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Sample records for 15x40 feet scaled

  1. Right beneath Your Feet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walkup, Nancy

    2007-01-01

    Even very young children can start observing, thinking about, and talking about elements of the visual culture that surrounds them. A good place to start is right underneath their feet--the designs on the bottoms of their shoes. Students become aware of the designs, compare them with the designs of their neighbors, speculate on the possible…

  2. Earthquake at 40 feet

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, G. J.

    1976-01-01

    The earthquake that struck the island of Guam on November 1, 1975, at 11:17 a.m had many unique aspects-not the least of which was the experience of an earthquake of 6.25 Richter magnitude while at 40 feet. My wife Bonnie, a fellow diver, Greg Guzman, and I were diving at Gabgab Beach in teh outer harbor of Apra Harbor, engaged in underwater phoyography when the earthquake struck. 

  3. Wider Shoes for Wider Feet?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Mary C.

    2006-01-01

    From a very young age, shoes for boys tend to be wider than shoes for girls. Is this because boys have wider feet, or because it is assumed that girls are willing to sacrifice comfort for fashion, even in elementary school? To assess the former, a statistician measures kids' feet. (Contains 2 tables and 3 figures.)

  4. Efficacy of antiperspirants on feet.

    PubMed

    Darrigrand, A; Reynolds, K; Jackson, R; Hamlet, M; Roberts, D

    1992-05-01

    Nineteen male soldiers participated in a study of the effectiveness of two antiperspirants (aluminum chlorohydrate and aluminum zirconium tetrachlorohydrex glycine) in reducing foot-sweat accumulation and injuries. Each subject was tested before and after antiperspirant application, with a 1-hour treadmill march at 5.6 km/hour in a warm environment. Both antiperspirants decreased (p less than 0.05) foot-sweat accumulation over 50%. There was also a tendency, although not statistically significant, for subjects to incur fewer blisters with antiperspirant use. However, the antiperspirants also increased (p less than 0.05) the incidence of irritant dermatitis. Nevertheless, these data suggest that the application of antiperspirants to the feet has merit in reducing serious foot injuries (blisters, trench foot) exacerbated by wet feet. PMID:1630659

  5. Scales

    MedlinePlus

    Scales are a visible peeling or flaking of outer skin layers. These layers are called the stratum ... Scales may be caused by dry skin, certain inflammatory skin conditions, or infections. Eczema , ringworm , and psoriasis ...

  6. Feet injuries in rock climbers

    PubMed Central

    Schöffl, Volker; Küpper, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    While injuries of the upper extremity are widely discussed in rock climbers, reports about the lower extremity are rare. Nevertheless almost 50 percent of acute injuries involve the leg and feet. Acute injuries are either caused by ground falls or rock hit trauma during a fall. Most frequently strains, contusions and fractures of the calcaneus and talus. More rare injuries, as e.g., osteochondral lesions of the talus demand a highly specialized care and case presentations with combined iliac crest graft and matrix associated autologous chondrocyte transplantation are given in this review. The chronic use of tight climbing shoes leads to overstrain injuries also. As the tight fit of the shoes changes the biomechanics of the foot an increased stress load is applied to the fore-foot. Thus chronic conditions as subungual hematoma, callosity and pain resolve. Also a high incidence of hallux valgus and hallux rigidus is described. PMID:24147257

  7. Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaffhauser, Dian

    2009-01-01

    The common approach to scaling, according to Christopher Dede, a professor of learning technologies at the Harvard Graduate School of Education, is to jump in and say, "Let's go out and find more money, recruit more participants, hire more people. Let's just keep doing the same thing, bigger and bigger." That, he observes, "tends to fail, and fail…

  8. Diabetes - taking care of your feet

    MedlinePlus

    Diabetes - foot care - self-care; Diabetic foot ulcer - foot care; Diabetic neuropathy - foot care ... Diabetes can damage the nerves and blood vessels in your feet. This damage can cause numbness and ...

  9. Insecticide residues on weathered passerine carcass feet

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vyas, N.B.; Spann, J.W.; Hulse, C.S.; Butterbrodt, J.J.; Mengelkoch, J.; MacDougall, K.; Williams, B.; Pendergrass, P.

    2003-01-01

    Nine brown-headed cowbirds (Molothrus ater) were exposed to turf srayed with either EarthCare? (25% diazinon; 477 L a.i./ha) or Ortho-Klor? (12 .6% chlorpyrifos; 5.21 L a.i./ha.). Birds were euthanized and one foot from each bird was weathered outdoors for up to 28 days and the other foot was kept frozen until residue analysis. When compared to the unweathered feet, feet weathered for 28 days retained 43% and 37% of the diazinon and chlorpyrifors, respectively. Insecticide residues were below the level of detection (1.0 ppm) on control feet. Weathered feet may be used for determining organophosphorus insecticide exposure to birds.

  10. Towards gecko-feet-inspired bandages.

    PubMed

    Yanik, Mehmet Fatih

    2009-01-01

    A novel bandage inspired by gecko feet might one day be used during emergencies and internal surgeries. The bandage uses a combination of nanofabricated structures, biodegradable materials and adhesive surface chemistry that allows adhesion onto even wet, moving tissue.

  11. Take Care of Your Feet for a Lifetime

    MedlinePlus

    ... protect your feet. 7. Protect your feet from hot and cold. Wear shoes at the beach and on hot pavement. You may burn your feet and may ... from heaters and open fires. Do not put hot water bottles or heating pads on your feet. ...

  12. Scales

    SciTech Connect

    Murray Gibson

    2007-04-27

    Musical scales involve notes that, sounded simultaneously (chords), sound good together. The result is the left brain meeting the right brain — a Pythagorean interval of overlapping notes. This synergy would suggest less difference between the working of the right brain and the left brain than common wisdom would dictate. The pleasing sound of harmony comes when two notes share a common harmonic, meaning that their frequencies are in simple integer ratios, such as 3/2 (G/C) or 5/4 (E/C).

  13. Scales

    ScienceCinema

    Murray Gibson

    2016-07-12

    Musical scales involve notes that, sounded simultaneously (chords), sound good together. The result is the left brain meeting the right brain — a Pythagorean interval of overlapping notes. This synergy would suggest less difference between the working of the right brain and the left brain than common wisdom would dictate. The pleasing sound of harmony comes when two notes share a common harmonic, meaning that their frequencies are in simple integer ratios, such as 3/2 (G/C) or 5/4 (E/C).

  14. Three-dimensional evaluation of heel raise test in pediatric planovalgus feet and normal feet.

    PubMed

    Krautwurst, Britta K; Wolf, Sebastian I; Dreher, Thomas

    2016-07-01

    Planovalgus foot is a common pediatric deformity which may be associated with pain. To evaluate flexibility of the foot, the heel raise test is used. During this test the arch and hindfoot are assessed. Several studies have described planovalgus foot based on 3D gait and standing analysis. However, no studies have evaluated foot flexibility during heel raise using an objective 3D analysis. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to evaluate the flexibility of planovalgus feet during the heel raise test using an objective 3D assessment and to determine whether any hypotheses can be generated about potential differences between painful and painless flexible planovalgus feet and reference feet. Here, 3D foot analysis was conducted in 33 children (7 reference feet, 16 painless, and 10 painful flexible planovalgus feet) during the heel raise test. To identify the characteristics of planovalgus foot, the concept of 3D projection angles was used as introduced in the Heidelberg Foot Measurement Method (HFMM), with a modified marker set. All feet showed dynamic movements of the medial arch and hindfoot from valgus to varus position during heel raise. Reference feet had the smallest range of motion, perhaps due to joint stability and absence of foot deformity. Painful and painless flexible planovalgus feet demonstrated similar movements. No significant differences were found between the painful and painless groups. However, the kinematics of the pain group seemed to differ more from those of the reference group than did kinematics of the painless group. This assessment is a new, practical, and objective method to measure the flexibility of small children's feet. PMID:27262407

  15. Three-dimensional evaluation of heel raise test in pediatric planovalgus feet and normal feet.

    PubMed

    Krautwurst, Britta K; Wolf, Sebastian I; Dreher, Thomas

    2016-07-01

    Planovalgus foot is a common pediatric deformity which may be associated with pain. To evaluate flexibility of the foot, the heel raise test is used. During this test the arch and hindfoot are assessed. Several studies have described planovalgus foot based on 3D gait and standing analysis. However, no studies have evaluated foot flexibility during heel raise using an objective 3D analysis. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to evaluate the flexibility of planovalgus feet during the heel raise test using an objective 3D assessment and to determine whether any hypotheses can be generated about potential differences between painful and painless flexible planovalgus feet and reference feet. Here, 3D foot analysis was conducted in 33 children (7 reference feet, 16 painless, and 10 painful flexible planovalgus feet) during the heel raise test. To identify the characteristics of planovalgus foot, the concept of 3D projection angles was used as introduced in the Heidelberg Foot Measurement Method (HFMM), with a modified marker set. All feet showed dynamic movements of the medial arch and hindfoot from valgus to varus position during heel raise. Reference feet had the smallest range of motion, perhaps due to joint stability and absence of foot deformity. Painful and painless flexible planovalgus feet demonstrated similar movements. No significant differences were found between the painful and painless groups. However, the kinematics of the pain group seemed to differ more from those of the reference group than did kinematics of the painless group. This assessment is a new, practical, and objective method to measure the flexibility of small children's feet.

  16. Why Do Calculators Have Rubber Feet?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heavers, Richard M.

    2007-01-01

    Our students like using the covers of their TI graphing calculators in an inquiry-based extension of a traditional exercise that challenges their preconceived ideas about friction. Biology major Fiona McGraw (Fig. 1) is obviously excited about the large coefficient of static friction ([mu][subscript s] = 1.3) for the four little rubber feet on her…

  17. On Sound Footing: The Health of Your Feet

    MedlinePlus

    ... link, please review our exit disclaimer . Subscribe On Sound Footing The Health of Your Feet Your feet ... search Features A Bang to the Brain On Sound Footing Wise Choices Links Foot Health Tips Use ...

  18. A novel aromatic oil compound inhibits microbial overgrowth on feet: a case study

    PubMed Central

    Misner, Bill D

    2007-01-01

    Background Athlete's Foot (Tinea pedis) is a form of ringworm associated with highly contagious yeast-fungi colonies, although they look like bacteria. Foot bacteria overgrowth produces a harmless pungent odor, however, uncontrolled proliferation of yeast-fungi produces small vesicles, fissures, scaling, and maceration with eroded areas between the toes and the plantar surface of the foot, resulting in intense itching, blisters, and cracking. Painful microbial foot infection may prevent athletic participation. Keeping the feet clean and dry with the toenails trimmed reduces the incidence of skin disease of the feet. Wearing sandals in locker and shower rooms prevents intimate contact with the infecting organisms and alleviates most foot-sensitive infections. Enclosing feet in socks and shoes generates a moisture-rich environment that stimulates overgrowth of pungent both aerobic bacteria and infectious yeast-fungi. Suppression of microbial growth may be accomplished by exposing the feet to air to enhance evaporation to reduce moistures' growth-stimulating effect and is often neglected. There is an association between yeast-fungi overgrowths and disabling foot infections. Potent agents virtually exterminate some microbial growth, but the inevitable presence of infection under the nails predicts future infection. Topical antibiotics present a potent approach with the ideal agent being one that removes moisture producing antibacterial-antifungal activity. Severe infection may require costly prescription drugs, salves, and repeated treatment. Methods A 63-y female volunteered to enclose feet in shoes and socks for 48 hours. Aerobic bacteria and yeast-fungi counts were determined by swab sample incubation technique (1) after 48-hours feet enclosure, (2) after washing feet, and (3) after 8-hours socks-shoes exposure to a aromatic oil powder-compound consisting of arrowroot, baking soda, basil oil, tea tree oil, sage oil, and clove oil. Conclusion Application of this

  19. Molecular shifts in limb identity underlie development of feathered feet in two domestic avian species.

    PubMed

    Domyan, Eric T; Kronenberg, Zev; Infante, Carlos R; Vickrey, Anna I; Stringham, Sydney A; Bruders, Rebecca; Guernsey, Michael W; Park, Sungdae; Payne, Jason; Beckstead, Robert B; Kardon, Gabrielle; Menke, Douglas B; Yandell, Mark; Shapiro, Michael D

    2016-01-01

    Birds display remarkable diversity in the distribution and morphology of scales and feathers on their feet, yet the genetic and developmental mechanisms governing this diversity remain unknown. Domestic pigeons have striking variation in foot feathering within a single species, providing a tractable model to investigate the molecular basis of skin appendage differences. We found that feathered feet in pigeons result from a partial transformation from hindlimb to forelimb identity mediated by cis-regulatory changes in the genes encoding the hindlimb-specific transcription factor Pitx1 and forelimb-specific transcription factor Tbx5. We also found that ectopic expression of Tbx5 is associated with foot feathers in chickens, suggesting similar molecular pathways underlie phenotypic convergence between these two species. These results show how changes in expression of regional patterning genes can generate localized changes in organ fate and morphology, and provide viable molecular mechanisms for diversity in hindlimb scale and feather distribution. PMID:26977633

  20. Enlarged hands and feet – Not always acromegaly

    PubMed Central

    Ghatnatti, Vikrant; Sarma, Dipti; Saikia, Uma

    2012-01-01

    Pachydermoperiostosis maybe mistaken for acromegaly as it can present with progressive enlargement of hands and feet. We describe a 32 year old male with enlargement of hands and feet and extensive keloid formation. Family history was positive for similar complaints. X ray imaging showed normal heel pad thickness with acroosteolysis and subperiosteal new bone formation in hands and feet. IGF-1 was normal and glucose suppressed GH values were normal. PMID:23565412

  1. From the Field: Carbofuran detected on weathered raptor carcass feet

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vyas, N.B.; Spann, J.W.; Hulse, C.S.; Bauer, W.; Olson, S.

    2005-01-01

    The cause of death for raptors poisoned at illegal carbofuran-Iaced predator baits is often not confirmed because the carcass matrices that are conventionally analyzed are not available due to decomposition and scavenging. However, many such carcasses retain intact feet that may have come into contact with carbofuran. Eastern screech owls (Otus asio) were exposed to carbofuran via simulated predator baits. Detection of carbofuran from owl feet weathered for 28 days demonstrated the temporal reliability of using feet during a forensic investigation. Raptor carcasses previously not submitted for residue analysis because of a lack of the conventional matrices may now be salvaged for their feet.

  2. Can a Television Series Change Attitudes about Death? A Study of College Students and "Six Feet Under"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schiappa, Edward; Gregg, Peter B.; Hewes, Dean E.

    2004-01-01

    This study examined the effects of viewing 10 episodes of the television series "Six Feet Under" to assess whether such programming could influence college students' attitudes about death and dying. Students were administered the Death Attitude Profile--Revised, the Multidimensional Fear of Death Scale, and the short version of the Threat Index,…

  3. How do somersaulters land on their feet?

    PubMed

    Lee, D N; Young, D S; Rewt, D

    1992-11-01

    Body movements of trampolinists landing upright from forward somersaults, with eyes open and closed, were analyzed to test a theory of how braking and timing of actions are conjointly controlled. In regulating landing, rotation has to be slowed by extending the body so that it reaches the upright just as the feet hit the trampoline. Extending a theory of visual control of linear braking, it was hypothesized that upright landing is achieved by perceptually regulating body extension so as to keep the ratio angle of body to upright: rate of change of angle (the tau function of the angle) proportional to time-to-landing. The data support the hypothesis, indicate that vision improves precision of control, and argue further for the value of the tau function in the perceptual regulation of action. PMID:1431752

  4. 1. Perspective View of Scales Shanty looking south with Scranton ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Perspective View of Scales Shanty looking south with Scranton Yards in background. - Delaware, Lackawanna & Western Railroad, Scranton Yards, Track Scales, 500 feet Southeast of Bridge No. 60, Scranton, Lackawanna County, PA

  5. DETAIL OF "FEET" OF MAIN TRUSS NORTH END. NOTE PLATES ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL OF "FEET" OF MAIN TRUSS NORTH END. NOTE PLATES ON WHICH FEET REST ALLOWING EXPANSION OF TRUSS AS IT EXPANDS AND SHRINKS UNDER THE SUN - Missouri & North Arkansas Railroad Bridge, Spanning Middle Fork Little Red River, Shirley, Van Buren County, AR

  6. Protection of feet in cold exposure.

    PubMed

    Kuklane, Kalev

    2009-07-01

    The paper summarizes the research on cold protection of feet. There exist several conflicting requirements for the choice of the best suited footwear for cold exposure. These conflicts are related to various environmental factors, protection needs and user comfort issues. In order to reduce such conflicts and simplify the choice of proper footwear the paper suggests dividing the cold into specific ranges that are related to properties and state of water and its possibility to penetrate into, evaporate from or condensate in footwear. The thermo-physiological background and reactions in foot are briefly explained, and main problems and risks related to cold injuries, mechanical injuries and slipping discussed. Footwear thermal insulation is the most important factor for protection against cold. The issues related to measuring the insulation and the practical use of measured values are described, but also the effect of socks, and footwear size. Other means for reducing heat losses, such as PCM and electrical heating are touched. The most important variable that affects footwear thermal insulation and foot comfort is moisture in footwear. In combination with motion they may reduce insulation and thus protection against cold by 45%. The paper includes recommendations for better foot comfort in cold.

  7. 6. 'ROCKFILLED CRIB 350 FEET LONG, REPAIRING DAMAGES CAUSED BY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. 'ROCK-FILLED CRIB 350 FEET LONG, REPAIRING DAMAGES CAUSED BY FLOODS DURING SEASON OF 1927 TO THE DRY GULCH CANAL HEADING.' 1928 - Irrigation Canals in the Uinta Basin, Duchesne, Duchesne County, UT

  8. 4. BUILDING 422, WEST SIDE, FROM APPROXIMATELY 25 FEET SOUTHWEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. BUILDING 422, WEST SIDE, FROM APPROXIMATELY 25 FEET SOUTHWEST OF SOUTHWEST CORNER, LOOKING NORTHEAST. - Oakland Naval Supply Center, Aeronautical Materials Storehouses, Between E & G Streets, between Fourth & Sixth Streets, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  9. 5. BUILDING 522, INTERIOR, STOREROOM, FROM APPROXIMATELY 50 FEET SOUTHEAST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. BUILDING 522, INTERIOR, STOREROOM, FROM APPROXIMATELY 50 FEET SOUTHEAST OF NORTHWEST CORNER, LOOKING EAST. - Oakland Naval Supply Center, Aeronautical Materials Storehouses, Between E & G Streets, between Fourth & Sixth Streets, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  10. 1. WEST AND SOUTH SIDES, FROM APPROXIMATELY 75 FEET SOUTHWEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. WEST AND SOUTH SIDES, FROM APPROXIMATELY 75 FEET SOUTHWEST OF BUILDING, LOOKING EAST-NORTHEAST. - Oakland Naval Supply Center, Heating Plant, North of B Street & West of Third Street, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  11. 1. WEST AND SOUTH SIDES, FROM APPROXIMATELY 25 FEET SOUTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. WEST AND SOUTH SIDES, FROM APPROXIMATELY 25 FEET SOUTH OF SOUTHEASTERN CORNER OF BUILDING 441-B, LOOKING NORTHEAST. - Oakland Naval Supply Center, Heating Plant, On Northwest Corner of K Street & Fifth Street, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  12. 19. 1500 CUBIC FEET CAPACITY SCRAP STEEL CHARGING BOX ON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. 1500 CUBIC FEET CAPACITY SCRAP STEEL CHARGING BOX ON THE CHARGING AISLE OF THE BOP SHOP LOOKING NORTHWEST. - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Basic Oxygen Steelmaking Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

  13. 42. VIEW OF SYMONS 3 BY 6 FEET VIBRATING SCREEN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    42. VIEW OF SYMONS 3 BY 6 FEET VIBRATING SCREEN FROM NORTHWEST. SCREEN IS BELOW AND FED BY DINGS MAGNETIC PULLEY - DRIVE GEAR VISIBLE. - Bald Mountain Gold Mill, Nevada Gulch at head of False Bottom Creek, Lead, Lawrence County, SD

  14. 6. NORTH SIDE, FROM APPROXIMATELY 25 FEET SOUTHEAST OF SOUTHWEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. NORTH SIDE, FROM APPROXIMATELY 25 FEET SOUTHEAST OF SOUTHWEST CORNER OF BUILDING 320, LOOKING SOUTH. - Oakland Naval Supply Center, Administration Building-Dental Annex-Dispensary, Between E & F Streets, East of Third Street, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  15. Decomposed gosling feet provide evidence of insecticide exposure

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vyas, N.B.; Spann, J.W.; Hulse, C.S.; Torrez, M.; Williams, B.I.; Leffel, R.

    2004-01-01

    Canada goose goslings were exposed to turf sprayed with D.Z.N(R) diazinon 50W application (2.24 kg a.i./ha). The control plot was subjected to a water application. One foot from each bird was placed outdoors for 7 d to decompose and the other foot was kept frozen. Diazinon residues were analyzed on both feet. Results showed that diazinon was detected from undecomposed and decomposed feet of the birds. Diazinon residues were below the level of detection (<0.01 ppm, a.i.) on the feet from the control goslings. Decomposed feet may be used for determining insecticide exposure when the traditional matrices are not available.

  16. 2. NORTHWEST SIDE, OBLIQUE VIEW, FROM APPROXIMATELY 10 FEET SOUTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. NORTHWEST SIDE, OBLIQUE VIEW, FROM APPROXIMATELY 10 FEET SOUTH OF SOUTH CORNER, LOOKING EAST-NORTHEAST. - Oakland Naval Supply Center, Administrative Offices, On Seventh Street East of Maritime Street, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  17. 12. CLOSEUP VIEW OF CROSS SECTION OF SPILLWAY FIFTY FEET ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. CLOSE-UP VIEW OF CROSS SECTION OF SPILLWAY FIFTY FEET FROM LAKESHORE, SHOWING REMAINS OF SPILLWAY TIMBERS, LOOKING WEST - Three Bears Lake & Dams, North of Marias Pass, East Glacier Park, Glacier County, MT

  18. Career in Feet-on Seismology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van der Lee, S.

    2011-12-01

    My career award was for imaging the upper mantle beneath North America. The research proposed was timely because of Earthscope and novel because of the proposed simultaneous inversion of different types of seismic data as well as the inclusion of mineral physics data on the effects of volatiles on seismic properties of the mantle. This research has been challenging and fun and is still on-going. The educational component of my career award consists of feet-on and eyes-open learning of seismology through an educational kiosk and field trips to actual seismic stations. The kiosk and field station have both been growing over the years, as has the audience. I started with the field station in-doors, so it doubled as the kiosk along with a palmtop terminal. Groups of minority elementary school children would look at the mysterious hardware of the "field" station and then jump up and down so they could awe at the peaks in the graph on the palmtop screen that they created. This has evolved into a three-screen kiosk, of which one screen is a touch screen along with a demonstration seismometer. The field station is now in a goat shed near the epicenter of an actual 2010 earthquake inIllinois, which is soon to be replaced by a TA station of Earthscope. The audience has grown to entire grades of middle-school children and activities have evolved from jumping to team-experimentation and the derivation of amplitude-distance relationships following a collaborative curriculum. Addressing the questions in the session description: 1) Education is more fun and effective when one can work in a team with an enthusiastic educator. 2) My education activities are strongly related to my field of expertise but very loosely related to the research carried out with the career award. It appears that not the research outcomes are of interest to students, but instead the simplification and accessibility of the process of research that is of interest. 3) The education component of the career

  19. Molecular shifts in limb identity underlie development of feathered feet in two domestic avian species

    PubMed Central

    Domyan, Eric T; Kronenberg, Zev; Infante, Carlos R; Vickrey, Anna I; Stringham, Sydney A; Bruders, Rebecca; Guernsey, Michael W; Park, Sungdae; Payne, Jason; Beckstead, Robert B; Kardon, Gabrielle; Menke, Douglas B; Yandell, Mark; Shapiro, Michael D

    2016-01-01

    Birds display remarkable diversity in the distribution and morphology of scales and feathers on their feet, yet the genetic and developmental mechanisms governing this diversity remain unknown. Domestic pigeons have striking variation in foot feathering within a single species, providing a tractable model to investigate the molecular basis of skin appendage differences. We found that feathered feet in pigeons result from a partial transformation from hindlimb to forelimb identity mediated by cis-regulatory changes in the genes encoding the hindlimb-specific transcription factor Pitx1 and forelimb-specific transcription factor Tbx5. We also found that ectopic expression of Tbx5 is associated with foot feathers in chickens, suggesting similar molecular pathways underlie phenotypic convergence between these two species. These results show how changes in expression of regional patterning genes can generate localized changes in organ fate and morphology, and provide viable molecular mechanisms for diversity in hindlimb scale and feather distribution. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.12115.001 PMID:26977633

  20. Kinematics and kinetics of normal and planovalgus feet during walking.

    PubMed

    Saraswat, Prabhav; MacWilliams, Bruce A; Davis, Roy B; D'Astous, Jacques L

    2014-01-01

    Planovalgus deformity is prevalent in cerebral palsy patients, but very few studies have quantitatively reported differences between planovalgus and normal foot function. Intersegmental foot kinetics have not been reported in this population. In this study, a three segment (hindfoot, forefoot, hallux) kinematic and kinetic model was applied to typically developing (n=10 subjects, 20 feet) and planovalgus (n=10 subjects, 18 feet) pediatric subjects by two clinicians for each subject. Intra-clinician and inter-clinician repeatability of kinematic variables have been previously reported. Variability of kinetic outcomes (joint moments and power) is reported and found to be equally repeatable in typically developing and planovalgus groups. Kinematic differences in the planovalgus foot including excessive ankle eversion (valgus) and plantarflexion, reduced ankle flexion range of motion, and increased midfoot joint dorsiflexion and pronation reflected the reported pathology. Contrary to clinical expectations no significant difference was observed in midfoot flexion or ankle eversion ranges of motion. Kinetic differences in planovalgus feet compared to typically developing feet included reduced ankle plantarflexion moment, ankle power and midfoot joint power.

  1. 7. WESTCENTRAL PORTION OF NORTH SIDE, FROM APPROXIMATELY 10 FEET ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. WEST-CENTRAL PORTION OF NORTH SIDE, FROM APPROXIMATELY 10 FEET EAST OF NORTHEAST CORNER OF LUMBER SHED ('NORTHWEST WING' OF BUILDING), LOOKING SOUTH, WITH LUMBER SHED ON RIGHT. - Oakland Naval Supply Center, Lumber Storage & Box Factory, East of Fifth Street, between H & I Streets, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  2. 38. ANOTHER VIEW TO THE EAST FROM A FEW FEET ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    38. ANOTHER VIEW TO THE EAST FROM A FEW FEET NORTH OF THE LAST STATION, SHOWING THE THIN WALL SEPARATING THE LARGE CENTRAL PART SHOP FROM THE SMALLER SPECIALTY SHOPS ALONG THE NORTH PART OF BUILDING NO. 1. - United Engineering Company Shipyard, Inspection & Repair Shops, 2900 Main Street, Alameda, Alameda County, CA

  3. 7. BUILDING 432, INTERIOR, EASTERN STOREROOM, FROM APPROXIMATELY 50 FEET ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. BUILDING 432, INTERIOR, EASTERN STOREROOM, FROM APPROXIMATELY 50 FEET NORTHEAST OF SOUTHWEST CORNER, LOOKING WEST, WITH OTHER STOREROOMS THROUGH CONNECTING FIRE DOORS AT CENTER. - Oakland Naval Supply Center, Paint & Oil Storehouses, Between G & I Streets, between Fourth & Fifth Streets, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  4. 3. VIEW OF ARVFS BUNKER TAKEN FROM APPROXIMATELY 150 FEET ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. VIEW OF ARVFS BUNKER TAKEN FROM APPROXIMATELY 150 FEET EAST OF BUNKER DOOR. CAMERA FACING WEST. VIEW SHOWS EARTH MOUND COVERING CONTROL BUNKER AND REMAINS OF CABLE CHASE. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Advanced Reentry Vehicle Fusing System, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  5. 48. SUMMIT OF THE MORRIS CANAL, 914 FEET ABOVE MEAN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    48. SUMMIT OF THE MORRIS CANAL, 914 FEET ABOVE MEAN HIGH TIDE AT NEWARK, NEW JERSEY. TRACKS OF THE D, L & W RAILROAD CAN BE SEEN AT LEFT. EDGE OF THE LAKE HOPATCONG STATION IS ALSO VISIBLE AT LEFT. PASSENGERS AND FREIGHT COULD BE TRANSFERRED TO SMALL BOATS FOR TRANSPORT THROUGH THE FEEDER CANAL TO LAKE HOPATCONG. - Morris Canal, Phillipsburg, Warren County, NJ

  6. Fabrication of duck's feet collagen-silk hybrid biomaterial for tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Kim, Soo Hyeon; Park, Hae Sang; Lee, Ok Joo; Chao, Janet Ren; Park, Hyun Jung; Lee, Jung Min; Ju, Hyung Woo; Moon, Bo Mi; Park, Ye Ri; Song, Jeong Eun; Khang, Gilson; Park, Chan Hum

    2016-04-01

    Collagen constituting the extracellular matrix has been widely used as biocompatible material for human use. In this study, we have selected duck's feet for extracting collagen. A simple method not utilizing harsh chemical had been employed to extract collagen from duck's feet. We fabricated duck's feet collagen/silk hybrid scaffold for the purpose of modifying the degradation rate of duck's feet collagen. This study suggests that extracted collagen from duck's feet is biocompatible and resembles collagen extracted from porcine which is commercially used. Duck's feet collagen is also economically feasible and it could therefore be a good candidate as a tissue engineering material. Further, addition of silk to fabricate a duck's feet collagen/silk hybrid scaffold could enhance the biostability of duck's feet collagen scaffold. Duck's feet collagen/silk scaffold increased the cell viability compared to silk alone. Animal studies also showed that duck's feet collagen/silk scaffold was more biocompatible than silk alone and more biostable than duck's feet or porcine collagen alone. Additionally, the results revealed that duck's feet collagen/silk hybrid scaffold had high porosity, cell infiltration and proliferation. We suggest that duck's feet collagen/silk hybrid scaffold could be used as a dermal substitution for full thickness skin defects.

