Science.gov

Sample records for 15th power ev

  1. Muon groups and primary composition at 10 to the 13th power to 10 to the 15th power eV

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Budko, E. V.; Chudakov, A. E.; Dogujaev, V. A.; Mihelev, A. R.; Padey, V. A.; Petkov, V. A.; Striganov, P. S.; Suvorova, O. V.; Voevodsky, A. V.

    1985-01-01

    The data on muon groups observed at Baksan underground scintillation telescope is analyzed. In this analysis we compare the experimental data with calulations, based on a superposition model in order to obtain the effective atomic number of primary cosmic rays in the energy range 10 to the 13th power to 10 to the 15th power eV.

  2. A new measurement of the cosmic ray energy spectrum between 3 x 10 to the 15th power eV and 3 x 10 to the 16th power eV

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gregory, A. G.; Patterson, J. R.; Protheroe, R. J.

    1985-01-01

    A new Cerenkov photon density spectrum measurement is reported. The derivation of the primary cosmic ray energy spectrum for energies from 3x10 to the 15th power eV to 3x10 to the 16th power eV are presented.

  3. Cosmic ray composition between 10 to the 15th power - 10 to the 17th power eV obtained by air shower experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muraki, Y.

    1985-01-01

    Based on the air shower data, the chemical composition of the primary cosmic rays in the energy range 10 to the 15th power - 10 to the 17th power eV was obtained. The method is based on a well known N sub e-N sub mu and N sub e-N sub gamma. The simulation is calibrated by the CERN SPS pp collider results.

  4. EAS spectrum in the primary energy region above 10 to the 15th power eV by the Akeno and Yakutsk array data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krasilnikov, D. D.; Knurenko, S. P.; Krasilnikov, A. D.; Pavlov, V. N.; Sleptsov, I. Y.; Yegorova, V. P.

    1985-01-01

    The extensive air showers spectrum on scintillation desity Rko in primary energy region E sub approx. 10 to the 15th power - 10 to the 20th power eV on the Yakutsk array data and recent results of the Akeno is given.

  5. All particle energy spectrum of cosmic rays in 10 to the 15th power - 10 to the 20th power eV region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krasilnikov, D. D.; Dyakonov, M. N.; Ivanov, A. A.; Kolosov, V. A.; Lischenyuk, F. F.; Sleptsov, I. Y.

    1985-01-01

    Average estimations of the shower energy components are presented and their sum gives E sub 0 (Rho sub 600) - an average function of the relation of E sub 0 with the shower size parameter Rho sub 600 measured at the Yakutsk extensive air showers (EAS) array. Using this relation to the EAS spectrum obtained at the Akeno and Yakutsk arrays the energy spectrum of the cosmic ray total flux within 15 lg (E sub 0,eV) 20 by the EAS methods is recovered.

  6. PREFACE: The 15th International Conference on Micro and Nanotechnology for Power Generation and Energy Conversion Applications (PowerMEMS 2015)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Livermore, C.; Velásquez-García, L. F.

    2015-12-01

    Greetings, and welcome to Boston, MA and PowerMEMS 2015 - the 15th International Conference on Micro and Nanotechnology for Power Generation and Energy Conversion Applications! The objective of PowerMEMS 2015 is to catalyze innovation in micro- and nano-scale technologies for the energy domain. The scope of the meeting ranges from basic principles, to materials and fabrication, to devices and systems, to applications. The many applications of Power MEMS range from the harvesting, storage, conversion and conditioning of energy, to integrated systems that manage these processes, to actuation, pumping, and propulsion. Our Conference aims to stimulate the exchange of insights and information, as well as the development of new ideas, in the Power MEMS field. Our goal is to allow the attendees to interact and network within our multidisciplinary community that includes professionals from many branches of science and engineering, as well as energy, policy, and entrepreneurial specialists interested in the commercialization of Power MEMS technologies. Since the first PowerMEMS in Sendai, Japan in 2000, the Conference has grown in size, reputation, impact, and technical breadth. This continuing growth is evident in this year's technical program, which includes an increasing number of papers on nanomaterials, additive manufacturing for energy systems, actuators, energy storage, harvesting strategies and integrated energy harvesting systems, for example. This year's technical program is highlighted by six plenary talks from prominent experts on piezoelectrics, robotic insects, thermoelectrics, photovoltaics, nanocomposite cathodes, and thermal energy conversion systems. The contributed program received a large number of abstract submissions this year, 169 in total. After careful review by the 34-member Technical Program Committee, a total of 135 papers were selected for presentation. The 60 contributed oral presentations are arranged in two parallel sessions. The 75 posters

  7. Primary cosmic ray spectrum in the 10 to the 12th power - 10 to the 16th power eV energy range from the NUSEX experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Battistoni, G.; Bellotti, E.; Bloise, C.; Bologna, G.; Campana, P.; Castagnoli, C.; Castellina, A.; Chiarella, V.; Ciocio, A.; Cundy, D.

    1985-01-01

    A primary cosmic ray spectrum was derived which fits both experimental multiple muon rates and the all-nucleon flux derived from the single muon intensities underground. In the frame of the interaction model developed by Gaisser, Elbert and Stanev, it is possible to reproduce NUSEX muon data with a primary composition in which the iron spectrum is only slightly flatter than the proton one. This result rules out the popular idea that the primary composition varies drastically with increasing energy, leading to the dominance of heavier nuclei at energies 10 to the 15th power to 10 to the 16th power eV.

  8. The composition of cosmic rays near the Bend (10 to the 15th power eV) from a study of muons in air showers at sea level

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodman, J. A.; Gupta, S. C.; Freudenreich, H. T.; Sivaprasad, K.; Tonwar, S. C.; Yodh, G. B.; Ellsworth, R. W.; Goodman, M. C.; Bogert, M. C.; Burnstein, R.

    1985-01-01

    The distribution of muons near shower cores was studied at sea level at Fermilab using the E594 neutrino detector to sample the muon with E testing 3 GeV. These data are compared with detailed Monte Carlo simulations to derive conclusions about the composition of cosmic rays near the bend in the all particle spectrum. Monte Carlo simulations generating extensive air showers (EAS) with primary energy in excess of 50 TeV are described. Each shower record contains details of the electron lateral distribution and the muon and hadron lateral distributions as a function of energy, at the observation level of 100g/cm. The number of detected electrons and muons in each case was determined by a Poisson fluctuation of the number incident. The resultant predicted distribution of muons, electrons, the rate events are compared to those observed. Preliminary results on the rate favor a heavy primary dominated cosmic ray spectrum in energy range 50 to 1000 TeV.

  9. Nuclear Science Symposium, 23rd, Scintillation and Semiconductor Counter Symposium, 15th, and Nuclear Power Systems Symposium, 8th, New Orleans, La., October 20-22, 1976, Proceedings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wagner, L. J.

    1977-01-01

    The volume includes papers on semiconductor radiation detectors of various types, components of radiation detection and dosimetric systems, digital and microprocessor equipment in nuclear industry and science, and a wide variety of applications of nuclear radiation detectors. Semiconductor detectors of X-rays, gamma radiation, heavy ions, neutrons, and other nuclear particles, plastic scintillator arrays, drift chambers, spark wire chambers, and radiation dosimeter systems are reported on. Digital and analog conversion systems, digital data and control systems, microprocessors, and their uses in scientific research and nuclear power plants are discussed. Large-area imaging and biomedical nucleonic instrumentation, nuclear power plant safeguards, reactor instrumentation, nuclear power plant instrumentation, space instrumentation, and environmental instrumentation are dealt with. Individual items are announced in this issue.

  10. More Efficient Power Conversion for EVs: Gallium-Nitride Advanced Power Semiconductor and Packaging

    SciTech Connect

    2010-02-01

    Broad Funding Opportunity Announcement Project: Delphi is developing power converters that are smaller and more energy efficient, reliable, and cost-effective than current power converters. Power converters rely on power transistors which act like a very precisely controlled on-off switch, controlling the electrical energy flowing through an electrical circuit. Most power transistors today use silicon (Si) semiconductors. However, Delphi is using semiconductors made with a thin layer of gallium-nitride (GaN) applied on top of the more conventional Si material. The GaN layer increases the energy efficiency of the power transistor and also enables the transistor to operate at much higher temperatures, voltages, and power-density levels compared to its Si counterpart. Delphi is packaging these high-performance GaN semiconductors with advanced electrical connections and a cooling system that extracts waste heat from both sides of the device to further increase the device’s efficiency and allow more electrical current to flow through it. When combined with other electronic components on a circuit board, Delphi’s GaN power transistor package will help improve the overall performance and cost-effectiveness of HEVs and EVs.

  11. ORNL Experience and Challenges Facing Dynamic Wireless Power Charging of EV's

    DOE PAGES

    Miller, John M.; Jones, Perry T.; Li, Jan-Mou; ...

    2015-05-21

    As visionary as dynamic, or in-motion, wireless charging of electric vehicles appears the concept is well over a century old as this paper will show. This is because the concept of magnetic induction dates back to the pioneering work of physicist Michael Faraday in the early 19th century. Today wireless power transfer (WPT) is being standardized for stationary and quasi-stationary charging of electric vehicles (EV). The Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) has undertaken the standardization of stationary charging and will make this public during 2016. In addition to this the IEEE-SA (Standards Activities) initiated standards development for EV?s in theirmore » EVWPT working group in 2012. This study introduces the many challenges facing EVWPT in not only high power transfer to a moving vehicle and energy management at a utility scale, but communications in a vehicle to infrastructure (V2I) environment and management of high data rates, ultra-low latency, and dealing with communications loss in dense urban areas. Finally, future concepts such as guideway powering of EV?s are presented to illustrate one technical trajectory EVWPT may take.« less

  12. ORNL Experience and Challenges Facing Dynamic Wireless Power Charging of EV's

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, John M.; Jones, Perry T.; Li, Jan-Mou; Onar, Omer C.

    2015-05-21

    As visionary as dynamic, or in-motion, wireless charging of electric vehicles appears the concept is well over a century old as this paper will show. This is because the concept of magnetic induction dates back to the pioneering work of physicist Michael Faraday in the early 19th century. Today wireless power transfer (WPT) is being standardized for stationary and quasi-stationary charging of electric vehicles (EV). The Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) has undertaken the standardization of stationary charging and will make this public during 2016. In addition to this the IEEE-SA (Standards Activities) initiated standards development for EV?s in their EVWPT working group in 2012. This study introduces the many challenges facing EVWPT in not only high power transfer to a moving vehicle and energy management at a utility scale, but communications in a vehicle to infrastructure (V2I) environment and management of high data rates, ultra-low latency, and dealing with communications loss in dense urban areas. Finally, future concepts such as guideway powering of EV?s are presented to illustrate one technical trajectory EVWPT may take.

  13. Stopping power for electrons in pyrimidine in the energy range 20-3000 eV.

    PubMed

    Colmenares, R; Sanz, A G; Fuss, M C; Blanco, F; García, G

    2014-01-01

    In this work, we present new experimental electron energy loss distribution functions for pyrimidine (C4H4N2) measured for the incident energy range 30-2000 eV. Theoretical total and elastic cross sections for electron scattering from pyrimidine were calculated using the screening-corrected additivity rule (IAM-SCAR) method. Based on the mean energy loss observed in the experiment and the theoretical integral inelastic cross section, the stopping power for electrons in pyrimidine is calculated in the energy range 20-3000 eV.

  14. Composition of primary cosmic rays at energies 10(15) to approximately 10(16) eV

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Amenomori, M.; Konishi, E.; Hotta, N.; Mizutani, K.; Kasahara, K.; Kobayashi, T.; Mikumo, E.; Sato, K.; Yuda, T.; Mito, I.

    1985-01-01

    The sigma epsilon gamma spectrum in 1 approx. 5 x 1000 TV observed at Mt. Fuji suggests that the flux of primary protons 10 to the 15 approx 10th eV is lower by a factor of 2 approx. 3 than a simple extrapolation from lower energies; the integral proton spectrum tends to be steeper than around to the power V and the spectral index tends to be steeper than Epsilon to the -17th power around 10 to the 14th power eV and the spectral index becomes approx. 2.0 around 10 to the 15th power eV. If the total flux of primary particles has no steepening up to approx 10 to the 15th power eV, than the fraction of primary protons to the total flux should be approx 20% in contrast to approx 45% at lower energies.

  15. Saturn's 15th moon, 1980S28

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Voyager 1 has found a 15th moon orbiting Saturn, visible near the bottom of this picture taken on Nov. 6, 1980, when the spacecraft was still 8 million kilometers (5 million miles) from Saturn. Voyager imaging team scientists discovered the moon Nov. 7, 1980, in the first of several programmed searches for new satellites of Saturn. The unique location of the 15th satellite, just 800 kilometers (500 miles) outside the outer edge of the A-ring, is especially significant in that this small body, approximately 100 kilometers (50 miles) in diameter, may be responsible for defining the outer edge of Saturn's bright ring system. The orbital period of the new satellite is approximately 14 hours, 20 minutes, the shortest orbit of any of Saturn's known satellites. The very narrow F-ring, approximately 4,000 kilometers (2,500 miles) outside the outer edge of the A-ring, is seen prominently in this picture. The Voyager Project is managed for NASA by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif.

  16. Isotropy Constraints on Powerful Sources of Ultrahigh-energy Cosmic Rays at 1019 eV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takami, Hajime; Murase, Kohta; Dermer, Charles D.

    2016-01-01

    Anisotropy in the arrival direction distribution of ultrahigh-energy cosmic rays (UHECRs) produced by powerful sources is numerically evaluated. We show that nondetection of significant anisotropy at ≈ {10}19 eV at present and in future experiments imposes general upper limits on UHECR proton luminosity of steady sources as a function of source redshifts. The upper limits constrain the existence of typical steady {10}19 eV UHECR sources in the local universe and limit their local density to ≳ {10}-3 Mpc {}-3, assuming average intergalactic magnetic fields less than {10}-9 G. This isotropy, being stronger than that measured at the highest energies, may indicate the transient generation of UHECRs. Our calculations are applied for extreme high-frequency-peaked BL Lacertae objects 1ES 0229+200, 1ES 1101-232, and 1ES 0347-121, to test the UHECR-induced cascade model, in which beamed UHECR protons generate TeV radiation in transit from sources. While the magnetic-field structure surrounding the sources affects the required absolute cosmic-ray luminosity of the blazars, the magnetic-field structure surrounding the Milky Way directly affects the observed anisotropy. If these magnetic fields are weak enough, significant UHECR anisotropy from these blazars is detectable by the Pierre Auger Observatory unless the maximum energy of UHECR protons is below 1019 eV. Furthermore, if these are the sources of UHECRs above 1019 eV, a local magnetic structure surrounding the Milky Way is needed to explain the observed isotropy at ˜ {10}19 eV, which may be incompatible with large magnetic structures around all galaxies for the UHECR-induced cascade model to work with reasonable jet powers.

  17. EV/PHEV Bidirectional Charger Assessment for V2G Reactive Power Operation

    SciTech Connect

    Kisacikoglu, Mithat C; Ozpineci, Burak; Tolbert, Leon M

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a summary of the available single-phase ac-dc topologies used for EV/PHEV, level-1 and -2 on-board charging and for providing reactive power support to the utility grid. It presents the design motives of single-phase on-board chargers in detail and makes a classification of the chargers based on their future vehicle-to-grid usage. The pros and cons of each different ac-dc topology are discussed to shed light on their suitability for reactive power support. This paper also presents and analyzes the differences between charging-only operation and capacitive reactive power operation that results in increased demand from the dc-link capacitor (more charge/discharge cycles and increased second harmonic ripple current). Moreover, battery state of charge is spared from losses during reactive power operation, but converter output power must be limited below its rated power rating to have the same stress on the dc-link capacitor.

  18. MedlinePlus Marks its 15th Anniversary

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/anniversary.html MedlinePlus Marks its 15 th Anniversary To use the sharing features ... people across the country and around the world. It now includes: Over 950 pages providing links to ...

  19. EV Charging Through Wireless Power Transfer: Analysis of Efficiency Optimization and Technology Trends

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, John M; Rakouth, Heri; Suh, In-Soo

    2012-01-01

    This paper is aimed at reviewing the technology trends for wireless power transfer (WPT) for electric vehicles (EV). It also analyzes the factors affecting its efficiency and describes the techniques currently used for its optimization. The review of the technology trends encompasses both stationary and moving vehicle charging systems. The study of the stationary vehicle charging technology is based on current implementations and on-going developments at WiTricity and Oak Ridge National Lab (ORNL). The moving vehicle charging technology is primarily described through the results achieved by the Korean Advanced Institute of Technology (KAIST) along with on-going efforts at Stanford University. The factors affecting the efficiency are determined through the analysis of the equivalent circuit of magnetic resonant coupling. The air gap between both transmitting and receiving coils along with the magnetic field distribution and the relative impedance mismatch between the related circuits are the primary factors affecting the WPT efficiency. Currently the industry is looking at an air gap of 25 cm or below. To control the magnetic field distribution, Kaist has recently developed the Shaped Magnetic Field In Resonance (SMFIR) technology that uses conveniently shaped ferrite material to provide low reluctance path. The efficiency can be further increased by means of impedance matching. As a result, Delphi's implementation of the WiTricity's technology exhibits a WPT efficiency above 90% for stationary charging while KAIST has demonstrated a maximum efficiency of 83% for moving vehicle with its On Line Vehicle (OLEV) project. This study is restricted to near-field applications (short and mid-range) and does not address long-range technology such as microwave power transfer that has low efficiency as it is based on radiating electromagnetic waves. This paper exemplifies Delphi's work in powertrain electrification as part of its innovation for the real world program geared

  20. Advanced EV/HEV battery pack testing using the ABC-150 power system

    SciTech Connect

    Gill, J.

    1997-12-01

    The ABC-150 battery test system is the first system designed for the demanding requirements of electric vehicle (EV) and hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) battery testing. With high accuracy, fast response and flexible test automation capabilities, the ABC-150 provides the most advanced set of capabilities for EV/HEV battery pack testing. These features are described and several examples of actual use are given.

  1. Newton's Apple: 15th Season. Free Educational Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Twin Cities Public Television, St. Paul, MN.

    This guide helps teachers use the 15th season of the television program "Newton's Apple" in the classroom and lists show segments on asthma, car engines, glacier climbing, glass blowing, glaucoma, gliders, gold mine, greenhouse effect, kids on Mars, lightning, "Lost World" dinosaurs, mammoth dig, NASA robots, Novocain (TM),…

  2. Proceedings of 15th International Conference on Thermoelectrics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fleurial, Jean-Pierre (Editor)

    1996-01-01

    The proceedings include all the technical papers presented at the 15th International Conference on Thermoelectrics, held on 26-29 March 1996 at Pasadena, California, USA. There were 10 invited presentations and over 110 regular presentations in this conference. The presentations were made in 20 technical sessions and are organized accordingly in this proceedings.

  3. A Method for Compensating Customer Voltage Drops due to Nighttime Simultaneous Charging of EVs Utilizing Reactive Power Injection from Battery Chargers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noda, Taku; Kabasawa, Yuichiro; Fukushima, Kentaro; Nemoto, Koshichi; Uemura, Satoshi

    When we consider the global warming, the reduction of CO2 emission is one of the most important problems which require urgent solutions. One option is to integrate low-CO2-emission generators to the grid as much as possible. Another option is to replace inefficient vehicles based on internal-combustion engines with electric ones (EVs). Due to the latter, we can easily estimate that most consumers will charge EVs' batteries at nighttime. Thus, excessive voltage drops due to the nighttime simultaneous charging are supposed to be a possible future problem. This paper proposes a method for compensating the voltage drops by injecting reactive power from EV battery chargers.

  4. Byzantine psychosomatic medicine (10th- 15th century).

    PubMed

    Eftychiadis, A C

    1999-01-01

    Original elements of the psychosomatic medicine are examined by the most important byzantine physicians and medico-philosophers during the 10th -15th centuries. These topics concern the psycosomatic unity of the human personality, the psychosomatic disturbances, diseases and interactions, organic diseases, which cause psychical disorders, psychical pathological reactions, which result in somatic diseases, the psychology of the depth of the soul, the psychosomatic pathogenetic reasons of psychiatric and neurological diseases and suicide, the influence of witchcraft on psychosomatic affections, maniac and demoniac patients. The psychosomatic treatment has a holistic preventive and curative character and encloses sanitary and dietary measures, physiotherapy, curative bathing, strong purgation, pharmaceutical preparations proportional to the disease, religious disposition, psychoanalysis and psychotherapy with dialogue and the contribution of the divine factor. The late byzantine medical science contributed mainly to the progress of the psychosomatic medicine and therapeutics. The saint woman physician Hermione (1st -2nd cent.) is considered as the protectress of psychosomatic medicine.

  5. PREFACE: The 15th International Couette-Taylor Worskhop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mutabazi, Innocent; Crumeyrolle, Olivier

    2008-07-01

    The 15th International Couette-Taylor Worskhop (ICTW15) was held in Le Havre, France from 9-12 July 2007. This regular international conference started in 1979 in Leeds, UK when the research interest in simple models of fluid flows was revitalized by systematic investigation of Rayleigh-Bénard convection and the Couette-Taylor flow. These two flow systems are good prototypes for the study of the transition to chaos and turbulence in closed flows. The workshop themes have been expanded from the original Couette-Taylor flow to include other centrifugal instabilities (Dean, Görtler, Taylor-Dean), spherical Couette flows, thermal convection instabilities, MHD, nonlinear dynamics and chaos, transition to turbulence, development of numerical and experimental techniques. The impressive longevity of the ICTW is due to the close interaction and fertile exchanges between international research groups from different disciplines: Physics and Astrophysics, Applied Mathematics, Mechanical Engineering, Chemical Engineering. The present workshop was attended by 100 participants, the program included over 83 contributions with 4 plenary lectures, 68 oral communications and 17 posters. The topics include, besides the classical Couette-Taylor flows, the centrifugal flows with longitudinal vortices, the shear flows, the thermal convection in curved geometries, the spherical Couette-Taylor flow, the geophysical flows, the magneto-hydrodynamic effects including the dynamo effect, the complex flows (viscoelasticity, immiscible fluids, bubbles and migration). Selected papers have been processed through the peer review system and are published in this issue of the Journal of Physics: Conference Series. The Workshop has been sponsored by Le Havre University, the Region Council of Haute-Normandie, Le Havre City Council, CNRS (ST2I, GdR-DYCOEC), and the European Space Agency through GEOFLOW program. The French Ministry of Defense (DGA), the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, the Ministry of

  6. 15TH Annual International College of Performance Management Conference

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    in HTML / download Power Point 112 KB) Rolling Wave #4 and IBR/EAC Kickoff: (view in HTML / download Power Point 221 KB) Program Management...International Industry Group: by Robert D. Pattie (view in HTML / download Power Point 552 KB) Project Management Institute Presentation (download Power ...Schomburg, J. Greg Smith, and Sam Padgett (view in HTML / download Power Point 177 KB) AV-8B Integrated Earned Value Management System: by Debra L

  7. EDITORIAL: The 15th Central European Workshop on Quantum Optics The 15th Central European Workshop on Quantum Optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bozic, Mirjana; Man'ko, Margarita; Arsenovic, Dusan

    2009-07-01

    The development of quantum optics was part and parcel of the formation of modern physics following the fundamental work of Max Planck and Albert Einstein, which gave rise to quantum mechanics. The possibility of working with pure quantum objects, like single atoms and single photons, has turned quantum optics into the main tool for testing the fundamentals of quantum physics. Thus, despite a long history, quantum optics nowadays remains an extremely important branch of physics. It represents a natural base for the development of advanced technologies, like quantum information processing and quantum computing. Previous Central European Workshops on Quantum Optics (CEWQO) took place in Palermo (2007), Vienna (2006), Ankara (2005), Trieste (2004), Rostock (2003), Szeged (2002), Prague (2001), Balatonfüred (2000), Olomouc (1999), Prague (1997), Budmerice (1995, 1996), Budapest (1994) and Bratislava (1993). Those meetings offered excellent opportunities for the exchange of knowledge and ideas between leading scientists and young researchers in quantum optics, foundations of quantum mechanics, cavity quantum electrodynamics, photonics, atom optics, condensed matter optics, and quantum informatics, etc. The collaborative spirit and tradition of CEWQO were a great inspiration and help to the Institute of Physics, Belgrade, and the Serbian Academy of Sciences and Arts, as the organizers of CEWQO 2008. The 16th CEWQO will take place in 2009 in Turku, Finland, and the 17th CEWQO will be organized in 2010 in St Andrews, United Kingdom. The 15th CEWQO was organized under the auspices and support of the Ministry of Science of the Republic of Serbia, the Serbian Physical Society, the European Physical Society with sponsorship from the University of Belgrade, the Central European Initiative, the FP6 Program of the European Commission under INCO project QUPOM No 026322, the FP7 Program of the European Commission under project NANOCHARM, Europhysics Letters (EPL), The European

  8. PREFACE: 15th International Conference on Thin Films (ICTF-15)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takai, Osamu; Saito, Nagahiro; Zettsu, Nobuyuki; Cho, Sung-Pyo; Terashima, Chiaki; Ueno, Tomonaga; Sakai, Osamu; Miyazaki, Seiichi; Yoshimura, Kazuki; Akamatsu, Kensuke; Ito, Takahiro; Yogo, Toshinobu; Inoue, Yasushi; Ohtake, Naoto; Yoshida, Tsukasa; Tosa, Masahiro; Takai, Madoka; Fujiwara, Yasufumi; Matsuda, Naoki; Teshima, Katsuya; Seki, Takahiro; Matsunaga, Katsuyuki; Fujita, Daisuke

    2013-03-01

    The International Conference on Thin Films is the most established conference for all researchers and persons interested in thin films and coatings. It is one of the tri-annual conference series endorsed and co-organized by the Thin Film Division of the International Union for Vacuum Science, Technique and Applications (IUVSTA), a union of national member societies whose role is to stimulate international collaboration in the fields of vacuum science, techniques and applications and related multi-disciplinary topics including solid-vacuum and other interfaces. The 15th International Conference on Thin Films (ICTF-15) is organized by The Vacuum Society of Japan (VSJ) and held at Kyoto TERRSA in Kyoto, Japan on 8-11 November 2011, following the 14th International Conference on Thin Films (ICTF-14), which was held in Ghent, Belgium in 2008. Thin films and coatings are daily becoming increasingly important in the fields of various industries. This International Conference provides a multi-disciplinary forum for recent advances in basic research, development and applications of thin films and coatings. This conference will present a unique opportunity for researchers, engineers and managers to acquire new knowledge of thin films and coatings. We hope that our understanding on thin films and coatings will be deepened through this conference. The conference site, 'Kyoto TERRSA' is located in the historical heart of the old capital Kyoto. Kyoto is an ancient city with a 1200-year history. It was established as Japan's capital under the name 'Heian-kyo' in the year 794. Although many transformations have taken place over the years, Kyoto has always embraced the most advanced standards of the times. It has greatly contributed to the nation's industrial, economic and cultural development. The dauntless spirit of leadership of Kyoto's past as a capital city is still felt here today. Kyoto also preserves the beloved examples of its culture as testimonials of time. This is shown

  9. Design and test of 1/5th scale horizontal axis tidal current turbine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Hong-wei; Zhou, Hong-bin; Lin, Yong-gang; Li, Wei; Gu, Hai-gang

    2016-06-01

    Tidal current energy is prominent and renewable. Great progress has been made in the exploitation technology of tidal current energy all over the world in recent years, and the large scale device has become the trend of tidal current turbine (TCT) for its economies. Instead of the similarity to the wind turbine, the tidal turbine has the characteristics of high hydrodynamic efficiency, big thrust, reliable sealing system, tight power transmission structure, etc. In this paper, a 1/5th scale horizontal axis tidal current turbine has been designed, manufactured and tested before the full scale device design. Firstly, the three-blade horizontal axis rotor was designed based on traditional blade element momentum theory and its hydrodynamic performance was predicted in numerical model. Then the power train system and stand-alone electrical control unit of tidal current turbine, whose performances were accessed through the bench test carried out in workshop, were designed and presented. Finally, offshore tests were carried out and the power performance of the rotor was obtained and compared with the published literatures, and the results showed that the power coefficient was satisfactory, which agrees with the theoretical predictions.

  10. Calculations of stopping powers and inelastic mean free paths for 20 eV-20 keV electrons in 11 types of human tissue.

    PubMed

    Tan, Zhenyu; Liu, Wei

    2013-12-01

    Systematic calculations are performed for determining the stopping powers (SP) and inelastic mean free paths (IMFP) for 20 eV-20 keV electrons in 11 types of human tissue. The calculations are based on a dielectric model, including the Born-Ochkur exchange correction. The optical energy loss functions (OELF) are empirically evaluated, because of the lack of available experimental optical data for the 11 tissues under consideration. The evaluated OELFs are examined by the f-sum rule expected from the dielectric response theory, and by calculation of the mean excitation energy. The calculated SPs are compared with those for PMMA (polymethylmethacrylate, a tissue equivalent material) and liquid water. The SP and IMFP data presented here are the results for the 11 human tissues over the energy range of 20 eV-20 keV, and are of importance in radiotherapy planning and for studies of various radiation effects on human tissues.

  11. Stopping power and mean free path for low-energy electrons in ten scintillators over energy range of 20-20,000 eV.

    PubMed

    Tan, Zhenyu; Xia, Yueyuan

    2012-01-01

    Systematic calculations of the stopping powers (SP) and inelastic mean free paths (IMFP) for 20-20,000eV electrons in a group of 10 important scintillators have been carried out. The calculations are based on the dielectric model including the Born-Ochkur exchange correction and the optical energy loss functions (OELFs) are empirically evaluated because of the lack of available experimental optical data for the scintillators under consideration. The evaluated OELFs are examined by both the f-sum rule and the calculation of mean ionization potential. The SP and IMFP data presented here are the first results for the 10 scintillators over the energy range of 20-20,000eV, and are of key importance for the investigation of liquid scintillation counting.

  12. The sidereal anisotropy of cosmic rays around 3 x 10 (15) eV observed at a middle north latitude

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murakami, K.; Kifune, T.; Hayashida, N.

    1985-01-01

    The sidereal time variation of cosmic rays (median primary energy : 3 10 to the 15th power eV) is investigated with air shower observations at Akeno, Japan (900 m a.s.l.) which started in September 1981. Air showers are detected by a coincidence requirement on several muon detectors. The result obtained for three years is suggestive of a big semi-diurnal variation (0.37 % in amplitude). On the other hand, the diurnal variation is rather small than the semi-diurnal one. The feature of the sidereal anisotropy supposed from the present result looks quite different from that below 10 to the 14th power eV.

  13. Electron and muon parameters of EAS and the composition of primary cosmic rays in 10(15) to approximately 10(16) eV

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheung, T.; Mackeown, P. K.

    1985-01-01

    Estimation of the relative intensities of protons and heavy nuclei in primary cosmic rays in the energy region 10 to the 15th power approx. 10 to the 17th power eV, was done by a systematic comparison between all available observed data on various parameters of extensive air showers (EAS) and the results of simulation. The interaction model used is an extrapolation of scaling violation indicated by recent pp collider results. A composition consisting of various percentages of Fe in an otherwise pure proton beam was assumed. Greatest overall consistency between the data and the simulation is found when the Fe fraction is in the region of 25%.

  14. Proceedings of the 15th Space Photovoltaic Research and Technology Conference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, Sheila (Compiler)

    2004-01-01

    Reports from the 15th Space Photovoltaic Research and Technology Conference included topics on space solar cell research, space photovoltaics, multibandgap cells,thermophotovoltaics,flight experiments, environmental effects; calibration and characterization; and photovoltaics for planetary surfaces.

  15. DETAIL OF EIGHTH (TOP) FLOOR AT CLAY AND 15TH STREETS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL OF EIGHTH (TOP) FLOOR AT CLAY AND 15TH STREETS SHOWING ORNAMENTAL TERRA COTTA BANDING AND RELIEF PANELS. WINDOWS, WINDOW FRAMES, AND METAL CORNICE REMOVED - John Breuner & Company Building, 1515 Clay Street, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  16. [Purgatory, mercy and charity: structural conditions of care in Portugal (15th to 19th centuries)].

    PubMed

    Abreu, L

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this article is to show how the Portuguese welfare system was organized and how it survived for several centuries. It was rebuilt by the monarchy in the late 15th century, a process that coincided with the birth of the Misericordias under the protection of the King. After the Council of Trent, these fraternities ran the health system, which was financed by people who believed in the power of perpetual Masses to evade Purgatory. These institutions were run by the political elite, who exploited them for their own benefit. The article also analyses the main measures taken by the state in the 18th century to change the old and weak system of public care. These laws were ineffectual and unable to change the real situation: the Misericordias were alone--the elite had run away when money was short--and they received no support from the public purse or from the faithful, who at that time had less faith in the perpetual Mass.

  17. Direct observation of 0.57 eV trap-related RF output power reduction in AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arehart, A. R.; Sasikumar, A.; Rajan, S.; Via, G. D.; Poling, B.; Winningham, B.; Heller, E. R.; Brown, D.; Pei, Y.; Recht, F.; Mishra, U. K.; Ringel, S. A.

    2013-02-01

    This paper reports direct evidence for trap-related RF output power loss in GaN high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) grown by metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) through increased concentration of a specific electron trap at EC-0.57 eV that is located in the drain access region, as a function of accelerated life testing (ALT). The trap is detected by constant drain current deep level transient spectroscopy (CID-DLTS) and the CID-DLTS thermal emission time constant precisely matches the measured drain lag. Both drain lag and CID-DLTS measurements show this state to already exist in pre-stressed devices, which coupled with its strong increase in concentration as a function of stress in the absence of significant increases in concentrations of other detected traps, imply its role in causing degradation, in particular knee walkout. This study reveals EC-0.57 eV trap concentration tracks degradation induced by ALT for MOCVD-grown HEMTs supplied by several commercial and university sources. The results suggest this defect has a common source and may be a key degradation pathway in AlGaN/GaN HEMTs and/or an indicator to predict device lifetime.

  18. Computers in Libraries, 2000: Proceedings (15th, Washington, D.C., March 15-17, 2000).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nixon, Carol, Comp.; Burmood, Jennifer, Comp.

    Topics of the Proceedings of the 15th Annual Computers in Libraries Conference (March 15-17, 2000) include: Linux and open source software in an academic library; a Master Trainer Program; what educators need to know about multimedia and copyright; how super searchers find business information online; managing print costs; new technologies in wide…

  19. DC66812 AERIAL VIEW OF THE 14TH AND 15TH STREET CORRIDORS, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DC-668-12 AERIAL VIEW OF THE 14TH AND 15TH STREET CORRIDORS, LOOKING NORTH FROM ABOVE EAST POTOMAC PARK TOWARD THE MALL AND BEYOND - L'Enfant-McMillan Plan of Washington, DC, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  20. Dancetime! 500 Years of Social Dance. Volume I: 15th-19th Centuries. [Videotape].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teten, Carol

    This VHS videotape recording is the first in a two-volume series that presents 500 years of social dance, music, and fashion. It focuses on the 15th-19th centuries, including Renaissance nobility, Baroque extravagance, Regency refinement, and Victorian romanticism. Each era reflects the changing relationships between men and women through the…

  1. Optical instruments and imaging: the use of optics by 15th-century master painters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hockney, David; Falco, Charles M.

    2005-02-01

    We discuss some of the details of the optical technology that was known at the dawn of the Renaissance. We shown that it is quite easy to fabricate concave mirrors of suitable focal length, diameter, and resolution for 15th century artists to have used to project images. The information in this paper complements information on the actual optical evidence that we have presented elsewhere.

  2. 15th International Symposium on Cells of the Hepatic Sinusoid, 2010.

    PubMed

    DeLeve, Laurie D; Jaeschke, Hartmut; Kalra, Vijay K; Asahina, Kinji; Brenner, David A; Tsukamoto, Hidekazu

    2011-07-01

    This is a meeting report of the presentations given at the 15th International Symposium on Cells of the Hepatic Sinusoid, held in 2010. The areas covered include the contributions of the various liver cell populations to liver disease, molecular and cellular targets involved in steatohepatitis, hepatic fibrosis and cancer and regenerative medicine. In addition to a review of the science presented at the meeting, this report provides references to recent literature on the topics covered at the meeting.

  3. 15th order resonance terms using the decaying orbit of TETR-3. [perturbation due to gravitation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wagner, C. A.; Klosko, S. M.

    1975-01-01

    Fifteenth-order commensurability of the orbit of TETR-3 (1971-83B) is studied. The study is designed to obtain good discrimination of 15th-order resonances through a better range of inclinations. The first low inclination orbit, 33 deg, is used for this purpose; it is very sensitive to the high degree terms which were rather poorly represented by previously analyzed orbits.

  4. Electron stopping power and inelastic mean free path in amino acids and protein over the energy range of 20-20,000 eV.

    PubMed

    Tan, Zhenyu; Xia, Yueyuan; Zhao, Mingwen; Liu, Xiangdong

    2006-07-01

    Systematic calculations of stopping power (SPs) and inelastic mean free path (IMFP) values for 20-20,000 eV electrons in a group of 15 amino acids and a simple protein have been performed. The calculations are based on the dielectric response model and take into account the exchange effect between the incident electron and target electrons. The optical energy-loss functions for the 15 investigated amino acids and the protein are evaluated by using an empirical approach, because of the lack of experimental optical data. For all the considered materials, the calculated mean ionization potentials are in good agreement with those given by Bragg's rule, and the evaluated SP values at 20 keV converge well to the Bethe-Bloch predictions. The data shown represent the first results of SP and IMFP, for these 15 amino acids and the protein in the energy range below 20 keV, and might be useful for studies of various radiation effects in these materials. In addition, the average energy deposited by inelastic scattering of the electrons on this group of 15 amino acids, on the protein, on Formvar and on DNA, respectively, has been estimated for energies below 20 keV. The dependences of the average energy deposition on the electron energy are given. These results are important for any detailed studies of radiation-induced inactivation of proteins and the DNA.

  5. 77 FR 24721 - The 15th Annual Food and Drug Administration-Orange County Regulatory Affairs Educational...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-25

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration The 15th Annual Food and Drug Administration--Orange County... announcing the following conference: The 15th Annual Educational Conference cosponsored with the...

  6. The Early Spectral Evolution of the Classical Nova ASASSN-15th in M33

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, R. Mark; Neric, Marko; Darnley, Matt J.; Williams, Steven; Starrfield, Sumner; Woodward, Charles E.; Prieto, Jose Luis

    2016-06-01

    During the course of the All Sky Automated Survey for SuperNovae (ASAS-SN) a new transient source designated ASASSN-15th was identified on images of the nearby galaxy M33 obtained with the 14 cm Brutus telescope in Haleakala, Hawaii on 2015 Dec 1.4 UT at V ~ 16.5 mag. Given the location of the transient in M33 and its apparent V magnitude at discovery, the implied absolute visual magnitude was about -8.5 mag suggesting that the transient was a new classical nova outburst in M33. Optical spectroscopy obtained by us on 2015 Dec 2.3 showed broad emission lines of Balmer, Fe II, and Na I D with P Cygni-type line profiles superposed on a blue continuum. The spectrum was consistent with a Fe II-type classical nova in M33 discovered early in the outburst. Subsequent spectra obtained by us on 2015 Dec 10.9 UT showed significant evolution since our first spectrum in that the deep P Cygni-type line profiles seen earlier were now extremely shallow or had almost completely disappeared with the emission component growing in strength. Additional emission lines from O I, Si II, and possibly He I were also present. We obtained optical spectroscopy of ASASSN-15th on 17 epochs between 2015 Dec 1 and 2016 Feb 11 UT with the 2.4 m Hiltner telescope (+OSMOS) of the MDM Observatory, the 2 m fully robotic Liverpool Telescope (+SPRAT), and the 2 x 8.4 m Large Binocular Telescope (+MODS). We will present our spectroscopy and discuss the early evolution of ASASSN-15th in the context of Galactic Fe II-class novae.

  7. Estimating the Soil Instability from CSEM Monitoring Data at the City of 15th May, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hachay, Olga, ,, Prof.; Atya, Magdy, ,, Prof.; Khachay, Oleg; El Sayed, El Said A. El Sayed1 A.

    2014-05-01

    The site of investigation, 15th May city, is a new suburb of Helwan, at about 35 km south of Cairo, Egypt. The work is aimed to investigate the rock mass stability at 'Quarter 27' in 15th May City. A controlled source electromagnetic (CSEM) approach developed earlier by IGF UB RAS (Geophysical Federal Institute, Ural Branch of Russian Academy of Science) is applied to image the ranked deformation levels in the massive structure. The wide profile system of observation has been used to monitor the three components of the alternating magnetic field along predefined measuring lines in the study area. Four cycles of observation have been carried out in 2008, 2010, 2011, and 2012. The acquired data sets have been subjected to analytical processing procedure to estimate the changes in the geotechnical parameters during the time of these four cycles of observation. The analytical treatments provided good information about the structure of the rock massive and its rank of degradation, the lateral distribution of the geotechnical heterogeneity, and finally a conclusive outcome about foundation stability. We conclude that the general dynamic state close to the destruction level within the investigation area is getting worse over the time; this is reflected in the crack's densities and positions, also on the changes in the lateral distribution of geoelectric heterogeneity as an indicator of the saturation of the surface rock in the study area with water [1]. 1. Magdy A. Atya, Olga A. Hachay, Mamdouh M. Soliman, Oleg Y. Khachay, Ahmed B. Khalill, Mahmoud Gaballah, Fathy F.Shaaban and Ibrahim A.El. Hemali. CSEM imaging of the near surface dynamics and its impact for foundation stability at quarter 27,15-th of May City, Helwan, Egypt. // Earth sciences research journal, 2010,Vol.14, N1, p.76-87.

  8. Support for U.S. Participants at the 15th International Congress on Catalysis

    SciTech Connect

    Wachs, Israel E.

    2013-08-05

    The grant was used to partially assist the travel expenses of U.S. academic scientists to attend the 15th International Congress on Catalysis. The conference was held in Munich, Germany from July 1-6, 2012. The importance of the International Congress was to bring together the international community of faculty members who participate in catalysis research, and to share information that would lead to further developments and directions in the field of study. Graduate students and Post Docs were invited to apply for travel assistance based on criteria established by the North American Catalysis Society (NACS) and the local Catalysis Clubs.

  9. Energy spectrum and arrival direction of primary cosmic rays of energy above 10 to the 18th power eV

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Teshima, M.; Nagano, M.; Hayashida, N.; He, C. X.; Honda, M.; Ishikawa, F.; Kamata, K.; Matsubara, Y.; Mori, M.; Ohoka, H.

    1985-01-01

    The observation of ultra high energy cosmic rays with 20 sq km array has started at Akeno. The preliminary results on energy spectrum and arrival direction of energies above 10 to the 18th eV are prsented with data accumulated for four years with the 1 sq km array, for two years with the 4 sq km array and for a half year with the new array. The energy spectrum is consistent with the previous experiments showing the flattening above 10 to the 18.5 eV.

  10. High-power, narrow-band, high-repetition-rate, 5.9 eV coherent light source using passive optical cavity for laser-based angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Omachi, J; Yoshioka, K; Kuwata-Gonokami, M

    2012-10-08

    We demonstrate a scheme for efficient generation of a 5.9 eV coherent light source with an average power of 23 mW, 0.34 meV linewidth, and 73 MHz repetition rate from a Ti: sapphire picosecond mode-locked laser with an output power of 1 W. Second-harmonic light is generated in a passive optical cavity by a BiB(3)O(6) crystal with a conversion efficiency as high as 67%. By focusing the second-harmonic light transmitted from the cavity into a β-BaB(2)O(4) crystal, we obtain fourth-harmonic light at 5.9 eV. This light source offers stable operation for at least a week. We discuss the suitability of the laser light source for high-resolution angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy by comparing it with other sources (synchrotron radiation facilities and gas discharge lamp).

  11. Structural and dynamical patterns on online social networks: the Spanish May 15th movement as a case study.

    PubMed

    Borge-Holthoefer, Javier; Rivero, Alejandro; García, Iñigo; Cauhé, Elisa; Ferrer, Alfredo; Ferrer, Darío; Francos, David; Iñiguez, David; Pérez, María Pilar; Ruiz, Gonzalo; Sanz, Francisco; Serrano, Fermín; Viñas, Cristina; Tarancón, Alfonso; Moreno, Yamir

    2011-01-01

    The number of people using online social networks in their everyday life is continuously growing at a pace never saw before. This new kind of communication has an enormous impact on opinions, cultural trends, information spreading and even in the commercial success of new products. More importantly, social online networks have revealed as a fundamental organizing mechanism in recent country-wide social movements. In this paper, we provide a quantitative analysis of the structural and dynamical patterns emerging from the activity of an online social network around the ongoing May 15th (15M) movement in Spain. Our network is made up by users that exchanged tweets in a time period of one month, which includes the birth and stabilization of the 15M movement. We characterize in depth the growth of such dynamical network and find that it is scale-free with communities at the mesoscale. We also find that its dynamics exhibits typical features of critical systems such as robustness and power-law distributions for several quantities. Remarkably, we report that the patterns characterizing the spreading dynamics are asymmetric, giving rise to a clear distinction between information sources and sinks. Our study represents a first step towards the use of data from online social media to comprehend modern societal dynamics.

  12. Highly coherent vacuum ultraviolet radiation at the 15th harmonic with echo-enabled harmonic generation technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hemsing, E.; Dunning, M.; Hast, C.; Raubenheimer, T. O.; Weathersby, S.; Xiang, D.

    2014-07-01

    X-ray free-electron lasers are enabling access to new science by producing ultrafast and intense x rays that give researchers unparalleled power and precision in examining the fundamental nature of matter. In the quest for fully coherent x rays, the echo-enabled harmonic generation technique is one of the most promising methods. In this technique, coherent radiation at the high harmonic frequencies of two seed lasers is generated from the recoherence of electron beam phase space memory. Here we report on the generation of highly coherent and stable vacuum ultraviolet radiation at the 15th harmonic of an infrared seed laser with this technique. The experiment demonstrates two distinct advantages that are intrinsic to the highly nonlinear phase space gymnastics of echo-enabled harmonic generation in a new regime, i.e., high frequency up-conversion efficiency and insensitivity to electron beam phase space imperfections. Our results allow comparison and confirmation of predictive models and scaling laws, and mark a significant step towards fully coherent x-ray free-electron lasers that will open new scientific research.

  13. Structural and Dynamical Patterns on Online Social Networks: The Spanish May 15th Movement as a Case Study

    PubMed Central

    Borge-Holthoefer, Javier; Rivero, Alejandro; García, Iñigo; Cauhé, Elisa; Ferrer, Alfredo; Ferrer, Darío; Francos, David; Iñiguez, David; Pérez, María Pilar; Ruiz, Gonzalo; Sanz, Francisco; Serrano, Fermín; Viñas, Cristina; Tarancón, Alfonso; Moreno, Yamir

    2011-01-01

    The number of people using online social networks in their everyday life is continuously growing at a pace never saw before. This new kind of communication has an enormous impact on opinions, cultural trends, information spreading and even in the commercial success of new products. More importantly, social online networks have revealed as a fundamental organizing mechanism in recent country-wide social movements. In this paper, we provide a quantitative analysis of the structural and dynamical patterns emerging from the activity of an online social network around the ongoing May 15th (15M) movement in Spain. Our network is made up by users that exchanged tweets in a time period of one month, which includes the birth and stabilization of the 15M movement. We characterize in depth the growth of such dynamical network and find that it is scale-free with communities at the mesoscale. We also find that its dynamics exhibits typical features of critical systems such as robustness and power-law distributions for several quantities. Remarkably, we report that the patterns characterizing the spreading dynamics are asymmetric, giving rise to a clear distinction between information sources and sinks. Our study represents a first step towards the use of data from online social media to comprehend modern societal dynamics. PMID:21886834

  14. Infrared radiometric measurements of lunar disk temperatures during lunar eclipse on 15th June 2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maghrabi, A. H.

    2016-09-01

    Radiometric measurements of the total lunar eclipse on 15th June 2011 were carried out at the KACST observatory (lat. 21.25 N; long. 49.30 E), Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, using a locally designed, constructed and calibrated infrared detector. The basic detector is a Heimann TPS 534 thermopile with a 3° field of view and operating at wavelengths between 8 μm and 14 μm. The total phase of this eclipse lasted about 100 min, making it one of the darkest eclipses this century. The lunar temperature curve of this eclipse was obtained and showed comparable behavior with previously established infrared observations. We found that the lunar surface temperature decreased by about 147 K and 220 K during the partial and total eclipse phases, respectively, in comparison with the lunar temperature before the eclipse.

  15. Were Pneumothorax and Its Management Known in 15th-Century Anatolia?

    PubMed Central

    Kaya, Seyda Ors; Karatepe, Mustafa; Tok, Turgut; Onem, Gokhan; Dursunoglu, Nese; Goksin, Ibrahim

    2009-01-01

    Jean-Marc Gaspard Itard, a student of René Laennec's, first recognized pneumothorax in 1803, and Laennec himself described the full clinical picture of the condition in 1819. Treatment of pneumothorax was not begun as a standard procedure until World War II, but we think that Serefeddin Sabuncuoglu recognized the condition and applied treatment in the 15th century. Sabuncuoglu (1385–1470) was a surgeon who lived in Amasya (in Anatolia). In 1465, he completed Cerrahiyyetül Haniyye (Imperial Surgery), the 1st illustrated surgical textbook in the Turkish–Islamic medical literature. We describe the highlights of the book's recommendations concerning treatment of thoracic trauma, particularly of pneumothorax. We reproduce 2 of the colored miniature illustrations and add our comments regarding the advice of Sabuncuoglu. Most notably, he advocated “mihceme,” a cupping therapy, as a simple technique of thoracic aspiration. PMID:19436812

  16. Were pneumothorax and its management known in 15th-century anatolia?

    PubMed

    Kaya, Seyda Ors; Karatepe, Mustafa; Tok, Turgut; Onem, Gokhan; Dursunoglu, Nese; Goksin, Ibrahim

    2009-01-01

    Jean-Marc Gaspard Itard, a student of René Laennec's, first recognized pneumothorax in 1803, and Laennec himself described the full clinical picture of the condition in 1819. Treatment of pneumothorax was not begun as a standard procedure until World War II, but we think that Serefeddin Sabuncuoglu recognized the condition and applied treatment in the 15th century.Sabuncuoglu (1385-1470) was a surgeon who lived in Amasya (in Anatolia). In 1465, he completed Cerrahiyyetül Haniyye (Imperial Surgery), the 1st illustrated surgical textbook in the Turkish-Islamic medical literature. We describe the highlights of the book's recommendations concerning treatment of thoracic trauma, particularly of pneumothorax. We reproduce 2 of the colored miniature illustrations and add our comments regarding the advice of Sabuncuoglu. Most notably, he advocated "mihceme," a cupping therapy, as a simple technique of thoracic aspiration.

  17. Overview of the August 15th, 2007 Pisco Earthquake (Mw=8.0), Central Peru.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tavera, H.; Perfettini, H.; Audin, L.; Bernal, I.; Farber, D.; Bondoux, F.; Sladen, A.; Avouac, J.

    2007-12-01

    With 7 subduction related earthquakes of ~Mw=8.0 during the 20th century, Central Peru is one of the most seismogenic areas in the world. On August 15th, 2007 a large subduction related earthquake (Mw=8.0, GCMT), occurred along the coast of Central Peru, near the town of Pisco. The earthquake was felt as far as 600km away from the epicenter and produced extensive damage in Pisco, where the intensity reached a maximum of Imax=VII (MM), and. Accelerometric records in Lima, 250 km, away from the epicenter, indicate up to 110 cm/s2 peak acceleration. Records from Ica, 80 km from the epicenter, indicate a peak acceleration of 488 cm/s2 on the EW component. Closer to the epicentral area ground shaking was severe enough to produce extensive liquefaction and ground rupture along the coast. First motion polarities indicate a thrust event with a dip angle of about 14°, which is somewhat steeper than the estimated dip angle of the subduction interface in the area. Waveform modeling shows that in fact, the source consists of 2 sub-events. The early afershock distribution well delineates these events which ruptured a portion of the trench that was left unbroken by the more recent 1942 earthquake (Mw 8) to the south, and the 1974 earthquake (Mw 8) to the north. Historic records indicate that the portion of the subduction zone which ruptured August 15th, 2007 had not experienced any comparable or larger rupture since at least 1746 and possibly 1687, which is remarkable given that the local convergence rate between the Nazca and South America plate ( 6-8 cm/yr).

  18. PREFACE: The 15th International Conference on X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (XAFS15)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Z. Y.

    2013-04-01

    The 15th International Conference on X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (XAFS15) was held on 22-28 July 2012 in Beijing, P. R. China. About 340 scientists from 34 countries attended this important international event. Main hall Figure 1. Main hall of XAFS15. The rapidly increasing application of XAFS to the study of a large variety of materials and the operation of the new SR source led to the first meeting of XAFS users in 1981 in England. Following that a further 14 International Conferences have been held. Comparing a breakdown of attendees according to their national origin, it is clear that participation is spreading to include attendees from more and more countries every year. The strategy of development in China of science and education is increasing quickly thanks to the large investment in scientific and technological research and infrastructure. There are three Synchrotron Radiation facilities in mainland China, Hefei Light Source (HLS) in the National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSRL), Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility (BSRF) in the Institute of High Energy Physics, and Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility (SSRF) in the Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics. More than 10000 users and over 5000 proposals run at these facilities. Among them, many teams from the USA, Japan, German, Italy, Russia, and other countries. More than 3000 manuscript were published in SCI journals, including (incomplete) Science (7), Nature (10), Nature Series (7), PNAS (3), JACS (12), Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. (15), Nano Lett. (2), etc. In XAFS15, the participants contributed 18 plenary invited talks, 16 parallel invited talks, 136 oral presentations, 12 special talks, and 219 poster presentations. Wide communication was promoted in the conference halls, the classical banquet restaurant, and the Great Wall. Parallel hallCommunicationPoster room Figure 2. Parallel hallFigure 3. CommunicationFigure 4. Poster room This volume contains 136 invited and contributed papers

  19. Progress report on a new search for free e/3 quarks in the cores of 10(15) - 10(16) eV air showers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hodson, A. L.; Bull, R. M.; Taylor, R. S.; Belford, C. H.

    1985-01-01

    The Leeds 3 sq m Wilson cloud chamber is being used in a new search for free e/3 quarks close to the axes of 10 to the 15th power - 10 to the 16th power eV air showers. A ratio trigger circuit is used to detect the incidence of air shower cores; the position of the shower center and the axis direction are determined from photographs of current-limited spark chambers. It is thus possible, for the first time, to know where we have looked for quarks in air showers and to select for scanning only those cloud chamber photographs where we have good evidence that the shower axis was close to the chamber. 250 g/sq cm of lead/concrete absorber above the cloud chamber serve to reduce particle densities and make a quark search possible very close to the shower axes. The current status of the search is given.

  20. 15th International Congress on Plasma Physics & 13th Latin American Workshop on Plasma Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soto, Leopoldo

    2014-05-01

    The International Advisory Committee of the 15th International Congress on Plasma Physics (ICPP 2010) and the International Advisory Committee of the 13th Latin American Workshop on Plasma Physics (LAWPP 2010), together agreed to carry out this combined meeting ICPP-LAWPP-2010 in Santiago de Chile, 8-13 August 2010, on occasion of the Bicentennial of Chilean Independence. The ICPP-LAWPP-2010 was organized by the Thermonuclear Plasma Department of the Chilean Nuclear Energy Commission (CCHEN) as part of the official program within the framework of the Chilean Bicentennial. The event was also a scientific and academic activity of the project ''Center for Research and Applications in Plasma Physics and Pulsed Power, P4'', supported by National Scientific and Technological Commission, CONICYT-Chile, under grant ACT-26. The International Congress on Plasma Physics was first held in Nagoya, in 1980, and followed by the Congresses: Gothenburg (1982), Lausanne (1984), Kiev (1987), New Delhi (1989), Innsbruck (1992), Foz do Iguacu (1994), Nagoya (1996), Prague (1998), Quebec City (2000), Sydney (2002), Nice (2004), Kiev (2006), and Fukuoka (2008). The purpose of the Congress is to discuss the recent progress and future views in plasma science, including fundamental plasma physics, fusion plasmas, astrophysical plasmas, and plasma applications, and so forth. The Latin American Workshop on Plasma Physics was first held in 1982 in Cambuquira, Brazil, followed by the Workshops: Medellín (1985), Santiago (1988), Buenos Aires (1990), Mexico City (1992), Foz do Iguacu (1994, also combined with ICPP), Caracas (1997), Tandil (1998), La Serena (2000), Sao Pedro (2003), Mexico City (2005), and Caracas (2007). The Latin American Workshop on Plasma Physics is a communication forum of the achievements of the plasma-physics regional community, fostering collaboration between plasma scientists within the region and elsewhere. The program of the ICPP-LAWPP-2010 included the topics

  1. External PIXE analysis of an Iranian 15th century poetry book

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kakuee, Omidreza; Fathollahi, Vahid; Oliaiy, Parvin; Lamehi-Rachti, Mohammad; Taheri, Raziyeh; Jafarian, Hosseinali A.

    2012-02-01

    The paints of illumination, ink and paper of an Iranian poetry manuscript originally belonging to 15th century but partly restored about 300 years ago are characterized by external PIXE. The technique was employed to determine the elemental composition of different inks and paints applied in the text and illumination as well as the paper of both the original masterpiece and the restored parts in order to evaluate the quality of restoration processes. The X-ray spectra were collected by a Si(Li) X-ray detector placed at a scattering angle of 135° while the beam charge was indirectly measured through the Ar K α X-ray yield originated from the irradiation of in-air Argon. By analysis of the collected PIXE spectra, concentration of different elements present in closely matched colored areas in the original and restored illuminations were compared. In the same way, the origin of colored pigments and black ink in the original and restored illuminations and texts are inferred.

  2. Seismological and Geodetic Observations of the 15th August 2007 Pisco, Peru Earthquake.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biggs, J.; Psencik, K.; Norabuena, E.; Robinson, D.; Dixon, T.

    2007-12-01

    On 15th August 2007, a M8.0 earthquake occurred on the interface between the Nazca and South American Plates causing widespread damage in the towns of Chincha Alta, Ica and Pisco, with 514 casualties and 35,500 buildings reported destroyed. The 2007 Pisco earthquake occurred in a region between two large recent earthquakes: the 1996 M7.7 Nazca earthquake to the south and, in 1974, a M8.1 earthquake to the north. The existing local GPS network was resurveyed within 2 weeks of the earthquake and significant displacements measured at 8-10 sites. Co-seismic and postseismic InSAR data has been collected from several satellites, including Envisat, ERS-2, Radarsat and ALOS. In the two weeks following the mainshock, 42 aftershocks were recorded teleseismicly with magnitudes in the range 4-6.3. We will present results from the analysis of this geodetic data along with seismological analysis of teleseismic recordings of the mainshock and aftershocks.

  3. Investigation of the aerodynamic performance and noise characteristics of a 1/5th scale model of the Dowty Rotol R212 propeller

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trebble, W. J. G.

    1983-11-01

    The four-bladed Dowty Rotol R212 propeller (NACA 16 sections) was studied at 1/5th scale (0.7 m diameter) in 1.5 m acoustic tunnel. Propeller power absorption and thrust were measured over a range of rotational speeds up to 8000 rev/min at mainstream speeds from 15 to 60 m/sec for a range of blade settings. Slipstream wake surveys show outward movement of the position of the peak pressure as propeller loading is increased. Noise analysis demonstrates the predominance of multiple tones whose number and intensity increase with helical-tip Mach number. An empirical formula shows that the fundamental tone sound pressure level varies with tip speed and power loading in an identical manner to that observed on an ARA-D section propeller.

  4. PREFACE: 15th International Workshop on Advanced Computing and Analysis Techniques in Physics Research (ACAT2013)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jianxiong

    2014-06-01

    This volume of Journal of Physics: Conference Series is dedicated to scientific contributions presented at the 15th International Workshop on Advanced Computing and Analysis Techniques in Physics Research (ACAT 2013) which took place on 16-21 May 2013 at the Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China. The workshop series brings together computer science researchers and practitioners, and researchers from particle physics and related fields to explore and confront the boundaries of computing and of automatic data analysis and theoretical calculation techniques. This year's edition of the workshop brought together over 120 participants from all over the world. 18 invited speakers presented key topics on the universe in computer, Computing in Earth Sciences, multivariate data analysis, automated computation in Quantum Field Theory as well as computing and data analysis challenges in many fields. Over 70 other talks and posters presented state-of-the-art developments in the areas of the workshop's three tracks: Computing Technologies, Data Analysis Algorithms and Tools, and Computational Techniques in Theoretical Physics. The round table discussions on open-source, knowledge sharing and scientific collaboration stimulate us to think over the issue in the respective areas. ACAT 2013 was generously sponsored by the Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), National Natural Science Foundation of China (NFSC), Brookhaven National Laboratory in the USA (BNL), Peking University (PKU), Theoretical Physics Cernter for Science facilities of CAS (TPCSF-CAS) and Sugon. We would like to thank all the participants for their scientific contributions and for the en- thusiastic participation in all its activities of the workshop. Further information on ACAT 2013 can be found at http://acat2013.ihep.ac.cn. Professor Jianxiong Wang Institute of High Energy Physics Chinese Academy of Science Details of committees and sponsors are available in the PDF

  5. Session of the General Assembly of IUCN (15th, Christchurch, New Zealand, October 11-23, 1981).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources, Morges, (Switzerland).

    Resolutions adopted by the 15th session of the General Assembly of the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) are provided in this document. These resolutions focus on areas/issues related to: (1) world conservation strategy; (2) conservation and peace; (3) people, resources, and environment; (4) environmental…

  6. Suramin inhibits EV71 infection.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yaxin; Qing, Jie; Sun, Yuna; Rao, Zihe

    2014-03-01

    Enterovirus-71 (EV71) is one of the major causative reagents for hand-foot-and-mouth disease. In particular, EV71 causes severe central nervous system infections and leads to numerous dead cases. Although several inactivated whole-virus vaccines have entered in clinical trials, no antiviral agent has been provided for clinical therapy. In the present work, we screened our compound library and identified that suramin, which has been clinically used to treat variable diseases, could inhibit EV71 proliferation with an IC50 value of 40 μM. We further revealed that suramin could block the attachment of EV71 to host cells to regulate the early stage of EV71 infection, as well as affected other steps of EV71 life cycle. Our results are helpful to understand the mechanism for EV71 life cycle and provide a potential for the usage of an approved drug, suramin, as the antiviral against EV71 infection.

  7. PREFACE: 15th International Conference on Photoacoustic and Photothermal Phenomena (ICPPP15)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glorieux, Christ; Thoen, Jan

    2010-01-01

    Conference banner Although the roots of this scientific field go back to the end of the nineteenth century when A G Bell discovered the photoacoustic effect generated by the absorption of modulated light in a sample, major and rapid progress only occurred since the mid-1970's when the photoacoustic effect in condensed matter was put on a firm theoretical basis by A Rosencwaig and A Gersho. Since that time the fields of photoacoustics and the related fields of photothermal phenomena and laser ultrasonics have grown enormously. A multitude of ways of generating the effects has emerged using all kinds of radiation. Likewise, the diversity in methods for the detection of the generated thermal and acoustic waves has increased dramatically. One of the reasons for the popularity of the photoacoustic and photothermal field is the wide applicability of these techniques for fundamental and applied research. At this moment, the field has become really multidisciplinary and it is safe to say that it has reached a mature state with an established position in measurement technology and materials characterization. This conference as well as the ones before reflected this large diversity in the program topics and the research disciplines of the participants. This 15th International Conference on Photoacoustic and Photothermal Phenomena was held on a campus of the Catholic University of Leuven in Belgium in the week of 19-23 July 2009. During the conference 15 tutorial lectures, 8 plenary lectures, 36 invited talks, 120 oral and 172 poster communications were presented. The conference was attended by 252 participants from 38 countries from all over the world. During a special session award lectures were presented by winners of the prizes of the International Photoacoustic and Photothermal Association (IPPA). Winners of the senior prize were A Mandelis, D Fournier and A C Boccara. The winner of the junior prize was T W Murray. The editors of the proceedings of this conference

  8. PREFACE: 15th International Conference on the Physics of Highly Charged Ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Yaming; Hutton, Roger

    2011-07-01

    This issue contains papers presented at the 15th International Conference on the Physics of Highly Charged Ions, HCI2010. The conference was held at Fudan University, Shanghai, 29 August-3 September 2010. HCI is a biannual conference series going back to the very first conference held in Stockholm, Sweden in 1982. Previous editions in this millennium were held in Berkeley, USA, 2000; Caen, France, 2002; Vilnius, Lithuania, 2004; Belfast, UK, 2006, and Tokyo, Japan, 2008. The physics of highly charged ions, HCIs, is of great interest due to their key role in testing quantum electrodynamics in strong fields, and possible testing of parity non-conservation. However, HCIs also play crucial roles in the physics of hot plasmas, for example those produced in tokamak fusion devices and in inertial confinement fusion experiments. Much of the diagnostics of matter under such extreme environments relies very heavily on high quality atomic data of HCIs. The field of x-ray astronomy hinges almost entirely on the use of spectral lines from HCIs to provide information from distant astrophysical plasmas and objects. Given these fundamental interests and the current rapid developments in fusion and x-ray astronomy, it is clear that the physics of HCIs is a rich area of research with strong and important connections to many important subfields of physics. New application areas of HCI physics are also under development: two examples are (a) to provide 13.5 nm—and later half of this wavelength—radiation for lithography and (b) applications in medical research. The need for high quality atomic data of HCIs is as important now as it has ever been. HCI2010 was attended by over 200 scientists from around 20 countries; see the following table. Over 70 of the participants were students, which is very encouraging for the future of HCI related physics. The academic programme was organized based on the suggestions from the International Advisory Board, and consisted of six review lectures

  9. PREFACE: 15th International Conference on Strangeness in Quark Matter (SQM2015)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alvarez-Castillo, D.; Blaschke, D.; Kekelidze, V.; Matveev, V.; Sorin, A.

    2016-01-01

    The 15th International Conference Strangeness in Quark Matter (SQM) took place at the Veksler and Baldin Laboratory of High Energy Physics (VBLHEP) of the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (JINR) in Dubna in the period July 6 -11, with a record participation of 244 people from 31 countries! The previous meeting of the series in Birmingham 2013 had collected 158 physicists from 25 countries [J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 509, 011001 (2014)]. At SQM-2015, there was also a record participation of young scientist; every 4th conference attendee did not yet hold a PhD degree! There was a special program of 4 general lectures, a devoted session of parallel talks for Young Talents and the Helmholtz International Summer School (HISS) with 16 lecturers on the topics regarding Dense Matter (29.06.-11.07.) as a satellite event at the Bogoliubov Laboratory of Theoretical Physics (BLTP) and at VBLHEP. Another satellite event was the Round TableWorkshop on Physics at NICA, jointly organized by JINR and the Republic of South Africa on July 5, 2015. The selection of Dubna as the place for SQM-2015 conference by the International Advisory Committee (IAC) demonstrates the broad interest of the community in the progress of the Russian Megascience Project on the Nuclotron-based Ion Collider Facility (NICA) hosted at JINR Dubna. In a few years from now the experiments planned at NICA will produce data that provide new information of unprecedented accuracy which will help to answer some of the key questions which are topical at this conference. The SQM-2015 conference had an ambitious scientific program with 38 plenary talks, 97 parallel talks in 7 topical directions and 39 posters reporting the state of the research and the future directions in the fields of strangeness, heavy avors and bulk physics, suggested by the IAC to be the subtitle of the conference from 2016 onwards. Most of the contributions are represented in these Proceedings which we recommend to the community! We gratefully

  10. PREFACE: 15th International Conference on the Strength of Materials (ICSMA-15)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skrotzki, Werner; Oertel, Carl-Georg; Biermann, Horst; Heilmaier, Martin

    2010-04-01

    The 15th International Conference on the Strength of Materials (ICSMA 15) took place in Dresden, Germany, August 16-21, 2009. It belongs to the triennial series of ICSMA meetings with a long tradition, starting in 1967 - Tokyo, 1970 - Asilomar, 1973 - Cambridge, 1976 - Nancy, 1979 - Aachen, 1982 - Melbourne, 1985 - Montreal, 1988 - Tampere, 1991 - Haifa, 1994 - Sendai, 1997 - Prague, 2000 - Asilomar, 2003 - Budapest, 2006 - Xian. ICSMA 15 was hosted by the Dresden University of Technology, Institute of Structural Physics. Following the tradition of this conference series, it was the main focus of ICSMA 15 to promote and strengthen the fundamental understanding of the basic processes that govern the strength of materials. Nonetheless, it was the aim to forge links between basic research on model materials and applied research on engineering materials of technical importance. Thus, ICSMA 15 provided a forum for the presentation and discussion of research on the mechanical properties of all materials which are of interest to materials scientists and engineers from many different areas. The topics covered by ICSMA 15 were: 1.Atomistic and microstructural aspects of plastic deformation 2.Atomistic and microstructural aspects of fracture 3.Adhesion and interfacial strength 4.Cyclic deformation and fatigue 5.High temperature deformation and creep 6.Mechanical properties related to phase transformations 7.Large and severe plastic deformation 8.Nano- and microscale phenomena in plasticity and fracture 9.Strength issues in biological systems and biomaterials 10.Mechanical behaviour of glasses and non-crystalline solids 11.Multiscale modelling and experimental validation 12.Insight through new experimental methods 13.Other new developments related to the field While there was large interest in the new topics 7 and 8, contributions to topic 9 were much less than expected. ICSMA 15 attracted 352 scientists from 30 countries with one fourth of the participants being students

  11. Emotional and Behavioral Disorders in 1.5th Generation, 2nd Generation Immigrant Children, and Foreign Adoptees.

    PubMed

    Tan, Tony Xing

    2016-10-01

    Existing theories (e.g., acculturative stress theory) cannot adequately explain why mental disorders in immigrants are less prevalent than in non-immigrants. In this paper, the culture-gene co-evolutionary theory of mental disorders was utilized to generate a novel hypothesis that connection to heritage culture reduces the risk for mental disorders in immigrant children. Four groups of children aged 2-17 years were identified from the 2007 United States National Survey of Children's Health: 1.5th generation immigrant children (n = 1378), 2nd generation immigrant children (n = 4194), foreign adoptees (n = 270), and non-immigrant children (n = 54,877). The 1.5th generation immigrant children's connection to their heritage culture is stronger than or similar to the 2nd generation immigrants, while the foreign adoptees have little connection to their birth culture. Controlling for age, sex, family type and SES, the odds for having ADD/ADHD, Conduct Disorder, Anxiety Disorder, and Depression diagnosis were the lowest for the 1.5th generation immigrant children, followed by the 2nd generation immigrant children and the foreign adoptees. The foreign adoptees and non-adopted children were similar in the odds of having these disorders. Connection to heritage culture might be the underlying mechanism that explained recent immigrants' lower rates of mental disorders.

  12. Samarkand complex setup for investigation of cosmic ray variation in the energy range of 7 10 (9) - 10 (15) eV

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dorman, L. I.

    1985-01-01

    The Samarkand complex setup is aimed at the study of cosmic ray variations in a wide energy range from 7 billion eV (which corresponds to the geomagnetic threshold in the region of Samarkand) up to approx 10 to the 15th power to 10 to the 16th power eV. The setup consists of four 6-counter sections of neutron supermonitor with counters SNM-15 and 48 scintillator detectors (1 sq m each) placed under and above the supermonitor. The effective area of the setup for recording neutrons and muons is 24 sq m. The setup can register time variations of the following cosmic ray components: (1) the total neutron counting rate, (2) counting rates for neutrons of different multiplicity, (3) soft-muon fluxes, (4) hard-muon fluxes at various zenith and azimuth angles, (5) electron-photon component, (6) extensive air showers (EAS) induced by primary particles in a wide energy range and accompanied or not accompanied by muons and neutrons.

  13. A new calculation on the stopping power and mean free path for low energy electrons in toluene over energy range of 20-10000 eV.

    PubMed

    Tan, Zhenyu; Xia, Yueyuan; Liu, Xiangdong; Zhao, Mingwen; Zhang, Liming

    2009-04-01

    A new calculation of the stopping powers (SP) and inelastic mean free paths (IMFP) for electrons in toluene at energies below 10 keV has been presented. The calculation is based on the dielectric model and on an empirical evaluation approach of optical energy loss function (OELF). The reliability for the evaluated OELFs of several hydrocarbons with available experimental optical data has been systematically checked. For toluene, using the empirical OELF, the evaluated mean ionization potential, is compared with that given by Bragg's rule, and the calculated SP at 10 keV is also compared with the Bethe-Bloch prediction. The present results for SP and IMFP provide an alternative basic data for the study on the energy deposition of low-energy electrons transport through toluene, and also show that the method used in this work may be a good one for evaluating the SP and IMFP for hydrocarbons.

  14. International Symposium on Combustion, 15th, Tokyo, Japan, August 25-31, 1974, Proceedings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Recent theoretical and experimental studies concerned with detonation and pressure wave combustion interaction, fire and explosion research and safety, heterogeneous combustion, flame-flow interactions, kinetics of elementary reactions, pollution control in and by combustion systems, and ignition are presented. Some of the topics covered include critical power density for direct initiation of unconfined gaseous detonations, extinction of laminar diffusion flames for liquid fuels, combustion of bulk titanium in oxygen, flame propagation in small spheres of unconfined and slightly confined flammable mixtures, kinetics of the reaction of nitric oxide with hydrogen, production of chemi-ions and formation of CH and CH2 radicals in methane-oxygen and ethylene-oxygen flames, NOx emission characteristics in two-stage combustion, and spherical ignition of oxyhydrogen behind a reflected shock wave. Individual items are announced in this issue.

  15. Smart cards for EV billing. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1998-05-01

    If electric vehicles are to gain widespread popularity, there will need to be public charging stations for refueling away from home. However, public charging raises some potentially complex issues regarding how individual EV owners will be billed for the electricity they use. It`s easy enough to meter the electricity used at a given battery charger, but the utility bill goes to the EV station merchant rather than the driver who consumed the electricity. So far this has not posed a problem, as many early charging sites have either been providing free electricity or billing only nominal flat fees. As the EV market grows, however, an effective point-of-sale (POS) billing mechanism will need to be established. In 1993, an investigation of POS billing systems for different types of non-home EV charging was conducted. Recently, the Cost Subcommittee of the Infrastructure Working Council`s (IWC) Load Management, Distribution, Power Quality Committee requested that an update be performed on the newest of these POS technologies--smart cards. The same size and shape as regular credit cards, smart cards use a microchip instead of a magnetic stripe to store information. The chip can hold significantly more information than a magnetic stripe, enabling greater security and flexible applications. Since 1993, there have been major advances in smart card technology, and smart card use has grown dramatically in both Europe and Asia. The US has been slower to embrace smart cards due to the entrenched infrastructure of traditional magnetic stripe credit cards. This paper reviews smart card technology and related POS transaction structures, and assesses the technical feasibility and economics of using these versatile cards for EV billing.

  16. Enhancement and character recognition of the erased colophon of a 15th-century Hebrew prayer book

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walvoord, Derek J.; Easton, Roger L., Jr.; Knox, Keith T.; Heimbueger, Matthew

    2004-12-01

    A handwritten codex often included an inscription that listed facts about its publication, such as the names of the scribe and patron, date of publication, the city where the book was copied, etc. These facts obviously provide essential information to a historian studying the provenance of the codex. Unfortunately, this page was sometimes erased after the sale of the book to a new owner, often by scraping off the original ink. The importance of recovering this information would be difficult to overstate. This paper reports on the methods of imaging, image enhancement, and character recognition that were applied to this page in a Hebrew prayer book copied in Florence in the 15th century.

