05-16

    Currently the facility upgrade project is in progress at the NSLS (at Brookhaven National Laboratory). The goal of the NSLS-II is a 3 GeV ultra-low-emittance storage ring that will increase radiation brightness by three orders of magnitude over that of the present NSLS X-ray ring. The low emittance of the high brightness ring's lattice results in a short lifetime, so that a top-off injection mode becomes an operational necessity. Therefore, the NSLS-II injection system must provide, and efficiently inject, an electron beam at a high repetition rate. In this paper, we present our concept of the NSLS-II injection system and discuss the conditions for, and constraints on, its design.

  18. Interferon Beta-1b Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Interferon beta-1b injection is used to reduce episodes of symptoms in patients with relapsing-remitting (course ... and problems with vision, speech, and bladder control). Interferon beta-1b is in a class of medications ...

  19. Interferon Gamma-1b Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Interferon gamma-1b injection is used to reduce the frequency and severity of serious infections in people ... with severe, malignant osteopetrosis (an inherited bone disease). Interferon gamma-1b is in a class of medications ...

  20. Penicillin G (Potassium, Sodium) Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... to treat and prevent certain infections caused by bacteria. Penicillin G injection is in a class of medications called penicillins. It works by killing bacteria that cause infections.Antibiotics such as penicillin G ...

  1. [Properties of injectable intraocular lenses].

    PubMed

    Reiner, J; Speicher, L

    1993-01-01

    An aphakic eye can be corrected by injecting a liquid into the lens capsule following phacoemulsification and hardening the lens by UV irradiation. Another technique is to implant a thin casing of silicone rubber, that is then filled with liquid. The eye's resulting refraction depends strongly on the refractive index of the lens material. In either case, continuous control of the index of refraction is necessary while injecting the artificial lens material.

  2. Conditioning with delayed vitamin injections.

    PubMed

    Garcia, J; Ervin, F R; Yorke, C H; Koelling, R A

    1967-02-10

    Rats deficient in thiamine were allowed to drink saccharin-fla vored water. They were then given an injection of thiamine which caused their intake of the nonnutritive fluid to increase. Delay of the intramuscular injection up to 30 minutes had no effect upon the acquisition of this condi tioning. Presumably, this delay reflects specialization in the central integrative mechanisms which serve these afferent modalities.

  3. Injectable Drug Eluting Elastomeric Polymer: A Novel Submucosal Injection Material

    PubMed Central

    Tran, Richard T.; Palmer, Michael; Tang, Shou-Jiang; Abell, Thomas L.; Yang, Jian

    2011-01-01

    Background Biodegradable hydrogels can deliver therapeutic payloads with great potentials in endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR) and endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) to yield improvements in efficacy and foster mucosal regeneration. Objective To assess the efficacy of an injectable drug eluting elastomeric polymer (iDEEP) as a submucosal injection material. Design Comparative study among 3 different solutions using material characterization tests, ex vivo and in vivo porcine models. Setting Academic hospital. Interventions 30 gastric submucosal cushions were achieved with saline (0.9%), sodium hyaluronate (0.4%), and iDEEP (n = 10) in ex vivo porcine stomachs. Four porcine gastric submucosal cushions were then performed in vivo using iDEEP. Main outcome measurements Maximum injection pressure, Rebamipide release rate, submucosal elevation duration, and assessment of in vivo efficacy by en bloc resection. Results No significant difference in injection pressures between iDEEP (28.9 ± 0.3 PSI) and sodium hyaluronate (29.5 ± 0.4 PSI, P > .05) was observed. iDEEP gels displayed a controlled release of Rebamipide up to 2 weeks in vitro. The elevation height of iDEEP (5.7 ± 0.5 mm) was higher than saline (2.8 ± 0.2 mm, P < .01) and SH (4.2 ± 0.2 mm, P < .05). All EMR procedures were successfully performed after injection of iDEEP, and a large gel cushion was noted after the resection procedure. Limitations Benchtop, ex vivo, and non-survival pig study. Conclusions A novel injection solution was evaluated for endoscopic resection. These results suggest that iDEEP may provide a significant step towards the realization of an ideal EMR and ESD injection material. PMID:22301346

  4. Subcutaneous injection-induced cellulites.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Kao-Chi; Huang, Po-Tsung; Liu, Chiu-Shong; Lin, Wen-Yuan

    2017-06-01

    In the hospice ward where patients are in the terminal stages of cancer, it is common practice to give them a subcutaneous injection of pain relievers to reduce their pain and make them more comfortable. Most of these patients are elderly and have low blood pressure or poor veins, which often makes it difficult to inject them because of the calcification at previous injection sites. Thus, subcutaneous injections are a convenient way to maintain analgesia and patient comfort. Our patient, a 73-year-old aboriginal woman, was diagnosed with gastric adenocarcinoma and peritoneal carcinomatosis in March, 2004. While she was in the inpatient hospice ward, a subcutaneous injection site became infected and localized cellulitis developed. The patient's quality of life began to decline and her hospice stay was lengthened due to these complications. This case is offered as a reference case of subcutaneous injection complications encountered by elderly patients in hospice care. © Author(s) 2017. This article is published with open access by China Medical University.

  5. Intravenous injections in neonatal mice.

    PubMed

    Gombash Lampe, Sara E; Kaspar, Brian K; Foust, Kevin D

    2014-11-11

    Intravenous injection is a clinically applicable manner to deliver therapeutics. For adult rodents and larger animals, intravenous injections are technically feasible and routine. However, some mouse models can have early onset of disease with a rapid progression that makes administration of potential therapies difficult. The temporal (or facial) vein is just anterior to the ear bud in mice and is clearly visible for the first two days after birth on either side of the head using a dissecting microscope. During this window, the temporal vein can be injected with volumes up to 50 μl. The injection is safe and well tolerated by both the pups and the dams. A typical injection procedure is completed within 1-2 min, after which the pup is returned to the home cage. By the third postnatal day the vein is difficult to visualize and the injection procedure becomes technically unreliable. This technique has been used for delivery of adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors, which in turn can provide almost body-wide, stable transgene expression for the life of the animal depending on the viral serotype chosen.

  6. Intravenous Injections in Neonatal Mice

    PubMed Central

    Gombash Lampe, Sara E.; Kaspar, Brian K.; Foust, Kevin D.

    2014-01-01

    Intravenous injection is a clinically applicable manner to deliver therapeutics. For adult rodents and larger animals, intravenous injections are technically feasible and routine. However, some mouse models can have early onset of disease with a rapid progression that makes administration of potential therapies difficult. The temporal (or facial) vein is just anterior to the ear bud in mice and is clearly visible for the first two days after birth on either side of the head using a dissecting microscope. During this window, the temporal vein can be injected with volumes up to 50 μl. The injection is safe and well tolerated by both the pups and the dams. A typical injection procedure is completed within 1-2 min, after which the pup is returned to the home cage. By the third postnatal day the vein is difficult to visualize and the injection procedure becomes technically unreliable. This technique has been used for delivery of adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors, which in turn can provide almost body-wide, stable transgene expression for the life of the animal depending on the viral serotype chosen. PMID:25407048

  7. Adaptive engine injection for emissions reduction

    DOEpatents

    Reitz, Rolf D. : Sun, Yong

    2008-12-16

    NOx and soot emissions from internal combustion engines, and in particular compression ignition (diesel) engines, are reduced by varying fuel injection timing, fuel injection pressure, and injected fuel volume between low and greater engine loads. At low loads, fuel is injected during one or more low-pressure injections occurring at low injection pressures between the start of the intake stroke and approximately 40 degrees before top dead center during the compression stroke. At higher loads, similar injections are used early in each combustion cycle, in addition to later injections which preferably occur between about 90 degrees before top dead center during the compression stroke, and about 90 degrees after top dead center during the expansion stroke (and which most preferably begin at or closely adjacent the end of the compression stroke). These later injections have higher injection pressure, and also lower injected fuel volume, than the earlier injections.

  8. Fluid injection and induced seismicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kendall, Michael; Verdon, James

    2016-04-01

    The link between fluid injection, or extraction, and induced seismicity has been observed in reservoirs for many decades. In fact spatial mapping of low magnitude events is routinely used to estimate a stimulated reservoir volume. However, the link between subsurface fluid injection and larger felt seismicity is less clear and has attracted recent interest with a dramatic increase in earthquakes associated with the disposal of oilfield waste fluids. In a few cases, hydraulic fracturing has also been linked to induced seismicity. Much can be learned from past case-studies of induced seismicity so that we can better understand the risks posed. Here we examine 12 case examples and consider in particular controls on maximum event size, lateral event distributions, and event depths. Our results suggest that injection volume is a better control on maximum magnitude than past, natural seismicity in a region. This might, however, simply reflect the lack of baseline monitoring and/or long-term seismic records in certain regions. To address this in the UK, the British Geological Survey is leading the deployment of monitoring arrays in prospective shale gas areas in Lancashire and Yorkshire. In most cases, seismicity is generally located in close vicinity to the injection site. However, in some cases, the nearest events are up to 5km from the injection point. This gives an indication of the minimum radius of influence of such fluid injection projects. The most distant events are never more than 20km from the injection point, perhaps implying a maximum radius of influence. Some events are located in the target reservoir, but most occur below the injection depth. In fact, most events lie in the crystalline basement underlying the sedimentary rocks. This suggests that induced seismicity may not pose a leakage risk for fluid migration back to the surface, as it does not impact caprock integrity. A useful application for microseismic data is to try and forecast induced seismicity

  9. Staged direct injection diesel engine

    DOEpatents

    Baker, Quentin A.

    1985-01-01

    A diesel engine having staged injection for using lower cetane number fuels than No. 2 diesel fuel. The engine includes a main fuel injector and a pilot fuel injector. Pilot and main fuel may be the same fuel. The pilot injector injects from five to fifteen percent of the total fuel at timings from 20.degree. to 180.degree. BTDC depending upon the quantity of pilot fuel injected, the fuel cetane number and speed and load. The pilot fuel injector is directed toward the centerline of the diesel cylinder and at an angle toward the top of the piston, avoiding the walls of the cylinder. Stratification of the early injected pilot fuel is needed to reduce the fuel-air mixing rate, prevent loss of pilot fuel to quench zones, and keep the fuel-air mixture from becoming too fuel lean to become effective. In one embodiment, the pilot fuel injector includes a single hole for injection of the fuel and is directed at approximately 48.degree. below the head of the cylinder.

  10. Fault injection experiments using FIAT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barton, James H.; Czeck, Edward W.; Segall, Zary Z.; Siewiorek, Daniel P.

    1990-01-01

    The results of several experiments conducted using the fault-injection-based automated testing (FIAT) system are presented. FIAT is capable of emulating a variety of distributed system architectures, and it provides the capabilities to monitor system behavior and inject faults for the purpose of experimental characterization and validation of a system's dependability. The experiments consist of exhaustively injecting three separate fault types into various locations, encompassing both the code and data portions of memory images, of two distinct applications executed with several different data values and sizes. Fault types are variations of memory bit faults. The results show that there are a limited number of system-level fault manifestations. These manifestations follow a normal distribution for each fault type. Error detection latencies are found to be normally distributed. The methodology can be used to predict the system-level fault responses during the system design stage.

  11. Injection molding of engineering plastics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalyon, Dilhan M.

    1991-03-01

    This final report summarizes the findings of a study in injection molding of engineering plastics. Two engineering plastic resins, i.e., unmodified grades of a polyetherimide and a poly (2,6-dimethyl-1,4-phenylene ether) were thoroughly characterized. The characterization included rheology, thermal properties and P-V-T behavior. The data were employed to predict various microstructural distributions including density, residual stress and birefringence distributions in compression and injection molded specimens of these two engineering plastics. The detailed microstructural distributions were also studied experimentally upon processing the two engineering plastics, employing instrumented machines and industrial practices. The experimental findings were elucidated under the light of the numerical simulation results. Overall, this study should furnish a first order understanding of the microstructure development in articles injection molded from amorphous engineering plastic resins.

  12. Sodium storage and injection system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keeton, A. R. (Inventor)

    1979-01-01

    A sodium storage and injection system for delivering atomized liquid sodium to a chemical reactor employed in the production of solar grade silicon is disclosed. The system is adapted to accommodate start-up, shut-down, normal and emergency operations, and is characterized by (1) a jacketed injection nozzle adapted to atomize liquefied sodium and (2) a supply circuit connected to the nozzle for delivering the liquefied sodium. The supply circuit is comprised of a plurality of replaceable sodium containment vessels, a pump interposed between the vessels and the nozzle, and a pressurizing circuit including a source of inert gas connected with the vessels for maintaining the sodium under pressure.

  13. Line10 Charge Injection Biases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baggett, Sylvia

    2012-10-01

    Radiation damage on-orbit, in the form of charge traps, gradually reduces the charge transfer efficiency {CTE} of CCDs over time. In WFC3, one option for mitigating CTE losses is charge injection i.e. electronically inserting charge every Nth row. The benefit of this method is the significantly lower noise penalty, much less than the traditional Poissonian noise imparted by a pre- or post-flash of the same charge level. This program acquires the calibration data necessary to support science observations using charge injection.

  14. [On the history of injection].

    PubMed

    Norn, Svend; Kruse, Poul R; Kruse, Edith

    2006-01-01

    Although the effect of snake bites and poisoned arrows was known from ancient time, the development of the syringe and the needle lasted several centuries. Forms of intravenous injection and infusion are clearly documented in the 1650s. Sir Christopher Wren used a syringe made of animal bladder fixed to a goose quill to inject wine and opium into the veins of dogs. J.D. Major from Kiel and J.S. Elsholtz from Berlin probably were the first to deliberately administer intravenous injections to people in the 1660s. However, these early injections were not successful and injections did not come into fashion again until the latter part of the 1800s. Forerunners of subcutaneous administration were either the introduction of the drug under the epidermis by means of a vaccination-lancet or the application of a vesicant to remove the epidermis, after which the drug was applied to the denuded cutis. Lafargue, Lembert and Lesieur described these methods in the first half of the 1800s, and the methods continued to be of use in the second part of the century until the advent of subcutaneous injection. Alexander Wood of Edinburgh and Charles-Gabriel Pravaz from Lyon are known commonly as the inventors of the syringe for subcutaneous injection, but other pioneers such as Taylor, Washington and Rynd had already begun this form of administration. Increased use, safety and accuracy were accomplished by the progressive steps introduced by Wood, Pravaz and Luer. Thus, the syringe of Luer was fitted for aseptic heating, and a sharp needle readily perforated the skin. Sterilization by heating in an autoclave was developed by Pasteur, Chamberland and Koch, after managing aseptic conditions by the addition of preservatives such as carbolic acid. A safe method for the storage of sterile injectates was provided by Limousin's ampoule from 1886, and later by the introduction of multi-dose containers. The evolution of the syringe and its needle continues with the introduction of transdermal

  15. Spinal Injections for Pain Management.

    PubMed

    Palmer, William E

    2016-12-01

    Image-guided spinal injection is commonly performed in symptomatic patients to decrease pain severity, confirm the pain generator, and delay or avoid surgery. This article focuses on the radiologist as spine interventionist and addresses the following four topics relevant to the radiologist who performs corticosteroid injections for pain management: (a) the rationale behind corticosteroid injection, (b) the interaction with patients, (c) the role of imaging in procedural selection and planning, and (d) the pearls and pitfalls of fluoroscopically guided injections. Factors that contribute to the success of a pain management service include communication skills and risk mitigation. A critical factor is the correlation of clinical symptoms with magnetic resonance (MR) imaging findings. Radiologists can leverage their training in MR image interpretation to distinguish active pain generators in the spine from incidental abnormalities. Knowledge of fluoroscopic anatomy and patterns of contrast material flow guide the planning and execution of safe and effective needle placement. (©) RSNA, 2016 Online supplemental material is available for this article.

  16. Multi-shot injection moulding.

    PubMed

    Tinson, J

    1998-04-01

    Medical device manufacturers are beginning to combine multi-colour and multi-material moulding techniques with soft-touch materials to gain competitive advantage. This trend is driven by the availability of machines that can inject as many as six different materials simultaneously. This article looks at the multi-shot moulding process and uses examples to highlight the benefits of the technique.

  17. [Lethal intravenous injection of benzine].

    PubMed

    Zirwes, Christian; Ritz-Timme, Stefanie; Hinsch, Nora; Kardel, Bernd; Hartung, Benno

    2015-01-01

    A man who suffered from chronic pain syndrome died two days after intravenous injection of 2 ml benzine. Previous suicide attempts by drug intoxication and strangulation had failed. Death occurred due to multi-organ failure. We present the results of the clinical, morphological and toxicological examinations performed.

  18. Charge injection in organic semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malliaras, George

    2002-03-01

    Knowing how the current at the contacts depends on material parameters is of fundamental importance for the understanding and optimization of organic optoelectronic devices such as light emitting diodes and transistors. We have measured the electrical characteristics of various contacts between commonly used anode electrodes (such as ITO and Au) and various hole transport layers, including N-N-diphenyl-N-N-bis(3-methylphenyl)-1-1-biphenyl-4,4-diamine (TPD) and poly[2- methoxy,5-(2-ethylhexoxy)-1,4-phenylene vinylene] (MEH-PPV). By carrying out independent measurements of the hole mobility in the organic layers we are able to isolate the injection and the transport processes and study the electrical characteristics of the contact alone. We find that most of the commonly used contacts in organic light emitting diodes are in fact not Ohmic, but current-limiting. The injected current is found to have a similar electric field dependence as the space charge limited current. Surprisingly, the injected current scales with the hole mobility in the organic, which was varied over three orders of magnitude by diluting TPD into polycarbonate. We show that this unexpected result is due to the hopping nature of transport in the organic material. We demonstrate ways to improve injection by modifying the contact by thin metallic layers and implement these modified contacts in organic light emitting diodes. A mechanism for this improvement is proposed.

  19. Bubble injected hydrocyclone flotation cell

    SciTech Connect

    Stanley, D.A.; Jordon, C.E.

    1990-11-20

    This patent describes an apparatus for selective separation of a mixture of hydrophobic and hydrophilic mineral particles. It comprises: a bubble-injected hydrocyclone flotation cell and a bubble slurry. The cell comprises an enclosed body section; a mineral pulp feed port; a bubble slurry feed port; and a vortex finder.

  20. Initial NSTX Lithium Pellet Injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kugel, H. W.; Bell, M.; Bell, R.; Biewer, T.; Gates, D.; Jardin, S.; Kaita, R.; Leblanc, B.; Paul, S.; Samtaney, R.; Skinner, C. H.; Raman, R.; Bush, C.; Maingi, R.; Soukhanovskii, V.; Nishino, N.; Lee, K. C.; Stutman, D.

    2004-11-01

    A cartridge style Lithium Pellet Injector was installed on NSTX for midplane radial injection. Deuterium gas was used to propel a Li pellet-bearing cartridge down a barrel to a cartridge stop, and the pellet continued into the NSTX plasma at about 150 m/s. 16 lithium pellets, about 2 mg each were injected into LSN and DND, NBI-heated, H-mode plasmas, and into L-mode LSN Ohmic plasmas, and were observed with a Li I filtered Plasma-TV. Li pellets injected into NBI-heated LSN and DND plasmas appeared to ablate in the outer boundary. The pellets injected into OH plasmas exhibited good penetration to the HFS region. Lastly, a NBI preheat was added prior to pellet arrival, and the penetration depth was found to be very sensitive to the NBI turn-off time relative to pellet arrival. As this work progressed, Li luminosity started to be observed from the very initiation of discharges, due to depositions from preceding discharges. Initial modeling results will be presented.

  1. Blast Furnace Granulated Coal Injection

    SciTech Connect

    1998-09-30

    Production levels on each furnace exceeded 7000 NTHM/day during July. The combined production of 14,326 was a result of lower coke rates and below average delay rates on both furnaces, The combined production was at its highest level since September 1997. In August, the combined productivity declined to less than 13,500 NTHM/day. Although D furnace maintained a production rate in excess of 7000 NTHM/day, C furnace was lower because of a castfloor breakout and subsequent five day repair from August 26-30. Despite the lower productivity in August, injected coal and furnace coke rates were very good during the month. During September, the operation was difficult as a result of higher delays on both furnaces. The combined average monthly delay rate was considerably above the twenty-month average of 113 minutes per day and the combined average monthly production was less than 14,000 NTHM/day. Higher furnace coke rates at lower coal injection levels also contributed to the decrease. Additionally, the coke rate on both furnaces was increased substantially and the injected coal rate was decreased in preparation for the high volatile Colorado coal trial that started on September 28. The furnace process results for this quarter are shown in Tables 1A and 1B. In addition, the last twelve months of injected coal and coke rates for each furnace are shown in Figures 1 and 2.

  2. Microcellular nanocomposite injection molding process

    Treesearch

    Mingjun Yuan; Lih-Sheng Turng; Rick Spindler; Daniel Caulfield; Chris Hunt

    2003-01-01

    This study aims to explore the processing benefits and property improvements of combining nanocomposites with microcellular injection molding. The molded parts produced based on the Design of Experiments (DOE) matrices were subjected to tensile testing, impact testing, and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM), Dynamic Mechanical...

  3. Tuning superconductivity by carrier injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, Paul

    2011-03-01

    All high-Tc cuprates are stacking sequences of Cu O2 layers and charge reservoir layers consisting of metal oxides. Upon doping the Cu O2 layers, antiferromagnetic order is destroyed and metallic conductivity is established. Usually doping is achieved by a non-stoichiometric composition of the charge reservoir layer. However, we already have shown that we can change the carrier concentration of Bi 2 Sr 2 CaCu 2 O8 + δ single crystals by current injection along the c- axis. Critical temperature, c-axis resistivity and critical current of intrinsic Josephson junctions can be tuned in a large range from underdoping to extreme overdoping. This effect is persistent up to annealing temperatures of approximately 270 K. Using current injection at higher bias, we were able to reduce the carrier concentration again. We investigated in detail the superconducting properties by performing macroscopic quantum tunneling experiments of intrinsic Josephson junctions. The experiments have been carried out repeatedly on samples, whose properties were changed only by current injection. An exponential increase of the critical current density with hole concentration was observed. At the same time, the capacitance of intrinsic Josephson junctions increased significantly. Finally, only by current injection, we were able to convert into the superconducting state a nonsuperconducting, oxygen depleted sample. This work was done in collaboration with Y. Koval, X.Y. Jin, S. Probst, Y. Simsek, C. Steiner (Universität Erlangen), H. B. Wang (NIMS, Tsukuba), and G. Behr, B. Büchner (IFW Dresden).

  4. High injection vs low injection behaviour of solar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Luque, A.; Araujo, G.L.; Calleja, M.J.

    1984-05-01

    An unitary model similar to the Ebers Moll one is presented to describe the behaviour of BSF cells working under either high or low injection. The model is applied to bifacial cells. The influence of the base resistivity on the front to back illumination short-circuit current is explained, as well as the cross-over presented by the I-V curve under front and back illuminations.

  5. Diesel engine fuel injection pump capable of injection timing adjustment

    SciTech Connect

    Wakasa, S.; Okazaki, T.

    1987-12-15

    A diesel engine fuel injection pump capable of injection timing adjustment is described comprising: (a) housing means; (b) a plunger assembly reciprocably mounted within the housing means and defining a pumping chamber therein; (c) the housing means having defined therein a fuel inlet port to the pumping chamber in a predetermined position in the longitudinal direction of the pumping chamber; (d) drive means for reciprocably moving the plunger assembly within the pumping chamber between a first extreme position; (e) the plunger assembly being formed of at least two transversely split segments movable toward and away from each other within limits and including resilient means biasing the segments of the plunger assembly toward each other; and (f) the housing means further including a timing fluid inlet port for introduction of a timing fluid under variable pressure between the segments of the plunger assembly to move the plunger assembly segments away from each other to an extent that timing fluid pressure is counterbalanced by force of the resilient means for controllably varying the distance therebetween and, in consequence, for varying the prestroke of the plunger assembly solely in response to variation of the timing fluid pressure to effect adjustment of injection timing.

  6. Sequential injection gas guns for accelerating projectiles

    SciTech Connect

    Lacy, Jeffrey M; Chu, Henry S; Novascone, Stephen R

    2011-11-15

    Gas guns and methods for accelerating projectiles through such gas guns are described. More particularly, gas guns having a first injection port located proximate a breech end of a barrel and a second injection port located longitudinally between the first injection port and a muzzle end of the barrel are described. Additionally, modular gas guns that include a plurality of modules are described, wherein each module may include a barrel segment having one or more longitudinally spaced injection ports. Also, methods of accelerating a projectile through a gas gun, such as injecting a first pressurized gas into a barrel through a first injection port to accelerate the projectile and propel the projectile down the barrel past a second injection port and injecting a second pressurized gas into the barrel through the second injection port after passage of the projectile and to further accelerate the projectile are described.