  7. Effects of mechanical stimulation of the feet on gait and cardiovascular autonomic control in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Barbic, Franca; Galli, Manuela; Dalla Vecchia, Laura; Canesi, Margherita; Cimolin, Veronica; Porta, Alberto; Bari, Vlasta; Cerri, Gabriella; Dipaola, Franca; Bassani, Tito; Cozzolino, Domenico; Pezzoli, Gianni; Furlan, Raffaello

    2014-03-01

    Motor impairment in Parkinson's disease (PD) is partly due to defective central processing of lower limb afferents. Concomitant alterations in cardiovascular autonomic control leading to orthostatic hypotension may worsen motor ability. We evaluated whether mechanical activation of feet sensory afferents could improve gait and modify the response of cardiovascular autonomic control to stressors in 16 patients (age 66 ± 2 yr) with idiopathic PD (Hoehn & Yhar scale 2-3) on their usual therapy. Eight subjects (group A) were randomized to undergo skin pressure (0.58 ± 0.04 kg/mm(2)) stimulation at the hallux tip and first metatarsal joint (effective stimulation; ES) of both feet. Eight remaining patients (group B) underwent sham stimulation (SS) followed by ES. Three-dimensional movement analysis provided quantitative indexes of movement disability before (baseline) and 24 h after ES and SS. Spectral analysis of heart rate and blood pressure variability provided markers of cardiac sympatho-vagal (LF/HF) and vascular sympathetic (LFSAP) modulations. Markers were measured at rest and during 75° head-up tilt, before and 24 h after ES and SS. After ES, step length and gait velocity increased, upright rotation velocity was enhanced, and step number was decreased. After ES, LFSAP declined. The increase in LF/HF and LFSAP induced by tilt was greater than before feet stimulation. No changes in gait and autonomic parameters were observed after SS. Twenty-four hours after ES, patients with PD showed improved gait and increased cardiac and vascular sympathetic modulation during upright position compared with baseline. Conversely, SS was ineffective on both movement and autonomic parameters, indicating a site specificity effect of the stimulation. PMID:24436294

  8. Deer Creek Dam, Hydroelectric Powerplant, 868 feet/291 degrees from intersection ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Deer Creek Dam, Hydroelectric Powerplant, 868 feet/291 degrees from intersection of dam complex access road with U.S. Highway 189, 1,340 feet/352 degrees from the dam spillway overpass, Charleston, Wasatch County, UT

  9. Validation of a new radiographic protocol for Asian elephant feet and description of their radiographic anatomy.

    PubMed

    Mumby, C; Bouts, T; Sambrook, L; Danika, S; Rees, E; Parry, A; Rendle, M; Masters, N; Weller, R

    2013-10-01

    Foot problems are extremely common in elephants and radiography is the only imaging method available but the radiographic anatomy has not been described in detail. The aims of this study were to develop a radiographic protocol for elephant feet using digital radiography, and to describe the normal radiographic anatomy of the Asian elephant front and hind foot. A total of fifteen cadaver foot specimens from captive Asian elephants were radiographed using a range of projections and exposures to determine the best radiographic technique. This was subsequently tested in live elephants in a free-contact setting. The normal radiographic anatomy of the Asian elephant front and hind foot was described with the use of three-dimensional models based on CT reconstructions. The projection angles that were found to be most useful were 65-70° for the front limb and 55-60° in the hind limb. The beam was centred 10-15 cm proximal to the cuticle in the front and 10-15 cm dorsal to the plantar edge of the sole in the hind foot depending on the size of the foot. The protocol developed can be used for larger-scale diagnostic investigations of captive elephant foot disorders, while the normal radiographic anatomy described can improve the diagnostic reliability of elephant feet radiography.

  10. Cows-feet soup: a rare cause of recurrent trichobezoar

    PubMed Central

    Kiernan, Miles Finbar; Kamat, Sachin; Olagbaiye, Femi

    2012-01-01

    A 45-year-old Afro-Caribbean woman attended the emergency department with worsening dysphagia, abdominal distension, abdominal pain, shortness of breath and generalised weakness. She enjoyed preparing and eating cows-feet stew and preferred to cook the meat with the hair and skin intact. On admission she had a severe microcytic anaemia and was malnourished. Abdominal x-ray and CT revealed a large gastric bezoar. At gastrotomy a foul-smelling 2.42 kg mass of hair, leathery skin and altered food were evacuated from the lesser curvature of the stomach. She had undergone the same procedure 8 years earlier to remove a similar trichobezoar. Following psychiatric review it was deemed that the patient had no underlying psychiatric condition and had full insight into why her trichobezoar had re-occurred. She made a good postoperative recovery and stopped eating cows-feet stew. PMID:22761202

  11. Cows-feet soup: a rare cause of recurrent trichobezoar.

    PubMed

    Kiernan, Miles Finbar; Kamat, Sachin; Olagbaiye, Femi

    2012-01-01

    A 45-year-old Afro-Caribbean woman attended the emergency department with worsening dysphagia, abdominal distension, abdominal pain, shortness of breath and generalised weakness. She enjoyed preparing and eating cows-feet stew and preferred to cook the meat with the hair and skin intact. On admission she had a severe microcytic anaemia and was malnourished. Abdominal x-ray and CT revealed a large gastric bezoar. At gastrotomy a foul-smelling 2.42 kg mass of hair, leathery skin and altered food were evacuated from the lesser curvature of the stomach. She had undergone the same procedure 8 years earlier to remove a similar trichobezoar. Following psychiatric review it was deemed that the patient had no underlying psychiatric condition and had full insight into why her trichobezoar had re-occurred. She made a good postoperative recovery and stopped eating cows-feet stew.

  12. Feet swelling in a multistage ultraendurance triathlete: a case study

    PubMed Central

    Knechtle, Beat; Zingg, Matthias Alexander; Knechtle, Patrizia; Rosemann, Thomas; Rüst, Christoph Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies investigating ultraendurance athletes showed an association between excessive fluid intake and swelling of the lower limbs such as the feet. To date, this association has been investigated in single-stage ultraendurance races, but not in multistage ultraendurance races. In this case study, we investigated a potential association between fluid intake and feet swelling in a multistage ultraendurance race such as a Deca Iron ultratriathlon with ten Ironman triathlons within 10 consecutive days. A 49-year-old well-experienced ultratriathlete competed in autumn 2013 in the Deca Iron ultratriathlon held in Lonata del Garda, Italy, and finished the race as winner within 129:33 hours:minutes. Changes in body mass (including body fat and lean body mass), foot volume, total body water, and laboratory measurements were assessed. Food and fluid intake during rest and competing were recorded, and energy and fluid turnovers were estimated. During the ten stages, the volume of the feet increased, percentage body fat decreased, creatinine and urea levels increased, hematocrit and hemoglobin values decreased, and plasma [Na+] remained unchanged. The increase in foot volume was significantly and positively related to fluid intake during the stages. The poststage volume of the foot was related to poststage total body water, poststage creatinine, and poststage urea. This case report shows that the volume of the foot increased during the ten stages, and the increase in volume was significantly and positively related to fluid intake during the stages. Furthermore, the poststage volume of the foot was related to poststage total body water, poststage creatinine, and poststage urea. The continuous feet swelling during the race was most probably due to a combination of a high fluid intake and a progressive decline in renal function (ie, continuous increase in creatinine and urea), leading to body fluid retention (ie, increase in total body water). PMID:26508884

  13. Feet swelling in a multistage ultraendurance triathlete: a case study.

    PubMed

    Knechtle, Beat; Zingg, Matthias Alexander; Knechtle, Patrizia; Rosemann, Thomas; Rüst, Christoph Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies investigating ultraendurance athletes showed an association between excessive fluid intake and swelling of the lower limbs such as the feet. To date, this association has been investigated in single-stage ultraendurance races, but not in multistage ultraendurance races. In this case study, we investigated a potential association between fluid intake and feet swelling in a multistage ultraendurance race such as a Deca Iron ultratriathlon with ten Ironman triathlons within 10 consecutive days. A 49-year-old well-experienced ultratriathlete competed in autumn 2013 in the Deca Iron ultratriathlon held in Lonata del Garda, Italy, and finished the race as winner within 129:33 hours:minutes. Changes in body mass (including body fat and lean body mass), foot volume, total body water, and laboratory measurements were assessed. Food and fluid intake during rest and competing were recorded, and energy and fluid turnovers were estimated. During the ten stages, the volume of the feet increased, percentage body fat decreased, creatinine and urea levels increased, hematocrit and hemoglobin values decreased, and plasma [Na(+)] remained unchanged. The increase in foot volume was significantly and positively related to fluid intake during the stages. The poststage volume of the foot was related to poststage total body water, poststage creatinine, and poststage urea. This case report shows that the volume of the foot increased during the ten stages, and the increase in volume was significantly and positively related to fluid intake during the stages. Furthermore, the poststage volume of the foot was related to poststage total body water, poststage creatinine, and poststage urea. The continuous feet swelling during the race was most probably due to a combination of a high fluid intake and a progressive decline in renal function (ie, continuous increase in creatinine and urea), leading to body fluid retention (ie, increase in total body water). PMID:26508884

  14. Do free-falling quantum cats land on their feet?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chryssomalakos, C.; Hernández-Coronado, H.; Serrano-Ensástiga, E.

    2015-07-01

    We present a quantum description of the mechanism by which a free-falling cat manages to reorient itself and land on its feet, having all along zero angular momentum. Our approach is geometrical, making use of the fiber bundle structure of the cat configuration space. We show how the classical picture can be recovered, but also point out a purely quantum scenario, that ends up with a Schroedinger cat. Finally, we sketch possible applications to molecular, nuclear, and nano-systems.

  15. Incidence and management of ulcers in diabetic Charcot feet.

    PubMed

    Larsen, K; Fabrin, J; Holstein, P E

    2001-09-01

    This study followed 115 patients with diabetes--who between them had 140 feet with Charcot's arthropathy--over six to 114 months (median: 48). A total of 43 patients (37%) developed ulcers in 53 feet. Their treatment was multifactorial. An offloading regimen was adopted, with the use of crutches and therapeutic sandals with soft, individually moulded insoles, followed by adjusted or bespoke shoes. Recalcitrant ulcers were treated with surgery in 16 patients (37%). Antibiotics were needed by 21 patients (49%). The incidence of ulceration was 17% per year. The median time interval between the acute component of Charcot's arthropathy and ulcer development was 36 months (range: 0-120 months). In seven patients, the ulcer developed during the acute phase. In 12 patients the ulcers were localised to the rockerbottom deformity in the mid-foot region, but in 31 patients other regions were affected. Dynamic footprint analysis was used to help adjust the offloading shoe/insole on the rockerbottom deformity. Such ulcers took twice as long to heal as other ulcers. Surgical treatment comprised: major amputation (two patients), arthrodesis for unstable ankle (three patients), toe amputations (seven patients), resection of the rockerbottom deformity (one patient) and other revisions (three patients). One patient died with an unhealed ulcer. There is a four-fold risk of ulcers in diabetic Charcot deformity compared with the overall risk of foot ulcers in diabetic feet. Healing was achieved in 40 patients (93%). The surgical intervention rate of 37% in ulcer cases in Charcot feet was low compared with the literature.

  16. Heel-region properties of prosthetic feet and shoes.

    PubMed

    Klute, Glenn K; Berge, Jocelyn S; Segal, Ava D

    2004-07-01

    The properties of the prosthetic components prescribed to amputees have the potential to ameliorate or exacerbate their comfort, mobility, and health. To measure the difference in heel-region structural properties of currently available prosthetic feet and shoes, we simulated the period of initial heel-ground contact with a pendulum apparatus. The energy dissipation capacity of the various prosthetic feet ranged from 33.6% to 52.6% of the input energy. Donning a shoe had a large effect. Energy dissipation of a Seattle Lightfoot 2 prosthetic foot was 45.3%, while addition of a walking, running, and orthopedic shoe increased energy dissipation to 63.0%, 73.0%, and 82.4%, respectively. The force versus deformation response to impact was modeled as a hardening spring in parallel with a position-dependent damping element. A nonlinear least-squares curve fit produced model coefficients useful for predicting the heel-region impact response of both prosthetic feet and shoes. PMID:15558382

  17. Schlieren photograph of T-38 shock waves at Mach 1.1, 13,000 feet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    This is Dr. Leonard Weinstein's Schlieren photograph of a T-38 at Mach 1.1, altitude 13,700 feet, taken at NASA Wallops in 1993. Schlieren photography (from the German word for 'streaks') allows the visualization of density changes, and therefore shock waves, in fluid flow. Schlieren techniques have been used for decades in laboratory wind tunnels to visualize supersonic flow about model aircraft, but not full scale aircraft until recently. Dr. Leonard Weinstein of NASA Langley Research Center developed the first Schlieren camera, which he calls SAF (Schlieren for Aircraft in Flight), that can photograph the shock waves of a full sized aircraft in flight. He successfully took a picture which clearly shows the shock waves about a T-38 aircraft on December 13, 1993 at Wallops Island, MD. The camera was then brought to the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center because of the high number of supersonic flights there.

  18. Foot loading characteristics of Chinese bound feet women: a comparative analysis.

    PubMed

    Gu, Yaodong; Mei, Qichang; Fernandez, Justin; Li, Jianshe; Ren, Xuejun; Feng, Neng

    2015-01-01

    The custom of bound feet among Chinese women has existed for almost a century. This practice has influenced the daily life of Chinese women, especially during everyday locomotion. The primary aim of this study is to analyze the loading patterns of bound feet. Specifically, the plantar pressure and center of pressure were analyzed for peak pressure, contact area, force time integral, center of pressure displacement velocity and trajectory in the anterior-posterior direction via a comparison with normal feet. The key outcomes from this work were that the forefoot and rearfoot of bound feet bear the whole loading during stance phase. The center of pressure displacement velocity of bound feet was also greatly reduced with the shortening of trajectories. This suggests that the proprioceptive system adjusts motor function to adapt to new loading patterns while maintaining locomotive stability. A biomechanical understanding of bound feet may assist with prevention, treatment and rehabilitation of bound feet disorders.

  19. 4000 Feet of shortening with the Kennedy coal bed duplex at McClure, Cumberland overthrust block, SW VA

    SciTech Connect

    Morgan, S.; Henika, W.S. Dept. of Geological Sciences)

    1994-03-01

    Area balancing of a coal bed duplex developed within the lower Pennsylvanian Norton Fm reveals an approximate shortening of 4,000 feet along an upper level detachment within the Pine Mtn thrust system at McClure, VA. The Kennedy coal bed was examined along a railway cut for nearly 500 feet where an original thickness of 0.6 feet of coal is increased to over 7 feet. The thickened section is characterized by chaotic folding, but local segments exhibit well developed piggyback thrusting. The coal bed duplex mimics larger scale duplex structures, although extensional structures are also observed and seem to relate to the rigidity of the overlying thrust sheet. For most of the 490 foot outcrop measured, an upper and a lower level of piggyback stacking delineates a floor, roof and mid-level thrust system. The mid-level thrust is often folded and faulted, indicating episodic movement on all the faults. Thickness of the repeated coal bed increases gradually northward along the cut, but locally the upper level of thrust slices are missing. These voids are filled by gouge and indicate that once the roof thrust has attained a certain height, that level is maintained and attests to the rigidity of the overlying thrust sheet. Coalbed duplexes may have a profound effect on resource thickness and contribute to roof control problems in SW VA mines. They are also important because such intense shortening has previously been unrecognized at this level of the Pine Mtn thrust system and should be accounted for in reconstructing cross sections and calculating regional shortening.

  20. 46 CFR 42.20-20 - Correction to the freeboard for vessels under 328 feet in length.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Correction to the freeboard for vessels under 328 feet... vessels under 328 feet in length. (a) The tabular freeboard for a Type “B” vessel of between 79 feet and 328 feet in length having enclosed superstructures with an effective length of up to 35 percent of...

  1. 46 CFR 42.20-20 - Correction to the freeboard for vessels under 328 feet in length.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Correction to the freeboard for vessels under 328 feet... vessels under 328 feet in length. (a) The tabular freeboard for a Type “B” vessel of between 79 feet and 328 feet in length having enclosed superstructures with an effective length of up to 35 percent of...

  2. 46 CFR 42.20-20 - Correction to the freeboard for vessels under 328 feet in length.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Correction to the freeboard for vessels under 328 feet... vessels under 328 feet in length. (a) The tabular freeboard for a Type “B” vessel of between 79 feet and 328 feet in length having enclosed superstructures with an effective length of up to 35 percent of...

  3. 46 CFR 42.20-20 - Correction to the freeboard for vessels under 328 feet in length.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Correction to the freeboard for vessels under 328 feet... vessels under 328 feet in length. (a) The tabular freeboard for a Type “B” vessel of between 79 feet and 328 feet in length having enclosed superstructures with an effective length of up to 35 percent of...

  4. 46 CFR 42.20-20 - Correction to the freeboard for vessels under 328 feet in length.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Correction to the freeboard for vessels under 328 feet... vessels under 328 feet in length. (a) The tabular freeboard for a Type “B” vessel of between 79 feet and 328 feet in length having enclosed superstructures with an effective length of up to 35 percent of...

  5. Full Scale Tunnel (FST)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1930-01-01

    Construction of Full Scale Tunnel (FST). In November 1929, Smith DeFrance submitted his recommendations for the general design of the Full Scale Wind Tunnel. The last on his list concerned the division of labor required to build this unusual facility. He believed the job had five parts and described them as follows: 'It is proposed that invitations be sent out for bids on five groups of items. The first would be for one contract on the complete structure; second the same as first, including the erection of the cones but not the fabrication, since this would be more of a shipyard job; third would cover structural steel, cover, sash and doors, but not cones or foundation; fourth, foundations; an fifth, fabrication of cones.' DeFrance's memorandum prompted the NACA to solicit estimates from a large number of companies. Preliminary designs and estimates were prepared and submitted to the Bureau of the Budget and Congress appropriated funds on February 20, 1929. The main construction contract with the J.A. Jones Company of Charlotte, North Carolina was signed one year later on February 12, 1930. It was a peculiar structure as the building's steel framework is visible on the outside of the building. DeFrance described this in NACA TR No. 459: 'The entire equipment is housed in a structure, the outside walls of which serve as the outer walls of the return passages. The over-all length of the tunnel is 434 feet 6 inches, the width 222 feet, and the maximum height 97 feet. The framework is of structural steel....' (pp. 292-293)

  6. Full Scale Tunnel (FST)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1930-01-01

    Construction of Full-Scale Tunnel (FST). In November 1929, Smith DeFrance submitted his recommendations for the general design of the Full Scale Wind Tunnel. The last on his list concerned the division of labor required to build this unusual facility. He believed the job had five parts and described them as follows: 'It is proposed that invitations be sent out for bids on five groups of items. The first would be for one contract on the complete structure; second the same as first, including the erection of the cones but not the fabrication, since this would be more of a shipyard job; third would cover structural steel, cover, sash and doors, but not cones or foundation; fourth, foundations; and fifth, fabrication of cones.' DeFrance's memorandum prompted the NACA to solicit estimates from a large number of companies. Preliminary designs and estimates were prepared and submitted to the Bureau of the Budget and Congress appropriated funds on February 20, 1929. The main construction contract with the J.A. Jones Company of Charlotte, North Carolina was signed one year later on February 12, 1930. It was a peculiar structure as the building's steel framework is visible on the outside of the building. DeFrance described this in NACA TR No. 459: 'The entire equipment is housed in a structure, the outside walls of which serve as the outer walls of the return passages. The over-all length of the tunnel is 434 feet 6 inches, the width 222 feet, and the maximum height 97 feet. The framework is of structural steel....' (pp. 292-293).

  7. Effect of Duck Feet Gelatin Concentration on Physicochemical, Textural, and Sensory Properties of Duck Meat Jellies

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the effect of duck feet gelatin concentration on the physicochemical, textural and sensory properties of duck meat jellies. Duck feet gelatin was prepared with acidic swelling and hot water extraction. In this study, four duck meat jellies were formulated with 3, 4, 5, and 6% duck feet gelatin, respectively. In the preliminary experiment, the increase in duck feet gelatin ranged from 5 to 20%, resulting in a significant (p<0.001) increase in the color score, but a decline in the hardness and dispersibility satisfaction scores. An increase in the added amount of duck feet gelatin contributed to decreased lightness and increased protein content in duck meat jellies. Regarding the textural properties, increase in the added amount of duck feet gelatin highly correlated with the hardness in the center (p<0.01, R2=0.91), and edge (p<0.01, R2=0.89), of duck meat jellies. Meanwhile, the increase in duck feet gelatin decreased the score for textural satisfaction; duck meat jellies containing 6% duck feet gelatin had a significantly lower textural satisfaction score, than those containing 3% duck feet gelatin (p<0.05). Furthermore, a significant difference in the overall acceptance of duck meat jellies formulated with 5% duck feet gelatin was observed, as compared to those prepared with 3% duck feet gelatin. Therefore, this study suggested that duck feet gelatin is a useful ingredient for manufacturing cold-cut meat products. In consideration of the sensory acceptance, the optimal level of duck feet gelatin in duck meat jellies was determined to be 5%. PMID:26761181

  8. Hands and feet: physiological insulators, radiators and evaporators.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Nigel A S; Machado-Moreira, Christiano A; van den Heuvel, Anne M J; Caldwell, Joanne N

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of this review is to describe the unique anatomical and physiological features of the hands and feet that support heat conservation and dissipation, and in so doing, highlight the importance of these appendages in human thermoregulation. For instance, the surface area to mass ratio of each hand is 4-5 times greater than that of the body, whilst for each foot, it is ~3 times larger. This characteristic is supported by vascular responses that permit a theoretical maximal mass flow of thermal energy of 6.0 W (136 W m(2)) to each hand for a 1 °C thermal gradient. For each foot, this is 8.5 W (119 W m(2)). In an air temperature of 27 °C, the hands and feet of resting individuals can each dissipate 150-220 W m(2) (male-female) of heat through radiation and convection. During hypothermia, the extremities are physiologically isolated, restricting heat flow to <0.1 W. When the core temperature increases ~0.5 °C above thermoneutral (rest), each hand and foot can sweat at 22-33 mL h(-1), with complete evaporation dissipating 15-22 W (respectively). During heated exercise, sweat flows increase (one hand: 99 mL h(-1); one foot: 68 mL h(-1)), with evaporative heat losses of 67-46 W (respectively). It is concluded that these attributes allow the hands and feet to behave as excellent radiators, insulators and evaporators. PMID:25011493

  9. Hands and feet: physiological insulators, radiators and evaporators.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Nigel A S; Machado-Moreira, Christiano A; van den Heuvel, Anne M J; Caldwell, Joanne N

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of this review is to describe the unique anatomical and physiological features of the hands and feet that support heat conservation and dissipation, and in so doing, highlight the importance of these appendages in human thermoregulation. For instance, the surface area to mass ratio of each hand is 4-5 times greater than that of the body, whilst for each foot, it is ~3 times larger. This characteristic is supported by vascular responses that permit a theoretical maximal mass flow of thermal energy of 6.0 W (136 W m(2)) to each hand for a 1 °C thermal gradient. For each foot, this is 8.5 W (119 W m(2)). In an air temperature of 27 °C, the hands and feet of resting individuals can each dissipate 150-220 W m(2) (male-female) of heat through radiation and convection. During hypothermia, the extremities are physiologically isolated, restricting heat flow to <0.1 W. When the core temperature increases ~0.5 °C above thermoneutral (rest), each hand and foot can sweat at 22-33 mL h(-1), with complete evaporation dissipating 15-22 W (respectively). During heated exercise, sweat flows increase (one hand: 99 mL h(-1); one foot: 68 mL h(-1)), with evaporative heat losses of 67-46 W (respectively). It is concluded that these attributes allow the hands and feet to behave as excellent radiators, insulators and evaporators.

  10. Influence Of Lumbar Spine Kinematics On Feet Pressure Distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Săftescu-Jescu, C.; Bereteu, L.

    2012-12-01

    Determining the center of pressure trajectories, as an indicator of postural stability or lumbar pathology, has been a challenging issue for researchers during the last decades. The paper advances an investigational method in order to determine a correlation between lumbar spine movements and feet center of pressure distribution. Five young healthy volunteers were simultaneously tested using an ultrasound based motion analyzing system and a force platform, while performing imposed tasks. Results showed specific patterns described by the center of pressure trajectories and a good coordination of angular amplitudes during lumbar spine movement.

  11. The feet in diabetes. Roentgenologic observation in 1501 cases.

    PubMed

    Geoffroy, J; Hoeffel, J C; Pointel, J P; Drouin, P; Debry, G; Martin, R

    1979-01-01

    The manifestations of diabetic osteoarthropathy are described. Computerized analysis of the films of the feet of 1501 diabetic patients showed one or more lesions in 55% of patients. Exostosis (36%), vascular calcifications (25%) and osteoporosis (12.2%) are by far the most frequent symptoms. Geodes (3.7%), destructive lesions (3.9%), sclerosis (4%) and articular lesions (5.1%) are second in frequency. Osteolytic lesions and reconstruction showed a high female predominance, whereas sclerosis is predominant in males (61.6--38.4%).

  12. Friction force reduction triggers feet grooming behaviour in beetles.

    PubMed

    Hosoda, Naoe; Gorb, Stanislav N

    2011-06-01

    In insects, cleaning (grooming) of tarsal attachment devices is essential for maintaining their adhesive ability, necessary for walking on a complex terrain of plant surfaces. How insects obtain information on the degree of contamination of their feet has remained, until recently, unclear. We carried out friction force measurements on walking beetles Gastrophysa viridula (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae) and counted grooming occurrence on stiff polymer substrata with different degrees of nanoroughness (root mean square: 28-288 nm). Since nanoscopically, rough surfaces strongly reduced friction and adhesion without contaminating feet, we were able to demonstrate, for the first time to our knowledge, that friction force between tarsal attachment pads and the substrate provides an insect with information on the degree of contamination of its attachment structures. We have shown that foot grooming occurrence correlates not only with the degree of contamination but also with the decrease of friction force. This result indicates that insects obtain information about the degree of contamination, not statically but rather dynamically and, presumably, use mechanoreceptors monitoring either tensile/compressive forces in the cuticle or tensile forces between leg segments.

  13. 16. Detail view of the scale area at the north ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. Detail view of the scale area at the north end of the 1937 main section, looking east-northeast; the original office is at th left, and the scale at the right - Ewing Livestock Market, South side of First Avenue North, 500 feet west of Route 724, Ewing, Lee County, VA

  14. Adhesion of echinoderm tube feet to rough surfaces.

    PubMed

    Santos, Romana; Gorb, Stanislav; Jamar, Valérie; Flammang, Patrick

    2005-07-01

    Echinoderms attach strongly and temporarily to the substratum by means of specialized organs, the podia or tube feet. The latter consist of a basal extensible cylinder, the stem, which bears an apical flattened disc. The disc repeatedly attaches to and detaches from the substratum through adhesive and de-adhesive secretions. In their activities, echinoderms have to cope with substrata of varying degrees of roughness as well as with changing hydrodynamic conditions, and therefore their tube feet must adapt their attachment strength to these environmental constraints. This study is the first attempt to evaluate the influence of substratum roughness on the temporary adhesion of echinoderm tube feet and to investigate the material properties of their contact surface. It was demonstrated that tube foot discs are very soft (E-modulus of 6.0 and 8.1 kPa for sea stars and sea urchins, respectively), have viscoelastic properties and adapt their surface to the substratum profile. They also show increased adhesion on a rough substratum in comparison to its smooth counterpart, which is due mostly to an increase in the geometrical area of contact between the disc and the surface. Tenacity (force per unit area) increases with roughness [e.g. 0.18 and 0.34 MPa on smooth polymethyl-methacrylate (PMMA), 0.21 and 0.47 MPa on rough PMMA for sea stars and sea urchins, respectively] if only the projected surface area of the adhesive footprint is considered. However, if this tenacity is corrected to take into account the actual substratum 3-D profile, surface roughness no longer influences significantly the corrected adhesion strength (e.g. 0.18 and 0.34 MPa on smooth PMMA, 0.19 and 0.42 MPa on rough PMMA for sea stars and sea urchins, respectively). It can be hypothesized that, under slow self-imposed forces, disc material behaves viscously to adapt to substratum roughness while the adhesive fills out only very small surface irregularities (in the nanometer range). It is deposited as a

  15. Feet distance and static postural balance: implication on the role of natural stance.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ji-Won; Kwon, Yuri; Jeon, Hyung-Min; Bang, Min-Jung; Jun, Jae-Hoon; Eom, Gwang-Moon; Lim, Do-Hyung

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate 1) the effect of feet distance on static postural balance and 2) the location of natural feet distance and its possible role in the relationship of feet distance and postural balance. Static balance tests were performed on a force platform for 100 s with six different feet distances (0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25 cm). Measures of postural balance included mean amplitude of horizontal ground reaction force (GRF) as well as the mean distance and velocity of the center of pressure (COP). All measures were discomposed into anterioposterior and mediolateral directions. ANOVA and post-hoc comparison were performed for all measures with feet distance as an independent factor. Also measured was the feet distance at the natural stance preferred by each subject. All measures significantly varied with feet distance (p<0.001). Mean distance of COP showed monotonic decrease with feet distance. Mean amplitude of horizontal GRF as well as mean velocity of COP showed U-shaped pattern (decrease followed by increase) with the minimum at the feet distance of 15 cm or 20 cm, near which the natural feet distance of 16.5 (SD 3.8) cm was located. COP is regarded to be an approximation of the center of mass (hence the resultant performance of postural control) in an inverted pendulum model with the horizontal GRF ignored. On the other hand, horizontal GRF is the direct cause of horizontal acceleration of a center of mass. The present result on horizontal GRF shows that the effort of postural control is minimized around the feet distance of natural standing and implies why the natural stance is preferred.