  17. Enhancement and character recognition of the erased colophon of a 15th-century Hebrew prayer book

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walvoord, Derek J.; Easton, Roger L., Jr.; Knox, Keith T.; Heimbueger, Matthew

    2005-01-01

    A handwritten codex often included an inscription that listed facts about its publication, such as the names of the scribe and patron, date of publication, the city where the book was copied, etc. These facts obviously provide essential information to a historian studying the provenance of the codex. Unfortunately, this page was sometimes erased after the sale of the book to a new owner, often by scraping off the original ink. The importance of recovering this information would be difficult to overstate. This paper reports on the methods of imaging, image enhancement, and character recognition that were applied to this page in a Hebrew prayer book copied in Florence in the 15th century.

  18. 15th International Conference on Human Antibodies and Hybridomas. 14-16 April 2010, Tiara Park Atlantico Hotel, Porto, Portugal.

    PubMed

    Kotlan, Beatrix

    2010-11-01

    Antibodies and antibody conjugates are currently one of the largest classes of new drug entities under development. These versatile molecules are being investigated for the treatment of many pathological conditions, such as cancer and infectious, inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. Antibodies can exert biological effects as naked antibodies by themselves, or can be used as delivery agents conjugated with various drugs (e.g., immunoconjugates) and as tools of multistep targeting. Site-specific delivery of therapeutic agents has been the ultimate goal of the pharmaceutical industry, as it has the potential to maximize drug efficiency while minimizing side effects. Antibodies have much potential for this objective. Thus, it is useful to summarize some of the main strategies currently being employed for the development of these diverse therapeutic molecules and to highlight the recent novelties in the field. These goals were the focus of the 15th International Conference on Human Antibodies and Hybridomas, held during 14-16 April 2010 in Porto, Portugal.

  19. How Do The EV Project Participants Feel About Their EVS?

    SciTech Connect

    Francfort, James E.

    2015-02-01

    The EV Project is an infrastructure study that enrolled over 8,000 residential participants. These participants purchased or leased a Nissan Leaf battery electric vehicle (BEV) or Chevrolet Volt extended range electric vehicle (EREV) and were among the first to explore this new electric drive technology. Collectively, BEV, EREV, and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) are called plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs). The EV Project participants were very cooperative and enthusiastic about their participation in the project and very supportive in providing feedback and information. The information and attitudes of these participants concerning their experience with their PEVs were solicited using a survey in June 2013. At that time, some had up to 3 years of experience with their PEVs.

  20. Anisotropy of cosmic rays of energy 10 (15) eV to 10 (17) eV observed at Akeno

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kifune, T.; Nishijima, K.; Hara, T.; Hatano, Y.; Hayashida, N.; Honda, M.; Kamata, K.; Matsubara, Y.; Nagano, M.; Tanahashi, G.

    1985-01-01

    Anisotropy of cosmic rays is studied with extensive air showers (EAS) data by muon trigger. The present results support those obtained by electron trigger which suggest the significant anisotropy of second harmonics with phase around 100 deg in right ascension for showers of 10 to the 16th power - 10 to the 17th power eV, and predominant arrival direction of 230 deg in right ascension for muon-rich showers. It seems that the phase of the first harmonics in the energy range below 10 to the 11th power eV is about 300 deg in right ascension and the second harmonics near 6 x 10 to the 14th power eV is statistically significant with an amplitude of 0.39 + or - 0.13% in direction of 83 + or - 10 deg in right ascension.

  1. 15th Workshop on Crystalline Silicon Solar Cells and Modules: Materials and Processes; Extended Abstracts and Papers

    SciTech Connect

    Sopori, B. L.

    2005-11-01

    The National Center for Photovoltaics sponsored the 15th Workshop on Crystalline Silicon Solar Cells & Modules: Materials and Processes, held in Vail, CO, August 7-10, 2005. This meeting provided a forum for an informal exchange of technical and scientific information between international researchers in the photovoltaic and relevant non-photovoltaic fields. The workshop addressed the fundamental properties of PV silicon, new solar cell designs, and advanced solar cell processing techniques. A combination of oral presentations by invited speakers, poster sessions, and discussion sessions reviewed recent advances in crystal growth, new cell designs, new processes and process characterization techniques, and cell fabrication approaches suitable for future manufacturing demands. The theme of this year's meeting was 'Providing the Scientific Basis for Industrial Success.' Specific sessions during the workshop included: Advances in crystal growth and material issues; Impurities and defects in Si; Advanced processing; High-efficiency Si solar cells; Thin Si solar cells; and Cell design for efficiency and reliability module operation. The topic for the Rump Session was ''Si Feedstock: The Show Stopper'' and featured a panel discussion by representatives from various PV companies.

  2. Stable Isotope Evidence for Late Medieval (14th–15th C) Origins of the Eastern Baltic Cod (Gadus morhua) Fishery

    PubMed Central

    Orton, David C.; Makowiecki, Daniel; de Roo, Tessa; Johnstone, Cluny; Harland, Jennifer; Jonsson, Leif; Heinrich, Dirk; Enghoff, Inge Bødker; Lõugas, Lembi; Van Neer, Wim; Ervynck, Anton; Hufthammer, Anne Karin; Amundsen, Colin; Jones, Andrew K. G.; Locker, Alison; Hamilton-Dyer, Sheila; Pope, Peter; MacKenzie, Brian R.; Richards, Michael; O'Connell, Tamsin C.; Barrett, James H.

    2011-01-01

    Although recent historical ecology studies have extended quantitative knowledge of eastern Baltic cod (Gadus morhua) exploitation back as far as the 16th century, the historical origin of the modern fishery remains obscure. Widespread archaeological evidence for cod consumption around the eastern Baltic littoral emerges around the 13th century, three centuries before systematic documentation, but it is not clear whether this represents (1) development of a substantial eastern Baltic cod fishery, or (2) large-scale importation of preserved cod from elsewhere. To distinguish between these hypotheses we use stable carbon and nitrogen isotope analysis to determine likely catch regions of 74 cod vertebrae and cleithra from 19 Baltic archaeological sites dated from the 8th to the 16th centuries. δ13C and δ15N signatures for six possible catch regions were established using a larger sample of archaeological cod cranial bones (n = 249). The data strongly support the second hypothesis, revealing widespread importation of cod during the 13th to 14th centuries, most of it probably from Arctic Norway. By the 15th century, however, eastern Baltic cod dominate within our sample, indicating the development of a substantial late medieval fishery. Potential human impact on cod stocks in the eastern Baltic must thus be taken into account for at least the last 600 years. PMID:22110675

  3. Lead concentration in soil from a small 15th-century industrial site: occupational and environmental health implications.

    PubMed

    Anyanwu, E

    1999-01-01

    Former industrial sites are often reclaimed for new homes and other occupational uses. Such sites may still contain toxic chemicals that could put the health of the community at risk. The persistence of these residual chemicals and their effects on human health must not be underestimated. Hence, there is a need to analyze such sites to ensure that the public health will not be put at risk. It is also essential that the levels of release of heavy metals into the environment be monitored and regulated. In this study the lead (Pb) concentration in soil from a small 15th-century industrial site was determined to assess and evaluate its occupational and environmental health implications. Concentrations of Pb measured by atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) and inductively coupled plasma-emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES) techniques were 4,298.755 mg/L (SD 0.316; RSD 0.5%) and 4,300 mg/L (SD 0.3809; RSD 0.8%), respectively, both above the safe limit. It is concluded that reclaiming a disused industrial site without adequate soil analysis and proper remediation would be likely to pose occupational and environmental health risks.

  4. Linking groundwater pollution to the decay of 15th-century sculptures in Burgos Cathedral (northern Spain).

    PubMed

    Gázquez, Fernando; Rull, Fernando; Medina, Jesús; Sanz-Arranz, Aurelio; Sanz, Carlos

    2015-10-01

    Precipitation of salts-mainly hydrated Mg-Na sulfates-in building materials is rated as one of the most severe threats to the preservation of our architectural and cultural heritage. Nevertheless, the origin of this pathology is still unknown in many cases. Proper identification of the cause of damage is crucial for correct planning of future restoration actions. The goal of this study is to identify the source of the degradation compounds that are affecting the 15th-century limestone sculptures that decorate the retro-choir of Burgos Cathedral (northern Spain). To this end, detailed characterization of minerals by in situ (Raman spectroscopy) and laboratory techniques (XRD, Raman and FTIR) was followed by major elements (ICP and IC) and isotopic analysis (δ(34)S and δ(15)N) of both the mineral phases precipitated on the retro-choir and the dissolved salts in groundwater in the vicinity of the cathedral. The results reveal unequivocal connection between the damage observed and capillary rise of salts-bearing water from the subsoil. The multianalytical methodology used is widely applicable to identify the origin of common affections suffered by historical buildings and masterpieces.

  5. Base fluid in improving heat transfer for EV car battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bin-Abdun, Nazih A.; Razlan, Zuradzman M.; Shahriman, A. B.; Wan, Khairunizam; Hazry, D.; Ahmed, S. Faiz; Adnan, Nazrul H.; Heng, R.; Kamarudin, H.; Zunaidi, I.

    2015-05-01

    This study examined the effects of base fluid (as coolants) channeling inside the heat exchanger in the process of the increase in thermal conductivity between EV car battery and the heat exchanger. The analysis showed that secondary cooling system by means of water has advantages in improving the heat transfer process and reducing the electric power loss on the form of thermal energy from batteries. This leads to the increase in the efficiency of the EV car battery, hence also positively reflecting the performance of the EV car. The present work, analysis is performed to assess the design and use of heat exchanger in increasing the performance efficiency of the EV car battery. This provides a preface to the use this design for nano-fluids which increase and improve from heat transfer.

  6. Simple cost model for EV traction motors

    SciTech Connect

    Cuenca, R.M.

    1995-02-01

    A simple cost model has been developed that allows the calculation of the OEM cost of electric traction motors of three different types, normalized as a function of power in order to accommodate different power and size. The model includes enough information on the various elements integrated in the motors to allow analysis of individual components and to factor-in the effects of changes in commodities prices. A scalable cost model for each of the main components of an electric vehicle (EV) is a useful tool that can have direct application in computer simulation or in parametric studies. For the cost model to have wide usefulness, it needs to be valid for a range of values of some parameter that determines the magnitude or size of the component. For instance, in the case of batteries, size may be determined by energy capacity, usually expressed in kilowatt-hours (kWh), while in the case of traction motors, size is better determined by rated power, usually expressed in kilowatts (kW). The simplest case is when the cost of the component in question is a direct function of its size; then cost is simply the product of its specific cost ($/unit size) and the number of units (size) in the vehicle in question. Batteries usually fall in this category (cost = energy capacity x $/kWh). But cost is not always linear with size or magnitude; motors (and controllers), for instance, become relatively less expensive as power rating increases. Traction motors, one of the main components for EV powertrains are examined in this paper, and a simplified cost model is developed for the three most popular design variations.

  7. NCSE's 15th National Conference and Global Forum on Science, Policy, and the Environment: Energy and Climate Change, Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Levine, Ellen

    2016-07-08

    The National Council for Science and the Environment (NCSE) held its 15th National Conference and Global Forum on Science, Policy and the Environment: Energy and Climate Change, on January 27-29, 2015, at the Hyatt Regency Hotel, Crystal City, VA. The National Conference: Energy and Climate Change developed and advanced partnerships that focused on transitioning the world to a new “low carbon” and “climate resilient” energy system. It emphasized advancing research and technology, putting ideas into action, and moving forward on policy and practice. More than 900 participants from the scientific research, policy and governance, business and civil society, and education communities attended. The Conference was organized around four themes: (1) a new energy system (including energy infrastructure, technologies and efficiencies, changes in distribution of energy sources, and low carbon transportation); (2) energy, climate and sustainable development; (3) financing and markets; and (4) achieving progress (including ideas for the 21st Conference of Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change). The program featured six keynote presentations, six plenary sessions, 41 symposia and 20 workshops. Conference participants were involved in the 20 workshops, each on a specific energy and climate-related issue. The workshops were designed as interactive sessions, with each workshop generating 10-12 recommendations on the topic. The recommendations were prepared in the final conference report, were disseminated nationally, and continue to be available for public use. The conference also featured an exhibition and poster sessions. The National Conference on Energy and Climate Change addressed a wide range of issues specific to the U.S. Department of Energy’s programs; involved DOE’s scientists and program managers in sessions and workshops; and reached out to a broad array of DOE stakeholders.

  8. Seminar on the Acquisition of Latin American Library Materials (15th, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, June 23-26, 1970). Final Report and Working Papers, Volume II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benson, Susan Shattuck: Bresie, Mayellen

    Volume 2 contains 13 working papers from the 15th Seminar on Acquisition of Latin American Library Materials. The papers are: (1) A Report on Bibliographic Activities; (2) Microfilm Projects Newsletter; (3) Role of Latin American Legal Material in the Social Science Research Library; (4) A description of sources for Legal and Social Science…

  9. Mathematics Education. Selected Papers from the Conference on Stochastic Processes and Their Applications. (15th, Nagoya, Japan, July 2-5, 1985).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hida, Takeyuki; Shimizu, Akinobu

    This volume contains the papers and comments from the Workshop on Mathematics Education, a special session of the 15th Conference on Stochastic Processes and Their Applications, held in Nagoya, Japan, July 2-5, 1985. Topics covered include: (1) probability; (2) statistics; (3) deviation; (4) Japanese mathematics curriculum; (5) statistical…

  10. Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission. Reports of Governing and Major Subsidiary Bodies. Session of the Assembly (15th, Paris, France, July 4-19, 1989).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France). Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission.

    The Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission was organized by UNESCO to promote scientific investigation with a view to learning about the nature and resources of the oceans and disseminating this knowledge through the concerted action of its members. The report contains a summary of the discussions that took place at the 15th Session of the…

  11. Proceedings of the Conference of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education (PME) (15th, Assisi, Italy, June 29-July 4, 1991), Volume 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furinghetti, Fulvia, Ed.

    This document, the first of three volumes, reports on the 15th annual conference of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education (PME) held in Italy 1991. Plenary addresses and speakers are: "Social Interaction and Mathematical Knowledge" (B. M. Bartolini); "Meaning: Image Schemata and Protocols" (W.…

  12. SELECTED PAPERS FROM PROFESSIONAL PROGRAM SEGMENTS OF UNITED CEREBRAL PALSY'S ANNUAL CONFERENCE (15TH, LOS ANGELES, CALIFORNIA, MARCH 11-13, 1965).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Cerebral Palsy Association, New York, NY.

    THIS PUBLICATION PRESENTS SELECTED PAPERS FROM THE UNITED CEREBRAL PALSY ASSOCIATION'S 15TH ANNUAL CONFERENCE, MARCH 13, 1965. PAPERS ARE--(1) "S IS TO TURN" BY PAUL V. CARLSON, (2) "CERTAIN ASPECTS OF THE FUNCTIONAL STATUS OF THE FETUS IN UTERO" BY FORREST H. ADAMS, (3) "ENCEPHALITIS--COMMON CAUSES AND AFTER EFFECTS"…

  13. Chopper Circuits Developed for EV Drive Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuruta, Yukinori; Kawamura, Atsuo

    In this paper, the technical stream on a high efficiency and high frequency chopper for the automotive industry, new energy and energy conservation technology field is surveyed. QRAS (Quasi-resonant Regenerating Active Snubber) and SAZZ (Snubber Assisted Zero Voltage and Zero Current Transition) topologies aimed for the electric vehicle (EV) drive application are proposed. 25kHz-8kW QRAS, 100kHz-8kW SAZZ choppers and 50kHz-25kW bilateral SAZZ-1 chopper are constructed and tested under rating conditions. It is verified that SAZZ topology retains high efficiency even at the increased operating frequency of 100kHz. It is shown that high efficiency can be realized at high operating frequency even in high power converters by QRAS and newly proposed SAZZ soft switching topologies.

  14. Smart EV Energy Management System to Support Grid Services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Bin

    Under smart grid scenarios, the advanced sensing and metering technologies have been applied to the legacy power grid to improve the system observability and the real-time situational awareness. Meanwhile, there is increasing amount of distributed energy resources (DERs), such as renewable generations, electric vehicles (EVs) and battery energy storage system (BESS), etc., being integrated into the power system. However, the integration of EVs, which can be modeled as controllable mobile energy devices, brings both challenges and opportunities to the grid planning and energy management, due to the intermittency of renewable generation, uncertainties of EV driver behaviors, etc. This dissertation aims to solve the real-time EV energy management problem in order to improve the overall grid efficiency, reliability and economics, using online and predictive optimization strategies. Most of the previous research on EV energy management strategies and algorithms are based on simplified models with unrealistic assumptions that the EV charging behaviors are perfectly known or following known distributions, such as the arriving time, leaving time and energy consumption values, etc. These approaches fail to obtain the optimal solutions in real-time because of the system uncertainties. Moreover, there is lack of data-driven strategy that performs online and predictive scheduling for EV charging behaviors under microgrid scenarios. Therefore, we develop an online predictive EV scheduling framework, considering uncertainties of renewable generation, building load and EV driver behaviors, etc., based on real-world data. A kernel-based estimator is developed to predict the charging session parameters in real-time with improved estimation accuracy. The efficacy of various optimization strategies that are supported by this framework, including valley-filling, cost reduction, event-based control, etc., has been demonstrated. In addition, the existing simulation-based approaches do

  15. EV space suit gloves (passive)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fletcher, E. G.; Dodson, J. D.; Elkins, W.; Tickner, E. G.

    1975-01-01

    A pair of pressure and thermal insulating overgloves to be used with an Extravehicular (EV) suit assembly was designed, developed, fabricated, and tested. The design features extensive use of Nomex felt materials in lieu of the multiple layer insulation formerly used with the Apollo thermal glove. The glove theoretically satisfies all of the thermal requirements. The presence of the thermal glove does not degrade pressure glove tactility by more than the acceptable 10% value. On the other hand, the thermal glove generally degrades pressure glove mobility by more than the acceptable 10% value, primarily in the area of the fingers. Life cycling tests were completed with minimal problems. The thermal glove/pressure glove ensemble was also tested for comfort; the test subjects found no problems with the thermal glove although they did report difficulties with pressure points on the pressure glove which were independent of the thermal glove.

  16. The anatomy of a lahar: Deciphering the 15th September 2012 lahar at Volcán de Colima, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vázquez, R.; Capra, L.; Caballero, L.; Arámbula-Mendoza, R.; Reyes-Dávila, G.

    2014-02-01

    Volcán de Colima is one of the most active volcanoes in Mexico where lahars are a common phenomenon. Since the reactivation of the volcanic activity in 1991, lahars have become more frequent during the June-October rainy season, in this region. Therefore, Volcán de Colima represents a natural laboratory, ideal for the constant monitoring of lahars and to study factors controlling their origin, flow transport and deposition. Since 2007 the systematic detection of lahars in Volcán de Colima has been carried out using seismic data from the broadband stations of the RESCO network, the seismological network of Colima University, along with three rain gauge stations located on the southern ravines of the volcano. In 2011 a new monitoring station was built at 2000 m.a.s.l. along the Montegrande ravine, which consists of a geophone, a video camera and a rain gauge station coupled with a moisture sensor, transmitting in real time to the RESCO facilities at Colima University. With all the instrumentation currently installed on the volcano flanks, we could monitor and describe the lahar that occurred on 15th September 2012 along the Montegrande ravine, and correlate the monitoring data with information gathered by the field campaign conducted two days after the event. The high quality of collected data enabled us to describe the “anatomy” of this lahar. The event consisted of a lahar that lasted 40 min, triggered by 20 mm of accumulated rainfall with a maximum intensity of 95 mm/h. The lahar was characterized by three main surges at 4-5 minute intervals that formed an 80 cm-thick terrace. The first surge was a debris flow with a block-rich front followed by the main body that progressively diluted to a hyperconcentrated flow, from which a 40 cm-thick massive unit was emplaced (33 wt.% gravel and > 60 wt.% of sand); it was followed by a more dilute hyperconcentrated flow that left a massive 10 cm-thick sandy layer (80 wt.% of sand); the third surge deposited a 30-cm

  17. Serological detection and analysis of anti-VP1 responses against various enteroviruses (EV) (EV-A, EV-B and EV-C) in Chinese individuals

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Caixia; Ding, Yingying; Zhou, Peng; Feng, Jiaojiao; Qian, Baohua; Lin, Ziyu; Wang, Lili; Wang, Jinhong; Zhao, Chunyan; Li, Xiangyu; Cao, Mingmei; Peng, Heng; Rui, Bing; Pan, Wei

    2016-01-01

    The overall serological prevalence of EV infections based on ELISA remains unknown. In the present study, the antibody responses against VP1 of the EV-A species (enterovirus 71 (EV71), Coxsackievirus A16 (CA16), Coxsackievirus A5 (CA5) and Coxsackievirus A6 (CA6)), of the EV-B species (Coxsackievirus B3 (CB3)), and of the EV-C species (Poliovirus 1 (PV1)) were detected and analyzed by a NEIBM (novel evolved immunoglobulin-binding molecule)-based ELISA in Shanghai blood donors. The serological prevalence of anti-CB3 VP1 antibodies was demonstrated to show the highest level, with anti-PV1 VP1 antibodies at the second highest level, and anti-CA5, CA6, CA16 and EV71 VP1 antibodies at a comparatively low level. All reactions were significantly correlated at different levels, which were approximately proportional to their sequence similarities. Antibody responses against EV71 VP1 showed obvious differences with responses against other EV-A viruses. Obvious differences in antibody responses between August 2013 and May 2014 were revealed. These findings are the first to describe the detailed information of the serological prevalence of human antibody responses against the VP1 of EV-A, B and C viruses, and could be helpful for understanding of the ubiquity of EV infections and for identifying an effective approach for seroepidemiological surveillance based on ELISA. PMID:26917423

  18. Serological detection and analysis of anti-VP1 responses against various enteroviruses (EV) (EV-A, EV-B and EV-C) in Chinese individuals.

    PubMed

    Gao, Caixia; Ding, Yingying; Zhou, Peng; Feng, Jiaojiao; Qian, Baohua; Lin, Ziyu; Wang, Lili; Wang, Jinhong; Zhao, Chunyan; Li, Xiangyu; Cao, Mingmei; Peng, Heng; Rui, Bing; Pan, Wei

    2016-02-26

    The overall serological prevalence of EV infections based on ELISA remains unknown. In the present study, the antibody responses against VP1 of the EV-A species (enterovirus 71 (EV71), Coxsackievirus A16 (CA16), Coxsackievirus A5 (CA5) and Coxsackievirus A6 (CA6)), of the EV-B species (Coxsackievirus B3 (CB3)), and of the EV-C species (Poliovirus 1 (PV1)) were detected and analyzed by a NEIBM (novel evolved immunoglobulin-binding molecule)-based ELISA in Shanghai blood donors. The serological prevalence of anti-CB3 VP1 antibodies was demonstrated to show the highest level, with anti-PV1 VP1 antibodies at the second highest level, and anti-CA5, CA6, CA16 and EV71 VP1 antibodies at a comparatively low level. All reactions were significantly correlated at different levels, which were approximately proportional to their sequence similarities. Antibody responses against EV71 VP1 showed obvious differences with responses against other EV-A viruses. Obvious differences in antibody responses between August 2013 and May 2014 were revealed. These findings are the first to describe the detailed information of the serological prevalence of human antibody responses against the VP1 of EV-A, B and C viruses, and could be helpful for understanding of the ubiquity of EV infections and for identifying an effective approach for seroepidemiological surveillance based on ELISA.

  19. Intelligent Vehicle Charging Benefits Assessment Using EV Project Data

    SciTech Connect

    Letendre, Steven; Gowri, Krishnan; Kintner-Meyer, Michael CW; Pratt, Richard M.

    2013-12-01

    PEVs can represent a significant power resource for the grid. An IVCI with bi-direction V2G capabilities would allow PEVs to provide grid support services and thus generate a source of revenue for PEV owners. The fleet of EV Project vehicles represents a power resource between 30 MW and 90 MW, depending on the power rating of the grid connection (5-15 kW). Aggregation of vehicle capacity would allow PEVs to participate in wholesale reserve capacity markets. One of the key insights from EV Project data is the fact that vehicles are connected to an EVSE much longer than is necessary to deliver a full charge. During these hours when the vehicles are not charging, they can be participating in wholesale power markets providing the high-value services of regulation and spinning reserves. The annual gross revenue potential for providing these services using the fleet of EV Project vehicles is several hundred thousands of dollars to several million dollars annually depending on the power rating of the grid interface, the number of hours providing grid services, and the market being served. On a per vehicle basis, providing grid services can generate several thousands of dollars over the life of the vehicle.

  20. Estimating the geotechnical Parameters from CSEM monitoring Data for the Buildings and the Environment at the City of 15th May, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hachay, Olga; Atya, Magdy; Khachay, Oleg

    2015-04-01

    The site of investigation, 15th May city, is a new suburb of Helwan, at about 35 km south of Cairo, Egypt. The work is aimed to investigate the rock mass stability at "Quarter 27" in 15th May City, which is linked with cracks formation into the buildings. A controlled source electromagnetic (CSEM) approach developed earlier by IGF UB RAS (Geophysical Federal Institute, Ural Branch of Russian Academy of Science) is applied to image the ranked deformation levels in the massive structure. The wide profile system of observation has been used to monitor the three components of the alternating magnetic field along predefined measuring lines in the study area. Four cycles of observation have been carried out in 2008, 2010, 2011, and 2012. The acquired data sets have been subjected to analytical processing procedure to estimate the changes in the geotechnical parameters during the time of these four cycles of observation. The analytical treatments provided good information about the structure of the rock massive and its rank of degradation, the lateral distribution of the geotechnical heterogeneity, and finally a conclusive outcome about foundation stability. We conclude that the general dynamic state close to the destruction level within the investigation area is getting worse over the time; this is reflected in the crack's densities and positions, also on the changes in the lateral distribution of geoelectric heterogeneity as an indicator of the saturation of the surface rock in the study area with water [1]. Reference 1. Magdy A. Atya, Olga A. Hachay, Mamdouh M. Soliman, Oleg Y. Khachay, Ahmed B. Khalill, Mahmoud Gaballah, Fathy F.Shaaban and Ibrahim A.El. Hemali. CSEM imaging of the near surface dynamics and its impact for foundation stability at quarter 27,15-th of May City, Helwan, Egypt. // Earth sciences research journal, 2010,Vol.14, N1, p.76-87.

  1. Lasers '92; Proceedings of the International Conference on Lasers and Applications, 15th, Houston, TX, Dec. 7-10, 1992

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Charles P. (Editor)

    1993-01-01

    Papers from the conference are presented, and the topics covered include the following: x-ray lasers, excimer lasers, chemical lasers, high power lasers, blue-green lasers, dye lasers, solid state lasers, semiconductor lasers, gas and discharge lasers, carbon dioxide lasers, ultrafast phenomena, nonlinear optics, quantum optics, dynamic gratings and wave mixing, laser radar, lasers in medicine, optical filters and laser communication, optical techniques and instruments, laser material interaction, and industrial and manufacturing applications.

  2. Production of EV71 vaccine candidates.

    PubMed

    Chong, Pele; Hsieh, Shih-Yang; Liu, Chia-Chyi; Chou, Ai-Hsiang; Chang, Jui-Yuan; Wu, Suh-Chin; Liu, Shih-Jen; Chow, Yen-Hung; Su, Ih-Jen; Klein, Michel

    2012-12-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is now recognized as an emerging neurotropic virus in Asia and with Coxsackie virus (CV) it is the other major causative agent of hand-foot-mouth diseases (HFMD). Effective medications and/or prophylactic vaccines against HFMD are urgently needed. From a scientific (the feasibility of bioprocess, immunological responses and potency in animal challenge model) and business development (cost of goods) points of view, we in this review address and discuss the pros and cons of different EV71 vaccine candidates that have been produced and evaluated in animal models. Epitope-based synthetic peptide vaccine candidates containing residues 211-225 of VP1 formulated with Freund's adjuvant (CFA/IFA) elicited low EV71 virus neutralizing antibody responses, but were protective in the suckling mouse challenge model. Among recombinant EV71 subunits (rVP1, rVP2 and rVP3) expressed in E. coli, purified and formulated with CFA/IFA, only VP1 elicited mouse antibody responses with measurable EV71-specific virus neutralization titers. Immunization of mice with either a DNA plasmid containing VP1 gene or VP1 expressed in Salmonella typhimurium also generated neutralizing antibody responses and protected animals against a live EV71 challenge. Recombinant EV71 virus-like particles (rVLP) produced from baculovirus formulated either with CFA/IFA or alum elicited good virus neutralization titers in both mice and non-human primates, and were found to be protective in the suckling mouse EV71 challenge model. Synthetic peptides or recombinant EV71 subunit vaccines (rVP1 and rVLP) formulated in alum were found to be poorly immunogenic in rabbits. Only formalin-inactivated (FI) EV71 virions formulated in alum elicited cross-neutralizing antibodies against different EV71 genotypes in mice, rabbits and non-human primates but induced weak neutralizing responses against CAV16. From a regulatory, economic and market acceptability standpoint, FI-EV71 virion vaccines are the most

  3. Production of EV71 vaccine candidates

    PubMed Central

    Chong, Pele; Hsieh, Shih-Yang; Liu, Chia-Chyi; Chou, Ai-Hsiang; Chang, Jui-Yuan; Wu, Suh-Chin; Liu, Shih-Jen; Chow, Yen-Hung; Su, Ih-Jen; Klein, Michel

    2012-01-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is now recognized as an emerging neurotropic virus in Asia and with Coxsackie virus (CV) it is the other major causative agent of hand-foot-mouth diseases (HFMD). Effective medications and/or prophylactic vaccines against HFMD are urgently needed. From a scientific (the feasibility of bioprocess, immunological responses and potency in animal challenge model) and business development (cost of goods) points of view, we in this review address and discuss the pros and cons of different EV71 vaccine candidates that have been produced and evaluated in animal models. Epitope-based synthetic peptide vaccine candidates containing residues 211–225 of VP1 formulated with Freund’s adjuvant (CFA/IFA) elicited low EV71 virus neutralizing antibody responses, but were protective in the suckling mouse challenge model. Among recombinant EV71 subunits (rVP1, rVP2 and rVP3) expressed in E. coli, purified and formulated with CFA/IFA, only VP1 elicited mouse antibody responses with measurable EV71-specific virus neutralization titers. Immunization of mice with either a DNA plasmid containing VP1 gene or VP1 expressed in Salmonella typhimurium also generated neutralizing antibody responses and protected animals against a live EV71 challenge. Recombinant EV71 virus-like particles (rVLP) produced from baculovirus formulated either with CFA/IFA or alum elicited good virus neutralization titers in both mice and non-human primates, and were found to be protective in the suckling mouse EV71 challenge model. Synthetic peptides or recombinant EV71 subunit vaccines (rVP1 and rVLP) formulated in alum were found to be poorly immunogenic in rabbits. Only formalin-inactivated (FI) EV71 virions formulated in alum elicited cross-neutralizing antibodies against different EV71 genotypes in mice, rabbits and non-human primates but induced weak neutralizing responses against CAV16. From a regulatory, economic and market acceptability standpoint, FI-EV71 virion vaccines are the

  4. Characterization of glue sizing layers in Portuguese wood paintings from the 15th and 16th centuries by SEM secondary electron images and μ-FTIR.

    PubMed

    Antunes, Vanessa; J Oliveira, Maria; Vargas, Helena; Candeias, António; Seruya, Ana; Dias, Luís; Serrão, Vítor; Coroado, João

    2014-02-01

    According to treatises on 15th and 16th century paintings, artists dedicated particular attention to the sizing layer-consisting mainly of animal glue applied onto the wood support before further application of the ground layer. The stability of a painting mainly depends on the presence of a very cohesive sizing layer. However, the study of these layers has not received special attention from researchers. In this article we present a methodology for characterization of the sizing layer both chemically, by IR spectroscopy (Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy), and morphologically, by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Secondary electron images obtained by SEM allow precise characterization of such layers. Painting reconstructions were used as references in development of the method to study the sizing layer in real painting samples. Presented herein are examples of this study on 15th and 16th century Portuguese paintings, particularly on the Triptych of S. Simão, from the Aveiro Museum, and S. Pedro, belonging to the Mercy of Tavira.

  5. Microscopic analysis of "iron spot" on blue-and-white porcelain from Jingdezhen imperial kiln in early Ming dynasty (14th-15th century).

    PubMed

    Wang, Wenxuan; Zhu, Jian; Jiang, Jianxin; Xu, Changqing; Wu, Shurong; Guan, Li; Zhang, Zhaoxia; Wu, Menglei; Du, Jingnan

    2016-11-01

    "Sumali," as an imported cobalt ore from overseas, was a sort of precious and valuable pigment used for imperial kilns only, which produces characteristic "iron spot" to blue-and-white porcelain in early Ming Dynasty (A.D. 14th-15th century). Although there were some old studies on it, the morphology and formation of iron spot has not been fully investigated and understood. Therefore, five selected samples with typical spot from Jingdezhen imperial kiln in Ming Yongle periods (A.D. 1403-1424) were analyzed by various microscopic analysis including 3D digital microscope, SEM-EDS and EPMA. According to SEM images, samples can be divided into three groups: un-reflected "iron spot" without crystals, un-reflected "iron spot" with crystals and reflected "iron spot" with crystals. Furthermore, 3D micro-images revealed that "iron spots" separate out dendritic or snow-shaped crystals of iron only on and parallel to the surface of glaze for which "iron spot" show strong metallic luster. Combining with microscopic observation and microanalysis on crystallization and non-crystallization areas, it indicates that firing oxygen concentration is the ultimate causation of forming reflective iron spot which has a shallower distribution below the surface and limits crystals growing down. More details about characters of "iron spot" used "Sumali" were found and provided new clues to coloration, formation mechanism and porcelain producing technology of imperial kiln from 14th to 15th centuries of China.

  6. Developing consumer involvement in primary dental care. Report of a half-day seminar held at the Royal College of Surgeons of England on 15th September 2008.

    PubMed

    Eaton, Kenneth A; Batchelor, Paul; Johns, David J

    2009-01-01

    The seminar on developing consumer involvement in primary dental care, held during the morning of 15th September 2008, was a collaboration between the Lay Advisory Group and Research Committee of the Faculty of General Dental Practice (UK) (FGDP[UK]). As Professor Mike Mulcahy (immediate past Dean of the Faculty) remarked during his address of welcome, it marked a new and exciting development in the Faculty's role in setting and maintaining professional standards for the benefit of patients. It brought together nearly 50 representatives of national bodies, such as the National Audit Office, consumer groups, the Faculty's Lay Advisory Group and Research Committee, the media and others. Many of the national bodies represented at the seminar had published reports on primary dental care during the last five years.

  7. Circular intensity differential scattering measurements in the soft x-ray region of the spectrum (~16 EV to 500 EV)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maestre, Marcos F.; Bustamante, Carlos J.; Snyder, Patricia A.; Rowe, Ednor M.; Hansen, Roger W.

    1991-11-01

    We propose the use of recently developed technique of circular intensity differential scattering (CIDS), as extended to the soft x-ray region of the spectrum (16 eV to 500 eV), to study the higher order organization of the eukaryotic chromosome. CIDS is the difference in scattering power of an object when illuminated by right circularly polarized vs. left circularly polarized electromagnetic radiation of arbitrary wavelength. CIDS has been shown to be a very sensitive measure of the helical organization of the scattering object, e.g., the eukaryotic chromosome. Preliminary results of measurements of samples of bacteriophages and octopus sperm done at SRC, Wisconsin, show the technique to be very sensitive to the dimensional parameters of the particles interrogated by circularly polarized light.

  8. Laser Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1983. Symposium on Optical Materials for High Power Lasers (15th). Held in Boulder, Colorado on 14-16 November 1983

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-11-01

    Measurements and Results Several Zerodur and a few BK-7 25.4-mm-diameter, 6-mm-thick, samples were polished to a low-scatter finish (laser gyro mirror ...Materials and Measurements, ’ Mirrors and Surfaces, Thin Films, and finally Fundamental Mechanisms. The Symposium Co-Chairmen were Dr. Harold E...2 2.2 Surfaces and Mirrors .................................................... II 2.3 Thin Films

  9. Nuclear Science Symposium, 30th, and Symposium on Nuclear Power Systems, 15th, San Francisco, CA, October 19-21, 1983, Proceedings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nakamura, M. (Editor)

    1984-01-01

    The range of disciplines covered includes physics instrumentation, data acquisition, FASTBUS, radiation detectors, scintillators, photomultipliers and optical detectors, subnanosecond 2-D imaging, medical and health instrumentation, reactor instrumentation, and space instrumentation. Cerenkov detectors, the prevention and rate capability of breakdown processes in wire chambers, and an interactive parallel processor for data analysis are studied. Attention is also given to bismuth germanate's role in gamma-ray spectroscopy, and the construction of a broadband universal sampling head is described. Gamma-ray imaging with a rotating hexagonal uniform redundant array, and broadband X-ray astronomical spectrometry are considered.

  10. Quantifying EV battery end-of-life through analysis of travel needs with vehicle powertrain models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saxena, Samveg; Le Floch, Caroline; MacDonald, Jason; Moura, Scott

    2015-05-01

    Electric vehicles enable clean and efficient transportation, however concerns about range anxiety and battery degradation hinder EV adoption. The common definition for battery end-of-life is when 70-80% of original energy capacity remains, however little analysis is available to support this retirement threshold. By applying detailed physics-based models of EVs with data on how drivers use their cars, we show that EV batteries continue to meet daily travel needs of drivers well beyond capacity fade of 80% remaining energy storage capacity. Further, we show that EV batteries with substantial energy capacity fade continue to provide sufficient buffer charge for unexpected trips with long distances. We show that enabling charging in more locations, even if only with 120 V wall outlets, prolongs useful life of EV batteries. Battery power fade is also examined and we show EVs meet performance requirements even down to 30% remaining power capacity. Our findings show that defining battery retirement at 70-80% remaining capacity is inaccurate. Battery retirement should instead be governed by when batteries no longer satisfy daily travel needs of a driver. Using this alternative retirement metric, we present results on the fraction of EV batteries that may be retired with different levels of energy capacity fade.

  11. How much are Chevrolet Volts in The EV Project driven in EV Mode?

    SciTech Connect

    John Smart

    2013-08-01

    This report summarizes key conclusions from analysis of data collected from Chevrolet Volts participating in The EV Project. Topics include how many miles are driven in EV mode, how far vehicles are driven between charging events, and how much energy is charged from the electric grid per charging event.

  12. EV71 vaccine, an invaluable gift for children.

    PubMed

    Liang, Zhenglun; Wang, Junzhi

    2014-10-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is a major pathogen for severe hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD). Development of vaccines against EV71 would be the most effective approach to prevent the EV71 outbreak. Research and development (R&D) of EV71 vaccine was carried out in several Asian countries. Currently three companies in mainland China have completed Phase III clinical trials of inactivated EV71 whole-virus vaccines, whereas the other two companies have completed Phase I clinical trials separately in Taiwan and in Singapore. Results from those clinical trials have indicated high safety and immunogenicity of EV71 vaccine. Protective efficacies were over 90% on EV71-associated HFMD and over 80% on other EV71-associated diseases. In this paper, we summarize the results from three EV71 vaccine Phase III clinical trials and discuss the challenges of incorporating EV71 vaccine into Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI) in countries with EV71 epidemics.

  13. EV71 vaccine, an invaluable gift for children

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Zhenglun; Wang, Junzhi

    2014-01-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is a major pathogen for severe hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD). Development of vaccines against EV71 would be the most effective approach to prevent the EV71 outbreak. Research and development (R&D) of EV71 vaccine was carried out in several Asian countries. Currently three companies in mainland China have completed Phase III clinical trials of inactivated EV71 whole-virus vaccines, whereas the other two companies have completed Phase I clinical trials separately in Taiwan and in Singapore. Results from those clinical trials have indicated high safety and immunogenicity of EV71 vaccine. Protective efficacies were over 90% on EV71-associated HFMD and over 80% on other EV71-associated diseases. In this paper, we summarize the results from three EV71 vaccine Phase III clinical trials and discuss the challenges of incorporating EV71 vaccine into Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI) in countries with EV71 epidemics. PMID:25505956

  14. Limits on deeply penetrating particles in the 10(17) eV cosmic ray flux

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baltrusaitis, R. M.; Cassiday, G. L.; Cooper, R.; Elbert, J. W.; Gerhardy, J. W.; Loh, P. R.; Mizumoto, Y.; Sokolsky, P.; Sommers, P.; Steck, D.

    1985-01-01

    Deeply penetrating particles in the 10 to the 17th power eV cosmic ray flux were investigated. No such events were found in 8.2 x 10 to the 6th power sec of running time. Limits were set on the following: quark-matter in the primary cosmic ray flux; long-lived, weakly interacting particles produced in p-air collisions; the astrophysical neutrino flux. In particular, the neutrino flux limit at 10 to the 17th power eV implies that z, the red shift of maximum activity is 10 in the model of Hill and Schramm.

  15. Acute kidney injury in the era of big data: the 15(th) Consensus Conference of the Acute Dialysis Quality Initiative (ADQI).

    PubMed

    Bagshaw, Sean M; Goldstein, Stuart L; Ronco, Claudio; Kellum, John A

    2016-01-01

    The world is immersed in "big data". Big data has brought about radical innovations in the methods used to capture, transfer, store and analyze the vast quantities of data generated every minute of every day. At the same time; however, it has also become far easier and relatively inexpensive to do so. Rapidly transforming, integrating and applying this large volume and variety of data are what underlie the future of big data. The application of big data and predictive analytics in healthcare holds great promise to drive innovation, reduce cost and improve patient outcomes, health services operations and value. Acute kidney injury (AKI) may be an ideal syndrome from which various dimensions and applications built within the context of big data may influence the structure of services delivery, care processes and outcomes for patients. The use of innovative forms of "information technology" was originally identified by the Acute Dialysis Quality Initiative (ADQI) in 2002 as a core concept in need of attention to improve the care and outcomes for patients with AKI. For this 15(th) ADQI consensus meeting held on September 6-8, 2015 in Banff, Canada, five topics focused on AKI and acute renal replacement therapy were developed where extensive applications for use of big data were recognized and/or foreseen. In this series of articles in the Canadian Journal of Kidney Health and Disease, we describe the output from these discussions.

  16. Brain Tumor Epidemiology - A Hub within Multidisciplinary Neuro-oncology. Report on the 15th Brain Tumor Epidemiology Consortium (BTEC) Annual Meeting, Vienna, 2014.

    PubMed

    Woehrer, Adelheid; Lau, Ching C; Prayer, Daniela; Bauchet, Luc; Rosenfeld, Myrna; Capper, David; Fisher, Paul G; Kool, Marcel; Müller, Martin; Kros, Johan M; Kruchko, Carol; Wiemels, Joseph; Wrensch, Margaret; Danysh, Heather E; Zouaoui, Sonia; Heck, Julia E; Johnson, Kimberly J; Qi, Xiaoyang; O'Neill, Brian P; Afzal, Samina; Scheurer, Michael E; Bainbridge, Matthew N; Nousome, Darryl; Bahassi, El Mustapha; Hainfellner, Johannes A; Barnholtz-Sloan, Jill S

    2015-01-01

    The Brain Tumor Epidemiology Consortium (BTEC) is an open scientific forum, which fosters the development of multi-center, international and inter-disciplinary collaborations. BTEC aims to develop a better understanding of the etiology, outcomes, and prevention of brain tumors (http://epi.grants.cancer.gov/btec/). The 15th annual Brain Tumor Epidemiology Consortium Meeting, hosted by the Austrian Societies of Neuropathology and Neuro-oncology, was held on September 9 - 11, 2014 in Vienna, Austria. The meeting focused on the central role of brain tumor epidemiology within multidisciplinary neuro-oncology. Knowledge of disease incidence, outcomes, as well as risk factors is fundamental to all fields involved in research and treatment of patients with brain tumors; thus, epidemiology constitutes an important link between disciplines, indeed the very hub. This was reflected by the scientific program, which included various sessions linking brain tumor epidemiology with clinical neuro-oncology, tissue-based research, and cancer registration. Renowned experts from Europe and the United States contributed their personal perspectives stimulating further group discussions. Several concrete action plans evolved for the group to move forward until next year's meeting, which will be held at the Mayo Clinic at Rochester, MN, USA.

  17. A Hanged From the Past: Medical Consideration on the Judas Iscariot Fresco-Chapelle Notre-Dame-des-Fontaines, La Brigue (15th Century).

    PubMed

    Gaeta, Raffaele; Fornaciari, Antonio

    2016-09-01

    The medieval chapel of Notre Dame-des-Fontaines (Our Lady of the Fountains), in the French Maritime Alps, is entirely covered by the fresco cycle of the Passion (15th century) that depicts the last days of Jesus from the Last Supper to the Resurrection. Under a small window, there is the brutal representation of the suicide of Judas Iscariot, hanging from a tree, with the abdomen quartered from which his soul, represented by a small man, is kidnapped by a devil. The author, Giovanni Canavesio, represented the traitor's death with very detailed anatomical structures, differently thus from other paintings of the same subject; it is therefore possible to assume that the artist had become familiar with the human anatomy. In particular, the realism of the hanged man's posture, neck bent in an unnatural way, allows us to hypothesize that it probably comes from direct observation of the executions of capital punishment, not infrequently imposed by the public authorities in low medieval Italy.

  18. Scratching the surface of tomorrow's diagnostics: the Editor-in-Chief's opinion at the 15th year of Expert Review of Molecular Diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Lorincz, Attila; Raison, Claire

    2015-01-01

    Interview with Attila Lorincz by Claire Raison (Commissioning Editor) To mark the beginning of the 15th year of Expert Review of Molecular Diagnostics, the journal's Editor-in-Chief shares his expert knowledge on translational diagnostics, his opinion on recent controversies and his predictions for molecular diagnostics in 2015 and beyond. Attila Lorincz received his doctorate from Trinity College, Dublin, Republic of Ireland, and went on to become a research fellow at the University of California, Santa Barbara, CA, USA. During Professor Lorincz's research on human papillomavirus (HPV), he found several important and novel carcinogenic HPV types and pioneered the use of HPV DNA testing for clinical diagnostics. In 1988, Professor Lorincz's team produced the first HPV test to be FDA-approved for patients and in 2003, for general population cervical precancer screening. Now Professor of Molecular Epidemiology at the Centre for Cancer Prevention, Queen Mary University of London, UK, he and his team are furthering translational research into DNA methylation assays for cancer risk prediction.

  19. [The Piscine Probatica, a painted canvas of the Hotel-Dieu of Rheims, documentation of an epidemic at the end of the 15th century].

    PubMed

    Ségal, Alain

    2011-01-01

    The Piscina Probatica theme is the highly distinctive iconography in an impressive painted canvas from the ancient Rheims hôtel-Dieu, dating back to the late 15th or early 16th century. In the first place, it is interesting to note that the actual site of the pool has been located, so that archaeological findings bring confirmation to testament scriptures. Through the choice of the painted-canvas medium, and thanks to his great pictorial skill, the anonymous Rheims artist has given us a document of exceptional value, concerning the signs and symptoms of an illness which wrought havoc in the Rheims area in his own lifetime, namely ignis plaga or "mal des ardents". Other great artists of the same period, such as J. Bosch, have testified to the horror of the illness. As a matter-of-fact, the illness has been fully documented, from the 17th century onwards, and the medical expert H.A. Tessier, also acting as an agricultural expert, has demonstrated that ergotized rye is responsible for the fatal condition known as ergotism, and for the heavy toll it has levied on human lives in the course of centuries.

  20. How Do The EV Project Participants Feel about Charging Their EV at Home?

    SciTech Connect

    Francfort, James E.

    2015-02-01

    Key Observations from the Survey of the EV Project Participants; In June 2013, 72% of EV Project participants were very satisfied with their home charging experience; 21% of participants relied totally on home charging for all of their charging needs; Volt owners relied more on home charging than Leaf owners, who reported more use of away-from-home charging; 74% of participants reported that they plug in their plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) every time they park at home. Others plugged in as they determined necessary to support their driving needs; 40% of participants reported that they would not have or are unsure that in June 2013 whether they would have purchased an alternating current (AC) Level 2 electric vehicle supply equipment (EVSE) for home charging if it had not been provided by The EV Project; and 61% of participants reported that The EV Project incentive was very important or important in their decision to obtain a PEV.

  1. An Optical Megaflare On EV Lac

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pettersen, B. R.

    2016-07-01

    We present a U-filter light curve of a very intensive flare on EV Lac, observed at 1 s time resolution with a 2 m telescope at BNAO. The monitoring lasted for 7.4 hours (UT 16:40-UT 24:04) on 01 November 1991, and EV Lac was affected by flaring throughout this time. The data have been corrected for atmospheric extinction and the presence of an optical companion in the photometer diaphragm.A ΔU=7.2 magnitude flare maximum (Lf,U = 4.6 · 1031 ergs s-1) represents an increase of 735 times the flux of the quiescent star. This is twice as large as a flare reported by Roizman and Shevchenko (1982, Sov. Astron. Lett. 8, 85-86) and is 88% of the bolometric luminosity of EV Lac. The eruptive phase of the rise took 72 seconds, and the flare returned to half its maximum value in t0.5 = 39 seconds. The classically peak-shaped flare went into a slow decay phase after about 20 minutes. Several secondary flares were superposed on the > 5 hours decay. The U-filter flare energy released during the major peak was 7.23 · 1033 ergs. It accounts for 93% of the energy released during the entire flare event (EU = 7.8 · 1033 ergs).The flare occurred close to maximum brightness of the 4.4 days rotational modulation of EV Lac, which had a V-amplitude 0.06 mag in 1991.

  2. Efficiency of coal use, electricity for EVs versus synfuels for ICEs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mueller, H. G.; Wouk, V.

    1980-02-01

    Data are presented to show how electric vehicles will travel approximately twice as far per ton of coal burned to produce electricity for EV propulsion, than will an ICE vehicle burning the synfuel produced from an equal amount of coal. These figures are based on pessimistic calculations of the efficiencies of electricity generation, transmission, battery charging and EV drivetrains. The synfuel calculations are based on optimistic upper limits of coal conversion efficiency and ICE systems' efficiencies. EVs are less harmful to the environment than conventional vehicles. The emissions from coal-burning power plants are more readily controlled than the pollutants from refineries that convert coal to synfuel. The emissions from EVs are negligible, whereas those from ICEs still have not been reduced to the levels originally mandated for 1976. Synfuels should be reserved mainly for those applications for which electricity is impractical or impossible, such as planes, long-haul trucks and buses, and the petrochemical industry.

  3. Environmental Education, The Last Measure of Man. An Anthology of Papers for the Consideration of the 14th and 15th Conference of the U.S. National Commission for UNESCO.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kohn, Raymond F.

    An anthology of papers for consideration by delegates to the 14th and 15th conferences of the United States National Commission for UNESCO are presented in this book. As a wide-ranging collection of ideas, it is intended to serve as background materials for the conference theme - our responsibility for preserving and defending a human environment…

  4. EDITORIAL: Invited papers from the 15th International Congress on Plasma Physics combined with the 13th Latin American Workshop on Plasma Physics Invited papers from the 15th International Congress on Plasma Physics combined with the 13th Latin American Workshop on Plasma Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soto, Leopoldo

    2011-07-01

    The International Advisory Committee of the 15th International Congress on Plasma Physics (ICPP 2010) and the International Advisory Committee of the 13th Latin American Workshop on Plasma Physics (LAWPP 2010) both agreed to hold this combined meeting ICPP-LAWPP-2010 in Santiago de Chile, 8-13 August 2010, considering the celebration of the Bicentennial of Chilean Independence. ICPP-LAWPP-2010 was organized by the Thermonuclear Plasma Department of the Chilean Nuclear Energy Commission (CCHEN) as part of its official program, within the framework of the Chilean Bicentennial activities. This event was also a scientific and academic activity of the project `Center for Research and Applications in Plasma Physics and Pulsed Power, P4', supported by the National Scientific and Technological Commission, CONICYT-Chile, under grant ACT-26. The International Congress on Plasma Physics was first held in Nagoya in 1980, and was followed by: Gothenburg (1982), Lausanne (1984), Kiev (1987), New Delhi (1989), Innsbruck (1992), Foz do Iguacu (1994), Nagoya (1996), Prague (1998), Quebec City (2000), Sydney (2002), Nice (2004), Kiev (2006) and Fukuoka (2008). The purpose of the Congress is to discuss recent progress and outlooks in plasma science, covering fundamental plasma physics, fusion plasmas, astrophysical plasmas, plasma applications, etc. The Latin American Workshop on Plasma Physics was first held in 1982 in Cambuquira, Brazil, followed by: Medellín (1985), Santiago (1988), Buenos Aires (1990), Mexico City (1992), Foz do Iguacu (1994, also combined with ICPP), Caracas (1997), Tandil (1998), La Serena (2000), Sao Pedro (2003), Mexico City (2005) and Caracas (2007). The purpose of the Latin American Workshop on Plasma Physics is to provide a forum in which the achievements of the Latin American plasma physics communities can be displayed, as well as to foster collaboration between plasma scientists within the region and elsewhere. The Program of ICPP-LAWPP-2010 included

  5. Severe paediatric conditions linked with EV-A71 and EV-D68, France, May to October 2016

    PubMed Central

    Antona, Denise; Kossorotoff, Manoëlle; Schuffenecker, Isabelle; Mirand, Audrey; Leruez-Ville, Marianne; Bassi, Clément; Aubart, Mélodie; Moulin, Florence; Lévy-Bruhl, Daniel; Henquell, Cécile; Lina, Bruno; Desguerre, Isabelle

    2016-01-01

    We report 59 cases of severe paediatric conditions linked with enterovirus (EV)-A71 and EV-D68 in France between May and October 2016. Fifty-two children had severe neurological symptoms. EV sequence-based typing for 42 cases revealed EV-A71 in 21 (18 subgenotype C1, detected for the first time in France) and EV-D68 in eight. Clinicians should be encouraged to obtain stool and respiratory specimens from patients presenting with severe neurological disorders for EV detection and characterisation. PMID:27918268

  6. Baseline Testing of the EV Global E-Bike SX

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eichenherg, Dennis J.; Kolacz, John S.; Tavernelli, Paul F.

    2001-01-01

    The NASA John H. Glenn Research Center initiated baseline testing of the EV Global E-Bike SX as an update of the state of the art in hybrid electric bicycles. The E-bike is seen as a way to reduce pollution in urban areas, reduce fossil fuel consumption, and reduce operating costs for transportation systems. The work was done under the Hybrid Power Management (HPM) Program, which includes the Hybrid Electric Transit Bus (HETB). The SX is a high performance, state of the art, ground up, hybrid electric bicycle. Unique features of the SX's 36 V power system include the use of an efficient, 400 W, electric hub motor, and a seven-speed derailleur system that permits operation as fully electric, fully pedal, or a combination of the two. Other innovative features, such as regenerative braking through ultracapacitor energy storage, are planned. Regenerative braking recovers much of the kinetic energy of the vehicle during deceleration. The E-Bike is an inexpensive approach to advance the state of the art in hybrid technology in a practical application. The project transfers space technology to terrestrial use via nontraditional partners, and provides power system data valuable for future space applications. A description of the SX, the results of performance testing, and future vehicle development plans are given in this report. The report concludes that the SX provides excellent performance, and that the implementation of ultracapacitors in the power system can provide significant performance improvements.

  7. Baseline Testing of The EV Global E-Bike

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eichenberg, Dennis J.; Kolacz, John S.; Tavernelli, Paul F.

    2001-01-01

    The NASA John H. Glenn Research Center initiated baseline testing of the EV Global E-Bike as a way to reduce pollution in urban areas, reduce fossil fuel consumption and reduce Operating costs for transportation systems. The work was done Linder the Hybrid Power Management (HPM) Program, which includes the Hybrid Electric Transit Bus (HETB). The E-Bike is a state of the art, ground up, hybrid electric bicycle. Unique features of the vehicle's power system include the use of an efficient, 400 W. electric hub motor and a 7-speed derailleur system that permits operation as fully electric, fully pedal, or a combination of the two. Other innovative features, such as regenerative braking through ultracapacitor energy storage are planned. Regenerative braking recovers much of the kinetic energy of the vehicle during deceleration. The E-Bike is an inexpensive approach to advance the state of the art in hybrid technology in a practical application. The project transfers space technology to terrestrial use via nontraditional partners, and provides power system data valuable for future space applications. A description of the E-bike, the results of performance testing, and future vehicle development plans is the subject of this report. The report concludes that the E-Bike provides excellent performance, and that the implementation of ultracapacitors in the power system can provide significant performance improvements.

  8. Shear Wave Velocity Profiles Determined from Surface Wave Measurements at Sites Affected by the August 15th, 2007 Earthquake in Peru

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenblad, B. L.; Bay, J. A.

    2008-05-01

    The shear wave velocity (Vs) profile of near-surface soils is a critical parameter for understanding recorded ground motions and predicting local site effects in an earthquake. In structural design, the Vs profile in the top 30 m is used to modify design response spectra to account for local soil effects. In addition, knowledge of the near- surface Vs profile at strong motion stations can be used to account for changes in frequency content and amplification caused by the local site conditions. Following the August 15th, 2007 earthquake in Peru, a field testing program was performed to measure Vs profiles in the top 20 to 30 m at twenty-two locations in the affected region. The measurements were performed primarily at the sites of damaged school buildings but were also performed at several strong motion station sites as well as a few locations where evidence of soil liquefaction was observed. Nineteen of the sites were located in the severely affected cities of Chincha, Ica, Pisco and Tambo de Mora, with the remaining three sites located in, Lima, Palpa and Paracus. The Vs profiles were determined from surface wave velocity measurements performed with an impact source. The objective of this paper is to present and discuss the range of Vs profile conditions encountered in the regions affected by the Pisco-Peru earthquake. In the city of Ica, the profiles generally exhibited gradually increasing velocities with depth, with velocities which rarely exceeded 400 m/s in the top 30 m. In contrast, the profiles measured in Pisco, often exhibited strong, shallow velocity contrasts with Vs increasing from less than 200 m/s at the surface to over 600 m/s at some sites. The profiles measured in Chincha generally fell in between the ranges measured in Ica and Pisco. Lastly, soil liquefaction was evident throughout Tambo de Mora on the coast of Peru. Measurements indicated very low shear wave velocities of 75 to 125 m/s in the top 4 m, which is consistent with the observed

  9. On galactic origin of cosmic rays with energy up to 10(19) eV

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Efimov, N. N.; Mikhailov, A. A.

    1985-01-01

    The experimental data on ultrahigh energy cosmic ray anisotropy are considered. In supposed models of galactic magnetic field the main characteristics of expected anisotropy are estimated and are compared with the experimental data. It is shown that particles with energy up to 10 to the 19th power eV are of galactic origin.

  10. What kind of charging infrastructure do Nissan Leaf drivers in The EV Project use?

    SciTech Connect

    Salisbury, Shawn

    2014-09-01

    This document will describe the charging behavior of Nissan Leaf battery electric vehicles that were enrolled in the EV Project. It will include aggregated data from several thousand vehicles regarding time-of-day, power level, and location of charging and driving events. This document is a white paper that will be published on the INL AVTA website.

  11. PREFACE: 15th Latin American Workshop on Plasma Physics (LAWPP 2014) and 21st IAEA TM on Research Using Small Fusion Devices (RUSFD)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iván Vargas-Blanco, V.; Herrera-Velázquez, J. Julio E.

    2015-03-01

    Written contributions from participants of the Joint 15th Latin American Workshop on Plasma Physics (LAWPP 2014) - 21st IAEA Technical Meeting on Research Using Small Fusion Devices (21st IAEA TM RUSFD). The International Advisory Committees of the 15th Latin American Workshop on Plasma Physics (LAWPP 2014) and the 21st IAEA TM on Research Using Small Fusion Devices (RUSFD), agreed to carry out together this Joint LAWPP 2014 - 21st RUSFD in San José, Costa Rica, on 27-31 January 2014. The Joint LAWPP 2014 - 21st RUSFD meeting, organized by the Instituto Tecnológico de Costa Rica, Universidad Nacional de Costa Rica, and Ad Astra Rocket Company in collaboration with the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). The Latin American Workshop on Plasma Physics (LAWPP) is a series of events which has been held periodically since 1982, with the purpose of providing a forum in which the research of the Latin American plasma physics community can be displayed, as well as fostering collaborations among plasma scientists within the region and with researchers from the rest of the world. Recognized plasma scientists from developed countries are specially invited to the meeting to present the state of the art on several "hot" topics related to plasma physics. It is an open meeting, with an International Advisory Committee, in which the working language is English. It was firstly held in 1982 in Cambuquira, Brazil, followed by workshops in Medellín, Colombia (1985), Santiago de Chile, Chile (1988), Buenos Aires, Argentina (1990), Mexico City, Mexico (1992), Foz do Iguaçu, Brazil (1994, combined with the International Congress on Plasma Physics (ICPP)), Caracas, Venezuela (1997), Tandil, Argentina (1998), La Serena, Chile (2000), Sao Pedro, Brazil (2003), Mexico City, Mexico (2005), Caracas, Venezuela (2007), Santiago de Chile, Chile (2010, combined with the ICPP) and Mar de Plata, Argentina (2011). The 21st IAEA TM on Research Using Small Fusion Devices is an ideal forum for

  12. Enhanced Video Surveillance (EVS) with speckle imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Carrano, C J

    2004-01-13

    Enhanced Video Surveillance (EVS) with Speckle Imaging is a high-resolution imaging system that substantially improves resolution and contrast in images acquired over long distances. This technology will increase image resolution up to an order of magnitude or greater for video surveillance systems. The system's hardware components are all commercially available and consist of a telescope or large-aperture lens assembly, a high-performance digital camera, and a personal computer. The system's software, developed at LLNL, extends standard speckle-image-processing methods (used in the astronomical community) to solve the atmospheric blurring problem associated with imaging over medium to long distances (hundreds of meters to tens of kilometers) through horizontal or slant-path turbulence. This novel imaging technology will not only enhance national security but also will benefit law enforcement, security contractors, and any private or public entity that uses video surveillance to protect their assets.

  13. Application features and considerations in advanced lead-acid and nickel/iron EV batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, J.F.; Rajan, J.B.; Lee, T.S.; Christianson, C.C.; Hornstra, F.; Yao, N.P.

    1983-01-01

    In the development of advanced lead-acid and nickel/iron EV batteries, major efforts have focussed on improving specific energy, specific power, cycle life, and cost. Nonetheless, other battery characteristics related to application needs are also important features which must be considered during the battery development process. This paper describes various application features and improvements incorporated in these advanced lead-acid and nickel/iron EV batteries. Their volumetric energy density and packaging flexibility are presented: their charged-stand capabilities and energy efficiencies are reported; and development work on the safe control of battery off-gases and the implementation of single-point watering systems is discussed.

  14. Physical localization of molecular markers and assignment of the 15th linkage group to chromosome 11 of the karyotype in cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) by primed in situ labeling.

    PubMed

    Wang, Y; Wang, J F; Yin, H; Gao, H Q; Zhuang, N S; Liu, J P

    2015-07-28

    Physical localization of molecular markers and assignment of the 15th linkage group to chromosome 11 of the karyotype in cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) were achieved using primed in situ labeling. Amplified signals for both the EST507-1 and SSRY13-5 markers were consistently observed in different stages of cell division. A comparison of the length, arm ratio, and other morphological characteristics of somatic metaphase chromosomes in karyotype analysis indicated that the EST507-1 and SSRY13-5 markers were localized on the short and long arm of cassava chromosome 11 with the relative map positions of 41.67 and 23.07, respectively. The physical localization of the 2 markers on chromosome 11 of the karyotype corresponds to their positions on the 15th linkage group in cassava.

  15. PREFACE: International Symposium on (e,2e), Double Photoionization and Related Topics & 15th International Symposium on Polarization and Correlation in Electronic and Atomic Collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Nicholas L. S.; deHarak, Bruno A.

    2010-01-01

    From 30 July to 1 August 2009, over a hundred scientists from 18 countries attended the International Symposium on (e,2e), Double Photoionization and Related Topics and the 15th International Symposium on Polarization and Correlation in Electronic and Atomic Collisions which were held at the W T Young Library of the University of Kentucky, USA. Both conferences were satellite meetings of the XXVI International Conference on Photonic, Electronic and Atomic Collisions (ICPEAC) held in Kalamazoo, Michigan, USA, 21-28 July 2009. These symposia covered a broad range of experimental and theoretical topics involving excitation, ionization (single and multiple), and molecular fragmentation, of a wide range of targets by photons and charged particles (polarized and unpolarized). Atomic targets ranged from hydrogen to the heavy elements and ions, while molecular targets ranged from H2 to large molecules of biological interest. On the experimental front, cold target recoil ion momentum spectroscopy (COLTRIMS), also known as the Reaction Microscope because of the complete information it gives about a wide variety of reactions, is becoming commonplace and has greatly expanded the ability of researchers to perform previously inaccessible coincidence experiments. Meanwhile, more conventional spectrometers are also advancing and have been used for increasingly sophisticated and exacting measurements. On the theoretical front great progress has been made in the description of target states, and in the scattering calculations used to describe both simple and complex reactions. The international nature of collaborations between theorists and experimentalists is exemplified by, for example, the paper by Ren et al which has a total of 13 authors of whom the experimental group of six is from Heidelberg, Germany, one theoretical group is from Australia, with the remainder of the theoreticians coming from several different institutions in the United States. A total of 52 invited talks and

  16. The anatomy of a lahar: deciphering the 15th September 2012 lahar at Volcán de Colima, México

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vázquez, Rosario; Capra, Lucia; Caballero, Lizeth; Arámbula, Raúl; Reyes, Gabriel

    2014-05-01

    Volcán de Colima is one of the most active volcanoes in Mexico where lahars area common phenomenon. Since the reactivation of the volcanic activity in 1991, lahars have become more frequent during the June-October rainy season, in this region. Therefore, Volcán de Colima represents a natural laboratory, ideal for the constant monitoring of lahars and to study factors controlling their origin, flow transport and deposition. Since 2007 the systematic detection of lahars in Volcán de Colima has been carried out using seismic data from the broadband stations of the RESCO network, the seismological network of Colima University, along with three rain gauge stations located on the southern ravines of the volcano. In 2011 a new monitoring station was built at 2000 m.a.s.l. along the Montegrande ravine, which consists of a geophone, a video camera and a rain gauge station coupled with a moisture sensor, transmitting in real time to the RESCO facilities at Colima University. With all the instrumentation currently installed on the volcano flanks, we could monitor and describe the lahar that occurred on 15th September 2012 along the Montegrande ravine, and correlate the monitoring data with information gathered by the field campaign conducted two days after the event. The high quality of collected data enabled us to describe the "anatomy" of this lahar. The event consisted of a lahar that lasted 40 minutes, triggered by 20 mm of accumulated rainfall with a maximum intensity of 95 mm/h. The lahar was characterized by three main surges at 4-5 minutes intervals that formed a 80 cm-thick terrace. The first surge was a debris flow with a block-rich front followed by the main body that progressively diluted to an hyperconcentrated flow, from which a 40 cm-thick massive unit was emplaced (33 wt% gravel and >60 wt% of sand); it was followed by a more dilute hyperconcentrated flow that left a massive 10 cm-thick sandy layer (80 wt% of sand); the third surge deposited a 30-cm thick

  17. Proteomics analysis of EV71-infected cells reveals the involvement of host protein NEDD4L in EV71 replication.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Rei-Lin; Lin, Ya-Han; Wang, Robert Yung-Liang; Hsu, Chia-Wei; Chiu, Yi-Ting; Huang, Hsing-I; Kao, Li-Ting; Yu, Jau-Song; Shih, Shin-Ru; Wu, Chih-Ching

    2015-04-03

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is a human enterovirus that has seriously affected the Asia-Pacific area for the past two decades. EV71 infection can result in mild hand-foot-and-mouth disease and herpangina and may occasionally lead to severe neurological complications in children. However, the specific biological processes that become altered during EV71 infection remain unclear. To further explore host responses upon EV71 infection, we identified proteins differentially expressed in EV71-infected human glioblastoma SF268 cells using isobaric mass tag (iTRAQ) labeling coupled with multidimensional liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Network analysis of proteins altered in cells infected with EV71 revealed that the changed biological processes are related to protein and ion transport, regulation of protein degradation, and homeostatic processes. We confirmed that the levels of NEDD4L and PSMF1 were increased and reduced, respectively, in EV71-infected cells compared to mock-infected control cells. To determine the physiological relevance of our findings, we investigated the consequences of EV71 infection in cells with NEDD4L or PSMF1 depletion. We found that the depletion of NEDD4L significantly reduced the replication of EV71, whereas PSMF1 knockdown enhanced EV71 replication. Collectively, our findings provide the first evidence of proteome-wide dysregulation by EV71 infection and suggest a novel role for the host protein NEDD4L in the replication of this virus.

  18. Crew coordination issues of EVS approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorenz, Bernd; Korn, Bernd R.

    2004-08-01

    Enhanced Vision Systems (EVS) are currently developed with the goal to alleviate restrictions in airspace and airport capacity in low visibility conditions. Existing EVS-systems are based on IR-sensors although the penetration of bad weather (dense fog and light rain) by MMW-radar is remarkably better than in the infrared spectrum. But the quality of MMW radar is rather poor compared to IR images. However, the analysis of radar images can be simplified dramatically when simple passive radar retro-reflectors are used to mark the runway. This presentation is the third in a series of studies investigating the use of such simple landing aids. In the first study the feasibility of the radar PAPI concept was determined; the second one provided first promising human performance results in a low-fidelity simulation. The present study examined pilot performance, workload, situation awareness, and crew coordination issues in a high-fidelity simulation of 'Radar-PAPI' visual aids supporting a precision straight-in landing in low visibility (CAT-II). Simulation scenarios were completed in a fixed-base cockpit simulator involving six two-pilot flight-deck crews. Pilots could derive visual cues to correct lateral glide-path deviations from 13 pairs of runway-marking corner reflectors. Vertical deviations were indicated by a set of six diplane reflectors using intensity-coding to provide the PAPI categories needed for the correction of vertical deviations. The study compared three display formats and associated crew coordination issues: (1) PF views a head-down B-scope display and switches to visual landing upon PNF's call-out that runway is in sight; (2) PF views a head-down C-scope display and switches to visual landing upon PNF's call-out that runway is in sight; (3) PF views through a head-up display (HUD) that displays primary flight guidance information and receives vertical and lateral guidance from PNF who views a head-down B-scope. PNF guidance is terminated upon PF

  19. How Do The EV Project Participants Feel About Charging Their EV Away From Home?

    SciTech Connect

    Francfort, James E.

    2015-02-01

    The EV Project is an infrastructure study that enrolled over 8,000 residential participants. These participants purchased or leased a Nissan Leaf battery electric vehicle or Chevrolet Volt extended-range electric vehicle and were among the first to explore this new electric drive technology. Collectively, battery electric vehicles, extended-range electric vehicles, and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles are called PEVs. The EV Project participants were very cooperative and enthusiastic about their participation in the project and very supportive in providing feedback and information. The information and attitudes of these participants concerning their experience with their PEVs were solicited using a survey in June 2013. At that time, some had up to 3 years of experience with their PEVs.

  20. Genomic characterization of two new enterovirus types, EV-A114 and EV-A121.

    PubMed

    Deshpande, Jagadish M; Sharma, Deepa K; Saxena, Vinay K; Shetty, Sushmitha A; Qureshi, Tarique Husain I H; Nalavade, Uma P

    2016-12-01

    Enteroviruses cause a variety of illnesses of the gastrointestinal tract, central nervous system and cardiovascular system. Phylogenetic analysis of VP1 sequences has identified 106 different human enteroviruses classified into four enterovirus species within the genus Enterovirus of the family Picornaviridae. It is likely that not all enterovirus types have been discovered. Between September 2013 and October 2014, stool samples of 6274 apparently healthy children of up to 5 years of age residing in Gorakhpur district, Uttar Pradesh, India were screened for enteroviruses. Virus isolates obtained in RD and Hep-2c cells were identified by complete VP1 sequencing. Enteroviruses were isolated from 3042 samples. A total of 87 different enterovirus types were identified. Two isolates with 71 and 74 % nucleotide sequence similarity to all other known enteroviruses were recognized as novel types. In this paper we report identification and complete genome sequence analysis of these two isolates classified as EV-A114 and EV-A121.

  1. Development of nickel/metal-hydride batteries for EVs and HEVs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taniguchi, Akihiro; Fujioka, Noriyuki; Ikoma, Munehisa; Ohta, Akira

    This paper is to introduce the nickel/metal-hydride (Ni/MH) batteries for electric vehicles (EVs) and hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) developed and mass-produced by our company. EV-95 for EVs enables a vehicle to drive approximately 200 km per charge. As the specific power is extremely high, more than 200 W/kg at 80% depth of discharge (DOD), the acceleration performance is equivalent to that of gasoline fuel automobiles. The life characteristic is also superior. This battery gives the satisfactory result of more than 1000 cycles in bench tests and approximately 4-year on-board driving. EV-28 developed for small EVs comprises of a compact and light battery module with high specific power of 300 W/kg at 80% DOD by introducing a new technology for internal cell connection. Meanwhile, our cylindrical battery for the HEV was adopted into the first generation Toyota Prius in 1997 which is the world's first mass-product HEV, and has a high specific power of 600 W/kg. Its life characteristic was found to be equivalent to more than 100,000 km driving. Furthermore, a new prismatic module in which six cells are connected internally was used for the second generation Prius in 2000. The prismatic battery comprises of a compact and light battery pack with a high specific power of 1000 W/kg, which is approximately 1.7 times that of conventional cylindrical batteries, as a consequence of the development of a new internal cell connection and a new current collection structure.

  2. Human SCARB2-mediated entry and endocytosis of EV71.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yi-Wen; Lin, Hsiang-Yin; Tsou, Yueh-Liang; Chitra, Ebenezer; Hsiao, Kuang-Nan; Shao, Hsiao-Yun; Liu, Chia-Chyi; Sia, Charles; Chong, Pele; Chow, Yen-Hung

    2012-01-01

    Enterovirus (EV) 71 infection is known to cause hand-foot-and-mouth disease (HFMD) and in severe cases, induces neurological disorders culminating in fatality. An outbreak of EV71 in South East Asia in 1997 affected over 120,000 people and caused neurological disorders in a few individuals. The control of EV71 infection through public health interventions remains minimal and treatments are only symptomatic. Recently, human scavenger receptor class B, member 2 (SCARB2) has been reported to be a cellular receptor of EV71. We expressed human SCARB2 gene in NIH3T3 cells (3T3-SCARB2) to study the mechanisms of EV71 entry and infection. We demonstrated that human SCARB2 serves as a cellular receptor for EV71 entry. Disruption of expression of SCARB2 using siRNAs can interfere EV71 infection and subsequent inhibit the expression of viral capsid proteins in RD and 3T3-SCARB2 but not Vero cells. SiRNAs specific to clathrin or dynamin or chemical inhibitor of clathrin-mediated endocytosis were all capable of interfering with the entry of EV71 into 3T3-SCARB2 cells. On the other hand, caveolin specific siRNA or inhibitors of caveolae-mediated endocytosis had no effect, confirming that only clathrin-mediated pathway was involved in EV71 infection. Endocytosis of EV71 was also found to be pH-dependent requiring endosomal acidification and also required intact membrane cholesterol. In summary, the mechanism of EV71 entry through SCARB2 as the receptor for attachment, and its cellular entry is through a clathrin-mediated and pH-dependent endocytic pathway. This study on the receptor and endocytic mechanisms of EV71 infection is useful for the development of effective medications and prophylactic treatment against the enterovirus.

  3. Potentials and capabilities of the Extracellular Vesicle (EV) Array.

    PubMed

    Jørgensen, Malene Møller; Bæk, Rikke; Varming, Kim

    2015-01-01

    Extracellular vesicles (EVs) and exosomes are difficult to enrich or purify from biofluids, hence quantification and phenotyping of these are tedious and inaccurate. The multiplexed, highly sensitive and high-throughput platform of the EV Array presented by Jørgensen et al., (J Extracell Vesicles, 2013; 2: 10) has been refined regarding the capabilities of the method for characterization and molecular profiling of EV surface markers. Here, we present an extended microarray platform to detect and phenotype plasma-derived EVs (optimized for exosomes) for up to 60 antigens without any enrichment or purification prior to analysis.