  7. Unnecessary injections and paralytic poliomyelitis in India.

    PubMed

    Wyatt, H V; Mahadevan, S; Srinivasan, S

    1992-01-01

    The effect of prior injections on the pattern and severity of paralytic poliomyelitis has been examined by a retrospective analysis of case notes from an outpatient pediatric clinic in South India. Of 262 children with acute polio, 176 had received unnecessary injections < 48 h before paralysis and 12 had received diphtheria-pertussis-tetanus or provocative injections. Two children injected in the right arm had paralysis in that limb only. Children with no injections (controls) had an equal chance of paralysis (0.73) in each left and right leg. Children with injections in the right or left gluteus or in both had a 19% greater chance of paralysis in the injected leg(s), whereas uninjected legs had a 31% lower chance of paralysis. Injected leg muscles were weaker than those of control children. Legs of control children were stronger than those with one leg injected and much stronger than those with both injected. More than 96% of the children had at least one leg paralysed. Age and vaccine status did not affect the results of injections. After injections there was greater likelihood of death or lack of recovery of muscle strength. About three-quarters of the children had received unnecessary injections; of these 60% had more severe paralysis and a non-paralytic attack became paralytic in 40%. If oral medicines for fevers and diarrhoea replaced unnecessary injections, the prevalence and severity of paralytic polio would be reduced.

  8. Fuel injection system for diesel engines

    SciTech Connect

    Holmer, H.E.

    1981-06-16

    A fuel injection system is disclosed for direct injection diesel engines with a depression in the tops of the pistons. A first injection pump has a regulator and accompanying first injector for each cylinder , the injectors being disposed to spray the fuel in a zone around the center axis of the respective piston depression. A second injection pump has a regulator and accompanying second injector for each cylinder, the second injectors being disposed to inject fuel obliquely from the side into the respective piston depression in a direction counter to the rotation of the intake air before the fuel from the first injectors is injected.

  9. Periodontal ligament injection: alternative solutions.

    PubMed Central

    Gray, R. J.; Lomax, A. M.; Rood, J. P.

    1990-01-01

    This study was undertaken to investigate whether plain lidocaine, 3% plain mepivacaine and 3% prilocaine with felypressin were suitable epinephrine-free local anesthetic solutions for use in periodontal ligament anesthesia as alternatives to lidocaine with 1:80,000 epinephrine. Two hundred and seven patients received one of the four test solutions via a periodontal ligament injection and the success rate of anesthesia was confirmed using an electric pulp stimulator. Although neither mepivacaine nor prilocaine were as effective as lidocaine with epinephrine, the success rates of these three solutions were not statistically different. A single periodontal ligament injection of any of the solutions tested resulted in a low incidence of anesthesia. The success rate of lidocaine without epinephrine was consistently poor. PMID:2097910

  10. High-pressure injection injuries.

    PubMed

    Neal, N C; Burke, F D

    1991-11-01

    A retrospective review of the 11 patients attending the Hand Unit at the Derbyshire Royal Infirmary over the last 5 years with high-pressure injection injuries is presented. The machines and materials that cause these injuries are outlined and the methods of treatment and rehabilitation are described in detail. The study demonstrates the morbidity of high-pressure injection injuries, particularly those inflicted by paint spray guns, and highlights a frequent delay between injury and decompression of the injured part. We wish to emphasize the importance of early diagnosis, referral, exploration and rehabilitation to ensure an optimal outcome, and to point out that failure to refer early is becoming an increasing focus of negligence claims.

  11. Miniaturized flow injection analysis system

    DOEpatents

    Folta, J.A.

    1997-07-01

    A chemical analysis technique known as flow injection analysis is described, wherein small quantities of chemical reagents and sample are intermixed and reacted within a capillary flow system and the reaction products are detected optically, electrochemically, or by other means. A highly miniaturized version of a flow injection analysis system has been fabricated utilizing microfabrication techniques common to the microelectronics industry. The microflow system uses flow capillaries formed by etching microchannels in a silicon or glass wafer followed by bonding to another wafer, commercially available microvalves bonded directly to the microflow channels, and an optical absorption detector cell formed near the capillary outlet, with light being both delivered and collected with fiber optics. The microflow system is designed mainly for analysis of liquids and currently measures 38{times}25{times}3 mm, but can be designed for gas analysis and be substantially smaller in construction. 9 figs.

  12. Miniaturized flow injection analysis system

    DOEpatents

    Folta, James A.

    1997-01-01

    A chemical analysis technique known as flow injection analysis, wherein small quantities of chemical reagents and sample are intermixed and reacted within a capillary flow system and the reaction products are detected optically, electrochemically, or by other means. A highly miniaturized version of a flow injection analysis system has been fabricated utilizing microfabrication techniques common to the microelectronics industry. The microflow system uses flow capillaries formed by etching microchannels in a silicon or glass wafer followed by bonding to another wafer, commercially available microvalves bonded directly to the microflow channels, and an optical absorption detector cell formed near the capillary outlet, with light being both delivered and collected with fiber optics. The microflow system is designed mainly for analysis of liquids and currently measures 38.times.25.times.3 mm, but can be designed for gas analysis and be substantially smaller in construction.

  13. RHIC Injection Kicker Design Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Hahn, H.; Tsoupas, N.; Tuozzolo, J. E.

    1997-01-02

    Injecting beam from the AGS to RHIC is performed by single-bunch transfer. The RHIC injection kicker system provides a vertical deflection of 1.86 mrad for beams with a B p = 100 Tm. The available free space for the four kickers limits their effective length to 1.12 m each. Neglecting any contribution from the electric field, the deflecting magnetic field is required to be 415 G inside the beam tube. This leads, with the horizontal aperture of 4.84 cm, to the current requirement of 1.6kA. The magnetic field then becomes 2.13 kG in the back ferrite. In this report, computation studies directed at reducing the electric peak fields, without significant reduction of the capacitance and concomitant increase of the characteristic impedance, are presented.

  14. Model for pneumatic pellet injection

    SciTech Connect

    Hogan, J.T.; Milora, S.L.; Schuresko, D.D.

    1983-07-01

    A hydrodynamic code has been developed to model the performance of pneumatic pellet injection systems. The code describes one dimensional, unsteady compressible gas dynamics, including gas friction and heat transfer to the walls in a system with variable area. The mass, momentum, and energy equations are solved with an iterated Lax-Wendroff scheme with additional numerical viscosity. The code is described and comparisons with experimental data are presented.

  15. Catalytic combustion with steam injection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, D. N.; Tacina, R. R.

    1982-01-01

    The effects of steam injection on (1) catalytic combustion performance, and (2) the tendency of residual fuel to burn in the premixing duct upstream of the catalytic reactor were determined. A petroleum residual, no. 2 diesel, and a blend of middle and heavy distillate coal derived fuels were tested. Fuel and steam were injected together into the preheated airflow entering a 12 cm diameter catalytic combustion test section. The inlet air velocity and pressure were constant at 10 m/s and 600 kPa, respectively. Steam flow rates were varied from 24 percent to 52 percent of the air flow rate. The resulting steam air mixture temperatures varied from 630 to 740 K. Combustion temperatures were in the range of 1200 to 1400 K. The steam had little effect on combustion efficiency or emissions. It was concluded that the steam acts as a diluent which has no adverse effect on catalytic combustion performance for no. 2 diesel and coal derived liquid fuels. Tests with the residual fuel showed that upstream burning could be eliminated with steam injection rates greater than 30 percent of the air flow rate, but inlet mixture temperatures were too low to permit stable catalytic combustion of this fuel.

  16. Radial lean direct injection burner

    DOEpatents

    Khan, Abdul Rafey; Kraemer, Gilbert Otto; Stevenson, Christian Xavier

    2012-09-04

    A burner for use in a gas turbine engine includes a burner tube having an inlet end and an outlet end; a plurality of air passages extending axially in the burner tube configured to convey air flows from the inlet end to the outlet end; a plurality of fuel passages extending axially along the burner tube and spaced around the plurality of air passage configured to convey fuel from the inlet end to the outlet end; and a radial air swirler provided at the outlet end configured to direct the air flows radially toward the outlet end and impart swirl to the air flows. The radial air swirler includes a plurality of vanes to direct and swirl the air flows and an end plate. The end plate includes a plurality of fuel injection holes to inject the fuel radially into the swirling air flows. A method of mixing air and fuel in a burner of a gas turbine is also provided. The burner includes a burner tube including an inlet end, an outlet end, a plurality of axial air passages, and a plurality of axial fuel passages. The method includes introducing an air flow into the air passages at the inlet end; introducing a fuel into fuel passages; swirling the air flow at the outlet end; and radially injecting the fuel into the swirling air flow.

  17. Risk of needlestick injuries by injection pens.

    PubMed

    Pellissier, G; Miguéres, B; Tarantola, A; Abiteboul, D; Lolom, I; Bouvet, E

    2006-05-01

    Injection pens are used by patients when auto-administering medication (insulin, interferon, apokinon etc.) by the subcutaneous route. The objective of this study was to evaluate the rate of injection pen use by healthcare workers (HCWs) and the associated risk of needlestick injuries to document and compare injury rates between injection pens and subcutaneous syringes. A one-year retrospective study was conducted in 24 sentinel French public hospitals. All needlestick injuries linked to subcutaneous injection procedures, which were voluntarily reported to occupational medicine departments by HCWs between October 1999 and September 2000, were documented using a standardized questionnaire. Additional data (total number of needlestick injuries reported, number of subcutaneous injection devices purchased) were collected over the same period. A total of 144 needlestick injuries associated with subcutaneous injection were reported. The needlestick injury rate for injection pens was six times the rate for disposable syringes. Needlestick injuries with injection pens accounted for 39% of needlestick injuries linked with subcutaneous injection. In all, 60% of needlestick injuries with injection pens were related to disassembly. Injection pens are associated with needlestick injuries six times more often than syringes. Nevertheless, injection pens have been shown to improve the quality of treatment for patients and may improve treatment observance. This study points to the need for safety-engineered injection pens.

  18. Musculoskeletal injections: a review of the evidence.

    PubMed

    Stephens, Mark B; Beutler, Anthony I; O'Connor, Francis G

    2008-10-15

    Injections are valuable procedures for managing musculoskeletal conditions commonly encountered by family physicians. Corticosteroid injections into articular, periarticular, or soft tissue structures relieve pain, reduce inflammation, and improve mobility. Injections can provide diagnostic information and are commonly used for postoperative pain control. Local anesthetics may be injected with corticosteroids to provide additional, rapid pain relief. Steroid injection is the preferred and definitive treatment for de Quervain tenosynovitis and trochanteric bursitis. Steroid injections can also be helpful in controlling pain during physical rehabilitation from rotator cuff syndrome and lateral epicondylitis. Intra-articular steroid injection provides pain relief in rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis. There is little systematic evidence to guide medication selection for therapeutic injections. The medication used and the frequency of injection should be guided by the goal of the injection (i.e., diagnostic or therapeutic), the underlying musculoskeletal diagnosis, and clinical experience. Complications from steroid injections are rare, but physicians should understand the potential risks and counsel patients appropriately. Patients with diabetes who receive periarticular or soft tissue steroid injections should closely monitor their blood glucose for two weeks following injection.

  19. Helpful tips for performing musculoskeletal injections.

    PubMed

    Metz, John P

    2010-01-01

    Injections are valuable procedures for managing musculoskeletal conditions commonly encountered by family physicians. Corticosteroid injections into articular, periarticular, or soft tissue structures relieve pain, reduce inflammation, and improve mobility. Injections can provide diagnostic information and are commonly used for postoperative pain control. Local anesthetics may be injected with corticosteroids to provide additional, rapid pain relief. Steroid injection is the preferred and definitive treatment for de Quervain tenosynovitis and trochanteric bursitis. Steroid injections can also be helpful in controlling pain during physical rehabilitation from rotator cuff syndrome and lateral epicondylitis. Intra-articular steroid injection provides pain relief in rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis. There is little systematic evidence to guide medication selection for therapeutic injections. The medication used and the frequency of injection should be guided by the goal of the injection (i.e., diagnostic or therapeutic), the underlying musculoskeletal diagnosis, and clinical experience. Complications from steroid injections are rare, but physicians should understand the potential risks and counsel patients appropriately. Patients with diabetes who receive periarticular or soft tissue steroid injections should closely monitor their blood glucose for two weeks following injection.

  20. Jet injection into polyacrylamide gels: investigation of jet injection mechanics.

    PubMed

    Schramm-Baxter, Joy; Katrencik, Jeffrey; Mitragotri, Samir

    2004-08-01

    Jet injectors employ high-velocity liquid jets that penetrate into human skin and deposit drugs in the dermal or subdermal region. Although jet injectors have been marketed for a number of years, relatively little is known about the interactions of high-speed jets with soft materials such as skin. Using polyacrylamide gels as a model system, the mechanics of jet penetration, including the dependence of jet penetration on mechanical properties, was studied. Jets employed in a typical commercial injector, (orifice diameter: 152 microm, velocity: 170-180 m/s) were used to inject fluid into polyacrylamide gels possessing Young's moduli in the range of 0.06-0.77 MPa and hardness values in the range of 4-70 H(OO). Motion analysis of jet entry into polyacrylamide gels revealed that jet penetration can be divided into three distinct events: erosion, stagnation, and dispersion. During the erosion phase, the jet removed the gel at the impact site and led to the formation of a distinct cylindrical hole. Cessation of erosion induced a period of jet stagnation ( approximately 600 micros) characterized by constant penetration depth. This stage was followed by dispersion of the liquid into the gel. The dispersion took place by crack propagation and was nearly symmetrical with the exception of injections into 10% acrylamide (Young's modulus of 0.06 MPa). The penetration depth of the jets as well as the rate of erosion decreased with increasing Young's modulus. The mechanics of jet penetration into polyacrylamide gels provides an important tool for understanding jet injection into skin.

  1. Teriparatide (rDNA origin) Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... or lower stomach area. This medication comes in prefilled dosing pens. It is usually injected once a ... doses. Do not transfer the medication to a syringe. Use a new needle for each injection. Needles ...

  2. Corticosteroid Injections for Common Musculoskeletal Conditions.

    PubMed

    Foster, Zoë J; Voss, Tyler T; Hatch, Jacquelynn; Frimodig, Adam

    2015-10-15

    Family physicians considering corticosteroid injections as part of a comprehensive treatment plan for musculoskeletal diagnoses will find few high-quality studies to assist with evidence-based decision making. Most studies of corticosteroid injections for the treatment of osteoarthritis, tendinopathy, bursitis, or neuropathy include only small numbers of patients and have inconsistent long-term follow-up. Corticosteroid injections for the treatment of adhesive capsulitis result in short-term improvements in pain and range of motion. For subacromial impingement syndrome, corticosteroid injections provide short-term pain relief and improvement in function. In medial and lateral epicondylitis, corticosteroid injections offer only short-term improvement of symptoms and have a high rate of symptom recurrence. Corticosteroid injections for carpal tunnel syndrome may help patients avoid or delay surgery. Trigger finger and de Quervain tenosynovitis may be treated effectively with corticosteroid injections. Patients with hip or knee osteoarthritis may have short-term symptom relief with corticosteroid injections.

  3. Can Botox Injections Relieve Arthritis Pain?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Botox injections relieve arthritis pain? Answers from April Chang-Miller, M.D. Botox injections into arthritic joints ... focus of most arthritis treatment plans. With April Chang-Miller, M.D. References Hameed F, et al. ...

  4. Peginterferon Alfa-2b Injection (Sylatron)

    MedlinePlus

    ... injection is in a class of medications called interferons. It works by stopping the growth of cancer ... allergic to peginterferon alfa-2b injection (PegIntron, Sylatron), interferon alfa-2b (Intron), any other medications, or any ...

  5. The effect of injection duration and injection site on pain and bruising of subcutaneous injection of heparin.

    PubMed

    Pourghaznein, Tayebe; Azimi, Amir Vahedian; Jafarabadi, Mohammad Asghari

    2014-04-01

    To determine and compare the effects of four methods of subcutaneous heparin injection on pain and bruising in abdomen and thighs. Subcutaneous heparin injection is a common nursing clinical intervention. Nurses frequently inject heparin subcutaneously and this action often results in some complications such as bruising, haematoma, pain and induration in the injection site. There are also some other factors inducing complications associated with heparin injection, including the injection site and the injection duration. A quasi-experimental within-subject design. This study was conducted on 90 patients with COPD hospitalised in two ICU wards at two teaching hospitals in urban areas of Iran. They were administered heparin subcutaneously, 4000 units every 12 hours. Each patient received four injections in their abdomen and thighs, using four different methods. The number and size of bruising at the injection site were measured through a flexible millimetre ruler, 48 hours after each injection. The severity of pain was measured through pain visual analogue scale immediately after each injection. Collected data were analysed by descriptive and analytical statistics using spss 11.5 software. In the method 15 seconds injection duration and waiting for 5 seconds before withdrawing the needle, the number of bruising was significantly lower and size of bruising was significantly smaller, but no significant difference was found in the severity of pain. However, in other methods, the severity of pain in thighs was significantly higher than in abdomen, but no statistically significant difference was reported between the size and number of bruising in abdomen and thighs. The method 15 seconds injection duration and waiting for 5 seconds before withdrawing the needle is recommended to be used for subcutaneous heparin injection by clinical nurses. As to the results, the severity of pain in abdomen was lower than in thighs. This study proposed a suitable method for subcutaneous

  6. Robotic Male Vas Deferens Intraluminal Injection System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-10-25

    controls an electro-mechanical device which assists the medical personnel’s hand holding the injection syringe to approach the biological structure... contraception . The system may be adapted for injection into blood vessels. Key Words: Injection; multimodal imaging; feedback electro-mechanical...based piston drive does not give the necessary "feel" required for correct injection. The force involved in free hand drive of the syringe piston

  7. A new look at trigger point injections.

    PubMed

    Wong, Clara S M; Wong, Steven H S

    2012-01-01

    Trigger point injections are commonly practised pain interventional techniques. However, there is still lack of objective diagnostic criteria for trigger points. The mechanisms of action of trigger point injection remain obscure and its efficacy remains heterogeneous. The advent of ultrasound technology in the noninvasive real-time imaging of soft tissues sheds new light on visualization of trigger points, explaining the effect of trigger point injection by blockade of peripheral nerves, and minimizing the complications of blind injection.

  8. A New Look at Trigger Point Injections

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Clara S. M.; Wong, Steven H. S.

    2012-01-01

    Trigger point injections are commonly practised pain interventional techniques. However, there is still lack of objective diagnostic criteria for trigger points. The mechanisms of action of trigger point injection remain obscure and its efficacy remains heterogeneous. The advent of ultrasound technology in the noninvasive real-time imaging of soft tissues sheds new light on visualization of trigger points, explaining the effect of trigger point injection by blockade of peripheral nerves, and minimizing the complications of blind injection. PMID:21969825

  9. 21 CFR 522.1182 - Iron injection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... follows: (i) For prevention of iron deficiency anemia, inject 100 mg (1 mL) by intramuscular injection at 2 to 4 days of age. (ii) For treatment of iron deficiency anemia, inject 100 mg (1 mL) by... repeated in 14 to 21 days. (ii) For the treatment of anemia due to iron deficiency, administer an...

  10. 21 CFR 522.1182 - Iron injection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... follows: (i) For prevention of iron deficiency anemia, inject 100 mg (1 mL) by intramuscular injection at 2 to 4 days of age. (ii) For treatment of iron deficiency anemia, inject 100 mg (1 mL) by... repeated in 14 to 21 days. (ii) For the treatment of anemia due to iron deficiency, administer an...

  11. 21 CFR 522.1182 - Iron injection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... follows: (i) For prevention of iron deficiency anemia, inject 100 mg (1 mL) by intramuscular injection at 2 to 4 days of age. (ii) For treatment of iron deficiency anemia, inject 100 mg (1 mL) by... repeated in 14 to 21 days. (ii) For the treatment of anemia due to iron deficiency, administer an...

  12. Injectivity Testing for Vapour Dominated Feed Zones

    SciTech Connect

    Clotworthy, A.W.; Hingoyon, C.S.

    1995-01-01

    Wells with vapor dominated feed zones yield abnormal pressure data. This is caused by the condensation of vapor during water injection. A revised injectivity test procedure currently applied by PNOC at the Leyte Geothermal Power Project has improved the injectivity test results.

  13. Intravitreal Injection-Induced Migraine Headaches

    PubMed Central

    Lerebours, Valerie C; Nguyen, Thanh-Giao; Sarup, Vimal; Rossi, Fabian

    2016-01-01

    A case of migraine headache triggered by intravitreal injection, and aborted by retrobulbar injection, is reported. To date, migraine and related cephalgia have not been reported after intravitreal injection. Ophthalmologists and neurologists should be aware of this potential sequela of a very common procedure.  PMID:27190726

  14. 21 CFR 522.2670 - Yohimbine injectable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Yohimbine injectable. 522.2670 Section 522.2670... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS IMPLANTATION OR INJECTABLE DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 522.2670 Yohimbine injectable. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter of sterile aqueous solution contains either 2 or...

  15. 21 CFR 522.1077 - Gonadorelin injectable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Gonadorelin injectable. 522.1077 Section 522.1077... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS IMPLANTATION OR INJECTABLE DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 522.1077 Gonadorelin injectable. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter sterile aqueous solution contains 50 micrograms...

  16. 21 CFR 522.1077 - Gonadorelin injectable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Gonadorelin injectable. 522.1077 Section 522.1077... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS IMPLANTATION OR INJECTABLE DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 522.1077 Gonadorelin injectable. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter sterile aqueous solution contains 50 micrograms...

  17. 21 CFR 522.1077 - Gonadorelin injectable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Gonadorelin injectable. 522.1077 Section 522.1077... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS IMPLANTATION OR INJECTABLE DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 522.1077 Gonadorelin injectable. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter sterile aqueous solution contains 50 micrograms...

  18. Injection dynamics of gelled propellants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Changjin

    Gel propellants have been recognized as attractive candidates for future propulsion systems due to the reduced tendency to spill and the energy advantages over solid propellants. One of strong benefits emphasized in gel propellant applications is a throttling capability, but the accurate flow control is more complicated and difficult than with conventional Newtonian propellants because of the unique rheological behaviors of gels. This study is a computational effort directed to enhance understanding of the injector internal flow characteristics for gel propellants under rocket injection conditions. In simulations, the emphasized rheology is a shear-thinning which represents a viscosity decrease with increasing a shear rate. It is described by a generalized Newtonian fluid constitutive equation and Carreau-Yasuda model. Using this rheological model, two injection schemes are considered in the present study: axially-fed and cross-fed injection for single-element and multi-element impinging injectors, respectively. An axisymmetric model is developed to describe the axially-fed injector flows and fully three-dimensional model is utilized to simulate cross-fed injector flows. Under axially-fed injection conditions investigated, three distinct modes, an unsteady, steady, and hydraulic flip mode, are observed and mapped in terms of Reynolds number and orifice design. In an unsteady mode, quasi-periodic oscillations occur near the inlet lip leading mass pulsations and viscosity fluctuations at the orifice exit. This dynamic behavior is characterized using a time-averaged discharge coefficient, oscillation magnitude and frequency by a parametric study with respect to an orifice design, Reynolds number and rheology. As a result, orifice exit flows for gel propellants appear to be significantly influenced by a viscous damping and flow resistance due to a shear thinning behavior and these are observed in each factors considered. Under conditions driven by a manifold crossflow

  19. Acoustic fault injection tool (AFIT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schoess, Jeffrey N.

    1999-05-01

    On September 18, 1997, Honeywell Technology Center (HTC) successfully completed a three-week flight test of its rotor acoustic monitoring system (RAMS) at Patuxent River Flight Test Center. This flight test was the culmination of an ambitious 38-month proof-of-concept effort directed at demonstrating the feasibility of detecting crack propagation in helicopter rotor components. The program was funded as part of the U.S. Navy's Air Vehicle Diagnostic Systems (AVDS) program. Reductions in Navy maintenance budgets and available personnel have dictated the need to transition from time-based to 'condition-based' maintenance. Achieving this will require new enabling diagnostic technologies. The application of acoustic emission for the early detection of helicopter rotor head dynamic component faults has proven the feasibility of the technology. The flight-test results demonstrated that stress-wave acoustic emission technology can detect signals equivalent to small fatigue cracks in rotor head components and can do so across the rotating articulated rotor head joints and in the presence of other background acoustic noise generated during flight operation. During the RAMS flight test, 12 test flights were flown from which 25 Gbyte of digital acoustic data and about 15 hours of analog flight data recorder (FDR) data were collected from the eight on-rotor acoustic sensors. The focus of this paper is to describe the CH-46 flight-test configuration and present design details about a new innovative machinery diagnostic technology called acoustic fault injection. This technology involves the injection of acoustic sound into machinery to assess health and characterize operational status. The paper will also address the development of the Acoustic Fault Injection Tool (AFIT), which was successfully demonstrated during the CH-46 flight tests.

