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Sample records for 15x40 feet scaled

  1. Prosthetic Feet

    MedlinePlus

    ... lightweight materials such as plastic, metal alloys and carbon-fiber composites. Prosthetic feet can be basic (unmoving), ... feet: store and release energy during the walking cycle give a sense of push-off, a more ...

  2. Sweaty Feet (Hyperhidrosis)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Information Sweaty Feet What are Sweaty Feet? Excessive sweating of the feet is called hyperhidrosis. It's more ... young adults than older adults. People whose feet sweat excessively often also have problems with excessive sweating ...

  3. Flat feet in children.

    PubMed

    Barry, R J; Scranton, P E

    1983-12-01

    In the assessment of the child with flat feet a sound knowledge of arch and subtalar biomechanics, epidemiology, and etiology is important. The occurrence and natural history of flat feet are presented, and treatment modalities that have withstood the test of time are discussed.

  4. Right beneath Your Feet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walkup, Nancy

    2007-01-01

    Even very young children can start observing, thinking about, and talking about elements of the visual culture that surrounds them. A good place to start is right underneath their feet--the designs on the bottoms of their shoes. Students become aware of the designs, compare them with the designs of their neighbors, speculate on the possible…

  5. Problems with Legs and Feet

    MedlinePlus

    ... them by using stuff like special shoe inserts. Pigeon Toes Pigeon toes, or inwardly turning toes, is a common ... the other foot. Boys and girls both experience pigeon toes. Most kids' feet straighten naturally without any ...

  6. Defining Morphology: Hands and Feet

    PubMed Central

    Biesecker, Leslie G.; Aase, Jon M.; Clericuzio, Carol; Gurrieri, Fiorella; Temple, I. Karen; Toriello, Helga

    2009-01-01

    An international group of clinicians working in the field of Dysmorphology has initiated the (re-) definition of all terms used to describe the external human phenotype. The goal is that through standardization of all terms and consensus regarding their definitions the reliability of description of features in humans will increase, comparisons of findings between patients will become more reliable, and discussions with other workers in the field such as developmental biologists and molecular geneticists will become more accurate. Here we report on the (re-) definition of terms needed to describe the major characteristics of the hands and feet. We provide a limited description of the anatomy of this region, limited background anthropometry, and an illustrated list of definitions. PMID:19125433

  7. Feet injuries in rock climbers.

    PubMed

    Schöffl, Volker; Küpper, Thomas

    2013-10-18

    While injuries of the upper extremity are widely discussed in rock climbers, reports about the lower extremity are rare. Nevertheless almost 50 percent of acute injuries involve the leg and feet. Acute injuries are either caused by ground falls or rock hit trauma during a fall. Most frequently strains, contusions and fractures of the calcaneus and talus. More rare injuries, as e.g., osteochondral lesions of the talus demand a highly specialized care and case presentations with combined iliac crest graft and matrix associated autologous chondrocyte transplantation are given in this review. The chronic use of tight climbing shoes leads to overstrain injuries also. As the tight fit of the shoes changes the biomechanics of the foot an increased stress load is applied to the fore-foot. Thus chronic conditions as subungual hematoma, callosity and pain resolve. Also a high incidence of hallux valgus and hallux rigidus is described.

  8. Feet injuries in rock climbers

    PubMed Central

    Schöffl, Volker; Küpper, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    While injuries of the upper extremity are widely discussed in rock climbers, reports about the lower extremity are rare. Nevertheless almost 50 percent of acute injuries involve the leg and feet. Acute injuries are either caused by ground falls or rock hit trauma during a fall. Most frequently strains, contusions and fractures of the calcaneus and talus. More rare injuries, as e.g., osteochondral lesions of the talus demand a highly specialized care and case presentations with combined iliac crest graft and matrix associated autologous chondrocyte transplantation are given in this review. The chronic use of tight climbing shoes leads to overstrain injuries also. As the tight fit of the shoes changes the biomechanics of the foot an increased stress load is applied to the fore-foot. Thus chronic conditions as subungual hematoma, callosity and pain resolve. Also a high incidence of hallux valgus and hallux rigidus is described. PMID:24147257

  9. Energy-storing prosthetic feet.

    PubMed

    Wing, D C; Hittenberger, D A

    1989-04-01

    At least six brands of energy-storing prosthetic feet (ESPF) are now commercially available in the US. These are designed to permit lower extremity amputees to participate in a wide variety of activities, such as running and jumping sports, as well as vigorous walking. Although kinesiologic studies of these devices have not been completed, clinical experience suggests that the Flex-Foot provides the highest performance, followed by the Carbon Copy II and the Seattle Foot. The S.A.F.E. Foot, the STEN Foot, and the Dynamic Foot provide less energy storage and may be suitable for less active patients or those with special needs such as walking on uneven ground. All of the ESPF except the Flex-Foot may be attached to a realigned conventional prosthesis. The Flex-Foot incorporates a pylon and foot in one unit and requires special fabrication technologies. The additional cost of most of the ESPF (compared to a Solid Ankle Cushion Heel Foot) may add little to the cost of a finished prosthesis although it provides greatly increased function. The Flex-Foot, however, is significantly more expensive. Advances in kinesiology and materials science are being applied in the design of prosthetic components that are lighter, stronger, and more resilient. Clinicians can now choose from a variety of innovative commercially available devices but have been hampered by a lack of published information. This paper will review the design philosophy, materials, and applications of ESPF, and will supplement the information available from individual manufacturers and the prosthetic literature.

  10. Macrodactyly of the feet and hands.

    PubMed

    Chen, S H; Huang, S C; Wang, J H; Wu, C T

    1997-11-01

    We reviewed the records of 16 patients with true macrodactyly and analyzed the typical clinical features and methods of treatment. Fourteen feet were involved in 13 patients (one was bilaterally affected). Three hands were involved in three patients. Clinically, all lesions in the hands and lesions in 11 of 14 feet involved the preaxial side. There was multiple digit involvement in two hands and 11 feet. Progressive macrodactyly (10 feet and two hands) was more common than the static type (four feet and one hand). Proximal involvement of the sole or palm occurred in seven feet and one hand; all cases were of progressive macrodactyly. Enlargement of the metatarsals or the metacarpals was frequent (11 feet and two hands). The growth behavior and extent of bony involvement were similar in patients with hand involvement and those with foot involvement. Fourteen patients had additional clinodactyly, either medial or lateral. The toes of eight feet had angular deformities in the sagittal plane; most were angulated dorsally. Nine patients underwent surgery and two had repeated surgery. The reduction procedures included debulking, ray resection, toe resection, phalangeal resection, and phalangeal epiphysiodesis; the corrective procedures included wedge osteotomy, interdigitalization, and split thickness skin graft. Of the nine patients surgically treated, five had good results and four had fair results. Of the seven patients without surgical repair, three had fair results and four had poor results. Surgical debulking, phalangeal resection, ray resection, and phalangeal epiphysiodesis produced significant improvement in macrodactyly of the feet and hands. Toe resection was not as beneficial.

  11. How to Keep Your Feet Flexible

    MedlinePlus

    ... the Big Toe Ailments of the Smaller Toes Diabetic Foot Treatments Injections and other Procedures Treatments of the ... Currently selected How to Eat Right for Your Foot Health How to Care for Your Diabetic Feet How to Assess Changes in Feet: Normal ...

  12. Insecticide residues on weathered passerine carcass feet

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vyas, N.B.; Spann, J.W.; Hulse, C.S.; Butterbrodt, J.J.; Mengelkoch, J.; MacDougall, K.; Williams, B.; Pendergrass, P.

    2003-01-01

    Nine brown-headed cowbirds (Molothrus ater) were exposed to turf srayed with either EarthCare? (25% diazinon; 477 L a.i./ha) or Ortho-Klor? (12 .6% chlorpyrifos; 5.21 L a.i./ha.). Birds were euthanized and one foot from each bird was weathered outdoors for up to 28 days and the other foot was kept frozen until residue analysis. When compared to the unweathered feet, feet weathered for 28 days retained 43% and 37% of the diazinon and chlorpyrifors, respectively. Insecticide residues were below the level of detection (1.0 ppm) on control feet. Weathered feet may be used for determining organophosphorus insecticide exposure to birds.

  13. Diabetes - taking care of your feet

    MedlinePlus

    Diabetes - foot care - self-care; Diabetic foot ulcer - foot care; Diabetic neuropathy - foot care ... Diabetes can damage the nerves and blood vessels in your feet. This damage can cause numbness and ...

  14. Why Do Calculators Have Rubber Feet?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heavers, Richard M.

    2007-01-01

    Our students like using the covers of their TI graphing calculators in an inquiry-based extension of a traditional exercise that challenges their preconceived ideas about friction. Biology major Fiona McGraw (Fig. 1) is obviously excited about the large coefficient of static friction ([mu][subscript s] = 1.3) for the four little rubber feet on her…

  15. Great Plains makes 100 billion cubic feet

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-03-01

    The Great Plains coal gasification plant on January 18, 1987 produced its 100 billionth cubic foot of gas since start-up July 28, 1984. Owned by the Department of Energy and operated by ANG Coal Gasification Company, the plant uses the Lurgi process to produce about 50 billion cubic feet per year of gas from five million tons per year of lignite. The plant has been performing at well above design capacity.

  16. Managing Friction Blisters of the Feet.

    PubMed

    Ramsey, M L

    1992-01-01

    In brief Active people often develop friction blisters on their feet. Although such blisters rarely create significant medical problems, they can be quite painful and can hinder athletic performance. People can decrease the chance of blister formation by wearing properly fitting shoes, doubling up on socks, and applying dressings or lubricants. If lesions do develop, conservative treatment will speed healing and lessen pain and disability.

  17. Energy cost of walking with flat feet.

    PubMed

    Otman, S; Basgöze, O; Gökce-Kutsal, Y

    1988-08-01

    A comparative study has been conducted to assess the effects of arch support on oxygen consumption in 20 subjects with flat feet who were generally complaining about fatigue, and also to explore whether their feeling of weariness was objective or not. The resting, walking and final recovery heart rates, blood pressures, and walking oxygen consumption values of the patients with flat feet were measured and calculated and compared to a control group using treadmill and oxygen consumption devices. In stage one the patients did not wear any arch support. Then suitable arch supports were prepared for each patient and in stage two they wore these arch supports. The results did not show any significant difference between the resting heart rates, blood pressure and oxygen consumptions. However, differences in walking heart rate, systolic blood pressure, final recovery heart rate, oxygen consumption, and energy cost values were found to be significant between stage one and two of the test in the patient group. The difference in walking diastolic blood pressure values without and with arch support were found to be insignificant. It may therefore be deduced that oxygen consumption during walking is decreased when a suitable arch support is applied to patients with flat feet.

  18. A review of elongation of os calcis for flat feet.

    PubMed

    Phillips, G E

    1983-01-01

    Between 1959 and 1974 the late Dillwyn Evans treated severe symptomatic flat feet by elongating the os calcis. The long-term follow-up of 20 of these patients with a total of 23 feet is presented 7 to 20 years after the operation. At review 17 of the 23 feet showed very good or good results and it was concluded that this is a useful procedure for severe cases of flat feet which appears to stand the test of time.

  19. How to Assess Changes in Feet: Normal or Abnormal

    MedlinePlus

    ... the Big Toe Ailments of the Smaller Toes Diabetic Foot Treatments Injections and other Procedures Treatments of the ... Feet Flexible How to Eat Right for Your Foot Health How to Care for Your Diabetic Feet How to Assess Changes in Feet: Normal ...

  20. [Comparative analysis of distribution on the sole surface of arched feet and flat feet].

    PubMed

    Szczygieł, Elzbieta; Golec, Edward; Golec, Joanna; Mazur, Tadeusz; Sobczyk, Łukasz

    2008-01-01

    The authors of this paper have carried out a hypothetical assessment of the difference in the distribution of pressure on the surface of the sole of correctly arched feet, and also of flat feet. They aimed to find out if there are significant differences in the spread of the pressure, and also at which levels of incidence they are highest. The authors carried out the research based on clinical material comprising 133 subjects (266 feet), including 75 females (56.4%) and 58 males (43.6%). The age of the subjects ranged from 10 to 83 years old, with the average age being 41.8 years old. The subjects were divided into three age groups. There were 22 subjects (16.5%) in the first group, aged from 10 to 20 years of age, 37 subjects (27.8%) aged 21 to 40 in the second group, and 74 subjects (55.6%), aged over 40 in the third group. All those included in the research underwent graphic contour testing in accordance with the Clarke method, and pedobarographic testing based on PEL 38. Results obtained suggest that the graphic contour testing is an important element of flat foot diagnosis, and that increased levels of pressure on the soles of flat feet are concentrated in the middle of the foot and below the first bone in the centre of the foot.

  1. The Field Expedient Extremity Tower (FEET).

    PubMed

    Stinner, Daniel J; Kerr, Glenn J; Hsu, Jospeh R

    2013-03-01

    The field expedient extremity tower (FEET) is a versatile multipurpose radiolucent lower extremity positioner, which can be constructed from readily available external fixator parts and employed as an intraoperative aid for a variety of lower extremity cases. Examples include intramedullary nailing of the tibia, retrograde nailing of the femur, open or percutaneous plating of the distal femur and proximal tibia as well as skin grafting and wound debridements involving the posterior thigh, leg, and foot. In addition, it allows surgeons in austere environments to perform a wide variety of cases employing modern orthopedic techniques with this dual purpose liquid asset which can readily be broken down and reused as an external fixator if needed.

  2. The latest designs in prosthetic feet.

    PubMed

    Nassan, S

    2000-08-01

    There are a great number of feet to choose from, some simple and nonadjustable, some more technically sophisticated and adjustable by prosthetist or patient. A foot must meet the lifestyle and prosthetic needs of the patient. One also must consider the maintenance requirements and how they are impacted by the amputees' living environment, distance from a prosthetic facility, and the patient's gadget tolerance. On the practical side, the manufacturer must stand behind their foot and offer a reasonable trial period. Today the physician, prosthetist, and physical therapist must be familiar with Medicare guidelines and K levels. Being informed enables the rehabilitation team to agree upon the componentry best suited for the amputee when generating the prescription. This approach also avoids unnecessary inquiries and helps assure payment. In closing, two statements are added: (1) a well-informed prosthetist with good communication skills and dedication to the details of socket fit and alignment is for the patient the best source of information concerning componentry; and (2) appropriateness, reliability, and convenience are good, general guidelines to follow when helping an amputee choose a prosthetic foot.

  3. From the Field: Carbofuran detected on weathered raptor carcass feet

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vyas, N.B.; Spann, J.W.; Hulse, C.S.; Bauer, W.; Olson, S.

    2005-01-01

    The cause of death for raptors poisoned at illegal carbofuran-Iaced predator baits is often not confirmed because the carcass matrices that are conventionally analyzed are not available due to decomposition and scavenging. However, many such carcasses retain intact feet that may have come into contact with carbofuran. Eastern screech owls (Otus asio) were exposed to carbofuran via simulated predator baits. Detection of carbofuran from owl feet weathered for 28 days demonstrated the temporal reliability of using feet during a forensic investigation. Raptor carcasses previously not submitted for residue analysis because of a lack of the conventional matrices may now be salvaged for their feet.

  4. Career in Feet-on Seismology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van der Lee, S.

    2011-12-01

    My career award was for imaging the upper mantle beneath North America. The research proposed was timely because of Earthscope and novel because of the proposed simultaneous inversion of different types of seismic data as well as the inclusion of mineral physics data on the effects of volatiles on seismic properties of the mantle. This research has been challenging and fun and is still on-going. The educational component of my career award consists of feet-on and eyes-open learning of seismology through an educational kiosk and field trips to actual seismic stations. The kiosk and field station have both been growing over the years, as has the audience. I started with the field station in-doors, so it doubled as the kiosk along with a palmtop terminal. Groups of minority elementary school children would look at the mysterious hardware of the "field" station and then jump up and down so they could awe at the peaks in the graph on the palmtop screen that they created. This has evolved into a three-screen kiosk, of which one screen is a touch screen along with a demonstration seismometer. The field station is now in a goat shed near the epicenter of an actual 2010 earthquake inIllinois, which is soon to be replaced by a TA station of Earthscope. The audience has grown to entire grades of middle-school children and activities have evolved from jumping to team-experimentation and the derivation of amplitude-distance relationships following a collaborative curriculum. Addressing the questions in the session description: 1) Education is more fun and effective when one can work in a team with an enthusiastic educator. 2) My education activities are strongly related to my field of expertise but very loosely related to the research carried out with the career award. It appears that not the research outcomes are of interest to students, but instead the simplification and accessibility of the process of research that is of interest. 3) The education component of the career

  5. DETAIL OF "FEET" OF MAIN TRUSS NORTH END. NOTE PLATES ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL OF "FEET" OF MAIN TRUSS NORTH END. NOTE PLATES ON WHICH FEET REST ALLOWING EXPANSION OF TRUSS AS IT EXPANDS AND SHRINKS UNDER THE SUN - Missouri & North Arkansas Railroad Bridge, Spanning Middle Fork Little Red River, Shirley, Van Buren County, AR

  6. Pathfinder wing tip video at 50,000 feet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    In this clip, the Pathfinder's wing camera shows the view from 50,000 feet. Below is the reddish-brown desert, with the curvature of the Earth visible. Above this is a haze, which blends into the blue-black sky. The vehicle is more than 10,000 feet above an airliner's normal altitude.

  7. A novel aromatic oil compound inhibits microbial overgrowth on feet: a case study

    PubMed Central

    Misner, Bill D

    2007-01-01

    Background Athlete's Foot (Tinea pedis) is a form of ringworm associated with highly contagious yeast-fungi colonies, although they look like bacteria. Foot bacteria overgrowth produces a harmless pungent odor, however, uncontrolled proliferation of yeast-fungi produces small vesicles, fissures, scaling, and maceration with eroded areas between the toes and the plantar surface of the foot, resulting in intense itching, blisters, and cracking. Painful microbial foot infection may prevent athletic participation. Keeping the feet clean and dry with the toenails trimmed reduces the incidence of skin disease of the feet. Wearing sandals in locker and shower rooms prevents intimate contact with the infecting organisms and alleviates most foot-sensitive infections. Enclosing feet in socks and shoes generates a moisture-rich environment that stimulates overgrowth of pungent both aerobic bacteria and infectious yeast-fungi. Suppression of microbial growth may be accomplished by exposing the feet to air to enhance evaporation to reduce moistures' growth-stimulating effect and is often neglected. There is an association between yeast-fungi overgrowths and disabling foot infections. Potent agents virtually exterminate some microbial growth, but the inevitable presence of infection under the nails predicts future infection. Topical antibiotics present a potent approach with the ideal agent being one that removes moisture producing antibacterial-antifungal activity. Severe infection may require costly prescription drugs, salves, and repeated treatment. Methods A 63-y female volunteered to enclose feet in shoes and socks for 48 hours. Aerobic bacteria and yeast-fungi counts were determined by swab sample incubation technique (1) after 48-hours feet enclosure, (2) after washing feet, and (3) after 8-hours socks-shoes exposure to a aromatic oil powder-compound consisting of arrowroot, baking soda, basil oil, tea tree oil, sage oil, and clove oil. Conclusion Application of this

  8. 12. CLOSEUP VIEW OF CROSS SECTION OF SPILLWAY FIFTY FEET ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. CLOSE-UP VIEW OF CROSS SECTION OF SPILLWAY FIFTY FEET FROM LAKESHORE, SHOWING REMAINS OF SPILLWAY TIMBERS, LOOKING WEST - Three Bears Lake & Dams, North of Marias Pass, East Glacier Park, Glacier County, MT

  9. 5. BUILDING 522, INTERIOR, STOREROOM, FROM APPROXIMATELY 50 FEET SOUTHEAST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. BUILDING 522, INTERIOR, STOREROOM, FROM APPROXIMATELY 50 FEET SOUTHEAST OF NORTHWEST CORNER, LOOKING EAST. - Oakland Naval Supply Center, Aeronautical Materials Storehouses, Between E & G Streets, between Fourth & Sixth Streets, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  10. 4. BUILDING 422, WEST SIDE, FROM APPROXIMATELY 25 FEET SOUTHWEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. BUILDING 422, WEST SIDE, FROM APPROXIMATELY 25 FEET SOUTHWEST OF SOUTHWEST CORNER, LOOKING NORTHEAST. - Oakland Naval Supply Center, Aeronautical Materials Storehouses, Between E & G Streets, between Fourth & Sixth Streets, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  11. Decomposed gosling feet provide evidence of insecticide exposure

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vyas, N.B.; Spann, J.W.; Hulse, C.S.; Torrez, M.; Williams, B.I.; Leffel, R.

    2004-01-01

    Canada goose goslings were exposed to turf sprayed with D.Z.N(R) diazinon 50W application (2.24 kg a.i./ha). The control plot was subjected to a water application. One foot from each bird was placed outdoors for 7 d to decompose and the other foot was kept frozen. Diazinon residues were analyzed on both feet. Results showed that diazinon was detected from undecomposed and decomposed feet of the birds. Diazinon residues were below the level of detection (<0.01 ppm, a.i.) on the feet from the control goslings. Decomposed feet may be used for determining insecticide exposure when the traditional matrices are not available.

  12. 1. WEST AND SOUTH SIDES, FROM APPROXIMATELY 75 FEET SOUTHWEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. WEST AND SOUTH SIDES, FROM APPROXIMATELY 75 FEET SOUTHWEST OF BUILDING, LOOKING EAST-NORTHEAST. - Oakland Naval Supply Center, Heating Plant, North of B Street & West of Third Street, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  13. 1. WEST AND SOUTH SIDES, FROM APPROXIMATELY 25 FEET SOUTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. WEST AND SOUTH SIDES, FROM APPROXIMATELY 25 FEET SOUTH OF SOUTHEASTERN CORNER OF BUILDING 441-B, LOOKING NORTHEAST. - Oakland Naval Supply Center, Heating Plant, On Northwest Corner of K Street & Fifth Street, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  14. 6. 'ROCKFILLED CRIB 350 FEET LONG, REPAIRING DAMAGES CAUSED BY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. 'ROCK-FILLED CRIB 350 FEET LONG, REPAIRING DAMAGES CAUSED BY FLOODS DURING SEASON OF 1927 TO THE DRY GULCH CANAL HEADING.' 1928 - Irrigation Canals in the Uinta Basin, Duchesne, Duchesne County, UT

  15. 42. VIEW OF SYMONS 3 BY 6 FEET VIBRATING SCREEN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    42. VIEW OF SYMONS 3 BY 6 FEET VIBRATING SCREEN FROM NORTHWEST. SCREEN IS BELOW AND FED BY DINGS MAGNETIC PULLEY - DRIVE GEAR VISIBLE. - Bald Mountain Gold Mill, Nevada Gulch at head of False Bottom Creek, Lead, Lawrence County, SD

  16. 90. View of elevator approximately two feet below ground, pit ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    90. View of elevator approximately two feet below ground, pit "B", showing building 156, Warhead Building in center background, looking northwest - Nike Missile Battery MS-40, County Road No. 260, Farmington, Dakota County, MN

  17. 19. 1500 CUBIC FEET CAPACITY SCRAP STEEL CHARGING BOX ON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. 1500 CUBIC FEET CAPACITY SCRAP STEEL CHARGING BOX ON THE CHARGING AISLE OF THE BOP SHOP LOOKING NORTHWEST. - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Basic Oxygen Steelmaking Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

  18. "Hiker's feet": a novel cutaneous finding in the inflammatory myopathies.

    PubMed

    Cox, Jacob T; Gullotti, David M; Mecoli, Christopher A; Lahouti, Arash H; Albayda, Jemima; Paik, Julie; Johnson, Cheilonda; Danoff, Sonye K; Mammen, Andrew L; Christopher-Stine, Lisa

    2017-04-07

    Mechanic's hands is a well-characterized manifestation of select idiopathic inflammatory myopathy (IIM) syndromes. Less well characterized is the hyperkeratosis of the toes and plantar surface of the feet that can also accompany these disorders. We aim to describe common pedal signs in the context of IIM, and suggest that it may be another key feature in the presentation of these syndromes. A cohort of 2145 myositis patient charts gathered since 2003 were retrospectively reviewed using the key search terms "mechanic's feet" and/or "mechanic's foot." Charts that included either phrase were further reviewed for clinical characteristics. Nine patients were identified with documentation describing "mechanic's feet" or "mechanic's foot." All nine affected individuals carried a diagnosis of DM, seven of whom also met criteria for antisynthetase syndrome. In eight patients (89%), it presented in conjunction with mechanic's hands. Six (67%) presented with anti-Jo-1 antibodies, and three (33%) were seronegative. Although the term "mechanic's feet" has been used to describe this clinical finding in patients in our myositis cohort, we propose the term "hiker's feet," given that the presentation resembles a callousing pattern more typical of avid hikers or long-distance walkers. Prevalence data are not yet known but should be considered for further study. If the presenting signs of IIM are expanded to include hiker's feet, it could aid in not only diagnosis and management but also provide insights into the pathophysiology of these diseases.

  19. Can a Television Series Change Attitudes about Death? A Study of College Students and "Six Feet Under"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schiappa, Edward; Gregg, Peter B.; Hewes, Dean E.

    2004-01-01

    This study examined the effects of viewing 10 episodes of the television series "Six Feet Under" to assess whether such programming could influence college students' attitudes about death and dying. Students were administered the Death Attitude Profile--Revised, the Multidimensional Fear of Death Scale, and the short version of the…

  20. 38. ANOTHER VIEW TO THE EAST FROM A FEW FEET ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    38. ANOTHER VIEW TO THE EAST FROM A FEW FEET NORTH OF THE LAST STATION, SHOWING THE THIN WALL SEPARATING THE LARGE CENTRAL PART SHOP FROM THE SMALLER SPECIALTY SHOPS ALONG THE NORTH PART OF BUILDING NO. 1. - United Engineering Company Shipyard, Inspection & Repair Shops, 2900 Main Street, Alameda, Alameda County, CA

  1. View of wood stave penstocks (four feet in diameter) with ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of wood stave penstocks (four feet in diameter) with steel bands, wood and steel frames; standing on top of penstocks is Doug Hamilton (right), Nooksack Falls hydro-plant operator for puget power, and Ken Rose (left) HAER Historian. - Nooksack Falls Hydroelectric Plant, Route 542, Glacier, Whatcom County, WA

  2. Feet swelling in a multistage ultraendurance triathlete: a case study

    PubMed Central

    Knechtle, Beat; Zingg, Matthias Alexander; Knechtle, Patrizia; Rosemann, Thomas; Rüst, Christoph Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies investigating ultraendurance athletes showed an association between excessive fluid intake and swelling of the lower limbs such as the feet. To date, this association has been investigated in single-stage ultraendurance races, but not in multistage ultraendurance races. In this case study, we investigated a potential association between fluid intake and feet swelling in a multistage ultraendurance race such as a Deca Iron ultratriathlon with ten Ironman triathlons within 10 consecutive days. A 49-year-old well-experienced ultratriathlete competed in autumn 2013 in the Deca Iron ultratriathlon held in Lonata del Garda, Italy, and finished the race as winner within 129:33 hours:minutes. Changes in body mass (including body fat and lean body mass), foot volume, total body water, and laboratory measurements were assessed. Food and fluid intake during rest and competing were recorded, and energy and fluid turnovers were estimated. During the ten stages, the volume of the feet increased, percentage body fat decreased, creatinine and urea levels increased, hematocrit and hemoglobin values decreased, and plasma [Na+] remained unchanged. The increase in foot volume was significantly and positively related to fluid intake during the stages. The poststage volume of the foot was related to poststage total body water, poststage creatinine, and poststage urea. This case report shows that the volume of the foot increased during the ten stages, and the increase in volume was significantly and positively related to fluid intake during the stages. Furthermore, the poststage volume of the foot was related to poststage total body water, poststage creatinine, and poststage urea. The continuous feet swelling during the race was most probably due to a combination of a high fluid intake and a progressive decline in renal function (ie, continuous increase in creatinine and urea), leading to body fluid retention (ie, increase in total body water). PMID:26508884

  3. Accelerated Decompression from Saturation at 132 Feet of Sea Water With Isobaric oxygenation at 60 Feet of Sea Water

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-02-01

    catheterized with an external jugular catheter via the Seldinger technique and allowed to recover. Subjects were exposed to 132 feet of seawater (fsw) in...the external jugular vein of the animal was catheterized with a 16 gauge by 20.3 cm single lumen catheter (Braun Certofix; B. Braun Medical Inc... central cyanosis or the production of frothy white sputum. The onset of severe DCS (neurological or cardio-pulmonary dysfunction) and all behavioral

  4. Molecular shifts in limb identity underlie development of feathered feet in two domestic avian species

    PubMed Central

    Domyan, Eric T; Kronenberg, Zev; Infante, Carlos R; Vickrey, Anna I; Stringham, Sydney A; Bruders, Rebecca; Guernsey, Michael W; Park, Sungdae; Payne, Jason; Beckstead, Robert B; Kardon, Gabrielle; Menke, Douglas B; Yandell, Mark; Shapiro, Michael D

    2016-01-01

    Birds display remarkable diversity in the distribution and morphology of scales and feathers on their feet, yet the genetic and developmental mechanisms governing this diversity remain unknown. Domestic pigeons have striking variation in foot feathering within a single species, providing a tractable model to investigate the molecular basis of skin appendage differences. We found that feathered feet in pigeons result from a partial transformation from hindlimb to forelimb identity mediated by cis-regulatory changes in the genes encoding the hindlimb-specific transcription factor Pitx1 and forelimb-specific transcription factor Tbx5. We also found that ectopic expression of Tbx5 is associated with foot feathers in chickens, suggesting similar molecular pathways underlie phenotypic convergence between these two species. These results show how changes in expression of regional patterning genes can generate localized changes in organ fate and morphology, and provide viable molecular mechanisms for diversity in hindlimb scale and feather distribution. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.12115.001 PMID:26977633

  5. Influence Of Lumbar Spine Kinematics On Feet Pressure Distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Săftescu-Jescu, C.; Bereteu, L.

    2012-12-01

    Determining the center of pressure trajectories, as an indicator of postural stability or lumbar pathology, has been a challenging issue for researchers during the last decades. The paper advances an investigational method in order to determine a correlation between lumbar spine movements and feet center of pressure distribution. Five young healthy volunteers were simultaneously tested using an ultrasound based motion analyzing system and a force platform, while performing imposed tasks. Results showed specific patterns described by the center of pressure trajectories and a good coordination of angular amplitudes during lumbar spine movement.

  6. Cutaneous thermal thresholds in patients with painful burning feet.

    PubMed Central

    Smith, S J; Ali, Z; Fowler, C J

    1991-01-01

    Small nerve fibre sensory function was assessed by psychophysical estimates of cutaneous thermal thresholds in 30 patients who presented with the symptoms of painful burning feet. Thresholds were abnormal in 12 and normal in 18 patients although symptoms in the two groups were very similar. Various hypotheses for the mechanism of pain in small fibre neuropathy have been proposed previously and these are discussed, but the cause of symptoms in patients with normal thresholds, is unknown. The possibility exists that these patients have a neuropathic disorder which affects only those unmyelinated fibres involved with pain. PMID:1660531

  7. [US evaluation of the hands and feet in rheumatoid arthritis].

    PubMed

    Guerini, H; Ayral, X; Campagna, R; Feydy, A; Pluot, E; Rousseau, J; Gossec, L; Chevrot, A; Dougados, M; Drapé, J-L

    2010-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic inflammatory disease characterized by progressive damage of synovial-lined joints and variable extra-articular manifestations. Synovitis is usually found in the wrist, metacarpophalangeal, proximal interphalangeal and metatarsophalangeal joints. For these reasons, we believe that ultrasound with power doppler can be used for the detection and monitoring of synovitis with a simplified "hands and feet" protocol. In this article, we will describe this protocol used daily in our institution for early diagnosis and therapeutic management of this disease.

  8. Fabrication of duck's feet collagen-silk hybrid biomaterial for tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Kim, Soo Hyeon; Park, Hae Sang; Lee, Ok Joo; Chao, Janet Ren; Park, Hyun Jung; Lee, Jung Min; Ju, Hyung Woo; Moon, Bo Mi; Park, Ye Ri; Song, Jeong Eun; Khang, Gilson; Park, Chan Hum

    2016-04-01

    Collagen constituting the extracellular matrix has been widely used as biocompatible material for human use. In this study, we have selected duck's feet for extracting collagen. A simple method not utilizing harsh chemical had been employed to extract collagen from duck's feet. We fabricated duck's feet collagen/silk hybrid scaffold for the purpose of modifying the degradation rate of duck's feet collagen. This study suggests that extracted collagen from duck's feet is biocompatible and resembles collagen extracted from porcine which is commercially used. Duck's feet collagen is also economically feasible and it could therefore be a good candidate as a tissue engineering material. Further, addition of silk to fabricate a duck's feet collagen/silk hybrid scaffold could enhance the biostability of duck's feet collagen scaffold. Duck's feet collagen/silk scaffold increased the cell viability compared to silk alone. Animal studies also showed that duck's feet collagen/silk scaffold was more biocompatible than silk alone and more biostable than duck's feet or porcine collagen alone. Additionally, the results revealed that duck's feet collagen/silk hybrid scaffold had high porosity, cell infiltration and proliferation. We suggest that duck's feet collagen/silk hybrid scaffold could be used as a dermal substitution for full thickness skin defects.

  9. Deer Creek Dam, Hydroelectric Powerplant, 868 feet/291 degrees from intersection ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Deer Creek Dam, Hydroelectric Powerplant, 868 feet/291 degrees from intersection of dam complex access road with U.S. Highway 189, 1,340 feet/352 degrees from the dam spillway overpass, Charleston, Wasatch County, UT

  10. Can a television series change attitudes about death? A study of college students and Six Feet Under.

    PubMed

    Schiappa, Edward; Gregg, Peter B; Hewes, Dean E

    2004-06-01

    This study examined the effects of viewing 10 episodes of the television series Six Feet Under to assess whether such programming could influence college students' attitudes about death and dying. Students were administered the Death Attitude Profile--Revised, the Multidimensional Fear of Death Scale, and the short version of the Threat Index, prior to and after viewing. Significant changes were found on a number of measures. These results are similar to the effects of didactic death education courses.

  11. Fungal infection of the feet in soccer players and non-athlete individuals.

    PubMed

    Purim, Kátia Sheylla Malta; Bordignon, Gisele Pesquero Fernandes; Queiroz-Telles, Flávio de

    2005-03-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the occurrence of mycoses affecting the feet of soccer players and to compare this results with those in non-athlete individuals of the same age and sex. Initial evaluation consisted of a dermatological examination of the foot in 22 Chinese athletes, 83 Brazilian athletes and 24 Brazilian non-athletes. Scales of plantar skin, interdigital and subungual areas of the foot were collected for mycological examination (direct and culture). Nail clippings were obtained for histopathologic analysis. Tinea pedis was diagnosed more frequently among the non-athlete individuals. None of the Chinese athletes had tinea pedis alone. However, in this group onychomycosis was frequently higher when compared to the other groups. The fungal microbiota comprised Trichophyton rubrum (40%), Trichophyton mentagrophytes (36.4%) and Candida spp (20%). Candida spp was isolated only from Brazilian athletes. Results obtained with KOH wet mounts agreed with the results obtained in culture and with histopathologic examinations (50.5% vs 40.9%). The frequency of tinea pedis among soccer players was lower than the other groups in this study, possibly due to health education and professional feet care.

  12. Stationary Apparatus Would Apply Forces of Walking to Feet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hauss, Jessica; Wood, John; Budinoff, Jason; Correia, Michael; Albrecht, Rudolf

    2006-01-01

    A proposed apparatus would apply controlled cyclic forces to both feet for the purpose of preventing the loss of bone density in a human subject whose bones are not subjected daily to the mechanical loads of normal activity in normal Earth gravitation. The apparatus was conceived for use by astronauts on long missions in outer space; it could also be used by bedridden patients on Earth, including patients too weak to generate the necessary forces by their own efforts. The apparatus (see figure) would be a modified version of a bicycle-like exercise machine, called the cycle ergometer with vibration isolation system (CEVIS), now aboard the International Space Station. Attached to each CEVIS pedal would be a computer-controlled stress/ vibration exciter connected to the heel portion of a special-purpose pedal. The user would wear custom shoes that would amount to standard bicycle shoes equipped with cleats for secure attachment of the balls of the feet to the special- purpose pedals. If possible, prior to use of the apparatus, the human subject would wear a portable network of recording accelerometers, while walking, jogging, and running. The information thus gathered would be fed to the computer, wherein it would be used to make the exciters apply forces and vibrations closely approximating the forces and vibrations experienced by that individual during normal exercise. It is anticipated that like the forces applied to bones during natural exercise, these artificial forces would stimulate the production of osteoblasts (bone-forming cells), as needed to prevent or retard loss of bone mass. In addition to helping to prevent deterioration of bones, the apparatus could be used in treating a person already suffering from osteoporosis. For this purpose, the magnitude of the applied forces could be reduced, if necessary, to a level at which weak hip and leg bones would still be stimulated to produce osteoblasts without exposing them to the full stresses of walking and

  13. Scales

    MedlinePlus

    Scales are a visible peeling or flaking of outer skin layers. These layers are called the stratum ... Scales may be caused by dry skin, certain inflammatory skin conditions, or infections. Eczema , ringworm , and psoriasis ...

  14. Schlieren photograph of T-38 shock waves at Mach 1.1, 13,000 feet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    This is Dr. Leonard Weinstein's Schlieren photograph of a T-38 at Mach 1.1, altitude 13,700 feet, taken at NASA Wallops in 1993. Schlieren photography (from the German word for 'streaks') allows the visualization of density changes, and therefore shock waves, in fluid flow. Schlieren techniques have been used for decades in laboratory wind tunnels to visualize supersonic flow about model aircraft, but not full scale aircraft until recently. Dr. Leonard Weinstein of NASA Langley Research Center developed the first Schlieren camera, which he calls SAF (Schlieren for Aircraft in Flight), that can photograph the shock waves of a full sized aircraft in flight. He successfully took a picture which clearly shows the shock waves about a T-38 aircraft on December 13, 1993 at Wallops Island, MD. The camera was then brought to the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center because of the high number of supersonic flights there.

  15. Stereotaxic Device for Optical Imaging of Mice Hind Feet

    PubMed Central

    Cole, Richard; Hoffman, Timothy; Smith, Jason; Herron, Bruce

    2013-01-01

    Imaging of in vivo model systems, especially mouse models, has revolutionized our understanding of normal and pathological developments. However, mice present several challenges for imaging. They are living and therefore breathing organisms with a fast heart rate (>500 beat/min), which necessitates the need for restraints and positioning controls that do not compromise their normal physiology. We present here a device that immobilizes the rear legs of a mouse while retaining the ability to position both the hind feet and legs for reproducible imaging deep below the skin's surface. The device is highly adjustable to accommodate mice, 5 weeks of age and older. The function of this device is demonstrated by imaging the vasculature ∼250 μm beneath the skin in the hind leg. Whereas the overall dimensions are for a motorized stage (Märzhäuser Wetzlar GmbH, Wetzlar, Germany), minor modifications would allow it to be customized for use with most commercially available stages that accept an insert. PMID:23997660

  16. Bilateral macrodactyly of the hands and feet with post-axial involvement - a case report.

    PubMed

    Bhat, A K; Bhaskaranand, K; Kanna, R

    2005-12-01

    Macrodactyly is a rare congenital anomaly characterized by large digits. The usual involvement of macrodactyly is on the pre-axial side of the limb. There has been only one case report to date with involvement of both hands and feet in a child with post-axial upper limb involvement. We report an adult male who has macrodactyly of both hands and feet with post-axial involvement of both hands and pre and post- axial involvement of both feet.

  17. Unique system of photoreceptors in sea urchin tube feet

    PubMed Central

    Ullrich-Lüter, Esther M; Dupont, Sam; Arboleda, Enrique; Hausen, Harald; Arnone, Maria Ina

    2011-01-01

    Different sea urchin species show a vast variety of responses to variations in light intensity; however, despite this behavioral evidence for photosensitivity, light sensing in these animals has remained an enigma. Genome information of the recently sequenced purple sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus) allowed us to address this question from a previously unexplored molecular perspective by localizing expression of the rhabdomeric opsin Sp-opsin4 and Sp-pax6, two genes essential for photoreceptor function and development, respectively. Using a specifically designed antibody against Sp-Opsin4 and in situ hybridization for both genes, we detected expression in two distinct groups of photoreceptor cells (PRCs) located in the animal's numerous tube feet. Specific reactivity of the Sp-Opsin4 antibody with sea star optic cushions, which regulate phototaxis, suggests a similar visual function in sea urchins. Ultrastructural characterization of the sea urchin PRCs revealed them to be of a microvillar receptor type. Our data suggest that echinoderms, in contrast to chordates, deploy a microvillar, r-opsin–expressing PRC type for vision, a feature that has been so far documented only in protostome animals. Surprisingly, sea urchin PRCs lack any associated screening pigment. Indeed, one of the tube foot PRC clusters may account for directional vision by being shaded through the opaque calcite skeleton. The PRC axons connect to the animal internal nervous system, suggesting an integrative function beyond local short circuits. Because juveniles display no phototaxis until skeleton completion, we suggest a model in which the entire sea urchin, deploying its skeleton as PRC screening device, functions as a huge compound eye. PMID:21536888

  18. Comparison of the 1.5 Mile Run Times at 7,200 Feet and Simulated 850 Feet in a Hyperoxic Room

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-01

    VO2 max ) Test ......................................... 7 Figure 3 - VO2 Max results for Male, Female and All Subjects. * p...0.001 between Male and Female VO2 ’s. ............................................................. 11 Figure 4 - VO2 Max vs Predicted VO2 Max at 850...and 7,200 Feet ................. 12 Figure 5 - Actual VO2 Max vs Predicted VO2 Max at ALT (7,200 Feet) ....... 13 Figure 6 - VO2 Max vs

  19. 46 CFR 42.20-20 - Correction to the freeboard for vessels under 328 feet in length.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Correction to the freeboard for vessels under 328 feet... vessels under 328 feet in length. (a) The tabular freeboard for a Type “B” vessel of between 79 feet and 328 feet in length having enclosed superstructures with an effective length of up to 35 percent of...

  20. 46 CFR 42.20-20 - Correction to the freeboard for vessels under 328 feet in length.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Correction to the freeboard for vessels under 328 feet... vessels under 328 feet in length. (a) The tabular freeboard for a Type “B” vessel of between 79 feet and 328 feet in length having enclosed superstructures with an effective length of up to 35 percent of...

  1. 46 CFR 42.20-20 - Correction to the freeboard for vessels under 328 feet in length.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Correction to the freeboard for vessels under 328 feet... vessels under 328 feet in length. (a) The tabular freeboard for a Type “B” vessel of between 79 feet and 328 feet in length having enclosed superstructures with an effective length of up to 35 percent of...

  2. 46 CFR 42.20-20 - Correction to the freeboard for vessels under 328 feet in length.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Correction to the freeboard for vessels under 328 feet... vessels under 328 feet in length. (a) The tabular freeboard for a Type “B” vessel of between 79 feet and 328 feet in length having enclosed superstructures with an effective length of up to 35 percent of...

  3. 46 CFR 42.20-20 - Correction to the freeboard for vessels under 328 feet in length.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Correction to the freeboard for vessels under 328 feet... vessels under 328 feet in length. (a) The tabular freeboard for a Type “B” vessel of between 79 feet and 328 feet in length having enclosed superstructures with an effective length of up to 35 percent of...

  4. Feet distance and static postural balance: implication on the role of natural stance.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ji-Won; Kwon, Yuri; Jeon, Hyung-Min; Bang, Min-Jung; Jun, Jae-Hoon; Eom, Gwang-Moon; Lim, Do-Hyung

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate 1) the effect of feet distance on static postural balance and 2) the location of natural feet distance and its possible role in the relationship of feet distance and postural balance. Static balance tests were performed on a force platform for 100 s with six different feet distances (0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25 cm). Measures of postural balance included mean amplitude of horizontal ground reaction force (GRF) as well as the mean distance and velocity of the center of pressure (COP). All measures were discomposed into anterioposterior and mediolateral directions. ANOVA and post-hoc comparison were performed for all measures with feet distance as an independent factor. Also measured was the feet distance at the natural stance preferred by each subject. All measures significantly varied with feet distance (p<0.001). Mean distance of COP showed monotonic decrease with feet distance. Mean amplitude of horizontal GRF as well as mean velocity of COP showed U-shaped pattern (decrease followed by increase) with the minimum at the feet distance of 15 cm or 20 cm, near which the natural feet distance of 16.5 (SD 3.8) cm was located. COP is regarded to be an approximation of the center of mass (hence the resultant performance of postural control) in an inverted pendulum model with the horizontal GRF ignored. On the other hand, horizontal GRF is the direct cause of horizontal acceleration of a center of mass. The present result on horizontal GRF shows that the effort of postural control is minimized around the feet distance of natural standing and implies why the natural stance is preferred.

  5. Deer Creek Dam, Dam, 1,204 feet/238 degrees from intersection of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Deer Creek Dam, Dam, 1,204 feet/238 degrees from intersection of dam complex access road and U.S. Highway 189 to center of dam, 874 feet/352 degrees from Hydroelectric Powerplant (HAER UT-93-B) to center of dam, Charleston, Wasatch County, UT

  6. Effect of Reaction Developing Training on Audio-Visual Feet Reaction Time in Wrestlers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaya, Mustafa

    2016-01-01

    Reaction time is one of the most determinative elements for a successful sports performance. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of 12-week feet reaction developing trainings upon feet reaction time of females at 11-13 age interval. Volunteer sportsmen between 11 and 13 age interval who were active in Tokat Provincial…

  7. Helios during a record setting flight to an altitude of 96,863 feet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    This 34 second clip shows the Helios prototype in its record flight to 96,863 feet. The Helios is a remotely piloted, solar powered aircraft used to demonstrate technologies that will one day allow similar airplanes to fly at altitudes above 50,000 feet for months at a time.

  8. Scales

    ScienceCinema

    Murray Gibson

    2016-07-12

    Musical scales involve notes that, sounded simultaneously (chords), sound good together. The result is the left brain meeting the right brain — a Pythagorean interval of overlapping notes. This synergy would suggest less difference between the working of the right brain and the left brain than common wisdom would dictate. The pleasing sound of harmony comes when two notes share a common harmonic, meaning that their frequencies are in simple integer ratios, such as 3/2 (G/C) or 5/4 (E/C).

  9. Scales

    SciTech Connect

    Murray Gibson

    2007-04-27

    Musical scales involve notes that, sounded simultaneously (chords), sound good together. The result is the left brain meeting the right brain — a Pythagorean interval of overlapping notes. This synergy would suggest less difference between the working of the right brain and the left brain than common wisdom would dictate. The pleasing sound of harmony comes when two notes share a common harmonic, meaning that their frequencies are in simple integer ratios, such as 3/2 (G/C) or 5/4 (E/C).

  10. A Pilot Study on Gait Kinematics of Old Women with Bound Feet

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yan; Feng, Neng; Hu, Nanzhi; Gu, Yaodong

    2015-01-01

    Foot binding has a long and influential history in China. Little is known about biomechanical changes in gait caused by bound foot. The purpose of this study was to investigate the differences in lower limb kinematics between old women with bound feet and normal feet during walking. Six old women subjects (three with bound feet and three controls with normal feet) volunteered to participate in this study. Video data were recorded with a high speed video camera and analysed in the SIMI motion analysis software. Compared to normal controls, bound feet subjects had faster gait cadence with shorter stride length as well as smaller ankle and knee range of motion (ROM). During preswing phase, ankle remained to be dorsiflexion for bound foot subjects. The data from bound foot group also demonstrated that toe vertical displacement increased continuously during whole swing phase without a minimum toe clearance (MTC). The findings indicate that older women with bound feet exhibit significant differences in gait pattern compared to those with normal feet, which is characterised by disappeared propulsion/push-off and reduced mobility of lower limb segments. PMID:27019587

  11. Inertial sensor-based two feet motion tracking for gait analysis.

    PubMed

    Hung, Tran Nhat; Suh, Young Soo

    2013-04-29

    Two feet motion is estimated for gait analysis. An inertial sensor is attached on each shoe and an inertial navigation algorithm is used to estimate the movement of both feet. To correct inter-shoe position error, a camera is installed on the right shoe and infrared LEDs are installed on the left shoe. The proposed system gives key gait analysis parameters such as step length, stride length, foot angle and walking speed. Also it gives three dimensional trajectories of two feet for gait analysis.

  12. 7. VIEW ALONG Y3 APPROXIMATELY 300 FEET FROM THE NORTHWEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. VIEW ALONG Y-3 APPROXIMATELY 300 FEET FROM THE NORTHWEST END OF Y-3 FACING SOUTHEAST. - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Quaywall Y-3, Western tip of Kuahua Peninsula, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  13. 11. WEST PART OF NORTH TRAINING WALL, ABOUT 1,000 FEET ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. WEST PART OF NORTH TRAINING WALL, ABOUT 1,000 FEET EAST OF THE CHANNEL MOUTH, LOOKING WEST TO SAN FRANCISCO. - Oakland Harbor Training Walls, Mouth of Federal Channel to Inner Harbor, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  14. A U-shaped linear ultrasonic motor using longitudinal vibration transducers with double feet.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yingxiang; Liu, Junkao; Chen, Weishan; Shi, Shengjun

    2012-05-01

    A U-shaped linear ultrasonic motor using longitudinal vibration transducers with double feet was proposed in this paper. The proposed motor contains a horizontal transducer and two vertical transducers. The horizontal transducer includes two exponential shape horns located at the leading ends, and each vertical transducer contains one exponential shape horn. The horns of the horizontal transducer and the vertical transducer intersect at the tip ends where the driving feet are located. Longitudinal vibrations are superimposed in the motor and generate elliptical motions at the driving feet. The two vibration modes of the motor are discussed, and the motion trajectories of driving feet are deduced. By adjusting the structural parameters, the resonance frequencies of two vibration modes were degenerated. A prototype motor was fabricated and measured. Typical output of the prototype is no-load speed of 854 mm/s and maximum thrust force of 40 N at a voltage of 200 V(rms).

  15. 3. VIEW ALONG Y3 APPROXIMATELY 400 FEET FROM THE SOUTHEAST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. VIEW ALONG Y-3 APPROXIMATELY 400 FEET FROM THE SOUTHEAST END OF Y-3 FACING NORTHWEST. - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Quaywall Y-3, Western tip of Kuahua Peninsula, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  16. 2. VIEW ALONG Y3 APPROXIMATELY 200 FEET FROM THE SOUTHEAST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. VIEW ALONG Y-3 APPROXIMATELY 200 FEET FROM THE SOUTHEAST END OF Y-3 FACING NORTHWEST. - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Quaywall Y-3, Western tip of Kuahua Peninsula, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  17. 4. VIEW ALONG Y3 APPROXIMATELY 700 FEET FROM THE SOUTHEAST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. VIEW ALONG Y-3 APPROXIMATELY 700 FEET FROM THE SOUTHEAST END OF Y-3 FACING NORTHWEST. - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Quaywall Y-3, Western tip of Kuahua Peninsula, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  18. Foot deformation during walking: differences between static and dynamic 3D foot morphology in developing feet.

    PubMed

    Barisch-Fritz, Bettina; Schmeltzpfenning, Timo; Plank, Clemens; Grau, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    The complex functions of feet require a specific composition, which is progressively achieved by developmental processes. This development should take place without being affected by footwear. The aim of this study is to evaluate differences between static and dynamic foot morphology in developing feet. Feet of 2554 participants (6-16 years) were recorded using a new scanner system (DynaScan4D). Each foot was recorded in static half and full weight-bearing and during walking. Several foot measures corresponding to those used in last construction were calculated. The differences were identified by one-way ANOVA and paired Student's t-test. Static and dynamic values of each foot measure must be considered to improve the fit of footwear. In particular, footwear must account for the increase of forefoot width and the decrease of midfoot girth. Furthermore, the toe box should have a more rounded shape. The findings are important for the construction of footwear for developing feet.

  19. Standard Atmosphere - Tables and Data for Altitudes to 65,800 Feet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1955-01-01

    Report includes calculated detailed tables of pressures and densities of a standard atmosphere in both metric and english units for altitudes from -5,000 meters to 20,000 meters and from -16,500 feet to 65,800 feet. Tables, figures, physical constants, and basic equations are based upon the text, reproduced herein, of the manual of the ICAO standard atmosphere, International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) draft of December 1952. (author)

  20. Manufacture of energy storage and return prosthetic feet using selective laser sintering.

    PubMed

    South, Brian J; Fey, Nicholas P; Bosker, Gordon; Neptune, Richard R

    2010-01-01

    Proper selection of prosthetic foot-ankle components with appropriate design characteristics is critical for successful amputee rehabilitation. Elastic energy storage and return (ESAR) feet have been developed in an effort to improve amputee gait. However, the clinical efficacy of ESAR feet has been inconsistent, which could be due to inappropriate stiffness levels prescribed for a given amputee. Although a number of studies have analyzed the effect of ESAR feet on gait performance, the relationships between the stiffness characteristics and gait performance are not well understood. A challenge to understanding these relationships is the inability of current manufacturing techniques to easily generate feet with varying stiffness levels. The objective of this study was to develop a rapid prototyping framework using selective laser sintering (SLS) for the creation of prosthetic feet that can be used as a means to quantify the influence of varying foot stiffness on transtibial amputee walking. The framework successfully duplicated the stiffness characteristics of a commercial carbon fiber ESAR foot. The feet were mechanically tested and an experimental case study was performed to verify that the locomotor characteristics of the amputee's gait were the same when walking with the carbon fiber ESAR and SLS designs. Three-dimensional ground reaction force, kinematic, and kinetic quantities were measured while the subject walked at 1.2 m/s. The SLS foot was able to replicate the mechanical loading response and locomotor patterns of the ESAR foot within +/-2 standard deviations. This validated the current framework as a means to fabricate SLS-based ESAR prosthetic feet. Future work will be directed at creating feet with a range of stiffness levels to investigate appropriate prescription criteria.