  16. Stationary Apparatus Would Apply Forces of Walking to Feet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hauss, Jessica; Wood, John; Budinoff, Jason; Correia, Michael; Albrecht, Rudolf

    2006-01-01

    A proposed apparatus would apply controlled cyclic forces to both feet for the purpose of preventing the loss of bone density in a human subject whose bones are not subjected daily to the mechanical loads of normal activity in normal Earth gravitation. The apparatus was conceived for use by astronauts on long missions in outer space; it could also be used by bedridden patients on Earth, including patients too weak to generate the necessary forces by their own efforts. The apparatus (see figure) would be a modified version of a bicycle-like exercise machine, called the cycle ergometer with vibration isolation system (CEVIS), now aboard the International Space Station. Attached to each CEVIS pedal would be a computer-controlled stress/ vibration exciter connected to the heel portion of a special-purpose pedal. The user would wear custom shoes that would amount to standard bicycle shoes equipped with cleats for secure attachment of the balls of the feet to the special- purpose pedals. If possible, prior to use of the apparatus, the human subject would wear a portable network of recording accelerometers, while walking, jogging, and running. The information thus gathered would be fed to the computer, wherein it would be used to make the exciters apply forces and vibrations closely approximating the forces and vibrations experienced by that individual during normal exercise. It is anticipated that like the forces applied to bones during natural exercise, these artificial forces would stimulate the production of osteoblasts (bone-forming cells), as needed to prevent or retard loss of bone mass. In addition to helping to prevent deterioration of bones, the apparatus could be used in treating a person already suffering from osteoporosis. For this purpose, the magnitude of the applied forces could be reduced, if necessary, to a level at which weak hip and leg bones would still be stimulated to produce osteoblasts without exposing them to the full stresses of walking and

  17. Effect of Reaction Developing Training on Audio-Visual Feet Reaction Time in Wrestlers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaya, Mustafa

    2016-01-01

    Reaction time is one of the most determinative elements for a successful sports performance. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of 12-week feet reaction developing trainings upon feet reaction time of females at 11-13 age interval. Volunteer sportsmen between 11 and 13 age interval who were active in Tokat Provincial…

  18. Deer Creek Dam, Dam, 1,204 feet/238 degrees from intersection of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Deer Creek Dam, Dam, 1,204 feet/238 degrees from intersection of dam complex access road and U.S. Highway 189 to center of dam, 874 feet/352 degrees from Hydroelectric Powerplant (HAER UT-93-B) to center of dam, Charleston, Wasatch County, UT

  19. Biomechanical analysis of functional adaptation of metatarsal bones in statically deformed feet.

    PubMed

    Madjarevic, Mladen; Kolundzic, Robert; Trkulja, Vladimir; Mirkovic, Maja; Pecina, Marko

    2009-02-01

    We analysed the functional adaptation of the first and second metatarsal bones to altered strain in flexible flatfoot. Fifty consecutive women (20-40 years of age) were enrolled: 31 patients with a flexible flatfoot and metatarsalgia (59 feet) and 19 controls with asymptomatic feet (37 feet). They were compared for cortical thickness (medial, lateral, dorsal and plantar) of the two bones. The null hypothesis of no overall difference between the deformed and healthy feet with regard to cortical thicknesses of the two bones was rejected in a multivariate test (p = 0.046). The groups differed significantly only regarding dorsal cortical thickness of the second metatarsal, which was around 18.1% greater in the deformed feet (95% confidence interval: 7.7-28.4%, p < 0.001). Hypertrophy of the dorsal corticalis of the second metatarsal bone appears to be the main metatarsal adaptive reaction to altered strain in the flexible flatfoot.

  20. The effect of feet position on standing balance in patients with diabetes.

    PubMed

    Mehdikhani, Mahboobeh; Khalaj, Nafiseh; Chung, Tze Y; Mazlan, Mazlina

    2014-08-01

    Feet displacement is recognized to be an important element in standing and is also linked to postural instability in elderly people with diabetes. This study investigates standing balance in diabetic patients in four asymmetric feet displacements. Quiet standing balance was investigated using the Biodex Balance System in 18 diabetic patients and compared with 18 control elderly subjects. The four standing conditions, namely, comfortable feet position, preferred feet position with a stance width of 17 cm and 15° angle between the medial borders, feet side by side, and heel side by side with a 30° angle between medial edges of feet were evaluated (i.e. eyes opened, eyes closed). The overall stability was calculated by measuring anterior-posterior and medial-lateral indices in standing conditions. Differences among feet positions were compared using an analysis of variance and the independent t-test. The diabetic patients were unstable in the medial-lateral direction when standing with feet side by side versus heel side by side with a 30° angle between medial edges of feet (p = 0.012 and 0.011, respectively), while in controls the anterior-posterior stability scores between standing in preferred foot position with stance width of 17 cm and 15° angle between the medial borders versus feet side by side, and heel side by side with a 30° angle between medial edges of feet versus preferred foot position with stance width of 17 cm and 15° angle between the medial borders had significant difference (p < 0.05). The anterior-posterior stability scores of diabetic subjects with feet side by side versus comfortable foot position (p = 0.047) and heel side by side with a 30° angle between medial edges of feet versus comfortable foot position (p = 0.016) when they closed their eyes during the test had significant difference. Results confirmed that diabetic patients have greater instability in the medial-lateral direction when the base of support reduces

  1. 49 CFR 228.103 - Approval procedure: construction within one-half mile (2,640 feet) (804 meters).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... mile (2,640 feet) (804 meters). 228.103 Section 228.103 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... within one-half mile (2,640 feet) (804 meters). (a) A common carrier that has developed plans for the... less than one-half mile (2,640 feet) (804 meters) from any area where switching or humping...

  2. 49 CFR 228.103 - Approval procedure: construction within one-half mile (2,640 feet) (804 meters).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... mile (2,640 feet) (804 meters). 228.103 Section 228.103 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... Sleeping Quarters § 228.103 Approval procedure: construction within one-half mile (2,640 feet) (804 meters... quarters subject to this subpart and which is considering a site less than one-half mile (2,640 feet)...

  3. 49 CFR 228.103 - Approval procedure: construction within one-half mile (2,640 feet) (804 meters).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... mile (2,640 feet) (804 meters). 228.103 Section 228.103 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... within one-half mile (2,640 feet) (804 meters). (a) A common carrier that has developed plans for the... less than one-half mile (2,640 feet) (804 meters) from any area where switching or humping...

  4. 49 CFR 228.103 - Approval procedure: construction within one-half mile (2,640 feet) (804 meters).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... mile (2,640 feet) (804 meters). 228.103 Section 228.103 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... Sleeping Quarters § 228.103 Approval procedure: construction within one-half mile (2,640 feet) (804 meters... quarters subject to this subpart and which is considering a site less than one-half mile (2,640 feet)...

  5. 49 CFR 228.103 - Approval procedure: construction within one-half mile (2,640 feet) (804 meters).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... mile (2,640 feet) (804 meters). 228.103 Section 228.103 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... Sleeping Quarters § 228.103 Approval procedure: construction within one-half mile (2,640 feet) (804 meters... quarters subject to this subpart and which is considering a site less than one-half mile (2,640 feet)...

  6. Mechanical testing of prosthetic feet utilized in low-income countries according to ISO-10328 standard.

    PubMed

    Jensen, J Steen; Treichl, Henning B

    2007-06-01

    This report summarizes the results from 1132 ISO-10328 standard tests performed on 21 different prosthetic foot models commonly utilized in the developing world. None of the tested feet passed the strictest ISO testing protocol. All but one failed at the initial Static Proof test, which simulates a single momentary overload, due to permanent forefoot deformation. In addition, all tested feet had significant internal failures that were visible when sectioned longitudinally. Static Proof testing revealed average permanent deformation of the forefoot of all feet that exceeded the optional 5 mm ISO requirement. Forefoot deformation for non-Jaipur rubber feet came closest to meeting the standard at 8.3+/-3.4 mm; deformation of the various types of rubber Jaipur feet was the greatest at 22.5+/-5.4 mm. Forefoot deformation for polyurethane (PU) feet was 13.6+/-5.5 mm. Forefoot deformation of the ethyl-vinyl-acetate (EVA) feet was slightly greater than the Jaipur feet at 22.8+/-5.7 mm. After the Static Strength test, which simulates a higher momentary overload, permanent deformation of the feet increased. The average maximum deformation for rubber SACH forefeet varied from 17 - 30 mm, and 11 - 26 mm for the heel; Jaipur forefeet 47 - 60 mm and heels 13 - 19 mm; PU forefeet 20 - 44 mm and heels 20 - 33 mm; and EVA forefeet 33 - 50 mm and heels 16 - 31 mm. After completion of the Cyclic Test the prosthetic feet were sawn in half and closely examined visually. All feet revealed internal derangements: (i) Deformation of rubber or PU foam under the keel of forefoot and/or heel: HCMC, VI, EB1, BAVI, HI Cambodia, Myanmar, Angola, TATCOT, Kingsley and CR; (ii) Delamination from the keel: Mozambique, PHN, and Pro-cirugia; and (iii) Delamination between foam layers: BMVSS, NISHA, MUKTI, and OM. The influence of the two environmental factors tested was minimal for rubber feet with respect to deformation and inconsistent for the polymer feet; in particular for the forefeet. Creep

  7. Full-Scale Tests of Metal Propellers at High Tip Speeds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, Donald H

    1932-01-01

    This report describes tests of 10 full-scale metal propellers of several thickness ratios at various tip speeds up to 1,350 feet per second. The results indicate no loss of efficiency up to tip speeds of approximately 1,000 feet per second. Above this tip speed the loss is at a rate of about 10 per cent per 100 feet per second increase relative to the efficiency at the lower speeds for propellers of pitch diameter ratios 0.3 to 0.4. Propellers having sections of small thickness ratio can be run at slightly higher speeds than thick ones before beginning to lose efficiency.

  8. A U-shaped linear ultrasonic motor using longitudinal vibration transducers with double feet.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yingxiang; Liu, Junkao; Chen, Weishan; Shi, Shengjun

    2012-05-01

    A U-shaped linear ultrasonic motor using longitudinal vibration transducers with double feet was proposed in this paper. The proposed motor contains a horizontal transducer and two vertical transducers. The horizontal transducer includes two exponential shape horns located at the leading ends, and each vertical transducer contains one exponential shape horn. The horns of the horizontal transducer and the vertical transducer intersect at the tip ends where the driving feet are located. Longitudinal vibrations are superimposed in the motor and generate elliptical motions at the driving feet. The two vibration modes of the motor are discussed, and the motion trajectories of driving feet are deduced. By adjusting the structural parameters, the resonance frequencies of two vibration modes were degenerated. A prototype motor was fabricated and measured. Typical output of the prototype is no-load speed of 854 mm/s and maximum thrust force of 40 N at a voltage of 200 V(rms).

  9. Foot deformation during walking: differences between static and dynamic 3D foot morphology in developing feet.

    PubMed

    Barisch-Fritz, Bettina; Schmeltzpfenning, Timo; Plank, Clemens; Grau, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    The complex functions of feet require a specific composition, which is progressively achieved by developmental processes. This development should take place without being affected by footwear. The aim of this study is to evaluate differences between static and dynamic foot morphology in developing feet. Feet of 2554 participants (6-16 years) were recorded using a new scanner system (DynaScan4D). Each foot was recorded in static half and full weight-bearing and during walking. Several foot measures corresponding to those used in last construction were calculated. The differences were identified by one-way ANOVA and paired Student's t-test. Static and dynamic values of each foot measure must be considered to improve the fit of footwear. In particular, footwear must account for the increase of forefoot width and the decrease of midfoot girth. Furthermore, the toe box should have a more rounded shape. The findings are important for the construction of footwear for developing feet.

  10. Normal values of metatarsal parabola arch in male and female feet.

    PubMed

    Domínguez-Maldonado, Gabriel; Munuera-Martinez, Pedro V; Castillo-López, José Manuel; Ramos-Ortega, Javier; Albornoz-Cabello, Manuel

    2014-01-01

    There is not any method to measure metatarsal protrusion in the whole metatarsal. The aim of this research is to know the normal metatarsal parabola in male and female feet. The system of measurement devised by Hardy and Clapham to evaluate the protrusion between metatarsals I and II was adapted to study the whole metatarsal parabola and applied to the five metatarsals of 169 normal feet, 72 female feet and 97 male feet. Authors measured all metatarsal protrusion relative to metatarsal II. The results obtained show a female metatarsal protrusion relative to metatarsal II of +1.27% for metatarsal I, -3.36% for metatarsal III, -8.34% for metatarsal IV, and -15.54% for metatarsal V. Data obtained for male metatarsal parabola were +0.5% for metatarsal I, -3.77 for metatarsal III, -9.57 for metatarsal IV, and -17.05 for metatarsal V. Differences between both metatarsal parabola were significant.

  11. 11. WEST PART OF NORTH TRAINING WALL, ABOUT 1,000 FEET ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. WEST PART OF NORTH TRAINING WALL, ABOUT 1,000 FEET EAST OF THE CHANNEL MOUTH, LOOKING WEST TO SAN FRANCISCO. - Oakland Harbor Training Walls, Mouth of Federal Channel to Inner Harbor, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  12. Manufacture of energy storage and return prosthetic feet using selective laser sintering.

    PubMed

    South, Brian J; Fey, Nicholas P; Bosker, Gordon; Neptune, Richard R

    2010-01-01

    Proper selection of prosthetic foot-ankle components with appropriate design characteristics is critical for successful amputee rehabilitation. Elastic energy storage and return (ESAR) feet have been developed in an effort to improve amputee gait. However, the clinical efficacy of ESAR feet has been inconsistent, which could be due to inappropriate stiffness levels prescribed for a given amputee. Although a number of studies have analyzed the effect of ESAR feet on gait performance, the relationships between the stiffness characteristics and gait performance are not well understood. A challenge to understanding these relationships is the inability of current manufacturing techniques to easily generate feet with varying stiffness levels. The objective of this study was to develop a rapid prototyping framework using selective laser sintering (SLS) for the creation of prosthetic feet that can be used as a means to quantify the influence of varying foot stiffness on transtibial amputee walking. The framework successfully duplicated the stiffness characteristics of a commercial carbon fiber ESAR foot. The feet were mechanically tested and an experimental case study was performed to verify that the locomotor characteristics of the amputee's gait were the same when walking with the carbon fiber ESAR and SLS designs. Three-dimensional ground reaction force, kinematic, and kinetic quantities were measured while the subject walked at 1.2 m/s. The SLS foot was able to replicate the mechanical loading response and locomotor patterns of the ESAR foot within +/-2 standard deviations. This validated the current framework as a means to fabricate SLS-based ESAR prosthetic feet. Future work will be directed at creating feet with a range of stiffness levels to investigate appropriate prescription criteria.

  13. Standard Atmosphere - Tables and Data for Altitudes to 65,800 Feet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1955-01-01

    Report includes calculated detailed tables of pressures and densities of a standard atmosphere in both metric and english units for altitudes from -5,000 meters to 20,000 meters and from -16,500 feet to 65,800 feet. Tables, figures, physical constants, and basic equations are based upon the text, reproduced herein, of the manual of the ICAO standard atmosphere, International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) draft of December 1952. (author)

  14. Foot-mediated incubation: Nazca booby (Sula granti) feet as surrogate brood patches.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Stephanie M; Ashley-Ross, Miriam A; Anderson, David J

    2003-01-01

    Incubation in most avian species involves transferring heat from parent to egg through a highly vascularized brood patch. Some birds, however, do not develop a brood patch. Unusual among birds, these species hold their eggs under the webs of their feet, but the role of the feet in heat transfer is uncertain. Often the webs are positioned between the feathered abdomen and the egg during incubation, suggesting that either the abdomen, the feet, or both could transfer heat to the egg. We studied heat transfer from foot webs to eggs during incubation in Nazca boobies by spatially separating the feet from the abdomen using an oversized egg. We found that feet transfer heat to eggs independently of any heat that may be transferred from the abdomen. In addition, we found that incubating boobies had significantly greater vascularization in their foot webs, measured as a percentage of web area covered by vessels, than nonincubating boobies. We also found that males, whether incubating or nonincubating, had significantly less web vascularization than females. We concluded that vascularized Nazca booby feet function in the same way during incubation that vascularized brood patches do, acting as surrogate brood patches.

  15. Foot-mediated incubation: Nazca booby (Sula granti) feet as surrogate brood patches.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Stephanie M; Ashley-Ross, Miriam A; Anderson, David J

    2003-01-01

    Incubation in most avian species involves transferring heat from parent to egg through a highly vascularized brood patch. Some birds, however, do not develop a brood patch. Unusual among birds, these species hold their eggs under the webs of their feet, but the role of the feet in heat transfer is uncertain. Often the webs are positioned between the feathered abdomen and the egg during incubation, suggesting that either the abdomen, the feet, or both could transfer heat to the egg. We studied heat transfer from foot webs to eggs during incubation in Nazca boobies by spatially separating the feet from the abdomen using an oversized egg. We found that feet transfer heat to eggs independently of any heat that may be transferred from the abdomen. In addition, we found that incubating boobies had significantly greater vascularization in their foot webs, measured as a percentage of web area covered by vessels, than nonincubating boobies. We also found that males, whether incubating or nonincubating, had significantly less web vascularization than females. We concluded that vascularized Nazca booby feet function in the same way during incubation that vascularized brood patches do, acting as surrogate brood patches. PMID:12905122

  16. Full-Scale Tunnel (FST)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1930-01-01

    Construction of Full-Scale Tunnel (FST). In November 1929, Smith DeFrance submitted his recommendations for the general design of the Full Scale Wind Tunnel. The last on his list concerned the division of labor required to build this unusual facility. He believed the job had five parts and described them as follows: 'It is proposed that invitations be sent out for bids on five groups of items. The first would be for one contract on the complete structure; second the same as first, including the erection of the cones but not the fabrication, since this would be more of a shipyard job; third would cover structural steel, cover, sash and doors, but not cones or foundation; fourth, foundations; an fifth, fabrication of cones.' DeFrance's memorandum prompted the NACA to solicit estimates from a large number of companies. Preliminary designs and estimates were prepared and submitted to the Bureau of the Budget and Congress appropriated funds on February 20, 1929. The main construction contract with the J.A. Jones Company of Charlotte, North Carolina was signed one year later on February 12, 1930. It was a peculiar structure as the building's steel framework is visible on the outside of the building. DeFrance described this in NACA TR No. 459: 'The entire equipment is housed in a structure, the outside walls of which serve as the outer walls of the return passages. The over-all length of the tunnel is 434 feet 6 inches, the width 222 feet, and the maximum height 97 feet. The framework is of structural steel....' (pp. 292-293).

  17. Full-Scale Tunnel (FST)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1930-01-01

    Construction of Full-Scale Tunnel (FST): 120-Foot Truss hoisting, one and two point suspension. In November 1929, Smith DeFrance submitted his recommendations for the general design of the Full Scale Wind Tunnel. The last on his list concerned the division of labor required to build this unusual facility. He believed the job had five parts and described them as follows: 'It is proposed that invitations be sent out for bids on five groups of items. The first would be for one contract on the complete structure; second the same as first, including the erection of the cones but not the fabrication, since this would be more of a shipyard job; third would cover structural steel, cover, sash and doors, but not cones or foundation; fourth, foundations; and fifth, fabrication of cones.' DeFrance's memorandum prompted the NACA to solicit estimates from a large number of companies. Preliminary designs and estimates were prepared and submitted to the Bureau of the Budget and Congress appropriated funds on February 20, 1929. The main construction contract with the J.A. Jones Company of Charlotte, North Carolina was signed one year later on February 12, 1930. It was a peculiar structure as the building's steel framework is visible on the outside of the building. DeFrance described this in NACA TR No. 459: 'The entire equipment is housed in a structure, the outside walls of which serve as the outer walls of the return passages. The over-all length of the tunnel is 434 feet 6 inches, the width 222 feet, and the maximum height 97 feet. The framework is of structural steel....' (pp. 292-293)

  18. [Hands and feet of prosimians primates. Attempts of morphologic characterization].

    PubMed

    Kuhlmann, J N

    2008-08-01

    the hands and the feet of prosimian apes and the biomechanics of their trapezometacarpal and their first cuneometacarpal joints. PMID:18815065

  19. Prosthetic feet: state-of-the-art review and the importance of mimicking human ankle-foot biomechanics.

    PubMed

    Versluys, Rino; Beyl, Pieter; Van Damme, Michael; Desomer, Anja; Van Ham, Ronald; Lefeber, Dirk

    2009-03-01

    Numerous prosthetic feet are currently on the market for individuals with a transtibial amputation, each device aimed at raising the 3C-level (control, comfort and cosmetics) with slightly different characteristics. In general, prosthetic feet can be classified into three categories. These are, following the time line: conventional feet (CF), energy-storing-and-returning (ESR) feet and the recent so-called 'bionic' feet. Researchers have shown enhanced performance properties of ESR feet compared with early CF. However, even with the advanced technology, none of the ESR feet is capable of significantly reducing energy cost of walking or enhancing prosthetic gait (Nielsen et al. J Prosthet Orthotics 1989;1:24-31; Waters et al. J Bone Joint Surg Am 1976;58:42-46; Torburn et al. J Rehabil Res Dev 1990;27:369-384). From the 1990s, gradually more attention has been paid to the incorporation of active elements in prosthetic feet as the passive devices are not capable of providing the individual with sufficient ankle power during gait. Most part of the 'bionic' devices are still on the research level nowadays but one can expect that they will become available on the market soon. In this article, the evolution of prosthetic feet over the last two decades is reflected. The importance of mimicking human ankle-foot biomechanics with prosthetic feet is briefly discussed. Prior work in both objective and subjective evaluation of prosthetic gait is reported.

  20. Differences in plantar loading between flat and normal feet during different athletic tasks.

    PubMed

    Queen, Robin M; Mall, Nathan A; Nunley, James A; Chuckpaiwong, Bavornrit

    2009-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if foot type (flat or normal) resulted in loading differences during four sport-specific tasks (cross-cut, side-cut, shuttle run, and landing from a simulated lay-up). Twenty-two healthy subjects (12 normal feet and 10 flat feet) completed five trials in each condition, while in-shoe pressure data was collected at 50 Hz. Contact area, maximum force, and the force time integral were analyzed under the entire foot and in eight-foot regions. Foot type was determined by examining navicular height, arch angle, rearfoot angle, and a clinical score. A series of independent sample t-tests were used to determine statistical differences (alpha<0.05). During the cross-cut, flat feet demonstrated an increase in medial midfoot contact area. During the side-cut, flat feet demonstrated an increase in contact area, force time integral and maximum force in both the medial and lateral midfoot. During the shuttle run, flat feet demonstrated an increase in force time integral in the lateral midfoot and increases in maximum force in both the medial and lateral midfoot. During the landing task, flat feet demonstrated an increase in maximum force in the medial midfoot. However, flat feet demonstrate a decrease in middle forefoot maximum force. All results were statistically significant (p<0.05). Therefore, individuals with a normal foot could be at a lower risk for medial and lateral midfoot injuries such as metatarsal stress fractures, indicating that foot type should be assessed when determining an individual's risk for metatarsal stress fractures.

  1. Aerodynamic performance of a scale-model, counterrotating unducted fan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sullivan, T. J.

    1990-01-01

    The aerodynamic performance of a scale model, counter-rotating unducted fan has been determined and the results are discussed. Experimental investigations were conducted using the scale model propulsor simulator and uniquely shaped fan blades. The blades, designed for a high disk loading at Mach 0.72 at 35,000 feet altitude maximum climb condition are aft-mounted on the simulator in a pusher configuration. Data are compared with analytical predictions at the design point and show good agreement.

  2. Comparative histological and immunohistochemical study of sea star tube feet (Echinodermata, Asteroidea).

    PubMed

    Santos, Romana; Haesaerts, Delphine; Jangoux, Michel; Flammang, Patrick

    2005-03-01

    Adhesion in sea stars is the function of specialized structures, the tube feet or podia, which are the external appendages of the water-vascular system. Adhesive secretions allow asteroid tube feet to perform multiple functions. Indeed, according to the sea star species considered, the tube feet may be involved in locomotion, fixation, or burrowing. Different tube foot shapes usually correspond to this variety of function. In this study, we investigated the variability of the morphology of sea star tube feet as well as the variability of the composition of their adhesive secretions. This second aspect was addressed by a comparative immunohistochemical study using antibodies raised against the adhesive material of the forcipulatid Asterias rubens. The tube feet from 14 sea star species representing five orders and 10 families of the Class Asteroidea were examined. The histological study revealed three main tube foot morphotypes, i.e., knob-ending, simple disc-ending, and reinforced disc-ending. Analysis of the results suggests that tube foot morphology is influenced by species habitat, but within limits imposed by the evolutionary lineage. In immunohistochemistry, on the other hand, the results were very homogeneous. In every species investigated there was a very strong immunolabeling of the adhesive cells, independently of the taxon considered, of the tube foot morphotype or function, or of the species habitat. This indicates that the adhesives in all the species considered are closely related, probably sharing many identical molecules or, at least, many identical epitopes on their constituents.

  3. Effect of percutaneous transluminal angioplasty on tissue oxygenation in ischemic diabetic feet.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hong-Ryul; Han, Seung-Kyu; Rha, Seung-Woon; Kim, Hyun-Surk; Kim, Woo-Kyung

    2011-01-01

    Percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) has been performed as an alternative to bypass surgery for improving tissue oxygenation in ischemic diabetic feet because the former is less invasive than the latter. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of PTA on tissue oxygenation in ischemic diabetic feet. This study included 29 ischemic diabetic feet, as determined by a transcutaneous oxygen pressure (TcPO(2) )<30 mmHg. The PTA was carried out in 29 limbs. The PTA procedure was considered successful, acceptable, and failed when residual stenosis was<30%, between 30 and 50%, and>50%, respectively. For evaluation of tissue oxygenation, the foot TcPO(2) was measured before PTA and weekly for 6 weeks after PTA. Immediately after PTA, 26 feet were evaluated as being successful and the remaining three as acceptable. Before PTA, the average foot TcPO(2) was 12.7 ± 8.9 mmHg. The TcPO(2) values were increased to 43.6 ± 24.1, 51.0 ± 22.6, 58.3 ± 23.0, 61.3 ± 24.2, 59.0 ± 22.2, and 53.8 ± 21.0 mmHg 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6 weeks after PTA, respectively (p<0.01). The PTA procedure significantly increases tissue oxygenation in ischemic diabetic feet. The maximal level of tissue oxygenation was measured on the fourth week following PTA.

  4. Kinematic differences between normal and low arched feet in children using the Heidelberg foot measurement method.

    PubMed

    Twomey, D; McIntosh, A S; Simon, J; Lowe, K; Wolf, S I

    2010-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the kinematics of normal arched and low arched feet in children and use this data to quantify the differences between the two foot types during walking gait. Multi-segment foot motion was measured, using the Heidelberg foot measurement method (HFMM), for 25 normal arched feet and 27 low arched feet in 9-12-year-old children. The kinematic differences in the foot between the two groups during walking were relatively small, except for the medial arch and forefoot supination angles. The magnitude of the medial arch angle was approximately 10 degrees greater in the low arched group than the normal arched group throughout the gait cycle. There was a significant difference found in the forefoot supination angle (p<0.03), relative to the midfoot, between the two groups at initial heel strike, and maximum and minimum values throughout the gait cycle. The values for the normal group were significantly higher in all these angles indicating that the forefoot of the low arched foot remains less pronated during the gait cycle. There was no significant difference in the motion of the rearfoot between the two foot types. The results of this study provide normative values for children's feet and highlight the mechanical differences in flexible flat feet in this age group. This data contributes to knowledge on foot kinematics in children and will be valuable for future research on the structure, function and potential treatment of the flexible flat foot.