  20. Fuel injection device and method

    DOEpatents

    Carlson, Larry W.

    1986-01-01

    A fuel injection system and method provide for shaping a combustion plume within a combustion chamber to effectively recirculate hot combustion gases for stable combustion conditions while providing symmetrical combustion conditions. Char and molten slag are passed to the outer boundary layer to complete combustion of char while permitting initial substoichiometric combustion in a reductive atmosphere for reducing discharge of nitrogen oxides. Shaping of the plume is accomplished by an axially adjustable pintle which permits apportionment of driving pressure between elements which contribute tangential and those which contribute radial directional components to oxidant flow entering the combustion chamber.

  1. Fuel injection device and method

    DOEpatents

    Carlson, L.W.

    1983-12-21

    A fuel injection system and method provide for shaping a combustion plume within a combustion chamber to effectively recirculate hot combustion gases for stable combustion conditions while providing symmetrical combustion conditions. Char and molten slag are passed to the outer boundary layer to complete combustion of char while permitting initial substoichiometric combustion in a reductive atmosphere for reducing discharge of nitrogen oxides. Shaping of the plume is accomplished by an axially adjustable pintle which permits apportionment of driving pressure between elements which contribute tangential and those which contribute radial directional components to oxidant flow entering the combustion chamber.

  2. Injected radiotracer techniques in hydrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, S. M.

    1984-08-01

    Radioactive tracers which have several advantages over conventional tracers made significant contributions to the development of the injected tracer method in hydrology. A review of the nuclear and the physico-chemical characteristics of the possible radiotracer compounds leads us to conclude that the most effective groundwater tracers are tritiated water (HTO),82Br- and58Co or60Co as a hexacyanocobaltate complex. A discussion of the various case studies in India and abroad covering the three groups of applications mentioned helps us to conclude that well established radiotracer methods with associated interpretational techniques are available for many short range studies in surface and subsurface hydrology.

  3. Fuel injection device and method

    DOEpatents

    Carlson, Larry W.

    1986-02-04

    A fuel injection system and method provide for shaping a combustion plume within a combustion chamber to effectively recirculate hot combustion gases for stable combustion conditions while providing symmetrical combustion conditions. Char and molten slag are passed to the outer boundary layer to complete combustion of char while permitting initial substoichiometric combustion in a reductive atmosphere for reducing discharge of nitrogen oxides. Shaping of the plume is accomplished by an axially adjustable pintle which permits apportionment of driving pressure between elements which contribute tangential and those which contribute radial directional components to oxidant flow entering the combustion chamber.

  4. Governor for fuel injection pump

    SciTech Connect

    Yogome, Y.; Itsuki, S.; Shimizu, T.; Shimizu, T.; Hamada, H.

    1987-05-19

    This patent describes double-lever type governor for a fuel injection pump comprising: a governor case; a governor lever and a tension lever rotatably supported in the case and operatively associated with each other; a start spring interposed between the governor lever and the tension lever securing a start fuel increment stroke in the governor lever; a fuel regulating rack connected to the governor lever; a supporting shaft mounted in the case supporting both the governor lever and the tension lever for rotation; and a locking mechanism which connects both levers at the time when the start fuel increment stroke of the governor lever becomes zero or approximately zero to be eliminated.

  5. Porous media heat transfer for injection molding

    DOEpatents

    Beer, Neil Reginald

    2016-05-31

    The cooling of injection molded plastic is targeted. Coolant flows into a porous medium disposed within an injection molding component via a porous medium inlet. The porous medium is thermally coupled to a mold cavity configured to receive injected liquid plastic. The porous medium beneficially allows for an increased rate of heat transfer from the injected liquid plastic to the coolant and provides additional structural support over a hollow cooling well. When the temperature of the injected liquid plastic falls below a solidifying temperature threshold, the molded component is ejected and collected.

  6. [Injecting yourself in a healthy manner].

    PubMed

    Molina, C N; Vidot, J V

    1995-01-01

    AIDS patients who inject drugs dramatically increase their chances of contracting other infections. The United States and Puerto Rico offer risk reduction centers and syringe exchanges. Injecting drugs properly can reduce the risk of further infection. Some ways to do this include: using only clean syringes, cleaning used syringes, and disinfecting equipment with bleach. Before injecting, wash hands thoroughly, clean fingers and injection site with alcohol, and alternate veins. Arteries should be avoided. Diagrams of body parts to be injected and the proper means for doing so are included. Numbers for Syringe Exchanges and Risk Reduction Centers are provided.

  7. 76 FR 55908 - Underground Injection Control Program; Hazardous Waste Injection Restrictions; Petition for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-09

    ... granted to Great Lakes Chemical Corporation for two Class I injection wells located at El Dorado, Arkansas... hazardous wastes identified in this exemption, into Class I hazardous waste injection wells No. WDW-5 and... AGENCY Underground Injection Control Program; Hazardous Waste Injection Restrictions; Petition for...

  8. 75 FR 60457 - Underground Injection Control Program Hazardous Waste Injection Restrictions; Petition for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-30

    ... a Class I injection well located at Magnolia, Arkansas. As required by 40 CFR Part 148, the company... this exemption, into Class I hazardous waste injection well DWD No. 1 at the Magnolia, Arkansas... AGENCY Underground Injection Control Program Hazardous Waste Injection Restrictions; Petition for...

  9. 77 FR 52717 - Underground Injection Control Program; Hazardous Waste Injection Restrictions; Petition for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-30

    ... granted to Cornerstone for four Class I injection wells located at Waggaman, Louisiana. The company has... hazardous wastes identified in this exemption, into Class I hazardous waste injection Wells 2, 3 4B and 5 at... AGENCY Underground Injection Control Program; Hazardous Waste Injection Restrictions; Petition for...

  10. 76 FR 36129 - Underground Injection Control Program; Hazardous Waste Injection Restrictions; Petition for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-21

    ... Environmental Services Company for two Class I injection wells located at Pasadena, Texas. The company has..., into Class I hazardous waste injection wells No. WDW- 397 and WDW-398 at the Agrifos Pasadena Texas... AGENCY Underground Injection Control Program; Hazardous Waste Injection Restrictions; Petition for...

  11. 78 FR 23246 - Underground Injection Control Program; Hazardous Waste Injection Restrictions; Petition for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-18

    ... granted to BASF Corporation for three Class I injection wells located at Freeport, Texas. The company has... identified in this exemption, into Class I hazardous waste injection wells WDW-51 and WDW- 99 and WDW-408... AGENCY Underground Injection Control Program; Hazardous Waste Injection Restrictions; Petition for...

  12. 76 FR 42125 - Underground Injection Control Program; Hazardous Waste Injection Restrictions; Petition for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-18

    ... Company for one Class I injection well located at Borger, Texas. The company has adequately demonstrated... exemption, into Class I hazardous waste injection well No. WDW-325 at the Borger Texas facility, until... AGENCY Underground Injection Control Program; Hazardous Waste Injection Restrictions; Petition for...

  13. Accuracy of intermittent fluoroscopy to detect intravascular injection during transforaminal epidural injections.

    PubMed

    Smuck, Matthew; Fuller, Brian J; Chiodo, Anthony; Benny, Benoy; Singaracharlu, Balaji; Tong, Henry; Ho, Suehun

    2008-04-01

    Prospective validity study. To determine how accurately intermittent fluoroscopy detects inadvertent intravascular injection during transforaminal epidurals. Serious morbidity caused by transforaminal epidural injections is frequently related to inadvertent vascular injection of corticosteroids. Several methods have been proposed to reduce the risk of vascular injection, but none have demonstrated efficacy. Because of the fleeting appearance of vascular contrast patterns, live fluoroscopy is recommended during contrast injection. Despite this, many practitioners continue to use intermittent fluoroscopy. During 50 epidural injections dynamic contrast flow was observed under live fluoroscopy, and the "dynamic true" image was determined. Two intermittent fluoroscopy images were saved from each injection, the first just before completing the contrast injection ("static C" image), and another 1 second after the contrast injection ceased ("static PC" image). Five physicians with experience performing these injections independently interpreted the 100 randomly ordered static images. Accuracy of intermittent fluoroscopy was determined by comparing the interpretation of the 100 static images with the dynamic true patterns observed under live fluoroscopy. Overall, interpretation of the static images missed 57% of the vascular injections. Timing of the static images influenced accuracy with the static C images missing 50% of vascular injections, and the static PC images missing 68% of vascular injections (P = 0.075). Accuracy was significantly worse when vascular injections occurred simultaneous to the expected epidural injection (P = 0.041), and in lumbar images (P = 0.012). Based on these findings, we recommend use of live fluoroscopy to observe dynamic contrast flow during transforaminal epidural steroid injections.

  14. Dependence of injection locking of a TEA CO2 laser on intensity of injected radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oppenheim, U. P.; Menzies, R. T.; Kavaya, M. J.

    1982-01-01

    The results of an experimental study to determine the minimum required injected power to control the output frequency of a TEA CO2 laser are reported. A CW CO2 waveguide laser was used as the injection oscillator. Both the power and the frequency of the injected radiation were varied, while the TEA resonator cavity length was adjusted to match the frequency of the injected signal. Single-longitudinal mode (SLM) TEA laser radiation was produced for injected power levels which are several orders of magnitude below those previously reported. The ratio of SLM output power to injection power exceeded 10 to the 12th at the lowest levels of injected intensity.

  15. Incidence of intradiscal injection during lumbar fluoroscopically guided transforaminal and interlaminar epidural steroid injections.

    PubMed

    Candido, Kenneth D; Katz, Jeffrey A; Chinthagada, Mariadas; McCarthy, Robert A; Knezevic, Nebojsa Nick

    2010-05-01

    Intradiscal injections during transforaminal epidural steroid injections and interlaminar lumbar epidural steroid injections have been reported rarely. In that regard, this retrospective observational report is the first attempt to quantify the overall rate of this complication. A retrospective analysis of 3 years of accrued data (2004-2007) showed that 2412 transforaminal epidural steroid injections were performed at the 2 training institutions (Loyola University Medical Center and Northwestern University/Feinberg School of Medicine). There were 6 intradiscal (annular) injections of contrast, for a rate of 1:402. Over the same interval, 4723 lumbar epidural steroid injections were performed, with 1 intradiscal injection, for a rate of 1:4723.

  16. Maximum magnitude earthquakes induced by fluid injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGarr, A.

    2014-02-01

    Analysis of numerous case histories of earthquake sequences induced by fluid injection at depth reveals that the maximum magnitude appears to be limited according to the total volume of fluid injected. Similarly, the maximum seismic moment seems to have an upper bound proportional to the total volume of injected fluid. Activities involving fluid injection include (1) hydraulic fracturing of shale formations or coal seams to extract gas and oil, (2) disposal of wastewater from these gas and oil activities by injection into deep aquifers, and (3) the development of enhanced geothermal systems by injecting water into hot, low-permeability rock. Of these three operations, wastewater disposal is observed to be associated with the largest earthquakes, with maximum magnitudes sometimes exceeding 5. To estimate the maximum earthquake that could be induced by a given fluid injection project, the rock mass is assumed to be fully saturated, brittle, to respond to injection with a sequence of earthquakes localized to the region weakened by the pore pressure increase of the injection operation and to have a Gutenberg-Richter magnitude distribution with a b value of 1. If these assumptions correctly describe the circumstances of the largest earthquake, then the maximum seismic moment is limited to the volume of injected liquid times the modulus of rigidity. Observations from the available case histories of earthquakes induced by fluid injection are consistent with this bound on seismic moment. In view of the uncertainties in this analysis, however, this should not be regarded as an absolute physical limit.

  17. Maximum magnitude earthquakes induced by fluid injection

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McGarr, Arthur F.

    2014-01-01

    Analysis of numerous case histories of earthquake sequences induced by fluid injection at depth reveals that the maximum magnitude appears to be limited according to the total volume of fluid injected. Similarly, the maximum seismic moment seems to have an upper bound proportional to the total volume of injected fluid. Activities involving fluid injection include (1) hydraulic fracturing of shale formations or coal seams to extract gas and oil, (2) disposal of wastewater from these gas and oil activities by injection into deep aquifers, and (3) the development of enhanced geothermal systems by injecting water into hot, low-permeability rock. Of these three operations, wastewater disposal is observed to be associated with the largest earthquakes, with maximum magnitudes sometimes exceeding 5. To estimate the maximum earthquake that could be induced by a given fluid injection project, the rock mass is assumed to be fully saturated, brittle, to respond to injection with a sequence of earthquakes localized to the region weakened by the pore pressure increase of the injection operation and to have a Gutenberg-Richter magnitude distribution with a b value of 1. If these assumptions correctly describe the circumstances of the largest earthquake, then the maximum seismic moment is limited to the volume of injected liquid times the modulus of rigidity. Observations from the available case histories of earthquakes induced by fluid injection are consistent with this bound on seismic moment. In view of the uncertainties in this analysis, however, this should not be regarded as an absolute physical limit.

  18. Duct injection technology prototype development

    SciTech Connect

    Harper, S.L. . Research and Development Div.)

    1991-08-01

    This report describes a test program conducted to determine the corrosion rate of materials in the dry scrubber or duct injection systems. Four materials were evaluated: 1010 carbon steel, Corten, 317SS and Hastelloy C-276. The results show that acidic conditions result in higher corrosion rates than alkaline conditions for all the materials. The carbon steel, Corten and stainless steel show moderate to heavy pitting attack in the acidic environment. For the alkaline conditions, the corrosion rates of carbon steel and Corten were higher than the stainless steel or Hastelloy C-276. Also, the corrosion rate of abraded specimens were four time those of unabraded specimens in the flue gas. It is probable that areas of wall-wetting and plugging in the duct injection process will exhibit high rates of corrosion for the carbon steel, Corten, and stainless steel materials. General corrosion and pitting corrosion will predominate. Additionally, abraded duct areas will corrode at a significantly higher rate than unabraded duct materials. 6 refs., 11 figs., 7 tabs.

  19. FDDI network test adaptor error injection circuit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eckenrode, Thomas (Inventor); Stauffer, David R. (Inventor); Stempski, Rebecca (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    An apparatus for injecting errors into a FDDI token ring network is disclosed. The error injection scheme operates by fooling a FORMAC into thinking it sent a real frame of data. This is done by using two RAM buffers. The RAM buffer normally accessed by the RBC/DPC becomes a SHADOW RAM during error injection operation. A dummy frame is loaded into the shadow RAM in order to fool the FORMAC. This data is just like the data that would be used if sending a normal frame, with the restriction that it must be shorter than the error injection data. The other buffer, the error injection RAM, contains the error injection frame. The error injection data is sent out to the media by switching a multiplexor. When the FORMAC is done transmitting the data, the multiplexor is switched back to the normal mode. Thus, the FORMAC is unaware of what happened and the token ring remains operational.

  20. Anthropological perspectives on injections: a review.

    PubMed Central

    Reeler, A. V.

    2000-01-01

    Qualitative studies from developing countries have pointed to the widespread popularity of injections. In addition to their use by formal and informal providers and traditional healers, there is now increasing evidence of the use of injections and injection equipment by lay people. Epidemiological research links the large number of unsafe injections to serious bloodborne infections such as viral hepatitis B and C and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). The present article examines the reasons behind the demand for injections by consumers and the administration of unnecessary or unsafe injections by different types of provider. Interventions aimed at reducing the risk of unsafe injections are discussed in relation to cultural and social factors as well as those factors associated with health systems. Suggestions are made for approaches to the design of such interventions. PMID:10686748

  1. Groin injecting among a community-recruited sample of people who inject drugs in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Ti, Lianping; Hayashi, Kanna; Kaplan, Karyn; Suwannawong, Paisan; Wood, Evan; Kerr, Thomas

    2014-01-16

    Use of the femoral vein for the injection of illicit drugs (i.e. groin injecting) has been linked to various health-related harms, including deep vein thrombosis. However, little is known about the prevalence of groin injecting and factors that predict this practice among people who inject drugs (PWID) in Thailand. We sought to investigate the prevalence and factors associated with groin injecting in Bangkok, Thailand. Data were derived from the Mitsampan Community Research Project in Bangkok between July and October 2011. Multivariate logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with groin injecting in the last six months. Among 437 participants, 34.3% reported groin injecting in the last six months. In multivariate analyses, factors positively associated with groin injecting included: having higher than secondary education (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.59; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.00 - 2.56), weekly midazolam injection (AOR = 8.26; 95% CI: 5.04 - 14.06), and reports of having had drugs planted on oneself by police (AOR = 2.14; 95% CI: 1.37 - 3.36). Over one-third of our sample of Thai PWID reported recent groin injecting. Frequent midazolam injection and higher education were found to be associated with groin injecting. That high intensity PWID were more likely to inject in the groin is concerning given the known negative consequences associated with the groin as a site of injection. Additionally, PWID who reported drug planting by police were more likely to inject in the groin, suggesting that reliance on law enforcement approaches may undermine safe injection practices in this setting. These findings highlight the need for evidence-based interventions to address the harms associated with groin injecting, including efforts to alert PWID to risks of groin injecting, the distribution of appropriate injecting equipment, and efforts to encourage use of other injecting sites.

  2. Prevalence and correlates of neck injection among people who inject drugs in Tijuana, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    RAFFUL, CLAUDIA; WAGNER, KARLA D.; WERB, DAN; GONZÁLEZ-ZÚÑIGA, PATRICIA E.; VERDUGO, SILVIA; RANGEL, GUDELIA; STRATHDEE, STEFFANIE A.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction and Aims Injecting drugs in the neck has been related to adverse health conditions such as jugular vein thrombosis, deep neck infections, aneurysm, haematomas, airway obstruction, vocal cord paralysis and wound botulism, among others. We identified prevalence and correlates of neck injection among people who inject drugs (PWID) in Tijuana, Mexico. Design and Methods Beginning in 2011, PWID aged ≥18 years who injected drugs within the last month were recruited into a prospective cohort. At baseline and semi-annually, PWID completed interviewer-administered surveys soliciting data on drug-injecting practices. Logistic regression was used to identify predictors of injecting in the neck as the most frequent injection site at a single visit. Results Of 380 PWID, 35.3% injected in the neck at least once in the past 6 months, among whom 71.6% reported it as their most common injection site, the most common injecting site after the arms (47%). Controlling for age, years injecting and injecting frequency, injecting heroin and methamphetamine two or more times per day and having sought injection assistance were associated with injecting in the neck [adjusted odds ratios (AOR): 2.12; 95% confidence intervals (CI): 1.27–3.53 and AOR: 2.65; 95% CI: 1.52–4.53 respectively]. Discussion and Conclusions Injecting in the neck was very common among PWID in Tijuana and was associated with polydrug use and seeking injection assistance. Tailoring harm reduction education interventions for individuals who provide injection assistance (‘hit doctors’) may allow for the dissemination of safe injecting knowledge to reduce injection-related morbidity and mortality. PMID:25867795

  3. Experimental model of intravitreal injection techniques.

    PubMed

    Hubschman, Jean-Pierre; Coffee, Robert E; Bourges, Jean-Louis; Yu, Fei; Schwartz, Steven D

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate the amount of drug reflux and vitreous leakage from the needle tract after various intravitreal (IVT) injection techniques in porcine cadaver eyes. The reflux after IVT injection was quantified by methylene blue injection through the pars plana of fresh pig eyes (0.05 mL per eye, n = 150) and the vitreous incarceration measured after balanced salt solution (BSS) IVT injection (0.05 mL per eye, n = 150) into eyes with vitreous previously stained with methylene blue. Blue spots observed on the ocular surface after injection quantified both reflux and vitreous incarceration. We tested different needle sizes (27, 30, and 32 gauge) and different techniques (depth and speed of injection). We used an ocular endoscope to observe the flow and diffusion of injected methylene blue and the vitreous incarceration at the puncture site after IVT injection using the different techniques. Thirty-gauge needles showed less drug reflux than the 32-gauge or 27-gauge needles (P < 0.01). Thirty-two-gauge needles demonstrated less incarceration of vitreous at the tract site (P < 0.01), but with the endoscope, all needle tracts showed vitreous incarceration at their internal aspect. Deep IVT injection showed less reflux than superficial IVT injection, but vitreous incarceration did not differ. The delay between the scleral puncture and the injection did not modify the reflux or the vitreous incarceration. Thirty-gauge needles and deep placement of the needle tip into the vitreous before injection may reduce reflux and vitreous incarceration. This could maximize the therapeutic effect of IVT injection and may decrease the rates of severe complications such as retinal detachment and endophthalmitis.

  4. Injection practices in southern part of India.

    PubMed

    Rajasekaran, M; Sivagnanam, G; Thirumalaikolundusubramainan, P; Namasivayam, K; Ravindranath, C

    2003-05-01

    The World Health Organization defines 'a safe injection' as one that does not harm the recipient, does not expose the provider to any avoidable risk, and does not result in any waste that is dangerous to the community. Irrational and unsafe injection practices are rife in developing countries. The objective of the present study was to assess the injection practices in the state of Tamilnadu, India, using the Rapid assessment and response guide of the Safe Injection Global Network of the World Health Organization. Thirty-nine prescribers, 62 providers, and 175 members of the general public were interviewed. The areas were chosen out of convenience while at the same time adhering to the guidelines. The study was carried out between April and June 2001. The per capita injection rate was 2.4 per year. The ratio of therapeutic to immunization injections was 6.5:1, and the proportion of injections given with a disposable syringe and needle was 35.4%. Knowledge about diseases transmitted by unsafe injections, for example involving human immunodeficiency virus and hepatitis B virus, was greater among all the study groups. The annual incidence of needlestick injuries among providers was 23.6, which is extremely high. It is concluded that there are deficiencies in practice such as an excessive, unwarranted usage of injections, a sizeable prevalence of unsafe injection practices, the short supply of injection equipment leading to a high incidence of needlestick injuries, a low proportion of hepatitis B virus immunization among providers, and a lack of adequate sharps containers and disposal facilities in this part of India. It is suggested that immediate and long-term remedial measures, such as the education of prescribers to reduce the number of injections to a bare minimum, an adequate supply of injection equipment, provider protection with immunization for hepatitis B virus, the provision of adequate sharps containers with safe disposal facilities and, not least, community

  5. Pellet injection into ATF plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Wilgen, J.B.; Bell, J.D.; England, A.C.; Fisher, P.W.; Howe, H.C.; Murakami, M.; Rasmussen, D.A.; Richards, R.K.; Uckan, T.; Wing, W.R. ); Bell, G.L. ); Qualls, A.L. ); Sudo, S. )

    1990-01-01

    Based on the favorable empirical scaling of stellarator confinement with increasing electron density, pellet fueling is expected to result in significant performance improvement of the ATF plasma. With gas-puff fueling, NBI heated plasmas in ATF are limited by a thermal collapse. Pellet fueling provides a potential means to delay this effect and gain access to the favorable high density confinement regime. To provide flexibility for optimization and physics studies, eight different pellet sizes are available. To date, line average densities of up to 4 {times} 10{sup 13} cm{sup {minus}3} have been achieved with a single pellet injected into a 0.7 MW NBI plasma at 0.95 T; the results from optimization studies with up to 1.5 MW of NBI power at 2 T will be presented.

  6. Injection moulding of biodegradable implants.

    PubMed

    von Oepen, R; Michaeli, W

    1992-01-01

    In medical engineering, degradable polymers represent an attractive alternative for conventional materials to be used as implants in the body. They are used as drug deliveries or as plates and screws to fix broken bones. Since they are completely broken down by the human body, the second operation, which is generally required, can be avoided. A central problem is the processing of these polymers, because no stabilisers are allowed. This causes a partially relevant loss in molecular weight, which correlates directly with the mechanical properties. Tests carried out on an injection moulding machine and on a conical plate rheometer show the influence of temperature, shear, residence time and moisture on molecular weight reduction and mechanical properties.

  7. Fault Injection Techniques and Tools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hsueh, Mei-Chen; Tsai, Timothy K.; Iyer, Ravishankar K.

    1997-01-01

    Dependability evaluation involves the study of failures and errors. The destructive nature of a crash and long error latency make it difficult to identify the causes of failures in the operational environment. It is particularly hard to recreate a failure scenario for a large, complex system. To identify and understand potential failures, we use an experiment-based approach for studying the dependability of a system. Such an approach is applied not only during the conception and design phases, but also during the prototype and operational phases. To take an experiment-based approach, we must first understand a system's architecture, structure, and behavior. Specifically, we need to know its tolerance for faults and failures, including its built-in detection and recovery mechanisms, and we need specific instruments and tools to inject faults, create failures or errors, and monitor their effects.