  4. DOE Field Operations Program EV and HEV Testing

    SciTech Connect

    Francfort, James Edward; Slezak, L. A.

    2001-10-01

    The United States Department of Energy’s (DOE) Field Operations Program tests advanced technology vehicles (ATVs) and disseminates the testing results to provide fleet managers and other potential ATV users with accurate and unbiased information on vehicle performance. The ATVs (including electric, hybrid, and other alternative fuel vehicles) are tested using one or more methods - Baseline Performance Testing (EVAmerica and Pomona Loop), Accelerated Reliability Testing, and Fleet Testing. The Program (http://ev.inel.gov/sop) and its nine industry testing partners have tested over 30 full-size electric vehicle (EV) models and they have accumulated over 4 million miles of EV testing experience since 1994. In conjunction with several original equipment manufacturers, the Program has developed testing procedures for the new classes of hybrid, urban, and neighborhood EVs. The testing of these vehicles started during 2001. The EVS 18 presentation will include (1) EV and hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) test results, (2) operating experience with and performance trends of various EV and HEV models, and (3) experience with operating hydrogen-fueled vehicles. Data presented for EVs will include vehicle efficiency (km/kWh), average distance driven per charge, and range testing results. The HEV data will include operating considerations, fuel use rates, and range testing results.

  5. Immunological evaluation and comparison of different EV71 vaccine candidates.

    PubMed

    Chou, Ai-Hsiang; Liu, Chia-Chyi; Chang, Jui-Yuan; Lien, Shu-Pei; Guo, Meng-Shin; Tasi, Hau-Pong; Hsiao, Kuang-Nan; Liu, Shih-Jen; Sia, Charles; Wu, Suh-Chin; Lee, Min-Shi; Hsiao, Chia-Hsin; Wang, Jen-Ren; Chow, Yen-Hung; Chong, Pele

    2012-01-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) and coxsackievirus A16 (CVA16) are major causative agents of hand, foot, and mouth diseases (HFMDs), and EV71 is now recognized as an emerging neurotropic virus in Asia. Effective medications and/or prophylactic vaccines against HFMD are not available. The current results from mouse immunogenicity studies using in-house standardized RD cell virus neutralization assays indicate that (1) VP1 peptide (residues 211-225) formulated with Freund's adjuvant (CFA/IFA) elicited low virus neutralizing antibody response (1/32 titer); (2) recombinant virus-like particles produced from baculovirus formulated with CFA/IFA could elicit good virus neutralization titer (1/160); (3) individual recombinant EV71 antigens (VP1, VP2, and VP3) formulated with CFA/IFA, only VP1 elicited antibody response with 1/128 virus neutralization titer; and (4) the formalin-inactivated EV71 formulated in alum elicited antibodies that cross-neutralized different EV71 genotypes (1/640), but failed to neutralize CVA16. In contrast, rabbits antisera could cross-neutralize strongly against different genotypes of EV71 but weakly against CVA16, with average titers 1/6400 and 1/32, respectively. The VP1 amino acid sequence dissimilarity between CVA16 and EV71 could partially explain why mouse antibodies failed to cross-neutralize CVA16. Therefore, the best formulation for producing cost-effective HFMD vaccine is a combination of formalin-inactivated EV71 and CAV16 virions.

  6. Development of EV71 virus-like particle purification processes.

    PubMed

    Lin, Shih-Yeh; Chiu, Hsin-Yi; Chiang, Bor-Luen; Hu, Yu-Chen

    2015-11-04

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) causes the outbreaks of hand-foot-and-mouth disease and results in deaths of hundreds of young children. EV71 virus-like particles (VLPs) are empty capsids consisting of viral structural proteins and can elicit potent immune responses, thus holding promise as an EV71 vaccine candidate. However, an efficient, scalable production and purification scheme is missing. For mass production of EV71 VLPs, this study aimed to develop a production and chromatography-based purification process. We first demonstrated the successful EV71 VLPs production in the stirred-tank bioreactor in which High Five™ cells were infected with a recombinant baculovirus co-expressing EV71 structural polyprotein P1 and protease 3CD. The culture supernatant containing the VLPs was subjected to tangential flow filtration (TFF) for concentration/diafiltration, which enabled the removal of >80% of proteins while recovering >80% of VLPs. The concentrated VLPs were next subjected to hydroxyapatite chromatography (HAC) in which the VLPs were mainly found in the flow through. After another TFF concentration/diafiltration, the VLPs were purified by size-exclusion chromatography (SEC) and concentrated/diafiltered by a final TFF. The integrated process yielded an overall VLPs recovery of ≈ 36% and a purity of ≈ 83%, which was better or comparable to the recovery and purity for the purification of live EV71 virus particles. This process thus may move the EV71 VLPs vaccine one step closer to the clinical applications.

  7. Development of Markov Chain-Based Queuing Model and Wireless Infrastructure for EV to Smart Meter Communication in V2G

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santoshkumar; Udaykumar, R. Y.

    2015-04-01

    The electrical vehicles (EVs) can be connected to the grid for power transaction. The vehicle-to-grid (V2G) supports the grid requirements and helps in maintaining the load demands. The grid control center (GCC), aggregator and EV are three key entities in V2G communication. The GCC sends the information about power requirements to the aggregator. The aggregator after receiving the information from the GCC sends the information to the EVs. Based on the information, the interested EV owners participate in power transaction with the grid. The aggregator facilitates the EVs by providing the parking and charging slot. In this paper the queuing model for EVs connected to the grid and development of wireless infrastructure for the EV to Smart Meter communication is proposed. The queuing model is developed and simulated. The path loss models for WiMAX are analyzed and compared. Also, the physical layer of WiMAX protocol is modeled and simulated for the EV to Smart Meter communication in V2G.

  8. Modeling cosmic ray anisotropies near 10(18) eV

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sommers, P.; Elbert, J. W.

    1985-01-01

    A galactic magnetic field reversal near the Sagittarius spiral arm may be responsible for the southern excess (or northern shortage) of cosmic rays near 10 to the 18th power eV. The north-south asymmetry produced by such a reversal would increase with energy in the same manner as the observed asymmetry. The existence of a reversal has been inferred from analyses of Faraday rotation measures.

  9. An adenosine nucleoside analogue NITD008 inhibits EV71 proliferation.

    PubMed

    Shang, Luqing; Wang, Yaxin; Qing, Jie; Shu, Bo; Cao, Lin; Lou, Zhiyong; Gong, Peng; Sun, Yuna; Yin, Zheng

    2014-12-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71), one of the major causative agents of Hand-Foot-Mouth Disease (HFMD), causes severe pandemics and hundreds of deaths in the Asia-Pacific region annually and is an enormous public health threat. However, effective therapeutic antiviral drugs against EV71 are rare. Nucleoside analogues have been successfully used in the clinic for the treatment of various viral infections. We evaluated a total of 27 nucleoside analogues and discovered that an adenosine nucleoside analogue NITD008, which has been reported to be an antiviral reagent that specifically inhibits flaviviruses, effectively suppressed the propagation of different strains of EV71 in RD, 293T and Vero cells with a relatively high selectivity index. Triphosphorylated NITD008 (ppp-NITD008) functions as a chain terminator to directly inhibit the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase activity of EV71, and it does not affect the EV71 VPg uridylylation process. A significant synergistic anti-EV71 effect of NITD008 with rupintrivir (AG7088) (a protease inhibitor) was documented, supporting the potential combination therapy of NITD008 with other inhibitors for the treatment of EV71 infections.

  10. Properties of 10 (18)-10 (19)eV EAS at far core distance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Teshima, M.; Nagano, M.; Hara, T.; Hatano, Y.; Hayashida, N.; He, C. X.; Honda, M.; Ishikawa, F.; Kamata, K.; Matsubara, Y.

    1985-01-01

    The properties of 10 to the 18th power - 10 to the 19th power eV EAS showers such as the electron lateral distribution, the muon lateral distribution ( 1Gev), the ratio of muon density to a electron density, the shower front structure and the transition effects in scintillator of 5cm thickness are investigated with the Akeno 4 sq km/20sq km array at far core distances between 500m and 3000m. The fluctuation of densities and arrival time increase rapidly at core distances greater than 2km.

  11. Immunological Evaluation and Comparison of Different EV71 Vaccine Candidates

    PubMed Central

    Chou, Ai-Hsiang; Liu, Chia-Chyi; Chang, Jui-Yuan; Lien, Shu-Pei; Guo, Meng-Shin; Tasi, Hau-Pong; Hsiao, Kuang-Nan; Liu, Shih-Jen; Sia, Charles; Wu, Suh-Chin; Lee, Min-Shi; Hsiao, Chia-Hsin; Wang, Jen-Ren; Chow, Yen-Hung; Chong, Pele

    2012-01-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) and coxsackievirus A16 (CVA16) are major causative agents of hand, foot, and mouth diseases (HFMDs), and EV71 is now recognized as an emerging neurotropic virus in Asia. Effective medications and/or prophylactic vaccines against HFMD are not available. The current results from mouse immunogenicity studies using in-house standardized RD cell virus neutralization assays indicate that (1) VP1 peptide (residues 211–225) formulated with Freund's adjuvant (CFA/IFA) elicited low virus neutralizing antibody response (1/32 titer); (2) recombinant virus-like particles produced from baculovirus formulated with CFA/IFA could elicit good virus neutralization titer (1/160); (3) individual recombinant EV71 antigens (VP1, VP2, and VP3) formulated with CFA/IFA, only VP1 elicited antibody response with 1/128 virus neutralization titer; and (4) the formalin-inactivated EV71 formulated in alum elicited antibodies that cross-neutralized different EV71 genotypes (1/640), but failed to neutralize CVA16. In contrast, rabbits antisera could cross-neutralize strongly against different genotypes of EV71 but weakly against CVA16, with average titers 1/6400 and 1/32, respectively. The VP1 amino acid sequence dissimilarity between CVA16 and EV71 could partially explain why mouse antibodies failed to cross-neutralize CVA16. Therefore, the best formulation for producing cost-effective HFMD vaccine is a combination of formalin-inactivated EV71 and CAV16 virions. PMID:23008736

  12. Near Zero ev Subexcitation Energy Electrons Break DNA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Frederic; Cai, Zhongli; Cloutier, Pierre; Hunting, Darel; Sanche, Leon

    2004-03-01

    The passage of ionizing radiation through a living cell produces about 4 x 10^4 electrons/MeV, with more than 50% having energies well below the excitation threshold for water (7-8 eV) (M. Michaud et al, Physical Review, 44(9), 5623-5627, (1991)). We have previously shown that 5-20eV electrons cause DNA strand breaks via a resonant process with a maximum at 10eV (B. Boudaiffa et al, Science 287, 1658-1660, (2000)). The present results demonstrate that very low energy electrons in the range of 0 to 5eV cause single strand breaks (SSB) in DNA. Plasmid DNA is extracted from the host bacteria purified and resuspended in distilled and deionised water. It is deposited on a chemically clean tantalum, lyophilised and placed in an UHV chamber for 24 hours before irradiation. After irradiation, plasmid DNA is retrieved from the UHV chamber and the samples are dissolved in tris buffer. The different topological forms of DNA resulting from single strand break formation are separated by electrophoresis gel, stained by SYBR Green 1, scanned by laser and quantified with the imageQuant program. The quantification protocol has been optimized to maximize both sensitivity and linearity. Two resonant peaks are observed with maxima at 0,8 eV and 2,2 eV ( 10,5 and 7,5 ssb per 10^3 electrons, respectively).

  13. Straight and chopped DC performance data for a reliance EV-250AT motor with a General Electric EV-1 controller

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edie, P. C.

    1981-01-01

    Straight and chopped DC motor performances for a Reliance EV-250AT motor with an EV-1 controller were examined. Effects of motor temperature and operating voltage are shown. It is found that the maximum motor efficiency is approximately 85% at low operating temperatures in the straight DC mode. Chopper efficiency is 95% under all operating conditions. For equal speeds, the motor operated in the chopped mode develops slightly more torque and draws more current than it does in the straight DC mode.

  14. What Kind of Charging Infrastructure Do Chevrolet Volt Drivers in The EV Project Use and When Do They Use It?

    SciTech Connect

    Salisbury, Shawn

    2014-09-01

    This document will present information describing the charging behavior of Chevrolet Volts that were enrolled in the EV Project. It will included aggregated data from more than 1,800 vehicles regarding locations, power levels, and time-of-day of charging events performed by those vehicles. This document will be published to the INL AVTA website.

  15. Tick-borne encephalitis--a notifiable disease: report of the 15th Annual Meeting of the International Scientific Working Group on Tick-Borne Encephalitis (ISW-TBE).

    PubMed

    Kunze, Ursula

    2013-09-01

    The 15th Meeting of the International Scientific Working Group on Tick-Borne Encephalitis (ISW-TBE)--a group of neurologists, general practicioners, clinicians, travel physicans, virologists, pediatricians, and epidemiologists--was held under the title "Tick-Borne Encephalitis--a notifiable disease". With the inclusion of TBE in the list of notifiable diseases, an important measure was established to continue improving the level of evidence on TBE in Europe to better help guide policies and methods to lower the burden of this disease. Due to differences in diagnosis, case definition, and reporting in European countries, the overall epidemiology and burden of TBE remains unclear. During the meeting, important issues regarding epidemiology, risk areas, vaccination rates, and latest news on vaccination were presented and extensively discussed. A poster session provided an overview of the epidemiological situation 2012 in 13 European countries.

  16. NASA's Earth Venture-1 (EV-1) Airborne Science Investigations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guillory, A.; Denkins, T.; Allen, B. Danette; Braun, Scott A.; Crawford, James H.; Jensen, Eric J.; Miller, Charles E.; Moghaddam, Mahta; Maring, Hal

    2011-01-01

    In 2010, NASA announced the first Earth Venture (EV-1) selections in response to a recommendation made by the National Research Council for low-cost investigations fostering innovation in Earth science. The five EV-1 investigations span the Earth science focus areas of atmosphere, weather, climate, water and energy and, carbon and represent earth science researchers from NASA as well as other government agencies, academia and industry from around the world. The EV-1 missions are: 1) Airborne Microwave Observatory of Subcanopy and Subsurface (AirMOSS), 2) Airborne Tropical Tropopause Experiment (ATTREX), 3) Carbon in Arctic Reservoirs Vulnerability Experiment (CARVE), 4) Deriving Information on Surface Conditions from Column and Vertically Resolved Observations Relevant to Air Quality (DISCOVER-AQ), and 5) Hurricane And Severe Storm Sentinel (HS3). The Earth Venture missions are managed out of the Earth System Science Pathfinder (ESSP) Program Office (Allen, et. al. 2010b)

  17. A new bipolar Qtrim power supply system

    SciTech Connect

    Mi, C.; Bruno, D.; Drozd, J.; Nolan, T.; Orsatti, F.; Heppener, G.; Di Lieto, A.; Schultheiss, C.; Samms, T.; Zapasek, R.; Sandberg, J.

    2015-05-03

    This year marks the 15th run of RHIC (Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider) operations. The reliability of superconducting magnet power supplies is one of the essential factors in the entire accelerator complex. Besides maintaining existing power supplies and their associated equipment, newly designed systems are also required based on the physicist’s latest requirements. A bipolar power supply was required for this year’s main quadruple trim power supply. This paper will explain the design, prototype, testing, installation and operation of this recently installed power supply system.

  18. The Jefferson Lab VUV-FEL at 10 eV and above

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Gwyn; Fel Team

    2011-03-01

    We will present details of the vacuum ultraviolet performance of the Jefferson Lab Free Electron Laser. The JLab FEL is oscillator-based and uses a superconducting energy recovered linac for CW RF operation at up to 75 MHz. Lasing at a fundamental wavelength of 372 nm, the third harmonic is at 124 nm, corresponding to a photon energy of 10 eV. The energy per pulse in the fundamental is 20 microJoules, which at 9 MHz yields an average power of 180 Watts. The pulses have a FWHM of order 300 fs, which essentially determines the optical bandwidth. The third harmonic, which is a 0.1 - 1% fraction of this, is considerably brighter than any other source in the region. Further, being an FEL, there is a wide range of tunability in the 1 eV to 15 eV range. Additional reach is possible with increased electron beam energy, and some options will be discussed in the talk. We acknowledge funding from ONR, AFRL and DOE-BES under contract AC05-060R23177.

  19. Observation of the Suppression of the Flux of Cosmic Rays above 4×1019eV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abraham, J.; Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Aguirre, C.; Allard, D.; Allekotte, I.; Allen, J.; Allison, P.; Alvarez-Muñiz, J.; Ambrosio, M.; Anchordoqui, L.; Andringa, S.; Anzalone, A.; Aramo, C.; Argirò, S.; Arisaka, K.; Armengaud, E.; Arneodo, F.; Arqueros, F.; Asch, T.; Asorey, H.; Assis, P.; Atulugama, B. S.; Aublin, J.; Ave, M.; Avila, G.; Bäcker, T.; Badagnani, D.; Barbosa, A. F.; Barnhill, D.; Barroso, S. L. C.; Baughman, B.; Bauleo, P.; Beatty, J. J.; Beau, T.; Becker, B. R.; Becker, K. H.; Bellido, J. A.; Benzvi, S.; Berat, C.; Bergmann, T.; Bernardini, P.; Bertou, X.; Biermann, P. L.; Billoir, P.; Blanch-Bigas, O.; Blanco, F.; Blasi, P.; Bleve, C.; Blümer, H.; Boháčová, M.; Bonifazi, C.; Bonino, R.; Brack, J.; Brogueira, P.; Brown, W. C.; Buchholz, P.; Bueno, A.; Burton, R. E.; Busca, N. G.; Caballero-Mora, K. S.; Cai, B.; Camin, D. V.; Caramete, L.; Caruso, R.; Carvalho, W.; Castellina, A.; Catalano, O.; Cataldi, G.; Cazon, L.; Cester, R.; Chauvin, J.; Chiavassa, A.; Chinellato, J. A.; Chou, A.; Chudoba, J.; Chye, J.; Clark, P. D. J.; Clay, R. W.; Colombo, E.; Conceição, R.; Connolly, B.; Contreras, F.; Coppens, J.; Cordier, A.; Cotti, U.; Coutu, S.; Covault, C. E.; Creusot, A.; Criss, A.; Cronin, J.; Curutiu, A.; Dagoret-Campagne, S.; Daumiller, K.; Dawson, B. R.; de Almeida, R. M.; de Donato, C.; de Jong, S. J.; de La Vega, G.; Junior, W. J. M. De Mello; Neto, J. R. T. De Mello; de Mitri, I.; de Souza, V.; Del Peral, L.; Deligny, O.; Della Selva, A.; Delle Fratte, C.; Dembinski, H.; di Giulio, C.; Diaz, J. C.; Diep, P. N.; Dobrigkeit, C.; D'Olivo, J. C.; Dong, P. N.; Dornic, D.; Dorofeev, A.; Dos Anjos, J. C.; Dova, M. T.; D'Urso, D.; Dutan, I.; Duvernois, M. A.; Engel, R.; Epele, L.; Erdmann, M.; Escobar, C. O.; Etchegoyen, A.; Luis, P. Facal San; Falcke, H.; Farrar, G.; Fauth, A. C.; Fazzini, N.; Ferrer, F.; Ferrero, A.; Fick, B.; Filevich, A.; Filipčič, A.; Fleck, I.; Fracchiolla, C. E.; Fulgione, W.; García, B.; García Gámez, D.; Garcia-Pinto, D.; Garrido, X.; Geenen, H.; Gelmini, G.; Gemmeke, H.; Ghia, P. L.; Giller, M.; Glass, H.; Gold, M. S.; Golup, G.; Gomez Albarracin, F.; Gómez Berisso, M.; Gonçalves, P.; Gonçalves Do Amaral, M.; Gonzalez, D.; Gonzalez, J. G.; González, M.; Góra, D.; Gorgi, A.; Gouffon, P.; Grassi, V.; Grillo, A. F.; Grunfeld, C.; Guardincerri, Y.; Guarino, F.; Guedes, G. P.; Gutiérrez, J.; Hague, J. D.; Halenka, V.; Hamilton, J. C.; Hansen, P.; Harari, D.; Harmsma, S.; Harton, J. L.; Haungs, A.; Hauschildt, T.; Healy, M. D.; Hebbeker, T.; Hebrero, G.; Heck, D.; Hojvat, C.; Holmes, V. C.; Homola, P.; Hörandel, J. R.; Horneffer, A.; Hrabovský, M.; Huege, T.; Hussain, M.; Iarlori, M.; Insolia, A.; Ionita, F.; Italiano, A.; Kaducak, M.; Kampert, K. H.; Karova, T.; Kasper, P.; Kégl, B.; Keilhauer, B.; Kemp, E.; Kieckhafer, R. M.; Klages, H. O.; Kleifges, M.; Kleinfeller, J.; Knapik, R.; Knapp, J.; Koang, D.-H.; Krieger, A.; Krömer, O.; Kuempel, D.; Kunka, N.; Kusenko, A.; La Rosa, G.; Lachaud, C.; Lago, B. L.; Lebrun, D.; Lebrun, P.; Lee, J.; de Oliveira, M. A. Leigui; Letessier-Selvon, A.; Leuthold, M.; Lhenry-Yvon, I.; López, R.; Lopez Agüera, A.; Lozano Bahilo, J.; Lucero, A.; García, R. Luna; Maccarone, M. C.; Macolino, C.; Maldera, S.; Mancarella, G.; Manceñido, M. E.; Mandat, D.; Mantsch, P.; Mariazzi, A. G.; Maris, I. C.; Falcon, H. R. Marquez; Martello, D.; Martínez, J.; Martínez Bravo, O.; Mathes, H. J.; Matthews, J.; Matthews, J. A. J.; Matthiae, G.; Maurizio, D.; Mazur, P. O.; McCauley, T.; McEwen, M.; McNeil, R. R.; Medina, M. C.; Medina-Tanco, G.; Melo, D.; Menichetti, E.; Menschikov, A.; Meurer, C.; Meyhandan, R.; Micheletti, M. I.; Miele, G.; Miller, W.; Mollerach, S.; Monasor, M.; Ragaigne, D. Monnier; Montanet, F.; Morales, B.; Morello, C.; Moreno, J. C.; Morris, C.; Mostafá, M.; Muller, M. A.; Mussa, R.; Navarra, G.; Navarro, J. L.; Navas, S.; Necesal, P.; Nellen, L.; Newman-Holmes, C.; Newton, D.; Nhung, P. T.; Nierstenhoefer, N.; Nitz, D.; Nosek, D.; Nožka, L.; Oehlschläger, J.; Ohnuki, T.; Olinto, A.; Olmos-Gilbaja, V. M.; Ortiz, M.; Ortolani, F.; Ostapchenko, S.; Otero, L.; Pacheco, N.; Selmi-Dei, D. Pakk; Palatka, M.; Pallotta, J.; Parente, G.; Parizot, E.; Parlati, S.; Pastor, S.; Patel, M.; Paul, T.; Pavlidou, V.; Payet, K.; Pech, M.; Pękala, J.; Pelayo, R.; Pepe, I. M.; Perrone, L.; Pesce, R.; Petrera, S.; Petrinca, P.; Petrov, Y.; Pichel, A.; Piegaia, R.; Pierog, T.; Pimenta, M.; Pinto, T.; Pirronello, V.; Pisanti, O.; Platino, M.; Pochon, J.; Privitera, P.; Prouza, M.; Quel, E. J.; Rautenberg, J.; Redondo, A.; Reucroft, S.; Revenu, B.; Rezende, F. A. S.; Ridky, J.; Riggi, S.; Risse, M.; Rivière, C.; Rizi, V.; Roberts, M.; Robledo, C.; Rodriguez, G.; Rodriguez Martino, J.; Rodriguez Rojo, J.; Rodriguez-Cabo, I.; Rodríguez-Frías, M. D.; Ros, G.; Rosado, J.; Roth, M.; Rouillé-D'Orfeuil, B.; Roulet, E.; Rovero, A. C.; Salamida, F.; Salazar, H.; Salina, G.; Sánchez, F.; Santander, M.; Santo, C. E.; Santos, E. M.; Sarazin, F.; Sarkar, S.; Sato, R.; Scherini, V.; Schieler, H.; Schmidt, A.; Schmidt, F.; Schmidt, T.; Scholten, O.; Schovánek, P.; Schroeder, F.; Schulte, S.; Schüssler, F.; Sciutto, S. J.; Scuderi, M.; Segreto, A.; Semikoz, D.; Settimo, M.; Shellard, R. C.; Sidelnik, I.; Siffert, B. B.; Sigl, G.; Grande, N. Smetniansky De; Smiałkowski, A.; Šmída, R.; Smith, A. G. K.; Smith, B. E.; Snow, G. R.; Sokolsky, P.; Sommers, P.; Sorokin, J.; Spinka, H.; Squartini, R.; Strazzeri, E.; Stutz, A.; Suarez, F.; Suomijärvi, T.; Supanitsky, A. D.; Sutherland, M. S.; Swain, J.; Szadkowski, Z.; Takahashi, J.; Tamashiro, A.; Tamburro, A.; Tarutina, T.; Taşcău, O.; Tcaciuc, R.; Thao, N. T.; Thomas, D.; Ticona, R.; Tiffenberg, J.; Timmermans, C.; Tkaczyk, W.; Peixoto, C. J. Todero; Tomé, B.; Tonachini, A.; Torres, I.; Travnicek, P.; Tripathi, A.; Tristram, G.; Tscherniakhovski, D.; Tuci, V.; Tueros, M.; Tunnicliffe, V.; Ulrich, R.; Unger, M.; Urban, M.; Galicia, J. F. Valdés; Valiño, I.; Valore, L.; van den Berg, A. M.; van Elewyck, V.; Vázquez, R. A.; Veberič, D.; Veiga, A.; Velarde, A.; Venters, T.; Verzi, V.; Videla, M.; Villaseñor, L.; Vorobiov, S.; Voyvodic, L.; Wahlberg, H.; Wahrlich, P.; Wainberg, O.; Walker, P.; Warner, D.; Watson, A. A.; Westerhoff, S.; Wieczorek, G.; Wiencke, L.; Wilczyńska, B.; Wilczyński, H.; Wileman, C.; Winnick, M. G.; Wu, H.; Wundheiler, B.; Yamamoto, T.; Younk, P.; Zas, E.; Zavrtanik, D.; Zavrtanik, M.; Zaw, I.; Zepeda, A.; Ziolkowski, M.

    2008-08-01

    The energy spectrum of cosmic rays above 2.5×1018eV, derived from 20 000 events recorded at the Pierre Auger Observatory, is described. The spectral index γ of the particle flux, J∝E-γ, at energies between 4×1018eV and 4×1019eV is 2.69±0.02(stat)±0.06(syst), steepening to 4.2±0.4(stat)±0.06(syst) at higher energies. The hypothesis of a single power law is rejected with a significance greater than 6 standard deviations. The data are consistent with the prediction by Greisen and by Zatsepin and Kuz’min.

  20. Observation of the suppression of the flux of cosmic rays above 4 x 10 (19) eV.

    PubMed

    Abraham, J; Abreu, P; Aglietta, M; Aguirre, C; Allard, D; Allekotte, I; Allen, J; Allison, P; Alvarez-Muñiz, J; Ambrosio, M; Anchordoqui, L; Andringa, S; Anzalone, A; Aramo, C; Argirò, S; Arisaka, K; Armengaud, E; Arneodo, F; Arqueros, F; Asch, T; Asorey, H; Assis, P; Atulugama, B S; Aublin, J; Ave, M; Avila, G; Bäcker, T; Badagnani, D; Barbosa, A F; Barnhill, D; Barroso, S L C; Baughman, B; Bauleo, P; Beatty, J J; Beau, T; Becker, B R; Becker, K H; Bellido, J A; Benzvi, S; Berat, C; Bergmann, T; Bernardini, P; Bertou, X; Biermann, P L; Billoir, P; Blanch-Bigas, O; Blanco, F; Blasi, P; Bleve, C; Blümer, H; Bohácová, M; Bonifazi, C; Bonino, R; Brack, J; Brogueira, P; Brown, W C; Buchholz, P; Bueno, A; Burton, R E; Busca, N G; Caballero-Mora, K S; Cai, B; Camin, D V; Caramete, L; Caruso, R; Carvalho, W; Castellina, A; Catalano, O; Cataldi, G; Cazon, L; Cester, R; Chauvin, J; Chiavassa, A; Chinellato, J A; Chou, A; Chudoba, J; Chye, J; Clark, P D J; Clay, R W; Colombo, E; Conceição, R; Connolly, B; Contreras, F; Coppens, J; Cordier, A; Cotti, U; Coutu, S; Covault, C E; Creusot, A; Criss, A; Cronin, J; Curutiu, A; Dagoret-Campagne, S; Daumiller, K; Dawson, B R; de Almeida, R M; De Donato, C; de Jong, S J; De La Vega, G; Junior, W J M de Mello; Neto, J R T de Mello; De Mitri, I; de Souza, V; Del Peral, L; Deligny, O; Della Selva, A; Fratte, C Delle; Dembinski, H; Di Giulio, C; Diaz, J C; Diep, P N; Dobrigkeit, C; D'Olivo, J C; Dong, P N; Dornic, D; Dorofeev, A; Dos Anjos, J C; Dova, M T; D'Urso, D; Dutan, I; Duvernois, M A; Engel, R; Epele, L; Erdmann, M; Escobar, C O; Etchegoyen, A; Luis, P Facal San; Falcke, H; Farrar, G; Fauth, A C; Fazzini, N; Ferrer, F; Ferrero, A; Fick, B; Filevich, A; Filipcic, A; Fleck, I; Fracchiolla, C E; Fulgione, W; García, B; Gámez, D García; Garcia-Pinto, D; Garrido, X; Geenen, H; Gelmini, G; Gemmeke, H; Ghia, P L; Giller, M; Glass, H; Gold, M S; Golup, G; Albarracin, F Gomez; Berisso, M Gómez; Gonçalves, P; do Amaral, M Gonçalves; Gonzalez, D; Gonzalez, J G; González, M; Góra, D; Gorgi, A; Gouffon, P; Grassi, V; Grillo, A F; Grunfeld, C; Guardincerri, Y; Guarino, F; Guedes, G P; Gutiérrez, J; Hague, J D; Halenka, V; Hamilton, J C; Hansen, P; Harari, D; Harmsma, S; Harton, J L; Haungs, A; Hauschildt, T; Healy, M D; Hebbeker, T; Hebrero, G; Heck, D; Hojvat, C; Holmes, V C; Homola, P; Hörandel, J R; Horneffer, A; Hrabovský, M; Huege, T; Hussain, M; Iarlori, M; Insolia, A; Ionita, F; Italiano, A; Kaducak, M; Kampert, K H; Karova, T; Kasper, P; Kégl, B; Keilhauer, B; Kemp, E; Kieckhafer, R M; Klages, H O; Kleifges, M; Kleinfeller, J; Knapik, R; Knapp, J; Koang, D-H; Krieger, A; Krömer, O; Kuempel, D; Kunka, N; Kusenko, A; La Rosa, G; Lachaud, C; Lago, B L; Lebrun, D; Lebrun, P; Lee, J; de Oliveira, M A Leigui; Letessier-Selvon, A; Leuthold, M; Lhenry-Yvon, I; López, R; Agüera, A Lopez; Bahilo, J Lozano; Lucero, A; García, R Luna; Maccarone, M C; Macolino, C; Maldera, S; Mancarella, G; Manceñido, M E; Mandat, D; Mantsch, P; Mariazzi, A G; Maris, I C; Falcon, H R Marquez; Martello, D; Martínez, J; Bravo, O Martínez; Mathes, H J; Matthews, J; Matthews, J A J; Matthiae, G; Maurizio, D; Mazur, P O; McCauley, T; McEwen, M; McNeil, R R; Medina, M C; Medina-Tanco, G; Melo, D; Menichetti, E; Menschikov, A; Meurer, C; Meyhandan, R; Micheletti, M I; Miele, G; Miller, W; Mollerach, S; Monasor, M; Ragaigne, D Monnier; Montanet, F; Morales, B; Morello, C; Moreno, J C; Morris, C; Mostafá, M; Muller, M A; Mussa, R; Navarra, G; Navarro, J L; Navas, S; Necesal, P; Nellen, L; Newman-Holmes, C; Newton, D; Nhung, P T; Nierstenhoefer, N; Nitz, D; Nosek, D; Nozka, L; Oehlschläger, J; Ohnuki, T; Olinto, A; Olmos-Gilbaja, V M; Ortiz, M; Ortolani, F; Ostapchenko, S; Otero, L; Pacheco, N; Selmi-Dei, D Pakk; Palatka, M; Pallotta, J; Parente, G; Parizot, E; Parlati, S; Pastor, S; Patel, M; Paul, T; Pavlidou, V; Payet, K; Pech, M; Pekala, J; Pelayo, R; Pepe, I M; Perrone, L; Pesce, R; Petrera, S; Petrinca, P; Petrov, Y; Pichel, A; Piegaia, R; Pierog, T; Pimenta, M; Pinto, T; Pirronello, V; Pisanti, O; Platino, M; Pochon, J; Privitera, P; Prouza, M; Quel, E J; Rautenberg, J; Redondo, A; Reucroft, S; Revenu, B; Rezende, F A S; Ridky, J; Riggi, S; Risse, M; Rivière, C; Rizi, V; Roberts, M; Robledo, C; Rodriguez, G; Martino, J Rodriguez; Rojo, J Rodriguez; Rodriguez-Cabo, I; Rodríguez-Frías, M D; Ros, G; Rosado, J; Roth, M; Rouillé-d'Orfeuil, B; Roulet, E; Rovero, A C; Salamida, F; Salazar, H; Salina, G; Sánchez, F; Santander, M; Santo, C E; Santos, E M; Sarazin, F; Sarkar, S; Sato, R; Scherini, V; Schieler, H; Schmidt, A; Schmidt, F; Schmidt, T; Scholten, O; Schovánek, P; Schroeder, F; Schulte, S; Schüssler, F; Sciutto, S J; Scuderi, M; Segreto, A; Semikoz, D; Settimo, M; Shellard, R C; Sidelnik, I; Siffert, B B; Sigl, G

    2008-08-08

    The energy spectrum of cosmic rays above 2.5 x 10;{18} eV, derived from 20,000 events recorded at the Pierre Auger Observatory, is described. The spectral index gamma of the particle flux, J proportional, variantE;{-gamma}, at energies between 4 x 10;{18} eV and 4 x 10;{19} eV is 2.69+/-0.02(stat)+/-0.06(syst), steepening to 4.2+/-0.4(stat)+/-0.06(syst) at higher energies. The hypothesis of a single power law is rejected with a significance greater than 6 standard deviations. The data are consistent with the prediction by Greisen and by Zatsepin and Kuz'min.

  1. The 15th Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Technological areas covered include: aerospace propulsion; aerodynamic devices; crew safety; space vehicle control; spacecraft deployment, positioning, and pointing; deployable antennas/reflectors; and large space structures. Devices for payload deployment, payload retention, and crew extravehicular activities on the space shuttle orbiter are also described.

  2. Section 619 Profile. 15th Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lazara, Alex, Ed.; Danaher, Joan, Ed.; Kraus, Robert, Ed.

    2007-01-01

    This 2007 edition of the Section 619 Profile updates information on state policies, programs, and practices under the Preschool Grants Program (Section 619 of Part B) of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA). It presents current and/or historical information for all 50 states, the District of Columbia and Puerto Rico, which are…

  3. A grazing incidence monochromator for the photon energy range 5 - 250 eV

    SciTech Connect

    Follath, R.; Schmidt, J.S.

    2004-05-12

    A new grazing incidence beamline at the U125/1-undulator at BESSY augments the beamtime capacity of high flux beamlines in the low energy range. The new beamline will deliver 1012 - 1013 photons/sec/0.1A with a resolving power of more than 10.000 in the energy range from 5 - 250 eV. The design minimizes depolarization effects on circularly polarized light available after a future upgrade of the undulator to an elliptical one. The start of user operation with linearly polarized light is envisaged for the end of 2004.

  4. The genome of the Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis temperate phage EV3

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Bacteriophages infection modulates microbial consortia and transduction is one of the most important mechanism involved in the bacterial evolution. However, phage contamination brings food fermentations to a halt causing economic setbacks. The number of phage genome sequences of lactic acid bacteria especially of lactobacilli is still limited. We analysed the genome of a temperate phage active on Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis, the predominant strain in type I sourdough fermentations. Results Sequencing of the DNA of EV3 phage revealed a genome of 34,834 bp and a G + C content of 36.45%. Of the 43 open reading frames (ORFs) identified, all but eight shared homology with other phages of lactobacilli. A similar genomic organization and mosaic pattern of identities align EV3 with the closely related Lactobacillus vaginalis ATCC 49540 prophage. Four unknown ORFs that had no homologies in the databases or predicted functions were identified. Notably, EV3 encodes a putative dextranase. Conclusions EV3 is the first L. sanfranciscensis phage that has been completely sequenced so far. PMID:24308641

  5. Observations from The EV Project in Q4 2013

    SciTech Connect

    John Smart

    2014-02-01

    This is a summary report for The EV Project 4th quarter 2013 reports. It describes electric vehicle driver driving and charging behavior observed in Q4. It is the same report as the previously approved/published Q3 2013 report, only the numbers have been updated. It is for public release and does not have limited distribution.

  6. Philosophical Adventures in the Lands of Oz and Ev

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Gareth B.

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the author talks about the philosophical adventures of the characters in L. Frank Baum's Lands of Oz and Ev stories and discusses how such stories can stimulate reflections on philosophically interesting questions. Frank Baum is considered as the first American writer of philosophical fantasy for children for writing "The…

  7. Growth and morphology of 0.80 eV photoemitting indium nitride nanowires

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, M.C.; Lee, C.J.; Bourret-Courchesne, E.D.; Konsek, S.L.; Aloni, S.; Han, W.Q.; Zettl, A.

    2004-08-13

    InN nanowires with high efficiency photoluminescence emission at 0.80 eV are reported for the first time. InN nanowires were synthesized via a vapor solid growth mechanism from high purity indium metal and ammonia. The products consist of only hexagonal wurtzite phase InN. Scanning electron microscopy showed wires with diameters of 50-100nm and having fairly smooth morphologies. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy revealed high quality, single crystal InN nanowires which grew in the <0001> direction. The group-III nitrides have become an extremely important technological material over the past decade. They are commonly used in optoelectronic devices, such as high brightness light-emitting diodes (LEDs) and low wavelength laser diodes (LDs), as well as high power/high frequency electronic devices. Recently InN thin films grown by MOCVD and MBE were found to have a bandgap energy in the range of 0.7-0.9 eV, much lower than the value of {approx}1.9 eV found for InN films grown by sputtering. This large decrease in the direct bandgap transition energy and the ability to form ternary (InGaN) and quaternary (AlInGaN) alloys increases the versatility of group-III nitride optoelectronic devices, ranging from the near IR to the UV. Additionally, InN has some promising transport and electronic properties. It has the smallest effective electron mass of all the group-III nitrides which leads to high mobility and high saturation velocity10 and a large drift velocity at room temperature. As a result of these unique properties, there has been a large increase in interest in InN for potential use in optoelectronic devices, such as LDs and high efficiency solar cells, as well as high frequency/high power electronic devices.

  8. [The decree of June 15th, 1888, the first text that legislates the pharmacy practice in Tunisia and the progress of the pharmaceutical legislation before and after the independence].

    PubMed

    Ben Azzouna, Rana; Hamdane, Ridha

    2007-01-01

    In 1881, the French protectorate is established in Tunisia whose independence will not be officially declared before March 20th, 1956. This article presents the content of the decree of June 15th, 1888, the first text that legislates pharmacy practice in Tunisia. The publication of this decree, a real fundamental text, did not put an end to the illegal practice of pharmacy in the Regency, which could be explained by the few shortcomings of the text, the legislator's inability to implement the law, the ignorance and the inadvertency of the diplomats, and also the "regime of the surrenders" (le régime des capitulations) which, by preventing the pharmaceutical inspection, gave free rein to all the offenders. This situation led in the course of time to the promulgation of a number of laws which progressively allowed a better organization of the pharmaceutical profession in the Regency. The progress made by the pharmaceutical legislation throughout the French protectorate continued after the independence of Tunisia as is attested by the law number 73-55 of August 3rd, 1973 which is still in use at present.

  9. Ada Programming Support Environment (APSE) Evaluation and Validation (E&V) Team

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-12-31

    and metrics for assessing tools and APSEs, and techniques for performing such assessments. Chapters 1 through 3 provide a general introduction to the...Schema. The schema adopts a relational model of the subject and process of E&V. This model allows the user to arrive at E&V techniques through many...analyses and results. * Describing E&V procedures and techniques developed by the E&V Project. 3 . Assisting in the location of E&V procedures and

  10. Archaeology management system based on EV-Globe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Lin; Lu, Guo-nian; Pei, An-ping; Niu, Yu-gang; Luo, Tao

    2008-10-01

    Traditionally, cultural relics were recorded in a 2D (2 dimensions) method such as paper maps, pictures, multi-media, micro-models and so on. This paper introduces the archaeology management system based on EV-Globe (Earth View-Globe - spatial information service platform on virtual 3D environment) for the cultural relics along the Eastern Route Project (ERP) of South-to-North Water Diversion (SNWD). Integrate the spatial and attribute data of the cultural relics along ERP of SNWD processed by SuperMap deskpro2005 with the relative basic geological data based on the platform of EV-Globe and develop a series of functions based on the SDK (Software Development Kit), and so the relics can be managed visually, at the same time the system may assist the archaeologists and some researchers in managing and studying the cultural relics. Some conception and conceiving of web and mobile version is put forward for next researching.

  11. Volatile Survival on Near-Earth Asteroid 2008 EV5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pohl, Leos; Britt, Daniel

    2016-10-01

    Asteroid 2008 EV5 is currently one of the possible targets of NASA Asteroid Redirect Mission (ARM). The objective of this mission is to recover a boulder from the surface of an asteroid. The selection of the final target requires understanding the physical characteristics of the asteroid such as the size-frequency distribution of boulders on the asteroid's surface, the presence of volatiles on the surface and below, the strength of the surface materials and the degree of their alteration. In our work, we focus on the second criterion, the possibility of volatiles presence on 2008 EV5. These can be expected to survive embedded within the crystal lattice of various phyllosilicates. The positive presence of volatiles on the surface of and inside the asteroid is important especially for ISRU hardware demonstrations. Spectral data suggest that 2008 EV5 is a member of CI chondrite group which is characterized by high phyllosilicate content (~70%) but there is also the possibility of it being a CR chondrite where the phyllosilicate content ranges significantly, from samples with negligible phyllosilicate content to samples with almost 70% phyllosilicate content. If the dynamical history of the asteroid brought it close enough to the Sun, the lattice of phyllosilicates could have disintegrated and released the volatiles (water) and the material could have dehydrated. The depth at which the dehydration might have taken place depends on the characteristic depth of heat wave penetration which in turn depends on material characteristics such as density, heat capacity and heat conductivity. These are in turn are closely linked to the porosity. The characteristic heat penetration depth also depends on orbital geometry and rotational and orbital periods. Besides the temperature itself, the dehydration is also affected by the duration of the crystal lattice breakup temperatures. We use thermal model in conjunction with available experimental data on the dehydration of clays and

  12. BEV Charging Behavior Observed in The EV Project for 2013

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, Brion D.

    2014-01-01

    This fact sheet will be issued quarterly to report on the number of Nissan Leafs vehicle usage, charging locations, and charging completeness as part of the EV Project. It will be posted on the INL/AVTA and ECOtality websites and will be accessible by the general public. The raw data that is used to create the report is considered proprietary/OUO and NDA protected, but the information in this report is NOT proprietary nor NDA protected.

  13. Observations from The EV Project in Q3 2013

    SciTech Connect

    John Smart

    2013-12-01

    This is a brief report that summarizes results published in numerous other reports. It describes the usage of electric vehicles and charging units in the EV Project over the past 3 months. There is no new data or information provided in this report, only summarizing of information published in other reports (which have all been approved for unlimited distribution publication). This report will be posted to the INL/AVTA website for viewing by the general public.

  14. Integrated Charger with Wireless Charging and Boost Function for PHEV and EV Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Chinthavali, Madhu Sudhan; Onar, Omer C; Campbell, Steven L; Tolbert, Leon M

    2015-01-01

    Integrated charger topologies that have been researched so far with dc-dc converters and the charging functionality have no isolation in the system. Isolation is an important feature that is required for user interface systems that have grid connections and therefore is a major limitation that needs to be addressed along with the integrated functionality. The topology proposed in this paper is a unique and a first of its kind topology that integrates a wireless charging system and the boost converter for the traction drive system. The new topology is also compared with an on-board charger system from a commercial electric vehicle (EV). The ac-dc efficiency of the proposed system is 85.1% and the specific power and power density of the onboard components is ~455 W/kg and ~320 W/ .

  15. Integrated Charger with Wireless Charging and Boost Function for PHEV and EV Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Chinthavali, Madhu Sudhan; Onar, Omer C; Campbell, Steven L

    2015-01-01

    Integrated charger topologies that have been researched so far with dc-dc converters and the charging functionality have no isolation in the system. Isolation is an important feature that is required for user interface systems that have grid connections and therefore is a major limitation that needs to be addressed along with the integrated functionality. The topology proposed in this paper is a unique and a first of its kind topology that integrates a wireless charging system and the boost converter for the traction drive system. The new topology is also compared with an on-board charger system from a commercial electric vehicle (EV). The ac-dc efficiency of the proposed system is 85.05% and the specific power and power density of the onboard components is ~455 W/kg and ~302 W/ .

  16. Phylogenetic Characterizations of Highly Mutated EV-B106 Recombinants Showing Extensive Genetic Exchanges with Other EV-B in Xinjiang, China

    PubMed Central

    Song, Yang; Zhang, Yong; Fan, Qin; Cui, Hui; Yan, Dongmei; Zhu, Shuangli; Tang, Haishu; Sun, Qiang; Wang, Dongyan; Xu, Wenbo

    2017-01-01

    Human enterovirus B106 (EV-B106) is a new member of the enterovirus B species. To date, only three nucleotide sequences of EV-B106 have been published, and only one full-length genome sequence (the Yunnan strain 148/YN/CHN/12) is available in the GenBank database. In this study, we conducted phylogenetic characterisation of four EV-B106 strains isolated in Xinjiang, China. Pairwise comparisons of the nucleotide sequences and the deduced amino acid sequences revealed that the four Xinjiang EV-B106 strains had only 80.5–80.8% nucleotide identity and 95.4–97.3% amino acid identity with the Yunnan EV-B106 strain, indicating high mutagenicity. Similarity plots and bootscanning analyses revealed that frequent intertypic recombination occurred in all four Xinjiang EV-B106 strains in the non-structural region. These four strains may share a donor sequence with the EV-B85 strain, which circulated in Xinjiang in 2011, indicating extensive genetic exchanges between these strains. All Xinjiang EV-B106 strains were temperature-sensitive. An antibody seroprevalence study against EV-B106 in two Xinjiang prefectures also showed low titres of neutralizing antibodies, suggesting limited exposure and transmission in the population. This study contributes the whole genome sequences of EV-B106 to the GenBank database and provides valuable information regarding the molecular epidemiology of EV-B106 in China. PMID:28230168

  17. Phylogenetic Characterizations of Highly Mutated EV-B106 Recombinants Showing Extensive Genetic Exchanges with Other EV-B in Xinjiang, China.

    PubMed

    Song, Yang; Zhang, Yong; Fan, Qin; Cui, Hui; Yan, Dongmei; Zhu, Shuangli; Tang, Haishu; Sun, Qiang; Wang, Dongyan; Xu, Wenbo

    2017-02-23

    Human enterovirus B106 (EV-B106) is a new member of the enterovirus B species. To date, only three nucleotide sequences of EV-B106 have been published, and only one full-length genome sequence (the Yunnan strain 148/YN/CHN/12) is available in the GenBank database. In this study, we conducted phylogenetic characterisation of four EV-B106 strains isolated in Xinjiang, China. Pairwise comparisons of the nucleotide sequences and the deduced amino acid sequences revealed that the four Xinjiang EV-B106 strains had only 80.5-80.8% nucleotide identity and 95.4-97.3% amino acid identity with the Yunnan EV-B106 strain, indicating high mutagenicity. Similarity plots and bootscanning analyses revealed that frequent intertypic recombination occurred in all four Xinjiang EV-B106 strains in the non-structural region. These four strains may share a donor sequence with the EV-B85 strain, which circulated in Xinjiang in 2011, indicating extensive genetic exchanges between these strains. All Xinjiang EV-B106 strains were temperature-sensitive. An antibody seroprevalence study against EV-B106 in two Xinjiang prefectures also showed low titres of neutralizing antibodies, suggesting limited exposure and transmission in the population. This study contributes the whole genome sequences of EV-B106 to the GenBank database and provides valuable information regarding the molecular epidemiology of EV-B106 in China.

  18. Angular Resolution of an EAS Array for Gamma Ray Astronomy at Energies Greater Than 5 x 10 (13) Ev

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Apte, A. R.; Gopalakrishnan, N. V.; Tonwar, S. C.; Uma, V.

    1985-01-01

    A 24 detector extensive air shower array is being operated at Ootacamund (2300 m altitude, 11.4 deg N latitude) in southern India for a study of arrival directions of showers of energies greater than 5 x 10 to the 13th power eV. Various configurations of the array of detectors have been used to estimate the accuracy in determination of arrival angle of showers with such an array. These studies show that it is possible to achieve an angular resolution of better than 2 deg with the Ooty array for search for point sources of Cosmic gamma rays at energies above 5 x 10 to the 13th power eV.

  19. [Establishment of EV71 animal models with 2-week-old BALB/c mice].

    PubMed

    Wang, Hui-Qiang; Jiang, Jian-Dong; Li, Yu-Huan

    2013-03-01

    Animal model is very important for anti-EV71 (enterovirus 71) drug and vaccine development. 1-day-old suckling EV71 mouse model is the main in vivo model used in China. 1-day-old suckling EV71 mouse is too small to perform antiviral experiment. And the route of administration and dosage capacity are also restricted. A strong virulence EV71 virus strain was selected after screening from five EV71 strains with 1-day-old suckling mice. A mouse-adapted EV71 strain with increased virulence in 12-day-old suckling mice, EV71-M5, was generated after five serial passages of the parental EV71 strain in mice. Virus titers of EV71 infected mice heart, liver, spleen, lung, kidney, small intestine, brain and muscle tissue were determined by cytopathic effect (CPE) assay. The virus used in this model is the first isolated EV71 strain in China. And 2-week-old suckling mice were used in this model. This is a supplement for the EV71 animal model in China. Establishment of this EV71 model will provide an attractive platform for anti-EV71 vaccine and drug development.

  20. Torque blending and wheel slip control in EVs with in-wheel motors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Castro, Ricardo; Araújo, Rui E.; Tanelli, Mara; Savaresi, Sergio M.; Freitas, Diamantino

    2012-01-01

    Among the many opportunities offered by electric vehicles (EVs), the design of power trains based on in-wheel electric motors represents, from the vehicle dynamics point of view, a very attractive prospect, mainly due to the torque-vectoring capabilities. However, this distributed propulsion also poses some practical challenges, owing to the constraints arising from motor installation in a confined space, to the increased unsprung mass weight and to the integration of the electric motor with the friction brakes. This last issue is the main theme of this work, which, in particular, focuses on the design of the anti-lock braking system (ABS). The proposed structure for the ABS is composed of a tyre slip controller, a wheel torque allocator and a braking supervisor. To address the slip regulation problem, an adaptive controller is devised, offering robustness to uncertainties in the tyre-road friction and featuring a gain-scheduling mechanism based on the vehicle velocity. Further, an optimisation framework is employed in the torque allocator to determine the optimal split between electric and friction brake torque based on energy performance metrics, actuator constraints and different actuators bandwidth. Finally, based on the EV working condition, the priorities of this allocation scheme are adapted by the braking supervisor unit. Simulation results obtained with the CarSim vehicle model, demonstrate the effectiveness of the overall approach.

  1. The approved pediatric drug suramin identified as a clinical candidate for the treatment of EV71 infection-suramin inhibits EV71 infection in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Ren, Peijun; Zou, Gang; Bailly, Benjamin; Xu, Shanshan; Zeng, Mei; Chen, Xinsheng; Shen, Liang; Zhang, Ying; Guillon, Patrice; Arenzana-Seisdedos, Fernando; Buchy, Philippe; Li, Jian; von Itzstein, Mark; Li, Qihan; Altmeyer, Ralf

    2014-09-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) causes severe central nervous system infections, leading to cardiopulmonary complications and death in young children. There is an urgent unmet medical need for new pharmaceutical agents to control EV71 infections. Using a multidisciplinary approach, we found that the approved pediatric antiparasitic drug suramin blocked EV71 infectivity by a novel mechanism of action that involves binding of the naphtalentrisulonic acid group of suramin to the viral capsid. Moreover, we demonstrate that when suramin is used in vivo at doses equivalent to or lower than the highest dose already used in humans, it significantly decreased mortality in mice challenged with a lethal dose of EV71 and peak viral load in adult rhesus monkeys. Thus, suramin inhibits EV71 infection by neutralizing virus particles prior to cell attachment. Consequently, these findings identify suramin as a clinical candidate for further development as a therapeutic or prophylactic treatment for severe EV71 infection.

  2. Protective effect of enterovirus‑71 (EV71) virus‑like particle vaccine against lethal EV71 infection in a neonatal mouse model.

    PubMed

    Cao, Lei; Mao, Fengfeng; Pang, Zheng; Yi, Yao; Qiu, Feng; Tian, Ruiguang; Meng, Qingling; Jia, Zhiyuan; Bi, Shengli

    2015-08-01

    Enterovirus-71 (EV71) is a viral pathogen that causes severe cases of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) among young children, with significant mortality. Effective vaccines against HFMD are urgently required. Several EV71 virus-like particle (VLP) vaccine candidates were found to be protective in the neonatal mouse EV71 challenge model. However, to what extent the VLP vaccine protects susceptible organs against EV71 infection in vivo has remained elusive. In the present study, the comprehensive immunogenicity of a potential EV71 vaccine candidate based on VLPs was evaluated in a neonatal mouse model. Despite lower levels of neutralizing antibodies to EV71 in the sera of VLP-immunized mice compared with those in mice vaccinated with inactivated EV71, the VLP-based vaccine was shown to be able to induce immunoglobulin (Ig)G and IgA memory-associated cellular immune responses to EV71. Of note, the EV71 VLP vaccine candidate was capable of inhibiting viral proliferation in cardiac muscle, skeletal muscle, lung and intestine of immunized mice and provided effective protection against the pathological damage caused by viral attack. In particular, the VLP vaccine was able to inhibit the transportation of EV71 from the central nervous system to the muscle tissue and greatly protected muscle tissue from infection, along with recovery from the viral infection. This led to nearly 100% immunoprotective efficacy, enabling neonatal mice delivered by VLP-immunized female adult mice to survive and grow with good health. The present study provided valuable additional knowledge of the specific protective efficacy of the EV71 VLP vaccine in vivo, which also indicated that it is a promising potential candidate for being developed into an EV71 vaccine.

  3. NASA JSC EV2 Intern Spring 2016 - Jennie Chung

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chung, Jennie

    2016-01-01

    Exploration Mission 2 (EM-2) is a mission to resume the manned exploration of the Solar System. This mission is the first crewed mission of NASA’s Orion on the Space Launch System. The target for EM-2 is to perform a flyby of a captured asteroid in lunar orbit, which NASA plans to launch in 2023. As an intern working with EV-2 – Avionics Systems Division in Johnson Space Center, we are developing flight instrumentation systems for EM-2 (MISL & RFID). The Modular Integrated Stackable Layer (MISL) is a compact space-related computer system that is modular, scalable and reconfigurable. The RFID (radio frequency identification) sensors are used to take lower frequency (TC) type measurements and be able to stream data real-time to an RF (radio frequency) interrogator upon demand. Our job, in EV-2, is to certify, test, manufacture/assemble and deliver flight EM-2 DFI System (MISL & RFID). Our goal is to propose a development effort to design low-mass wire and wireless data acquisition and sensor solutions for EM-2 DFI (Development Flight Instrumentation). The team is tasked to provide the most effective use of 75 pounds to acquire DFI data and to collect sensor data for 100-200 high priority DFI channels (mass driven).

  4. Energetic (above 60 eV) atmospheric photoelectrons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winningham, J. D.; Decker, D. T.; Kozyra, J. U.; Nagy, A. F.; Jasperse, J. R.

    1989-01-01

    Data from low altitude plasma instrument (LAPI) on Dynamics Explorer 2 document a population of high-energy (up to 800 eV) atmospheric photoelectrons that has not been reported in the published literature. The source of these photoelectrons is postulated to be the soft X-ray portion of the whole sun spectrum. This conclusion is supported by sunrise-sunset characteristics that track those of the classical (below 60 eV) EUV-produced photoelectrons, and theoretical results from two models that incorporate the soft X-ray portion of the solar spectrum. The models include K-shell ionization effects and predict peaks in the photoelectron spectrum due to Auger electrons emitted from oxygen and nitrogen. The peak for nitrogen is observed as predicted, but the peak for oxygen is barely observable. Excellent quantitative agreement is achieved between theory and experiment by using reasonable adjustments to the few published soft X-ray spectra based on solar activity. The upflowing energetic photoelectrons provide a heretofore unknown source of electrons to the magnetosphere. They occur whenever and wherever the sun is up, that is, at all invariant latitudes. Their density is low, but they are steady and ubiquitous. If scattering and trapping occur on closed field lines, then photoelectrons could contribute as a significant particle source and thus represent a new facet of magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling.

  5. THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY AND ELEMENT FRACTIONATION IN EV Lac

    SciTech Connect

    Laming, J. Martin; Hwang, Una

    2009-12-10

    We present a 100 ks Suzaku observation of the dMe flare star EV Lac, in which the star was captured undergoing a moderate 1500 s flare. During the flare, the count rate increased by about a factor of 50 and the spectrum showed overall enhanced element abundances relative to quiescence. While the quiescent element abundances confirm the inverse first ionization potential (FIP) effect previously documented for EV Lac, with relatively higher depletions for low FIP elements, abundances during the flare spectra show a composition closer to that of the stellar photosphere. We discuss these results in the context of models that explain abundance fractionation in the stellar chromosphere as a result of the ponderomotive force due to Alfven waves. Stars with FIP or inverse FIP effects arising from differently directed ponderomotive forces may have quite different abundance signatures in their evaporated chromospheric plasma during flares, if the same ponderomotive force also affects thermal conduction downward from the corona. The regulation of the thermal conductivity by the ponderomotive force requires a level of turbulence that is somewhat higher than is normally assumed, but plausible in filamentary conduction models.

  6. Near 0 eV electrons attach to nucleotides.

    PubMed

    Gu, Jiande; Xie, Yaoming; Schaefer, Henry F

    2006-02-01

    To elucidate the mechanism of the nascent stage of DNA strand breakage by low-energy electrons, theoretical investigations of electron attachment to nucleotides have been performed by the reliably calibrated B3LYP/DZP++ approach (Chem. Rev. 2002, 102, 231). The 2'-deoxycytidine-3'-monophosphate (3'-dCMPH) and its phosphate-deprotonated anion (3'-dCMP(-)) have been selected herein as models. This investigation reveals that 3'-dCMPH is able to capture near 0 eV electrons to form a radical anion which has a lower energy than the corresponding neutral species in both the gas phase and aqueous solution. The excess electron density is primarily located on the base of the nucleotide radical anion. The electron detachment energy of this pyrimidine-based radical anion is high enough that subsequent phosphate-sugar C-O sigma bond breaking or glycosidic bond cleavage is feasible. Although the phosphate-centered radical anion of 3'-dCMPH is not stable in the gas phase, it may be stable in aqueous solution. However, an incident electron with kinetic energy less than 4 eV might not be able to effectively produce the phosphate-centered radical anion either in solution or in the gas phase. This research also suggests that the electron affinity of the nucleotides is independent of the counterion in aqueous solution.

  7. Partial protection against enterovirus 71 (EV71) infection in a mouse model immunized with recombinant Newcastle disease virus capsids displaying the EV71 VP1 fragment.

    PubMed

    Ch'ng, Wei-Choong; Stanbridge, Eric J; Ong, Kien-Chai; Wong, Kum-Thong; Yusoff, Khatijah; Shafee, Norazizah

    2011-10-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) infection may cause severe neurological complications, particularly in young children. Despite the risks, there are still no commercially available EV71 vaccines. Hence, a candidate vaccine construct, containing recombinant Newcastle disease virus capsids that display an EV71 VP1 fragment (NPt-VP1(1-100) ) protein, was evaluated in a mouse model of EV71 infection. Previously, it was shown that this protein construct provoked a strong immune response in vaccinated adult rabbits. That study, however, did not address the issue of its effectiveness against EV71 infection in young animals. In the present study, EV71 viral challenge in vaccinated newborn mice resulted in more than 40% increase in survival rate. Significantly, half of the surviving mice fully recovered from their paralysis. Histological analysis of all of the surviving mice revealed a complete clearance of EV71 viral antigens from their brains and spinal cords. In hind limb muscles, the amounts of the antigens detected correlated with the degrees of tissue damage and paralysis. Findings from this study provide evidence that immunization with the NPt-VP1(1-100) immunogen in a newborn mouse model confers partial protection against EV71 infection, and also highlights the importance of NPt-VP1(1-100) as a possible candidate vaccine for protection against EV71 infections.

  8. Synchrotron radiation beam line for photons in the 700 eV - 7000 eV energy range

    SciTech Connect

    Ebert, P.J.; Anderson, C.J.

    1985-04-01

    The design of a beam line for synchrotron radiation research is described. The 700 to 7000 eV energy range to be covered is determined at low energy by the 2d spacing of easily obtainable diffraction crystals and at high energy by the cutoff of specular reflection of a Pt mirror. Two mirrors are used, the first to collimate the x-ray beam through a double crystal monochromator and the second to focus the collimated monochromatic beam on target. In this way, high monochromatic x-ray throughput is achieved with energy resolution limited by crystal diffraction properties.

  9. Baseline Testing of the EV Global E-Bike with Ultracapacitors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eichenberg, Dennis J.; Kolacz, John S.; Tavernelli, Paul F.

    2001-01-01

    The NASA John H. Glenn Research Center initiated baseline testing of the EV Global E-Bike SX with ultracapacitors as a way to reduce pollution in urban areas, reduce fossil fuel consumption, and reduce operating costs for transportation systems. The E-Bike provides an inexpensive approach to advance the state of art in hybrid technology in a practical application. The project transfers space technology to terrestrial use via nontraditional partners, and provides power system data valuable for future space applications. The work was done under the Hybrid Power Management (HPM) Program, which includes the Hybrid Electric Transit Bus (HETB). The E-Bike is a state of the art, ground up, hybrid electrical bicycle. Unique features of the vehicle's power system include the use of an efficient, 400 W electric hub motor, and a seven-speed derailleur system that permits operation as fully electric, fully pedal, or a combination of the two. Other innovative features, such as regenerative braking through ultracapacitor energy storage, are planned. Regenerative braking recovers much of the kinetic energy of the vehicle during deceleration. A description of the E-bike, the results of performance testing, and future vehicle development plans are given in this report. The report concludes that the E-Bike provides excellent performance, and that the implementation of ultracapacitors in the power system can provide significant performance improvements.

  10. The cosmic ray spectrum above 10(19) EV at Volcano Ranch and Haverah Park

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Linsley, J.

    1986-01-01

    The cosmic ray energy per particle spectrum above 10 to the 19th power eV is measured the same way that energy spectra are measured at much lower energies, by counting all of the particles in a specified energy range that are incident per unit time with trajectories within specified geometrical limits. Difficulties with background or poorly known detection efficiency are markedly less than in some other cosmic ray measurements. The fraction of primary energy given to muons, neutrinos, and slow hadrons is less than 10% in this region, so the primary energy equals the track length integral of the secondary electrons with only a small correction for the energy given to other kinds of particles. Results from Volcano Ranch and Haverah Park are compared with results from the Yakutsk experiment.

  11. Electron Landau damping in toroidal plasma with Solov’ev equilibrium

    SciTech Connect

    Grishanov, N. I. Azarenkov, N. A.

    2013-12-15

    The contribution of untrapped and two groups of trapped particles to the longitudinal (with respect to the magnetic field) elements of the dielectric susceptibility is determined by solving the drift-kinetic equations for such particles in axisymmetric tokamaks with Solov’ev equilibrium. The obtained dielectric characteristics are applicable for studying linear wave processes in the frequency range of Alfvén and fast magnetosonic waves in small- and large-aspect-ratio tokamaks with circular, elliptical, and D-shaped cross sections of magnetic surfaces. The high-frequency power absorbed in plasma via electron Landau damping is estimated by summing up terms containing the imaginary parts of both diagonal and non-diagonal elements of the longitudinal susceptibility. The imaginary part of the longitudinal susceptibility is calculated numerically for spherical tokamaks in a wide range of wave frequencies and magnetic surface radii.

  12. The Advanced Light Source U8 beam line, 20--300 eV

    SciTech Connect

    Heimann, P.; Warwick, T.; Howells, M.; McKinney, W.; Digennaro, D.; Gee, B.; Yee, D.; Kincaid, B.

    1991-10-01

    The U8 is a beam line under construction at the Advanced Light Source (ALS). The beam line will be described along with calculations of its performance and its current status. An 8 cm period undulator is followed by two spherical collecting mirrors, an entrance slit, spherical gratings having a 15{degree} deviation angle, a moveable exit slit, and refocusing and branching mirrors. Internal water cooling is provided to the metal M1 and M2 mirrors as well as to the gratings. Calculations have been made of both the flux output and the resolution over its photon energy range of 20--300 eV. The design goal was to achieve high intensity, 10{sup 12} photons/sec, at a high resolving power of 10,000. The U8 Participating Research Team (PRT) is planning experiments involving the photoelectron spectroscopy of gaseous atoms and molecules, the spectroscopy of ions and actinide spectroscopy.

  13. SAXES, a high resolution spectrometer for resonant x-ray emission in the 400-1600 eV energy range

    SciTech Connect

    Ghiringhelli, G.; Piazzalunga, A.; Dallera, C.; Trezzi, G.; Braicovich, L.; Schmitt, T.; Strocov, V. N.; Betemps, R.; Patthey, L.; Wang, X.; Grioni, M.

    2006-11-15

    We present a 5 m long spectrometer for soft x rays to be used at a synchrotron radiation beamline for resonant x-ray emission spectroscopy and resonant inelastic x-ray scattering in the 400-1600 eV energy range. It is based on a variable line spacing spherical grating (average groove density of 3200 mm{sup -1}, R=58.55 m) and a charge coupled device two dimensional detector. With an x-ray spot on the sample of 10 {mu}m, the targeted resolving power is higher than 10 000 at all energies below 1100 eV and better than 7000 at 1500 eV. The off-line tests made with Al and Mg K{alpha}{sub 1,2} fluorescence emissions indicate that the spectrometer can actually work at 12 000 and 17 000 resolving power at the L{sub 3} edges of Cu (930 eV) and of Ti (470 eV), respectively. SAXES (superadvanced x-ray emission spectrometer) is mounted on a rotating platform allowing to vary the scattering angle from 25 degree sign to 130 degree sign . The spectrometer will be operational at the ADRESS (advanced resonant spectroscopies) beamline of the Swiss Light Source from 2007.

  14. Electron and Positron Scattering from Chlorine Molecules in the Energy Region from 0.8 ev to 600 eV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimura, Mineo

    2002-10-01

    ELECTRON AND POSITRON SCATTERING FROM CHLORINE MOLECULES IN THE ENERGY REGION FROM 0.8 eV TO 600 eV C. Makochekanwa, H. Kawate, O. Sueoka and M. Kimura Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Yamaguchi University, Ube, Yamaguchi 755-8611, Japan Total scattering cross sections for chlorine molecules by electron impact are determined experimentally for the impact energies from 0.8 eV to 600 eV. Elastic scattering cross sections are also determined theoretically. The results above 23 eV are the first report on these processes. The present results are in good accord in the energy-dependence with the previous measurements, although the absolute magnitude is found to be about 30% smaller than that of Gulley et al. [J. Phys. B31, 2971 (1998)]. Strong sharp peaks around 7.8 eV and 12 eV are observed and well separated, and the one at 7.8 eV is attributed to dissociative electron attachment, while the one at 12 eV is speculated to be due to ion-pair formation through direct dissociation. The present elastic cross sections are found to show the similar shape to the TCS although the magnitude is smaller by a few % below 30 eV to a factor of two at 100 eV. Small-scale experimental study is also carried out for determining total and positronium formation cross sections by positron impact as well to carry out the comparative study.

  15. BEST sensitivity to O(1) eV sterile neutrino

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barinov, Vladislav; Gavrin, Vladimir; Gorbunov, Dmitry; Ibragimova, Tatiana

    2016-04-01

    Numerous anomalous results in neutrino oscillation experiments can be attributed to the interference of an ˜1 eV sterile neutrino. The Baksan Experiment on Sterile Transitions (BEST), specially designed to fully explore the Gallium anomaly, starts next year. We investigate the sensitivity of BEST in search of a sterile neutrino mixed with an electron neutrino. Then, performing the combined analysis of all the Gallium experiments (SAGE, GALLEX, BEST), we find the region in the model parameter space (sterile neutrino mass and mixing angle) which will be excluded if BEST agrees with no sterile neutrino hypothesis. For the opposite case, if BEST observes the signal as it follows from the sterile neutrino explanation of the Gallium (SAGE and GALLEX) anomaly, we show how BEST will improve upon the present estimates of the model parameters.

  16. RASSF4 promotes EV71 replication to accelerate the inhibition of the phosphorylation of AKT.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Fengfeng; Liu, Yongjuan; Chen, Xiong; Dong, Lanlan; Zhou, Bingfei; Cheng, Qingqing; Han, Song; Liu, Zhongchun; Peng, Biwen; He, Xiaohua; Liu, Wanhong

    2015-03-20

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is a neurotropic virus that causes hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD), occasionally leading to death. As a member of the RAS association domain family (RASSFs), RASSF4 plays important roles in cell death, tumor development and signal transduction. However, little is known about the relationship between RASSF4 and EV71. Our study reveals for the first time that RASSF4 promotes EV71 replication and then accelerates AKT phosphorylation inhibition in EV71-infected 293T cells, suggesting that RASSF4 may be a potential new target for designing therapeutic measures to prevent and control EV71 infection.

  17. Analysis on influencing factors of EV charging station planning based on AHP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, F.; Ma, X. F.

    2016-08-01

    As a new means of transport, electric vehicle (EV) is of great significance to alleviate the energy crisis. EV charging station planning has a far-reaching significance for the development of EV industry. This paper analyzes the impact factors of EV charging station planning, and then uses the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) to carry on the further analysis to the influencing factors, finally it gets the weight of each influence factor, and provides the basis for the evaluation scheme of the planning of charging stations for EV.

  18. Delivery of human EV71 receptors by adeno-associated virus increases EV71 infection-induced local inflammation in adult mice.

    PubMed

    Hsiao, Hung-Bo; Chou, Ai-Hsiang; Lin, Su-I; Lien, Shu-Pei; Liu, Chia-Chyi; Chong, Pele; Chen, Chih-Yeh; Tao, Mi-Hua; Liu, Shih-Jen

    2014-01-01

    Enterovirus71 (EV71) is now recognized as an emerging neurotropic virus in Asia and one major causative agent of hand-foot-mouth diseases (HFMD). However potential animal models for vaccine development are limited to young mice. In this study, we used an adeno-associated virus (AAV) vector to introduce the human EV71 receptors P-selectin glycoprotein ligand-1 (hPSGL1) or a scavenger receptor class-B member-2 (hSCARB2) into adult ICR mice to change their susceptibility to EV71 infection. Mice were administered AAV-hSCARB2 or AAV-hPSGL1 through intravenous and oral routes. After three weeks, expression of human SCARB2 and PSGL1 was detected in various organs. After infection with EV71, we found that the EV71 viral load in AAV-hSCARB2- or AAV-hPSGL1-transduced mice was higher than that of the control mice in both the brain and intestines. The presence of EV71 viral particles in tissues was confirmed using immunohistochemistry analysis. Moreover, inflammatory cytokines were induced in the brain and intestines of AAV-hSCARB2- or AAV-hPSGL1-transduced mice after EV71 infection but not in wild-type mice. However, neurological disease was not observed in these animals. Taken together, we successfully infected adult mice with live EV71 and induced local inflammation using an AAV delivery system.

  19. PHEV-EV Charger Technology Assessment with an Emphasis on V2G Operation

    SciTech Connect

    Kisacikoglu, Mithat C; Bedir, Abdulkadir; Ozpineci, Burak; Tolbert, Leon M

    2012-03-01

    More battery powered electric vehicles (EVs) and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) will be introduced to the market in 2011 and beyond. Since these vehicles have large batteries that need to be charged from an external power source or directly from the grid, their batteries, charging circuits, charging stations/infrastructures, and grid interconnection issues are garnering more attention. This report summarizes information regarding the batteries used in PHEVs, different types of chargers, charging standards and circuits, and compares different topologies. Furthermore, it includes a list of vehicles that are going to be in the market soon with information on their charging and energy storage equipment. A summary of different standards governing charging circuits and charging stations concludes the report. There are several battery types that are available for PHEVs; however, the most popular ones have nickel metal hydride (NiMH) and lithium-ion (Li-ion) chemistries. The former one is being used in current hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), but the latter will be used in most of the PHEVs and EVs due to higher energy densities and higher efficiencies. The chargers can be classified based on the circuit topologies (dedicated or integrated), location of the charger (either on or off the vehicle), connection (conductive, inductive/wireless, and mechanical), electrical waveform (direct current (dc) or alternating current (ac)), and the direction of power flow (unidirectional or bidirectional). The first PHEVs typically will have dedicated, on-board, unidirectional chargers that will have conductive connections to the charging stations or wall outlets and will be charged using either dc or ac. In the near future, bidirectional chargers might also be used in these vehicles once the benefits of practical vehicle to grid applications are realized. The terms charger and charging station cause terminology confusion. To prevent misunderstandings, a more descriptive term

  20. Recent Progress towards Novel EV71 Anti-Therapeutics and Vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Ng, Qingyong; He, Fang; Kwang, Jimmy

    2015-01-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is a group of viruses that belongs to the Picornaviridae family, which also includes viruses such as polioviruses. EV71, together with coxsackieviruses, is widely known for its association with Hand Foot Mouth Disease (HFMD), which generally affects children age five and below. Besides HFMD, EV71 can also trigger more severe and life-threatening neurological conditions such as encephalitis. Considering the lack of a vaccine and antiviral drug against EV71, together with the increasing spread of these viruses, the development of such drugs and vaccines becomes the top priority in protecting our younger generations. This article, hence, reviews some of the recent progress in the formulations of anti-therapeutics and vaccine generation for EV71, covering (i) inactivated vaccines; (ii) baculovirus-expressed vaccines against EV71; (iii) human intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) treatment; and (iv) the use of monoclonal antibody therapy as a prevention and treatment for EV71 infections. PMID:26670245

  1. EV71-infected CD14(+) cells modulate the immune activity of T lymphocytes in rhesus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jingjing; Pu, Jing; Huang, Hongtai; Zhang, Ying; Liu, Longding; Yang, Erxia; Zhou, Xiaofang; Ma, Na; Zhao, Hongling; Wang, Lichun; Xie, Zhenfeng; Tang, Donghong; Li, Qihan

    2013-07-01

    Preliminary studies of the major pathogen enterovirus 71 (EV71), a member of the Picornaviridae family, have suggested that EV71 may be a major cause of fatal hand, foot and mouth disease cases. Currently, the role of the pathological changes induced by EV71 infection in the immunopathogenic response remains unclear. Our study focused on the interaction between this virus and immunocytes and indicated that this virus has the ability to replicate in CD14(+) cells. Furthermore, these EV71-infected CD14(+) cells have the capacity to stimulate the proliferation of T cells and to enhance the release of certain functional cytokines. An adaptive immune response induced by the back-transfusion of EV71-infected CD14(+) cells was observed in donor neonatal rhesus monkeys. Based on these observations, the proposed hypothesis is that CD14(+) cells infected by the EV71 virus might modulate the anti-EV71 adaptive immune response by inducing simultaneous T-cell activation.