  1. Results in the treatment of paralytic calcaneus-valgus feet with the Westin technique

    PubMed Central

    Svartman, Celso; Santili, Cláudio; De Assumpção, Rodrigo MontezumaC.; de Almeida Leite, Leonardo Felicissimo; Quialheiro, Leonardo Silva; de Carvalho Fabricio, Sidney

    2006-01-01

    Between 1988 and 2003, 23 patients with paralytic calcaneus-valgus feet were submitted to the Westin procedure and 17 patients (25 feet) were re-evaluated. Nine patients were male and eight were female. The mean age at the surgical procedure was 8±5 years. The aetiology of paralysis was sequelae of poliomyelitis in 6 patients (8 feet) and of myelomeningocele in 11 patients (17 feet). The mean follow-up period was 6±6 years. The results were analysed clinically and radiographically considering the decrease of the retropulsion, the patient’s satisfaction, and the increase of the lateral tibiocalcaneal angle. Results were considered satisfactory when the patients showed a decrease of the retropulsion during gait, improvement of the gait pattern, and an increase of the tibiocalcaneal angle. As an overall result, 16 patients (94.2%) were satisfied and 1 patient (two feet) dissatisfied with the outcome. The increase of the tibiocalcaneal angle was significant for the myelomeningocele patients (P=0.001), but not for poliomyelitis (P=0.053). No statistical relation between the follow-up period and the increase of the tibiocalcaneal angle was found (r=0.04). The authors concluded that the Westin procedure is a good technique for the treatment of paralytic calcaneus valgus feet with myelomeningocele. PMID:16933136

  2. Results in the treatment of paralytic calcaneus-valgus feet with the Westin technique.

    PubMed

    Fucs, Patrícia M de Moraes Barros; Svartman, Celso; Santili, Cláudio; De Assumpção, Rodrigo Montezuma C; de Almeida Leite, Leonardo Felicissimo; Quialheiro, Leonardo Silva; de Carvalho Fabricio, Sidney

    2007-08-01

    Between 1988 and 2003, 23 patients with paralytic calcaneus-valgus feet were submitted to the Westin procedure and 17 patients (25 feet) were re-evaluated. Nine patients were male and eight were female. The mean age at the surgical procedure was 8+/-5 years. The aetiology of paralysis was sequelae of poliomyelitis in 6 patients (8 feet) and of myelomeningocele in 11 patients (17 feet). The mean follow-up period was 6+/-6 years. The results were analysed clinically and radiographically considering the decrease of the retropulsion, the patient's satisfaction, and the increase of the lateral tibiocalcaneal angle. Results were considered satisfactory when the patients showed a decrease of the retropulsion during gait, improvement of the gait pattern, and an increase of the tibiocalcaneal angle. As an overall result, 16 patients (94.2%) were satisfied and 1 patient (two feet) dissatisfied with the outcome. The increase of the tibiocalcaneal angle was significant for the myelomeningocele patients (P=0.001), but not for poliomyelitis (P=0.053). No statistical relation between the follow-up period and the increase of the tibiocalcaneal angle was found (r=0.04). The authors concluded that the Westin procedure is a good technique for the treatment of paralytic calcaneus valgus feet with myelomeningocele.

  3. Evaluating the lower-body electromyogram signal acquired from the feet as a noise reference for standing ballistocardiogram measurements.

    PubMed

    Inan, Omer T; Kovacs, Gregory T A; Giovangrandi, Laurent

    2010-09-01

    The ballistocardiogram (BCG) is a measure of the reaction force of the body to cardiac ejection of blood. A variety of systems can be used for BCG detection, including beds, tables, chairs, and weighing scales. Weighing scales, in particular, have several practical advantages over the alternatives: low cost, small size, unobtrusiveness, and familiarity to the user; one disadvantage is that the subject must stand during the recording, rather than sit or lay supine, resulting in a higher susceptibility to motion artifacts in the measured signal. This paper evaluates the electromyogram (EMG) signal acquired from the feet of the subject during BCG recording as a noise reference for standing BCG measurements. As a subject moves while standing on the scale, muscle contractions in the feet are detected by the EMG signal, and used to flag segments of the BCG signal that are corrupted by elevated noise. For the purposes of evaluating this method, estimates of the BCG noise-to-signal ratio (NSR) were independently calculated with an ensemble average method, using the R-wave of a simultaneously-acquired chest ECG as a timing reference. The linear correlation between EMG power alone and BCG NSR from 14 subjects was found to be moderate ( r = 0.58, F-statistic p -value 0.05); combined with body-mass index (BMI), multiple linear regression yielded a stronger correlation ( r = 0.73, F -statistic p-value = 0.01). Additionally, an example usage of the lower-leg EMG for improving BCG measurement robustness is provided.

  4. Differences in plantar loading between flat and normal feet during different athletic tasks.

    PubMed

    Queen, Robin M; Mall, Nathan A; Nunley, James A; Chuckpaiwong, Bavornrit

    2009-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if foot type (flat or normal) resulted in loading differences during four sport-specific tasks (cross-cut, side-cut, shuttle run, and landing from a simulated lay-up). Twenty-two healthy subjects (12 normal feet and 10 flat feet) completed five trials in each condition, while in-shoe pressure data was collected at 50 Hz. Contact area, maximum force, and the force time integral were analyzed under the entire foot and in eight-foot regions. Foot type was determined by examining navicular height, arch angle, rearfoot angle, and a clinical score. A series of independent sample t-tests were used to determine statistical differences (alpha<0.05). During the cross-cut, flat feet demonstrated an increase in medial midfoot contact area. During the side-cut, flat feet demonstrated an increase in contact area, force time integral and maximum force in both the medial and lateral midfoot. During the shuttle run, flat feet demonstrated an increase in force time integral in the lateral midfoot and increases in maximum force in both the medial and lateral midfoot. During the landing task, flat feet demonstrated an increase in maximum force in the medial midfoot. However, flat feet demonstrate a decrease in middle forefoot maximum force. All results were statistically significant (p<0.05). Therefore, individuals with a normal foot could be at a lower risk for medial and lateral midfoot injuries such as metatarsal stress fractures, indicating that foot type should be assessed when determining an individual's risk for metatarsal stress fractures.

  5. Terrain Adaptability Mechanism of Large Ruminants' Feet on the Kinematics View

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Qun; Ding, Xilun; Xu, Kun

    2015-01-01

    Ruminants live in various parts of land. Similar cloven hooves assist ruminants in adapting to different ground environment during locomotion. This paper analyzes the general terrain adaptability of the feet of ruminants using kinematics of the equivalent mechanism model based on screw theory. Cloven hooves could adjust attitude by changing relative positions between two digits in swing phase. This function helps to choose better landing orientation. “Grasping” or “holding” a rock or other object on the ground passively provides extra adhesion force in stance phase. Ruminants could adjust the position of the metacarpophalangeal joint or metatarsophalangeal joint (MTP or MCP) with no relative motion between the tip of feet and the ground, which ensures the adhesion and dexterity in stance phase. These functions are derived from an example from chamois' feet and several assumptions, which are believed to demonstrate the foundation of adaptation of ruminants and ensure a stable and continuous movement. PMID:27019579

  6. Isolation and Characterization of Pepsin-soluble Collagens from Bones, Skins, and Tendons in Duck Feet

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Yun-Sang

    2016-01-01

    The objectives of this study were conducted to characterize pepsin-soluble collagen (PSC) extracted from bones (PSC-B), skins (PSC-S), and tendons (PSC-T) of duck feet and to determine their thermal and structural properties, for better practical application of each part of duck feet as a novel source for collagen. PSC was extracted from each part of duck feet by using 0.5 M acetic acid containing 5% (w/w) pepsin. Electrophoretic patterns showed that the ratio between α1 and α2 chains, which are subunit polypeptides forming collagen triple helix, was approximately 1:1 in all PSCs of duck feet. PSC-B had slightly higher molecular weights for α1 and α2 chains than PSC-S and PSC-T. From the results of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), higher onset (beginning point of melting) and peak temperatures (maximum point of curve) were found at PSC-B compared to PSC-S and PSC-T (p<0.05). Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) presented that PSC-S and PSC-T had similar intermolecular structures and chemical bonds, whereas PSC-B exhibited slight difference in amide A region. Irregular dense sheet-like films linked by random-coiled filaments were observed similarly. Our findings indicate that PSCs of duck feet might be characterized similarly as a mixture of collagen type I and II and suggest that duck feet could be used for collagen extraction without deboning and/or separation processes. PMID:27857543

  7. Burning Feet

    MedlinePlus

    ... are most often a sign of nerve damage (peripheral neuropathy). Nerve damage has many different causes, including diabetes, ... if any of the various conditions that cause peripheral neuropathy are to blame. References Eleftheriadou I, et al. ...

  8. Feet First.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Andrew

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the high priority nature and maintenance needs of keeping playing surfaces to sports and recreation facilities. Grass and synthetic field and track surface maintenance are discussed as are gym floors, hard-surface tennis courts, and ice surfaces. (GR)

  9. Flat feet

    MedlinePlus

    ... will grow and develop the same, whether special shoes, shoe inserts, heel cups, or wedges are used. Your ... arch-support (orthotic) that you put in your shoe. You can buy this at the store or ...

  10. Effects of aluminum hinged shoes on the structure of contracted feet in Thoroughbred yearlings

    PubMed Central

    TANAKA, Kousuke; HIRAGA, Atsushi; TAKAHASHI, Toshiyuki; KUWANO, Atsutoshi; MORRISON, Scott Edward

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT We applied aluminum hinged shoes (AHSs) to the club foot-associated contracted feet of 11 Thoroughbred yearlings to examine the effects of the shoes on the shape of the hoof and third phalanx (P III). After 3 months of AHS use, the size of the affected hooves increased significantly, reaching the approximate size of the healthy contralateral hooves with respect to the maximum lateral width of the foot, the mean ratio of the bearing border width to the coronary band width, and the mean ratio of the solar surface width to the articular surface width. These results suggest that the AHSs corrected the contracted feet in these yearling horses. PMID:26170763

  11. Effects of aluminum hinged shoes on the structure of contracted feet in Thoroughbred yearlings.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Kousuke; Hiraga, Atsushi; Takahashi, Toshiyuki; Kuwano, Atsutoshi; Morrison, Scott Edward

    2015-01-01

    We applied aluminum hinged shoes (AHSs) to the club foot-associated contracted feet of 11 Thoroughbred yearlings to examine the effects of the shoes on the shape of the hoof and third phalanx (P III). After 3 months of AHS use, the size of the affected hooves increased significantly, reaching the approximate size of the healthy contralateral hooves with respect to the maximum lateral width of the foot, the mean ratio of the bearing border width to the coronary band width, and the mean ratio of the solar surface width to the articular surface width. These results suggest that the AHSs corrected the contracted feet in these yearling horses.

  12. Why have not the hairs on the feet of gecko been smaller?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Yewang; He, Shijie; Hwang, Keh-Chih; Ji, Baohua

    2012-10-01

    The nanometer size of the tiny hair is the key to the secret of strong stickiness of gecko's feet, by which the hair can achieve the maximum adhesion strength that is insensitive to the interfacial flaws with substrate surface. But the question why the hairs have not been smaller is not answered yet. In this study, we derived a geometric parameter of the surface structures considering lateral interaction among hairs, which gives a critical size below which these hairs will bunch together and cause failure of the adhesion, suggesting a lower limit of the dimension of hairs on gecko's feet.

  13. Burning-Feet Syndrome: Case Due to Malabsorption and Responding to Riboflavine

    PubMed Central

    Lai, C. S.; Ransome, G. A.

    1970-01-01

    A woman with the burning-feet syndrome was found on investigation to have malabsorption. The syndrome responded rapidly to intramuscular injections of 6 mg. of riboflavine daily. It is suggested that deficiency of this substance, due to malabsorption and aggravated by a defective diet and repeated pregnancies, was responsible for the syndrome in this case. PMID:5440597

  14. Flat Feet and a Diagnosis of Plantar Fasciitis in a Marine Corps Recruit.

    PubMed

    Lurati, Ann R

    2015-04-01

    A 22-year-old man sought care at an orthopedic clinic for acute plantar fasciitis. He reported that he had begun an intensive exercise program to prepare himself for Marine Corps Officer Candidate School. Pes Planus, or flat feet, was noted on physical examination. This article reviews the diagnoses of pes planus and plantar fasciitis as well as current intervention strategies.

  15. EVIDENCE FOR ROTATIONAL MOTIONS IN THE FEET OF A QUIESCENT SOLAR PROMINENCE

    SciTech Connect

    Orozco Suarez, D.; Asensio Ramos, A.; Trujillo Bueno, J.

    2012-12-20

    We present observational evidence of apparent plasma rotational motions in the feet of a solar prominence. Our study is based on spectroscopic observations taken in the He I 1083.0 nm multiplet with the Tenerife Infrared Polarimeter attached to the German Vacuum Tower Telescope. We recorded a time sequence of spectra with 34 s cadence placing the slit of the spectrograph almost parallel to the solar limb and crossing two feet of an intermediate size, quiescent hedgerow prominence. The data show opposite Doppler shifts, {+-}6 km s{sup -1}, at the edges of the prominence feet. We argue that these shifts may be interpreted as prominence plasma rotating counterclockwise around the vertical axis to the solar surface as viewed from above. The evolution of the prominence seen in EUV images taken with the Solar Dynamics Observatory provided us with clues to interpret the results as swirling motions. Moreover, time-distance images taken far from the central wavelength show plasma structures moving parallel to the solar limb with velocities of about 10-15 km s{sup -1}. Finally, the shapes of the observed intensity profiles suggest the presence of, at least, two components at some locations at the edges of the prominence feet. One of them is typically Doppler shifted (up to {approx}20 km s{sup -1}) with respect to the other, thus suggesting the existence of supersonic counter-streaming flows along the line of sight.

  16. INTERIOR TUNNEL, CITY LIMITS. STATION 767+00 FEET. LOCATION IS 1/2 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR TUNNEL, CITY LIMITS. STATION 767+00 FEET. LOCATION IS 1/2 WAY BETWEEN ELLESMERE AND THE CASCADES. LIGHT IN DISTANCE PROVIDED BY INSPECTION WORKERS WALKING TOWARD CAMERA - Los Angeles Aqueduct, Tunnel Interior, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  17. Relationship of skin temperature to sympathetic dysfunction in diabetic at-risk feet.

    PubMed

    Sun, Pi-Chang; Lin, Hong-Da; Jao, Shyh-Hua Eric; Ku, Yan-Chiou; Chan, Rai-Chi; Cheng, Cheng-Kung

    2006-07-01

    The relationship of plantar skin temperature to diabetic neuropathy was studied using clinical, nerve conduction and autonomic evaluations. The sympathetic skin response (SSR) was found present in both feet of 25 control subjects and 29 (out of 69) diabetic patients (SSR+ group). For those diabetic patients absent with the SSR in both feet, 18 patients (at-risk group) had preulcerative skin lesions (dry and fissured skin) and 22 did not (SSR- group). The at-risk group showed significantly higher mean foot temperature (30.2+/-1.3 degrees Celsius) than the SSR- (27.9+/-1.7 degrees Celsius), the SSR+ (27.1+/-2.0 degrees Celsius) and the control group (26.8+/-1.8 degrees Celsius). The SSR- group had smaller temperature differences (7.2+/-1.7 degrees Celsius versus 8.6+/-1.6 degrees Celsius, p<0.05) and smaller normalized temperature (referencing to the forehead temperature) (0.19 versus 0.24, p<0.01) than the SSR+ group. Although the three diabetic groups had no significant differences in clinical and cardiovascular abnormalities, the at-risk group showed more nerve conduction abnormalities than the SSR- and SSR+ groups (55% versus 23% and 14%, p<0.02). This study indicated that the thermoregulatory sweating abnormality signified early sympathetic damage in diabetic feet. Assessing skin conditions and sudomotor activities should help identify small fiber neuropathy in diabetic patients with at-risk feet conditions.

  18. The World at Your Feet: Immersive Interactive Displays Might Have a Bright Future in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simkins, Michael

    2006-01-01

    A reactor is an example of an immersive interactive play in which animated images are projected onto the floor. A reactor allows people to walk on images and interact with them using their feet. With reactors, people can stomp on kernels of popcorn, shoot a pool using their big toes, or wade through a shallow surf on pristine beaches. This…

  19. Case Report: 16-Year-Old Male with Autistic Disorder with Preoccupation with Female Feet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Early, Maureen C.; Erickson, Craig A.; Wink, Logan K.; McDougle, Christopher J.; Scott, Eric L.

    2012-01-01

    This paper highlights clinical challenges faced when diagnosing and then treating an individual presenting to a child and adolescent psychiatry clinic because of unwelcome comments he made to female peers about their feet. Novel use of exposure therapy helped him effectively decrease his comments from 1 to 2 times per month to once every 6 months.…

  20. View of worlds tallest totem pole, 136.5 feet tall. First ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of worlds tallest totem pole, 136.5 feet tall. First potlatch pole since 1904. Dedicated to all things and all peoples of southeast Alaska, 1971. Oct potlatch, looking northwest - Kake Salmon Cannery, Totem Pole, Kake, Wrangell-Petersburg Census Area, AK

  1. Normal Values of Metatarsal Parabola Arch in Male and Female Feet

    PubMed Central

    Munuera-Martinez, Pedro V.; Castillo-López, José Manuel; Ramos-Ortega, Javier; Albornoz-Cabello, Manuel

    2014-01-01

    There is not any method to measure metatarsal protrusion in the whole metatarsal. The aim of this research is to know the normal metatarsal parabola in male and female feet. The system of measurement devised by Hardy and Clapham to evaluate the protrusion between metatarsals I and II was adapted to study the whole metatarsal parabola and applied to the five metatarsals of 169 normal feet, 72 female feet and 97 male feet. Authors measured all metatarsal protrusion relative to metatarsal II. The results obtained show a female metatarsal protrusion relative to metatarsal II of +1.27% for metatarsal I, −3.36% for metatarsal III, −8.34% for metatarsal IV, and −15.54% for metatarsal V. Data obtained for male metatarsal parabola were +0.5% for metatarsal I, −3.77 for metatarsal III, −9.57 for metatarsal IV, and −17.05 for metatarsal V. Differences between both metatarsal parabola were significant. PMID:24688397

  2. 33 CFR 155.205 - Discharge removal equipment for vessels 400 feet or greater in length.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Discharge removal equipment for vessels 400 feet or greater in length. 155.205 Section 155.205 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION OIL OR HAZARDOUS MATERIAL POLLUTION...

  3. 33 CFR 155.210 - Discharge removal equipment for vessels less than 400 feet in length.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Discharge removal equipment for vessels less than 400 feet in length. 155.210 Section 155.210 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION OIL OR HAZARDOUS MATERIAL POLLUTION...

  4. 33 CFR 155.205 - Discharge removal equipment for vessels 400 feet or greater in length.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Discharge removal equipment for vessels 400 feet or greater in length. 155.205 Section 155.205 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION OIL OR HAZARDOUS MATERIAL POLLUTION...

  5. 33 CFR 155.205 - Discharge removal equipment for vessels 400 feet or greater in length.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Discharge removal equipment for vessels 400 feet or greater in length. 155.205 Section 155.205 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION OIL OR HAZARDOUS MATERIAL POLLUTION...

  6. 33 CFR 155.210 - Discharge removal equipment for vessels less than 400 feet in length.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Discharge removal equipment for vessels less than 400 feet in length. 155.210 Section 155.210 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION OIL OR HAZARDOUS MATERIAL POLLUTION...

  7. 33 CFR 155.205 - Discharge removal equipment for vessels 400 feet or greater in length.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Discharge removal equipment for vessels 400 feet or greater in length. 155.205 Section 155.205 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION OIL OR HAZARDOUS MATERIAL POLLUTION...

  8. 33 CFR 155.210 - Discharge removal equipment for vessels less than 400 feet in length.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Discharge removal equipment for vessels less than 400 feet in length. 155.210 Section 155.210 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION OIL OR HAZARDOUS MATERIAL POLLUTION...

  9. 33 CFR 155.205 - Discharge removal equipment for vessels 400 feet or greater in length.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Discharge removal equipment for vessels 400 feet or greater in length. 155.205 Section 155.205 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION OIL OR HAZARDOUS MATERIAL POLLUTION...

  10. 33 CFR 155.210 - Discharge removal equipment for vessels less than 400 feet in length.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Discharge removal equipment for vessels less than 400 feet in length. 155.210 Section 155.210 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION OIL OR HAZARDOUS MATERIAL POLLUTION...

  11. 33 CFR 155.210 - Discharge removal equipment for vessels less than 400 feet in length.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Discharge removal equipment for vessels less than 400 feet in length. 155.210 Section 155.210 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION OIL OR HAZARDOUS MATERIAL POLLUTION...

  12. The Hands and Feet of the Child: Towards a Philosophy of Habilitation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anthamatten, Eric

    2012-01-01

    Much of the history of philosophy has deployed the metaphor of sight over and above language of tactility and feeling. The body, the flesh, the hands and feet are seen as impediments to reason's upward journey towards the pure "light" of truth. But it is precisely these tactile points of contact with the world where knowledge and action begins and…

  13. Neurosensory and neuromuscular organization in tube feet of the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus.

    PubMed

    Agca, Cavit; Elhajj, Milad C; Klein, William H; Venuti, Judith M

    2011-12-01

    Several behavioral and electrophysiological studies indicate that all classes of echinoderms, including Echinoidia, the class to which sea urchins belong, are photosensitive and exhibit complex behavioral responses to light or changes in light intensity. However, no discrete photosensitive structure has been identified in sea urchins. The purpose of this study was to provide new insights into eye evolution by determining whether distinct photosensory structures are present in adult sea urchins. Recently, we showed that the Strongylocentrotus purpuratus genome contains orthologs of many mammalian retinal genes and that these genes are expressed in tube feet, suggesting the presence of photoreceptor neurons. To determine whether this is so, we identified several features of tube feet that relate to a possible invertebrate phototransduction system. We show that rhabdomeric opsin is expressed severalfold higher within the disk region of the tube feet and is the most abundant opsin. Immunostaining identified βIII-tubulin-expressing cells at the periphery of disk in the vicinity of the synaptotagmin-expressing nerve fibers. We also showed that Pax6 expression in the disk was restricted to the periphery, where small clusters of putative sensory neurons reside. Our results reveal neuromuscular organization of the tube foot neuromuscular system. They further support earlier studies suggesting the presence of a photosensory system in tube feet.

  14. Plantar pressures in individuals with normal and pronated feet according to static squat depths.

    PubMed

    Koh, Da Hyun; Lee, Jong Dae; Kim, Kyoung

    2015-09-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of the present study was to investigate differences in plantar pressure between individuals with normal and pronated feet according to 3 static squat depths. [Subjects and Methods] Study subjects were 10 young adults with normal and pronated feet. Plantar pressures were measured in the standing position and static squat positions at 45° (semi-squat) and 90° (half-squat) knee flexion using the F-Mat. Subjects' plantar pressures were analyzed by dividing the foot into 4 areas: forefoot medial, forefoot lateral, midfoot, and heel. [Results] In the half-squat position, the pronated foot group showed a higher foot pressure in the forefoot medial than was seen in the normal group, whereas the normal group exhibited a higher foot pressure in the heel than was seen in the pronated foot group. [Conclusion] An increase in squat depth led to the transfer of plantar pressure to the heel in normal feet and to the forefoot medial in pronated feet.

  15. Plantar pressures in individuals with normal and pronated feet according to static squat depths

    PubMed Central

    Koh, Da Hyun; Lee, Jong Dae; Kim, Kyoung

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of the present study was to investigate differences in plantar pressure between individuals with normal and pronated feet according to 3 static squat depths. [Subjects and Methods] Study subjects were 10 young adults with normal and pronated feet. Plantar pressures were measured in the standing position and static squat positions at 45° (semi-squat) and 90° (half-squat) knee flexion using the F-Mat. Subjects’ plantar pressures were analyzed by dividing the foot into 4 areas: forefoot medial, forefoot lateral, midfoot, and heel. [Results] In the half-squat position, the pronated foot group showed a higher foot pressure in the forefoot medial than was seen in the normal group, whereas the normal group exhibited a higher foot pressure in the heel than was seen in the pronated foot group. [Conclusion] An increase in squat depth led to the transfer of plantar pressure to the heel in normal feet and to the forefoot medial in pronated feet. PMID:26504304

  16. A ring-type multi-DOF ultrasonic motor with four feet driving consistently.

    PubMed

    Shi, Shengjun; Xiong, Huaiyin; Liu, Yingxiang; Chen, Weishan; Liu, Junkao

    2017-04-01

    A new type of multiple-degree-of-freedom (multi-DOF) ultrasonic motor was developed aiming at high output torque and compact structure. To reach this purpose, a ring type composite stator was proposed with four driving feet uniformly arranged in the inner circumference of the ring stator. The stator employs two orthogonal axial bending modes and a radial bending mode, by exciting two of them simultaneously, to generate elliptic trajectories on driving feet tips and to push sphere rotor around x, y and z axis respectively. Based on the deduced criteria, a specific combination of the A(0,5) axial bending modes and R(0,2) radial bending mode were chosen to realize that the rotating directions of the elliptical driving trajectories on four feet tips can push the sphere rotor to spin in the same direction consistently, thus the efficiency and output performance will be improved by decreasing the slip between feet and rotor. FEM was used to design the motor including selecting key parameters to tune the resonant frequencies by sensitivity analysis, and a prototype was fabricated and tested. The experiment results showed that the maximum output torque of the motor is 0.118Nm and the maximum speed is 55r/min.

  17. Dynamic Characteristics of Prosthetic Feet: A Comparison Between Modal Parameters of Walking, Running and Sprinting Foot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noroozi, S.; Rahman, A. G. A.; Dupac, M.; Vinney, J. E.

    Current methods of evaluating the performance of Energy Storing and Returning (ESR) prosthesis are subjective and rely on VO2 consumption. Current prosthetic feet are designed for specific applications and the majority are designed for walking and moderate running. These mechanical feet have fixed mechanical and dynamic characteristics. They have to be selected to meet the requirement of the task and any use outside the domain of the task can result in extreme/severe lack of gait symmetry and loss of energy. Poor gait symmetry results is excess consumption of energy, back pain or fatigue. To investigate if a multipurpose foot can be designed to passively adapt to the walking or running condition one must first understand the different dynamics that are involved and are required from the task specific foot. Static tests have shown these feet to have non-linear stiffness, making the prediction of their dynamic response difficult. The most reliable method to test for dynamic characteristics is drop and modal testing. A method approach has been developed as part of this research to test and compare the dynamic characteristics of three different types of foot (natural frequency, mode shapes and damping). This is needed to explore the differences in the responses of these feet that allow one to be used for walking, one to be used for running and one to be used for sprinting with ease.

  18. Development of inexpensive prosthetic feet for high-heeled shoes using simple shoe insole model.

    PubMed

    Meier, Margrit R; Tucker, Kerice A; Hansen, Andrew H

    2014-01-01

    The large majority of prosthetic feet are aimed at low-heeled shoes, with a few models allowing a heel height of up to 5 cm. However, a survey by the American Podiatric Medical Association indicates that most women wear heels over 5 cm; thus, current prosthetic feet limit most female prosthesis users in their choice. Some prosthetic foot components are heel-height adjustable; however, their plantar surface shapes do not change to match the insole shapes of the shoes with different heel heights. The aims of the study were therefore (1) to develop a model that allows prediction of insole shape for various heel height shoes in combination with different shoe sizes and (2) to develop and field-test low-cost prototypes of prosthetic feet whose insole shapes were based on the new model. An equation was developed to calculate insole shapes independent of shoe size. Field testing of prototype prosthetic feet fabricated based on the equation was successful and demonstrated the utility of the equation.

  19. 1. Perspective View of Scales Shanty looking south with Scranton ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Perspective View of Scales Shanty looking south with Scranton Yards in background. - Delaware, Lackawanna & Western Railroad, Scranton Yards, Track Scales, 500 feet Southeast of Bridge No. 60, Scranton, Lackawanna County, PA

  20. 46 CFR 28.345 - Electrical standards for vessels less than 79 feet (24 meters) in length.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Electrical standards for vessels less than 79 feet (24... § 28.345 Electrical standards for vessels less than 79 feet (24 meters) in length. (a) A vessel less..., in lieu of meeting the requirements of §§ 28.350 through 28.370. (b) A vessel less than 79 feet...

  1. Lifelong bound feet in China: a quantitative ultrasound and lifestyle questionnaire study in postmenopausal women

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Ling; Pan, Yi; Zhang, Ming; Xu, Mian; Lao, Hanchang; O'Laughlin, Michael C; Tong, Shan; Zhao, Yanling; Hung, VWY; Cheng, JCY; Guo, Xia

    2015-01-01

    Objective The phenomenon of foot binding, also known as ‘lotus feet’, has an enduring and influential history in China. To achieve a man-made smaller foot size, lifelong foot binding may have had adverse effects on the skeleton. We investigated bone properties in postmenopausal women with bound feet, which may provide new information for developing countermeasures for prevention of fragility fractures. Design Population-based cohort study. Participants This study involved 254 postmenopausal women aged 65–80, including 172 with bound feet and 82 age- and gender-matched control subjects, living in a remote region of China. Outcomes Anthropometric, SF-36 Lifestyle Questionnaire and heel quantitative ultrasound (QUS) data were collected for the whole study population. A small subset of two cases was also invited for assessment of bone mineral density and microarchitecture at the distal tibia using high-resolution peripheral quantitative CT (HR-pQCT) and gait and balance tests. Results Women with bound feet had significantly lower QUS values than age-matched women with normal feet; this was supported by HR-pQCT data. However, SF-36 Questionnaire results did not reveal any statistically significant differences in any categorical responses, including physical functioning, general health vitality and physical component summary score, and number of previous fractures. No impairment of body balance was found in the small subset. Conclusions The man-made changes caused by foot binding led to reduced physical activity, making the subjects prone to osteoporosis. Women with bound feet and osteoporosis did not have a higher incidence of fragility fractures than controls. This might be explained by compensation in physical activity to improve body balance, implying the importance of improving or maintaining body balance in overall prevention strategies against fragility fractures. PMID:25783423

  2. Gait analysis and energy consumption of below-knee amputees wearing three different prosthetic feet.

    PubMed

    Huang, G F; Chou, Y L; Su, F C

    2000-10-01

    This study scientifically measures the dynamic gait characteristics and energy consumption of 16 male below-knee amputees, eight vascular and eight traumatic, while wearing solid ankle cushion heel (SACH), single axis and multiple axis prosthetic feet via six-camera motion analysis, metabolic measurement cart and heavy-duty treadmill. Subjective results are additionally determined via questionnaire after testing. Motion analysis showed statistically significant differences at P<0.05 between the SACH, single axis and multiple axis foot in the velocity, cadence, stride length and single limb stance. Significant differences were found in energy consumption between the traumatic and vascular groups, and significant changes in walking under different speeds and different inclines. Results provide quantitative and qualitative information about the dynamic performance of the various feet, which can be helpful in prescribing the optimal prosthetic foot for individual amputees.

  3. Subdigital setae of chameleon feet: friction-enhancing microstructures for a wide range of substrate roughness.

    PubMed

    Spinner, Marlene; Westhoff, Guido; Gorb, Stanislav N

    2014-06-27

    Hairy adhesive systems of microscopic setae with triangular flattened tips have evolved convergently in spiders, insects and arboreal lizards. The ventral sides of the feet and tails in chameleons are also covered with setae. However, chameleon setae feature strongly elongated narrow spatulae or fibrous tips. The friction enhancing function of these microstructures has so far only been demonstrated in contact with glass spheres. In the present study, the frictional properties of subdigital setae of Chamaeleo calyptratus were measured under normal forces in the physical range on plane substrates having different roughness. We showed that chameleon setae maximize friction on a wide range of substrate roughness. The highest friction was measured on asperities of 1 μm. However, our observations of the climbing ability of Ch. calyptratus on rods of different diameters revealed that also claws and grasping feet are additionally responsible for the force generation on various substrates during locomotion.

  4. Subdigital setae of chameleon feet: Friction-enhancing microstructures for a wide range of substrate roughness

    PubMed Central

    Spinner, Marlene; Westhoff, Guido; Gorb, Stanislav N.

    2014-01-01

    Hairy adhesive systems of microscopic setae with triangular flattened tips have evolved convergently in spiders, insects and arboreal lizards. The ventral sides of the feet and tails in chameleons are also covered with setae. However, chameleon setae feature strongly elongated narrow spatulae or fibrous tips. The friction enhancing function of these microstructures has so far only been demonstrated in contact with glass spheres. In the present study, the frictional properties of subdigital setae of Chamaeleo calyptratus were measured under normal forces in the physical range on plane substrates having different roughness. We showed that chameleon setae maximize friction on a wide range of substrate roughness. The highest friction was measured on asperities of 1 μm. However, our observations of the climbing ability of Ch. calyptratus on rods of different diameters revealed that also claws and grasping feet are additionally responsible for the force generation on various substrates during locomotion. PMID:24970387

  5. Biped 4R2C six-bar mechanism with inner and outer feet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Chao; Wang, Hao; Yao, Yan-an

    2016-01-01

    Most current biped robots are equipped with two feet arranged in the right and left which inspired by the human body system. Different from the existing configurations, a novel biped robot with inner and outer feet based on a spatial six-bar 4R2C(R and C denote revolute and cylindric joints, respectively) mechanism is proposed. It can move along a line or a curve by three walking modes that are dwell adjustment mode, limit position adjustment mode and any position adjustment mode. Kinematic, gait planning and stability analyses are performed respectively, and a prototype is developed. Lastly, a potential application is considered and two manipulating modes(sphere and cylinder manipulating modes) are carried out. This interesting mechanism feathering its single closed-chain structure and unique work performance is expected to motivate the configuration creation of biped robots.

  6. 46 CFR 28.345 - Electrical standards for vessels less than 79 feet (24 meters) in length.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... meters) in length. 28.345 Section 28.345 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... § 28.345 Electrical standards for vessels less than 79 feet (24 meters) in length. (a) A vessel less than 79 feet (24 meters) in length with an alternating current electrical distribution system...

  7. 46 CFR 28.345 - Electrical standards for vessels less than 79 feet (24 meters) in length.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... meters) in length. 28.345 Section 28.345 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... § 28.345 Electrical standards for vessels less than 79 feet (24 meters) in length. (a) A vessel less than 79 feet (24 meters) in length with an alternating current electrical distribution system...

  8. 46 CFR 28.345 - Electrical standards for vessels less than 79 feet (24 meters) in length.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... meters) in length. 28.345 Section 28.345 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... § 28.345 Electrical standards for vessels less than 79 feet (24 meters) in length. (a) A vessel less than 79 feet (24 meters) in length with an alternating current electrical distribution system...

  9. 15 CFR Appendix B to Subpart M of... - Zones Within the Sanctuary Where Overflights Below 1000 Feet Are Prohibited

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Zones Within the Sanctuary Where Overflights Below 1000 Feet Are Prohibited B Appendix B to Subpart M of Part 922 Commerce and Foreign Trade... Within the Sanctuary Where Overflights Below 1000 Feet Are Prohibited The four zones are: (1) From...

  10. Postural stability effects of random vibration at the feet of construction workers in simulated elevation.

    PubMed

    Simeonov, P; Hsiao, H; Powers, J; Ammons, D; Kau, T; Amendola, A

    2011-07-01

    The risk of falls from height on a construction site increases under conditions which degrade workers' postural control. At elevation, workers depend heavily on sensory information from their feet to maintain balance. The study tested two hypotheses: "sensory enhancement"--sub-sensory (undetectable) random mechanical vibrations at the plantar surface of the feet can improve worker's balance at elevation; and "sensory suppression"--supra-sensory (detectable) random mechanical vibrations can have a degrading effect on balance in the same experimental settings. Six young (age 20-35) and six aging (age 45-60) construction workers were tested while standing in standard and semi-tandem postures on instrumented gel insoles. The insoles applied sub- or supra-sensory levels of random mechanical vibrations to the feet. The tests were conducted in a surround-screen virtual reality system, which simulated a narrow plank at elevation on a construction site. Upper body kinematics was assessed with a motion-measurement system. Postural stability effects were evaluated by conventional and statistical mechanics sway measures, as well as trunk angular displacement parameters. Analysis of variance did not confirm the "sensory enhancement" hypothesis, but provided evidence for the "sensory suppression" hypothesis. The supra-sensory vibration had a destabilizing effect, which was considerably stronger in the semi-tandem posture and affected most of the sway variables. Sensory suppression associated with elevated vibration levels on a construction site may increase the danger of losing balance. Construction workers at elevation, e.g., on a beam or narrow plank might be at increased risk of fall if they can detect vibrations under their feet. To reduce the possibility of losing balance, mechanical vibration to supporting structures used as walking/working surfaces should be minimized when performing construction tasks at elevation.

  11. Fatigue Effect on Linear Center of Pressure Measures during Gait in People with Flat Feet

    PubMed Central

    Sanjari, Mohammad Ali; Boozari, Sahar; Ashraf Jamshidi, Ali; Nikmaram, Mohammad Reza

    2016-01-01

    Background Flat foot, as one of the common foot deformities can affect gait biomechanics and risk of lower extremity injury. Fatigue, as a high load task, can also change biomechanical parameters of locomotion. Studying normal and flat footed individuals under high load tasks such as fatigue can elucidate their differences more easily. Objectives In this study, center of pressure (CoP) changes were studied between individuals with flat and normal feet after fatigue. CoP is one of the important gait measures which can show various biomechanical behaviors of different foot shapes. Methods Seventeen subjects with normal feet and 17 with flat feet walked across two force plates before and after a functional fatigue protocol. Standard deviation of CoP in mediolateral direction (SD of CoPx) and in anteroposterior direction (SD of CoPy), overall mean velocity of CoP and length of CoP construction line of both groups were analyzed. The values of SD of CoPy and length of CoP construction line were normalized to individual foot lengths prior to statistical analyses. Results There were no significant between-subject effects for all CoP measures. The only significant finding was the within-subject effect for the SD of CoPy (P = 0.008) with a large effect size (partial eta squared = 0.21). Fatigue resulted in lower SD of CoPy in both groups. Conclusions Lower SD of CoPy indicates less fluctuation of CoPy and a probable less center of mass movement which could reduce the risk of injury. Furthermore, the similar fatigue response in both groups of individuals with normal and flat feet indicates a similar biomechanical behavior despite their different foot arch height. PMID:28144406

  12. Towards surface analysis on diabetic feet soles to predict ulcerations using photometric stereo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Chanjuan; van der Heijden, Ferdi; van Netten, Jaap J.

    2012-03-01

    Diabetic foot ulceration is a major complication for patients with diabetes mellitus. Approximately 15% to 25% of patients with Type I and Type II diabetes eventually develop feet ulcers. If not adequately treated, these ulcers may lead to foot infection, and ultimately to total (or partial) lower extremity amputation, which means a great loss in health-related quality of life. The incidence of foot ulcers may be prevented by early identification and subsequent treatment of pre-signs of ulceration, such as callus formation, redness, fissures, and blisters. Therefore, frequent examination of the feet is necessary, preferably on a daily basis. However, self-examination is difficult or impossible due to consequences of the diabetes. Moreover, frequent examination by health care professionals is costly and not feasible. The objective of our project is to develop an intelligent telemedicine monitoring system that can be deployed at the patients' home environment for frequent examination of patients feet, to timely detect pre-signs of ulceration. The current paper reports the preliminary results of an implementation of a photometric stereo imaging system to detect 3D geometric abnormalities of the skin surfaces of foot soles. Using a flexible experimental setup, the system parameters such as number and positions of the illuminators have been selected so as to optimize the performance with respect to reconstructed surface. The system has been applied to a dummy foot sole. Finally, the curvature on the resulting 3D topography of the foot sole is implemented to show the feasibility of detecting the pre-signs of ulceration using photometric stereo imaging. The obtained results indicate clinical potential of this technology for detecting the pre-signs of ulceration on diabetic feet soles.

  13. 16. TWO HEAD GATES ABOUT 500 FEET NORTH OF 7TH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. TWO HEAD GATES ABOUT 500 FEET NORTH OF 7TH AVENUE (SECTION 35). - Highline Canal, Sand Creek Lateral, Beginning at intersection of Peoria Street & Highline Canal in Arapahoe County (City of Aurora), Sand Creek lateral Extends 15 miles Northerly through Araphoe County, City & County of Denver, & Adams County to its end point, approximately 1/4 mile Southest of intersectioin of D Street & Ninth Avenue in Adams County (Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Commerce City Vicinity), Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  14. Infrared dermal thermography on diabetic feet soles to predict ulcerations: a case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Chanjuan; van der Heijden, Ferdi; Klein, Marvin E.; van Baal, Jeff G.; Bus, Sicco A.; van Netten, Jaap J.

    2013-03-01

    Diabetic foot ulceration is a major complication for patients with diabetes mellitus. If not adequately treated, these ulcers may lead to foot infection, and ultimately to lower extremity amputation, which imposes a major burden to society and great loss in health-related quality of life for patients. Early identification and subsequent preventive treatment have proven useful to limit the incidence of foot ulcers and lower extremity amputation. Thus, the development of new diagnosis tools has become an attractive option. The ultimate objective of our project is to develop an intelligent telemedicine monitoring system for frequent examination on patients' feet, to timely detect pre-signs of ulceration. Inflammation in diabetic feet can be an early and predictive warning sign for ulceration, and temperature has been proven to be a vicarious marker for inflammation. Studies have indicated that infrared dermal thermography of foot soles can be one of the important parameters for assessing the risk of diabetic foot ulceration. This paper covers the feasibility study of using an infrared camera, FLIR SC305, in our setup, to acquire the spatial thermal distribution on the feet soles. With the obtained thermal images, automated detection through image analysis was performed to identify the abnormal increased/decreased temperature and assess the risk for ulceration. The thermography for feet soles of patients with diagnosed diabetic foot complications were acquired before the ordinary foot examinations. Assessment from clinicians and thermography were compared and follow-up measurements were performed to investigate the prediction. A preliminary case study will be presented, indicating that dermal thermography in our proposed setup can be a screening modality to timely detect pre-signs of ulceration.

  15. Foot reflexology in feet impairment of people with type 2 diabetes mellitus: randomized trial 1

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Natália Chantal Magalhães; Chaves, Érika de Cássia Lopes; de Carvalho, Emilia Campos; Carvalho, Leonardo César; Iunes, Denise Hollanda

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective: to evaluate the effect of foot reflexology on feet impairment of people with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Method: this is a randomized, controlled and blind clinical trial. The sample was comprised by people with type 2 diabetes mellitus who, after being randomized into Treated group (n = 21) and Control group (n = 24), received guidelines on foot self-care. To the Treated Group it was also provided 12 sessions of foot reflexology. The scores of impairment indicators related to skin and hair, blood circulation, tissue sensitivity and temperature were measured by means of the instrument for assessing tissue integrity of the feet of people with diabetes mellitus. Chi-square test, Fisher exact test, Mann-Whitney test and regression analyzes were applied to the data, considering a significance level of 5% (P value <0.05). Results: participants who received the therapy showed better scores in some impairment indicators related to skin and hair (hair growth, elasticity/turgor, hydration, perspiration, texture and integrity of the skin/ skin peeling). Conclusion: the foot reflexology had a beneficial effect on feet impairment of people with type 2 diabetes mellitus, which makes it a viable therapy, deserving investment. This study was registered in the Brazilian Registry of Clinical Trials - RBR-8zk8sz. PMID:26444161

  16. [Adult type tethered cord syndrome with chronic attackwise pain in the bilateral feet].

    PubMed

    Harashima, Shiho; Taira, Takaomi; Hori, Tomokatsu

    2004-05-01

    The authors report a case of chronic attackwise pain in the bilateral feet for five years due to tethered cord syndrome. Despite extensive examinations, this condition had been overlooked. The patient is a 21-year-old man. He had suffered attackwise pain resembling sticking a thumbtack in the soles of his feet, since he was 16 years old. The pain appeared several times a day and continued for 30 seconds to 30 minutes for 5 years. Physical examination revealed hammer toes and high-arched feet. The fingers and knee joints showed hyperextension. The neurological findings showed weakness of toe extension, hyporeflexia of deep tendon reflexes in the leg. Mild hypesthesia was seen in the bilateral soles. Myelography showed sacral dural ectasia. Magnetic resonance images showed dorsal displacement of the conus medullaris, the filum terminale and the cauda equina. A computed tomographic scan after myelography also showed a dorsally located thick filum terminale (the diameter is 2 mm). Surgery disclosed thick and tight filum terminale directly under the dura mater. Its flexibility was diminished. Abnormal lesions such as lipoma, spinal dysraphysm, diastematomyelia, myelomeningocele were not observed. After the untethering operation, the pain attacks decreased dramatically. The condition of the present case is adult onset tethered cord Group 2 described by Yamada. When unusual pain is manifested, we always have to keep this syndrome in mind.

  17. Compressed-fit linings renews 3,700 feet of 20-in. cast iron pipe

    SciTech Connect

    1995-01-01

    Elizabethtown Gas Company and the Gas Research Institute (GRI) have successfully completed a project in Union, NJ, using the Swagelining process and set three records as a result. The 20-inch diameter medium-density polyethylene (MDPE) SDR-21 was the largest ever installed by this process in the U.S. Since one of the pulls was 980 feet, that set a new Swagelining world record, too. The third record was for the largest diameter electrofusion couplers (520mm) ever used to join PE pipe. The Swagelining process was specially developed by British Gas as a method of replacing its aging gas distribution network. Over six million feet have been installed worldwide and over 400,000 feet of that have been in the United States. The system uses polyethylene pipe that has an outside diameter slightly larger than the bore of the pipe to be renewed. the diameter of the PE pipe is temporarily reduced by a die, and then inserted into the old pipe. Once installed, the PE pipe expands to fit tightly against the old pipe. A full range of tapping, branching and connection methods has been developed to provide a total renewal system.

  18. "Your feet's too big": an inquiry into psychological and symbolic meanings of the foot.

    PubMed

    Zerbe, K J

    1985-01-01

    The foot is a highly cathected appendage that is commonly singled out as the brunt of humorous or derisive remarks, as if it embodies repugnance and disgust. Attitudes toward the foot are overdetermined, bearing the imprint of man's early linguistic patterns and individual dynamics. This article suggests that feet are symbolic because they bear the feelings derived from earlier separations, good and bad object representations, collective memories, and genital representations. The foot's role as symbol of both the male and female genitals, repository of badness, symbol of passivity, initiator of movement, and site of self-mutilation have been briefly reviewed. As Fats Waller rhapsodizes that the "feet's too big," he finds a convenient way to displace his symbiotic and erotic anxieties vis-à-vis women. Similarly, patients who come for psychiatric treatment and psychotherapy frequently make references to their feet or use them in specific ways. An understanding of this type of communication can often provide insight into individual dynamics and enhance treatment. The weight placed on these communications depends, of course, on the vicissitudes of the previous therapeutic work as well as on the particular problems of the patient.

  19. Enhanced stress response by a bilateral feet compared to a unilateral hand Cold Pressor Test.

    PubMed

    Larra, Mauro F; Schilling, Thomas M; Röhrig, Philipp; Schächinger, Hartmut

    2015-01-01

    The Cold Pressor Test (CPT) is a frequently employed laboratory stress protocol. However, with many experimental designs the application in its classic form (immersion of the dominant hand into ice-water) is problematic as unilateral stimulation may need to be avoided and/or hands are required for further measurements. Here, we describe a simple modification of the classic CPT in which both feet are immersed into ice-water and compare the evoked neuroendocrine stress response to the classic CPT in a within-subjects design. Twenty-four healthy participants were exposed to each of both CPT versions on two subsequent days in randomized order. Heart rate, blood pressure, salivary alpha-amylase and cortisol were measured at baseline and during or after CPT exposition, respectively, along with subjective ratings of pain and stress. The bilateral feet CPT induced marked increases in all measured stress parameters. Moreover, with the exception of blood pressure, autonomic and endocrine responses were enhanced compared to the classic CPT. The bilateral feet CPT thus is a valid and simple modification and may be useful when the application of the classic CPT is unfeasible or a stronger neuroendocrine stress response is of interest.

  20. Function of the triceps surae muscle group in low and high arched feet: an exploratory study.

    PubMed

    Branthwaite, Helen; Pandyan, Anand; Chockalingam, Nachiappan

    2012-06-01

    The Achilles tendon has been shown to be comprised of segmental components of tendon arising from the tricpes surae muscle group. Motion of the foot joints in low and high arched feet may induce a change in behaviour of the triceps surae muscle group due to altered strain on the tendon. Surface electromyogram of the medial and lateral gastrocnemius and the soleus muscle from 12 subjects (with 6 low arched and 6 high arched feet) (1:1) was recorded whilst walking at a self selected speed along a 10m walkway. The results showed a high variability in muscle activity between groups with patterns emerging within groups. Soleus was more active in 50% of the low arch feet at forefoot loading and there was a crescendo of activity towards heel lift in 58% of all subjects. This observed variability between groups and foot types emphasises the need for further work on individual anatomical variation and foot function to help in the understanding and management of Achilles tendon pathologies and triceps surae dysfunction.

  1. Sex estimation using anthropometry of feet and footprints in a Western Australian population.

    PubMed

    Hemy, Naomi; Flavel, Ambika; Ishak, Nur-Intaniah; Franklin, Daniel

    2013-09-10

    An important component of forensic investigation is the identification of deceased (and increasingly living) individuals, which is often the role of the forensic anthropologist. One of the most valuable steps towards identification is via a biological profile, developed through the application of population specific standards. In disaster victim identification scenarios, fleshed feet are often recovered in footwear; footprints are another potential source of trace evidence found at crime scenes. In medico-legal investigations, feet and footprints can be useful for extrapolating living height, it is thus expedient to determine whether sex can be estimated from the same anthropometric data. The aim of the present study is to develop accurate sex estimation standards for a contemporary Western Australian population from measurements of the feet and footprints. The sample comprises 200 adults (90 males, 110 females). Three bilateral linear measurements were taken from each foot and seven bilateral measurements were acquired from static footprints obtained using a Podograph. A precision test was first conducted to assess data accuracy and reliability. Measurement data are then analysed using a range of parametric statistical tests. Results show that males were significantly (P<0.001) larger than females for all foot and footprint measurements; cross-validated sex classification accuracies ranged from 71% to 91%. Although in many instances the sex bias was large (>±5%), this study provides viable alternatives for estimating sex in Western Australian individuals with accuracy equivalent to established standards developed from foot bones.

  2. Spinal cord lesions shrink peripersonal space around the feet, passive mobilization of paraplegic limbs restores it.

    PubMed

    Scandola, Michele; Aglioti, Salvatore Maria; Bonente, Claudio; Avesani, Renato; Moro, Valentina

    2016-04-06

    Peripersonal space (PPS) is the space surrounding us within which we interact with objects. PPS may be modulated by actions (e.g. when using tools) or sense of ownership (e.g. over a rubber hand). Indeed, intense and/or prolonged use of a tool may induce a sense of ownership over it. Conversely, inducing ownership over a rubber hand may activate brain regions involved in motor control. However, the extent to which PPS is modulated by action-dependent or ownership-dependent mechanisms remains unclear. Here, we explored the PPS around the feet and the sense of ownership over lower limbs in people with Paraplegia following Complete spinal cord Lesions (PCL) and in healthy subjects. PCL people can move their upper body but have lost all sensory-motor functions in their lower body (e.g. lower limbs). We tested whether PPS alterations reflect the topographical representations of various body parts. We found that the PPS around the feet was impaired in PCL who however had a normal representation of the PPS around the hands. Significantly, passive mobilization of paraplegic limbs restored the PPS around the feet suggesting that activating action representations in PCL brings about short-term changes of PPS that may thus be more plastic than previously believed.

  3. Estimation of stature from dimensions of hands and feet in a North Indian population.

    PubMed

    Krishan, Kewal; Sharma, Abhilasha

    2007-08-01

    In medico-legal autopsies, establishing personal identity of the victims is often required. Estimation of stature from extremities and their parts plays an important role in identifying the dead in forensic examinations. The study examines the relationship between stature and dimensions of hands and feet among Rajputs of Himachal Pradesh -- a North Indian endogamous group. The purpose for understanding these examinations was the paucity in the literature of studies that allow the reconstruction of stature from various dimensions of hands and feet amongst Rajputs. Hand length, hand breadth, foot length and foot breadth of 246 subjects comprising 123 males and 123 females ranging in age from 17 to 20 years were taken independently on left and right side of each individual. Statistical analyses indicated that the bilateral variation was insignificant for all the measurements except hand breadth in both the sexes (P<0.01). Sex differences were found to be highly significant for all the measurements (P<0.01). Linear and multiple regression equations for stature estimation were calculated using the above mentioned variables. The correlation coefficients between stature and all the measurements of hands and feet were found to be positive and statistically significant. The highest correlation coefficient between stature and foot length and lowest SEE (standard error of estimate) indicate that the foot length provides highest reliability and accuracy in estimating stature of an unknown individual. The regression equations were checked for their accuracy by comparing the estimated stature and actual stature.

  4. Sensory Property Improvement of Jokbal (Korean Pettitoes) Made from Frozen Pig Feet by Addition of Herbal Mixture.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Young-Jung; Hwang, Seol-A; Lee, Ju-Woon

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to improve sensory quality of Jokbal (Korean Pettitoes) made from frozen pig feet by addition of herbal mixture (glasswort, raspberry and Sansa powders). After adding herbal mixture, lipid oxidation (2-thiobarbituric acid values, TBARS), sensory property, and textural property were determined. Herbs were individually added into cooking soup at concentration of 6% (low concentration treatment, LCT) or 12% (high concentration treatment, HCT) of raw pig feet. Refrigerated pig feet were used as control. Thawed feet without any herbal mixture were used as freezing treatment (FT). TBARS in LCT or HCT were lower than that in FT, and showed the similar to that in Control. Addition of the herbal mixture was effective in improving the flavor and textural property of thawed feet by inhibiting lipid oxidation and protein denaturation in a dose-dependent manner.

  5. Sensory Property Improvement of Jokbal (Korean Pettitoes) Made from Frozen Pig Feet by Addition of Herbal Mixture

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ju-Woon

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to improve sensory quality of Jokbal (Korean Pettitoes) made from frozen pig feet by addition of herbal mixture (glasswort, raspberry and Sansa powders). After adding herbal mixture, lipid oxidation (2-thiobarbituric acid values, TBARS), sensory property, and textural property were determined. Herbs were individually added into cooking soup at concentration of 6% (low concentration treatment, LCT) or 12% (high concentration treatment, HCT) of raw pig feet. Refrigerated pig feet were used as control. Thawed feet without any herbal mixture were used as freezing treatment (FT). TBARS in LCT or HCT were lower than that in FT, and showed the similar to that in Control. Addition of the herbal mixture was effective in improving the flavor and textural property of thawed feet by inhibiting lipid oxidation and protein denaturation in a dose-dependent manner. PMID:27499659

  6. Pathfinder aircraft liftoff on altitude record setting flight of 71,500 feet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    The Pathfinder aircraft has set a new unofficial world record for high-altitude flight of over 71,500 feet for solar-powered aircraft at the U.S. Navy's Pacific Missile Range Facility, Kauai, Hawaii. Pathfinder was designed and manufactured by AeroVironment, Inc, of Simi Valley, California, and was operated by the firm under a jointly sponsored research agreement with NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. Pathfinder's record-breaking flight occurred July 7, 1997. The aircraft took off at 11:34 a.m. PDT, passed its previous record altitude of 67,350 feet at about 5:45 p.m. and then reached its new record altitude at 7 p.m. The mission ended with a perfect nighttime landing at 2:05 a.m. PDT July 8. The new record is the highest altitude ever attained by a propellor-driven aircraft. Before Pathfinder, the altitude record for propellor-driven aircraft was 67,028 feet, set by the experimental Boeing Condor remotely piloted aircraft. Pathfinder was a lightweight, solar-powered, remotely piloted flying wing aircraft used to demonstrate the use of solar power for long-duration, high-altitude flight. Its name denotes its mission as the 'Pathfinder' or first in a series of solar-powered aircraft that will be able to remain airborne for weeks or months on scientific sampling and imaging missions. Solar arrays covered most of the upper wing surface of the Pathfinder aircraft. These arrays provided up to 8,000 watts of power at high noon on a clear summer day. That power fed the aircraft's six electric motors as well as its avionics, communications, and other electrical systems. Pathfinder also had a backup battery system that could provide power for two to five hours, allowing for limited-duration flight after dark. Pathfinder flew at airspeeds of only 15 to 20 mph. Pitch control was maintained by using tiny elevators on the trailing edge of the wing while turns and yaw control were accomplished by slowing down or speeding up the motors on the outboard

  7. Sex differences in relative foot length and perceived attractiveness of female feet: relationships among anthropometry, physique, and preference ratings.