  8. Common rail fuel injection system

    SciTech Connect

    Hilsbos, R.L.; Wieland, H.L.; Straub, R.D.; Teerman, R.F.; Timmer, R.C.

    1993-07-27

    A high-pressure pump is described for a fuel injection system having a fuel supply means for supplying fuel at a relatively constant pressure to the pump, the pump comprising: a pump body having a pumping chamber defined therein; a mechanically driven linearly reciprocating plunger disposed in the pumping chamber, the plunger having a head end and a tail end, the plunger being linearly reciprocatable over a stroke range between an extended position and a retracted position, the pumping chamber extending beyond the extended position of the plunger to define a head portion of the pumping chamber; plunger spring means for resiliently biasing the plunger to its retracted position; an inlet valve disposed in the pump body for admitting fuel to the pumping chamber within the stroke range of the head end of the plunger; inlet valve spring means for resiliently biasing the inlet valve to a closed position, the inlet valve being opened by a pressure differential when the head end of the plunger is retracted; an outlet valve disposed in the pump body for discharging fuel from the head portion of the pumping chamber; and outlet valve spring means for resiliently biasing the outlet valve to a closed position; the inlet valve being a ball valve; a piston, the pump body further defining therein a leakage accumulator chamber, the leakage accumulator chamber being slidably divided by the piston into an anterior portion and a posterior portion, the posterior portion being at substantially atmospheric pressure, the collector groove communicating with the anterior portion of the leakage accumulator chamber, recaptured fuel from the fuel injection nozzles also being communicated to the anterior portion of the accumulator chamber; and piston spring means for resiliently biasing the piston away from the posterior portion of the leakage accumulator chamber.

  9. Forum for Injection Techniques, India: The First Indian Recommendations for Best Practice in Insulin Injection Technique

    PubMed Central

    Kalra, Sanjay; Balhara, Yatan Pal Singh; Baruah, Manash P.; Chadha, Manoj; Chandalia, Hemraj B.; Chowdhury, Subhankar; Kumar, K. M. Prasanna; Modi, Sonal; Pitale, Shailesh; Shukla, Rishi; Sahay, Rakesh; Sundaram, Annamalai; Unnikrishnan, Ambika G.; Wangnoo, Subhash K.

    2012-01-01

    Advances in the treatment of diabetes have led to an increase in the number of injectable therapies, such as human insulin, insulin analogues, and glucagon-like peptide-1 analogues. The efficacy of injection therapy in diabetes depends on correct injection technique, among many other factors. Good injection technique is vital in achieving glycemic control and thus preventing complications of diabetes. From the patients’ and health-care providers’ perspective, it is essential to have guidelines to understand injections and injection techniques. The abridged version of the First Indian Insulin Injection technique guidelines developed by the Forum for Injection Technique (FIT) India presented here acknowledge good insulin injection techniques and provide evidence-based recommendations to assist diabetes care providers in improving their clinical practice. PMID:23226630

  10. Parametric study of injection rates with solenoid injectors in an injection quantity and rate measuring device

    DOE PAGES

    Busch, Stephen; Miles, Paul C.

    2015-03-31

    A Moehwald HDA (HDA is a German acronym: Hydraulischer Druckanstieg: hydraulic pressure increase) injection quantity and rate measuring unit is used to investigate injection rates obtained with a fast-acting, preproduction diesel solenoid injector. Experimental parametric variations are performed to determine their impact on measured injection rate traces. A pilot–main injection strategy is investigated for various dwell times; these preproduction injectors can operate with very short dwell times with distinct pilot and main injection events. Dwell influences the main injection rate shape. Furthermore, a comparison between a diesel-like fuel and a gasoline-like fuel shows that injection rates are comparable for amore » single injection but dramatically different for multiple injections with short dwells.« less

  11. Injection molding and debinding of micro gears fabricated by micro powder injection molding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ni, Xin-lei; Yin, Hai-qing; Liu, Lin; Yi, Shan-jie; Qu, Xuan-hui

    2013-01-01

    Micro powder injection molding (μPIM) was investigated for possible mass production of micro-components at relatively low cost. However, scaling down to such a level produces challenges in injection molding and debinding. Micro gears were fabricated by μPIM from in-house feedstock. The effect of injection speed and injection pressure on the replication of the micro gear cavity was investigated. Solvent debinding and thermal debinding processes were discussed. The results show that micro gears can be successfully fabricated under the injection pressure of 70 MPa and the 60% injection speed. Either too low or too high injection speed can cause incomplete filling of micro gears. The same is the case with too low injection pressure. Too high injection pressure can bring cracks. Solvent debinding of micro gears was performed in a mixture of petroleum ether and ethanol. Subsequently, micro gears were successfully debound by a multistep heating schedule.

  12. Injectable biomaterials: a perspective on the next wave of injectable therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Spector, Myron; Lim, Teck Chuan

    2016-02-02

    We are experiencing a new wave of injectable therapeutics (namely/injectable biomaterials) to complement injectable drugs and injectable biologics, and to serve as the basis for injectable combinatorial therapeutics. Injectable biomaterials contribute to the treatment of the fluid-filled defects which often result from disease and injury, by providing the missing physical framework (i.e. the stroma). However, while injectable matrices may be necessary for the successful treatment of certain lesions, they will not likely be sufficient. Chemoattractants for select endogenous cells, or cells themselves, may need to be incorporated into the matrix prior to its injection to ensure the necessary cellular repopulation of the cavitary defect. These agents and others (drugs and biologics) delivered by the matrix represent the new category of injectable combinatorial therapeutics.

  13. Parametric study of injection rates with solenoid injectors in an injection quantity and rate measuring device

    SciTech Connect

    Busch, Stephen; Miles, Paul C.

    2015-03-31

    A Moehwald HDA (HDA is a German acronym: Hydraulischer Druckanstieg: hydraulic pressure increase) injection quantity and rate measuring unit is used to investigate injection rates obtained with a fast-acting, preproduction diesel solenoid injector. Experimental parametric variations are performed to determine their impact on measured injection rate traces. A pilot–main injection strategy is investigated for various dwell times; these preproduction injectors can operate with very short dwell times with distinct pilot and main injection events. Dwell influences the main injection rate shape. Furthermore, a comparison between a diesel-like fuel and a gasoline-like fuel shows that injection rates are comparable for a single injection but dramatically different for multiple injections with short dwells.

  14. Liquid injection plasma deposition method and apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Kong, P.C.; Watkins, A.D.

    1999-05-25

    A liquid injection plasma torch deposition apparatus for depositing material onto a surface of a substrate may comprise a plasma torch for producing a jet of plasma from an outlet nozzle. A plasma confinement tube having an inlet end and an outlet end and a central bore therethrough is aligned with the outlet nozzle of the plasma torch so that the plasma jet is directed into the inlet end of the plasma confinement tube and emerges from the outlet end of the plasma confinement tube. The plasma confinement tube also includes an injection port transverse to the central bore. A liquid injection device connected to the injection port of the plasma confinement tube injects a liquid reactant mixture containing the material to be deposited onto the surface of the substrate through the injection port and into the central bore of the plasma confinement tube. 8 figs.

  15. Liquid injection plasma deposition method and apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Kong, Peter C.; Watkins, Arthur D.

    1999-01-01

    A liquid injection plasma torch deposition apparatus for depositing material onto a surface of a substrate may comprise a plasma torch for producing a jet of plasma from an outlet nozzle. A plasma confinement tube having an inlet end and an outlet end and a central bore therethrough is aligned with the outlet nozzle of the plasma torch so that the plasma jet is directed into the inlet end of the plasma confinement tube and emerges from the outlet end of the plasma confinement tube. The plasma confinement tube also includes an injection port transverse to the central bore. A liquid injection device connected to the injection port of the plasma confinement tube injects a liquid reactant mixture containing the material to be deposited onto the surface of the substrate through the injection port and into the central bore of the plasma confinement tube.

  16. Resin injection in clays with high plasticity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nowamooz, Hossein

    2016-11-01

    Regarding the injection process of polyurethane resins in clays with high plasticity, this paper presents the experimental results of the pressuremeter and cone penetration tests before and after injection. A very important increase in pressure limit or in soil resistance can be observed for all the studied depths close to the injection points. An analytical analysis for cylindrical pore cavity expansion in cohesive frictional soils obeying the Mohr-Coulomb criterion was then used to reproduce the pressuremeter tests before and after injection. The model parameters were calibrated by maintaining constant the elasticity parameters as well as the friction angel before and after injection. A significant increase in cohesion was observed because of soil densification after resin expansion. The estimated undrained cohesions, derived from the parameters of the Mohr-Coulomb criterion, were also compared with the cone penetration tests. Globally, the model predictions show the efficiency of resin injection in clay soils with high plasticity.

  17. Injectable Corticosteroids: Take Precautions and Use Caution.

    PubMed

    Freire, Véronique; Bureau, Nathalie J

    2016-11-01

    Corticosteroids are routinely injected into soft tissues, tendon sheaths, bursae, and joints. These anti-inflammatory agents have different potency and solubility, and solubility is inversely correlated with the duration of action. Corticosteroids carry a low risk of complications but commonly cause systemic and local adverse effects. The use of intra-articular corticosteroid injections in the treatment of inflammatory arthritis and osteoarthritis is well established. Evidence also supports the use of injectable corticosteroids in the treatment of inflammatory tenosynovitis and bursitis associated with rheumatic diseases, trigger finger and de Quervain disease, and carpal tunnel syndrome. The role of corticosteroid injections in the management of rotator cuff disease remains unclear. Strong scientific evidence indicates that corticosteroid injections for lateral epicondylosis worsen the long-term outcomes of patients. This review article discusses the considerations related to the use of corticosteroid injections in the management of nonspinal musculoskeletal conditions.

  18. Deltoid Injections of Risperidone Long-acting Injectable in Patients with Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Quiroz, Jorge A.; Rusch, Sarah; Thyssen, An; Kushner, Stuart

    2011-01-01

    Background Risperidone long-acting injectable was previously approved for treatment of schizophrenia as biweekly injections in the gluteal muscle only. We present data on local injection-site tolerability and safety of risperidone long-acting injectable and comparability of systemic exposure of deltoid versus gluteal injections. Methods Risperidone long-acting injectable was administered in an open-label, single-dose, two-way crossover study, with patients randomized to receive either 25mg gluteal/37.5mg deltoid crossover in two treatment periods or 50mg gluteal/50mg deltoid injections crossover; each treatment period was separated by an 85-day observation period (Study 1) and an open-label, multiple-dose study (4 sequential 37.5mg or 50mg deltoid injections every 2 weeks) (Study 2). The pharmacokinetic results from both the studies have already been published. Results In Study 1 (n=170), the majority of patients had no local injection-site findings, based on investigator and patient-rated evaluations. In Study 2 (n=53), seven of the 51 patients who received at least two deltoid injections discontinued (primary endpoint). However, none of the discontinuations were due to injection-site related reasons. The 90-percent upper confidence limit of the true proportion of injection-site issue withdrawals was 5.7 percent. No moderate or severe injection-site reactions were reported. Conclusion Intramuscular injections via the deltoid and gluteal sites are equivalent routes of administration of risperidone long-acting injectable with respect to local injection-site tolerability. The overall safety and tolerability profile of risperidone long-acting injectable was comparable when administered as an intramuscular injection in the deltoid (37.5mg and 50mg) and gluteal (25mg and 50mg) sites. PMID:21779538

  19. Deltoid injections of risperidone long-acting injectable in patients with schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Quiroz, Jorge A; Rusch, Sarah; Thyssen, An; Palumbo, Joseph M; Kushner, Stuart

    2011-06-01

    Risperidone long-acting injectable was previously approved for treatment of schizophrenia as biweekly injections in the gluteal muscle only. We present data on local injection-site tolerability and safety of risperidone long-acting injectable and comparability of systemic exposure of deltoid versus gluteal injections. Risperidone long-acting injectable was administered in an open-label, single-dose, two-way crossover study, with patients randomized to receive either 25mg gluteal/37.5mg deltoid crossover in two treatment periods or 50mg gluteal/50mg deltoid injections crossover; each treatment period was separated by an 85-day observation period (Study 1) and an open-label, multiple-dose study (4 sequential 37.5mg or 50mg deltoid injections every 2 weeks) (Study 2). The pharmacokinetic results from both the studies have already been published. In Study 1 (n=170), the majority of patients had no local injection-site findings, based on investigator and patient-rated evaluations. In Study 2 (n=53), seven of the 51 patients who received at least two deltoid injections discontinued (primary endpoint). However, none of the discontinuations were due to injection-site related reasons. The 90-percent upper confidence limit of the true proportion of injection-site issue withdrawals was 5.7 percent. No moderate or severe injection-site reactions were reported. Intramuscular injections via the deltoid and gluteal sites are equivalent routes of administration of risperidone long-acting injectable with respect to local injection-site tolerability. The overall safety and tolerability profile of risperidone long-acting injectable was comparable when administered as an intramuscular injection in the deltoid (37.5mg and 50mg) and gluteal (25mg and 50mg) sites.

  20. Polyacrylamide hydrogel injection for breast augmentation: Another injectable failure

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhenxiang; Li, Shirong; Wang, Lingli; Zhang, Shu; Jiang, Yan; Chen, Jinping; Luo, Donglin

    2012-01-01

    Summary Background Increasing complications of polyacrylamide hydrogel (PAAG) augmentation mammoplasty, such as chronic persistent infection, have recently caught the attention of both the medical field and the general public. Material/Methods A total of 96 patients with severe chronic infection following PAAG augmentation mammoplasty were treated in the present study including 63 cases with infection confined to the breast and 33 with systemic infection. Endoscopy and surgery were performed to completely remove the materials and clear the infected tissues followed by drug-irrigation and vacuum-assisted closure for several days. Results In patients with severe infection there were large amounts of PAAG, fibers and infiltration of numerous neutrophils and macrophages. The infection-inducing materials were extensively dispersed in the mammary and subcutaneous tissues, pectoral fascia and intermuscular space. In addition, there was scattered distribution of PAAG materials in the armpit, chest wall and abdominal wall, which were mixed with necrotic tissues and surrounded by lymphocytes, giant cells, macrophages and other inflammatory cells, forming chronic granulomatous and fibrous lesions. Infection was controlled following surgical intervention. No residual infectious foci or recurrent infections were noted among these patients. Although the severe infection did not result in mastectomy, patients had breast atrophy and various degrees of deformation. Conclusions Chronic infection following PAAG augmentation mammaplasty usually causes systemic infection and other devastating adverse reactions. This study confirms PAAG augmentation mammaplasty is another failed attempt. More attention should be paid to the injection of large doses of liquid filler. PMID:22648256

  1. Polyacrylamide hydrogel injection for breast augmentation: another injectable failure.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhenxiang; Li, Shirong; Wang, Lingli; Zhang, Shu; Jiang, Yan; Chen, Jinping; Luo, Donglin

    2012-06-01

    Increasing complications of polyacrylamide hydrogel (PAAG) augmentation mammoplasty, such as chronic persistent infection, have recently caught the attention of both the medical field and the general public. A total of 96 patients with severe chronic infection following PAAG augmentation mammoplasty were treated in the present study including 63 cases with infection confined to the breast and 33 with systemic infection. Endoscopy and surgery were performed to completely remove the materials and clear the infected tissues followed by drug-irrigation and vacuum-assisted closure for several days. In patients with severe infection there were large amounts of PAAG, fibers and infiltration of numerous neutrophils and macrophages. The infection-inducing materials were extensively dispersed in the mammary and subcutaneous tissues, pectoral fascia and intermuscular space. In addition, there was scattered distribution of PAAG materials in the armpit, chest wall and abdominal wall, which were mixed with necrotic tissues and surrounded by lymphocytes, giant cells, macrophages and other inflammatory cells, forming chronic granulomatous and fibrous lesions. Infection was controlled following surgical intervention. No residual infectious foci or recurrent infections were noted among these patients. Although the severe infection did not result in mastectomy, patients had breast atrophy and various degrees of deformation. Chronic infection following PAAG augmentation mammaplasty usually causes systemic infection and other devastating adverse reactions. This study confirms PAAG augmentation mammaplasty is another failed attempt. More attention should be paid to the injection of large doses of liquid filler.

  2. Waterflooding injectate design systems and methods

    DOEpatents

    Brady, Patrick V.; Krumhansl, James L.

    2016-12-13

    A method of recovering a liquid hydrocarbon using an injectate includes recovering the liquid hydrocarbon through primary extraction. Physico-chemical data representative of electrostatic interactions between the liquid hydrocarbon and the reservoir rock are measured. At least one additive of the injectate is selected based on the physico-chemical data. The method includes recovering the liquid hydrocarbon from the reservoir rock through secondary extraction using the injectate.

  3. Induced seismicity after borehole fluid injections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langenbruch, Cornelius; Shapiro, Serge

    2010-05-01

    We present a model for the temporal distribution of microseismic events induced by borehole fluid injections into reservoirs. We put the focus on seismicity induced after the stop of fluid injections. Here, our main concern is the identification of parameters controlling the decay rate of seismicity after injection stops. The particular importance of a theoretical model for the occurrence of seismicity after stop of injection is underlined by observations after stimulations of geothermal reservoirs at different locations. These stimulations have shown that the post injection phase contains a high seismic risk, which is up to now uncontrollable, because the processes leading to the occurrence of post injection events are not well understood. Based on the assumption that pore pressure diffusion is the governing mechanism leading to the triggering of seismic events, we develop a method to calculate the seismicity rate during and after fluid injections. We show that the obtained solution after injection is very similar to the frequency scaling law of aftershocks, namely the Omori law. We propose a modified Omori law, which describes how post injection seismicity depends on parameters of injection source and reservoir rock and the strength of a pre-existing fracture system in the reservoir. We analyze two end members of fracture strength, representing stable and unstable pre-existing fracture systems. Our results shows, that the decay rate of post injection seismicity is highly dependent on the strength of the fracture system. Furthermore, we show that the existence of an unstable fracture system in a reservoir results in a critical trend of seismic activity, which explains the occurrence of events with the largest magnitude close after the stop of injection. This result coincides with observations made after the stimulation of Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS). We verify our theoretical model by an application to synthetic data sets resulting from finite element

  4. Controlling cull ohia trees by injecting herbicides

    Treesearch

    Stanley B. Carpenter

    1966-01-01

    Ohia trees less than 6 inches d .b.h. on the island of Hawaii were killed by injection of undiluted 2,4.S-T ester. This chemical was less effective on larger trees. Injections applied in September and January were more effective than the May applications. Injections of 2,4-D were relatively ineffective, any season of the year, even for small trees. Tardon 22K proved...

  5. Injected Water Augments Cooling In Turboshaft Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biesiadny, Thomas J.; Berger, Brett; Klann, Gary A.; Clark, David A.

    1989-01-01

    Report describes experiments in which water injected into compressor-bleed cooling air of aircraft turboshaft engine. Injection of water previously suggested as way to provide additional cooling needed to sustain operation at power levels higher than usual. Involves turbine-inlet temperatures high enough to shorten lives of first-stage high-pressure turbine blades. Latent heat of vaporization of injected water serves as additional heat sink to maintain blades at design operating temperatures during high-power operation.

  6. Optical injection in semiconductor ring lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coomans, W.; Beri, S.; Sande, G. Van Der; Gelens, L.; Danckaert, J.

    2010-03-01

    We theoretically investigate optical injection in semiconductor ring lasers and disclose several dynamical regimes. Through numerical simulations and bifurcation continuation, two separate parameter regions in which two different injection-locked solutions coexist are revealed, in addition to a region in which a frequency-locked limit cycle coexists with an injection-locked solution. Finally, an antiphase chaotic regime without the involvement of any carrier dynamics is revealed. Parallels are drawn with the onset of chaos in the periodically forced Duffing oscillator.

  7. INJECTION CHOICE FOR SPALLATION NEUTRON SOURCE RING.

    SciTech Connect

    WEI,J.; BEEBE-WANG,J.; BLASKIEWICZ,M.; BRODOWSKI,J.; FEDOTOV,A.; GARDNER,C.; LEE,Y.Y.; RAPARIA,D.; DANILOV,V.; HOLMES,J.; PRIOR,C.; REES,G.; MACHIDA,S.

    2001-06-18

    Injection is key in the low-loss design of high-intensity proton facilities like the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS). During the design of both the accumulator and the rapid-cycling-synchrotron version of the SNS, extensive comparison has been made to select injection scenarios that satisfy SNS's low-loss design criteria. This paper presents issues and considerations pertaining to the final choice of the SNS injection systems.

  8. Injected Water Augments Cooling In Turboshaft Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biesiadny, Thomas J.; Berger, Brett; Klann, Gary A.; Clark, David A.

    1989-01-01

    Report describes experiments in which water injected into compressor-bleed cooling air of aircraft turboshaft engine. Injection of water previously suggested as way to provide additional cooling needed to sustain operation at power levels higher than usual. Involves turbine-inlet temperatures high enough to shorten lives of first-stage high-pressure turbine blades. Latent heat of vaporization of injected water serves as additional heat sink to maintain blades at design operating temperatures during high-power operation.

  9. Perceived serosorting of injection paraphernalia sharing networks among injection drug users in Baltimore, MD.

    PubMed

    Yang, C; Tobin, K; Latkin, C

    2011-01-01

    We examined perceived serosorting of injection paraphernalia sharing networks among a sample of 572 injection drug users (IDUs). There was evidence for serosorting of high-risk injection behaviors among HIV-negative IDUs, as 94% of HIV-negative IDUs shared injection paraphernalia exclusively with perceived HIV-negative networks. However, 82% of HIV-positive IDUs shared injection paraphernalia with perceived HIV-negative networks. The findings indicate a potential risk of rapid HIV transmission. Future prevention efforts targeting IDUs should address the limitation of serosorting, and focus on preventing injection paraphernalia sharing regardless of potential sharing networks' perceived HIV status.

  10. Potential Risk Factors for Injecting Among Mexican American Non-Injecting Heroin Users

    PubMed Central

    Valdez, Avelardo; Neaigus, Alan; Cepeda, Alice

    2008-01-01

    SUMMARY This study examines potential risk factors for resuming and transitioning to injecting among a prospective cohort of 300 Mexican American non-injecting heroin users (NIUs) with distinct injecting histories (i.e., never vs. former injectors). Overall. findings revealed NIUs with an injecting history are more likely to be at greater risk for resuming injecting practices. Of interest, scoring high on acculturation decreased the risk of being a former injector. The present analysis supports previous research, and more importantly further identifies potential risk factors for injecting that are unique to the cultural and social context of the Mexican American community. PMID:18192204

  11. Non-injection Drug Use and Injection Initiation Assistance among People Who Inject Drugs in Tijuana, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Ben Hamida, Amen; Rafful, Claudia; Jain, Sonia; Sun, Shelly; Gonzalez-Zuniga, Patricia; Rangel, Gudelia; Strathdee, Steffanie A; Werb, Dan

    2017-08-16

    Although most people who inject drugs (PWID) report receiving assistance during injection initiation events, little research has focused on risk factors among PWID for providing injection initiation assistance. We therefore sought to determine the influence of non-injection drug use among PWID on their risk to initiate others. We used generalized estimating equation (GEE) models on longitudinal data among a prospective cohort of PWID in Tijuana, Mexico (Proyecto El Cuete IV), while controlling for potential confounders. At baseline, 534 participants provided data on injection initiation assistance. Overall, 14% reported ever initiating others, with 4% reporting this behavior recently (i.e., in the past 6 months). In a multivariable GEE model, recent non-injection drug use was independently associated with providing injection initiation assistance (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 2.42, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.39-4.20). Further, in subanalyses examining specific drug types, recent non-injection use of cocaine (AOR = 9.31, 95% CI = 3.98-21.78), heroin (AOR = 4.00, 95% CI = 1.88-8.54), and methamphetamine (AOR = 2.03, 95% CI = 1.16-3.55) were all significantly associated with reporting providing injection initiation assistance. Our findings may have important implications for the development of interventional approaches to reduce injection initiation and related harms. Further research is needed to validate findings and inform future approaches to preventing entry into drug injecting.

  12. Precision injection molding of freeform optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Fengzhou; Zhang, Nan; Zhang, Xiaodong

    2016-08-01

    Precision injection molding is the most efficient mass production technology for manufacturing plastic optics. Applications of plastic optics in field of imaging, illumination, and concentration demonstrate a variety of complex surface forms, developing from conventional plano and spherical surfaces to aspheric and freeform surfaces. It requires high optical quality with high form accuracy and lower residual stresses, which challenges both optical tool inserts machining and precision injection molding process. The present paper reviews recent progress in mold tool machining and precision injection molding, with more emphasis on precision injection molding. The challenges and future development trend are also discussed.

  13. 21 CFR 522.2220 - Sulfadimethoxine injection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... when caused by Streptococci, Staphylococci, Escherichia, Salmonella, Klebsiella, Proteus, or Shigella... disease caused by Streptococcus equi (strangles). (b) It is administered by intravenous injection at...