  2. Recent Progress towards Novel EV71 Anti-Therapeutics and Vaccines.

    PubMed

    Ng, Qingyong; He, Fang; Kwang, Jimmy

    2015-12-08

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is a group of viruses that belongs to the Picornaviridae family, which also includes viruses such as polioviruses. EV71, together with coxsackieviruses, is widely known for its association with Hand Foot Mouth Disease (HFMD), which generally affects children age five and below. Besides HFMD, EV71 can also trigger more severe and life-threatening neurological conditions such as encephalitis. Considering the lack of a vaccine and antiviral drug against EV71, together with the increasing spread of these viruses, the development of such drugs and vaccines becomes the top priority in protecting our younger generations. This article, hence, reviews some of the recent progress in the formulations of anti-therapeutics and vaccine generation for EV71, covering (i) inactivated vaccines; (ii) baculovirus-expressed vaccines against EV71; (iii) human intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) treatment; and (iv) the use of monoclonal antibody therapy as a prevention and treatment for EV71 infections.

  3. Phenotypic and genotypic characteristics of novel mouse cell line (NIH/3T3)-adapted human enterovirus 71 strains (EV71:TLLm and EV71:TLLmv).

    PubMed

    Victorio, Carla Bianca Luena; Xu, Yishi; Ng, Qimei; Chow, Vincent T K; Chua, Kaw Bing

    2014-01-01

    Since its identification in 1969, Enterovirus 71 (EV71) has been causing periodic outbreaks of infection in children worldwide and most prominently in the Asia-Pacific Region. Understanding the pathogenesis of Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is hampered by the virus's inability to infect small animals and replicate in their derived in vitro cultured cells. This manuscript describes the phenotypic and genotypic characteristics of two selected EV71 strains (EV71:TLLm and EV71:TLLmv), which have been adapted to replicate in mouse-derived NIH/3T3 cells, in contrast to the original parental virus which is only able to replicate in primate cell lines. The EV71:TLLm strain exhibited productive infection in all primate and rodent cell lines tested, while EV71:TLLmv exhibited greater preference for mouse cell lines. EV71:TLLmv displayed higher degree of adaptation and temperature adaptability in NIH/3T3 cells than in Vero cells, suggesting much higher fitness in NIH/3T3 cells. In comparison with the parental EV71:BS strain, the adapted strains accumulated multiple adaptive mutations in the genome resulting in amino acid substitutions, most notably in the capsid-encoding region (P1) and viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (3D). Two mutations, E167D and L169F, were mapped to the VP1 canyon that binds the SCARB2 receptor on host cells. Another two mutations, S135T and K140I, were located in the VP2 neutralization epitope spanning amino acids 136-150. This is the first report of human EV71 with the ability to productively infect rodent cell lines in vitro.

  4. Toward a space-time scale framework for the study of everyday life activity's adaptation to hazardous hydro-meteorological conditions: Learning from the June 15th, 2010 flash flood event in Draguignan (France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruin, Isabelle; Boudevillain, Brice; Creutin, Jean-Dominique; Lutoff, Céline

    2013-04-01

    environmental perturbations requires an integrated approach, sensitive to the spatial and temporal dynamics of geophysical hazards and responses to them. Such integrated approaches of the Coupled Human and Natural System have been more common in the environmental change arena than in risk studies. Nevertheless, examining interactions between routine activity-travel patterns and hydro-meteorological dynamics in the context of flash flood event resulted in developing a space-time scale approach that brought new insights to vulnerability and risk studies. This scaling approach requires suitable data sets including information about the meteorological and local flooding dynamics, the perception of environmental cues, the changes in individuals' activity-travel patterns and the social interactions at the place and time where the actions were performed. Even if these types of data are commonly collected in various disciplinary research contexts, they are seldom collected all together and in the context of post-disaster studies. This paper describes the methodological developments of our approach and applies our data collection method to the case of the June 15th, 2010 flash flood events in the Draguignan area (Var, France). This flash flood event offers a typical example to study the relation between the flood dynamics and the social response in the context of a sudden degradation of the environment.

  5. Determinants of EV71 immunogenicity and protection against lethal challenge in a mouse model.

    PubMed

    Chang, Junliang; Li, Jingliang; Wei, Wei; Liu, Xin; Liu, Guanchen; Yang, Jiaxin; Zhang, Wenyan; Yu, Xiao-Fang

    2015-07-01

    Circulating enterovirus 71 (EV71)-associated hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) is a major public health problem in the Asian-Pacific region. An EV71 vaccine for HFMD prevention is currently being developed. However, viral determinants that could influence the vaccine's efficacy have not been well characterized. In this study, we isolated and characterized several EV71 strains that are currently circulating in northern and southern China. We determined that VP1 variation is a major determinant of EV71 immunogenicity. A single amino acid variation in VP1 can lead to significant differences in the breadth and potency of immune responses against primary EV71 isolates as well as the sensitivity of EV71 to heterologous neutralizing antibody responses. We also identified EV71 strains that could induce potent immunogenic and cross-neutralizing antibody responses against diverse EV71 strains. Furthermore, these neutralizing antibodies could protect neonatal mice from lethal dose challenge with various circulating EV71 viruses. Our study provides useful information for EV71 vaccine development and evaluation.

  6. Both ERK1 and ERK2 are required for enterovirus 71 (EV71) efficient replication.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Meng; Duan, Hao; Gao, Meng; Zhang, Hao; Peng, Yihong

    2015-03-20

    It has been demonstrated that MEK1, one of the two MEK isoforms in Raf-MEK-ERK1/2 pathway, is essential for successful EV71 propagation. However, the distinct function of ERK1 and ERK2 isoforms, the downstream kinases of MEKs, remains unclear in EV71 replication. In this study, specific ERK siRNAs and selective inhibitor U0126 were applied. Silencing specific ERK did not significantly impact on the EV71-caused biphasic activation of the other ERK isoform, suggesting the EV71-induced activations of ERK1 and ERK2 were non-discriminative and independent to one another. Knockdown of either ERK1 or ERK2 markedly impaired progeny EV71 propagation (both by more than 90%), progeny viral RNA amplification (either by about 30% to 40%) and protein synthesis (both by around 70%), indicating both ERK1 and ERK2 were critical and not interchangeable to EV71 propagation. Moreover, suppression of EV71 replication by inhibiting both early and late phases of ERK1/2 activation showed no significant difference from that of only blocking the late phase, supporting the late phase activation was more importantly responsible for EV71 life cycle. Taken together, this study for the first time identified both ERK1 and ERK2 were required for EV71 efficient replication and further verified the important role of MEK1-ERK1/2 in EV71 replication.

  7. A non-mouse-adapted enterovirus 71 (EV71) strain exhibits neurotropism, causing neurological manifestations in a novel mouse model of EV71 infection.

    PubMed

    Khong, Wei Xin; Yan, Benedict; Yeo, Huimin; Tan, Eng Lee; Lee, Jia Jun; Ng, Jowin K W; Chow, Vincent T; Alonso, Sylvie

    2012-02-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is a neurotropic pathogen that has been consistently associated with the severe neurological forms of hand, foot, and mouth disease. The lack of a relevant animal model has hampered our understanding of EV71 pathogenesis, in particular the route and mode of viral dissemination. It has also hindered the development of effective prophylactic and therapeutic approaches, making EV71 one of the most pressing public health concerns in Southeast Asia. Here we report a novel mouse model of EV71 infection. We demonstrate that 2-week-old and younger immunodeficient AG129 mice, which lack type I and II interferon receptors, are susceptible to infection with a non-mouse-adapted EV71 strain via both the intraperitoneal (i.p.) and oral routes of inoculation. The infected mice displayed progressive limb paralysis prior to death. The dissemination of the virus was dependent on the route of inoculation but eventually resulted in virus accumulation in the central nervous systems of both animal groups, indicating a clear neurotropism of the virus. Histopathological examination revealed massive damage in the limb muscles, brainstem, and anterior horn areas. However, the minute amount of infectious viral particles in the limbs from orally infected animals argues against a direct viral cytopathic effect in this tissue and suggests that limb paralysis is a consequence of EV71 neuroinvasion. Together, our observations support that young AG129 mice display polio-like neuropathogenesis upon infection with a non-mouse-adapted EV71 strain, making this mouse model relevant for EV71 pathogenesis studies and an attractive platform for EV71 vaccine and drug testing.

  8. Analysis of Electric Vehicle Charging Impact on the Electric Power Grid

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, Zeming; Tian, Hao; Beshir, Mohammed J.; Vohra, Surendra; Mazloomzadeh, Ali

    2016-09-24

    In order to evaluate the impact of electric vehicles (EVs) on the distribution grid and assess their potential benefits to the future smart grid, it is crucial to study the EV charging patterns and the usage charging station. Though EVs are not yet widely adopted nationwide, a valuable methodology to conduct such studies is the statistical analysis of real-world charging data. This paper presents actual EV charging behavior of 64 EVs (5 brands, 8 models) from EV users and charging stations at Los Angeles Department of Water and Power for more than one year. Twenty-four-hour EV charging load curves have been generated and studied for various load periods: daily, monthly, seasonally and yearly. Finally, the effect and impact of EV load on the California distribution network are evaluated at different EV penetration rates.

  9. MicroRNA-23b inhibits enterovirus 71 replication through downregulation of EV71 VPl protein.

    PubMed

    Wen, Bai-ping; Dai, Hong-jian; Yang, Yue-huang; Zhuang, Yu; Sheng, Ru

    2013-01-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is one of the causative pathogens of hand-foot-and-mouth disease and effective antiviral agents and vaccines against this virus have, to date, not been available. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a recently discovered class of RNAs with the function of post-transcriptional gene expression regulation. It has been demonstrated that miRNAs play important roles in the complicated interaction network between virus and host, while few studies have explored the role of miRNAs in EV71 infection. A recent study showed that hsa-miR-23b was downregulated significantly in cell-infected viruses. To address this issue, biological software miRanda was first used to predict possible target sites of miR-23b at EV71 gene sequence, then to confirm it by luciferase assay. miR-23b mimics were transfected to verify its effects on infection of EV71. These results suggest that miR-23b and upregulation of miR-23b inhibited the replication of EV71 by targeting at EV71 3'UTR conserved sequence. Taken together, miR-23b could inhibit EV71 replication through downregulation of EV71 VPl protein. These results may enhance our understanding on the prevention and treatment of hand-foot-and-mouth disease caused by EV71 infection.

  10. EV drivetrain inverter with V/HZ optimization

    DOEpatents

    Gritter, David J.; O'Neil, Walter K.

    1986-01-01

    An inverter (34) which provides power to an A.C. machine (28) is controlled by a circuit (36) employing PWM control strategy whereby A.C. power is supplied to the machine at a preselectable frequency and preselectable voltage. This is accomplished by the technique of waveform notching in which the shapes of the notches are varied to determine the average energy content of the overall waveform. Through this arrangement, the operational efficiency of the A.C. machine is optimized. The control circuit includes a micro-computer which calculates optimized machine control data signals from various parametric inputs and during steady state load conditions, seeks a best V/HZ ratio to minimize battery current drawn (system losses) from a D.C. power source (32). In the preferred embodiment, the present invention is incorporated within an electric vehicle (10) employing a 144 VDC battery pack and a three-phase induction motor (18).

  11. Workplace Charging Behavior of Nissan Leafs in The EV Project at Six Work Sites

    SciTech Connect

    Rohrbaugh, David; Smart, John

    2014-11-01

    This paper documents findings from analysis of data collected from Nissan Leafs enrolled in The EV Project who parked and charged at six workplaces with EV charging equipment. It will be published as a white paper on INL's website, accessible by the general public.

  12. [Inactivation of EV71 by Exposure to Heat and Ultraviolet Light].

    PubMed

    Xie, Jing; Li, Dandi; Xie, Guangcheng; Hu, Yaqian; Zhang, Qing; Kong, Xiangyu; Guo, Nijun; Li, Yuning; Duan, Zhaojun

    2015-09-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is a major agent of hand, foot and mouth disease that can cause a severe burden of disease to children. To identify an effective method for the control and prevention of EV71, we studied the effect of exposure to heat and ultraviolet (UV) light upon EV71 inactivation. We found that exposure to 50 degrees C could not inactivate the infectivity of EV71. However, exposure to 60 degrees C and 70 degrees C could inactivate EV71 effectively. EV71 could be inactivated after exposure to UV light at a distance between the sample and a lamp of 30 cm for 30 min or 60 min because viral genomic RNA was destroyed. However, fetal bovine serum (FBS) could attenuate the inactivation proffered by heat and UV light. Attenuation effects of FBS were correlated positively with FBS concentration. Hence, EV71 can be inactivated by exposure to heat and UV light, and our results could provide guidance on prevention of the spread of EV71.

  13. Immunogenicity studies of bivalent inactivated virions of EV71/CVA16 formulated with submicron emulsion systems.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chih-Wei; Liu, Chia-Chyi; Lu, Tsung-Chun; Liu, Shih-Jen; Chow, Yen-Hung; Chong, Pele; Huang, Ming-Hsi

    2014-01-01

    We assessed two strategies for preparing candidate vaccines against hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) caused mainly by infections of enterovirus (EV) 71 and coxsackievirus (CV) A16. We firstly design and optimize the potency of adjuvant combinations of emulsion-based delivery systems, using EV71 candidate vaccine as a model. We then perform immunogenicity studies in mice of EV71/CVA16 antigen combinations formulated with PELC/CpG. A single dose of inactivated EV71 virion (0.2 μg) emulsified in submicron particles was found (i) to induce potent antigen-specific neutralizing antibody responses and (ii) consistently to elicit broad antibody responses against EV71 neutralization epitopes. A single dose immunogenicity study of bivalent activated EV71/CVA16 virion formulated with either Alum or PELC/CpG adjuvant showed that CVA16 antigen failed to elicit CVA16 neutralizing antibody responses and did not affect EV71-specific neutralizing antibody responses. A boosting dose of emulsified EV71/CVA16 bivalent vaccine candidate was found to be necessary to achieve high seroconversion of CVA16-specific neutralizing antibody responses. The current results are important for the design and development of prophylactic vaccines against HFMD and other emerging infectious diseases.

  14. Discovery of gramine derivatives that inhibit the early stage of EV71 replication in vitro.

    PubMed

    Wei, Yanhong; Shi, Liqiao; Wang, Kaimei; Liu, Manli; Yang, Qingyu; Yang, Ziwen; Ke, Shaoyong

    2014-06-27

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is a notable causative agent of hand, foot, and mouth disease in children, which is associated with an increased incidence of severe neurological disease and death, yet there is no specific treatment or vaccine for EV71 infections. In this study, the antiviral activity of gramine and 21 gramine derivatives against EV71 was investigated in cell-based assays. Eighteen derivatives displayed some degree of inhibitory effects against EV71, in that they could effectively inhibit virus-induced cytopathic effects (CPEs), but the anti-EV71 activity of the lead compound gramine was not observed. Studies on the preliminary modes of action showed that these compounds functioned by targeting the early stage of the EV71 lifecycle after viral entry, rather than inactivating the virus directly, inhibiting virus adsorption or affecting viral release from the cells. Among these derivatives, one (compound 4s) containing pyridine and benzothiazole units showed the most potency against EV71. Further studies demonstrated that derivative 4s could profoundly inhibit viral RNA replication, protein synthesis, and virus-induced apoptosis in RD cells. These results indicate that derivative 4s might be a feasible therapeutic agent against EV71 infection and that these gramine derivatives may provide promising lead scaffolds for the further design and synthesis of potential antiviral agents.

  15. Progress on the research and development of inactivated EV71 whole-virus vaccines.

    PubMed

    Liang, Zheng-Lun; Mao, Qun-Ying; Wang, Yi-Ping; Zhu, Feng-Cai; Li, Jing-Xin; Yao, Xin; Gao, Fan; Wu, Xing; Xu, Miao; Wang, Jun-Zhi

    2013-08-01

    The prevalence of diseases caused by EV71 infection has become a serious public health problem in the Western Pacific region. Due to a lack of effective treatment options, controlling EV71 epidemics has mainly focused on the research and development (R&D) of EV71 vaccines. Thus far, five organizations have completed pre-clinical studies focused on the development of inactivated EV71 whole-virus vaccines, including vaccine strain screening, process optimization, safety and immunogenicity evaluation, and are in different stages of clinical trials. Among these organizations, three companies in Mainland China [Beijing Vigoo Biological Co., Ltd. (Vigoo), Sinovac Biotech Ltd. (Sinovac) and Institute of Medical Biology, Chinese Academy of Medical Science (CAMS)] have recently completed Phase III trials for the vaccines they developed. In addition, the other two vaccines, developed by National Health Research Institutes (NHRI) of Taiwan and Inviragen Pte., Ltd (Inviragen), of Singapore, have also completed Phase I clinical trials. Published clinical trial results indicate that the inactivated EV71 vaccines have good safety and immunogenicity in the target population (infants) and confer a relatively high rate of protection against EV71 infection-related diseases. The results of clinical trials suggest a promising future for the clinical use of EV71 vaccines. Here, we review and highlight the recent progress on the R&D of inactivated EV71 whole-virus vaccines.

  16. EV71 vaccine, a new tool to control outbreaks of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD).

    PubMed

    Mao, Qun-ying; Wang, Yiping; Bian, Lianlian; Xu, Miao; Liang, Zhenglun

    2016-05-01

    On December 3rd 2015, the China Food and Drug Administration (CFDA) approved the first inactivated Enterovirus 71 (EV71) whole virus vaccine for preventing severe hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD). As one of the few preventive vaccines for children's infectious diseases generated by the developing countries in recent years, EV71 vaccine is a blessing to children's health in China and worldwide. However, there are still a few challenges facing the worldwide use of EV71 vaccine, including the applicability against various EV71 pandemic strains in other countries, international requirements on vaccine production and quality control, standardization and harmonization on different pathogen monitoring and detecting methods, etc. In addition, the affordability of EV71 vaccine in other countries is a factor to be considered in HFMD prevention. Therefore, with EV71 vaccine commercially available, there is still a long way to go before reaching effective protection against severe HFMD after EV71 vaccines enter the market. In this paper, the bottlenecks and prospects for the wide use of EV71 vaccine after its approval are evaluated.

  17. Comparison of the LEGO Mindstorms NXT and EV3 Robotics Education Platforms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherrard, Ann; Rhodes, Amy

    2014-01-01

    The release of the latest LEGO Mindstorms EV3 robotics platform in September 2013 has provided a dilemma for many youth robotics leaders. There is a need to understand the differences in the Mindstorms NXT and EV3 in order to make future robotics purchases. In this article the differences are identified regarding software, hardware, sensors, the…

  18. Catalytic Assessment: Understanding How MCQs and EVS Can Foster Deep Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Draper, Stephen W.

    2009-01-01

    One technology for education whose adoption is currently expanding rapidly in UK higher education is that of electronic voting systems (EVS). As with all educational technology, whether learning benefits are achieved depends not on the technology but on whether an improved teaching method is introduced with it. EVS inherently relies on the…

  19. Design, synthesis, and biological evaluation of anti-EV71 agents.

    PubMed

    Li, Peng; Yang, Bailing; Hao, Fei; Wang, Ping; He, Haiying; Huang, Lei; Zhang, Xuan; Zhang, Shengbin; Peng, Xuanjia; Yin, Ke; Hu, Jiao; Chen, Xinsheng; Gu, Zhengxian; Wang, Li; Shen, Liang; Hu, Guoping; Li, Ning; Li, Jian; Chen, Shuhui; Xiao, Wei; Wang, Zhenzhong; Guo, Qingming; Chang, Xiujuan; Zhang, Lanjun; Cai, Qixu; Lin, Tianwei

    2016-07-15

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is a major causative agent of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD), which can spread its infections to the central nervous and other systems with severe consequences. In this article, design, chemical synthesis, and biological evaluation of various anti-EV71 agents which incorporate Michael acceptors are described. Further SAR study demonstrated that lactone type of Michael acceptor provided a new lead of anti-EV71 drug candidates with high anti-EV71 activity in cell-based assay and enhanced mouse plasma stability. One of the most potent compounds (2K, cell-based anti-EV71 EC50=0.028μM), showed acceptable stability profile towards mouse plasma, which resulted into promising pharmacokinetics in mouse via IP administration.

  20. Measurement of the energy spectrum of cosmic rays above 1018 eV using the Pierre Auger Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abraham, J.; Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Ahn, E. J.; Allard, D.; Allen, J.; Alvarez-Muñiz, J.; Ambrosio, M.; Anchordoqui, L.; Andringa, S.; Antičić, T.; Anzalone, A.; Aramo, C.; Arganda, E.; Arisaka, K.; Arqueros, F.; Asorey, H.; Assis, P.; Aublin, J.; Ave, M.; Avila, G.; Bäcker, T.; Badagnani, D.; Balzer, M.; Barber, K. B.; Barbosa, A. F.; Barroso, S. L. C.; Baughman, B.; Bauleo, P.; Beatty, J. J.; Becker, B. R.; Becker, K. H.; Bellétoile, A.; Bellido, J. A.; Benzvi, S.; Berat, C.; Bergmann, T.; Bertou, X.; Biermann, P. L.; Billoir, P.; Blanch-Bigas, O.; Blanco, F.; Blanco, M.; Bleve, C.; Blümer, H.; Boháčová, M.; Boncioli, D.; Bonifazi, C.; Bonino, R.; Borodai, N.; Brack, J.; Brogueira, P.; Brown, W. C.; Bruijn, R.; Buchholz, P.; Bueno, A.; Burton, R. E.; Busca, N. G.; Caballero-Mora, K. S.; Caramete, L.; Caruso, R.; Castellina, A.; Catalano, O.; Cataldi, G.; Cazon, L.; Cester, R.; Chauvin, J.; Chiavassa, A.; Chinellato, J. A.; Chou, A.; Chudoba, J.; Clay, R. W.; Colombo, E.; Coluccia, M. R.; Conceição, R.; Contreras, F.; Cook, H.; Cooper, M. J.; Coppens, J.; Cordier, A.; Cotti, U.; Coutu, S.; Covault, C. E.; Creusot, A.; Criss, A.; Cronin, J.; Curutiu, A.; Dagoret-Campagne, S.; Dallier, R.; Daumiller, K.; Dawson, B. R.; de Almeida, R. M.; de Domenico, M.; de Donato, C.; de Jong, S. J.; de La Vega, G.; de Mello Junior, W. J. M.; de Mello Neto, J. R. T.; de Mitri, I.; de Souza, V.; de Vries, K. D.; Decerprit, G.; Del Peral, L.; Deligny, O.; Della Selva, A.; Delle Fratte, C.; Dembinski, H.; di Giulio, C.; Diaz, J. C.; Díaz Castro, M. L.; Diep, P. N.; Dobrigkeit, C.; D'Olivo, J. C.; Dong, P. N.; Dorofeev, A.; Dos Anjos, J. C.; Dova, M. T.; D'Urso, D.; Dutan, I.; Duvernois, M. A.; Ebr, J.; Engel, R.; Erdmann, M.; Escobar, C. O.; Etchegoyen, A.; Facal San Luis, P.; Falcke, H.; Farrar, G.; Fauth, A. C.; Fazzini, N.; Ferrero, A.; Fick, B.; Filevich, A.; Filipčič, A.; Fleck, I.; Fliescher, S.; Fracchiolla, C. E.; Fraenkel, E. D.; Fröhlich, U.; Fulgione, W.; Gamarra, R. F.; Gambetta, S.; García, B.; García Gámez, D.; Garcia-Pinto, D.; Garrido, X.; Gelmini, G.; Gemmeke, H.; Ghia, P. L.; Giaccari, U.; Giller, M.; Glass, H.; Goggin, L. M.; Gold, M. S.; Golup, G.; Gomez Albarracin, F.; Gómez Berisso, M.; Gonçalves, P.; Gonzalez, D.; Gonzalez, J. G.; Góra, D.; Gorgi, A.; Gouffon, P.; Gozzini, S. R.; Grashorn, E.; Grebe, S.; Grigat, M.; Grillo, A. F.; Guardincerri, Y.; Guarino, F.; Guedes, G. P.; Hague, J. D.; Halenka, V.; Hansen, P.; Harari, D.; Harmsma, S.; Harton, J. L.; Haungs, A.; Hebbeker, T.; Heck, D.; Herve, A. E.; Hojvat, C.; Holmes, V. C.; Homola, P.; Hörandel, J. R.; Horneffer, A.; Hrabovský, M.; Huege, T.; Hussain, M.; Iarlori, M.; Insolia, A.; Ionita, F.; Italiano, A.; Jiraskova, S.; Kadija, K.; Kaducak, M.; Kampert, K. H.; Karova, T.; Kasper, P.; Kégl, B.; Keilhauer, B.; Keivani, A.; Kelley, J.; Kemp, E.; Kieckhafer, R. M.; Klages, H. O.; Kleifges, M.; Kleinfeller, J.; Knapik, R.; Knapp, J.; Koang, D.-H.; Krieger, A.; Krömer, O.; Kruppke-Hansen, D.; Kuehn, F.; Kuempel, D.; Kulbartz, K.; Kunka, N.; Kusenko, A.; La Rosa, G.; Lachaud, C.; Lago, B. L.; Lautridou, P.; Leão, M. S. A. B.; Lebrun, D.; Lebrun, P.; Lee, J.; Leigui de Oliveira, M. A.; Lemiere, A.; Letessier-Selvon, A.; Lhenry-Yvon, I.; López, R.; Lopez Agüera, A.; Louedec, K.; Lozano Bahilo, J.; Lucero, A.; Ludwig, M.; Lyberis, H.; Maccarone, M. C.; Macolino, C.; Maldera, S.; Mandat, D.; Mantsch, P.; Mariazzi, A. G.; Marin, V.; Maris, I. C.; Marquez Falcon, H. R.; Marsella, G.; Martello, D.; Martínez Bravo, O.; Mathes, H. J.; Matthews, J.; Matthews, J. A. J.; Matthiae, G.; Maurizio, D.; Mazur, P. O.; McEwen, M.; Medina-Tanco, G.; Melissas, M.; Melo, D.; Menichetti, E.; Menshikov, A.; Meurer, C.; Mičanović, S.; Micheletti, M. I.; Miller, W.; Miramonti, L.; Mollerach, S.; Monasor, M.; Monnier Ragaigne, D.; Montanet, F.; Morales, B.; Morello, C.; Moreno, E.; Moreno, J. C.; Morris, C.; Mostafá, M.; Mueller, S.; Muller, M. A.; Mussa, R.; Navarra, G.; Navarro, J. L.; Navas, S.; Necesal, P.; Nellen, L.; Nhung, P. T.; Nierstenhoefer, N.; Nitz, D.; Nosek, D.; Nožka, L.; Nyklicek, M.; Oehlschläger, J.; Olinto, A.; Oliva, P.; Olmos-Gilbaja, V. M.; Ortiz, M.; Pacheco, N.; Pakk Selmi-Dei, D.; Palatka, M.; Pallotta, J.; Palmieri, N.; Parente, G.; Parizot, E.; Parlati, S.; Parra, A.; Parrisius, J.; Parsons, R. D.; Pastor, S.; Paul, T.; Pavlidou, V.; Payet, K.; Pech, M.; Pȩkala, J.; Pelayo, R.; Pepe, I. M.; Perrone, L.; Pesce, R.; Petermann, E.; Petrera, S.; Petrinca, P.; Petrolini, A.; Petrov, Y.; Petrovic, J.; Pfendner, C.; Piegaia, R.; Pierog, T.; Pimenta, M.; Pirronello, V.; Platino, M.; Ponce, V. H.; Pontz, M.; Privitera, P.; Prouza, M.; Quel, E. J.; Rautenberg, J.; Ravel, O.; Ravignani, D.; Redondo, A.; Revenu, B.; Rezende, F. A. S.; Ridky, J.; Riggi, S.; Risse, M.; Ristori, P.; Rivière, C.; Rizi, V.; Robledo, C.; Rodriguez, G.; Rodriguez Martino, J.; Rodriguez Rojo, J.; Rodriguez-Cabo, I.; Rodríguez-Frías, M. D.; Ros, G.; Rosado, J.; Rossler, T.; Roth, M.; Rouillé-D'Orfeuil, B.; Roulet, E.; Rovero, A. C.; Salamida, F.; Salazar, H.; Salina, G.; Sánchez, F.; Santander, M.; Santo, C. E.; Santos, E.; Santos, E. M.; Sarazin, F.; Sarkar, S.; Sato, R.; Scharf, N.; Scherini, V.; Schieler, H.; Schiffer, P.; Schmidt, A.; Schmidt, F.; Schmidt, T.; Scholten, O.; Schoorlemmer, H.; Schovancova, J.; Schovánek, P.; Schroeder, F.; Schulte, S.; Schüssler, F.; Schuster, D.; Sciutto, S. J.; Scuderi, M.; Segreto, A.; Semikoz, D.; Settimo, M.; Shellard, R. C.; Sidelnik, I.; Siffert, B. B.; Sigl, G.; Śmiałkowski, A.; Šmída, R.; Snow, G. R.; Sommers, P.; Sorokin, J.; Spinka, H.; Squartini, R.; Stasielak, J.; Stephan, M.; Strazzeri, E.; Stutz, A.; Suarez, F.; Suomijärvi, T.; Supanitsky, A. D.; Šuša, T.; Sutherland, M. S.; Swain, J.; Szadkowski, Z.; Tamashiro, A.; Tamburro, A.; Tapia, A.; Tarutina, T.; Taşcău, O.; Tcaciuc, R.; Tcherniakhovski, D.; Tegolo, D.; Thao, N. T.; Thomas, D.; Tiffenberg, J.; Timmermans, C.; Tkaczyk, W.; Todero Peixoto, C. J.; Tomé, B.; Tonachini, A.; Travnicek, P.; Tridapalli, D. B.; Tristram, G.; Trovato, E.; Tueros, M.; Ulrich, R.; Unger, M.; Urban, M.; Valdés Galicia, J. F.; Valiño, I.; Valore, L.; van den Berg, A. M.; Vázquez, J. R.; Vázquez, R. A.; Veberič, D.; Venters, T.; Verzi, V.; Videla, M.; Villaseñor, L.; Vorobiov, S.; Voyvodic, L.; Wahlberg, H.; Wahrlich, P.; Wainberg, O.; Warner, D.; Watson, A. A.; Westerhoff, S.; Whelan, B. J.; Wieczorek, G.; Wiencke, L.; Wilczyńska, B.; Wilczyński, H.; Williams, C.; Winchen, T.; Winnick, M. G.; Wundheiler, B.; Yamamoto, T.; Younk, P.; Yuan, G.; Yushkov, A.; Zas, E.; Zavrtanik, D.; Zavrtanik, M.; Zaw, I.; Zepeda, A.; Ziolkowski, M.; Pierre Auger Collaboration

    2010-03-01

    We report a measurement of the flux of cosmic rays with unprecedented precision and statistics using the Pierre Auger Observatory. Based on fluorescence observations in coincidence with at least one surface detector we derive a spectrum for energies above 1018 eV. We also update the previously published energy spectrum obtained with the surface detector array. The two spectra are combined addressing the systematic uncertainties and, in particular, the influence of the energy resolution on the spectral shape. The spectrum can be described by a broken power law E- with index γ=3.3 below the ankle which is measured at log(E/eV)=18.6. Above the ankle the spectrum is described by a power law with index 2.6 followed by a flux suppression, above about log(E/eV)=19.5, detected with high statistical significance.

  1. Straight and chopped dc performance data for a Prestolite MTC-4001 motor and a general electric EV-1 controller

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edie, P. C.

    1981-01-01

    Performance data on the Prestolite MTC-4001 series wound dc motor and General Electric EV-1 Chopper Controller is supplied for the electric vehicle manufacturer. Data are provided for both straight and chopped dc input to the motor, at 2 motor temperature levels. Testing was done at 6 voltage increments to the motor, and 2 voltage increments to the controller. Data results are presented in both tabular and graphical forms. Tabular information includes motor voltage and current input data, motor speed and torque output data, power data and temperature data. Graphical information includes torque-speed, motor power output-speed, torque-current, and efficiency-speed plots under the various operating conditions. The data resulting from this testing show the speed-torque plots to have the most variance with operating temperature. The maximum motor efficiency is between 76% and 82%, regardless of temperature or mode of operation.

  2. Silicon photodiode characterization from 1 eV to 10 keV

    SciTech Connect

    Idzorek, G.C.; Bartlett, R.J.

    1997-10-01

    Silicon photodiodes offer a number of advantages over conventional photocathode type soft x-ray detectors in pulsed power experiments. These include a nominally flat response, insensitivity to surface contamination, low voltage biasing requirements, sensitivity to low energy photons, excellent detector to detector response reproducibility, and ability to operate in poor vacuum or gas backfilled experiments. Silicon photodiodes available from International Radiation Detectors (IRD), Torrance, California have been characterized for absolute photon response from 1 eV to 10 keV photon energy, time response, and signal saturation levels. The authors have assembled individually filtered photodiodes into an array designated the XUV-7. The XUV-7 provides seven photodiodes in a vacuum leak tight, electrically isolated, low noise, high bandwidth, x-ray filtered assembly in a compact package with a 3.7 cm outside diameter. In addition they have assembled the diodes in other custom configurations as detectors for spectrometers. Their calibration measurements show factor of ten deviations from the silicon photodiode theoretical flat response due to diode sensitivity outside the center `sensitive area`. Detector response reproducibility between diodes appears to be better than 5%. Time response measurements show a 10-90% rise time of about 0.1 nanoseconds and a fall time of about 0.5 nanoseconds. Silicon photodiodes have proven to be a versatile and useful complement to the standard photocathode detectors for soft x-ray measurement and are very competitive with diamond for a number of applications.

  3. Dual baseline search for muon neutrino disappearance at 0.5 eV2 < Delta m2 < 40 eV2

    DOE PAGES

    Mahn, K B.M.

    2011-06-01

    The SciBooNE and MiniBooNE collaborations report the results of a νμ disappearance search in the Δ'm2 region of 0.5-40 eV2. The neutrino rate as measured by the SciBooNE tracking detectors is used to constrain the rate at the MiniBooNE Cherenkov detector in the first joint analysis of data from both collaborations. Two separate analyses of the combined data samples set 90% confidence level (CL) limits on νμ disappearance in the 0.5-40 eV2 Δm2 region, with an improvement over previous experimental constraints between 10 and 30 eV2

  4. Dual baseline search for muon neutrino disappearance at 0.5eV2<Δm2<40eV2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahn, K. B. M.; Nakajima, Y.; Aguilar-Arevalo, A. A.; Alcaraz-Aunion, J. L.; Anderson, C. E.; Bazarko, A. O.; Brice, S. J.; Brown, B. C.; Bugel, L.; Cao, J.; Catala-Perez, J.; Cheng, G.; Coney, L.; Conrad, J. M.; Cox, D. C.; Curioni, A.; Dharmapalan, R.; Djurcic, Z.; Dore, U.; Finley, D. A.; Fleming, B. T.; Ford, R.; Franke, A. J.; Garcia, F. G.; Garvey, G. T.; Giganti, C.; Gomez-Cadenas, J. J.; Grange, J.; Green, C.; Green, J. A.; Guzowski, P.; Hanson, A.; Hart, T. L.; Hawker, E.; Hayato, Y.; Hiraide, K.; Huelsnitz, W.; Imlay, R.; Johnson, R. A.; Jones, B. J. P.; Jover-Manas, G.; Karagiorgi, G.; Kasper, P.; Katori, T.; Kobayashi, Y. K.; Kobilarcik, T.; Kourbanis, I.; Koutsoliotas, S.; Kubo, H.; Kurimoto, Y.; Laird, E. M.; Linden, S. K.; Link, J. M.; Liu, Y.; Liu, Y.; Louis, W. C.; Loverre, P. F.; Ludovici, L.; Mariani, C.; Marsh, W.; Masuike, S.; Matsuoka, K.; Mauger, C.; McGary, V. T.; McGregor, G.; Metcalf, W.; Meyers, P. D.; Mills, F.; Mills, G. B.; Mitsuka, G.; Miyachi, Y.; Mizugashira, S.; Monroe, J.; Moore, C. D.; Mousseau, J.; Nakaya, T.; Napora, R.; Nelson, R. H.; Nienaber, P.; Nowak, J. A.; Orme, D.; Osmanov, B.; Otani, M.; Ouedraogo, S.; Patterson, R. B.; Pavlovic, Z.; Perevalov, D.; Polly, C. C.; Prebys, E.; Raaf, J. L.; Ray, H.; Roe, B. P.; Russell, A. D.; Sanchez, F.; Sandberg, V.; Schirato, R.; Schmitz, D.; Shaevitz, M. H.; Shibata, T.-A.; Shoemaker, F. C.; Smith, D.; Soderberg, M.; Sorel, M.; Spentzouris, P.; Spitz, J.; Stancu, I.; Stefanski, R. J.; Sung, M.; Takei, H.; Tanaka, H. A.; Tanaka, H.-K.; Tanaka, M.; Tayloe, R.; Taylor, I. J.; Tesarek, R. J.; Tzanov, M.; Uchida, Y.; van de Water, R.; Walding, J. J.; Wascko, M. O.; White, D. H.; White, H. B.; Wilking, M. J.; Yokoyama, M.; Yang, H. J.; Zeller, G. P.; Zimmerman, E. D.

    2012-02-01

    The SciBooNE and MiniBooNE collaborations report the results of a νμ disappearance search in the Δm2 region of 0.5-40eV2. The neutrino rate as measured by the SciBooNE tracking detectors is used to constrain the rate at the MiniBooNE Cherenkov detector in the first joint analysis of data from both collaborations. Two separate analyses of the combined data samples set 90% confidence level (CL) limits on νμ disappearance in the 0.5-40eV2 Δm2 region, with an improvement over previous experimental constraints between 10 and 30eV2.

  5. Low-energy (<20 eV) and high-energy (1000 eV) electron-induced methanol radiolysis of astrochemical interest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sullivan, Kristal K.; Boamah, Mavis D.; Shulenberger, Katie E.; Chapman, Sitara; Atkinson, Karen E.; Boyer, Michael C.; Arumainayagam, Christopher R.

    2016-07-01

    We report the first infrared study of the low-energy (<20 eV) electron-induced reactions of condensed methanol. Our goal is to simulate processes which occur when high-energy cosmic rays interact with interstellar and cometary ices, where methanol, a precursor of several prebiotic species, is relatively abundant. The interactions of high-energy radiation, such as cosmic rays (Emax ˜ 1020 eV), with matter produce large numbers of low-energy secondary electrons, which are known to initiate radiolysis reactions in the condensed phase. Using temperature programmed desorption (TPD) and infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy (IRAS), we have investigated low-energy (5-20 eV) and high-energy (˜1000 eV) electron-induced reactions in condensed methanol (CH3OH). IRAS has the benefit that it does not require thermal processing prior to product detection. Using IRAS, we have found evidence for the formation of ethylene glycol (HOCH2CH2OH), formaldehyde (CH2O), dimethyl ether (CH3OCH3), methane (CH4), carbon dioxide (CO2), carbon monoxide (CO), and the hydroxyl methyl radical (·CH2OH) upon both low-energy and high-energy electron irradiation of condensed methanol at ˜85 K. Additionally, TPD results, presented herein, are similar for methanol films irradiated with both 1000 eV and 20 eV electrons. These IRAS and TPD findings are qualitatively consistent with the hypothesis that high-energy condensed phase radiolysis is mediated by low-energy electron-induced reactions. Moreover, methoxymethanol (CH3OCH2OH) could serve as a tracer molecule for electron-induced reactions in the interstellar medium. The results of experiments such as ours may provide a fundamental understanding of how complex organic molecules are synthesized in cosmic ices.

  6. A clinically authentic mouse model of enterovirus 71 (EV-A71)-induced neurogenic pulmonary oedema

    PubMed Central

    Victorio, Carla Bianca Luena; Xu, Yishi; Ng, Qimei; Chua, Beng Hooi; Alonso, Sylvie; Chow, Vincent T. K.; Chua, Kaw Bing

    2016-01-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV-A71) is a neurotropic virus that sporadically causes fatal neurologic illness among infected children. Animal models of EV-A71 infection exist, but they do not recapitulate in animals the spectrum of disease and pathology observed in fatal human cases. Specifically, neurogenic pulmonary oedema (NPE)—the main cause of EV-A71 infection-related mortality—is not observed in any of these models. This limits their utility in understanding viral pathogenesis of neurologic infections. We report the development of a mouse model of EV-A71 infection displaying NPE in severely affected animals. We inoculated one-week-old BALB/c mice with an adapted EV-A71 strain and identified clinical signs consistent with observations in human cases and other animal models. We also observed respiratory distress in some mice. At necropsy, we found their lungs to be heavier and incompletely collapsed compared to other mice. Serum levels of catecholamines and histopathology of lung and brain tissues of these mice strongly indicated onset of NPE. The localization of virally-induced brain lesions also suggested a potential pathogenic mechanism for EV-A71-induced NPE. This novel mouse model of virally-induced NPE represents a valuable resource for studying viral mechanisms of neuro-pathogenesis and pre-clinical testing of potential therapeutics and prophylactics against EV-A71-related neurologic complications. PMID:27357918

  7. Management Approach for NASA's Earth Venture-1 (EV-1) Airborne Science Investigations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guillory, Anthony R.; Denkins, Todd C.; Allen, B. Danette

    2013-01-01

    The Earth System Science Pathfinder (ESSP) Program Office (PO) is responsible for programmatic management of National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Science Mission Directorate's (SMD) Earth Venture (EV) missions. EV is composed of both orbital and suborbital Earth science missions. The first of the Earth Venture missions is EV-1, which are Principal Investigator-led, temporally-sustained, suborbital (airborne) science investigations costcapped at $30M each over five years. Traditional orbital procedures, processes and standards used to manage previous ESSP missions, while effective, are disproportionally comprehensive for suborbital missions. Conversely, existing airborne practices are primarily intended for smaller, temporally shorter investigations, and traditionally managed directly by a program scientist as opposed to a program office such as ESSP. In 2010, ESSP crafted a management approach for the successful implementation of the EV-1 missions within the constructs of current governance models. NASA Research and Technology Program and Project Management Requirements form the foundation of the approach for EV-1. Additionally, requirements from other existing NASA Procedural Requirements (NPRs), systems engineering guidance and management handbooks were adapted to manage programmatic, technical, schedule, cost elements and risk. As the EV-1 missions are nearly at the end of their successful execution and project lifecycle and the submission deadline of the next mission proposals near, the ESSP PO is taking the lessons learned and updated the programmatic management approach for all future Earth Venture Suborbital (EVS) missions for an even more flexible and streamlined management approach.

  8. Development of a Quantum Dot, 0.6 eV InGaAs Thermophotovoltaic (TPV) Converter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Forbes, David; Sinharoy, Samar; Raffalle, Ryne; Weizer, Victor; Homann, Natalie; Valko, Thomas; Bartos,Nichole; Scheiman, David; Bailey, Sheila

    2007-01-01

    Thermophotovoltaic (TPV) power conversion has to date demonstrated conversion efficiencies exceeding 20% when coupled to a heat source. Current III-V semiconductor TPV technology makes use of planar devices with bandgaps tailored to the heat source. The efficiency can be improved further by increasing the collection efficiency through the incorporation of InAs quantum dots. The use of these dots can provide sub-gap absorption and thus improve the cell short circuit current without the normal increase in dark current associated with lowering the bandgap. We have developed self-assembled InAs quantum dots using the Stranski-Krastanov growth mode on 0.74 eV In0.53GaAs lattice-matched to InP and also on lattice-mismatched 0.6 eV In0.69GaAs grown on InP through the use of a compositionally graded InPAsx buffer structure, by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy (MOVPE). Atomic force microscopy (AFM) measurements showed that the most reproducible dot pattern was obtained with 5 monolayers of InAs grown at 450 C. The lattice mismatch between InAs and In0.69GaAs is only 2.1%, compared to 3.2% between InAs and In0.53GaAs. The smaller mismatch results in lower strain, making dot formation somewhat more complicated, resulting in quantum dashes, rather than well defined quantum dots in the lattice-mismatched case. We have fabricated 0.6 eV InGaAs planer TPV cells with and without the quantum dashes

  9. Searching for a correlation between cosmic-ray sources above 10{sup 19} eV and large scale structure

    SciTech Connect

    Kashti, Tamar; Waxman, Eli E-mail: eli.waxman@weizmann.ac.il

    2008-05-15

    We study the anisotropy signature which is expected if the sources of ultrahigh energy, >10{sup 19} eV, cosmic rays (UHECRs) are extra-galactic and trace the large scale distribution of luminous matter. Using the PSCz galaxy catalog as a tracer of the large scale structure (LSS), we derive the expected all sky angular distribution of the UHECR intensity. We define a statistic that measures the correlation between the predicted and observed UHECR arrival direction distributions, and show that it is more sensitive to the expected anisotropy signature than the power spectrum and the two-point correlation function. The distribution of the correlation statistic is not sensitive to the unknown redshift evolution of UHECR source density and to the unknown strength and structure of inter-galactic magnetic fields. We show, using this statistic, that recently published >5.7 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 19} eV Auger data are inconsistent with isotropy at Asymptotically-Equal-To 98% CL, and consistent with a source distribution that traces LSS, with some preference for a source distribution that is biased with respect to the galaxy distribution. The anisotropy signature should be detectable also at lower energy, >4 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 19} eV. A few-fold increase of the Auger exposure is likely to increase the significance to >99% CL, but not to>99.9% CL (unless the UHECR source density is comparable to or larger than that of galaxies). In order to distinguish between different bias models, the systematic uncertainty in the absolute energy calibration of the experiments should be reduced to well below the current Asymptotically-Equal-To 25%.

  10. Complete coding regions of the prototypes enterovirus B93 and C95: phylogenetic analyses of the P1 and P3 regions of EV-B and EV-C strains.

    PubMed

    Junttila, N; Lévêque, N; Magnius, L O; Kabue, J P; Muyembe-Tamfum, J J; Maslin, J; Lina, B; Norder, H

    2015-03-01

    Complete coding regions were sequenced for two new enterovirus genomes: EV-B93 previously identified by VP1 sequencing, derived from a child with acute flaccid paralysis in the Democratic Republic of Congo; and EV-C95 from a French soldier with acute gastroenteritis in Djibouti. The EV-B93 P1 had more than 30% nucleotide divergence from other EV-B types, with highest similarity to E-15 and EV-B80. The P1 nucleotide sequence of EV-C95 was most similar, 71%, to CV-A21. Complete coding regions for the new enteroviruses were compared with those of 135 EV-B and 176 EV-C strains representing all types available in GenBank. When strains from the same outbreak or strains isolated during the same year in the same geographical region were excluded, 27 of the 58 EV-B, and 16 of the 23 EV-C types were represented by more than one sequence. However, for EV-B the P3 sequences formed three clades mainly according to origin or time of isolation, irrespective of type, while for EV-C the P3 sequences segregated mainly according to disease manifestation, with most strains causing paralysis, including polioviruses, forming one clade, and strains causing respiratory illness forming another. There was no intermixing of types between these two clades, apart from two EV-C96 strains. The EV-B P3 sequences had lower inter-clade and higher intra-clade variability as compared to the EV-C sequences, which may explain why inter-clade recombinations are more frequent in EV-B. Further analysis of more isolates may shed light on the role of recombinations in the evolution of EV-B in geographical context.

  11. Comparative analysis of EV isolation procedures for miRNAs detection in serum samples

    PubMed Central

    Andreu, Zoraida; Rivas, Eva; Sanguino-Pascual, Aitana; Lamana, Amalia; Marazuela, Mónica; González-Alvaro, Isidoro; Sánchez-Madrid, Francisco; de la Fuente, Hortensia; Yáñez-Mó, María

    2016-01-01

    Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are emerging as potent non-invasive biomarkers. However, current methodologies are time consuming and difficult to translate to clinical practice. To analyse EV-encapsulated circulating miRNA, we searched for a quick, easy and economic method to enrich frozen human serum samples for EV. We compared the efficiency of several protocols and commercial kits to isolate EVs. Different methods based on precipitation, columns or filter systems were tested and compared with ultracentrifugation, which is the most classical protocol to isolate EVs. EV samples were assessed for purity and quantity by nanoparticle tracking analysis and western blot or cytometry against major EV protein markers. For biomarker validation, levels of a set of miRNAs were determined in EV fractions and compared with their levels in total serum. EVs isolated with precipitation-based methods were enriched for a subgroup of miRNAs that corresponded to miRNAs described to be encapsulated into EVs (miR-126, miR-30c and miR-143), while the detection of miR-21, miR-16-5p and miR-19a was very low compared with total serum. Our results point to precipitation using polyethylene glycol (PEG) as a suitable method for an easy and cheap enrichment of serum EVs for miRNA analyses. The overall performance of PEG was very similar, or better than other commercial precipitating reagents, in both protein and miRNA yield, but in comparison to them PEG is much cheaper. Other methods presented poorer results, mostly when assessing miRNA by qPCR analyses. Using PEG precipitation in a longitudinal study with human samples, we demonstrated that miRNA could be assessed in frozen samples up to 8 years of storage. We report a method based on a cut-off value of mean of fold EV detection versus serum that provides an estimate of the degree of encapsulation of a given miRNA. PMID:27330048

  12. Enterovirus type 71 neutralizing antibodies in the serum of macaque monkeys immunized with EV71 virus-like particles.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yu-Li; Yu, Chun-I; Hu, Yu-Chen; Tsai, Tze-Jiun; Kuo, Yin-Chieh; Chi, Wei-Kuang; Lin, Ae-Ning; Chiang, Bor-Luen

    2012-02-08

    Enterovirus type 71 (EV71) is a virulent form of enteroviruses causing hospitalizations for children less than three years of age. Currently there are no anti-viral therapies or vaccines available for EV71. Due to the high risk of poliomyelitis-like paralysis and fatal encephalitis, an effective vaccine to EV71 could potentially prevent virus-induced morbidity and mortality. In this study, we first tested a potential EV71 vaccine candidate based on virus-like particles (VLP). We vaccinated macaque monkeys to validate the immunogenicity of the VLP vaccine to EV71. We detected the VLP or EV71-specific antibodies, neutralization titers, ELISPOT, and T cell response to find their immune responses to EV71. When the VLP vaccine adjuvanted with alum was given to macaque monkeys, these monkeys developed both specific humoral and cellular immune responses to EV71. Despite lower neutralizing antibodies to EV71 were found in sera of VLP-immunized monkeys than monkeys vaccinated with inactivated EV71, VLP-based vaccine generated a memory immune response to EV71. Hence, VLP-based EV71 vaccine is a potential vaccine against EV71 infection.

  13. A number of upgrades on RHIC power supply system

    SciTech Connect

    Mi, C.; Bruno, D.; Drozd, J.; Nolan, T.; Orsatti, F.; Heppener, G.; Di Lieto, A.; Schultheiss, C.; Samms, T.; Zapasek, R.; Sandberg, J.

    2015-05-03

    This year marks the 15th run for the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). Operation of a reliable superconducting magnet power supply system is a key factor of an accelerator’s performance. Over the past 15 years, the RHIC power supply group has made many improvements to increase the machine availability and reduce failures. During these past 15 years of operating RHIC a lot of problems have been solved or addressed. In this paper some of the essential upgrades/improvements are discussed.

  14. Dynamics of a Z Pinch X Ray Source for Heating ICF Relevant Hohlraums to 120-160eV

    SciTech Connect

    SANFORD,THOMAS W. L.; OLSON,RICHARD E.; MOCK,RAYMOND CECIL; CHANDLER,GORDON A.; LEEPER,RAMON J.; NASH,THOMAS J.; RUGGLES,LAURENCE E.; SIMPSON,WALTER W.; STRUVE,KENNETH W.; PETERSON,D.L.; BOWERS,R.L.; MATUSKA,W.

    2000-07-10

    A z-pinch radiation source has been developed that generates 60 {+-} 20 KJ of x-rays with a peak power of 13 {+-} 4 TW through a 4-mm diameter axial aperture on the Z facility. The source has heated NIF (National Ignition Facility)-scale (6-mm diameter by 7-mm high) hohlraums to 122 {+-} 6 eV and reduced-scale (4-mm diameter by 4-mm high) hohlraums to 155 {+-} 8 eV -- providing environments suitable for indirect-drive ICF (Inertial Confinement Fusion) studies. Eulerian-RMHC (radiation-hydrodynamics code) simulations that take into account the development of the Rayleigh-Taylor instability in the r-z plane provide integrated calculations of the implosion, x-ray generation, and hohlraum heating, as well as estimates of wall motion and plasma fill within the hohlraums. Lagrangian-RMHC simulations suggest that the addition of a 6 mg/cm{sup 3} CH{sub 2} fill in the reduced-scale hohlraum decreases hohlraum inner-wall velocity by {approximately}40% with only a 3--5% decrease in peak temperature, in agreement with measurements.

  15. EV71 vaccines: a first step towards multivalent hand, foot and mouth disease vaccines.

    PubMed

    Klein, Michel H

    2015-03-01

    Enterovirus A infections are the primary cause of hand, foot and mouth disease in infants and young children. Enterovirus 71 (EV71) and coxsackievirus A16 have emerged as neurotropic viruses responsible for severe neurological complications and a serious public health threat across the Asia-Pacific region. Formalin-inactivated EV71 vaccines have elicited protection against EV71 but not against coxsackievirus A16 infections. The development of a bivalent formalin-inactivated EV71/FI coxsackievirus A16 vaccine should be the next step towards that of multivalent hand, foot and mouth disease vaccines which should ultimately include other prevalent pathogenic coxsackieviruses and echovirus 30. This editorial summarizes the major challenges faced by the development of hand, foot and mouth disease vaccines.

  16. Analysis of cross-reactive neutralizing antibodies in human HFMD serum with an EV71 pseudovirus-based assay.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Huafei; An, Dong; Liu, Wei; Mao, Qunying; Jin, Jun; Xu, Lin; Sun, Shiyang; Jiang, Liping; Li, Xiaojun; Shao, Jie; Ma, Hongxia; Huang, Xueyong; Guo, Shijie; Chen, Haiying; Cheng, Tong; Yang, Lisheng; Su, Weiheng; Kong, Wei; Liang, Zhenglun; Jiang, Chunlai

    2014-01-01

    Hand, foot and mouth disease, associated with enterovirus 71 (EV71) infections, has recently become an important public health issue throughout the world. Serum neutralizing antibodies are major indicators of EV71 infection and protective immunity. However, the potential for cross-reactivity of neutralizing antibodies for different EV71 genotypes and subgenotypes is unclear. Here we measured the cross-reactive neutralizing antibody titers against EV71 of different genotypes or subgenotypes in sera collected from EV71-infected children and vaccine-inoculated children in a phase III clinical trial (ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01636245) using a new pseudovirus-based neutralization assay. Antibodies induced by EV71-C4a were cross-reactive for different EV71 genotypes, demonstrating that C4a is a good candidate strain for an EV71 vaccine. Our study also demonstrated that this new assay is practical for analyses of clinical samples from epidemiological and vaccine studies.

  17. Cultural and morphological properties of the vaccine strain Yersinia pestis EV NIIEG bacteria after photodynamic inactivation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulianova, Onega V.; Lyapina, Anna M.; Khizhnyakova, Mariya A.; Laskavy, Vladislav N.; Feodorova, Valentina A.; Ulyanov, Sergey S.

    2015-03-01

    New method of photoinactivation of plague microbes (bacteria Yersinia pestis) has been suggested. Rate of growth of colonies of Y. pestis EV NIIEG at specific regimes of photo processing have been analyzed. Dependence of growth on exposure time and concentrations of photosensitizer (methylene blue) has been studied. Number of colony forming units of Y. pestis EV NIIEG bacteria as a function of intensity of light and concentration of methylene blue has been scrutinized.

  18. Iron-plasma transmission measurements at temperatures above 150 eV.

    PubMed

    Bailey, J E; Rochau, G A; Iglesias, C A; Abdallah, J; Macfarlane, J J; Golovkin, I; Wang, P; Mancini, R C; Lake, P W; Moore, T C; Bump, M; Garcia, O; Mazevet, S

    2007-12-31

    Measurements of iron-plasma transmission at 156+/-6 eV electron temperature and 6.9+/-1.7 x 10(21) cm(-3) electron density are reported over the 800-1800 eV photon energy range. The temperature is more than twice that in prior experiments, permitting the first direct experimental tests of absorption features critical for understanding solar interior radiation transport. Detailed line-by-line opacity models are in excellent agreement with the data.

  19. A comparison of the biological characteristics of EV71 C4 subtypes from different epidemic strains.

    PubMed

    Wang, Li-chun; Tang, Song-qing; Li, Yan-mei; Zhao, Hong-lin; Dong, Cheng-hong; Cui, Ping-fang; Ma, Shao-hui; Liao, Yun; Liu, Long-ding; Li, Qi-han

    2010-04-01

    The comparative analysis of the biological characterization and the genetic background study of EV71 circulating strains is commonly recognized as basic work necessary for development of an effective EV71 vaccine. In this study, we sequenced five EV71 circulating strains, isolated from Fuyang, Hefei, Kunming and Shenzhen city of China and named them FY-23, FY-22, H44, K9 and S1 respectively. The sequence alignment demonstrated their genotypes be C4. The genetic distance of the VP1 gene from these isolates suggested that they were highly co-related with genetic identity similar to other previously reported EV71 strains in China. Additionally, these strains were identified to display some obvious proliferation dynamics and plaque morphology when propagated in Vero cells. However, a distinctive difference in pathogenic ability in neonatal mice was found. Some differences in cross neutralization test & immunogenic analysis were also found. All these results are related to the biological characterization of circulating EV71 strains in China and aid in the development of an EV71 vaccine in the future.

  20. miR-27a suppresses EV71 replication by directly targeting EGFR.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lianglu; Chen, Xiong; Shi, Yingying; Zhou, Bingfei; Du, Chen; Liu, Yongjuan; Han, Song; Yin, Jun; Peng, Biwen; He, Xiaohua; Liu, Wanhong

    2014-12-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71), a major causative agent of hand, foot, and mouth disease, has broken out several times and was accompanied by neurological disease. microRNAs, a class of small non-coding RNAs that are approximately 20 nucleotides long, play important roles in the regulation of various biological processes, including antiviral defense. However, the roles of miRNAs in EV71 replication and pathogenesis are not well understood. In this study, we found that the expression of miR-27a was significantly decreased in EV71-infected cells. Interestingly, the over-expression of miR-27a could inhibit EV71 replication, as measured by virus titration, qPCR, and Western blotting. We identified EGFR mRNA is a bona fide target of miR-27a by computational analysis and luciferase reporter assays. Furthermore, miR-27a could decrease EGFR expression, as measured by qPCR and Western blotting. Moreover, the inhibition of EGFR expression by miR-27a decreased the phosphorylation of Akt and ERK, which facilitate EV71 replication. These results suggest that miR-27a may have antiviral activity against EV71 by inhibiting EGFR.

  1. Two models for changes of EV71 immunity in infants and young children.

    PubMed

    Tu, Xiaoming; Wang, Yongmei; Zhu, Fengcai; Chen, Feng

    2015-01-01

    Human enterovirus 71 (EV71) has been associated with outbreaks of hand-foot-and-mouth disease (HFMD) in China. Susceptibility to EV71 is associated with age, but few studies have been accomplished to measure such a relationship. A better understanding of the connection between susceptibility and age is necessary to develop strategies for control of HFMD. In 2010, a survey of an epidemic of EV71 was conducted in a northern city of Jiangsu Province in China. Samples were tested serologically to identify the EV71 neutralizing antibody. Two different mathematical models have now been employed to describe how this antibody varied with age, and parameters in the model were estimated from survey data. Both models depicted the variations in EV71-neutralizing antibody. Seroprevalence was high for neonates but decreased to near zero at 5 months of age. Subsequently, the EV71 antibody levels increased and then remained stable after about 36 months. For models 1 and 2, values for the coefficient of determination (R(2)) were 0.9458 and 0.9576, and values for root mean square error (RMSE) were 0.0755 and 0.0752, respectively. Model 2, formulated from the characteristics of development of the immune system, was more reliable than model 1, formulated from survey data, because the impact of the survey on the structure of the model was removed. Moreover, model 2 provided the possibility to define the parameters in a biological sense.

  2. O(1) eV sterile neutrino in f( R) gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chudaykin, A. C.

    2017-01-01

    We refer [1] to the role of an additional O(1) eV sterile neutrino in modified gravity models. We find parameter constraints in particular f( R) gravity model using following up-to-dated cosmological data: measurements of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropy, the CMB lensing potential, the baryon acoustic oscillations (BAO), the cluster mass function and the Hubble constant. It was obtained for the sterile neutrino mass 0.47 eV < m ν,sterile < 1 eV (2σ) assuming that the sterile neutrinos are thermalized and the active neutrinos are massless, not significantly larger than in the standard cosmology model within the same data set: 0.45 eV < m ν,sterile < 0.92 eV (2σ). But, if the mass of sterile neutrino is fixed and equals ≈ 1.5 eV according to various anomalies in neutrino oscillation experiments, f( R) gravity is much more consistent with observation data than the CDM model.

  3. A novel finding for enterovirus virulence from the capsid protein VP1 of EV71 circulating in mainland China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yongjuan; Fu, Chong; Wu, Suying; Chen, Xiong; Shi, Yingying; Zhou, Bingfei; Zhang, Lianglu; Zhang, Fengfeng; Wang, Zhihao; Zhang, Yingying; Fan, Chengpeng; Han, Song; Yin, Jun; Peng, Biwen; Liu, Wanhong; He, Xiaohua

    2014-04-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is a neurotropic virus that causes various clinical manifestations in young children, ranging from asymptomatic to fatal. Different pathotypes of EV71 notably differ in virulence. Several virulence determinants of EV71 have been predicted. However, these reported virulence determinants could not be used to identify the EV71 strains of subgenotype C4, which mainly circulate in China. In this study, VP1 sequences of 37 EV71 strains from severe cases (SC-EV71) and 192 EV71 strains from mild cases (MC-EV71) in mainland China were analyzed to determine the potential virulence determinants in the capsid protein VP1 of EV71. Although most SC-EV71 strains belonged to subgenotype C4a, no specific genetic lineages in C4a were correlated with EV71 virulence. Interestingly, amino acid substitutions at nine positions (H22Q, P27S, N31S/D, E98K, E145G/Q, D164E, T240A/S, V249I, and A289T) were detected by aligning the VP1 sequences of the SC-EV71 and MC-EV71 strains. Moreover, both the constituent ratios of the conservative or mutated residues in the MC-EV71 and SC-EV71 strains and the changes in the VP1 3D structure resulting from these mutations confirmed that the conservative residues (22H, 249V, and 289A) and the mutated residues (27S, 31S/D, 98K, 145G/Q, 164E, and 240A/S) might be potential virulence determinants in VP1 of EV71. Furthermore, these results led to the hypothesis that VP1 acts as a sandwich switch for viral particle stabilization and cellular receptors attachment, and specific mutations in this protein can convert mild cases into severe cases. These findings highlight new opportunities for diagnostic and therapeutic interventions.

  4. Imaging the heliosphere using neutral atoms from solar wind energy down to 15 eV

    SciTech Connect

    Galli, A.; Wurz, P.; Fuselier, S. A.; McComas, D. J.; Bzowski, M.; Sokół, J. M.; Kubiak, M. A.; Möbius, E.

    2014-11-20

    We study the spatial and temporal distribution of hydrogen energetic neutral atoms (ENAs) from the heliosheath observed with the IBEX-Lo sensor of the Interstellar Boundary EXplorer (IBEX) from solar wind energies down to the lowest available energy (15 eV). All available IBEX-Lo data from 2009 January until 2013 June were included. The sky regions imaged when the spacecraft was outside of Earth's magnetosphere and when the Earth was moving toward the direction of observation offer a sufficient signal-to-noise ratio even at very low energies. We find that the ENA ribbon—a 20° wide region of high ENA intensities—is most prominent at solar wind energies whereas it fades at lower energies. The maximum emission in the ribbon is located near the poles for 2 keV and closer to the ecliptic plane for energies below 1 keV. This shift is an evidence that the ENA ribbon originates from the solar wind. Below 0.1 keV, the ribbon can no longer be identified against the globally distributed ENA signal. The ENA measurements in the downwind direction are affected by magnetospheric contamination below 0.5 keV, but a region of very low ENA intensities can be identified from 0.1 keV to 2 keV. The energy spectra of heliospheric ENAs follow a uniform power law down to 0.1 keV. Below this energy, they seem to become flatter, which is consistent with predictions. Due to the subtraction of local background, the ENA intensities measured with IBEX agree with the upper limit derived from Lyα observations.

  5. Measurement of energy muons in EAS at energy region larger thean 10(17) eV

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matsubara, Y.; Hara, T.; Hayashida, N.; Kamata, K.; Nagano, M.; Ohoka, H.; Tanahasni, G.; Teshima, T.

    1985-01-01

    A measurement of low energy muons in extensive air showers (EAS) (threshold energies are 0.25, 0.5, 0.75 and 1.38 GeV) was carried out. The density under the concrete shielding equivalent to 0.25 GeV at core distance less than 500 m and 0.5 GeV less than 150 m suffers contamination of electromagnetic components. Therefore the thickness of concrete shielding for muon detectors for the giant air shower array is determined to be 0.5 GeV equivalence. Effects of photoproduced muons are found to be negligible in the examined ranges of shower sizes and core distances. The fluctuation of the muon density in 90 sq m is at most 25% between 200 m and 600 m from the core around 10 to the 17th power eV.

  6. Measurement of the cosmic ray spectrum above 4×1018 eV using inclined events detected with the Pierre Auger Observatory

    DOE PAGES

    Aab, Alexander

    2015-08-26

    A measurement of the cosmic-ray spectrum for energies exceeding 4×1018 eV is presented, which is based on the analysis of showers with zenith angles greater than 60° detected with the Pierre Auger Observatory between 1 January 2004 and 31 December 2013. The measured spectrum confirms a flux suppression at the highest energies. Above 5.3×1018 eV, the ``ankle'', the flux can be described by a power law E–γ with index γ=2.70 ± 0.02 (stat) ± 0.1 (sys) followed by a smooth suppression region. For the energy (Es) at which the spectral flux has fallen to one-half of its extrapolated value inmore » the absence of suppression, we find Es=(5.12±0.25 (stat)+1.0–1.2 (sys))×1019 eV.« less

  7. Identification of specific antigenic epitope at N-terminal segment of enterovirus 71 (EV-71) VP1 protein and characterization of its use in recombinant form for early diagnosis of EV-71 infection

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jianhua; Jiang, Bingfu; Xu, Mingjie; Dai, Xing; Purdy, Michael A.; Meng, Jihong

    2015-01-01

    Human enterovirus 71 (EV-71) is the main etiologic agent of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD). We sought to identify EV-71 specific antigens and develop serologic assays for acute-phase EV-71 infection. A series of truncated proteins within the N-terminal 100 amino acids (aa) of EV-71 VP1 was expressed in Escherichia coli. Western blot (WB) analysis showed that positions around 11–21 aa contain EV-71-specific antigenic sites, whereas positions 1–5 and 51–100 contain epitopes shared with human coxsackievirus A16 (CV-A16) and human echovirus 6 (E-6). The N-terminal truncated protein of VP1, VP16–43, exhibited good stability and was recognized by anti-EV-71 specific rabbit sera. Alignment analysis showed that VP16–43 is highly conserved among EV-71 strains from different genotypes but was heterologous among other enteroviruses. When the GST-VP16–43 fusion protein was incorporated as antibody-capture agent in a WB assay and an ELISA for detecting anti-EV-71 IgM in human sera, sensitivities of 91.7% and 77.8% were achieved, respectively, with 100% specificity for both. The characterized EV-71 VP1 protein truncated to positions 6–43 aa has potential as an antigen for detection of anti-EV-71 IgM for early diagnosis of EV-71 infection in a WB format. PMID:24952304

  8. Experimental characterization of NIF hohlraum emission in the Rayleigh-Jeans limit (1 eV to 5 eV)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moody, J. D.; Goyon, C. E.; Ross, J. S.; Swadling, G. F.; Moore, A. S.; Baker, K. L.; Thomas, C. A.; Schneider, M. B.; Landen, O. L.; Michel, P. A.; Strozzi, D. J.; Divol, L.; Widmann, K.

    2016-10-01

    We use several measurements to estimate NIF hohlraum emission in the Rayleigh-Jeans limit where hν <eV. The measurements are primarily optical, consisting of hohlraum emission which transmits through the capsule and is collected by an optical photodiode, optical emission emitted from the laser-entrance hole in the 4 eV range, and various other optical measurements. These measurements can help quantify the laser-plasma interaction processes occurring in the hohlraum and may provide insight into the atomic physics of the Au wall at long wavelength. We describe our findings and discuss interpretations. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  9. X-ray grating spectrometer for opacity measurements in the 50 eV to 250 eV spectral range at the LULI 2000 laser facilitya)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reverdin, Charles; Thais, Frédéric; Loisel, Guillaume; Busquet, M.; Bastiani-Ceccotti, S.; Blenski, T.; Caillaud, T.; Ducret, J. E.; Foelsner, W.; Gilles, D.; Gilleron, F.; Pain, J. C.; Poirier, M.; Serres, F.; Silvert, V.; Soullie, G.; Turck-Chieze, S.; Villette, B.

    2012-10-01

    An x-ray grating spectrometer was built in order to measure opacities in the 50 eV to 250 eV spectral range with an average spectral resolution ⟨E/δE⟩ ˜ 50. It has been used at the LULI-2000 laser facility at École Polytechnique (France) to measure the Δn = 0, n = 3 transitions of several elements with neighboring atomic number: Cr, Fe, Ni, and Cu in the same experimental conditions. Hence a spectrometer with a wide spectral range is required. This spectrometer features one line of sight looking through a heated sample at backlighter emission. It is outfitted with one toroidal condensing mirror and several flat mirrors cutting off higher energy photons. The spectral dispersion is obtained with a flatfield grating. Detection consists of a streak camera sensitive to soft x-ray radiation. Some experimental results showing the performance of this spectrometer are presented.

  10. Cosmic ray chemical composition estimated between 2 × 10 14 eV and 2 × 10 16 eV using muon size fluctuations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitsui, K.; Aoki, T.; Ohashi, Y.; Okada, A.; Muraki, Y.; Maehara, O.; Kojima, H.; Shibata, S.; Takahashi, T.; Kobayakawa, K.; Capdevielle, J. N.

    1995-03-01

    Accurate measurement of the total number of muons in an air shower is important for estimating the cosmic ray chemical composition. In order to translate this view into action, we have constructed an air shower array at Ohya. Many large muon detectors have been deployed in the stone mine and the total area amounts to about 400 m 2. At the ground surface, scintillation counters have been deployed for determining the shower size and arrival direction of an air shower. From the data obtained, we estimated the cosmic ray chemical composition between 2 × 10 14 eV and 2 × 10 16 eV, which includes the well known spectrum's "knee". As a method of estimation, we took the muon size fluctuation. The estimated rate of protons becomes relatively low, and that of helium nuclei increases, above an energy of 2 × 10 15 eV. Also, the fraction of very heavy nuclei such as iron increases above this energy.

  11. Identification, synthesis and pharmacological evaluation of novel anti-EV71 agents via cyclophilin A inhibition.

    PubMed

    Yan, Wenzhong; Qing, Jie; Mei, Hanbing; Nong, Junxiu; Huang, Jin; Zhu, Jin; Jiang, Hualiang; Liu, Lei; Zhang, Linqi; Li, Jian

    2015-12-15

    In this work, the relationship between cyclophilin A (CypA) and EV71 prompted us to screen a series of small molecular CypA inhibitors which were previously reported by our group. Among them, compounds 1 and 2 were discovered as non-immunosuppressive anti-EV71 agents with an EC50 values of 1.07±0.17μM and 3.36±0.45μM in virus assay, respectively, which were desirably for the further study. The subsequent chemical modifications derived a novel class of molecules, among which compound 11 demonstrated the most potent anti-EV71 activity in virus assay (EC50=0.37±0.17μM), and low cytotoxicity (CC50>25μM). The following CypA enzyme inhibition studies indicated that there was not only the enzyme inhibition activity, undoubtedly important, functioning in the antiviral process, but also some unknown mechanisms worked in combination, and the further study is underway in our laboratory. Nevertheless, to the best of our knowledge, compound 11 was probably the most potent small molecular anti-EV71 agent via CypA inhibitory mechanism to date. Consequently, our study provided a new potential small molecule for curing EV71 infection.

  12. Usage of Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment Along the Corridors between the EV Project Major Cities

    SciTech Connect

    Mindy Kirkpatrick

    2012-05-01

    The report explains how the EVSE are being used along the corridors between the EV Project cities. The EV Project consists of a nationwide collaboration between Idaho National Laboratory (INL), ECOtality North America, Nissan, General Motors, and more than 40 other city, regional and state governments, and electric utilities. The purpose of the EV Project is to demonstrate the deployment and use of approximately 14,000 Level II (208-240V) electric vehicle supply equipment (EVSE) and 300 fast chargers in 16 major cities. This research investigates the usage of all currently installed EV Project commercial EVSE along major interstate corridors. ESRI ArcMap software products are utilized to create geographic EVSE data layers for analysis and visualization of commercial EVSE usage. This research locates the crucial interstate corridors lacking sufficient commercial EVSE and targets locations for future commercial EVSE placement. The results and methods introduced in this research will be used by INL for the duration of the EV Project.

  13. Progress on the research and development of human enterovirus 71 (EV71) vaccines.

    PubMed

    Liang, Zhenglun; Mao, Qunying; Gao, Fan; Wang, Junzhi

    2013-03-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) infections, which can cause severe complications, have become one of the serious public health issues in the Western Pacific region and China. To date, a number of pharmaceutical companies and institutes have initiated the research and development of EV71 vaccines as a countermeasure. As is the case with innovative vaccine development, there are several critical bottlenecks in EV71 vaccine development that must be overcome before the clinical trials, including the selection of vaccine strain, standardization of the procedure for quantifying neutralizing antibody (NTAb) and antigen, establishment and application of a reference standard and biological standards, development of animal models for the evaluation of protective efficacy, and identification of the target patient population. To tackle these technical obstacles, researchers in Mainland of China have conducted a series of studies concerning the screening of vaccine strains and the establishment of criteria, biological standards and detection methods, thereby advancing EV71 vaccine development. This review summarizes recent worldwide progress on the quality control and evaluation of EV71 vaccines.

  14. MSC secretes at least 3 EV types each with a unique permutation of membrane lipid, protein and RNA.

    PubMed

    Lai, Ruenn Chai; Tan, Soon Sim; Yeo, Ronne Wee Yeh; Choo, Andre Boon Hwa; Reiner, Agnes T; Su, Yan; Shen, Yang; Fu, Zhiyan; Alexander, Lezhava; Sze, Siu Kwan; Lim, Sai Kiang

    2016-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC), a widely used adult stem cell candidate for regenerative medicine, has been shown to exert some of its therapeutic effects through the secretion of extracellular vesicles (EVs). These homogenously sized EVs of 100-150 ηm exhibited many exosome-like biophysical and biochemical properties and carry both proteins and RNAs. Recently, exosome-associated proteins in this MSC EV preparation were found to segregate primarily to those EVs that bind cholera toxin B chain (CTB), a GM1 ganglioside-specific ligand, and pulse-chase experiments demonstrated that these EVs have endosomal origin and carried many of the exosome-associated markers. Here, we report that only a fraction of the MSC EV proteome was found in CTB-bound EVs. Using Annexin V (AV) and Shiga toxin B subunit (ST) with affinities for phosphatidylserine and globotriaosylceramide, respectively, AV- and a ST-binding EV were identified. CTB-, AV- and ST-binding EVs all carried actin. However, the AV-binding EVs carried low or undetectable levels of the exosome-associated proteins. Only the ST-binding EVs carried RNA and EDA-containing fibronectin. Proteins in AV-binding EVs were also different from those released by apoptotic MSCs. CTB- and AV-binding activities were localized to the plasma membrane and cytoplasm of MSCs, while ST-binding activity was localized to the nucleus. Together, this study demonstrates that cells secrete many types of EVs. Specifically, MSCs secrete at least 3 types. They can be differentially isolated based on their affinities for membrane lipid-binding ligands. As the subcellular sites of the binding activities of these ligands and cargo load are different for each EV type, they are likely to have a different biogenesis pathway and possibly different functions.