  5. Genetic parameters for claw health and feet and leg conformation traits in Finnish Ayrshire cows.

    PubMed

    Häggman, J; Juga, J; Sillanpää, M J; Thompson, R

    2013-04-01

    Genetic parameters for different claw disorders, overall claw health and feet and leg conformation traits were estimated for Finnish Ayrshire cows. The merged data set with records of claw health and feet and leg conformation traits consisted of 105,000 observations from 52,598 Finnish Ayrshire cows between 2000 and 2010. The binary claw health data and the linearly scored conformation data were analysed using an animal model and restricted maximum likelihood method by applying the statistical package ASReml. Binomial logistic models with mixed effects were used to estimate genetic parameters for sole haemorrhages, chronic laminitis, white-line separation, sole ulcer, interdigital dermatitis, heel horn erosion, digital dermatitis, corkscrew claw and overall claw health. Estimated heritabilities for different claw disorders using a binomial logistic model ranged from 0.01 to 0.20. Estimated heritability for overall claw health using a binomial logistic model was 0.08. Estimated heritabilities for feet and leg conformation traits ranged from 0.07 to 0.39. The genetic correlations between claw health and feet and leg conformation traits ranged from -0.40 to 0.42. All phenotypic correlations were close to zero. The moderate genetic correlation, together with higher heritability of feet and leg conformation traits, showed that RLSV (rear leg side view) is a useful indicator trait to be used together with claw trimming information to increase the accuracy of breeding values for claw health in genetic evaluation.

  6. Backstroke start kinematic and kinetic changes due to different feet positioning.

    PubMed

    de Jesus, Karla; de Jesus, Kelly; Figueiredo, Pedro; Gonçalves, Pedro; Pereira, Suzana Matheus; Vilas-Boas, João Paulo; Fernandes, Ricardo Jorge

    2013-01-01

    The backstroke swimming start international rules changed in 2005. This study compared two backstroke start variants, both with feet parallel to each other but in complete immersion and emersion. Six elite swimmers performed two sets of 4 maximal 15 m bouts, each set using one of the variants. The starts were videotaped in the sagittal plane with two cameras, providing bi-dimensional dual-media kinematic evaluation, and an underwater force plate and a handgrip instrumented with a load cell collected kinetic data. Backstroke start with feet immerged displayed greater centre-of-mass horizontal starting position, centre-of-mass horizontal velocity at hands-off and take-off angle. Backstroke start with feet emerged showed greater wall contact time, centre-of-mass horizontal and downward vertical velocity at take-off, lower limbs horizontal impulse, and centre-of-mass downward vertical velocity during flight phase. Backstroke start with feet immerged and emerged displayed similar centre-of-mass horizontal water reach, back arc angle and 5 m starting time. Irrespective of the swimmer's feet positioning, coaches should emphasise each variant's mechanical advantages during the wall contact phases. Furthermore, the maintenance of those advantages throughout the flight should be stressed for better backstroke start performance. PMID:23688055

  7. Prevalence of interdigital psoriasis of the feet ("psoriasis alba") in mild, moderate, and severe psoriasis.

    PubMed

    Leibovici, Vera; Lemster, Natalya; Ramot, Yuval; Siam, Rula; Siam, Ihab; Maly, Alex; Strauss-Liviatan, N; Hochberg, Malka

    2015-09-01

    Interdigital psoriasis of the feet ("psoriasis alba") is a rare form of inverse psoriasis. We conducted a cross-sectional study of the prevalence of interdigital psoriasis in mild, moderate, and severe psoriasis, compared to atopic dermatitis and normal controls. Data were collected during 2010-2013 from 232 psoriatic patients, 190 patients with atopic dermatitis, and 202 normal controls. The psoriatic and atopic dermatitis patients were from the dermatology department and outpatient clinic of the Hadassah-Hebrew University Medical Center in Jerusalem, Israel. The normal controls were healthy workers and volunteers from Hadassah Hospital who were not aware of any dermatological disease and had never consulted a general practitioner or dermatologist for skin problems of the feet. Our study revealed a prevalence of 2.6% of interdigital psoriasis of the feet in psoriatic patients, especially in men, and none in atopic dermatitis and normal controls. Three of the six affected patients with interdigital psoriasis of the feet complained of itching, both feet were involved in four patients, while two presented with additional palmoplantar psoriasis. The hematoxylin and eosin histopathological findings were in line with those found in inverse psoriasis. Dermatologists should be aware of this entity and treat it correctly. The diagnosis should be considered in psoriatic patients presenting with whitish plaque or patches in the toe-webs, in whom the fungal test is negative and are not responding to antimycotic treatment.

  8. Below-knee amputee gait with dynamic elastic response prosthetic feet: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Torburn, L; Perry, J; Ayyappa, E; Shanfield, S L

    1990-01-01

    The purpose of this pilot study was to investigate some of the new dynamic elastic response (DER) prosthetic feet compared to the SACH foot and determine if any demonstrated trends of producing the most optimum gait. We investigated the gait of five below-knee amputees while wearing four different DER feet (Flex-Foot, Carbon Copy II, SEATTLE, STEN) and a standard SACH foot. Each subject used each foot for 1 month prior to in-depth gait analysis and energy expenditure testing at the Pathokinesiology Laboratory. Minimal differences in either free or fast walking were noted between the five feet. The Flex-Foot resulted in significantly different gait kinematics at the "ankle" compared to the other four feet, however, this foot did not produce an increased velocity nor an improved energy cost. The results of this pilot study indicated that during free or fast-paced walking on level ground there were no clinically significant advantages of any one of the feet tested. Based on this pilot data, recommendations are made for future studies including appropriate sample size.

  9. Terrain Adaptability Mechanism of Large Ruminants' Feet on the Kinematics View

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Qun; Ding, Xilun; Xu, Kun

    2015-01-01

    Ruminants live in various parts of land. Similar cloven hooves assist ruminants in adapting to different ground environment during locomotion. This paper analyzes the general terrain adaptability of the feet of ruminants using kinematics of the equivalent mechanism model based on screw theory. Cloven hooves could adjust attitude by changing relative positions between two digits in swing phase. This function helps to choose better landing orientation. “Grasping” or “holding” a rock or other object on the ground passively provides extra adhesion force in stance phase. Ruminants could adjust the position of the metacarpophalangeal joint or metatarsophalangeal joint (MTP or MCP) with no relative motion between the tip of feet and the ground, which ensures the adhesion and dexterity in stance phase. These functions are derived from an example from chamois' feet and several assumptions, which are believed to demonstrate the foundation of adaptation of ruminants and ensure a stable and continuous movement. PMID:27019579

  10. Immediate Effect of Short-foot Exercise on Dynamic Balance of Subjects with Excessively Pronated Feet.

    PubMed

    Moon, Dong-Chul; Kim, Kyoung; Lee, Su-Kyoung

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to determine the immediate effect of short-foot exercise (SFE) on the dynamic balance of subjects with excessively pronated feet. [Subjects] This study included 18 subjects with excessively pronated feet (navicular drop ≥ 10 mm) selected using the navicular drop test. [Methods] The limit of stability (LOS) was measured to determine the changes in the dynamic balance from before and after SFE in the standing and sitting positions. [Result] After the SFE, LOS increased significantly in all areas, namely, the left, right, front, back, and overall. [Conclusion] SFE immediately improved the dynamic balance of subjects with excessively pronated feet. Subsequent studies will be conducted to examine the effects of SFE performed over the long term on postural stability.

  11. A computational human model for exploring the role of the feet in balance.

    PubMed

    Humphrey, L R; Hemami, H

    2010-12-01

    Many studies concerning human balance use computational models that represent the body as a single, double, or triple inverted pendulum while ignoring the feet. Clinical research, however, has begun to more closely examine specific contributions of the feet in balance, leading to a disparity between the state of clinical research and the models used for simulation. Here, we expand the single inverted pendulum model by adding four additional rigid links to represent the feet. Model parameters, equations of motion, actuation based on human musculature, and control based on proprioception are discussed. Computation of ground reaction forces under the heel, forefoot, and toes is also addressed. Simulations focusing on the role of the toes and toe muscles in static balance and forward leaning are presented. PMID:20825946

  12. Effects of aluminum hinged shoes on the structure of contracted feet in Thoroughbred yearlings

    PubMed Central

    TANAKA, Kousuke; HIRAGA, Atsushi; TAKAHASHI, Toshiyuki; KUWANO, Atsutoshi; MORRISON, Scott Edward

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT We applied aluminum hinged shoes (AHSs) to the club foot-associated contracted feet of 11 Thoroughbred yearlings to examine the effects of the shoes on the shape of the hoof and third phalanx (P III). After 3 months of AHS use, the size of the affected hooves increased significantly, reaching the approximate size of the healthy contralateral hooves with respect to the maximum lateral width of the foot, the mean ratio of the bearing border width to the coronary band width, and the mean ratio of the solar surface width to the articular surface width. These results suggest that the AHSs corrected the contracted feet in these yearling horses. PMID:26170763

  13. Why have not the hairs on the feet of gecko been smaller?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Yewang; He, Shijie; Hwang, Keh-Chih; Ji, Baohua

    2012-10-01

    The nanometer size of the tiny hair is the key to the secret of strong stickiness of gecko's feet, by which the hair can achieve the maximum adhesion strength that is insensitive to the interfacial flaws with substrate surface. But the question why the hairs have not been smaller is not answered yet. In this study, we derived a geometric parameter of the surface structures considering lateral interaction among hairs, which gives a critical size below which these hairs will bunch together and cause failure of the adhesion, suggesting a lower limit of the dimension of hairs on gecko's feet.

  14. 15 CFR Appendix B to Subpart M of... - Zones Within the Sanctuary Where Overflights Below 1000 Feet Are Prohibited

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Zones Within the Sanctuary Where Overflights Below 1000 Feet Are Prohibited B Appendix B to Subpart M of Part 922 Commerce and Foreign Trade... Within the Sanctuary Where Overflights Below 1000 Feet Are Prohibited The four zones are: (1) From...

  15. 15 CFR Appendix B to Subpart M of... - Zones Within the Sanctuary Where Overflights Below 1000 Feet Are Prohibited

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Zones Within the Sanctuary Where Overflights Below 1000 Feet Are Prohibited B Appendix B to Subpart M of Part 922 Commerce and Foreign Trade... Within the Sanctuary Where Overflights Below 1000 Feet Are Prohibited The four zones are: (1) From...

  16. 46 CFR 28.345 - Electrical standards for vessels less than 79 feet (24 meters) in length.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... section, the vessel may comply with the requirements of 33 CFR part 183, subpart I and § 28.370. ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Electrical standards for vessels less than 79 feet (24... § 28.345 Electrical standards for vessels less than 79 feet (24 meters) in length. (a) A vessel...

  17. 47 CFR 17.10 - Antenna structures over 304.80 meters (1,000 feet) in height.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... feet) in height. 17.10 Section 17.10 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL... § 17.10 Antenna structures over 304.80 meters (1,000 feet) in height. Where one or more antenna farm... of an existing station proposing the erection of an antenna structure over 304.80 meters (1,000...

  18. 46 CFR 28.345 - Electrical standards for vessels less than 79 feet (24 meters) in length.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... section, the vessel may comply with the requirements of 33 CFR part 183, subpart I and § 28.370. ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Electrical standards for vessels less than 79 feet (24... § 28.345 Electrical standards for vessels less than 79 feet (24 meters) in length. (a) A vessel...

  19. 15 CFR Appendix B to Subpart M of... - Zones Within the Sanctuary Where Overflights Below 1000 Feet Are Prohibited

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Zones Within the Sanctuary Where Overflights Below 1000 Feet Are Prohibited B Appendix B to Subpart M of Part 922 Commerce and Foreign Trade... Within the Sanctuary Where Overflights Below 1000 Feet Are Prohibited The four zones are: (1) From...

  20. 46 CFR 28.345 - Electrical standards for vessels less than 79 feet (24 meters) in length.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... section, the vessel may comply with the requirements of 33 CFR part 183, subpart I and § 28.370. ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Electrical standards for vessels less than 79 feet (24... § 28.345 Electrical standards for vessels less than 79 feet (24 meters) in length. (a) A vessel...

  1. 47 CFR 17.10 - Antenna structures over 304.80 meters (1,000 feet) in height.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... feet) in height. 17.10 Section 17.10 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL... § 17.10 Antenna structures over 304.80 meters (1,000 feet) in height. Where one or more antenna farm... of an existing station proposing the erection of an antenna structure over 304.80 meters (1,000...

  2. 47 CFR 17.10 - Antenna structures over 304.80 meters (1,000 feet) in height.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... feet) in height. 17.10 Section 17.10 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL... § 17.10 Antenna structures over 304.80 meters (1,000 feet) in height. Where one or more antenna farm... of an existing station proposing the erection of an antenna structure over 304.80 meters (1,000...

  3. 46 CFR 28.345 - Electrical standards for vessels less than 79 feet (24 meters) in length.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... section, the vessel may comply with the requirements of 33 CFR part 183, subpart I and § 28.370. ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Electrical standards for vessels less than 79 feet (24... § 28.345 Electrical standards for vessels less than 79 feet (24 meters) in length. (a) A vessel...

  4. 15 CFR Appendix B to Subpart M of... - Zones Within the Sanctuary Where Overflights Below 1000 Feet Are Prohibited

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Zones Within the Sanctuary Where Overflights Below 1000 Feet Are Prohibited B Appendix B to Subpart M of Part 922 Commerce and Foreign Trade... Within the Sanctuary Where Overflights Below 1000 Feet Are Prohibited The four zones are: (1) From...

  5. 47 CFR 17.10 - Antenna structures over 304.80 meters (1,000 feet) in height.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... feet) in height. 17.10 Section 17.10 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL... § 17.10 Antenna structures over 304.80 meters (1,000 feet) in height. Where one or more antenna farm... of an existing station proposing the erection of an antenna structure over 304.80 meters (1,000...

  6. 15 CFR Appendix B to Subpart M of... - Zones Within the Sanctuary Where Overflights Below 1000 Feet Are Prohibited

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Zones Within the Sanctuary Where Overflights Below 1000 Feet Are Prohibited B Appendix B to Subpart M of Part 922 Commerce and Foreign Trade... Within the Sanctuary Where Overflights Below 1000 Feet Are Prohibited The four zones are: (1) From...

  7. 46 CFR 28.345 - Electrical standards for vessels less than 79 feet (24 meters) in length.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... section, the vessel may comply with the requirements of 33 CFR part 183, subpart I and § 28.370. ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Electrical standards for vessels less than 79 feet (24... § 28.345 Electrical standards for vessels less than 79 feet (24 meters) in length. (a) A vessel...

  8. 47 CFR 17.10 - Antenna structures over 304.80 meters (1,000 feet) in height.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... feet) in height. 17.10 Section 17.10 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL... § 17.10 Antenna structures over 304.80 meters (1,000 feet) in height. Where one or more antenna farm... of an existing station proposing the erection of an antenna structure over 304.80 meters (1,000...

  9. Flat Feet and a Diagnosis of Plantar Fasciitis in a Marine Corps Recruit.

    PubMed

    Lurati, Ann R

    2015-04-01

    A 22-year-old man sought care at an orthopedic clinic for acute plantar fasciitis. He reported that he had begun an intensive exercise program to prepare himself for Marine Corps Officer Candidate School. Pes Planus, or flat feet, was noted on physical examination. This article reviews the diagnoses of pes planus and plantar fasciitis as well as current intervention strategies.

  10. Normal Values of Metatarsal Parabola Arch in Male and Female Feet

    PubMed Central

    Munuera-Martinez, Pedro V.; Castillo-López, José Manuel; Ramos-Ortega, Javier; Albornoz-Cabello, Manuel

    2014-01-01

    There is not any method to measure metatarsal protrusion in the whole metatarsal. The aim of this research is to know the normal metatarsal parabola in male and female feet. The system of measurement devised by Hardy and Clapham to evaluate the protrusion between metatarsals I and II was adapted to study the whole metatarsal parabola and applied to the five metatarsals of 169 normal feet, 72 female feet and 97 male feet. Authors measured all metatarsal protrusion relative to metatarsal II. The results obtained show a female metatarsal protrusion relative to metatarsal II of +1.27% for metatarsal I, −3.36% for metatarsal III, −8.34% for metatarsal IV, and −15.54% for metatarsal V. Data obtained for male metatarsal parabola were +0.5% for metatarsal I, −3.77 for metatarsal III, −9.57 for metatarsal IV, and −17.05 for metatarsal V. Differences between both metatarsal parabola were significant. PMID:24688397

  11. The Hands and Feet of the Child: Towards a Philosophy of Habilitation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anthamatten, Eric

    2012-01-01

    Much of the history of philosophy has deployed the metaphor of sight over and above language of tactility and feeling. The body, the flesh, the hands and feet are seen as impediments to reason's upward journey towards the pure "light" of truth. But it is precisely these tactile points of contact with the world where knowledge and action begins and…

  12. EVIDENCE FOR ROTATIONAL MOTIONS IN THE FEET OF A QUIESCENT SOLAR PROMINENCE

    SciTech Connect

    Orozco Suarez, D.; Asensio Ramos, A.; Trujillo Bueno, J.

    2012-12-20

    We present observational evidence of apparent plasma rotational motions in the feet of a solar prominence. Our study is based on spectroscopic observations taken in the He I 1083.0 nm multiplet with the Tenerife Infrared Polarimeter attached to the German Vacuum Tower Telescope. We recorded a time sequence of spectra with 34 s cadence placing the slit of the spectrograph almost parallel to the solar limb and crossing two feet of an intermediate size, quiescent hedgerow prominence. The data show opposite Doppler shifts, {+-}6 km s{sup -1}, at the edges of the prominence feet. We argue that these shifts may be interpreted as prominence plasma rotating counterclockwise around the vertical axis to the solar surface as viewed from above. The evolution of the prominence seen in EUV images taken with the Solar Dynamics Observatory provided us with clues to interpret the results as swirling motions. Moreover, time-distance images taken far from the central wavelength show plasma structures moving parallel to the solar limb with velocities of about 10-15 km s{sup -1}. Finally, the shapes of the observed intensity profiles suggest the presence of, at least, two components at some locations at the edges of the prominence feet. One of them is typically Doppler shifted (up to {approx}20 km s{sup -1}) with respect to the other, thus suggesting the existence of supersonic counter-streaming flows along the line of sight.

  13. Case Report: 16-Year-Old Male with Autistic Disorder with Preoccupation with Female Feet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Early, Maureen C.; Erickson, Craig A.; Wink, Logan K.; McDougle, Christopher J.; Scott, Eric L.

    2012-01-01

    This paper highlights clinical challenges faced when diagnosing and then treating an individual presenting to a child and adolescent psychiatry clinic because of unwelcome comments he made to female peers about their feet. Novel use of exposure therapy helped him effectively decrease his comments from 1 to 2 times per month to once every 6 months.…

  14. Osteosarcoma of the hands and feet: a distinct clinico-pathological subgroup.

    PubMed

    Anninga, Jakob K; Picci, Piero; Fiocco, Marta; Kroon, Herman M J A; Vanel, Daniel; Alberghini, Marco; Gelderblom, Hans; Hogendoorn, Pancras C W

    2013-01-01

    Osteosarcomas of hands or feet are rare, and seemingly these cases differ in presentation and behavior compared to those in usual locations. The clinico-pathological presentation of patients with osteosarcomas of the hand or foot was studied and compared with published cases. Forty osteosarcomas were identified among 4,221 cases, representing 0.95 % of all osteosarcomas. Thirty of these were well documented. Mean age at diagnosis was 43 years (hands) and 36 years (feet) and male-female ratio was 1.2:1 and 2.0:1, respectively. In the hand, 62 % of the osteosarcomas presented in the metacarpals and 23 % in the phalanges, and only two cases occurred in the carpal bones. Distribution in the foot was tarsal bones 56 %, metatarsal bones 33 %, and phalanges 11 %.Of the cases in the hand 54 % were of high grade and of those in the foot 71 %. Survival of osteosarcomas of the hand or foot was 81 %. Only patients with high-grade osteosarcoma died of the disease. Histological grade was the only significant variable related to survival. High-grade osteosarcoma of the hand or feet should be treated similar to those in conventional sites. Osteosarcomas of hands or feet are rare and in a relative high proportion are of low grade. Survival in high-grade cases is comparable to that in conventional sites.

  15. Is Epenthesis a Means to Optimize Feet? A Reanalysis of the CLPF Database

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taelman, Helena; Gillis, Steven

    2008-01-01

    Fikkert (1994) analyzed a large corpus of Dutch children's early language production, and found that they often add targetless syllables to their words in order to create bisyllabic feet. In this note we point out a methodological problem with that analysis: in an important number of cases, epenthetic vowels occur at places where grammatical…

  16. 33 CFR 155.210 - Discharge removal equipment for vessels less than 400 feet in length.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Discharge removal equipment for vessels less than 400 feet in length. 155.210 Section 155.210 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION OIL OR HAZARDOUS MATERIAL POLLUTION...

  17. 33 CFR 155.210 - Discharge removal equipment for vessels less than 400 feet in length.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Discharge removal equipment for vessels less than 400 feet in length. 155.210 Section 155.210 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION OIL OR HAZARDOUS MATERIAL POLLUTION...

  18. 33 CFR 155.205 - Discharge removal equipment for vessels 400 feet or greater in length.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Discharge removal equipment for vessels 400 feet or greater in length. 155.205 Section 155.205 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION OIL OR HAZARDOUS MATERIAL POLLUTION...

  19. 33 CFR 155.205 - Discharge removal equipment for vessels 400 feet or greater in length.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Discharge removal equipment for vessels 400 feet or greater in length. 155.205 Section 155.205 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION OIL OR HAZARDOUS MATERIAL POLLUTION...

  20. 33 CFR 155.205 - Discharge removal equipment for vessels 400 feet or greater in length.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Discharge removal equipment for vessels 400 feet or greater in length. 155.205 Section 155.205 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION OIL OR HAZARDOUS MATERIAL POLLUTION...

  1. 33 CFR 155.210 - Discharge removal equipment for vessels less than 400 feet in length.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Discharge removal equipment for vessels less than 400 feet in length. 155.210 Section 155.210 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION OIL OR HAZARDOUS MATERIAL POLLUTION...

  2. 33 CFR 155.210 - Discharge removal equipment for vessels less than 400 feet in length.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Discharge removal equipment for vessels less than 400 feet in length. 155.210 Section 155.210 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION OIL OR HAZARDOUS MATERIAL POLLUTION...

  3. 33 CFR 155.205 - Discharge removal equipment for vessels 400 feet or greater in length.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Discharge removal equipment for vessels 400 feet or greater in length. 155.205 Section 155.205 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION OIL OR HAZARDOUS MATERIAL POLLUTION...

  4. 33 CFR 155.210 - Discharge removal equipment for vessels less than 400 feet in length.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Discharge removal equipment for vessels less than 400 feet in length. 155.210 Section 155.210 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION OIL OR HAZARDOUS MATERIAL POLLUTION...

  5. 33 CFR 155.205 - Discharge removal equipment for vessels 400 feet or greater in length.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Discharge removal equipment for vessels 400 feet or greater in length. 155.205 Section 155.205 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION OIL OR HAZARDOUS MATERIAL POLLUTION...

  6. Foot Placement Modification for a Biped Humanoid Robot with Narrow Feet

    PubMed Central

    Hattori, Kentaro; Otani, Takuya; Lim, Hun-Ok; Takanishi, Atsuo

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes a walking stabilization control for a biped humanoid robot with narrow feet. Most humanoid robots have larger feet than human beings to maintain their stability during walking. If robot's feet are as narrow as humans, it is difficult to realize a stable walk by using conventional stabilization controls. The proposed control modifies a foot placement according to the robot's attitude angle. If a robot tends to fall down, a foot angle is modified about the roll axis so that a swing foot contacts the ground horizontally. And a foot-landing point is also changed laterally to inhibit the robot from falling to the outside. To reduce a foot-landing impact, a virtual compliance control is applied to the vertical axis and the roll and pitch axes of the foot. Verification of the proposed method is conducted through experiments with a biped humanoid robot WABIAN-2R. WABIAN-2R realized a knee-bended walking with 30 mm breadth feet. Moreover, WABIAN-2R mounted on a human-like foot mechanism mimicking a human's foot arch structure realized a stable walking with the knee-stretched, heel-contact, and toe-off motion. PMID:24592154

  7. View of worlds tallest totem pole, 136.5 feet tall. First ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of worlds tallest totem pole, 136.5 feet tall. First potlatch pole since 1904. Dedicated to all things and all peoples of southeast Alaska, 1971. Oct potlatch, looking northwest - Kake Salmon Cannery, Totem Pole, Kake, Wrangell-Petersburg Census Area, AK

  8. Formation and inhibition of cholesterol oxidation products during marinating of pig feet.

    PubMed

    Chen, Y C; Chien, J T; Inbaraj, B Stephen; Chen, Bing Huei

    2012-01-11

    Cholesterol oxidation products (COPs), formed during the heating of cholesterol-rich foods, have been shown to cause cancer and coronary heart disease. The objectives of this study were to develop a GC-MS method for the determination of COPs in pig feet meat, skin, and juice during marinating and to study the formation and inhibition of COPs as affected by the incorporation of soy sauce and sugar. Results showed that an HP-5MS column could provide an adequate separation of cholesterol, 5α-cholestane (internal standard), and seven COPs, including 7α-OH, 7β-OH, 5,6β-OH, 5,6α-OH, triol, 25-OH, and 7-keto, within 15 min with a temperature-programming method. Most COPs in pig feet meat were generated at a larger amount than in pig feet skin and marinating juice over a 24 h heating period at about 100 °C. The Maillard browning index rose with increasing heating time, whereas the pH showed a slight change in marinated juice. Both reducing sugar and free amino acid contributed to the formation of Maillard reaction products. The incorporation of soy sauce and crystal sugar into fresh juice was effective in inhibiting COPs formation in pig feet, skin, and juice over a 30 min preheating period.

  9. The World at Your Feet: Immersive Interactive Displays Might Have a Bright Future in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simkins, Michael

    2006-01-01

    A reactor is an example of an immersive interactive play in which animated images are projected onto the floor. A reactor allows people to walk on images and interact with them using their feet. With reactors, people can stomp on kernels of popcorn, shoot a pool using their big toes, or wade through a shallow surf on pristine beaches. This…

  10. Foot placement modification for a biped humanoid robot with narrow feet.

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, Kenji; Hattori, Kentaro; Otani, Takuya; Lim, Hun-Ok; Takanishi, Atsuo

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes a walking stabilization control for a biped humanoid robot with narrow feet. Most humanoid robots have larger feet than human beings to maintain their stability during walking. If robot's feet are as narrow as humans, it is difficult to realize a stable walk by using conventional stabilization controls. The proposed control modifies a foot placement according to the robot's attitude angle. If a robot tends to fall down, a foot angle is modified about the roll axis so that a swing foot contacts the ground horizontally. And a foot-landing point is also changed laterally to inhibit the robot from falling to the outside. To reduce a foot-landing impact, a virtual compliance control is applied to the vertical axis and the roll and pitch axes of the foot. Verification of the proposed method is conducted through experiments with a biped humanoid robot WABIAN-2R. WABIAN-2R realized a knee-bended walking with 30 mm breadth feet. Moreover, WABIAN-2R mounted on a human-like foot mechanism mimicking a human's foot arch structure realized a stable walking with the knee-stretched, heel-contact, and toe-off motion.