  14. 21 CFR 522.2220 - Sulfadimethoxine injection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... when caused by Streptococci, Staphylococci, Escherichia, Salmonella, Klebsiella, Proteus, or Shigella... disease caused by Streptococcus equi (strangles). (b) It is administered by intravenous injection at...

  15. 21 CFR 522.2220 - Sulfadimethoxine injection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... when caused by Streptococci, Staphylococci, Escherichia, Salmonella, Klebsiella, Proteus, or Shigella... disease caused by Streptococcus equi (strangles). (b) It is administered by intravenous injection at...

  16. 21 CFR 522.2220 - Sulfadimethoxine injection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... when caused by Streptococci, Staphylococci, Escherichia, Salmonella, Klebsiella, Proteus, or Shigella... disease caused by Streptococcus equi (strangles). (b) It is administered by intravenous injection at...

  17. Creating fluid injectivity in tar sands formations

    DOEpatents

    Stegemeier, George Leo; Beer, Gary Lee; Zhang, Etuan

    2010-06-08

    Methods for treating a tar sands formation are described herein. Methods for treating a tar sands may include heating a portion of a hydrocarbon layer in the formation from one or more heaters located in the portion. The heat may be controlled to increase the permeability of at least part of the portion to create an injection zone in the portion with an average permeability sufficient to allow injection of a fluid through the injection zone. A drive fluid and/or an oxidizing fluid may be provided into the injection zone. At least some hydrocarbons are produced from the portion.

  18. Creating fluid injectivity in tar sands formations

    DOEpatents

    Stegemeier, George Leo; Beer, Gary Lee; Zhang, Etuan

    2012-06-05

    Methods for treating a tar sands formation are described herein. Methods for treating a tar sands may include heating a portion of a hydrocarbon layer in the formation from one or more heaters located in the portion. The heat may be controlled to increase the permeability of at least part of the portion to create an injection zone in the portion with an average permeability sufficient to allow injection of a fluid through the injection zone. A drive fluid and/or an oxidizing fluid may be provided into the injection zone. At least some hydrocarbons including mobilized hydrocarbons are produced from the portion.

  19. Injection molding ceramics to high green densities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mangels, J. A.; Williams, R. M.

    1983-01-01

    The injection molding behavior of a concentrated suspension of Si powder in wax was studied. It was found that the injection molding behavior was a function of the processing techniques used to generate the powder. Dry ball-milled powders had the best molding behavior, while air classified and impact-milled powders demonstrated poorer injection moldability. The relative viscosity of these molding batches was studied as a function of powder properties: distribution shape, surface area, packing density, and particle morphology. The experimental behavior, in all cases, followed existing theories. The relative viscosity of an injection molding composition composed of dry ball-milled powders could be expressed using Farris' relation.

  20. [Intra-articular injection of cortisone].

    PubMed

    Hammer, M; Schwarz, T; Ganser, G

    2015-11-01

    Intra-articular injections with glucocorticoids are standard procedures according to therapy guidelines in many rheumatic conditions. There is increasing evidence from clinical trials on the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis that more patients will attain the target of remission using a combination of systemic medication and intra-articular injections with glucocorticoids compared to systemic medication alone. Intra-articular injections with glucocorticoids play an important role in the therapeutic management of pediatric rheumatic diseases. In many countries competency in performing intra-articular injections is among the important skills necessary for certification as a specialist in rheumatology.

  1. Nicolau Syndrome after Intramuscular Benzathine Penicillin Injection

    PubMed Central

    Noaparast, Morteza; Mirsharifi, Rasoul; Elyasinia, Fezzeh; Parsaei, Reza; Kondori, Hessam; Farifteh, Sara

    2014-01-01

    A 3-year-old boy was admitted to the emergency department with right lower limb pain, edema, and livedoid discoloration that occurred immediately after intramuscular injection of benzathine penicillin. The patient was diagnosed with Nicolau syndrome, a rare complication of intramuscular injection presumed to be related to the inadvertent intravascular injection. It was first reported following intramuscular injection of bismuth salt, but it can occur as a complication of various other drugs. Fasciotomy was carried out due to the resultant compartment syndrome and medical therapy with heparin, corticosteroid, and pentoxifyllin was initiated. PMID:25429182

  2. Pharmacokinetics of zinc tannate after intratesticular injection.

    PubMed

    Migally, N B; Fahim, M S

    1984-01-01

    Forty-eight sexually mature male rats were injected intratesticularly with either 1, 3, or 6 mg zinc tannate (Kastrin) or with saline (as control). Zinc localized only in low concentration in primary spermatocytes and could not be detected in spermatogonia, Sertoli cells, spermatids, or spermatozoa. Forty-eight hours after injection of 1 mg Kastrin, zinc was accumulated in the spermatogonia and primary spermatocytes while, after injection of 3 mg, zinc was preferentially localized in Sertoli cells and spermatids; however, zinc was observed in the spermatids and spermatozoa 48 h after injection with 6 mg, and germ cells lost their identity and were fragmented after 1 week.

  3. Infective endocarditis in the injection drug user.

    PubMed

    Brown, Patricia D; Levine, Donald P

    2002-09-01

    Although infective endocarditis is certainly not the most common infection seen in injecting drug users, it is the infection that clinicians most commonly think of when they consider infectious complications of injected drug use. The microbiology of infective endocarditis in injection drug users has remained relatively stable over the last several decades. Tricuspid valve endocarditis has been associated most frequently with injection drug use, but recent reports have suggested that involvement of left-sided valves is seen more often now than in the past. The use of transesophageal echocardiography has greatly advanced the ability to diagnose infective endocarditis and the cardiac complications of valvular infection.

  4. An Innovative Needle-free Injection System: Comparison to 1 ml Standard Subcutaneous Injection.

    PubMed

    Kojic, Nikola; Goyal, Pragun; Lou, Cheryl Hamer; Corwin, Michael J

    2017-05-01

    A needle-free delivery system may lead to improved satisfaction and compliance, as well as reduced anxiety among patients requiring frequent or ongoing injections. This report describes a first-in-man assessment comparing Portal Instruments' innovative needle-free injection system with subcutaneous injections using a 27G needle. Forty healthy volunteer participants each received a total of four injections of 1.0 mL sterile saline solution, two with a standard subcutaneous injection using a 27G needle, and two using the Portal injection system. Perception of pain was measured using a 100-mm visual analog scale (VAS). Injection site reactions were assessed at 2 min and at 20-30 min after each injection. Follow-up contact was made 24-48 h after the injections. Subject preference regarding injection type was also assessed. VAS pain scores at Portal injection sites met the criteria to be considered non-inferior to the pain reported at 27G needle injection sites (i.e., upper 95% confidence bound less than +5 mm). Based on a mixed effects model, at time 0, accounting for potential confounding variables, the adjusted difference in VAS scores indicated that Portal injections were 6.5 mm lower than the 27G needle injections (95% CI -10.5, -2.5). No clinically important adverse events were noted. Portal injections were preferred by 24 (60%) of the subjects (P = 0.0015). As an early step in the development of this new needle-free delivery system, the current study has shown that a 1.0-mL saline injection can be given with less pain reported than a standard subcutaneous injection using a 27G needle.

  5. Injection System for Multi-Well Injection Using a Single Pump.

    PubMed

    Wovkulich, Karen; Stute, Martin; Protus, Thomas J; Mailloux, Brian J; Chillrud, Steven N

    2011-01-01

    Many hydrological and geochemical studies rely on data resulting from injection of tracers and chemicals into groundwater wells. The even distribution of liquids to multiple injection points can be challenging or expensive, especially when using multiple pumps. An injection system was designed using one chemical metering pump to evenly distribute the desired influent simultaneously to 15 individual injection points through an injection manifold. The system was constructed with only one metal part contacting the fluid due to the low pH of the injection solutions. The injection manifold system was used during a three-month pilot scale injection experiment at the Vineland Chemical Company Superfund site. During the two injection phases of the experiment (Phase I = 0.27 L/min total flow, Phase II = 0.56 L/min total flow), flow measurements were made 20 times over three months; an even distribution of flow to each injection well was maintained (RSD <4%). This durable system is expandable to at least 16 injection points and should be adaptable to other injection experiments that require distribution of air-stable liquids to multiple injection points with a single pump.

  6. "Injection first": a unique group of injection drug users in Tijuana, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Morris, Meghan D; Brouwer, Kimberly C; Lozada, Remedios M; Gallardo, Manuel; Vera, Alicia; Strathdee, Steffanie A

    2012-01-01

    Using baseline data from a study of injection drug users (IDUs) in Tijuana, Mexico (N = 1,052), we identified social and behavioral factors associated with injecting at the same age or earlier than other administration routes of illicit drug use (eg, "injection first") and examined whether this IDU subgroup had riskier drug using and sexual behaviors than other IDUs. Twelve-percent "injected first." Characteristics independently associated with a higher odds of "injection first" included being younger at first injection, injecting heroin as their first drug, being alone at the first injection episode, and having a sexual debut at the same age or earlier as when they initiated drug use; family members' illicit drug use was associated with lower odds of injecting first. When adjusting for age at first injection and number of years injecting, "injection first" IDUs had lower odds of ever overdosing, and ever trading sex. On the other hand, they were less likely to have ever been enrolled in drug treatment, and more commonly obtained their syringes from potentially unsafe sources. In conclusion, a sizable proportion of IDUs in Tijuana injected as their first drug using experience, although evidence that this was a riskier subgroup of IDUs was inconclusive. 

  7. Injection Technique and Pen Needle Design Affect Leakage From Skin After Subcutaneous Injections

    PubMed Central

    Præstmark, Kezia Ann; Stallknecht, Bente; Jensen, Morten Lind; Sparre, Thomas; Madsen, Nils Berg; Kildegaard, Jonas

    2016-01-01

    Background: After a subcutaneous injection fluid might leak out of the skin, commonly referred to as leakage or backflow. The objective was to examine the influence of needle design and injection technique on leakage after injections in the subcutaneous tissue of humans and pigs. Method: Leakage data were obtained from a post hoc analysis of clinical trial data and from a pig study. Data from the clinical study were used to determine leakage as a function of injection volume, speed and region. Data from the pig study were used to determine leakage as a function of needle wall thickness, needle taper, injection angle, and wait time from end of injection to withdrawal of needle from skin. Results: Leakage volume was positively related to injection volume. Injections in the abdomen caused less leakage than thigh injections. A 32G needle caused less leakage than a 31G and a 32G tip (tapered) needle, and a “straight in” 90° needle insertion angle caused less leakage than an angled (~45°) insertion. Wait times of minimum 3 seconds caused less leakage than immediate withdrawal of the needle after injection. Needle wall thickness and injection speed did not influence leakage. Conclusions: Leakage will be minimized using a thin needle, using 90° needle insertion in the abdomen, injecting maximum 800 µL at a time, and waiting at least 3 seconds after the injection until the needle is withdrawn from the skin. PMID:26798083

  8. Injection Technique and Pen Needle Design Affect Leakage From Skin After Subcutaneous Injections.

    PubMed

    Præstmark, Kezia Ann; Stallknecht, Bente; Jensen, Morten Lind; Sparre, Thomas; Madsen, Nils Berg; Kildegaard, Jonas

    2016-07-01

    After a subcutaneous injection fluid might leak out of the skin, commonly referred to as leakage or backflow. The objective was to examine the influence of needle design and injection technique on leakage after injections in the subcutaneous tissue of humans and pigs. Leakage data were obtained from a post hoc analysis of clinical trial data and from a pig study. Data from the clinical study were used to determine leakage as a function of injection volume, speed and region. Data from the pig study were used to determine leakage as a function of needle wall thickness, needle taper, injection angle, and wait time from end of injection to withdrawal of needle from skin. Leakage volume was positively related to injection volume. Injections in the abdomen caused less leakage than thigh injections. A 32G needle caused less leakage than a 31G and a 32G tip (tapered) needle, and a "straight in" 90° needle insertion angle caused less leakage than an angled (~45°) insertion. Wait times of minimum 3 seconds caused less leakage than immediate withdrawal of the needle after injection. Needle wall thickness and injection speed did not influence leakage. Leakage will be minimized using a thin needle, using 90° needle insertion in the abdomen, injecting maximum 800 µL at a time, and waiting at least 3 seconds after the injection until the needle is withdrawn from the skin. © 2016 Diabetes Technology Society.

  9. Injection System for Multi-Well Injection Using a Single Pump

    PubMed Central

    Wovkulich, Karen; Stute, Martin; Protus, Thomas J.; Mailloux, Brian J.; Chillrud, Steven N.

    2015-01-01

    Many hydrological and geochemical studies rely on data resulting from injection of tracers and chemicals into groundwater wells. The even distribution of liquids to multiple injection points can be challenging or expensive, especially when using multiple pumps. An injection system was designed using one chemical metering pump to evenly distribute the desired influent simultaneously to 15 individual injection points through an injection manifold. The system was constructed with only one metal part contacting the fluid due to the low pH of the injection solutions. The injection manifold system was used during a three-month pilot scale injection experiment at the Vineland Chemical Company Superfund site. During the two injection phases of the experiment (Phase I = 0.27 L/min total flow, Phase II = 0.56 L/min total flow), flow measurements were made 20 times over three months; an even distribution of flow to each injection well was maintained (RSD <4%). This durable system is expandable to at least 16 injection points and should be adaptable to other injection experiments that require distribution of air-stable liquids to multiple injection points with a single pump. PMID:26140014

  10. Unsafe injection practices in a cohort of injection drug users in Vancouver: Could safer injecting rooms help?

    PubMed Central

    Wood, Evan; Tyndall, Mark W.; Spittal, Patricia M.; Li, Kathy; Kerr, Thomas; Hogg, Robert S.; Montaner, Julio S.G.; O'Shaughnessy, Michael V.; Schechter, Martin T.

    2001-01-01

    Background In several European countries safer injecting rooms have reduced the public disorder and health-related problems of injection drug use. We explored factors associated with needle-sharing practices that could potentially be alleviated by the availability of safer injecting rooms in Canada. Methods The Vancouver Injection Drug User Study is a prospective cohort study of injection drug users (IDUs) that began in 1996. The analyses reported here were restricted to the 776 participants who reported actively injecting drugs in the 6 months before the most recent follow-up visit, during the period January 1999 to October 2000. Needle sharing was defined as either borrowing or lending a used needle in the 6-month period before the interview. Results Overall, 214 (27.6%) of the participants reported sharing needles during the 6 months before follow-up; 106 (13.7%) injected drugs in public, and 581 (74.9%) reported injecting alone at least once. Variables independently associated with needle sharing in a multivariate analysis included difficulty getting sterile needles (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 2.7, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.8–4.1), requiring help to inject drugs (adjusted OR 2.0, 95% CI 1.4–2.8), needle reuse (adjusted OR 1.8, 95% CI 1.3–2.6), frequent cocaine injection (adjusted OR 1.6, 95% CI 1.1–2.3) and frequent heroin injection (adjusted OR 1.5, 95% CI 1.04–2.1). Conversely, HIV-positive participants were less likely to share needles (adjusted OR 0.5, 95% CI 0.4–0.8), although 20.2% of the HIV-positive IDUs still reported sharing needles. Interpretation Despite the availability of a large needle-exchange program and targeted law enforcement efforts in Vancouver, needle sharing remains an alarmingly common practice in our cohort. We identified a number of risk behaviours — difficulty getting sterile needles, needle sharing and reuse, injection of drugs in public and injecting alone (one of the main contributing causes of overdose) — that

  11. Characterization of needle-assisted jet injections.

    PubMed

    Li, Xinxin; Ruddy, Bryan; Taberner, Andrew

    2016-12-10

    Hypodermic injections have been the standard for transcutaneous drug delivery for many years. However, needle phobia, pain, and risks of needle-stick injuries have manifested in poor patient compliance. Needle-free jet injections (NFJI) have been developed to address these drawbacks but the reliability of dose and depth of delivery have been limited by a lack of control over jet parameters, and by variability in the skin's mechanical properties among individuals. Moreover, the device size and cost have been restrained by the high pressure (>20MPa) required to penetrate the skin. Needle-assisted jet injections have been proposed to improve delivery reliability of conventional jet injectors by penetrating the skin with a short needle (<5mm) and thereby allowing jet delivery to a desired injection depth at a reduced pressure. This study characterized needle-assisted jet injections performed after first penetrating the skin with a 1.5mm needle, examining the effect of needle size on jet parameters, and evaluating injection performance in porcine skin. A voice-coil actuated jet injector was modified to incorporate needles of 30G, 31G and 32G. A series of pulse tests was performed to compare jet velocity and injection volume across the needle sizes, where it was found that the jet velocity and injection volume achieved with 32G needles were 13% and 16% lower, respectively, than with 30G. In contrast, there was no significant difference in jet velocity and injection volume between 30G and 31G needles, suggesting that a reduction of 10μm in the mean inner diameter of the 31G needle has minimal impact on jet velocity and injection volume. Injection studies performed in porcine skin revealed that injections driven by fluid pressures ranging between 0.8MPa and 1.4MPa were able to achieve substantial injectate penetration (~10mm) and delivery (~100μL) into subcutaneous fat regardless of needle size, in a period of 40ms. The required pressures are an order of magnitude lower

  12. Xanthelasma-Like Reaction to Filler Injection.

    PubMed

    Or, Lior; Eviatar, Joseph A; Massry, Guy G; Bernardini, Francesco P; Hartstein, Morris E

    The purpose of this study is to describe a new complication of a xanthelasma-like reaction which appeared after dermal filler injection in the lower eyelid region. A retrospective case analysis was performed on 7 patients presenting with xanthelasma-like reaction after filler injection to the lower eyelids. Seven female subjects with no history of xanthelasma presented with xanthelasma-like reaction in the lower eyelids post filler injection. Fillers included hyaluronic acid (2 patients), synthetic calcium hydroxyapatite (4 patients), and polycaprolactone microspheres (one patient). Average time interval between filler injection and development of xanthelasma-like reaction was 12 months (range: 6-18 months). Treatment included steroid injections, 5FU injections, ablative or fractionated CO2 laser, and direct excision. Pathology confirmed the lesion was a true xanthelasma in one patient. In treated patients, there was subtotal resolution after laser. Xanthelasma-like reaction resolved completely after direct excision. Three patients elected to have no treatment. Previously there has been one reported case of xanthelasma after filler injection. This case series is the largest to date. Furthermore, this series is notable because xanthelasma-like reactions appeared after injection with 3 different types of fillers. None of the patients had evidence of xanthelasma prefiller injection. The precise mechanism by which filler injection can lead to the formation of xanthelasma-like reaction is unclear. A possible mechanism may be related to binding of low-density lipoprotein and internalization by macrophages. Further investigation is required. Nevertheless, physicians performing filler injections should be aware of this new complication and treatment options.

  13. Fuel injection apparatus for automobile

    SciTech Connect

    De Grazia, T.W. Jr.

    1987-09-22

    This patent describes a fuel injection adapter for use on a vehicle including a carburetor having a throat, a fuel pump, a throttle and a throttle control lever. In consists of: chamber means adapted for mounting adjacent the carburetor; metering jet means, including an orifice with different size internal diameters and a longitudinal needle movable within the orifice for varying the volume of fuel delivered. Fuel inlet means on the chamber means adapted for connection to the fuel pump; adjustment means mechanically coupled to the throttle lever and responsive to movement to control movement of the metering jet means to vary the amount of fuel delivered by the nozzle means. The adjustment includes an operating lever coupled to the throttle lever, a needle plate coupled to the operating lever and means on the needle plate for engaging the needle; and fuel shutoff means coupled in series with the fuel inlet means for cutting off fuel to the chamber means when the operating lever is moved to a position corresponding to a throttle wide-open position.

  14. Border crossing to inject drugs in Mexico among injection drug users in San Diego, California.

    PubMed

    Volkmann, Tyson; Shin, Sanghyuk S; Garfein, Richard S; Patterson, Thomas L; Pollini, Robin A; Wagner, Karla D; Artamanova, Irina; Strathdee, Steffanie A

    2012-04-01

    We examined correlates of ever injecting drugs in Mexico among residents of San Diego, California. From 2007 to 2010, injecting drug users (IDUs) in San Diego underwent an interviewer-administered survey. Logistic regression identified correlates of injection drug use in Mexico. Of 302 IDUs, 38% were Hispanic, 72% male and median age was 37; 27% ever injected in Mexico; 43% reported distributive syringe sharing there. Factors independently associated with ever injecting drugs in Mexico included being younger at first injection, injecting heroin, distributive syringe sharing at least half of the time, and transporting drugs over the last 6 months. One-quarter of IDUs reported ever injecting drugs in Mexico, among whom syringe sharing was common, suggesting possible mixing between IDUs in the Mexico-US border region. Prospective studies should monitor trends in cross-border drug use in light of recent Mexican drug policy reforms partially decriminalizing drug possession.

  15. A prototype space flight intravenous injection system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colombo, G. V.

    1985-01-01

    Medical emergencies, especially those resulting from accidents, frequently require the administration of intravenous fluids to replace lost body liquids. The development of a prototype space flight intravenous injection system is presented. The definition of requirements, injectable concentrates development, water polisher, reconstitution hardware development, administration hardware development, and prototype fabrication and testing are discussed.

  16. Resilient Children of Injection Drug Users.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pilowsky, Daniel J.; Zybert, Patricia A.; Vlahov, David

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To examine associations between resilience in children of injection drug users and children's coping strategies, parenting stress, and children's social support. Method: Injection drug-using parents (n = 91) and their children aged 6 to 11 (n = 117) were recruited in Baltimore (1997-1999). Resilience was defined as scoring in the lowest…

  17. 21 CFR 522.1680 - Oxytocin injection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Oxytocin injection. 522.1680 Section 522.1680 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS IMPLANTATION OR INJECTABLE DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 522.1680...

  18. 21 CFR 522.1680 - Oxytocin injection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Oxytocin injection. 522.1680 Section 522.1680 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS IMPLANTATION OR INJECTABLE DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 522.1680...

  19. 21 CFR 522.1680 - Oxytocin injection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Oxytocin injection. 522.1680 Section 522.1680 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS IMPLANTATION OR INJECTABLE DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 522.1680...

  20. Analysis of rocket engine injection combustion processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salmon, J. W.; Saltzman, D. H.

    1977-01-01

    Mixing methodology improvement for the JANNAF DER and CICM injection/combustion analysis computer programs was accomplished. ZOM plane prediction model development was improved for installation into the new standardized DER computer program. An intra-element mixing model developing approach was recommended for gas/liquid coaxial injection elements for possible future incorporation into the CICM computer program.

  1. 21 CFR 522.1680 - Oxytocin injection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Oxytocin injection. 522.1680 Section 522.1680 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS IMPLANTATION OR INJECTABLE DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 522.1680...

  2. Magnetic Helicity Injection and Sigmoidal Coronal Loops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, Tetsuya T.; Kusano, K.; Maeshiro, T.; Yokoyama, T.; Sakurai, T.

    2005-05-01

    We studied the relationship between magnetic helicity injection and the formation of sigmoidal loops. We analyzed seven active regions: three regions showed coronal loops similar to the potential field, and four regions showed the sigmoidal loops. The magnetic helicity injection rate was evaluated using the method proposed by Kusano et al. In order to compare the helicity of regions of various sizes, we defined the normalized helicity injection rate as the magnetic helicity injection rate divided by the magnetic flux squared. We found that the sigmoidal regions and nonsigmoidal regions have comparable normalized helicity injection rates. Next, we calculated the magnetic helicity content of the sigmoidal loops by using the magnetic flux tube model (Longcope & Welsch) and compared it with the magnetic helicity injected from around the footpoints of three sigmoidal loops. For two sigmoidal loops, it is found that these values are comparable. Another loop showed significant disagreement between helicity injection rate and its magnetic helicity content. Excluding this region on the basis of its complexity (perhaps multiple loops forming a sigmoidal loop), we can conclude that geometric twist of the sigmoidal loops is consistent with the magnetic helicity injected from around the footpoints of the sigmoidal loops.

  3. Resilient Children of Injection Drug Users.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pilowsky, Daniel J.; Zybert, Patricia A.; Vlahov, David

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To examine associations between resilience in children of injection drug users and children's coping strategies, parenting stress, and children's social support. Method: Injection drug-using parents (n = 91) and their children aged 6 to 11 (n = 117) were recruited in Baltimore (1997-1999). Resilience was defined as scoring in the lowest…

  4. 21 CFR 522.390 - Chloramphenicol injection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Chloramphenicol injection. 522.390 Section 522.390 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS IMPLANTATION OR INJECTABLE DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS §...

  5. 21 CFR 522.390 - Chloramphenicol injection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Chloramphenicol injection. 522.390 Section 522.390 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS IMPLANTATION OR INJECTABLE DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS §...