  15. Diagnosis of hand, foot, and mouth disease caused by EV71 and other enteroviruses by a one-step, single tube, duplex RT-PCR.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Bingfu; Zhang, Jianhua; You, Xianhui; Dong, Chen; Cheng, Xianfeng; Dai, Xing; Meng, Jihong

    2012-11-01

    Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) is caused mainly by enterovirus 71 (EV71) and other enteroviruses (EVs) such as Coxsackie A16 in China. EV71 infection can lead to severe clinical manifestations and even death. Other EVs, however, generally cause mild symptoms. Thus, early and accurate distinction of EV71 from other EVs for HFMD will offer significant benefits. A one-step, single tube, duplex RT-PCR assay is described in the present study to detect simultaneously EV71 and other EVs. The primers used for the duplex RT-PCR underwent screening and optimization. The detection threshold was 0.001 TCID(50)/ml for EV71 and 0.01 TCID(50)/ml for other EVs. The positive rate of enterovirus detection in 165 clinical samples reached 68.5%, including 46.1% for EV71 and 22.4% for other EVs. Of all the severe HFMD cases, EV71 was responsible for 85.3% cases. The positive rate of EV71 fell markedly by day 8 after onset. In addition, sequencing of EV71 specific amplicons from duplex RT-PCR revealed that C4a was the predominant subgenotype of EV71 circulating in Nanjing, China. The accuracy and reliability of the assay suggest strongly that the one-step, single tube, duplex RT-PCR will be useful for early diagnosis and monitoring of EV71 and other EV infections.

  16. Stripping in collisions between hydrogen molecules below 500 eV.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterson, R. K.; Eisner, M.

    1973-01-01

    Measurement of the cross section of stripping the mass 2 and 4 isotopes from molecular hydrogen in their parent gases at kinetic energies between 50 and 500 eV. The angular dependence of the ions is found to be highly peaked in the forward direction, at energies above 100 eV. Plotted vs incident velocity, the cross sections for H2 and D2 approached the same value at the highest velocities and did diverge toward lower velocities. The behavior of the cross sections is found to be consistent with a theoretical model suggested by Demkov and Komarov (1968).

  17. First Results from a Microwave Cavity Axion Search at 24 μ eV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brubaker, B. M.; Zhong, L.; Gurevich, Y. V.; Cahn, S. B.; Lamoreaux, S. K.; Simanovskaia, M.; Root, J. R.; Lewis, S. M.; Al Kenany, S.; Backes, K. M.; Urdinaran, I.; Rapidis, N. M.; Shokair, T. M.; van Bibber, K. A.; Palken, D. A.; Malnou, M.; Kindel, W. F.; Anil, M. A.; Lehnert, K. W.; Carosi, G.

    2017-02-01

    We report on the first results from a new microwave cavity search for dark matter axions with masses above 20 μ eV . We exclude axion models with two-photon coupling ga γ γ≳2 ×10-14 GeV-1 over the range 23.55 eV . These results represent two important achievements. First, we have reached cosmologically relevant sensitivity an order of magnitude higher in mass than any existing limits. Second, by incorporating a dilution refrigerator and Josephson parametric amplifier, we have demonstrated total noise approaching the standard quantum limit for the first time in an axion search.

  18. Electron and positron scattering on rubidium at 200 eV

    SciTech Connect

    Chin, J. H.; Ratnavelu, K.; Zhou, Y.

    2014-03-05

    The recent implementation of the coupled-channels-optical method (CCOM) [1,2], in the study of the electron and positron-Rubidium(Rb) scattering at intermediate energies [3,4], shows that the continuum effect remains important as the energy increases, even to 100 eV. Here, we study the effect of the continuum in electron and positron scattering on Rb at an even higher energy namely 200 eV. The total, elastic and inelastic integral and differential cross sections are therefore calculated and compared to the available experimental [5] and theoretical data [6,7].

  19. Electron Transport Calculations Between 1MeV and 1 eV

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-12-01

    field term in the same manner as Wienke. Since our multigroup discrete ordinates equation solves for the flux as a function of energy, i.e. tg(Zp) ; O...L can be simplified as follows: eo =* _0.; 0 = v v 0- (6) Our multigroup -SN calculation requires that the flux be expressed in terms of energy rather... flux curves at energies in excess of 5 eV. 1 5 eV Isotropic Source Uniformly Distributed (.04-.06Mm) 10 5::: i Slee~ I 10 -=;•0 Z’• .04 .06 .AlM 10 - x

  20. The level at a few EV of excitation in [sup 229]Th

    SciTech Connect

    Reich, C.W.; Helmer, R.G.

    1992-01-01

    Several years ago, we reported that there was an excited state of [sup 229]Th that occurred within a few electron volts of the ground state. Since that time, we have carried out an extensive series of measurements in an effort to obtain a value, rather than merely a limit, for the excitation energy of this level. This study has now been completed. Analysis of these data, which is still in progress, indicates that this level energy is 4.5 eV, with an estimated uncertainty of 1 eV.

  1. The level at a few EV of excitation in {sup 229}Th

    SciTech Connect

    Reich, C.W.; Helmer, R.G.

    1992-12-31

    Several years ago, we reported that there was an excited state of {sup 229}Th that occurred within a few electron volts of the ground state. Since that time, we have carried out an extensive series of measurements in an effort to obtain a value, rather than merely a limit, for the excitation energy of this level. This study has now been completed. Analysis of these data, which is still in progress, indicates that this level energy is 4.5 eV, with an estimated uncertainty of 1 eV.

  2. Antiparticles in the extragalactic cosmic radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stecker, F. W.; Wolfendale, A. W.

    1985-01-01

    It may be possible to account for a previously puzzling feature - a bump in the energy range 10 to the 14th power eV to 10 to the 15th power - of the cosmic ray spectrum by hypothesizing a primary extragalactic origin for the bulk of the observed cosmic ray antiprotons, although such an explanation is not unique. In this model, most of the cosmic rays above 10 to the 15th power eV are extragalactic. A method is described of testing this hypothesis experimentally.

  3. SIRT1 inhibits EV71 genome replication and RNA translation by interfering with the viral polymerase and 5'UTR RNA.

    PubMed

    Han, Yang; Wang, Lvyin; Cui, Jin; Song, Yu; Luo, Zhen; Chen, Junbo; Xiong, Ying; Zhang, Qi; Liu, Fang; Ho, Wenzhe; Liu, Yingle; Wu, Kailang; Wu, Jianguo

    2016-12-15

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) possesses a single-stranded positive RNA genome that contains a single open reading frame (ORF) flanked by a 5' untranslated region (5'UTR) and a polyadenylated 3'UTR. Here, we demonstrated that EV71 activates the production of silent mating type information regulation 2 homolog 1 (SIRT1), a histone deacetylase (HDAC). EV71 further stimulates SIRT1 sumoylation and deacetylase activity, and enhances SIRT1 translocation from the nucleus to the cytoplasm. More interestingly, activated SIRT1 subsequently binds with the EV71 3D(pol) protein (a viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, RdRp) to repress the acetylation and RdRp activity of 3D(pol), resulting in the attenuation of viral genome replication. Moreover, SIRT1 interacts with the cloverleaf structure of the EV71 RNA 5'UTR to inhibit viral RNA transcription, and binds to the internal ribosome entry site (IRES) of the EV71 5'UTR to attenuate viral RNA translation. Thus, EV71 stimulates SIRT1 production and activity, which in turn represses EV71 genome replication by inhibiting viral polymerase, and attenuates EV71 RNA transcription and translation by interfering with viral RNA. These results uncover a new function of SIRT1 and reveal a new mechanism underlying the regulation of EV71 replication.

  4. Genetic variations of live attenuated plague vaccine strains (Yersinia pestis EV76 lineage) during laboratory passages in different countries.

    PubMed

    Cui, Yujun; Yang, Xianwei; Xiao, Xiao; Anisimov, Andrey P; Li, Dongfang; Yan, Yanfeng; Zhou, Dongsheng; Rajerison, Minoarisoa; Carniel, Elisabeth; Achtman, Mark; Yang, Ruifu; Song, Yajun

    2014-08-01

    Plague, one of the most devastating infectious diseases in human history, is caused by the bacterial species Yersinia pestis. A live attenuated Y. pestis strain (EV76) has been widely used as a plague vaccine in various countries around the world. Here we compared the whole genome sequence of an EV76 strain used in China (EV76-CN) with the genomes of Y. pestis wild isolates to identify genetic variations specific to the EV76 lineage. We identified 6 SNPs and 6 Indels (insertions and deletions) differentiating EV76-CN from its counterparts. Then, we screened these polymorphic sites in 28 other strains of EV76 lineage that were stored in different countries. Based on the profiles of SNPs and Indels, we reconstructed the parsimonious dissemination history of EV76 lineage. This analysis revealed that there have been at least three independent imports of EV76 strains into China. Additionally, we observed that the pyrE gene is a mutation hotspot in EV76 lineages. The fine comparison results based on whole genome sequence in this study provide better understanding of the effects of laboratory passages on the accumulation of genetic polymorphisms in plague vaccine strains. These variations identified here will also be helpful in discriminating different EV76 derivatives.

  5. Measurement of the cosmic ray spectrum above 4 × 10{sup 18} eV using inclined events detected with the Pierre Auger Observatory

    SciTech Connect

    Collaboration: Pierre Augur Collaboration

    2015-08-01

    A measurement of the cosmic-ray spectrum for energies exceeding 4×10{sup 18} eV is presented, which is based on the analysis of showers with zenith angles greater than 60° detected with the Pierre Auger Observatory between 1 January 2004 and 31 December 2013. The measured spectrum confirms a flux suppression at the highest energies. Above 5.3×10{sup 18} eV, the ''ankle'', the flux can be described by a power law E{sup −γ} with index γ=2.70 ± 0.02 (stat) ± 0.1 (sys) followed by a smooth suppression region. For the energy (E{sub s}) at which the spectral flux has fallen to one-half of its extrapolated value in the absence of suppression, we find E{sub s}=(5.12±0.25 (stat){sup +1.0}{sub −1.2} (sys))×10{sup 19} eV.

  6. Measurement of the cosmic ray spectrum above 4×1018 eV using inclined events detected with the Pierre Auger Observatory

    SciTech Connect

    Aab, Alexander

    2015-08-26

    A measurement of the cosmic-ray spectrum for energies exceeding 4×1018 eV is presented, which is based on the analysis of showers with zenith angles greater than 60° detected with the Pierre Auger Observatory between 1 January 2004 and 31 December 2013. The measured spectrum confirms a flux suppression at the highest energies. Above 5.3×1018 eV, the ``ankle'', the flux can be described by a power law E–γ with index γ=2.70 ± 0.02 (stat) ± 0.1 (sys) followed by a smooth suppression region. For the energy (Es) at which the spectral flux has fallen to one-half of its extrapolated value in the absence of suppression, we find Es=(5.12±0.25 (stat)+1.0–1.2 (sys))×1019 eV.

  7. EV-A71 vaccine licensure: a first step for multivalent enterovirus vaccine to control HFMD and other severe diseases

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Qunying; Wang, Yiping; Bian, Lianlian; Xu, Miao; Liang, Zhenglun

    2016-01-01

    Enteroviruses (EVs) are the most common viral agents in humans. Although most infections are mild or asymptomatic, there is a wide spectrum of clinical manifestations that may be caused by EV infections with varying degrees of severity. Among these viruses, EV-A71 and coxsackievirus (CV) CV-A16 from group A EVs attract the most attention because they are responsible for hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD). Other EV-A viruses such as CV-A6 and CV-A10 were also reported to cause HFMD outbreaks in several countries or regions. Group B EVs such as CV-B3, CV-B5 and echovirus 30 were reported to be the main pathogens responsible for myocarditis and encephalitis epidemics and were also detected in HFMD patients. Vaccines are the best tools to control infectious diseases. In December 2015, China's Food and Drug Administration approved two inactivated EV-A71 vaccines for preventing severe HFMD.The CV-A16 vaccine and the EV-A71-CV-A16 bivalent vaccine showed substantial efficacy against HFMD in pre-clinical animal models. Previously, research on EV-B group vaccines was mainly focused on CV-B3 vaccine development. Because the HFMD pathogen spectrum has changed, and the threat from EV-B virus-associated severe diseases has gradually increased, it is necessary to develop multivalent HFMD vaccines. This study summarizes the clinical symptoms of diseases caused by EVs, such as HFMD, myocarditis and encephalitis, and the related EV vaccine development progress. In conclusion, developing multivalent EV vaccines should be strongly recommended to prevent HFMD, myocarditis, encephalitis and other severe diseases. PMID:27436364

  8. EV-A71 vaccine licensure: a first step for multivalent enterovirus vaccine to control HFMD and other severe diseases.

    PubMed

    Mao, Qunying; Wang, Yiping; Bian, Lianlian; Xu, Miao; Liang, Zhenglun

    2016-07-20

    Enteroviruses (EVs) are the most common viral agents in humans. Although most infections are mild or asymptomatic, there is a wide spectrum of clinical manifestations that may be caused by EV infections with varying degrees of severity. Among these viruses, EV-A71 and coxsackievirus (CV) CV-A16 from group A EVs attract the most attention because they are responsible for hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD). Other EV-A viruses such as CV-A6 and CV-A10 were also reported to cause HFMD outbreaks in several countries or regions. Group B EVs such as CV-B3, CV-B5 and echovirus 30 were reported to be the main pathogens responsible for myocarditis and encephalitis epidemics and were also detected in HFMD patients. Vaccines are the best tools to control infectious diseases. In December 2015, China's Food and Drug Administration approved two inactivated EV-A71 vaccines for preventing severe HFMD.The CV-A16 vaccine and the EV-A71-CV-A16 bivalent vaccine showed substantial efficacy against HFMD in pre-clinical animal models. Previously, research on EV-B group vaccines was mainly focused on CV-B3 vaccine development. Because the HFMD pathogen spectrum has changed, and the threat from EV-B virus-associated severe diseases has gradually increased, it is necessary to develop multivalent HFMD vaccines. This study summarizes the clinical symptoms of diseases caused by EVs, such as HFMD, myocarditis and encephalitis, and the related EV vaccine development progress. In conclusion, developing multivalent EV vaccines should be strongly recommended to prevent HFMD, myocarditis, encephalitis and other severe diseases.

  9. United States Special Operations Command History, 15th Anniversary

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-04-01

    intensity conflict and on the issue of joint interoperability. With concern mounting on Capitol Hill, the Department of Defense created the Joint...consisting of USS Tripoli, Juneau, and Rushmore , with a Marine Expeditionary Unit, a SEAL platoon, and a Special Boat Unit (SBU) detachment, arrived...off the coast of Somalia shortly thereafter. To mount an amphibious landing to secure the Mogadishu airport, the Marines needed up-to-date charts

  10. The PAN 15th Annual Research & Education Forum

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-04-01

    sessions included: SUNDAY, MARCH 15, 2009 6 7:30 – 8:30 am Registration Check-in/Breakfast 8:30 – 8:50 am Welcome & Introduction Ballroom Amy...Training Ballroom ABC Hayley Carpenter, Director of Outreach, Parkinson’s Action Network Ballroom D Breakout 2: Advanced Advocacy Training Mary...Defense Neurotoxin Exposure Treatment Ballroom Parkinson’s Research Program Colonel Karl Friedl, Ph.D., Director, Telemedicine and Advanced

  11. ASTP 15th Anniversary Clip-Media Release

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    This release is comprised of 5 separate clips, including the following: CL 762 Astronauts/Cosmonauts Visit to KSC and Walt Disney World; CL 739 ASTP Joint Crew Activities; CL 748 ASTP Astronauts/Cosmonauts Horlock Ranch Visit; CL 758 T-21 ASTP Training - US/USSR; and CL 743 ASTP Joint Crew Training in the Soviet Union.

  12. Proceedings of the 15th LAMPF Users Group meeting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cochran, D. R. F.

    1982-03-01

    The Fifteenth LAMPF Users Group Meeting was held November 2-3, 1981 at Clinton P. Anderson Meson Physical Facility. The program of papers scheduled to be presented was amended to include a Report from Washington by Clarence R. Richardson, US Department of Energy. The general meeting ended with a round-table working group discussion concerning the Planning for a Kaon Factory. Individual items from the meeting were prepared separately for the data base.

  13. Primary proton and helium spectra in the energy range 10 to the 12th to 10 to the 14th eV

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gregory, J. C.; Ogata, T.; Saito, T.; Holynski, R.; Jurak, A.; Wolter, W.; Wosiek, B.; Dake, S.; Fuki, M.; Parnell, T. A.; Jones, W. V.

    1982-01-01

    Measurements of proton and helium spectra have been made in the energy range 10 to the 12th to 10 to the 14th eV. Large area thin emulsion calorimeters were used in the Japanese American Cooperative Emulsion Experiment balloon flight series. Power indices of the integral spectra for both nuclei are consistent with published data at lower energies. Absolute intensities are also consistent for helium and proton fluxes with extrapolations of previous data. No steepening of the proton spectrum is indicated.

  14. Crystal structures of enterovirus 71 (EV71) recombinant virus particles provide insights into vaccine design.

    PubMed

    Lyu, Ke; Wang, Guang-Chuan; He, Ya-Ling; Han, Jian-Feng; Ye, Qing; Qin, Cheng-Feng; Chen, Rong

    2015-02-06

    Hand-foot-and-mouth disease (HFMD) remains a major health concern in the Asia-Pacific regions, and its major causative agents include human enterovirus 71 (EV71) and coxsackievirus A16. A desirable vaccine against HFMD would be multivalent and able to elicit protective responses against multiple HFMD causative agents. Previously, we have demonstrated that a thermostable recombinant EV71 vaccine candidate can be produced by the insertion of a foreign peptide into the BC loop of VP1 without affecting viral replication. Here we present crystal structures of two different naturally occurring empty particles, one from a clinical C4 strain EV71 and the other from its recombinant virus containing an insertion in the VP1 BC loop. Crystal structure analysis demonstrated that the inserted foreign peptide is well exposed on the particle surface without significant structural changes in the capsid. Importantly, such insertions do not seem to affect the virus uncoating process as illustrated by the conformational similarity between an uncoating intermediate of another recombinant virus and that of EV71. Especially, at least 18 residues from the N terminus of VP1 are transiently externalized. Altogether, our study provides insights into vaccine development against HFMD.

  15. [Comparison of different molecular assays for the rapid detection of enterovirus 71 (EV71)].

    PubMed

    Wei, Hai-Yan; Huang, Xue-Yong; Xu, Yu-Ling; Ma, Hong; Chen, Hao-Min; Xu, Bian-Li

    2012-11-01

    Molecular detection of enterovirus (EV)71 RNA based on PCR methods is a quick and sensitive approach. At present, different PCR-based methods for EV71 RNA detection are available, but comparisons of results obtained using different approaches are limited. This study is to compare the analytical sensitivity and specificity of different real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) and conventional reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (cRT-PCR) assays for enterovirus and EV71 detection, Altogether, three rRT-PCR assays and one cRT-PCR assay targeting the 5'UTR gene for universal detection of enterovirus; two rRT-PCR assays andone cRT-PCR assay targeting the VP1 gene for specific detection of EV 71 were examined. All assays showed good specificity. The detection sensitivity ranged from 8.19 x 10 to 8.19 x 10(5) copy equivalents. In general, rRT-PCR assays were more sensitive than cRT-PCR assays. All rRT-PCR assays showed 100% sensitivity for clinical specimens.

  16. Dissociative Electron Attachment to Carbon Dioxide via the 8.2 eV Feshbach resonance

    SciTech Connect

    Slaughter, Dan; Adaniya, Hidihito; Rescigno, Tom; Haxton, Dan; Orel, Ann; McCurdy, Bill; Belkacem, Ali

    2011-08-17

    Momentum imaging experiments on dissociative electron attachment (DEA) to CO{sub 2} are combined with the results of ab initio calculations to provide a detailed and consistent picture of the dissociation dynamics through the 8.2 eV resonance, which is the major channel for DEA in CO{sub 2}. The present study resolves several puzzling misconceptions about this system.

  17. How many electric miles do Nissan Leafs and Chevrolet Volts in The EV Project travel?

    SciTech Connect

    John Smart

    2014-05-01

    This paper presents travel statistics and metrics describing the driving behavior of Nissan Leaf and Chevrolet Volt drivers in the EV Project. It specifically quantifies the distance each group of vehicles drives each month. This paper will be published to INL's external website and will be accessible by the general public.

  18. Cosmic rays: the spectrum and chemical composition from 1010 to 1020 eV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Todero Peixoto, C. J.; de Souza, Vitor; Biermann, Peter L.

    2015-07-01

    The production of energetic particles in the universe remains one of the great mysteries of modern science. The mechanisms of acceleration in astrophysical sources and the details about the propagation through the galactic and extragalactic media are still to be defined. In recent years, the cosmic ray flux has been measured with high precision in the energy range from 1010 to 1020.5 eV by several experiments using different techniques. In some energy ranges, it has been possible to determine the flux of individual elements (hydrogen to iron nuclei). This paper explores an astrophysical scenario in which only our Galaxy and the radio galaxy Cen A produce all particles measured on Earth in the energy range from 1010 to 1020.5 eV . Data from AMS-02, CREAM, KASCADE, KASCADE-Grande and the Pierre Auger Observatories are considered. The model developed here is compared to the total and if available to the individual particle flux of the experiments considered.The flux of each element as determined by AMS-02, CREAM, KASCADE and KASCADE-Grande and the mass sensitivity parameter Xmax measured by the Pierre Auger Observatory above 10^ eV are also explored within the framework of the model. The transition from 1016 to 1018 eV is carefully analyzed. It is shown that the flux measured in this energy range suggest the existence of an extra component of cosmic rays yet to be understood.

  19. What kind of charging infrastructure do Chevrolet Volts Drivers in The EV Project use?

    SciTech Connect

    John Smart

    2013-09-01

    This report summarizes key conclusions from analysis of data collected from Chevrolet Volts participating in The EV Project. Topics include how much Volt drivers charge at level 1 vs. level 2 rates and how much they charge at home vs. away from home.

  20. Cosmology based on f(R) gravity admits 1 eV sterile neutrinos.

    PubMed

    Motohashi, Hayato; Starobinsky, Alexei A; Yokoyama, Jun'ichi

    2013-03-22

    It is shown that the tension between recent neutrino oscillation experiments, favoring sterile neutrinos with masses of the order of 1 eV, and cosmological data which impose stringent constraints on neutrino masses from the free streaming suppression of density fluctuations, can be resolved in models of the present accelerated expansion of the Universe based on f(R) gravity.

  1. On the Variation of Eta with Energy in the 100-1000 ev Region

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Wigner, E. P.

    1949-11-01

    Fluctuations in the fission yield in the 100- to 1000-ev region led to an investigation of the influencing variables. Changes in fission width from level to level and higher angular momentum phenomena are seen as possible explanations. (D.E.B.)

  2. An EVS Clicker Based Hybrid Assessment to Engage Students with Marking Criteria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Steve; Barker, Trevor; Lilley, Mariana

    2014-01-01

    Over 4 iterations of a large course (>180 students) in introductory emedia design in a first year computer science course we have seen a year on year improvement. We believe this is due to the use of EVS clickers for feed-forward assessment: that is to say a method of getting the whole class to evaluate previous cohorts' submissions in public…

  3. Composition of near-Earth Asteroid 2008 EV5: Potential target for robotic and human exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reddy, Vishnu; Corre, Lucille Le; Hicks, Michael; Lawrence, Kenneth; Buratti, Bonnie J.; Abell, Paul A.; Gaffey, Michael J.; Hardersen, Paul S.

    2012-11-01

    We observed Potentially Hazardous Asteroid (PHA) 2008 EV5 in the visible (0.30-0.92 μm) and near-IR (0.75-2.5 μm) wavelengths to determine its surface composition. This asteroid is especially interesting because it is a potential target for two sample return mission proposals (Marco Polo-R and Hayabusa-2) and human exploration due to its low delta-v for rendezvous. The spectrum of 2008 EV5 is essentially featureless with exception of a weak 0.48-μm spin-forbidden Fe3+ absorption band. The spectrum also has an overall blue slope. The albedo of 2008 EV5 remains uncertain with a lower limit at 0.05 and a higher end at 0.20 based on thermal modeling. The Busch et al. (Busch et al. [2011]. Icarus 212, 649-660) albedo estimate of 0.12 ± 0.04 is consistent with our thermal modeling results. The albedo and composition of 2008 EV5 are also consistent with a C-type taxonomic classification (Somers, J.M., Hicks, M.D., Lawrence, K.J. [2008]. Bull. Am. Astron. Soc. 40, 440). The best spectral match is with CI carbonaceous chondrites similar to Orgueil, which also have a weak 0.48-μm feature and an overall blue slope. This 0.48-μm feature is also seen in the spectrum of magnetite. The albedo of CI chondrites is at the lower limit of our estimated range for the albedo of 2008 EV5.

  4. Coordinated EV adoption: double-digit reductions in emissions and fuel use for $40/vehicle-year.

    PubMed

    Choi, Dong Gu; Kreikebaum, Frank; Thomas, Valerie M; Divan, Deepak

    2013-09-17

    Adoption of electric vehicles (EVs) would affect the costs and sources of electricity and the United States efficiency requirements for conventional vehicles (CVs). We model EV adoption scenarios in each of six regions of the Eastern Interconnection, containing 70% of the United States population. We develop electricity system optimization models at the multidecade, day-ahead, and hour-ahead time scales, incorporating spatial wind energy modeling, endogenous modeling of CV efficiencies, projections for EV efficiencies, and projected CV and EV costs. We find two means to reduce total consumer expenditure (TCE): (i) controlling charge timing and (ii) unlinking the fuel economy regulations for CVs from EVs. Although EVs provide minimal direct GHG reductions, controlled charging provides load flexibility, lowering the cost of renewable electricity. Without EVs, a 33% renewable electricity standard (RES) would cost $193/vehicle-year more than the reference case (10% RES). Combining a 33% RES, EVs with controlled charging and unlinking would reduce combined electric- and vehicle-sector CO2 emissions by 27% and reduce gasoline consumption by 59% for $40/vehicle-year more than the reference case. Coordinating EV adoption with adoption of controlled charging, unlinked fuel economy regulations, and renewable electricity standards would provide low-cost reductions in emissions and fuel usage.

  5. Monoclonal neutralizing antibodies against EV71 screened from mice immunized with yeast-produced virus-like particles.

    PubMed

    Lin, Tao; Xianyu, Lingzhi; Lyu, Songya

    2015-06-01

    Periodic outbreaks of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) occur in children under 5 years old, and can cause death in some cases. The C4 strain of enterovirus 71 (EV71) is the main pathogen that causes HFMD in China. Although no drugs against EV71 are available, some studies have shown that candidate vaccines or viral capsid proteins can produce anti-EV71 immunity. In this study, female BABL/c mice (6-8 weeks old) were immunized with virus-like particles (VLPs) of EV71 produced in yeast to screen for anti-EV71 antibodies. Two hybridomas that could produce neutralizing antibodies against EV71 were obtained. Both neutralizing mAbs (D4 and G12) were confirmed to bind the VP1 capsid protein of EV71, and could protect >95% cells from 100 TCID50 EV71 infection at 25 µg/mL solution (lowest concentration). Those two neutralizing mAbs identified in the study may be promising candidates in development for mAbs to treat EV71 infection, and utilized as suitable reagents for use in diagnostic tests and biological studies.

  6. Characterization of the antibody response against EV71 capsid proteins in Chinese individuals by NEIBM-ELISA.

    PubMed

    Ding, Yingying; Chen, Xuguang; Qian, Baohua; Wu, Guorong; He, Ting; Feng, Jiaojiao; Gao, Caixia; Wang, Lili; Wang, Jinhong; Li, Xiangyu; Cao, Mingmei; Peng, Heng; Zhao, Chunyan; Pan, Wei

    2015-05-29

    Human enterovirus 71 (EV71) has become the major pathogen of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) worldwide, while the anti-EV71 antibody responses other than neutralizing epitopes have not been characterized. In this study, EV71 capsid proteins VP1, VP3, VP0 and various VP1 antigens were constructed to analyze anti-EV71 response in severe HFMD cases, non-HFMD outpatient children and normal adults using a novel evolved immunoglobulin-binding molecule (NEIBM)-based ELISA. The high prevalence of antibody responses against all three capsid proteins was demonstrated, and anti-EV71 VP1 showed the main antibody response. Anti-EV71 VP1 antibody response was found to predominantly target to epitopes based on the common enterovirus cross-reactive sequence. Moreover, inhibition pattern against anti-EV71 VP1 reactions in three groups was obviously different. Taken together, these results firstly characterized the anti-EV71 antibody responses which are predominantly against VP1 epitopes based on common enterovirus cross-reactive sequence. This finding could be helpful for the better understanding of anti-EV71 humoral immunity and useful for seroepidemiological surveillance.

  7. Activation of PI3K/Akt pathway limits JNK-mediated apoptosis during EV71 infection.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hua; Li, Fengqi; Pan, Ziye; Wu, Zhijun; Wang, Yanhong; Cui, Yudong

    2014-11-04

    Apoptosis is frequently induced to inhibit virus replication during infection of Enterovirus 71 (EV71). On the contrary, anti-apoptotic pathway, such as PI3K/Akt pathway, is simultaneously exploited by EV71 to accomplish the viral life cycle. The relationship by which EV71-induced apoptosis and PI3K/Akt signaling pathway remains to be elucidated. In this study, we demonstrated that EV71 infection altered Bax conformation and triggered its redistribution from the cytosol to mitochondria in RD cells. Subsequently, cytochrome c was released from mitochondria to cytosol. We also found that c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK) was activated during EV71 infection. The JNK specific inhibitor significantly inhibited Bax activation and cytochrome c release, suggesting that EV71-induced apoptosis was involved into a JNK-dependent manner. Meanwhile, EV71-induced Akt phosphorylation involved a PI3K-dependent mechanism. Inhibition of the PI3K/Akt pathway enhanced JNK phosphorylation and the JNK-mediated apoptosis upon EV71 infection. Moreover, PI3K/Akt pathway phosphorylated apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 (ASK1) and negatively regulated the ASK1 activity. Knockdown of ASK1 significantly decreased JNK phosphorylation, which implied that ASK1 phosphorylation by Akt inhibited ASK1-mediated JNK activation. Collectively, these data reveal that activation of the PI3K/Akt pathway limits JNK-mediated apoptosis by phosphorylating and inactivating ASK1 during EV71 infection.

  8. Characterization of the antibody response against EV71 capsid proteins in Chinese individuals by NEIBM-ELISA

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Yingying; Chen, Xuguang; Qian, Baohua; Wu, Guorong; He, Ting; Feng, Jiaojiao; Gao, Caixia; Wang, Lili; Wang, Jinhong; Li, Xiangyu; Cao, Mingmei; Peng, Heng; Zhao, Chunyan; Pan, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Human enterovirus 71 (EV71) has become the major pathogen of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) worldwide, while the anti-EV71 antibody responses other than neutralizing epitopes have not been characterized. In this study, EV71 capsid proteins VP1, VP3, VP0 and various VP1 antigens were constructed to analyze anti-EV71 response in severe HFMD cases, non-HFMD outpatient children and normal adults using a novel evolved immunoglobulin-binding molecule (NEIBM)-based ELISA. The high prevalence of antibody responses against all three capsid proteins was demonstrated, and anti-EV71 VP1 showed the main antibody response. Anti-EV71 VP1 antibody response was found to predominantly target to epitopes based on the common enterovirus cross-reactive sequence. Moreover, inhibition pattern against anti-EV71 VP1 reactions in three groups was obviously different. Taken together, these results firstly characterized the anti-EV71 antibody responses which are predominantly against VP1 epitopes based on common enterovirus cross-reactive sequence. This finding could be helpful for the better understanding of anti-EV71 humoral immunity and useful for seroepidemiological surveillance. PMID:26023863

  9. Time-Resolved UV-Pump (4.8eV) and Vacuum-UV (8eV) Probe Experiments of Neutral Excited State Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horton, Spencer; Liu, Yusong; Matsika, Spiridoula; Weinacht, Thomas

    2016-05-01

    Excited state dynamics in polyatomic molecules involve a rich mixture of internal conversion, intersystem crossing, isomerization, and dissociation. Probing these dynamics with ultrafast laser pulses poses a number of challenges, in terms of both the execution of the measurements and their interpretation. We have developed an apparatus for probing excited state dynamics using a 260nm UV-pump pulse and a 156nm Vacuum-UV (VUV) probe pulse. For many systems of interest, an 8eV probe pulse can ionize the molecule from essentially any position along the excited state potential, while not having a background ionization yield from the ground state. Furthermore, given the perturbative interaction of each pulse with the molecule, it is possible interpret and model the experimental results with greater ease and confidence than more complicated probe interactions such as strong field ionization. We compare UV-IR strong-field ionization pump-probe experiments previously conducted directly with our 8eV probing and explore the differences between the two.

  10. Powerful, Efficient Electric Vehicle Chargers: Low-Cost, Highly-Integrated Silicon Carbide (SiC) Multichip Power Modules (MCPMs) for Plug-In Hybrid Electric

    SciTech Connect

    2010-09-14

    ADEPT Project: Currently, charging the battery of an electric vehicle (EV) is a time-consuming process because chargers can only draw about as much power from the grid as a hair dryer. APEI is developing an EV charger that can draw as much power as a clothes dryer, which would drastically speed up charging time. APEI's charger uses silicon carbide (SiC)-based power transistors. These transistors control the electrical energy flowing through the charger's circuits more effectively and efficiently than traditional transistors made of straight silicon. The SiC-based transistors also require less cooling, enabling APEI to create EV chargers that are 10 times smaller than existing chargers.

  11. Highlights from the 15th International Congress of Twin Studies/Twin Research: Differentiating MZ Co-twins Via SNPs; Mistaken Infant Twin-Singleton Hospital Registration; Narcolepsy With Cataplexy; Hearing Loss and Language Learning/Media Mentions: Broadway Musical Recalls Conjoined Hilton Twins; High Fashion Pair; Twins Turn 102; Insights From a Conjoined Twin Survivor.

    PubMed

    Segal, Nancy L

    2015-02-01

    Highlights from the 15th International Congress of Twin Studies are presented. The congress was held November 16-19, 2014 in Budapest, Hungary. This report is followed by summaries of research addressing the differentiation of MZ co-twins by single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), an unusual error in infant twin-singleton hospital registration, twins with childhood-onset narcolepsy with cataplexy, and the parenting effects of hearing loss in one co-twin. Media interest in twins covers a new Broadway musical based on the conjoined twins Violet and Daisy Hilton, male twins becoming famous in fashion, twins who turned 102 and unique insights from a conjoined twin survivor. This article is dedicated to the memory of Elizabeth (Liz) Hamel, DZA twin who met her co-twin for the first time at age seventy-eight years. Liz and her co-twin, Ann Hunt, are listed in the 2015 Guinness Book of Records as the longest separated twins in the world.

  12. Calibrating image plate sensitivity in the 700 to 5000 eV spectral energy range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haugh, Michael J.; Lee, Joshua; Romano, Edward; Schneider, Marilyn

    2013-09-01

    This paper describes a method to calibrate image plate sensitivity for use in the low energy spectral range. Image plates, also known as photostimulable luminescence (PSL) detectors, have often proved to be a valuable tool as a detector for plasma physics studies. Their advantages of large dynamic range, high stopping power, and resistance to neutron damage sometimes outweigh the problems of limited resolution and the remote processing required. The neutron damage resistance is required when the X-ray source is producing a high neutron flux. The Static X-ray Imager (SXI) is a key diagnostic on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) target chamber at LLNL for use in determining the symmetry of the laser beams. The SXI is essential to proper interpretation of the data from the Dante diagnostic to determine the X-ray radiation temperature. It is comprised of two diagnostics located at the top and the bottom of the target chamber. The usual detector is a large array CCD camera. For shots giving high yields of neutrons, the camera would not only be blinded by the neutrons, it would be damaged. To get around this problem, an image plate (IP) is used as the detector. The NIF application covers the energy range from 700 to 5000 eV. The type of image plates typically used for plasma physics are the Fuji BAS-MS, BAS-SR, and BAS-TR models. All models consist of an X-ray sensitive material made of BaF(Br,I):Eu2+ embedded in a plastic binder. X-rays incident on the phosphor ionize the Eu 2+ producing Eu3+ and free electrons that are trapped in lattice defects (F-centers) produced by the absence of halogen ions in the BaF2 crystal. An image plate readout scanner irradiates the IP with a red laser causing reduction of the Eu3+ and emission of a blue photon. The photon is collected using a photomultiplier and digitized to make an electronic image. Image plates are cleared of all F-centers by putting them under a bright light for about 10 minutes. They are then ready for producing a

  13. Heat Capacity and Thermal Conductance Measurements of a Superconducting-Normal Mixed State by Detection of Single 3 eV Photons in a Magnetic Penetration Thermometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stevenson, T. R.; Balvin, M. A.; Bandler, S. R.; Denis, K. L.; Lee, S.-J.; Nagler, P. C.; Smith, S. J.

    2015-01-01

    We report on measurements of the detected signal pulses in a molybdenum-gold Magnetic Penetration Thermometer (MPT) in response to absorption of one or more 3 eV photons. We designed and used this MPT sensor for x-ray microcalorimetry. In this device, the diamagnetic response of a superconducting MoAu bilayer is used to sense temperature changes in response to absorbed photons, and responsivity is enhanced by a Meissner transition in which the magnetic flux penetrating the sensor changes rapidly to minimize free energy in a mixed superconducting normal state. We have previously reported on use of our MPT to study a thermal phonon energy loss to the substrate when absorbing x-rays. We now describe results of extracting heat capacity C and thermal conductance G values from pulse height and decay time of MPT pulses generated by 3 eV photons. The variation in C and G at temperatures near the Meissner transition temperature (set by an internal magnetic bias field) allow us to probe the behavior in superconducting normal mixed state of the condensation energy and the electron cooling power resulting from quasi-particle recombination and phonon emission. The information gained on electron cooling power is also relevant to the operation of other superconducting detectors, such as Microwave Kinetic Inductance Detectors.

  14. Elevated expression of circulating miR876-5p is a specific response to severe EV71 infections

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Robert Y. L.; Weng, Kuo-Feng; Huang, Yhu-Chering; Chen, Chih-Jung

    2016-01-01

    Human enterovirus 71 (EV71) is a major causative agent of hand, foot, and, mouth disease, accounting for more than 65% of recent outbreaks. Following enteroviral infection, the host responses are crucial indicators for the development of a diagnosis regarding the clinical severity of EV71 infections. In this study, we implemented NanoString nCounter technology to characterize the responses of serum microRNA (miRNA) profiles to various EV71 infection diseases. Upon EV71 infection, 44 miRNAs were observed in patients with EV71 infections, with at least a 2-fold elevation and 133 miRNAs with a 2-fold reduction compared with the same miRNAs in healthy controls. Further detailed work with miR876-5p, a 9.5-fold change of upregulated miR-876-5p expression was observed in cases with severe EV71 symptoms, revealed that in vitro and in vivo knockdown of miR876-5p reduced viral RNA in cultured cells, and attenuated the severity of symptoms in EV71-infected mice. Altogether, we demonstrated that the elevated expression of circulating miR876-5p is a specific response to severe EV71 infections. PMID:27052555

  15. Elevated expression of circulating miR876-5p is a specific response to severe EV71 infections.

    PubMed

    Wang, Robert Y L; Weng, Kuo-Feng; Huang, Yhu-Chering; Chen, Chih-Jung

    2016-04-07

    Human enterovirus 71 (EV71) is a major causative agent of hand, foot, and, mouth disease, accounting for more than 65% of recent outbreaks. Following enteroviral infection, the host responses are crucial indicators for the development of a diagnosis regarding the clinical severity of EV71 infections. In this study, we implemented NanoString nCounter technology to characterize the responses of serum microRNA (miRNA) profiles to various EV71 infection diseases. Upon EV71 infection, 44 miRNAs were observed in patients with EV71 infections, with at least a 2-fold elevation and 133 miRNAs with a 2-fold reduction compared with the same miRNAs in healthy controls. Further detailed work with miR876-5p, a 9.5-fold change of upregulated miR-876-5p expression was observed in cases with severe EV71 symptoms, revealed that in vitro and in vivo knockdown of miR876-5p reduced viral RNA in cultured cells, and attenuated the severity of symptoms in EV71-infected mice. Altogether, we demonstrated that the elevated expression of circulating miR876-5p is a specific response to severe EV71 infections.

  16. Establishing China's national standards of antigen content and neutralizing antibody responses for evaluation of enterovirus 71 (EV71) vaccines.

    PubMed

    Liang, Zhenglun; Mao, Qunying; Gao, Qiang; Li, Xiuling; Dong, Chenghong; Yu, Xiang; Yao, Xin; Li, Fengxiang; Yin, Weidong; Li, Qihan; Shen, Xinliang; Wang, Junzhi

    2011-12-06

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is a highly infectious agent that causes hand-foot-mouth disease (HFMD) in humans. Effective vaccination against EV71 infection is critically important, given the recent outbreak of HFMD in the Asia-Pacific region, where it has shown significant mortality and morbidity. There is currently no approved anti-viral therapy available to treat the disease. While several vaccine manufacturers are actively developing EV71 vaccines, there are no international reference standards available to conduct quality control on EV71 vaccines or to assess the effectiveness of EV71 vaccines in immunized populations. In the current report, antigen reference standard based on the C4 subtype of the EV71 vaccine strain was developed. In addition, neutralizing antibody (NTAb) reference panels were analyzed and standards with various neutralizing titers were selected. These reference antigens were used to calibrate vaccine samples from several producers and found that five EV71 antigens and the national reference standards showed good linearity and parallelism. Moreover, mice immunized with various vaccines at doses standardized by these national references showed comparable NTAb responses. Finally, the national NTAb reference panels were found to effectively reduce assay discrepancy between different labs. Taken together, these national reference standards are highly valuable for the standardization and evaluation of EV71 vaccines.

  17. Enterovirus71 (EV71) utilise host microRNAs to mediate host immune system enhancing survival during infection.

    PubMed

    Lui, Yan Long Edmund; Tan, Tuan Lin; Woo, Wee Hong; Timms, Peter; Hafner, Louise Marie; Tan, Kian Hwa; Tan, Eng Lee

    2014-01-01

    Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease (HFMD) is a self-limiting viral disease that mainly affects infants and children. In contrast with other HFMD causing enteroviruses, Enterovirus71 (EV71) has commonly been associated with severe clinical manifestation leading to death. Currently, due to a lack in understanding of EV71 pathogenesis, there is no antiviral therapeutics for the treatment of HFMD patients. Therefore the need to better understand the mechanism of EV71 pathogenesis is warranted. We have previously reported a human colorectal adenocarcinoma cell line (HT29) based model to study the pathogenesis of EV71. Using this system, we showed that knockdown of DGCR8, an essential cofactor for microRNAs biogenesis resulted in a reduction of EV71 replication. We also demonstrated that there are miRNAs changes during EV71 pathogenesis and EV71 utilise host miRNAs to attenuate antiviral pathways during infection. Together, data from this study provide critical information on the role of miRNAs during EV71 infection.

  18. Racism, the Left and Twenty-First-Century Socialism: Some Observations on the Gur-Ze'ev/McLaren Interchange

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, Mike

    2013-01-01

    The Gur-Ze'ev/McLaren interchange covered a wide range of issues that are important for twenty-first century socialists. In this article, the author concentrates on two of them: first, Gur-Ze'ev's charge that critical pedagogy is part of the "new anti-Semitism"; second, his critique of McLaren's support for Hugo Chavez and the Bolivarian…

  19. Sputtering of carbon using hydrogen ion beams with energies of 60-800 eV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sidorov, Dmitry S.; Chkhalo, Nikolay I.; Mikhailenko, Mikhail S.; Pestov, Alexey E.; Polkovnikov, Vladimir N.

    2016-11-01

    This article presents the result of a study on the sputtering of carbon films by low-energy hydrogen ions. In particular, the etching rate and surface roughness were measured. The range of energies where the sputtering switches from pure chemical to a combination of chemical and physical mechanisms was determined. It is shown that Sigmund's theory for ion etching does not work well for fields of energy less than 150 eV and that it accurately describes the dependence of a sputtering coefficient on ion energy for energies greater than 300 eV. A strong smoothing effect for the surface of carbon film was also found. This result is interesting in itself and for its significance for the manufacture of super-smooth surfaces for X-ray applications.

  20. A sensor-adaptor mechanism for enterovirus uncoating from structures of EV71.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiangxi; Peng, Wei; Ren, Jingshan; Hu, Zhongyu; Xu, Jiwei; Lou, Zhiyong; Li, Xumei; Yin, Weidong; Shen, Xinliang; Porta, Claudine; Walter, Thomas S; Evans, Gwyndaf; Axford, Danny; Owen, Robin; Rowlands, David J; Wang, Junzhi; Stuart, David I; Fry, Elizabeth E; Rao, Zihe

    2012-03-04

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is a major agent of hand, foot and mouth disease in children that can cause severe central nervous system disease and death. No vaccine or antiviral therapy is available. High-resolution structural analysis of the mature virus and natural empty particles shows that the mature virus is structurally similar to other enteroviruses. In contrast, the empty particles are markedly expanded and resemble elusive enterovirus-uncoating intermediates not previously characterized in atomic detail. Hydrophobic pockets in the EV71 capsid are collapsed in this expanded particle, providing a detailed explanation of the mechanism for receptor-binding triggered virus uncoating. These structures provide a model for enterovirus uncoating in which the VP1 GH loop acts as an adaptor-sensor for cellular receptor attachment, converting heterologous inputs to a generic uncoating mechanism, highlighting new opportunities for therapeutic intervention.

  1. Measurement of the Depth of Maximum of Extensive Air Showers above 1018eV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abraham, J.; Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Ahn, E. J.; Allard, D.; Allekotte, I.; Allen, J.; Alvarez-Muñiz, J.; Ambrosio, M.; Anchordoqui, L.; Andringa, S.; Antičić, T.; Anzalone, A.; Aramo, C.; Arganda, E.; Arisaka, K.; Arqueros, F.; Asorey, H.; Assis, P.; Aublin, J.; Ave, M.; Avila, G.; Bäcker, T.; Badagnani, D.; Balzer, M.; Barber, K. B.; Barbosa, A. F.; Barroso, S. L. C.; Baughman, B.; Bauleo, P.; Beatty, J. J.; Becker, B. R.; Becker, K. H.; Bellétoile, A.; Bellido, J. A.; Benzvi, S.; Berat, C.; Bergmann, T.; Bertou, X.; Biermann, P. L.; Billoir, P.; Blanch-Bigas, O.; Blanco, F.; Blanco, M.; Bleve, C.; Blümer, H.; Boháčová, M.; Boncioli, D.; Bonifazi, C.; Bonino, R.; Borodai, N.; Brack, J.; Brogueira, P.; Brown, W. C.; Bruijn, R.; Buchholz, P.; Bueno, A.; Burton, R. E.; Busca, N. G.; Caballero-Mora, K. S.; Caramete, L.; Caruso, R.; Castellina, A.; Catalano, O.; Cataldi, G.; Cazon, L.; Cester, R.; Chauvin, J.; Chiavassa, A.; Chinellato, J. A.; Chou, A.; Chudoba, J.; Clay, R. W.; Colombo, E.; Coluccia, M. R.; Conceição, R.; Contreras, F.; Cook, H.; Cooper, M. J.; Coppens, J.; Cordier, A.; Cotti, U.; Coutu, S.; Covault, C. E.; Creusot, A.; Criss, A.; Cronin, J.; Curutiu, A.; Dagoret-Campagne, S.; Dallier, R.; Daumiller, K.; Dawson, B. R.; de Almeida, R. M.; de Domenico, M.; de Donato, C.; de Jong, S. J.; de La Vega, G.; de Mello Junior, W. J. M.; de Mello Neto, J. R. T.; de Mitri, I.; de Souza, V.; de Vries, K. D.; Decerprit, G.; Del Peral, L.; Deligny, O.; Della Selva, A.; Delle Fratte, C.; Dembinski, H.; di Giulio, C.; Diaz, J. C.; Díaz Castro, M. L.; Diep, P. N.; Dobrigkeit, C.; D'Olivo, J. C.; Dong, P. N.; Dorofeev, A.; Dos Anjos, J. C.; Dova, M. T.; D'Urso, D.; Dutan, I.; Duvernois, M. A.; Ebr, J.; Engel, R.; Erdmann, M.; Escobar, C. O.; Etchegoyen, A.; Facal San Luis, P.; Falcke, H.; Farrar, G.; Fauth, A. C.; Fazzini, N.; Ferrero, A.; Fick, B.; Filevich, A.; Filipčič, A.; Fleck, I.; Fliescher, S.; Fracchiolla, C. E.; Fraenkel, E. D.; Fröhlich, U.; Fulgione, W.; Gamarra, R. F.; Gambetta, S.; García, B.; García Gámez, D.; Garcia-Pinto, D.; Garrido, X.; Gelmini, G.; Gemmeke, H.; Ghia, P. L.; Giaccari, U.; Giller, M.; Glass, H.; Goggin, L. M.; Gold, M. S.; Golup, G.; Gomez Albarracin, F.; Gómez Berisso, M.; Gonçalves, P.; Gonzalez, D.; Gonzalez, J. G.; Góra, D.; Gorgi, A.; Gouffon, P.; Gozzini, S. R.; Grashorn, E.; Grebe, S.; Grigat, M.; Grillo, A. F.; Guardincerri, Y.; Guarino, F.; Guedes, G. P.; Hague, J. D.; Halenka, V.; Hansen, P.; Harari, D.; Harmsma, S.; Harton, J. L.; Haungs, A.; Hebbeker, T.; Heck, D.; Herve, A. E.; Hojvat, C.; Holmes, V. C.; Homola, P.; Hörandel, J. R.; Horneffer, A.; Hrabovský, M.; Huege, T.; Hussain, M.; Iarlori, M.; Insolia, A.; Ionita, F.; Italiano, A.; Jiraskova, S.; Kadija, K.; Kaducak, M.; Kampert, K. H.; Karova, T.; Kasper, P.; Kégl, B.; Keilhauer, B.; Keivani, A.; Kelley, J.; Kemp, E.; Kieckhafer, R. M.; Klages, H. O.; Kleifges, M.; Kleinfeller, J.; Knapik, R.; Knapp, J.; Koang, D.-H.; Krieger, A.; Krömer, O.; Kruppke-Hansen, D.; Kuehn, F.; Kuempel, D.; Kulbartz, K.; Kunka, N.; Kusenko, A.; La Rosa, G.; Lachaud, C.; Lago, B. L.; Lautridou, P.; Leão, M. S. A. B.; Lebrun, D.; Lebrun, P.; Lee, J.; Leigui de Oliveira, M. A.; Lemiere, A.; Letessier-Selvon, A.; Lhenry-Yvon, I.; López, R.; Lopez Agüera, A.; Louedec, K.; Lozano Bahilo, J.; Lucero, A.; Ludwig, M.; Lyberis, H.; Maccarone, M. C.; Macolino, C.; Maldera, S.; Mandat, D.; Mantsch, P.; Mariazzi, A. G.; Marin, V.; Maris, I. C.; Marquez Falcon, H. R.; Marsella, G.; Martello, D.; Martínez Bravo, O.; Mathes, H. J.; Matthews, J.; Matthews, J. A. J.; Matthiae, G.; Maurizio, D.; Mazur, P. O.; McEwen, M.; Medina-Tanco, G.; Melissas, M.; Melo, D.; Menichetti, E.; Menshikov, A.; Meurer, C.; Mičanović, S.; Micheletti, M. I.; Miller, W.; Miramonti, L.; Mollerach, S.; Monasor, M.; Monnier Ragaigne, D.; Montanet, F.; Morales, B.; Morello, C.; Moreno, E.; Moreno, J. C.; Morris, C.; Mostafá, M.; Mueller, S.; Muller, M. A.; Mussa, R.; Navarra, G.; Navarro, J. L.; Navas, S.; Necesal, P.; Nellen, L.; Nhung, P. T.; Nierstenhoefer, N.; Nitz, D.; Nosek, D.; Nožka, L.; Nyklicek, M.; Oehlschläger, J.; Olinto, A.; Oliva, P.; Olmos-Gilbaja, V. M.; Ortiz, M.; Pacheco, N.; Pakk Selmi-Dei, D.; Palatka, M.; Pallotta, J.; Palmieri, N.; Parente, G.; Parizot, E.; Parlati, S.; Parra, A.; Parrisius, J.; Parsons, R. D.; Pastor, S.; Paul, T.; Pavlidou, V.; Payet, K.; Pech, M.; Pękala, J.; Pelayo, R.; Pepe, I. M.; Perrone, L.; Pesce, R.; Petermann, E.; Petrera, S.; Petrinca, P.; Petrolini, A.; Petrov, Y.; Petrovic, J.; Pfendner, C.; Piegaia, R.; Pierog, T.; Pimenta, M.; Pirronello, V.; Platino, M.; Ponce, V. H.; Pontz, M.; Privitera, P.; Prouza, M.; Quel, E. J.; Rautenberg, J.; Ravel, O.; Ravignani, D.; Redondo, A.; Revenu, B.; Rezende, F. A. S.; Ridky, J.; Riggi, S.; Risse, M.; Ristori, P.; Rivière, C.; Rizi, V.; Robledo, C.; Rodriguez, G.; Rodriguez Martino, J.; Rodriguez Rojo, J.; Rodriguez-Cabo, I.; Rodríguez-Frías, M. D.; Ros, G.; Rosado, J.; Rossler, T.; Roth, M.; Rouillé-D'Orfeuil, B.; Roulet, E.; Rovero, A. C.; Salamida, F.; Salazar, H.; Salina, G.; Sánchez, F.; Santander, M.; Santo, C. E.; Santos, E.; Santos, E. M.; Sarazin, F.; Sarkar, S.; Sato, R.; Scharf, N.; Scherini, V.; Schieler, H.; Schiffer, P.; Schmidt, A.; Schmidt, F.; Schmidt, T.; Scholten, O.; Schoorlemmer, H.; Schovancova, J.; Schovánek, P.; Schroeder, F.; Schulte, S.; Schüssler, F.; Schuster, D.; Sciutto, S. J.; Scuderi, M.; Segreto, A.; Semikoz, D.; Settimo, M.; Shadkam, A.; Shellard, R. C.; Sidelnik, I.; Siffert, B. B.; Sigl, G.; Śmiałkowski, A.; Šmída, R.; Snow, G. R.; Sommers, P.; Sorokin, J.; Spinka, H.; Squartini, R.; Stasielak, J.; Stephan, M.; Strazzeri, E.; Stutz, A.; Suarez, F.; Suomijärvi, T.; Supanitsky, A. D.; Šuša, T.; Sutherland, M. S.; Swain, J.; Szadkowski, Z.; Tamashiro, A.; Tamburro, A.; Tapia, A.; Tarutina, T.; Taşcău, O.; Tcaciuc, R.; Tcherniakhovski, D.; Tegolo, D.; Thao, N. T.; Thomas, D.; Tiffenberg, J.; Timmermans, C.; Tkaczyk, W.; Todero Peixoto, C. J.; Tomé, B.; Tonachini, A.; Travnicek, P.; Tridapalli, D. B.; Tristram, G.; Trovato, E.; Tueros, M.; Ulrich, R.; Unger, M.; Urban, M.; Valdés Galicia, J. F.; Valiño, I.; Valore, L.; van den Berg, A. M.; Vázquez, J. R.; Vázquez, R. A.; Veberič, D.; Venters, T.; Verzi, V.; Videla, M.; Villaseñor, L.; Vorobiov, S.; Voyvodic, L.; Wahlberg, H.; Wahrlich, P.; Wainberg, O.; Warner, D.; Watson, A. A.; Westerhoff, S.; Whelan, B. J.; Wieczorek, G.; Wiencke, L.; Wilczyńska, B.; Wilczyński, H.; Williams, C.; Winchen, T.; Winnick, M. G.; Wundheiler, B.; Yamamoto, T.; Younk, P.; Yuan, G.; Yushkov, A.; Zas, E.; Zavrtanik, D.; Zavrtanik, M.; Zaw, I.; Zepeda, A.; Ziolkowski, M.; Pierre Auger Collaboration

    2010-03-01

    We describe the measurement of the depth of maximum, Xmax⁡, of the longitudinal development of air showers induced by cosmic rays. Almost 4000 events above 1018eV observed by the fluorescence detector of the Pierre Auger Observatory in coincidence with at least one surface detector station are selected for the analysis. The average shower maximum was found to evolve with energy at a rate of (106-21+35)g/cm2/decade below 1018.24±0.05eV, and (24±3)g/cm2/decade above this energy. The measured shower-to-shower fluctuations decrease from about 55 to 26g/cm2. The interpretation of these results in terms of the cosmic ray mass composition is briefly discussed.

  2. A Fusion of Sensors Information for Autonomous Driving Control of an Electric Vehicle (EV)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haris, Hasri; Wan, Khairunizam; Hazry, D.; Razlan, Zuradzman M.

    2013-12-01

    The study uses the environment of the road as input variables for the main system to control steering wheel, brake and acceleration pedals. A camera is installed on the roof of the Electric Vehicles (EV) and is used to obtain image information of the road. On the other hand, users or drivers do not have to directly contact with the main system because it will autonomously control the devices by using fuzzy information of the road conditions. A fuzzy information means in the preliminary experiments, reasoning of the various environments will be done by using fuzzy approach. At the end of the study, several existing algorithms for controlling motors and image processing technique could be combined into an algorithm that could be used to move EV without assist from human.

  3. Multipole character of the proposed 220 eV transition in [sup 229]Pa

    SciTech Connect

    Dragoun, O.; Rysavy, M. ); Guenther, C. )

    1993-02-01

    Internal conversion coefficients (ICC's) have been calculated for protactinium and transition energies between 170 eV and 10 keV. The ICC's for [ital E]1 multipolarity show an unusual behavior, which cannot be approximated by an exponential dependence on the transition energy, whereas the ICC's for [ital M]1 and [ital E]2 multipolarities closely follow such a dependence. Using the newly calculated ICC's the unusually strong enhancement'' of a possible 220 eV [ital E]1 transition in [sup 229]Pa proposed earlier is reduced by a factor of [similar to]5, yielding an induced electric dipole moment similar to that observed in the neighboring octupole-deformed isotopes.

  4. A sensor-adaptor mechanism for enterovirus uncoating from structures of EV71

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiangxi; Peng, Wei; Ren, Jingshan; Hu, Zhongyu; Xu, Jiwei; Lou, Zhiyong; Li, Xumei; Yin, Weidong; Shen, Xinliang; Porta, Claudine; Walter, Thomas S.; Evans, Gwyndaf; Axford, Danny; Owen, Robin; Rowlands, David J.; Wang, Junzhi; Stuart, David I.; Fry, Elizabeth E.; Rao, Zihe

    2012-01-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71), a major agent of hand-foot-and-mouth disease in children, can cause severe central nervous system disease and mortality. At present no vaccine or antiviral therapy is available. We have determined high-resolution structures for the mature virus and natural empty particles. The structure of the mature virus is similar to that of other enteroviruses, whilst the empty particles are dramatically expanded, with notable fissures, resembling elusive enterovirus uncoating intermediates not previously characterized in atomic detail. Hydrophobic capsid pockets within the EV71 capsid are collapsed in this expanded particle, providing a detailed explanation of the mechanism for receptor-binding triggered virus uncoating. The results provide a paradigm for enterovirus uncoating, in which the VP1 GH loop acts as an adaptor-sensor for the attachment of cellular receptors, converting heterologous inputs to a generic uncoating mechanism, spotlighting novel points for therapeutic intervention. PMID:22388738

  5. Energy levels of Th+ between 7.3 and 8.3 eV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrera-Sancho, O. A.; Nemitz, N.; Okhapkin, M. V.; Peik, E.

    2013-07-01

    Using resonant two-step laser excitation of trapped 232Th+ ions, we observe 43 previously unknown energy levels within the energy range from 7.3 to 8.3 eV. The high density of states promises a strongly enhanced electronic bridge excitation of the 229mTh nuclear state that is expected in this energy range. From the observation of resonantly enhanced three-photon ionization of Th+, the second ionization potential of thorium can be inferred to lie within the range between 11.9 and 12.3 eV. Pulsed laser radiation in a wide wavelength range from 237 to 289 nm is found to provide efficient photodissociation of molecular ions that are formed in reactions of Th+ with impurities in the buffer gas, leading to a significantly increased storage time for Th+ in the ion trap.

  6. Elastic electron scattering in krypton in the energy range from 5 to 10 eV

    SciTech Connect

    Linert, Ireneusz; Mielewska, Brygida; Zubek, Mariusz; King, George C.

    2010-01-15

    Differential cross sections for elastic electron scattering in krypton have been measured at the energies of 5,7.5, and 10 eV over the scattering angle range from 30 deg. to 180 deg. The measurements for backward scattering employed the magnetic angle-changing technique. These differential cross sections have been integrated to yield the elastic integral and momentum transfer cross sections at the above energies. These new results are compared with the most recent measurements and calculations of the respective cross sections in krypton. The dependence of the differential cross sections on atomic polarizability of the heavier rare gas atoms argon, krypton, and xenon has also been investigated over the electron energy range 5-30 eV and for forward, backward, and intermediate scattering angles.

  7. High-kinetic-energy photoemission spectroscopy of Ni at 1s : 6-eV satellite at 4 eV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karis, O.; Svensson, S.; Rusz, J.; Oppeneer, P. M.; Gorgoi, M.; Schäfers, F.; Braun, W.; Eberhardt, W.; Mårtensson, N.

    2008-12-01

    Electron correlations are responsible for many profound phenomena in solid-state physics. A classical example is the 6-eV satellite in the photoelectron spectrum of Ni. Until now the satellite structure has only been investigated at the L shell and more shallow levels. Here we report a high-kinetic-energy photoemission spectroscopy (HIKE) investigation of Ni metal. We present 1s and 2p photoelectron spectra, obtained using excitation energies up to 12.6 keV. Our investigation demonstrates that the energy position of the satellite relative to the main line is different for the 1s and the 2p levels. In combination with electronic structure calculations, we show that this energy shift is attributed to unique differences in the core-valence coupling for the K and L2,3 shells in 3d transition metals, resulting in different screening of the core holes.

  8. Dual baseline search for muon antineutrino disappearance at 0.1eV2<Δm2<100eV2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, G.; Huelsnitz, W.; Aguilar-Arevalo, A. A.; Alcaraz-Aunion, J. L.; Brice, S. J.; Brown, B. C.; Bugel, L.; Catala-Perez, J.; Church, E. D.; Conrad, J. M.; Dharmapalan, R.; Djurcic, Z.; Dore, U.; Finley, D. A.; Ford, R.; Franke, A. J.; Garcia, F. G.; Garvey, G. T.; Giganti, C.; Gomez-Cadenas, J. J.; Grange, J.; Guzowski, P.; Hanson, A.; Hayato, Y.; Hiraide, K.; Ignarra, C.; Imlay, R.; Johnson, R. A.; Jones, B. J. P.; Jover-Manas, G.; Karagiorgi, G.; Katori, T.; Kobayashi, Y. K.; Kobilarcik, T.; Kubo, H.; Kurimoto, Y.; Louis, W. C.; Loverre, P. F.; Ludovici, L.; Mahn, K. B. M.; Mariani, C.; Marsh, W.; Masuike, S.; Matsuoka, K.; McGary, V. T.; Metcalf, W.; Mills, G. B.; Mirabal, J.; Mitsuka, G.; Miyachi, Y.; Mizugashira, S.; Moore, C. D.; Mousseau, J.; Nakajima, Y.; Nakaya, T.; Napora, R.; Nienaber, P.; Orme, D.; Osmanov, B.; Otani, M.; Pavlovic, Z.; Perevalov, D.; Polly, C. C.; Ray, H.; Roe, B. P.; Russell, A. D.; Sanchez, F.; Shaevitz, M. H.; Shibata, T.-A.; Sorel, M.; Spitz, J.; Stancu, I.; Stefanski, R. J.; Takei, H.; Tanaka, H.-K.; Tanaka, M.; Tayloe, R.; Taylor, I. J.; Tesarek, R. J.; Uchida, Y.; Van de Water, R. G.; Walding, J. J.; Wascko, M. O.; White, D. H.; White, H. B.; Wickremasinghe, D. A.; Yokoyama, M.; Zeller, G. P.; Zimmerman, E. D.

    2012-09-01

    The MiniBooNE and SciBooNE collaborations report the results of a joint search for short baseline disappearance of ν¯μ at Fermilab’s Booster Neutrino Beamline. The MiniBooNE Cherenkov detector and the SciBooNE tracking detector observe antineutrinos from the same beam, therefore the combined analysis of their data sets serves to partially constrain some of the flux and cross section uncertainties. Uncertainties in the νμ background were constrained by neutrino flux and cross section measurements performed in both detectors. A likelihood ratio method was used to set a 90% confidence level upper limit on ν¯μ disappearance that dramatically improves upon prior limits in the Δm2=0.1-100eV2 region.

  9. EV71 3D Protein Binds with NLRP3 and Enhances the Assembly of Inflammasome Complex

    PubMed Central

    Wan, Pin; Pan, Pan; Zhang, Yecheng; Wu, Kailang; Liu, Yingle; Wu, Jianguo

    2017-01-01

    Activation of NLRP3 inflammasome is important for effective host defense against invading pathogen. Together with apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing CARD domain (ASC), NLRP3 induces the cleavage of caspase-1 to facilitate the maturation of interleukin-1beta (IL-1β), an important pro-inflammatory cytokine. IL-1β subsequently plays critical roles in inflammatory responses by activating immune cells and inducing many secondary pro-inflammatory cytokines. Although the role of NLRP3 inflammasome in immune response is well defined, the mechanism underlying its assembly modulated by pathogen infection remains largely unknown. Here, we identified a novel mechanism by which enterovirus 71 (EV71) facilitates the assembly of NLRP3 inflammasome. Our results show that EV71 induces production and secretion of IL-1β in macrophages and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) through activation of NLRP3 inflammasome. EV71 replication and protein synthesis are required for NLRP3-mediated activation of IL-1β. Interestingly, EV71 3D protein, a RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) was found to stimulate the activation of NLRP3 inflammasome, the cleavage of pro-caspase-1, and the release of IL-1β through direct binding to NLRP3. More importantly, 3D interacts with NLRP3 to facilitate the assembly of inflammasome complex by forming a 3D-NLRP3-ASC ring-like structure, resulting in the activation of IL-1β. These findings demonstrate a new role of 3D as an important player in the activation of inflammatory response, and identify a novel mechanism underlying the modulation of inflammasome assembly and function induced by pathogen invasion. PMID:28060938

  10. EV71 3D Protein Binds with NLRP3 and Enhances the Assembly of Inflammasome Complex.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wenbiao; Xiao, Feng; Wan, Pin; Pan, Pan; Zhang, Yecheng; Liu, Fang; Wu, Kailang; Liu, Yingle; Wu, Jianguo

    2017-01-01

    Activation of NLRP3 inflammasome is important for effective host defense against invading pathogen. Together with apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing CARD domain (ASC), NLRP3 induces the cleavage of caspase-1 to facilitate the maturation of interleukin-1beta (IL-1β), an important pro-inflammatory cytokine. IL-1β subsequently plays critical roles in inflammatory responses by activating immune cells and inducing many secondary pro-inflammatory cytokines. Although the role of NLRP3 inflammasome in immune response is well defined, the mechanism underlying its assembly modulated by pathogen infection remains largely unknown. Here, we identified a novel mechanism by which enterovirus 71 (EV71) facilitates the assembly of NLRP3 inflammasome. Our results show that EV71 induces production and secretion of IL-1β in macrophages and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) through activation of NLRP3 inflammasome. EV71 replication and protein synthesis are required for NLRP3-mediated activation of IL-1β. Interestingly, EV71 3D protein, a RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) was found to stimulate the activation of NLRP3 inflammasome, the cleavage of pro-caspase-1, and the release of IL-1β through direct binding to NLRP3. More importantly, 3D interacts with NLRP3 to facilitate the assembly of inflammasome complex by forming a 3D-NLRP3-ASC ring-like structure, resulting in the activation of IL-1β. These findings demonstrate a new role of 3D as an important player in the activation of inflammatory response, and identify a novel mechanism underlying the modulation of inflammasome assembly and function induced by pathogen invasion.

  11. Electric and hybrid vehicles charge efficiency tests of ESB EV-106 lead-acid batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Rowlette, J.J.

    1981-01-15

    Charge efficiencies were determined for ESB EV-106 lead-acid batteries by measurements made under widely differing conditions of temperature, charge procedure, and battery age. The measurements were used to optimize charge procedures and to evaluate the concept of a modified, coulometric state-of-charge indicator. Charge efficiency determinations were made by measuring gassing rates and oxygen fractions. A novel, positive displacement gas flow meter which proved to be both simple and highly accurate is described and illustrated.

  12. [Genetic characteristics of EV71 in Yunnan Province from 2009 to 2010].

    PubMed

    Liu, Guo-Jun; Wu, Yan; Tian, Bing-Jun; Cun, Jian-Ping; Yin, Jie; Jiang, Li-Li; Ma, Yue; Lu, Lin; Xu, Wen

    2012-06-01

    In order to learn about the genetic characteristic of human enterovirus type71 (HEV71) isolated from cases of Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease (HFMD) in Yunnan Province from 2009 to 2010. 50 isolates form HFMD cases were performed entire VP1 coding region amplification by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and sequencing the nucleotide sequences; then the phylogenetic tree was constructed. The complete nucleotide sequences of region VP1 of the 50 strains were all 891nt length coding 297 amino acids. The result of molecular identification of the 50 strains is HEV71. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that 48 EV71 isolates belonged to subgenotype C4a and 2 EV71 isolates belonged to genotype A. From 2009 to 2010, the pathogen of HFMD cases were EV71 strains in Yunnan province, which were co-evolved with isolates from other provinces in mainland of China. There was no significant difference found in the whole sequence of VP1 gene of the strains isolated from different regions or under different diseases occurred, but the spread of genetype A appared in Yunnan Province in 2009.

  13. Observation of vibrationally resolved charge transfer in H + +H2 at ECM=20 eV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niedner, G.; Noll, M.; Toennies, J. P.; Schlier, Ch.

    1987-09-01

    The doubly differential cross sections for both the scattered protons and H atoms have been measured at ELAB=30 eV (ECM=20 eV) from θLAB=0° to 12° (θCM=0° to 18°) for the reactions H++H2(v=0)→H++H2(vf) and →H+H+2(vf) . The energy resolution is sufficient to resolve final vibrational states in both channels. The comparison of both the angular and energy loss distributions for the two product channels provides the first clear experimental evidence of a two-step charge transfer mechanism: Vibrational excitation on the lower H++H2 surface is followed by charge transfer in the outgoing collision for only those H2 molecules which are excited vibrationally high enough (vf≥4) to overcome the endoergic barrier (ΔE=1.83 eV). The final vibrational distributions of H+2 appear to be very similar to those of H2 for vf≥4 indicating that for the angular range observed the charge transfer probability is the same for all vibrational states with vf≥4. The comparison with classical trajectory surface hopping (TSH) calculations points to some disagreement which probably can be attributed to the potential surface used.

  14. Distribution of EV71 receptors SCARB2 and PSGL-1 in human tissues.

    PubMed

    Jiao, Xiao-Yang; Guo, Li; Huang, Dong-Yang; Chang, Xiao-Lan; Qiu, Qian-Cheng

    2014-09-22

    The aim of this study was to investigate the distribution of Enterovirus 71 (EV71) receptors SCARB2 and PSGL-1 in human tissues. The samples were chosen from archived specimens, and the profiles of two receptors were detected in the gastrointestinal tract, lung, and brain in situ by immunohistochemistry. SCARB2 was detected in all the tissues studied, and strong staining was observed in the gastric fundus gland, mucosal and glandular epithelia of the intestine. Similar expression was found in bronchial epithelia and pneumocytes. In addition, SCARB2 was observed in the esophagus/gastric mucosal epithelia, neuron, glial cells, and blood vessels and the perivascular tissues of the brain. By comparison, PSGL-1 was expressed weakly in the mucosal and glandular epithelia of the small intestine and colon. PSGL-1 was expressed in a few bronchial epithelia, and weak staining was observed in the pneumocytes. However, PSGL-1 was found easily in the lamina propria of all the tissues studied, and strong staining of PSGL-1 was also observed in the neurons and glial cells. The distribution of the SCARB2 and PSGL-1 in human gastrointestinal tract, lung, and brain tissues correlated with the distribution of pathological changes seen in EV71 infection. The widespread prevalence of these receptors may help explain the multiple organ involvement in infection with EV71.

  15. PHEV/EV Li-Ion Battery Second-Use Project (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Neubauer, J.; Pesaran, A.

    2010-04-01

    Accelerated development and market penetration of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) and electric vehicles (Evs) are restricted at present by the high cost of lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries. One way to address this problem is to recover a fraction of the battery cost via reuse in other applications after the battery is retired from service in the vehicle, if the battery can still meet the performance requirements of other energy storage applications. In several current and emerging applications, the secondary use of PHEV and EV batteries may be beneficial; these applications range from utility peak load reduction to home energy storage appliances. However, neither the full scope of possible opportunities nor the feasibility or profitability of secondary use battery opportunities have been quantified. Therefore, with support from the Energy Storage activity of the U.S. Department of Energy's Vehicle Technologies Program, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is addressing this issue. NREL will bring to bear its expertise and capabilities in energy storage for transportation and in distributed grids, advanced vehicles, utilities, solar energy, wind energy, and grid interfaces as well as its understanding of stakeholder dynamics. This presentation introduces NREL's PHEV/EV Li-ion Battery Secondary-Use project.

  16. High efficiency carbon-based multilayers for LAMP at 250 eV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Mingwu; Huang, Qiushi; She, Rui; Jiang, Li; Zhang, Zhong; Wang, Zhanshan; Feng, Hua; Spiga, Daniele; Giglia, Angelo

    2015-09-01

    X-ray reflection near the Brewster's angle by multilayer mirrors can be used to detect the polarization from X-ray sources. The photon emission spectra from some isolated neutron stars and AGN/blazars etc. show that their emission is peaked at low energies near 250eV, which is just below carbon K-absorption edge. The Lightweight Asymmetry and Magnetism Probe (LAMP) is proposed as a micro-satellite mission dedicated for astronomical X-ray polarimetry working at 250 eV and is currently under early phase study. Co/C multilayers are selected and designed at the energy near 250eV with a grazing incident angle of 45°. The carbon layer thickness ratio is optimized to get the highest integral reflectivity which means larger effective signals in the astrophysics observation. The multilayer coatings were manufactured by direct current magnetron sputtering on D263 glasses and electroformed nickels and characterized using Grazing incidence X-ray reflectometry at 8keV. Reactive sputtering with 4%, 6% and 8% nitrogen were used to improve the Co/C multilayer interfaces respectively. Reflectivity for s-polarization and p-polarization light was measured at BEAR beamline in Elettra synchtron facility. Co/C multilayer deposited with 6% nitrogen exhibits the best performance comparing to other multilayers with different nitrogen content.