    PubMed

    Voracek, Martin; Fisher, Maryanne L; Rupp, Barbara; Lucas, Deanna; Fessler, Daniel M T

    2007-06-01

    Foot size proportionate to stature is smaller in women than in men, and small feet apparently contribute to perceived physical attractiveness of females. This exploratory study investigated the sex difference in relative foot length and interrelations among foot length, physique, and foot preference ratings in samples from Austria and Canada, each comprised of 75 men and 75 women. The findings included the following lines of evidence: the sex difference in relative foot length replicated in both data sets; the magnitude of this sex effect was large. Relative foot length was smaller in young, nulliparous, and slim women. Pointed-toe and high-heel shoes were more likely worn by smaller, lighter, and slimmer women. Men reported liking women's feet in general more than vice versa. A vast majority of both men and women favored small feet in women, but large feet in men. One's own foot size appeared to correspond to evaluations of attractiveness; particularly, women with small feet preferred small feet in women in general. The preference for small feet in women was convergent across different methods of evaluating attractiveness. Directions for investigations in this emerging field of research on physical attractiveness are discussed.

  8. Development of the long bones in the hands and feet of children: radiographic and MR imaging correlation.

    PubMed

    Laor, Tal; Clarke, Jeffrey P; Yin, Hong

    2016-04-01

    The long bones of the hands and feet in children have an epiphyseal end with a secondary center of ossification and an adjacent transverse physis. In contrast to other long bones in the body, the opposite end in the hands and feet, termed the non-epiphyseal end, is characterized by direct metaphyseal extension of bone to complete terminal ossification. The purpose of this pictorial essay is to illustrate the developmental stages of each end of the long bones of the hands and feet with radiographic and MR imaging to provide a foundation from which to differentiate normal from abnormal growth.

  9. Skeletal pathology and variable anatomy in elephant feet assessed using computed tomography

    PubMed Central

    Dixon, Jonathon J.I.; Warren-Smith, Chris; Hutchinson, John R.; Weller, Renate

    2017-01-01

    Foot problems are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in elephants, but are underreported due to difficulties in diagnosis, particularly of conditions affecting the bones and internal structures. Here we evaluate post-mortem computer tomographic (CT) scans of 52 feet from 21 elephants (seven African Loxodonta africana and 14 Asian Elephas maximus), describing both pathology and variant anatomy (including the appearance of phalangeal and sesamoid bones) that could be mistaken for disease. We found all the elephants in our study to have pathology of some type in at least one foot. The most common pathological changes observed were bone remodelling, enthesopathy, osseous cyst-like lesions, and osteoarthritis, with soft tissue mineralisation, osteitis, infectious osteoarthriti, subluxation, fracture and enostoses observed less frequently. Most feet had multiple categories of pathological change (81% with two or more diagnoses, versus 10% with a single diagnosis, and 9% without significant pathology). Much of the pathological change was focused over the middle/lateral digits, which bear most weight and experience high peak pressures during walking. We found remodelling and osteoarthritis to be correlated with increasing age, more enthesopathy in Asian elephants, and more cyst-like lesions in females. We also observed multipartite, missing and misshapen phalanges as common and apparently incidental findings. The proximal (paired) sesamoids can appear fused or absent, and the predigits (radial/tibial sesamoids) can be variably ossified, though are significantly more ossified in Asian elephants. Our study reinforces the need for regular examination and radiography of elephant feet to monitor for pathology and as a tool for improving welfare. PMID:28123909

  10. The structure of the cushions in the feet of African elephants (Loxodonta africana)

    PubMed Central

    Weissengruber, G E; Egger, G F; Hutchinson, J R; Groenewald, H B; Elsässer, L; Famini, D; Forstenpointner, G

    2006-01-01

    The uniquely designed limbs of the African elephant, Loxodonta africana, support the weight of the largest terrestrial animal. Besides other morphological peculiarities, the feet are equipped with large subcutaneous cushions which play an important role in distributing forces during weight bearing and in storing or absorbing mechanical forces. Although the cushions have been discussed in the literature and captive elephants, in particular, are frequently affected by foot disorders, precise morphological data are sparse. The cushions in the feet of African elephants were examined by means of standard anatomical and histological techniques, computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In both the forelimb and the hindlimb a 6th ray, the prepollex or prehallux, is present. These cartilaginous rods support the metacarpal or metatarsal compartment of the cushions. None of the rays touches the ground directly. The cushions consist of sheets or strands of fibrous connective tissue forming larger metacarpal/metatarsal and digital compartments and smaller chambers which were filled with adipose tissue. The compartments are situated between tarsal, metatarsal, metacarpal bones, proximal phalanges or other structures of the locomotor apparatus covering the bones palmarly/plantarly and the thick sole skin. Within the cushions, collagen, reticulin and elastic fibres are found. In the main parts, vascular supply is good and numerous nerves course within the entire cushion. Vater–Pacinian corpuscles are embedded within the collagenous tissue of the cushions and within the dermis. Meissner corpuscles are found in the dermal papillae of the foot skin. The micromorphology of elephant feet cushions resembles that of digital cushions in cattle or of the foot pads in humans but not that of digital cushions in horses. Besides their important mechanical properties, foot cushions in elephants seem to be very sensitive structures. PMID:17118065

  11. Novel method to evaluate angular stiffness of prosthetic feet from linear compression tests.

    PubMed

    Adamczyk, Peter G; Roland, Michelle; Hahn, Michael E

    2013-10-01

    Lower limb amputee gait during stance phase is related to the angular stiffness of the prosthetic foot, which describes the dependence of ankle torque on angular progression of the shank. However, there is little data on angular stiffness of prosthetic feet, and no method to directly measure it has been described. The objective of this study was to derive and evaluate a method to estimate the angular stiffness of prosthetic feet using a simple linear compression test. Linear vertical compression tests were performed on nine configurations of an experimental multicomponent foot (with known component stiffness properties and geometry), which allowed for parametric adjustment of hindfoot and forefoot stiffness properties and geometries. Each configuration was loaded under displacement control at distinct pylon test angles. Angular stiffness was calculated as a function of the pylon angle, normal force, and center of pressure (COP) rate of change with respect to linear displacement. Population root mean square error (RMSE) between the measured and predicted angular stiffness values for each configuration of the multicomponent foot was calculated to be 4.1 N-m/deg, dominated by a bias of the estimated values above the predicted values of 3.8 ± 1.6 N-m/deg. The best-fit line to estimated values was approximately parallel to the prediction, with R2 = 0.95. This method should be accessible for a variety of laboratories to estimate angular stiffness of experimental and commercially available prosthetic feet with minimal equipment.

  12. Correcting of pronated feet reduce skeletal muscle injury in young women with biomechanical abnormalities

    PubMed Central

    Tulaar, Angela B. M.; Immanuel, Suzana; Purba, A.; Mansyur, Muchtaruddin; Haryadi, Ratna Darjanti; Hadisoebroto, Ismail; Husni, Amin; Ibrahim, Nurhadi

    2016-01-01

    Biomechanical abnormalities of pronated feet accompanied by functional leg length disparity may increase the risk of skeletal muscle injury. Objective of the study is to prove that correction of pronated feet by the foot orthoses will reduce the creatine kinase-MM (CK-MM) concentrations as the muscle injury indicator. The design study was double blind randomized clinical trials with control. Research subjects were divided into two groups, group 1 used the foot orthoses while group 2 did not used the foot orthoses. The whole subject examined the concentrations of the CK-MM enzyme before, and 24–72 hours after the walking test. The walking test was conducted 15 minutes with maximum speed. The concentration of the CK-MM enzyme before walking test on treatment group was 70.07±15.33 International Unit (IU), similar with the control group was 69.85±17.03 IU (P=0.971). The increased in CK-MM enzyme concentrations 45 hours after the walking test was lower in the treatment group (7.8±9 IU) than the control group (22.0±11.5 IU) (P=0.001). The CK-MM enzyme concentrations continued to decline in the treatment group after the second walking test (77.21±17.47 IU), and after the third walking test (69.86±11.88 IU) (P=0.018). The foot orthoses for correcting the pronated feet on the young women with biomechanical abnormalities is able to reduce the degree of the skeletal muscle injury after walking activity. PMID:27051564

  13. Correcting of pronated feet reduce skeletal muscle injury in young women with biomechanical abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Rachmawati, Maria Regina; Tulaar, Angela B M; Immanuel, Suzana; Purba, A; Mansyur, Muchtaruddin; Haryadi, Ratna Darjanti; Hadisoebroto, Ismail; Husni, Amin; Ibrahim, Nurhadi

    2016-03-01

    Biomechanical abnormalities of pronated feet accompanied by functional leg length disparity may increase the risk of skeletal muscle injury. Objective of the study is to prove that correction of pronated feet by the foot orthoses will reduce the creatine kinase-MM (CK-MM) concentrations as the muscle injury indicator. The design study was double blind randomized clinical trials with control. Research subjects were divided into two groups, group 1 used the foot orthoses while group 2 did not used the foot orthoses. The whole subject examined the concentrations of the CK-MM enzyme before, and 24-72 hours after the walking test. The walking test was conducted 15 minutes with maximum speed. The concentration of the CK-MM enzyme before walking test on treatment group was 70.07±15.33 International Unit (IU), similar with the control group was 69.85±17.03 IU (P=0.971). The increased in CK-MM enzyme concentrations 45 hours after the walking test was lower in the treatment group (7.8±9 IU) than the control group (22.0±11.5 IU) (P=0.001). The CK-MM enzyme concentrations continued to decline in the treatment group after the second walking test (77.21±17.47 IU), and after the third walking test (69.86±11.88 IU) (P=0.018). The foot orthoses for correcting the pronated feet on the young women with biomechanical abnormalities is able to reduce the degree of the skeletal muscle injury after walking activity.

  14. Neurological manifestations in chronic mountain sickness: the burning feet-burning hands syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, P; King, R; Feng, S; Muddle, J; Workman, J; Gamboa, J; Tapia, R; Vargas, M; Appenzeller, O

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To characterise the clinical features and nerve biopsy findings in patients with chronic mountain sickness (CMS) living in the Peruvian Andes, with particular attention to the occurrence of the "burning feet-burning hands" syndrome.
METHODS—Symptoms and signs were documented clinically in 10 patients with CMS and compared with those in five healthy subjects all living at 4338 metres altitude. Sural nerve biopsies were obtained from three patients with CMS.The nerve fibre population and endoneurial microvessels were analyzed morphometrically.
RESULTS—All patients with CMS experienced burning and tingling paraesthesiae in the distal parts of their limbs. Similar but milder symptoms confined to the feet occurred in four of five controls. Three patients with CMS had a mild sensory neuropathy on examination, controls were clinically normal. Nerve biopsies showed a mild demyelinating neuropathy in all three with a reduction in the unmyelinated axon population in one. The endoneurial blood vessels showed a reduced thickness in the basal laminal zone compared with control values but were otherwise normal.
CONCLUSIONS—Apart from well recognised symptoms and signs of CMS, the study has shown that such patients may also exhibit a mild sensory neuropathy. Its relation to the burning feet-burning hands syndrome, which was not confined to the patients but was also found in controls at altitude, is uncertain. The time course and pattern of the centrifugal resolution of the burning paraesthesiae complex on low altitude sojourn of high altitude natives raises the possibility that a mechanism involving altered axonal transport may be involved. The reduced thickness of the basal laminal zone of microvessels implies that adaptive structural changes to hypobaric hypoxia may also occur in peripheral nerve and are similar to those reported in other tissues of high altitude natives.

 PMID:10990502

  15. 18. DETAIL OF HEAD GATE ABOUT 1,100 FEET NORTH OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. DETAIL OF HEAD GATE ABOUT 1,100 FEET NORTH OF 7TH AVENUE (SECTION 35), SHOWING CHANNEL IN WIHCH GATE WAS RAISED AND LOWERED. - Highline Canal, Sand Creek Lateral, Beginning at intersection of Peoria Street & Highline Canal in Arapahoe County (City of Aurora), Sand Creek lateral Extends 15 miles Northerly through Araphoe County, City & County of Denver, & Adams County to its end point, approximately 1/4 mile Southest of intersectioin of D Street & Ninth Avenue in Adams County (Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Commerce City Vicinity), Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  16. The appearance of the feet in Pfeiffer syndrome caused by FGFR1 P252R mutation.

    PubMed

    Rossi, Massimiliano; Jones, Rachel L; Norbury, Gail; Bloch-Zupan, Agnès; Winter, Robin M

    2003-10-01

    Patients affected by Pfeiffer syndrome generally present with syndromic craniosynostosis and typical limb defects including broad thumbs, wide halluces with varus deformity, toe syndactyly and sometimes elbow ankylosis. This autosomal dominant condition can be caused by mutations in either fibroblast growth factor receptor gene type 1 or 2 (FGFR1 or FGFR2). We report four new affected families showing an FGFR1 P252R mutation and emphasize the characteristic malformations of the feet in this form of Pfeiffer syndrome. In one family this was the only abnormality.

  17. Preliminary Transient Performance Data on the J73 Turbojet Engine. 3; Altitude, 45,000 Feet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McAulay, John E.; Wallner, Lewis E.

    1953-01-01

    A program was undertaken to determine the J73 turbojet engine compressor stall and surge characteristics and combustor blow-out limits enc ountered during transient engine operation. Data were obtained in the form of oscillograph traces showing the time history of several engi ne parameters with changes in engine fuel flow. The data presented in this report are for step and ramp changes in fuel flow at an altitude of 45,000 feet and flight Mach numbers of 0 and 0.8.

  18. [Occurrence of dermatophyte, in nails, feet and hands of university students].

    PubMed

    Siqueira, Emersom Roberto; Ferreira, Joseane Cristina; Maffei, Claudia Maria Leite; Candido, Regina Celia

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this paper was to evaluate the occurrence of dermatophytes, specifically in the nails, feet and hands of university students with and without lesions. Two hundred and eighty samples were collected; 31 (11.1%) were positive by direct examination, while only 20 (7.1%) showed dermatophyte growth in culture, as well as direct positive examination. Trichophyton rubrum was the most frequently isolated (80%) dermatophyte followed by T. mentagrophytes (20%). Considering the sites analyzed, dermatophyte occurrence was: 10.4% in toenails, 5% in foot skin, 2.5% in fingernails and 0.4% in hand skin.

  19. Preliminary Transient Performance Data on the J73 Turbojet Engine. II - Altitude, 35,000 Feet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lubick, Robert J.; Sobolewski, Adam E.

    1953-01-01

    A program was undertaken to determine the J73 turbojet engine compressor stall and surge characteristics and combustor blow-out limits encountered during transient engine operation. Data were obtained in the form of oscillograph traces showing the time history of several engine performance parameters with changes in engine fuel flow. The data presented in this report are for step changes in fuel flow at an altitude of 35,000 feet, at flight Mach numbers of 0.3, 0.8, and 1.2, and at several engine-inlet temperatures,

  20. Thompson and Hamilton type IV Freiberg's disease with involvement of multiple epiphyses of both feet.

    PubMed

    Lui, Tun Hing

    2015-02-26

    A 17-year-old boy reported left second and third toe pain after axial loading injury to his left foot. Radiographs showed collapse of the second metatarsal heads and epiphysial irregularities of the fifth metatarsal heads and the condyle of the proximal phalanx of the hallux of both feet. The patient was diagnosed to have Thompson and Hamilton type IV Freiberg's disease. He was screened for epiphysial dysplasia of the other sites. He had on and off bilateral hip and knee pain. Radiographs showed bilateral symmetrical epiphysial abnormalities with morphological change as focal concavity in bilateral femoral heads and fragmentation of the patellar articular surface with preservation of the patellofemoral joint space.

  1. 46 CFR 28.345 - Electrical standards for vessels less than 79 feet (24 meters) in length.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... than 79 feet (24 meters) in length with an alternating current electrical distribution system may... meters) in length with a direct current system may comply with the requirements of ABYC E-1, ABYC...

  2. Airplane Measurements of Atmospheric Turbulence at Altitudes Between 20,000 and 55,000 Feet for Four Geographic Areas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coleman, Thomas L.; Meadows, May T.

    1959-01-01

    Measurements of clear-air turbulence by use of airplane-borne instruments have been obtained from NACA VGH recorders during research flights of Lockheed U-2 airplanes at altitudes between 20,000 and 55,000 feet over Western United States, England and Western Europe, Turkey, and Japan. An analysis of these data has indicated that at the higher altitudes (40,000 to 55,000 feet) turbulence is both less frequent and less severe than at the lower altitudes (20,000 to 40,000 feet). Turbulence appears to be encountered at the high altitudes for only about 2 percent of the flight distance as compared with 5 percent or more at the lower altitudes. Moderately heavy turbulence exists on occasion at altitudes of about 50,000 feet over Japan and appears to be associated with the strong character of the jet stream in this area and also with a mountain-wave phenomenon.

  3. Trajectory Correction and Locomotion Analysis of a Hexapod Walking Robot with Semi-Round Rigid Feet

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Yaguang; Jin, Bo; Wu, Yongsheng; Guo, Tong; Zhao, Xiangmo

    2016-01-01

    Aimed at solving the misplaced body trajectory problem caused by the rolling of semi-round rigid feet when a robot is walking, a legged kinematic trajectory correction methodology based on the Least Squares Support Vector Machine (LS-SVM) is proposed. The concept of ideal foothold is put forward for the three-dimensional kinematic model modification of a robot leg, and the deviation value between the ideal foothold and real foothold is analyzed. The forward/inverse kinematic solutions between the ideal foothold and joint angular vectors are formulated and the problem of direct/inverse kinematic nonlinear mapping is solved by using the LS-SVM. Compared with the previous approximation method, this correction methodology has better accuracy and faster calculation speed with regards to inverse kinematics solutions. Experiments on a leg platform and a hexapod walking robot are conducted with multi-sensors for the analysis of foot tip trajectory, base joint vibration, contact force impact, direction deviation, and power consumption, respectively. The comparative analysis shows that the trajectory correction methodology can effectively correct the joint trajectory, thus eliminating the contact force influence of semi-round rigid feet, significantly improving the locomotion of the walking robot and reducing the total power consumption of the system. PMID:27589766

  4. A rectangle-type linear ultrasonic motor using longitudinal vibration transducers with four driving feet.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yingxiang; Chen, Weishan; Liu, Junkao; Shi, Shengjun

    2013-04-01

    To make full use of the vibrational energy of a longitudinal transducer, a rectangle-type linear ultrasonic motor with four driving feet is proposed in this paper. This new motor consists of four longitudinal vibration transducers which are arranged in a rectangle and form an enclosed construction. Lead zirconate titanate ceramics are embedded into the middle of the transducer and fastened by a wedge-caulking mechanism. Each transducer includes an exponentially shaped horn located on each end. The horns of the vertical transducers intersect at the base of the horizontal transducers' horns; the tip ends of the horizontal transducers' horns are used as the driving feet. Longitudinal vibrations are superimposed in the motor and generate elliptical movements at the tip ends of the horns. The working principle of the proposed motor is analyzed. The resonance frequencies of two working modes are tuned to be close to each other by adjusting the structural parameters. Transient analysis is developed to gain the vibration characteristics of the motor. A prototype motor is fabricated and measured. The vibration test results verify the feasibility of the proposed design. Typical output of the prototype is a no-load speed of 928 mm/s and maximum thrust force of 60 N at a voltage of 200 Vrms.

  5. Delta-wing function of webbed feet gives hydrodynamic lift for swimming propulsion in birds.

    PubMed

    Johansson, L Christoffer; Norberg, R Ake

    2003-07-03

    Most foot-propelled swimming birds sweep their webbed feet backwards in a curved path that lies in a plane aligned with the swimming direction. When the foot passes the most outward position, near the beginning of the power stroke, a tangent to the foot trajectory is parallel with the line of swimming and the foot web is perpendicular to it. But later in the stroke the foot takes an increasingly transverse direction, swinging towards the longitudinal axis of the body. Here we show that, early in the power stroke, propulsion is achieved mostly by hydrodynamic drag on the foot, whereas there is a gradual transition into lift-based propulsion later in the stroke. At the shift to lift mode, the attached vortices of the drag-based phase turn into a starting vortex, shed at the trailing edge, and into spiralling leading-edge vortices along the sides of the foot. Because of their delta shape, webbed feet can generate propulsive forces continuously through two successive modes, from drag at the beginning of the stroke, all the way through the transition to predominantly lift later in the stroke.

  6. Trajectory Correction and Locomotion Analysis of a Hexapod Walking Robot with Semi-Round Rigid Feet.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yaguang; Jin, Bo; Wu, Yongsheng; Guo, Tong; Zhao, Xiangmo

    2016-08-31

    Aimed at solving the misplaced body trajectory problem caused by the rolling of semi-round rigid feet when a robot is walking, a legged kinematic trajectory correction methodology based on the Least Squares Support Vector Machine (LS-SVM) is proposed. The concept of ideal foothold is put forward for the three-dimensional kinematic model modification of a robot leg, and the deviation value between the ideal foothold and real foothold is analyzed. The forward/inverse kinematic solutions between the ideal foothold and joint angular vectors are formulated and the problem of direct/inverse kinematic nonlinear mapping is solved by using the LS-SVM. Compared with the previous approximation method, this correction methodology has better accuracy and faster calculation speed with regards to inverse kinematics solutions. Experiments on a leg platform and a hexapod walking robot are conducted with multi-sensors for the analysis of foot tip trajectory, base joint vibration, contact force impact, direction deviation, and power consumption, respectively. The comparative analysis shows that the trajectory correction methodology can effectively correct the joint trajectory, thus eliminating the contact force influence of semi-round rigid feet, significantly improving the locomotion of the walking robot and reducing the total power consumption of the system.

  7. May bone cement be used to treat benign aggressive bone tumors of the feet with confidence?

    PubMed

    Özer, Devrim; Er, Turgay; Aycan, Osman Emre; Öke, Ramadan; Coşkun, Mehmet; Kabukçuoğlu, Yavuz Selim

    2014-03-01

    Using bone cement for the reconstruction of defects created after curettage of benign aggressive bone tumors is among acceptable methods. The study aimed to assess the effect of bone cement used in aggressive bone tumors in the feet on the function of the feet. Five patients were reviewed. They were treated between 2004 and 2010. Three cases were female and two male. Their age ranged from 16 to 55 with an average of 34.8. Follow up period ranged from 14 to 86 months with an average of 34. Two cases were giant cell tumor of bone located in calcaneus and 3 were solid variant aneurysmal bone cyst located in talus, navicular and first proximal phalanx. None had any previous treatment. A biopsy was done in all cases. Treatment was curettage, high speed burring (except phalanx case), and filling the cavity with bone cement. The case located in talus recurred and re-operated 1 year later doing the same procedure. Final evaluation included physical examination, X-ray and Maryland Foot Score. No recurrence was present in the final evaluation. No problems were detected related to bone cement. Maryland Foot Scores ranged 84-100, average of 94. Cement integrity was not disturbed. The procedure is found not to effect foot functions adversely.

  8. Mapping sea urchins tube feet proteome--a unique hydraulic mechano-sensory adhesive organ.

    PubMed

    Santos, Romana; Barreto, Angela; Franco, Catarina; Coelho, Ana Varela

    2013-02-21

    Marine organisms secrete adhesives for substrate attachment that to be effective require functional assembly underwater and displacement of water, ions, and weakly bound polyions that are ubiquitous in seawater. Therefore, understanding the characteristics of these protein/carbohydrate-based marine adhesives is imperative to decipher marine adhesion and also, to accelerate the development of new biomimetic underwater adhesives and anti-fouling agents. The present study, aims at mapping the proteome of the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus adhesive organs using a combination of complementary protein separation techniques (1-D-nanoLC and 2-DE), databases and search algorithms. This strategy resulted in the identification of 328 non-redundant proteins, constituting the first comprehensive list of sea urchin tube feet proteins. Given the known importance of phosphorylation and glycosylation in marine adhesion, the 2DE proteome was re-analyzed with specific fluorescent stains for these two PTMs, resulting in the identification of 69 non-redundant proteins. The obtained results demonstrate that tube feet are unique mechano-sensory adhesive organs and highlight putative adhesive proteins, that although requiring further confirmation, constitute a step forward in the quest to decipher sea urchins temporary adhesion.

  9. Superhydrophobic gecko feet with high adhesive forces towards water and their bio-inspired materials.

    PubMed

    Liu, Kesong; Du, Jiexing; Wu, Juntao; Jiang, Lei

    2012-02-07

    Functional integration is an inherent characteristic for multiscale structures of biological materials. In this contribution, we first investigate the liquid-solid adhesive forces between water droplets and superhydrophobic gecko feet using a high-sensitivity micro-electromechanical balance system. It was found, in addition to the well-known solid-solid adhesion, the gecko foot, with a multiscale structure, possesses both superhydrophobic functionality and a high adhesive force towards water. The origin of the high adhesive forces of gecko feet to water could be attributed to the high density nanopillars that contact the water. Inspired by this, polyimide films with gecko-like multiscale structures were constructed by using anodic aluminum oxide templates, exhibiting superhydrophobicity and a strong adhesive force towards water. The static water contact angle is larger than 150° and the adhesive force to water is about 66 μN. The resultant gecko-inspired polyimide film can be used as a "mechanical hand" to snatch micro-liter liquids. We expect this work will provide the inspiration to reveal the mechanism of the high-adhesive superhydrophobic of geckos and extend the practical applications of polyimide materials.

  10. Effect of Duck Feet Gelatin on Physicochemical, Textural, and Sensory Properties of Low-fat Frankfurters

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Duck feet gelatin (DFG) gel was added as a fat replacer to low-fat frankfurters and the effect of DFG on physicochemical, textural, and sensory characteristics of low-fat frankfurters was evaluated. DFG gel was prepared with a 20% duck feet gelatin concentration (w/w). Adding DFG decreased lightness and increased yellowness of the low-fat frankfurters (p<0.05). However, DFG did not affect redness of low-fat frankfurters (p>0.05). The statistical results indicated that adding DFG improved cooking yield of low-fat frankfurters (p<0.05). In addition, replacing pork back fat with DFG resulted in increased moisture content, protein content, and ash content of low-fat frankfurters, and the low-fat frankfurter formulated with 5% pork back fat and 15% DFG gel had the highest moisture content and lowest fat content (p<0.05). Adding of DFG increased all textural parameters including hardness, springiness, cohesiveness, chewiness, and gumminess of low-fat frankfurters (p<0.05). In terms of sensory properties, the low-fat frankfurter formulated with 5% pork back fat and 15% DFG gel showed similar satisfaction scores for the flavor, tenderness, juiciness, and overall acceptance when compared to the regular frankfurters (20% back fat). Therefore, our results suggest that DFG could be an effective novel source, as a fat replacer, for manufacturing of low-fat frankfurters. PMID:26761279

  11. A High Percentage of Beef Bull Pictures in Semen Catalogues Have Feet and Lower Legs that Are Not Visible

    PubMed Central

    Franks, Marcy K.; Grandin, Temple

    2015-01-01

    Simple Summary When cattle breeders purchase semen from a website, the only way they can visually appraise a bull’s conformation is by looking at his photograph. Correct foot and leg structure is important to help reduce lameness. Only 19.4% of the bull pictures on four major websites had fully visible feet and lower legs. A possible explanation for this may be deliberate covering of feet and legs with photo editing software to cover up conformation defects. Visibility of feet and lower legs would help semen buyers avoid bulls with obvious feet or leg problems. Abstract A total of 1379 beef bull pictures were surveyed to determine visibility of feet and legs from four American semen company websites. Five different breeds were represented: Angus, Red Angus, Hereford (polled and horned), Simmental, and Charolais. In addition to visibility, data on other variables were collected to establish frequencies and correlations. These included breed, color, material that obscured visibility, such as grass, picture taken at livestock show or outside, semen company, photographer, video, and age of bull. A foot and leg visibility score was given to each bull picture. Only 19.4% of the pictures had fully visible feet and legs. Both the hooves and dewclaws were hidden on 32.5% of the pictures. Correlation between bull’s birthdate and the first four visibility scores was statistically significant (P < 0.0001). As age increased the feet and legs were more likely to be visible in the bull’s picture. This may possibly be due to greater availability of both photo editing software and digital photography. One positive finding was that 6% of the bulls had a video of the bull walking which completely showed his feet and legs. PMID:26479372

  12. Pathfinder ground preparations prior to altitude record setting flight of 71,500 feet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Technicians make final adjustments on the solar-powered Pathfinder remotely piloted research aircraft prior to the craft's taking off on a flight which established a new unofficial world's altitude record for both propellor-driven and solar-powered aircraft. The new record of more than 71,500 feet was set during a 14 1/2-hour flight July 7, 1997, from the U.S. Navy's Pacific Missile Range Facility (PMRF) at Barking Sands, Kauai, Hawaii. The new altitude record is subject to verification by the National Aeronautics Association. The Pathfinder took off at 8:34 a.m. HDT, passed its previous record altitude of 67,350 feet about 2:45 p.m., and then reached its new mark at about 4 p.m. Controllers on the ground then initiated a slow decent, and Pathfinder landed seven hours later at 11:05 p.m. HDT. The experimental Boeing Condor remotely-piloted aircraft had held the previous record for propellor-driven craft of 67,028 feet. The Pathfinder had exceeded that height on a previous flight on June 9, 1997, but not by a large enough margin to be considered a new record. Pathfinder was a lightweight, solar-powered, remotely piloted flying wing aircraft used to demonstrate the use of solar power for long-duration, high-altitude flight. Its name denotes its mission as the 'Pathfinder' or first in a series of solar-powered aircraft that will be able to remain airborne for weeks or months on scientific sampling and imaging missions. Solar arrays covered most of the upper wing surface of the Pathfinder aircraft. These arrays provided up to 8,000 watts of power at high noon on a clear summer day. That power fed the aircraft's six electric motors as well as its avionics, communications, and other electrical systems. Pathfinder also had a backup battery system that could provide power for two to five hours, allowing for limited-duration flight after dark. Pathfinder flew at airspeeds of only 15 to 20 mph. Pitch control was maintained by using tiny elevators on the trailing edge of the

  13. 77 FR 13510 - Pacific Cod by Catcher Vessels Less Than 50 Feet (15.2 Meters) Length Overall Using Hook-and-Line...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-07

    ... Vessels Less Than 50 Feet (15.2 Meters) Length Overall Using Hook-and-Line Gear in the Central Regulatory... directed fishing for Pacific cod by catcher vessels (CVs) less than 50 feet (15.2 meters (m)) in...

  14. The Effects of Foot Orthosis on the Gait Ability of College Students in Their 20s with Flat Feet

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Kyo Chul; Park, Kwang Yong

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] This study examined the effects of foot orthosis on the gait ability of college students in their 20s with flat feet. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were 20 college students who had been diagnosed with flat feet. The subjects’ step time, step length, stride time, stride length, and gait velocity were measured using the VICON Motion System (Vicon, Oxford, UK) prior to and while wearing foot orthoses. The resulting data were analyzed using SPSS v. 12.0. [Results] The subject’s step time and stride time significantly decreased for both feet after they began using foot orthosis, and stride length and gait velocity significantly increased in both feet orthosis; however, step length did not significantly increase on either side. [Conclusions] College students with flat feet saw an improvement in elements of their gait while using the foot orthosis. The results of this study verified that students with flat feet might walk more efficiently if they received active gait training via long-term use of foot orthosis. PMID:25364114

  15. 43 CFR 2885.14 - What happens if I need a right-of-way wider than 50 feet plus the ground occupied by the pipeline...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... wider than 50 feet plus the ground occupied by the pipeline and related facilities? 2885.14 Section 2885... feet plus the ground occupied by the pipeline and related facilities? (a) You may apply to BLM at any time for a right-of-way wider than 50 feet plus the ground occupied by the pipeline and...

  16. 43 CFR 2885.14 - What happens if I need a right-of-way wider than 50 feet plus the ground occupied by the pipeline...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... wider than 50 feet plus the ground occupied by the pipeline and related facilities? 2885.14 Section 2885... feet plus the ground occupied by the pipeline and related facilities? (a) You may apply to BLM at any time for a right-of-way wider than 50 feet plus the ground occupied by the pipeline and...

  17. 43 CFR 2885.14 - What happens if I need a right-of-way wider than 50 feet plus the ground occupied by the pipeline...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... wider than 50 feet plus the ground occupied by the pipeline and related facilities? 2885.14 Section 2885... feet plus the ground occupied by the pipeline and related facilities? (a) You may apply to BLM at any time for a right-of-way wider than 50 feet plus the ground occupied by the pipeline and...

  18. 43 CFR 2885.14 - What happens if I need a right-of-way wider than 50 feet plus the ground occupied by the pipeline...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... wider than 50 feet plus the ground occupied by the pipeline and related facilities? 2885.14 Section 2885... feet plus the ground occupied by the pipeline and related facilities? (a) You may apply to BLM at any time for a right-of-way wider than 50 feet plus the ground occupied by the pipeline and...

  19. Full-Scale Tunnel (FST)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1931-01-01

    Modification of entrance cone Full-Scale Tunnel (FST). Smith DeFrance describes the entrance cone in NACA TR 459 as follows: 'The entrance cone is 75 feet in length and in this distance the cross section changes from a rectangle 72 by 110 feet to a 30 by 60 foot elliptic section. The area reduction in the entrance cone is slightly less than 5:1. The shape of the entrance cone was chosen to give as fas as possible a constant acceleration to the air stream and to retain a 9-foot length of nozzle for directing the flow.' (p. 293)

  20. Basic principles for reconstruction of problem skin defects on the limbs and feet.

    PubMed

    Swaim, S F

    1987-04-01

    Skin defects on the limbs of animals present a problem from the standpoint that there is not an abundance of skin on the limbs to reconstruct with as there is on the trunk of an animal. Shifting local tissues can be used to correct small limb defects, and skin flaps from the upper limbs or body can be used to correct upper limb defects. Defects on the lower limbs and feet may require distant flaps or free grafts for reconstruction. Foot pads require special attention when being sutured. When foot pads have large defects or are missing there are techniques for replacement: however, there are certain principles that must be abided by when replacing foot pads.

  1. Multiple structured light system for the 3D measurement of feet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaertner, Hansjoerg; Lavoie, Jean-Francois; Vermette, Eric; Houle, Pascal-Simon

    1999-03-01

    In the field of custom foot orthosis bio-mechanics specialists take negative casts of the patient's feet and produce a positive on which they apply corrective elements. The corrected positive cast is then used to thermoform an orthosis. Several production steps can be simplified or eliminated by a 3D-acquisition of the underside of the foot. Such a complete custom footwear system, developed by Neogenix Technologies Inc., has been reported last year in IS and T/SPIE's symposium. A major improvement aimed at maximizing the coverage of the underside of foot surface has been achieved since by using multiple structured light projection technique. A description of a patent pending hardware set-up and range data extraction by software will be given in this paper.

  2. Nested Graft for Acral Lichen Sclerosus of the Feet: A Surgical Treatment for an Inflammatory Disease

    PubMed Central

    Monari, Paola; Pelizzari, Laura; Cammalleri, Daniele; Calzavara-Pinton, Piergiacomo

    2016-01-01

    Summary: The “nested graft” is an innovative and well-defined surgical technique used for chronic wound healing that induces the de-senescence of fibroblasts in the wound bed. We report a case of a 76-year-old man affected by plantar chronic wounds because of acral lichen sclerosus and atrophicus localized at both feet and treated for many years successfully with immunosuppressive agents. For cardiological dysfunction, systemic therapy was reduced to low dosage of steroids with an increase of ulcerations (5 × 2 cm). So we decided to perform the nested graft on the plantar region. After the surgical procedure, all the grafted ulcers healed, and at a 4-month follow-up, no signs of lichen sclerosus were present. PMID:27257563

  3. SPECTRO-POLARIMETRIC IMAGING REVEALS HELICAL MAGNETIC FIELDS IN SOLAR PROMINENCE FEET

    SciTech Connect

    González, M. J. Martínez; Sainz, R. Manso; Ramos, A. Asensio; Beck, C.; Díaz, A. J.

    2015-03-20

    Solar prominences are clouds of cool plasma levitating above the solar surface and insulated from the million-degree corona by magnetic fields. They form in regions of complex magnetic topology, characterized by non-potential fields, which can evolve abruptly, disintegrating the prominence and ejecting magnetized material into the heliosphere. However, their physics is not yet fully understood because mapping such complex magnetic configurations and their evolution is extremely challenging, and must often be guessed by proxy from photometric observations. Using state-of-the-art spectro-polarimetric data, we reconstruct the structure of the magnetic field in a prominence. We find that prominence feet harbor helical magnetic fields connecting the prominence to the solar surface below.

  4. Muscle Trigger Points and Pressure Pain Sensitivity Maps of the Feet in Women with Fibromyalgia Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Tornero-Caballero, Maria C; Salom-Moreno, Jaime; Cigarán-Méndez, Margarita; Morales-Cabezas, Matilde; Madeleine, Pascal; Fernández-de-Las-Peñas, César

    2016-10-01

    OBJECTIVE : To investigate the presence of trigger points (TrPs) in feet musculature and topographical pressure sensitivity maps of the feet as well as the relationship between TrPs, pressure pain maps, and clinical variables in women with fibromyalgia (FMS). METHODS : Fifty-one FMS women and 24 comparable healthy women participated. TrPs within the flexor hallucis brevis, adductor hallucis, dorsal interossei, extensor digitorum brevis, and quadratus plantae, as well as external and internal gastrocnemius, were explored. Pressure pain thresholds (PPTs) were assessed in a blind manner over seven locations on each foot. Topographical pressure sensitivity maps of the plantar region were generated using the averaged PPT of each location. RESULTS : The prevalence rate of foot pain was 63% (n = 32). The number of active TrPs for each FMS woman with foot pain was 5 ± 1.5 without any latent TrPs. Women with FMS without foot pain and healthy controls had only latent TrPs (2.2 ± 0.8 and 1.5 ± 1.3, respectively). Active TrPs in the flexor hallucis brevis and adductor hallucis muscles were the most prevalent. Topographical pressure pain sensitivity maps revealed that FMS women with foot pain had lower PPT than FMS women without pain and healthy controls, and higher PPT on the calcaneus bone (P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS : The presence of foot pain in women with FMS is high. The referred pain elicited by active TrPs in the foot muscles reproduced the symptoms in these patients. FMS women suffering foot pain showed higher pressure hypersensitivity in the plantar region than those FMS women without pain.

  5. An increased fluid intake leads to feet swelling in 100-km ultra-marathoners - an observational field study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background An association between fluid intake and changes in volumes of the upper and lower limb has been described in 100-km ultra-marathoners. The purpose of the present study was (i) to investigate the association between fluid intake and a potential development of peripheral oedemas leading to an increase of the feet volume in 100-km ultra-marathoners and (ii) to evaluate a possible association between the changes in plasma sodium concentration ([Na+]) and changes in feet volume. Methods In seventy-six 100-km ultra-marathoners, body mass, plasma [Na+], haematocrit and urine specific gravity were determined pre- and post-race. Fluid intake and the changes of volume of the feet were measured where the changes of volume of the feet were estimated using plethysmography. Results Body mass decreased by 1.8 kg (2.4%) (p < 0.0001); plasma [Na+] increased by 1.2% (p < 0.0001). Haematocrit decreased (p = 0.0005). The volume of the feet remained unchanged (p > 0.05). Plasma volume and urine specific gravity increased (p < 0.0001). Fluid intake was positively related to the change in the volume of the feet (r = 0.54, p < 0.0001) and negatively to post-race plasma [Na+] (r = -0.28, p = 0.0142). Running speed was negatively related to both fluid intake (r = -0.33, p = 0.0036) and the change in feet volume (r = -0.23, p = 0.0236). The change in the volume of the feet was negatively related to the change in plasma [Na+] (r = -0.26, p = 0.0227). The change in body mass was negatively related to both post-race plasma [Na+] (r = -0.28, p = 0.0129) and running speed (r = -0.34, p = 0.0028). Conclusions An increase in feet volume after a 100-km ultra-marathon was due to an increased fluid intake. PMID:22472466

  6. Use of a novel smart heating sleeping bag to improve wearers’ local thermal comfort in the feet

    PubMed Central

    Song, W. F.; Zhang, C. J.; Lai, D. D.; Wang, F. M.; Kuklane, K.

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have revealed that wearers had low skin temperatures and cold and pain sensations in the feet, when using sleeping bags under defined comfort and limit temperatures. To improve wearers’ local thermal comfort in the feet, a novel heating sleeping bag (i.e., MARHT) was developed by embedding two heating pads into the traditional sleeping bag (i.e., MARCON) in this region. Seven female and seven male volunteers underwent two tests on different days. Each test lasted for three hours and was performed in a climate chamber with a setting temperature deduced from EN 13537 (2012) (for females: comfort temperature of −0.4 °C, and for males: the limit temperature of −6.4 °C). MARHT was found to be effective in maintaining the toe and feet temperatures within the thermoneutral range for both sex groups compared to the linearly decreased temperatures in MARCON during the 3-hour exposure. In addition, wearing MARHT elevated the toe blood flow significantly for most females and all males. Thermal and comfort sensations showed a large improvement in feet and a small to moderate improvement in the whole body for both sex groups in MARHT. It was concluded that MARHT is effective in improving local thermal comfort in the feet. PMID:26759077

  7. Use of a novel smart heating sleeping bag to improve wearers’ local thermal comfort in the feet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, W. F.; Zhang, C. J.; Lai, D. D.; Wang, F. M.; Kuklane, K.

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have revealed that wearers had low skin temperatures and cold and pain sensations in the feet, when using sleeping bags under defined comfort and limit temperatures. To improve wearers’ local thermal comfort in the feet, a novel heating sleeping bag (i.e., MARHT) was developed by embedding two heating pads into the traditional sleeping bag (i.e., MARCON) in this region. Seven female and seven male volunteers underwent two tests on different days. Each test lasted for three hours and was performed in a climate chamber with a setting temperature deduced from EN 13537 (2012) (for females: comfort temperature of ‑0.4 °C, and for males: the limit temperature of ‑6.4 °C). MARHT was found to be effective in maintaining the toe and feet temperatures within the thermoneutral range for both sex groups compared to the linearly decreased temperatures in MARCON during the 3-hour exposure. In addition, wearing MARHT elevated the toe blood flow significantly for most females and all males. Thermal and comfort sensations showed a large improvement in feet and a small to moderate improvement in the whole body for both sex groups in MARHT. It was concluded that MARHT is effective in improving local thermal comfort in the feet.

  8. Use of a novel smart heating sleeping bag to improve wearers' local thermal comfort in the feet.

    PubMed

    Song, W F; Zhang, C J; Lai, D D; Wang, F M; Kuklane, K

    2016-01-13

    Previous studies have revealed that wearers had low skin temperatures and cold and pain sensations in the feet, when using sleeping bags under defined comfort and limit temperatures. To improve wearers' local thermal comfort in the feet, a novel heating sleeping bag (i.e., MARHT) was developed by embedding two heating pads into the traditional sleeping bag (i.e., MARCON) in this region. Seven female and seven male volunteers underwent two tests on different days. Each test lasted for three hours and was performed in a climate chamber with a setting temperature deduced from EN 13537 (2012) (for females: comfort temperature of -0.4 °C, and for males: the limit temperature of -6.4 °C). MARHT was found to be effective in maintaining the toe and feet temperatures within the thermoneutral range for both sex groups compared to the linearly decreased temperatures in MARCON during the 3-hour exposure. In addition, wearing MARHT elevated the toe blood flow significantly for most females and all males. Thermal and comfort sensations showed a large improvement in feet and a small to moderate improvement in the whole body for both sex groups in MARHT. It was concluded that MARHT is effective in improving local thermal comfort in the feet.

  9. In Brief: Scale model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Here's one for Guinness or maybe Ripley: The Worlds's largest scale model of the solar system begins at a museum in Peoria, Ill., and extends geographically as far away as Ecuador and the South Pole. In the model, which was developed by the museum's deputy director Sheldon Schafer, 42 feet equal about 1 million miles. The Sun, which is 36-feet wide, is painted on the dome of the Lakeview Museum's planetarium in Peoria. Mercury, which is 1.5 inches across, can be found at a nearby store; Venus sits in a local bank lobby; Earth is lodged at a gas station; and Mars at a radio station. "The idea is that people will encounter a little bit of astronomy in the walks of their daily lives," Schafer says.

  10. In Brief: Scale model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Here's one for Guinness or maybe Ripley: The Worlds's largest scale model of the solar system begins at a museum in Peoria, Ill., and extends geographically as far away as Ecuador and the South Pole. In the model, which was developed by the museum's deputy director Sheldon Schafer, 42 feet equal about 1 million miles. The Sun, which is 36-feet wide, is painted on the dome of the Lakeview Museum's planetarium in Peoria. Mercury, which is 1.5 inches across, can be found at a nearby store; Venus sits in a local bank lobby; Earth is lodged at a gas station; and Mars at a radio station. “The idea is that people will encounter a little bit of astronomy in the walks of their daily lives,” Schafer says.

  11. Elastic-Plastic Nonlinear Response of a Space Shuttle External Tank Stringer. Part 1; Stringer-Feet Imperfections and Assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knight, Norman F., Jr.; Song, Kyongchan; Elliott, Kenny B.; Raju, Ivatury S.; Warren, Jerry E.

    2012-01-01

    Elastic-plastic, large-deflection nonlinear stress analyses are performed for the external hat-shaped stringers (or stiffeners) on the intertank portion of the Space Shuttle s external tank. These stringers are subjected to assembly strains when the stringers are initially installed on an intertank panel. Four different stringer-feet configurations including the baseline flat-feet, the heels-up, the diving-board, and the toes-up configurations are considered. The assembly procedure is analytically simulated for each of these stringer configurations. The location, size, and amplitude of the strain field associated with the stringer assembly are sensitive to the assumed geometry and assembly procedure. The von Mises stress distributions from these simulations indicate that localized plasticity will develop around the first eight fasteners for each stringer-feet configuration examined. However, only the toes-up configuration resulted in high assembly hoop strains.

  12. The effect that energy storage and return feet have on the propulsion of the body: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Crimin, Anthony; McGarry, Anthony; Harris, Elena Jane; Solomonidis, Stephan Emanuel

    2014-09-01

    A variety of energy storage and return prosthetic feet are currently available for use within lower limb prostheses. Designs claim to provide a beneficial energy return during push-off, but the extent to which this occurs remains disputed. Techniques currently used to measure energy storage, dissipation and return within the structure of the prosthetic foot are debatable, with limited evidence to support substantial elastic energy storage and return from existing designs. The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of energy storage and return foot designs through considering the ankle power during push-off and the effect on body centre of mass propulsion. To achieve this aim, the gait patterns of six trans-tibial prosthetic users wearing different designs of energy storage and return feet were analysed while ascending a ramp. Three examples of energy storage and return feet (suitable for moderate activity) were selected and randomly evaluated: the Blatchford's Epirus, Össur Assure and College Park Tribute feet. The power at the anatomical and mechanical ankle joints was integrated to evaluate the work done over the gait cycle. The direction of the inertial force, and therefore propulsion of the body centre of mass, was used to indicate the effect of the energy return by the energy storage and return feet. Results indicate that although energy storage and return feet may provide energy return, the work done around the prosthetic ankle indicates net power absorption. Therefore, the prosthetic limb is unable to contribute to the body centre of mass propulsion to the same extent as the biological limb.

  13. Influence of Knee-to-Feet Jump Training on Vertical Jump and Hang Clean Performance.

    PubMed

    Stark, Laura; Pickett, Karla; Bird, Michael; King, Adam C

    2016-11-01

    Stark, L, Pickett, K, Bird, M, and King, AC. Influence of knee-to-feet jump training on vertical jump and hang clean performance. J Strength Cond Res 30(11): 3084-3089, 2016-From a motor learning perspective, the practice/training environment can result in positive, negative, or neutral transfer to the testing conditions. The purpose of this study was to examine the training effect of a novel movement (knee-to-feet [K2F] jumps) and whether a 6-week training program induced a positive transfer effect to other power-related movements (vertical jump and hang clean [HC]). Twenty-six intercollegiate athletes from power-emphasized sports were paired and counter-balanced into a control (i.e., maintained their respective sport-specific lifting regimen) or an experimental group (i.e., completed a 6-week progressive training program of K2F jumps in addition to respective lifting regimen). A pre- and posttest design was used to investigate the effect of training on K2F jump height and transfer effect to vertical jump height (VJH) and 2-repetition maximum (RM) HC performance. A significant increase in K2F jump height was found for the experimental group. Vertical jump height significantly increased from pre- to posttest but no group or interaction (group × time) effect was found, and there were nonsignificant differences for HC. Posttest data showed significant correlations between all pairs of the selected exercises with the highest correlation between K2F jump height and VJ H (R = 0.40) followed by VJH and 2RM HC (R = 0.38) and 2RM HC and K2F jump height (R = 0.23). The results suggest that K2F jump training induced the desired learning effect but was specific to the movement in that no effect of transfer occurred to the other power-related movements. This finding is value for strength and condition professionals who design training programs to enhance athletic performance.

  14. A and B preaxial polydactyly with syndactyly of feet and hands in the same person--a case report.

    PubMed

    Gawlikowska-Sroka, A; Tudaj, W; Czerwiński, F

    2009-01-01

    Preaxial polydactyly of the hand is more common than postaxial polydactyly and postaxial polydactyly of the foot is more common than preaxial in white patients. Syndactyly is commonly regarded as next in frequency among the congenital hand deformities. Preaxial polydactyly of the feet and hands and polydactyly type A and B with syndactyly in the same individual is a rare condition. In this work we present this rare disorder in male infant. The physical and X-ray examinations showed preaxial polydactyly type A of both hands and A and B polydactyly with syndactyly of feet.

  15. Endocrinology and the arts at the feet of the dancing Lord: Parathyroid hormone resistance in an Indian icon

    PubMed Central

    Seshadri, Krishna G.

    2014-01-01

    The dance of Siva has a cosmic appeal. Nowhere has this dance been crystallised in its pristine form as in the Nataraja Bronzes from the Chola period. Mysticism surrounds the dancing form of the Nataraja. But does Nataraja dance upon an endocrine mystery. Does the demon under his feet Apasmara literally forgetfulness or epilepsy have an endocrine disorder. The short limbed stocky eye popping dwarf with possible mental retardation with a name that suggests epilepsy throws open a host of endocrine diagnoses. From cretinisim to the original descriptions of pseudohypoparathyroidism here is one view of the medical mystery under Shiva's dancing feet. PMID:24741522

  16. Role of arm motion in feet-in-place balance recovery.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Kuangyou B; Wang, Kuan-Mao; Kuo, Shih-Yu

    2015-09-18

    Although considerable arm movements have been observed at loss of balance, research on standing balance focused primarily on the ankle and hip strategies. This study aimed to investigate the effect of arm motion on feet-in-place balance recovery. Participants stood on a single force plate and leaned forward with a straight body posture. They were then released from three forward-lean angles and regained balance without moving their forefeet under arm-swing (AS) and arm-constrained (AC) conditions. Higher success rates and shorter recovery times were found with arm motion under moderate balance perturbations. Recovery time was significantly correlated with peak linear momentum of the arms. Circumduction arm motion caused initial shoulder extension (backward arm movement) to generate reaction forces to pull the body forward, but later forward linear momentum of the arms helped move the whole body backward to avoid forward falling. However, greater lean angles increased difficulty in balance recovery, making the influences of the arms less significant. Since arm motions were observed in all participants with significantly enhanced performance under moderate balance perturbation, it was concluded that moving the arms should also be considered (together with the ankles and hips) as an effective strategy for balance recovery.

  17. Design and Stability Analysis of a 3D Rimless Wheel with Flat Feet and Ankle Springs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narukawa, Terumasa; Takahashi, Masaki; Yoshida, Kazuo

    A two-dimensional rimless wheel provides a simple model of bipedal walking. The motion of the rimless wheel is stable, and this particular property has clarified the fundamental role of a swing leg in planar bipedal walking that addresses the problem of falling forward. In this paper, a three-dimensional rimless wheel is investigated as a simple model of three-dimensional bipedal walking. The 3D rimless wheel model is useful in understanding the essential dynamics of 3D bipedal locomotion. The model consists of two rimless wheels connected by a link at the center of the wheels, and flat feet connected to the spokes with springs. The first numerical stability studies indicated that the motion of the 3D rimless wheel could be unstable; however, numerical simulations and experimental results showed that for a given slope and physical parameters, including the spring constant at the ankles, a stable motion is obtained. This indicates the usefulness of ankle springs in providing stable bipedal locomotion in three-dimensions.

  18. Mechanical analysis of avian feet: multiarticular muscles in grasping and perching

    PubMed Central

    Backus, Spencer B.; Sustaita, Diego; Odhner, Lael U.; Dollar, Aaron M.