  6. 21 CFR 522.1150 - Hydrochlorothiazide injection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Hydrochlorothiazide injection. 522.1150 Section 522.1150 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS IMPLANTATION OR INJECTABLE DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL...

  7. 21 CFR 522.1150 - Hydrochlorothiazide injection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Hydrochlorothiazide injection. 522.1150 Section 522.1150 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS IMPLANTATION OR INJECTABLE DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL...

  8. 21 CFR 522.1086 - Guaifenesin injection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Guaifenesin injection. 522.1086 Section 522.1086 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS IMPLANTATION OR INJECTABLE DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS §...

  9. 21 CFR 522.1086 - Guaifenesin injection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Guaifenesin injection. 522.1086 Section 522.1086 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS IMPLANTATION OR INJECTABLE DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS §...

  10. 21 CFR 522.1086 - Guaifenesin injection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Guaifenesin injection. 522.1086 Section 522.1086 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS IMPLANTATION OR INJECTABLE DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS §...

  11. 21 CFR 522.390 - Chloramphenicol injection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Chloramphenicol injection. 522.390 Section 522.390 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS IMPLANTATION OR INJECTABLE DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS §...

  12. 21 CFR 522.1086 - Guaifenesin injection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Guaifenesin injection. 522.1086 Section 522.1086 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS IMPLANTATION OR INJECTABLE DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS §...

  13. 21 CFR 522.1182 - Iron injection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Iron injection. 522.1182 Section 522.1182 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS IMPLANTATION OR INJECTABLE DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 522.1182...

  14. 21 CFR 522.1182 - Iron injection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Iron injection. 522.1182 Section 522.1182 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS IMPLANTATION OR INJECTABLE DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 522.1182...

  15. 21 CFR 522.1150 - Hydrochlorothiazide injection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Hydrochlorothiazide injection. 522.1150 Section 522.1150 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS IMPLANTATION OR INJECTABLE DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL...

  16. 21 CFR 522.390 - Chloramphenicol injection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Chloramphenicol injection. 522.390 Section 522.390 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS IMPLANTATION OR INJECTABLE DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS §...

  17. 21 CFR 522.1150 - Hydrochlorothiazide injection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Hydrochlorothiazide injection. 522.1150 Section 522.1150 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS IMPLANTATION OR INJECTABLE DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL...

  18. Homicide by intravenous injection of naphtha.

    PubMed

    Case, M E; Poklis, A; Mackell, M A

    1985-01-01

    A case of homicide by the intravenous injection of Energine, a petroleum distillate spot remover, is presented. This case is the only known homicide committed with naphtha. This elderly man had severe natural disease in addition to chest trauma sustained in the assault leading to death; however, the rapid injection of approximately 25 mL of Energine was the overwhelming cause of death.

  19. Injection Molding of Plastics from Agricultural Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Bhattacharya, M.; Ruan, R.

    2001-02-22

    The objective of this research was to conduct a systematic study to relate injection molding parameters to properties of blends of starch and synthetic polymer. From this study, we wished to develop a thorough understanding of the injection molding process and gain significant insight into designing molds and aiding in developing products cheaply and efficiently.

  20. Two cases of accidental injection of epinephrine into a digit treated with subcutaneous phentolamine injections.

    PubMed

    Bodkin, Ryan P; Acquisto, Nicole M; Gunyan, Holly; Wiegand, Timothy J

    2013-01-01

    Accidental injection into the digit from an epinephrine autoinjection device can cause discoloration, pain, and paresthesias. Although loss of digit is rare, treatment in the emergency department is commonly aimed at vasodilation of the affected tissue. We report two cases of accidental injection of epinephrine into the digits that were successfully treated with subcutaneous phentolamine injection with no adverse events.

  1. Formulation and evaluation of nifedipine injection.

    PubMed

    Jain, N K; Patel, V V; Taneja, L N

    1988-04-01

    An attempt has been made to formulate a stable, aqueous injection of nifedipine (1) using the technique of hydrotropic solubilization. Sodium benzoate (2; 30% w/v) and sodium salicylate (3; 30% w/v) have been employed as the vehicle to prepare the injection of 1 in 1 mg/5 ml and 1 mg/2 ml concentration in either case. An accelerated stability study for 4 weeks at 8 degrees C, room temperature, 40 and 50 degrees C indicates maximum stability at 8 degrees C, suggesting the need of storage with refrigeration. Light stability study in the specially designed chamber indicates that covering the ampoules with black chart paper affords adequate stability to the 1 injection. The injections are also stable to autoclaving. Preliminary in vivo study in rats shows that the injection is effective.

  2. Fluidic Injection for Jet Noise Reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henderson, Brenda

    2010-01-01

    Investigations into fluidic injection for jet noise reduction began over 50 years ago. Studies have included water and air injection for the reduction of noise in scale model jets and jet engines and water injection for the reduction of excess overpressures on the Space Shuttle at lift-off. Injection systems have included high pressure microjets as well as larger scale injectors operating at pressures that can be achieved in real jet engines. An historical perspective highlighting noise reduction potential is presented for injection concepts investigated over the last 50 years. Results from recent investigations conducted at NASA are presented for supersonic and subsonic dual-stream jets. The noise reduction benefits achieved through fluidic contouring using an azimuthally controlled nozzle will be discussed.

  3. Impact of Air Injection on Jet Noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henderson, Brenda; Norum, Tom

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this viewgraph presentation is to review the program to determine impact of core fluidic chevrons on noise produced by dual stream jets (i.e., broadband shock noise - supersonic, and mixing noise - subsonic and supersonic). The presentation reviews the sources of jet noise. It shows designs of Generation II Fluidic Chevrons. The injection impacts shock structure and stream disturbances through enhanced mixing. This may impact constructive interference between acoustic sources. The high fan pressures may inhibit mixing produced by core injectors. A fan stream injection may be required for better noise reduction. In future the modification of Gen II nozzles to allow for some azimuthal control: will allow for higher mass flow rates and will allow for shallower injection angles A Flow field study is scheduled for spring, 2008 The conclusions are that injection can reduce well-defined shock noise and injection reduces mixing noise near peak jet noise angle

  4. Serum creatine kinase after intramuscular injections.

    PubMed Central

    Konikoff, F.; Halevy, J.; Theodor, E.

    1985-01-01

    Serum creatine kinase (CK) activity was measured after intramuscular injections in 44 patients hospitalized for non-cardiac reasons. The drugs injected were: diazepam, dipyrone, metoclopramide, meperidine, pentazocine and procaine penicillin. Only 3 out of 44 patients (7%) demonstrated significant elevation of CK levels following the intramuscular injections. In these 3 patients the elevation was mainly due to a rise of the MM-isoenzyme fraction with MB levels increased in one patient. These findings do not justify the common clinical notion of regarding intramuscular injections as a frequent cause of serum CK elevation. It is concluded that high CK serum values in a patient with chest pain should always be considered with utmost suspicion, disregarding the possible effects of a previous intramuscular injection. PMID:4022892

  5. Advanced diesel electronic fuel injection and turbocharging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beck, N. J.; Barkhimer, R. L.; Steinmeyer, D. C.; Kelly, J. E.

    1993-12-01

    The program investigated advanced diesel air charging and fuel injection systems to improve specific power, fuel economy, noise, exhaust emissions, and cold startability. The techniques explored included variable fuel injection rate shaping, variable injection timing, full-authority electronic engine control, turbo-compound cooling, regenerative air circulation as a cold start aid, and variable geometry turbocharging. A Servojet electronic fuel injection system was designed and manufactured for the Cummins VTA-903 engine. A special Servojet twin turbocharger exhaust system was also installed. A series of high speed combustion flame photos was taken using the single cylinder optical engine at Michigan Technological University. Various fuel injection rate shapes and nozzle configurations were evaluated. Single-cylinder bench tests were performed to evaluate regenerative inlet air heating techniques as an aid to cold starting. An exhaust-driven axial cooling air fan was manufactured and tested on the VTA-903 engine.

  6. Ketorolac, an injectable nonnarcotic analgesic.

    PubMed

    Litvak, K M; McEvoy, G K

    1990-12-01

    Clinical studies of the injectable nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agent (NSAIA) ketorolac tromethamine are reviewed, and the chemistry, pharmacology, pharmacokinetics, drug interactions, and adverse effects of ketorolac are described. Ketorolac exhibits anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and antipyretic activity. Although the exact mechanisms of action have not been determined, its effects appear to be associated principally with the inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis. After oral, i.m., or i.v. administration, ketorolac and its metabolites are excreted mainly in urine. Ketorolac tromethamine has been used for the symptomatic relief of moderate to severe postoperative pain, including that associated with abdominal, gynecologic, oral, orthopedic, or urologic surgery. Ketorolac has also been used for the relief of acute renal colic, pain associated with trauma, and visceral pain associated with cancer. When administered i.m., ketorolac produced analgesia comparable to that of i.m. doses of meperidine, pentazocine, or morphine. The most common adverse effects associated with short-term administration are nervous system and gastrointestinal effects; these are usually mild and occur in about 39% of patients. Unlike opiate analgesics, ketorolac does not appear to cause tolerance or physical dependence in patients receiving long-term therapy. Ketorolac tromethamine has been administered concomitantly with morphine or meperidine without apparent adverse interaction. For short-term pain management, an initial i.m. ketorolac tromethamine loading dose of 30 or 60 mg is recommended. Ketorolac tromethamine appears to be as effective as morphine or meperidine for short-term management of moderate to severe postoperative pain. It lacks the respiratory depressant effects of opiate analgesics but shares the toxic potentials of other NSAIAs.

  7. Multiturn injection of EBIS ions in booster

    SciTech Connect

    Gardner, C.J.

    2010-09-01

    Ions from EBIS are injected into Booster after acceleration by an RFQ and a Linac. The velocity of the ions at Booster injection is c{beta} where c is the velocity of light and (1) {beta} = 0.0655. The kinetic energy is (2) W = mc{sup 2}({gamma}-1) where m is the ion mass and (3) {gamma} = (1-{beta}{sup 2}){sup -1/2}. Putting in numbers one gets a kinetic energy of approximately 2 MeV per nucleon for each ion. The revolution period at injection is 10.276 {micro}s. The ions in the EBIS trap are delivered in a beam pulse that ranges from 10 to 40 {micro}s in length. This amounts to 1 to 4 turns around the machine. The transverse emittance (un-normalized) of EBIS beams just prior to injection into Booster is 11{pi} mm milliradians in both planes. This is an order of magnitude larger than the nominal 1{pi} mm milliradians for Tandem beams. Injection proceeds by means of an electrostatic inflector in the C3 straight section and four programmable injection dipoles in the C1, C3, C7, and D1 straights. These devices have been in use for many years for the injection of ions from Tandem as described in [1] and [2]. The inflector brings the incoming beam to the edge of the Booster acceptance and the dipoles produce a closed orbit bump that initially places the closed orbit near the septum at the in ector exit. During injection the orbit bump must be collapsed at a rate that keeps the injected beam from hitting the septum while continuing to allow beam to be injected into the machine acceptance. The process is discussed in [2] and [3]. There it is assumed that the injected beam moves with the closed orbit as the bump collapses. In the present report this is shown to be a valid approximation if the bump collapses sufficiently slowly. It is also shown that by judiciously choosing the horizontal tune and the initial distance of the closed orbit from the septum one can inject up to 4 turns of EBIS beams without loss on the septum. The reason for wanting to inject over a period of

  8. Injection practices in Nepal: health policymakers’ perceptions

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The unnecessary and unsafe use of injections is common in developing countries like Nepal. Policymakers have an important role in promoting rational and safe injection use. Hence, the present study was carried out to explore the perception of health policymakers regarding safe injection practice in Nepal. Methods An exploratory qualitative study design was used in this study. Key policymakers from both the central and regional level were selected using purposive sampling. A semi-structured questionnaire advocated by the World Health Organization (WHO) was used after modifying the context. Interviews were conducted to clarify doubts and obtain additional information. The data was analyzed manually using deductive content analysis technique. Results In total, eleven policymakers participated. All unanimously agreed that injection safety is a problem and seven participants reported that injections are overused. They shared the opinion that injections are administered by various providers, including formal and informal health providers, and also quacks. Almost half the respondents reported that the National Drug Policy discourages injection overuse, while others reported that the policy contains no provisions regarding injection overuse. Most policymakers stated that only single-use disposable injection equipment is used to provide injection, while others thought that sterilizable glass syringe is also used. More than half of the participants believed that the quality of injection equipment available in the Nepalese market is not regulated by any government institution. Almost two-third of the policymakers stated that syringes and needles are not reused, while the rest thought syringes might be reused without sterilization in some parts of the country. Almost half of the respondents stated that illegal commercialization of used syringes exists in Nepal. Almost all respondents thought that health care institutions have a waste management plan, while more than

  9. Best vaccination practice and medically attended injection site events following deltoid intramuscular injection

    PubMed Central

    Cook, Ian F

    2015-01-01

    Analysis of medically attended injection site events data provides a vehicle to appreciate the inadequacies of vaccination practice for deltoid intramuscular injection and to develop best practice procedures. These data can be divided into 3 groups; nerve palsies, musculoskeletal injuries and cutaneous reactions and reflect inappropriate site of injection, needle over or under penetration, local sepsis and vascular complications. The aim of this review is to formulate best vaccination practice procedures for deltoid intramuscular injection of vaccines through the collation and analysis of medically attended injection site events. PMID:25868476

  10. Groin injecting among a community-recruited sample of people who inject drugs in Thailand

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Use of the femoral vein for the injection of illicit drugs (i.e. groin injecting) has been linked to various health-related harms, including deep vein thrombosis. However, little is known about the prevalence of groin injecting and factors that predict this practice among people who inject drugs (PWID) in Thailand. We sought to investigate the prevalence and factors associated with groin injecting in Bangkok, Thailand. Methods Data were derived from the Mitsampan Community Research Project in Bangkok between July and October 2011. Multivariate logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with groin injecting in the last six months. Results Among 437 participants, 34.3% reported groin injecting in the last six months. In multivariate analyses, factors positively associated with groin injecting included: having higher than secondary education (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.59; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.00 – 2.56), weekly midazolam injection (AOR = 8.26; 95% CI: 5.04 – 14.06), and reports of having had drugs planted on oneself by police (AOR = 2.14; 95% CI: 1.37 – 3.36). Conclusions Over one-third of our sample of Thai PWID reported recent groin injecting. Frequent midazolam injection and higher education were found to be associated with groin injecting. That high intensity PWID were more likely to inject in the groin is concerning given the known negative consequences associated with the groin as a site of injection. Additionally, PWID who reported drug planting by police were more likely to inject in the groin, suggesting that reliance on law enforcement approaches may undermine safe injection practices in this setting. These findings highlight the need for evidence-based interventions to address the harms associated with groin injecting, including efforts to alert PWID to risks of groin injecting, the distribution of appropriate injecting equipment, and efforts to encourage use of other injecting sites. PMID

  11. Injections for health-related reasons amongst injecting drug users in New Delhi and Imphal, India.

    PubMed

    Kermode, M; Singh, L B; Raju, R K; Alam, S; Cox, H; Crofts, N

    2006-07-01

    In many parts of the world where unsafe injection practices in health settings are common, the prevalence of blood-borne viruses (BBVs) is high amongst injecting drug users (IDUs). If IDUs in these settings are receiving injections for health-related reasons, the possibility of amplification of BBV transmission via medical injections exists. The aim of this study is to describe the nature and extent of injections received for health-related reasons amongst IDUs in two Indian cities, New Delhi and Imphal. A cross-sectional survey of 200 IDUs was conducted in late 2004. Trained peer outreach workers asked participants about health problems experienced, consultations with healthcare providers and health-related injections received in the preceding 4 weeks. Most participants (99.5%) were male, the average age was 29 years, and the average time since first injection of illicit drugs was 6 years. A total of 133 injections were received for health-related reasons during the preceding 4 weeks by 15% of the participants. The average number of injections was 8.6/participant/year. Injections for health-related reasons were commonplace amongst these IDUs. Therefore, amplification of BBV transmission within communities due to unsafe injections is possible and warrants further investigation.

  12. Process Interventions for Vaccine Injections

    PubMed Central

    Taddio, Anna; McMurtry, C. Meghan; Shah, Vibhuti; Noel, Melanie; Chambers, Christine T.

    2015-01-01

    Background: This systematic review evaluated the effectiveness of process interventions (education for clinicians, parent presence, education of parents [before and on day of vaccination], and education of patients on day of vaccination) on reducing vaccination pain, fear, and distress and increasing the use of interventions during vaccination. Design/Methods: Databases were searched using a broad search strategy to identify relevant randomized and quasi-randomized controlled trials. Critical outcomes were pain, fear, distress (when applicable), and use of pain management interventions. Data were extracted according to procedure phase (preprocedure, acute, recovery, combinations of these) and pooled using established methods. Analyses were conducted using standardized mean differences (SMD) and risk ratios (RR). Results: Thirteen studies were included. Results were generally mixed. On the basis of low to very low-quality evidence, the following specific critical outcomes showed significant effects suggesting: (1) clinicians should be educated about vaccine injection pain management (use of interventions: SMD 0.66; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.47, 0.85); (2) parents should be present (distress preprocedure: SMD −0.85; 95% CI: −1.35, −0.35); (3) parents should be educated before the vaccination day (use of intervention preprocedure: SMD 0.83; 95% CI: 0.25, 1.41 and RR, 2.08; 95% CI: 1.51, 2.86; distress acute: SMD, −0.35; 95% CI: −0.57, −0.13); (4) parents should be educated on the vaccination day (use of interventions: SMD 1.02; 95% CI: 0.22, 1.83 and RR, 2.42; 95% CI: 1.47, 3.99; distress preprocedure+acute+recovery: SMD −0.48; 95% CI: −0.82, −0.15); and (5) individuals 3 years of age and above should be educated on the day of vaccination (fear preprocedure: SMD −0.67; 95% CI: −1.28, −0.07). Conclusions: Educating individuals involved in the vaccination procedure (clinicians, parents of children being vaccinated; individuals above 3 y of

  13. An Evaluation of Geopressured Brine Injectability

    SciTech Connect

    Owen, L.B.; Blair, C.K.; Harrar, J.E.; Netherton, R.

    1980-12-16

    We-have developed an apparatus with a capability for evaluating geopressured brine injectability at elevated pressures and temperatures. The apparatus utilizes membrane filters as injection zone reservoir analogs and permits injectability tests to be performed in accordance with Barkman and Davidson Methdology. A field evaluation of geopressured brine injectability was completed during September 22-25, 1980 at the DOE, Brazoria test site in Texas. Membrane filters, with pore sizes of 0.4-{micro}m and 10.0-{micro}m, were used as the basis for obtaining suspended solids data and for developing performance-life estimates of typical spent brine injection wells. Field measurements were made at 130{degree}C and line pressures up to 3800 psig. Scale inhibited (phosphonate-polyacrylate threshold-type, carbonate scale inhibitor), prefiltered-scale-inhibited, and raw (untreated) brine were evaluated. Test results indicated raw brine was highly injectable, while scale-inhibited brine had extremely low quality. The poor injectability of scale-inhibited brine resulted from partial precipitation of the scale inhibitor.

  14. Injection Adipolysis: Mechanisms, Agents, and Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    Leblanc, Keith

    2016-01-01

    Noninvasive procedures targeting the elimination of unwanted adipose tissues have recently been developed. injection adipolysis is the term for the injection of cytotoxic substances into these tissues, with the intent of cosmetic improvement by volume reduction. initial attempts in the field utilized intravenous preparations of sodium deoxycholate and soy-derived phosphatidylcholine, approved for the intravenous treatment of fat emboli and dyslipidemias in countries outside the United States. it was initially purported that the active ingredient in these injections was phosphatidylcholine. Subsequent research discovered that injections of sodium deoxycholate alone were capable of inducing cellular lysis in vitro. These compounds also demonstrated an affinity for adipose tissue, sparing the overlying dermis and epidermis. The United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) recently approved a formulation of sodium deoxycholate 10mg/mL for subcutaneous injection with the indication of aesthetic improvement of excess submental fat. it has shown moderate efficacy with appropriate patient selection and good patient satisfaction. However, previous research leading to the development of this drug proposed that including phosphatidylcholine to a more appealing cosmetic result, with decreased severity of injection-site reactions. Future drugs in the field of injection adipolysis may attempt to combine these ingredients for improved cosmesis and tolerability. PMID:28210398

  15. Impulsive Injection for Compressor Stator Separation Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Culley, Dennis E.; Braunscheidel, Edward P.; Bright, Michelle M.

    2005-01-01

    Flow control using impulsive injection from the suction surface of a stator vane has been applied in a low speed axial compressor. Impulsive injection is shown to significantly reduce separation relative to steady injection for vanes that were induced to separate by an increase in vane stagger angle of 4 degrees. Injected flow was applied to the airfoil suction surface using spanwise slots pitched in the streamwise direction. Injection was limited to the near-hub region, from 10 to 36 percent of span, to affect the dominant loss due to hub leakage flow. Actuation was provided externally using high-speed solenoid valves closely coupled to the vane tip. Variations in injected mass, frequency, and duty cycle are explored. The local corrected total pressure loss across the vane at the lower span region was reduced by over 20 percent. Additionally, low momentum fluid migrating from the hub region toward the tip was effectively suppressed resulting in an overall benefit which reduced corrected area averaged loss through the passage by 4 percent. The injection mass fraction used for impulsive actuation was typically less than 0.1 percent of the compressor through flow.

  16. Monitoring of subsurface injection of wastes, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vecchioli, John

    1979-01-01

    Injection of waste liquids into Florida's subsurface is physically feasible in many places but should be accompanied by monitoring of the waste-receiving aquifer system in addition to the injection facility. Monitoring of the interaction of factors including hydrogeologic conditions, well construction, waste volumes and characteristics, and potable-water sources is desirable to assure that fresh-water resources are not being adversely affected. An effective aquifer-system monitoring program includes on-site wells located close to an injection well and open to the next-higher permeable stratum, satellite wells located hundreds to several thousands of feet from an injection well and open to the receiving aquifer, and regional wells located miles from individual injection wells and open to the receiving aquifer. An extensive aquifer-system monitoring program associated with two waste-injection facilities near Pensacola, Florida, has provided data which have aided hydrologists to understand the aquifer system's response to the injection and, accordingly, to evaluate the potential for affecting the area's fresh-water resources.

  17. Soft Tissue Injections in the Athlete

    PubMed Central

    Nepple, Jeffrey J.; Matava, Matthew J.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Injections into or adjacent to soft tissue structures, including muscle, tendon, bursa, and fascia, for pain relief and an earlier return to play have become common in the field of sports medicine. Study Design: Clinical review. Results: Corticosteroids, local anesthetics, and ketorolac tromethamine (Toradol) are the most commonly used injectable agents in athletes. The use of these injectable agents have proven efficacy in some disorders, whereas the clinical benefit for others remain questionable. All soft tissue injections performed for pain control and/or an anti-inflammatory effect have potentially serious side effects, which must be considered, especially in the pregame setting. Conclusions: The primary concern regarding corticosteroid and local anesthetic injections is an increased risk of tendon rupture associated with the direct injection into the tendon. Intramuscular Toradol injections provide significant analgesia, as well as an anti-inflammatory effect via its inhibitory effect on the cyclooxygenase pathway. The risk of bleeding associated with Toradol use is recognized but not accurately quantified. PMID:23015899

  18. Influence of pre-injection control parameters on main-injection fuel quantity for an electronically controlled double-valve fuel injection system of diesel engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Enzhe; Fan, Liyun; Chen, Chao; Dong, Quan; Ma, Xiuzhen; Bai, Yun

    2013-09-01

    A simulation model of an electronically controlled two solenoid valve fuel injection system for a diesel engine is established in the AMESim environment. The accuracy of the model is validated through comparison with experimental data. The influence of pre-injection control parameters on main-injection quantity under different control modes is analyzed. In the spill control valve mode, main-injection fuel quantity decreases gradually and then reaches a stable level because of the increase in multi-injection dwell time. In the needle control valve mode, main-injection fuel quantity increases with rising multi-injection dwell time; this effect becomes more obvious at high-speed revolutions and large main-injection pulse widths. Pre-injection pulse width has no obvious influence on main-injection quantity under the two control modes; the variation in main-injection quantity is in the range of 1 mm3.