  11. Sensory Property Improvement of Jokbal (Korean Pettitoes) Made from Frozen Pig Feet by Addition of Herbal Mixture.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Young-Jung; Hwang, Seol-A; Lee, Ju-Woon

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to improve sensory quality of Jokbal (Korean Pettitoes) made from frozen pig feet by addition of herbal mixture (glasswort, raspberry and Sansa powders). After adding herbal mixture, lipid oxidation (2-thiobarbituric acid values, TBARS), sensory property, and textural property were determined. Herbs were individually added into cooking soup at concentration of 6% (low concentration treatment, LCT) or 12% (high concentration treatment, HCT) of raw pig feet. Refrigerated pig feet were used as control. Thawed feet without any herbal mixture were used as freezing treatment (FT). TBARS in LCT or HCT were lower than that in FT, and showed the similar to that in Control. Addition of the herbal mixture was effective in improving the flavor and textural property of thawed feet by inhibiting lipid oxidation and protein denaturation in a dose-dependent manner. PMID:27499659

  12. Sensory Property Improvement of Jokbal (Korean Pettitoes) Made from Frozen Pig Feet by Addition of Herbal Mixture

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ju-Woon

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to improve sensory quality of Jokbal (Korean Pettitoes) made from frozen pig feet by addition of herbal mixture (glasswort, raspberry and Sansa powders). After adding herbal mixture, lipid oxidation (2-thiobarbituric acid values, TBARS), sensory property, and textural property were determined. Herbs were individually added into cooking soup at concentration of 6% (low concentration treatment, LCT) or 12% (high concentration treatment, HCT) of raw pig feet. Refrigerated pig feet were used as control. Thawed feet without any herbal mixture were used as freezing treatment (FT). TBARS in LCT or HCT were lower than that in FT, and showed the similar to that in Control. Addition of the herbal mixture was effective in improving the flavor and textural property of thawed feet by inhibiting lipid oxidation and protein denaturation in a dose-dependent manner. PMID:27499659

  13. Lifelong bound feet in China: a quantitative ultrasound and lifestyle questionnaire study in postmenopausal women

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Ling; Pan, Yi; Zhang, Ming; Xu, Mian; Lao, Hanchang; O'Laughlin, Michael C; Tong, Shan; Zhao, Yanling; Hung, VWY; Cheng, JCY; Guo, Xia

    2015-01-01

    Objective The phenomenon of foot binding, also known as ‘lotus feet’, has an enduring and influential history in China. To achieve a man-made smaller foot size, lifelong foot binding may have had adverse effects on the skeleton. We investigated bone properties in postmenopausal women with bound feet, which may provide new information for developing countermeasures for prevention of fragility fractures. Design Population-based cohort study. Participants This study involved 254 postmenopausal women aged 65–80, including 172 with bound feet and 82 age- and gender-matched control subjects, living in a remote region of China. Outcomes Anthropometric, SF-36 Lifestyle Questionnaire and heel quantitative ultrasound (QUS) data were collected for the whole study population. A small subset of two cases was also invited for assessment of bone mineral density and microarchitecture at the distal tibia using high-resolution peripheral quantitative CT (HR-pQCT) and gait and balance tests. Results Women with bound feet had significantly lower QUS values than age-matched women with normal feet; this was supported by HR-pQCT data. However, SF-36 Questionnaire results did not reveal any statistically significant differences in any categorical responses, including physical functioning, general health vitality and physical component summary score, and number of previous fractures. No impairment of body balance was found in the small subset. Conclusions The man-made changes caused by foot binding led to reduced physical activity, making the subjects prone to osteoporosis. Women with bound feet and osteoporosis did not have a higher incidence of fragility fractures than controls. This might be explained by compensation in physical activity to improve body balance, implying the importance of improving or maintaining body balance in overall prevention strategies against fragility fractures. PMID:25783423

  14. Small Scale High Speed Turbomachinery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    London, Adam P. (Inventor); Droppers, Lloyd J. (Inventor); Lehman, Matthew K. (Inventor); Mehra, Amitav (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A small scale, high speed turbomachine is described, as well as a process for manufacturing the turbomachine. The turbomachine is manufactured by diffusion bonding stacked sheets of metal foil, each of which has been pre-formed to correspond to a cross section of the turbomachine structure. The turbomachines include rotating elements as well as static structures. Using this process, turbomachines may be manufactured with rotating elements that have outer diameters of less than four inches in size, and/or blading heights of less than 0.1 inches. The rotating elements of the turbomachines are capable of rotating at speeds in excess of 150 feet per second. In addition, cooling features may be added internally to blading to facilitate cooling in high temperature operations.

  15. 46 CFR 120.434 - Lifeboat and liferaft floodlights on vessels of more than 19.8 meters (65 feet) in length with...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... than 19.8 meters (65 feet) in length with overnight accommodations for more than 49 passengers. 120.434... (65 feet) in length with overnight accommodations for more than 49 passengers. Each vessel of more than 19.8 meters (65 feet) in length carrying more than 600 passengers or with overnight...

  16. 46 CFR 116.730 - Crew accommodations on vessels of more than 19.8 meters (65 feet) in length with overnight...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... (65 feet) in length with overnight accommodations for more than 49 passengers. 116.730 Section 116.730... ARRANGEMENT Crew Spaces § 116.730 Crew accommodations on vessels of more than 19.8 meters (65 feet) in length... more than 19.8 meters (65 feet) in length with overnight accommodations for more than 49...

  17. 49 CFR 228.105 - Additional requirements; construction within one-third mile (1,760 feet) (536 meters) of certain...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...-third mile (1,760 feet) (536 meters) of certain switching. 228.105 Section 228.105 Transportation Other...-third mile (1,760 feet) (536 meters) of certain switching. (a) In addition to providing the information specified by § 228.103, a carrier seeking approval of a site located within one-third mile (1,760 feet)...

  18. 46 CFR 120.312 - Power sources on vessels of more than 19.8 meters (65 feet) in length carrying more than 600...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... feet) in length carrying more than 600 passengers or with overnight accommodations for more than 49... of more than 19.8 meters (65 feet) in length carrying more than 600 passengers or with overnight accommodations for more than 49 passengers. A vessel of more than 19.8 meters (65 feet) in length carrying...

  19. 46 CFR 120.434 - Lifeboat and liferaft floodlights on vessels of more than 19.8 meters (65 feet) in length with...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... than 19.8 meters (65 feet) in length with overnight accommodations for more than 49 passengers. 120.434... (65 feet) in length with overnight accommodations for more than 49 passengers. Each vessel of more than 19.8 meters (65 feet) in length carrying more than 600 passengers or with overnight...

  20. 46 CFR 116.730 - Crew accommodations on vessels of more than 19.8 meters (65 feet) in length with overnight...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... (65 feet) in length with overnight accommodations for more than 49 passengers. 116.730 Section 116.730... ARRANGEMENT Crew Spaces § 116.730 Crew accommodations on vessels of more than 19.8 meters (65 feet) in length... more than 19.8 meters (65 feet) in length with overnight accommodations for more than 49...

  1. 49 CFR 228.105 - Additional requirements; construction within one-third mile (1,760 feet) (536 meters) of certain...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...-third mile (1,760 feet) (536 meters) of certain switching. 228.105 Section 228.105 Transportation Other... Additional requirements; construction within one-third mile (1,760 feet) (536 meters) of certain switching... site located within one-third mile (1,760 feet) (536 meters) of any area where railroad switching...

  2. 49 CFR 228.105 - Additional requirements; construction within one-third mile (1,760 feet) (536 meters) of certain...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...-third mile (1,760 feet) (536 meters) of certain switching. 228.105 Section 228.105 Transportation Other... Additional requirements; construction within one-third mile (1,760 feet) (536 meters) of certain switching... site located within one-third mile (1,760 feet) (536 meters) of any area where railroad switching...

  3. 46 CFR 116.730 - Crew accommodations on vessels of more than 19.8 meters (65 feet) in length with overnight...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... (65 feet) in length with overnight accommodations for more than 49 passengers. 116.730 Section 116.730... ARRANGEMENT Crew Spaces § 116.730 Crew accommodations on vessels of more than 19.8 meters (65 feet) in length... more than 19.8 meters (65 feet) in length with overnight accommodations for more than 49...

  4. 30 CFR 250.1156 - What steps must I take to receive approval to produce within 500 feet of a unit or lease line?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... produce within 500 feet of a unit or lease line? 250.1156 Section 250.1156 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF... § 250.1156 What steps must I take to receive approval to produce within 500 feet of a unit or lease line... within a well that has any portion of the completed interval less than 500 feet from a unit or lease...

  5. 46 CFR 116.730 - Crew accommodations on vessels of more than 19.8 meters (65 feet) in length with overnight...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... (65 feet) in length with overnight accommodations for more than 49 passengers. 116.730 Section 116.730... ARRANGEMENT Crew Spaces § 116.730 Crew accommodations on vessels of more than 19.8 meters (65 feet) in length... more than 19.8 meters (65 feet) in length with overnight accommodations for more than 49...

  6. 46 CFR 116.730 - Crew accommodations on vessels of more than 19.8 meters (65 feet) in length with overnight...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... (65 feet) in length with overnight accommodations for more than 49 passengers. 116.730 Section 116.730... ARRANGEMENT Crew Spaces § 116.730 Crew accommodations on vessels of more than 19.8 meters (65 feet) in length... more than 19.8 meters (65 feet) in length with overnight accommodations for more than 49...

  7. 43 CFR 2885.14 - What happens if I need a right-of-way wider than 50 feet plus the ground occupied by the pipeline...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... wider than 50 feet plus the ground occupied by the pipeline and related facilities? 2885.14 Section 2885... feet plus the ground occupied by the pipeline and related facilities? (a) You may apply to BLM at any time for a right-of-way wider than 50 feet plus the ground occupied by the pipeline and...

  8. 46 CFR 120.312 - Power sources on vessels of more than 19.8 meters (65 feet) in length carrying more than 600...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... feet) in length carrying more than 600 passengers or with overnight accommodations for more than 49... of more than 19.8 meters (65 feet) in length carrying more than 600 passengers or with overnight accommodations for more than 49 passengers. A vessel of more than 19.8 meters (65 feet) in length carrying...

  9. 43 CFR 2885.14 - What happens if I need a right-of-way wider than 50 feet plus the ground occupied by the pipeline...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... wider than 50 feet plus the ground occupied by the pipeline and related facilities? 2885.14 Section 2885... feet plus the ground occupied by the pipeline and related facilities? (a) You may apply to BLM at any time for a right-of-way wider than 50 feet plus the ground occupied by the pipeline and...

  10. 30 CFR 250.1156 - What steps must I take to receive approval to produce within 500 feet of a unit or lease line?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... produce within 500 feet of a unit or lease line? 250.1156 Section 250.1156 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF... § 250.1156 What steps must I take to receive approval to produce within 500 feet of a unit or lease line... within a well that has any portion of the completed interval less than 500 feet from a unit or lease...

  11. 46 CFR 120.434 - Lifeboat and liferaft floodlights on vessels of more than 19.8 meters (65 feet) in length with...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... than 19.8 meters (65 feet) in length with overnight accommodations for more than 49 passengers. 120.434... (65 feet) in length with overnight accommodations for more than 49 passengers. Each vessel of more than 19.8 meters (65 feet) in length carrying more than 600 passengers or with overnight...

  12. 30 CFR 250.1156 - What steps must I take to receive approval to produce within 500 feet of a unit or lease line?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... produce within 500 feet of a unit or lease line? 250.1156 Section 250.1156 Mineral Resources MINERALS... I take to receive approval to produce within 500 feet of a unit or lease line? (a) You must obtain... any portion of the completed interval less than 500 feet from a unit or lease line. Submit to MMS...

  13. 46 CFR 120.434 - Lifeboat and liferaft floodlights on vessels of more than 19.8 meters (65 feet) in length with...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... than 19.8 meters (65 feet) in length with overnight accommodations for more than 49 passengers. 120.434... (65 feet) in length with overnight accommodations for more than 49 passengers. Each vessel of more than 19.8 meters (65 feet) in length carrying more than 600 passengers or with overnight...

  14. 46 CFR 120.312 - Power sources on vessels of more than 19.8 meters (65 feet) in length carrying more than 600...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... feet) in length carrying more than 600 passengers or with overnight accommodations for more than 49... of more than 19.8 meters (65 feet) in length carrying more than 600 passengers or with overnight accommodations for more than 49 passengers. A vessel of more than 19.8 meters (65 feet) in length carrying...

  15. 49 CFR 228.105 - Additional requirements; construction within one-third mile (1,760 feet) (536 meters) of certain...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...-third mile (1,760 feet) (536 meters) of certain switching. 228.105 Section 228.105 Transportation Other...-third mile (1,760 feet) (536 meters) of certain switching. (a) In addition to providing the information specified by § 228.103, a carrier seeking approval of a site located within one-third mile (1,760 feet)...

  16. 43 CFR 2885.14 - What happens if I need a right-of-way wider than 50 feet plus the ground occupied by the pipeline...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... wider than 50 feet plus the ground occupied by the pipeline and related facilities? 2885.14 Section 2885... feet plus the ground occupied by the pipeline and related facilities? (a) You may apply to BLM at any time for a right-of-way wider than 50 feet plus the ground occupied by the pipeline and...

  17. 46 CFR 120.312 - Power sources on vessels of more than 19.8 meters (65 feet) in length carrying more than 600...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... feet) in length carrying more than 600 passengers or with overnight accommodations for more than 49... of more than 19.8 meters (65 feet) in length carrying more than 600 passengers or with overnight accommodations for more than 49 passengers. A vessel of more than 19.8 meters (65 feet) in length carrying...

  18. 46 CFR 120.312 - Power sources on vessels of more than 19.8 meters (65 feet) in length carrying more than 600...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... feet) in length carrying more than 600 passengers or with overnight accommodations for more than 49... of more than 19.8 meters (65 feet) in length carrying more than 600 passengers or with overnight accommodations for more than 49 passengers. A vessel of more than 19.8 meters (65 feet) in length carrying...

  19. 30 CFR 250.1156 - What steps must I take to receive approval to produce within 500 feet of a unit or lease line?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... produce within 500 feet of a unit or lease line? 250.1156 Section 250.1156 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF... § 250.1156 What steps must I take to receive approval to produce within 500 feet of a unit or lease line... within a well that has any portion of the completed interval less than 500 feet from a unit or lease...

  20. 46 CFR 120.434 - Lifeboat and liferaft floodlights on vessels of more than 19.8 meters (65 feet) in length with...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... than 19.8 meters (65 feet) in length with overnight accommodations for more than 49 passengers. 120.434... (65 feet) in length with overnight accommodations for more than 49 passengers. Each vessel of more than 19.8 meters (65 feet) in length carrying more than 600 passengers or with overnight...

  1. 43 CFR 2885.14 - What happens if I need a right-of-way wider than 50 feet plus the ground occupied by the pipeline...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... wider than 50 feet plus the ground occupied by the pipeline and related facilities? 2885.14 Section 2885... feet plus the ground occupied by the pipeline and related facilities? (a) You may apply to BLM at any time for a right-of-way wider than 50 feet plus the ground occupied by the pipeline and...

  2. 49 CFR 228.105 - Additional requirements; construction within one-third mile (1,760 feet) (536 meters) of certain...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...-third mile (1,760 feet) (536 meters) of certain switching. 228.105 Section 228.105 Transportation Other...-third mile (1,760 feet) (536 meters) of certain switching. (a) In addition to providing the information specified by § 228.103, a carrier seeking approval of a site located within one-third mile (1,760 feet)...

  3. Full Scale Wind Tunnel and Seaplane Tow Channel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1930-01-01

    Construction progress, Full Scale entrance cone looking north, exit cone looking south, wind vanes north end, wind vanes north end of east return passage, wind vanes south end of west exit cone looking north east, wind vanes at south end of east exit cone looking north west, entrance cone looking south from north end. Full-Scale Tunnel (FST) entrance cone under construction. Smith DeFrance describes the entrance cone in NACA TR 459 as follows: 'The entrance cone is 75 feet in length and in this distance the cross section changes from a rectangle 72 by 110 feet to a 30 by 60 foot elliptic section. The area reduction in the entrance cone is slightly less than 5:1. The shape of the entrance cone was chosen to give as fas as possible a constant acceleration to the air stream and to retain a 9-foot length of nozzle for directing the flow.' (p. 293)

  4. Sex differences in relative foot length and perceived attractiveness of female feet: relationships among anthropometry, physique, and preference ratings.

    PubMed

    Voracek, Martin; Fisher, Maryanne L; Rupp, Barbara; Lucas, Deanna; Fessler, Daniel M T

    2007-06-01

    Foot size proportionate to stature is smaller in women than in men, and small feet apparently contribute to perceived physical attractiveness of females. This exploratory study investigated the sex difference in relative foot length and interrelations among foot length, physique, and foot preference ratings in samples from Austria and Canada, each comprised of 75 men and 75 women. The findings included the following lines of evidence: the sex difference in relative foot length replicated in both data sets; the magnitude of this sex effect was large. Relative foot length was smaller in young, nulliparous, and slim women. Pointed-toe and high-heel shoes were more likely worn by smaller, lighter, and slimmer women. Men reported liking women's feet in general more than vice versa. A vast majority of both men and women favored small feet in women, but large feet in men. One's own foot size appeared to correspond to evaluations of attractiveness; particularly, women with small feet preferred small feet in women in general. The preference for small feet in women was convergent across different methods of evaluating attractiveness. Directions for investigations in this emerging field of research on physical attractiveness are discussed.

  5. Scale and scaling in soils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Scale is recognized as a central concept in the description of the hierarchical organization of our world. Pressing environmental and societal problems such require an understanding of how processes operate at different scales, and how they can be linked across scales. Soil science as many other dis...

  6. Subdigital setae of chameleon feet: Friction-enhancing microstructures for a wide range of substrate roughness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spinner, Marlene; Westhoff, Guido; Gorb, Stanislav N.

    2014-06-01

    Hairy adhesive systems of microscopic setae with triangular flattened tips have evolved convergently in spiders, insects and arboreal lizards. The ventral sides of the feet and tails in chameleons are also covered with setae. However, chameleon setae feature strongly elongated narrow spatulae or fibrous tips. The friction enhancing function of these microstructures has so far only been demonstrated in contact with glass spheres. In the present study, the frictional properties of subdigital setae of Chamaeleo calyptratus were measured under normal forces in the physical range on plane substrates having different roughness. We showed that chameleon setae maximize friction on a wide range of substrate roughness. The highest friction was measured on asperities of 1 μm. However, our observations of the climbing ability of Ch. calyptratus on rods of different diameters revealed that also claws and grasping feet are additionally responsible for the force generation on various substrates during locomotion.

  7. Subdigital setae of chameleon feet: Friction-enhancing microstructures for a wide range of substrate roughness

    PubMed Central

    Spinner, Marlene; Westhoff, Guido; Gorb, Stanislav N.

    2014-01-01

    Hairy adhesive systems of microscopic setae with triangular flattened tips have evolved convergently in spiders, insects and arboreal lizards. The ventral sides of the feet and tails in chameleons are also covered with setae. However, chameleon setae feature strongly elongated narrow spatulae or fibrous tips. The friction enhancing function of these microstructures has so far only been demonstrated in contact with glass spheres. In the present study, the frictional properties of subdigital setae of Chamaeleo calyptratus were measured under normal forces in the physical range on plane substrates having different roughness. We showed that chameleon setae maximize friction on a wide range of substrate roughness. The highest friction was measured on asperities of 1 μm. However, our observations of the climbing ability of Ch. calyptratus on rods of different diameters revealed that also claws and grasping feet are additionally responsible for the force generation on various substrates during locomotion. PMID:24970387

  8. Influence of groove count on slip resistance using NTL test feet.

    PubMed

    Joganich, Tim; Mc Cuen, Len

    2005-09-01

    In recent years, walkway slip-resistance testing with grooved NTL (Neolite Test Liners) has been the subject of research, as well as used in field investigation practices. Recent research shows that differences between non-grooved and grooved test feet do exist, especially under wet conditions. It is not known how the number of grooves influences the slip resistance. This study investigates the influence of groove count on slip resistance under both wet and dry conditions using the PIAST tribometer. Test feet with 1, 3, 5, 7, 9, 11, 13, and 15 grooves and a non-grooved test foot were used. Polished granite and vinyl composition tile were used as test surfaces. Results for both test surfaces show markedly higher slip resistance for increasing groove counts under wet conditions, while under dry conditions, the results show slight increases in slip resistance. Implications of these results are discussed.

  9. Modeling and analysis of passive dynamic bipedal walking with segmented feet and compliant joints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Yan; Wang, Qi-Ning; Gao, Yue; Xie, Guang-Ming

    2012-10-01

    Passive dynamic walking has been developed as a possible explanation for the efficiency of the human gait. This paper presents a passive dynamic walking model with segmented feet, which makes the bipedal walking gait more close to natural human-like gait. The proposed model extends the simplest walking model with the addition of flat feet and torsional spring based compliance on ankle joints and toe joints, to achieve stable walking on a slope driven by gravity. The push-off phase includes foot rotations around the toe joint and around the toe tip, which shows a great resemblance to human normal walking. This paper investigates the effects of the segmented foot structure on bipedal walking in simulations. The model achieves satisfactory walking results on even or uneven slopes.

  10. Biped 4R2C six-bar mechanism with inner and outer feet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Chao; Wang, Hao; Yao, Yan-an

    2016-01-01

    Most current biped robots are equipped with two feet arranged in the right and left which inspired by the human body system. Different from the existing configurations, a novel biped robot with inner and outer feet based on a spatial six-bar 4R2C(R and C denote revolute and cylindric joints, respectively) mechanism is proposed. It can move along a line or a curve by three walking modes that are dwell adjustment mode, limit position adjustment mode and any position adjustment mode. Kinematic, gait planning and stability analyses are performed respectively, and a prototype is developed. Lastly, a potential application is considered and two manipulating modes(sphere and cylinder manipulating modes) are carried out. This interesting mechanism feathering its single closed-chain structure and unique work performance is expected to motivate the configuration creation of biped robots.

  11. Subdigital setae of chameleon feet: friction-enhancing microstructures for a wide range of substrate roughness.

    PubMed

    Spinner, Marlene; Westhoff, Guido; Gorb, Stanislav N

    2014-06-27

    Hairy adhesive systems of microscopic setae with triangular flattened tips have evolved convergently in spiders, insects and arboreal lizards. The ventral sides of the feet and tails in chameleons are also covered with setae. However, chameleon setae feature strongly elongated narrow spatulae or fibrous tips. The friction enhancing function of these microstructures has so far only been demonstrated in contact with glass spheres. In the present study, the frictional properties of subdigital setae of Chamaeleo calyptratus were measured under normal forces in the physical range on plane substrates having different roughness. We showed that chameleon setae maximize friction on a wide range of substrate roughness. The highest friction was measured on asperities of 1 μm. However, our observations of the climbing ability of Ch. calyptratus on rods of different diameters revealed that also claws and grasping feet are additionally responsible for the force generation on various substrates during locomotion.

  12. Six Sesamoid Bones on Both Feet: Report of a Rare Case

    PubMed Central

    Jansen, H; Meffert, RH; Frey, SP

    2015-01-01

    There is a variation of the total number of distinct bones in the human in the literature. This difference is mainly caused by the variable existence of sesamoid bones. Sesamoid bones at the first MTP are seen regularly. In contrast additional sesamoid bones at the second to fifth MTP are rare. We report a case of additional sesamoid bones at every metatarsophalangeal joint (MTP) of both feet. A 22-year-old female Caucasian presented with weight-dependent pain of the second MTP of the left foot. In the radiographs of both feet additional sesamoid bones at every MTP could be seen. This case reports a very rare variation in human anatomy. A similar case has not been displayed to the academic society and therefore should be acknowledged. PMID:26436011

  13. Towards surface analysis on diabetic feet soles to predict ulcerations using photometric stereo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Chanjuan; van der Heijden, Ferdi; van Netten, Jaap J.

    2012-03-01

    Diabetic foot ulceration is a major complication for patients with diabetes mellitus. Approximately 15% to 25% of patients with Type I and Type II diabetes eventually develop feet ulcers. If not adequately treated, these ulcers may lead to foot infection, and ultimately to total (or partial) lower extremity amputation, which means a great loss in health-related quality of life. The incidence of foot ulcers may be prevented by early identification and subsequent treatment of pre-signs of ulceration, such as callus formation, redness, fissures, and blisters. Therefore, frequent examination of the feet is necessary, preferably on a daily basis. However, self-examination is difficult or impossible due to consequences of the diabetes. Moreover, frequent examination by health care professionals is costly and not feasible. The objective of our project is to develop an intelligent telemedicine monitoring system that can be deployed at the patients' home environment for frequent examination of patients feet, to timely detect pre-signs of ulceration. The current paper reports the preliminary results of an implementation of a photometric stereo imaging system to detect 3D geometric abnormalities of the skin surfaces of foot soles. Using a flexible experimental setup, the system parameters such as number and positions of the illuminators have been selected so as to optimize the performance with respect to reconstructed surface. The system has been applied to a dummy foot sole. Finally, the curvature on the resulting 3D topography of the foot sole is implemented to show the feasibility of detecting the pre-signs of ulceration using photometric stereo imaging. The obtained results indicate clinical potential of this technology for detecting the pre-signs of ulceration on diabetic feet soles.

  14. Variations in daily quality assurance dosimetry from device levelling, feet position and backscatter material.

    PubMed

    Ceylan, Abdurrahman; Butson, Martin; Cullen, Ashley; Yu, Peter K N; Alnawaf, Hani

    2012-12-01

    Daily quality assurance procedures are an essential part of radiotherapy medical physics. Devices such as the Sun Nuclear, DQA3 are effective tools for analysis of daily dosimetry including flatness, symmetry, energy, field size and central axis radiation dose measurement. The DQA3 can be used on the treatment couch of the linear accelerator or on a dedicated table/bed for superficial and orthovoltage x-ray machines. This device is levelled using its dedicated feet. This work has shown that depending on the quantity of backscatter material behind the DQA3 device, the position of the levelling feet can affect the measured central axis dose by up to 1.8 % (250 kVp and 6 MV) and that the introduction of more backscatter material behind the DQA3 can lead to up to 7.2 % (6 MV) variations in measured central axis dose. In conditions where no backscatter material is present, dose measurements can vary up to 1 %. As such this work has highlighted the need to keep the material behind the DQA3 device constant as well as maintaining the accuracy of the feet position on the device to effectively measure the most accurate daily constancy achievable. Results have also shown that variations in symmetry and energy calculations of up to 1 % can occur if the device is not levelled appropriately. As such, we recommend the position of the levelling feet on the device be as close as possible to the device so that a constant distance is kept between the DQA3 and the treatment couch and thus minimal levelling variations also occur. We would also recommend having no extra backscattering material behind the DQA3 device during use to minimise any variations which might occur from these backscattering effects.

  15. 16. TWO HEAD GATES ABOUT 500 FEET NORTH OF 7TH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. TWO HEAD GATES ABOUT 500 FEET NORTH OF 7TH AVENUE (SECTION 35). - Highline Canal, Sand Creek Lateral, Beginning at intersection of Peoria Street & Highline Canal in Arapahoe County (City of Aurora), Sand Creek lateral Extends 15 miles Northerly through Araphoe County, City & County of Denver, & Adams County to its end point, approximately 1/4 mile Southest of intersectioin of D Street & Ninth Avenue in Adams County (Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Commerce City Vicinity), Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  16. The biomechanics of head-first versus feet-first sliding.

    PubMed

    Corzatt, R D; Groppel, J L; Pfautsch, E; Boscardin, J

    1984-01-01

    The two basic sliding techniques, head-first and feet-first, were analyzed kinematically with high speed cinematography. Four phases were identified with each technique: sprint, attainment of sliding position, airborne, and landing. The velocity and displacement of the center of gravity were measured with each technique. The study was primarily descriptive but demonstrated potential for injury with each technique. Further studies are needed to determine which technique is safer and faster.

  17. Infrared dermal thermography on diabetic feet soles to predict ulcerations: a case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Chanjuan; van der Heijden, Ferdi; Klein, Marvin E.; van Baal, Jeff G.; Bus, Sicco A.; van Netten, Jaap J.

    2013-03-01

    Diabetic foot ulceration is a major complication for patients with diabetes mellitus. If not adequately treated, these ulcers may lead to foot infection, and ultimately to lower extremity amputation, which imposes a major burden to society and great loss in health-related quality of life for patients. Early identification and subsequent preventive treatment have proven useful to limit the incidence of foot ulcers and lower extremity amputation. Thus, the development of new diagnosis tools has become an attractive option. The ultimate objective of our project is to develop an intelligent telemedicine monitoring system for frequent examination on patients' feet, to timely detect pre-signs of ulceration. Inflammation in diabetic feet can be an early and predictive warning sign for ulceration, and temperature has been proven to be a vicarious marker for inflammation. Studies have indicated that infrared dermal thermography of foot soles can be one of the important parameters for assessing the risk of diabetic foot ulceration. This paper covers the feasibility study of using an infrared camera, FLIR SC305, in our setup, to acquire the spatial thermal distribution on the feet soles. With the obtained thermal images, automated detection through image analysis was performed to identify the abnormal increased/decreased temperature and assess the risk for ulceration. The thermography for feet soles of patients with diagnosed diabetic foot complications were acquired before the ordinary foot examinations. Assessment from clinicians and thermography were compared and follow-up measurements were performed to investigate the prediction. A preliminary case study will be presented, indicating that dermal thermography in our proposed setup can be a screening modality to timely detect pre-signs of ulceration.

  18. Effect of medial arterial calcification on O2 supply to exercising diabetic feet.

    PubMed

    Chantelau, E; Ma, X Y; Herrnberger, S; Dohmen, C; Trappe, P; Baba, T

    1990-08-01

    We investigated whether medial arterial calcification (MAC) impairs O2 supply to the exercising foot in diabetic patients with foot lesions. Transcutaneous O2 tension (tcPO2) was monitored at the dorsum of the foot before and after bicycle exercise in 11 diabetic patients with peripheral ischemic vascular disease (PIVD) with or without concomitant existence of MAC, 10 patients with MAC but without PIVD, 10 diabetic control subjects, and 6 nondiabetic control subjects. The mean preexercise tcPO2 level was comparable in these four groups. However, tcPO2 decreased significantly with exercise in feet with PIVD (mean +/- SE -17.9 +/- 2.7%, P less than 0.01, n = 11), regardless of presence or absence of vascular calcification. On the other hand, the value increased significantly with exercise in feet with MAC but without PIVD (21.2 +/- 3.5%, P less than 0.01, n = 10) and in those of diabetic control subjects (14.9 +/- 3.6%, P less than 0.01), respectively. The tcPO2 remained unchanged in the feet of nondiabetic control subjects (1.7 +/- 1.1%). The results suggest that MAC is not associated with reduced O2 supply to the exercising foot in diabetic patients.