    2015-01-01

    The grasping capability of birds' feet is a hallmark of their evolution, but the mechanics of avian foot function are not well understood. Two evolutionary trends that contribute to the mechanical complexity of the avian foot are the variation in the relative lengths of the phalanges and the subdivision and variation of the digital flexor musculature observed among taxa. We modelled the grasping behaviour of a simplified bird foot in response to the downward and upward forces imparted by carrying and perching tasks, respectively. Specifically, we compared the performance of various foot geometries performing these tasks when actuated by distally inserted flexors only, versus by both distally inserted and proximally inserted flexors. Our analysis demonstrates that most species possess relative phalanx lengths that are conducive to grasps actuated only by a single distally inserted tendon per digit. Furthermore, proximally inserted flexors are often required during perching, but the distally inserted flexors are sufficient when grasping and carrying objects. These results are reflected in differences in the relative development of proximally and distally inserted digital flexor musculature among ‘perching’ and ‘grasping’ taxa. Thus, our results shed light on the relative roles of variation in phalanx length and digit flexor muscle distribution in an integrative, mechanical context. PMID:26064598

  19. High altitude dives from 7000 to 14,200 feet in the Himalayas.

    PubMed

    Sahni, T K; John, M J; Dhall, A; Chatterjee, A K

    1991-07-01

    Indian Navy divers carried out no-decompression dives at altitudes of 7000 to 14,200 ft (2134-4328 m) in the Nilgiris and Himalayas from May to July 1988. Seventy-eight dives on air and 22 dives on oxygen were carried out at various altitudes. The final dives were at Lake Pangong Tso (4328 m) in Ladakh, Himalayas, to a maximum of 140 feet of sea water (fsw) [42.6 meters of sea water (msw)] equivalent ocean depth in minimum water temperature of 2 degrees C. Oxygen diving at 14,200 ft (4328 m) was not successful. Aspects considered were altitude adaptation, diminished air pressure diving, hypothermia, and remote area survival. Depths at altitude were converted to depths at sea level and were applied to the Royal Navy air tables. Altitude-related manifestations, hypoxia, hypothermia, suspected oxygen toxicity, and equipment failure were observed. It is concluded that stress is due to effects of altitude and cold on man and equipment, as well as changes in diving procedures when diving at high altitudes. Equivalent air depths when applied to Royal Navy tables could be considered a safe method for diving at altitudes.

  20. Ultrastructure of sea urchin tube feet. Evidence for connective tissue involvement in motor control.

    PubMed

    Florey, E; Cahill, M A

    1977-02-09

    An analysis of the ultrastructure of the tube feet of three species of sea urchins (Strongylocentrotus franciscanus, Arbacia lixula and Echinus esculentus) revealed that the smooth muscle, although known to be cholinoceptive, receives no motor innervation. The muscle fibers are attached to a double layer of circular and longitudinal connective tissue which surrounds the muscle layer and contains numerous bundles of collagen fibers. On its outside, the connective tissue cylinder is invested by a basal lamina of the outer epithelium to which numerous nerve terminals are attached. These are part of a nerve plexus which surrounds the connective tissue cylinder. The plexus itself is an extension of a longitudinal nerve that extends the whole length of the tube foot. It is composed of axons, but nerve cell bodies and synapses are conspicuously lacking, suggesting that the axons and terminals derive from cells of the radial nerve. Processes of the epithelial cells penetrate the nerve plexus and attach to the basal lamina. There is no evidence that the epithelial cells function as sensory cells. On the basis of supporting evidence it is suggested that the transmitter released by the nerve terminals diffuses to the muscle cells over a distance of several microns and in doing so affects the mechanical properties of the connective tissue.

  1. Effect of feet hyperpronation on pelvic alignment in a standing position.

    PubMed

    Khamis, Sam; Yizhar, Ziva

    2007-01-01

    Hyperpronation may cause malalignment of the lower extremity, frequently leading to structural and functional deficits both in standing and walking. Our aim was to study the effect of induced foot hyperpronation on pelvic and lower limb alignment while standing. Thirty-five healthy subjects were requested to remain in a natural standing position for 20s in four different modes: feet flat on the floor, and on wedges angled at 10 degrees, 15 degrees and 20 degrees, designed to induce hyperpronation. Sequencing was random, repeated three times and captured by eight computerized cameras using the VICON three-dimensional motion analysis system. We found that standing on the wedges at various angles, induced hyperpronation, with 41% to 90% of the changes attributable to the intervention. In addition, a statistically significant increase (paired t-test) in internal shank rotation (p<0.0001), internal hip rotation (p<0.0001) and anterior pelvic tilt (p<0.0001) was identified. A strong correlation was found between segmental alignment in every two consecutive modes at all levels (r=0.612-0.985; p<0.0001). These findings suggest that alignment of the lower extremity up to the pelvic girdle, can be altered, due to forces acting on the foot. Interaction between the foot and pelvis occurs in a kinematic chain reaction manner. Although this study was limited to healthy subjects, clinicians should be aware that when addressing pelvis and lower back dysfunction, foot alignment should be examined as a contributing factor.

  2. The feet have it: local biological motion cues trigger reflexive attentional orienting in the brain.

    PubMed

    Wang, Li; Yang, Xiaoying; Shi, Jinfu; Jiang, Yi

    2014-01-01

    Most vertebrates, humans included, have a primitive visual system extremely sensitive to the motion of biological entities. Most previous studies have examined the global aspects of biological motion perception, but local motion processing has received much less attention. Here we provide direct psychophysical and electrophysiological evidence that human observers are intrinsically tuned to the characteristics of local biological motion cues independent of global configuration. Using a modified central cueing paradigm, we show that observers involuntarily orient their attention towards the walking direction of feet motion sequences, which triggers an early directing attention negativity (EDAN) in the occipito-parietal region 100-160ms after the stimulus onset. Notably, such effects are sensitive to the orientation of the local cues and are independent of whether the observers are aware of the biological nature of the motion. Our findings unambiguously demonstrate the automatic processing of local biological motion without explicit recognition. More importantly, with the discovery that local biological motion signals modulate attention, we highlight the functional importance of such processing in the brain.

  3. Using differential reinforcement to improve equine welfare: shaping appropriate truck loading and feet handling.

    PubMed

    Slater, Charlotte; Dymond, Simon

    2011-03-01

    Inappropriate behavior during common handling procedures with horses is often subject to aversive treatment. The present study replicated and extended previous findings using differential reinforcement to shape appropriate equine handling behavior. In Study 1, a multiple baseline across subjects design was used with four horses to determine first the effects of shaping target-touch responses and then successive approximations of full truck loading under continuous and intermittent schedules of reinforcement. Full loading responses were shaped and maintained in all four horses and occurrences of inappropriate behaviors reduced to zero. Generalization of the loading response was also observed to both a novel trainer and trailer. In Study 2, a changing criterion design was used to increase the duration of feet handling with one horse. The horse's responding reached the terminal duration criterion of 1min and showed consistent generalization and one-week maintenance. Overall, the results of both studies support the use of applied equine training systems based on positive reinforcement for increasing appropriate behavior during common handling procedures.

  4. Treatment of sandal burns of the feet in children in a moist environment.

    PubMed

    Shakirov, Babur M

    2014-05-01

    Burns to children's feet are often due to scalds, from hot tap water, as an infant's skin is thinner and hence more susceptible to a full-thickness injury. In Central Asia, and particularly in Uzbekistan, many episodes of burns take place at homes because of using sandal heaters. In the case of sandal burns of the foot, it usually is not only skin that is injured but also underlying tissues: subcutaneous fat, fasciae, muscles and even bones. Many controlled studies have confirmed that wounds heal more readily in a moist, physiological environment. After performing the toilet of burn wounds of the foot, we applied Dermazin cream on the affected areas and then the foot was placed onto a polyethylene packet of large size and fixed by a bandage. Measurement of wound water evaporation was performed every day post-burn. Surgery was usually performed 15-17 days after burn by applying a perforated skin graft or a 0.2-0.3-mm-thick non-perforated skin graft. The procedures helped to improve the general condition of patients, shortened their stay in hospital and also reduced expenses and lessened joint deformities and contracture deformities.

  5. Neuroanatomy of the tube feet and tentacles in Holothuria glaberrima (Holothuroidea, Echinodermata)

    PubMed Central

    Díaz-Balzac, Carlos A.; Abreu-Arbelo, José E.

    2010-01-01

    Echinoderms are a key group in understanding the evolution of the nervous system in the Metazoa. Remarkably, little is known about echinoderm neurobiology. The echinoderm podia, which are unique echinoderm modifications and comprise structures responsible for locomotion and feeding, have been largely neglected in nervous system studies. Here, we have applied immunohistological approaches using different neuronal markers to describe the neuroanatomy of the holothurian podia and its relation to the muscular component. We show, using the sea cucumber Holothuria glaberrima (Selenka, 1867), the direct innervation of the podia by the ectoneural component of the nervous system, as well as the existence of a connection between the nervous system components in the main nerves, the muscle, and the connective tissue. These findings confirm the ectoneural origin of the tube feet’s main nervous system and demonstrate its neuroanatomic complexity. We also show the presence of fibers and neurons within the tube feet mesothelium and connective tissue. The study of these simple structures will help us elucidate the echinoderms’ neuromuscular circuit and their evolutionary relationships. PMID:20461218

  6. Difference in static and dynamic stability between flexible flatfeet and neutral feet.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jeong-Ah; Lim, One-Bin; Yi, Chung-Hwi

    2015-02-01

    Different postural stability may be a contributor to secondary injuries in individuals with flexible flatfeet (FF) compared to those with neutral feet (NF). However, the differences between static and dynamic stability of FF and NF have not been examined. This study compared the static and dynamic stability of subjects with FF and NF and investigated the relationship between static and dynamic stability. Twenty-eight subjects (14 each in the FF and NF groups) performed three tasks (single leg standing with eyes open, with eyes closed, and the Y balance test). We quantified the center of pressure (COP) speed and Y balance test score (Y score) within the tasks. COP speed was significantly greater in the FF group than in the NF group under both conditions (eyes open and closed) and directions (anteroposterior and mediolateral). Y scores did not differ significantly between the two groups. No significant relationship was observed between the COP speed and Y score in either group. These results show that individuals with FF have different static stabilities, but not dynamic stabilities, compared with those with NF. This might indicate the absence of a relationship between static and dynamic stabilities.

  7. 47 CFR 17.10 - Antenna structures over 304.80 meters (1,000 feet) in height.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Antenna structures over 304.80 meters (1,000... § 17.10 Antenna structures over 304.80 meters (1,000 feet) in height. Where one or more antenna farm... of an existing station proposing the erection of an antenna structure over 304.80 meters (1,000...

  8. 47 CFR 17.10 - Antenna structures over 304.80 meters (1,000 feet) in height.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Antenna structures over 304.80 meters (1,000... § 17.10 Antenna structures over 304.80 meters (1,000 feet) in height. Where one or more antenna farm... of an existing station proposing the erection of an antenna structure over 304.80 meters (1,000...

  9. 47 CFR 17.10 - Antenna structures over 304.80 meters (1,000 feet) in height.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Antenna structures over 304.80 meters (1,000... § 17.10 Antenna structures over 304.80 meters (1,000 feet) in height. Where one or more antenna farm... of an existing station proposing the erection of an antenna structure over 304.80 meters (1,000...

  10. 47 CFR 17.10 - Antenna structures over 304.80 meters (1,000 feet) in height.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Antenna structures over 304.80 meters (1,000... § 17.10 Antenna structures over 304.80 meters (1,000 feet) in height. Where one or more antenna farm... of an existing station proposing the erection of an antenna structure over 304.80 meters (1,000...

  11. 47 CFR 17.10 - Antenna structures over 304.80 meters (1,000 feet) in height.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Antenna structures over 304.80 meters (1,000... § 17.10 Antenna structures over 304.80 meters (1,000 feet) in height. Where one or more antenna farm... of an existing station proposing the erection of an antenna structure over 304.80 meters (1,000...

  12. Hydrologic effects of annually diverting 131,000 acre-feet of water from Dillon Reservoir, central Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Alley, William M.; Bauer, D.P.; Veenhuis, J.E.; Brennan, Robert

    1979-01-01

    Because of the increased demands for water in eastern Colorado, principally in the urbanizing Denver metropolitan area, increased diversions of water from Dillon Reservoir are planned. Estimates of end-of-month storage in Dillon Reservoir, assuming the reservoir was in place and 131,000 acre-feet of water were diverted from the reservoir each year, were reconstructed by mass balance for the 1931-77 water years. Based on the analysis, the annual maximum end-of-month drawdown below the elevation at full storage would have averaged 54 feet. The maximum end-of-month drawdown below the elevation at full storage would have been 171 feet. The mean-annual discharge-weighted dissolved-solids concentrations in the Colorado River near Glenwood Springs and Cameo, Colo., and Cisco, Utah, for the 1942-77 water years, were computed assuming an annual diversion of 131,000 acre-feet of water from Dillon Reservoir. The average increases in the dissolved-solids concentrations with the 131 ,000-acre-foot diversion were 15 to 16 milligrams per liter at the three sites. (Woodard-USGS)

  13. Associations between oxidized LDL to LDL ratio, HDL and vascular calcification in the feet of hemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    An, Won Suk; Kim, Seong-Eun; Kim, Ki-Hyun; Bae, Hae-Rahn; Rha, Seo-Hee

    2009-01-01

    Cardiovascular mortality is associated with vascular calcification (VC) in hemodialysis (HD) patients. The present study was designed to find factors related with medial artery calcification on the plain radiography of feet by comparing C-reactive protein (CRP), plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 (PAI-1) and lipid profile including oxidized low density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) and to elucidate associations among these factors in HD patients. Forty-eight HD patients were recruited for this study. VC in the feet was detected in 18 patients (37.5%) among total patients and 12 patients (85.7%) among diabetic patients. Diabetes, cardiovascular disease (CVD), pulse pressure, ox-LDL/LDL were higher and high density lipoprotein (HDL) was lower in patients with VC than in patients without VC. Negative associations were found between HDL and CRP, PAI-1. PAI-1 had positive association with ox-LDL/LDL. History of CVD was the only determinant of vascular calcification on the plain radiography of feet. Ox-LDL/LDL, HDL, CRP, and PAI-1 were closely related with one another in HD patients. History of CVD is the most important factor associated with the presence of VC and low HDL and relatively high oxidized LDL/LDL ratio may affect VC formation on the plain radiography in the feet of HD patients.

  14. 15 CFR Appendix B to Subpart M of... - Zones Within the Sanctuary Where Overflights Below 1000 Feet Are Prohibited

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Zones Within the Sanctuary Where Overflights Below 1000 Feet Are Prohibited B Appendix B to Subpart M of Part 922 Commerce and Foreign Trade... Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary Pt. 922, Subpt. M, App. B Appendix B to Subpart M of Part...

  15. 15 CFR Appendix B to Subpart M of... - Zones Within the Sanctuary Where Overflights Below 1000 Feet Are Prohibited

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Zones Within the Sanctuary Where Overflights Below 1000 Feet Are Prohibited B Appendix B to Subpart M of Part 922 Commerce and Foreign Trade... Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary Pt. 922, Subpt. M, App. B Appendix B to Subpart M of Part...

  16. 49 CFR 228.103 - Approval procedure: construction within one-half mile (2,640 feet) (804 meters).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... RAILROAD EMPLOYEES; RECORDKEEPING AND REPORTING; SLEEPING QUARTERS Construction of Railroad-Provided Sleeping Quarters § 228.103 Approval procedure: construction within one-half mile (2,640 feet) (804 meters). (a) A common carrier that has developed plans for the construction or reconstruction of...

  17. 49 CFR 228.103 - Approval procedure: construction within one-half mile (2,640 feet) (804 meters).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... RAILROAD EMPLOYEES; RECORDKEEPING AND REPORTING; SLEEPING QUARTERS Construction of Railroad-Provided Sleeping Quarters § 228.103 Approval procedure: construction within one-half mile (2,640 feet) (804 meters). (a) A common carrier that has developed plans for the construction or reconstruction of...

  18. 49 CFR 228.103 - Approval procedure: construction within one-half mile (2,640 feet) (804 meters).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... RAILROAD EMPLOYEES; RECORDKEEPING AND REPORTING; SLEEPING QUARTERS Construction of Railroad-Provided Sleeping Quarters § 228.103 Approval procedure: construction within one-half mile (2,640 feet) (804 meters). (a) A common carrier that has developed plans for the construction or reconstruction of...

  19. 46 CFR 177.315 - Vessels of not more than 19.8 meters (65 feet) in length carrying not more than 12 passengers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Vessels of not more than 19.8 meters (65 feet) in length... Structure § 177.315 Vessels of not more than 19.8 meters (65 feet) in length carrying not more than 12 passengers. The scantlings for a vessel of not more than 19.8 meters (65 feet) in length carrying not...

  20. 46 CFR 177.315 - Vessels of not more than 19.8 meters (65 feet) in length carrying not more than 12 passengers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Vessels of not more than 19.8 meters (65 feet) in length... Structure § 177.315 Vessels of not more than 19.8 meters (65 feet) in length carrying not more than 12 passengers. The scantlings for a vessel of not more than 19.8 meters (65 feet) in length carrying not...

  1. 46 CFR 122.282 - Logbook for vessels of more than 19.8 meters (65 feet) in length with overnight accommodations...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Logbook for vessels of more than 19.8 meters (65 feet... Voyage Records § 122.282 Logbook for vessels of more than 19.8 meters (65 feet) in length with overnight..., the owner, managing operator, or master of a vessel of more than 19.8 meters (65 feet) in length...

  2. 46 CFR 177.315 - Vessels of not more than 19.8 meters (65 feet) in length carrying not more than 12 passengers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Vessels of not more than 19.8 meters (65 feet) in length... Structure § 177.315 Vessels of not more than 19.8 meters (65 feet) in length carrying not more than 12 passengers. The scantlings for a vessel of not more than 19.8 meters (65 feet) in length carrying not...

  3. 46 CFR 122.282 - Logbook for vessels of more than 19.8 meters (65 feet) in length with overnight accommodations...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Logbook for vessels of more than 19.8 meters (65 feet... Voyage Records § 122.282 Logbook for vessels of more than 19.8 meters (65 feet) in length with overnight..., the owner, managing operator, or master of a vessel of more than 19.8 meters (65 feet) in length...

  4. 46 CFR 122.282 - Logbook for vessels of more than 19.8 meters (65 feet) in length with overnight accommodations...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Logbook for vessels of more than 19.8 meters (65 feet... Voyage Records § 122.282 Logbook for vessels of more than 19.8 meters (65 feet) in length with overnight..., the owner, managing operator, or master of a vessel of more than 19.8 meters (65 feet) in length...

  5. 46 CFR 122.282 - Logbook for vessels of more than 19.8 meters (65 feet) in length with overnight accommodations...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Logbook for vessels of more than 19.8 meters (65 feet... Voyage Records § 122.282 Logbook for vessels of more than 19.8 meters (65 feet) in length with overnight..., the owner, managing operator, or master of a vessel of more than 19.8 meters (65 feet) in length...

  6. 46 CFR 177.315 - Vessels of not more than 19.8 meters (65 feet) in length carrying not more than 12 passengers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Vessels of not more than 19.8 meters (65 feet) in length... Structure § 177.315 Vessels of not more than 19.8 meters (65 feet) in length carrying not more than 12 passengers. The scantlings for a vessel of not more than 19.8 meters (65 feet) in length carrying not...

  7. 46 CFR 122.282 - Logbook for vessels of more than 19.8 meters (65 feet) in length with overnight accommodations...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Logbook for vessels of more than 19.8 meters (65 feet... Voyage Records § 122.282 Logbook for vessels of more than 19.8 meters (65 feet) in length with overnight..., the owner, managing operator, or master of a vessel of more than 19.8 meters (65 feet) in length...

  8. 46 CFR 177.315 - Vessels of not more than 19.8 meters (65 feet) in length carrying not more than 12 passengers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Vessels of not more than 19.8 meters (65 feet) in length... Structure § 177.315 Vessels of not more than 19.8 meters (65 feet) in length carrying not more than 12 passengers. The scantlings for a vessel of not more than 19.8 meters (65 feet) in length carrying not...

  9. Metabolic and Biomechanical Measures of Gait Efficiency of Three Multi-Axial, Vertical Shock and Energy Storing-Return Prosthetic Feet During Simple and Complex Mobility Activities

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-12-01

    three different multi-function prosthetic feet (vertical shock, torsion control, multiaxial and energy storing). At this time, the study is still...function prosthetic feet (vertical shock, torsion control, multiaxial and energy storing). Subjects will be recruited based on a history of active...bioenergetic differences exist between feet conditions during the performance of a field Obstacle Course in total and per obstacle. Aim 5: To

  10. A comparison of foot kinematics in people with normal- and flat-arched feet using the Oxford Foot Model.

    PubMed

    Levinger, Pazit; Murley, George S; Barton, Christian J; Cotchett, Matthew P; McSweeney, Simone R; Menz, Hylton B

    2010-10-01

    Foot posture is thought to influence predisposition to overuse injuries of the lower limb. Although the mechanisms underlying this proposed relationship are unclear, it is thought that altered foot kinematics may play a role. Therefore, this study was designed to investigate differences in foot motion between people with normal- and flat-arched feet using the Oxford Foot Model (OFM). Foot posture in 19 participants was documented as normal-arched (n=10) or flat-arched (n=9) using a foot screening protocol incorporating measurements from weightbearing antero-posterior and lateral foot radiographs. Differences between the groups in triplanar motion of the tibia, rearfoot and forefoot during walking were evaluated using a three-dimensional motion analysis system incorporating a multi-segment foot model (OFM). Participants with flat-arched feet demonstrated greater peak forefoot plantar-flexion (-13.7° ± 5.6° vs -6.5° ± 3.7°; p=0.004), forefoot abduction (-12.9° ± 6.9° vs -1.8° ± 6.3°; p=0.002), and rearfoot internal rotation (10.6° ± 7.5° vs -0.2°± 9.9°; p=0.018) compared to those with normal-arched feet. Additionally, participants with flat-arched feet demonstrated decreased peak forefoot adduction (-7.0° ± 9.2° vs 5.6° ± 7.3°; p=0.004) and a trend towards increased rearfoot eversion (-5.8° ± 4.4° vs -2.5° ± 2.6°; p=0.06). These findings support the notion that flat-arched feet have altered motion associated with greater pronation during gait; factors that may increase the risk of overuse injury.

  11. OnabotulinumtoxinA for Treatment of Moderate to Severe Crow's Feet Lines: A Review.

    PubMed

    Carruthers, Alastair; Bruce, Suzanne; Cox, Sue Ellen; Kane, Michael A C; Lee, Elisabeth; Gallagher, Conor J

    2016-05-01

    Lateral canthal lines or crow's feet lines (CFL) may be treated with onabotulinumtoxinA. We identified several key concepts important to understanding the use of onabotulinumtoxinA for treatment of moderate-to-severe CFL. To contextualize and integrate data on the recommended dose and injection patterns of onabotulinumtoxinA for treatment of CFL, we summarized data from pivotal clinical studies in the development of onabotulinumtoxinA for treatment of CFL. Data from key studies of onabotulinumtoxinA for CFL are presented. The efficacy and safety of onabotulinumtoxinA treatment of moderate-to-severe CFL were evaluated in 2 randomized, controlled phase 3 studies comprising 1362 patients. The 24U total dose of onabotulinumtoxinA used in these studies was based on a phase 2 dose-ranging trial. Two injection patterns were available to investigators; each involved 3 injection sites per side in the lateral orbicularis oculi muscle. A cross-sectional analysis of photographs from the phase 3 trials provided detailed information on the frequency of 4 distinct CFL patterns. In the primary efficacy analysis for each phase 3 trial, CFL responder rates were significantly greater with onabotulinumtoxinA vs placebo at day 30 (P< .001). Eyelid edema (1%) was the only adverse event reported in ≥ 1% of patients receiving onabotulinumtoxinA, occurring more frequently with onabotulinumtoxinA than with placebo. The studies showed that onabotulinumtoxinA is effective and generally well-tolerated for CFL treatment. Additionally, 2 different injection patterns allow physicians to tailor treatment based on a patient's CFL pattern.

  12. The use of footprint contact index II for classification of flat feet in a Nigerian population.

    PubMed

    Didia, B C; Omu, E T; Obuoforibo, A A

    1987-04-01

    The objective index as developed by Qaura, Deodhar, and Jit, in 1980 was used to estimate the incidence of flat foot (pes planus) in 990 school pupils (532 females and 458 males) between the ages of 5 and 14 years. The ratio of contact area to the total area of the middle of the footprint (contact index 1) (4/10), usually measured with a planimeter, is accepted as the true representative of the condition of arches. In this field study, contact index II (ratio of contact width to the total width of the foot) which is simple, reliable, and correlates with contact index I has been used to assess flat foot. The mean for the contact index and standard deviation have been calculated. Feet have been considered as normal up to 1 SD around the mean value of the index and values greater or lesser than this have been considered abnormal. Furthermore, mean +/- 1 SD to 2 SD has been considered as possible flat foot, whereas mean +/- 3 SD and above has been taken as definite flat foot. On the whole, bilateral flat foot is not common among children of school age in Port Harcourt (0.60%). It is, however, more common in females (0.75%) than males (0.44%). Unilateral flat foot (2.22%) is found to be more common than bilateral flat foot. Early introduction to the use of shoes may predispose to flat foot. We were not in a position to say if any of the subjects found with flat foot would have a painful foot.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  13. Lucy's Flat Feet: The Relationship between the Ankle and Rearfoot Arching in Early Hominins

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background In the Plio-Pleistocene, the hominin foot evolved from a grasping appendage to a stiff, propulsive lever. Central to this transition was the development of the longitudinal arch, a structure that helps store elastic energy and stiffen the foot during bipedal locomotion. Direct evidence for arch evolution, however, has been somewhat elusive given the failure of soft-tissue to fossilize. Paleoanthropologists have relied on footprints and bony correlates of arch development, though little consensus has emerged as to when the arch evolved. Methodology/Principal Findings Here, we present evidence from radiographs of modern humans (n = 261) that the set of the distal tibia in the sagittal plane, henceforth referred to as the tibial arch angle, is related to rearfoot arching. Non-human primates have a posteriorly directed tibial arch angle, while most humans have an anteriorly directed tibial arch angle. Those humans with a posteriorly directed tibial arch angle (8%) have significantly lower talocalcaneal and talar declination angles, both measures of an asymptomatic flatfoot. Application of these results to the hominin fossil record reveals that a well developed rearfoot arch had evolved in Australopithecus afarensis. However, as in humans today, Australopithecus populations exhibited individual variation in foot morphology and arch development, and “Lucy” (A.L. 288-1), a 3.18 Myr-old female Australopithecus, likely possessed asymptomatic flat feet. Additional distal tibiae from the Plio-Pleistocene show variation in tibial arch angles, including two early Homo tibiae that also have slightly posteriorly directed tibial arch angles. Conclusions/Significance This study finds that the rearfoot arch was present in the genus Australopithecus. However, the female Australopithecus afarensis “Lucy” has an ankle morphology consistent with non-pathological flat-footedness. This study suggests that, as in humans today, there was variation in arch development

  14. Biomechanical characteristics, patient preference and activity level with different prosthetic feet: a randomized double blind trial with laboratory and community testing.

    PubMed

    Raschke, Silvia U; Orendurff, Michael S; Mattie, Johanne L; Kenyon, David E A; Jones, O Yvette; Moe, David; Winder, Lorne; Wong, Angie S; Moreno-Hernández, Ana; Highsmith, M Jason; J Sanderson, David; Kobayashi, Toshiki

    2015-01-02

    Providing appropriate prosthetic feet to those with limb loss is a complex and subjective process influenced by professional judgment and payer guidelines. This study used a small load cell (Europa™) at the base of the socket to measure the sagittal moments during walking with three objective categories of prosthetic feet in eleven individuals with transtibial limb loss with MFCL K2, K3 and K4 functional levels. Forefoot stiffness and hysteresis characteristics defined the three foot categories: Stiff, Intermediate, and Compliant. Prosthetic feet were randomly assigned and blinded from participants and investigators. After laboratory testing, participants completed one week community wear tests followed by a modified prosthetics evaluation questionnaire to determine if a specific category of prosthetic feet was preferred. The Compliant category of prosthetic feet was preferred by the participants (P=0.025) over the Stiff and Intermediate prosthetic feet, and the Compliant and Intermediate feet had 15% lower maximum sagittal moments during walking in the laboratory (P=0.0011) compared to the Stiff feet. The activity level of the participants did not change significantly with any of the wear tests in the community, suggesting that each foot was evaluated over a similar number of steps, but did not inherently increase activity. This is the first randomized double blind study in which prosthetic users have expressed a preference for a specific biomechanical characteristic of prosthetic feet: those with lower peak sagittal moments were preferred, and specifically preferred on slopes, stairs, uneven terrain, and during turns and maneuvering during real world use.

  15. Large Scale Metal Additive Techniques Review

    SciTech Connect

    Nycz, Andrzej; Adediran, Adeola I; Noakes, Mark W; Love, Lonnie J

    2016-01-01

    In recent years additive manufacturing made long strides toward becoming a main stream production technology. Particularly strong progress has been made in large-scale polymer deposition. However, large scale metal additive has not yet reached parity with large scale polymer. This paper is a review study of the metal additive techniques in the context of building large structures. Current commercial devices are capable of printing metal parts on the order of several cubic feet compared to hundreds of cubic feet for the polymer side. In order to follow the polymer progress path several factors are considered: potential to scale, economy, environment friendliness, material properties, feedstock availability, robustness of the process, quality and accuracy, potential for defects, and post processing as well as potential applications. This paper focuses on current state of art of large scale metal additive technology with a focus on expanding the geometric limits.

  16. 46 CFR 116.730 - Crew accommodations on vessels of more than 19.8 meters (65 feet) in length with overnight...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Crew accommodations on vessels of more than 19.8 meters... ARRANGEMENT Crew Spaces § 116.730 Crew accommodations on vessels of more than 19.8 meters (65 feet) in length... more than 19.8 meters (65 feet) in length with overnight accommodations for more than 49...

  17. 46 CFR 116.730 - Crew accommodations on vessels of more than 19.8 meters (65 feet) in length with overnight...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Crew accommodations on vessels of more than 19.8 meters... ARRANGEMENT Crew Spaces § 116.730 Crew accommodations on vessels of more than 19.8 meters (65 feet) in length... more than 19.8 meters (65 feet) in length with overnight accommodations for more than 49...

  18. 46 CFR 116.730 - Crew accommodations on vessels of more than 19.8 meters (65 feet) in length with overnight...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Crew accommodations on vessels of more than 19.8 meters... ARRANGEMENT Crew Spaces § 116.730 Crew accommodations on vessels of more than 19.8 meters (65 feet) in length... more than 19.8 meters (65 feet) in length with overnight accommodations for more than 49...

  19. 46 CFR 120.434 - Lifeboat and liferaft floodlights on vessels of more than 19.8 meters (65 feet) in length with...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... than 19.8 meters (65 feet) in length with overnight accommodations for more than 49 passengers. 120.434... INSTALLATION Lighting Systems § 120.434 Lifeboat and liferaft floodlights on vessels of more than 19.8 meters... than 19.8 meters (65 feet) in length carrying more than 600 passengers or with overnight...

  20. 46 CFR 120.312 - Power sources on vessels of more than 19.8 meters (65 feet) in length carrying more than 600...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Power sources on vessels of more than 19.8 meters (65... of more than 19.8 meters (65 feet) in length carrying more than 600 passengers or with overnight accommodations for more than 49 passengers. A vessel of more than 19.8 meters (65 feet) in length carrying...

  1. 46 CFR 120.434 - Lifeboat and liferaft floodlights on vessels of more than 19.8 meters (65 feet) in length with...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... than 19.8 meters (65 feet) in length with overnight accommodations for more than 49 passengers. 120.434... INSTALLATION Lighting Systems § 120.434 Lifeboat and liferaft floodlights on vessels of more than 19.8 meters... than 19.8 meters (65 feet) in length carrying more than 600 passengers or with overnight...

  2. 46 CFR 120.434 - Lifeboat and liferaft floodlights on vessels of more than 19.8 meters (65 feet) in length with...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... than 19.8 meters (65 feet) in length with overnight accommodations for more than 49 passengers. 120.434... INSTALLATION Lighting Systems § 120.434 Lifeboat and liferaft floodlights on vessels of more than 19.8 meters... than 19.8 meters (65 feet) in length carrying more than 600 passengers or with overnight...

  3. 46 CFR 120.434 - Lifeboat and liferaft floodlights on vessels of more than 19.8 meters (65 feet) in length with...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... than 19.8 meters (65 feet) in length with overnight accommodations for more than 49 passengers. 120.434... INSTALLATION Lighting Systems § 120.434 Lifeboat and liferaft floodlights on vessels of more than 19.8 meters... than 19.8 meters (65 feet) in length carrying more than 600 passengers or with overnight...

  4. 46 CFR 116.730 - Crew accommodations on vessels of more than 19.8 meters (65 feet) in length with overnight...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Crew accommodations on vessels of more than 19.8 meters... ARRANGEMENT Crew Spaces § 116.730 Crew accommodations on vessels of more than 19.8 meters (65 feet) in length... more than 19.8 meters (65 feet) in length with overnight accommodations for more than 49...

  5. 46 CFR 120.434 - Lifeboat and liferaft floodlights on vessels of more than 19.8 meters (65 feet) in length with...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... than 19.8 meters (65 feet) in length with overnight accommodations for more than 49 passengers. 120.434... INSTALLATION Lighting Systems § 120.434 Lifeboat and liferaft floodlights on vessels of more than 19.8 meters... than 19.8 meters (65 feet) in length carrying more than 600 passengers or with overnight...

  6. 46 CFR 120.312 - Power sources on vessels of more than 19.8 meters (65 feet) in length carrying more than 600...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Power sources on vessels of more than 19.8 meters (65... of more than 19.8 meters (65 feet) in length carrying more than 600 passengers or with overnight accommodations for more than 49 passengers. A vessel of more than 19.8 meters (65 feet) in length carrying...

  7. 46 CFR 116.730 - Crew accommodations on vessels of more than 19.8 meters (65 feet) in length with overnight...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Crew accommodations on vessels of more than 19.8 meters... ARRANGEMENT Crew Spaces § 116.730 Crew accommodations on vessels of more than 19.8 meters (65 feet) in length... more than 19.8 meters (65 feet) in length with overnight accommodations for more than 49...

  8. 46 CFR 120.312 - Power sources on vessels of more than 19.8 meters (65 feet) in length carrying more than 600...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Power sources on vessels of more than 19.8 meters (65... of more than 19.8 meters (65 feet) in length carrying more than 600 passengers or with overnight accommodations for more than 49 passengers. A vessel of more than 19.8 meters (65 feet) in length carrying...

  9. Comparison between microprocessor-controlled ankle/foot and conventional prosthetic feet during stair negotiation in people with unilateral transtibial amputation.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Vibhor; Gailey, Robert S; Gaunaurd, Ignacio A; O'Toole, Christopher; Finnieston, Adam A

    2013-01-01

    Contrary to stance-phase dorsiflexion of conventional prosthetic feet, the microprocessor-controlled Proprio foot permits swing-phase dorsiflexion on stairs. The purpose of this study was to compare Symmetry in External Work (SEW) between a microprocessor-controlled foot and conventional prosthetic feet in two groups with unilateral transtibial amputation (Medicare Functional Classification Levels K-Level-2 and K-Level-3) during stair ascent and descent. Ten subjects were evaluated while wearing three conventional prosthetic feet- solid ankle cushion heel (SACH), stationary attachment flexible endoskeleton (SAFE), and Talux-and the Proprio foot using a study socket and were given a 10- to 14-day accommodation period with each foot. Ground reaction forces were collected using F-scan sensors during stair ascent and descent. The SEW between the intact and amputated limbs was calculated for each foot. During stair ascent, the Proprio foot resulted in a higher interlimb symmetry than conventional prosthetic feet, with significant differences between the Pro prio and SACH/SAFE feet. The swing-phase dorsiflexion appeared to promote greater interlimb symmetry because it facilitated forward motion of the body, resulting in a heel-to-toe center of pressure trajectory. During stair descent, all feet had low symmetry without significant differences between feet. The movement strategy used when descending stairs, which is to roll over the edge of a step, had a greater influence on symmetry than the dorsiflexion features of prosthetic feet.

  10. Cloning, Characterization, and Expression Levels of the Nectin Gene from the Tube Feet of the Sea Urchin Paracentrotus Lividus.

    PubMed

    Toubarro, Duarte; Gouveia, Analuce; Ribeiro, Raquel Mesquita; Simões, Nélson; da Costa, Gonçalo; Cordeiro, Carlos; Santos, Romana

    2016-06-01

    Marine bioadhesives perform in ways that manmade products simply cannot match, especially in wet environments. Despite their technological potential, bioadhesive molecular mechanisms are still largely understudied, and sea urchin adhesion is no exception. These animals inhabit wave-swept shores, relying on specialized adhesive organs, tube feet, composed by an adhesive disc and a motile stem. The disc encloses a duo-gland adhesive system, producing adhesive and deadhesive secretions for strong reversible substratum attachment. The disclosure of sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus tube foot disc proteome led to the identification of a secreted adhesion protein, Nectin, never before reported in adult adhesive organs but, that given its adhesive function in eggs/embryos, was pointed out as a putative substratum adhesive protein in adults. To further understand Nectin involvement in sea urchin adhesion, Nectin cDNA was amplified for the first time from P. lividus adhesive organs, showing that not only the known Nectin mRNA, called Nectin-1 (GenBank AJ578435), is expressed in the adults tube feet but also a new mRNA sequence, called Nectin-2 (GenBank KT351732), differing in 15 missense nucleotide substitutions. Nectin genomic DNA was also obtained for the first time, indicating that both Nectin-1 and Nectin-2 derive from a single gene. In addition, expression analysis showed that both Nectins are overexpressed in tube feet discs, its expression being significantly higher in tube feet discs from sea urchins just after collection from the field relative to sea urchin from aquarium. These data further advocate for Nectin involvement in sea urchin reversible adhesion, suggesting that its expression might be regulated according to the hydrodynamic conditions.

  11. Effect of alignment changes on socket reaction moments while walking in transtibial prostheses with energy storage and return feet

    PubMed Central

    Kobayashi, Toshiki; Arabian, Adam K.; Orendurff, Michael S.; Rosenbaum-Chou, Teri G.; Boone, David A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Energy storage and return feet are designed for active amputees. However, little is known about the socket reaction moments in transtibial prostheses with energy storage and return feet. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of alignment changes on the socket reaction moments during gait while using the energy storage and return feet. Methods A Smart Pyramid™ was used to measure the socket reaction moments in 10 subjects with transtibial prostheses while walking under 25 alignment conditions, including a nominal alignment (as defined by conventional clinical methods), as well as angle malalignments of 2°, 4° and 6° (flexion, extension, abduction, and adduction) and translation malalignments of 5mm, 10mm and 15mm (anterior, posterior, lateral, and medial) referenced from the nominal alignment. The socket reaction moments of the nominal alignment were compared with each malalignment. Findings Both coronal and sagittal alignment changes demonstrated systematic effects on the socket reaction moments. In the sagittal plane, angle and translation alignment changes demonstrated significant differences (P<0.05) in the minimum moment, the moment at 45% of stance and the maximum moment for some comparisons. In the coronal plane, angle and translation alignment changes demonstrated significant differences (P<0.05) in the moment at 30% and 75% of stance for all comparisons. Interpretation The alignment may have systematic effects on the socket reaction moments in transtibial prostheses with energy storage and return feet. The socket reaction moments could potentially be a useful biomechanical parameter to evaluate the alignment of the transtibial prostheses. PMID:24315709

  12. Self-Reported Ache, Pain, or Numbness in Feet and Use of Computers amongst Working-Age Finns

    PubMed Central

    Korpinen, Leena; Pääkkönen, Rauno; Gobba, Fabriziomaria

    2016-01-01

    The use of the computers and other technical devices has increased. The aim of our work was to study the possible relation between self-reported foot symptoms and use of computers and cell phones using a questionnaire. The study was carried out as a cross-sectional study by posting a questionnaire to 15,000 working-age Finns. A total of 6121 responded, and 7.1% of respondents reported that they very often experienced pain, numbness, and aches in the feet. They also often experienced other symptoms: 52.3% had symptoms in the neck, 53.5% in had problems in the hip and lower back, and 14.6% often had sleeping disorders/disturbances. Only 11.2% of the respondents thought that their symptoms were connected to the use of desktop computers. We found that persons with symptoms in the feet quite often, or more often, had additional physical and mental symptoms. In future studies, it is important to take into account that the persons with symptoms in the feet may very often have other symptoms, and the use of computers can influence these symptoms. PMID:27827987

  13. Self-Reported Ache, Pain, or Numbness in Feet and Use of Computers amongst Working-Age Finns.

    PubMed

    Korpinen, Leena; Pääkkönen, Rauno; Gobba, Fabriziomaria

    2016-11-07

    The use of the computers and other technical devices has increased. The aim of our work was to study the possible relation between self-reported foot symptoms and use of computers and cell phones using a questionnaire. The study was carried out as a cross-sectional study by posting a questionnaire to 15,000 working-age Finns. A total of 6121 responded, and 7.1% of respondents reported that they very often experienced pain, numbness, and aches in the feet. They also often experienced other symptoms: 52.3% had symptoms in the neck, 53.5% in had problems in the hip and lower back, and 14.6% often had sleeping disorders/disturbances. Only 11.2% of the respondents thought that their symptoms were connected to the use of desktop computers. We found that persons with symptoms in the feet quite often, or more often, had additional physical and mental symptoms. In future studies, it is important to take into account that the persons with symptoms in the feet may very often have other symptoms, and the use of computers can influence these symptoms.

  14. Micro- and nanostructure of the adhesive material secreted by the tube feet of the sea star Asterias rubens.

    PubMed

    Hennebert, Elise; Viville, Pascal; Lazzaroni, Roberto; Flammang, Patrick

    2008-10-01

    To attach to underwater surfaces, sea stars rely on adhesive secretions produced by specialised organs, the tube feet. Adhesion is temporary and tube feet can also voluntarily become detached. The adhesive material is produced by two types of adhesive secretory cells located in the epidermis of the tube foot disc, and is deposited between the disc surface and the substratum. After detachment, this material remains on the substratum as a footprint. Using LM, SEM, and AFM, we described the fine structure of footprints deposited on various substrata by individuals of Asterias rubens. Ultrastructure of the adhesive layer of attached tube feet was also investigated using TEM. Whatever the method used, the adhesive material appeared as made up of globular nanostructures forming a meshwork deposited on a thin homogeneous film. This appearance did not differ according to whether the footprints were fixed or not, and whether they were observed hydrated or dry. TEM observations suggest that type 2 adhesive cells would be responsible for the release of the material constituting the homogeneous film whereas type 1 adhesive cells would produce the material forming the meshwork. This reticulated pattern would originate from the arrangement of the adhesive cell secretory pores on the disc surface.

  15. Quantitative assessment of actin transcript number in eggs, embryos, and tube feet of the sea star Pisaster ochraceus.

    PubMed Central

    Kovesdi, I; Smith, M J

    1985-01-01

    Actin coding sequence cDNA probes were used to quantitate the number of transcripts in RNA from eggs, embryos, and tube feet of the sea star Pisaster ochraceus. Transcript concentrations were measured in both total RNA and in poly(A)+ RNA by titration and hybridization kinetic methods. Surprisingly, the actin transcript number in sea star eggs is two orders of magnitude greater than in sea urchin eggs. There are at least 2.9 X 10(5) actin transcripts per sea star egg, 1.2 X 10(5) per 48-h gastrula and 1.9 X 10(5) per 72-h gastrula. The number of actin transcripts per unit mass of extracted tube foot RNA is lower than in developmental stages. The relative abundance and size of actin transcripts was determined by Northern and dot blot analyses using probes containing actin coding DNA or 3'-untranslated-region sequences. The actin transcript in eggs and embryos is 2,300 nucleotides (nt) long and originates from the Cy (cytoplasmic) gene class. In tube feet, the most abundant actin transcript is 2,200 nt long and originates from the M (muscle) gene class. Tube feet also contain, at lower abundance, 2,300-nt transcripts of the Cy gene type expressed in eggs and embryos. Images PMID:3018493

  16. Full Scale Tunnel (FST)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1930-01-01

    Construction of Full Scale Tunnel (FST). In November 1929, Smith DeFrance submitted his recommendations for the general design of the Full Scale Wind Tunnel. The last on his list concerned the division of labor required to build this unusual facility. He believed the job had five parts and described them as follows: 'It is proposed that invitations be sent out for bids on five groups of items. The first would be for one contract on the complete structure; second the same as first, including the erection of the cones but not the fabrication, since this would be more of a shipyard job; third would cover structural steel, cover, sash and doors, but not cones or foundation; fourth, foundations; an fifth, fabrication of cones.' DeFrance's memorandum prompted the NACA to solicit estimates from a large number of companies. Preliminary designs and estimates were prepared and submitted to the Bureau of the Budget and Congress appropriated funds on February 20, 1929. The main construction contract with the J.A. Jones Company of Charlotte, North Carolina was signed one year later on February 12, 1930. It was a peculiar structure as the building's steel framework is visible on the outside of the building. DeFrance described this in NACA TR No. 459: 'The entire equipment is housed in a structure, the outside walls of which serve as the outer walls of the return passages. The over-all length of the tunnel is 434 feet 6 inches, the width 222 feet, and the maximum height 97 feet. The framework is of structural steel....' (pp. 292-293)

  17. Full Scale Tunnel (FST)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1930-01-01

    Construction of Full-Scale Tunnel (FST). In November 1929, Smith DeFrance submitted his recommendations for the general design of the Full Scale Wind Tunnel. The last on his list concerned the division of labor required to build this unusual facility. He believed the job had five parts and described them as follows: 'It is proposed that invitations be sent out for bids on five groups of items. The first would be for one contract on the complete structure; second the same as first, including the erection of the cones but not the fabrication, since this would be more of a shipyard job; third would cover structural steel, cover, sash and doors, but not cones or foundation; fourth, foundations; and fifth, fabrication of cones.' DeFrance's memorandum prompted the NACA to solicit estimates from a large number of companies. Preliminary designs and estimates were prepared and submitted to the Bureau of the Budget and Congress appropriated funds on February 20, 1929. The main construction contract with the J.A. Jones Company of Charlotte, North Carolina was signed one year later on February 12, 1930. It was a peculiar structure as the building's steel framework is visible on the outside of the building. DeFrance described this in NACA TR No. 459: 'The entire equipment is housed in a structure, the outside walls of which serve as the outer walls of the return passages. The over-all length of the tunnel is 434 feet 6 inches, the width 222 feet, and the maximum height 97 feet. The framework is of structural steel....' (pp. 292-293).

  18. 16. Detail view of the scale area at the north ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. Detail view of the scale area at the north end of the 1937 main section, looking east-northeast; the original office is at th left, and the scale at the right - Ewing Livestock Market, South side of First Avenue North, 500 feet west of Route 724, Ewing, Lee County, VA

  19. Vibration induced white-feet: Overview and field study of vibration exposure and reported symptoms in workers

    PubMed Central

    Eger, Tammy; Thompson, Aaron; Leduc, Mallorie; Krajnak, Kristine; Goggins, Katie; Godwin, Alison; House, Ron

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Workers who stand on platforms or equipment that vibrate are exposed to foot-transmitted vibration (FTV). Exposure to FTV can lead to vibration white feet/toes resulting in blanching of the toes, and tingling and numbness in the feet and toes. OBJECTIVES The objectives are 1) to review the current state of knowledge of the health risks associated with foot-transmitted vibration (FTV), and 2) to identify the characteristics of FTV and discuss the associated risk of vibration-induced injury. PARTICIPANTS Workers who operated locomotives (n = 3), bolting platforms (n = 10), jumbo drills (n = 7), raise drilling platforms (n = 4), and crushers (n = 3), participated. METHODS A tri-axial accelerometer was used to measure FTV in accordance with ISO 2631-1 guidelines. Frequency-weighted root-mean-square acceleration and the dominant frequency are reported. Participants were also asked to report pain/ache/discomfort in the hands and/or feet. RESULTS Reports of pain/discomfort/ache were highest in raise platform workers and jumbo drill operators who were exposed to FTV in the 40 Hz and 28 Hz range respectively. Reports of discomfort/ache/pain were lowest in the locomotive and crusher operators who were exposed to FTV below 10 Hz. These findings are consistent with animal studies that have shown vascular and neural damage in exposed appendages occurs at frequencies above 40 Hz. CONCLUSIONS Operators exposed to FTV at 40 Hz appear to be at greater risk of experiencing vibration induced injury. Future research is required to document the characteristics of FTV and epidemiological evidence is required to link exposure with injury. PMID:24004754

  20. ShapeGrabber FootScanner: a low cost high accuracy 3D system for the acquisition of human feet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blais, Francois; Bisson, Joel A.; Williams, Steve; Robertson, Nancy; Rozin, Serge; Nelson, Andrew

    2000-03-01

    This paper presents a new acquisition method and the application of the technology for the acquisition of a person's foot. The sensor is designed to meet the requirements of measuring a variety of feet under various ambient optical conditions that can, in other circumstances, seriously affect the data measurements and reduce the reliability of the system. The most important distinction between this ranging method and other more classical approaches is the high tolerance of the method to external optical perturbations as well as reflections form other sensor heads. This allows its use in conventional 'store' or 'medical offices' that are usually bright places.

  1. Some gamma-ray shielding measurements made at altitudes greater than 115000 feet using large Ge(Li) detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chapman, G. T.; Cumby, R. P.; Gibbons, J. H.; Macklin, R. L.; Parker, H. W.

    1972-01-01

    A series of balloon-flight experiments at altitudes greater than 115,000 feet were conducted to gain information relative to the use of composite shields (passive and/or active) for shielding large-volume, lithium-drifted, germanium (Ge(Li)) detectors used in gamma-ray spectrometers. Data showing the pulse-height spectra of the environmental gamma radiation as measured at 5.3 and 3.8 gms sq cm residual atmosphere with an unshielded diode detector are also presented.

  2. Scales, scales and more scales.

    PubMed

    Weitzenhoffer, Andre M

    2002-01-01

    This article examines the nature, uses, and limitations of the large variety of existing, so-called, hypnosis scales; that is, instruments that have been proposed for the assessment of hypnotic behavior. Although the major aim of most of the scales ostensively seems to be to assess several aspects of hypnotic states, they are found generally to say little about these and much more about responses to suggestions. The greatest application of these scales is to be found in research, but they also have a limited place in clinical work.

  3. Full-Scale Tunnel (FST)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1930-01-01

    Steam pile driver for foundation of Full-Scale Tunnel (FST). In 1924, George Lewis, Max Munk and Fred Weick began to discuss an idea for a wind tunnel large enough to test a full-scale propeller. Munk sketched out a design for a tunnel with a 20-foot test section. The rough sketches were presented to engineers at Langley for comment. Elliott Reid was especially enthusiastic and he wrote a memorandum in support of the proposed 'Giant Wind Tunnel.' At the end of the memorandum, he appended the recommendation that the tunnel test section should be increased to 30-feet diameter so as to allow full-scale testing of entire airplanes (not just propellers). Reid's idea for a full-scale tunnel excited many at Langley but the funds and support were not available in 1924. Nonetheless, Elliot Reid's idea would eventually become reality. In 1928, NACA engineers began making plans for a full-scale wind tunnel. In February 1929, Congress approved of the idea and appropriated $900,000 for construction. Located just a few feet from the Back River, pilings to support the massive building's foundation had to be driven deep into the earth. This work began in the spring of 1929 and cost $11,293.22

  4. Full-Scale Tunnel (FST)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1930-01-01

    Pile driving for foundation of Full-Scale Tunnel (FST). In 1924, George Lewis, Max Munk and Fred Weick began to discuss an idea for a wind tunnel large enough to test a full-scale propeller. Munk sketched out a design for a tunnel with a 20-foot test section. The rough sketches were presented to engineers at Langley for comment. Elliott Reid was especially enthusiastic and he wrote a memorandum in support of the proposed 'Giant Wind Tunnel.' At the end of the memorandum, he appended the recommendation that the tunnel test section should be increased to 30-feet diameter so as to allow full-scale testing of entire airplanes (not just propellers). Reid's idea for a full-scale tunnel excited many at Langley but the funds and support were not available in 1924. Nonetheless, Elliot Reid's idea would eventually become reality. In 1928, NACA engineers began making plans for a full-scale wind tunnel. In February 1929, Congress approved of the idea and appropriated $900,000 for construction. Located just a few feet from the Back River, pilings to support the massive building's foundation had to be driven deep into the earth. This work began in the spring of 1929 and cost $11,293.22.

  5. The AMP-Foot 3, new generation propulsive prosthetic feet with explosive motion characteristics: design and validation.

    PubMed

    Cherelle, Pierre; Grosu, Victor; Cestari, Manuel; Vanderborght, Bram; Lefeber, Dirk

    2016-12-19

    The last decades, rehabilitation has become a challenging context for mechatronical engineering. From the state-of-the-art it is seen that the field of prosthetics offers very promising perspectives to roboticist. Today's prosthetic feet tend to improve amputee walking experience by delivering the necessary push-off forces while walking. Therefore, several new types of (compliant) actuators are developed in order to fulfill the torque and power requirements of a sound ankle-foot complex with minimized power consumption. At the Vrije Universiteit Brussel, the Robotics and Multibody Mechanics research group puts a lot of effort in the design and development of new bionic feet. In 2013, the Ankle Mimicking Prosthetic (AMP-) Foot 2, as a proof-of-concept, showed the advantage of using the explosive elastic actuator capable of delivering the full ankle torques ([Formula: see text] Nm) and power ([Formula: see text] W) with only a 60 W motor. In this article, the authors present the AMP-Foot 3, using an improved actuation method and using two locking mechanisms for improved energy storage during walking. The article focusses on the mechanical design of the device and validation of its working principle.

  6. Simultaneous Palpation of the Craniosacral Rate at the Head and Feet: Rate Comparison, Intrarater and Interrater Reliability, and Assessment of LAG Time.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Purpose. The purposes of this study were to test the assumption that craniosacral motion is constant throughout the human body, determine the...interrater and intrarater reliability of palpating the craniosacral rate at the head and feet, and determine if a lag time was present between the start of... craniosacral events at the head and feet. Subjects. Twenty-eight adult subjects and two craniosacral examiners. Method. With-in subjects repeated

  7. Sex-related differences in foot shape of adult Caucasians--a follow-up study focusing on long and short feet.

    PubMed

    Krauss, I; Langbein, C; Horstmann, T; Grau, S

    2011-03-01

    The study's purpose was to substantiate findings on sex-related differences in foot morphology focusing on fringe sizes. Altogether, 287 Caucasian adults with long or short feet were scanned. Data were analysed together with data from 847 subjects from a previous study with comparable inclusion criteria and anthropometric data by: (1)comparing absolute measures within 237-277 mm foot length (FL); (2) comparing averaged measures across sizes in % of foot length for 203-323 mm FL; (3) reclassifying the additional subjects into a previously defined foot type classification. Male feet were wider and higher for the same FL. Averaged across sizes, no relevant differences between sexes were found for widths and heights. Slender or flat-pointed foot types were more common in longer feet, shorter feet tended to be bigger. Definitions for 'long' and 'short' are sex-related with an offset of three shoe sizes (EU). Results of this follow-up study on long and short feet can substantiate previous findings mainly described for the most common sizes. STATEMENT OF RELEVANCE: Improper footwear can cause pain and injury and proper fit is a major criterion for shoe buyers. Knowledge about sex-related differences in foot shape is important for shoe design. This study supplements the field of knowledge for very small and large feet.