  17. Immunogenicity and protective efficacy of an EV71 virus-like particle vaccine against lethal challenge in newborn mice.

    PubMed

    Sun, Shiyang; Gao, Fan; Mao, Qunying; Shao, Jie; Jiang, Liping; Liu, Dawei; Wang, Yiping; Yao, Xin; Wu, Xing; Sun, Bo; Zhao, Dandan; Ma, Youlei; Lu, Jingcai; Kong, Wei; Jiang, Chunlai; Liang, Zhenglun

    2015-01-01

    Enterovirus 71(EV71) has caused severe epidemics of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) in the Asia Pacific in recent years, particularly in infants and pre-school children. It has become a serious public health threat, as currently there are no approved vaccines or antiviral drugs for EV71 infection. Many EV71 vaccines have been under development worldwide, however the main focus is inactivated EV71 vaccines. For example, the inactivated EV71 vaccine has recently finished phase III clinical trial in Mainland China. There have been very few studies on EV71 virus like particles (VLPs). In this study, the immunogenicity and protective potency of the EV71 VLPs produced in insect cells were evaluated in mice with different dosages. Our results showed that EV71 VLPs could elicit high titers of neutralizing antibodies (NTAbs) in a dose-dependent manner and NTAbs were sustained after the second injection with an average GMT (geometric mean titer) level from 19 to 2960 in immunized mice. Survival rates were 100%, 100%, 85%, and 40% after challenge with 15 LD50 (median lethal dose) of EV71 in these newborn mice, respectively. ED50 (50% effective dose) of VLPs was 0.20 μg/dose in newborn mice, while NTAb titer under this dosage was about 50. Passive protection was determined with 2 methods and demonstrated that the survival rates were positively correlated with NTAb titers, which at 24 and 54 induced 50% survival rates in experimental animals. The ED50 of VLP vaccines and the passive NTAb titers were also analyzed. The maternal NTAb titer was similar as the passive NTAb titer in the mouse model challenged with our lethal mouse EV71 strain. Hence, our work has provided preliminary data on the protection potency of VLPs as a vaccine candidate and would facilitate future VLP vaccine development.

  18. Bright high-repetition-rate source of narrowband extreme-ultraviolet harmonics beyond 22 eV

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, He; Xu, Yiming; Ulonska, Stefan; Robinson, Joseph S.; Ranitovic, Predrag; Kaindl, Robert A.

    2015-06-11

    Novel table-top sources of extreme-ultraviolet light based on high-harmonic generation yield unique insight into the fundamental properties of molecules, nanomaterials or correlated solids, and enable advanced applications in imaging or metrology. Extending high-harmonic generation to high repetition rates portends great experimental benefits, yet efficient extreme-ultraviolet conversion of correspondingly weak driving pulses is challenging. In this article, we demonstrate a highly-efficient source of femtosecond extreme-ultraviolet pulses at 50-kHz repetition rate, utilizing the ultraviolet second-harmonic focused tightly into Kr gas. In this cascaded scheme, a photon flux beyond ≈3 × 1013 s-1 is generated at 22.3 eV, with 5 × 10-5 conversion efficiency that surpasses similar harmonics directly driven by the fundamental by two orders-of-magnitude. The enhancement arises from both wavelength scaling of the atomic dipole and improved spatio-temporal phase matching, confirmed by simulations. Finally, spectral isolation of a single 72-meV-wide harmonic renders this bright, 50-kHz extreme-ultraviolet source a powerful tool for ultrafast photoemission, nanoscale imaging and other applications.

  19. power loss in SSPX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stewart, T. L.; Romero-Talamas, C. A.; McLean, H. S.; Correll, D. L.

    2007-11-01

    An absolute calibration has been performed on each of the seven chords of the Hα diagnostic [Z. Wang, G.A. Wurden, C.W Barnes, et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 1059 (2001)] at SSPX. Simple models are used to estimate the total power lost to Hα radiation throughout experimental shots. Using these models, high energy shots (Te > 500 eV) are compared to low energy shots.

  20. Techniques to Remotely Identify and Evaluate Electrical Power System Infrastructure

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-02-01

    www.space.gc.ca/asc/eng/csa_sectors/earth/hyper_military.asp Dib, Ramzi, Line Parameters of Overhead Power Lines and Their Calculation Using the EMTP / ATP Line...locations in a substation switch yard. h (meter) Ev ( 115kV ) Ev (230kV) Ev (500kV) Hh( 115kV ) Hh(230kV) Hh(500kV) h = 0 meter 7 kV/m 5.5 kV/m 13.5 kV/m

  1. Recombinant VP1 protein expressed in Pichia pastoris induces protective immune responses against EV71 in mice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Man; Jiang, Shuai; Wang, Yefu

    2013-01-04

    Human enterovirus 71 (EV71) is one of the major causative agents of hand, foot and mouth disease and is also associated with serious neurological diseases in children. Currently, there are no effective antiviral drugs or vaccines against EV71 infection. VP1, one of the major immunogenic capsid proteins of EV71, is widely considered to be the candidate antigen for an EV71 vaccine. In this study, VP1 of EV71 was expressed as a secretory protein with an N-terminal histidine tag in the methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris, and purified by Ni-NTA affinity chromatography. Immunogenicity and vaccine efficacy of the recombinant VP1 were assessed in mouse models. The results showed that the recombinant VP1 could efficiently induce anti-VP1 antibodies in BALB/c mice, which were able to neutralize EV71 viruses in an in vitro neutralization assay. Passive protection of neonatal mice further confirmed the prophylactic efficacy of the antisera from VP1 vaccinated mice. Furthermore, VP1 vaccination induced strong lymphoproliferative and Th1 cytokine responses. Taken together, our study demonstrated that the yeast-expressed VP1 protein retained good immunogenicity and was a potent EV71 vaccine candidate.

  2. [Analysis on the preference of synonymous codon in VP1 nucleotide sequence of the EV71 based on RSCU method].

    PubMed

    Qi, Bin; Zhao, Jing-Jing; Gao, Lei; Zhu, Ping

    2009-11-01

    Based on RSCU method and by analyzing the preference of codon usage in VP1 nucleotide sequences of EV71 isolated in Chinese mainland and Taiwan region from 1998 to 2008, it is clear that there is an obvious time discrimination in RSCU calculated from EV71 VP1 strain between two different regions of China and it is more obvious in Taiwan region, therefore, according to the diversity of RSCU, the years can be divided into 2 intervals in Chinese mainland and 4 intervals in Taiwan region, especially, the number of intervals in one region have a positive co-relation with the activity of variation of the EV71 in the same region. The change of the preference of codon usage in VP1 nucleotide sequences of EV71 can significantly embody the Variation of the EV71, so we can make use of the analysis on preference of codon usage in VP1 nucleotide sequences of EV71 to predict the possible variation trend of the EV71.

  3. EV71 infection correlates with viral IgG preexisting at pharyngo-laryngeal mucosa in children.

    PubMed

    Xue, Jingchang; Li, Yaoming; Xu, Xiaoyi; Yu, Jie; Yan, Hu; Yan, Huimin

    2015-04-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) infection causes severe central nervous system damage, particularly for children under the age of 5 years old, which remains a major public health burden worldwide. Clinical data released that children may be repeatedly infected by different members in enterovirus and get even worsen. Mucosa, especially epithelium of alimentary canal, was considered the primary site of EV71 infection. It has been elusive whether the preexsiting viral antibody in mucosa plays a role in EV71 infection. To answer this question, we respectively measured viral antibody response and EV71 RNA copy number of one hundred throat swab specimens from clinically confirmed EV71-infected children. The results released that low-level of mucosal IgG antibody against EV71 broadly existed in young population. More importantly, it further elucidated that the children with mucosal preexsiting EV71 IgG were prone to be infected, which suggested a former viral IgG mediated enhancement of viral infection in vivo.

  4. InterEvDock: a docking server to predict the structure of protein-protein interactions using evolutionary information.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jinchao; Vavrusa, Marek; Andreani, Jessica; Rey, Julien; Tufféry, Pierre; Guerois, Raphaël

    2016-07-08

    The structural modeling of protein-protein interactions is key in understanding how cell machineries cross-talk with each other. Molecular docking simulations provide efficient means to explore how two unbound protein structures interact. InterEvDock is a server for protein docking based on a free rigid-body docking strategy. A systematic rigid-body docking search is performed using the FRODOCK program and the resulting models are re-scored with InterEvScore and SOAP-PP statistical potentials. The InterEvScore potential was specifically designed to integrate co-evolutionary information in the docking process. InterEvDock server is thus particularly well suited in case homologous sequences are available for both binding partners. The server returns 10 structures of the most likely consensus models together with 10 predicted residues most likely involved in the interface. In 91% of all complexes tested in the benchmark, at least one residue out of the 10 predicted is involved in the interface, providing useful guidelines for mutagenesis. InterEvDock is able to identify a correct model among the top10 models for 49% of the rigid-body cases with evolutionary information, making it a unique and efficient tool to explore structural interactomes under an evolutionary perspective. The InterEvDock web interface is available at http://bioserv.rpbs.univ-paris-diderot.fr/services/InterEvDock/.

  5. InterEvDock: a docking server to predict the structure of protein–protein interactions using evolutionary information

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Jinchao; Vavrusa, Marek; Andreani, Jessica; Rey, Julien; Tufféry, Pierre; Guerois, Raphaël

    2016-01-01

    The structural modeling of protein–protein interactions is key in understanding how cell machineries cross-talk with each other. Molecular docking simulations provide efficient means to explore how two unbound protein structures interact. InterEvDock is a server for protein docking based on a free rigid-body docking strategy. A systematic rigid-body docking search is performed using the FRODOCK program and the resulting models are re-scored with InterEvScore and SOAP-PP statistical potentials. The InterEvScore potential was specifically designed to integrate co-evolutionary information in the docking process. InterEvDock server is thus particularly well suited in case homologous sequences are available for both binding partners. The server returns 10 structures of the most likely consensus models together with 10 predicted residues most likely involved in the interface. In 91% of all complexes tested in the benchmark, at least one residue out of the 10 predicted is involved in the interface, providing useful guidelines for mutagenesis. InterEvDock is able to identify a correct model among the top10 models for 49% of the rigid-body cases with evolutionary information, making it a unique and efficient tool to explore structural interactomes under an evolutionary perspective. The InterEvDock web interface is available at http://bioserv.rpbs.univ-paris-diderot.fr/services/InterEvDock/. PMID:27131368

  6. Single dose of an adenovirus vectored mouse interferon-α protects mice from lethal EV71 challenge.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jialei; Ennis, Jane; Turner, Jeffrey D; Chu, Justin Jang Hann

    2016-10-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) causes hand-foot-and-mouth diseases as well as neurological complications in young children. Interferon (IFN) can inhibit the replication of many viruses with low cytotoxic effects. Previously, an adenovirus vectored mouse interferon-α (DEF201), subtype 5, was generated by Wu et al, 2007. In this study, the antiviral effects of DEF201 against EV71 were evaluated in a murine model. 6-day-old BALB/c mice were administered a single dose of DEF201 before or after infection with lethal dose of EV71. The survival rate, clinical symptoms, tissue viral loads and histology pathogenesis were evaluated. IFN gene expression following a single dose of DEF201 maintained high concentrations of 100-9000 pg/mL for more than 7 days in mice serum. Pre-infection administration of a single dose of 10(6) PFU of DEF201 offered full protection of the mice against EV71 infection compared with the empty Ad5 vector control. In addition, virus load in DEF201-treated mice muscle tissue was significantly decreased as compared with empty vector control. Histopathology analysis revealed that DEF201 significantly prevented the development of severe tissue damage with reduction of viral antigen in the murine muscle tissue. Post-infection treatment at 6 h offered full protection and partial protection at 12 h, indicating that DEF201 could be used as an anti-EV71 therapeutic agent in early stage of EV71 infection. In addition, our study showed that DEF201 enhanced the neutralization ability of serum in EV71-vaccinated mice, implying that DEF201 could promote the production of specific anti-EV71 antibodies. In conclusion, single dose of DEF201 is highly efficacious as a prophylactic agent against EV71 infection in vivo.

  7. Vibrational excitation in CO by electron impact in the energy range 10-90 eV.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chutjian, A.; Truhlar, D. G.; Williams, W.; Trajmar, S.

    1972-01-01

    The ratio of the scattering intensity for the v double prime = 1 excitation to the elastic scattering intensity at 40- and 80-deg scattering angles has been determined for 10- to 90-eV impact energies for electron scattering by CO. These ratio curves exhibit broad peaks near 20-eV impact energy which cannot be accounted for by plane-wave calculations based on potential scattering models. The peaks are indicative of a resonant excitation process (or processes) in the v double prime = 1 channel in the range from 15 to 25 eV.

  8. [The assemblage, purification and characterization of EV71 VLPs expressed in baculovirus].

    PubMed

    Cao, Lei; Yi, Yao; Song, Jing-Dong; Tian, Miao-Miao; Tian, Rui-Guang; Meng, Qing-Ling; Qiu, Feng; Jia, Zhi-Yuan; Bi, Sheng-Li

    2012-05-01

    To construct a recombinant expression plasmid Bacmid-P1-3CD containing the P1 and 3CD genes of enterovirus 71(EV71), the P1 and 3CD genes were cloned into the same baculovirus shuttle vector (Bacmid). Recombinant AcMNPV-P1-3CD was obtained by transfecting the Bacmid-P1-3CD into the insect cell line of S f9. With the IFA and Western-blot methods for identification of expression products confirmed that the target protein was expressed in interior of infected S f9 cells. Electron microscopy showed that the structural protein capsid P1 was cut by virus-encoded protease 3CD and assembled into EV71 virus like particles (VLPs) about 27nm diameter. Different values of MOI and time points of expression were compared to explore the optimal expression condition, and the results showed that the time point could be a more important factor. Then we used S f9 cells with serum-free medium in CellSTACK-10 Culture Chambers to produce EV71 VLPs in the confirmed condition. After purification of VLPs by density gradient centrifugation, we observed on SDS-PAGE profile the purified sample contained three major proteins whose molecular masses corresponded to those of VP1 (39kD), VP0 (34kD) and VP3 (26kD) as well as the intact structure, which can be greatly used for further study in protein structure and genetic engineering vaccine research.

  9. Impact of Fast Charging on Life of EV Batteries; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect

    Neubauer, Jeremy; Wood, Eric; Burton, Evan; Smith, Kandler; Pesaran, Ahmad

    2015-05-03

    Installation of fast charging infrastructure is considered by many as one of potential solutions to increase the utility and range of electric vehicles (EVs). This is expected to reduce the range anxiety of drivers of EVs and thus increase their market penetration. Level 1 and 2 charging in homes and workplaces is expected to contribute to the majority of miles driven by EVs. However, a small percentage of urban driving and most of inter-city driving could be only achieved by a fast-charging network. DC fast charging at 50 kW, 100 kW, 120 kW compared to level 1 (3.3 kW) and level 2 (6.6 kW) results in high-current charging that can adversely impact the life of the battery. In the last couple of years, we have investigated the impact of higher current rates in batteries and potential of higher temperatures and thus lower service life. Using mathematical models, we investigated the temperature increase of batteries due to higher heat generation during fast charge and have found that this could lead to higher temperatures. We compared our models with data from other national laboratories both for fine-tuning and calibration. We found that the incremental temperature rise of batteries during 1C to 3C fast charging may reduce the practical life of the batteries by less than 10% over 10 to 15 years of vehicle ownership. We also found that thermal management of batteries is needed for fast charging to prevent high temperature excursions leading to unsafe conditions.

  10. Comparative Analysis of the Immunogenicity and Protective Effects of Inactivated EV71 Vaccines in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Qunying; Dong, Chenghong; Li, Xiuling; Gao, Qiang; Guo, Zengbing; Yao, Xin; Wang, Yiping; Gao, Fan; Li, Fengxiang; Xu, Miao; Yin, Weidong; Li, Qihan; Shen, Xinliang; Liang, Zhenglun; Wang, Junzhi

    2012-01-01

    Background Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is the major causative agent of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD). Three inactivated EV71 whole-virus vaccines of different strains developed by different manufacturers in mainland China have recently entered clinical trials. Although several studies on these vaccines have been published, a study directly comparing the immunogenicity and protective effects among them has not been carried out, which makes evaluating their relative effectiveness difficult. Thus, properly comparing newly developed vaccines has become a priority, especially in China. Methods and Findings This comparative immunogenicity study was carried out on vaccine strains (both live and inactivated), final container products (FCPs) without adjuvant, and corresponding FCPs containing adjuvant (FCP-As) produced by three manufacturers. These vaccines were evaluated by neutralizing antibody (NAb) responses induced by the same or different dosages at one or multiple time points post-immunization. The protective efficacy of the three vaccines was also determined in one-day-old ICR mice born to immunized female mice. Survival rates were observed in these suckling mice after challenge with 20 LD50 of EV71/048M3C2. Three FCP-As, in a dose of 200 U, generated nearly 100% NAb positivity rates and similar geometric mean titers (GMTs), especially at 14–21 days post-inoculation. However, the dynamic NAb responses were different among three vaccine strains or three FCPs. The FCP-As at the lowest dose used in clinical trials (162 U) showed good protective effects in suckling mice against lethal challenge (90–100% survival), while the ED50 of NAb responses and protective effects varied among three FCP-As. Conclusions These studies establish a standard method for measuring the immunogenicity of EV71 vaccines in mice. The data generated from our mouse model study indicated a clear dose-response relationship, which is important for vaccine quality control and assessment

  11. The measurement of elemental abundances above 10 sup 15 eV at a lunar base

    SciTech Connect

    Swordy, S.P. )

    1990-03-15

    At {approx}10{sup 15} eV the slope of the energy spectrum of cosmic rays becomes significantly steeper than at lower energies. The measurement of relative elemental abundances at these energies is expected to provide a means to resolve the origin of this feature and greatly contribute to the understanding of the sources of cosmic rays. We describe a moon based detector for making well resolved elemental measurements at these energies using hadronic calorimetry. This detector is particularly well suited for a site on the lunar surface because there is no overlying layer of atmosphere and the large mass required can be provided by the lunar regolith.

  12. Double photoionization of tribromoborazine from 25 to 138 eV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wehlitz, R.; MacDonald, M.; Zuin, L.; Santos, A. C. F.; Appathurai, N.

    2017-02-01

    We have measured the yield for the photoproduction of singly and doubly charged parent ions of the inorganic molecule tribromoborazine [(BrBNH)3] , a molecule in which three bromine atoms replace three hydrogen atoms in borazine [(BH)3(NH)3] . Borazine is isoelectronic and isostructural to benzene. We compare the ratio of doubly to singly charged parent ions as a function of the photon energy to the ratio for benzene. We find similarities but also marked differences between the two molecules. The first double-ionization threshold was found to be at 28.5(4) eV.

  13. Electrical and Optical Performance Characteristics of 0.74-eV p/n InGaAs Monolithic Interconnected Modules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilt, David M.; Fatemi, Navid S.; Jenkins, Phillip P.; Weizer, Victor G.; Hoffman, Richard W., Jr.; Jain, Raj K.; Murray, Christopher S.; Riley, David R.

    1997-01-01

    There has been a traditional trade-off in thermophotovoltaic (TPV) energy conversion development between system efficiency and power density. This trade-off originates from the use of front surface spectral controls such as selective emitters and various types of filters. A monolithic interconnected module (MIM) structure has been developed which allows for both high power densities and high system efficiencies. The MIM device consists of many individual indium gallium arsenide (InGaAs) cells series-connected on a single semi-insulating indium phosphide (InP) substrate. The MIM is exposed to the entire emitter output, thereby maximizing output power density. An infrared (IR) reflector placed on the rear surface of the substrate returns the unused portion of the emitter output spectrum back to the emitter for recycling, thereby providing for high system efficiencies. Initial MIM development has focused on a 1 sq cm device consisting of eight (8) series interconnected cells. MIM devices, produced from 0.74-eV InGaAs, have demonstrated V(sub oc) = 3.2 volts, J(sub sc) = 70 mA/sq cm, and a fill factor of 66% under flashlamp testing. Infrared (IR) reflectance measurements (greater than 2 micron) of these devices indicate a reflectivity of greater than 82%. MIM devices produced from 0.55-eV InGaAs have also been demonstrated. In addition, conventional p/n InGaAs devices with record efficiencies (11.7% AM0) have been demonstrated.

  14. Antigenic analysis of divergent genotypes human Enterovirus 71 viruses by a panel of neutralizing monoclonal antibodies: current genotyping of EV71 does not reflect their antigenicity.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yixin; Li, Chuan; He, Delei; Cheng, Tong; Ge, Shengxiang; Shih, James Wai-Kuo; Zhao, Qinjian; Chen, Pei-Jer; Zhang, Jun; Xia, Ningshao

    2013-01-02

    In recent year, Enterovirus 71 (EV71)-associated hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) has become an important public health issue in China. EV71 has been classified into genotypes A, B1-B5 and C1-C5. With such genetic diversity, whether the convalescent or recovery antibody responses can cross-protect infections from other genotypes remains a question. Understanding of the antigenicity of such diverse genetic EV71 isolates is crucial for the EV71 vaccine development. Here, a total of 186 clones anti-EV71 MAbs was generated and characterized with Western blot and cell-based neutralization assay. Forty neutralizing anti-EV71 MAbs were further used to analyze the antigenic properties of 18 recent EV71 isolates representing seven genotypes in neutralization assay. We found that most neutralizing anti-EV71 MAbs are specific to conformational epitopes. We also classified the 40 neutralizing anti-EV71 MAbs into two classes according to their reactivity patterns with 18 EV71 isolates. Class I MAb can neutralize all isolates, suggesting conserved epitopes are present among EV71. Class II MAb includes four subclasses (IIa-IId) and neutralizes only subgroups of EV71 strains. Conversely, 18 EV71 strains were grouped into antigenic types 1 and four antigenic subtypes (2.1-2.4). These results suggest that the current genotyping of EV71 does not reflect their antigenicity which may be important in the selection of EV71 vaccine strains. This panel of neutralizing anti-EV71 MAbs may be useful for the recognition of emerging antigenic variants of EV71 and vaccine development.

  15. A Comparative Study of Power Supply Architectures In Wireless Electric Vehicle Charging Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esteban, Bryan

    Wireless inductive power transfer is a transformational and disruptive technology that enables the reliable and efficient transfer of electrical power over large air gaps for a host of unique applications. One such application that is now gaining much momentum worldwide is the wireless charging of electric vehicles (EVs). This thesis examines two of the primary power supply topologies being predominantly used for EV charging, namely the SLC and the LCL resonant full bridge inverter topologies. The study of both of these topologies is presented in the context of designing a 3 kW, primary side controlled, wireless EV charger with nominal operating parameters of 30 kHz centre frequency and range of coupling in the neighborhood of .18-.26. A comparison of both topologies is made in terms of their complexity, cost, efficiency, and power quality. The aim of the study is to determine which topology is better for wireless EV charging.

  16. Laser desorption 7.87 eV postionization mass spectrometry of antibiotics in Staphylococcus epidermidis bacterial biofilms.

    PubMed

    Gasper, Gerald L; Carlson, Ross; Akhmetov, Artem; Moore, Jerry F; Hanley, Luke

    2008-09-01

    This paper describes the development of laser desorption 7.87 eV vacuum UV (VUV) postionization MS to detect antibiotics within intact bacterial colony biofilms. As >99% of the molecules ejected by laser desorption are neutrals, VUV photoionization of these neutrals can provide significantly increased signal as compared to the detection of directly emitted ions. Postionization with VUV radiation from the molecular fluorine laser single photon ionizes laser desorbed neutrals with ionization potentials below the 7.87 eV photon energy. Antibiotics with structures indicative of sub-7.87 eV ionization potentials were examined for their ability to be detected by 7.87 eV laser desorption postionization MS. Tetracycline, sulfadiazine, and novobiocin were successfully detected neat as dried films physisorbed on porous silicon oxide substrates. Tetracycline and sulfadiazine were then detected within intact Staphylococcus epidermidis colony biofilms, the former with LOD in the micromolar concentration range.

  17. Determination of the optical constants of amorphous carbon in the EUV spectral region 40-450 eV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uspenskii, Yu. A.; Seely, J. F.; Kjornrattanawanich, B.; Windt, D. L.; Bugayev, Ye. A.; Kondratenko, V. V.; Artyukov, I. A.; Titov, A. A.; Kulatov, E. T.; Vinogradov, A. V.

    2006-08-01

    The extreme ultraviolet (EUV) optical constants δ(ω) and β(ω) of amorphous carbon were determined on the basis of transmission measurements at hω=18-450 eV, the first-principles calculation of the dielectric tensor at hω<25 eV, and the Kramers-Kronig calculation of δ(ω). Our optical constants generally agree with the CXRO data, excluding the vicinity of the K-edge. First-principles analysis shows that two thresholds of absorption (at 284 eV and 291 eV) found in the present study are caused, respectively, by the π- and σ- bonds. Their weights are controlled by an orientation of graphene sheets in a-carbon.

  18. [Sequence and antigenicity analysis for VP4s of EV71 strains isolated from Children in Beijing].

    PubMed

    Li, Yu-Yun; Zhu, Ru-Nan; Qian, Yuan; Deng, Jie; Sun, Yu; Wang, Fang; Zhao, Lin-Qing; Liu, Li-Ying

    2011-05-01

    In order to learn about the correlation between the sequences of VP4 of EV71 and clinical symptoms of patients and analyze the antigenicity of VP4 of EV71, as well as the cross-reactivity with VP4 of CA16, the sequences of VP4 gene from 10 EV71 strains isolated from infants and children with hand, foot and mouth diseases (HFMD) during 2007 to 2009 were determined through standard molecular cloning protocols, and the results were analyzed by EditSeq and MegAlign of DNAStar. Full-length genes of VP4s of EV71 and CA16 were amplified from virus isolates and expressed in E. coli. Then the expressed VP4s were used as antigens to detect IgG antibody in 189 sera samples from people taking health check up and patients of non-HFMD by Western-Blot. They were also used to detect IgM antibody in 14 of sera samples from infants and children with EV71 infection and 12 of sera samples from those with CA16 infection. The nucleotides identities among these 10 sequences of VP4s isolated in our lab were 94.20% - 100.00% and the deduced amino acids were identical. There was no consistent divergence between the sequences of serious cases and those from general HFMD cases. Phylogenetic analysis based on VP4s indicated that these 10 VP4s of EV71 belonged to C4. The nucleotide identities between EV71 VP4 (s67) and CA16 VP4 (s401) was 69.60% and the deduced amino acids identities was 78.60%. In the detection of IgG, the sera-positive rate for EV71 VP4 was 38.10% and the sera-positive rate of CA16 VP4 was 58.20%. The difference in the sera-positive rate between them was significant (chi2 = 15.30, P < 0.01), suggesting that the expressed VP4s of EV71 and CA16 were of good antigenicity and not cross-reactive. There was no positive reaction detected for IgM against VP4s for EV71 or CA16. The data from this study reveal important information for the further study of EV71.

  19. [Study of combined effects of DES and EV on the proliferation of MCF-7 cells by two experimental designs].

    PubMed

    Liu, Qian; Lei, Bing-Li; An, Jing; Shang, Yu; Zhong, Yu-Fang; Kang, Jia; Wen, Yu

    2013-08-01

    The single toxicity of diethylstilbestrol (DES) and beta-estradiol 17-valerate (EV) and the joint toxicity of their binary mixtures in equiconcentration to the proliferation of MCF-7 cells were investigated, respectively. Additive index (AI) method was adopted to evaluate the joint toxicity effect. At the same time, 3 x 3 factorial experimental design was used to verify the joint toxiciy types derived from equiconcentration of DES and EV. The results show that the EC50 values of single EV and DES for 24, 48 and 72 h are 6.02, 0.40 and 0.33 nmol x L(-1) and 5.90, 6.98 and 2.90 nmol x L(-1), respectively. The EC50 values of the binary mixtures of DES and EV for 24, 48 and 72 h are 2.33, 0.71 and 0.39 nmol x L(-1). The binary joint effects of DES and EV for 24 h were synergistic, and the joint effects of DES and EV for 48 and 72 h were antagonistic. But synergistic and antagonistic effects are not strong; their values can be found close to the values of additive effects. Factorial experiment results show that combined effects of DES and EV to proliferation of MCF-7 cells for 24, 48 and 72 h three exposure periods are additive effect types. The consistent joint combined effect types can be drawn from both factorial experimental design and equiconcentration ratio of DES and EV to the proliferation of MCF-7 cells. However, the factorial experimental design is simpler and more convenient, and can avoid unnecessary mistakes due to the derivation of EC50 values.

  20. Influence of organic ions on DNA damage induced by 1 eV to 60 keV electrons.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Yi; Sanche, Léon

    2010-10-21

    We report the results of a study on the influence of organic salts on the induction of single strand breaks (SSBs) and double strand breaks (DSBs) in DNA by electrons of 1 eV to 60 keV. Plasmid DNA films are prepared with two different concentrations of organic salts, by varying the amount of the TE buffer (Tris-HCl and EDTA) in the films with ratio of 1:1 and 6:1 Tris ions to DNA nucleotide. The films are bombarded with electrons of 1, 10, 100, and 60 000 eV under vacuum. The damage to the 3197 base-pair plasmid is analyzed ex vacuo by agarose gel electrophoresis. The highest yields are reached at 100 eV and the lowest ones at 60 keV. The ratios of SSB to DSB are surprisingly low at 10 eV (∼4.3) at both salt concentrations, and comparable to the ratios measured with 100 eV electrons. At all characteristic electron energies, the yields of SSB and DSB are found to be higher for the DNA having the lowest salt concentration. However, the organic salts are more efficient at protecting DNA against the damage induced by 1 and 10 eV electrons. DNA damage and protection by organic ions are discussed in terms of mechanisms operative at each electron energy. It is suggested that these ions create additional electric fields within the groove of DNA, which modify the resonance parameter of 1 and 10 eV electrons, namely, by reducing the electron capture cross-section of basic DNA units and the lifetime of corresponding transient anions. An interstrand electron transfer mechanism is proposed to explain the low ratios for the yields of SSB to those of DSB produced by 10 eV electrons.

  1. Recombination reactions of 5-eV O(3P) atoms on a MgF2 surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orient, O. J.; Chutjian, A.; Murad, E.

    1990-01-01

    A source of hyperthermal, ground-state, impurity-free, atomic oxygen of an energy variable in the range 2-100 eV has been developed. Experimental results are presented of emission spectra in the wavelength range 250-850 nm produced by collisions of 5-eV O(3P) atoms with adsorbed NO and CO molecules on a MgF2 surface.

  2. Influence of organic ions on DNA damage induced by 1 eV to 60 keV electrons

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng Yi; Sanche, Leon

    2010-10-21

    We report the results of a study on the influence of organic salts on the induction of single strand breaks (SSBs) and double strand breaks (DSBs) in DNA by electrons of 1 eV to 60 keV. Plasmid DNA films are prepared with two different concentrations of organic salts, by varying the amount of the TE buffer (Tris-HCl and EDTA) in the films with ratio of 1:1 and 6:1 Tris ions to DNA nucleotide. The films are bombarded with electrons of 1, 10, 100, and 60 000 eV under vacuum. The damage to the 3197 base-pair plasmid is analyzed ex vacuo by agarose gel electrophoresis. The highest yields are reached at 100 eV and the lowest ones at 60 keV. The ratios of SSB to DSB are surprisingly low at 10 eV ({approx}4.3) at both salt concentrations, and comparable to the ratios measured with 100 eV electrons. At all characteristic electron energies, the yields of SSB and DSB are found to be higher for the DNA having the lowest salt concentration. However, the organic salts are more efficient at protecting DNA against the damage induced by 1 and 10 eV electrons. DNA damage and protection by organic ions are discussed in terms of mechanisms operative at each electron energy. It is suggested that these ions create additional electric fields within the groove of DNA, which modify the resonance parameter of 1 and 10 eV electrons, namely, by reducing the electron capture cross-section of basic DNA units and the lifetime of corresponding transient anions. An interstrand electron transfer mechanism is proposed to explain the low ratios for the yields of SSB to those of DSB produced by 10 eV electrons.

  3. Influence of organic ions on DNA damage induced by 1 eV to 60 keV electrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Yi; Sanche, Léon

    2010-10-01

    We report the results of a study on the influence of organic salts on the induction of single strand breaks (SSBs) and double strand breaks (DSBs) in DNA by electrons of 1 eV to 60 keV. Plasmid DNA films are prepared with two different concentrations of organic salts, by varying the amount of the TE buffer (Tris-HCl and EDTA) in the films with ratio of 1:1 and 6:1 Tris ions to DNA nucleotide. The films are bombarded with electrons of 1, 10, 100, and 60 000 eV under vacuum. The damage to the 3197 base-pair plasmid is analyzed ex vacuo by agarose gel electrophoresis. The highest yields are reached at 100 eV and the lowest ones at 60 keV. The ratios of SSB to DSB are surprisingly low at 10 eV (˜4.3) at both salt concentrations, and comparable to the ratios measured with 100 eV electrons. At all characteristic electron energies, the yields of SSB and DSB are found to be higher for the DNA having the lowest salt concentration. However, the organic salts are more efficient at protecting DNA against the damage induced by 1 and 10 eV electrons. DNA damage and protection by organic ions are discussed in terms of mechanisms operative at each electron energy. It is suggested that these ions create additional electric fields within the groove of DNA, which modify the resonance parameter of 1 and 10 eV electrons, namely, by reducing the electron capture cross-section of basic DNA units and the lifetime of corresponding transient anions. An interstrand electron transfer mechanism is proposed to explain the low ratios for the yields of SSB to those of DSB produced by 10 eV electrons.

  4. Transmittance and optical constants of Eu films from 8.3 to 1400 eV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández-Perea, Mónica; Vidal-Dasilva, Manuela; Aznárez, José A.; Larruquert, Juan I.; Méndez, José A.; Poletto, Luca; Garoli, Denis; Malvezzi, A. Marco; Giglia, Angelo; Nannarone, Stefano

    2008-12-01

    The optical constants of Eu films were obtained in the 8.3-1400 eV range from transmittance measurements performed at room temperature. Thin films of Eu were deposited by evaporation in ultrahigh vacuum conditions and their transmittance was measured in situ. Eu films were deposited onto grids coated with a thin C support film. The refractive index n of Eu was calculated using the Kramers-Kronig analysis. Data were extrapolated both on the high- and low-energy sides by using experimental and calculated extinction coefficient values available in the literature. Eu, similar to other lanthanides, has a low-absorption band just below the O2,3 edge onset; the lowest absorption was measured at about 16.7 eV. Therefore, Eu is a promising material for filters and multilayer coatings in the energy range below the O2,3 edge in which materials typically have a strong absorption. The consistency of the composite optical constants was tested with the f and inertial sum rules and found to be good.

  5. Photodissociation of HCN and HNC isomers in the 7-10 eV energy range.

    PubMed

    Chenel, Aurelie; Roncero, Octavio; Aguado, Alfredo; Agúndez, Marcelino; Cernicharo, José

    2016-04-14

    The ultraviolet photoabsorption spectra of the HCN and HNC isomers have been simulated in the 7-10 eV photon energy range. For this purpose, the three-dimensional adiabatic potential energy surfaces of the 7 lowest electronic states, and the corresponding transition dipole moments, have been calculated, at multireference configuration interaction level. The spectra are calculated with a quantum wave packet method on these adiabatic potential energy surfaces. The spectra for the 3 lower excited states, the dissociative electronic states, correspond essentially to predissociation peaks, most of them through tunneling on the same adiabatic state. The 3 higher electronic states are bound, hereafter electronic bound states, and their spectra consist of delta lines, in the adiabatic approximation. The radiative lifetime towards the ground electronic states of these bound states has been calculated, being longer than 10 ns in all cases, much longer that the characteristic predissociation lifetimes. The spectra of HCN is compared with the available experimental and previous theoretical simulations, while in the case of HNC there are no previous studies to our knowledge. The spectrum for HNC is considerably more intense than that of HCN in the 7-10 eV photon energy range, which points to a higher photodissociation rate for HNC, compared to HCN, in astrophysical environments illuminated by ultraviolet radiation.

  6. Uranium Oxide as a Highly Reflective Coating from 100-400 eV

    SciTech Connect

    Sandberg, Richard L.; Allred, David D.; Bissell, Luke J.; Johnson, Jed E.; Turley, R. Steven

    2004-05-12

    We present the measured reflectances (Beamline 6.3.2, ALS at LBNL) of naturally oxidized uranium and naturally oxidized nickel thin films from 100-460 eV (2.7 to 11.6 nm) at 5 and 15 degrees grazing incidence. These show that uranium, as UO2, can fulfill its promise as the highest known single surface reflector for this portion of the soft x-ray region, being nearly twice as reflective as nickel in the 124-250 eV (5-10 nm) region. This is due to its large index of refraction coupled with low absorption. Nickel is commonly used in soft x-ray applications in astronomy and synchrotrons. (Its reflectance at 10 deg. exceeds that of Au and Ir for most of this range.) We prepared uranium and nickel thin films via DC-magnetron sputtering of a depleted U target and resistive heating evaporation respectively. Ambient oxidation quickly brought the U sample to UO2 (total thickness about 30 nm). The nickel sample (50 nm) also acquired a thin native oxide coating (<2nm). Though the density of U in UO2 is only half of the metal, its reflectance is high and it is relatively stable against further changes.

  7. Latency Requirements for Head-Worn Display S/EVS Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, Randall E.; Trey Arthur, J. J., III; Williams, Steven P.

    2004-01-01

    NASA s Aviation Safety Program, Synthetic Vision Systems Project is conducting research in advanced flight deck concepts, such as Synthetic/Enhanced Vision Systems (S/EVS), for commercial and business aircraft. An emerging thrust in this activity is the development of spatially-integrated, large field-of-regard information display systems. Head-worn or helmet-mounted display systems are being proposed as one method in which to meet this objective. System delays or latencies inherent to spatially-integrated, head-worn displays critically influence the display utility, usability, and acceptability. Research results from three different, yet similar technical areas flight control, flight simulation, and virtual reality are collectively assembled in this paper to create a global perspective of delay or latency effects in head-worn or helmet-mounted display systems. Consistent definitions and measurement techniques are proposed herein for universal application and latency requirements for Head-Worn Display S/EVS applications are drafted. Future research areas are defined.

  8. Optical Constants of Uranium Nitride in the XUV (80--182 eV)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urry, Marie; Allred, David D.; Adamson, Kristi; Bissell, Luke; Turley, R. Steven

    2003-10-01

    The reported optical constants of uranium differ from those of vacuum more than those of any other elements in the range 150--350 eV. Because of this, uranium could be used in high reflectance imaging mirrors for soft x-ray applications. Unfortunately, elemental uranium is chemically actrive and readily oxidizes. Uranium nitride is reported to have high density (14.3 g/cm^3) and to be more resistant to oxidation and hydrolysis. We computed the expected reflectance of uranium nitride films for low-angle reflectance. We reactively sputtered uranium in an argon/nitrogen ambient. Samples sputtered at a nitrogen partial pressure of >10-4 torr could be U_2N_3. Measured reflectances of these uranium nitride films (Beamline 6.3.2, ALS at LBNL) do not reach those predicted for UN. Measurements were over the range 80--182 eV and from 0 to 40 degrees grazing incidence. Sample reflectance was twice as great as that of nickel, the material used for low-angle mirrors, but less than that of our UO_x. XPS is being used to determine the composition of the films and we are testing samples deposited at lower nitrogen partial pressures.

  9. Development of 1.25 eV InGaAsN for triple junction solar cells

    SciTech Connect

    LI,N.Y.; SHARPS,P.R.; HILLS,J.S.; HOU,H.; CHANG,PING-CHIH; BACA,ALBERT G.

    2000-05-16

    Development of next generation high efficiency space monolithic multifunction solar cells will involve the development of new materials lattice matched to GaAs. One promising material is 1.05 eV InGaAsN, to be used in a four junction GaInP{sub 2}/GaAs/InGaAsN/Ge device. The AMO theoretical efficiency of such a device is 38--42%. Development of the 1.05 eV InGaAsN material for photovoltaic applications, however, has been difficult. Low electron mobilities and short minority carrier lifetimes have resulted in short minority carrier diffusion lengths. Increasing the nitrogen incorporation decreases the minority carrier lifetime. The authors are looking at a more modest proposal, developing 1.25 eV InGaAsN for a triple junction GaInP{sub 2}/InGaAsN/Ge device. The AMO theoretical efficiency of this device is 30--34%. Less nitrogen and indium are required to lower the bandgap to 1.25 eV and maintain the lattice matching to GaAs. Hence, development and optimization of the 1.25 eV material for photovoltaic devices should be easier than that for the 1.05 eV material.

  10. A functional polymorphism in IFNAR1 gene is associated with susceptibility and severity of HFMD with EV71 infection.

    PubMed

    Zou, Rongrong; Zhang, Guoliang; Li, Shaoyuan; Wang, Wenfei; Yuan, Jing; Li, Jianming; Wang, Yanrong; Lin, Yimin; Deng, Yong; Zhou, Boping; Gao, George Fu; Liu, Yingxia

    2015-12-18

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71), one of the major pathogens of Hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD), results in millions of infections and hundreds of deaths each year in Southeast Asia. Biased infection and variable clinical manifestations of EV71 HFMD indicated that host genetic background played an important role in the occurrence and development of the disease. We identified the mRNA profiles of EV71 HFMD patients, which type I interferon (IFN) pathway related genes were down-regulated. Four single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of type I IFN receptor 1 (IFNAR1) were chosen to analyze their relationships to EV71 infection. We found that genotype GG of promoter variant rs2843710 was associated with the susceptibility and severity to EV71 HFMD. In addition, we assessed the regulatory effects of rs2843710 to IFN stimulated genes (ISGs), and found that the expressions of IFNAR1, OAS1 and MX1 were significantly lower in patients with rs2843710 genotype GG. And rs2843710 allele G showed weaker transcriptional activity compared with allele C. Our study indicated that rs2843710 of IFNAR1 was associated with the susceptibility and severity of EV71 HFMD in Chinese Han populations, acting as a functional polymorphism by regulating ISGs expression, such as OAS1 and MX1.

  11. Electric vehicle (EV) storage supply chain risk and the energy market: A micro and macroeconomic risk management approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aguilar, Susanna D.

    As a cost effective storage technology for renewable energy sources, Electric Vehicles can be integrated into energy grids. Integration must be optimized to ascertain that renewable energy is available through storage when demand exists so that cost of electricity is minimized. Optimization models can address economic risks associated with the EV supply chain- particularly the volatility in availability and cost of critical materials used in the manufacturing of EV motors and batteries. Supply chain risk can reflect itself in a shortage of storage, which can increase the price of electricity. We propose a micro-and macroeconomic framework for managing supply chain risk through utilization of a cost optimization model in combination with risk management strategies at the microeconomic and macroeconomic level. The study demonstrates how risk from the EVs vehicle critical material supply chain affects manufacturers, smart grid performance, and energy markets qualitatively and quantitatively. Our results illustrate how risk in the EV supply chain affects EV availability and the cost of ancillary services, and how EV critical material supply chain risk can be mitigated through managerial strategies and policy.

  12. A monochromator for tuning the photon energy range 600 eV and 6000 eV with a single dispersing optical element (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jark, Werner H.

    2016-09-01

    Recently it was found that reflection gratings of standard quality, which can be used at lower energy soft X-rays with photon energies of the order of 300 eV, diffract also efficiently X-rays with photon energies of the order of 5 keV, when these gratings are operated at grazing angle of incidence in the extreme off-plane configuration [1]. Consequently a grating employed in the extreme off-plane configuration has the capability to provide monochromatic radiation in the photon energy range from below 1 keV to far above 2 keV, where one usually switches for the same purpose between the diffraction at surface structures and the diffraction in bulk structures. Such an operation scheme requires rather complex mechanical structures. The present study will show that the tuning of diffraction gratings in the conical diffraction configuration can cover the indicated and even more extended tuning ranges employing a rather simple mechanical structure. Infact such a grating can be mounted together with a plane mirror in a pseudo channel-cut crystal monochromator configuration, i.e. with almost parallel surfaces and with fixed gap between them. The photon energy is then tuned simply by varying the angle of grazing incidence onto the pair of optics. Like in a double crystal monochromator scheme the monochromatic beam will exit from the configuration parallel to the incident beam with in most cases negligibly varying displacement in the plane of incidence. The optical performance data will be discussed depending on the properties of some state-of-the-art synchrotron radiation sources. [1] W. Jark and D. Eichert, Opt. Express 23, 22753 (2015).

  13. An efficient wireless power transfer system with security considerations for electric vehicle applications

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Zhen; Chau, K. T. Liu, Chunhua; Qiu, Chun; Lin, Fei

    2014-05-07

    This paper presents a secure inductive wireless power transfer (WPT) system for electric vehicle (EV) applications, such as charging the electric devices inside EVs and performing energy exchange between EVs. The key is to employ chaos theory to encrypt the wirelessly transferred energy which can then be decrypted by specific receptors in the multi-objective system. In this paper, the principle of encrypted WPT is first revealed. Then, computer simulation is conducted to validate the feasibility of the proposed system. Moreover, by comparing the WPT systems with and without encryption, the proposed energy encryption scheme does not involve noticeable power consumption.

  14. An efficient wireless power transfer system with security considerations for electric vehicle applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhen; Chau, K. T.; Liu, Chunhua; Qiu, Chun; Lin, Fei

    2014-05-01

    This paper presents a secure inductive wireless power transfer (WPT) system for electric vehicle (EV) applications, such as charging the electric devices inside EVs and performing energy exchange between EVs. The key is to employ chaos theory to encrypt the wirelessly transferred energy which can then be decrypted by specific receptors in the multi-objective system. In this paper, the principle of encrypted WPT is first revealed. Then, computer simulation is conducted to validate the feasibility of the proposed system. Moreover, by comparing the WPT systems with and without encryption, the proposed energy encryption scheme does not involve noticeable power consumption.

  15. The harmonic impact of electric vehicle battery chargers on residential power distribution

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Y.; O`Connell, R.M.; Brownfield, G.

    1999-11-01

    Electric vehicles (EV), which are powered by battery-driven electric motors, are becoming an ecologically attractive alternative to gasoline driven vehicles. One drawback to them is that the associated battery chargers are power electronic circuits which, because of their non-linear nature, can produce deleterious harmonic effects on the electric utility distribution system. To investigate the harmonic effects of widespread use of EV battery chargers, three different commercially available EV battery chargers are modeled using the injection current method to represent their current waveforms for simulation in a SPICE model of a particular distribution system.

  16. S/EV 91: Solar and electric vehicle symposium, car and trade show. Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-12-31

    These proceedings cover the fundamentals of electric vehicles. Papers on the design, testing and performance of the power supplies, drive trains, and bodies of solar and non-solar powered electric vehicles are presented. Results from demonstrations and races are described. Public policy on the economics and environmental impacts of using electric powered vehicles is also presented.

  17. Spatial Mapping of NEO 2008 EV5 Using Small Satellite Formation Flying and Steresoscopic Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez, Juan; Singh Derewa, Chrishma

    2016-10-01

    NASA is currently developing the first-ever robotic Asteroid Redirect Robotic Mission (ARRM) to the near-Earth asteroid 2008 EV5 with the objective to capture a multi-ton boulder from the asteroids surface and use its mass to redirect its parent into a CIS lunar orbit where astronauts will study its physical and chemical composition.A critical step towards achieving this mission is to effectively map the target asteroid, identify the candidate boulder for retrieval and characterize its critical parameters. Currently, ARRM utilizes a laser altimeter to characterize the height of the boulders and mapping for final autonomous control of the capture. The proposed Lava-Kusha mission provides the increased of stereoscopic imaging and mapping, not only the Earthward side of the asteroid which has been observed for possible landing sites, but mapping the whole asteroid. LKM will enhance the fidelity of the data collected by the laser altimeter and gather improved topographic data for future Orion missions to 2008 EV5 once in cis lunar space.LKM consists of two low cost small satellites (6U) as a part of the ARRM. They will launch with ARRM as an integrated part of the system. Once at the target, this formation of pathfinder satellites will image the mission critical boulder to ensure the system design can support its removal. LKM will conduct a series of flybys prior to ARRM's rendezvous. LKMs stereoscopic cameras will provide detailed surveys of the boulder's terrain and environment to ensure ARRM can operate safely, reach the location and interface with the boulder. The LKM attitude control and cold gas propulsion system will enable formation maintenance maneuvers for global mapping of asteroid 2008 EV5 at an altitude of 100 km to a high-spatial resolution imaging altitude of 5 km.LKM will demonstrate formation flying in deep space and the reliability of stereoscopic cameras to precisely identify a specific target and provide physical characterization of an asteroid. An

  18. IGSN e.V.: Registration and Identification Services for Physical Samples in the Digital Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehnert, K. A.; Klump, J.; Arko, R. A.; Bristol, S.; Buczkowski, B.; Chan, C.; Chan, S.; Conze, R.; Cox, S. J.; Habermann, T.; Hangsterfer, A.; Hsu, L.; Milan, A.; Miller, S. P.; Noren, A. J.; Richard, S. M.; Valentine, D. W.; Whitenack, T.; Wyborn, L. A.; Zaslavsky, I.

    2011-12-01

    -for-profit organization, the IGSN e.V. (e.V. = 'Eingetragener Verein', legal status for a registered voluntary association in Germany), that defines the IGSN scope and syntax and maintains the IGSN Handle system, and (b) a Science Advisory Board that guides policies, technology, and best practices of the SESAR Sample Metadata Clearinghouse and Local Registration Agents. The IGSN e.V. is being incorporated in Germany at the GFZ Potsdam, a founding event is planned for the AGU Fall Meeting.

  19. Laminar and blazed type holographic gratings for a versatile soft x-ray spectrograph attached to an electron microscope and their evaluation in the 50-200 eV range.

    PubMed

    Imazono, Takashi; Koike, Masato; Kawachi, Tetsuya; Hasegawa, Noboru; Koeda, Masaru; Nagano, Tetsuya; Sasai, Hiroyuki; Oue, Yuki; Yonezawa, Zeno; Kuramoto, Satoshi; Terauchi, Masami; Takahashi, Hideyuki; Handa, Nobuo; Murano, Takanori; Sano, Kazuo

    2012-05-01

    Laminar and blazed type holographic varied-line-spacing spherical gratings for use in a versatile soft x-ray flat-field spectrograph attached to an electron microscope are designed, fabricated, and evaluated. The absolute diffraction efficiencies of laminar (or blazed) master and replica gratings at 86.00° incidence evaluated by synchrotron radiation show over 5% (or 8%) in the 50-200 eV range with the maxima of 22% (or 26%-27%). Also the resolving power evaluated by a laser produced plasma source is in excess of 700 at the energy near the K emission spectrum of lithium (~55 eV) for all gratings. Moreover, the K emission spectrum of metallic Li with high spectral resolution is successfully observed with the spectrograph attached to a transmission electron microscope.

  20. Histopathological features and distribution of EV71 antigens and SCARB2 in human fatal cases and a mouse model of enterovirus 71 infection.

    PubMed

    Yu, Pin; Gao, Zifen; Zong, Yuanyuan; Bao, Linlin; Xu, Lili; Deng, Wei; Li, Fengdi; Lv, Qi; Gao, Zhancheng; Xu, Yanfeng; Yao, Yanfeng; Qin, Chuan

    2014-08-30

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is a neurotropic pathogen that causes hand, foot, and mouth disease. While infection is usually self-limiting, a minority of patients infected with EV71 develop severe neurological complications. In humans, EV71 has been reported to utilize the scavenger receptor class B, member 2 (SCARB2) as a receptor for infectious cellular entry. In this study, we define the pathological features of EV71-associated disease as well as the distribution of EV71 antigen and SCARB2 in human fatal cases and a mouse model. Histopathologically, human fatal cases showed severe central nervous system (CNS) changes, mainly in the brainstems, spinal cords, and thalamus. These patient further exhibited pulmonary edema and necrotic enteritis. Immunohistochemical analysis of human fatal cases demonstrated that EV71 antigen and SCARB2 were observed mainly in neurons, microglia cells and inflammatory cells in the CNS, and epithelial cells in the intestines. However, skeletal muscle tissue was negative for EV71 antigen. In a mouse model of EV71 infection, we observed massive necrotic myositis, different degrees of viral diseases in CNS, and extensive interstitial pneumonia. In mice, EV71 exhibits strong myotropism compared to the neurotropism seen in humans. EV71 antigen was detected in the spinal cord and brainstem of mice. However, there was no clear correlation between mouse SCARB2 and EV71 antigen distribution in the mouse model, consistent with previous results that SCARB2 functions as a receptor for EV71 in humans but not mice. The EV71-induced lesions seen in the mouse model resembled the pathological changes seen in human samples. These results increase our understanding of EV71 pathogenesis and will inform further work developing a mouse model for EV71 infection.

  1. High-energy multiple muons and heavy primary cosmic-rays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mizutani, K.; Sato, T.; Takahashi, T.; Higashi, S.

    1985-01-01

    Three-dimensional simulations were carried out on high-energy multiple muons. On the lateral spread, the comparison with the deep underground observations indicates that the primary cosmic rays include heavy nuclei of high content. A method to determine the average mass number of primary particles in the energy around 10 to the 15th power eV is suggested.

  2. Low-latitude 10 eV electrons: Nighttime plasma line as a new research capability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlson, Herbert C.; Djuth, Frank T.; Perillat, Phil; Sulzer, Mike

    2015-09-01

    The incoherent scatter radar (ISR) plasma line (PL) in daylight is excited by photoelectrons. Measurement of its intensity (κTp) has long been used for their study. At night, despite the absence of any other excitation mechanism, the PL intensity should have a thermal amplitude level κTe, determined by the electron gas temperature Te. To the contrary Carlson et al. (1982) found nighttime PLs over Arecibo enhanced >3 times above thermal intensities despite the absence of any known causative mechanism. Here we present discovery that nighttime PLs frequently recur, with quite variable enhancement. In the absence of direct solar EUV, these enhanced PLs must be produced by particle precipitation, manifested by the presence of variable recurring F region ~10 eV electron fluxes. We see this as offering a new tool for space environment studies, opening a new era of particle precipitation research and ISR calibration.

  3. Double-photoionization of CO few eV above threshold

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belkacem, A.; Osipov, T.; Hertlein, M.; Prior, M.; Adaniya, H.; Feinberg, B.; Weber, Th.; Jahnke, T.; Dorner, R.; Schmidt, L.; Schoffler, M.; Jagutzki, O.; Cocke, C. L.; Landers, A.

    2006-05-01

    We measured double photoionization of CO molecules at 48 eV photon energy. The double ionization of CO produces mostly C^+ + O^+ fragments with non-measurable amounts of CO^2+. The formation of C^+ + O^+ can proceed through two possible channels: a) Direct ionization of two electron into the continuum -- similar to the H2 double ionization -- direct channel. b) Ionization of one electron into the continuum followed by autoionization of a second electron -- Indirect channel. The electron distribution measured with a COLTRIMS shows a very clear distinction of the direct and indirect channels. The kinetic energy release spectrum shows a series of peaks corresponding to the transient vibrational states of the various electronic states of (CO^2+)*. These states are similar to previous measurements at higher energies (K-shell photoionization). (CO^2+)* is found to predissociate through a ^3σ^- and ^1δ dissociative states leading to considerably faster dissociation times than natural lifetimes of the electronic bound states.

  4. On the global anisotropy of cosmic ray data above 4 × 1019 eV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Razzaque, Soebur; Ralston, John P.

    2003-07-01

    The distribution of arrival directions of ultra-high energy cosmic rays may yield clues to their mysterious origin. We introduce a method of invariant statistics to analyse cosmic ray data which eliminates coordinate-dependent artifacts. When combined with maximum likelihood analysis, the method is capable of quantifying deviations of the distribution from isotropy with high reliability. We test our method against published AGASA events with energies above 4 × 1019 eV. Angular cuts from observational limitations are taken into account. A model based on the Fisher distribution reveals the rotation of the Earth with the axis hat n along the direction (5h 53.36m, 85.78°) in (RA, DEC) coordinates, which is within 5° of the equatorial north pole. Global anisotropy of the data, if any, hinges on finer understanding of detector acceptance than what is available from the published literature.

  5. Formation of protons from dissociative ionization of methane induced by 54 eV electrons

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, S.; Ma, X.; Ren, X.; Senftleben, A.; Pflueger, T.; Dorn, A.; Ullrich, J.

    2011-05-15

    The production mechanisms of protons in dissociation of methane by 54 eV electron impact is investigated using the reaction microscope. By measuring all three charged particles in the final state in triple coincidence, the energy deposited in the target is determined. It is found that the (2a{sub 1}){sup -1}(npt{sub 2}){sup 1}, (2a{sub 1}){sup -1}, (1t{sub 2}){sup -2}(3a{sub 1}){sup 1}, and (2a{sub 1}){sup -2}(3a{sub 1}){sup 1} states of the intermediate CH{sub 4}{sup +} make the major contributions to the formation of protons at this incident energy. The decay of each state results in a different kinetic energy distribution of protons. Possible decay mechanisms of these states are analyzed.

  6. Extensive Air Showers and Cosmic Ray Physics above 1017 eV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertaina, Mario

    2016-07-01

    Cosmic Rays above 1017 eV allow studying hadronic interactions at energies that can not be attained at accelerators yet. At the same time hadronic interaction models have to be applied to the cosmic-ray induced air-shower cascades in atmosphere to infer the nature of cosmic rays. The reliability of air-shower simulations has become the source of one of the largest systematic uncertainty in the interpretation of cosmic-ray data due to the uncertainties in modeling the hadronic interaction driving the air-shower development. This paper summarises in the first part the recent results on the cosmic ray energy spectrum, composition and anisotropy from the knee region to the GZK cutoff [1, 2] of the spectrum by means of ground-based experiments. Most of the information reported in this contribution is taken from [3-5]. Aspects interconnecting cosmic ray and particle physics are reviewed in the second part of the paper.

  7. Polarization sensitivity of x-ray photocathodes in the 60-200eV band

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fraser, George W.; Pain, M. D.; Pearson, James F.; Lees, John E.; Binns, C. R.; Shaw, Ping S.; Fleischman, Judith R.

    1991-11-01

    In this paper, we briefly describe measurements of the 60 - 200 eV photoemission from Caesium Iodide, Gold, and Aluminum photocathodes made on beamline 6.1 of the SERC Daresbury synchrotron radiation source (SRS). Measurements were made near grazing incidence using both s- (electric vector perpendicular to the plane of incidence) and p- polarized (electric vector parallel to the plane of incidence) radiation. Our data supports the existence of an 'x-ray vectorial effect'--a pronounced linear polarization dependence of the photoyield--observed in earlier experiments at Leicester and Columbia Universities and elsewhere. For CsI, novel measurements are also reported of: radiation damage and annealing, and the temperature dependence of the photoyield.

  8. Reaction dynamics of H + O2 at 1.6 eV collision energy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bronikowski, Michael J.; Rong, Zhang; Rakestraw, David J.; Zare, Richard N.

    1989-01-01

    The hot hydrogen atom reaction, H + O2 yields OH + O, has been studied at a center of mass collision energy of 1.6 eV. H atoms were generated by 266 nm photolysis of HI in a mixture of HI and O2 at 293 K. The OH product was probed by laser induced fluorescence and the nascent OH vibrational, rotational, and fine structure distributions were determined. The OH(v=0/OH(v=1) vibrational branching ratio was measured to be 1.72 + or - 0.09. The data suggest that the H + O2 reaction at this collision energy proceeds via two competing mechanisms: reaction involving a long-lived complex and direct reaction.

  9. Comparative performance evaluation of advanced AC and DC EV propulsion systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacDowall, R. D.; Crumley, R. L.

    Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) evaluates EV propulsion systems and components for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Electric and Hybrid Vehicle (EHV) Program. In this study, experimental data were used to evaluate the relative performances of the benchmark Chrysler/GE ETV-1 DC and the Ford/GE First Generation Single-Shaft AC (ETX-I) propulsion systems. Tests were conducted on the INEL's chassis dynamometer using identical aerodynamic and rolling resistance road-load coefficients and vehicle test weights. The results allowed a direct comparison of selected efficiency and performance characteristics for the two propulsion system technologies. The ETX-I AC system exhibited slightly lower system efficiency during constant speed testing than the ETV-1 DC propulsion system.

  10. Characterization of a 5-eV neutral atomic oxygen beam facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaughn, J. A.; Linton, R. C.; Carruth, M. R., Jr.; Whitaker, A. F.; Cuthbertson, J. W.; Langer, W. D.; Motley, R. W.

    1991-01-01

    An experimental effort to characterize an existing 5-eV neutral atomic oxygen beam facility being developed at Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory is described. This characterization effort includes atomic oxygen flux and flux distribution measurements using a catalytic probe, energy determination using a commercially designed quadrupole mass spectrometer (QMS), and the exposure of oxygen-sensitive materials in this beam facility. Also, comparisons were drawn between the reaction efficiencies of materials exposed in plasma ashers, and the reaction efficiencies previously estimated from space flight experiments. The results of this study show that the beam facility is capable of producing a directional beam of neutral atomic oxygen atoms with the needed flux and energy to simulate low Earth orbit (LEO) conditions for real time accelerated testing. The flux distribution in this facility is uniform to +/- 6 percent of the peak flux over a beam diameter of 6 cm.

  11. Pulsed Power Fusion Program update

    SciTech Connect

    Quintenz, J.P.; Adams, R.G.; Allshouse, G.O.

    1998-06-01

    The US Department of Energy has supported a substantial research program in Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) since the early 1970s. Over the course of the ensuing 25 years, pulsed power energy, efficiency, and relatively low cost of the technology when compared to the mainline ICF approach involving large glass lasers. These compelling advantages of pulsed power, however, have been tempered with the difficulty that has been encountered in concentrating the energy in space and time to create the high energy and power density required to achieve temperatures useful in indirect drive ICF. Since the Beams `96 meeting two years ago, the situation has changed dramatically and extremely high x-ray power ({approximately}290 TW) and energy ({approximately}1.8 MJ) have been produced in fast x-pinch implosions on the Z accelerator. These sources have been utilized to heat hohlraums to >150 eV and have opened the door to important ICF capsule experiments.

  12. Irradiation effects of 12 eV oxygen ions on polyimide and fluorinated ethylene propylene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majeed, R. M. A.; Purohit, V. S.; Bhoraskar, S. V.; Mandale, A. B.; Bhoraskar, V. N.

    2006-08-01

    Polyimide (PI) and Fluorinated Ethylene Propylene (FEP) samples (15mm x 15mm x 50 mu m ) were exposed to atomic oxygen ions of average energy similar to 12 eV and flux similar to 5x10(13) ions cm(-2) s(-1) , produced in the Electron Cyclotron Resonance (ECR) plasma. The energy and the flux of the oxygen ions at different positions in the plasma were measured by a retarding field analyzer. The fluence of the oxygen ions was varied from sample to sample in the range of similar to 5x10(16) to 2x10(17) ions cm(-2) by changing the irradiation period. The pre- and the post-irradiated samples were characterized by the weight loss, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS), and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) techniques. The weight of the PI and FEP samples decreased with increasing the ion fluence. However, the erosion yield for the PI is found to be higher, by almost a factor five, when compared with that of FEP. On the surface region of irradiated samples, the concentrations of the carbon, fluorine, and oxygen and their corresponding chemical bonds have changed appreciably. Moreover, blisters and nanoglobules were also observed even at a fluence of similar to 10(17) ions cm(-2) . This oxygen ion fluence is almost two orders of magnitude lower than that of the 5 eV atomic oxygen, which a satellite encounters in the space, at the low Earth orbit, during its mission period of about 7 years.

  13. Transverse eV ion heating by random electric field fluctuations in the plasmasphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Artemyev, A. V.; Mourenas, D.; Agapitov, O. V.; Blum, L.

    2017-02-01

    Charged particle acceleration in the Earth inner magnetosphere is believed to be mainly due to the local resonant wave-particle interaction or particle transport processes. However, the Van Allen Probes have recently provided interesting evidence of a relatively slow transverse heating of eV ions at distances about 2-3 Earth radii during quiet times. Waves that are able to resonantly interact with such very cold ions are generally rare in this region of space, called the plasmasphere. Thus, non-resonant wave-particle interactions are expected to play an important role in the observed ion heating. We demonstrate that stochastic heating by random transverse electric field fluctuations of whistler (and possibly electromagnetic ion cyclotron) waves could explain this weak and slow transverse heating of H+ and O+ ions in the inner magnetosphere. The essential element of the proposed model of ion heating is the presence of trains of random whistler (hiss) wave packets, with significant amplitude modulations produced by strong wave damping, rapid wave growth, or a superposition of wave packets of different frequencies, phases, and amplitudes. Such characteristics correspond to measured characteristics of hiss waves in this region. Using test particle simulations with typical wave and plasma parameters, we demonstrate that the corresponding stochastic transverse ion heating reaches 0.07-0.2 eV/h for protons and 0.007-0.015 eV/h for O+ ions. This global temperature increase of the Maxwellian ion population from an initial Ti˜0.3 eV could potentially explain the observations.

  14. Endogenous Retrovirus ev21 Dose Not Recombine with ALV-J and Induces the Expression of ISGs in the Host.

    PubMed

    Feng, Min; Tan, Yan; Dai, Manman; Li, Yuanfang; Xie, Tingting; Li, Hongmei; Shi, Meiqing; Zhang, Xiquan

    2016-01-01

    Avian leukosis virus subgroup J (ALV-J) infection can cause tumors and immunosuppression. Endogenous viruses integrate into host genomes and can recombine with exogenous avian leukosis virus (ALV). In this study, we analyzed the interaction of endogenous retrovirus 21 (ev21) with the ALV-J in late-feathering Chinese yellow chicken. Two ALV-J strains M180 and K243 were isolated from late-feathering and fast-feathering Chinese yellow chicken flocks, respectively. The env gene of the two strains showed 94.2-94.8% nucleotide identity with reference ALV-J strains. Compared with the env gene and the LTR of ev21 and M180, the nucleotide identity of LTR was 69.7% and env gene was 58.4%, respectively, especially the amino acid identity of env gene as low as 14.2%. Phylogenetic analysis of the nucleotide sequence of the env gene and the 3'LTR showed that M180 was closely related to ALV-J, and was located in a distinct group with ev21 in the phylogenetic tree. Using co-immunoprecipitation (co-IP), we next demonstrate that the envelope protein of ev21 does not interact with the M180 envelope protein. We further show that the envelope protein of ev21 cannot activate ALV-J LTR promoter activity using luciferase-reporter assays. qPCR and western blot analysis revealed that envelope protein of endogenous ev21 can facilitate the expression of PKR at 6h post ALV-J infection (hpi) and facilitate the expression of ISG12 and CH25H at 24 hpi. However, the expression of the env gene of M180 strain was not significantly at 6 and 24 hpi. We conclude that there is no evidence of recombination between endogenous retrovirus ev21 and ALV-J strain M180 in late-feathering Chinese yellow chicken, and envelope protein of ev21 can affect the expression of host ISGs, but appears not to influence the replication of ALV-J strain M180. This is the first report of interaction among the endogenous retrovirus ev21, ALV-J and the late-feathering chicken.

  15. Identification of immunodominant VP1 linear epitope of enterovirus 71 (EV71) using synthetic peptides for detecting human anti-EV71 IgG antibodies in Western blots.

    PubMed

    Foo, D G W; Ang, R X; Alonso, S; Chow, V T K; Quak, S H; Poh, C L

    2008-03-01

    A major IgG-specific immunodominant VP1 linear epitope of enterovirus 71 (EV71) strain 41 (5865/SIN/00009), defined by the core sequence LEGTTNPNG, was identified by Pepscan analysis. Oligonucleotides corresponding to the amino-acid sequence of synthetic peptide SP32 were cloned and over-expressed in Escherichia coli as a recombinant glutathione-S-transferase (GST)-SP32 fusion protein. In ELISAs, this protein did not react with human anti-EV71 IgG antibodies, but there was significant immunoreactivity according to western blot analysis. The amino-acid sequence of SP32 was highly specific for detecting EV71 strains in western blot analysis, and showed no immunoreactivity with monoclonal antibodies raised against other enteroviruses, e.g., CA9 and Echo 6.

  16. Electron impact excitation of the electronic states of N2. III - Transitions in the 12.5-14.2-eV energy-loss region at incident energies of 40 and 60 eV

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chutjian, A.; Trajmar, S.; Cartwright, D. C.

    1977-01-01

    Analysis of electron energy-loss data at incident electron energies of 40 and 60 eV has led to the determination of normalized absolute differential cross sections for electron-impact excitation of five optically-allowed singlet states, two known triplet states, and two unknown triplet-like states of N2, lying in the energy-loss range 12.5-14.2 eV. The range of scattering angles was 5 to 138 deg. The optically allowed transitions and the known triplet excitations are identified. Cross sections for excitation to two unidentified triplet-like states at 13.155 and 13.395 eV were also obtained. The relationship of the generalized oscillator strength for the dipole-allowed states obtained from the described data to known optical oscillator strengths is discussed.

  17. Impact of massive neutrinos on the nonlinear matter power spectrum.

    PubMed

    Saito, Shun; Takada, Masahiro; Taruya, Atsushi

    2008-05-16

    We present the first attempt to analytically study the nonlinear matter power spectrum for a mixed dark matter model containing neutrinos of total mass ~0.1 eV, based on cosmological perturbation theory. The suppression in the power spectrum amplitudes due to massive neutrinos is enhanced in the weakly nonlinear regime. We demonstrate that, thanks to this enhanced effect, the use of such a nonlinear model may enable a precision of sigma(m(nu,tot)) ~ 0.07 eV in constraining the total neutrino mass for the planned galaxy redshift survey, a factor of 2 improvement compared to the linear regime.

  18. Ab initio study of electron energy loss spectra of bulk bismuth up to 100 eV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timrov, Iurii; Markov, Maxime; Gorni, Tommaso; Raynaud, Michèle; Motornyi, Oleksandr; Gebauer, Ralph; Baroni, Stefano; Vast, Nathalie

    2017-03-01

    The dynamical charge-density response of bulk bismuth has been studied within time-dependent density functional perturbation theory, explicitly accounting for spin-orbit coupling. The use of the Liouville-Lanczos approach allows us to calculate electron energy loss spectra for excitation energies as large as 100 eV. Effects of 5 d semicore electronic states, spin-orbit coupling, exchange and correlation, local fields, and anisotropy are thoroughly investigated. The account of the 5 d states in the calculation turns out to be crucial to correctly describe the loss spectra above 10 eV and, in particular, the position and shape of the bulk-plasmon peak at 14.0 eV at vanishing transferred momentum. Our calculations reveal the presence of interband transitions at 16.3 eV, which had never been discussed before. The origin of the peak at 5.8 eV is revisited as due to mixed interband and collective excitations. Finally, our study supplements the lack of experiments at finite transferred momenta.

  19. A new animal model containing human SCARB2 and lacking stat-1 is highly susceptible to EV71.

    PubMed

    Liou, An-Ting; Wu, Szu-Yao; Liao, Chun-Che; Chang, Ya-Shu; Chang, Chih-Shin; Shih, Chiaho

    2016-08-08

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is a major threat to children worldwide. Children infected with EV71 could develop subclinical infection and hand-foot-and -mouth disease (HFMD). In severe cases, patients could develop encephalitis, paralysis, pulmonary edema, and death. A more user-friendly and robust animal model is essential to investigating EV71 pathogenesis. Here, we established a hybrid (hSCARB2(+/+)/stat-1(-/-)) mouse strain from crossbreeding SCARB2 transgenic and stat-1 KO mice, and compared the susceptibilities to EV71 infection and pathogenesis between parental and hybrid mice. Virus-encoded VP1 protein can be detected in the streaking nerve fibers in brain and spinal cord. This hybrid mouse strain at 2-week-old age can still be infected with different genotypes of EV71 at 1000-fold lower titer via an ip route. Infected hybrid mice developed earlier onset of CNS disease, paralysis, and death at a higher incidence. These advantages of this novel model meet the urgent need from the scientific community in basic and preclinical research in therapeutics and pathogenesis.

  20. Genomic and immunologic factors associated with viral pathogenesis in a lethal EV71 infected neonatal mouse model

    PubMed Central

    YUE, YINGYING; LI, PENG; SONG, NANNAN; LI, BINGQING; LI, ZHIHUI; GUO, YUQI; ZHANG, WEIDONG; WEI, MING Q.; GAI, ZHONGTAO; MENG, HONG; WANG, JIWEN; QIN, LIZENG

    2016-01-01

    Hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) caused by enterovirus 71 (EV71) has emerged as a major health problem in China and worldwide. The present study aimed to understand the virological features of EV71 and host responses resulting from EV71 infection. Six different EV71 strains were isolated from HFMD patients with severe or mild clinical symptoms, and were analyzed for pathogenicity in vitro and in vivo. The results demonstrated that the six virus strains exhibited similar cytopathogenic effects on susceptible MA104 cells. However, marked differences in histological and immunopathological changes were observed when mice were inoculated with the different virus strains. Thus, the viruses studied were divided into two groups, highly or weakly pathogenic. Two representative virus strains, JN200804 and JN200803 (highly and weakly pathogenic, respectively) were studied further to investigate pathogenicity-associated factors, including genetic mutations and immunopathogenesis. The present study has demonstrated that highly pathogenic strains have stable genome and amino acid sequences. Notably, the present study demonstrated that a highly pathogenic strain induced a significant increase of the bulk CD4 T cell levels at 3 days post-inoculation. In conclusion, the current study demonstrates that genomic and immunologic factors may be responsible for the multiple tissue damage caused by highly pathogenic EV71 infection. PMID:27035332

  1. Display of the Viral Epitopes on Lactococcus lactis: A Model for Food Grade Vaccine against EV71.

    PubMed

    Varma, Nadimpalli Ravi S; Toosa, Haryanti; Foo, Hooi Ling; Alitheen, Noorjahan Banu Mohamed; Nor Shamsudin, Mariana; Arbab, Ali S; Yusoff, Khatijah; Abdul Rahim, Raha

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we have developed a system for display of antigens of Enterovirus type 71 (EV71) on the cell surface of L. lactis. The viral capsid protein (VP1) gene from a local viral isolate was utilized as the candidate vaccine for the development of oral live vaccines against EV71 using L. lactis as a carrier. We expressed fusion proteins in E. coli and purified fusion proteins were incubated with L. lactis. We confirmed that mice orally fed with L. lactis displaying these fusion proteins on its surface were able to mount an immune response against the epitopes of EV71. This is the first example of an EV71 antigen displayed on the surface of a food grade organism and opens a new perspective for alternative vaccine strategies against the EV71. We believe that the method of protein docking utilized in this study will allow for more flexible presentations of short peptides and proteins on the surface of L. lactis to be useful as a delivery vehicle.