  19. The tube feet of sea urchins and sea stars contain functionally different mutable collagenous tissues.

    PubMed

    Santos, Romana; Haesaerts, Delphine; Jangoux, Michel; Flammang, Patrick

    2005-06-01

    Echinoderms possess mutable collagenous tissues (MCTs), which are capable of undergoing rapid changes in their passive mechanical properties mediated by secretions from a specific cell type, the juxtaligamental cell. In this study, the possible presence of MCTs in the tube feet of the echinoid Paracentrotus lividus and the asteroid Marthasterias glacialis was investigated by measuring their extensibility, tensile strength, stiffness and toughness after different treatments known to influence the physiological state of MCTs. Calcium removal reversibly induced a significant plasticization of the tube feet of both species. When exposed to cell-disrupting solutions, the tube foot stem of sea urchins and sea stars showed a significant increase in strength, stiffness and toughness in the absence of calcium. This response, combined with the ultrastructural observation of juxtaligamental-like cells in the connective tissue, confirms that an MCT is present in both echinoid and asteroid tube feet. It was observed, however, that the tube foot stems of P. lividus and M. glacialis are affected differently by exposure to cell-disrupting solutions in the presence of calcium, indicating that their MCTs could be functionally different. In their soft state, MCTs could assist the muscles in tube foot protraction, bending and retraction; in their stiff state, they could play a role in the energy-sparing maintenance of position; for example, during strong attachment to the substratum to resist hydrodynamically generated loads.

  20. Foot reflexology in feet impairment of people with type 2 diabetes mellitus: randomized trial 1

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Natália Chantal Magalhães; Chaves, Érika de Cássia Lopes; de Carvalho, Emilia Campos; Carvalho, Leonardo César; Iunes, Denise Hollanda

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective: to evaluate the effect of foot reflexology on feet impairment of people with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Method: this is a randomized, controlled and blind clinical trial. The sample was comprised by people with type 2 diabetes mellitus who, after being randomized into Treated group (n = 21) and Control group (n = 24), received guidelines on foot self-care. To the Treated Group it was also provided 12 sessions of foot reflexology. The scores of impairment indicators related to skin and hair, blood circulation, tissue sensitivity and temperature were measured by means of the instrument for assessing tissue integrity of the feet of people with diabetes mellitus. Chi-square test, Fisher exact test, Mann-Whitney test and regression analyzes were applied to the data, considering a significance level of 5% (P value <0.05). Results: participants who received the therapy showed better scores in some impairment indicators related to skin and hair (hair growth, elasticity/turgor, hydration, perspiration, texture and integrity of the skin/ skin peeling). Conclusion: the foot reflexology had a beneficial effect on feet impairment of people with type 2 diabetes mellitus, which makes it a viable therapy, deserving investment. This study was registered in the Brazilian Registry of Clinical Trials - RBR-8zk8sz. PMID:26444161

  1. Spinal cord lesions shrink peripersonal space around the feet, passive mobilization of paraplegic limbs restores it.

    PubMed

    Scandola, Michele; Aglioti, Salvatore Maria; Bonente, Claudio; Avesani, Renato; Moro, Valentina

    2016-04-06

    Peripersonal space (PPS) is the space surrounding us within which we interact with objects. PPS may be modulated by actions (e.g. when using tools) or sense of ownership (e.g. over a rubber hand). Indeed, intense and/or prolonged use of a tool may induce a sense of ownership over it. Conversely, inducing ownership over a rubber hand may activate brain regions involved in motor control. However, the extent to which PPS is modulated by action-dependent or ownership-dependent mechanisms remains unclear. Here, we explored the PPS around the feet and the sense of ownership over lower limbs in people with Paraplegia following Complete spinal cord Lesions (PCL) and in healthy subjects. PCL people can move their upper body but have lost all sensory-motor functions in their lower body (e.g. lower limbs). We tested whether PPS alterations reflect the topographical representations of various body parts. We found that the PPS around the feet was impaired in PCL who however had a normal representation of the PPS around the hands. Significantly, passive mobilization of paraplegic limbs restored the PPS around the feet suggesting that activating action representations in PCL brings about short-term changes of PPS that may thus be more plastic than previously believed.

  2. Sex estimation using anthropometry of feet and footprints in a Western Australian population.

    PubMed

    Hemy, Naomi; Flavel, Ambika; Ishak, Nur-Intaniah; Franklin, Daniel

    2013-09-10

    An important component of forensic investigation is the identification of deceased (and increasingly living) individuals, which is often the role of the forensic anthropologist. One of the most valuable steps towards identification is via a biological profile, developed through the application of population specific standards. In disaster victim identification scenarios, fleshed feet are often recovered in footwear; footprints are another potential source of trace evidence found at crime scenes. In medico-legal investigations, feet and footprints can be useful for extrapolating living height, it is thus expedient to determine whether sex can be estimated from the same anthropometric data. The aim of the present study is to develop accurate sex estimation standards for a contemporary Western Australian population from measurements of the feet and footprints. The sample comprises 200 adults (90 males, 110 females). Three bilateral linear measurements were taken from each foot and seven bilateral measurements were acquired from static footprints obtained using a Podograph. A precision test was first conducted to assess data accuracy and reliability. Measurement data are then analysed using a range of parametric statistical tests. Results show that males were significantly (P<0.001) larger than females for all foot and footprint measurements; cross-validated sex classification accuracies ranged from 71% to 91%. Although in many instances the sex bias was large (>±5%), this study provides viable alternatives for estimating sex in Western Australian individuals with accuracy equivalent to established standards developed from foot bones.

  3. The Effect of Phase of Differential Vertical Vibration at the Seat and Feet on Discomfort

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jang, H.-K.; Griffin, J. M.

    1999-06-01

    This19991999 Academic PressAcademic Pressexperiment investigated whether the discomfort of seated subjects exposed to vertical vibration was influenced by the relative phase between vibration at the seat and the feet. Twelve seated subjects were exposed to sinusoidal 4 Hz vibration by means of two vibrators, one under the seat and the other under a footrest. A total of seventy combinations of vibration stimuli with seven phases (0, 30, 60, 90, 120, 150, 180°) between the seat and the footrest and five acceleration levels (0·25, 0·4, 0·63, 1·0, 1·6 ms-2r.m.s.) were presented to subjects in two postures (with and without thigh contact with the seat). The subjects judged that the differential vibrations with greater phase difference caused greater discomfort. The subjects were most sensitive to phase changes at low magnitudes of vibration and with thigh contact. In the equation, ψ =Copyright Kφn, between the discomfort, ψ, and the magnitude of vibration, φ, the exponentnhad a maximum of 1·48 with thigh contact and 1·24 with no thigh contact, and decreased to approximately 1·0 with increasing phase between the seat and the feet. The results indicate that vibration discomfort is influenced by the phase between the seat and the feet, but that the effect depends on the magnitude of vibration and the posture of the body.

  4. Spinal cord lesions shrink peripersonal space around the feet, passive mobilization of paraplegic limbs restores it

    PubMed Central

    Scandola, Michele; Aglioti, Salvatore Maria; Bonente, Claudio; Avesani, Renato; Moro, Valentina

    2016-01-01

    Peripersonal space (PPS) is the space surrounding us within which we interact with objects. PPS may be modulated by actions (e.g. when using tools) or sense of ownership (e.g. over a rubber hand). Indeed, intense and/or prolonged use of a tool may induce a sense of ownership over it. Conversely, inducing ownership over a rubber hand may activate brain regions involved in motor control. However, the extent to which PPS is modulated by action-dependent or ownership-dependent mechanisms remains unclear. Here, we explored the PPS around the feet and the sense of ownership over lower limbs in people with Paraplegia following Complete spinal cord Lesions (PCL) and in healthy subjects. PCL people can move their upper body but have lost all sensory-motor functions in their lower body (e.g. lower limbs). We tested whether PPS alterations reflect the topographical representations of various body parts. We found that the PPS around the feet was impaired in PCL who however had a normal representation of the PPS around the hands. Significantly, passive mobilization of paraplegic limbs restored the PPS around the feet suggesting that activating action representations in PCL brings about short-term changes of PPS that may thus be more plastic than previously believed. PMID:27049439

  5. Sex estimation using anthropometry of feet and footprints in a Western Australian population.

    PubMed

    Hemy, Naomi; Flavel, Ambika; Ishak, Nur-Intaniah; Franklin, Daniel

    2013-09-10

    An important component of forensic investigation is the identification of deceased (and increasingly living) individuals, which is often the role of the forensic anthropologist. One of the most valuable steps towards identification is via a biological profile, developed through the application of population specific standards. In disaster victim identification scenarios, fleshed feet are often recovered in footwear; footprints are another potential source of trace evidence found at crime scenes. In medico-legal investigations, feet and footprints can be useful for extrapolating living height, it is thus expedient to determine whether sex can be estimated from the same anthropometric data. The aim of the present study is to develop accurate sex estimation standards for a contemporary Western Australian population from measurements of the feet and footprints. The sample comprises 200 adults (90 males, 110 females). Three bilateral linear measurements were taken from each foot and seven bilateral measurements were acquired from static footprints obtained using a Podograph. A precision test was first conducted to assess data accuracy and reliability. Measurement data are then analysed using a range of parametric statistical tests. Results show that males were significantly (P<0.001) larger than females for all foot and footprint measurements; cross-validated sex classification accuracies ranged from 71% to 91%. Although in many instances the sex bias was large (>±5%), this study provides viable alternatives for estimating sex in Western Australian individuals with accuracy equivalent to established standards developed from foot bones. PMID:23806341

  6. Compressed-fit linings renews 3,700 feet of 20-in. cast iron pipe

    SciTech Connect

    1995-01-01

    Elizabethtown Gas Company and the Gas Research Institute (GRI) have successfully completed a project in Union, NJ, using the Swagelining process and set three records as a result. The 20-inch diameter medium-density polyethylene (MDPE) SDR-21 was the largest ever installed by this process in the U.S. Since one of the pulls was 980 feet, that set a new Swagelining world record, too. The third record was for the largest diameter electrofusion couplers (520mm) ever used to join PE pipe. The Swagelining process was specially developed by British Gas as a method of replacing its aging gas distribution network. Over six million feet have been installed worldwide and over 400,000 feet of that have been in the United States. The system uses polyethylene pipe that has an outside diameter slightly larger than the bore of the pipe to be renewed. the diameter of the PE pipe is temporarily reduced by a die, and then inserted into the old pipe. Once installed, the PE pipe expands to fit tightly against the old pipe. A full range of tapping, branching and connection methods has been developed to provide a total renewal system.

  7. Enhanced stress response by a bilateral feet compared to a unilateral hand Cold Pressor Test.

    PubMed

    Larra, Mauro F; Schilling, Thomas M; Röhrig, Philipp; Schächinger, Hartmut

    2015-01-01

    The Cold Pressor Test (CPT) is a frequently employed laboratory stress protocol. However, with many experimental designs the application in its classic form (immersion of the dominant hand into ice-water) is problematic as unilateral stimulation may need to be avoided and/or hands are required for further measurements. Here, we describe a simple modification of the classic CPT in which both feet are immersed into ice-water and compare the evoked neuroendocrine stress response to the classic CPT in a within-subjects design. Twenty-four healthy participants were exposed to each of both CPT versions on two subsequent days in randomized order. Heart rate, blood pressure, salivary alpha-amylase and cortisol were measured at baseline and during or after CPT exposition, respectively, along with subjective ratings of pain and stress. The bilateral feet CPT induced marked increases in all measured stress parameters. Moreover, with the exception of blood pressure, autonomic and endocrine responses were enhanced compared to the classic CPT. The bilateral feet CPT thus is a valid and simple modification and may be useful when the application of the classic CPT is unfeasible or a stronger neuroendocrine stress response is of interest. PMID:26123388

  8. "Your feet's too big": an inquiry into psychological and symbolic meanings of the foot.

    PubMed

    Zerbe, K J

    1985-01-01

    The foot is a highly cathected appendage that is commonly singled out as the brunt of humorous or derisive remarks, as if it embodies repugnance and disgust. Attitudes toward the foot are overdetermined, bearing the imprint of man's early linguistic patterns and individual dynamics. This article suggests that feet are symbolic because they bear the feelings derived from earlier separations, good and bad object representations, collective memories, and genital representations. The foot's role as symbol of both the male and female genitals, repository of badness, symbol of passivity, initiator of movement, and site of self-mutilation have been briefly reviewed. As Fats Waller rhapsodizes that the "feet's too big," he finds a convenient way to displace his symbiotic and erotic anxieties vis-à-vis women. Similarly, patients who come for psychiatric treatment and psychotherapy frequently make references to their feet or use them in specific ways. An understanding of this type of communication can often provide insight into individual dynamics and enhance treatment. The weight placed on these communications depends, of course, on the vicissitudes of the previous therapeutic work as well as on the particular problems of the patient. PMID:2413495

  9. Enhanced stress response by a bilateral feet compared to a unilateral hand Cold Pressor Test.

    PubMed

    Larra, Mauro F; Schilling, Thomas M; Röhrig, Philipp; Schächinger, Hartmut

    2015-01-01

    The Cold Pressor Test (CPT) is a frequently employed laboratory stress protocol. However, with many experimental designs the application in its classic form (immersion of the dominant hand into ice-water) is problematic as unilateral stimulation may need to be avoided and/or hands are required for further measurements. Here, we describe a simple modification of the classic CPT in which both feet are immersed into ice-water and compare the evoked neuroendocrine stress response to the classic CPT in a within-subjects design. Twenty-four healthy participants were exposed to each of both CPT versions on two subsequent days in randomized order. Heart rate, blood pressure, salivary alpha-amylase and cortisol were measured at baseline and during or after CPT exposition, respectively, along with subjective ratings of pain and stress. The bilateral feet CPT induced marked increases in all measured stress parameters. Moreover, with the exception of blood pressure, autonomic and endocrine responses were enhanced compared to the classic CPT. The bilateral feet CPT thus is a valid and simple modification and may be useful when the application of the classic CPT is unfeasible or a stronger neuroendocrine stress response is of interest.

  10. Massage and mobilization of the feet and ankles in elderly adults: effect on clinical balance performance.

    PubMed

    Vaillant, Jacques; Rouland, Audrey; Martigné, Pascale; Braujou, Renaud; Nissen, Michael J; Caillat-Miousse, Jean-Louis; Vuillerme, Nicolas; Nougier, Vincent; Juvin, Robert

    2009-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of a session of plantar massage and joint mobilization of the feet and ankles on clinical balance performance in elderly people. A randomized, placebo-controlled, cross-over trial was used to examine the immediate effects of manual massage and mobilization of the feet and ankles. Twenty-eight subjects, aged from 65 to 95 years (78.8+/-8.5 years - mean+/-SD) were recruited from community nursing homes. Main outcome measures were the performances in three tests: One Leg Balance (OLB) test, Timed Up and Go (TUG) test and Lateral Reach (LR) test. Results demonstrated a significant improvement after massage and mobilization compared with placebo for the OLB test (1.1+/-1.7s versus 0.4+/-1.2s, p<0.01) and the TUG test (0.9+/-2.6s versus 0.2+/-1.2s, p<0.05). Conversely, performances in the LR test did not improve significantly. These results emphasise the positive impact of a single session of manual therapy applied to the feet and ankles on balance in elderly subjects.

  11. 30 CFR 75.1200-2 - Accuracy and scale of mine maps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... more than 500 feet to the inch. (b) Mine traverses shall be advanced by closed loop methods of... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Accuracy and scale of mine maps. 75.1200-2... SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Maps § 75.1200-2 Accuracy and...

  12. 30 CFR 75.1200-2 - Accuracy and scale of mine maps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... more than 500 feet to the inch. (b) Mine traverses shall be advanced by closed loop methods of... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Accuracy and scale of mine maps. 75.1200-2... SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Maps § 75.1200-2 Accuracy and...

  13. 30 CFR 75.1200-2 - Accuracy and scale of mine maps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... more than 500 feet to the inch. (b) Mine traverses shall be advanced by closed loop methods of... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Accuracy and scale of mine maps. 75.1200-2... SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Maps § 75.1200-2 Accuracy and...

  14. 30 CFR 75.1200-2 - Accuracy and scale of mine maps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... more than 500 feet to the inch. (b) Mine traverses shall be advanced by closed loop methods of... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Accuracy and scale of mine maps. 75.1200-2... SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Maps § 75.1200-2 Accuracy and...

  15. 30 CFR 75.1200-2 - Accuracy and scale of mine maps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... more than 500 feet to the inch. (b) Mine traverses shall be advanced by closed loop methods of... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Accuracy and scale of mine maps. 75.1200-2... SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Maps § 75.1200-2 Accuracy and...

  16. Mirror image duplication of the hands and feet: report of a sporadic case with multiple congenital anomalies.

    PubMed

    Hersh, J H; Dela Cruz, T V; Pietrantoni, M; von Drasek-Ascher, G; Turnquest, M A; Yacoub, O A; Joyce, M R

    1995-11-20

    Mirror image duplication of the hands and feet is a rare entity. Based on 3 previous reports, findings include nasal abnormalities, dimelia of ulna and fibula, tibial hypoplasia and mirror image duplication of hands and feet. We report on a sporadic case in which mirror image duplication was associated with multiple congenital anomalies. Although these cases may represent variable expression of the same dominantly transmitted complex polysyndactyly syndrome, it is possible that mirror image duplication of the hands and feet is a manifestation common to a number of distinct clinical entities. During limb bud development, duplication and aberrant positioning of the zone of polarizing activity in relation to the apical ectodermal ridge may account for the anatomic abnormalities of the hands and feet in these patients. PMID:8599358

  17. Millimeter Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harvill, Leo M.

    This absolute scale contains nine times, each of which consists of a 100 millimeter vertical line with small division marks every 25 millimeters with the words "high" at the top and "low" at the bottom of the line. Above each of the vertical lines is a word or phrase. For the second grade scale these words are: arithmetic, counting, adding,…

  18. Activity Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerpelman, Larry C.; Weiner, Michael J.

    This twenty-four item scale assesses students' actual and desired political-social activism in terms of physical participation, communication activities, and information-gathering activities. About ten minutes are required to complete the instrument. The scale is divided into two subscales. The first twelve items (ACT-A) question respondents on…

  19. Pathfinder aircraft liftoff on altitude record setting flight of 71,500 feet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    The Pathfinder aircraft has set a new unofficial world record for high-altitude flight of over 71,500 feet for solar-powered aircraft at the U.S. Navy's Pacific Missile Range Facility, Kauai, Hawaii. Pathfinder was designed and manufactured by AeroVironment, Inc, of Simi Valley, California, and was operated by the firm under a jointly sponsored research agreement with NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. Pathfinder's record-breaking flight occurred July 7, 1997. The aircraft took off at 11:34 a.m. PDT, passed its previous record altitude of 67,350 feet at about 5:45 p.m. and then reached its new record altitude at 7 p.m. The mission ended with a perfect nighttime landing at 2:05 a.m. PDT July 8. The new record is the highest altitude ever attained by a propellor-driven aircraft. Before Pathfinder, the altitude record for propellor-driven aircraft was 67,028 feet, set by the experimental Boeing Condor remotely piloted aircraft. Pathfinder was a lightweight, solar-powered, remotely piloted flying wing aircraft used to demonstrate the use of solar power for long-duration, high-altitude flight. Its name denotes its mission as the 'Pathfinder' or first in a series of solar-powered aircraft that will be able to remain airborne for weeks or months on scientific sampling and imaging missions. Solar arrays covered most of the upper wing surface of the Pathfinder aircraft. These arrays provided up to 8,000 watts of power at high noon on a clear summer day. That power fed the aircraft's six electric motors as well as its avionics, communications, and other electrical systems. Pathfinder also had a backup battery system that could provide power for two to five hours, allowing for limited-duration flight after dark. Pathfinder flew at airspeeds of only 15 to 20 mph. Pitch control was maintained by using tiny elevators on the trailing edge of the wing while turns and yaw control were accomplished by slowing down or speeding up the motors on the outboard

  20. A High Percentage of Beef Bull Pictures in Semen Catalogues Have Feet and Lower Legs that Are Not Visible

    PubMed Central

    Franks, Marcy K.; Grandin, Temple

    2015-01-01

    Simple Summary When cattle breeders purchase semen from a website, the only way they can visually appraise a bull’s conformation is by looking at his photograph. Correct foot and leg structure is important to help reduce lameness. Only 19.4% of the bull pictures on four major websites had fully visible feet and lower legs. A possible explanation for this may be deliberate covering of feet and legs with photo editing software to cover up conformation defects. Visibility of feet and lower legs would help semen buyers avoid bulls with obvious feet or leg problems. Abstract A total of 1379 beef bull pictures were surveyed to determine visibility of feet and legs from four American semen company websites. Five different breeds were represented: Angus, Red Angus, Hereford (polled and horned), Simmental, and Charolais. In addition to visibility, data on other variables were collected to establish frequencies and correlations. These included breed, color, material that obscured visibility, such as grass, picture taken at livestock show or outside, semen company, photographer, video, and age of bull. A foot and leg visibility score was given to each bull picture. Only 19.4% of the pictures had fully visible feet and legs. Both the hooves and dewclaws were hidden on 32.5% of the pictures. Correlation between bull’s birthdate and the first four visibility scores was statistically significant (P < 0.0001). As age increased the feet and legs were more likely to be visible in the bull’s picture. This may possibly be due to greater availability of both photo editing software and digital photography. One positive finding was that 6% of the bulls had a video of the bull walking which completely showed his feet and legs. PMID:26479372

  1. The effects of foot orthosis on the gait ability of college students in their 20s with flat feet.

    PubMed

    Seo, Kyo Chul; Park, Kwang Yong

    2014-10-01

    [Purpose] This study examined the effects of foot orthosis on the gait ability of college students in their 20s with flat feet. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were 20 college students who had been diagnosed with flat feet. The subjects' step time, step length, stride time, stride length, and gait velocity were measured using the VICON Motion System (Vicon, Oxford, UK) prior to and while wearing foot orthoses. The resulting data were analyzed using SPSS v. 12.0. [Results] The subject's step time and stride time significantly decreased for both feet after they began using foot orthosis, and stride length and gait velocity significantly increased in both feet orthosis; however, step length did not significantly increase on either side. [Conclusions] College students with flat feet saw an improvement in elements of their gait while using the foot orthosis. The results of this study verified that students with flat feet might walk more efficiently if they received active gait training via long-term use of foot orthosis.

  2. Prosthetic Feet

    MedlinePlus

    « View More Amputee Coalition Publications Click here for optional PDF format. Requires Adobe Acrobat Reader Text size Larger text Smaller text ... no single foot that is perfect for every amputee. You and your doctor or prosthetist should choose ...

  3. Flat feet

    MedlinePlus

    ... holding the joints in the foot together (called tendons) are loose. The tissues tighten and form an ... in some people. Some hereditary conditions cause loose tendons. Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome Marfan Syndrome People born with ...

  4. Aerodynamic performance of a scale-model, counter-rotating unducted fan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sullivan, Thomas J.

    1987-01-01

    The aerodynamic performance of a scale model, counter-rotating unducted fan has been determined and the results are discussed. Experimental investigations were conducted using the scale model propulsor simulator and uniquely shaped fan blades. The blades, designed for a high disk loading at Mach 0.72 at 35,000 feet altitude maximum climb condition are aft-mounted on the simulator in a pusher configuration. Data are compared with analytical predictions at the design point and show good agreement.

  5. Neurological manifestations in chronic mountain sickness: the burning feet-burning hands syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, P; King, R; Feng, S; Muddle, J; Workman, J; Gamboa, J; Tapia, R; Vargas, M; Appenzeller, O

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To characterise the clinical features and nerve biopsy findings in patients with chronic mountain sickness (CMS) living in the Peruvian Andes, with particular attention to the occurrence of the "burning feet-burning hands" syndrome.
METHODS—Symptoms and signs were documented clinically in 10 patients with CMS and compared with those in five healthy subjects all living at 4338 metres altitude. Sural nerve biopsies were obtained from three patients with CMS.The nerve fibre population and endoneurial microvessels were analyzed morphometrically.
RESULTS—All patients with CMS experienced burning and tingling paraesthesiae in the distal parts of their limbs. Similar but milder symptoms confined to the feet occurred in four of five controls. Three patients with CMS had a mild sensory neuropathy on examination, controls were clinically normal. Nerve biopsies showed a mild demyelinating neuropathy in all three with a reduction in the unmyelinated axon population in one. The endoneurial blood vessels showed a reduced thickness in the basal laminal zone compared with control values but were otherwise normal.
CONCLUSIONS—Apart from well recognised symptoms and signs of CMS, the study has shown that such patients may also exhibit a mild sensory neuropathy. Its relation to the burning feet-burning hands syndrome, which was not confined to the patients but was also found in controls at altitude, is uncertain. The time course and pattern of the centrifugal resolution of the burning paraesthesiae complex on low altitude sojourn of high altitude natives raises the possibility that a mechanism involving altered axonal transport may be involved. The reduced thickness of the basal laminal zone of microvessels implies that adaptive structural changes to hypobaric hypoxia may also occur in peripheral nerve and are similar to those reported in other tissues of high altitude natives.

 PMID:10990502

  6. The first time ever I saw your feet: inversion effect in newborns' sensitivity to biological motion.

    PubMed

    Bardi, Lara; Regolin, Lucia; Simion, Francesca

    2014-04-01

    Inversion effect in biological motion perception has been recently attributed to an innate sensitivity of the visual system to the gravity-dependent dynamic of the motion. However, the specific cues that determine the inversion effect in naïve subjects were never investigated. In the present study, we have assessed the contribution of the local gravity-dependent motion (i.e., the orientation of individual dot trajectories) and the global configuration (i.e., the vertical location of the dots representing the feet within the display) in determining the inversion effect for biological motion in humans at birth. Results showed that 2-day-old newborns, at their 1st exposure to point-light displays, preferred a biological motion stimulus representing the legs of a walking animal compared with an identical display in which individual dot trajectories were locally inverted so that the motion violates the gravity force (Experiment 1). Interestingly, the global configuration affected the analysis of the gravity-dependent profile of dots motion. Indeed, the spontaneous preference disappeared when the local dots representing feet were embedded in a more complex global display and all the dots representing feet were located on the ground below the rest of the body (Experiment 2). Finally, results revealed that the orientation of the global configuration per se is not a crucial factor in determining newborns' preference (Experiment 3). These results suggest that humans possess an inborn predisposition about the direction of the gravity force that imprints biological motion and supports the hypothesis that a mechanism for the detection of biological motion is already at work before visual experience.

  7. Correcting of pronated feet reduce skeletal muscle injury in young women with biomechanical abnormalities

    PubMed Central

    Tulaar, Angela B. M.; Immanuel, Suzana; Purba, A.; Mansyur, Muchtaruddin; Haryadi, Ratna Darjanti; Hadisoebroto, Ismail; Husni, Amin; Ibrahim, Nurhadi

    2016-01-01

    Biomechanical abnormalities of pronated feet accompanied by functional leg length disparity may increase the risk of skeletal muscle injury. Objective of the study is to prove that correction of pronated feet by the foot orthoses will reduce the creatine kinase-MM (CK-MM) concentrations as the muscle injury indicator. The design study was double blind randomized clinical trials with control. Research subjects were divided into two groups, group 1 used the foot orthoses while group 2 did not used the foot orthoses. The whole subject examined the concentrations of the CK-MM enzyme before, and 24–72 hours after the walking test. The walking test was conducted 15 minutes with maximum speed. The concentration of the CK-MM enzyme before walking test on treatment group was 70.07±15.33 International Unit (IU), similar with the control group was 69.85±17.03 IU (P=0.971). The increased in CK-MM enzyme concentrations 45 hours after the walking test was lower in the treatment group (7.8±9 IU) than the control group (22.0±11.5 IU) (P=0.001). The CK-MM enzyme concentrations continued to decline in the treatment group after the second walking test (77.21±17.47 IU), and after the third walking test (69.86±11.88 IU) (P=0.018). The foot orthoses for correcting the pronated feet on the young women with biomechanical abnormalities is able to reduce the degree of the skeletal muscle injury after walking activity. PMID:27051564

  8. Secretory end-feet, extracerebral cells, and cerebral sense organs in certain limicole oligochaete annelids.

    PubMed

    Golding, D W; Whittle, A C

    1975-01-01

    Secretory end-feet (or SEF) systems are present in Limnodrilus and Stylodrilus but are less highly organized than those of polychaetes. SEF contain secretory vesicles and abundant mitochondria. Typical neurosecretory terminals are not found within the brain although "neurosecretory" perikarya are present in all four species studied. In Limnodrilus, Stylodrilus and Enchytraeus extracerebral cells, of probable neurosecretory function, are invested by the pericapsular epithelium. Characteristically such cells bear several cilia. In these species and in Stylaria a pair of sensory cell groups is located anteriorly within the brain. These cells are ciliated but lack associated supporting cells. PMID:170709

  9. 18. DETAIL OF HEAD GATE ABOUT 1,100 FEET NORTH OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. DETAIL OF HEAD GATE ABOUT 1,100 FEET NORTH OF 7TH AVENUE (SECTION 35), SHOWING CHANNEL IN WIHCH GATE WAS RAISED AND LOWERED. - Highline Canal, Sand Creek Lateral, Beginning at intersection of Peoria Street & Highline Canal in Arapahoe County (City of Aurora), Sand Creek lateral Extends 15 miles Northerly through Araphoe County, City & County of Denver, & Adams County to its end point, approximately 1/4 mile Southest of intersectioin of D Street & Ninth Avenue in Adams County (Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Commerce City Vicinity), Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  10. [Occurrence of dermatophyte, in nails, feet and hands of university students].

    PubMed

    Siqueira, Emersom Roberto; Ferreira, Joseane Cristina; Maffei, Claudia Maria Leite; Candido, Regina Celia

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this paper was to evaluate the occurrence of dermatophytes, specifically in the nails, feet and hands of university students with and without lesions. Two hundred and eighty samples were collected; 31 (11.1%) were positive by direct examination, while only 20 (7.1%) showed dermatophyte growth in culture, as well as direct positive examination. Trichophyton rubrum was the most frequently isolated (80%) dermatophyte followed by T. mentagrophytes (20%). Considering the sites analyzed, dermatophyte occurrence was: 10.4% in toenails, 5% in foot skin, 2.5% in fingernails and 0.4% in hand skin.