  8. The Prevalence of Spine Deformities and Flat Feet among 10-12 Year Old Children Who Train Basketball--Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Puzovic, Vladimir; Rotim, Kresimir; Jurisic, Vladimir; Samardzic, Miroslav; Zivkovic, Bojana; Savic, Andrija; Rasulic, Lukas

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study is to estimate the prevalence of spine and feet deformities among children who are regularly involved in basketball trainings, as well as finding differences in the prevalence of those deformities between children of different gender and age. The study included a total of 64 children, of which 43 were boys and 21 were girls, ages 10-12. All subjects have been regularly participating in basketball trainings for at least one year. Postural disorder is defined as an irregularity in posture of the spine and feet, and it is assessed by visual methods from the front, side and rear side of the body. The prevalence of spinal deformities in our group was 53.13%. The boys had a significantly higher prevalence than girls, 65.1% compared to 28.57% (p=0.006). There was no significant difference in prevalence of spine deformities between children of different ages. The prevalence of feet deformities was 64.06%. There was a statistically significant difference between the sexes, where boys had a significantly greater prevalence of the feet deformities than girls, 83.7% compared to 23.81% (p=0.001). Flat feet were the most common in 10 year old children (85.71%). In conclusion, it can be said that despite regular participation in basketball training, subjects in this study have high prevalence of deformities; especially boys who stand out with the high prevalence of flat feet.

  9. Full-Scale Tests of Metal Propellers at High Tip Speeds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, Donald H

    1932-01-01

    This report describes tests of 10 full-scale metal propellers of several thickness ratios at various tip speeds up to 1,350 feet per second. The results indicate no loss of efficiency up to tip speeds of approximately 1,000 feet per second. Above this tip speed the loss is at a rate of about 10 per cent per 100 feet per second increase relative to the efficiency at the lower speeds for propellers of pitch diameter ratios 0.3 to 0.4. Propellers having sections of small thickness ratio can be run at slightly higher speeds than thick ones before beginning to lose efficiency.

  10. Serological and Progression Differences of Joint Destruction in the Wrist and the Feet in Rheumatoid Arthritis - A Cross-Sectional Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Hamamoto, Yosuke; Ito, Hiromu; Furu, Moritoshi; Hashimoto, Motomu; Fujii, Takao; Ishikawa, Masahiro; Yamakawa, Noriyuki; Terao, Chikashi; Azukizawa, Masayuki; Iwata, Takahiro; Mimori, Tsuneyo; Matsuda, Shuichi

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate clinical and radiological differences between joint destruction in the wrist and the feet in patients with RA. Methods A cross-sectional clinical study was conducted in an RA cohort at a single institution. Clinical data included age, sex and duration of disease. Laboratory data included sero-positivity for anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide (CCP) antibody and RF. Radiological measurements included Larsen grades and the modified Sharp/van der Heijde method (SHS) for the hands/wrists and the feet. Statistical analyses were performed using the Kruskal—Wallis H-test, a dummy variable linear regression model and multivariate logistic regression analysis with 95% confidence interval and odds ratios. Results A total of 405 patients were enrolled, and 314 patients were analysed in this study. The duration of disease in the foot-dominant group was significantly less than that in the wrist-dominant group. When patients were subdivided by duration of disease, the Larsen grade of the feet was significantly higher than that of the wrist in the first quadrant subgroup, but this was reversed with increasing duration of disease. Anti-CCP status was a significant predictive factor for joint destruction in the wrist but not in the feet, while RF status was not predictive in either the wrist or the feet. Conclusions Joint destruction in the feet started earlier than in the wrist, but the latter progresses faster with increasing duration of disease. Anti-CCP status predicts joint destruction in the wrist better than in the feet. PMID:26317770

  11. EVALUATION OF METATARSAL RELATIONSHIPS IN THE BIOMECHANICS OF 332 NORMAL FEET USING THE METHOD OF MEASURING RELATIVE LENGTHS

    PubMed Central

    Barrôco, Rui; Nery, Caio; Favero, Gabriela; Mombach, Renan; Nascimento, Oswaldo; Jorge, Silvia; Monteiro, Marina; Diedrichs, Letícia; Abreu, Felipe

    2015-01-01

    To identify the mean normal length of the metatarsals and the most common metatarsal formulas through a simple measurement method, thereby providing surgeons with data for planning treatment on symptomatic individuals with biometric abnormalities of the foot. Methods: We evaluated and measured dorsoplantar weight-bearing radiographs of normal adult feet (83 males and 83 females). Results: We found relative mean lengths for metatarsus I of 125.4 mm for males and 115.1 mm for females; for metatarsus II, 127.8 mm for males and 117.3 mm for females; for metatarsus III, 123.4 mm for males and 113.5 mm for females; for metatarsus IV, 114.2 mm for males and 105.3 mm for females; for metatarsus V, 99.5 mm for males and 91.7 mm for females. The mean forefoot width was 87.1 mm for males and 80.8 mm for females. Conclusion: Feet with index minus occurred most frequently in both sexes, although all three metatarsal formulas can be considered to be normal patterns. The mean normal pattern for males and females respectively was the following: metatarsus I 2.4 mm and 2.2 mm shorter than metatarsus II; metatarsus III 4.4 mm and 3.8 mm shorter than metatarsus II; metatarsus IV 9.2 mm and 8.2 mm shorter than metatarsus III; metatarsus V 14.7 mm and 13.6 mm shorter than metatarsus IV. PMID:27027034

  12. Long-pulsed 1064-nm neodymium:yttrium-aluminum-garnet laser treatment for refractory warts on hands and feet.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Utako; Takeuchi, Kaori; Kinoshita, Ayako; Takamori, Kenji; Suga, Yasushi

    2014-03-01

    Common warts (verruca vulgaris) are the most commonly seen benign cutaneous tumors. However, warts in the hands and feet regions often respond poorly to treatment, some are resistant to more than 6 months of treatment with currently available modalities, including cryotherapy, being defined as refractory warts. We investigated the usefulness of long-pulsed neodymium:yttrium-aluminum-garnet (LP-Nd:YAG) treatment for refractory warts. The clinical trial was conducted on 20 subjects (11 male, nine female) with a total of 34 lesions (periungual/subungual areas, plantar areas, fingers and/or toes). All the subjects suffered from refractory warts despite conventional treatments for more than 6 months. The patients were administrated up to six sessions of treatment, at intervals of 4 weeks between sessions, with an LP-Nd:YAG at a spot size of 5 mm, pulse duration of 15 msec and fluence of 150-185 J/cm(2) . Evaluation of the treatment results at 24 weeks after the initial treatment showed complete clearance of the refractory warts in 56% of the patients. Histological evaluation showed separation of the dermis and epidermis at the basement membrane with coagulated necrosis of the wart tissue in the lower epidermis, as well as coagulation and destruction of the blood vessels in the papillary dermis following the laser irradiation. No scarring, post-hyperpigmentary changes or serious adverse events were documented. Our preliminary results show that LP-Nd:YAG treatments are safe and effective for refractory warts of hands and feet, causing minimal discomfort, and is a viable treatment alternative.

  13. The Helios Prototype aircraft at approximately 10,000 feet flying above cloud cover northwest of Kau

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    As a follow-on to the Centurion (and earlier Pathfinder and Pathfinder-Plus) aircraft, the solar-powered Helios Prototype is the latest and largest example of a slow-flying ultralight flying wing designed for long-duration, high-altitude Earth science or telecommunications relay missions in the stratosphere. Developed by AeroVironment, Inc., of Monrovia, California, under NASA's Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology (ERAST) project, the unique craft is intended to demonstrate two key missions: the ability to reach and sustain horizontal flight at 100,000 feet altitude on a single-day flight in 2001, and to maintain flight above 50,000 feet altitude for at least four days in 2003, with the aid of a regenerative fuel cell-based energy storage system now in development. Both of these missions will be powered by electricity derived from non-polluting solar energy. The Helios Prototype is an enlarged version of the Centurion flying wing, which flew a series of test flights at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center in late 1998. The craft has a wingspan of 247 feet, 41 feet greater than the Centurion, 2 1/2 times that of its solar-powered Pathfinder flying wing, and longer than the wingspans of either the Boeing 747 jetliner or Lockheed C-5 transport aircraft. The remotely piloted, electrically powered Helios Prototype went aloft on its maiden low-altitude checkout flight Sept. 8, 1999, over Rogers Dry Lake adjacent to NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center in the Southern California desert. The initial flight series was flown on battery power as a risk-reduction measure. In all, six flights were flown in the Helios Protoype's initial development series. In upgrading the Centurion to the Helios Prototype configuration, AeroVironment added a sixth wing section and a fifth landing gear pod, among other improvements. The additional wingspan increased the area available for installation of solar cells and improved aerodynamic efficiency, allowing the Helios

  14. The Helios Prototype aircraft in a northerly climb over Niihau Island, Hawaii, at about 8,000 feet a

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    As a follow-on to the Centurion (and earlier Pathfinder and Pathfinder-Plus) aircraft, the solar-powered Helios Prototype is the latest and largest example of a slow-flying ultralight flying wing designed for long-duration, high-altitude Earth science or telecommunications relay missions in the stratosphere. Developed by AeroVironment, Inc., of Monrovia, California, under NASA's Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology (ERAST) project, the unique craft is intended to demonstrate two key missions: the ability to reach and sustain horizontal flight at 100,000 feet altitude on a single-day flight in 2001, and to maintain flight above 50,000 feet altitude for at least four days in 2003, with the aid of a regenerative fuel cell-based energy storage system now in development. Both of these missions will be powered by electricity derived from non-polluting solar energy. The Helios Prototype is an enlarged version of the Centurion flying wing, which flew a series of test flights at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center in late 1998. The craft has a wingspan of 247 feet, 41 feet greater than the Centurion, 2 1/2 times that of its solar-powered Pathfinder flying wing, and longer than the wingspans of either the Boeing 747 jetliner or Lockheed C-5 transport aircraft. The remotely piloted, electrically powered Helios Prototype went aloft on its maiden low-altitude checkout flight Sept. 8, 1999, over Rogers Dry Lake adjacent to NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center in the Southern California desert. The initial flight series was flown on battery power as a risk-reduction measure. In all, six flights were flown in the Helios Protoype's initial development series. In upgrading the Centurion to the Helios Prototype configuration, AeroVironment added a sixth wing section and a fifth landing gear pod, among other improvements. The additional wingspan increased the area available for installation of solar cells and improved aerodynamic efficiency, allowing the Helios

  15. Voting with their feet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    stuart57; quakeyjase; vhzMCrfm; kwamba

    2016-10-01

    In reply to the news article “Meeting moved due to discriminatory law” (September 2016), about the American Physical Society's decision to change the location of a 2018 meeting after state legislators in North Carolina, where the event was due to take place, passed a law that puts transgender individuals at risk of arrest if they enter a public bathroom that does not match the gender on their birth certificate.

  16. Why Do Feet Stink?

    MedlinePlus

    ... organic acids — they also produce stuff called volatile sulfur compounds. Sulfur compounds usually are powerful and awful smelling. If ... smelled a rotten egg, you know what volatile sulfur compounds smell like. continue What Can You Do? ...

  17. Why Do Feet Stink?

    MedlinePlus

    ... getting rid of waste in the form of organic acids. It's those organic acids that smell bad. And for 10% to ... us) . These bacteria produce more than just stinky organic acids — they also produce stuff called volatile sulfur ...

  18. Arthritis and the Feet

    MedlinePlus

    ... for months, or years, then abate, sometimes permanently. Gout (gouty arthritis) : Gout is a condition caused by a buildup of ... sauces, shellfish, and brandy is popularly associated with gout, there are other protein compounds in foods such ...

  19. Full-Scale Tunnel (FST)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1930-01-01

    Construction of Full-Scale Tunnel (FST): 120-Foot Truss hoisting, one and two point suspension. In November 1929, Smith DeFrance submitted his recommendations for the general design of the Full Scale Wind Tunnel. The last on his list concerned the division of labor required to build this unusual facility. He believed the job had five parts and described them as follows: 'It is proposed that invitations be sent out for bids on five groups of items. The first would be for one contract on the complete structure; second the same as first, including the erection of the cones but not the fabrication, since this would be more of a shipyard job; third would cover structural steel, cover, sash and doors, but not cones or foundation; fourth, foundations; and fifth, fabrication of cones.' DeFrance's memorandum prompted the NACA to solicit estimates from a large number of companies. Preliminary designs and estimates were prepared and submitted to the Bureau of the Budget and Congress appropriated funds on February 20, 1929. The main construction contract with the J.A. Jones Company of Charlotte, North Carolina was signed one year later on February 12, 1930. It was a peculiar structure as the building's steel framework is visible on the outside of the building. DeFrance described this in NACA TR No. 459: 'The entire equipment is housed in a structure, the outside walls of which serve as the outer walls of the return passages. The over-all length of the tunnel is 434 feet 6 inches, the width 222 feet, and the maximum height 97 feet. The framework is of structural steel....' (pp. 292-293)

  20. Full-Scale Tunnel (FST)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1930-01-01

    Construction of Full-Scale Tunnel (FST). In November 1929, Smith DeFrance submitted his recommendations for the general design of the Full Scale Wind Tunnel. The last on his list concerned the division of labor required to build this unusual facility. He believed the job had five parts and described them as follows: 'It is proposed that invitations be sent out for bids on five groups of items. The first would be for one contract on the complete structure; second the same as first, including the erection of the cones but not the fabrication, since this would be more of a shipyard job; third would cover structural steel, cover, sash and doors, but not cones or foundation; fourth, foundations; an fifth, fabrication of cones.' DeFrance's memorandum prompted the NACA to solicit estimates from a large number of companies. Preliminary designs and estimates were prepared and submitted to the Bureau of the Budget and Congress appropriated funds on February 20, 1929. The main construction contract with the J.A. Jones Company of Charlotte, North Carolina was signed one year later on February 12, 1930. It was a peculiar structure as the building's steel framework is visible on the outside of the building. DeFrance described this in NACA TR No. 459: 'The entire equipment is housed in a structure, the outside walls of which serve as the outer walls of the return passages. The over-all length of the tunnel is 434 feet 6 inches, the width 222 feet, and the maximum height 97 feet. The framework is of structural steel....' (pp. 292-293).

  1. Differences in Cortical Representation and Structural Connectivity of Hands and Feet between Professional Handball Players and Ballet Dancers.

    PubMed

    Meier, Jessica; Topka, Marlene Sofie; Hänggi, Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    It is known that intensive training and expertise are associated with functional and structural neuroadaptations. Most studies, however, compared experts with nonexperts; hence it is, specifically for sports, unclear whether the neuroplastic adaptations reported are sport-specific or sport-general. Here we aimed at investigating sport-specific adaptations in professional handball players and ballet dancers by focusing on the primary motor and somatosensory grey matter (GM) representation of hands and feet using voxel-based morphometry as well as on fractional anisotropy (FA) of the corticospinal tract by means of diffusion tensor imaging-based fibre tractography. As predicted, GM volume was increased in hand areas of handball players, whereas ballet dancers showed increased GM volume in foot areas. Compared to handball players, ballet dancers showed decreased FA in both fibres connecting the foot and hand areas, but they showed lower FA in fibres connecting the foot compared to their hand areas, whereas handball players showed lower FA in fibres connecting the hand compared to their foot areas. Our results suggest that structural adaptations are sport-specific and are manifested in brain regions associated with the neural processing of sport-specific skills. We believe this enriches the plasticity research in general and extends our knowledge of sport expertise in particular.

  2. Comparison of bacterial DNA profiles of footwear insoles and soles of feet for the forensic discrimination of footwear owners.

    PubMed

    Goga, Haruhisa

    2012-09-01

    It is crucial to identify the owner of unattended footwear left at a crime scene. However, retrieving enough DNA for DNA profiling from the owner's foot skin (plantar skin) cells from inside the footwear is often unsuccessful. This is sometimes because footwear that is used on a daily basis contains an abundance of bacteria that degrade DNA. Further, numerous other factors related to the inside of the shoe, such as high humidity and temperature, can encourage bacterial growth inside the footwear and enhance DNA degradation. This project sought to determine if bacteria from inside footwear could be used for footwear trace evidence. The plantar skins and insoles of shoes of volunteers were swabbed for bacteria, and their bacterial community profiles were compared using bacterial 16S rRNA terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. Sufficient bacteria were recovered from both footwear insoles and the plantar skins of the volunteers. The profiling identified that each volunteer's plantar skins harbored unique bacterial communities, as did the individuals' footwear insoles. In most cases, a significant similarity in the bacterial community was identified for the matched foot/insole swabs from each volunteer, as compared with those profiles from different volunteers. These observations indicate the probability to discriminate the owner of footwear by comparing the microbial DNA fingerprint from inside footwear with that of the skin from the soles of the feet of the suspected owner. This novel strategy will offer auxiliary forensic footwear evidence for human DNA identification, although further investigations into this technique are required.

  3. Aeromechanics of the Spider Cricket Jump: How to Jump 60+ Times Your Body Length and Still Land on Your Feet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palmer, Emily; Deshler, Nicolas; Gorman, David; Neves, Catarina; Mittal, Rajat

    2015-11-01

    Flapping, gliding, running, crawling and swimming have all been studied extensively in the past and have served as a source of inspiration for engineering designs. In the current project, we explore a mode of locomotion that straddles ground and air: jumping. The subject of our study is among the most proficient of long-jumpers in Nature: the spider cricket of the family Rhaphidophoridae, which can jump more than 60 times its body length. Despite jumping this immense distance, these crickets usually land on their feet, indicating an ability to control their posture during ``flight.'' We employ high-speed videogrammetry, to examine the jumps and to track the crickets' posture and appendage orientation throughout their jumps. Simple aerodynamic models are developed to predict the aerodynamic forces and moment on the crickets during `flight`. The analysis shows that these wingless insects employ carefully controlled and coordinated positioning of the limbs during flight so as to increase jump distance and to stabilize body posture during flight. The principles distilled from this study could serve as an inspiration for small jumping robots that can traverse complex terrains.

  4. Edematous Erythema at the Hands and Feet Probably Caused By the Traditional Herb “Radix Astragali”

    PubMed Central

    Kogure, Toshiaki; Tatsumi, Takeshi; Oku, Yuko

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To describe a patient with erhythema and edema after Radix Astragali was added to a kampo formula. Case summary: A 21-year-old male, who was diagnosed as having atopic dermatitis in 1989, demonstrated systemic dry eruptions and consulted our department for treatment with traditional herbal medicine (THM) in 2004. The oral administration of herbal medicine resulted in decreased symptoms as well as a reduction in the serum IgE level. In August 2007, he complained of sweating on the neck and we added Radix Astragali to the previous formula. About 18 hours after he ingested the new formula including Radix Astragali, erhythema appeared with swelling of the bilateral hands and feet. Administration of the formula was discontinued and about 48 hours later, his symptoms had almost disappeared. Astragaloside, which is the main ingredient of Radix Astragali, was negative on lymphocyte transforming test (LTT) and we could not determine the ingredient that induced erhythema. Conclusion: We consider that the Radix Astragali induced acute erhythema with swelling based on the clinical course. Acute edematous erythema due to THM is very rare and we discuss allergic reactions to traditional herbs and review the litrature. PMID:21614162

  5. Association analysis for feet and legs disorders with whole-genome sequence variants in 3 dairy cattle breeds.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiaoping; Guldbrandtsen, Bernt; Lund, Mogens Sandø; Sahana, Goutam

    2016-09-01

    Identification of genetic variants associated with feet and legs disorders (FLD) will aid in the genetic improvement of these traits by providing knowledge on genes that influence trait variations. In Denmark, FLD in cattle has been recorded since the 1990s. In this report, we used deregressed breeding values as response variables for a genome-wide association study. Bulls (5,334 Danish Holstein, 4,237 Nordic Red Dairy Cattle, and 1,180 Danish Jersey) with deregressed estimated breeding values were genotyped with the Illumina Bovine 54k single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping array. Genotypes were imputed to whole-genome sequence variants, and then 22,751,039 SNP on 29 autosomes were used for an association analysis. A modified linear mixed-model approach (efficient mixed-model association eXpedited, EMMAX) and a linear mixed model were used for association analysis. We identified 5 (3,854 SNP), 3 (13,642 SNP), and 0 quantitative trait locus (QTL) regions associated with the FLD index in Danish Holstein, Nordic Red Dairy Cattle, and Danish Jersey populations, respectively. We did not identify any QTL that were common among the 3 breeds. In a meta-analysis of the 3 breeds, 4 QTL regions were significant, but no additional QTL region was identified compared with within-breed analyses. Comparison between top SNP locations within these QTL regions and known genes suggested that RASGRP1, LCORL, MOS, and MITF may be candidate genes for FLD in dairy cattle.

  6. ["Teruel feet". Care and treatment of frostbite wounds in the hospitals of Navarra during the civil war].

    PubMed

    Larraz, P; Ibarrola, C

    2005-01-01

    The care of combatants with lesions caused by frostbite during the battle of Teruel, which was fought in extreme weather conditions and in temperatures as low as twenty degrees below zero, was the period of greatest medical activity and the highest rates of occupation in the military hospitals of Navarre during the civil war of 1936-1939. From November 1937 to March 1938, 375 cases of frostbite were registered in the provincial establishments, amongst which there was a predominance of cases of dry gangrene partially affecting the lower extremity, which was popularly known as "Teruel feet". Some of the medical staff, conscious of the exceptional nature of the casuistry, registered statistics, clinical cases and personal impressions of the evolution of the lesions and the effectiveness of the treatments. In treating this affectation they employed medicines, surgical techniques and novel therapeutic procedures that were not widely used in the medical milieu of the time. However, the limited duration of the problem, the inconclusive results of the treatments and the differing opinions on their effectiveness -questions that are considered in this article- restricted the subsequent medical repercussion of the experiences of frostbite developed during the wartime period in Teruel.

  7. Experimental Investigation of Two Low-Drag Supercavitating Hydrofoils at Speeds up to 200 Feet per Second

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christopher, Kenneth W.; Johnson, Virgil E., Jr.

    1960-01-01

    An experimental investigation has been made in the Langley highspeed hydrodynamics facility to determine the force and moment characteristics of two hydrofoils (one having an aspect ratio of 1 and the other having an aspect ratio of 3) designed to have improved lift-drag ratios when operating under either supercavitating or ventilated conditions. Measurements were made of lift, drag, and pitching moment over a range of angles of attack from 40 to 200 for depths of submersion varying from 0 to approximately 1 chord. The range of speed for the investigation was from 110 to 200 feet per second. When the upper surface of the hydrofoils was completely unwetted, the experimental values of lift and drag forces were in good agreement with the theoretical values obtained from the zero-cavitation-number theory. The theoretical values for minimum angle of attack for operation with the upper surface of the hydrofoil unwetted define the lower limits of angle of attack for which the experimental values of lift coefficient are either in agreement with or slightly greater than those predicted by theory.

  8. Evaluation of a peer-led self-management education programme PEP Talk: Diabetes, Healthy Feet and You.

    PubMed

    Woodbury, M Gail; Botros, Mariam; Kuhnke, Janet L; Greene, Julie

    2013-12-01

    PEP (Peer Education Programme) Talk: Diabetes, Healthy Feet and You is a peer-led self-management programme developed to address the problems of growing prevalence of diabetes and its complications, and limited health care dollars. An evaluation of the programme, how it might be situated within a public health perspective and potential bridges for its implementation in communities throughout Canada and worldwide, are presented. The programme consisted of workshops that were conducted by volunteer peer leaders and health care professionals in 12 communities in 10 Canadian provinces; the volunteers were supported through monthly mentoring teleconferences, on-line tips and discussion board conversations. A web portal was developed to be used by the team, volunteers and community participants. Workshop curriculum was developed based on diabetes footcare and self-management best practise guidelines. Community participants answered pre-and post-workshop statements that indicated that learning occurred, as indicated by an increase in the number of statements answered correctly. Participants' feedback about the workshops was positive. In telephone follow-up interviews, 97% of respondents reported having changed their foot self-management behaviours. The portal was commonly used according to website visits, but not as much as expected for registration of community participants. It is recommended that this programme be made widely available and tailored to the specific needs of the communities and that further evaluation be conducted.

  9. The X-40A immediately after release from its harness suspended from a helicopter 15,000 feet above N

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    The X-40A immediately after release from its harness suspended from a helicopter 15,000 feet above NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center at Edwards Air Force Base, California, on March 14, 2001. The unpiloted X-40 is a risk-reduction vehicle for the X-37, which is intended to be a reusable space vehicle. NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Ala, manages the X-37 project. At Dryden, the X-40A underwent a series of ground and air tests to reduce possible risks to the larger X-37, including drop tests from a helicopter to check guidance and navigation systems planned for use in the X-37. The X-37 is designed to demonstrate technologies in the orbital and reentry environments for next-generation reusable launch vehicles that will increase both safety and reliability, while reducing launch costs from $10,000 per pound to $1,000 per pound. The X-37, carried into orbit by the Space Shuttle, is planned to fly two orbital missions to test reusable launch vehicle technologies.

  10. Differences in Cortical Representation and Structural Connectivity of Hands and Feet between Professional Handball Players and Ballet Dancers

    PubMed Central

    Meier, Jessica; Topka, Marlene Sofie; Hänggi, Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    It is known that intensive training and expertise are associated with functional and structural neuroadaptations. Most studies, however, compared experts with nonexperts; hence it is, specifically for sports, unclear whether the neuroplastic adaptations reported are sport-specific or sport-general. Here we aimed at investigating sport-specific adaptations in professional handball players and ballet dancers by focusing on the primary motor and somatosensory grey matter (GM) representation of hands and feet using voxel-based morphometry as well as on fractional anisotropy (FA) of the corticospinal tract by means of diffusion tensor imaging-based fibre tractography. As predicted, GM volume was increased in hand areas of handball players, whereas ballet dancers showed increased GM volume in foot areas. Compared to handball players, ballet dancers showed decreased FA in both fibres connecting the foot and hand areas, but they showed lower FA in fibres connecting the foot compared to their hand areas, whereas handball players showed lower FA in fibres connecting the hand compared to their foot areas. Our results suggest that structural adaptations are sport-specific and are manifested in brain regions associated with the neural processing of sport-specific skills. We believe this enriches the plasticity research in general and extends our knowledge of sport expertise in particular. PMID:27247805

  11. 77 FR 16949 - Pacific Cod by Catcher Vessels Greater Than or Equal to 50 Feet (15.2 Meters) Length Overall...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-23

    ... Vessels Greater Than or Equal to 50 Feet (15.2 Meters) Length Overall Using Hook-and-Line Gear in the... meters (m)) in length overall (LOA) using hook-and-line gear in the Central Regulatory Area of the...

  12. 40 CFR 201.24 - Procedures for measurement at a 30 meter (100 feet) distance of the noise from locomotive and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... meter (100 feet) distance of the noise from locomotive and rail car operations and locomotive load cell... locomotive and rail car operations and locomotive load cell test stands. (a) Microphone positions. (1) The... measured. (b) Stationary locomotive and locomotive load cell test stand tests. (1) For...

  13. 40 CFR 201.24 - Procedures for measurement at a 30 meter (100 feet) distance of the noise from locomotive and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... meter (100 feet) distance of the noise from locomotive and rail car operations and locomotive load cell... locomotive and rail car operations and locomotive load cell test stands. (a) Microphone positions. (1) The... measured. (b) Stationary locomotive and locomotive load cell test stand tests. (1) For...

  14. 40 CFR 201.24 - Procedures for measurement at a 30 meter (100 feet) distance of the noise from locomotive and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... meter (100 feet) distance of the noise from locomotive and rail car operations and locomotive load cell... locomotive and rail car operations and locomotive load cell test stands. (a) Microphone positions. (1) The... measured. (b) Stationary locomotive and locomotive load cell test stand tests. (1) For...

  15. Effects of various knee-raising postures in a supine position on swelling in the lower legs and feet in elderly women.

    PubMed

    Muraki, Satoshi; Kuroda, Koji; Noto, Hiroko; Ookura, Mitsuru; Saito, Seiji

    2011-12-01

    The present study examined the effects of different knee-raising postures in the supine position on swelling in the lower legs and feet of elderly women. Seven elderly women with no illness-related swelling maintained a supine position for 40 min on a bed under four knee-raising postures: downhill, raising the knees and further raising the feet; horizon, raising the knees with the lower legs in a horizontal position; mountain, raising the knees to a height above the feet; and control, stretching the knees without elevation of the feet. While maintaining a supine position, downhill and horizon conditions showed significant decreases in circumferences and increased bio-impedance at all measured positions of the calf and foot, compared to the control condition. In contrast, the mountain condition did not show decreases in all circumferences. No significant differences were found for heart rate, blood pressure or scores of subjective comfort in any body areas among the conditions. These results suggest that the downhill and horizon conditions have effects on lower leg swelling without causing additional discomfort or circulatory strain.

  16. Representations of Mexican American Migrant Childhood in Rivera's "...y no se lo trago la tierra" and Viramontes's "Under the Feet of Jesus"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beck, Scott A.; Rangel, Dolores E.

    2009-01-01

    This article gives an analysis of two books: Thomas Rivera's "...y no se lo trago la tierra" and Helena Maria Viramontes's "Under the Feet of Jesus". The two books are strong and important literary texts that stand in close relation to each other. Both texts treat the subject of migrant childhood by affirming central themes of Chicano literature.…

  17. 40 CFR 201.24 - Procedures for measurement at a 30 meter (100 feet) distance of the noise from locomotive and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... meter (100 feet) distance of the noise from locomotive and rail car operations and locomotive load cell... locomotive and rail car operations and locomotive load cell test stands. (a) Microphone positions. (1) The... measured. (b) Stationary locomotive and locomotive load cell test stand tests. (1) For...

  18. 40 CFR 201.24 - Procedures for measurement at a 30 meter (100 feet) distance of the noise from locomotive and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... meter (100 feet) distance of the noise from locomotive and rail car operations and locomotive load cell... locomotive and rail car operations and locomotive load cell test stands. (a) Microphone positions. (1) The... measured. (b) Stationary locomotive and locomotive load cell test stand tests. (1) For...

  19. Organophosphate pesticide method development and presence of chlorpyrifos in the feet of nearctic-neotropical migratory songbirds from Canada that over-winter in Central America agricultural areas.

    PubMed

    Alharbi, Hattan A; Letcher, Robert J; Mineau, Pierre; Chen, Da; Chu, Shaogang

    2016-02-01

    Recent modeling analysis suggests that numerous birds may be at risk of acute poisoning in insecticide-treated fields. Although the majority of avian field studies on pesticides have focused on treated seed, granule, insect or vegetation (oral exposure) ingestion, dermal exposure is an important exposure route when birds come into contact with deposited pesticides on foliage and other surfaces. Some nearctic-neotropical migratory songbirds are likely exposed to pesticides on their non-breeding habitats and include treated crops, plantations or farmlands. In the present study, we developed a method for four environmentally-relevant organophosphate (OP) pesticides (fenthion, fenamiphos, chlorpyrifos and diazinon) in the feet of migratory songbirds (i.e. Common yellowthroat, Gray catbird, Indigo bunting, America redstart, Northern waterthrush, Northern parula, and an additional 12 species of warblers). A total of 190 specimens of the 18 species of songbirds were sampled from available window-killed birds (spring of 2007 and 2011) in downtown Toronto, Canada. The species that were available most likely over-wintered in Mexican/Central American crops such as citrus, coffee and cacao. The feet of the dead birds were sampled and where OP foot exposure likely occurred during over-wintering foraging on pesticide-treated crops. Chlorpyrifos was the only measurable OP (pg mg feet weight(-1)) and in the 2011-collected feet of Black throated blue warbler (0.5), Tennessee warbler (1.0), Northern parula (1.2), Northern waterthrush (0.6), Common yellowthroat (1.0) and the Blue winged warbler (0.9). Dermal contact with OP pesticides during over-wintering in agricultural areas resulted in low levels of chlorpyrifos and long time retention on the feet of a subset of songbirds.

  20. The first 100 feet: New options for Internet and broadband access. Final report, June 1, 1996--January 31, 1998

    SciTech Connect

    Branscomb, L.; Hurley, D.; Keller, J.

    1998-04-01

    This project was undertaken to explore new options for connecting homes and small businesses to high-speed communications networks, such as the Internet. Fundamental to this inquiry was an interest in looking at options which are newly enabled through changes in technology and regulation, and which go beyond the traditional topdown, centralized model for local access. In particular, the authors focused on opportunities for end-user and community-level investment. This project was intended to investigate the opportunities presented by the decreasing cost of computing and networking platforms, the unbundling of local exchange network elements, and the intelligent endpoints model of networking best exemplified by the Internet. Do these factors, along with communications technologies such as spread spectrum wireless, digital subscriber line services, and the ability to modulate a communications signal over the electric power line infrastructure, enable new models for end-user investment in intelligent infrastructure as a leverage point for accessing the broadband network? This question was first explored through a two-day conference held at the Freedom Forum in Arlington, Virginia, October 29 and 30, 1996. The workshop addressed issues in the consumer adoption of new communications technologies, use of the electric power line infrastructure, the role of municipalities, and the use of alternative technologies, such as XDSL, satellite, spread spectrum wireless, LMDS, and others. The best of these papers have been further developed, with editorial guidance provided by Harvard, and compiled in the form of a book (The First 100 Feet: New Options for Internet and Broadband Access, Deborah Hurley and James Keller, eds., MIT Press, 1998) to be published as part of the MIT Press Spring 1998 catalogue. A summary of topics covered by the book is given in this report.

  1. Thermography-based blood flow imaging in human skin of the hands and feet: a spectral filtering approach.

    PubMed

    Sagaidachnyi, A A; Fomin, A V; Usanov, D A; Skripal, A V

    2017-02-01

    The determination of the relationship between skin blood flow and skin temperature dynamics is the main problem in thermography-based blood flow imaging. Oscillations in skin blood flow are the source of thermal waves propagating from micro-vessels toward the skin's surface, as assumed in this study. This hypothesis allows us to use equations for the attenuation and dispersion of thermal waves for converting the temperature signal into the blood flow signal, and vice versa. We developed a spectral filtering approach (SFA), which is a new technique for thermography-based blood flow imaging. In contrast to other processing techniques, the SFA implies calculations in the spectral domain rather than in the time domain. Therefore, it eliminates the need to solve differential equations. The developed technique was verified within 0.005-0.1 Hz, including the endothelial, neurogenic and myogenic frequency bands of blood flow oscillations. The algorithm for an inverse conversion of the blood flow signal into the skin temperature signal is addressed. The examples of blood flow imaging of hands during cuff occlusion and feet during heating of the back are illustrated. The processing of infrared (IR) thermograms using the SFA allowed us to restore the blood flow signals and achieve correlations of about 0.8 with a waveform of a photoplethysmographic signal. The prospective applications of the thermography-based blood flow imaging technique include non-contact monitoring of the blood supply during engraftment of skin flaps and burns healing, as well the use of contact temperature sensors to monitor low-frequency oscillations of peripheral blood flow.

  2. Extraarticular Subtalar Arthrodesis for Pes Planovalgus: An Interim Result of 50 Feet in Patients with Spastic Diplegia

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Hong Ki; Park, Kun Bo; Roh, Jae Young; Park, Hui Wan; Chi, Hye Jin

    2010-01-01

    Background There are no reports of the pressure changes across the foot after extraarticular subtalar arthrodesis for a planovalgus foot deformity in cerebral palsy. This paper reviews our results of extraarticular subtalar arthrodesis using a cannulated screw and cancellous bone graft. Methods Fifty planovalgus feet in 30 patients with spastic diplegia were included. The mean age at the time of surgery was 9 years, and the mean follow-up period was 3 years. The radiographic, gait, and dynamic foot pressure changes after surgery were investigated. Results All patients showed union and no recurrence of the deformity. Correction of the abduction of the forefoot, subluxation of the talonavicular joint, and the hindfoot valgus was confirmed radiographically. However, the calcaneal pitch was not improved significantly after surgery. Peak dorsiflexion of the ankle during the stance phase was increased after surgery, and the peak plantarflexion at push off was decreased. The peak ankle plantar flexion moment and power were also decreased. Postoperative elevation of the medial longitudinal arch was expressed as a decreased relative vertical impulse of the medial midfoot and an increased relative vertical impulse (RVI) of the lateral midfoot. However, the lower than normal RVI of the 1st and 2nd metatarsal head after surgery suggested uncorrected forefoot supination. The anteroposterior and lateral paths of the center of pressure were improved postoperatively. Conclusions Our experience suggests that the index operation reliably corrects the hindfoot valgus in patients with spastic diplegia. Although the operation corrects the plantar flexion of the talus, it does not necessarily correct the plantarflexed calcaneus and forefoot supination. However, these findings are short-term and longer term observations will be needed. PMID:20190996

  3. Broadening Students' Perspectives of STEM Disciplines by "Getting their Feet Wet" in an Ecologically Enhanced Stormwater Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Normand, A. E.; Morrison, E. S.; Henson, W.; Clark, M. W.

    2014-12-01

    "It was really fun to get down and dirty in the wetlands. I learned a lot." "It was informational towards different careers in this field." In summer 2014, the University of Florida (UF) Wetlands Club developed a program that exposed rural high school students to different approaches and STEM career paths in earth sciences: hydrology, ecology, soil assessment, and environmental engineering. In total 90 students "got their feet wet" in an ecologically enhanced stormwater basin on UF's campus. Students learned about wetland STEM careers at four stations that were led by Wetlands Club graduate students and STEM professionals. Students "felt a close interaction with the environment" and got "to learn a lot through hands-on experience". At each one hour station, students performed field measurements in the wetland and discussed career opportunities with the instructors. Students at the hydrology station "enjoyed checking the water levels and seeing how rain affected the wetlands". Students "liked how we were able to interact and identify species from duck weed to water bugs" at the ecology station. At the soils station, students "enjoyed taking samples and analyzing the soils texture and pigment". Students at the engineering station "got to see all the math behind wetlands…and learn what it takes to become a hydrologist". This pop up talk will share our instructional design for the wetland STEM career program. An accessible video will detail activities at each station. We will explain the successful aspects of the program and suggested improvements based on student feedback. We are excited to share how a to get a student to say that an earth science STEM career can be "really quite interesting for something I thought I had no interest in"!

  4. Outdoor dynamic subject-specific evaluation of internal stresses in the residual limb: hydraulic energy-stored prosthetic foot compared to conventional energy-stored prosthetic feet.

    PubMed

    Portnoy, Sigal; Kristal, Anat; Gefen, Amit; Siev-Ner, Itzhak

    2012-01-01

    The prosthetic foot plays an important role in propelling, breaking, balancing and supporting body loads while the amputee ambulates on different grounds. It is therefore important to quantify the effect of the prosthetic foot mechanism on biomechanical parameters, in order to prevent pressure ulcers and deep tissue injury. Our aim was to monitor the internal stresses in the residuum of transtibial amputation (TTA) prosthetic-users ambulating on different terrains, which the amputees encounter during their daily activities, i.e. paved floor, grass, ascending and descending stairs and slope. We specifically aimed to compare between the internal stresses in the TTA residuum of amputees ambulating with a novel hydraulic prosthetic foot compared to conventional energy storage and return (ESR) prosthetic feet. Monitoring of internal stresses was accomplished using a portable subject-specific real-time internal stress monitor. We found significant decrease (p<0.01) in peak internal stresses and in the loading rate of the amputated limb, while walking with the hydraulic foot, compared to walking with ESR feet. The loading rate calculated while ambulating with the hydraulic foot was at least three times lower than the loading rate calculated while ambulating with the ESR foot. Although the average decrease in internal stresses was ≈ 2-fold larger when replacing single-toe ESR feet with the hydraulic foot than when replacing split-toed ESR feet with the hydraulic foot, the differences were statistically insignificant. Our findings suggest that using a hydraulic prosthetic foot may protect the distal tibial end of the TTA residuum from high stresses, therefore preventing pressure-related injury and pain.

  5. Metabolic and Biomechanical Measures of Gait Efficiency of Three Multi-Axial, Vertical Shock and Energy Storing Return Prosthetic Feet During Simple & Complex Mobility Activities

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-10-01

    AD_________________ Award Number: W81XWH-11-1-0748 TITLE: Metabolic and Biomechanical Measures of Gait Efficiency of Three Multi-Axial...Metabolic and Biomechanical Measures of Gait Efficiency of Three Multi-Axial, Vertical Shock and Energy Storing Return Prosthetic Feet During Simple... athlete . Amputee performance will also be compared to a non-amputee control group. Body At this time we can report that 100% of experimental

  6. Full-Scale Tunnel (FST)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1931-01-01

    Modification of entrance cone of the Full-Scale Tunnel (FST). To the left are the FST guide vanes which Smith DeFrance described in NACA TR No. 459: 'The air is turned at the four corners of each return passage by guide vanes. The vanes are of the curved-airfoil type formed by two intersecting arcs with a rounded nose. The arcs were so chosen as to give a practically constant area through the vanes.' (p. 295) These vanes 'have chords of 3 feet 6 inches and are spaced at 0.41 of a chord length. By a proper adjustment of the angular setting of the vanes, a satisfactory velocity distribution has been obtained and no honeycomb has been found necessary.' (p. 295). Close inspection of the photograph will reveal a number of workers on the scaffolding. The heights were great and the work was quite dangerous. In October 1930, one construction worker working on the roof of the tunnel would die when he stepped off the planking to fetch a tool and fell through an unsupported piece of Careystone to the floor some 70 feet below.

  7. Extraction and characterization of gelatin from the feet of Pekin duck (Anas platyrhynchos domestica) as affected by acid, alkaline, and enzyme pretreatment.

    PubMed

    Abedinia, Ahmadreza; Ariffin, Fazilah; Huda, Nurul; Nafchi, Abdorreza Mohammadi

    2017-05-01

    The effects of different pretreatments on yield and composition of extraction, physicochemical, and rheological properties of duck feet gelatin (DFG) were investigated. Gelatins were extracted from the whole feet of Pekin duck with an average yield of 4.09%, 3.65%, and 5.75% for acidic (Ac-DFG), alkaline (Al-DFG), and enzymatic (En-DFG) pretreatment on a wet weight basis, respectively. Proteins at 81.38%, 79.41%, 82.55%, and 87.38% were the major composition for Ac-DFG, Al-DFG, En-DFG, and bovine, respectively. Amino acid analysis showed glycine as the predominant amino acid in Ac-DFG, followed by hydroxyproline, proline, and alanine for Ac-DFG, Al-DFG, and En-DFG, respectively. Rheological analysis indicated that the maximum elastic modulus (9972.25Pa) and loss modulus (4956.28Pa) for Ac-DFG gelatin were significantly higher than those of other gelatins. Extracted gelatins contained α1 and α2 chains as the predominant components, and enzymatic gelatin had low molecular weight peptides. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy showed that the peak of the gelatins was mainly positioned in the amide band region (amides I, II, and III). A considerable loss of molecular-order triple helical structure was also observed after pepsin treatment. In summary, duck feet gelatin has potential to replace as mammalian gelatin in food and pharmaceutical industry.

  8. Full-Scale Tunnel (FST)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1930-01-01

    General view of concrete column base for Full-Scale Tunnel (FST). In 1924, George Lewis, Max Munk and Fred Weick began to discuss an idea for a wind tunnel large enough to test a full-scale propeller. Munk sketched out a design for a tunnel with a 20-foot test section. The rough sketches were presented to engineers at Langley for comment. Elliott Reid was especially enthusiastic and he wrote a memorandum in support of the proposed 'Giant Wind Tunnel.' At the end of the memorandum, he appended the recommendation that the tunnel test section should be increased to 30-feet diameter so as to allow full-scale testing of entire airplanes (not just propellers). Reid's idea for a full-scale tunnel excited many at Langley but the funds and support were not available in 1924. Nonetheless, Elliot Reid's idea would eventually become reality. In 1928, NACA engineers began making plans for a full-scale wind tunnel. In February 1929, Congress approved of the idea and appropriated $900,000 for construction. Work on the foundation began in the spring of 1929 and cost $11,293.22.

  9. Full Scale Wind Tunnel and Seaplane Tow Channel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1930-01-01

    Construction progress, Full Scale entrance cone looking north, exit cone looking south, wind vanes north end, wind vanes north end of east return passage, wind vanes south end of west exit cone looking north east, wind vanes at south end of east exit cone looking north west, entrance cone looking south from north end. Full-Scale Tunnel (FST) entrance cone under construction. Smith DeFrance describes the entrance cone in NACA TR 459 as follows: 'The entrance cone is 75 feet in length and in this distance the cross section changes from a rectangle 72 by 110 feet to a 30 by 60 foot elliptic section. The area reduction in the entrance cone is slightly less than 5:1. The shape of the entrance cone was chosen to give as fas as possible a constant acceleration to the air stream and to retain a 9-foot length of nozzle for directing the flow.' (p. 293)

  10. Small Scale High Speed Turbomachinery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    London, Adam P. (Inventor); Droppers, Lloyd J. (Inventor); Lehman, Matthew K. (Inventor); Mehra, Amitav (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A small scale, high speed turbomachine is described, as well as a process for manufacturing the turbomachine. The turbomachine is manufactured by diffusion bonding stacked sheets of metal foil, each of which has been pre-formed to correspond to a cross section of the turbomachine structure. The turbomachines include rotating elements as well as static structures. Using this process, turbomachines may be manufactured with rotating elements that have outer diameters of less than four inches in size, and/or blading heights of less than 0.1 inches. The rotating elements of the turbomachines are capable of rotating at speeds in excess of 150 feet per second. In addition, cooling features may be added internally to blading to facilitate cooling in high temperature operations.

  11. Work Capability and physiological effects predictive studies. 4: In He-O2 excursions to pressures of 400- 800- 1200- and 1600 feet of sea water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lambertsen, C. J. (Editor); Gelfand, R. (Editor); Clark, J. M. (Editor); Fletcher, M. E. (Editor)

    1978-01-01

    Experiments which exposed men in chambers, breathing helium with oxygen, to progressive increases of pressure equivalent to 400-800-1200-1600 feet of sea water (fsw) were conducted. Rates of compression and exposure to stable high pressure. Goals included: 1) determination of the specific character and time course of onset of physiological and performance decrements during the intentionally rapid compressions, and determination of rates of adaptation on reaching stable elevated pressure; 2) investigation of accelerated methods for decompression in deep saturation excursion diving; and 3) determination of competence in practical work performed in water at pressures equivalent to the extreme diving depths of 1200 and 1600 fsw.

  12. Microtia Combined With Split Sole of Feet, Deformed Middle Fingers and Café -au-lait Spots on the Trunk: A New Association.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yan; Hu, Jintian; Liu, Tun; Cao, Yilin; Zhang, Qingguo

    2015-11-01

    Microtia is a spectrum of congenital deformities. Approximately, half of the patients are associated with hemifacial microtia. The birth rate of microtia ranges from 2 per 10,000 to 17.4 per 10,000. Microtia and limb deformities sometimes occurred simultaneously as described in the literature. In this report, the patient was found to be with unilateral microtia combined with bilateral split sole of feet, deformed middle fingers on both hands, and café-au-lait spots on the trunk. Despite a thorough literature search, the authors could not achieve a satisfactory diagnosis for the current case with respect to the type of anomalies seen in the case.

  13. Effects of weight-bearing exercise on a mini-trampoline on foot mobility, plantar pressure and sensation of diabetic neuropathic feet; a preliminary study

    PubMed Central

    Kanchanasamut, Wararom; Pensri, Praneet

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: Foot and ankle exercise has been advocated as a preventative approach in reducing the risk of foot ulceration. However, knowledge about the appropriate types and intensity of exercise program for diabetic foot ulcer prevention is still limited. The current study aimed to examine the effects of an eight-week mini-trampoline exercise on improving foot mobility, plantar pressure and sensation of diabetic neuropathic feet. Methods: Twenty-one people with diabetic peripheral neuropathy who had impaired sensation perception were divided into two groups. The exercise group received a foot-care education program plus an eight-week home exercise program using the mini-trampoline (n = 11); whereas a control group received a foot-care education only (n = 10). Measurements were undertaken at the beginning, at the completion of the eight-week program and at a 20-week follow-up. Results: Both groups were similar prior to the study. Subjects in the exercise group significantly increased the range of the first metatarsophalangeal joint in flexion (left: p = 0.040, right: p = 0.012) and extension (left: p = 0.013) of both feet more than controlled subjects. There was a trend for peak plantar pressure at the medial forefoot to decrease in the exercise group (p = 0.016), but not in the control group. At week 20, the number of subjects in the exercise group who improved their vibration perception in their feet notably increased when compared to the control group (left: p = 0.043; right: p = 0.004). Conclusions: This is a preliminary study to document the improvements in foot mobility, plantar pressure and sensation following weight-bearing exercise on a flexible surface in people with diabetic neuropathic feet. Mini-trampoline exercise may be used as an adjunct to other interventions to reduce risk of foot ulceration. A larger sample size is needed to verify these findings. This trial is registered with COA No. 097.2/55. PMID:28326159

  14. Combined Limb-Sparing Surgery and Radiation Therapy to Treat Sarcomas of the Hands and Feet: Long-Term Cancer Outcomes and Morbidity

    SciTech Connect

    Bishop, Andrew J.; Zagars, Gunar K.; Moon, Bryan S.; Lin, Patrick P.; Lewis, Valerae O.; Guadagnolo, B. Ashleigh

    2015-08-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate local control, survival outcomes, and complication rates of patients treated with limb-sparing surgery and radiation therapy (RT) for soft tissue sarcomas (STS) of the hands and feet. Methods and Materials: We reviewed the medical records of 85 consecutive patients treated for STS of the hands (n=38, 45%) and feet (n=47, 55%) between 1966 and 2012. The median age was 41 years (range, 10-82 years of age). Sixty-seven patients (79%) received postoperative RT after resection of their tumor (median dose, 60 Gy; range, 45-70 Gy). The remaining 18 patients (21%) were treated with preoperative RT followed by tumor resection (median dose, 50 Gy; range, 50-64 Gy). Results: Median follow-up was 140 months (range, 24-442 months). Five-year local control, overall survival, and disease-specific survival rates were 86%, 89%, and 89%, respectively. Positive or uncertain surgical margin status was the only factor adversely associated with local recurrence (19% vs 6% for negative margins, P=.046) but this lost significance on multivariate analysis when adjusting for RT dose ≥64 Gy. Of the 12 patients who had local relapses, 6 (50%) were salvaged, and only 2 of those required salvage amputation. Five patients had grade ≥3 late RT sequelae, with 2 patients (2%) having moderate limitations of limb function and 3 patients (4%) having severe limitations requiring procedures for skin ulceration. Conclusions: Limb-sparing surgery combined with RT provides excellent local control outcomes for sarcomas arising in the hands or feet. In patients who have local recurrence, salvage without amputation is possible. The excellent cancer control outcomes observed, considering the minimal impact on limb function, support use of combined modality, limb-sparing local therapy for STS arising in the hands or feet.

  15. EMG activation of trunk and upper limb muscles following experimentally-induced overpronation and oversupination of the feet in quiet standing.

    PubMed

    Ntousis, Theodoros; Mandalidis, Dimitris; Chronopoulos, Efstathios; Athanasopoulos, Spyros

    2013-02-01

    Kinematic studies have shown that experimentally-induced overpronation or oversupination of the subtalar joint may alter the position of the legs, hips and pelvis and consequently the trunk and upper limb. The purpose of the present study was to examine whether such foot deformity affects the activity of muscles that act on the trunk and upper limb. Twenty-eight healthy individuals (11 males and 17 females) 21.4±1.9 years of age without skeletal deformity, leg length discrepancy (LLD), overpronated or oversupinated feet or excessive lateral pelvic inclination volunteered for the study. Bilateral EMG recordings of the latissimus dorsi, pectoralis major and rectus abdominis were undertaken for 30-s with each subject in the relaxed standing position and at 5° and 10° bilateral or unilateral overpronation or oversupination of the foot on the dominant side using wooden wedge-shape blocks. The recorded EMG activity was normalised based on the EMG activity produced by the muscles under investigation during maximum isometric voluntary contraction. The findings of the present study revealed that neither bilateral nor unilateral overpronation/oversupination of the feet induced a significant alteration of the EMG activity of the latissimus dorsi, pectoralis major and rectus abdominis on either the dominant or non-dominant side. These findings suggest that in the absence of other major structural deformity bilateral or unilateral foot overpronation or oversupination does not affect the EMG activity of muscles that act on the trunk and upper limb in quiet standing.

  16. [See symptoms and signs of six channels of feet in Huangdi's Internal Classic from medical books of bamboo slips and silk cloth].

    PubMed

    Yang, Feng; Zhao, Jing-Sheng

    2007-11-01

    Some champers besides Miraculous Pivot: Channels and Vessels in Huangdi's Internal Classic are involved in diseases of channels and vessels, and most of them which mainly discuss diseases of channels and vessels are explained in the type of six channels of feet. Studies have showed that the diseases of six channels of the feet are closely related with diseases of channels and vessels in the medical books of bamboo slips and silk cloth, indicating that on the one hand, the studies on diseases of channels and vessels are not only limited in Miraculous Pivot: Channels and Vessels, and on the other hand, the influence of the literature of channels and vessels in the medical books of bamboo slips and silk cloth is quite profound and lasting. Widening the field of vision of investigating concept of diseases of channels and vessels, and looking closely at the course of history from academic development are favorable to deeply understanding diseases of channels and vessels, even early theories of channels and vessels.

  17. Performance of pilot scale bioventing at an aviation gasoline spill site. Book chapter

    SciTech Connect

    Kampbell, D.H.

    1993-01-01

    An aviation gasoline (Avgas) spill of near 35,000 gallons occurred over 20 years ago at the U.S. Coast Guard Air Station in Traverse City, Michigan. The site has a relatively uniform subsurface of beach sand to a depth of 50 feet. A three-feet vertical smear of oily globules was near the water table depth of 15 feet. Two pilot-scale bioventing systems were evaluated on a portion of the 240 x 1100 foot surface area plume. The vadose zone contaminated with aviation gasoline was satisfactorily bioremediated by both venting systems. Differential performance between the two systems was not apparent. Operational time for clean-up was eight months. Surface emissions of gasoline vapor during systems operation were minimal.

  18. Scale and scaling in soils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Scale is recognized as a central concept in the description of the hierarchical organization of our world. Pressing environmental and societal problems such require an understanding of how processes operate at different scales, and how they can be linked across scales. Soil science as many other dis...

  19. Experimental and Predicted Longitudinal and Lateral-Directional Response Characteristics of a Large Flexible 35 Degree Swept-Wing Airplane at an Altitude of 35,000 Feet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cole, Henry A , Jr; Brown, Stuart C; Holleman, Euclid C

    1957-01-01

    Measured and predicted dynamic response characteristics of a large flexible swept-wing airplane to control surface inputs are presented for flight conditions of 0.6 to 0.85 Mach number at an altitude of 35,000 feet. The report is divided into two parts. The first part deals with the response of the airplane to elevator control inputs with principal responses contained in a band of frequencies including the longitudinal short-period mode and several symmetrical structural modes. The second part deals with the response of the airplane to aileron and rudder control inputs with principal responses contained in a band of frequencies including the dutch roll mode, the rolling mode, and three antisymmetrical structural modes.