  19. Small-Volume Injections: Evaluation of Volume Administration Deviation From Intended Injection Volumes.

    PubMed

    Muffly, Matthew K; Chen, Michael I; Claure, Rebecca E; Drover, David R; Efron, Bradley; Fitch, William L; Hammer, Gregory B

    2017-10-01

    In the perioperative period, anesthesiologists and postanesthesia care unit (PACU) nurses routinely prepare and administer small-volume IV injections, yet the accuracy of delivered medication volumes in this setting has not been described. In this ex vivo study, we sought to characterize the degree to which small-volume injections (≤0.5 mL) deviated from the intended injection volumes among a group of pediatric anesthesiologists and pediatric postanesthesia care unit (PACU) nurses. We hypothesized that as the intended injection volumes decreased, the deviation from those intended injection volumes would increase. Ten attending pediatric anesthesiologists and 10 pediatric PACU nurses each performed a series of 10 injections into a simulated patient IV setup. Practitioners used separate 1-mL tuberculin syringes with removable 18-gauge needles (Becton-Dickinson & Company, Franklin Lakes, NJ) to aspirate 5 different volumes (0.025, 0.05, 0.1, 0.25, and 0.5 mL) of 0.25 mM Lucifer Yellow (LY) fluorescent dye constituted in saline (Sigma Aldrich, St. Louis, MO) from a rubber-stoppered vial. Each participant then injected the specified volume of LY fluorescent dye via a 3-way stopcock into IV tubing with free-flowing 0.9% sodium chloride (10 mL/min). The injected volume of LY fluorescent dye and 0.9% sodium chloride then drained into a collection vial for laboratory analysis. Microplate fluorescence wavelength detection (Infinite M1000; Tecan, Mannedorf, Switzerland) was used to measure the fluorescence of the collected fluid. Administered injection volumes were calculated based on the fluorescence of the collected fluid using a calibration curve of known LY volumes and associated fluorescence.To determine whether deviation of the administered volumes from the intended injection volumes increased at lower injection volumes, we compared the proportional injection volume error (loge [administered volume/intended volume]) for each of the 5 injection volumes using a linear

  20. Botulinum toxin injection in laryngeal dyspnea.

    PubMed

    Woisard, Virginie; Liu, Xuelai; Bes, Marie Christine Arné; Simonetta-Moreau, Marion

    2017-02-01

    Data, regarding the use of botulinum toxin (BT-A) in laryngeal dyspnea, are scarce, coming from some cases reports in the literature, including Vocal fold paralysis, laryngeal dystonia, vocal cord dysfunction also called paradoxical motion of the vocal fold (PMVF), and post-neuroleptic laryngeal dyskinesia. There is no consensus regarding the muscles and the doses to inject. The aim of this study is to present a retrospective review of patients treated in our ENT Department by BT-A injection in this indication. This study is a retrospective study describing patients who underwent an injection of botulinum toxin for laryngeal dyspnea in the ENT Department from 2005 to 2015 years. The inclusion criteria were a dyspnea associated with a laryngeal dysfunction, confirmed by flexible fiberoptic nasopharyngolaryngoscopy. Information concerning the causes of the dyspnea, the botulinum toxin BT-A injections procedure, post-injection follow-up, and respiratory outcome were collected for all patients included. In the group of 13 patients included, the main cause identified as principal factor linked with the short breath was: a bilateral VF paralysis (Patel et al., Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 130:686-689, 7), laryngeal dystonia (Balkissoon and Kenn, Semin Respir Crit Care Med 33:595-605, 2), Anxiety syndrome associated with unilateral vocal fold paralysis or asthma (Marcinow et al., Laryngoscope 124:1425-1430, 3), and an isolated asthma (Zwirner et al., Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol 254:242-245, 1). Nine out of the thirteen patients were improved by the injections. A BT-A-induced stable benefit for four patients led them to stop the injections in the follow-up. Good outcome was observed in five other patients (main cause: bilateral VP paralysis), allowing a progressive lengthening of the delay between BT-A injections. Four patients did not report a positive risk/benefit ratio after BT-A injections; two of them (with bilateral VF paralysis), because of respiratory side effects and

  1. Dynamics of optically-injected semiconductor nanolasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarraute, J.-M.; Schires, K.; LaRochelle, S.; Grillot, F.

    2016-03-01

    We propose a novel rate equation model of an optically-injected semiconductor nanolaser based on an expression of the complex electric field including a novel spontaneous emission term. The latter takes into account the amplification of the zero-point energy of the field as well as the Purcell effect. The modulation response of the optically injection-locked nanolaser is studied for the first time using a small-signal analysis of the model. We then investigate the injection map of the nanolaser and study the 3-dB bandwidth of the nanolaser inside the locking region.

  2. Pharmacokinetics of three different injectable zuclopenthixol preparations.

    PubMed

    Aaes-Jørgensen, T

    1989-01-01

    1. The zuclopenthixol concentrations in serum has been investigated in man and dog after injection of three different zuclopenthixol preparations. These were zuclopenthixol dihydrochloride in aqueous solution, zuclopenthixol acetate in oil and zuclopenthixol decanoate in oil. 2. The pharmacokinetic profiles of the three injectable zuclopenthixol preparations are very different. Maximum serum levels are obtained after about 1 hour for zuclopenthixol dihydrochloride, after 36 hours for zuclopenthixol acetate and after one week for zuclopenthixol decanoate. 3. The different pharmacokinetics of the three injectable zuclopenthixol preparations are reflected in their clinical properties.

  3. Viscous drag reduction via surface mass injection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hefner, Jerry N.; Bushnell, Dennis M.

    1990-01-01

    Slot injection systems on the surfaces of aerodynamic bodies have been noted to consistently furnish substantial local skin friction reductions which are predictable on the basis of current numerical methods. Only crude systems studies, however, have been thus far completed. The most common configuration for slot ingestion in the literature involves tangential injection of air along a two-dimensional surface on which air constitutes the mainstream flow; attention is presently given to slot injection in low-speed and high-speed flows, as well as a discussion of aircraft applications and an evaluation of prospective possibilities for practical drag-reduction systems.

  4. Integrated injection-locked semiconductor diode laser

    DOEpatents

    Hadley, G.R.; Hohimer, J.P.; Owyoung, A.

    1991-02-19

    A continuous wave integrated injection-locked high-power diode laser array is provided with an on-chip independently-controlled master laser. The integrated injection locked high-power diode laser array is capable of continuous wave lasing in a single near-diffraction limited output beam at single-facet power levels up to 125 mW (250 mW total). Electronic steering of the array emission over an angle of 0.5 degrees is obtained by varying current to the master laser. The master laser injects a laser beam into the slave array by reflection of a rear facet. 18 figures.

  5. Alkaline sorbent injection for mercury control

    DOEpatents

    Madden, Deborah A.; Holmes, Michael J.

    2002-01-01

    A mercury removal system for removing mercury from combustion flue gases is provided in which alkaline sorbents at generally extremely low stoichiometric molar ratios of alkaline earth or an alkali metal to sulfur of less than 1.0 are injected into a power plant system at one or more locations to remove at least between about 40% and 60% of the mercury content from combustion flue gases. Small amounts of alkaline sorbents are injected into the flue gas stream at a relatively low rate. A particulate filter is used to remove mercury-containing particles downstream of each injection point used in the power plant system.

  6. Alkaline sorbent injection for mercury control

    DOEpatents

    Madden, Deborah A.; Holmes, Michael J.

    2003-01-01

    A mercury removal system for removing mercury from combustion flue gases is provided in which alkaline sorbents at generally extremely low stoichiometric molar ratios of alkaline earth or an alkali metal to sulfur of less than 1.0 are injected into a power plant system at one or more locations to remove at least between about 40% and 60% of the mercury content from combustion flue gases. Small amounts of alkaline sorbents are injected into the flue gas stream at a relatively low rate. A particulate filter is used to remove mercury-containing particles downstream of each injection point used in the power plant system.

  7. Innovative Drug Injection via Laser Induced Plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Tae-hee; Yoh, Jack J.

    2010-10-01

    A laser based needle-free liquid drug injection device has been developed. A laser beam is focused inside the liquid contained in the rubber chamber of micro scale. The focused laser beam causes explosive bubble growth and the sudden volume increase in a sealed chamber drives a microjet of liquid drug through the micronozzle. The exit diameter of the nozzle is 125 um and the injected microjet reaches an average velocity of 264 m/s. This device adds the time-varying feature of microjet to the current state of liquid injection for drug delivery.

  8. Fuel Lubricity Requirements for Diesel Injection Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-02-01

    8. Montemayor , A.F. and Owens, E.C., "Comparison of 6.2L Arctic and Standard Fuel Injection Pumps Using JP-8 Fuel," Interim Report BFLRF No. 218 (AD A...injection pumps. The unitest pump stand and test equipment specification are described in more detail in the report by Montemayor and Owens*. A schematic...operation. * Montemayor , A.F. and Owens, E.C., "Comparison of 6.2L Arctic and Standard Fuel Injection Pumps Using JP-8 Fuel," Interim Report BFLRF No. 218

  9. Vibration of safety injection pump motors

    SciTech Connect

    Wattrelos, D.

    1996-12-01

    This paper covers a fault encountered in the safety injection pump motors of the French 900 MWe unit nuclear power stations. This fault was not revealed either during the low pressure safety injection and containment spray system pump qualification tests under accident conditions or during the special tests on a test bench carried out to attempt to replicate the fault and to identify ways of remedying it. This constitutes a potential common mode of failure of the safety injection system and the containment spray system pumps. The vibration phenomena illustrate the importance of carrying out tests in the plants under conditions as close as possible to those of actual accident situations.

  10. Integrated injection-locked semiconductor diode laser

    DOEpatents

    Hadley, G. Ronald; Hohimer, John P.; Owyoung, Adelbert

    1991-01-01

    A continuous wave integrated injection-locked high-power diode laser array is provided with an on-chip independently-controlled master laser. The integrated injection locked high-power diode laser array is capable of continuous wave lasing in a single near-diffraction limited output beam at single-facet power levels up to 125 mW (250 mW total). Electronic steering of the array emission over an angle of 0.5 degrees is obtained by varying current to the master laser. The master laser injects a laser beam into the slave array by reflection of a rear facet.

  11. Assessing Atmospheric Water Injection from Oceanic Impacts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pierazzo, E.

    2005-01-01

    Collisions of asteroids and comets with the Earth s surface are rare events that punctuate the geologic record. Due to the vastness of Earth s oceans, oceanic impacts of asteroids or comets are expected to be about 4 times more frequent than land impacts. The resulting injections of oceanic water into the upper atmosphere can have important repercussions on Earth s climate and atmospheric circulation. However, the duration and overall effect of these large injections are still unconstrained. This work addresses atmospheric injections of large amounts of water in oceanic impacts.

  12. High-pressure fuel injection system for diesel engine

    SciTech Connect

    Hoshi, Y.

    1986-01-21

    This patent describes a high-pressure fuel injection system for a diesel engine. This system consists of: (a) main pumps for injecting fuel each located at one of cylinders of the engine and formed with a fuel injecting port, a discharge valve located in a path connecting the first injected fuel space with the fuel injecting port. The discharge valve is opened when the fuel to be injected reaches a predetermined pressure level. A first injection timing fuel space fluidly connected with the first injected fuel space through a movable shuttle is filled with injection timing fuel, and a plunger varies the volume of the first injection timing fuel space; (b) a metering and distributing pump formed with injection fuel outputs and injection timing fuel outlets corresponding in number to the cylinders of the engine for discharging fuel in timed relation to the rotation of the engine; (c) fuel metering valves for metering fuel flowing into the second injected fuel space and second injection timing fuel space respectively; (d) pipes for fluidly connecting the first injected fuel space and first injection timing fuel space of the main pump for injecting fuel with the injected fuel outlets and injection timing fuel outlets of the metering and distributing pump respectively; and (e) a rocker arm mechanism for driving the plunger of the main pump for injecting fuel in timed relation to the rotation of the engine.

  13. HIV, Hepatitis C, and Abstinence from Alcohol Among Injection and Non-injection Drug Users

    PubMed Central

    Elliott, Jennifer C.; Hasin, Deborah S.; Stohl, Malka; Des Jarlais, Don C.

    2016-01-01

    Individuals using illicit drugs are at risk for heavy drinking and infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and/or hepatitis C virus (HCV). Despite medical consequences of drinking with HIV and/or HCV, whether drug users with these infections are less likely to drink is unclear. Using samples of drug users in treatment with lifetime injection use (n = 1309) and non-injection use (n = 1996) participating in a large, serial, cross-sectional study, we investigated the associations between HIV and HCV with abstinence from alcohol. About half of injection drug users (52.8 %) and 26.6 % of non-injection drug users abstained from alcohol. Among non-injection drug users, those with HIV were less likely to abstain [odds ratio (OR) 0.55; adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 0.58] while those with HCV were more likely to abstain (OR 1.46; AOR 1.34). In contrast, among injection drug users, neither HIV nor HCV was associated with drinking. However, exploratory analyses suggested that younger injection drug users with HIV or HCV were more likely to drink, whereas older injection drug users with HIV or HCV were more likely to abstain. In summary, individuals using drugs, especially non-injection users and those with HIV, are likely to drink. Age may modify the risk of drinking among injection drug users with HIV and HCV, a finding requiring replication. Alcohol intervention for HIV and HCV infected drug users is needed to prevent further harm. PMID:26080690

  14. Global epidemiology of injecting drug use and HIV among people who inject drugs: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Mathers, Bradley M; Degenhardt, Louisa; Phillips, Benjamin; Wiessing, Lucas; Hickman, Matthew; Strathdee, Steffanie A; Wodak, Alex; Panda, Samiran; Tyndall, Mark; Toufik, Abdalla; Mattick, Richard P

    2008-11-15

    Injecting drug use is an increasingly important cause of HIV transmission in most countries worldwide. Our aim was to determine the prevalence of injecting drug use among individuals aged 15-64 years, and of HIV among people who inject drugs. We did a systematic search of peer-reviewed (Medline, EmBase, and PubMed/BioMed Central), internet, and grey literature databases; and data requests were made to UN agencies and international experts. 11 022 documents were reviewed, graded, and catalogued by the Reference Group to the UN on HIV and Injecting Drug Use. Injecting drug use was identified in 148 countries; data for the extent of injecting drug use was absent for many countries in Africa, the Middle East, and Latin America. The presence of HIV infection among injectors had been reported in 120 of these countries. Prevalence estimates of injecting drug use could be ascertained for 61 countries, containing 77% of the world's total population aged 15-64 years. Extrapolated estimates suggest that 15.9 million (range 11.0-21.2 million) people might inject drugs worldwide; the largest numbers of injectors were found in China, the USA, and Russia, where mid-estimates of HIV prevalence among injectors were 12%, 16%, and 37%, respectively. HIV prevalence among injecting drug users was 20-40% in five countries and over 40% in nine. We estimate that, worldwide, about 3.0 million (range 0.8-6.6 million) people who inject drugs might be HIV positive. The number of countries in which the injection of drugs has been reported has increased over the last decade. The high prevalence of HIV among many populations of injecting drug users represents a substantial global health challenge. However, existing data are far from adequate, in both quality and quantity, particularly in view of the increasing importance of injecting drug use as a mode of HIV transmission in many regions.

  15. Injection Locking Techniques for Spectrum Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gathma, Timothy D.; Buckwalter, James F.

    2011-04-01

    Wideband spectrum analysis supports future communication systems that reconfigure and adapt to the capacity of the spectral environment. While test equipment manufacturers offer wideband spectrum analyzers with excellent sensitivity and resolution, these spectrum analyzers typically cannot offer acceptable size, weight, and power (SWAP). CMOS integrated circuits offer the potential to fully integrate spectrum analysis capability with analog front-end circuitry and digital signal processing on a single chip. Unfortunately, CMOS lacks high-Q passives and wideband resonator tunability that is necessary for heterodyne implementations of spectrum analyzers. As an alternative to the heterodyne receiver architectures, two nonlinear methods for performing wideband, low-power spectrum analysis are presented. The first method involves injecting the spectrum of interest into an array of injection-locked oscillators. The second method employs the closed loop dynamics of both injection locking and phase locking to independently estimate the injected frequency and power.

  16. Insulin Aspart (rDNA Origin) Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... a solution (liquid) and a suspension (liquid with particles that will settle on standing) to inject subcutaneously ( ... it is colored, cloudy, thickened, or contains solid particles. If you are using insulin aspart suspension, the ...

  17. VOLATILE ORGANIC ANALYSIS BY DIRECT AQUEOUS INJECTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Gas chromatographic environmental analysis by direct aqueous injection (DAI) was studied for 24 volatile organic analytes (VOAs). Internal standardization was used to determine the precision of analyzing these compounds by DAI. Aequous samples were directly introduced to a gas ch...

  18. LABORATORY SCALE STEAM INJECTION TREATABILITY STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Laboratory scale steam injection treatability studies were first developed at The University of California-Berkeley. A comparable testing facility has been developed at USEPA's Robert S. Kerr Environmental Research Center. Experience has already shown that many volatile organic...

  19. Steam Injection For Soil And Aquifer Remediation

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The purpose of this Issue Paper is to provide to those involved in assessing remediation technologies for specific sites basic technical information on the use of steam injection for the remediation of soils and aquifers that are contaminated by...

  20. LABORATORY SCALE STEAM INJECTION TREATABILITY STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Laboratory scale steam injection treatability studies were first developed at The University of California-Berkeley. A comparable testing facility has been developed at USEPA's Robert S. Kerr Environmental Research Center. Experience has already shown that many volatile organic...

  1. Injection Locking Techniques for Spectrum Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Gathma, Timothy D.; Buckwalter, James F.

    2011-04-19

    Wideband spectrum analysis supports future communication systems that reconfigure and adapt to the capacity of the spectral environment. While test equipment manufacturers offer wideband spectrum analyzers with excellent sensitivity and resolution, these spectrum analyzers typically cannot offer acceptable size, weight, and power (SWAP). CMOS integrated circuits offer the potential to fully integrate spectrum analysis capability with analog front-end circuitry and digital signal processing on a single chip. Unfortunately, CMOS lacks high-Q passives and wideband resonator tunability that is necessary for heterodyne implementations of spectrum analyzers. As an alternative to the heterodyne receiver architectures, two nonlinear methods for performing wideband, low-power spectrum analysis are presented. The first method involves injecting the spectrum of interest into an array of injection-locked oscillators. The second method employs the closed loop dynamics of both injection locking and phase locking to independently estimate the injected frequency and power.

  2. A Multi-Layered Needle Injection Simulator.

    PubMed

    Laufer, Shlomi; Kempton, Steve J; Maciolek, Kimberly; Terry, Aliyya; Ray, Rebeca D; Pugh, Carla M; Afifi, Ahmed M

    2016-01-01

    Insuring correct needle location is crucial in many medical procedures. This can be even more challenging for physicians injecting in a new location for the first time. Since they do not necessarily know how the tissue is supposed to feel, finding the correct location and correct depth can be difficult. In this study we designed a simulator for training needle injection. The simulator was fabricated to give a realistic feeling of injecting Botox® in the temporalis and the semispinalis muscles as part of migraine treatment. In addition the simulator provided real-time feedback of correct needle location. Nine residents and medical students evaluated the simulator. They made several errors that were corrected real time using the real time feedback provided. They found the simulator to be very useful and that the training significantly improved their confidence. The methods described in this study can easily be implemented for developing needle injection simulators for other anatomical locations.

  3. Digital Inject Book v. 1.7

    SciTech Connect

    Eldridge, Bryce

    2016-10-05

    Digital Inject Book is a software program designed to generate and managed simulated data for radiation detectors, used to increase the realism of training where real radiation sources are impractical, expensive, or simply not available.

  4. Nonmedical-grade Injections of Permanent Fillers

    PubMed Central

    Bayers, Stephanie; Beer, Michael; Beer, Kenneth

    2013-01-01

    Silicone injections may result in complications that bring patients to a dermatologist or plastic surgeon. These complications may be due to the use of nonmedical grade products, large volume injections, incorrect placement of the product, or a combination of the above. Frequently, complications result when injections are performed by unlicensed practitioners. Individuals who undergo large volume procedures may develop a variety of life-threatening problems ranging from infections to pulmonary emboli. Once they develop problems, these patients often present to licensed and board-certified physicians for treatment. Based on a review of the literature, this article provides a management algorithm for various complications. In addition, a medicolegal perspective is presented. Finally, the transgender experience as it relates to silicone injections is also reviewed. PMID:23630638

  5. Injection molded optical backplane for broadcast architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenberg, Paul; Mathai, Sagi; Sorin, Wayne V.; McLaren, Moray; Straznicky, Joseph; Panotopoulos, Georgios; Warren, David; Morris, Terry; Tan, Michael R. T.

    2012-01-01

    A low cost, blind mate, injection molded optical backplane is presented. The optical backplane is comprised of 12 channel optical broadcast buses, operating at 10Gbps/channel with six blindmate optical output ports spaced 1U apart.

  6. The injectable neurostimulator: an emerging therapeutic device.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaolong; Serdijn, Wouter A; Zheng, Wei; Tian, Yubo; Zhang, Bing

    2015-07-01

    Injectable neurostimulators are currently applied in clinical trials to minimize the side effects such as discomfort, risk of infection, and post-surgery trauma, which can be pronounced with conventional, bulky implantable neurostimulators. Owing to its smaller size, wireless-updatable software, and wireless power supply, the injectable neurostimulator is presumably less invasive, 'smarter', and has a longer lifetime. We discuss the concept and development of the injectable neurostimulator, persistent implementation challenges, and obstacles to be overcome in its evolution. We survey the use of new materials, technologies, and design methods for injectable electrodes, batteries, antennas, and packaging to enhance reliability and other features. These advances in the field are accompanied by progress in electrophysiology, neuroscience, neurology, clinical trials, and treatments.

  7. Interferon Beta-1a Intramuscular Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Interferon beta-1a intramuscular injection is used to reduce the number of episodes of symptoms and slow ... and problems with vision, speech, and bladder control). Interferon beta-1a is in a class of medications ...

  8. Interferon Beta-1a Subcutaneous Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Interferon beta-1a subcutaneous injection is used to reduce episodes of symptoms and slow the development of ... and problems with vision, speech, and bladder control). Interferon beta-1a is in a class of medications ...

  9. Liquid injectable silicone for soft tissue augmentation.

    PubMed

    Prather, Chad L; Jones, Derek H

    2006-01-01

    Liquid injectable silicone is a unique soft tissue augmenting agent that may be effectively utilized for the correction of specific cutaneous and subcutaneous atrophies. Although historical complications have occurred, resulting likely from the presence of adulterants and impurities, modern purified silicone products approved by the Food and Drug Administration for injection into the human body may be employed with minimal complications when strict protocol is followed. In this article the present authors review the history and controversy regarding silicone as well as describe the appropriate indications, patient selection, instrumentation, treatment protocol, and anticipated complications involved with the use of liquid injectable silicone for soft tissue augmentation. Although its use is controversial, the present authors maintain that liquid injectable silicone is an important and effective augmenting agent for the long-term correction of scars and facial contour defects such as HIV facial lipoatrophy. Furthermore, it is a treatment modality deserving of continued investigation.

  10. Plasticising and injecting lowest quantities of plastic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hopmann, Ch.; Neuß, A.; Weber, M.; Fischer, T.

    2014-05-01

    For an economic production of thermoplastic micro parts a reproducible quality is one of the key aspects. Therefore, injection moulding is one of the most common production technologies. The material and process oriented plasticising of the required amount of plastic material are still challenging. Due to the concept of standard injection moulding machines the plasticising screw with a non-return valve is used as the injection plunger. This principle can only realise injection volumes which arise directly from the screw diameter D and the injection stroke. Miniaturisation of this design is limited, since the screw core must absorb the required torque while a feeding of the granules is to ensure by a sufficient flight depth. Even the smallest standard diameters of 14 mm and minimum injection strokes result in shot volumes, which account for multiples of the component volume of common micro parts. At present a new plasticising concept is developed by the Institute of Plastics Processing (IKV), Aachen, Germany. The concept is characterised by the position of the screw flights, which are attached to the inside of the plasticising cylinder. The injection piston is mounted coaxially within the cylinder. The so-called 'inverted plastication' is based on the kinematic reversal of the screw flights' arrangement. As the injection piston does not have to feature neither a special feed section nor screw flights, it is exposed to lower mechanical stresses. It therefore features a smaller diameter than common plasticising screws. Thus, the entire plasticising unit can be adapted to the volume of micro parts. Currently, an experimental setup is built which allows a systematical analysis of the different influencing parameters.

  11. Carbon injection proves effective in removing dioxins

    SciTech Connect

    Roeck, D.R.; Sigg, A.

    1996-01-01

    The last several years concerns have grown about the emission of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans, both byproducts of the combustion effluent-gas stream. In Europe carbon injection is widley used to effectively control dioxin emissions from hazardous-waste incinerators. Waste Technologies Industries, a hazardous waste incinerator in Ohio, recently completed extensive testing of the effectiveness of carbon injection technology. This article discusses the testing. 1 tab.