  11. Scale interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snow, John T.

    Since the time of the first world war, investigation of synoptic processes has been a major focus of atmospheric research. These are the physical processes that drive the continuously evolving pattern of high and low pressure centers and attendant frontal boundaries that are to be seen on continental-scale weather maps. This effort has been motivated both by a spirit of scientific inquiry and by a desire to improve operational weather forecasting by national meteorological services. These national services in turn have supported the development of a global observational network that provides the data required for both operational and research purposes. As a consequence of this research, there now exists a reasonable physical understanding of many of the phenomena found at this synoptic scale. This understanding is reflected in the numerical weather forecast models used by the national services. These have shown significant skill in predicting the evolution of synoptic-scale features for periods extending out to five days.

  12. Scaling Rules!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malkinson, Dan; Wittenberg, Lea

    2015-04-01

    Scaling is a fundamental issue in any spatially or temporally hierarchical system. Defining domains and identifying the boundaries of the hierarchical levels may be a challenging task. Hierarchical systems may be broadly classified to two categories: compartmental and continuous ones. Examples of compartmental systems include: governments, companies, computerized networks, biological taxonomy and others. In such systems the compartments, and hence the various levels and their constituents are easily delineated. In contrast, in continuous systems, such as geomorphological, ecological or climatological ones, detecting the boundaries of the various levels may be difficult. We propose that in continuous hierarchical systems a transition from one functional scale to another is associated with increased system variance. Crossing from a domain of one scale to the domain of another is associated with a transition or substitution of the dominant drivers operating in the system. Accordingly we suggest that crossing this boundary is characterized by increased variance, or a "variance leap", which stabilizes, until crossing to the next domain or hierarchy level. To assess this we compiled sediment yield data from studies conducted at various spatial scales and from different environments. The studies were partitioned to ones conducted in undisturbed environments, and those conducted in disturbed environments, specifically by wildfires. The studies were conducted in plots as small as 1 m2, and watersheds larger than 555000 ha. Regressing sediment yield against plot size, and incrementally calculating the variance in the systems, enabled us to detect domains where variance values were exceedingly high. We propose that at these domains scale-crossing occurs, and the systems transition from one hierarchical level to another. Moreover, the degree of the "variance leaps" characterizes the degree of connectivity among the scales.

  13. An increased fluid intake leads to feet swelling in 100-km ultra-marathoners - an observational field study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background An association between fluid intake and changes in volumes of the upper and lower limb has been described in 100-km ultra-marathoners. The purpose of the present study was (i) to investigate the association between fluid intake and a potential development of peripheral oedemas leading to an increase of the feet volume in 100-km ultra-marathoners and (ii) to evaluate a possible association between the changes in plasma sodium concentration ([Na+]) and changes in feet volume. Methods In seventy-six 100-km ultra-marathoners, body mass, plasma [Na+], haematocrit and urine specific gravity were determined pre- and post-race. Fluid intake and the changes of volume of the feet were measured where the changes of volume of the feet were estimated using plethysmography. Results Body mass decreased by 1.8 kg (2.4%) (p < 0.0001); plasma [Na+] increased by 1.2% (p < 0.0001). Haematocrit decreased (p = 0.0005). The volume of the feet remained unchanged (p > 0.05). Plasma volume and urine specific gravity increased (p < 0.0001). Fluid intake was positively related to the change in the volume of the feet (r = 0.54, p < 0.0001) and negatively to post-race plasma [Na+] (r = -0.28, p = 0.0142). Running speed was negatively related to both fluid intake (r = -0.33, p = 0.0036) and the change in feet volume (r = -0.23, p = 0.0236). The change in the volume of the feet was negatively related to the change in plasma [Na+] (r = -0.26, p = 0.0227). The change in body mass was negatively related to both post-race plasma [Na+] (r = -0.28, p = 0.0129) and running speed (r = -0.34, p = 0.0028). Conclusions An increase in feet volume after a 100-km ultra-marathon was due to an increased fluid intake. PMID:22472466

  14. Use of a novel smart heating sleeping bag to improve wearers' local thermal comfort in the feet.

    PubMed

    Song, W F; Zhang, C J; Lai, D D; Wang, F M; Kuklane, K

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have revealed that wearers had low skin temperatures and cold and pain sensations in the feet, when using sleeping bags under defined comfort and limit temperatures. To improve wearers' local thermal comfort in the feet, a novel heating sleeping bag (i.e., MARHT) was developed by embedding two heating pads into the traditional sleeping bag (i.e., MARCON) in this region. Seven female and seven male volunteers underwent two tests on different days. Each test lasted for three hours and was performed in a climate chamber with a setting temperature deduced from EN 13537 (2012) (for females: comfort temperature of -0.4 °C, and for males: the limit temperature of -6.4 °C). MARHT was found to be effective in maintaining the toe and feet temperatures within the thermoneutral range for both sex groups compared to the linearly decreased temperatures in MARCON during the 3-hour exposure. In addition, wearing MARHT elevated the toe blood flow significantly for most females and all males. Thermal and comfort sensations showed a large improvement in feet and a small to moderate improvement in the whole body for both sex groups in MARHT. It was concluded that MARHT is effective in improving local thermal comfort in the feet. PMID:26759077

  15. Use of a novel smart heating sleeping bag to improve wearers’ local thermal comfort in the feet

    PubMed Central

    Song, W. F.; Zhang, C. J.; Lai, D. D.; Wang, F. M.; Kuklane, K.

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have revealed that wearers had low skin temperatures and cold and pain sensations in the feet, when using sleeping bags under defined comfort and limit temperatures. To improve wearers’ local thermal comfort in the feet, a novel heating sleeping bag (i.e., MARHT) was developed by embedding two heating pads into the traditional sleeping bag (i.e., MARCON) in this region. Seven female and seven male volunteers underwent two tests on different days. Each test lasted for three hours and was performed in a climate chamber with a setting temperature deduced from EN 13537 (2012) (for females: comfort temperature of −0.4 °C, and for males: the limit temperature of −6.4 °C). MARHT was found to be effective in maintaining the toe and feet temperatures within the thermoneutral range for both sex groups compared to the linearly decreased temperatures in MARCON during the 3-hour exposure. In addition, wearing MARHT elevated the toe blood flow significantly for most females and all males. Thermal and comfort sensations showed a large improvement in feet and a small to moderate improvement in the whole body for both sex groups in MARHT. It was concluded that MARHT is effective in improving local thermal comfort in the feet. PMID:26759077

  16. Scaling satan.

    PubMed

    Wilson, K M; Huff, J L

    2001-05-01

    The influence on social behavior of beliefs in Satan and the nature of evil has received little empirical study. Elaine Pagels (1995) in her book, The Origin of Satan, argued that Christians' intolerance toward others is due to their belief in an active Satan. In this study, more than 200 college undergraduates completed the Manitoba Prejudice Scale and the Attitudes Toward Homosexuals Scale (B. Altemeyer, 1988), as well as the Belief in an Active Satan Scale, developed by the authors. The Belief in an Active Satan Scale demonstrated good internal consistency and temporal stability. Correlational analyses revealed that for the female participants, belief in an active Satan was directly related to intolerance toward lesbians and gay men and intolerance toward ethnic minorities. For the male participants, belief in an active Satan was directly related to intolerance toward lesbians and gay men but was not significantly related to intolerance toward ethnic minorities. Results of this research showed that it is possible to meaningfully measure belief in an active Satan and that such beliefs may encourage intolerance toward others.

  17. Scaling satan.

    PubMed

    Wilson, K M; Huff, J L

    2001-05-01

    The influence on social behavior of beliefs in Satan and the nature of evil has received little empirical study. Elaine Pagels (1995) in her book, The Origin of Satan, argued that Christians' intolerance toward others is due to their belief in an active Satan. In this study, more than 200 college undergraduates completed the Manitoba Prejudice Scale and the Attitudes Toward Homosexuals Scale (B. Altemeyer, 1988), as well as the Belief in an Active Satan Scale, developed by the authors. The Belief in an Active Satan Scale demonstrated good internal consistency and temporal stability. Correlational analyses revealed that for the female participants, belief in an active Satan was directly related to intolerance toward lesbians and gay men and intolerance toward ethnic minorities. For the male participants, belief in an active Satan was directly related to intolerance toward lesbians and gay men but was not significantly related to intolerance toward ethnic minorities. Results of this research showed that it is possible to meaningfully measure belief in an active Satan and that such beliefs may encourage intolerance toward others. PMID:11577971

  18. 46 CFR 122.282 - Logbook for vessels of more than 19.8 meters (65 feet) in length with overnight accommodations...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Logbook for vessels of more than 19.8 meters (65 feet... Voyage Records § 122.282 Logbook for vessels of more than 19.8 meters (65 feet) in length with overnight..., the owner, managing operator, or master of a vessel of more than 19.8 meters (65 feet) in length...

  19. 46 CFR 177.315 - Vessels of not more than 19.8 meters (65 feet) in length carrying not more than 12 passengers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Vessels of not more than 19.8 meters (65 feet) in length... Structure § 177.315 Vessels of not more than 19.8 meters (65 feet) in length carrying not more than 12 passengers. The scantlings for a vessel of not more than 19.8 meters (65 feet) in length carrying not...

  20. 46 CFR 177.315 - Vessels of not more than 19.8 meters (65 feet) in length carrying not more than 12 passengers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Vessels of not more than 19.8 meters (65 feet) in length... Structure § 177.315 Vessels of not more than 19.8 meters (65 feet) in length carrying not more than 12 passengers. The scantlings for a vessel of not more than 19.8 meters (65 feet) in length carrying not...

  1. 46 CFR 122.282 - Logbook for vessels of more than 19.8 meters (65 feet) in length with overnight accommodations...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Logbook for vessels of more than 19.8 meters (65 feet... Voyage Records § 122.282 Logbook for vessels of more than 19.8 meters (65 feet) in length with overnight..., the owner, managing operator, or master of a vessel of more than 19.8 meters (65 feet) in length...

  2. 46 CFR 177.315 - Vessels of not more than 19.8 meters (65 feet) in length carrying not more than 12 passengers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Vessels of not more than 19.8 meters (65 feet) in length... Structure § 177.315 Vessels of not more than 19.8 meters (65 feet) in length carrying not more than 12 passengers. The scantlings for a vessel of not more than 19.8 meters (65 feet) in length carrying not...

  3. 46 CFR 177.315 - Vessels of not more than 19.8 meters (65 feet) in length carrying not more than 12 passengers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Vessels of not more than 19.8 meters (65 feet) in length... Structure § 177.315 Vessels of not more than 19.8 meters (65 feet) in length carrying not more than 12 passengers. The scantlings for a vessel of not more than 19.8 meters (65 feet) in length carrying not...

  4. 46 CFR 122.282 - Logbook for vessels of more than 19.8 meters (65 feet) in length with overnight accommodations...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Logbook for vessels of more than 19.8 meters (65 feet... Voyage Records § 122.282 Logbook for vessels of more than 19.8 meters (65 feet) in length with overnight..., the owner, managing operator, or master of a vessel of more than 19.8 meters (65 feet) in length...

  5. 46 CFR 122.282 - Logbook for vessels of more than 19.8 meters (65 feet) in length with overnight accommodations...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Logbook for vessels of more than 19.8 meters (65 feet... Voyage Records § 122.282 Logbook for vessels of more than 19.8 meters (65 feet) in length with overnight..., the owner, managing operator, or master of a vessel of more than 19.8 meters (65 feet) in length...

  6. 46 CFR 122.282 - Logbook for vessels of more than 19.8 meters (65 feet) in length with overnight accommodations...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Logbook for vessels of more than 19.8 meters (65 feet... Voyage Records § 122.282 Logbook for vessels of more than 19.8 meters (65 feet) in length with overnight..., the owner, managing operator, or master of a vessel of more than 19.8 meters (65 feet) in length...

  7. 46 CFR 177.315 - Vessels of not more than 19.8 meters (65 feet) in length carrying not more than 12 passengers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Vessels of not more than 19.8 meters (65 feet) in length... Structure § 177.315 Vessels of not more than 19.8 meters (65 feet) in length carrying not more than 12 passengers. The scantlings for a vessel of not more than 19.8 meters (65 feet) in length carrying not...

  8. Inflammatory response study of gellan gum impregnated duck's feet derived collagen sponges.

    PubMed

    Song, Jeong Eun; Lee, Seon Eui; Cha, Se Rom; Jang, Na Keum; Tripathy, Nirmalya; Reis, Rui L; Khang, Gilson

    2016-10-01

    Tissue engineered biomaterials have biodegradable and biocompatible properties. In this study, we have fabricated sponges using duck's feet derived collagen (DC) and gellan gum (GG), and further studied its inflammatory responses. The as-prepared duck's feet DC/GG sponges showed the possibility of application as a tissue engineering material through in vitro and in vivo experiments. The physical and chemical properties of sponges were characterized by compression strength, porosity, and scanning electron microscopy, etc. In vitro cell viability were investigated using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5 diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. An inflammatory response was studied after seeding RAW264.7 cells on as-fabricated sponges using reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. In vivo studies were carried out by implanting in subcutaneous nude mouse followed by extraction, histological staining. Collectively, superior results were showed by DC/GG sponges than GG sponge in terms of physical property and cell proliferation and thus can be considered as a potential candidate for future tissue engineering applications.

  9. May bone cement be used to treat benign aggressive bone tumors of the feet with confidence?

    PubMed

    Özer, Devrim; Er, Turgay; Aycan, Osman Emre; Öke, Ramadan; Coşkun, Mehmet; Kabukçuoğlu, Yavuz Selim

    2014-03-01

    Using bone cement for the reconstruction of defects created after curettage of benign aggressive bone tumors is among acceptable methods. The study aimed to assess the effect of bone cement used in aggressive bone tumors in the feet on the function of the feet. Five patients were reviewed. They were treated between 2004 and 2010. Three cases were female and two male. Their age ranged from 16 to 55 with an average of 34.8. Follow up period ranged from 14 to 86 months with an average of 34. Two cases were giant cell tumor of bone located in calcaneus and 3 were solid variant aneurysmal bone cyst located in talus, navicular and first proximal phalanx. None had any previous treatment. A biopsy was done in all cases. Treatment was curettage, high speed burring (except phalanx case), and filling the cavity with bone cement. The case located in talus recurred and re-operated 1 year later doing the same procedure. Final evaluation included physical examination, X-ray and Maryland Foot Score. No recurrence was present in the final evaluation. No problems were detected related to bone cement. Maryland Foot Scores ranged 84-100, average of 94. Cement integrity was not disturbed. The procedure is found not to effect foot functions adversely.

  10. Immediate effects of kinematic taping on lower extremity muscle tone and stiffness in flexible flat feet

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Joong-San; Um, Gi-Mai; Choi, Jung-Hyun

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to examine the immediate effects of kinematic taping on the tone and stiffness in the leg muscles of subjects with flexible flat feet. [Subjects and Methods] A total of 30 subjects, 15 in the kinematic taping and 15 in the sham taping group, were administered respective taping interventions. Subsequently, the foot pressure and the tone and stiffness in the tibialis anterior, rectus femoris, medial gastrocnemius, and the long head of the biceps femoris muscles of both the lower extremities were measured. [Results] The foot pressure of the dominant leg significantly decreased in the kinematic taping group. The muscle tone and stiffness in the rectus femoris muscle of the dominant and non-dominant leg, tibialis anterior muscle of the dominant leg, medial gastrocnemius muscle of the non-dominant leg, and the stiffness in the dominant leg significantly decreased. The muscle tone and stiffness generally increased in the sham taping group. However, no significant difference was observed between the 2 groups. [Conclusion] This study demonstrated that kinematic taping on flexible flat feet had positive effects of immediately reducing the abnormally increased foot pressure and the tone and stiffness in the lower extremity muscles. PMID:27190479

  11. Precise and feasible measurements of lateral calcaneal lengthening osteotomies by radiostereometric analysis in cadaver feet

    PubMed Central

    Martinkevich, P.; Rahbek, O.; Møller-Madsen, B.; Søballe, K.; Stilling, M.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Lengthening osteotomies of the calcaneus in children are in general grafted with bone from the iliac crest. Artificial bone grafts have been introduced, however, their structural and clinical durability has not been documented. Radiostereometric analysis (RSA) is a very accurate and precise method for measurements of rigid body movements including the evaluation of joint implant and fracture stability, however, RSA has not previously been used in clinical studies of calcaneal osteotomies. We assessed the precision of RSA as a measurement tool in a lateral calcaneal lengthening osteotomy (LCLO). Methods LCLO was performed in six fixed adult cadaver feet. Tantalum markers were inserted on each side of the osteotomy and in the cuboideum. Lengthening was done with a plexiglas wedge. A total of 24 radiological double examinations were obtained. Two feet were excluded due to loose and poorly dispersed markers. Precision was assessed as systematic bias and 95% repeatability limits. Results Systematic bias was generally below 0.10 mm for translations. Precision of migration measurements was below 0.2 mm for translations in the osteotomy. Conclusion RSA is a precise tool for the evaluation of stability in LCLO. Cite this article: Bone Joint Res 2015;4:78–83. PMID:25957380

  12. A rectangle-type linear ultrasonic motor using longitudinal vibration transducers with four driving feet.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yingxiang; Chen, Weishan; Liu, Junkao; Shi, Shengjun

    2013-04-01

    To make full use of the vibrational energy of a longitudinal transducer, a rectangle-type linear ultrasonic motor with four driving feet is proposed in this paper. This new motor consists of four longitudinal vibration transducers which are arranged in a rectangle and form an enclosed construction. Lead zirconate titanate ceramics are embedded into the middle of the transducer and fastened by a wedge-caulking mechanism. Each transducer includes an exponentially shaped horn located on each end. The horns of the vertical transducers intersect at the base of the horizontal transducers' horns; the tip ends of the horizontal transducers' horns are used as the driving feet. Longitudinal vibrations are superimposed in the motor and generate elliptical movements at the tip ends of the horns. The working principle of the proposed motor is analyzed. The resonance frequencies of two working modes are tuned to be close to each other by adjusting the structural parameters. Transient analysis is developed to gain the vibration characteristics of the motor. A prototype motor is fabricated and measured. The vibration test results verify the feasibility of the proposed design. Typical output of the prototype is a no-load speed of 928 mm/s and maximum thrust force of 60 N at a voltage of 200 Vrms.

  13. Superhydrophobic gecko feet with high adhesive forces towards water and their bio-inspired materials.

    PubMed

    Liu, Kesong; Du, Jiexing; Wu, Juntao; Jiang, Lei

    2012-02-01

    Functional integration is an inherent characteristic for multiscale structures of biological materials. In this contribution, we first investigate the liquid-solid adhesive forces between water droplets and superhydrophobic gecko feet using a high-sensitivity micro-electromechanical balance system. It was found, in addition to the well-known solid-solid adhesion, the gecko foot, with a multiscale structure, possesses both superhydrophobic functionality and a high adhesive force towards water. The origin of the high adhesive forces of gecko feet to water could be attributed to the high density nanopillars that contact the water. Inspired by this, polyimide films with gecko-like multiscale structures were constructed by using anodic aluminum oxide templates, exhibiting superhydrophobicity and a strong adhesive force towards water. The static water contact angle is larger than 150° and the adhesive force to water is about 66 μN. The resultant gecko-inspired polyimide film can be used as a "mechanical hand" to snatch micro-liter liquids. We expect this work will provide the inspiration to reveal the mechanism of the high-adhesive superhydrophobic of geckos and extend the practical applications of polyimide materials.

  14. Is starting with the feet out of the water faster in backstroke swimming?

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Cecilia; Bradshaw, Elizabeth J; Pease, David; Wilson, Cameron

    2014-06-01

    This study aimed to determine if starting with the feet above the water (FAW) in male backstroke swimming resulted in faster start times (15-m time) than when the feet were underwater (FUW). It was hypothesised that setting higher on the wall would generate increased horizontal force and velocity, resulting in quicker starts. Twelve high-level male backstrokers performed three trials of the FAW and FUW techniques. A biomechanical swimming testing system comprising one force plate (1,000 Hz), four lateral-view (100Hz), and five overhead (50Hz) video cameras captured the swimmers' performance. Data for each participant's fastest trial for each technique were collated, grouped, and statistically analysed. Analysis included Wilcoxon, Spearman Rho correlation, and regression analysis. Wilcoxon results revealed a significantly faster start time for the FAW technique (p < 0.01). Peak horizontal force was significantly smaller for FAW (p = 0.02), while take-off horizontal velocity was significantly greater (p = 0.01). Regression analysis indicated take-off horizontal velocity to be a good predictor of start time for both techniques, and the horizontal displacement of the centre of mass for the FAW start. PMID:25123000

  15. Mapping sea urchins tube feet proteome--a unique hydraulic mechano-sensory adhesive organ.

    PubMed

    Santos, Romana; Barreto, Angela; Franco, Catarina; Coelho, Ana Varela

    2013-02-21

    Marine organisms secrete adhesives for substrate attachment that to be effective require functional assembly underwater and displacement of water, ions, and weakly bound polyions that are ubiquitous in seawater. Therefore, understanding the characteristics of these protein/carbohydrate-based marine adhesives is imperative to decipher marine adhesion and also, to accelerate the development of new biomimetic underwater adhesives and anti-fouling agents. The present study, aims at mapping the proteome of the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus adhesive organs using a combination of complementary protein separation techniques (1-D-nanoLC and 2-DE), databases and search algorithms. This strategy resulted in the identification of 328 non-redundant proteins, constituting the first comprehensive list of sea urchin tube feet proteins. Given the known importance of phosphorylation and glycosylation in marine adhesion, the 2DE proteome was re-analyzed with specific fluorescent stains for these two PTMs, resulting in the identification of 69 non-redundant proteins. The obtained results demonstrate that tube feet are unique mechano-sensory adhesive organs and highlight putative adhesive proteins, that although requiring further confirmation, constitute a step forward in the quest to decipher sea urchins temporary adhesion. PMID:23247468

  16. Effect of Duck Feet Gelatin on Physicochemical, Textural, and Sensory Properties of Low-fat Frankfurters

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Duck feet gelatin (DFG) gel was added as a fat replacer to low-fat frankfurters and the effect of DFG on physicochemical, textural, and sensory characteristics of low-fat frankfurters was evaluated. DFG gel was prepared with a 20% duck feet gelatin concentration (w/w). Adding DFG decreased lightness and increased yellowness of the low-fat frankfurters (p<0.05). However, DFG did not affect redness of low-fat frankfurters (p>0.05). The statistical results indicated that adding DFG improved cooking yield of low-fat frankfurters (p<0.05). In addition, replacing pork back fat with DFG resulted in increased moisture content, protein content, and ash content of low-fat frankfurters, and the low-fat frankfurter formulated with 5% pork back fat and 15% DFG gel had the highest moisture content and lowest fat content (p<0.05). Adding of DFG increased all textural parameters including hardness, springiness, cohesiveness, chewiness, and gumminess of low-fat frankfurters (p<0.05). In terms of sensory properties, the low-fat frankfurter formulated with 5% pork back fat and 15% DFG gel showed similar satisfaction scores for the flavor, tenderness, juiciness, and overall acceptance when compared to the regular frankfurters (20% back fat). Therefore, our results suggest that DFG could be an effective novel source, as a fat replacer, for manufacturing of low-fat frankfurters. PMID:26761279

  17. Trajectory Correction and Locomotion Analysis of a Hexapod Walking Robot with Semi-Round Rigid Feet.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yaguang; Jin, Bo; Wu, Yongsheng; Guo, Tong; Zhao, Xiangmo

    2016-08-31

    Aimed at solving the misplaced body trajectory problem caused by the rolling of semi-round rigid feet when a robot is walking, a legged kinematic trajectory correction methodology based on the Least Squares Support Vector Machine (LS-SVM) is proposed. The concept of ideal foothold is put forward for the three-dimensional kinematic model modification of a robot leg, and the deviation value between the ideal foothold and real foothold is analyzed. The forward/inverse kinematic solutions between the ideal foothold and joint angular vectors are formulated and the problem of direct/inverse kinematic nonlinear mapping is solved by using the LS-SVM. Compared with the previous approximation method, this correction methodology has better accuracy and faster calculation speed with regards to inverse kinematics solutions. Experiments on a leg platform and a hexapod walking robot are conducted with multi-sensors for the analysis of foot tip trajectory, base joint vibration, contact force impact, direction deviation, and power consumption, respectively. The comparative analysis shows that the trajectory correction methodology can effectively correct the joint trajectory, thus eliminating the contact force influence of semi-round rigid feet, significantly improving the locomotion of the walking robot and reducing the total power consumption of the system.

  18. Superhydrophobic gecko feet with high adhesive forces towards water and their bio-inspired materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Kesong; Du, Jiexing; Wu, Juntao; Jiang, Lei

    2012-01-01

    Functional integration is an inherent characteristic for multiscale structures of biological materials. In this contribution, we first investigate the liquid-solid adhesive forces between water droplets and superhydrophobic gecko feet using a high-sensitivity micro-electromechanical balance system. It was found, in addition to the well-known solid-solid adhesion, the gecko foot, with a multiscale structure, possesses both superhydrophobic functionality and a high adhesive force towards water. The origin of the high adhesive forces of gecko feet to water could be attributed to the high density nanopillars that contact the water. Inspired by this, polyimide films with gecko-like multiscale structures were constructed by using anodic aluminum oxide templates, exhibiting superhydrophobicity and a strong adhesive force towards water. The static water contact angle is larger than 150° and the adhesive force to water is about 66 μN. The resultant gecko-inspired polyimide film can be used as a ``mechanical hand'' to snatch micro-liter liquids. We expect this work will provide the inspiration to reveal the mechanism of the high-adhesive superhydrophobic of geckos and extend the practical applications of polyimide materials.

  19. Trajectory Correction and Locomotion Analysis of a Hexapod Walking Robot with Semi-Round Rigid Feet.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yaguang; Jin, Bo; Wu, Yongsheng; Guo, Tong; Zhao, Xiangmo

    2016-01-01

    Aimed at solving the misplaced body trajectory problem caused by the rolling of semi-round rigid feet when a robot is walking, a legged kinematic trajectory correction methodology based on the Least Squares Support Vector Machine (LS-SVM) is proposed. The concept of ideal foothold is put forward for the three-dimensional kinematic model modification of a robot leg, and the deviation value between the ideal foothold and real foothold is analyzed. The forward/inverse kinematic solutions between the ideal foothold and joint angular vectors are formulated and the problem of direct/inverse kinematic nonlinear mapping is solved by using the LS-SVM. Compared with the previous approximation method, this correction methodology has better accuracy and faster calculation speed with regards to inverse kinematics solutions. Experiments on a leg platform and a hexapod walking robot are conducted with multi-sensors for the analysis of foot tip trajectory, base joint vibration, contact force impact, direction deviation, and power consumption, respectively. The comparative analysis shows that the trajectory correction methodology can effectively correct the joint trajectory, thus eliminating the contact force influence of semi-round rigid feet, significantly improving the locomotion of the walking robot and reducing the total power consumption of the system. PMID:27589766

  20. Trajectory Correction and Locomotion Analysis of a Hexapod Walking Robot with Semi-Round Rigid Feet

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Yaguang; Jin, Bo; Wu, Yongsheng; Guo, Tong; Zhao, Xiangmo

    2016-01-01

    Aimed at solving the misplaced body trajectory problem caused by the rolling of semi-round rigid feet when a robot is walking, a legged kinematic trajectory correction methodology based on the Least Squares Support Vector Machine (LS-SVM) is proposed. The concept of ideal foothold is put forward for the three-dimensional kinematic model modification of a robot leg, and the deviation value between the ideal foothold and real foothold is analyzed. The forward/inverse kinematic solutions between the ideal foothold and joint angular vectors are formulated and the problem of direct/inverse kinematic nonlinear mapping is solved by using the LS-SVM. Compared with the previous approximation method, this correction methodology has better accuracy and faster calculation speed with regards to inverse kinematics solutions. Experiments on a leg platform and a hexapod walking robot are conducted with multi-sensors for the analysis of foot tip trajectory, base joint vibration, contact force impact, direction deviation, and power consumption, respectively. The comparative analysis shows that the trajectory correction methodology can effectively correct the joint trajectory, thus eliminating the contact force influence of semi-round rigid feet, significantly improving the locomotion of the walking robot and reducing the total power consumption of the system. PMID:27589766

  1. Inflammatory response study of gellan gum impregnated duck's feet derived collagen sponges.

    PubMed

    Song, Jeong Eun; Lee, Seon Eui; Cha, Se Rom; Jang, Na Keum; Tripathy, Nirmalya; Reis, Rui L; Khang, Gilson

    2016-10-01

    Tissue engineered biomaterials have biodegradable and biocompatible properties. In this study, we have fabricated sponges using duck's feet derived collagen (DC) and gellan gum (GG), and further studied its inflammatory responses. The as-prepared duck's feet DC/GG sponges showed the possibility of application as a tissue engineering material through in vitro and in vivo experiments. The physical and chemical properties of sponges were characterized by compression strength, porosity, and scanning electron microscopy, etc. In vitro cell viability were investigated using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5 diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. An inflammatory response was studied after seeding RAW264.7 cells on as-fabricated sponges using reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. In vivo studies were carried out by implanting in subcutaneous nude mouse followed by extraction, histological staining. Collectively, superior results were showed by DC/GG sponges than GG sponge in terms of physical property and cell proliferation and thus can be considered as a potential candidate for future tissue engineering applications. PMID:27416732

  2. Does knee motion contribute to feet-in-place balance recovery?

    PubMed

    Cheng, Kuangyou B

    2016-06-14

    Although knee motions have been observed at loss of balance, the ankle and hip strategies have remained the focus of past research. The present study aimed to investigate whether knee motions contribute to feet-in-place balance recovery. This was achieved by experimentally monitoring knee motions during recovery from forward falling, and by simulating balance recovery movements with and without knee joint as the main focus of the study. Twelve participants initially held a straight body configuration and were released from different forward leaning positions. Considerable knee motions were observed especially at greater leaning angles. Simulations were performed using 3-segment (feet, shanks+thighs, and head+arms+trunk) and 4-segment (with separate shanks and thighs segments) planar models. Movements were driven by joint torque generators depending on joint angle, angular velocity, and activation level. Optimal joint motions moved the mass center projection to be within the base of support without excessive joint motion. The 3-segment model (without knee motions) generated greater backward linear momentum and had better balance performance, which confirmed the advantage of having only ankle/hip strategies. Knee motions were accompanied with less body angular momentum and a lower body posture, which could be beneficial for posture control and reducing falling impact, respectively. PMID:27155745

  3. Tracking people's hands and feet using mixed network AND/OR search.

    PubMed

    Morariu, Vlad I; Harwood, David; Davis, Larry S

    2013-05-01

    We describe a framework that leverages mixed probabilistic and deterministic networks and their AND/OR search space to efficiently find and track the hands and feet of multiple interacting humans in 2D from a single camera view. Our framework detects and tracks multiple people's heads, hands, and feet through partial or full occlusion; requires few constraints (does not require multiple views, high image resolution, knowledge of performed activities, or large training sets); and makes use of constraints and AND/OR Branch-and-Bound with lazy evaluation and carefully computed bounds to efficiently solve the complex network that results from the consideration of interperson occlusion. Our main contributions are: 1) a multiperson part-based formulation that emphasizes extremities and allows for the globally optimal solution to be obtained in each frame, and 2) an efficient and exact optimization scheme that relies on AND/OR Branch-and-Bound, lazy factor evaluation, and factor cost sensitive bound computation. We demonstrate our approach on three datasets: the public single person HumanEva dataset, outdoor sequences where multiple people interact in a group meeting scenario, and outdoor one-on-one basketball videos. The first dataset demonstrates that our framework achieves state-of-the-art performance in the single person setting, while the last two demonstrate robustness in the presence of partial and full occlusion and fast nontrivial motion.