  2. A new animal model containing human SCARB2 and lacking stat-1 is highly susceptible to EV71

    PubMed Central

    Liou, An-Ting; Wu, Szu-Yao; Liao, Chun-Che; Chang, Ya-Shu; Chang, Chih-Shin; Shih, Chiaho

    2016-01-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is a major threat to children worldwide. Children infected with EV71 could develop subclinical infection and hand-foot-and -mouth disease (HFMD). In severe cases, patients could develop encephalitis, paralysis, pulmonary edema, and death. A more user-friendly and robust animal model is essential to investigating EV71 pathogenesis. Here, we established a hybrid (hSCARB2+/+/stat-1−/−) mouse strain from crossbreeding SCARB2 transgenic and stat-1 KO mice, and compared the susceptibilities to EV71 infection and pathogenesis between parental and hybrid mice. Virus-encoded VP1 protein can be detected in the streaking nerve fibers in brain and spinal cord. This hybrid mouse strain at 2-week-old age can still be infected with different genotypes of EV71 at 1000-fold lower titer via an ip route. Infected hybrid mice developed earlier onset of CNS disease, paralysis, and death at a higher incidence. These advantages of this novel model meet the urgent need from the scientific community in basic and preclinical research in therapeutics and pathogenesis. PMID:27499235

  3. Display of the Viral Epitopes on Lactococcus lactis: A Model for Food Grade Vaccine against EV71

    PubMed Central

    Varma, Nadimpalli Ravi S.; Toosa, Haryanti; Foo, Hooi Ling; Alitheen, Noorjahan Banu Mohamed; Nor Shamsudin, Mariana; Arbab, Ali S.; Yusoff, Khatijah; Abdul Rahim, Raha

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we have developed a system for display of antigens of Enterovirus type 71 (EV71) on the cell surface of L. lactis. The viral capsid protein (VP1) gene from a local viral isolate was utilized as the candidate vaccine for the development of oral live vaccines against EV71 using L. lactis as a carrier. We expressed fusion proteins in E. coli and purified fusion proteins were incubated with L. lactis. We confirmed that mice orally fed with L. lactis displaying these fusion proteins on its surface were able to mount an immune response against the epitopes of EV71. This is the first example of an EV71 antigen displayed on the surface of a food grade organism and opens a new perspective for alternative vaccine strategies against the EV71. We believe that the method of protein docking utilized in this study will allow for more flexible presentations of short peptides and proteins on the surface of L. lactis to be useful as a delivery vehicle. PMID:23476790

  4. Vulnerability to chronic subordination stress-induced depression-like disorders in adult 129SvEv male mice.

    PubMed

    Dadomo, Harold; Sanghez, Valentina; Di Cristo, Luisana; Lori, Andrea; Ceresini, Graziano; Malinge, Isabelle; Parmigiani, Stefano; Palanza, Paola; Sheardown, Malcolm; Bartolomucci, Alessandro

    2011-08-01

    Exposure to stressful life events is intimately linked with vulnerability to neuropsychiatric disorders such as major depression. Pre-clinical animal models offer an effective tool to disentangle the underlying molecular mechanisms. In particular, the 129SvEv strain is often used to develop transgenic mouse models but poorly characterized as far as behavior and neuroendocrine functions are concerned. Here we present a comprehensive characterization of 129SvEv male mice's vulnerability to social stress-induced depression-like disorders and physiological comorbidities. We employed a well characterized mouse model of chronic social stress based on social defeat and subordination. Subordinate 129SvEv mice showed body weight gain, hyperphagia, increased adipose fat pads weight and basal plasma corticosterone. Home cage phenotyping revealed a suppression of spontaneous locomotor activity and transient hyperthermia. Subordinate 129SvEv mice also showed marked fearfulness, anhedonic-like response toward a novel but palatable food, increased anxiety in the elevated plus maze and social avoidance of an unfamiliar male mouse. A direct measured effect of the stressfulness of the living environment, i.e. the amount of daily aggression received, predicted the degree of corticosterone level and locomotor activity but not of the other parameters. This is the first study validating a chronic subordination stress paradigm in 129SvEv male mice. Results demonstrated remarkable stress vulnerability and establish the validity to use this mouse strain as a model for depression-like disorders.

  5. Comparing the Primary and Recall Immune Response Induced by a New EV71 Vaccine Using Systems Biology Approaches.

    PubMed

    Shao, Jie; Zhang, Junnan; Wu, Xing; Mao, Qunying; Chen, Pan; Zhu, Fengcai; Xu, Miao; Kong, Wei; Liang, Zhenglun; Wang, Junzhi

    2015-01-01

    Three inactivated EV71 whole-virus vaccines have completed Phase III clinical trials in mainland China, with high efficacy, satisfactory safety, and sustained immunogenicity. However, the molecular mechanisms how this new vaccine elicit potent immune response remain poorly understood. To characterize the primary and recall responses to EV71 vaccines, PBMC from 19 recipients before and after vaccination with EV71 vaccine are collected and their gene expression signatures after stimulation with EV71 antigen were compared. The results showed that primary and recall response to EV71 antigen have both activated an IRF7 regulating type I interferon and antiviral immune response network. However, up-regulated genes involved in T cell activation regulated by IRF1, inflammatory response, B-cell activation and humoral immune response were only observed in recall response. The specific secretion of IL-10 in primary response and IL-2,IP-10,CCL14a, CCL21 in recall response was consistent with the activation of immune response process found in genes. Furthermore, the expression of MX1 and secretion of IP-10 in recall response were strongly correlated with NTAb level at 180d after vaccination (r = 0.81 and 0.99). In summary, inflammatory response, adaptive immune response and a stronger antiviral response were indentified in recall response.

  6. Genomic and immunologic factors associated with viral pathogenesis in a lethal EV71 infected neonatal mouse model.

    PubMed

    Yue, Yingying; Li, Peng; Song, Nannan; Li, Bingqing; Li, Zhihui; Guo, Yuqi; Zhang, Weidong; Wei, Ming Q; Gai, Zhongtao; Meng, Hong; Wang, Jiwen; Qin, Lizeng

    2016-05-01

    Hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) caused by enterovirus 71 (EV71) has emerged as a major health problem in China and worldwide. The present study aimed to understand the virological features of EV71 and host responses resulting from EV71 infection. Six different EV71 strains were isolated from HFMD patients with severe or mild clinical symptoms, and were analyzed for pathogenicity in vitro and in vivo. The results demonstrated that the six virus strains exhibited similar cytopathogenic effects on susceptible MA104 cells. However, marked differences in histological and immunopathological changes were observed when mice were inoculated with the different virus strains. Thus, the viruses studied were divided into two groups, highly or weakly pathogenic. Two representative virus strains, JN200804 and JN200803 (highly and weakly pathogenic, respectively) were studied further to investigate pathogenicity-associated factors, including genetic mutations and immunopathogenesis. The present study has demonstrated that highly pathogenic strains have stable genome and amino acid sequences. Notably, the present study demonstrated that a highly pathogenic strain induced a significant increase of the bulk CD4 T cell levels at 3 days post‑inoculation. In conclusion, the current study demonstrates that genomic and immunologic factors may be responsible for the multiple tissue damage caused by highly pathogenic EV71 infection.

  7. Indirect optical absorption and origin of the emission from β-FeSi2 nanoparticles: Bound exciton (0.809 eV) and band to acceptor impurity (0.795 eV) transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lang, R.; Amaral, L.; Meneses, E. A.

    2010-05-01

    We investigated the optical absorption of the fundamental band edge and the origin of the emission from β-FeSi2 nanoparticles synthesized by ion-beam-induced epitaxial crystallization of Fe+ implanted SiO2/Si(100) followed by thermal annealing. From micro-Raman scattering and transmission electron microscopy measurements it was possible to attest the formation of strained β-FeSi2 nanoparticles and its structural quality. The optical absorption near the fundamental gap edge of β-FeSi2 nanoparticles evaluated by spectroscopic ellipsometry showed a step structure characteristic of an indirect fundamental gap material. Photoluminescence spectroscopy measurements at each synthesis stage revealed complex emissions in the 0.7-0.9 eV spectral region, with different intensities and morphologies strongly dependent on thermal treatment temperature. Spectral deconvolution into four transition lines at 0.795, 0.809, 0.851, and 0.873 eV was performed. We concluded that the emission at 0.795 eV may be related to a radiative direct transition from the direct conduction band to an acceptor level and that the emission at 0.809 eV derives from a recombination of an indirect bound exciton to this acceptor level of β-FeSi2. Emissions 0.851 and 0.873 eV were confirmed to be typical dislocation-related photoluminescence centers in Si. From the energy balance we determined the fundamental indirect and direct band gap energies to be 0.856 and 0.867 eV, respectively. An illustrative energy band diagram derived from a proposed model to explain the possible transition processes involved is presented.

  8. S/EV 92 (Solar and Electric Vehicles): Proceedings. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-01

    Volume I of these proceedings presents current research on solar and electric powered vehicles. Both fundamental and advanced concepts concerning electric vehicles are presented. The use of photovoltaic cells in electric vehicles and in a broader sense as a means of power generation are discussed. Information on electric powered fleets and races is included. And policy and regulations, especially pertaining to air quality and air pollution abatement are presented.

  9. Two-photon double ionization of helium in the region of photon energies 42-50eV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov, I. A.; Kheifets, A. S.

    2007-03-01

    We report the total integrated cross section (TICS) of two-photon double ionization of helium in the photon energy range from 42to50eV . Our computational procedure relies on a numerical solution of the time-dependent Schrödinger equation on a square-integrable basis and subsequent projection of this solution on a set of final field-free states describing correlation in the two-electron continuum. Our results suggest that the TICS grows monotonically as a function of photon energy in the region of 42-50eV , possibly reaching a maximum in the vicinity of 50eV . We also present fully resolved triple-differential cross sections for selected photon energies.

  10. Absolute vibrational cross sections for 1-19 eV electron scattering from condensed tetrahydrofuran (THF)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemelin, V.; Bass, A. D.; Cloutier, P.; Sanche, L.

    2016-02-01

    Absolute cross sections (CSs) for vibrational excitation by 1-19 eV electrons impacting on condensed tetrahydrofuran (THF) were measured with a high-resolution electron energy loss spectrometer. Experiments were performed under ultra-high vacuum (3 × 10-11 Torr) at a temperature of about 20 K. The magnitudes of the vibrational CSs lie within the 10-17 cm2 range. Features observed near 4.5, 9.5, and 12.5 eV in the incident energy dependence of the CSs were compared to the results of theoretical calculations and other experiments on gas and solid-phase THF. These three resonances are attributed to the formation of shape or core-excited shape resonances. Another maximum observed around 2.5 eV is not found in the calculations but has been observed in gas-phase studies; it is attributed to the formation of a shape resonance.

  11. Vacuum ultraviolet photoionization mass spectra and cross-sections for volatile organic compounds at 10.5 eV.

    PubMed

    Kanno, Nozomu; Tonokura, Kenichi

    2007-08-01

    Vacuum ultraviolet single-photon ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (VUV-SPI-TOFMS) has been applied to the detection of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), including aromatic, chlorinated, and oxygenated compounds. Photoionization mass spectra of 23 VOCs were measured using SPI-TOFMS at 10.5 eV (118 nm). The limits of detection of VOCs using SPI-TOFMS at 10.5 eV were estimated to be a few ppbv. The mass spectra of 20 VOCs exhibit only the parent ion and its isotopes' signals. The ionization processes of the VOCs were discussed on the basis of the reaction enthalpies predicted by the quantum chemical calculations. Absolute photoionization cross-sections for 23 VOCs, including 12 newly measured VOCs, at 10.5 eV were determined in comparison to the reported absolute photoionization cross-section of NO.

  12. Ellipsometry and energy characterization of the electron impact polymerization in the range 0-20 eV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zyn, V. I.

    2016-05-01

    The electron impact polymerization of adsorbed vapors of a hydrocarbon vacuum oil with molecular mass 450 Da (C32H66) has been studied in-situ in the range 0-20 eV using ellipsometry and a servo system with the Kelvin's vibrating probe. This allowed registering at the same time the two energy-dependent characteristics (spectra) of the process: the film growth rate and the electrical potential of the irradiated surface. The first spectrum has two resonance maxima near 2.5 and 9.5 eV while the surface potential has only one weak extremum near 9.5 eV. The first growth rate peak at 2.5 eV was connected with a creation of radicals through a resonant process of the dissociative electron attachment and beginning polymerization. The peaks at 9.5 eV in both the spectra mean accelerating polymerization and decreasing surface charge owing to simultaneous birth of highly active radicals and free electrons. The single resonant process controlling both the processes simultaneously is the dissociative attachment of an electron to an anti-bonding molecular orbital, almost the same as at the 2.5 eV but differing by deeper decomposition of the transient anion, among the products of which are now not the radicals only but also free electrons. The kinetic curves obtained in pulsed regimes of the electron bombardment were qualitatively identical for different precursors and were used for calculations of cross sections of these processes.

  13. Similar protective immunity induced by an inactivated enterovirus 71 (EV71) vaccine in neonatal rhesus macaques and children.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ying; Wang, Lichun; Liao, Yun; Liu, Longding; Ma, Kaili; Yang, Erxia; Wang, Jingjing; Che, Yanchun; Jiang, Li; Pu, Jing; Guo, Lei; Feng, Min; Liang, Yan; Cui, Wei; Yang, Huai; Li, Qihan

    2015-11-17

    During the development of enterovirus 71 (EV71) inactivated vaccine for preventing human hand, foot and mouth diseases (HFMD) by EV71 infection, an effective animal model is presumed to be significant and necessary. Our previous study demonstrated that the vesicles in oral regions and limbs potentially associated with viremia, which are the typical manifestations of HFMD, and remarkable pathologic changes were identified in various tissues of neonatal rhesus macaque during EV71 infection. Although an immune response in terms of neutralizing antibody and T cell memory was observed in animals infected by the virus or stimulated by viral antigen, whether such a response could be considered as an indicator to justify the immune response in individuals vaccinated or infected in a pandemic needs to be investigated. Here, a comparative analysis of the neutralizing antibody response and IFN-γ-specific T cell response in vaccinated neonatal rhesus macaques and a human clinical trial with an EV71 inactivated vaccine was performed, and the results showed the identical tendency and increased level of neutralizing antibody and the IFN-γ-specific T cell response stimulated by the EV71 antigen peptide. Importantly, the clinical protective efficacy against virus infection by the elicited immune response in the immunized population compared with the placebo control and the up-modulated gene profile associated with immune activation were similar to those in infected macaques. Further safety verification of this vaccine in neonatal rhesus macaques and children confirmed the potential use of the macaque as a reliable model for the evaluation of an EV71 candidate vaccine.

  14. Performance of reversed transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification technique detecting EV71: a systematic review with meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Lei, Xiaoying; Wen, Hongling; Zhao, Li; Yu, Xuejie

    2014-04-01

    Human enterovirus 71 (EV71) is the major etiological agent of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD), which is a common infectious disease in young children. Studies in the past have shown that reversed transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) was a rapid approach for the detection of EV71 in HFMD. This meta-analysis study is to evaluate the diagnostic role of RT-LAMP in detecting EV71 infection. A comprehensive literature research of PubMed, Embase, Wan Fang Data, and Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure databases was conducted on articles aiming at the diagnostic performance of RT-LAMP in EV71 detection published before February 10, 2014. Data from selected studies were pooled to yield the summary sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative likelihood ratio (PLR, NLR), diagnostic odds ratio (DOR), and receiver operating characteristic (SROC) curve by using STATA VERSION 12.0 software. Ten studies including a total of 907 clinical samples were of high quality in this meta-analysis. Overall, the pooled sensitivity, specificity, PLR, NLR, DOR, and the area under the SROC curve was 0.99 (0.97, 1.00), 0.97 (0.94, 1.00), 5.90 (95% CI: 3.90-8.94), 0.20 (95% CI: 0.14-0.29), and 1.00 (95% CI: 0.99-1.00), respectively. The univariate analysis of potential variables showed some changes in the diagnostic performance, but none of the differences reached statistical significance. Despite inter-study variability, the test performance of RT-LAMP was consistent with real-time RT-PCR in detecting EV71. This meta-analysis suggests that RT-LAMP is a useful diagnostic tool with high sensitivity and specificity for detecting EV71.

  15. A First Look at the Impact of Electric Vehicle Charging on the Electric Grid in the EV Project

    SciTech Connect

    Stephen L. Schey; John G. Smart; Don R. Scoffield

    2012-05-01

    ECOtality was awarded a grant from the U.S. Department of Energy to lead a large-scale electric vehicle charging infrastructure demonstration, called The EV Project. ECOtality has partnered with Nissan North America, General Motors, the Idaho National Laboratory, and others to deploy and collect data from over 5,000 Nissan LEAFsTM and Chevrolet Volts and over 10,000 charging systems in 18 regions across the United States. This paper summarizes usage of residential charging units in The EV Project, based on data collected through the end of 2011. This information is provided to help analysts assess the impact on the electric grid of early adopter charging of grid-connected electric drive vehicles. A method of data aggregation was developed to summarize charging unit usage by the means of two metrics: charging availability and charging demand. Charging availability is plotted to show the percentage of charging units connected to a vehicle over time. Charging demand is plotted to show charging demand on the electric gird over time. Charging availability for residential charging units is similar in each EV Project region. It is low during the day, steadily increases in evening, and remains high at night. Charging demand, however, varies by region. Two EV Project regions were examined to identify regional differences. In Nashville, where EV Project participants do not have time-of-use electricity rates, demand increases each evening as charging availability increases, starting at about 16:00. Demand peaks in the 20:00 hour on weekdays. In San Francisco, where the majority of EV Project participants have the option of choosing a time-of-use rate plan from their electric utility, demand spikes at 00:00. This coincides with the beginning of the off-peak electricity rate period. Demand peaks at 01:00.

  16. Reevaluation and Validation of the {sup 241}Pu Resonance Parameters in the Energy Range Thermal to 20 eV

    SciTech Connect

    Derrien, H.; Leal, L.C.; Courcelle, A.; Santamarina, A.

    2005-05-15

    A new SAMMY analysis of the {sup 241}Pu resonance parameters from thermal to 20 eV is presented. This evaluation takes into account the trends given by integral experiments [post-irradiation experiments performed in French pressurized water reactors (PWRs)]. Compared to the previous evaluations performed by Derrien and de Saussure, the capture cross section increases especially in the 0.26-eV resonance. It is shown that the new resonance parameters proposed in this work improve the prediction of the {sup 242}Pu buildup in a PWR, which was significantly underestimated with the previous evaluations.

  17. Recoil Momentum Spectroscopy of Double and Single Ionization of He by 80-400 eV Photons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dörner, R.; Kravis, S.; Cocke, C. L.; Vogt, T.; Mergel, V.; Unverzagt, M.; Spielberger, L.; Damrau, M.; Jagutzki, O.; Ali, I.; Weaver, B.; Ullmann, K.; Schmidt-Böcking, H.; Khemliche, H.; Prior, M. H.; Warwick, T.; Ullrich, J.; Jung, M.; Kanter, E. P.; Hsu, C. C.; Sonntag, B.; Rotenberg, E.; Denlinger, J.; Manson, S. T.; Feagin, J.

    1996-05-01

    We have measured the ratio (R) between double and single ionization of He by photons between 85 eV and 400 eV using COLTRIMS.(J. Ullrich et al., Comm. At. Mol. Phys. \\underline30), 285 (1994). The experiment, performed at the Berkeley ALS, eliminates many systematic errors which have plagued previous attempts to measure R. The values of R obtained are about 25% below those previously reported but are in good agreement with several recent theoretical calculations. We also report preliminary results of triply differential cross sections for double ionization of He measured near threshold.

  18. DNA strand breaks and crosslinks induced by transient anions in the range 2-20 eV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Xinglan; Zheng, Yi; Sanche, Léon

    2014-04-01

    The energy dependence of the yields of single and double strand breaks (SSB and DSB) and crosslinks induced by electron impact on plasmid DNA films is measured in the 2-20 eV range. The yield functions exhibit two strong maxima, which are interpreted to result from the formation of core-excited resonances (i.e., transient anions) of the bases, and their decay into the autoionization channel, resulting in π → π* electronic transitions of the bases followed by electron transfer to the C-O σ* bond in the phosphate group. Occupancy of the σ* orbital ruptures the C-O bond of the backbone via dissociative electron attachment, producing a SSB. From a comparison of our results with those of other works, including theoretical calculations and electron-energy-loss spectra of the bases, the 4.6 eV peak in the SSB yield function is attributed to the resonance decay into the lowest electronically excited states of the bases; in particular, those resulting from the transitions 13A' (π2 → π3*) and 13A″ (n2 → π3*) of thymine and 13A' (π → π*) of cytosine. The strongest peak at 9.6 eV in the SSB yield function is also associated with electron captured by excited states of the bases, resulting mostly from a multitude of higher-energy π → π* transitions. The DSB yield function exhibits strong maxima at 6.1 and 9.6 eV. The peak at 9.6 eV is probably related to the same resonance manifold as that leading to SSB, but the other at 6.1 eV may be more restricted to decay into the electronic state 13A' (π → π*) of cytosine via autoionization. The yield function of crosslinks is dominated by a broad peak extending over the 3.6-11.6 eV range with a sharper one at 17.6 eV. The different line shape of the latter function, compared to that of SSB and DSB, appears to be due to the formation of reactive radical sites in the initial supercoiled configuration of the plasmid, which react with the circular form (i.e., DNA with a SSB) to produce a crosslink.

  19. Elastic scattering and vibrational excitation of CO2 by 4, 10, 20 and 50 eV electrons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Register, D. F.; Trajmar, S.; Nishimura, H.

    1980-01-01

    Elastic and vibrationally inelastic differential, integral and momentum-transfer cross sections for electrons scattered by CO2 molecules are reported at 4, 10, 20 and 50 eV impact energies. The elastic cross sections are placed on an absolute scale by means of a relative flow technique. The inelastic cross sections are normalised to the elastic ones by using the inelastic to elastic intensity ratios. Data are reported for up to ten features in the 0.0 to 0.4 eV energy-loss region.

  20. Skid Prevention for EVs Based on the Emulation of Torque Reduction Characteristics of Separately-excited DC Motor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kodama, Shinya; Hori, Yoichi

    It is well-known that the separately-excited DC motor has effective torque (current) reduction characteristics in response to rapid increase in the rotational speed of the motor. These characteristics have been utilized in adhesion control of electric railway trains with separately-excited DC motor. Up to now, we have proposed a new skid prevention method for EVs, utilizing these characteristics and have made experiments with the hardware skid simulator “Motor-Generator setup”. In this paper, we applied this skid prevention control to our new vehicle “UOT CADWELL EV" equipped with BLDC motors and showed its effectiveness.

  1. Cosmology based on f(R) gravity with O(1) eV sterile neutrino

    SciTech Connect

    Chudaykin, Anton S.; Gorbunov, Dmitry S.; Starobinsky, Alexei A.; Burenin, Rodion A. E-mail: gorby@ms2.inr.ac.ru E-mail: rodion@hea.iki.rssi.ru

    2015-05-01

    We address the cosmological role of an additional O(1) eV sterile neutrino in modified gravity models. We confront the present cosmological data with predictions of the FLRW cosmological model based on a variant of f(R) modified gravity proposed by one of the authors previously. This viable cosmological model which deviation from general relativity with a cosmological constant Λ decreases as R{sup −2n} for large, but not too large values of the Ricci scalar R (while no Λ is introduced by hand at small R) provides an alternative explanation of present dark energy and the accelerated expansion of the Universe (the case n=2 is considered in the paper). Various up-to-date cosmological data sets exploited include measurements of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropy, the CMB lensing potential, the baryon acoustic oscillations (BAO), the cluster mass function and the Hubble constant. We find that the CMB+BAO constraints strongly restrict the sum of neutrino masses from above. This excludes values of the model parameter λ∼ 1 for which distinctive cosmological features of the model are mostly pronounced as compared to the ΛCDM model, since then free streaming damping of perturbations due to neutrino rest masses is not sufficient to compensate their extra growth occurring in f(R) modified gravity. Thus, in the gravity sector we obtain λ>8.2 (2σ) with the account of systematic uncertainties in galaxy cluster mass function measurements and λ>9.4 (2σ) without them. At the same time in the latter case we find for the sterile neutrino mass 0.47 eV < m{sub ν, sterile} < 1 eV (2σ) assuming that the sterile neutrinos are thermalized and the active neutrinos are massless, not significantly larger than in the standard ΛCDM with the same data set: 0.45 eV < m{sub ν, sterile} < 0.92 eV (2σ). However, a possible discovery of a sterile neutrino with the mass m{sub ν, sterile} ≈ 1.5 eV motivated by various anomalies in neutrino oscillation

  2. Smart electric vehicle (EV) charging and grid integration apparatus and methods

    DOEpatents

    Gadh, Rajit; Mal, Siddhartha; Prabhu, Shivanand; Chu, Chi-Cheng; Sheikh, Omar; Chung, Ching-Yen; He, Lei; Xiao, Bingjun; Shi, Yiyu

    2015-05-05

    An expert system manages a power grid wherein charging stations are connected to the power grid, with electric vehicles connected to the charging stations, whereby the expert system selectively backfills power from connected electric vehicles to the power grid through a grid tie inverter (if present) within the charging stations. In more traditional usage, the expert system allows for electric vehicle charging, coupled with user preferences as to charge time, charge cost, and charging station capabilities, without exceeding the power grid capacity at any point. A robust yet accurate state of charge (SOC) calculation method is also presented, whereby initially an open circuit voltage (OCV) based on sampled battery voltages and currents is calculated, and then the SOC is obtained based on a mapping between a previously measured reference OCV (ROCV) and SOC. The OCV-SOC calculation method accommodates likely any battery type with any current profile.

  3. SIRT1 inhibits EV71 genome replication and RNA translation by interfering with the viral polymerase and 5′UTR RNA

    PubMed Central

    Han, Yang; Wang, Lvyin; Cui, Jin; Song, Yu; Luo, Zhen; Chen, Junbo; Xiong, Ying; Zhang, Qi; Liu, Fang; Ho, Wenzhe; Liu, Yingle; Wu, Jianguo

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Enterovirus 71 (EV71) possesses a single-stranded positive RNA genome that contains a single open reading frame (ORF) flanked by a 5′ untranslated region (5′UTR) and a polyadenylated 3′UTR. Here, we demonstrated that EV71 activates the production of silent mating type information regulation 2 homolog 1 (SIRT1), a histone deacetylase (HDAC). EV71 further stimulates SIRT1 sumoylation and deacetylase activity, and enhances SIRT1 translocation from the nucleus to the cytoplasm. More interestingly, activated SIRT1 subsequently binds with the EV71 3Dpol protein (a viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, RdRp) to repress the acetylation and RdRp activity of 3Dpol, resulting in the attenuation of viral genome replication. Moreover, SIRT1 interacts with the cloverleaf structure of the EV71 RNA 5′UTR to inhibit viral RNA transcription, and binds to the internal ribosome entry site (IRES) of the EV71 5′UTR to attenuate viral RNA translation. Thus, EV71 stimulates SIRT1 production and activity, which in turn represses EV71 genome replication by inhibiting viral polymerase, and attenuates EV71 RNA transcription and translation by interfering with viral RNA. These results uncover a new function of SIRT1 and reveal a new mechanism underlying the regulation of EV71 replication. PMID:27875274

  4. High intensity 5 eV atomic oxygen source and Low Earth Orbit (LEO) simulation facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cross, J. B.; Spangler, L. H.; Hoffbauer, M. A.; Archuleta, F. A.; Leger, Lubert; Visentine, James

    1987-01-01

    An atomic oxygen exposure facility has been developed for studies of material degradation. The goal of these studies is to provide design criteria and information for the manufacture of long life (20 to 30 years) construction materials for use in LEO. The studies that are being undertaken using the facility will provide: absolute reaction cross sections for use in engineering design problems; formulations of reaction mechanisms; and calibration of flight hardware (mass spectrometers, etc.) in order to directly relate experiments performed in LEO to ground based investigations. The facility consists of: (1) a CW laser sustained discharge source of O atoms having a variable energy up to 5 eV and an intensity between 10(15) and 10(17) O atoms s(-1) cm(-2); (2) an atomic beam formation and diagnostics system consisting of various stages of differential pumping, a mass spectrometer detector, and a time of flight analyzer; (3) a spinning rotor viscometer for absolute O atom flux measurements; and (4) provision for using the system for calibration of actual flight instruments. Surface analysis equipment is available for the characterization of material surfaces before and after exposure to O atoms.

  5. Linear Covariance Analysis For Proximity Operations Around Asteroid 2008 EV5

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, Cinnamon A.; Bhatt, Sagar; Woffinden, David; Strube, Matthew; D'Souza, Chris

    2015-01-01

    The NASA initiative to collect an asteroid, the Asteroid Robotic Redirect Mission (ARRM), is currently investigating the option of retrieving a boulder from an asteroid, demonstrating planetary defense with an enhanced gravity tractor technique, and returning it to a lunar orbit. Techniques for accomplishing this are being investigated by the Satellite Servicing Capabilities Office (SSCO) at NASA GSFC in collaboration with JPL, NASA JSC, LaRC, and Draper Laboratory, Inc. Two critical phases of the mission are the descent to the boulder and the Enhanced Gravity Tractor demonstration. A linear covariance analysis is done for these phases to assess the feasibility of these concepts with the proposed design of the sensor and actuator suite of the Asteroid Redirect Vehicle (ARV). The sensor suite for this analysis includes a wide field of view camera, LiDAR, and an IMU. The proposed asteroid of interest is currently the C-type asteroid 2008 EV5, a carbonaceous chondrite that is of high interest to the scientific community. This paper presents an overview of the linear covariance analysis techniques and simulation tool, provides sensor and actuator models, and addresses the feasibility of descending to the surface of the asteroid within allocated requirements as well as the possibility of maintaining a halo orbit to demonstrate the Enhanced Gravity Tractor technique.

  6. Exploring 0.1–10 eV axions with a new helioscope concept

    SciTech Connect

    Galán, J.; Dafni, T.; Iguaz, F.J. E-mail: Theopisti.Dafni@cern.ch; and others

    2015-12-01

    We explore the possibility to develop a new axion helioscope type, sensitive to the higher axion mass region favored by axion models. We propose to use a low background large volume TPC immersed in an intense magnetic field. Contrary to traditional tracking helioscopes, this detection technique takes advantage of the capability to directly detect the photons converted on the buffer gas which defines the axion mass sensitivity region, and does not require pointing the magnet to the Sun. The operation flexibility of a TPC to be used with different gas mixtures (He, Ne, Xe, etc.) and pressures (from 10 mbar to 10 bar) will allow to enhance sensitivity for axion masses from few meV to several eV. We present different helioscope data taking scenarios, considering detection efficiency and axion absorption probability, and show the sensitivities reachable with this technique to be few × 10{sup −11} GeV{sup −1} for a 5 T, m{sup 3} scale TPC. We show that a few years program taking data with such setup would allow to probe the KSVZ axion model for axion masses above 0∼> 10 meV.

  7. The role of low-energy (≤ 20 eV) electrons in astrochemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyer, Michael C.; Rivas, Nathalie; Tran, Audrey A.; Verish, Clarissa A.; Arumainayagam, Christopher R.

    2016-10-01

    UV photon-driven condensed phase cosmic ice reactions have been the main focus in understanding the extraterrestrial synthesis of complex organic molecules. Low-energy (≤ 20 eV) electron-induced reactions, on the other hand, have been largely ignored. In this article, we review studies employing surface science techniques to study low-energy electron-induced condensed phase reactions relevant to astrochemistry. In particular, we show that low-energy electron irradiation of methanol ices leads to the synthesis of many of the same complex molecules formed through UV irradiation. Moreover, our results are qualitatively consistent with the hypothesis that high-energy condensed phase radiolysis is mediated by low-energy electron-induced reactions. In addition, due to the numbers of available low-energy secondary electrons resulting from the interaction of high-energy radiation with matter as well as differences between electron- and photon-induced processes, low-energy electron-induced reactions are perhaps as, or even more, effective than photon-induced reactions in initiating condensed-phase chemical reactions in the interstellar medium. Consequently, we illustrate a need for astrochemical models to include the details of electron-induced reactions in addition to those driven by UV photons. Finally, we show that low-energy electron-induced reactions may lead to the production of unique molecular species that could serve as tracer molecules for electron-induced condensed phase reactions in the interstellar medium.

  8. Asteroid Redirect Mission Proximity Operations for Reference Target Asteroid 2008 EV5

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reeves, David M.; Mazanek, Daniel D.; Cichy, Benjamin D.; Broschart, Steve B.; Deweese, Keith D.

    2016-01-01

    NASA's Asteroid Redirect Mission (ARM) is composed of two segments, the Asteroid Redirect Robotic Mission (ARRM), and the Asteroid Redirect Crewed Mission (ARCM). In March of 2015, NASA selected the Robotic Boulder Capture Option1 as the baseline for the ARRM. This option will capture a multi-ton boulder, (typically 2-4 meters in size) from the surface of a large (greater than approx.100 m diameter) Near-Earth Asteroid (NEA) and return it to cis-lunar space for subsequent human exploration during the ARCM. Further human and robotic missions to the asteroidal material would also be facilitated by its return to cis-lunar space. In addition, prior to departing the asteroid, the Asteroid Redirect Vehicle (ARV) will perform a demonstration of the Enhanced Gravity Tractor (EGT) planetary defense technique2. This paper will discuss the proximity operations which have been broken into three phases: Approach and Characterization, Boulder Capture, and Planetary Defense Demonstration. Each of these phases has been analyzed for the ARRM reference target, 2008 EV5, and a detailed baseline operations concept has been developed.

  9. Thermophysical properties of near-Earth asteroid (341843) 2008 EV5 from WISE data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alí-Lagoa, V.; Lionni, L.; Delbo, M.; Gundlach, B.; Blum, J.; Licandro, J.

    2014-01-01

    Aims: We derive the thermal inertia of 2008 EV5, the baseline target for the Marco Polo-R mission proposal, and infer information about the size of the particles on its surface. Methods: Values of thermal inertia were obtained by fitting an asteroid thermophysical model to NASA's Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) infrared data. Grain size was derived from the constrained thermal inertia and a model of heat conductivity that accounts for different values of the packing fraction (a measure of the degree of compaction of the regolith particles). Results: We obtain an effective diameter D = 370 ± 6 m, geometric visible albedo pV = 0.13 ± 0.05 (assuming H = 20.0 ± 0.4), and thermal inertia Γ = 450 ± 60 J m-2 s-1/2 K-1 at the 1σ level of significance for its retrograde spin-pole solution. The regolith particles radius is r = 6.6+1.3-1.3 mm for low degrees of compaction and r = 12.5+2.7-2.6 mm for the highest packing densities. Table of observed fluxes is only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/561/A45

  10. Invited Article: High resolution angle resolved photoemission with tabletop 11 eV laser

    SciTech Connect

    He, Yu; Vishik, Inna M.; Yi, Ming; Yang, Shuolong; Lee, James J.; Chen, Sudi; Rebec, Slavko N.; Leuenberger, Dominik; Shen, Zhi-Xun; Liu, Zhongkai; Zong, Alfred; Jefferson, C. Michael; Merriam, Andrew J.; Moore, Robert G.; Kirchmann, Patrick S.

    2016-01-15

    We developed a table-top vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) laser with 113.778 nm wavelength (10.897 eV) and demonstrated its viability as a photon source for high resolution angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES). This sub-nanosecond pulsed VUV laser operates at a repetition rate of 10 MHz, provides a flux of 2 × 10{sup 12} photons/s, and enables photoemission with energy and momentum resolutions better than 2 meV and 0.012 Å{sup −1}, respectively. Space-charge induced energy shifts and spectral broadenings can be reduced below 2 meV. The setup reaches electron momenta up to 1.2 Å{sup −1}, granting full access to the first Brillouin zone of most materials. Control over the linear polarization, repetition rate, and photon flux of the VUV source facilitates ARPES investigations of a broad range of quantum materials, bridging the application gap between contemporary low energy laser-based ARPES and synchrotron-based ARPES. We describe the principles and operational characteristics of this source and showcase its performance for rare earth metal tritellurides, high temperature cuprate superconductors, and iron-based superconductors.

  11. Search for eV sterile neutrinos at a nuclear reactor — the Stereo project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haser, J.; Stereo Collaboration

    2016-05-01

    The re-analyses of the reference spectra of reactor antineutrinos together with a revised neutrino interaction cross section enlarged the absolute normalization of the predicted neutrino flux. The tension between previous reactor measurements and the new prediction is significant at 2.7 σ and is known as “reactor antineutrino anomaly”. In combination with other anomalies encountered in neutrino oscillation measurements, this observation revived speculations about the existence of a sterile neutrino in the eV mass range. Mixing of this light sterile neutrino with the active flavours would lead to a modification of the detected antineutrino flux. An oscillation pattern in energy and space could be resolved by a detector at a distance of few meters from a reactor core: the neutrino detector of the Stereo project will be located at about 10 m distance from the ILL research reactor in Grenoble, France. Lengthwise separated in six target cells filled with 2 m3 Gd-loaded liquid scintillator in total, the experiment will search for a position-dependent distortion in the energy spectrum.

  12. 1-eV GaInNAs solar cells for ultrahigh-frequency multijunction devices

    SciTech Connect

    Friedman, D.J.; Geisz, J.F.; Kurtz, S.R.; Olson, J.M.

    1998-09-01

    The authors demonstrate working prototypes of a GaInNAs-based solar cell lattice-matched to GaAs with photoresponse down to 1 eV. This device is intended for use as the third junction of future-generation ultrahigh-efficiency three- and four-junction devices. Under the AM1.5 direct spectrum with all the light higher in energy than the GaAs band gap filtered out, the prototypes have open-circuit voltages ranging from 0.35 to 0.44 V, short-circuit currents of 1.8 mA/cm{sup 2}, and fill factors from 61--66%. The short-circuit currents are of principal concern: the internal quantum efficiencies rise only to about 0.2. The authors discuss the short diffusion lengths which are the reason for this low photocurrent. As a partial workaround for the poor diffusion lengths, they demonstrate a depletion-width-enhanced variation of one of the prototype devices that grades off decreased voltage for increased photocurrent, with a short-circuit current of 6.5 mA/cm{sup 2} and an open-circuit voltage of 0.29 V.

  13. Invited Article: High resolution angle resolved photoemission with tabletop 11 eV laser.

    PubMed

    He, Yu; Vishik, Inna M; Yi, Ming; Yang, Shuolong; Liu, Zhongkai; Lee, James J; Chen, Sudi; Rebec, Slavko N; Leuenberger, Dominik; Zong, Alfred; Jefferson, C Michael; Moore, Robert G; Kirchmann, Patrick S; Merriam, Andrew J; Shen, Zhi-Xun

    2016-01-01

    We developed a table-top vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) laser with 113.778 nm wavelength (10.897 eV) and demonstrated its viability as a photon source for high resolution angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES). This sub-nanosecond pulsed VUV laser operates at a repetition rate of 10 MHz, provides a flux of 2 × 10(12) photons/s, and enables photoemission with energy and momentum resolutions better than 2 meV and 0.012 Å(-1), respectively. Space-charge induced energy shifts and spectral broadenings can be reduced below 2 meV. The setup reaches electron momenta up to 1.2 Å(-1), granting full access to the first Brillouin zone of most materials. Control over the linear polarization, repetition rate, and photon flux of the VUV source facilitates ARPES investigations of a broad range of quantum materials, bridging the application gap between contemporary low energy laser-based ARPES and synchrotron-based ARPES. We describe the principles and operational characteristics of this source and showcase its performance for rare earth metal tritellurides, high temperature cuprate superconductors, and iron-based superconductors.

  14. Invited Article: High resolution angle resolved photoemission with tabletop 11 eV laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Yu; Vishik, Inna M.; Yi, Ming; Yang, Shuolong; Liu, Zhongkai; Lee, James J.; Chen, Sudi; Rebec, Slavko N.; Leuenberger, Dominik; Zong, Alfred; Jefferson, C. Michael; Moore, Robert G.; Kirchmann, Patrick S.; Merriam, Andrew J.; Shen, Zhi-Xun

    2016-01-01

    We developed a table-top vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) laser with 113.778 nm wavelength (10.897 eV) and demonstrated its viability as a photon source for high resolution angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES). This sub-nanosecond pulsed VUV laser operates at a repetition rate of 10 MHz, provides a flux of 2 × 1012 photons/s, and enables photoemission with energy and momentum resolutions better than 2 meV and 0.012 Å-1, respectively. Space-charge induced energy shifts and spectral broadenings can be reduced below 2 meV. The setup reaches electron momenta up to 1.2 Å-1, granting full access to the first Brillouin zone of most materials. Control over the linear polarization, repetition rate, and photon flux of the VUV source facilitates ARPES investigations of a broad range of quantum materials, bridging the application gap between contemporary low energy laser-based ARPES and synchrotron-based ARPES. We describe the principles and operational characteristics of this source and showcase its performance for rare earth metal tritellurides, high temperature cuprate superconductors, and iron-based superconductors.

  15. Rapid next-generation sequencing of dengue, EV-A71 and RSV-A viruses.

    PubMed

    Baronti, Cécile; Piorkowski, Géraldine; Leparc-Goffart, Isabelle; de Lamballerie, Xavier; Dubot-Pérès, Audrey

    2015-12-15

    Accurate characterisation of viral strains constitutes a crucial objective for the management of modern virus collections. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) provides technical solution for fast and cost-effective full genome sequencing. Here, we report protocols for rapid full-genome characterisation of RNA viruses of medical importance: dengue virus, enterovirus A71 and respiratory syncytial virus A, based on a specific amplification step followed by NGS-sequencing. A subset of full-length genome sequences representing the genetic diversity of each virus type was selected in GenBank and used to design primer sets allowing the amplification of the complete genome in 3-8 overlapping PCR fragments. The technique was used for characterising 53 strains (33 DENV, 8 EV-A71, 12 RSV-A) from various genotypes and origins. In a single assay, and in just 4 days, it provided for all strains an excellent genomic coverage (∼ 99% including complete ORF for all strains) and accurate sequences with high number of reads per position (250-3500 on average). The elaboration of specific PCR-based full-genome sequencing protocols for diverse virus groups is likely to revolutionise the characterisation of viral isolates in modern collection, but also to contribute in the next future to the study of RNA viruses directly from biological samples.

  16. Photodissociation of HCN and HNC isomers in the 7-10 eV energy range

    PubMed Central

    Chenel, Aurelie; Roncero, Octavio; Aguado, Alfredo; Agúndez, Marcelino; Cernicharo, José

    2016-01-01

    The ultraviolet photoabsorption spectra of the HCN and HNC isomers have been simulated in the 7-10 eV photon energy range. For this purpose the three-dimensional adiabatic potential energy surfaces of the 7 lowest electronic states, and the corresponding transition dipole moments, have been calculated, at multi reference configuration interaction level. The spectra are calculated with a quantum wave packet method on these adiabatic potential energy surfaces. The spectra for the 3 lower excited states, the dissociative electronic states, correspond essentially to predissociation peaks, most of them through tunneling on the same adiabatic state. The 3 higher electronic states are bound, hereafter electronic bound states, and their spectra consist of delta lines, in the adiabatic approximation. The radiative lifetime towards the ground electronic states of these bound states have been calculated, being longer than 10 ns in all cases, much longer that the characteristic predissociation lifetimes. The spectra of HCN is compared with the available experimental and previous theoretical simulations while in the case of HNC there are no previous studies to our knowledge. The spectrum for HNC is considerably more intense than that of HCN, which implies a much faster destruction of HNC than HCN in astrophysical environments illuminated by ultraviolet radiation. PMID:27083720

  17. Linear Covariance Analysis For Proximity Operations Around Asteroid 2008 EV5

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, Cinnamon A.; Bhatt, Sagar; Woffinden, David; Strube, Matthew; D'Souza, Christopher; DeWeese, Keith

    2015-01-01

    The NASA initiative to collect an asteroid the Asteroid Robotic Redirect Mission (ARRM) is currently investigating the option of retrieving a boulder off an asteroid, demonstrating planetary defense with an enhanced gravity tractor technique and returning it to a lunar orbit. Techniques for accomplishing this are being investigated by the Satellite Servicing Capabilities Office (SSOO) and NASA GSFC in colloboration with JPL, NASA, JSC, LaRC, and Draper Laboratories Inc. Two critical phases of the mission are the descent to the boulder and the Enhanced Gravity Tractor-enhanced gravity tractor demonstration. A linear covariance analysis was done for these phases to assess the feasibility of these concepts with the proposed design of the sensor and actuaor suite of the Asteroid Redirect Vehicle (ARV). The sensor suite for this analysis will include a wide field of view camera, Lidar, and a MMU. The proposed asteroid of interest is currently the C-type asteroid 2008 EV5, a carbonaceous chondrite that is of high interest to the scientific community. This paper will present an overview of the analysis discuss sensor and actuator models and address the feasibility of descending to the boulder within the requirements as the feasibility of maintaining the halo orbit in order to demonstrate the Enhanced Gravity Tractor-enhanced gravity tractory technique.

  18. Collisional-radiative modeling of tungsten at temperatures of 1200–2400 eV

    DOE PAGES

    Colgan, James; Fontes, Christopher; Zhang, Honglin; ...

    2015-04-30

    We discuss new collisional-radiative modeling calculations of tungsten at moderate temperatures of 1200 to 2400 eV. Such plasma conditions are relevant to ongoing experimental work at ASDEX Upgrade and are expected to be relevant for ITER. Our calculations are made using the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) collisional-radiative modeling ATOMIC code. These calculations formed part of a submission to the recent NLTE-8 workshop that was held in November 2013. This series of workshops provides a forum for detailed comparison of plasma and spectral quantities from NLTE collisional-radiative modeling codes. We focus on the LANL ATOMIC calculations for tungsten that weremore » submitted to the NLTE-8 workshop and discuss different models that were constructed to predict the tungsten emission. In particular, we discuss comparisons between semi-relativistic configuration-average and fully relativistic configuration-average calculations. We also present semi-relativistic calculations that include fine-structure detail, and discuss the difficult problem of ensuring completeness with respect to the number of configurations included in a CR calculation.« less

  19. Collisional-radiative modeling of tungsten at temperatures of 1200–2400 eV

    SciTech Connect

    Colgan, James; Fontes, Christopher; Zhang, Honglin; Abdallah, Jr., Joseph

    2015-04-30

    We discuss new collisional-radiative modeling calculations of tungsten at moderate temperatures of 1200 to 2400 eV. Such plasma conditions are relevant to ongoing experimental work at ASDEX Upgrade and are expected to be relevant for ITER. Our calculations are made using the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) collisional-radiative modeling ATOMIC code. These calculations formed part of a submission to the recent NLTE-8 workshop that was held in November 2013. This series of workshops provides a forum for detailed comparison of plasma and spectral quantities from NLTE collisional-radiative modeling codes. We focus on the LANL ATOMIC calculations for tungsten that were submitted to the NLTE-8 workshop and discuss different models that were constructed to predict the tungsten emission. In particular, we discuss comparisons between semi-relativistic configuration-average and fully relativistic configuration-average calculations. We also present semi-relativistic calculations that include fine-structure detail, and discuss the difficult problem of ensuring completeness with respect to the number of configurations included in a CR calculation.

  20. Fragmentation dynamics of carbonyl sulfide in collision with 500 eV electron.

    PubMed

    Shen, Zhenjie; Wang, Enliang; Gong, Maomao; Shan, Xu; Chen, Xiangjun

    2016-12-21

    The fragmentation dynamics of OCS(q+) (q = 2, 3, 4) induced by electron collision at an impact energy of 500 eV is studied. By using the momentum imaging technique, the three dimensional momentum vectors of all the fragments are obtained, which enables us to analyse both the kinetic energy release and the momentum correlations for a certain fragmentation channel. Up to fifteen dissociation channels are analyzed including six, five, and four channels for two-body, and incomplete and complete three-body Coulomb fragmentations. For three-body dissociation, the fragmentation mechanisms are investigated with the help of Dalitz plot and Newton diagram. It is found that the sequential fragmentation involves in OCS(2+)→O+C(+)+S(+) with S(+) emitted first and in OCS(3+)→O(+)+C(+)+S(+) with O-C and C-S bonds breaking first. The remaining channels, however, always dissociate through a concerted mechanism. The relative intensities of the channels are also presented in this work.

  1. Fragmentation dynamics of carbonyl sulfide in collision with 500 eV electron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Zhenjie; Wang, Enliang; Gong, Maomao; Shan, Xu; Chen, Xiangjun

    2016-12-01

    The fragmentation dynamics of OCSq+ (q = 2, 3, 4) induced by electron collision at an impact energy of 500 eV is studied. By using the momentum imaging technique, the three dimensional momentum vectors of all the fragments are obtained, which enables us to analyse both the kinetic energy release and the momentum correlations for a certain fragmentation channel. Up to fifteen dissociation channels are analyzed including six, five, and four channels for two-body, and incomplete and complete three-body Coulomb fragmentations. For three-body dissociation, the fragmentation mechanisms are investigated with the help of Dalitz plot and Newton diagram. It is found that the sequential fragmentation involves in OCS2+→O+C++S+withS+ emitted first and in OCS3 +→O++C++S+ with O-C and C-S bonds breaking first. The remaining channels, however, always dissociate through a concerted mechanism. The relative intensities of the channels are also presented in this work.

  2. Variability in the high energy gamma ray emission from Cyg X-3 over a two-year period (1983 - 1984) at E 4 x 10(11) eV

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cawley, M. F.; Fegan, D. J.; Gibbs, K.; Gorham, P. W.; Lamb, R. C.; Liebing, D. F.; Porter, N. A.; Stenger, V. J.; Weekes, T. C.; Williams, R. J.

    1985-01-01

    Cygnus X-3 is observed to emit gamma rays with energies in excess of 4 x 10 to the 11th power eV during two out of 9 observational categories over an 18 month time span. The emissions are observed at the 0.6 phase of the characteristic 4.8 hr light curve for this binary system. We estimate a peak flux at phase 0.6 of 5 x 10 to the minus 10th power photons cm-2s-1 at a software threshold of 8 x 10 to the 11th power eV for Oct/Nov 1983. A flux for the June 84 effect cannot be reliably calculated at present due to lack of Monte Carlo simulations for the energy range and spectral region. For the other 7 observational categories the observations are consistent with zero source emission. The light curve would appear to be variable on a time scale of a couple of weeks at these categories. Selection of compact images in accordance with Monte Carlo simulations combined with empirical optimization techniques have led to an enriched gamma ray light curve for the Oct/Nov 1983 data. Selection on the basis of shower orientation, however, has not led to any notable enhancement of the gamma ray content. Individual Cherenko images can be reliably sorted on an event by event basis into either proton-induced or photon-induced showers.

  3. Straight and chopped dc performance data for a General Electric 5BT 2366C10 motor and an EV-1 controller

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edie, P. C.

    1981-01-01

    Performance data on the General Electric 5BT 2366C10 series wound dc motor and EV-1 Chopper Controller is supplied for the electric vehicle manufacturer. Data is provided for both straight and chopped dc input to the motor, at 2 motor temperature levels. Testing was done at 6 voltage increments to the motor, and 2 voltage increments to the controller. Data results are presented in both tabular and graphical forms. Tabular information includes motor voltage and current input data, motor speed and torque output data, power data and temperature data. Graphical information includes torque-speed, motor power output-speed, torque-current, and efficiency-speed plots under the various operating conditions. The data resulting from this testing shows the speed-torque plots to have the most variance with operating temperature. The maximum motor efficiency is between 86% and 87%, regardless of temperature or mode of operation. When the chopper is utilized, maximum motor efficiency occurs when the chopper duty cycle approaches 100%.

  4. Electron scattering from hexafluoride molecules: WF6 and C2F6. Absolute total cross section measurements from 1 to 250 eV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szmytkowski, Czeslaw; Mozejko, Pawel; Kasperski, Grzegorz; Ptasinska-Denga, Elzbieta

    2000-01-01

    Electron-scattering absolute total cross sections for tungsten hexafluoride (WF6) and hexafluorethane (C2F6) molecules have been measured in a linear transmission electron-beam experiment within the impact energy range from about 1 to 250 eV. For electron scattering from WF6 the cross section shows a prominent resonant-like peak centred at 3 eV and a very broad enhancement in the energy range between 20 and 70 eV overlaid with some much less pronounced features. The cross section for C2F6 has two resonant structures at 5 and 9 eV, respectively, and a very broad hump ranging from 20 to 60 eV with a distinct shoulder near 20 eV. Comparison of the e--C2F6 total cross section with available low-energy data from other experiments is made. The effect of fluorination is indicated.

  5. Absolute Total Photoionization Cross Section of C60 in the Range of 25-120 eV: Revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kafle, Bhim P.; Katayanagi, Hideki; Prodhan, Md. Serajul I.; Yagi, Hajime; Huang, Chaoqun; Mitsuke, Koichiro

    2008-01-01

    The absolute total photoionization cross section σabs,I of gaseous C60 is measured in the photon energy hν range from 25 to 120 eV by photoionization mass spectrometry with synchrotron radiation. The absolute detection efficiencies of photoions in different charge states are evaluated. The present σabs,I curve is combined with the photoabsorption cross section curves of C60 at hν=3.5--26 eV in the literature, after appropriate alterations of the vapor pressure are taken into account. The oscillator strengths are computed from the composite curve to be 178.5 and 230.5 for the hν ranges from 3.5 to 40.8 eV and from 3.5 to 119 eV, respectively. These oscillator strengths agree well with those expected from the Thomas-Kuhn-Reiche sum rule and 60 times the photoabsorption cross section of a carbon atom. Moreover, the present σabs,I curve behaves similarly to the relative photoionization cross section curve reported by Reinköster et al.

  6. Potential Estimation of Hourly Blank Storage Space and Charge Loads of EVs using Road Traffic Census and Vehicles Status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oda, Takuya; Ito, Masakazu; Kawasaki, Norihiro; Miyazaki, Takahiko; Kashiwagi, Takao

    If both EVs (Electric Vehicles, includes plug-in hybrid electric vehicles) and renewable energies spread in large quantities, it is possible to control the supply fluctuation of renewable energies using the storage battery of EVs. This research tried to show the charge load potential of EVs based on the state of the Japanese passenger car using traffic census results etc. Furthermore, it tried to show trend of the storage battery capacity according to time. From the estimated result; (1) the charge electricity of low and middle distance gets a majority of the total charge demand, (2) charge load changes according to time several times, and the minimum load is the number of GWh at early morning, (3) if night charge is assumed, the standby charge demand of noon will reach tens GWh, it may have sufficient scale for supply fluctuation control of PVs. Although the present EV is not suitable for long-distance running, these are expected to be 30 or less percent of the total charge demand. The estimated storage capacity potential in this research will not change numbers of times.

  7. Damage induced to DNA by low-energy (0-30 eV) electrons under vacuum and atmospheric conditions.

    PubMed

    Brun, Emilie; Cloutier, Pierre; Sicard-Roselli, Cécile; Fromm, Michel; Sanche, Léon

    2009-07-23

    In this study, we show that it is possible to obtain data on DNA damage induced by low-energy (0-30 eV) electrons under atmospheric conditions. Five monolayer films of plasmid DNA (3197 base pairs) deposited on glass and gold substrates are irradiated with 1.5 keV X-rays in ultrahigh vacuum and under atmospheric conditions. The total damage is analyzed by agarose gel electrophoresis. The damage produced on the glass substrate is attributed to energy absorption from X-rays, whereas that produced on the gold substrate arises from energy absorption from both the X-ray beam and secondary electrons emitted from the gold surface. By analysis of the energy of these secondary electrons, 96% are found to have energies below 30 eV with a distribution peaking at 1.4 eV. The differences in damage yields recorded with the gold and glass substrates is therefore essentially attributed to the interaction of low-energy electrons with DNA under vacuum and hydrated conditions. From these results, the G values for low-energy electrons are determined to be four and six strand breaks per 100 eV, respectively.

  8. Si-Ge-Sn alloys with 1.0 eV gap for CPV multijunction solar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Roucka, Radek Clark, Andrew; Landini, Barbara

    2015-09-28

    Si-Ge-Sn ternary group IV alloys offer an alternative to currently used 1.0 eV gap materials utilized in multijunction solar cells. The advantage of Si-Ge-Sn is the ability to vary both the bandgap and lattice parameter independently. We present current development in fabrication of Si-Ge-Sn alloys with gaps in the 1.0 eV range. Produced material exhibits excellent structural properties, which allow for integration with existing III-V photovoltaic cell concepts. Time dependent room temperature photoluminescence data demonstrate that these materials have long carrier lifetimes. Absorption tunable by compositional changes is observed. As a prototype device set utilizing the 1 eV Si-Ge-Sn junction, single junction Si-Ge-Sn device and triple junction device with Si-Ge-Sn subcell have been fabricated. The resulting I-V and external quantum efficiency data show that the Si-Ge-Sn junction is fully functional and the performance is comparable to other 1.0 eV gap materials currently used.

  9. All sky Northern Hemisphere 10(15) EV gamma-ray survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baltrusaitis, R. M.; Cassiday, G. L.; Cooper, R.; Elbert, J. W.; Gerhardy, P. R.; Loh, E. C.; Mizumoto, Y.; Sokolsky, P.; Sommers, P.; Steck, D.

    1985-01-01

    Flux limits in the range 10 to the minus 13th power-10 to the minus 12 power/sq cm/s have been obtained by observing Cerenkov flashes from small air showers. During 1983, a 3.5 sigma excess of showers was observed during the phase interval 0.2 to 0.3 of the 4.8h period of Cygnus X-3, but no excess was found in 1984 observations.

  10. A new array for the study of ultra high energy gamma-ray sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brooke, G.; Lambert, A.; Ogden, P. A.; Patel, M.; Ferrett, J. C.; Reid, R. J. O.; Watson, A. A.; West, A. A.

    1985-01-01

    The design and operation of a 32 x 1 10 to the 15th power sq m array of scintillation detectors for the detection of 10 to the 15th power eV cosmic rays is described with an expected angular resolution of 1 deg, thus improving the present signal/background ratio for gamma ray sources. Data are recorded on a hybrid CAMAC, an in-house system which uses a laser and Pockel-Cell arrangement to routinely calibrate the timing stability of the detectors.

  11. Analysis and solution of false-positives when testing CVA16 sera using an antibody assay against the EV71 virus.

    PubMed

    Wang, Changbing; You, Aiping; Tian, Xingui; Zhao, Mingqi; Chen, Yi; Lin, Tao; Zheng, Jianbin; Xiao, Misi; Zhang, Yingying; Kuang, Lu; Zhou, Zhenwen; Zhu, Bing

    2013-09-01

    Hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) in humans is caused mainly by Enterovirus 71(EV71) and Coxsackievirus A16 (CVA16). EV71 is associated with severe HFMD cases but not CVA16. Use of IgM-capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) is important for the early diagnosis of EV71 infection, but cross-reactivity of the anti-CVA16 IgM antibody with EV71 produces false-positive results. In this report, we designed a new EV71 IgM-capture ELISA method using the EV71 VP1 peptide instead of the EV71 virion as the detectable antigen, and tested sera from patients infected with EV71 or CVA16. The results showed that acute sera from 76 EV71-infected patients had similar sensitivity for virus detection (98.68%) or VP1 detection (97.37%). When acute sera from patients infected with CVA16 were used, significant differences between the two methods were observed. The cross-reactivity rate of the virus detection method was 29.4% (5/17), but no cross-reactivity was observed using the VP1 detection method. Western immunoblotting demonstrated that EV71 VP3 cross-reacted with part of the CVA16 IgM antibody. The results demonstrate that EV71 VP3 is the cross-reactive antigen in the EV71 IgM-capture ELISA when testing CVA16 sera using the virus-antibody detection method. The problem of false-positive results was resolved by using the VP1 peptide as the detectable antigen.

  12. [Hand-foot-mouth disease pathogen separation and EV71 VP1 gene analysis in Sanmenxia City, Henan Province, China].

    PubMed

    Wu, Shu-xing; Wu, Jing-fu; Yang, Jie; Wei, Hai-yan; Xu, Yu-ling; Huang, Xue-yong

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this study was to understand the enterovirus types and biological features of pediatric cases of HFMD in Sanmenxia City during 2011, and compare the latter to a cohort of healthy children. Stool samples of 55 cases of HFMD and 60 healthy children were collected for the isolation and identification of enteroviruses using RNA extraction and real-time RT-PCR assays. EV71 and CA16 were identified by nucleotide sequencing using virus-specific VP1 primers; for the other enteroviruses, 012/011 and 008/013 primers were used for amplification and sequencing. The results were analysed by sequence alignment with known sequences, and the characteristics of the EV71 VP1 gene were also analyzed. The detection rates for enteroviruses in cases of HFMD and healthy children were 52.73% (29/55) and 18.33% (11/60), respectively. Among these, there were 22 cases of EV71, four cases of CA16 and three cases of other enteroviruses in the cases with HFMD. Eleven healthy children had intestinal viruses, of which nine were Coxsackie B virus strains (81.82%, 9/11). Gene sequencing of the 19 EV71 strains illustrated that they were all subgenotype C4a, but the evolutionary tree showed an obvious clustering between cases from Lingbao City and Lushi County. This study demonstrates that the EV71 subgenotype C4a and CA16 strains were the most common cause of HFMD in Sanmenxia City in 2011, and that Coxsackie B strains were prevalent in healthy children. This finding may indicate that there is a widespread source of recessive infection in the community.

  13. A Novel Enterovirus 71 (EV71) Virulence Determinant: The 69th Residue of 3C Protease Modulates Pathogenicity.

    PubMed

    Li, Bingqing; Yue, Yingying; Zhang, Yajie; Yuan, Zenglin; Li, Peng; Song, Nannan; Lin, Wei; Liu, Yan; Gu, Lichuan; Meng, Hong

    2017-01-01

    Human enterovirus type 71 (EV71), the major causative agent of hand-foot-and-mouth disease, has been known to cause fatal neurological complications. Unfortunately, the reason for neurological complications that have been seen in fatal cases of the disease and the relationship between EV71 virulence and viral genetic sequences remains largely undefined. The 3C protease (3C(pro)) of EV71 plays an irreplaceable role in segmenting the precursor polyprotein during viral replication, and intervening with host life activity during viral infection. In this study, for the first time, the 69th residue of 3C protease has been identified as a novel virulence determinant of EV71. The recombinant virus with single point variation, in the 69th of 3C(pro), exhibited obvious decline in replication, and virulence. We further determined the crystal structure of 3C N69D at 1.39 Ǻ resolution and found that conformation of 3C N69D demonstrated significant changes compared with a normal 3C protein, in the substrate-binding site and catalytic active site. Strikingly, one of the switch loops, essential in fixing substrates, adopts an open conformation in the 3C N69D-rupintrivir complex. Consistent with this apparent structural disruption, the catalytic activity of 3C N69D decreased sharply for host derived and viral derived substrates, detected for both in vitro and in vivo. Interestingly, in addition to EV71, Asp69 was also found in 3C proteases of other virus strains, such as CAV16, and was conserved in nearly all C type human rhinovirus. Overall, we identified a natural virulence determinant of 3C protease and revealed the mechanism of attenuated virulence is mediated by N69D substitution. Our data provides new insight into the enzymatic mechanism of a subdued 3C protease and suggests a theoretical basis for virulence determinantion of picornaviridae.

  14. A Novel Enterovirus 71 (EV71) Virulence Determinant: The 69th Residue of 3C Protease Modulates Pathogenicity

    PubMed Central

    Li, Bingqing; Yue, Yingying; Zhang, Yajie; Yuan, Zenglin; Li, Peng; Song, Nannan; Lin, Wei; Liu, Yan; Gu, Lichuan; Meng, Hong

    2017-01-01

    Human enterovirus type 71 (EV71), the major causative agent of hand-foot-and-mouth disease, has been known to cause fatal neurological complications. Unfortunately, the reason for neurological complications that have been seen in fatal cases of the disease and the relationship between EV71 virulence and viral genetic sequences remains largely undefined. The 3C protease (3Cpro) of EV71 plays an irreplaceable role in segmenting the precursor polyprotein during viral replication, and intervening with host life activity during viral infection. In this study, for the first time, the 69th residue of 3C protease has been identified as a novel virulence determinant of EV71. The recombinant virus with single point variation, in the 69th of 3Cpro, exhibited obvious decline in replication, and virulence. We further determined the crystal structure of 3C N69D at 1.39 Ǻ resolution and found that conformation of 3C N69D demonstrated significant changes compared with a normal 3C protein, in the substrate-binding site and catalytic active site. Strikingly, one of the switch loops, essential in fixing substrates, adopts an open conformation in the 3C N69D-rupintrivir complex. Consistent with this apparent structural disruption, the catalytic activity of 3C N69D decreased sharply for host derived and viral derived substrates, detected for both in vitro and in vivo. Interestingly, in addition to EV71, Asp69 was also found in 3C proteases of other virus strains, such as CAV16, and was conserved in nearly all C type human rhinovirus. Overall, we identified a natural virulence determinant of 3C protease and revealed the mechanism of attenuated virulence is mediated by N69D substitution. Our data provides new insight into the enzymatic mechanism of a subdued 3C protease and suggests a theoretical basis for virulence determinantion of picornaviridae. PMID:28217559

  15. Validation-based insertional mutagenesis for identification of Nup214 as a host factor for EV71 replication in RD cells

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Bei; Zhang, XiaoYu; Zhao, Zhendong

    2013-08-02

    Highlights: •We introduced a new mutagenesis strategy named VBIM to the viral research. •This method can identify either host factors or host restriction factors. •Using VBIM system, we identified Nup214 as a host factor for EV71 replication in RD cells. -- Abstract: Lentiviral validation-based insertional mutagenesis (VBIM) is a sophisticated, forward genetic approach that is used for the investigation of signal transduction in mammalian cells. Using VBIM, we conducted function-based genetic screening for host genes that affect enterovirus 71 (EV71) viral replication. This included host factors that are required for the life cycle of EV71 and host restriction factors that inhibit EV71 replication. Several cell clones, resistant to EV71, were produced using EV71 infection as a selection pressure and the nuclear pore protein 214 (Nup214) was identified as a host factor required for EV71 replication. In SD2-2, the corresponding VBIM lentivirus transformed clone, the expression of endogenous Nup214 was significantly down-regulated by the reverse inserted VBIM promoter. After Cre recombinase-mediated excision of the VBIM promoter, the expression of Nup214 recovered and the clone regained sensitivity to the EV71 infection. Furthermore, over-expression of Nup214 in the cells suggested that Nup214 was promoting EV71 replication. Results of this study indicate that a successful mutagenesis strategy has been established for screening host genes related to viral replication.

  16. The Swift/Fermi GRB 080928 from 1 eV to 150 keV

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sonbas, Eda; Rossi, A.; Schulze, S.; Klose, S.; Kann, D. A.; Ferrero, P.; NicuesaGuelbenzu, A.; Rau, A.; Kruehler, T.; Greiner, J.; Schady, P.; Afonso, P. M. J.; Clemens, C.; Filgas, R.; KuepcuYoldas, A.; McBreen, S.; Olivares, F.; Szokoly, G.; Yoldas, A.; Krimm, H. A.; Johannesson, G.; Panaitescu, A.; Yuan, F.; Pandey, S. B.; Akerlof, C. W.

    2010-01-01

    We present the results of a comprehensive study of the Gamma-Ray Burst 080928 and of its afterglow. GRB 08092 was a long burst detected by Swift/BAT and Fermi/GBM, It is one of the exceptional cases where optical emission was already detected when the GRB itself was still radiating in the gamma-ray band. for nearly 100 seconds simultaneous optical X-ray and gamma-ray data provide a coverage of the spectral energy distribution of the transient source from about 1 eV to 150 keV. Here we analyze the prompt emission, constrain its spectral propertIes. and set lower limits on the initial Lorentz factor of the relativistic outflow, In particular. we show that the SED during the main prompt emission phase is in agreement with synchrotron radiation. We construct the optical/near-infrared light curve and the spectral energy distribution based on Swift/UVOT. ROTSE-Illa (Australia) and GROND (La Silla) data and compare it to the X-ray light curve retrieved from the Swift/XRT repository. We show that its bumpy shape can be modeled by multiple energy injections into the forward shock. Furthermore, we provide evidence that the temporal and spectral evolution of the first strong flare seen in the early X-ray light curve can be explained by large-angle emission. Finally, we report on the results of our search for the GRB host galaxy, for which only a deep upper limit can be provided.

  17. Exploration of the Black, Aegean, and Mediterranean Seas Aboard E/V Nautilus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, K. L.; Ballard, R. D.; Brennan, M. L.; Raineault, N. A.; Shank, T. M.; Mayer, L. A.; Roman, C.; Mitchell, G. A.; Coleman, D. F.

    2012-12-01

    In the summer of 2012, the Exploration Vessel (E/V) Nautilus undertook a two-month expedition to the Black, Aegean, and Mediterranean Seas. The primary goal of the Nautilus is to create a focus of international leadership for the development and integration of leading-edge technologies, educational programs, field operations, and public outreach programs for ocean exploration, in partnership with the NOAA Office of Ocean Exploration, National Geographic Society, Office of Naval Research, and corporate partners. To do so, the program uses a complement of deep submergence vehicle systems and telepresence technologies to engage scientists, educators and the public, both at sea and ashore, allowing them to become integral members of the on-board exploration team. When discoveries are made, experts ashore are notified and brought aboard virtually within a short period of time to help guide shipboard response before the ship moves on. The 2012 expedition is comprised of four areas of interest. Extensive sidescan mapping took place off the Turkish coasts of the southern Black Sea and eastern Aegean Sea, and was followed by remotely operated vehicle (ROV) dives on targets of archaeological, geological, and biological interest. In the Black Sea, additional work was done on the porewater chemistry of the sediments in the oxic, suboxic, and anoxic zones. Nautilus returned to the Anaximander Seamounts, including Kazan, Amserdam, Thessaloniki, and Athina, to further explore active and formerly active seep sites located in 2010. Finally, based on biological and geological discoveries made on Eratosthenes Seamount in the eastern Mediterranean Sea, we returned to further study chemosynthetic vent communities and tectonic processes.;

  18. Remote Sensing of Icy Galilean Moon Surface and Atmospheric Composition Using Low Energy (1 eV-4 keV) Neutral Atom Imaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collier, M. R.; Sittler, E.; Chornay, D.; Cooper, J. F.; Coplan, M.; Johnson, R. E.

    2004-01-01

    We describe a low energy neutral atom imager suitable for composition measurements Europa and other icy Galilean moons in the Jovian magnetosphere. This instrument employs conversion surface technology and is sensitive to either neutrals converted to negative ions, neutrals converted to positive ions and the positive ions themselves depending on the power supply. On a mission such as the Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter (JIMO), two back-to-back sensors would be flown with separate power supplies fitted to the neutral atom and iodneutral atom sides. This will allow both remote imaging of 1 eV < E < 4 keV neutrals from icy moon surfaces and atmospheres, and in situ measurements of ions at similar energies in the moon ionospheres and Jovian magnetospheric plasma. The instrument provides composition measurements of the neutrals and ions that enter the spectrometer with a mass resolution dependent on the time-of-flight subsystem and capable of resolving molecules. The lower energy neutrals, up to tens of eV, arise from atoms and molecules sputtered off the moon surfaces and out of the moon atmospheres by impacts of more energetic (keV to MeV) ions from the magnetosphere. Direct Simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) models are used to convert measured neutral abundances to compositional distributions of primary and trace species in the sputtered surfaces and atmospheres. The escaping neutrals can also be detected as ions after photo- or plasma-ionization and pickup. Higher energy, keV neutrals come from charge exchange of magnetospheric ions in the moon atmospheres and provide information on atmospheric structure. At the jovicentric orbits of the icy moons the presence of toroidal gas clouds, as detected at Europa's orbit, provide M e r opportunities to analyze both the composition of neutrals and ions originating from the moon surfaces, and the characteristics of magnetospheric ions interacting with neutral cloud material. Charge exchange of low energy ions near the moons, and

  19. Obesity reduces the pro-angiogenic potential of adipose tissue stem cell-derived extracellular vesicles (EVs) by impairing miR-126 content: impact on clinical applications

    PubMed Central

    Togliatto, G; Dentelli, P; Gili, M; Gallo, S; Deregibus, C; Biglieri, E; Iavello, A; Santini, E; Rossi, C; Solini, A; Camussi, G; Brizzi, M F

    2016-01-01

    Background/Objectives: Soluble factors and cell-derived extracellular vesicles (EVs) are crucial tissue repair mediators in cell-based therapy. In the present study, we investigate the therapeutic impact of EVs released by adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ASCs) recovered from obese subjects' visceral and subcutaneous tissues. Methods: ASCs were recovered from 10 obese (oASCs) and 6 non-obese (nASCs) participants and characterized. In selected experiments, nASCs and oASCs were cultured with palmitic acid (PA) or high glucose (HG), respectively. EVs from obese (oEVs) and non-obese (nEVs) subjects' visceral and subcutaneous ASCs were collected after ultracentrifugation and analyzed for their cargo: microRNA-126 (miR-126), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2), and for their biological effects on endothelial cells (ECs). Western blotting analysis and loss- and gain-of function experiments were performed. Results: oEVs show impaired angiogenic potential compared with nEVs. This effect depends on EV cargo: reduced content of VEGF, MMP-2 and, more importantly, miR-126. We demonstrate, using gain- and loss-of-function experiments, that this reduced miR-126 content leads to Spred1 upregulation and the inhibition of the extracellular signal–regulated kinase 1/2 mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway in ECs. We also show that PA treatment of nASCs translates into the release of EVs that recapitulate oEV cargo. Moreover, HG treatment of oASCs further reduces miR-126 EV content and EV-mediated in vitro angiogenesis. Finally, impaired pro-angiogenic potential is also detected in EVs released from obese subcutaneous adipose tissue-derived ASCs. Conclusions: These results indicate that obesity impacts on EV pro-angiogenic potential and may raise concerns about the use of adipose tissue-derived EVs in cell-based therapy in the obese setting. PMID:26122028

  20. Measurement of the average number of prompt neutrons emitted per fission of /sup 233/U relative to /sup 252/Cf for the energy region 500 eV to 10 MeV and below 0. 3 eV

    SciTech Connect

    Gwin, R.; Spencer, R.R.; Ingle, R.W.

    1981-11-01

    The energy dependence of the average number of prompt fission neutrons emitted per fission, anti ..nu../sub p/(E), has been measured for /sup 233/U relative to anti ..nu../sub p/ for /sup 252/Cf over the neutron energy ranges 500 eV to 10 MeV and below 0.3 eV. A large Gd-loaded liquid scintillator was used to detect neutrons and the samples of /sup 233/U and /sup 252/Cf were contained in fission chambers. The present results for anti ..nu../sub p/(E) for /sup 233/U are in accord with the experimental results of Boldeman and the evaluated results of Lemmel in the thermal energy range, but in the neutron energy region between 100 keV and 1 MeV the present data are 1% or more larger than other experimental values.

  1. 77 FR 51983 - Availability of Department of Energy EV Everywhere Grand Challenge Initial Framing Document and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-28

    ... the innovation chain? Are technology targets (e.g., cost or deployment targets) useful markers to... private sector, government laboratories, and academia in accelerating PEV technology innovation? How can... family as today's gasoline-powered vehicles within the next 10 years'' appropriate for the...

  2. Pulsed plasma source spectrometry in the 80-8000-eV x-ray region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henke, B. L.; Yamada, H. T.; Tanaka, T. J.

    1983-10-01

    The general characteristics are compared for the plane, convex, and concave fixed crystal analyzers which may be applied to the spectrometry of concentrated, intense plasma sources of x radiation involved, for example, in fusion energy and x-ray laser research. The unique advantages of the elliptical analyzer for precise and absolute spectral measurements are noted and detailed descriptions of its geometrical and physical optics are presented. With a source point at one of the foci of the elliptical analyzer profile, the spectrum is Bragg reflected (45°<2θ<135°) at normal incidence upon a detection circle with its center at the second focal point, at which an effective scatter aperture and filter window is located. A primary monochromator consisting of a cylindrical, grazing-incidence mirror is placed between the source and the analyzer to provide an efficient cutoff for high-order diffracted background radiation and to focus the divergent rays so as to obtain an adjustable spectral line length at the detection circle. Photographic film may be transported along the detection circle. Linear position-sensitive electronic detection arrays or a streak camera slit window may be placed along a chord of the detection circle. Calibration procedures for absolute line and continuum intensity measurement are described and examples of calibrating spectra are presented as measured with elliptical analyzers of LiF, PET, KAP, and molecular multilayers for the 80-8000-eV photon energy region. The instrumental effects that contribute to the spectral line shape as measured by the elliptical analyzer spectrograph are defined and a simple line-shape analysis procedure is presented for the determination of the line-broadening contributions of the source. The effects of an off-axis positioning of a source point and of an extended source are analyzed and the application of the elliptical analyzer spectrograph for one- and two-dimensional imaging or an extended source at a given photon

  3. Validation-based insertional mutagenesis for identification of Nup214 as a host factor for EV71 replication in RD cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bei; Zhang, Xiaoyu; Zhao, Zhendong

    2013-08-02

    Lentiviral validation-based insertional mutagenesis (VBIM) is a sophisticated, forward genetic approach that is used for the investigation of signal transduction in mammalian cells. Using VBIM, we conducted function-based genetic screening for host genes that affect enterovirus 71 (EV71) viral replication. This included host factors that are required for the life cycle of EV71 and host restriction factors that inhibit EV71 replication. Several cell clones, resistant to EV71, were produced using EV71 infection as a selection pressure and the nuclear pore protein 214 (Nup214) was identified as a host factor required for EV71 replication. In SD2-2, the corresponding VBIM lentivirus transformed clone, the expression of endogenous Nup214 was significantly down-regulated by the reverse inserted VBIM promoter. After Cre recombinase-mediated excision of the VBIM promoter, the expression of Nup214 recovered and the clone regained sensitivity to the EV71 infection. Furthermore, over-expression of Nup214 in the cells suggested that Nup214 was promoting EV71 replication. Results of this study indicate that a successful mutagenesis strategy has been established for screening host genes related to viral replication.