  20. Deployment loads data from a free-flight investigation of all flexible parawings having 371.612 sq meters (4000 sq feet) of wing area

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Croom, D. R.

    1971-01-01

    A free-flight test program to determine the deployment characteristics of all-flexible parawings was conducted. Both single-keel and twin-keel parawings having a wing area of 4000 square feet with a five-stage reefing system were tested by use of a bomb-type instrumented test vehicle. Several twin-keel-parawing tests were also made by using an instrumented controllable sled-type test vehicle. The systems were launched from either a C-130 or a C-119 carrier airplane, and a programer parachute was used to bring the test vehicle to a proper dynamic pressure and near-vertical flight path prior to deployment of the parawing system. The free-flight deployment loads data are presented in the form of time histories of individual suspension-line loads and total loads.

  1. Doppler recordings after diving to depth of 30 meters at high altitude of 4,919 meters (16,138 feet) during the Tilicho Lake Expedition 2007.

    PubMed

    Kot, J; Sicko, Z; Zyszkowski, M; Brajta, M

    2014-01-01

    When going to high altitude (higher than 2,400 meters above mean sea level [about 8,200 feet]), human physiology is strongly affected by changes in atmospheric conditions, including decreased ambient pressure and hypobaric hypoxia, which can lead to severe hypoxemia, brain and/or pulmonary edema, negative changes in body and blood composition, as well as disturbances in regional microcirculation. When adding other factors, such as dehydration, physical exercise and exposure to low temperature, it is likely that nitrogen desaturation after diving at such environmental conditions is far from optimal, There are only single reports on diving at high alti-tudes. In 2007 a Polish team of climbers and divers participated in the Tilicho Lake and Peak Expedition to the Himalaya Mountains in Nepal. During this expedition, four divers conducted six dives in the Tilicho Lake at altitude of 4,919 meters above mean sea level equivalent (16,138 feet) to a maximum depth of 15 meters of fresh water (mfw) (equivalent to 28 mfw at sea level by the Cross Correction method) and 30 mfw (equivalent to 57 mfw at sea level "by Cross correction). Decompression debt was calculated using Cross Correction with some additional safety add-ons. Precordial Doppler recordings were taken every 15 minutes until 90 minutes after surfacing. No signs or symptoms of decompression sickness were observed after diving but in one diver, very high bubble grade Doppler signals were recorded. It can be concluded that diving at high altitude should be accompanied by additional safety precautions as well as taking into account personal sensitivity for such conditions.

  2. The prevalence of skin eruptions and mycoses of the buttocks and feet in aged care facility residents: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Nakagami, Gojiro; Takehara, Kimie; Kanazawa, Toshiki; Miura, Yuka; Nakamura, Tetsuro; Kawashima, Makoto; Tsunemi, Yuichiro; Sanada, Hiromi

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of skin mycoses in the elderly remains unclear. The proportion of people with skin eruptions who are positive for mycoses using direct microscopy is not known. The purpose of this study is to identify the prevalence of skin eruptions and skin mycoses (e.g. candidiasis and tinea) in the buttocks and feet, which are common sites of skin mycoses in residents of long-term care facilities. This multi-site cross-sectional study used visual inspection and direct microscopy to diagnose the type of skin eruption. Subjects were residents of facilities covered by long-term care insurance schemes in Japan. Of the 171 residents enrolled in this study, 72.5% had a skin eruption. Only 4.8% of participants had tinea in the buttocks; 2.4% had buttock candidiasis. In those with a nail abnormality, 58.3% of residents had tinea unguium. For tinea pedis, residents who had any form of interdigital or plantar region skin eruption, 22.5% and 31.4% of residents were positive, respectively. The prevalence of observed skin mycoses was: buttock candidiasis 1.8%; buttock tinea 3.5%; tinea unguium 56.2%; interdigital tinea pedis 20.5%; and plantar tinea pedis 22.5%. The very low proportion of residents with mycoses in the buttocks suggests that anti-inflammatory agents, such as steroids, should be used as first choice. Our observation that not all residents with skin eruptions on the feet had tinea, should remind clinicians to perform direct microscopy before initiating antifungal treatments.

  3. Maslowian Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falk, C.; And Others

    The development of the Maslowian Scale, a method of revealing a picture of one's needs and concerns based on Abraham Maslow's levels of self-actualization, is described. This paper also explains how the scale is supported by the theories of L. Kohlberg, C. Rogers, and T. Rusk. After a literature search, a list of statements was generated…

  4. The Resource beneath Our Feet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clary, Renee

    2015-01-01

    This article describes activities in which students sample, investigate, classify, and compare characteristics (i.e., texture, color, density, porosity) of local soils, evaluating whether the soils are healthy or at risk. Students investigate correlations between geology and geography, predict which soil types may go extinct in their state, and…

  5. Syndromic Feet: Arthrogryposis and Myelomeningocele.

    PubMed

    van Bosse, Harold Jacob Pieter

    2015-12-01

    Treatment of myelomeningocele and arthrogrypotic foot deformities has been controversial; many different procedures have been advocated for each type of deformity. In most cases, outcomes have had variable success rates, and many complications can occur. Treatment strategies should highlight care that avoids the development of a stiffened foot and allows for a variety of options to regain correction when a relapse occurs. This is particularly true in myelomeningocele, whereby a stiff foot runs a high risk for skin ulceration, leading to osteomyelitis. Discussion includes appropriate circumstances for the use of presented procedures and the author's preferred treatment for each deformity.

  6. Skin Cancers of the Feet

    MedlinePlus

    ... itchy. Squamous cell cancer may resemble a plantar wart, a fungal infection, eczema, an ulcer, or other ... resemble benign moles, blood blisters, ingrown nails, plantar warts, ulcers caused by poor circulation, foreign bodies, or ...

  7. Flat Feet and Fallen Arches

    MedlinePlus

    ... Throat Emotional Problems Eyes Fever From Insects or Animals Genitals and Urinary Tract Glands & Growth Head Neck & Nervous System Heart Infections Learning Disabilities Obesity Orthopedic Prevention Sexually Transmitted Skin Tobacco ...

  8. [Feet dermatophytosis in soccer players].

    PubMed

    Purim, Kátia Sheylla Malta; de Freitas, Camila Fernanda Novak Pinheiro; Leite, Neiva

    2009-01-01

    Athletes present risk of cutaneous mycosis. A study was carried out with 23 soccer players using clinical and mycological examination (direct microscopic examination and culture) and nail clipping. Eighteen (78.26%) did not present mycosis; two (8.70%) presented tinea pedis, and three (13.04%) presented onychomycosis associated to tinea pedis, mainly for Trichophyton mentagrophytes. Infected tinea pedis has produced cellulitis in one of the athletes. It is necessary to create an educative program of skin care during sports practice.

  9. The Ground Beneath Phoenix's Feet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This view of a portion of the spacecraft deck and one of the footpads of NASA's three-legged Phoenix Mars Lander shows a solid surface at the spacecraft's landing site. As the legs touched down on the surface of Mars, they kicked up some loose material on top of the footpad, but overall, the surface is unperturbed.

    Each footpad is about the size of a large dinner plate, measuring 11.5 inches from rim to rim. The base of the footpad is shaped like the bottom of a shallow bowl to provide stability.

    This image was taken by the Phoenix spacecraft's Surface Stereo Imager shortly after landing on Mars.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  10. Endothelin-1 overexpression leads to further water accumulation and brain edema after middle cerebral artery occlusion via aquaporin 4 expression in astrocytic end-feet.

    PubMed

    Lo, Amy C Y; Chen, Ann Y S; Hung, Victor K L; Yaw, Lai Ping; Fung, Maggie K L; Ho, Maggie C Y; Tsang, Margaret C S; Chung, Stephen S M; Chung, Sookja K

    2005-08-01

    Stroke patients have increased levels of endothelin-1 (ET-1), a strong vasoconstrictor, in their plasma or cerebrospinal fluid. Previously, we showed high level of ET-1 mRNA expression in astrocytes after hypoxia/ischemia. It is unclear whether the contribution of ET-1 induction in astrocytes is protective or destructive in cerebral ischemia. Here, we generated a transgenic mouse model that overexpress ET-1 in astrocytes (GET-1) using the glial fibrillary acidic protein promoter to examine the role of astrocytic ET-1 in ischemic stroke by challenging these mice with transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). Under normal condition, GET-1 mice showed no abnormality in brain morphology, cerebrovasculature, absolute cerebral blood flow, blood-brain barrier (BBB) integrity, and mean arterial blood pressure. Yet, GET-1 mice subjected to transient MCAO showed more severe neurologic deficits and increased infarct, which were partially normalized by administration of ABT-627 (ET(A) antagonist) 5 mins after MCAO. In addition, GET-1 brains exhibited more Evans blue extravasation and showed decreased endothelial occludin expression after MCAO, correlating with higher brain water content and increased cerebral edema. Aquaporin 4 expression was also more pronounced in astrocytic end-feet on blood vessels in GET-1 ipsilateral brains. Our current data suggest that astrocytic ET-1 has deleterious effects on water homeostasis, cerebral edema and BBB integrity, which contribute to more severe ischemic brain injury.

  11. Ballistic Range Measurements of Stagnation-Point Heat Transfer in Air and in Carbon Dioxide at Velocities up to 18,000 Feet Per Second

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yee, Layton; Bailey, Harry E.; Woodward, Henry T.

    1961-01-01

    A new technique for measuring heat-transfer rates on free-flight models in a ballistic range is described in this report. The accuracy of the heat-transfer rates measured in this way is shown to be comparable with the accuracy obtained in shock-tube measurements. The specific results of the present experiments consist of measurements of the stagnation-point heat-transfer rates experienced by a spherical-nosed model during flight through air and through carbon dioxide at velocities up to 18,000 feet per second. For flight through air these measured heat-transfer rates agree well with both the theoretically predicted rates and the rates measured in shock tubes. the heat-transfer rates agree well with the rates measured in a shock tube. Two methods of estimating the stagnation-point heat-transfer rates in carbon dioxide are compared with the experimental measurements. At each velocity the measured stagnation-point heat-transfer rate in carbon dioxide is about the same as the measured heat-transfer rate in air.

  12. Verrucous lesions arising in lymphedema and diabetic neuropathy: Elephantiasis nostras verrucosa or verrucous skin lesions on the feet of patients with diabetic neuropathy?

    PubMed

    Hotta, Eri; Asai, Jun; Okuzawa, Yasutaro; Hanada, Keiji; Nomiyama, Tomoko; Takenaka, Hideya; Katoh, Norito

    2016-03-01

    Verrucous skin lesions on the feet in diabetic neuropathy (VSLDN) develop in areas with sensory loss in diabetic patients. Although various types of chronic stimulation, such as pressure or friction, are considered an important factor in the development of such lesions, the precise pathogenesis of VSLDN remains obscure, and there is currently no established treatment for this disease. Here, we present a case of VSLDN on the dorsum of the right foot. However, because lymphedema was also observed at the same site, this lesion could also be diagnosed as elephantiasis nostras verrucosa arising in diabetic neuropathy. The lesion was successfully treated with a combination of elastic stocking and mixed killed bacterial suspension and hydrocortisone ointment, which suggested that VSLDN might have been exacerbated by the pre-existing lymphedema. Because various types of chronic stimulation can trigger VSLDN, treatment plans should be devised on a case-by-case basis. Therefore, it is important to investigate the presence of factors that can induce or exacerbate chronic inflammatory stimulation, such as lymphedema in our case, in each patient with VSLDN.

  13. Flight Behavior of the X-2 Research Airplane to a Mach Number of 3.20 and a Geometric Altitude of 126,200 Feet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Day, Richard E.; Reisert, Donald

    1959-01-01

    The maximum Mach number and altitude capabilities of the Bell X-2 research airplane were achieved during a program conducted by the U.S. Air Force with Bell Aircraft Corp. providing operational support and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration providing instrumentation and advisory engineering assistance. A maximum geometric altitude of 126,200 feet was attained at a static pressure of 9.4 pounds per square foot and a dynamic pressure of 19.1 pounds per square foot. During the last flight of the airplane, a maximum Mach number of 3.20 was reached. The directionally divergent maneuver which terminated the final high Mach number flight was precipitated by the loss in directional stability that resulted from increasing the angle of attack. The yawing moment from the lateral control was sufficient to initiate the divergence and also to cause,, indirectly, rolling moments that were greater than the aileron capabilities of the airplane. The ensuing violent motions-resulting from inertial roll coupling caused the loss of the aircraft.

  14. A Simulation Study of Instrument Meteorological Condition Approaches to Dual Parallel Runways Spaced 3400 and 2500 Feet Apart Using Flight-Deck-Centered Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waller, Marvin C.; Scanlon, Charles H.

    1999-01-01

    A number of our nations airports depend on closely spaced parallel runway operations to handle their normal traffic throughput when weather conditions are favorable. For safety these operations are curtailed in Instrument Meteorological Conditions (IMC) when the ceiling or visibility deteriorates and operations in many cases are limited to the equivalent of a single runway. Where parallel runway spacing is less than 2500 feet, capacity loss in IMC is on the order of 50 percent for these runways. Clearly, these capacity losses result in landing delays, inconveniences to the public, increased operational cost to the airlines, and general interruption of commerce. This document presents a description and the results of a fixed-base simulation study to evaluate an initial concept that includes a set of procedures for conducting safe flight in closely spaced parallel runway operations in IMC. Consideration of flight-deck information technology and displays to support the procedures is also included in the discussions. The procedures and supporting technology rely heavily on airborne capabilities operating in conjunction with the air traffic control system.

  15. Model Investigation of Technique for Full Scale Landing Impact Tests at Simulated Lunar Gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1965-01-01

    Model Investigation of Technique for Full Scale Landing Impact Tests at Simulated Lunar Gravity. An investigation of a 1/6-scale dynamic model has been made to develop and evaluate a technique for conducting full-scale landing-impact tests at simulated lunar gravity. Landings were made at touchdown pitch attitudes of -15 degrees, 0 degrees, and 15 degrees. All landings were made with two gear pads forward and at a roll attitude of 0 degrees. Both roll and yaw attitudes were constrained. Vertical landing speed was varied from 5 to 15 feet per second (1.5 to 4.6 m/s) and horizontal speed was varied from 0 to 10 feet per second (0 to 3.0 m/s). Most of the landings were made at a vertical and horizontal speed of 10 feet per second or 3.0 m/s (45 degree flight-path angle) while pitch attitude and surface characteristics, friction and topography, were varied. These parameters were investigated with the free-body earth-gravity and the simulated lunar-gravity test techniques. The landings were made at a model mass corresponding to a full-scale lunar weight (force due to gravity) of 1,440 pounds (6.41 kN) or an earth weight of 8,640 pounds (38.4 kN). [Entire movie available on DVD from CASI as Doc ID 20070030977. Contact help@sti.nasa.gov

  16. Full Scale Tunnel (FST) and Seaplane Tow Channel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1930-01-01

    Installation of Careystone covering at the Full-Scale Tunnel (FST) facility. The corrugated concrete and asbestos panels (1/4 inch thick; 42 inches wide; 62 inches long) which were used as siding and roofing for the Full-Scale Tunnel were manufactured by The Philip Carey Company. For the NACA, the choice of Careystone had been based on several factors. First and foremost was its low cost. NACA engineers had observed the very durable, low-maintenance and fireproof qualities of the concrete-asbestos covering of the airship hanger at Langley Field. Further, tests showed the material to be 3.8 times stronger than required (The maximum load the material was expected to withstand was 52 lbs. per square foot; the breaking load was 196 lbs. per sq. ft.). L4695 shows the interior view of construction of the Tow Tank. In the late 1920s, the NACA decided to investigate the aero/hydro dynamics of floats for seaplanes. A Hydrodynamics Branch was established in 1929 and special towing basin was authorized in March of that same year. Starr Truscott (the first head of the new division) described the tank in NACA TR 470: 'The N.A.C.A. tank is of the Froude type; that is, the model which is being tested is towed through still water at successive constant speeds from a carriage spanning the tank. At each constant speed the towing pull is measured, the trim and the rise, or change of draft, are recorded and, if the model is being towed at a fixed trim, the moment required to hold it there is measured and recorded.' 'The reinforced concrete basin containing the water has the following dimensions: (1) Length on water, extreme, 2,020 feet; (2) Normal width of water surface, 24 feet; (3) Normal depth of water, 12 feet; (4) Length of 12 foot depth, 1,980 feet.' This picture shows the tank before the coving was added. This brought the rails for the carriage closer together and helped suppress waves produced by the models. The finished tank would be filled with approximately 4 million

  17. The effects of changing angle and height of toilet seat on movements and ground reaction forces in the feet during sit-to-stand

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Su-Kyoung; Lee, Sang-Yeol

    2016-01-01

    The study aimed to examine the effects of changes in the angle and height on movements and ground reaction forces in the feet. Subjects were instructed to sit and stand on different angles and heights; 0° (43 cm), 10° (51 cm), and 15° (58 cm). The motion required in this study is similar to that of standing up from sitting on a chair. The Tumble Forms Wedges (10° [8 cm], 15° [15 cm]) were placed on the toilet seat to create angles and heights at 0° (43 cm), 10° (51 cm), and 15° (58 cm). The side-to-side travel distances when the subjects stood up from sitting were 103.70±12.46 at 0° (43 cm), 96.99±12.11 at 10° (51 cm), and 99.12±12.00 at 15° (58 cm). The forward and backward travel distances when the subjects stood up from sitting were 235.93±10.60 at 0° (43 cm), 194.17±8.07 at 10° (51 cm), and 181.63±8.66 at 15° (58 cm). The ground reaction forces when the subjects stood up from sitting were 1.09±0.02 at 0° (43 cm), 1.08±0.22 at 10° (51 cm), and 1.07±0.21 at 15° (58 cm). Increases in the angle and height of the toilet seat affected forward-and-backward swaying during standing up, but did not affect the ground reaction force and side-to-side swaying. PMID:27807522

  18. BENCH SCALE SALTSTONE PROCESS DEVELOPMENT MIXING STUDY

    SciTech Connect

    Cozzi, A.; Hansen, E.

    2011-08-03

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was requested to develop a bench scale test facility, using a mixer, transfer pump, and transfer line to determine the impact of conveying the grout through the transfer lines to the vault on grout properties. Bench scale testing focused on the effect the transfer line has on the rheological property of the grout as it was processed through the transfer line. Rheological and other physical properties of grout samples were obtained prior to and after pumping through a transfer line. The Bench Scale Mixing Rig (BSMR) consisted of two mixing tanks, grout feed tank, transfer pump and transfer hose. The mixing tanks were used to batch the grout which was then transferred into the grout feed tank. The contents of the feed tank were then pumped through the transfer line (hose) using a progressive cavity pump. The grout flow rate and pump discharge pressure were monitored. Four sampling stations were located along the length of the transfer line at the 5, 105 and 205 feet past the transfer pump and at 305 feet, the discharge of the hose. Scaling between the full scale piping at Saltstone to bench scale testing at SRNL was performed by maintaining the same shear rate and total shear at the wall of the transfer line. The results of scaling down resulted in a shorter transfer line, a lower average velocity, the same transfer time and similar pressure drops. The condition of flow in the bench scale transfer line is laminar. The flow in the full scale pipe is in the transition region, but is more laminar than turbulent. The resulting plug in laminar flow in the bench scale results in a region of no-mixing. Hence mixing, or shearing, at the bench scale should be less than that observed in the full scale, where this plug is non existent due to the turbulent flow. The bench scale tests should be considered to be conservative due to the highly laminar condition of flow that exists. Two BSMR runs were performed. In both cases, wall

  19. Full Scale Tunnel (FST) and Seaplane Tow Channel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1930-01-01

    Aerial and ground views of the overall construction of Full-Scale Tunnel (FST) and the Seaplane Tow Channel. In November 1929, Smith DeFrance submitted his recommendations for the general design of the Full Scale Wind Tunnel. The last on his list concerned the division of labor required to build this unusual facility. He believed the job had five parts and described them as follows: 'It is proposed that invitations be sent out for bids on five groups of items. The first would be for one contract on the complete structure; second the same as first, including the erection of the cones but not the fabrication, since this would be more of a shipyard job; third would cover structural steel, cover, sash and doors, but not cones or foundation; fourth, foundations; an fifth, fabrication of cones.' DeFrance's memorandum prompted the NACA to solicit estimates from a large number of companies. Preliminary designs and estimates were prepared and submitted to the Bureau of the Budget and Congress appropriated funds on February 20, 1929. The main construction contract with the J.A. Jones Company of Charlotte, North Carolina was signed one year later on February 12, 1930. It was a peculiar structure as the building's steel framework is visible on the outside of the building. DeFrance described this in NACA TR No. 459: 'The entire equipment is housed in a structure, the outside walls of which serve as the outer walls of the return passages. The over-all length of the tunnel is 434 feet 6 inches, the width 222 feet, and the maximum height 97 feet. The framework is of structural steel....' (pp. 292-293). Ground shots of work in progress, aerials of east area.

  20. Multidimensional scaling

    PubMed Central

    Papesh, Megan H.; Goldinger, Stephen D.

    2012-01-01

    The concept of similarity, or a sense of "sameness" among things, is pivotal to theories in the cognitive sciences and beyond. Similarity, however, is a difficult thing to measure. Multidimensional scaling (MDS) is a tool by which researchers can obtain quantitative estimates of similarity among groups of items. More formally, MDS refers to a set of statistical techniques that are used to reduce the complexity of a data set, permitting visual appreciation of the underlying relational structures contained therein. The current paper provides an overview of MDS. We discuss key aspects of performing this technique, such as methods that can be used to collect similarity estimates, analytic techniques for treating proximity data, and various concerns regarding interpretation of the MDS output. MDS analyses of two novel data sets are also included, highlighting in step-by-step fashion how MDS is performed, and key issues that may arise during analysis. PMID:23359318

  1. Construction of a 40-mile long roadside scale model of the solar system in northern Maine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCartney, K.

    2001-05-01

    The Maine Solar System Model is currently under construction along Route 1 between Houlton and Presque Isle, in Aroostook County, northern Maine. The scale is 1:93,000,000, or 1 mile equals an astronomical unit. There is a 40 mile distance between the Sun (diameter 49.5 feet) and Pluto (diameter 1 inch). The model will include the Sun, nine planets and seven moons, with diameters and distances all to the same scale. Except for the Sun, all components will be three-dimensional and built to withstand the northern Maine climate. Construction is generally of steel with fiberglass globes positioned on steel posts at least ten feet above ground and 55 feet off the roadway. Road safety concerns require that the Jupiter and Saturn sites include parking lots. Educational information associated with the model will be provided on brochures, since textual information at the sites would require excessive stops and parking problems. Learning exercises will also be provided by travelling trunks prepared by Maine teachers to support the State of Maine Learning Results. This is a community project with the various components being built by ten area schools and with active assistance from many community members and organizations. It is being built with with very little money, with most materials and labor donated.

  2. Statistical parametric mapping of the regional distribution and ontogenetic scaling of foot pressures during walking in Asian elephants (Elephas maximus).

    PubMed

    Panagiotopoulou, Olga; Pataky, Todd C; Hill, Zoe; Hutchinson, John R

    2012-05-01

    Foot pressure distributions during locomotion have causal links with the anatomical and structural configurations of the foot tissues and the mechanics of locomotion. Elephant feet have five toes bound in a flexible pad of fibrous tissue (digital cushion). Does this specialized foot design control peak foot pressures in such giant animals? And how does body size, such as during ontogenetic growth, influence foot pressures? We addressed these questions by studying foot pressure distributions in elephant feet and their correlation with body mass and centre of pressure trajectories, using statistical parametric mapping (SPM), a neuro-imaging technology. Our results show a positive correlation between body mass and peak pressures, with the highest pressures dominated by the distal ends of the lateral toes (digits 3, 4 and 5). We also demonstrate that pressure reduction in the elephant digital cushion is a complex interaction of its viscoelastic tissue structure and its centre of pressure trajectories, because there is a tendency to avoid rear 'heel' contact as an elephant grows. Using SPM, we present a complete map of pressure distributions in elephant feet during ontogeny by performing statistical analysis at the pixel level across the entire plantar/palmar surface. We hope that our study will build confidence in the potential clinical and scaling applications of mammalian foot pressures, given our findings in support of a link between regional peak pressures and pathogenesis in elephant feet.

  3. Full-scale Wind-tunnel and Flight Tests of a Fairchild 22 Airplane Equipped with a Fowler Flap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dearborn, C H; Soule, H A

    1936-01-01

    Full-scale wind-tunnel and flight tests were made of a Fairchild 22 airplane equipped with a Fowler flap to determine the effect of the flap on the performance and control characteristics of the airplane. In the wind-tunnel tests of the airplane with the horizontal tail surfaces removed, the flap was found to increase the maximum lift coefficient from 1.27 to 2.41. In the flight test, the flap was found to decrease the minimum speed from 58.8 to 44.4 miles per hour. The required take-off run to attain an altitude of 50 feet was reduced from 935 feet to 700 feet by the use of the flap, the minimum distance being obtained with five-sixths full deflection. The landing run from a height of 50 feet was reduced one-third. The longitudinal and directional control was adversely affected by the flap, indicating that the design of the tail surfaces is more critical with a flapped than a plain wing.

  4. Full Scale Wind Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1931-01-01

    Installation of propeller and motor fairing for east exit cone. Smith DeFrance described the propellers and motors in NACA TR No. 459. ' The propellers are located side by side and 48 feet aft of the throat of the exit-cone bell. The propellers are 35 feet 5 inches in diameter and each consists of four cast aluminum alloy blades screwed into a cast steel hub.' 'The most commonly used power plant for operating a wind tunnel is a direct-current motor and motor-generator set with Ward Leonard control system. For the FST it was found that alternating current slip-ring induction motors, together with satisfactory control equipment, could be purchased for approximately 30 percent less than the direct-current equipment. Two 4,000-horsepower slip-ring induction motors with 24 steps of speed between 75 and 300 r.p.m. were therefore installed. In order to obtain the range of speed one pole change was provided and the other variations are obtained by the introduction of resistance in the rotor circuit. This control permits a variation in air speed from 25 to 118 miles per hour. The two motors are connected through an automatic switchboard to one drum-type controller located in the test chamber. All the control equipment is interlocked and connected through time-limit relays, so that regardless of how fast the controller handle is moved the motors will increase in speed at regular intervals.' (p. 294-295)

  5. Analytical Investigation of a Flicker-Type Roll Control for a Mach Number 6 Missile with Aerodynamic Controls Over An Altitude Range of 82,000 to 282,000 feet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lundstrom, Reginald R.; Whitman, Ruth I.

    1959-01-01

    An analytical investigation has been carried out to determine the responses of a flicker-type roll control incorporated in a missile which traverses a range of Mach number of 6.3 at an altitude of 82,000 feet to 5.26 at an altitude of 282,000 feet. The missile has 80 deg delta wings in a cruciform arrangement with aerodynamic controls attached to the fuselage near the wing trailing edge and indexed 450 to the wings. Most of the investigation was carried out on an analog computer. Results showed that roll stabilization that may be adequate for many cases can be obtained over the altitude range considered, providing that the rate factor can be changed with altitude. The response would be improved if the control deflection were made larger at the higher altitudes. lag times less than 0.04 second improve the response appreciably. Asymmetries that produce steady rolling moments can be very detrimental to the response in some cases. The wing damping made a negligible contribution to the response.

  6. Functional morphology and virtual models: physical constraints on the design of oscillating wings, fins, legs, and feet at intermediate reynolds numbers.

    PubMed

    Walker, Jeffrey A

    2002-04-01

    Why do some animals swim by rowing appendages back and forth while others fly by flapping them up and down? One hypothesis suggests the answer lies in the sharply divergent physical environments encountered by small, slow animals, and large, fast animals. Flapping appendages allow large animals to move through a fluid environment quickly and efficiently. As size and speed decrease, however, viscous drag increasingly dominates the force balance, with negative consequences for both rowing and flapping appendages. Nevertheless, comparative data suggest that flapping does not occur in animals at Reynolds numbers (Re) less than about 15. I used a computer simulation experiment to address the question, "Below what Re is rowing more effective than flapping?" The simulation, which employed a simple quasi-steady, blade-element model of virtual oscillating appendages, has several important results. First, the mechanical efficiency of both rowing and flapping decrease dramatically with scale. Second, the performance of rowing can increase substantially by taking advantage of several dynamic shape modifications, including area and span reduction during the recovery stroke. Finally, the relative performance of rowing and flapping is dependent on the advance ratio, which is a function of the travel speed relative to the oscillation frequency. The model predicts that rowing is more efficient than flapping at Re < 20 for animals moving throughout the range of typically observed advance ratios.

  7. The influence of the length of the first metatarsal on the risk of reulceration in the feet of patients with diabetes.

    PubMed

    Molines-Barroso, Raúl J; Lázaro-Martínez, José L; Aragón-Sánchez, Javier; García-Morales, Esther; Carabantes-Alarcón, David; Álvaro-Afonso, Francisco Javier

    2014-03-01

    Our aim was to identify the optimal diagnostic cutoff point on the scale of protrusion measurements of the first metatarsal (M1) to predict the probability of reulceration after metatarsal head resection in patients with diabetes mellitus. We conducted a prospective study of patients with diabetes who underwent resection of at least 1 metatarsal head in our department. After surgery, we measured the difference in length (protrusion) between the M1 and the longest of the 4 lesser metatarsals by radiographic view. The patients were divided into those in whom the M1 was the longest of the 5 metatarsals (group 1) and patients in whom at least one of the lesser metatarsals was longer than the M1 (group 2). They were followed-up for 12 months and were assessed for reulceration. Ninety-one patients were included in the present study: 43 (47%) in group 1 and 48 (53%) in group 2. In group 1, the longer the protrusion of M1 was, the higher the probability for reulceration (P < .001, 95% confidence interval = 0.813-0.997). In group 2, the shorter the protrusion of M1, the higher the probability for reulceration (P = .002, 95% confidence interval = 0.628-0.905). The optimal cutoff point for group 1 was 11 mm (sensitivity = 84.6%, specificity = 86.7%) for the probability of reulceration. In group 2, it was -7 mm (sensitivity = 81.8%, specificity = 65.4%). These results suggest that M1 protrusion is an optimum prognostic indicator for reulceration and could be recommended for detecting patients at risk of reulceration after surgery.

  8. Performance of Pentaborane, Pentaborane - JP-4 Fuel Mixtures, and Trimethylborate Azeotrope Fuel in a Full-scale Turbojet Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Breitwiesser, Roland; Useller, James W.

    1956-01-01

    This report summarizes the full-scale engine tests of pentaborane, pentaborane - JP-4 fuel mixtures, and trimethylborate azeotrope fuel. The tests were conducted in a full-scale turbojet engine at a simulated altitude of 50,000 feet and Mach number of 0.08. Engine speeds were 90 to 100 percent of rated speed. Pentaborane reduced the the specific fuel consumption to two-thirds that of JP-4 fuel. However, because boron oxide collected in the engine, the performance deteriorated with continued operation of pentaborane in each of the short-duration tests reported.

  9. Small nerve fibres, small hands and small feet: a new syndrome of pain, dysautonomia and acromesomelia in a kindred with a novel NaV1.7 mutation.

    PubMed

    Hoeijmakers, Janneke G J; Han, Chongyang; Merkies, Ingemar S J; Macala, Lawrence J; Lauria, Giuseppe; Gerrits, Monique M; Dib-Hajj, Sulayman D; Faber, Catharina G; Waxman, Stephen G

    2012-02-01

    The Na(V)1.7 sodium channel is preferentially expressed within dorsal root ganglion and sympathetic ganglion neurons and their small-diameter peripheral axons. Gain-of-function variants of Na(V)1.7 have recently been described in patients with painful small fibre neuropathy and no other apparent cause. Here, we describe a novel syndrome of pain, dysautonomia, small hands and small feet in a kindred carrying a novel Na(V)1.7 mutation. A 35-year-old male presented with erythema and burning pain in the hands since early childhood, later disseminating to the feet, cheeks and ears. He also experienced progressive muscle cramps, profound sweating, bowel disturbances (diarrhoea or constipation), episodic dry eyes and mouth, hot flashes, and erectile dysfunction. Neurological examination was normal. Physical examination was remarkable in revealing small hands and feet (acromesomelia). Blood examination and nerve conduction studies were unremarkable. Intra-epidermal nerve fibre density was significantly reduced compared to age- and sex-matched normative values. The patient's brother and father reported similar complaints including distal extremity redness and pain, and demonstrated comparable distal limb under-development. Quantitative sensory testing revealed impaired warmth sensation in the proband, father and brother. Genetic analysis revealed a novel missense mutation in the SCN9A gene encoding sodium channel Na(V)1.7 (G856D; c.2567G > A) in all three affected subjects, but not in unaffected family members. Functional analysis demonstrated that the mutation hyperpolarizes (-9.3 mV) channel activation, depolarizes (+6.2 mV) steady-state fast-inactivation, slows deactivation and enhances persistent current and the response to slow ramp stimuli by 10- to 11-fold compared with wild-type Na(V)1.7 channels. Current-clamp analysis of dorsal root ganglion neurons transfected with G856D mutant channels demonstrated depolarized resting potential, reduced current threshold

  10. Free-Spinning and Tumbling Tests of a 1/16-Scale Model of the McDonnell XP-85 Airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klinar, Walter J.

    1947-01-01

    The teat results showed that with either of the three tail arrangements, the model usually spun in flat attitudes with oscillations about the lateral and longitudinal axes. In general, full reversal of the rudder pedals did not stop the spinning rotation. To make the model satisfactorily meet-the spin-recovery requirements it was found that installation of either a very large ventral fin (l7.9 square feet, full scale) below the tail or a somewhat smaller ventral fin and rudder (12.4 square feet, total . full-scale area) with a rudder throw of at least +/-22deg was required. Either a 21.3-foot tail parachute or a 6.4-foot wing-tip parachute (drag coefficient approximately 0.70) appears necessary as an emergency spin-recovery device during demonstration spins.

  11. Pressure distributions obtained on a 0.10-scale model of the Space Shuttle Orbiter's forebody in the Ames Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siemers, P. M., III; Henry, M. W.

    1986-01-01

    Pressure distribution test data obtained on a 0.10-scale model of the forward fuselage of the Space Shuttle Orbiter are presented without analysis. The tests were completed in the Ames Unitary Wind Tunnel (UPWT). The UPWT tests were conducted in two different test sections operating in the continuous mode, the 8 x 7 feet and 9 x 7 feet test sections. Each test section has its own Mach number range, 1.6 to 2.5 and 2.5 to 3.5 for the 9 x 7 feet and 8 x 7 feet test section, respectively. The test Reynolds number ranged from 1.6 to 2.5 x 10 to the 6th power ft and 0.6 to 2.0 x 10 to the 6th power ft, respectively. The tests were conducted in support of the development of the Shuttle Entry Air Data System (SEADS). In addition to modeling the 20 SEADS orifices, the wind-tunnel model was also instrumented with orifices to match Development Flight Instrumentation (DFI) port locations that existed on the Space Shuttle Columbia (OV-102) during the Orbiter Flight test program. This DFI simulation has provided a means for comparisons between reentry flight pressure data and wind-tunnel and computational data.

  12. Glazer Narrative Composition Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glazer, Joan

    Designed to assess the quality of children's narrative compositions, the Glazer Narrative Composition Scale (GNCS) consists of eighteen scales outlined under plot, theme, setting, characterization, and style. Each scale is scored 1, 2, or 3, depending on how much of the scale element is present in the narrative, with the highest possible score…

  13. Scaling: An Items Module

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tong, Ye; Kolen, Michael J.

    2010-01-01

    "Scaling" is the process of constructing a score scale that associates numbers or other ordered indicators with the performance of examinees. Scaling typically is conducted to aid users in interpreting test results. This module describes different types of raw scores and scale scores, illustrates how to incorporate various sources of…

  14. Full Scale Wind Tunnel and Seaplane Tow Channel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1931-01-01

    Construction progress, studding in Tow Channel office area, Full Scale motor fairing in west exit cone, motor fairing in east exit cone. Propeller and motor fairing for west exit cone. Smith DeFrance described the propellers and motors in NACA TR No. 459. ' The propellers are located side by side and 48 feet aft of the throat of the exit-cone bell. The propellers are 35 feet 5 inches in diameter and each consists of four cast aluminum alloy blades screwed into a cast steel hub.' 'The most commonly used power plant for operating a wind tunnel is a direct-current motor and motor-generator set with Ward Leonard control system. For the full-scale wind tunnel it was found that alternating current slip-ring induction motors, together with satisfactory control equipment, could be purchased for approximately 30 percent less than the direct-current equipment. Two 4,000-horsepower slip-ring induction motors with 24 steps of speed between 75 and 300 r.p.m. were therefore installed. In order to obtain the range of speed one pole change was provided and the other variations are obtained by the introduction of resistance in the rotor circuit. This control permits a variation in air speed from 25 to 118 miles per hour. The two motors are connected through an automatic switchboard to one drum-type controller located in the test chamber. All the control equipment is interlocked and connected through time-limit relays, so that regardless of how fast the controller handle is moved the motors will increase in speed at regular intervals.' (p. 294-295)

  15. Performance of Axial-Flow Supersonic Compressor of the XJ55-FF-1 Turbojet Engine. IV - Analysis of Compressor Operation over a Range of Equivalent Tip Speeds from 801 to 1614 Feet Per Second

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graham, Robert C.; Hartmann, Melvin J.

    1949-01-01

    An investigation was conducted to determine the performance characteristics of the axial-flow supersonic compressor of the XJ55-FF-1 turbojet engine. An analysis of the performance of the rotor was made based on detailed flow measurements behind the rotor. The compressor apparently did not obtain the design normal-shock configuration in this investigation. A large redistribution of mass occurred toward the root of the rotor over the entire speed range; this condition was so acute at design speed that the tip sections were completely inoperative. The passage pressure recovery at maximum pressure ratio at 1614 feet per second varied from a maximum of 0.81 near the root to 0.53 near the tip, which indicated very poor efficiency of the flow process through the rotor. The results, however, indicated that the desired supersonic operation may be obtained by decreasing the effective contraction ratio of the rotor blade passage.

  16. Gunshot residue inserted under hair scales as a result of a muzzle blast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burnett, Bryan R.

    2009-05-01

    The victim was alleged to have been shot in the head with a .40 caliber pistol from several feet. The defendant claimed that the shot was on the order of inches. Examination in the scanning electron microscope of the hair from around the victim's wound showed no adherent gunshot residue (GSR). However, when the hair was pulled apart by the adhesive of a standard GSR sampler, GSR was found associated with the exposed inner surfaces of the cuticle and cortex fragments. The pistol was discharged close enough to the victim's head that some of the cuticular scales were lifted in the muzzle blast which allowed GSR to be inserted under those scales. Gunshot residue associated with the surface of the victim's hair had somehow been removed. The defendant's account of the shooting was verified by the presence of under-scale GSR.

  17. A Sense of Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tretter, Thomas R.; Jones, M. Gail

    2003-01-01

    Points out the importance of an understanding of a sense of scale and presents an activity that uses distance or time as a measure. The activity illustrates for students what the universe would look like at various scales. (DDR)

  18. Small Scale Organic Techniques

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horak, V.; Crist, DeLanson R.

    1975-01-01

    Discusses the advantages of using small scale experimentation in the undergraduate organic chemistry laboratory. Describes small scale filtration techniques as an example of a semi-micro method applied to small quantities of material. (MLH)

  19. Cross-scale morphology

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Allen, Craig R.; Holling, Crawford S.; Garmestani, Ahjond S.; El-Shaarawi, Abdel H.; Piegorsch, Walter W.

    2013-01-01

    The scaling of physical, biological, ecological and social phenomena is a major focus of efforts to develop simple representations of complex systems. Much of the attention has been on discovering universal scaling laws that emerge from simple physical and geometric processes. However, there are regular patterns of departures both from those scaling laws and from continuous distributions of attributes of systems. Those departures often demonstrate the development of self-organized interactions between living systems and physical processes over narrower ranges of scale.

  20. Civilian PTSD Scales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shapinsky, Alicia C.; Rapport, Lisa J.; Henderson, Melinda J.; Axelrod, Bradley N.

    2005-01-01

    Strong associations between civilian posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) scales and measures of general psychological distress suggest that the scales are nonspecific to PTSD. Three common PTSD scales were administered to 122 undergraduates who had experienced an emotionally salient, nontraumatic event: a college examination. Results indicated…

  1. Classroom Observation Scales.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emmer, Edmund T.

    Nine scales were developed to measure a series of classroom behavior variables derived from a factor analytic study of five observation systems. The scales are multipoint check lists which are behaviorally referenced by different amounts and types of classroom behaviors. The scales measure such aspects of classroom behavior as teacher-initiated…

  2. Extreme Scale Visual Analytics

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, Pak C.; Shen, Han-Wei; Pascucci, Valerio

    2012-05-08

    Extreme-scale visual analytics (VA) is about applying VA to extreme-scale data. The articles in this special issue examine advances related to extreme-scale VA problems, their analytical and computational challenges, and their real-world applications.

  3. Educational Scale-Making

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nespor, Jan

    2004-01-01

    The article explores the complexities of educational scale-making. "Educational scales" are defined as the spatial and temporal orders generated as pupils and teachers move and are moved through educational systems; scales are "envelopes of spacetime" into which certain schoolbased identities (and not others) can be folded.…

  4. Reading Graduated Scales.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Lucien T., Jr.

    1982-01-01

    Ways of teaching students to read scales are presented as process instructions that are probably overlooked or taken for granted by most instructors. Scales on such devices as thermometers, rulers, spring scales, speedometers, and thirty-meter tape are discussed. (MP)

  5. Schroeder Composition Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schroeder, Thomas S.

    Designed to describe the writing behaviors of elementary and junior high school children, the Schroeder Composition Scale is an analytic scale. For eleven of the criteria in the scale, the scoring is simply "yes" or "no" indicating whether the writing does or does not have the characteristic. Five other items identify…

  6. The Positivity Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caprara, Gian Vittorio; Alessandri, Guido; Eisenberg, Nancy; Kupfer, A.; Steca, Patrizia; Caprara, Maria Giovanna; Yamaguchi, Susumu; Fukuzawa, Ai; Abela, John

    2012-01-01

    Five studies document the validity of a new 8-item scale designed to measure "positivity," defined as the tendency to view life and experiences with a positive outlook. In the first study (N = 372), the psychometric properties of Positivity Scale (P Scale) were examined in accordance with classical test theory using a large number of…

  7. Comparison of the psychometric properties of two balance scales in children with cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Yong-Jin; Kim, Gyoung-Mo

    2016-12-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to compare the item difficulty degree between the Pediatric Balance Scale and Fullerton Advanced Balance scale for children with cerebral palsy. [Subjects and Methods] Forty children with cerebral palsy (male=17, female=23) voluntarily participated in the study. Item difficulty was expressed in the Rasch analysis using a logit value, with a higher value indicative of increasing item difficulty. [Results] Among the 24 items of the combined Pediatric Balance Scale and Fullerton Advanced Balance scale, the most difficult item was "Walk with head turns", whereas, the easiest item was "Sitting with back unsupported and feet supported on the floor". Among the 14 items of the Pediatric Balance Scale, 9 items (item 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 11, and 12) had negative logit values, whereas for the Fullerton Advanced Balance scale, only 1 item (item 1) had a negative logit value. [Conclusion] The Fullerton Advanced Balance scale is a more appropriate tool to assess balance ability than the Pediatric Balance Scale in in a group of higher functioning children with cerebral palsy.

  8. Comparison of the psychometric properties of two balance scales in children with cerebral palsy

    PubMed Central

    Jeon, Yong-Jin; Kim, Gyoung-Mo

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to compare the item difficulty degree between the Pediatric Balance Scale and Fullerton Advanced Balance scale for children with cerebral palsy. [Subjects and Methods] Forty children with cerebral palsy (male=17, female=23) voluntarily participated in the study. Item difficulty was expressed in the Rasch analysis using a logit value, with a higher value indicative of increasing item difficulty. [Results] Among the 24 items of the combined Pediatric Balance Scale and Fullerton Advanced Balance scale, the most difficult item was “Walk with head turns”, whereas, the easiest item was “Sitting with back unsupported and feet supported on the floor”. Among the 14 items of the Pediatric Balance Scale, 9 items (item 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 11, and 12) had negative logit values, whereas for the Fullerton Advanced Balance scale, only 1 item (item 1) had a negative logit value. [Conclusion] The Fullerton Advanced Balance scale is a more appropriate tool to assess balance ability than the Pediatric Balance Scale in in a group of higher functioning children with cerebral palsy. PMID:28174467

  9. View from 30,000 Feet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freifeld, Lorri

    2012-01-01

    Orchestrating a smooth training transition during a merger or acquisition is never easy. When Delta Air Lines absorbed Northwest Airlines Corp. in 2008, the Training function realized it was in for a bumpy ride. This article looks at the strategies used and progress made since the takeover was announced.

  10. Getting the Cows on Their Feet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patnode, Norman

    2004-01-01

    A while back, I was working on a team to reengineering the Air Force's logistic process for all the reparable items in the inventory, everything from engines to oxygen regulators to electronic circuit cards. After doing some analysis, some experimenting, and some prototyping, we were ready to implement our changes. IN simple english. we were trying to put a process in place where, like Wal-Mart, every customer purchase provides the tug that causes a replacement to be shipped overnight from the warehouse to fill the hole on the shelf before the store opens the next morning. Then, in response to the hole that's just been created in the warehouse, the depot either buys or repairs a unit and quickly ships it to the warehouse. By implementing this "Wal-Mart solution" we were sure we could make the whole system respond quickly to the needs of the war- fighters using the items. Although most people understand this process today, at the time it was revolutionary.

  11. [The treatment of the feet in meningomyelocele].

    PubMed

    Baumann, J U

    1978-08-01

    Experiences in management of paralytic foot deformities in 30 children and adolescents with myelomeningoceles are reported. Suitable reconstruction of foot form can be achieved regularly with the help of early manipulation, walking plasters and orthopaedic surgery. However, the impairment of sensation remains unchanged. The polypropylene solid ankle orthosis has proved particularly useful for maintaining good weight-bearing abilities of the foot combined with partial load transfer to sensitive skin regions below the knee joint.

  12. TINY FEET NO TREAT TO FLOORS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    SMALLEY, DAVE E.

    A DISCUSSION OF FLOOR MAINTENANCE AND CARE INTERMS OF BROKEN, WARPED, AND OTHERWISE DAMAGED CONDITIONS WHICH OFTEN REQUIRE REPLACEMENTS GIVES SUGGESTIONS FOR VARIOUS TYPES OF FLOORING MATERIAL. WOOD FLOOR CONDITIONS MAY INCLUDE--(1) CUPPED BOARDS, (2) BUCKLING BOARDS, AND (3) BROKEN BOARDS. A DETAILED DISCUSSION IS GIVEN OF METHODS FOR REMOVING…

  13. Exploring the World Beneath Your Feet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flass, Christine A.

    1984-01-01

    A clod of soil contains a multitude of different organisms that can be used to teach students about the invaluable services of soil-dwellers. Activities presented are identifying vertebrate and invertebrate soil-dwellers, learning functions of earthworms, conducting a soil 'population survey', starting a worm culture, and separating anthropods…

  14. What Is a Foot under Your Feet?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuttle, Nicole; Obringer, Mary; Czajkowski, Kevin; Czerniak, Charlene M.

    2014-01-01

    Children are natural scientists full of curiosity. This curiosity allows them to ask questions about and to investigate their surroundings. Since science is not just a collection of facts to be learned, but rather investigations that need to be made, teachers should encourage that natural curiosity in the classroom. Luckily, the "Next…

  15. Getting Them on Their Literate Feet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Safwat, Yvonne; And Others

    1986-01-01

    The adult English literacy program at the Phanat Nikhom Refugee Camp has developed techniques for actively engaging the sometimes reluctant students in the skill development process leading to literacy. A literacy warm-up chart used daily for five minutes develops the prereading skills of sequencing and left-to-right eye coordination; a variety of…

  16. Getting Your Feet Wet in Multimedia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tobiason, Kathy

    1998-01-01

    Discusses how to use video in classroom projects. Highlights include: mastering simple camera work; using video as a teaching tool for demonstration, modeling, and student feedback; electronic publishing; and steps in pre- and post-production. Sidebars outline six reasons for using multimedia in the classroom, and solutions for dealing with…

  17. The Field Expedient Extremity Tower (FEET)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-01

    B C AJO DO NOT COPY Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB No. 0704-0188 Public reporting burden for the collection of information is estimated...the base using 2  additional rod-to-rod coupling device (A) and oblique supports  are added (B). AJO DO NOT COPY 134    The American Journal of...follow the guidelines listed in Guidelines for Authors found on our website, www.amjorthopedics.com. AJO DO NOT COPY

  18. Manual of Scaling Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bond, Thomas H. (Technical Monitor); Anderson, David N.

    2004-01-01

    This manual reviews the derivation of the similitude relationships believed to be important to ice accretion and examines ice-accretion data to evaluate their importance. Both size scaling and test-condition scaling methods employing the resulting similarity parameters are described, and experimental icing tests performed to evaluate scaling methods are reviewed with results. The material included applies primarily to unprotected, unswept geometries, but some discussion of how to approach other situations is included as well. The studies given here and scaling methods considered are applicable only to Appendix-C icing conditions. Nearly all of the experimental results presented have been obtained in sea-level tunnels. Recommendations are given regarding which scaling methods to use for both size scaling and test-condition scaling, and icing test results are described to support those recommendations. Facility limitations and size-scaling restrictions are discussed. Finally, appendices summarize the air, water and ice properties used in NASA scaling studies, give expressions for each of the similarity parameters used and provide sample calculations for the size-scaling and test-condition scaling methods advocated.

  19. Full-scale Wind-tunnel and Flight Tests of a Fairchild 22 Airplane Equipped with External-airfoil Flaps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reed, Warren D; Clay, William C

    1937-01-01

    Wind-tunnel and flight tests have been made of a Fairchild 22 airplane equipped with a wing having external-airfoil flaps that also perform the function of ailerons. Lift, drag, and pitching-moment coefficients of the airplane with several flap settings, and the rolling- and yawing-moment coefficients with the flaps deflected as ailerons were measured in the full-scale tunnel with the horizontal tail surfaces and propeller removed. The effect of the flaps on the low speed and on the take-off and landing characteristics, the effectiveness of flaps when used as ailerons, and the forces required to operate them as ailerons were determined in flight. The wind-tunnel tests showed that the flaps increased the maximum lift coefficient of the airplane from 1.51 with the flap in the minimum drag position to 2.12 with the flap in the minimum drag position to 2.12 with the flap deflected 30 degrees. In the flight tests the minimum speed decreased from 46.8 miles per hour with the flaps up to 41.3 miles per hour with the flaps deflected. The required take-off run to attain a height of 50 feet was reduced from 820 to 750 feet and the landing run from a height of 50 feet was reduced from 930 to 480 feet. The flaps for this installation gave lateral control that was not entirely satisfactory. Their rolling action was good but the adverse yaw resulting from their use was greater than is considerable, and the stick forces required to operate them increased too rapidly with speed.

  20. Salzburger State Reactance Scale (SSR Scale)

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Abstract. This paper describes the construction and empirical evaluation of an instrument for measuring state reactance, the Salzburger State Reactance (SSR) Scale. The results of a confirmatory factor analysis supported a hypothesized three-factor structure: experience of reactance, aggressive behavioral intentions, and negative attitudes. Correlations with divergent and convergent measures support the validity of this structure. The SSR Subscales were strongly related to the other state reactance measures. Moreover, the SSR Subscales showed modest positive correlations with trait measures of reactance. The SSR Subscales correlated only slightly or not at all with neighboring constructs (e.g., autonomy, experience of control). The only exception was fairness scales, which showed moderate correlations with the SSR Subscales. Furthermore, a retest analysis confirmed the temporal stability of the scale. Suggestions for further validation of this questionnaire are discussed. PMID:27453806

  1. Scale and scaling in agronomy and environmental sciences

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Scale is of paramount importance in environmental studies, engineering, and design. The unique course covers the following topics: scale and scaling, methods and theories, scaling in soils and other porous media, scaling in plants and crops; scaling in landscapes and watersheds, and scaling in agro...

  2. Recursive scaled DCT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, Hsieh-Sheng

    1991-12-01

    Among the various image data compression methods, the discrete cosine transform (DCT) has become the most popular in performing gray-scale image compression and decomposition. However, the computational burden in performing a DCT is heavy. For example, in a regular DCT, at least 11 multiplications are required for processing an 8 X 1 image block. The idea of the scaled-DCT is that more than half the multiplications in a regular DCT are unnecessary, because they can be formulated as scaling factors of the DCT coefficients, and these coefficients may be scaled back in the quantization process. A fast recursive algorithm for computing the scaled-DCT is presented in this paper. The formulations are derived based on practical considerations of applying the scaled-DCT algorithm to image data compression and decompression. These include the considerations of flexibility of processing different sizes of DCT blocks and the actual savings of the required number of arithmetic operations. Due to the recursive nature of this algorithm, a higher-order scaled-DCT can be obtained from two lower-order scaled DCTs. Thus, a scaled-DCT VLSI chip designed according to this algorithm may process different sizes of DCT under software control. To illustrate the unique properties of this recursive scaled-DCT algorithm, the one-dimensional formulations are presented with several examples exhibited in signal flow-graph forms.

  3. PULSE SCALING SYSTEM

    DOEpatents

    Kandiah, K.

    1954-06-01

    Pulse scaling systems embodying multi-electrode gaseous-discharge tubes of the type having a plurality of stable discharge paths are described. The novelty of this particular system lies in the simplification of the stepping arrangement between successive tubes. In one form the invention provides a multistage scaler comprising a pulse generator, a first multi-electrode scaling tube of the type set forth coupled to said generator to receive transfer pulses therefrom and one or more succeeding multi-electrode scaling tubes each deriving its transfer pulses from preceding scaling tubes.