  12. Electron injection in semiconductor drift detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Rehak, P. ); Gatti, E.; Longoni, A.; Sampietro, M.; Castoldi, A. ); Vacchi, A. )

    1990-01-01

    The paper reports the first successful results of a simple MOS structure to inject electrons at a given position in Silicon Drift Detectors. The structure allows on-line calibration of the drift velocity of electrons within the detector. The calibration is a practical method to trace the temperature dependence of the electron mobility. Several of these injection structures can be implemented in silicon drift detectors without additional steps in the fabrication process. 5 refs., 11 figs.

  13. Diesel Effect Problem Solving During Injection Moulding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Košík, Miroslav; Likavčan, Lukáš; Bílik, Jozef; Martinkovič, Maroš

    2014-12-01

    Study describes principles of diesel effect creation during thermoplastic injection moulding as a consequence of wrong injection conditions and poor venting system design. On real example, study shows sequence of all steps to eliminate this sort of material degradation with minimal costs in phase when mould is already made. As a first, process parameters were optimized by CAE simulation to minimize cavity internal gasses creation. Finally the specific mould modifications were suggested to improve the effectiveness of venting system.

  14. Fluidized bed injection assembly for coal gasification

    DOEpatents

    Cherish, Peter; Salvador, Louis A.

    1981-01-01

    A coaxial feed system for fluidized bed coal gasification processes including an inner tube for injecting particulate combustibles into a transport gas, an inner annulus about the inner tube for injecting an oxidizing gas, and an outer annulus about the inner annulus for transporting a fluidizing and cooling gas. The combustibles and oxidizing gas are discharged vertically upward directly into the combustion jet, and the fluidizing and cooling gas is discharged in a downward radial direction into the bed below the combustion jet.

  15. Paraplegia After Thoracic Epidural Steroid Injection.

    PubMed

    Loomba, Vivek; Kaveeshvar, Hirsh; Dwivedi, Samvid

    2016-09-01

    Epidural steroid injections are a common procedure performed by pain physicians. The American Society of Regional Anesthesia along with several other groups recently provided guidelines for performing epidural injections in the setting of anticoagulants. We present a case of a patient who developed an epidural hematoma and subsequent paraplegia despite strict adherence to these guidelines. Although new guidelines serve to direct practice, risks of devastating neurologic complications remain as evidenced by our case.

  16. Ocular toxicity after intravitreal injection of terconazole.

    PubMed

    Schulman, J A; Peyman, G A; Dietlein, J; Fiscella, R; Colantino, B

    1989-09-01

    Terconazole, a new triazole antifungal agent, was injected intravitreally in doses ranging from 10 to 100 micrograms dissolved in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) 60% into the eyes of New Zealand rabbits. Three control eyes received only DMSO. The eyes were evaluated with biomicroscopy, indirect ophthalmoscopy, electroretinography, and histopathologic examination. From these data, it was determined that an intravitreal injection containing a concentration of 10 micrograms/0.1 mL of terconazole is not toxic to the rabbit eye.

  17. Residues of veterinary drugs at injection sites.

    PubMed

    Reeves, P T

    2007-02-01

    Residues of veterinary drugs have potential implications for human food safety and international trade in animal-derived food commodities. A particular concern is the slow depletion of residues of some injectable formulations from the site of administration. Licensing authorities have adopted different approaches to the human food safety assessment of injection site residues. European agencies apply the maximum residue limit (MRL) for muscle to muscle at the injection site and specify a withdrawal period sufficient to ensure the ingestion of a 300 g portion of muscle, if comprised entirely of injection site tissue, does not exceed the acceptable daily intake. The agencies in Australia, Canada and the USA also exclude injection site residues from the MRL-setting process. These agencies evaluate the risk to consumers posed by potential acute manifestations resulting from the infrequent ingestion of injection site residues based on acute dietary exposure considerations. While all of these approaches protect the safety of consumers, the adoption of different approaches has potential implications for residue surveillance programs in the international trade in meat. In particular, when an exporting country establishes standards for residues at injection sites based on acute dietary exposure considerations and the importing country assesses these residues against the MRL for muscle, the unnecessary condemnation of meat and disruption to market access may result. The latter may represent a potential economical impost to the exporting country. An internationally harmonized approach to the risk analysis of residues of veterinary drugs at injection sites, which protects the safety of consumers and facilitates the international trade in meat, is needed.

  18. Smart Materials for Fuel Injection Actuation

    SciTech Connect

    Hakim, Nabil

    2000-08-20

    The demands of stringent emissions and a robust engine dynamic torque response characteristic require innovative, accurate and repeatable control of the fuel injection event. Recent advances in piezo-material actuators have warranted the pursuit of its application to advanced heavy-duty truck fuel injection systems. This presentation will report on design and testing of an advanced electronic unit injector for the Detroit Diesel Series 60 truck engine.

  19. Liquid fuel injection elements for rocket engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cox, George B., Jr. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    Thrust chambers for liquid propellant rocket engines include three principal components. One of these components is an injector which contains a plurality of injection elements to meter the flow of propellants at a predetermined rate, and fuel to oxidizer mixture ratio, to introduce the mixture into the combustion chamber, and to cause them to be atomized within the combustion chamber so that even combustion takes place. Evolving from these injectors are tube injectors. These tube injectors have injection elements for injecting the oxidizer into the combustion chamber. The oxidizer and fuel must be metered at predetermined rates and mixture ratios in order to mix them within the combustion chamber so that combustion takes place smoothly and completely. Hence tube injectors are subject to improvement. An injection element for a liquid propellant rocket engine of the bipropellant type is provided which includes tangential fuel metering orifices, and a plurality of oxidizer tube injection elements whose injection tubes are also provided with tangential oxidizer entry slots and internal reed valves.

  20. Blast furnace injection developments in British Steel

    SciTech Connect

    Jukes, M.H.

    1996-12-31

    British Steel has four integrated steel works, i.e., Llanwern, Port Talbot, Scunthorpe, Teesside, with a total of ten blast furnaces, nine of which are currently operating. The furnaces range in size from the 14 meters (45 feet 11 inches) hearth diameter Redcar No. 1 furnace at Teesside (a single furnace works) to the 8.33 meters (27 feet 4 inches) hearth Queen Mary and Queen Bess furnaces at Schunthorpe, with a total of four furnaces at that works. All have injection systems installed, those at Scunthorpe being equipped with granular coal injection and all others currently working with oil injection. The driving force behind the development of blast furnace injection has been as a means for introducing reducing agents (British Steel now refers to coke plus hydrocarbon injectants as total reductants) into the process as a part substitute/supplement for top charged coke and the technology is still being developed and used for that purpose. By utilizing practical experience and observing the work of others, British Steel has been assessing blast furnace injection technology experimentally for purposes other than the introduction of reducing agents.

  1. [Medical emergencies following dermatological injections and infusions].

    PubMed

    Dill-Müller, D

    2006-03-01

    Emergency situations following appropriately administered injections and infusions are an uncommon dermatologic problem. Embolia cutis medicamentosa is an uncommon complication following intramuscular injection which leads to infarct-like cutaneous necrosis. It may develop after gluteal injection of corticosteroids, anti-inflammatory agents and antibiotics and has rarely been described following venous sclerotherapy with polidocanol. Hoigné syndrome is a pseudoanaphylactic or pseudoallergic reaction following intramuscular injection of procaine penicillin, with neuropsychiatric problems developing immediately after the injection. Subacute forms following intramuscular or oral administration of structurally-related antibiotics. The intraoperative use of patent blue dye has a 1-2% risk of allergic reactions. The patient must be monitored carefully following injection for the onset the life-threatening immediate reaction. Extravasation of cytostatic agents is a critical iatrogenic problem in oncology with an incidence of up to 6.5%. Every oncologic department should have an understanding of necrotic risk of the various agents and an emergency kit with instructions for immediate steps, also including agent-specific antidotes as available.

  2. Fuel injection apparatus for internal combustion engines

    SciTech Connect

    Yamaguchi, S.; Ishiwata, H.

    1988-03-15

    A fuel injection apparatus for internal combustion engines is described comprising: a fuel injection pump which has a plunger caused to carry out a least reciprocal movement in a predetermined pattern in a bore formed in a plunger barrel to pressurize fuel in the plunge barrel and at least one control sleeve fitted on the plunger, a first actuator for regulating the position of the control sleeve to regulate the fuel injection rate; a second actuator for regulating the position of the plunger to regulate the fuel injection quantity; a first means responsive to at least one condition signal indicating the operating condition of the internal combustion engine for drivingly controlling the first and second actuators in such a way that the optimum fuel injection rate and fuel injection quantity can be obtained at each instant; a detecting means for detecting any trouble occurring in the control system for regulating the position of the control sleeve; and a second means for limiting the control operation by the first means so that an excessive rise in the inner pressure of the cylinders in the internal combustion engine is prevented when the occurrence of trouble is detected by the detecting means.

  3. Fuel injection system for internal combustion engines

    SciTech Connect

    Yamaguchi, S.

    1986-10-28

    A fuel injection system is described for an internal combustion engine, comprising: (a) a fuel injection pump driven by the engine for fuel injection thereto and including a plunger reciprocably movable at a non-uniform speed and a control sleeve slidably fitted on the plunger; (b) first drive means operatively connected with the plunger for rotating the latter to thereby adjust the effective stroke of the plunger; (c) second drive means operatively connected with the control sleeve for displacing the latter in an axial direction to thereby adjust the pre-stroke of the control sleeve; (d) an operation sensor for detecting operating conditions of the engine; (e) a position sensor for detecting a position of the control sleeve; (f) first arithmetic means responsive to the engine operating conditions detected by the operation sensor, for computing an object injection quantity; (g) second arithmetic means responsive to the position of the control sleeve detected by the position sensor, for computing an object pre-stroke of the plunger; (h) third arithmetic means responsive to the engine operating conditions detected and the position of the control sleeve detected, for computing a correction amount; (i) first control means responsive to the correction amount computed by the third arithmetic means, for correcting the object injection quantity and for delivering a control signal to the first drive means; and (j) second control means responsive to the object injection quantity computed by the second arithmetic means, for delivering a control signal to the second drive means.

  4. Tip vortex cavitation suppression via mass injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganesh, Harish; Chang, Natasha; Yakushiji, Ryo; Ceccio, Steven

    2009-11-01

    Tip vortex cavitation (TVC) suppression by mass injection in the core of the vortex was studied with an elliptical plan-form hydrofoil NACA-66 modified in a re-circulating water tunnel of known nuclei distribution. The chord based Re was O(106) for all experiments. Water and Polyox WSR 301 solution for a range of concentrations (10 to 500pmm) and relative flow rates (Qjet / Qcore of 0.033 to 0.27) were injected. Also, different injection port size and angle of attack were studied. It was found that the TVC suppression effect was different for inception and desinence. The baseline (no injection) inception cavitation number was more than the average negative pressure coefficient, -Cp of the vortex, while mass addition reduced the inception cavitation number to approximately the --Cp value. TVC desinence for the baseline case was found to match the estimated --Cp value and polymer injection provided some cavitation suppression. Flow measurements were made to understand the underlying physics of TVC. The mechanisms and scalability that lead to TVC suppression by mass injection are discussed.

  5. Orthogonal ion injection apparatus and process

    DOEpatents

    Kurulugama, Ruwan T; Belov, Mikhail E

    2014-04-15

    An orthogonal ion injection apparatus and process are described in which ions are directly injected into an ion guide orthogonal to the ion guide axis through an inlet opening located on a side of the ion guide. The end of the heated capillary is placed inside the ion guide such that the ions are directly injected into DC and RF fields inside the ion guide, which efficiently confines ions inside the ion guide. Liquid droplets created by the ionization source that are carried through the capillary into the ion guide are removed from the ion guide by a strong directional gas flow through an inlet opening on the opposite side of the ion guide. Strong DC and RF fields divert ions into the ion guide. In-guide orthogonal injection yields a noise level that is a factor of 1.5 to 2 lower than conventional inline injection known in the art. Signal intensities for low m/z ions are greater compared to convention inline injection under the same processing conditions.

  6. Dual fuel injection piggyback controller system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muji, Siti Zarina Mohd.; Hassanal, Muhammad Amirul Hafeez; Lee, Chua King; Fawzi, Mas; Zulkifli, Fathul Hakim

    2017-09-01

    Dual-fuel injection is an effort to reduce the dependency on diesel and gasoline fuel. Generally, there are two approaches to implement the dual-fuel injection in car system. The first approach is changing the whole injector of the car engine, the consequence is excessive high cost. Alternatively, it also can be achieved by manipulating the system's control signal especially the Electronic Control Unit (ECU) signal. Hence, the study focuses to develop a dual injection timing controller system that likely adopted to control injection time and quantity of compressed natural gas (CNG) and diesel fuel. In this system, Raspberry Pi 3 reacts as main controller unit to receive ECU signal, analyze it and then manipulate its duty cycle to be fed into the Electronic Driver Unit (EDU). The manipulation has changed the duty cycle to two pulses instead of single pulse. A particular pulse mainly used to control injection of diesel fuel and another pulse controls injection of Compressed Natural Gas (CNG). The test indicated promising results that the system can be implemented in the car as piggyback system.

  7. Liquid fuel injection elements for rocket engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cox, George B., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    Thrust chambers for liquid propellant rocket engines include three principal components. One of these components is an injector which contains a plurality of injection elements to meter the flow of propellants at a predetermined rate, and fuel to oxidizer mixture ratio, to introduce the mixture into the combustion chamber, and to cause them to be atomized within the combustion chamber so that even combustion takes place. Evolving from these injectors are tube injectors. These tube injectors have injection elements for injecting the oxidizer into the combustion chamber. The oxidizer and fuel must be metered at predetermined rates and mixture ratios in order to mix them within the combustion chamber so that combustion takes place smoothly and completely. Hence tube injectors are subject to improvement. An injection element for a liquid propellant rocket engine of the bipropellant type is provided herein which includes tangential fuel metering orifices, and a plurality of oxidizer tube injection elements whose injection tubes are also provided with tangential oxidizer entry slots and internal reed valves.

  8. Liquid fuel injection elements for rocket engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cox, George B., Jr.

    1993-11-01

    Thrust chambers for liquid propellant rocket engines include three principal components. One of these components is an injector which contains a plurality of injection elements to meter the flow of propellants at a predetermined rate, and fuel to oxidizer mixture ratio, to introduce the mixture into the combustion chamber, and to cause them to be atomized within the combustion chamber so that even combustion takes place. Evolving from these injectors are tube injectors. These tube injectors have injection elements for injecting the oxidizer into the combustion chamber. The oxidizer and fuel must be metered at predetermined rates and mixture ratios in order to mix them within the combustion chamber so that combustion takes place smoothly and completely. Hence tube injectors are subject to improvement. An injection element for a liquid propellant rocket engine of the bipropellant type is provided which includes tangential fuel metering orifices, and a plurality of oxidizer tube injection elements whose injection tubes are also provided with tangential oxidizer entry slots and internal reed valves.

  9. Magnetic detection of ferrofluid injection zones

    SciTech Connect

    Borglin, S.; Moridis, G.; Becker, A.

    1998-03-01

    Ferrofluids are stable colloidal suspensions of magnetic particles that can be stabilized in various carrier liquids. In this study the authors investigate the potential of ferrofluids to trace the movement and position of liquids injected in the subsurface using geophysical methods. An ability to track and monitor the movement and position of injected liquids is essential in assessing the effectiveness of the delivery system and the success of the process. Ferrofluids can also provide a significant detection and verification tool in containment technologies, where they can be injected with the barrier liquids to provide a strong signature allowing determination of the barrier geometry, extent, continuity and integrity. Finally, ferrofluids may have unique properties as tracers for detecting preferential flow features (such as fractures) in the subsurface, and thus allow the design of more effective remediation systems. In this report the authors review the results of the investigation of the potential of ferrofluids to trace the movement and position of liquids injected in the subsurface using geophysical methods. They demonstrate the feasibility of using conventional magnetometry for detecting subsurface zones of injected ferrofluids used to trace liquids injected for remediation or barrier formation. The geometrical shapes considered were a sphere, a thin disk, a rectangular horizontal slab, and a cylinder. Simple calculations based on the principles of magnetometry are made to determine the detection depths of FTs. Experiments involving spherical, cylindrical and horizontal slabs show a very good agreement between predictions and measurements.

  10. Are IM injections IM in obese and overweight females? A study in injection technique.

    PubMed

    Palma, Sara; Strohfus, Pamela

    2013-11-01

    If given incorrectly, intramuscular injections may result in poor absorption of drug, reduced drug effectiveness, or irritation to surrounding tissues. In this study, IM injection techniques were observed and documented for needle length, injection site, needle insertion, and stretching or bunching of the skin during injection in a population of adult females. The patients' weights and BMIs were recorded to determine the amount of subcutaneous fat at the injection site. In 22 patients of varied weights, 90% of injections were given within current Advisory Committee on Immunization Practice (ACIP) guidelines in normal and underweight patients, and 17% were given within ACIP guidelines in overweight and obese patients. The study concluded that the needle length used is often too short in overweight and obese individuals. © 2013.

  11. Research on the injected effect by the narrow-slit injection orifice in screw compressors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, J.; Feng, J.; Liu, F.; Peng, C.; Feng, Q.

    2017-08-01

    A narrow-slit injection orifice in screw compressors (mainly in single screw compressors) is described in this paper. In contrast to the traditional injection orifice, the section is slit shaped but not circular. Liquid which is injected by the narrow-slit injection orifice appears as a curtain shape. The heat transfer area is increased so that the cooling effect is enhanced and the efficiency of the compressor is improved. The injected effect was simulated through the CFD software, and then the experiments were carried out. The study verified the accuracy of the simulation results and will provide a theoretical foundation for the design of a narrow-slit injection orifice in screw compressors.

  12. Diesel engine fuel injection system with a rate-of-injection control arrangement

    SciTech Connect

    Abe, S.; Igashira, T.; Sakakibara, Y.; Izawa, A.; Sekiguchi, K.

    1988-03-15

    A fuel injection system for a diesel engine is described comprising: (a) a fuel injection pump for delivering a controlled quantity of high pressure fuel cyclically at a timing synchronized with the operation of the engine; (b) a fuel injection nozzle hydraulically connected to the injection pump for receiving high pressure fuel therefrom and injecting the fuel into an engine cylinder; (c) means for controlling a rate of injection of the system in response to operating conditions of the engine; and (d) passage means for providing, during each delivery stroke of the pump plunger, fluid communication between the pumping chamber and the variable volume chamber only for a predetermined initial phase of the delivery stroke. The variable volume chamber is hydraulically isolated from the pumping chamber during subsequent phases of the delivery stroke.

  13. Assessing the variability of injectate distribution following carpal tunnel injection--a cadaveric study.

    PubMed

    Jariwala, A; Zaliunaite, R; Soames, R; Wigderowitz, C A

    2013-01-01

    This anatomical study was designed to assess the distribution of a solution (injectate) made up using local anesthetic, steroid and dye into the carpal tunnel using a commonly used injection technique. Dissections were undertaken in 29 embalmed cadaveric wrists. The cadaveric specimens were dissected 24 hours after injection to observe the effect of time on diffusion patterns in both superficial and deep planes. Eighteen of the 29 specimens showed the presence of the injectate in the superficial plane and three preferential patterns of distribution were noted in the deep plane: free in the carpal tunnel, exclusively in the tendon sheath and mixed. This is the first study investigating the delayed diffusion pattern of injectate in the carpal tunnel and illustrates its variability. The findings of variable degree of superficial diffusion and different patterns of intracarpal spread help to offer some explanation regarding the variability of the response following carpal tunnel injection.

  14. Treatment of severe motion sickness with antimotion sickness drug injections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graybiel, Ashton; Lackner, James R.

    1987-01-01

    This report concerns the use of intramuscular injections of scopolamine, promethazine, and dramamine to treat severely motion sick individuals participating in parabolic flight experiments. The findings indicate that a majority of individuals received benefit from 50-mg injections of promethazine or 0.5 mg-injections of scopolamine. By contrast, 50-mg injections of dramamine and 25-mg injections of promethazine were nonbeneficial. The use of antimotion drug injections for treating space motion sickness is discussed.

  15. Treatment of severe motion sickness with antimotion sickness drug injections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graybiel, Ashton; Lackner, James R.

    1987-01-01

    This report concerns the use of intramuscular injections of scopolamine, promethazine, and dramamine to treat severely motion sick individuals participating in parabolic flight experiments. The findings indicate that a majority of individuals received benefit from 50-mg injections of promethazine or 0.5 mg-injections of scopolamine. By contrast, 50-mg injections of dramamine and 25-mg injections of promethazine were nonbeneficial. The use of antimotion drug injections for treating space motion sickness is discussed.

  16. Distribution and regularity of injection from a multicylinder fuel-injection pump

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rothrock, A M; Marsh, E T

    1936-01-01

    This report presents the results of performance test conducted on a six-cylinder commercial fuel-injection pump that was adjusted to give uniform fuel distribution among the cylinders at a throttle setting of 0.00038 pound per injection and a pump speed of 750 revolutions per minute. The throttle setting and pump speed were then varied through the operating range to determine the uniformity of distribution and regularity of injection.

  17. Analysis of the injection process in direct injected natural gas engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jennings, M. J.; Jeske, F. R.

    1993-08-01

    The analysis was based upon a series of three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD) calculations of natural gas (NG) injection in engine combustion chambers and constant volume chambers. Simulations of injection into constant volume chambers were used to investigate the fundamental behavior of NG jets. Calculations of engine injection, which include a moving piston, were used to study the effects of combustion system design.

  18. Application of Gaseous Sphere Injection Method for Modeling Under-expanded H2 Injection

    SciTech Connect

    Whitesides, R; Hessel, R P; Flowers, D L; Aceves, S M

    2010-12-03

    A methodology for modeling gaseous injection has been refined and applied to recent experimental data from the literature. This approach uses a discrete phase analogy to handle gaseous injection, allowing for addition of gaseous injection to a CFD grid without needing to resolve the injector nozzle. This paper focuses on model testing to provide the basis for simulation of hydrogen direct injected internal combustion engines. The model has been updated to be more applicable to full engine simulations, and shows good agreement with experiments for jet penetration and time-dependent axial mass fraction, while available radial mass fraction data is less well predicted.

  19. Injecting equipment sharing and perception of HIV and hepatitis risk among injecting drug users in Budapest.

    PubMed

    Rácz, J; Gyarmathy, V A; Neaigus, A; Ujhelyi, E

    2007-01-01

    In central European states, rates of HIV among injection drug users (IDUs) have been low although Hepatitis C (HCV) infection is widespread. The goal of our study was to assess HIV infection, risk perceptions and injecting equipment sharing among IDUs in Budapest, Hungary. Altogether 150 IDUs were interviewed (121 structured interviews between 1999 and 2000 and 29 ethnographic interviews between 2003 and 2004). The majority of them injected heroin (52% and 79%) and many injected amphetamines (51% and 35%). One person tested positive for HIV. Two thirds (68%) shared injecting equipment (syringes, cookers and filters). Some participants said they shared syringes because they were not carrying them for fear of police harassment and that they reused filters as a backup drug supply. In multivariate analysis, sharing of injecting equipment was associated with higher perceived susceptibility to HIV/AIDS, lower self-efficacy for sterile equipment use, higher motivation to comply with peer pressure to use dirty injecting equipment and with having a criminal record. The high levels of injecting risk-behaviors found in this study are a cause for serious concern. Interventions for HIV-prevention need to address not only sharing syringes but also sharing and reusing of other injecting equipment and drug filters.

  20. INJECTING EQUPMENT SHARING AND PERCEPTION OF HIV AND HEPATITIS RISK AMONG INJECTING DRUG USERS IN BUDAPEST

    PubMed Central

    Gyarmathy, V. Anna; Neaigus, Alan; Ujhelyi, Eszter

    2008-01-01

    In Central European states, rates of HIV among IDUs have been low although HCV infection is widespread. The goal of our study was to assess HIV infection, risk perceptions and injecting equipment sharing among injection drug users in Budapest, Hungary. Altogether 150 IDUs were interviewed (121 structured between 1999-2000 and 29 ethnographic between 2003-2004). The majority of them injected heroin (52% and 79%) and many injected amphetamines (51% and 35%). One person tested positive for HIV. Two thirds (68% of 121) shared injecting equipment (syringes, cookers and filters). Some participants said they shared syringes because they were not carrying them for fear of police harassment, and that they reused filters as a backup drug supply. In multivariate analysis, sharing of injecting equipment was associated with higher perceived susceptibility to HIV/AIDS, lower self-efficacy for sterile equipment use, higher motivation to comply with peer pressure to use dirty injecting equipment, and with having a criminal record. The high levels of injecting risk behaviors found in this study are a cause for serious concern. HIV prevention interventions need to address not only sharing syringes but also sharing and reusing other injecting equipment and drug filters. PMID:17129858