  4. Formulation and immunological evaluation of a trivalent vaccine comprising emulsified submicron particles and inactivated virions of H5N1/EV71/JEV.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chih-Wei; Chang, Ching-Yun; Chen, Wei-Lin; Lin, Shih-Chang; Liao, Chien-Chun; Chang, Jui-Yuan; Liu, Chia-Chyi; Hu, Alan Yung-Chih; Lu, Tsung-Chun; Chou, Ai-Hsiang; Wu, Suh-Chin; Chong, Pele; Huang, Ming-Hsi

    2013-11-01

    Combination vaccines can reduce the number of injections and simplify the immunization schedule required to prevent different diseases. Here we assessed the immunogenicity in a mouse model of a vaccine composition comprising inactivated influenza viruses (H5N1/H1N1), enterovirus 71 (EV71), and/or Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) and investigated whether the vaccine formulations can overcome the immunologic interference between the individual vaccine components. We demonstrated that the antigenic competition happens between H5N1/H1N1 or H5N1/EV71 inactivated virions when the vaccine combinations either formulated with Alum suspensions or without adjuvant. In the presence of PELC emulsified particles, EV71-specific immune responses before and after incorporating H5N1 virus into EV71 vaccine were detected of no significant difference; in addition, H5N1- and EV71-specific immune responses were found at the same level when H5N1/EV71/JEV consolidating into combination vaccine. Emulsified vaccine formulation was represented as a potential tool that is found to reduce the number of injections required to prevent multiple infectious strains causing the same disease (H5N1/H1N1) and/or that protect against different diseases (H5N1/EV71). Combination vaccines can also include a third component to protect against H5N1/EV71/JEV at the same time.

  5. ATP1B3: a virus-induced host factor against EV71 replication by up-regulating the production of type-I interferons.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yanfang; Hou, Hongyan; Wang, Feng; Qiao, Long; Wang, Xiong; Yu, Jing; Liu, Weiyong; Sun, Ziyong

    2016-09-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) infection can cause severe diseases, and is becoming increasingly common in children. In the current study, we carried out yeast two-hybrid assays to screen human proteins that could interact with 3A protein of EV71. Human β3 subunit of Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase (ATP1B3) protein was demonstrated to interact with the 3A protein of EV71. Although 3A protein had no effect on the expression of ATP1B3, EV71 infection resulted in elevated expression of ATP1B3 in RD cell line, both on messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein levels. Interestingly, knockdown of ATP1B3 could significantly increase the replication of EV71, whereas overexpression of ATP1B3 significantly suppressed the replication of EV71 in RD cells. Furthermore, we demonstrated that the expression of ATP1B3 could induce the production of type-I interferons. Our study demonstrated that ATP1B3 inhibit EV71 replication by enhancing the production of type-I interferons, which could act as a potential therapeutic target in EV71 infection.

  6. [Anesthetic Management Using Transesophageal Echocardiography and EV1000 in a Patient with Ebstein's Anomary Undergoing Scoliosis Surgery].

    PubMed

    Tanimura, Kazuki; Miura, Yukiko; Ishii, Hisanari

    2016-02-01

    An 18-year-old female patinet with Ebstein anomaly underwent surgical repair of scoliosis under total intravenous anesthesia. In addtition to normal monitors, we used transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) and EV1000 (Edwards Lifesciences, Irvine, USA), which show stroke volume variation and stroke volume index simultaneously in a rectangular coordinates. TEE detected reversal of intracardiac shunt which caused SpO2 decrease during fixing screws at thoracic vertebrae, then manual ventilation with oxygen unproved SpO2. Because of a high venous pressure due to Ebstein anomaly, surgical bleeding seemed to be larger than usual. By using EV1000, volume status and cardiac contractility were estimated and adequate volume loading and inoptrope injection were performed to stabilize circulatory condition. The operation was completed without any cardiac and respiratory complications.

  7. Alternate Multilayer Gratings with Enhanced Diffraction Efficiency in the 500-5000 eV Energy Domain

    SciTech Connect

    Polack, Francois; Lagarde, Bruno; Idir, Mourad; Cloup, Audrey Liard; Jourdain, Erick; Roulliay, Marc; Delmotte, Franck; Gautier, Julien; Ravet-Krill, Marie-Francoise

    2007-01-19

    An alternate multilayer (AML) grating is a 2 dimensional diffraction structure formed on an optical surface, having a 0.5 duty cycle in the in-plane and in the in-depth direction. It can be made by covering a shallow depth laminar grating with a multilayer stack. We show here that their 2D structure confer AML gratings a high angular and energetic selectivity and therefore enhanced diffraction properties, when used in grazing incidence. In the tender X-ray range (500eV - 5000 eV) they behave much like blazed gratings. Over 15% efficiency has been measured on a 1200 lines/mm Mo/Si AML grating in the 1.2 - 1.5 keV energy range. Computer simulations show that selected multilayer materials such as Cr/C should allow diffraction efficiency over 50% at photon energies over 3 keV.

  8. An Instrument to Measure Elemental Energy Spectra of Cosmic Ray Nuclei Up to 10(exp 16) eV

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, J.; Bashindzhagyan, G.; Chilingarian, A.; Drury, L.; Egorov, N.; Golubkov,S.; Korotkova, N.; Panasyuk, M.; Podorozhnyi, D.; Procqureur, J.

    2000-01-01

    A longstanding goal of cosmic ray research is to measure the elemental energy spectra of cosmic rays up to and through the "knee" (approx. equal to 3 x 10 (exp 15) eV. It is not currently feasible to achieve this goal with an ionization calorimeter because the mass required to be deployed in Earth orbit is very large (at least 50 tonnes). An alternative method will be presented. This is based on measuring the primary particle energy by determining the angular distribution of secondaries produced in a target layer using silicon microstrip detector technology. The proposed technique can be used over a wide range of energies (10 (exp 11)- 10 (exp 16) eV) and gives an energy resolution of 60% or better. Based on this technique, a design for a new lightweight instrument with a large aperture (KLEM) will be described.

  9. VUV action spectroscopy of protonated leucine-enkephalin peptide in the 6-14 eV range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ranković, M. Lj.; Canon, F.; Nahon, L.; Giuliani, A.; Milosavljević, A. R.

    2015-12-01

    We have studied the Vacuum Ultraviolet (VUV) photodissociation of gas-phase protonated leucine-enkephalin peptide ion in the 5.7 to 14 eV photon energy range by coupling a linear quadrupole ion trap with a synchrotron radiation source. We report VUV activation tandem mass spectra at 6.7, 8.4, and 12.8 eV photon energies and photodissociation yields for a number of selected fragments. The obtained results provide insight into both near VUV radiation damage and electronic properties of a model peptide. We could distinguish several absorption bands and assign them to particular electronic transitions, according to previous theoretical studies. The photodissociation yields appear to be very different for the various observed fragmentation channels, depending on both the types of fragments and their position along the peptide backbone. The present results are discussed in light of recent gas-phase spectroscopic data on peptides.

  10. Differential, integral, and momentum-transfer cross sections for elastic electron scattering by neon - 5 to 100 eV

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Register, D. F.; Trajmar, S.

    1984-01-01

    Relative elastic-scattering differential cross sections were measured in the 5-100-eV impact energy and 10-145 deg angular ranges. Normalization of these cross sections was achieved by utilizing accurate total electron-scattering cross sections. A phase-shift analysis of the angular distributions in terms of real phase shifts has been carried out. From the differential cross sections, momentum-transfer cross sections were obtained and the values of the critical energy and angle were established (associated with the lowest value of the differential cross section) as 62.5 + or - 2.5 eV and 101.7 deg + or - 1.5 deg, respectively. The present phase shifts, the critical parameters, and differential, integral, and momentum-transfer cross sections are compared to previous experimental and theoretical results. The error associated with the present data is about 10 percent.

  11. Cross-antigenicity among EV71 strains from different genogroups isolated in Yamagata, Japan, between 1990 and 2007.

    PubMed

    Mizuta, K; Aoki, Y; Suto, A; Ootani, K; Katsushima, N; Itagaki, T; Ohmi, A; Okamoto, M; Nishimura, H; Matsuzaki, Y; Hongo, S; Sugawara, K; Shimizu, H; Ahiko, T

    2009-05-21

    We isolated and identified six subgenogroups (B2, B4, B5, C1, C2, and C4) of enterovirus 71 (EV71) between 1990 and 2007 in Yamagata, Japan. We measured neutralizing antibody (NT Ab) titers against those subgenogroup strains and the BrCr reference strain for antigenic analysis. Serological analysis of 83 residents in Yamagata in 2004 showed that differences in the NT Ab titer of each individual against the different subgenogroups were mostly within 4-fold. Furthermore, sera from guinea pigs, immunized with the B2 and C1 strains indicated cross-antigenicity among the seven different subgenogroups. In conclusion, our results showed that cross-antigenicity exists among EV71 strains from different subgenogroups circulating in the community through genomic evolution. Our results also suggest that eliciting neutralizing antibodies against one genotype is likely to confer cross-neutralization against other genotypes.

  12. Photodissociation of protonated leucine-enkephalin in the VUV range of 8-40 eV.

    PubMed

    Bari, S; Gonzalez-Magaña, O; Reitsma, G; Werner, J; Schippers, S; Hoekstra, R; Schlathölter, T

    2011-01-14

    Until now, photodissociation studies on free complex protonated peptides were limited to the UV wavelength range accessible by intense lasers. We have studied photodissociation of gas-phase protonated leucine-enkephalin cations for vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) photons energies ranging from 8 to 40 eV. We report time-of-flight mass spectra of the photofragments and various photofragment-yields as a function of photon energy. For sub-ionization energies our results are in line with existing studies on UV photodissociation of leucine-enkephalin. For photon energies exceeding 10 eV we could identify a new dissociation scheme in which photoabsorption leads to a fast loss of the tyrosine side chain. This loss process leads to the formation of a residual peptide that is remarkably cold internally.

  13. Measurement of the depth of maximum of extensive air showers above 10{18} eV.

    PubMed

    Abraham, J; Abreu, P; Aglietta, M; Ahn, E J; Allard, D; Allekotte, I; Allen, J; Alvarez-Muñiz, J; Ambrosio, M; Anchordoqui, L; Andringa, S; Anticić, T; Anzalone, A; Aramo, C; Arganda, E; Arisaka, K; Arqueros, F; Asorey, H; Assis, P; Aublin, J; Ave, M; Avila, G; Bäcker, T; Badagnani, D; Balzer, M; Barber, K B; Barbosa, A F; Barroso, S L C; Baughman, B; Bauleo, P; Beatty, J J; Becker, B R; Becker, K H; Bellétoile, A; Bellido, J A; Benzvi, S; Berat, C; Bergmann, T; Bertou, X; Biermann, P L; Billoir, P; Blanch-Bigas, O; Blanco, F; Blanco, M; Bleve, C; Blümer, H; Bohácová, M; Boncioli, D; Bonifazi, C; Bonino, R; Borodai, N; Brack, J; Brogueira, P; Brown, W C; Bruijn, R; Buchholz, P; Bueno, A; Burton, R E; Busca, N G; Caballero-Mora, K S; Caramete, L; Caruso, R; Castellina, A; Catalano, O; Cataldi, G; Cazon, L; Cester, R; Chauvin, J; Chiavassa, A; Chinellato, J A; Chou, A; Chudoba, J; Clay, R W; Colombo, E; Coluccia, M R; Conceição, R; Contreras, F; Cook, H; Cooper, M J; Coppens, J; Cordier, A; Cotti, U; Coutu, S; Covault, C E; Creusot, A; Criss, A; Cronin, J; Curutiu, A; Dagoret-Campagne, S; Dallier, R; Daumiller, K; Dawson, B R; de Almeida, R M; De Domenico, M; De Donato, C; de Jong, S J; De La Vega, G; de Mello Junior, W J M; de Mello Neto, J R T; De Mitri, I; de Souza, V; de Vries, K D; Decerprit, G; Del Peral, L; Deligny, O; Della Selva, A; Delle Fratte, C; Dembinski, H; Di Giulio, C; Diaz, J C; Díaz Castro, M L; Diep, P N; Dobrigkeit, C; D'Olivo, J C; Dong, P N; Dorofeev, A; Dos Anjos, J C; Dova, M T; D'Urso, D; Dutan, I; Duvernois, M A; Ebr, J; Engel, R; Erdmann, M; Escobar, C O; Etchegoyen, A; Facal San Luis, P; Falcke, H; Farrar, G; Fauth, A C; Fazzini, N; Ferrero, A; Fick, B; Filevich, A; Filipcic, A; Fleck, I; Fliescher, S; Fracchiolla, C E; Fraenkel, E D; Fröhlich, U; Fulgione, W; Gamarra, R F; Gambetta, S; García, B; García Gámez, D; Garcia-Pinto, D; Garrido, X; Gelmini, G; Gemmeke, H; Ghia, P L; Giaccari, U; Giller, M; Glass, H; Goggin, L M; Gold, M S; Golup, G; Gomez Albarracin, F; Gómez Berisso, M; Gonçalves, P; Gonzalez, D; Gonzalez, J G; Góra, D; Gorgi, A; Gouffon, P; Gozzini, S R; Grashorn, E; Grebe, S; Grigat, M; Grillo, A F; Guardincerri, Y; Guarino, F; Guedes, G P; Hague, J D; Halenka, V; Hansen, P; Harari, D; Harmsma, S; Harton, J L; Haungs, A; Hebbeker, T; Heck, D; Herve, A E; Hojvat, C; Holmes, V C; Homola, P; Hörandel, J R; Horneffer, A; Hrabovský, M; Huege, T; Hussain, M; Iarlori, M; Insolia, A; Ionita, F; Italiano, A; Jiraskova, S; Kadija, K; Kaducak, M; Kampert, K H; Karova, T; Kasper, P; Kégl, B; Keilhauer, B; Keivani, A; Kelley, J; Kemp, E; Kieckhafer, R M; Klages, H O; Kleifges, M; Kleinfeller, J; Knapik, R; Knapp, J; Koang, D-H; Krieger, A; Krömer, O; Kruppke-Hansen, D; Kuehn, F; Kuempel, D; Kulbartz, K; Kunka, N; Kusenko, A; La Rosa, G; Lachaud, C; Lago, B L; Lautridou, P; Leão, M S A B; Lebrun, D; Lebrun, P; Lee, J; Leigui de Oliveira, M A; Lemiere, A; Letessier-Selvon, A; Lhenry-Yvon, I; López, R; Lopez Agüera, A; Louedec, K; Lozano Bahilo, J; Lucero, A; Ludwig, M; Lyberis, H; Maccarone, M C; Macolino, C; Maldera, S; Mandat, D; Mantsch, P; Mariazzi, A G; Marin, V; Maris, I C; Marquez Falcon, H R; Marsella, G; Martello, D; Martínez Bravo, O; Mathes, H J; Matthews, J; Matthews, J A J; Matthiae, G; Maurizio, D; Mazur, P O; McEwen, M; Medina-Tanco, G; Melissas, M; Melo, D; Menichetti, E; Menshikov, A; Meurer, C; Micanović, S; Micheletti, M I; Miller, W; Miramonti, L; Mollerach, S; Monasor, M; Monnier Ragaigne, D; Montanet, F; Morales, B; Morello, C; Moreno, E; Moreno, J C; Morris, C; Mostafá, M; Mueller, S; Muller, M A; Mussa, R; Navarra, G; Navarro, J L; Navas, S; Necesal, P; Nellen, L; Nhung, P T; Nierstenhoefer, N; Nitz, D; Nosek, D; Nozka, L; Nyklicek, M; Oehlschläger, J; Olinto, A; Oliva, P; Olmos-Gilbaja, V M; Ortiz, M; Pacheco, N; Pakk Selmi-Dei, D; Palatka, M; Pallotta, J; Palmieri, N; Parente, G; Parizot, E; Parlati, S; Parra, A; Parrisius, J; Parsons, R D; Pastor, S; Paul, T; Pavlidou, V; Payet, K; Pech, M; Pekala, J; Pelayo, R; Pepe, I M; Perrone, L; Pesce, R; Petermann, E; Petrera, S; Petrinca, P; Petrolini, A; Petrov, Y; Petrovic, J; Pfendner, C; Piegaia, R; Pierog, T; Pimenta, M; Pirronello, V; Platino, M; Ponce, V H; Pontz, M; Privitera, P; Prouza, M; Quel, E J; Rautenberg, J; Ravel, O; Ravignani, D; Redondo, A; Revenu, B; Rezende, F A S; Ridky, J; Riggi, S; Risse, M; Ristori, P; Rivière, C; Rizi, V; Robledo, C; Rodriguez, G; Rodriguez Martino, J; Rodriguez Rojo, J; Rodriguez-Cabo, I; Rodríguez-Frías, M D; Ros, G; Rosado, J; Rossler, T; Roth, M; Rouillé-d'Orfeuil, B; Roulet, E; Rovero, A C; Salamida, F; Salazar, H; Salina, G; Sánchez, F; Santander, M; Santo, C E; Santos, E; Santos, E M; Sarazin, F; Sarkar, S; Sato, R; Scharf, N; Scherini, V; Schieler, H; Schiffer, P; Schmidt, A

    2010-03-05

    We describe the measurement of the depth of maximum, X{max}, of the longitudinal development of air showers induced by cosmic rays. Almost 4000 events above 10;{18} eV observed by the fluorescence detector of the Pierre Auger Observatory in coincidence with at least one surface detector station are selected for the analysis. The average shower maximum was found to evolve with energy at a rate of (106{-21}{+35}) g/cm{2}/decade below 10{18.24+/-0.05} eV, and (24+/-3) g/cm{2}/decade above this energy. The measured shower-to-shower fluctuations decrease from about 55 to 26 g/cm{2}. The interpretation of these results in terms of the cosmic ray mass composition is briefly discussed.

  14. Photodissociation of protonated leucine-enkephalin in the VUV range of 8-40 eV

    SciTech Connect

    Bari, S.; Gonzalez-Magana, O.; Reitsma, G.; Hoekstra, R.; Schlathoelter, T.; Werner, J.; Schippers, S.

    2011-01-14

    Until now, photodissociation studies on free complex protonated peptides were limited to the UV wavelength range accessible by intense lasers. We have studied photodissociation of gas-phase protonated leucine-enkephalin cations for vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) photons energies ranging from 8 to 40 eV. We report time-of-flight mass spectra of the photofragments and various photofragment-yields as a function of photon energy. For sub-ionization energies our results are in line with existing studies on UV photodissociation of leucine-enkephalin. For photon energies exceeding 10 eV we could identify a new dissociation scheme in which photoabsorption leads to a fast loss of the tyrosine side chain. This loss process leads to the formation of a residual peptide that is remarkably cold internally.

  15. Absolute cross sections for electronic excitation of condensed tetrahydrofuran (THF) by 11-16 eV electrons.

    PubMed

    Lemelin, V; Bass, A D; Cloutier, P; Sanche, L

    2016-11-07

    Absolute cross section (CS) data on the interaction of low energy electrons with DNA and its molecular constituents are required as input parameters in Monte-Carlo type simulations, for several radiobiological applications. Previously [V. Lemelin et al., J. Chem. Phys. 144, 074701 (2016)], we measured absolute vibrational CSs for low-energy electron scattering from condensed tetrahydrofuran, a convenient surrogate for the deoxyribose. Here we report absolute electronic CSs for energy losses of between 6 and 11.5 eV, by electrons with energies between 11 and 16 eV. The variation of these CSs with incident electron energy shows no evidence of transient anion states, consistent with theoretical and other experimental results, indicating that initial electron capture leading to DNA strand breaks occurs primarily on DNA bases or the phosphate group.

  16. Measurement of the Depth of Maximum of Extensive Air Showers above 10^18 eV

    SciTech Connect

    Abraham, J.; Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Ahn, E.J.; Allard, D.; Allekotte, I.; Allen, J.; Alvarez-Muniz, J.; Ambrosio, M.; Anchordoqui, L.; Andringa, S.; /Lisbon, IST /Boskovic Inst., Zagreb

    2010-02-01

    We describe the measurement of the depth of maximum, X{sub max}, of the longitudinal development of air showers induced by cosmic rays. Almost 4000 events above 10{sup 18} eV observed by the fluorescence detector of the Pierre Auger Observatory in coincidence with at least one surface detector station are selected for the analysis. The average shower maximum was found to evolve with energy at a rate of (106{sub -21}{sup +35}) g/cm{sup 2}/decade below 10{sup 18.24 {+-} 0.05}eV, and (24 {+-} 3) g/cm{sup 2}/decade above this energy. The measured shower-to-shower fluctuations decrease from about 55 to 26 g/cm{sup 2}. The interpretation of these results in terms of the cosmic ray mass composition is briefly discussed.

  17. Absolute cross sections for electronic excitation of condensed tetrahydrofuran (THF) by 11-16 eV electrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemelin, V.; Bass, A. D.; Cloutier, P.; Sanche, L.

    2016-11-01

    Absolute cross section (CS) data on the interaction of low energy electrons with DNA and its molecular constituents are required as input parameters in Monte-Carlo type simulations, for several radiobiological applications. Previously [V. Lemelin et al., J. Chem. Phys. 144, 074701 (2016)], we measured absolute vibrational CSs for low-energy electron scattering from condensed tetrahydrofuran, a convenient surrogate for the deoxyribose. Here we report absolute electronic CSs for energy losses of between 6 and 11.5 eV, by electrons with energies between 11 and 16 eV. The variation of these CSs with incident electron energy shows no evidence of transient anion states, consistent with theoretical and other experimental results, indicating that initial electron capture leading to DNA strand breaks occurs primarily on DNA bases or the phosphate group.

  18. Absolute cross sections for electronic excitation of condensed tetrahydrofuran (THF) by 11–16 eV electrons

    PubMed Central

    Lemelin, V.; Bass, A. D.; Cloutier, P.; Sanche, L.

    2016-01-01

    Absolute cross section (CS) data on the interaction of low energy electrons with DNA and its molecular constituents are required as input parameters in Monte-Carlo type simulations, for several radiobiological applications. Previously [V. Lemelin et al., J. Chem. Phys. 144, 074701 (2016)], we measured absolute vibrational CSs for low-energy electron scattering from condensed tetrahydrofuran, a convenient surrogate for the deoxyribose. Here we report absolute electronic CSs for energy losses of between 6 and 11.5 eV, by electrons with energies between 11 and 16 eV. The variation of these CSs with incident electron energy shows no evidence of transient anion states, consistent with theoretical and other experimental results, indicating that initial electron capture leading to DNA strand breaks occurs primarily on DNA bases or the phosphate group. PMID:27825202

  19. VUV action spectroscopy of protonated leucine-enkephalin peptide in the 6-14 eV range

    SciTech Connect

    Ranković, M. Lj.; Canon, F.; Nahon, L.; Giuliani, A.; Milosavljević, A. R.

    2015-12-28

    We have studied the Vacuum Ultraviolet (VUV) photodissociation of gas-phase protonated leucine-enkephalin peptide ion in the 5.7 to 14 eV photon energy range by coupling a linear quadrupole ion trap with a synchrotron radiation source. We report VUV activation tandem mass spectra at 6.7, 8.4, and 12.8 eV photon energies and photodissociation yields for a number of selected fragments. The obtained results provide insight into both near VUV radiation damage and electronic properties of a model peptide. We could distinguish several absorption bands and assign them to particular electronic transitions, according to previous theoretical studies. The photodissociation yields appear to be very different for the various observed fragmentation channels, depending on both the types of fragments and their position along the peptide backbone. The present results are discussed in light of recent gas-phase spectroscopic data on peptides.

  20. VUV action spectroscopy of protonated leucine-enkephalin peptide in the 6-14 eV range

    SciTech Connect

    Ranković, M. Lj.; Canon, F.; Nahon, L.; Giuliani, A.; Milosavljević, A. R.

    2015-12-29

    We have studied the VUV photodissociation of gas-phase protonated leucine-enkephalin peptide ion in the 5.7 to 14 eV photon energy range by coupling a linear quadrupole ion trap with a synchrotron radiation source. We report VUV activation tandem mass spectra at 6.7, 8.4 and 12.8 eV photon energies and photodissociation yields for a number of selected fragments. The obtained results provide insights into both near VUV radiation damage and electronic properties of a model peptide. We could distinguish several absorption bands and assign them to particular electronic transitions, according to previous theoretical studies. Furthermore, the photodissociation yields appear to be very different for the various observed fragmentation channels, depending both on the type of fragments and their position along the peptide backbone. The present results are discussed in light of recent gas-phase spectroscopic data on peptides.

  1. VUV action spectroscopy of protonated leucine-enkephalin peptide in the 6-14 eV range

    DOE PAGES

    Ranković, M. Lj.; Canon, F.; Nahon, L.; ...

    2015-12-29

    We have studied the VUV photodissociation of gas-phase protonated leucine-enkephalin peptide ion in the 5.7 to 14 eV photon energy range by coupling a linear quadrupole ion trap with a synchrotron radiation source. We report VUV activation tandem mass spectra at 6.7, 8.4 and 12.8 eV photon energies and photodissociation yields for a number of selected fragments. The obtained results provide insights into both near VUV radiation damage and electronic properties of a model peptide. We could distinguish several absorption bands and assign them to particular electronic transitions, according to previous theoretical studies. Furthermore, the photodissociation yields appear to bemore » very different for the various observed fragmentation channels, depending both on the type of fragments and their position along the peptide backbone. The present results are discussed in light of recent gas-phase spectroscopic data on peptides.« less

  2. Experimental search for hidden photon CDM in the eV mass range with a dish antenna

    SciTech Connect

    Suzuki, J.; Horie, T.; Inoue, Y.; Minowa, M.

    2015-09-15

    A search for hidden photon cold dark matter (HP CDM) using a new technique with a dish antenna is reported. From the result of the measurement, we found no evidence for the existence of HP CDM and set an upper limit on the photon-HP mixing parameter χ of ∼6×10{sup −12} for the hidden photon mass m{sub γ}=3.1±1.2 eV.

  3. Cosmic rays: the spectrum and chemical composition from 10{sup 10} to 10{sup 20} eV

    SciTech Connect

    Peixoto, C.J. Todero; De Souza, Vitor; Biermann, Peter L. E-mail: vitor@ifsc.usp.br

    2015-07-01

    The production of energetic particles in the universe remains one of the great mysteries of modern science. The mechanisms of acceleration in astrophysical sources and the details about the propagation through the galactic and extragalactic media are still to be defined. In recent years, the cosmic ray flux has been measured with high precision in the energy range from 10{sup 10} to 10{sup 20.5} eV by several experiments using different techniques. In some energy ranges, it has been possible to determine the flux of individual elements (hydrogen to iron nuclei). This paper explores an astrophysical scenario in which only our Galaxy and the radio galaxy Cen A produce all particles measured on Earth in the energy range from 10{sup 10} to 10{sup 20.5} eV . Data from AMS-02, CREAM, KASCADE, KASCADE-Grande and the Pierre Auger Observatories are considered. The model developed here is compared to the total and if available to the individual particle flux of the experiments considered.The flux of each element as determined by AMS-02, CREAM, KASCADE and KASCADE-Grande and the mass sensitivity parameter X{sub max} measured by the Pierre Auger Observatory above 10 eV are also explored within the framework of the model. The transition from 10{sup 16} to 10{sup 18} eV is carefully analyzed. It is shown that the flux measured in this energy range suggest the existence of an extra component of cosmic rays yet to be understood.

  4. Search of the Galactic sources of the cosmic ray triplet with energies above 1020 eV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gnatyk, R.; Zhdanov, V.

    2016-06-01

    Among the registered extremely high energy cosmic rays (EHECR, E > 1020 eV) there is a triplet of events in a circle with radius of 40 in the Galactic center region. With the use of the backtracking method for the calculation of EHECR trajectories in the Galactic magnetic it is shown that potential sources of galactic triplet can be microquasars SS433, GRS1915+105, magnetar SGR1900+14 and globular star cluster NGC6760.

  5. PHEV/EV Li-Ion Battery Second-Use Project, NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory) (Poster)

    SciTech Connect

    Newbauer, J.; Pesaran, A.

    2010-05-01

    Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) and full electric vehicles (Evs) have great potential to reduce U.S. dependence on foreign oil and emissions. Battery costs need to be reduced by ~50% to make PHEVs cost competitive with conventional vehicles. One option to reduce initial costs is to reuse the battery in a second application following its retirement from automotive service and offer a cost credit for its residual value.

  6. Search for discrete gamma-ray sources emitting at energies greater than 10/sup 15/ eV

    SciTech Connect

    Samorski, M.; Stamm, W.

    1984-02-15

    The data of the extensive air shower experiment at Kiel have been scanned systematically for possible discrete ..gamma..-ray sources in the energy range E>10/sup 15/ eV and in the declination band delta = 25/sup 0/-75/sup 0/. Photon fluxes for celestial positions with the statistically most significant excesses of showers and 3 sigma upper limit photon fluxes for COS B ..gamma..-ray sources visible to the extensive air shower experiment at Kiel are presented.

  7. Cross sections for 14-eV e-H{sub 2} resonant collisions: Dissociative electron attachment

    SciTech Connect

    Celiberto, R.; Janev, R. K.; Wadehra, J. M.; Laricchiuta, A.

    2009-07-15

    The dissociative electron attachment (DEA) process in electron-H{sub 2} molecule collisions, involving the {sup 2}{sigma}{sub g}{sup +} excited electronic Rydberg state of molecular hydrogen ion H{sub 2}{sup -}, is investigated theoretically. The DEA cross section has been calculated within the local complex potential approximation. The convoluted cross section, which presents a peak located at the incident energy of about 14 eV, compares favorably with available experimental data.

  8. Effects of excess oxygen on the 4.5-6.3 eV absorption spectra of oxygen-rich high purity silica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magruder, R. H.; Robinson, S. J.

    2016-05-01

    Type III silica samples were implanted with O using a multi-energy process that produced a layer of constant concentration to within ±5% beginning ∼80 nm from the surface and extending to ∼640 nm below the surfaces of the samples. The concentrations of excess oxygen in the layer ranged from 0.035 to ∼2.1at.%. In these samples we show that E‧ centers and NBOHCs, as well as the normal cadre of ODC (II) centers, were suppressed, and the optical absorption from 4.7 to 6.4 eV was primarily due to oxygen excess defects. Using Gaussian fitting techniques to examine the optical difference spectra, we have been able to identify four defect centers that are related to excess oxygen defect bands at 4.76 eV, 5.42 eV, 5.75 eV and 6.25 eV.

  9. Optical constants of magnetron sputtered boron carbide thin films from photoabsorption data in the range 30 to 770 eV

    SciTech Connect

    Soufli, R; Aquila, A L; Salmassi, F; Fernandez-Perea, M; Gullikson, E M

    2008-05-21

    This work discusses the experimental determination of the optical constants (refractive index) of DC-magnetron-sputtered boron carbide films in the 30-770 eV photon energy range. Transmittance measurements of three boron carbide films with thicknesses of 54.2, 79.0 and 112.5 nm were performed for this purpose. These are the first published experimental data for the refractive index of boron carbide films in the photon energy range above 160 eV, and for the near-edge x-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) regions around the boron K (188 eV), carbon K (284.2 eV) and oxygen K (543.1 eV) absorption edges. The density, composition, surface chemistry and morphology of the films in this manuscript were also investigated using Rutherford Backscattering (RBS), X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS), Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), and extreme ultraviolet (EUV) reflectance measurements.

  10. Recrystallized Al-nSi Schottky barriers with a barrier height of 0.93 eV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Chii-ming M.; Yang, Edward S.

    1980-11-01

    Using a silicon-aluminum-silicon sandwich structure obtained by evaporating thin aluminum and silicon films on a single-crystal silicon substrate, we have fabricated Al-nSi Schottky barriers with a maximum barrier height of 0.93 eV. The formation of the rectifying contact and its dependence on the Al-film thickness were studied by means of I-V and C-V measurements. It is found that the as-deposited films form an Ohmic contact with a n/n+ silicon substrate. However, we have obtained rectification characteristics by heat treatment at 600 °C (slightly above the Al-Si eutectic temperature) in a nitrogen or hydrogen environment. The barrier height increases with aluminum thickness (l) from 0.79 eV for l=500 Å and it saturates at 0.93 eV for l≳1500 Å. The uppermost silicon film (300 Å) is needed to prevent the formation of aluminum clusters under heat treatment. In completed diodes the surface silicon film is recrystallized and large polycrystalline-Si grains are seen under an optical microscope.

  11. Absolute total electron scattering cross sections for N/sub 2/ between 0. 5 and 50 eV

    SciTech Connect

    Kennerly, R.E.

    1980-06-01

    Absolute total electron scattering cross sections for N/sub 2/ from 0.5 to 50 eV have been measured with an estimated uncertainty of +- 3% using a transmission time-of-flight method previously described. The results are compared to previous experimental results and to recent calculations. The positions of the /sup 2/Pi/sub g/ resonance peaks were determined with much greater accuracy ( +- 15 meV) than in previous transmission measurements. The structure reported by Golden (1966) below the /sup 2/Pi/sub g/ resonance was clearly not present, indicating that, if real, these features are not a property of the N/sub 2/ ground vibronic state. The shape resonance predicted at 11 eV by Dill and Dehmer (1977) was not seen, perhaps because it was too weakly manifested in the total cross section. A weak broad band centered at 25 eV may be interpreted as being due to a sigma/sub u/ shape resonance as predicted by Dehmer, Siegel, Welch, and Dill.

  12. Low-energy (<100 eV) ion pitch angle distributions in the magnetosphere by ISEE 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagai, T.; Johnson, J. F. E.; Chappell, C. R.

    1983-09-01

    Low-energy (<100 eV) ion data from the plasma composition experiment on ISEE 1 are examined statistically to study pitch angle distributions in all local times of the magnetosphere (L=3-10). The pitch angle distributions in the data set used here can be classified into seven types; however, there are four major types, i.e., isotropic distribution, bi-directional field-aligned distribution unidirectional field-aligned distribution, and low flux. The isotropic distribution that consists of very low energy (typically <10 eV) ions is a persistent feature in the inner region. It is frequently observed with an accompanying loss cone-like structure. The bi-directional field-aligned distribution consisting of warm ions (>=10 eV) is a persistent feature on the outer dayside and it is seen just outside the isotropic distribution region of the nightside. It is noted that the loss cone-like structure is also a common feature of this type of distribution in the noon sector. On the outer nightside the unidirectional field-aligned distribution consisting of warm ions is the dominant signature, but in some cases only the low flux (no appreciable flux) is observed. The `sources' of ions in various regions are discussed on the basis of these results and others.

  13. Electron Processing at 50 eV of Terphenylthiol Self-Assembled Monolayers: Contributions of Primary and Secondary Electrons.

    PubMed

    Houplin, Justine; Dablemont, Céline; Sala, Leo; Lafosse, Anne; Amiaud, Lionel

    2015-12-22

    Aromatic self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) can serve as platforms for development of supramolecular assemblies driven by surface templates. For many applications, electron processing is used to locally reinforce the layer. To achieve better control of the irradiation step, chemical transformations induced by electron impact at 50 eV of terphenylthiol SAMs are studied, with these SAMs serving as model aromatic SAMs. High-resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy (HREELS) and electron-stimulated desorption (ESD) of neutral fragment measurements are combined to investigate electron-induced chemical transformation of the layer. The decrease of the CH stretching HREELS signature is mainly attributed to dehydrogenation, without a noticeable hybridization change of the hydrogenated carbon centers. Its evolution as a function of the irradiation dose gives an estimate of the effective hydrogen content loss cross-section, σ = 2.7-4.7 × 10(-17) cm(2). Electron impact ionization is the major primary mechanism involved, with the impact electronic excitation contributing only marginally. Therefore, special attention is given to the contribution of the low-energy secondary electrons to the induced chemistry. The effective cross-section related to dissociative secondary electron attachment at 6 eV is estimated to be 1 order of magnitude smaller. The 1 eV electrons do not induce significant chemical modification for a 2.5 mC cm(-2) dose, excluding their contribution.

  14. High-Resolution Study of 237Np Fission Cross Section from 5 eV to 1 MeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furman, W.; Cennini, P.; Ketlerov, V.; Goverdovski, A.; Konovalov, V.; Abbondanno, U.; Aerts, G.; Álvarez, H.; Alvarez-Velarde, F.; Andriamonje, S.; Andrzejewski, J.; Assimakopoulos, P.; Audouin, L.; Badurek, G.; Baumann, P.; Bec̆vár̆, F.; Benlliure, J.; Berthoumieux, E.; Calviño, F.; Cano-Ott, D.; Capote, R.; Carrillo de Albornoz, A.; Chepel, V.; Chiaveri, E.; Colonna, N.; Cortes, G.; Cortina, D.; Couture, A.; Cox, J.; David, S.; Dolfini, R.; Domingo-Pardo, C.; Dorochenko, A.; Dridi, W.; Duran, I.; Embid-Segura, M.; Ferrant, L.; Ferrari, A.; Ferreira-Marques, R.; Fitzpatrick, L.; Frais-Koelbl, H.; Fujii, K.; Guerrero, C.; Goncalves, I.; Gallino, R.; Gonzalez-Romero, E.; Gramegna, F.; Griesmayer, E.; Gunsing, F.; Haas, B.; Haight, R.; Heil, M.; Herrera-Martinez, A.; Igashira, M.; Isaev, S.; Jericha, E.; Kadi, Y.; Käppeler, F.; Karamanis, D.; Karadimos, D.; Kerveno, M.; Koehler, P.; Kolokolov, D.; Kossionides, E.; Krtička, M.; Lamboudis, C.; Leeb, H.; Lindote, A.; Lopes, I.; Lozano, M.; Lukic, S.; Marganiec, J.; Marques, L.; Marrone, S.; Mastinu, P.; Mengoni, A.; Milazzo, P. M.; Moreau, C.; Mosconi, M.; Neves, F.; Oberhummer, H.; O'Brien, S.; Oshima, M.; Pancin, J.; Papachristodoulou, C.; Papadopoulos, C.; Paradela, C.; Patronis, N.; Pavlik, A.; Pavlopoulos, P.; Perrot, L.; Plag, R.; Plompen, A.; Plukis, A.; Poch, A.; Pretel, C.; Quesada, J.; Rauscher, T.; Reifarth, R.; Rosetti, M.; Rubbia, C.; Rudolf, G.; Rullhusen, P.; Salgado, J.; Sarchiapone, L.; Sedysheva, M.; Stephan, C.; Tagliente, G.; Tain, J. L.; Tassan-Got, L.; Tavora, L.; Terlizzi, R.; Vannini, G.; Vaz, P.; Ventura, A.; Villamarin, D.; Vincente, M. C.; Vlachoudis, V.; Vlastou, R.; Voss, F.; Wendler, H.; Wiescher, M.; N Tof Collaboration

    2005-05-01

    A series of measurements of 237Np fission cross section have been performed at the CERN spallation neutron facility n_TOF which covers a wide energy range from 1 eV up to 250 MeV. A fast ionization chamber (FIC) was used as a fission fragment detector with registration efficiency of not less than 97 %. Particular attention was paid to correct the fission cross section with use of 235U standard. Total experimental uncertainties are determined to be at the level of 3%. Analysis of the experimental data in the restricted neutron energy from 5 eV up to 1 MeV showed a systematic deviation from evaluated data (ENDF/B-VI). This discrepancy amounts to up to a factor 3 for resolved resonances in the neutron energy range of 5 eV - 2 KeV, and is in good agreement with some previous experiments. A similar disagreement at the level of 6-7% was found for higher energies around the threshold (En = 300 keV-1 MeV). This energy range is essential for the transmutation of neptunium in ADS or fast reactors. It is concluded that an updated evaluation of nuclear data for 237Np is required.

  15. Complement C5-inhibitor rEV576 (coversin) ameliorates in-vivo effects of antiphospholipid antibodies.

    PubMed

    Romay-Penabad, Z; Carrera Marin, A L; Willis, R; Weston-Davies, W; Machin, S; Cohen, H; Brasier, A; Gonzalez, E B

    2014-10-01

    Activation of the complement cascade is an important mechanism for antiphospholipid antibody-mediated thrombosis. We examined the effects of rEV576 (coversin), a recombinant protein inhibitor of complement factor 5 activation, on antiphospholipid antibody-mediated tissue factor up-regulation and thrombosis. Groups of C57BL/6J mice (n=5) received either IgG from a patient with antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) or control IgG from normal human serum (NHS). Each of these groups of mice had IgG administration preceded by either rEV576, or phosphate buffer control. For each of the four treatment groups, the size of induced thrombus, tissue factor activity in carotid homogenates, anticardiolipin and anti-β2glycoprotein I (anti-β2GPI) levels were measured 72 h after the first injection. Mice treated with IgG-APS had significantly higher titers of anticardiolipin antibodies and anti-β2GPI at thrombus induction compared with those treated with IgG-NHS. The IgG-APS/phosphate buffer treatment induced significantly larger thrombi and tissue factor activity compared with other groups. Mice treated with IgG-APS/rEV576 had significantly smaller thrombi and reduced tissue factor activity than those treated with IgG-APS/phosphate buffer. The data confirm involvement of complement activation in antiphospholipid antibody-mediated thrombogenesis and suggest that complement inhibition might ameliorate this effect.

  16. Improvement Maneuverability and Stability of Independent 4WD EV by DYC Based on Control Target Dynamic Regulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Guangcai; Luo, Yugong; Li, Keqiang; Lian, Xiaomin

    A direct yaw-moment control (DYC) method based on the dynamic regulation of the control target is proposed to achieve integrated optimization between maneuverability and stability for the independent 4WD EV. Firstly, the yaw rate responses are calculated from the modified bicycle model, which respectively represent the maneuverability and stability of EV. With these responses deduced, the integrated control target for the maneuverability and stability is determined for all steering situations. Furthermore based on the “feedforward+feedback” control structure, the DYC controller is designed which combines the dynamical sliding mode control (DSMC) and LQ control. DSMC avoids the drawbacks of the oscillations by chattering happening in the classical SMC and allows the smoothness of the direct yaw-moment. The simulation experiments show that this DYC system can restrain the side slip angle effectively and keep higher yaw rate, which guarantees the EV maneuverability and stability. Moreover, the robustness of systems for road adhesion conditions variation and vehicle parameters uncertainties is also guaranteed in simulation validation.

  17. Unresolved clinical aspects and safety hazards of blood derived- EV/MV in stored blood components: From personal memory lanes to newer perspectives on the roles of EV/MV in various biological phenomena.

    PubMed

    Seghatchian, Jerard; Amiral, Jean

    2016-08-01

    Blood cells generate heterogeneous populations of vesicles that are delivered, as small-specialized packages of highly active cell fragments in blood circulation, having almost similar functional activities, as the mother cells. These so called extracellular vesicles are the essential part of an energy-dependent natural apoptotic process; hence their beneficial and harmful biological functions cannot be ignored. Evidence is accumulating, that cellular derived vesicles, originate from all viable cells including: megakaryocytes, platelets, red blood cells, white blood cells and endothelial cells, the highest in proportions from platelets. Shedding can also be triggered by pathological activation of inflammatory processes and activation of coagulation or complement pathways, or even by shear stress in the circulation. Structurally, so called MV/EV appear to be, sometimes inside-out and sometimes outside-in cell fragments having a bilayered phospholipid structure exposing coagulant-active phosphatidylserine, expressing various membrane receptors, and they serve as cell-to-cell shuttles for bioactive molecules such as lipids, growth factors, microRNAs, and mitochondria. Ex vivo processing of blood into its components, embodying centrifugation, processing by various apheresis procedures, leukoreduction, pathogen reduction, and finally storage in different media and different types of blood bags, also have major impacts on the generation and retention of MV content. These artificially generated small, but highly liable packages, together with the original pool of MVs collected from the donor, do exhibit differing biological activities, and are not inert elements and should be considered as a parameter of blood safety in haemovigilance programmes. Harmonization and consensus in sampling protocols, sample handling, processing, and assessment methods, in particular converting to full automation, are needed to achieve consensual interpretations. This review focuses on some of

  18. Using Laser-driven Shocks to Study the Phase Diagrams Of Low-Z Materials at Mbar Pressures and eV Temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Celliers, P. M.; Eggert, J. H.; Hicks, D. G.; Bradley, D. K.; Collins, G. W.; Boehly, T. R.; Miller, J. E.; Brygoo, S.; Loubeyre, P.; McWilliams, R. S.; Jeanloz, R.

    2007-08-02

    Accurate phase diagrams for simple molecular fluids and solids (H2, He, H2O, SiO2, and C) and their constituent elements at eV temperatures and pressures up to tens of Mbar are integral to planetary models of the gas giant planets (Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune), and the rocky planets. Laboratory experiments at high pressure have, until recently, been limited to around 1 Mbar. These pressures are usually achieved dynamically with explosives and two-stage light-gas guns, or statically with diamond anvil cells. Current and future high energy laser and pulsed power facilities will be able to produce tens of Mbar pressures in these light element materials. This presentation will describe the capabilities available at current high energy laser facilities to achieve these extreme conditions, and focus on several examples including water, silica, diamond-phase-carbon, helium and hydrogen. Under strong shock compression all of these materials become electronic conductors, and are transformed eventually to dense plasmas. The experiments reveal some details of the nature of this transition. To obtain high pressure data closer to planetary isentropes advanced compression techniques are required. We are developing a promising technique to achieve higher density states: precompression of samples in a static diamond anvil cell followed by laser driven shock compression. This technique and results from the first experiments with it will be described. Details about this topic can be found in some of our previous publications.

  19. UHE particle production in close binary systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hillas, A. M.

    1985-01-01

    Cygnus X-3 appears to generate so much power in the form of charged particles of up to approx 10 to the 17th power eV that the galaxy may need approx 1 such source on average to maintain its flux of ultra high energy cosmic rays. Accreting gas must supply the energy, and in a surprisingly ordered form, if it is correct to use a Vest-rand-Eichler model for radiation of gammas, modified by the introduction of an accretion wake. Certain relationships between 10 to the 12th power eV and 10 to the 15th power gamma rays are expected.

  20. Computational models of an inductive power transfer system for electric vehicle battery charge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anele, A. O.; Hamam, Y.; Chassagne, L.; Linares, J.; Alayli, Y.; Djouani, K.

    2015-09-01

    One of the issues to be solved for electric vehicles (EVs) to become a success is the technical solution of its charging system. In this paper, computational models of an inductive power transfer (IPT) system for EV battery charge are presented. Based on the fundamental principles behind IPT systems, 3 kW single phase and 22 kW three phase IPT systems for Renault ZOE are designed in MATLAB/Simulink. The results obtained based on the technical specifications of the lithium-ion battery and charger type of Renault ZOE show that the models are able to provide the total voltage required by the battery. Also, considering the charging time for each IPT model, they are capable of delivering the electricity needed to power the ZOE. In conclusion, this study shows that the designed computational IPT models may be employed as a support structure needed to effectively power any viable EV.

  1. A new EV71 VP3 epitope in norovirus P particle vector displays neutralizing activity and protection in vivo in mice.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Liping; Fan, Rongjun; Sun, Shiyang; Fan, Peihu; Su, Weiheng; Zhou, Yan; Gao, Feng; Xu, Fei; Kong, Wei; Jiang, Chunlai

    2015-11-27

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) and Coxsackievirus A16 (CVA16), as the main agents causing hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD), have become a serious public health concern in the Asia-Pacific region. Recently, various neutralizing B cell epitopes of EV71 were identified as targets for promising vaccine candidates. Structural studies of Picornaviridae indicated that potent immunodominant epitopes typically lie in the hypervariable loop of capsid surfaces. However, cross-neutralizing antibodies and cross-protection between EV71 and CVA16 have not been observed. Therefore, we speculated that divergent sequences of the two viruses are key epitopes for inducing protective neutralizing responses. In this study, we selected 10 divergent epitope candidates based on alignment of the EV71 and CVA16 P1 amino acid sequences using the Multalin interface page, and these epitopes are conserved among all subgenotypes of EV71. Simultaneously, by utilizing the norovirus P particle as a novel vaccine delivery carrier, we identified the 71-6 epitope (amino acid 176-190 of VP3) as a conformational neutralizing epitope against EV71 in an in vitro micro-neutralization assay as well as an in vivo protection assay in mice. Altogether, these results indicated that the incorporation of the 71-6 epitope into the norovirus P domain can provide a promising candidate for an effective synthetic peptide-based vaccine against EV71.

  2. Effects of the dual TP receptor antagonist and thromboxane synthase inhibitor EV-077 on human endothelial and vascular smooth muscle cells

    SciTech Connect

    Petri, Marcelo H.; Tellier, Céline; Michiels, Carine; Ellertsen, Ingvill; Dogné, Jean-Michel; Bäck, Magnus

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: •EV-077 reduced TNF-α induced inflammation in endothelial cells. •The thromboxane mimetic U69915 enhanced vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation. •EV-077 inhibited smooth muscle cell proliferation. -- Abstract: The prothrombotic mediator thromboxane A{sub 2} is derived from arachidonic acid metabolism through the cyclooxygenase and thromboxane synthase pathways, and transduces its effect through the thromboxane prostanoid (TP) receptor. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of the TP receptor antagonist and thromboxane synthase inhibitor EV-077 on inflammatory markers in human umbilical vein endothelial cells and on human coronary artery smooth muscle cell proliferation. To this end, mRNA levels of different proinflammatory mediators were studied by real time quantitative PCR, supernatants were analyzed by enzyme immune assay, and cell proliferation was assessed using WST-1. EV-077 significantly decreased mRNA levels of ICAM-1 and PTX3 after TNFα incubation, whereas concentrations of 6-keto PGF1α in supernatants of endothelial cells incubated with TNFα were significantly increased after EV-077 treatment. Although U46619 did not alter coronary artery smooth muscle cell proliferation, this thromboxane mimetic enhanced the proliferation induced by serum, insulin and growth factors, which was significantly inhibited by EV-077. In conclusion, EV-077 inhibited TNFα-induced endothelial inflammation and reduced the enhancement of smooth muscle cell proliferation induced by a thromboxane mimetic, supporting that the thromboxane pathway may be associated with early atherosclerosis in terms of endothelial dysfunction and vascular hypertrophy.

  3. Effects of heat treatment on the 0.8 eV photoluminescence emission in GaAs grown by molecular beam epitaxy at low temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, P.W.; Stutz, C.E.

    1993-12-01

    We report 0.8 eV photoluminescence (PL) emission of GaAs grown at low temperatures between 325 and 400{degrees}C by molecular beam epitaxy. Effects of heat treatments of the 0.8 eV emission are compared with those of the 1.467 eV sharp bound exciton lines. This allows us to attribute the 0.8 eV emission to the As{sub i}-V{sub Ga} center. We discuss the assigning of the As{sub i}-V{sub Ga} center to the well-known EL6. The PL intensity variation of 0.68 eV EL2 and 0.8 eV As{sub i}-V{sub Ga} seen in substrate materials is explained in terms of dislocation-mediated As{sub i}-V{sub Ga} transformation to EL2 whereas the PL intensity variation of 0.8 eV As{sub i}-V{sub Ga} for molecular beam epitaxy layers can be attributed to the growth condition. 21 refs., 4 figs.

  4. Power Play.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aho, Timothy A.

    1998-01-01

    Describes how to integrate technology into old buildings beginning with an evaluation of the electric power systems. A case study is highlighted showing the process in determining existing conditions, assessing electric power needs, and designing upgrades. (GR)

  5. Radio signals from extensive air showers with the energies E 0 ≥ 1019 eV according to data from the Yakutsk extensive air shower array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knurenko, S. P.; Petrov, I. S.

    2016-09-01

    A radio instrument and results obtained from the measurements of the 32-MHz radio signal from particles of extensive air showers (EASs) with energies E 0 ≥ 1×1019 eV are reported in brief. The data were obtained at the Yakutsk EAS array in 1987-1989 (the first series of measurements) and in 2009-2014 (new series of measurements). The radio signal from EASs with energies above 1020eV was detected at the Yakutsk EAS array for the first time, including the shower with the record energy of 2×1020 eV for the Yakutsk EAS array.

  6. Pulsed power

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stone, David H.

    Pulsed power systems are critical elements for such prospective weapons technologies as high-power microwaves, electrothermal and electromagnetic projectile launchers, neutral particle beams, space-based FELs, ground-based lasers, and charged particle beams. Pulsed power will also be essential for the development of nonweapon military systems such as lidars and ultrawideband radars, and could serve as the bases for nuclear weapon effect simulators. The pulsed power generation requirements for each of these systems is considered.

  7. Power processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwarz, F. C.

    1971-01-01

    Processing of electric power has been presented as a discipline that draws on almost every field of electrical engineering, including system and control theory, communications theory, electronic network design, and power component technology. The cost of power processing equipment, which often equals that of expensive, sophisticated, and unconventional sources of electrical energy, such as solar batteries, is a significant consideration in the choice of electric power systems.

  8. Investigation of a New Flux-Modulated Permanent Magnet Brushless Motor for EVs

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Lingling; Luo, Yong; Han, Xuedong

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a flux-modulated direct drive (FMDD) motor. The key is to integrate the magnetic gear with the PM motor while removing the gear inner-rotor. Hence, the proposed FMDD motor can achieve the low-speed high-torque output and high-speed compact design requirements as well as high-torque density with a simple structure. The output power equation is analytically derived. By using finite element analysis (FEA), the static characteristics of the proposed motor are obtained. Based on these characteristics, the system mathematical model can be established. Hence, the evaluation of system performances is conducted by computer simulation using the Matlab/Simulink. A prototype is designed and built for experimentation. Experimental results are given to verify the theoretical analysis and simulation. PMID:24883405

  9. EV-Grid Integration (EVGI) Control and System Implementation - Research Overview

    SciTech Connect

    Kisacikoglu, Mithat; Markel, Tony; Meintz, Andrew; Zhang, Jiucai; Jun, Myungsoo

    2016-03-23

    Plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) are being increasingly adopted in industry today. Microgrid applications of PEVs require the development of charging and discharging algorithms and individual characterization of vehicles including the on-board chargers and vehicle mobility. This study summarizes the capabilities of the Electric Vehicle Grid Integration (EVGI) Team at NREL and underlines different recent projects of the Team. Our studies include V1G, V2G, and V2H control of PEVs as well as test and analysis of stationary and dynamic wireless power transfer (WPT) systems. The presentation also includes the future scope of study which implements real-time simulation of PEVs in a microgrid scenario. The capabilities at Vehicle Testing and Integration Facility (VTIF) and Energy Systems Integration Facility (ESIF) were described within the scope of the EVGI research.

  10. Investigation of a new flux-modulated permanent magnet brushless motor for EVs.

    PubMed

    Fan, Ying; Gu, Lingling; Luo, Yong; Han, Xuedong; Cheng, Ming

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a flux-modulated direct drive (FMDD) motor. The key is to integrate the magnetic gear with the PM motor while removing the gear inner-rotor. Hence, the proposed FMDD motor can achieve the low-speed high-torque output and high-speed compact design requirements as well as high-torque density with a simple structure. The output power equation is analytically derived. By using finite element analysis (FEA), the static characteristics of the proposed motor are obtained. Based on these characteristics, the system mathematical model can be established. Hence, the evaluation of system performances is conducted by computer simulation using the Matlab/Simulink. A prototype is designed and built for experimentation. Experimental results are given to verify the theoretical analysis and simulation.

  11. Muon content of gamma ray induced EAS from Cygnus X-3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blake, P. R.; Nash, W. F.; Saich, M. R.; Stanley, G. B.

    1985-01-01

    During 1984 the Leeds group (Lambert et al, OG 2,1-6) have observed emission above 5 times 10 to the 14th power eV in July, September and October at phi approximately 0.6. These observations were made with an array which included the Nottingham 10 sq m muon detector. A search for muons in events at the phase peak and off source has yielded the following results: (1) for 42 on source events we find an average muon density of 0.63 muons m(-2) at a mean core distance Bar R = 32 m and mean primary energy approximately 25 times 10 to the 15th power eV; (2) for 21 off source events average muon density = 1.6 m(-2), Bar R = 32 m with mean primary energy approximately 2.0 x 10 to the 15th power eV; (3) for 11 of the 42 on source events, zero muons were recorded in the 10 sq ms. For these events Bar R = 41 m and mean primary energy approximately 1.5 x 10 to the 15th power eV; (4) for 8 of the 21 off source events, zero muons were recorded in the 10 sq ms. For these events Bar R = 37 m and mean primary energy approximately 1.5 times 10 to the 15th power eV. For all the events the mean zenith angle was approximately 16 deg. A more detailed comparison of on source and further off source events will be presented.

  12. Space Power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Appropriate directions for the applied research and technology programs that will develop space power systems for U.S. future space missions beyond 1995 are explored. Spacecraft power supplies; space stations, space power reactors, solar arrays, thermoelectric generators, energy storage, and communication satellites are among the topics discussed.

  13. Power supply

    DOEpatents

    Yakymyshyn, Christopher Paul; Hamilton, Pamela Jane; Brubaker, Michael Allen

    2007-12-04

    A modular, low weight impedance dropping power supply with battery backup is disclosed that can be connected to a high voltage AC source and provide electrical power at a lower voltage. The design can be scaled over a wide range of input voltages and over a wide range of output voltages and delivered power.

  14. Transmittance and optical constants of Sr films in the 6-1220 eV spectral range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez-de Marcos, Luis; Larruquert, Juan I.; Aznárez, José A.; Vidal-Dasilva, Manuela; García-Cortés, Sergio; Méndez, José A.; Poletto, Luca; Frassetto, Fabio; Marco Malvezzi, A.; Bajoni, Daniele; Giglia, Angelo; Mahne, Nicola; Nannarone, Stefano

    2012-06-01

    Strontium (Sr) is a material with low-absorption bands in the extreme ultraviolet (EUV), which makes it a potential candidate for band pass filters and multilayer coatings. Yet, a better knowledge of the optical properties of Sr is required for these developments. The optical constants n and k of Sr thin films have been obtained in the 6-1220 eV range from transmittance measurements performed at room temperature. These are the first experimental optical constant data of Sr in most of the range. Thin films of Sr with various thicknesses were deposited by evaporation in ultrahigh vacuum conditions, and their transmittance was measured in situ. Sr films were deposited onto grids coated with a thin C support film. Transmittance measurements were used to directly obtain the extinction coefficient k of Sr films. The refractive index n of Sr was calculated with Kramers-Krönig analysis. For this, k data were extrapolated both on the high- and on the low-energy sides by using experimental and calculated k data available in the literature. It was found that, similar to other alkaline-earth metals, Sr has a low absorption band in the EUV, which for Sr is below its N2,3 edge, with a minimum at ˜18.5 eV, a range where most materials in nature have a large absorption. A second spectral range of interest for the low absorption of Sr is below its M4,5 edge at 132 eV. In spite of these remarkable properties, Sr is a very reactive material and the stability of coatings encompassing Sr may be an issue. Good consistency of the data resulted from the application of f and inertial sum rules.

  15. A Soft X-Ray (300-1000 eV) Active Grating Monochromator Beamline at NSRRC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fung, H. S.; Yuh, J. Y.; Huang, L. J.; Tseng, T. C.; Perng, S. Y.; Wang, D. J.; Tsang, K. L.; Chung, S. C.

    2007-01-01

    To accommodate the growing number of users in the soft X-ray spectroscopy research at NSRRC, we have developed a modified Dragon-type beamline, namely the active grating monochromator (AGM) beamline. In this beamline, a selected photon beam of 9 mrad radiation fan in the horizontal direction from a bending magnet is focused horizontally by a tangential elliptical mirror to a position 1.7 m after exit slit, and vertically by a cylindrical vertical focusing mirror (VFM) onto the entrance slit. After the entrance slit, the photon beam is energy-dispersed and vertically focused by an active grating onto the fixed exit slit. During the energy scan, the radius and shape of the active grating are adjusted accordingly, and therefore the defocus and coma aberrations terms can be effectively eliminated, and hence the energy resolution is optimized. Following the exit slit, the dispersed photon beam is refocused by a toroidal mirror onto the sample. Shadow ray-tracing program is employed to simulate the beamline performance. Results show that the energy resolution can reach 10000, 6000, and 3500 in the energy ranges of 300-400 eV, 400-600 eV, and above 600 eV, respectively. The total photon flux at sample position should reach 1×1012 phs/sec/200mA/0.1%BW, and the focused beam size at sample position is estimated to be 1 mm × 0.2 mm (H × V, FWHM). This beamline is currently under construction and will be ready for commission in December, 2006.

  16. Stibine/arsine monitoring during EV operation: summary report on preliminary tests at ANL and at LILCO

    SciTech Connect

    Loutfy, R.O.; Graczyk, D.G.; Varma, R.; Hayes, E.R.; Williams, F.L.; Yao, N.P.

    1981-02-01

    A series of tests was performed to monitor the evolution and dispersal of stibine and arsine from the lead-acid propulsion batteries in three different Electra-Van Model 600 vehicles operated by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) and by the Long Island Lighting Company (LILCO). Ambient air was sampled at several locations inside the vehicles and in the garages where testing was done during charge, equalization charge, and on-the-road discharge operations. In addition, direct sampling of cell off-gases was performed with the ANL van. Interpretation of the individual test results was carried out in the context of vehicle characteristics, sampling protocol, and operating conditions. The test results demonstrated that under the test conditions only small concentrations of stibine and arsine accumulated in occupiable work areas. Measured concentrations in the vehicles and in the garages never exceeded 25% of the Threshold Limit Value-Time Weighted Average (TLV-TWA) standards. A threshold voltage for hydride production, at about 2.45 V per cell, was reflected in the results of the experiments performed during charging of the batteries. Hydride evolution rates were lower during equalization charge than during the overcharge portion of a charge cycle when the on-board charger was used in a normal operating mode. A delayed release of the metal hydrides from the battery cells was observed during on-the-road operation of the vehicles. The implications of these observations for electric vehicle (EV) operation are discussed. An engineering analysis of the generation and dispersal of the metal hydrides is presented, and equations are derived for estimating minimum ventilation requirements for the EV battery compartment and for garages housing EV operations. Recommendations are made regarding safe handling procedures for battery off-gases, procedures for conducting stibine/arsine monitoring tests and future work.

  17. An upper limit to the photon fraction in cosmic rays above 1019 eV from the Pierre Auger Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abraham, J.; Aglietta, M.; Aguirre, C.; Allard, D.; Allekotte, I.; Allison, P.; Alvarez, C.; Alvarez-Muñiz, J.; Ambrosio, M.; Anchordoqui, L.; Anjos, J. C.; Aramo, C.; Arisaka, K.; Armengaud, E.; Arneodo, F.; Arqueros, F.; Asch, T.; Asorey, H.; Atulugama, B. S.; Aublin, J.; Ave, M.; Avila, G.; Bacelar, J.; Bäcker, T.; Badagnani, D.; Barbosa, A. F.; Barbosa, H. M. J.; Barkhausen, M.; Barnhill, D.; Barroso, S. L. C.; Bauleo, P.; Beatty, J.; Beau, T.; Becker, B. R.; Becker, K. H.; Bellido, J. A.; Benzvi, S.; Berat, C.; Bergmann, T.; Bernardini, P.; Bertou, X.; Biermann, P. L.; Billoir, P.; Blanch-Bigas, O.; Blanco, F.; Blasi, P.; Bleve, C.; Blümer, H.; Boghrat, P.; Boháčová, M.; Bonifazi, C.; Bonino, R.; Boratav, M.; Brack, J.; Brunet, J. M.; Buchholz, P.; Busca, N. G.; Caballero-Mora, K. S.; Cai, B.; Camin, D. V.; Capdevielle, J. N.; Caruso, R.; Castellina, A.; Cataldi, G.; Cazón, L.; Cester, R.; Chauvin, J.; Chiavassa, A.; Chinellato, J. A.; Chou, A.; Chye, J.; Claes, D.; Clark, P. D. J.; Clay, R. W.; Clay, S. B.; Connolly, B.; Cordier, A.; Cotti, U.; Coutu, S.; Covault, C. E.; Cronin, J.; Dagoret-Campagne, S.; Dang Quang, T.; Darriulat, P.; Daumiller, K.; Dawson, B. R.; de Almeida, R. M.; de Carvalho, L. A.; de Donato, C.; de Jong, S. J.; de Mello, W. J. M.; de Mello Neto, J. R. T.; de Mitri, I.; de Oliveira, M. A. L.; de Souza, V.; Del Peral, L.; Deligny, O.; Della Selva, A.; Delle Fratte, C.; Dembinski, H.; di Giulio, C.; Diaz, J. C.; Dobrigkeit, C.; D'Olivo, J. C.; Dornic, D.; Dorofeev, A.; Dova, M. T.; D'Urso, D.; Duvernois, M. A.; Engel, R.; Epele, L.; Erdmann, M.; Escobar, C. O.; Etchegoyen, A.; Ewers, A.; Facal San Luis, P.; Falcke, H.; Fauth, A. C.; Fazio, D.; Fazzini, N.; Fernández, A.; Ferrer, F.; Ferry, S.; Fick, B.; Filevich, A.; Filipčič, A.; Fleck, I.; Fokitis, E.; Fonte, R.; Fuhrmann, D.; Fulgione, W.; García, B.; Garcia-Pinto, D.; Garrard, L.; Garrido, X.; Geenen, H.; Gelmini, G.; Gemmeke, H.; Geranios, A.; Ghia, P. L.; Giller, M.; Gitto, J.; Glass, H.; Gobbi, F.; Gold, M. S.; Gomez Albarracin, F.; Gómez Berisso, M.; Gómez Herrero, R.; Gonçalves Do Amaral, M.; Gongora, J. P.; Gonzalez, D.; Gonzalez, J. G.; González, M.; Góra, D.; Gorgi, A.; Gouffon, P.; Grassi, V.; Grillo, A.; Grunfeld, C.; Grupen, C.; Guarino, F.; Guedes, G. P.; Gutiérrez, J.; Hague, J. D.; Hamilton, J. C.; Harakeh, M. N.; Harari, D.; Harmsma, S.; Hartmann, S.; Harton, J. L.; Healy, M. D.; Hebbeker, T.; Heck, D.; Hojvat, C.; Homola, P.; Hörandel, J.; Horneffer, A.; Horvat, M.; Hrabovský, M.; Iarlori, M.; Insolia, A.; Kaducak, M.; Kalashev, O.; Kampert, K. H.; Keilhauer, B.; Kemp, E.; Klages, H. O.; Kleifges, M.; Kleinfeller, J.; Knapik, R.; Knapp, J.; Koang, D.-H.; Kolotaev, Y.; Kopmann, A.; Krömer, O.; Kuhlman, S.; Kuijpers, J.; Kunka, N.; Kusenko, A.; Lachaud, C.; Lago, B. L.; Lebrun, D.; Lebrun, P.; Lee, J.; Letessier-Selvon, A.; Leuthold, M.; Lhenry-Yvon, I.; Longo, G.; López, R.; Lopez Agüera, A.; Lucero, A.; Maldera, S.; Malek, M.; Maltezos, S.; Mancarella, G.; Manceñido, M. E.; Mandat, D.; Mantsch, P.; Mariazzi, A. G.; Maris, I. C.; Martello, D.; Martinez, N.; Martínez, J.; Martínez, O.; Mathes, H. J.; Matthews, J.; Matthews, J. A. J.; Matthiae, G.; Maurin, G.; Maurizio, D.; Mazur, P. O.; McCauley, T.; McEwen, M.; McNeil, R. R.; Medina, G.; Medina, M. C.; Medina Tanco, G.; Meli, A.; Melo, D.; Menichetti, E.; Menshikov, A.; Meurer, Chr.; Meyhandan, R.; Micheletti, M. I.; Miele, G.; Miller, W.; Mollerach, S.; Monasor, M.; Monnier Ragaigne, D.; Montanet, F.; Morales, B.; Morello, C.; Moreno, E.; Morris, C.; Mostafá, M.; Muller, M. A.; Mussa, R.; Navarra, G.; Nellen, L.; Newman-Holmes, C.; Newton, D.; Nguyen Thi, T.; Nichol, R.; Nierstenhöfer, N.; Nitz, D.; Nogima, H.; Nosek, D.; Nožka, L.; Oehlschläger, J.; Ohnuki, T.; Olinto, A.; Oliveira, L. F. A.; Olmos-Gilbaja, V. M.; Ortiz, M.; Ostapchenko, S.; Otero, L.; Palatka, M.; Pallotta, J.; Parente, G.; Parizot, E.; Parlati, S.; Patel, M.; Paul, T.; Payet, K.; Pech, M.; PeĶala, J.; Pelayo, R.; Pepe, I. M.; Perrone, L.; Petrera, S.; Petrinca, P.; Petrov, Y.; Pham Ngoc, D.; Pham Thi, T. N.; Piegaia, R.; Pierog, T.; Pisanti, O.; Porter, T. A.; Pouryamout, J.; Prado, L.; Privitera, P.; Prouza, M.; Quel, E. J.; Rautenberg, J.; Reis, H. C.; Reucroft, S.; Revenu, B.; Řídký, J.; Risi, A.; Risse, M.; Rivière, C.; Rizi, V.; Robbins, S.; Roberts, M.; Robledo, C.; Rodriguez, G.; Rodríguez Frías, D.; Rodriguez Martino, J.; Rodriguez Rojo, J.; Ros, G.; Rosado, J.; Roth, M.; Roucelle, C.; Rouillé-D'Orfeuil, B.; Roulet, E.; Rovero, A. C.; Salamida, F.; Salazar, H.; Salina, G.; Sánchez, F.; Santander, M.; Santos, E. M.; Sarkar, S.; Sato, R.; Scherini, V.; Schmidt, T.; Scholten, O.; Schovánek, P.; Schüssler, F.; Sciutto, S. J.; Scuderi, M.; Semikoz, D.; Sequeiros, G.; Shellard, R. C.; Siffert, B. B.; Sigl, G.; Skelton, P.; Slater, W.; Smetniansky de Grande, N.; Smiałkowski, A.; Šmída, R.; Smith, B. E.; Snow, G. R.; Sokolsky, P.; Sommers, P.; Sorokin, J.; Spinka, H.; Strazzeri, E.; Stutz, A.; Suarez, F.; Suomijärvi, T.; Supanitsky, A. D.; Swain, J.; Szadkowski, Z.; Tamashiro, A.; Tamburro, A.; Tascau, O.; Ticona, R.; Timmermans, C.; Tkaczyk, W.; Todero Peixoto, C. J.; Tonachini, A.; Torresi, D.; Travnicek, P.; Tripathi, A.; Tristram, G.; Tscherniakhovski, D.; Tueros, M.; Tunnicliffe, V.; Ulrich, R.; Unger, M.; Urban, M.; Valdés Galicia, J. F.; Valiño, I.; Valore, L.; van den Berg, A. M.; van Elewyck, V.; Vazquez, R. A.; Veberič, D.; Veiga, A.; Velarde, A.; Venters, T.; Verzi, V.; Videla, M.; Villaseñor, L.; Vo van, T.; Vorobiov, S.; Voyvodic, L.; Wahlberg, H.; Wainberg, O.; Waldenmaier, T.; Walker, P.; Warner, D.; Watson, A. A.; Westerhoff, S.; Wiebusch, C.; Wieczorek, G.; Wiencke, L.; Wilczyńska, B.; Wilczyński, H.; Wileman, C.; Winnick, M. G.; Xu, J.; Yamamoto, T.; Younk, P.; Zas, E.; Zavrtanik, D.; Zavrtanik, M.; Zech, A.; Zepeda, A.; Zha, M.; Ziolkowski, M.

    2007-03-01

    An upper limit of 16% (at 95% c.l.) is derived for the photon fraction in cosmic rays with energies greater than 1019 eV, based on observations of the depth of shower maximum performed with the hybrid detector of the Pierre Auger Observatory. This is the first such limit on photons obtained by observing the fluorescence light profile of air showers. This upper limit confirms and improves on previous results from the Haverah Park and AGASA surface arrays. Additional data recorded with the Auger surface detectors for a subset of the event sample support the conclusion that a photon origin of the observed events is not favored.

  18. Mitsubishi iMiEV: An Electric Mini-Car in NREL's Advanced Technology Vehicle Fleet (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2011-10-01

    This fact sheet highlights the Mitsubishi iMiEV, an electric mini-car in the advanced technology vehicle fleet at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). In support of the U.S. Department of Energy's fast-charging research efforts, NREL engineers are conducting charge and discharge performance testing on the vehicle. NREL's advanced technology vehicle fleet features promising technologies to increase efficiency and reduce emissions without sacrificing safety or comfort. The fleet serves as a technology showcase, helping visitors learn about innovative vehicles that are available today or are in development. Vehicles in the fleet are representative of current, advanced, prototype, and emerging technologies.

  19. Coherent excitation of Xe(3/2) sub 1 sup 0 6 s by 30-eV electrons

    SciTech Connect

    Corr, J.J.; Plessis, P.; McConkey, J.W. )

    1990-11-01

    Electron-impact excitation of the (3/2){sub 1}{sup 0} 6{ital s} state of xenon has been studied at 30 eV and over a range of scattering angles up to 50{degree}. Linear and circular polarization correlation measurements show very good agreement with distorted-wave Born-approximation calculations. For the experimental parameters under consideration, the excitation is demonstrated to be completely coherent. Hyperfine depolarization of the excited-state charge cloud is found to be an important effect.

  20. Transfer Excitation Processes Observed in N3+-He and O3+-He Collisions at Elab = 33 eV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Itoh, Yoh

    2016-09-01

    We measured the relative state-selective differential cross sections (DCSs) for one-electron capture reactions using a crossed-beam apparatus. The scattering angle θlab studied in the laboratory frame ranged from -3.0 to 22° and the laboratory collision energy Elab was 33 eV. Only the transfer excitation processes, i.e., the electron capture reactions with the simultaneous excitation of the projectile, were observed. The DCSs were determined for the following reactions: N3+ (1s2 2s2 1S) + He (1s2 1S) → N2+ (1s2 2s2p2 2D) + He+ (1s 2S) + 10.3 eV, O3+ (1s2 2s2 2p 2P) + He (1s2 1S) → O2+ (1s2 2s 2p3 3P) + He+ (1s 2S) + 12.7 eV, and O3+ (1s2 2s2 2p 2P) + He (1s2 1S) → O2+ (1s2 2s 2p3 3D) + He+ (1s 2S) + 15.5 eV. In the N3+-He system, the DCSs for the reaction are zero at the center-of-mass angle θcm = 0 and show a peak at a certain angle and a shoulder at a larger angle. In the O3+-He system, the DCSs are again zero at θcm = 0. The capture process to the O2+ (1s2 2s 2p3 3P) state is mainly observed at smaller scattering angles, and the reaction to the O2+ (1s2 2s 2p3 3D) state becomes dominant with increasing scattering angle. A classical trajectory analysis within the two-state approximation based on the ab initio potentials for (NHe)3+ revealed that the transfer excitation of a two-electron process takes place through a single crossing of the relevant potentials.