  4. Poetry Methods Rating Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallo, Donald R.

    Designed to assess high school teachers' attitudes about teaching poetry, this questionnaire asked teachers to respond to a 38-item poetry methods rating scale (PMRS) on a seven-point scale (from "strongly agree" to "strongly disagree"). The items for the questionnaire were derived from a study of popular methods texts for…

  5. Memorial symptom assessment scale.

    PubMed

    Chang, Victor T; Hwang, Shirley S; Thaler, Howard T; Kasimis, Basil S; Portenoy, Russell K

    2004-04-01

    Patients with advanced illnesses often have multiple symptoms. As interest in palliative care and interventions for symptom control increase, the ability to assess multiple symptoms has become more important. A number of instruments have been developed to meet this need in cancer patients. This article reviews the development and applications of a multidimensional instrument, the Memorial Symptom Assessment Scale. The Memorial Symptom Assessment Scale has 32 symptoms and three dimensions of frequency, severity, and distress. Shorter versions - The Memorial Symptom Assessment Scale Short Form (32 symptoms with one dimension) and the Condensed Memorial Symptom Assessment Scale (14 symptoms with one dimension), and a version for children aged 7-12 years, have also been developed. A distinctive feature is the summary subscales for physical distress, psychological distress, and The Global Distress Index. The Memorial Symptom Assessment Scale has proven useful in description of symptom epidemiology, the role of symptoms in pain, fatigue, and spirituality; as a predictor of survival, and in proxy assessments of pain. The Memorial Symptom Assessment Scale has been used in studies of cancer and AIDS patients, and patients with advanced medical illnesses. Possible future roles of instruments such as the Memorial Symptom Assessment Scale include use in clinical trials, for pharmacoeconomic analyses, definition of symptom clusters and symptom burden, the development of symptom outcome measures, symptom monitoring, and improving care for patients. Continued research is needed for the versions of the Memorial Symptom Assessment Scale and other symptom instruments in different populations and applications.

  6. Modelling Rating Scales.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linacre, John M.

    Determination of the intentions of the test developer is fundamental to the choice of the analytical model for a rating scale. For confirmatory analysis, the developer's intentions inform the choice of the general form of the model, representing the manner in which the respondent interacts with the scale; these intentions also inform the choice of…

  7. Pre-Kindergarten Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flynn, Tim

    This 25-item scale for rating prekindergarten children concerns personal and cognitive skills. Directions for using the scale are provided. Personal skills include personal hygiene, communication skills, eating habits, relationships with the teacher, peer relations, and personal behavior. Cognitive skills rated are verbal skills, object…

  8. Basic Structure Content Scaling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Douglas N.; Helmes, Edward

    1979-01-01

    A basic structure approach is proposed for obtaining multidimensional scale values for attitude, achievement, or personality items from response data. The technique permits the unconfounding of scale values due to response bias and content and partitions item indices of popularity or difficulty among a number of relevant dimensions. (Author/BH)

  9. Teaching Satisfaction Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ho, Chung-Lim; Au, Wing-Tung

    2006-01-01

    The present study proposes a teaching satisfaction measure and examines the validity of its scores. The measure is based on the Life Satisfaction Scale (LSS). Scores on the five-item Teaching Satisfaction Scale (TSS) were validated on a sample of 202 primary and secondary school teachers and favorable psychometric properties were found. As…

  10. The Family Constellation Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lemire, David

    The Family Constellation Scale (FC Scale) is an instrument that assesses perceived birth order in families. It can be used in counseling to help initiate conversations about various traits and assumptions that tend to characterize first-born, middle-born children, youngest-born, and only children. It provides both counselors and clients insights…

  11. Teacher Observation Scales.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purdue Univ., Lafayette, IN. Educational Research Center.

    The Teacher Observation Scales include four instruments: Observer Rating Scale (ORS), Reading Strategies Check List, Arithmetic Strategies Check List, and Classroom Description. These instruments utilize trained observers to describe the teaching behavior, instructional strategies and physical characteristics in each classroom. On the ORS, teacher…

  12. Scaling up as Catachresis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tobin, Joseph

    2005-01-01

    The metaphor of scaling up is the wrong one to use for describing and prescribing educational change. Many of the strategies being employed to achieve scaling up are counter-productive: they conceive of practitioners as delivery agents or consumers, rather than as co-constructors of change. An approach to educational innovation based on the…

  13. Thoughts on Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoenfeld, Alan H.

    2015-01-01

    This essay reflects on the challenges of thinking about scale--of making sense of phenomena such as continuous professional development (CPD) at the system level, while holding on to detail at the finer grain size(s) of implementation. The stimuli for my reflections are three diverse studies of attempts at scale--an attempt to use ideas related to…

  14. Centurion Quarter-scale Prototype on Lakebed Ready for Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    A battery-powered, quarter-scale prototype of the solar-powered, remotely piloted Centurion flying wing sits on the lakebed at California's El Mirage Dry Lake before one of its early research flights in March 1997. Centurion was a unique remotely piloted, solar-powered airplane developed under NASA's Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor (ERAST) Program at the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. Dryden joined with AeroVironment, Inc., Monrovia, California, under an ERAST Joint Sponsored Research Agreement, to design, develop, manufacture, and conduct flight development tests for the Centurion. The airplane was believed to be the first aircraft designed to achieve sustained horizontal flight at altitudes of 90,000 to 100,000 feet. Achieving this capability would meet the ERAST goal of developing an ultrahigh-altitude airplane that could meet the needs of the science community to perform upper-atmosphere environmental data missions. Much of the technology leading to the Centurion was developed during the Pathfinder and Pathfinder-Plus projects. However, in the course of its development, the Centurion became a prototype technology demonstration aircraft designed to validate the technology for the Helios, a planned future high-altitude, solar-powered aircraft that could fly for weeks or months at a time on science or telecommunications missions. Centurion had 206-foot-long wings and used batteries to supply power to the craft's 14 electric motors and electronic systems. Centurion first flew at Dryden Nov. 10, 1998, and followed up with a second test flight Nov. 19. On its third and final flight on Dec. 3, the craft was aloft for 31 minutes and reached an altitude of about 400 feet. All three flights were conducted over a section of Rogers Dry Lake adjacent to Dryden. For its third flight, the Centurion carried a simulated payload of more than 600 pounds--almost half the lightweight aircraft's empty weight. John Del Frate, Dryden's project manager

  15. Centurion Quarter-scale Prototype Pre-flight Checkout

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Technicians perform pre-test checks of a battery-powered quarter-scale prototype of the remotely-piloted Centurion flying wing during taxi tests In March 1997 at California's El Mirage Dry Lake. Centurion was a unique remotely piloted, solar-powered airplane developed under NASA's Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor (ERAST) Program at the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. Dryden joined with AeroVironment, Inc., Monrovia, California, under an ERAST Joint Sponsored Research Agreement, to design, develop, manufacture, and conduct flight development tests for the Centurion. The airplane was believed to be the first aircraft designed to achieve sustained horizontal flight at altitudes of 90,000 to 100,000 feet. Achieving this capability would meet the ERAST goal of developing an ultrahigh-altitude airplane that could meet the needs of the science community to perform upper-atmosphere environmental data missions. Much of the technology leading to the Centurion was developed during the Pathfinder and Pathfinder-Plus projects. However, in the course of its development, the Centurion became a prototype technology demonstration aircraft designed to validate the technology for the Helios, a planned future high-altitude, solar-powered aircraft that could fly for weeks or months at a time on science or telecommunications missions. Centurion had 206-foot-long wings and used batteries to supply power to the craft's 14 electric motors and electronic systems. Centurion first flew at Dryden Nov. 10, 1998, and followed up with a second test flight Nov. 19. On its third and final flight on Dec. 3, the craft was aloft for 31 minutes and reached an altitude of about 400 feet. All three flights were conducted over a section of Rogers Dry Lake adjacent to Dryden. For its third flight, the Centurion carried a simulated payload of more than 600 pounds--almost half the lightweight aircraft's empty weight. John Del Frate, Dryden's project manager for solar

  16. Centurion Quarter-scale Prototype Pre-flight Checklist

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Centurion designer Bill Parks and remote pilot Wyatt Sadler go over the checklist for a test flight of the battery-powered quarter-scale prototype of the Centurion flying wing during taxi tests in March 1997 at California's El Mirage Dry Lake. Centurion was a unique remotely piloted, solar-powered airplane developed under NASA's Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor (ERAST) Program at the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. Dryden joined with AeroVironment, Inc., Monrovia, California, under an ERAST Joint Sponsored Research Agreement, to design, develop, manufacture, and conduct flight development tests for the Centurion. The airplane was believed to be the first aircraft designed to achieve sustained horizontal flight at altitudes of 90,000 to 100,000 feet. Achieving this capability would meet the ERAST goal of developing an ultrahigh-altitude airplane that could meet the needs of the science community to perform upper-atmosphere environmental data missions. Much of the technology leading to the Centurion was developed during the Pathfinder and Pathfinder-Plus projects. However, in the course of its development, the Centurion became a prototype technology demonstration aircraft designed to validate the technology for the Helios, a planned future high-altitude, solar-powered aircraft that could fly for weeks or months at a time on science or telecommunications missions. Centurion had 206-foot-long wings and used batteries to supply power to the craft's 14 electric motors and electronic systems. Centurion first flew at Dryden Nov. 10, 1998, and followed up with a second test flight Nov. 19. On its third and final flight on Dec. 3, the craft was aloft for 31 minutes and reached an altitude of about 400 feet. All three flights were conducted over a section of Rogers Dry Lake adjacent to Dryden. For its third flight, the Centurion carried a simulated payload of more than 600 pounds--almost half the lightweight aircraft's empty weight. John Del

  17. Centurion Quarter-scale Prototype Pre-flight Taxi Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    As crewmen jog and cycle alongside, a battery-powered, quarter-scale prototype of the remotely-piloted Centurion flying wing rolls across the El Mirage Dry Lake during pre-flight taxi tests. Centurion was a unique remotely piloted, solar-powered airplane developed under NASA's Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor (ERAST) Program at the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. Dryden joined with AeroVironment, Inc., Monrovia, California, under an ERAST Joint Sponsored Research Agreement, to design, develop, manufacture, and conduct flight development tests for the Centurion. The airplane was believed to be the first aircraft designed to achieve sustained horizontal flight at altitudes of 90,000 to 100,000 feet. Achieving this capability would meet the ERAST goal of developing an ultrahigh-altitude airplane that could meet the needs of the science community to perform upper-atmosphere environmental data missions. Much of the technology leading to the Centurion was developed during the Pathfinder and Pathfinder-Plus projects. However, in the course of its development, the Centurion became a prototype technology demonstration aircraft designed to validate the technology for the Helios, a planned future high-altitude, solar-powered aircraft that could fly for weeks or months at a time on science or telecommunications missions. Centurion had 206-foot-long wings and used batteries to supply power to the craft's 14 electric motors and electronic systems. Centurion first flew at Dryden Nov. 10, 1998, and followed up with a second test flight Nov. 19. On its third and final flight on Dec. 3, the craft was aloft for 31 minutes and reached an altitude of about 400 feet. All three flights were conducted over a section of Rogers Dry Lake adjacent to Dryden. For its third flight, the Centurion carried a simulated payload of more than 600 pounds--almost half the lightweight aircraft's empty weight. John Del Frate, Dryden's project manager for solar

  18. Centurion Quarter-scale Prototype Prepared for Taxi Tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    As sunlight breaks over Southern California's El Mirage Dry Lake, Crew members prepare a battery-powered quarter-scale prototype of the remotely-piloted Centurion flying wing for a taxi test. Centurion was a unique remotely piloted, solar-powered airplane developed under NASA's Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor (ERAST) Program at the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. Dryden joined with AeroVironment, Inc., Monrovia, California, under an ERAST Joint Sponsored Research Agreement, to design, develop, manufacture, and conduct flight development tests for the Centurion. The airplane was believed to be the first aircraft designed to achieve sustained horizontal flight at altitudes of 90,000 to 100,000 feet. Achieving this capability would meet the ERAST goal of developing an ultrahigh-altitude airplane that could meet the needs of the science community to perform upper-atmosphere environmental data missions. Much of the technology leading to the Centurion was developed during the Pathfinder and Pathfinder-Plus projects. However, in the course of its development, the Centurion became a prototype technology demonstration aircraft designed to validate the technology for the Helios, a planned future high-altitude, solar-powered aircraft that could fly for weeks or months at a time on science or telecommunications missions. Centurion had 206-foot-long wings and used batteries to supply power to the craft's 14 electric motors and electronic systems. Centurion first flew at Dryden Nov. 10, 1998, and followed up with a second test flight Nov. 19. On its third and final flight on Dec. 3, the craft was aloft for 31 minutes and reached an altitude of about 400 feet. All three flights were conducted over a section of Rogers Dry Lake adjacent to Dryden. For its third flight, the Centurion carried a simulated payload of more than 600 pounds--almost half the lightweight aircraft's empty weight. John Del Frate, Dryden's project manager for solar

  19. Commitment to Health Scale.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Cynthia W

    2005-01-01

    The Commitment to Health Scale (CHS) was developed to predict likelihood of clients being able to permanently adopt new health-promoting behaviors. Commitment is based on the association between starting new health behaviors and long-term performance of those behaviors. The CHS evolved from an examination of Prochaska and DiClemente's Stages of Change Algorithm, Decisional Balance Scale, and Strong and Weak Principle (Velicer, Rossi, Prochaska, & DiClemente, 1996). Scale items were assessed by classical and Rasch measurement methods. The research was performed in three separate studies at various locations in the United States and included approximately 1100 subjects. A new unidimensional variable was identified called Commitment to Health. Internal consistency reliability of the scale was .94 (Cronbach's alpha). External validity and reliability were assessed based on expected and observed ordering and between known groups. Scale scores predicted self-reported health behaviors and body mass index.

  20. Full Scale Wind Tunnel and Seaplane Tow Channel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1930-01-01

    Construction progress, Full Scale exit cone looking south from entrance cone, east switchboard, west switchboard, wind vanes at north end looking north through entrance cone, north end looking south through entrance cone, entrance cone looking north from exit cone, wind vanes south end of west exit cone, wind vanes south end of east exit cone, Tow Channel trolley lines looking north, east and west incline braces at north end. Full-Scale Tunnel (FST) exit cone construction and installation of fan motors. Smith DeFrance describes the entrance cone in NACA TR 459 as follows: 'Forward of the propellers and located on the center line of the tunnel is a smooth fairing which transforms the somewhat elliptic section of the single passage into two circular ones at the propellers. From the propellers aft, the exit cone is divided into two passages and each transforms in the length of 132 feet from a 35-foot 61/2-inch circular section to a 46-foot square. The included angle between the sides of each passage is 6 inches.' (p. 293)

  1. Magnifying the Scale of Visual Biofeedback Improves Posture.

    PubMed

    Jehu, Deborah A; Thibault, Jérémie; Lajoie, Yves

    2016-06-01

    Biofeedback has been shown to minimize body sway during quiet standing. However, limited research has reported the optimal sensitivity parameters of visual biofeedback related to the center of pressure (COP) sway. Accordingly, 19 young adults (6 males; 13 females; aged 21.3 ± 2.5) stood with feet together and performed three visual biofeedback intensities [unmodified biofeedback (UMBF), BF magnified by 5 (BF5), BF magnified by 10 (BF10)], along with control trials with no biofeedback (NBF). The participants were instructed to stand as still as possible while minimizing the movements of the visual target. The findings revealed that UMBF produced significantly greater COP displacement in both the anterior-posterior (AP) and medial-lateral directions, as well as greater standard deviation of the COP in the AP direction (p < 0.05). Additionally, NBF showed significantly greater 95 % area ellipse than the UMBF, BF5, and BF10 intensities (p < 0.001). Therefore, the most sensitive COP scales generated the least amount of postural sway. However, there were no significant differences on any of the COP measures between BF5 and BF10. This research provides insight with respect to the proper scale on which biofeedback should be given in order to improve postural control (i.e., BF5 or BF10).

  2. ‘Why should I worry, since I have healthy feet?’ A qualitative study exploring barriers to use of footwear among rural community members in northern Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Kelemework, Abebe; Tora, Abebayehu; Amberbir, Tsigie; Agedew, Getnet; Asmamaw, Abiyu; Deribe, Kebede

    2016-01-01

    Objective To explore the influence of personal, cultural and socioeconomic factors related to footwear use and non-use in northern Ethiopia. Design A qualitative study was conducted using focus group discussions and in-depth individual interviews. Data were collected using semistructured interview guides. Setting The study was conducted in East and West Gojjam Zones, Amhara region, northwest Ethiopia. Participants A total of 91 individuals from 4 target groups participated in individual and group interviews: (1) non-affected community leaders including Idir (a form of social insurance) leaders, school principals, kebele (the lowest administrative unit) officials, health professionals, teachers, merchants and religious leaders; (2) affected men and women; (3) non-affected men and women not in leadership positions; and (4) school children (both male and female). Results Participants perceived a range of health benefits from donning footwear, including protection against injury and cold. Various types of shoes are available within the community, and their use varied depending on the nature of activities and the season. Personal and socioeconomic barriers hindered the desire to consistently use footwear. Widely established barefoot traditions and beliefs that footwear is uncomfortable, heavy and may weaken the feet have made the regular use of footwear uncommon. Economic constraints were also mentioned as hindering ownership and use of footwear. Distance from places where shoes could be bought also contributed to limited access. Cultural influences promoting gender inequality resulted in women being least able to access shoes. Conclusions We identified several individual, cultural and socioeconomic barriers that influence individuals’ decisions about and use of footwear in rural northern Ethiopia. Promoting education on the health benefits of footwear, curbing podoconiosis-related misconceptions and integrating these with economic empowerment programmes, may all

  3. Parallel Computing in SCALE

    SciTech Connect

    DeHart, Mark D; Williams, Mark L; Bowman, Stephen M

    2010-01-01

    The SCALE computational architecture has remained basically the same since its inception 30 years ago, although constituent modules and capabilities have changed significantly. This SCALE concept was intended to provide a framework whereby independent codes can be linked to provide a more comprehensive capability than possible with the individual programs - allowing flexibility to address a wide variety of applications. However, the current system was designed originally for mainframe computers with a single CPU and with significantly less memory than today's personal computers. It has been recognized that the present SCALE computation system could be restructured to take advantage of modern hardware and software capabilities, while retaining many of the modular features of the present system. Preliminary work is being done to define specifications and capabilities for a more advanced computational architecture. This paper describes the state of current SCALE development activities and plans for future development. With the release of SCALE 6.1 in 2010, a new phase of evolutionary development will be available to SCALE users within the TRITON and NEWT modules. The SCALE (Standardized Computer Analyses for Licensing Evaluation) code system developed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) provides a comprehensive and integrated package of codes and nuclear data for a wide range of applications in criticality safety, reactor physics, shielding, isotopic depletion and decay, and sensitivity/uncertainty (S/U) analysis. Over the last three years, since the release of version 5.1 in 2006, several important new codes have been introduced within SCALE, and significant advances applied to existing codes. Many of these new features became available with the release of SCALE 6.0 in early 2009. However, beginning with SCALE 6.1, a first generation of parallel computing is being introduced. In addition to near-term improvements, a plan for longer term SCALE enhancement

  4. Smouldering Remediation (STAR) Technology: Field Pilot Tests and First Full Scale Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerhard, J.; Kinsman, L.; Torero, J. L.

    2015-12-01

    STAR (Self-sustaining Treatment for Active Remediation) is an innovative remediation technology based on the principles of smoldering combustion where the contaminants are the fuel. The self-sustaining aspect means that a single, local ignition event can result in many days of contaminant destruction in situ. Presented research to date has focused on bench scale experiments, numerical modelling and process understanding. Presented here is the maturation of the in situ technology, including three field pilot tests and a full-scale implementation to treat coal tar-impacted soils. The first pilot determined a Radius of Influence (ROI) for a single ignition of approximately eight feet with an average propagation rate of the reaction of approximately one foot per day. TPH concentrations in soils were reduced from 10,000 milligrams per kilogram to a few hundred milligrams per kilogram. The second pilot was conducted in an area of significant void spaces created through the anthropogenic deposition of clay bricks and tiles. The void spaces led to pre-mature termination of the combustion reaction, limiting ROI and the effectiveness of the technology in this setting. The third case study involved the pilot testing, design, and full-scale implementation of STAR at a 37-acre former chemical manufacturing facility. Three phases of pilot testing were conducted within two hydrogeologic units at the site (i.e., surficial fill and deep alluvial sand units). Pilot testing within the fill demonstrated self-sustained coal tar destruction rates in excess of 800 kg/day supported through air injection at a single well. Deep sand unit testing (twenty-five feet below the water table) resulted in the treatment of a targeted six-foot layer of impacted fine sands to a radial distance of approximately twelve feet. These results (and additional parameters) were used to develop a full-scale STAR design consisting of approximately 1500 surficial fill ignition points and 500 deep sand ignition

  5. Composite rating scales.

    PubMed

    Martinez-Martin, Pablo

    2010-02-15

    Rating scales are instruments that are very frequently used by clinicians to perform patient assessments. Typically, rating scales grade the attribute on an ordinal level of measurement, i.e., a rank ordering, meaning that the numbers assigned to the different ranks (item scores) do not represent 'real numbers' or 'physical magnitudes'. Single-item scales have some advantages, such as simplicity and low respondent burden, but they may also suffer from disadvantages, such as ambiguous score meanings and low responsiveness. Multi-item scales, in contrast, seem more adequate for assessment of complex constructs, allowing for detailed evaluation. Total scores representing the value of the construct may be quite precise and thus the responsiveness of the scale may be high. The most common strategy for obtaining the total score is the sum of the item scores, a strategy that constitutes one of the most important problems with these types of scales. A summative score of ordinal figures is not a 'real magnitude' and may have little sense. This paper is a review of the theoretical frameworks of the main theories used to develop rating scales (Classical Test Theory and Item Response Theory). Bearing in mind that no alternative is perfect, additional research in this field and judicious decisions are called for.

  6. Quadratic Generalized Scale Invariance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lovejoy, S.; Schertzer, D.; Addor, J. B.

    Nearly twenty years ago, two of us argued that in order to account for the scaling strat- ification of the atmosphere, that an anisotropic "unified scaling model" of the atmo- sphere was required with elliptical dimension 23/9=2.555... "in between" the standard 3-D (small scale) and 2-D large scale model. This model was based on the formal- ism of generalized scale invariance (GSI). Physically, GSI is justified by arguing that various conserved fluxes (energy, buoyancy force variance etc.) should define the ap- propriate notion of scale. In a recent large scale satellite cloud image analysis, we directly confirmed this model by studying the isotropic (angle averaged) horizontal cloud statistics. Mathematically, GSI is based on a a group of scale changing opera- tors and their generators but to date, both analyses (primarily of cloud images) and nu- merical (multifractal) simulations, have been limited to the special case of linear GSI. This has shown that cloud texture can plausibly be associated with local linearizations. However realistic morphologies involve spatially avarying textures; the full non linear GSI is clearly necessary. In this talk, we first show that the observed angle averaged (multi)scaling statistics only give a realtively weak constraint on the nonlinear gner- ator: that the latter can be expressed by self-similar (isotropic) part, and a deviatoric part described (in two dimensions) by an arbitrary scalar potential which contains all the information about the cloud morphology. We then show (using a theorem due to Poincaré) how to reduce nonlinear GSI to linear GSI plus a nonlinear coordinate trans- formation numerically, using this to take multifractal GSI modelling to the next level of approximation: quadratic GSI. We show many examples of the coresponding simu- lations which include transitions from various morphologies (including cyclones) and we discuss the results in relation to satellite cloud images.

  7. Allometric Scaling in Biology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banavar, Jayanth

    2009-03-01

    The unity of life is expressed not only in the universal basis of inheritance and energetics at the molecular level, but also in the pervasive scaling of traits with body size at the whole-organism level. More than 75 years ago, Kleiber and Brody and Proctor independently showed that the metabolic rates, B, of mammals and birds scale as the three-quarter power of their mass, M. Subsequent studies showed that most biological rates and times scale as M-1/4 and M^1/4 respectively, and that these so called quarter-power scaling relations hold for a variety of organisms, from unicellular prokaryotes and eukaryotes to trees and mammals. The wide applicability of Kleiber's law, across the 22 orders of magnitude of body mass from minute bacteria to giant whales and sequoias, raises the hope that there is some simple general explanation that underlies the incredible diversity of form and function. We will present a general theoretical framework for understanding the relationship between metabolic rate, B, and body mass, M. We show how the pervasive quarter-power biological scaling relations arise naturally from optimal directed resource supply systems. This framework robustly predicts that: 1) whole organism power and resource supply rate, B, scale as M^3/4; 2) most other rates, such as heart rate and maximal population growth rate scale as M-1/4; 3) most biological times, such as blood circulation time and lifespan, scale as M^1/4; and 4) the average velocity of flow through the network, v, such as the speed of blood and oxygen delivery, scales as M^1/12. Our framework is valid even when there is no underlying network. Our theory is applicable to unicellular organisms as well as to large animals and plants. This work was carried out in collaboration with Amos Maritan along with Jim Brown, John Damuth, Melanie Moses, Andrea Rinaldo, and Geoff West.

  8. Sulfate scale dissolution

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, R.L.; Paul, J.M.

    1992-01-28

    This patent describes a method for removing barium sulfate scale. It comprises contacting the scale with an aqueous solution having a pH of about 8 to about 14 and consisting essentially of a chelating agent comprising a polyaminopolycarboxylic acid or salt of such an acid in a concentration of 0.1 to 1.0 M, and anions of a monocarboxylic acid selected form mercaptoacetic acid, hydroxyacetic acid, aminoacetic acid, or salicyclic acid in a concentration of 0.1 to 1.0 M and which is soluble in the solution under the selected pH conditions, to dissolve the scale.

  9. Clinical rating scales.

    PubMed

    Relja, Maja

    2012-01-01

    In Parkinson's disease (PD), rating scales are used to assess the degree of disease-related disability and to titrate long-term treatment to each phase of the disease. Recognition of non-motor symptoms required modification of existing widely used scales to integrate non-motor elements. In addition, new scales have been developed for the assessment of non-motor symptoms. In this article, assessment of PD patients will be discussed, particularly for non-motor symptoms such as pain and fatigue.

  10. On nature's scaling effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilkins, Dick J.

    1994-01-01

    This presentation afforded the opportunity to look back in the literature to discover scaling effects in nature that might be relevant to composites. Numerous examples were found in nature's approaches to wood, teeth, horns, leaves, eggs, feathers, etc. Nature transmits tensile forces rigidly with cohesive bonds, while dealing with compression forces usually through noncompressible hydraulics. The optimum design scaling approaches for aircraft were also reviewed for comparison with similitude laws. Finally, some historical evidence for the use of Weibull scaling in composites was reviewed.

  11. Scaling the Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frankel, Norman E.

    2014-04-01

    A model is presented for the origin of the large scale structure of the universe and their Mass-Radius scaling law. The physics is conventional, orthodox, but it is used to fashion a highly unorthodox model of the origin of the galaxies, their groups, clusters, super-clusters, and great walls. The scaling law fits the observational results and the model offers new suggestions and predictions. These include a largest, a supreme, cosmic structure, and possible implications for the recently observed pressing cosmological anomalies.

  12. Pulsar time scale

    SciTech Connect

    Il'in, V.G.; Llyasov, Yu.P.; Kuz'min, A.D.; Pushkin, S.B.; Palii, G.N.; Shabanova, T.V.; Shchitov, Yu.P.

    1984-05-01

    In this article a new time scale is proposed, that of pulsar time PT which is based on the regular sequence of time intervals between pulses of a pulsar's radio emissions. In discussing variations in the arrival times of pulsar radio emissions, three kinds of variations in the radiation periods are described. PSR 0834 + 06 is used as the basic reference pulsar. Time scales are also determined for reference pulsars PSR 0905 + 08 and 1919 + 21. The initial parameters for the three reference pulsars needed for managing a PT scale are presented. The basic PT scale is defined as the continuous sequence of time intervals between radio-emission pulses of the basic reference pulsar.

  13. Large scale dynamic systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doolin, B. F.

    1975-01-01

    Classes of large scale dynamic systems were discussed in the context of modern control theory. Specific examples discussed were in the technical fields of aeronautics, water resources and electric power.

  14. Digital scale converter

    DOEpatents

    Upton, Richard G.

    1978-01-01

    A digital scale converter is provided for binary coded decimal (BCD) conversion. The converter may be programmed to convert a BCD value of a first scale to the equivalent value of a second scale according to a known ratio. The value to be converted is loaded into a first BCD counter and counted down to zero while a second BCD counter registers counts from zero or an offset value depending upon the conversion. Programmable rate multipliers are used to generate pulses at selected rates to the counters for the proper conversion ratio. The value present in the second counter at the time the first counter is counted to the zero count is the equivalent value of the second scale. This value may be read out and displayed on a conventional seven-segment digital display.

  15. Scaling the Geologic Past

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerritts, Mary

    1975-01-01

    Describes construction of a Geologic Time Scale on a 100 foot roll of paper and suggests activities concerning its use. Includes information about fossils and suggestions for conducting a fossil field trip with students. (BR)

  16. Scaling in sensitivity analysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Link, W.A.; Doherty, P.F.

    2002-01-01

    Population matrix models allow sets of demographic parameters to be summarized by a single value 8, the finite rate of population increase. The consequences of change in individual demographic parameters are naturally measured by the corresponding changes in 8; sensitivity analyses compare demographic parameters on the basis of these changes. These comparisons are complicated by issues of scale. Elasticity analysis attempts to deal with issues of scale by comparing the effects of proportional changes in demographic parameters, but leads to inconsistencies in evaluating demographic rates. We discuss this and other problems of scaling in sensitivity analysis, and suggest a simple criterion for choosing appropriate scales. We apply our suggestions to data for the killer whale, Orcinus orca.

  17. The Improbability scale

    SciTech Connect

    Ritchie, David J.; /Fermilab

    2005-03-01

    The Improbability Scale (IS) is proposed as a way of communicating to the general public the improbability (and by implication, the probability) of events predicted as the result of scientific research. Through the use of the Improbability Scale, the public will be able to evaluate more easily the relative risks of predicted events and draw proper conclusions when asked to support governmental and public policy decisions arising from that research.

  18. Magnetron injection gun scaling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawson, W.

    1988-04-01

    A set of tradeoff equations was simplified to obtain scaling laws for magnetron injection guns (MIGs). The constraints are chosen to examine the maximum-peak-power capabilities of MIGs. The scaling laws are compared with exact solutions of the design equations and are supported by MIG simulations in which each MIG is designed to double the beam power of an existing design by adjusting one of the four fundamental parameters.

  19. Ensemble Pulsar Time Scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, D. S.; Gao, Y. P.; Zhao, S. H.

    2016-05-01

    Millisecond pulsars can generate another type of time scale that is totally independent of the atomic time scale, because the physical mechanisms of the pulsar time scale and the atomic time scale are quite different from each other. Usually the pulsar timing observational data are not evenly sampled, and the internals between data points range from several hours to more than half a month. What's more, these data sets are sparse. And all these make it difficult to generate an ensemble pulsar time scale. Hence, a new algorithm to calculate the ensemble pulsar time scale is proposed. Firstly, we use cubic spline interpolation to densify the data set, and make the intervals between data points even. Then, we employ the Vondrak filter to smooth the data set, and get rid of high-frequency noise, finally adopt the weighted average method to generate the ensemble pulsar time scale. The pulsar timing residuals represent clock difference between the pulsar time and atomic time, and the high precision pulsar timing data mean the clock difference measurement between the pulsar time and atomic time with a high signal to noise ratio, which is fundamental to generate pulsar time. We use the latest released NANOGRAV (North American Nanohertz Observatory for Gravitational Waves) 9-year data set to generate the ensemble pulsar time scale. This data set is from the newest NANOGRAV data release, which includes 9-year observational data of 37 millisecond pulsars using the 100-meter Green Bank telescope and 305-meter Arecibo telescope. We find that the algorithm used in this paper can lower the influence caused by noises in timing residuals, and improve long-term stability of pulsar time. Results show that the long-term (> 1 yr) frequency stability of the pulsar time is better than 3.4×10-15.

  20. Delusion assessment scales.

    PubMed

    Forgácová, L'ubica

    2008-03-01

    Since the beginning of the 19th century, delusions have been classified mainly by their content or theme. Clinical psychopathological investigation requires additional variables that will allow investigators to describe the structure of delusional experience more accurately. Delusions are multidimensional constructs that may change across the various mental disorders. Several authors have developed rating scales with the aim to measure individual dimensions of delusional structure. In this paper, common rating scales are mentioned and the main characteristics of the Simple Delusional Syndrome Scale (SDSS) are summarized. The SDSS scale consists of 7 items (logical organization, systemization, stability, conviction, influence on the action, extension, and insertion), scored from 1 to 5. Results of the statistical analysis confirm good psychometric characteristics of the scale, Cronbach coefficient alpha=0.8327. The SDSS may contribute to a better understanding and diagnostics of delusional disorders and, using statistical methods, can help quantify the relationship between the delusional syndrome and the primary disease process. The SDSS scale may also be utilized in the assessment of changes occurring in delusional syndromes depending on the therapeutic effect of psychopharmacological drugs.

  1. Manufacturing process scale-up of optical grade transparent spinel ceramic at ArmorLine Corporation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spilman, Joseph; Voyles, John; Nick, Joseph; Shaffer, Lawrence

    2013-06-01

    While transparent Spinel ceramic's mechanical and optical characteristics are ideal for many Ultraviolet (UV), visible, Short-Wave Infrared (SWIR), Mid-Wave Infrared (MWIR), and multispectral sensor window applications, commercial adoption of the material has been hampered because the material has historically been available in relatively small sizes (one square foot per window or less), low volumes, unreliable supply, and with unreliable quality. Recent efforts, most notably by Technology Assessment and Transfer (TA and T), have scaled-up manufacturing processes and demonstrated the capability to produce larger windows on the order of two square feet, but with limited output not suitable for production type programs. ArmorLine Corporation licensed the hot-pressed Spinel manufacturing know-how of TA and T in 2009 with the goal of building the world's first dedicated full-scale Spinel production facility, enabling the supply of a reliable and sufficient volume of large Transparent Armor and Optical Grade Spinel plates. With over $20 million of private investment by J.F. Lehman and Company, ArmorLine has installed and commissioned the largest vacuum hot press in the world, the largest high-temperature/high-pressure hot isostatic press in the world, and supporting manufacturing processes within 75,000 square feet of manufacturing space. ArmorLine's equipment is capable of producing window blanks as large as 50" x 30" and the facility is capable of producing substantial volumes of material with its Lean configuration and 24/7 operation. Initial production capability was achieved in 2012. ArmorLine will discuss the challenges that were encountered during scale-up of the manufacturing processes, ArmorLine Optical Grade Spinel optical performance, and provide an overview of the facility and its capabilities.

  2. Limb-Bone Scaling Indicates Diverse Stance and Gait in Quadrupedal Ornithischian Dinosaurs

    PubMed Central

    Maidment, Susannah C. R.; Linton, Deborah H.; Upchurch, Paul; Barrett, Paul M.

    2012-01-01

    Background The most primitive ornithischian dinosaurs were small bipeds, but quadrupedality evolved three times independently in the clade. The transition to quadrupedality from bipedal ancestors is rare in the history of terrestrial vertebrate evolution, and extant analogues do not exist. Constraints imposed on quadrupedal ornithischians by their ancestral bipedal bauplan remain unexplored, and consequently, debate continues about their stance and gait. For example, it has been proposed that some ornithischians could run, while others consider that none were cursorial. Methodology/Principal Findings Drawing on biomechanical concepts of limb bone scaling and locomotor theory developed for extant taxa, we use the largest dataset of ornithischian postcranial measurements so far compiled to examine stance and gait in quadrupedal ornithischians. Differences in femoral midshaft eccentricity in hadrosaurs and ceratopsids may indicate that hadrosaurs placed their feet on the midline during locomotion, while ceratopsids placed their feet more laterally, under the hips. More robust humeri in the largest ceratopsids relative to smaller taxa may be due to positive allometry in skull size with body mass in ceratopsids, while slender humeri in the largest stegosaurs may be the result of differences in dermal armor distribution within the clade. Hadrosaurs are found to display the most cursorial morphologies of the quadrupedal ornithischian cades, indicating higher locomotor performance than in ceratopsids and thyreophorans. Conclusions/Significance Limb bone scaling indicates that a previously unrealised diversity of stances and gaits were employed by quadrupedal ornithischians despite apparent convergence in limb morphology. Grouping quadrupedal ornithischians together as a single functional group hides this disparity. Differences in limb proportions and scaling are likely due to the possession of display structures such as horns, frills and dermal armor that may have affected

  3. Fire toxicity scaling

    SciTech Connect

    Braun, E.; Levin, B.C.; Paabo, M.; Gurman, J.; Holt, T.

    1987-02-01

    The toxicity of the thermal-decomposition products from two flexible polyurethane foams (with and without a fire retardant) and a cotton upholstery fabric was evaluated by a series of small-scale and large-scale tests single mock-up upholstery chair tests during smoldering or flaming decomposition. In addition other fire property data such as rates of heat release, effective heats of combustion, specific gas species yields, and smoke obscuration were measured. The degree of toxicity observed during and following the flaming tests (both large-scale room burns and the NBS Toxicity Tests) could be explained by a 3-Gas Model which includes the combined toxicological effects of CO, CO/sub 2/, and HCN. Essentially, no animal deaths were noted during the thirty minute exposures to the non-flaming or smoldering combustion products produced in the NBS Toxicity Test Method or the large-scale room test. In the large-scale room tests, little toxicological difference was noted between decomposition products from the burn room and a second room 12 meters away.

  4. Development of scale inhibitors

    SciTech Connect

    Gill, J.S.

    1996-12-01

    During the last fifty years, scale inhibition has gone from an art to a science. Scale inhibition has changed from simple pH adjustment to the use of optimized dose of designer polymers from multiple monomers. The water-treatment industry faces many challenges due to the need to conserve water, availability of only low quality water, increasing environmental regulations of the water discharge, and concern for human safety when using acid. Natural materials such as starch, lignin, tannin, etc., have been replaced with hydrolytically stable organic phosphates and synthetic polymers. Most progress in scale inhibition has come from the use of synergistic mixtures and copolymerizing different functionalities to achieve specific goals. Development of scale inhibitors requires an understanding of the mechanism of crystal growth and its inhibition. This paper discusses the historic perspective of scale inhibition and the development of new inhibitors based on the understanding of the mechanism of crystal growth and the use of powerful tools like molecular modeling to visualize crystal-inhibitor interactions.

  5. Atomic Scale Plasmonic Switch.

    PubMed

    Emboras, Alexandros; Niegemann, Jens; Ma, Ping; Haffner, Christian; Pedersen, Andreas; Luisier, Mathieu; Hafner, Christian; Schimmel, Thomas; Leuthold, Juerg

    2016-01-13

    The atom sets an ultimate scaling limit to Moore's law in the electronics industry. While electronics research already explores atomic scales devices, photonics research still deals with devices at the micrometer scale. Here we demonstrate that photonic scaling, similar to electronics, is only limited by the atom. More precisely, we introduce an electrically controlled plasmonic switch operating at the atomic scale. The switch allows for fast and reproducible switching by means of the relocation of an individual or, at most, a few atoms in a plasmonic cavity. Depending on the location of the atom either of two distinct plasmonic cavity resonance states are supported. Experimental results show reversible digital optical switching with an extinction ratio of 9.2 dB and operation at room temperature up to MHz with femtojoule (fJ) power consumption for a single switch operation. This demonstration of an integrated quantum device allowing to control photons at the atomic level opens intriguing perspectives for a fully integrated and highly scalable chip platform, a platform where optics, electronics, and memory may be controlled at the single-atom level.

  6. Full Scale Tunnel model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1929-01-01

    Interior view of Full-Scale Tunnel (FST) model. (Small human figures have been added for scale.) On June 26, 1929, Elton W. Miller wrote to George W. Lewis proposing the construction of a model of the full-scale tunnel . 'The excellent energy ratio obtained in the new wind tunnel of the California Institute of Technology suggests that before proceeding with our full scale tunnel design, we ought to investigate the effect on energy ratio of such factors as: 1. small included angle for the exit cone; 2. carefully designed return passages of circular section as far as possible, without sudden changes in cross sections; 3. tightness of walls. It is believed that much useful information can be obtained by building a model of about 1/16 scale, that is, having a closed throat of 2 ft. by 4 ft. The outside dimensions would be about 12 ft. by 25 ft. in plan and the height 4 ft. Two propellers will be required about 28 in. in diameter, each to be driven by direct current motor at a maximum speed of 4500 R.P.M. Provision can be made for altering the length of certain portions, particularly the exit cone, and possibly for the application of boundary layer control in order to effect satisfactory air flow.

  7. Spatial ecology across scales.

    PubMed

    Hastings, Alan; Petrovskii, Sergei; Morozov, Andrew

    2011-04-23

    The international conference 'Models in population dynamics and ecology 2010: animal movement, dispersal and spatial ecology' took place at the University of Leicester, UK, on 1-3 September 2010, focusing on mathematical approaches to spatial population dynamics and emphasizing cross-scale issues. Exciting new developments in scaling up from individual level movement to descriptions of this movement at the macroscopic level highlighted the importance of mechanistic approaches, with different descriptions at the microscopic level leading to different ecological outcomes. At higher levels of organization, different macroscopic descriptions of movement also led to different properties at the ecosystem and larger scales. New developments from Levy flight descriptions to the incorporation of new methods from physics and elsewhere are revitalizing research in spatial ecology, which will both increase understanding of fundamental ecological processes and lead to tools for better management.

  8. Scale of dark QCD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Yang; Schwaller, Pedro

    2014-03-01

    Most of the mass of ordinary matter has its origin from quantum chromodynamics (QCD). A similar strong dynamics, dark QCD, could exist to explain the mass origin of dark matter. Using infrared fixed points of the two gauge couplings, we provide a dynamical mechanism that relates the dark QCD confinement scale to our QCD scale, and hence provides an explanation for comparable dark baryon and proton masses. Together with a mechanism that generates equal amounts of dark baryon and ordinary baryon asymmetries in the early Universe, the similarity of dark matter and ordinary matter energy densities can be naturally explained. For a large class of gauge group representations, the particles charged under both QCD and dark QCD, necessary ingredients for generating the infrared fixed points, are found to have masses at 1-2 TeV, which sets the scale for dark matter direct detection and novel collider signatures involving visible and dark jets.

  9. Generalized scale invariant theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Padilla, Antonio; Stefanyszyn, David; Tsoukalas, Minas

    2014-03-01

    We present the most general actions of a single scalar field and two scalar fields coupled to gravity, consistent with second-order field equations in four dimensions, possessing local scale invariance. We apply two different methods to arrive at our results. One method, Ricci gauging, was known to the literature and we find this to produce the same result for the case of one scalar field as a more efficient method presented here. However, we also find our more efficient method to be much more general when we consider two scalar fields. Locally scale invariant actions are also presented for theories with more than two scalar fields coupled to gravity and we explain how one could construct the most general actions for any number of scalar fields. Our generalized scale invariant actions have obvious applications to early Universe cosmology and include, for example, the Bezrukov-Shaposhnikov action as a subset.

  10. Absolute neutrino mass scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capelli, Silvia; Di Bari, Pasquale

    2013-04-01

    Neutrino oscillation experiments firmly established non-vanishing neutrino masses, a result that can be regarded as a strong motivation to extend the Standard Model. In spite of being the lightest massive particles, neutrinos likely represent an important bridge to new physics at very high energies and offer new opportunities to address some of the current cosmological puzzles, such as the matter-antimatter asymmetry of the Universe and Dark Matter. In this context, the determination of the absolute neutrino mass scale is a key issue within modern High Energy Physics. The talks in this parallel session well describe the current exciting experimental activity aiming to determining the absolute neutrino mass scale and offer an overview of a few models beyond the Standard Model that have been proposed in order to explain the neutrino masses giving a prediction for the absolute neutrino mass scale and solving the cosmological puzzles.

  11. Irreversibility time scale.

    PubMed

    Gallavotti, G

    2006-06-01

    Entropy creation rate is introduced for a system interacting with thermostats (i.e., for a system subject to internal conservative forces interacting with "external" thermostats via conservative forces) and a fluctuation theorem for it is proved. As an application, a time scale is introduced, to be interpreted as the time over which irreversibility becomes manifest in a process leading from an initial to a final stationary state of a mechanical system in a general nonequilibrium context. The time scale is evaluated in a few examples, including the classical Joule-Thompson process (gas expansion in a vacuum).

  12. Development of an integrated in-situ remediation technology. Topical report for task No. 12 and 13 entitled: Large scale field test of the Lasagna{trademark} process, September 26, 1994--May 25, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Athmer, C.J.; Ho, Sa V.; Hughes, B.M.

    1997-04-01

    Contamination in low permeability soils poses a significant technical challenge to in-situ remediation efforts. Poor accessibility to the contaminants and difficulty in delivery of treatment reagents have rendered existing in-situ treatments such as bioremediation, vapor extraction, pump and treat rather ineffective when applied to low permeability soils present at many contaminated sites. This technology is an integrated in-situ treatment in which established geotechnical methods are used to instant degradation zones directly in the contaminated soil and electroosmosis is utilized to move the contaminants back and forth through those zones until the treatment is completed. This topical report summarizes the results of the field experiment conducted at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant in Paducah, KY. The test site covered 15 feet wide by 10 feet across and 15 feet deep with steel panels as electrodes and wickdrains containing granular activated carbon as treatment zone& The electrodes and treatment zones were installed utilizing innovative adaptation of existing emplacement technologies. The unit was operated for four months, flushing TCE by electroosmosis from the soil into the treatment zones where it was trapped by the activated carbon. The scale up from laboratory units to this field scale was very successful with respect to electrical parameters as weft as electroosmotic flow. Soil samples taken throughout the site before and after the test showed over 98% TCE removal, with most samples showing greater than 99% removal.

  13. Fundamentals of Zoological Scaling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Herbert

    1982-01-01

    The following animal characteristics are considered to determine how properties and characteristics of various systems change with system size (scaling): skeletal weight, speed of running, height and range of jumping, food consumption, heart rate, lifetime, locomotive efficiency, frequency of wing-flapping, and maximum sizes of flying and hovering…

  14. SCALING UNDERWATER EXPLODING WIRES

    DTIC Science & Technology

    heat of detonation of TNT in calories per gram. This scaling behavior extends the law of similarity six decades in terms of weight, from pounds to micropounds. The peak pressure for exploding-wire phenomena has been obtained from data and is emprically expressed as pm = 26,800 (cube root of W/R) to

  15. Scaling up Psycholinguistics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Nathaniel J.

    2011-01-01

    This dissertation contains several projects, each addressing different questions with different techniques. In chapter 1, I argue that they are unified thematically by their goal of "scaling up psycholinguistics"; they are all aimed at analyzing large data-sets using tools that reveal patterns to propose and test mechanism-neutral hypotheses about…

  16. Scale, Composition, and Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Victor, Peter A.

    2009-01-01

    Scale (gross domestic product), composition (goods and services), and technology (impacts per unit of goods and services) in combination are the proximate determinants in an economy of the resources used, wastes generated, and land transformed. In this article, we examine relationships among these determinants to understand better the contribution…

  17. Student Descriptor Scale Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goetz, Lori; And Others

    The Student Descriptor Scale (SDS) was developed as a validation measure to determine whether students described and counted by states as "severely handicapped" were, indeed, students with severe disabilities. The SDS addresses nine characteristics: intellectual disability, health impairment, need for toileting assistance, upper torso motor…

  18. The Spiritual Competency Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robertson, Linda A.

    2010-01-01

    This study describes the development of the Spiritual Competency Scale, which was based on the Association for Spiritual, Ethical and Religious Values in Counseling's original Spiritual Competencies. Participants were 662 counseling students from religiously based and secular universities nationwide. Exploratory factor analysis revealed a 22-item,…

  19. Scaling up Education Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaffney, Jon D. H.; Richards, Evan; Kustusch, Mary Bridget; Ding, Lin; Beichner, Robert J.

    2008-01-01

    The SCALE-UP (Student-Centered Activities for Large Enrollment for Undergraduate Programs) project was developed to implement reforms designed for small classes into large physics classes. Over 50 schools across the country, ranging from Wake Technical Community College to Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), have adopted it for classes of…

  20. The Social Integration Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Susan M.; Straus, Murray A.

    The Social Integration Scale (SIS) is intended to facilitate empirical research on the applicability of control theory to many types of adult crime, including "street crime," white collar crime, and physical assaults on spouses. There are five subscales: (1) belief (belief in law and social control); (2) commitment (psychological…

  1. Bristol Stool Form Scale

    MedlinePlus

    ... Stool Form Scale Type Description Type 1 Separate hard lumps, like nuts Image Type 2 Sausage-shaped but lumpy Type 3 Like a sausage or snake but with cracks on its surface Type 4 Like a sausage or snake, smooth and soft ...

  2. Scaling School Turnaround

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herman, Rebecca

    2012-01-01

    This article explores the research on turning around low performing schools to summarize what we know, what we don't know, and what this means for scaling school turnaround efforts. "School turnaround" is defined here as quick, dramatic gains in academic achievement for persistently low performing schools. The article first considers the…

  3. Allometric scaling of countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jiang; Yu, Tongkui

    2010-11-01

    As huge complex systems consisting of geographic regions, natural resources, people and economic entities, countries follow the allometric scaling law which is ubiquitous in ecological, and urban systems. We systematically investigated the allometric scaling relationships between a large number of macroscopic properties and geographic (area), demographic (population) and economic (GDP, gross domestic production) sizes of countries respectively. We found that most of the economic, trade, energy consumption, communication related properties have significant super-linear (the exponent is larger than 1) or nearly linear allometric scaling relations with the GDP. Meanwhile, the geographic (arable area, natural resources, etc.), demographic (labor force, military age population, etc.) and transportation-related properties (road length, airports) have significant and sub-linear (the exponent is smaller than 1) allometric scaling relations with area. Several differences of power law relations with respect to the population between countries and cities were pointed out. First, population increases sub-linearly with area in countries. Second, the GDP increases linearly in countries but not super-linearly as in cities. Finally, electricity or oil consumption per capita increases with population faster than cities.

  4. Results of an aerodynamic investigation of a space shuttle orbiter/747 carrier flight test configuration to determine separation characteristics utilizing 0.0125-scale models (48-0/AX1318I-1) in the LTV 4 x 4 foot high speed wind tunnel (CA26), volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gillins, R. L.

    1976-01-01

    Results of tests conducted on a 0.0125-scale model of the Space Shuttle Orbiter and a 0.0125-scale model of the 747 CAM configuration in a 4 x 4-foot High Speed Wind Tunnel were presented. Force and moment data were obtained for each vehicle separately at a Mach number of 0.6 and for each vehicle in proximity to the other at Mach numbers of 0.3, 0.5, 0.6 and 0.7. The proximity effects of each vehicle on the other at separation distances (from the mated configuration) ranging from 1.5 feet to 75 feet were presented; 747 Carrier angles of attack from 0 deg to 6 deg and angles of sideslip of 0 deg and -5 deg were tested. Model variables included orbiter elevon, aileron and body flap deflections, orbiter tailcone on and off, and 747 stabilizer and rudder deflections.

  5. Scaling Applications in hydrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gebremichael, Mekonnen

    2010-05-01

    Besides downscaling applications, scaling properties of hydrological fields can be used to address a variety of research questions. In this presentation, we will use scaling properties to address questions related to satellite evapotranspiration algorithms, precipitation-streamflow relationships, and hydrological model calibration. Most of the existing satellite-based evapotranspiration (ET) algorithms have been developed using fine-resolution Landsat TM and ASTER data. However, these algorithms are often applied to coarse-resolution MODIS data. Our results show that applying the satellite-based algorithms, which are developed at ASTER resolution, to MODIS resolution leads to ET estimates that (1) preserve the overall spatial pattern (spatial correlation in excess of 0.90), (2) increase the spatial standard deviation and maximum value, (3) have modest conditional bias: underestimate low ET rates (< 1 mm/day) and overestimate high ET rates; the overestimation is within 20%. The results emphasize the need for exploring alternatives for estimation of ET from MODIS. Understanding the relationship between the scaling properties of precipitation and streamflow is important in a number of applications. We present the results of a detailed river flow fluctuation analysis on daily records from 14 stations in the Flint River basin in Georgia in the United States with focus on effect of watershed area on long memory of river flow fluctuations. The areas of the watersheds draining to the stations range from 22 km2 to 19,606 km2. Results show that large watersheds have more persistent flow fluctuations and stronger long-term (time greater than scale break point) memory than small watersheds while precipitation time series shows weak long-term correlation. We conclude that a watershed acts as a 'filter' for a 'white noise' precipitation with more significant filtering in case of large watersheds. Finally, we compare the scaling properties of simulated and observed spatial soil

  6. Scales of mantle heterogeneity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, J. C.; Akber-Knutson, S.; Konter, J.; Kellogg, J.; Hart, S.; Kellogg, L. H.; Romanowicz, B.

    2004-12-01

    A long-standing question in mantle dynamics concerns the scale of heterogeneity in the mantle. Mantle convection tends to both destroy (through stirring) and create (through melt extraction and subduction) heterogeneity in bulk and trace element composition. Over time, these competing processes create variations in geochemical composition along mid-oceanic ridges and among oceanic islands, spanning a range of scales from extremely long wavelength (for example, the DUPAL anomaly) to very small scale (for example, variations amongst melt inclusions). While geochemical data and seismic observations can be used to constrain the length scales of mantle heterogeneity, dynamical mixing calculations can illustrate the processes and timescales involved in stirring and mixing. At the Summer 2004 CIDER workshop on Relating Geochemical and Seismological Heterogeneity in the Earth's Mantle, an interdisciplinary group evaluated scales of heterogeneity in the Earth's mantle using a combined analysis of geochemical data, seismological data and results of numerical models of mixing. We mined the PetDB database for isotopic data from glass and whole rock analyses for the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR) and the East Pacific Rise (EPR), projecting them along the ridge length. We examined Sr isotope variability along the East Pacific rise by looking at the difference in Sr ratio between adjacent samples as a function of distance between the samples. The East Pacific Rise exhibits an overall bowl shape of normal MORB characteristics, with higher values in the higher latitudes (there is, however, an unfortunate gap in sampling, roughly 2000 km long). These background characteristics are punctuated with spikes in values at various locations, some, but not all of which are associated with off-axis volcanism. A Lomb-Scargle periodogram for unevenly spaced data was utilized to construct a power spectrum of the scale lengths of heterogeneity along both ridges. Using the same isotopic systems (Sr, Nd

  7. Measuring Growth with Vertical Scales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Briggs, Derek C.

    2013-01-01

    A vertical score scale is needed to measure growth across multiple tests in terms of absolute changes in magnitude. Since the warrant for subsequent growth interpretations depends upon the assumption that the scale has interval properties, the validation of a vertical scale would seem to require methods for distinguishing interval scales from…

  8. ELECTRONIC PULSE SCALING CIRCUITS

    DOEpatents

    Cooke-Yarborough, E.H.

    1958-11-18

    Electronic pulse scaling circults of the klnd comprlsing a serles of bi- stable elements connected ln sequence, usually in the form of a rlng so as to be cycllcally repetitive at the highest scallng factor, are described. The scaling circuit comprises a ring system of bi-stable elements each arranged on turn-off to cause, a succeeding element of the ring to be turned-on, and one being arranged on turn-off to cause a further element of the ring to be turned-on. In addition, separate means are provided for applying a turn-off pulse to all the elements simultaneously, and for resetting the elements to a starting condition at the end of each cycle.

  9. Large-Scale Disasters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gad-El-Hak, Mohamed

    "Extreme" events - including climatic events, such as hurricanes, tornadoes, and drought - can cause massive disruption to society, including large death tolls and property damage in the billions of dollars. Events in recent years have shown the importance of being prepared and that countries need to work together to help alleviate the resulting pain and suffering. This volume presents a review of the broad research field of large-scale disasters. It establishes a common framework for predicting, controlling and managing both manmade and natural disasters. There is a particular focus on events caused by weather and climate change. Other topics include air pollution, tsunamis, disaster modeling, the use of remote sensing and the logistics of disaster management. It will appeal to scientists, engineers, first responders and health-care professionals, in addition to graduate students and researchers who have an interest in the prediction, prevention or mitigation of large-scale disasters.

  10. Scaling macroscopic aquatic locomotion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gazzola, Mattia; Argentina, Médéric; Mahadevan, L.

    2014-10-01

    Inertial aquatic swimmers that use undulatory gaits range in length L from a few millimetres to 30 metres, across a wide array of biological taxa. Using elementary hydrodynamic arguments, we uncover a unifying mechanistic principle characterizing their locomotion by deriving a scaling relation that links swimming speed U to body kinematics (tail beat amplitude A and frequency ω) and fluid properties (kinematic viscosity ν). This principle can be simply couched as the power law Re ~ Swα, where Re = UL/ν >> 1 and Sw = ωAL/ν, with α = 4/3 for laminar flows, and α = 1 for turbulent flows. Existing data from over 1,000 measurements on fish, amphibians, larvae, reptiles, mammals and birds, as well as direct numerical simulations are consistent with our scaling. We interpret our results as the consequence of the convergence of aquatic gaits to the performance limits imposed by hydrodynamics.

  11. Scaling macroscopic aquatic locomotion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gazzola, Mattia; Argentina, Mederic; Mahadevan, Lakshminarayanan

    2014-11-01

    Inertial aquatic swimmers that use undulatory gaits range in length L from a few millimeters to 30 meters, across a wide array of biological taxa. Using elementary hydrodynamic arguments, we uncover a unifying mechanistic principle characterizing their locomotion by deriving a scaling relation that links swimming speed U to body kinematics (tail beat amplitude A and frequency ω) and fluid properties (kinematic viscosity ν). This principle can be simply couched as the power law Re ~ Swα , where Re = UL / ν >> 1 and Sw = ωAL / ν , with α = 4 / 3 for laminar flows, and α = 1 for turbulent flows. Existing data from over 1000 measurements on fish, amphibians, larvae, reptiles, mammals and birds, as well as direct numerical simulations are consistent with our scaling. We interpret our results as the consequence of the convergence of aquatic gaits to the performance limits imposed by hydrodynamics.

  12. Fundamentals of zoological scaling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Herbert

    1982-01-01

    Most introductory physics courses emphasize highly idealized problems with unique well-defined answers. Though many textbooks complement these problems with estimation problems, few books present anything more than an elementary discussion of scaling. This paper presents some fundamentals of scaling in the zoological domain—a domain complex by any standard, but one also well suited to illustrate the power of very simple physical ideas. We consider the following animal characteristics: skeletal weight, speed of running, height and range of jumping, food consumption, heart rate, lifetime, locomotive efficiency, frequency of wing flapping, and maximum sizes of animals that fly and hover. These relationships are compared to zoological data and everyday experience, and match reasonably well.

  13. The Extragalactic Distance Scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Livio, Mario; Donahue, Megan; Panagia, Nino

    1997-07-01

    Participants; Preface; Foreword; Early history of the distance scale problem, S. van den Bergh; Cosmology: From Hubble to HST, M. S. Turner; Age constraints nucleocosmochronology, J. Truran; The ages of globular clusters, P. Demarque; The linearity of the Hubble flow M. Postman; Gravitational lensing and the extragalactic distance scale, R. D. Blandford andT . Kundic; Using the cosmic microwave background to constrain the Hubble constant A. Lasenby and T M. Jones; Cepheids as distance indicators, N. R. Tanvir; The I-band Tully-Fisher relation and the Hubble constant, R. Giovanell; The calibration of type 1a supernovae as standard candles, A. Saha; Focusing in on the Hubble constant, G. A. Tammann & M. Federspiel; Interim report on the calibration of the Tully-Fisher relation in the HST Key Project to measure the Hubble constant, J. Mould et al.; Hubble Space Telescope Key Project on the extragalactic distance scale, W. L. Freedman, B. F. Madore and T R. C. Kennicutt; Novae as distance indicators, M. Livio; Verifying the planetary nebula luminosity function method, G. H. Jacoby; On the possible use of radio supernovae for distance determinations, K. W. Weiler et al.; Post-AGB stars as standard candles, H. Bond; Helium core flash at the tip of the red giant branch: a population II distance indicator, B. F. Madore, W. L. Freedman and T S. Sakai; Globular clusters as distance indicators, B. C. Whitmore; Detached eclipsing binaries as primary distance and age indicators, B. Paczynski; Light echoes: geometric measurement of galaxy distances, W. B. Sparks; The SBF survey of galaxy distances J. L. Tonry; Extragalactic distance scales: The long and short of it, V. Trimble.

  14. Full Scale Wind Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1931-01-01

    Construction of motor fairing for the fan motors of the Full-Scale Tunnel (FST). The motors and their supporting structures were enclosed in aerodynamically smooth fairings to minimize resistance to the air flow. Close examination of this photograph reveals the complicated nature of constructing a wind tunnel. This motor fairing, like almost every other structure in the FST, represents a one-of-a-kind installation.

  15. Is this scaling nonlinear?

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    One of the most celebrated findings in complex systems in the last decade is that different indexes y (e.g. patents) scale nonlinearly with the population x of the cities in which they appear, i.e. y∼xβ,β≠1. More recently, the generality of this finding has been questioned in studies that used new databases and different definitions of city boundaries. In this paper, we investigate the existence of nonlinear scaling, using a probabilistic framework in which fluctuations are accounted for explicitly. In particular, we show that this allows not only to (i) estimate β and confidence intervals, but also to (ii) quantify the evidence in favour of β≠1 and (iii) test the hypothesis that the observations are compatible with the nonlinear scaling. We employ this framework to compare five different models to 15 different datasets and we find that the answers to points (i)–(iii) crucially depend on the fluctuations contained in the data, on how they are modelled, and on the fact that the city sizes are heavy-tailed distributed. PMID:27493764

  16. Urban scaling in Europe

    PubMed Central

    Bettencourt, Luís M. A.; Lobo, José

    2016-01-01

    Over the last few decades, in disciplines as diverse as economics, geography and complex systems, a perspective has arisen proposing that many properties of cities are quantitatively predictable due to agglomeration or scaling effects. Using new harmonized definitions for functional urban areas, we examine to what extent these ideas apply to European cities. We show that while most large urban systems in Western Europe (France, Germany, Italy, Spain, UK) approximately agree with theoretical expectations, the small number of cities in each nation and their natural variability preclude drawing strong conclusions. We demonstrate how this problem can be overcome so that cities from different urban systems can be pooled together to construct larger datasets. This leads to a simple statistical procedure to identify urban scaling relations, which then clearly emerge as a property of European cities. We compare the predictions of urban scaling to Zipf's law for the size distribution of cities and show that while the former holds well the latter is a poor descriptor of European cities. We conclude with scenarios for the size and properties of future pan-European megacities and their implications for the economic productivity, technological sophistication and regional inequalities of an integrated European urban system. PMID:26984190

  17. Urban scaling in Europe.

    PubMed

    Bettencourt, Luís M A; Lobo, José

    2016-03-01

    Over the last few decades, in disciplines as diverse as economics, geography and complex systems, a perspective has arisen proposing that many properties of cities are quantitatively predictable due to agglomeration or scaling effects. Using new harmonized definitions for functional urban areas, we examine to what extent these ideas apply to European cities. We show that while most large urban systems in Western Europe (France, Germany, Italy, Spain, UK) approximately agree with theoretical expectations, the small number of cities in each nation and their natural variability preclude drawing strong conclusions. We demonstrate how this problem can be overcome so that cities from different urban systems can be pooled together to construct larger datasets. This leads to a simple statistical procedure to identify urban scaling relations, which then clearly emerge as a property of European cities. We compare the predictions of urban scaling to Zipf's law for the size distribution of cities and show that while the former holds well the latter is a poor descriptor of European cities. We conclude with scenarios for the size and properties of future pan-European megacities and their implications for the economic productivity, technological sophistication and regional inequalities of an integrated European urban system.

  18. Global Scale Solar Disturbances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Title, A. M.; Schrijver, C. J.; DeRosa, M. L.

    2013-12-01

    The combination of the STEREO and SDO missions have allowed for the first time imagery of the entire Sun. This coupled with the high cadence, broad thermal coverage, and the large dynamic range of the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly on SDO has allowed discovery of impulsive solar disturbances that can significantly affect a hemisphere or more of the solar volume. Such events are often, but not always, associated with M and X class flares. GOES C and even B class flares are also associated with these large scale disturbances. Key to the recognition of the large scale disturbances was the creation of log difference movies. By taking the log of images before differencing events in the corona become much more evident. Because such events cover such a large portion of the solar volume their passage can effect the dynamics of the entire corona as it adjusts to and recovers from their passage. In some cases this may lead to a another flare or filament ejection, but in general direct causal evidence of 'sympathetic' behavior is lacking. However, evidence is accumulating these large scale events create an environment that encourages other solar instabilities to occur. Understanding the source of these events and how the energy that drives them is built up, stored, and suddenly released is critical to understanding the origins of space weather. Example events and comments of their relevance will be presented.

  19. Advanced scale conditioning agents

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, Jeff; Battaglia, Philip J.

    2004-06-01

    A technical description of Advanced Scale Conditioning Agents (ASCA) technology was published in the May-June 2003 edition of the Nuclear Plant Journal. That article described the development of programs of advanced scale conditioning agents and specific types to maintain the secondary side of steam generators within a pressurized water reactor free of deposited corrosion products and corrosion-inducing contaminants to ensure their long-term operation. This article describes the first two plant applications of advanced scale conditioning agents implemented at Southern Nuclear Operating Company's Vogtle Units 1 and 2 during their 2002 scheduled outages to minimize tube degradation and maintain full power operation using the most effective techniques while minimizing outage costs. The goal was to remove three to four fuel cycles of deposits from each steam generator so that after future chemical cleaning activities, ASCAs could be used to maintain the cleanliness of the steam generators without the need for additional chemical cleaning efforts. The goal was achieved as well as several other benefits that resulted in cost savings to the plant.

  20. Micro-Scale Thermoacoustics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Offner, Avshalom; Ramon, Guy Z.

    2016-11-01

    Thermoacoustic phenomena - conversion of heat to acoustic oscillations - may be harnessed for construction of reliable, practically maintenance-free engines and heat pumps. Specifically, miniaturization of thermoacoustic devices holds great promise for cooling of micro-electronic components. However, as devices size is pushed down to micro-meter scale it is expected that non-negligible slip effects will exist at the solid-fluid interface. Accordingly, new theoretical models for thermoacoustic engines and heat pumps were derived, accounting for a slip boundary condition. These models are essential for the design process of micro-scale thermoacoustic devices that will operate under ultrasonic frequencies. Stability curves for engines - representing the onset of self-sustained oscillations - were calculated with both no-slip and slip boundary conditions, revealing improvement in the performance of engines with slip at the resonance frequency range applicable for micro-scale devices. Maximum achievable temperature differences curves for thermoacoustic heat pumps were calculated, revealing the negative effect of slip on the ability to pump heat up a temperature gradient. The authors acknowledge the support from the Nancy and Stephen Grand Technion Energy Program (GTEP).

  1. Color quality scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, Wendy; Ohno, Yoshi

    2010-03-01

    The color rendering index (CRI) has been shown to have deficiencies when applied to white light-emitting-diode-based sources. Furthermore, evidence suggests that the restricted scope of the CRI unnecessarily penalizes some light sources with desirable color qualities. To solve the problems of the CRI and include other dimensions of color quality, the color quality scale (CQS) has been developed. Although the CQS uses many of elements of the CRI, there are a number of fundamental differences. Like the CRI, the CQS is a test-samples method that compares the appearance of a set of reflective samples when illuminated by the test lamp to their appearance under a reference illuminant. The CQS uses a larger set of reflective samples, all of high chroma, and combines the color differences of the samples with a root mean square. Additionally, the CQS does not penalize light sources for causing increases in the chroma of object colors but does penalize sources with smaller rendered color gamut areas. The scale of the CQS is converted to span 0-100, and the uniform object color space and chromatic adaptation transform used in the calculations are updated. Supplementary scales have also been developed for expert users.

  2. Estimation of local spatial scale

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, Andrew B.

    1987-01-01

    The concept of local scale asserts that for a given class of psychophysical measurements, performance at any two visual field locations is equated by magnifying the targets by the local scale associated with each location. Local scale has been hypothesized to be equal to cortical magnification or alternatively to the linear density of receptors or ganglion cells. Here, it is shown that it is possible to estimate local scale without prior knowledge about the scale or its physiological basis.

  3. Mechanism for salt scaling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valenza, John J., II

    Salt scaling is superficial damage caused by freezing a saline solution on the surface of a cementitious body. The damage consists of the removal of small chips or flakes of binder. The discovery of this phenomenon in the early 1950's prompted hundreds of experimental studies, which clearly elucidated the characteristics of this damage. In particular it was shown that a pessimum salt concentration exists, where a moderate salt concentration (˜3%) results in the most damage. Despite the numerous studies, the mechanism responsible for salt scaling has not been identified. In this work it is shown that salt scaling is a result of the large thermal expansion mismatch between ice and the cementitious body, and that the mechanism responsible for damage is analogous to glue-spalling. When ice forms on a cementitious body a bi-material composite is formed. The thermal expansion coefficient of the ice is ˜5 times that of the underlying body, so when the temperature of the composite is lowered below the melting point, the ice goes into tension. Once this stress exceeds the strength of the ice, cracks initiate in the ice and propagate into the surface of the cementitious body, removing a flake of material. The glue-spall mechanism accounts for all of the characteristics of salt scaling. In particular, a theoretical analysis is presented which shows that the pessimum concentration is a consequence of the effect of brine pockets on the mechanical properties of ice, and that the damage morphology is accounted for by fracture mechanics. Finally, empirical evidence is presented that proves that the glue-small mechanism is the primary cause of salt scaling. The primary experimental tool used in this study is a novel warping experiment, where a pool of liquid is formed on top of a thin (˜3 mm) plate of cement paste. Stresses in the plate, including thermal expansion mismatch, result in warping of the plate, which is easily detected. This technique revealed the existence of

  4. Comparing the theoretical versions of the Beaufort scale, the T-Scale and the Fujita scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meaden, G. Terence; Kochev, S.; Kolendowicz, L.; Kosa-Kiss, A.; Marcinoniene, Izolda; Sioutas, Michalis; Tooming, Heino; Tyrrell, John

    2007-02-01

    2005 is the bicentenary of the Beaufort Scale and its wind-speed codes: the marine version in 1805 and the land version later. In the 1920s when anemometers had come into general use, the Beaufort Scale was quantified by a formula based on experiment. In the early 1970s two tornado wind-speed scales were proposed: (1) an International T-Scale based on the Beaufort Scale; and (2) Fujita's damage scale developed for North America. The International Beaufort Scale and the T-Scale share a common root in having an integral theoretical relationship with an established scientific basis, whereas Fujita's Scale introduces criteria that make its intensities non-integral with Beaufort. Forces on the T-Scale, where T stands for Tornado force, span the range 0 to 10 which is highly useful world wide. The shorter range of Fujita's Scale (0 to 5) is acceptable for American use but less convenient elsewhere. To illustrate the simplicity of the decimal T-Scale, mean hurricane wind speed of Beaufort 12 is T2 on the T-Scale but F1.121 on the F-Scale; while a tornado wind speed of T9 (= B26) becomes F4.761. However, the three wind scales can be uni-fied by either making F-Scale numbers exactly half the magnitude of T-Scale numbers [i.e. F'half = T / 2 = (B / 4) - 4] or by doubling the numbers of this revised version to give integral equivalence with the T-Scale. The result is a decimal formula F'double = T = (B / 2) - 4 named the TF-Scale where TF stands for Tornado Force. This harmonious 10-digit scale has all the criteria needed for world-wide practical effectiveness.

  5. Nestedness across biological scales.

    PubMed

    Cantor, Mauricio; Pires, Mathias M; Marquitti, Flavia M D; Raimundo, Rafael L G; Sebastián-González, Esther; Coltri, Patricia P; Perez, S Ivan; Barneche, Diego R; Brandt, Débora Y C; Nunes, Kelly; Daura-Jorge, Fábio G; Floeter, Sergio R; Guimarães, Paulo R

    2017-01-01

    Biological networks pervade nature. They describe systems throughout all levels of biological organization, from molecules regulating metabolism to species interactions that shape ecosystem dynamics. The network thinking revealed recurrent organizational patterns in complex biological systems, such as the formation of semi-independent groups of connected elements (modularity) and non-random distributions of interactions among elements. Other structural patterns, such as nestedness, have been primarily assessed in ecological networks formed by two non-overlapping sets of elements; information on its occurrence on other levels of organization is lacking. Nestedness occurs when interactions of less connected elements form proper subsets of the interactions of more connected elements. Only recently these properties began to be appreciated in one-mode networks (where all elements can interact) which describe a much wider variety of biological phenomena. Here, we compute nestedness in a diverse collection of one-mode networked systems from six different levels of biological organization depicting gene and protein interactions, complex phenotypes, animal societies, metapopulations, food webs and vertebrate metacommunities. Our findings suggest that nestedness emerge independently of interaction type or biological scale and reveal that disparate systems can share nested organization features characterized by inclusive subsets of interacting elements with decreasing connectedness. We primarily explore the implications of a nested structure for each of these studied systems, then theorize on how nested networks are assembled. We hypothesize that nestedness emerges across scales due to processes that, although system-dependent, may share a general compromise between two features: specificity (the number of interactions the elements of the system can have) and affinity (how these elements can be connected to each other). Our findings suggesting occurrence of nestedness

  6. Nestedness across biological scales

    PubMed Central

    Marquitti, Flavia M. D.; Raimundo, Rafael L. G.; Sebastián-González, Esther; Coltri, Patricia P.; Perez, S. Ivan; Brandt, Débora Y. C.; Nunes, Kelly; Daura-Jorge, Fábio G.; Floeter, Sergio R.; Guimarães, Paulo R.

    2017-01-01

    Biological networks pervade nature. They describe systems throughout all levels of biological organization, from molecules regulating metabolism to species interactions that shape ecosystem dynamics. The network thinking revealed recurrent organizational patterns in complex biological systems, such as the formation of semi-independent groups of connected elements (modularity) and non-random distributions of interactions among elements. Other structural patterns, such as nestedness, have been primarily assessed in ecological networks formed by two non-overlapping sets of elements; information on its occurrence on other levels of organization is lacking. Nestedness occurs when interactions of less connected elements form proper subsets of the interactions of more connected elements. Only recently these properties began to be appreciated in one-mode networks (where all elements can interact) which describe a much wider variety of biological phenomena. Here, we compute nestedness in a diverse collection of one-mode networked systems from six different levels of biological organization depicting gene and protein interactions, complex phenotypes, animal societies, metapopulations, food webs and vertebrate metacommunities. Our findings suggest that nestedness emerge independently of interaction type or biological scale and reveal that disparate systems can share nested organization features characterized by inclusive subsets of interacting elements with decreasing connectedness. We primarily explore the implications of a nested structure for each of these studied systems, then theorize on how nested networks are assembled. We hypothesize that nestedness emerges across scales due to processes that, although system-dependent, may share a general compromise between two features: specificity (the number of interactions the elements of the system can have) and affinity (how these elements can be connected to each other). Our findings suggesting occurrence of nestedness

  7. Reconsidering Fault Slip Scaling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomberg, J. S.; Wech, A.; Creager, K. C.; Obara, K.; Agnew, D. C.

    2015-12-01

    The scaling of fault slip events given by the relationship between the scalar moment M0, and duration T, potentially provides key constraints on the underlying physics controlling slip. Many studies have suggested that measurements of M0 and T are related as M0=KfT3 for 'fast' slip events (earthquakes) and M0=KsT for 'slow' slip events, in which Kf and Ks are proportionality constants, although some studies have inferred intermediate relations. Here 'slow' and 'fast' refer to slip front propagation velocities, either so slow that seismic radiation is too small or long period to be measurable or fast enough that dynamic processes may be important for the slip process and measurable seismic waves radiate. Numerous models have been proposed to explain the differing M0-T scaling relations. We show that a single, simple dislocation model of slip events within a bounded slip zone may explain nearly all M0-T observations. Rather than different scaling for fast and slow populations, we suggest that within each population the scaling changes from M0 proportional to T3 to T when the slipping area reaches the slip zone boundaries and transitions from unbounded, 2-dimensional to bounded, 1-dimensional growth. This transition has not been apparent previously for slow events because data have sampled only the bounded regime and may be obscured for earthquakes when observations from multiple tectonic regions are combined. We have attempted to sample the expected transition between bounded and unbounded regimes for the slow slip population, measuring tremor cluster parameters from catalogs for Japan and Cascadia and using them as proxies for small slow slip event characteristics. For fast events we employed published earthquake slip models. Observations corroborate our hypothesis, but highlight observational difficulties. We find that M0-T observations for both slow and fast slip events, spanning 12 orders of magnitude in M0, are consistent with a single model based on dislocation

  8. Soil organic carbon across scales.

    PubMed

    O'Rourke, Sharon M; Angers, Denis A; Holden, Nicholas M; McBratney, Alex B

    2015-10-01

    Mechanistic understanding of scale effects is important for interpreting the processes that control the global carbon cycle. Greater attention should be given to scale in soil organic carbon (SOC) science so that we can devise better policy to protect/enhance existing SOC stocks and ensure sustainable use of soils. Global issues such as climate change require consideration of SOC stock changes at the global and biosphere scale, but human interaction occurs at the landscape scale, with consequences at the pedon, aggregate and particle scales. This review evaluates our understanding of SOC across all these scales in the context of the processes involved in SOC cycling at each scale and with emphasis on stabilizing SOC. Current synergy between science and policy is explored at each scale to determine how well each is represented in the management of SOC. An outline of how SOC might be integrated into a framework of soil security is examined. We conclude that SOC processes at the biosphere to biome scales are not well understood. Instead, SOC has come to be viewed as a large-scale pool subjects to carbon flux. Better understanding exists for SOC processes operating at the scales of the pedon, aggregate and particle. At the landscape scale, the influence of large- and small-scale processes has the greatest interaction and is exposed to the greatest modification through agricultural management. Policy implemented at regional or national scale tends to focus at the landscape scale without due consideration of the larger scale factors controlling SOC or the impacts of policy for SOC at the smaller SOC scales. What is required is a framework that can be integrated across a continuum of scales to optimize SOC management.

  9. Small scale sanitation technologies.

    PubMed

    Green, W; Ho, G

    2005-01-01

    Small scale systems can improve the sustainability of sanitation systems as they more easily close the water and nutrient loops. They also provide alternate solutions to centrally managed large scale infrastructures. Appropriate sanitation provision can improve the lives of people with inadequate sanitation through health benefits, reuse products as well as reduce ecological impacts. In the literature there seems to be no compilation of a wide range of available onsite sanitation systems around the world that encompasses black and greywater treatment plus stand-alone dry and urine separation toilet systems. Seventy technologies have been identified and classified according to the different waste source streams. Sub-classification based on major treatment methods included aerobic digestion, composting and vermicomposting, anaerobic digestion, sand/soil/peat filtration and constructed wetlands. Potential users or suppliers of sanitation systems can choose from wide range of technologies available and examine the different treatment principles used in the technologies. Sanitation systems need to be selected according to the local social, economic and environmental conditions and should aim to be sustainable.

  10. Spectral multidimensional scaling

    PubMed Central

    Aflalo, Yonathan; Kimmel, Ron

    2013-01-01

    An important tool in information analysis is dimensionality reduction. There are various approaches for large data simplification by scaling its dimensions down that play a significant role in recognition and classification tasks. The efficiency of dimension reduction tools is measured in terms of memory and computational complexity, which are usually a function of the number of the given data points. Sparse local operators that involve substantially less than quadratic complexity at one end, and faithful multiscale models with quadratic cost at the other end, make the design of dimension reduction procedure a delicate balance between modeling accuracy and efficiency. Here, we combine the benefits of both and propose a low-dimensional multiscale modeling of the data, at a modest computational cost. The idea is to project the classical multidimensional scaling problem into the data spectral domain extracted from its Laplace–Beltrami operator. There, embedding into a small dimensional Euclidean space is accomplished while optimizing for a small number of coefficients. We provide a theoretical support and demonstrate that working in the natural eigenspace of the data, one could reduce the process complexity while maintaining the model fidelity. As examples, we efficiently canonize nonrigid shapes by embedding their intrinsic metric into , a method often used for matching and classifying almost isometric articulated objects. Finally, we demonstrate the method by exposing the style in which handwritten digits appear in a large collection of images. We also visualize clustering of digits by treating images as feature points that we map to a plane. PMID:24108352

  11. Scaling the Kondo lattice.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yi-feng; Fisk, Zachary; Lee, Han-Oh; Thompson, J D; Pines, David

    2008-07-31

    The origin of magnetic order in metals has two extremes: an instability in a liquid of local magnetic moments interacting through conduction electrons, and a spin-density wave instability in a Fermi liquid of itinerant electrons. This dichotomy between 'local-moment' magnetism and 'itinerant-electron' magnetism is reminiscent of the valence bond/molecular orbital dichotomy present in studies of chemical bonding. The class of heavy-electron intermetallic compounds of cerium, ytterbium and various 5f elements bridges the extremes, with itinerant-electron magnetic characteristics at low temperatures that grow out of a high-temperature local-moment state. Describing this transition quantitatively has proved difficult, and one of the main unsolved problems is finding what determines the temperature scale for the evolution of this behaviour. Here we present a simple, semi-quantitative solution to this problem that provides a basic framework for interpreting the physics of heavy-electron materials and offers the prospect of a quantitative determination of the physical origin of their magnetic ordering and superconductivity. It also reveals the difference between the temperature scales that distinguish the conduction electrons' response to a single magnetic impurity and their response to a lattice of local moments, and provides an updated version of the well-known Doniach diagram.

  12. Scaling in Transportation Networks

    PubMed Central

    Louf, Rémi; Roth, Camille; Barthelemy, Marc

    2014-01-01

    Subway systems span most large cities, and railway networks most countries in the world. These networks are fundamental in the development of countries and their cities, and it is therefore crucial to understand their formation and evolution. However, if the topological properties of these networks are fairly well understood, how they relate to population and socio-economical properties remains an open question. We propose here a general coarse-grained approach, based on a cost-benefit analysis that accounts for the scaling properties of the main quantities characterizing these systems (the number of stations, the total length, and the ridership) with the substrate's population, area and wealth. More precisely, we show that the length, number of stations and ridership of subways and rail networks can be estimated knowing the area, population and wealth of the underlying region. These predictions are in good agreement with data gathered for about subway systems and more than railway networks in the world. We also show that train networks and subway systems can be described within the same framework, but with a fundamental difference: while the interstation distance seems to be constant and determined by the typical walking distance for subways, the interstation distance for railways scales with the number of stations. PMID:25029528

  13. Scale in Education Research: Towards a Multi-Scale Methodology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noyes, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    This article explores some theoretical and methodological problems concerned with scale in education research through a critique of a recent mixed-method project. The project was framed by scale metaphors drawn from the physical and earth sciences and I consider how recent thinking around scale, for example, in ecosystems and human geography might…

  14. A Validity Scale for the Sharp Consumer Satisfaction Scales.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tanner, Barry A.; Stacy, Webb, Jr.

    1985-01-01

    A validity scale for the Sharp Consumer Satisfaction Scale was developed and used in experiments to assess patients' satisfaction with community mental health centers. The scale discriminated between clients who offered suggestions and those who did not. It also improved researcher's ability to predict true scores from obtained scores. (DWH)

  15. Returns to Scale and Economies of Scale: Further Observations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gelles, Gregory M.; Mitchell, Douglas W.

    1996-01-01

    Maintains that most economics textbooks continue to repeat past mistakes concerning returns to scale and economies of scale under assumptions of constant and nonconstant input prices. Provides an adaptation for a calculus-based intermediate microeconomics class that demonstrates the pointwise relationship between returns to scale and economies of…

  16. Global scale precipitation from monthly to centennial scales: empirical space-time scaling analysis, anthropogenic effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Lima, Isabel; Lovejoy, Shaun

    2016-04-01

    The characterization of precipitation scaling regimes represents a key contribution to the improved understanding of space-time precipitation variability, which is the focus here. We conduct space-time scaling analyses of spectra and Haar fluctuations in precipitation, using three global scale precipitation products (one instrument based, one reanalysis based, one satellite and gauge based), from monthly to centennial scales and planetary down to several hundred kilometers in spatial scale. Results show the presence - similarly to other atmospheric fields - of an intermediate "macroweather" regime between the familiar weather and climate regimes: we characterize systematically the macroweather precipitation temporal and spatial, and joint space-time statistics and variability, and the outer scale limit of temporal scaling. These regimes qualitatively and quantitatively alternate in the way fluctuations vary with scale. In the macroweather regime, the fluctuations diminish with time scale (this is important for seasonal, annual, and decadal forecasts) while anthropogenic effects increase with time scale. Our approach determines the time scale at which the anthropogenic signal can be detected above the natural variability noise: the critical scale is about 20 - 40 yrs (depending on the product, on the spatial scale). This explains for example why studies that use data covering only a few decades do not easily give evidence of anthropogenic changes in precipitation, as a consequence of warming: the period is too short. Overall, while showing that precipitation can be modeled with space-time scaling processes, our results clarify the different precipitation scaling regimes and further allow us to quantify the agreement (and lack of agreement) of the precipitation products as a function of space and time scales. Moreover, this work contributes to clarify a basic problem in hydro-climatology, which is to measure precipitation trends at decadal and longer scales and to

  17. Investigations of Tumbling Characteristics of a 1/20-Scale Model of the Northrop N-9M Airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    MacDougall, George F., Jr.

    1947-01-01

    The tumbling characteristics of a 1/20-scale model of the Northrop N-9M airplane have been determined in the Langley 20-foot free-spinning tunnel for various configurations and loading conditions of the model. The investigation included tests to determine whether recovery from a tumble could be effected by the use of parachutes. An estimation of the forces due to acceleration acting on the pilot during a tumble was made. The tests were performed at an equivalent test altitude of 15,000 feet. The results of the model tests indicate that if the airplane is stalled with its nose up and near the vertical, or if an appreciable amount of pitching rotation is imparted to the airplane as through the action of a strong gust, the airplane will either tumble or oscillate in pitch through a range of angles of the order of +/-120 deg. The normal flying controls will probably be ineffective in preventing or in terminating the tumbling motion. The results of the model tests indicate that deflection of the landing flaps full down immediately upon the initiation of pitching rotation will tend to prevent the development of a state of tumbling equilibrium. The simultaneous opening of two-7-foot diameter parachutes having drag coefficients of 0.7, one parachute attached to the rear portion of each wing tip with a towline between 10 and 30 feet long, will provide recovery from a tumble. The accelerations acting on the pilot during a tumble will be dangerous.

  18. Free-Spinning-Tunnel Tests of a 1/20-Scale Model of the Northrop N-9M Airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    MacDougall, George F., Jr.; Lichtenstein, Jacob H.

    1946-01-01

    Spin tests of a 1/20-scale model of the Northrop N-9M airplane have been performed in the Langley 20-foot free-spinning tunnel. The erect and inverted spin and recovery characteristics were determined for various loading conditions and the effect of deflecting the flaps and of extending the landing gear was investigated. The investigation also included tests to determine the size parachute required for satisfactory spin recovery by parachute action alone. The tests were performed at an equivalent spin altitude of 15,000 feet. A specialized recovery technique consisting of rapid full reversal of the rudder pedals against the spin combined with turning the wheel against the spin and movement of the stick forward is recommended for all loadings and configurations of the airplane. The results also indicated that a 7-foot-diameter spin-recovery parachute having a drag coefficient of 0.7 attached to the outboard wing tip with a towline of 10 to 30 feet or an 8.8-foot-diameter parachute attached to the fixed portion of the wing between the elevons and the pitch flaps with a 30-foot towline would provide satisfactory recovery from demonstration spins by parachute action alone. It appears possible that the first N-9M airplane may have crashed because of failure to recover from a spin.

  19. Scaling laws in cognitive sciences.

    PubMed

    Kello, Christopher T; Brown, Gordon D A; Ferrer-I-Cancho, Ramon; Holden, John G; Linkenkaer-Hansen, Klaus; Rhodes, Theo; Van Orden, Guy C

    2010-05-01

    Scaling laws are ubiquitous in nature, and they pervade neural, behavioral and linguistic activities. A scaling law suggests the existence of processes or patterns that are repeated across scales of analysis. Although the variables that express a scaling law can vary from one type of activity to the next, the recurrence of scaling laws across so many different systems has prompted a search for unifying principles. In biological systems, scaling laws can reflect adaptive processes of various types and are often linked to complex systems poised near critical points. The same is true for perception, memory, language and other cognitive phenomena. Findings of scaling laws in cognitive science are indicative of scaling invariance in cognitive mechanisms and multiplicative interactions among interdependent components of cognition.

  20. Earthquake impact scale

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wald, D.J.; Jaiswal, K.S.; Marano, K.D.; Bausch, D.

    2011-01-01

    With the advent of the USGS prompt assessment of global earthquakes for response (PAGER) system, which rapidly assesses earthquake impacts, U.S. and international earthquake responders are reconsidering their automatic alert and activation levels and response procedures. To help facilitate rapid and appropriate earthquake response, an Earthquake Impact Scale (EIS) is proposed on the basis of two complementary criteria. On the basis of the estimated cost of damage, one is most suitable for domestic events; the other, on the basis of estimated ranges of fatalities, is generally more appropriate for global events, particularly in developing countries. Simple thresholds, derived from the systematic analysis of past earthquake impact and associated response levels, are quite effective in communicating predicted impact and response needed after an event through alerts of green (little or no impact), yellow (regional impact and response), orange (national-scale impact and response), and red (international response). Corresponding fatality thresholds for yellow, orange, and red alert levels are 1, 100, and 1,000, respectively. For damage impact, yellow, orange, and red thresholds are triggered by estimated losses reaching $1M, $100M, and $1B, respectively. The rationale for a dual approach to earthquake alerting stems from the recognition that relatively high fatalities, injuries, and homelessness predominate in countries in which local building practices typically lend themselves to high collapse and casualty rates, and these impacts lend to prioritization for international response. In contrast, financial and overall societal impacts often trigger the level of response in regions or countries in which prevalent earthquake resistant construction practices greatly reduce building collapse and resulting fatalities. Any newly devised alert, whether economic- or casualty-based, should be intuitive and consistent with established lexicons and procedures. Useful alerts should

  1. Westside Test Anxiety Scale Validation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Driscoll, Richard

    2007-01-01

    The Westside Test Anxiety Scale is a brief, ten item instrument designed to identify students with anxiety impairments who could benefit from an anxiety-reduction intervention. The scale items cover self-assessed anxiety impairment and cognitions which can impair performance. Correlations between anxiety-reduction as measured by the scale and…

  2. The Rapid Induction Susceptibility Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Page, Roger A.; Handley, George W.

    1989-01-01

    Developed Rapid Induction Susceptibility Scale using Chiasson induction to produce hypnotic susceptibility scale which is quickly administered and yields scores comparable to the Stanford Hypnotic Susceptibility Scale, Form C (SHSS:C). Found that validation study with college students (N=100) produced a correlation of .88 with the SHSS:C and…

  3. Micromechanical silicon precision scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oja, Aarne S.; Sillanpaa, Teuvo; Seppae, H.; Kiihamaki, Jyrki; Seppala, P.; Karttunen, Jani; Riski, Kari

    2000-04-01

    A micro machined capacitive silicon scale has been designed and fabricated. It is intended for weighing masses on the order of 1 g at the resolution of about 1 ppm and below. The device consists of a micro machined SOI chip which is anodically bonded to a glass chip. The flexible electrode is formed in the SOI device layer. The other electrode is metallized on the glass and is divided into three sections. The sections are used for detecting tilting of the top electrode due to a possible off-centering of the mass load. The measuring circuit implements electrostatic force feedback and keeps the top electrode at a constant horizontal position irrespective of its mass loading. First measurements have demonstrated the stability allowing measurement of 1 g masses at an accuracy of 2...3 ppm.

  4. Indian scales and inventories

    PubMed Central

    Venkatesan, S.

    2010-01-01

    This conceptual, perspective and review paper on Indian scales and inventories begins with clarification on the historical and contemporary meanings of psychometry before linking itself to the burgeoning field of clinimetrics in their applications to the practice of clinical psychology and psychiatry. Clinimetrics is explained as a changing paradigm in the design, administration, and interpretation of quantitative tests, techniques or procedures applied to measurement of clinical variables, traits and processes. As an illustrative sample, this article assembles a bibliographic survey of about 105 out of 2582 research papers (4.07%) scanned through 51 back dated volumes covering 185 issues related to clinimetry as reviewed across a span of over fifty years (1958-2009) in the Indian Journal of Psychiatry. A content analysis of the contributions across distinct categories of mental measurements is explained before linkages are proposed for future directions along these lines. PMID:21836709

  5. Galactic-scale civilization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuiper, T. B. H.

    1980-01-01

    Evolutionary arguments are presented in favor of the existence of civilization on a galactic scale. Patterns of physical, chemical, biological, social and cultural evolution leading to increasing levels of complexity are pointed out and explained thermodynamically in terms of the maximization of free energy dissipation in the environment of the organized system. The possibility of the evolution of a global and then a galactic human civilization is considered, and probabilities that the galaxy is presently in its colonization state and that life could have evolved to its present state on earth are discussed. Fermi's paradox of the absence of extraterrestrials in light of the probability of their existence is noted, and a variety of possible explanations is indicated. Finally, it is argued that although mankind may be the first occurrence of intelligence in the galaxy, it is unjustified to presume that this is so.

  6. The Children's Loneliness Scale.

    PubMed

    Maes, Marlies; Van den Noortgate, Wim; Vanhalst, Janne; Beyers, Wim; Goossens, Luc

    2017-03-01

    The present study examined the factor structure and construct validity of the Children's Loneliness Scale (CLS), a popular measure of childhood loneliness, in Belgian children. Analyses were conducted on two samples of fifth and sixth graders in Belgium, for a total of 1,069 children. A single-factor structure proved superior to alternative solutions proposed in the literature, when taking item wording into account. Construct validity was shown by substantial associations with related constructs, based on both self-reported (e.g., depressive symptoms and low social self-esteem), and peer-reported variables (e.g., victimization). Furthermore, a significant association was found between the CLS and a peer-reported measure of loneliness. Collectively, these findings provide a solid foundation for the continuing use of the CLS as a measure of childhood loneliness.

  7. Extreme Scale Computational Astrophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shoemaker, Deirdre

    2009-11-01

    We live in extraordinary times. With increasingly sophisticated observatories opening up new vistas on the universe, astrophysics is becoming more complex and data-driven. The success in understanding astrophysical systems that are inherently multi-physical, nonlinear systems demands realism in our models of the phenomena. We cannot hope to advance the realism of these models to match the expected sophistication of future observations without extreme-scale computation. Just one example is the advent of gravitational wave astronomy. Detectors like LIGO are about to make the first ever detection of gravitational waves. The gravitational waves are produced during violent events such as the merger of two black holes. The detection of these waves or ripples in the fabric of spacetime is a formidable undertaking, requiring innovative engineering, powerful data analysis tools and careful theoretical modeling. I will discuss the computational and theoretical challenges ahead in our new understanding of physics and astronomy where gravity exhibits its strongest grip on our spacetime.

  8. Scaling and mechanics of carnivoran footpads reveal the principles of footpad design.

    PubMed

    Chi, Kai-Jung; Louise Roth, V

    2010-08-06

    In most mammals, footpads are what first strike ground with each stride. Their mechanical properties therefore inevitably affect functioning of the legs; yet interspecific studies of the scaling of locomotor mechanics have all but neglected the feet and their soft tissues. Here we determine how contact area and stiffness of footpads in digitigrade carnivorans scale with body mass in order to show how footpads' mechanical properties and size covary to maintain their functional integrity. As body mass increases across several orders of magnitude, we find the following: (i) foot contact area does not keep pace with increasing body mass; therefore pressure increases, placing footpad tissue of larger animals potentially at greater risk of damage; (ii) but stiffness of the pads also increases, so the tissues of larger animals must experience less strain; and (iii) total energy stored in hindpads increases slightly more than that in the forepads, allowing additional elastic energy to be returned for greater propulsive efficiency. Moreover, pad stiffness appears to be tuned across the size range to maintain loading regimes in the limbs that are favourable for long-bone remodelling. Thus, the structural properties of footpads, unlike other biological support-structures, scale interspecifically through changes in both geometry and material properties, rather than geometric proportions alone, and do so with consequences for both maintenance and operation of other components of the locomotor system.

  9. Scaling and mechanics of carnivoran footpads reveal the principles of footpad design

    PubMed Central

    Chi, Kai-Jung; Louise Roth, V.

    2010-01-01

    In most mammals, footpads are what first strike ground with each stride. Their mechanical properties therefore inevitably affect functioning of the legs; yet interspecific studies of the scaling of locomotor mechanics have all but neglected the feet and their soft tissues. Here we determine how contact area and stiffness of footpads in digitigrade carnivorans scale with body mass in order to show how footpads’ mechanical properties and size covary to maintain their functional integrity. As body mass increases across several orders of magnitude, we find the following: (i) foot contact area does not keep pace with increasing body mass; therefore pressure increases, placing footpad tissue of larger animals potentially at greater risk of damage; (ii) but stiffness of the pads also increases, so the tissues of larger animals must experience less strain; and (iii) total energy stored in hindpads increases slightly more than that in the forepads, allowing additional elastic energy to be returned for greater propulsive efficiency. Moreover, pad stiffness appears to be tuned across the size range to maintain loading regimes in the limbs that are favourable for long-bone remodelling. Thus, the structural properties of footpads, unlike other biological support-structures, scale interspecifically through changes in both geometry and material properties, rather than geometric proportions alone, and do so with consequences for both maintenance and operation of other components of the locomotor system. PMID:20181559

  10. Scaling up: Assessing social impacts at the macro-scale

    SciTech Connect

    Schirmer, Jacki

    2011-04-15

    Social impacts occur at various scales, from the micro-scale of the individual to the macro-scale of the community. Identifying the macro-scale social changes that results from an impacting event is a common goal of social impact assessment (SIA), but is challenging as multiple factors simultaneously influence social trends at any given time, and there are usually only a small number of cases available for examination. While some methods have been proposed for establishing the contribution of an impacting event to macro-scale social change, they remain relatively untested. This paper critically reviews methods recommended to assess macro-scale social impacts, and proposes and demonstrates a new approach. The 'scaling up' method involves developing a chain of logic linking change at the individual/site scale to the community scale. It enables a more problematised assessment of the likely contribution of an impacting event to macro-scale social change than previous approaches. The use of this approach in a recent study of change in dairy farming in south east Australia is described.

  11. Solar system to scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerwig López, Susanne

    2016-04-01

    One of the most important successes in astronomical observations has been to determine the limit of the Solar System. It is said that the first man able to measure the distance Earth-Sun with only a very slight mistake, in the second century BC, was the wise Greek man Aristarco de Samos. Thanks to Newtońs law of universal gravitation, it was possible to measure, with a little margin of error, the distances between the Sun and the planets. Twelve-year old students are very interested in everything related to the universe. However, it seems too difficult to imagine and understand the real distances among the different celestial bodies. To learn the differences among the inner and outer planets and how far away the outer ones are, I have considered to make my pupils work on the sizes and the distances in our solar system constructing it to scale. The purpose is to reproduce our solar system to scale on a cardboard. The procedure is very easy and simple. Students of first year of ESO (12 year-old) receive the instructions in a sheet of paper (things they need: a black cardboard, a pair of scissors, colored pencils, a ruler, adhesive tape, glue, the photocopies of the planets and satellites, the measurements they have to use). In another photocopy they get the pictures of the edge of the sun, the planets, dwarf planets and some satellites, which they have to color, cut and stick on the cardboard. This activity is planned for both Spanish and bilingual learning students as a science project. Depending on the group, they will receive these instructions in Spanish or in English. When the time is over, the students bring their works on their cardboard to the class. They obtain a final mark: passing, good or excellent, depending on the accuracy of the measurements, the position of all the celestial bodies, the asteroids belts, personal contributions, etc. If any of the students has not followed the instructions they get the chance to remake it again properly, in order not

  12. Tipping the scales.

    PubMed

    1998-12-01

    In the US, the October 1998 murder of a physician who performed abortions was an outward manifestation of the insidious battle against legal abortion being waged by radical Christian social conservatives seeking to transform the US democracy into a theocracy. This movement has been documented in a publication entitled, "Tipping the Scales: The Christian Right's Legal Crusade Against Choice" produced as a result of a 4-year investigation conducted by The Center for Reproductive Law and Policy. This publication describes how these fundamentalists have used sophisticated legal, lobbying, and communication strategies to further their goals of challenging the separation of church and state, opposing family planning and sexuality education that is not based solely on abstinence, promoting school prayer, and restricting homosexual rights. The movement has resulted in the introduction of more than 300 anti-abortion bills in states, 50 of which have passed in 23 states. Most Christian fundamentalist groups provide free legal representation to abortion clinic terrorists, and some groups solicit women to bring specious malpractice claims against providers. Sophisticated legal tactics are used by these groups to remove the taint of extremism and mask the danger posed to US constitutional principles being posed by "a well-financed and zealous brand of radical lawyers and their supporters."

  13. Turbulent scaling in fluids

    SciTech Connect

    Ecke, R.; Li, Ning; Chen, Shiyi; Liu, Yuanming

    1996-11-01

    This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The project was a study of turbulence in fluids that are subject to different body forces and to external temperature gradients. Our focus was on the recent theoretical prediction that the Kolomogorov picture of turbulence may need to be modified for turbulent flows driven by buoyancy and subject to body forces such as rotational accelerations. Models arising from this research are important in global climate modeling, in turbulent transport problems, and in the fundamental understanding of fluid turbulence. Experimentally, we use (1) precision measurements of heat transport and local temperature; (2) flow visualization using digitally- enhanced optical shadowgraphs, particle-image velocimetry, thermochromic liquid-crystal imaging, laser-doppler velocimetry, and photochromic dye imaging; and (3) advanced image- processing techniques. Our numerical simulations employ standard spectral and novel lattice Boltzmann algorithms implemented on parallel Connection Machine computers to simulate turbulent fluid flow. In laboratory experiments on incompressible fluids, we measure probability distribution functions and two-point spatial correlations of temperature T and velocity V (both T-T and V-T correlations) and determine scaling relations for global heat transport with Rayleigh number. We also explore the mechanism for turbulence in thermal convection and the stability of the thermal boundary layer.

  14. Lightning Scaling Laws Revisited

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boccippio, D. J.; Arnold, James E. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Scaling laws relating storm electrical generator power (and hence lightning flash rate) to charge transport velocity and storm geometry were originally posed by Vonnegut (1963). These laws were later simplified to yield simple parameterizations for lightning based upon cloud top height, with separate parameterizations derived over land and ocean. It is demonstrated that the most recent ocean parameterization: (1) yields predictions of storm updraft velocity which appear inconsistent with observation, and (2) is formally inconsistent with the theory from which it purports to derive. Revised formulations consistent with Vonnegut's original framework are presented. These demonstrate that Vonnegut's theory is, to first order, consistent with observation. The implications of assuming that flash rate is set by the electrical generator power, rather than the electrical generator current, are examined. The two approaches yield significantly different predictions about the dependence of charge transfer per flash on storm dimensions, which should be empirically testable. The two approaches also differ significantly in their explanation of regional variability in lightning observations.

  15. UltraScale Computing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maynard, , Jr.

    1997-08-01

    The Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency Information Technology Office (DARPA/ITO) supports research in technology for defense-critical applications. Defense Applications are always insatiable consumers of computing. Futuristic applications such as automated image interpretation/whole vehicle radar-cross-section/real-time prototyping/faster-than-real-time simulation will require computing capabilities orders-of-magnitude beyond the best performance that can be projected from contemporary scalable parallel processors. To reach beyond the silicon digital paradigm, DARPA has initiated a program in UltraScale Computing to explore the domain of innovative computational models, methods, and mechanisms. The objective is to encourage a complete re-thinking of computing. Novel architectures, program synthesis, and execution environments are needed as well as alternative underlying physical mechanisms including molecular, biological, optical and quantum mechanical processes. Development of these advanced computing technologies will offer spectacular performance and cost improvements beyond the threshold of traditional materials and processes. The talk will focus on novel approaches for employing vastly more computational units than shrinking transistors will enable and exploration of the biological options for solving computationally difficult problems.

  16. Large scale traffic simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Nagel, K.; Barrett, C.L. |; Rickert, M. |

    1997-04-01

    Large scale microscopic (i.e. vehicle-based) traffic simulations pose high demands on computational speed in at least two application areas: (i) real-time traffic forecasting, and (ii) long-term planning applications (where repeated {open_quotes}looping{close_quotes} between the microsimulation and the simulated planning of individual person`s behavior is necessary). As a rough number, a real-time simulation of an area such as Los Angeles (ca. 1 million travellers) will need a computational speed of much higher than 1 million {open_quotes}particle{close_quotes} (= vehicle) updates per second. This paper reviews how this problem is approached in different projects and how these approaches are dependent both on the specific questions and on the prospective user community. The approaches reach from highly parallel and vectorizable, single-bit implementations on parallel supercomputers for Statistical Physics questions, via more realistic implementations on coupled workstations, to more complicated driving dynamics implemented again on parallel supercomputers. 45 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Scaling of structural failure

    SciTech Connect

    Bazant, Z.P.; Chen, Er-Ping

    1997-01-01

    This article attempts to review the progress achieved in the understanding of scaling and size effect in the failure of structures. Particular emphasis is placed on quasibrittle materials for which the size effect is complicated. Attention is focused on three main types of size effects, namely the statistical size effect due to randomness of strength, the energy release size effect, and the possible size effect due to fractality of fracture or microcracks. Definitive conclusions on the applicability of these theories are drawn. Subsequently, the article discusses the application of the known size effect law for the measurement of material fracture properties, and the modeling of the size effect by the cohesive crack model, nonlocal finite element models and discrete element models. Extensions to compression failure and to the rate-dependent material behavior are also outlined. The damage constitutive law needed for describing a microcracked material in the fracture process zone is discussed. Various applications to quasibrittle materials, including concrete, sea ice, fiber composites, rocks and ceramics are presented.

  18. Large scale tracking algorithms

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, Ross L.; Love, Joshua Alan; Melgaard, David Kennett; Karelitz, David B.; Pitts, Todd Alan; Zollweg, Joshua David; Anderson, Dylan Z.; Nandy, Prabal; Whitlow, Gary L.; Bender, Daniel A.; Byrne, Raymond Harry

    2015-01-01

    Low signal-to-noise data processing algorithms for improved detection, tracking, discrimination and situational threat assessment are a key research challenge. As sensor technologies progress, the number of pixels will increase signi cantly. This will result in increased resolution, which could improve object discrimination, but unfortunately, will also result in a significant increase in the number of potential targets to track. Many tracking techniques, like multi-hypothesis trackers, suffer from a combinatorial explosion as the number of potential targets increase. As the resolution increases, the phenomenology applied towards detection algorithms also changes. For low resolution sensors, "blob" tracking is the norm. For higher resolution data, additional information may be employed in the detection and classfication steps. The most challenging scenarios are those where the targets cannot be fully resolved, yet must be tracked and distinguished for neighboring closely spaced objects. Tracking vehicles in an urban environment is an example of such a challenging scenario. This report evaluates several potential tracking algorithms for large-scale tracking in an urban environment.

  19. SPACE BASED INTERCEPTOR SCALING

    SciTech Connect

    G. CANAVAN

    2001-02-01

    Space Based Interceptor (SBI) have ranges that are adequate to address rogue ICBMs. They are not overly sensitive to 30-60 s delay times. Current technologies would support boost phase intercept with about 150 interceptors. Higher acceleration and velocity could reduce than number by about a factor of 3 at the cost of heavier and more expensive Kinetic Kill Vehicles (KKVs). 6g SBI would reduce optimal constellation costs by about 35%; 8g SBI would reduce them another 20%. Interceptor ranges fall rapidly with theater missile range. Constellations increase significantly for ranges under 3,000 km, even with advanced interceptor technology. For distributed launches, these estimates recover earlier strategic scalings, which demonstrate the improved absentee ratio for larger or multiple launch areas. Constellations increase with the number of missiles and the number of interceptors launched at each. The economic estimates above suggest that two SBI per missile with a modest midcourse underlay is appropriate. The SBI KKV technology would appear to be common for space- and surface-based boost phase systems, and could have synergisms with improved midcourse intercept and discrimination systems. While advanced technology could be helpful in reducing costs, particularly for short range theater missiles, current technology appears adequate for pressing rogue ICBM, accidental, and unauthorized launches.

  20. Environmental complexity across scales: mechanism, scaling and the phenomenological fallacy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lovejoy, Shaun

    2015-04-01

    Ever since Van Leeuwenhoek used a microscope to discover "new worlds in a drop of water" we have become used to the idea that "zooming in" - whether in space or in time - will reveal new processes, new phenomena. Yet in the natural environment - geosystems - this is often wrong. For example, in the temporal domain, a recent publication has shown that from hours to hundreds of millions of years the conventional scale bound view of atmospheric variability was wrong by a factor of over a quadrillion (10**15). Mandelbrot challenged the "scale bound" ideology and proposed that many natural systems - including many geosystems - were instead better treated as fractal systems in which the same basic mechanism acts over potentially huge ranges of scale. However, in its original form Mandelbrot's isotropic scaling (self-similar) idea turned out to be too naïve: geosystems are typically anisotropic so that shapes and morphologies (e.g. of clouds landmasses) are not the same at different resolutions. However it turns out that the scaling idea often still applies on condition that the notion of scale is generalized appropriately (using the framework of Generalized Scale Invariance). The overall result is that unique processes, unique dynamical mechanisms may act over huge ranges of scale even though the morphologies systematically change with scale. Therefore the common practice of inferring mechanism from shapes, forms, morphologies is unjustified, the "phenomenological fallacy". We give examples of the phenomenological fallacy drawn from diverse areas of geoscience.