  4. Pathfinder ground preparations prior to altitude record setting flight of 71,500 feet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Technicians make final adjustments on the solar-powered Pathfinder remotely piloted research aircraft prior to the craft's taking off on a flight which established a new unofficial world's altitude record for both propellor-driven and solar-powered aircraft. The new record of more than 71,500 feet was set during a 14 1/2-hour flight July 7, 1997, from the U.S. Navy's Pacific Missile Range Facility (PMRF) at Barking Sands, Kauai, Hawaii. The new altitude record is subject to verification by the National Aeronautics Association. The Pathfinder took off at 8:34 a.m. HDT, passed its previous record altitude of 67,350 feet about 2:45 p.m., and then reached its new mark at about 4 p.m. Controllers on the ground then initiated a slow decent, and Pathfinder landed seven hours later at 11:05 p.m. HDT. The experimental Boeing Condor remotely-piloted aircraft had held the previous record for propellor-driven craft of 67,028 feet. The Pathfinder had exceeded that height on a previous flight on June 9, 1997, but not by a large enough margin to be considered a new record. Pathfinder was a lightweight, solar-powered, remotely piloted flying wing aircraft used to demonstrate the use of solar power for long-duration, high-altitude flight. Its name denotes its mission as the 'Pathfinder' or first in a series of solar-powered aircraft that will be able to remain airborne for weeks or months on scientific sampling and imaging missions. Solar arrays covered most of the upper wing surface of the Pathfinder aircraft. These arrays provided up to 8,000 watts of power at high noon on a clear summer day. That power fed the aircraft's six electric motors as well as its avionics, communications, and other electrical systems. Pathfinder also had a backup battery system that could provide power for two to five hours, allowing for limited-duration flight after dark. Pathfinder flew at airspeeds of only 15 to 20 mph. Pitch control was maintained by using tiny elevators on the trailing edge of the

  5. Flat feet, happy feet? Comparison of the dynamic plantar pressure distribution and static medial foot geometry between Malawian and Dutch adults.

    PubMed

    Stolwijk, Niki M; Duysens, Jacques; Louwerens, Jan Willem K; van de Ven, Yvonne Hm; Keijsers, Noël Lw

    2013-01-01

    In contrast to western countries, foot complaints are rare in Africa. This is remarkable, as many African adults walk many hours each day, often barefoot or with worn-out shoes. The reason why Africans can withstand such loading without developing foot complaints might be related to the way the foot is loaded. Therefore, static foot geometry and dynamic plantar pressure distribution of 77 adults from Malawi were compared to 77 adults from the Netherlands. None of the subjects had a history of foot complaints. The plantar pressure pattern as well as the Arch Index (AI) and the trajectory of the center of pressure during the stance phase were calculated and compared between both groups. Standardized pictures were taken from the feet to assess the height of the Medial Longitudinal Arch (MLA). We found that Malawian adults: (1) loaded the midfoot for a longer and the forefoot for a shorter period during roll off, (2) had significantly lower plantar pressures under the heel and a part of the forefoot, and (3) had a larger AI and a lower MLA compared to the Dutch. These findings demonstrate that differences in static foot geometry, foot loading, and roll off technique exist between the two groups. The advantage of the foot loading pattern as shown by the Malawian group is that the plantar pressure is distributed more equally over the foot. This might prevent foot complaints.

  6. Flat Feet, Happy Feet? Comparison of the Dynamic Plantar Pressure Distribution and Static Medial Foot Geometry between Malawian and Dutch Adults

    PubMed Central

    Stolwijk, Niki M.; Duysens, Jacques; Louwerens, Jan Willem K.; van de Ven, Yvonne HM.; Keijsers, Noël LW.

    2013-01-01

    In contrast to western countries, foot complaints are rare in Africa. This is remarkable, as many African adults walk many hours each day, often barefoot or with worn-out shoes. The reason why Africans can withstand such loading without developing foot complaints might be related to the way the foot is loaded. Therefore, static foot geometry and dynamic plantar pressure distribution of 77 adults from Malawi were compared to 77 adults from the Netherlands. None of the subjects had a history of foot complaints. The plantar pressure pattern as well as the Arch Index (AI) and the trajectory of the center of pressure during the stance phase were calculated and compared between both groups. Standardized pictures were taken from the feet to assess the height of the Medial Longitudinal Arch (MLA). We found that Malawian adults: (1) loaded the midfoot for a longer and the forefoot for a shorter period during roll off, (2) had significantly lower plantar pressures under the heel and a part of the forefoot, and (3) had a larger AI and a lower MLA compared to the Dutch. These findings demonstrate that differences in static foot geometry, foot loading, and roll off technique exist between the two groups. The advantage of the foot loading pattern as shown by the Malawian group is that the plantar pressure is distributed more equally over the foot. This might prevent foot complaints. PMID:23468936

  7. Biomechanical characteristics, patient preference and activity level with different prosthetic feet: a randomized double blind trial with laboratory and community testing.

    PubMed

    Raschke, Silvia U; Orendurff, Michael S; Mattie, Johanne L; Kenyon, David E A; Jones, O Yvette; Moe, David; Winder, Lorne; Wong, Angie S; Moreno-Hernández, Ana; Highsmith, M Jason; J Sanderson, David; Kobayashi, Toshiki

    2015-01-01

    Providing appropriate prosthetic feet to those with limb loss is a complex and subjective process influenced by professional judgment and payer guidelines. This study used a small load cell (Europa™) at the base of the socket to measure the sagittal moments during walking with three objective categories of prosthetic feet in eleven individuals with transtibial limb loss with MFCL K2, K3 and K4 functional levels. Forefoot stiffness and hysteresis characteristics defined the three foot categories: Stiff, Intermediate, and Compliant. Prosthetic feet were randomly assigned and blinded from participants and investigators. After laboratory testing, participants completed one week community wear tests followed by a modified prosthetics evaluation questionnaire to determine if a specific category of prosthetic feet was preferred. The Compliant category of prosthetic feet was preferred by the participants (P=0.025) over the Stiff and Intermediate prosthetic feet, and the Compliant and Intermediate feet had 15% lower maximum sagittal moments during walking in the laboratory (P=0.0011) compared to the Stiff feet. The activity level of the participants did not change significantly with any of the wear tests in the community, suggesting that each foot was evaluated over a similar number of steps, but did not inherently increase activity. This is the first randomized double blind study in which prosthetic users have expressed a preference for a specific biomechanical characteristic of prosthetic feet: those with lower peak sagittal moments were preferred, and specifically preferred on slopes, stairs, uneven terrain, and during turns and maneuvering during real world use.

  8. Elastic-Plastic Nonlinear Response of a Space Shuttle External Tank Stringer. Part 1; Stringer-Feet Imperfections and Assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knight, Norman F., Jr.; Song, Kyongchan; Elliott, Kenny B.; Raju, Ivatury S.; Warren, Jerry E.

    2012-01-01

    Elastic-plastic, large-deflection nonlinear stress analyses are performed for the external hat-shaped stringers (or stiffeners) on the intertank portion of the Space Shuttle s external tank. These stringers are subjected to assembly strains when the stringers are initially installed on an intertank panel. Four different stringer-feet configurations including the baseline flat-feet, the heels-up, the diving-board, and the toes-up configurations are considered. The assembly procedure is analytically simulated for each of these stringer configurations. The location, size, and amplitude of the strain field associated with the stringer assembly are sensitive to the assumed geometry and assembly procedure. The von Mises stress distributions from these simulations indicate that localized plasticity will develop around the first eight fasteners for each stringer-feet configuration examined. However, only the toes-up configuration resulted in high assembly hoop strains.

  9. Nuclear scales

    SciTech Connect

    Friar, J.L.

    1998-12-01

    Nuclear scales are discussed from the nuclear physics viewpoint. The conventional nuclear potential is characterized as a black box that interpolates nucleon-nucleon (NN) data, while being constrained by the best possible theoretical input. The latter consists of the longer-range parts of the NN force (e.g., OPEP, TPEP, the {pi}-{gamma} force), which can be calculated using chiral perturbation theory and gauged using modern phase-shift analyses. The shorter-range parts of the force are effectively parameterized by moments of the interaction that are independent of the details of the force model, in analogy to chiral perturbation theory. Results of GFMC calculations in light nuclei are interpreted in terms of fundamental scales, which are in good agreement with expectations from chiral effective field theories. Problems with spin-orbit-type observables are noted.

  10. The effect that energy storage and return feet have on the propulsion of the body: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Crimin, Anthony; McGarry, Anthony; Harris, Elena Jane; Solomonidis, Stephan Emanuel

    2014-09-01

    A variety of energy storage and return prosthetic feet are currently available for use within lower limb prostheses. Designs claim to provide a beneficial energy return during push-off, but the extent to which this occurs remains disputed. Techniques currently used to measure energy storage, dissipation and return within the structure of the prosthetic foot are debatable, with limited evidence to support substantial elastic energy storage and return from existing designs. The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of energy storage and return foot designs through considering the ankle power during push-off and the effect on body centre of mass propulsion. To achieve this aim, the gait patterns of six trans-tibial prosthetic users wearing different designs of energy storage and return feet were analysed while ascending a ramp. Three examples of energy storage and return feet (suitable for moderate activity) were selected and randomly evaluated: the Blatchford's Epirus, Össur Assure and College Park Tribute feet. The power at the anatomical and mechanical ankle joints was integrated to evaluate the work done over the gait cycle. The direction of the inertial force, and therefore propulsion of the body centre of mass, was used to indicate the effect of the energy return by the energy storage and return feet. Results indicate that although energy storage and return feet may provide energy return, the work done around the prosthetic ankle indicates net power absorption. Therefore, the prosthetic limb is unable to contribute to the body centre of mass propulsion to the same extent as the biological limb.

  11. Endocrinology and the arts at the feet of the dancing Lord: Parathyroid hormone resistance in an Indian icon

    PubMed Central

    Seshadri, Krishna G.

    2014-01-01

    The dance of Siva has a cosmic appeal. Nowhere has this dance been crystallised in its pristine form as in the Nataraja Bronzes from the Chola period. Mysticism surrounds the dancing form of the Nataraja. But does Nataraja dance upon an endocrine mystery. Does the demon under his feet Apasmara literally forgetfulness or epilepsy have an endocrine disorder. The short limbed stocky eye popping dwarf with possible mental retardation with a name that suggests epilepsy throws open a host of endocrine diagnoses. From cretinisim to the original descriptions of pseudohypoparathyroidism here is one view of the medical mystery under Shiva's dancing feet. PMID:24741522

  12. Water footbath, automatic flushing, and disinfection to improve the health of bovine feet.

    PubMed

    Fjeldaas, T; Knappe-Poindecker, M; Bøe, K E; Larssen, R B

    2014-05-01

    Disinfecting footbaths are used to treat and prevent interdigital dermatitis (ID) and heel horn erosion (HHE). However, many disinfectants are disadvantageous for the environment and, as an alternative, washing of the feet has been introduced. Our aim was to investigate the effect of water footbaths (trial 1), footbaths with CuSO4 (trial 2), automatic water flushing (trial 3), and water flushing followed by disinfection with a glutaraldehyde-based compound (trial 4) in 4 randomized controlled clinical trials performed in a freestall dairy herd of approximately 45 Norwegian Red cows. At trimming before and after each trial, hind foot diseases, hardness of the claw horn (in D-units), locomotion, and cleanliness of the claws were recorded. Before each trial, the cows were divided in comparable study and control groups, based on prevalence of ID and HHE, parity, and days in milk. Using a transponder-regulated gate, the study groups were led through a footbath (trials 1 and 2) or an automatic washer (trials 3 and 4), whereas the control groups were left untreated. Each trial lasted 3 mo and the curative effect in diseased cows and the preventive effect in cows with healthy feet on ID, HHE, and ID + HHE were analyzed. In trial 2, a preventive effect of CuSO4 on HHE compared with the untreated cows was observed. During trial 1, 100% (11/11) of the treated cows with ID got better and 22% (2/9) without ID became diseased, whereas 92% (11/12) of the treated cows with ID + HHE got better and 38% (3/8) without ID + HHE became diseased. During trial 2, 69% (9/13) of the treated cows with ID got better and 11% (1/9) without ID became diseased. During trial 4, 19% (3/16) of the untreated cows with ID + HHE got better and 71% (5/7) without ID + HHE became diseased. In trial 3, no significant effects on ID, HHE, or ID + HHE were revealed. In trial 2 (CuSO4), the treated cows' claw horn was harder after the trial compared with the controls (D-unit difference: 13.25). In trial 3

  13. The sesamoids of the feet in humans: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Yammine, Kaissar

    2015-06-01

    The prevalence and distribution of the sesamoid bones in the feet has been reported in the literature with a high degree of variability. This systematic review aims to provide a better estimate of the frequency of the sesamoids of the foot and their association with variables such as ancestry, gender, and side. Thirty-seven studies met the inclusion criteria and were submitted for meta-analyses, sensitivity analyses and proportion difference tests, whenever possible. At the metatarsophalangeal (MTP) joint of the hallux, sesamoids were nearly always present. At the interphalangeal (IP) joint, the pooled true estimates of large-sampled studies were: (1) an overall prevalence of 22.4 %, (2) a cadaveric rate at 71.6 %, and (3) a radiological rate (based on X-ray images) of 21.1 %. The pooled partition frequencies of the hallucal medial and lateral sesamoids were 10.7 and 1.3 %, respectively. Bipartism was the most frequent partition type (92 %), followed by tripartism (7.5 %) and quadripartism (0.5 %). Middle Eastern ancestry was associated with significantly lower hallucal partition rate (P < 0.0001) and African ancestry with significantly lower prevalence of the IP sesamoid than all other ethnicities (P < 0.001). Feet with a hallux valgus deformity seemed to be associated with significantly higher rate of partition of the medial sesamoid (odds ratio = 3) than that of the normal feet. The respective values of the pooled true prevalence in adults at the MTP joint for the 2nd, 3rd, 4th and 5th toes were 1.9, 0.32, 0.9 and 13 %, respectively. There was a significantly higher prevalence of tibial sesamoids vs lateral sesamoids, with pooled odds ratio of 34.7, 8, 4.8, and 2.27, respectively. Partition was found in around 10 % of the sesamoids of the 5th MTP joint; no partition was noted in the other toes. For most 2nd-5th MTP joints, European ancestry showed the highest frequency whereas African ancestry showed the lowest; Middle Eastern ancestry was in between. No

  14. Gaze and Feet as Additional Input Modalities for Interacting with Geospatial Interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Çöltekin, A.; Hempel, J.; Brychtova, A.; Giannopoulos, I.; Stellmach, S.; Dachselt, R.

    2016-06-01

    Geographic Information Systems (GIS) are complex software environments and we often work with multiple tasks and multiple displays when we work with GIS. However, user input is still limited to mouse and keyboard in most workplace settings. In this project, we demonstrate how the use of gaze and feet as additional input modalities can overcome time-consuming and annoying mode switches between frequently performed tasks. In an iterative design process, we developed gaze- and foot-based methods for zooming and panning of map visualizations. We first collected appropriate gestures in a preliminary user study with a small group of experts, and designed two interaction concepts based on their input. After the implementation, we evaluated the two concepts comparatively in another user study to identify strengths and shortcomings in both. We found that continuous foot input combined with implicit gaze input is promising for supportive tasks.

  15. Spectro-Polarimetric Imaging Reveals Helical Magnetic Fields in Solar Prominence Feet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez González, M. J.; Manso Sainz, R.; Asensio Ramos, A.; Beck, C.; de la Cruz Rodríguez, J.; Díaz, A. J.

    2015-03-01

    Solar prominences are clouds of cool plasma levitating above the solar surface and insulated from the million-degree corona by magnetic fields. They form in regions of complex magnetic topology, characterized by non-potential fields, which can evolve abruptly, disintegrating the prominence and ejecting magnetized material into the heliosphere. However, their physics is not yet fully understood because mapping such complex magnetic configurations and their evolution is extremely challenging, and must often be guessed by proxy from photometric observations. Using state-of-the-art spectro-polarimetric data, we reconstruct the structure of the magnetic field in a prominence. We find that prominence feet harbor helical magnetic fields connecting the prominence to the solar surface below.

  16. Thompson and Hamilton type IV Freiberg's disease with involvement of multiple epiphyses of both feet.

    PubMed

    Lui, Tun Hing

    2015-01-01

    A 17-year-old boy reported left second and third toe pain after axial loading injury to his left foot. Radiographs showed collapse of the second metatarsal heads and epiphysial irregularities of the fifth metatarsal heads and the condyle of the proximal phalanx of the hallux of both feet. The patient was diagnosed to have Thompson and Hamilton type IV Freiberg's disease. He was screened for epiphysial dysplasia of the other sites. He had on and off bilateral hip and knee pain. Radiographs showed bilateral symmetrical epiphysial abnormalities with morphological change as focal concavity in bilateral femoral heads and fragmentation of the patellar articular surface with preservation of the patellofemoral joint space. PMID:25721826

  17. Design and construction of Thermoelectric Footwear Heating System for illness feet.

    PubMed

    Işik, Hakan

    2005-12-01

    In this study, a Thermoelectric Footwear Heating System is developed to use in cold weather conditions. The temperature is controlled by an analog electronic control system. Thermoelectric module is used to heat the bottom of the foot. A negative temperature coefficient (NTC) temperature sensor is used to sense the temperature and the temperature is controlled by an electronic circuit proportionally. A 3.5 V, 5000 mAh rechargeable battery is used as the power source. The temperature range of the system is between +15 degrees C and +50 degrees C. Developed footwear heating system is tested against various temperature conditions, and offer better results in the case of heating the illness feet.

  18. F-16XL ship #1 CAWAP flight - alpha 5 degrees, altitude 10,000 feet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The single-seat F-16XL (ship #1) makes another run during the Cranked-Arrow Wing Aerodynamic Project (CAWAP) at Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. The modified airplane features a delta 'cranked-arrow' wing with strips of tubing along the leading edge to the trailing edge to sense static on the wing and obtain pressure distribution data. The right wing receives data on pressure distribution and the left wing has three types of instrumentation - preston tubes to measure local skin friction, boundary layer rakes to measure boundary layer profiles (the layer where the air interacts with the surfaces of a moving aircraft), and hot films to determine boundary layer transition locations. This photo shows the aircraft gathering data at an altitude of 10,000 feet, with an angle of attack of 5 degrees. The first flight of CAWAP occurred on November 21, 1995, and the test program ended in April 1996.

  19. Treatment of the hands and feet in Apert syndrome: an evolution in management.

    PubMed

    Fearon, Jeffrey A

    2003-07-01

    Apert syndrome is a relatively uncommon condition that is instantly recognizable on the basis of the pan-syndactylies involving both the hands and feet. For more than 10 years, the treatment of Apert syndrome hand and foot anomalies was approached in a comprehensive manner, with attempts to maximize the final results and minimize the total number of operations. Numerous conventions were abandoned in the development of this approach, with the introduction of some new methodologies, including (1) release of all 10 fingers, and toes, in only two operations, (2) elimination of routine digital amputations, (3) abandonment of the zigzag incision in favor of straight-line release, (4) substitution of equal-length anterior and posterior flaps for the long dorsal web space lining flap, (5) leaving of small areas of exposed bone without vascularized tissue coverage, and (6) performance of midphalangeal osteotomies, among older children, to improve hand function. Fifty-seven children with Apert syndrome have been treated at the author's center since 1990, and 43 underwent surgical treatment of their hands and feet by a single surgeon. Treatment can be separated into two phases, early (syndactyly releases) and late (functional osteotomies). Seventeen of those 43 patients were treated at the author's center from birth (type I, 11 patients; type II, two patients; type III, four patients), and 10 fingers and 10 toes were achieved for all patients in two operations. No digital amputations were performed for any of the 43 patients. However, four of 26 patients (15 percent) not treated at the author's center from birth had undergone at least one digital amputation before coming to the center. Twenty-two of those 26 patients required a two-stage syndactyly release to accomplish the separation of all 10 fingers and toes. Aside from the patients who had previously undergone amputations, all other patients successfully achieved 10 fingers and toes, except for one patient (38 of 39

  20. Energy storage and release of prosthetic feet. Part 1: Biomechanical analysis related to user benefits.

    PubMed

    Postema, K; Hermens, H J; de Vries, J; Koopman, H F; Eisma, W H

    1997-04-01

    The energy storing and releasing behaviour of 2 energy storing feet (ESF) and 2 conventional prosthetic feet (CF) were compared (ESF: Otto Bock Dynamic Pro and Hanger Quantum; CF: Otto Bock Multi Axial and Otto Bock Lager). Ten trans-tibial amputees were selected. The study was designed as a double-blind, randomised trial. For gait analysis a VICON motion analysis system was used with 2 AMTI force platforms. A special measuring device was used for measuring energy storage and release of the foot during a simulated step. The impulses of the anteroposterior component of the ground force showed small, statistically non-significant differences (deceleration phase: 22.7-23.4 Ns; acceleration phase: 17.0-18.4 Ns). The power storage and release phases as well as the net results also showed small differences (maximum difference in net result is 0.03 J kg-1). It was estimated that these differences lead to a maximum saving of 3% of metabolic energy during walking. It was considered unlikely that the subjects would notice this difference. It was concluded that during walking differences in mechanical energy expenditure of this magnitude are probably not of clinical relevance. Ankle power, as an indicator for energy storage and release gave different results to the energy storage and release as measured with the special test device, especially during landing response. In the biomechanical model (based on inverse dynamics) used in the gait analysis the deformation of the material is not taken into consideration and hence this method of gait analysis is probably not suitable for calculation of shock absorption.

  1. Impaired microvascular flow motion in subclinical diabetic feet with sudomotor dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Sun, Pi-Chang; Chen, Chen-Sheng; Kuo, Cheng-Deng; Lin, Hong-Da; Chan, Rai-Chi; Kao, Mu-Jung; Wei, Shun-Hwa

    2012-03-01

    Impaired cutaneous blood flow and sweating dysfunction might be among the earliest manifestations of diabetic autonomic neuropathy. This study assessed the pathophysiological basis underlying skin vasomotion changes and their relation with progressive sudomotor dysfunction and other autonomic and somatic measures in subclinical diabetic feet. Laser Doppler skin perfusion was assessed on 68 diabetic and 25 control subjects. The low-frequency vasomotion was transformed into three frequency intervals 0.0095-0.021, 0.021-0.052 and 0.052-0.145 Hz, respectively, for the investigation of endothelial, neurogenic and myogenic effects on microcirculatory alterations. The diabetic patients were categorized into three groups by increasing severity of sudomotor dysfunction: SSR+ (sympathetic skin response present; 27 patients), SSR- (SSR absent; 23 patients) and at-risk (SSR absent and of preulcerative cracked skin; 18 patients). All diabetic patients underwent nerve conduction and cardiovascular autonomic studies. The total spectral and endothelial activity was significantly decreased only in the at-risk group. The SSR- group had lower neurogenic vasomotion than the SSR+ group (p<0.05). Although no statistical difference was noted between any group in absolute myogenic spectrum, the SSR- group had higher normalized myogenic activity than the SSR+ group (p<0.01). The larger drop in orthostatic pressure was paralleled by a reduction in the myogenic amplitude (r=-0.33, p<0.01). These results suggested that early impairment of low-frequency flow motion correlated closely with the presence of sudomotor dysfunction of subclinical feet mainly in neurogenic and endothelial components. Impaired systemic vascular tone as manifested by orthostatic hypotension was proportional to the degree of myogenic dysregulation in diabetic patients. PMID:21722653

  2. BENCH SCALE SALTSTONE PROCESS DEVELOPMENT MIXING STUDY

    SciTech Connect

    Cozzi, A.; Hansen, E.

    2011-08-03

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was requested to develop a bench scale test facility, using a mixer, transfer pump, and transfer line to determine the impact of conveying the grout through the transfer lines to the vault on grout properties. Bench scale testing focused on the effect the transfer line has on the rheological property of the grout as it was processed through the transfer line. Rheological and other physical properties of grout samples were obtained prior to and after pumping through a transfer line. The Bench Scale Mixing Rig (BSMR) consisted of two mixing tanks, grout feed tank, transfer pump and transfer hose. The mixing tanks were used to batch the grout which was then transferred into the grout feed tank. The contents of the feed tank were then pumped through the transfer line (hose) using a progressive cavity pump. The grout flow rate and pump discharge pressure were monitored. Four sampling stations were located along the length of the transfer line at the 5, 105 and 205 feet past the transfer pump and at 305 feet, the discharge of the hose. Scaling between the full scale piping at Saltstone to bench scale testing at SRNL was performed by maintaining the same shear rate and total shear at the wall of the transfer line. The results of scaling down resulted in a shorter transfer line, a lower average velocity, the same transfer time and similar pressure drops. The condition of flow in the bench scale transfer line is laminar. The flow in the full scale pipe is in the transition region, but is more laminar than turbulent. The resulting plug in laminar flow in the bench scale results in a region of no-mixing. Hence mixing, or shearing, at the bench scale should be less than that observed in the full scale, where this plug is non existent due to the turbulent flow. The bench scale tests should be considered to be conservative due to the highly laminar condition of flow that exists. Two BSMR runs were performed. In both cases, wall

  3. Comparison between microprocessor-controlled ankle/foot and conventional prosthetic feet during stair negotiation in people with unilateral transtibial amputation.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Vibhor; Gailey, Robert S; Gaunaurd, Ignacio A; O'Toole, Christopher; Finnieston, Adam A

    2013-01-01

    Contrary to stance-phase dorsiflexion of conventional prosthetic feet, the microprocessor-controlled Proprio foot permits swing-phase dorsiflexion on stairs. The purpose of this study was to compare Symmetry in External Work (SEW) between a microprocessor-controlled foot and conventional prosthetic feet in two groups with unilateral transtibial amputation (Medicare Functional Classification Levels K-Level-2 and K-Level-3) during stair ascent and descent. Ten subjects were evaluated while wearing three conventional prosthetic feet- solid ankle cushion heel (SACH), stationary attachment flexible endoskeleton (SAFE), and Talux-and the Proprio foot using a study socket and were given a 10- to 14-day accommodation period with each foot. Ground reaction forces were collected using F-scan sensors during stair ascent and descent. The SEW between the intact and amputated limbs was calculated for each foot. During stair ascent, the Proprio foot resulted in a higher interlimb symmetry than conventional prosthetic feet, with significant differences between the Pro prio and SACH/SAFE feet. The swing-phase dorsiflexion appeared to promote greater interlimb symmetry because it facilitated forward motion of the body, resulting in a heel-to-toe center of pressure trajectory. During stair descent, all feet had low symmetry without significant differences between feet. The movement strategy used when descending stairs, which is to roll over the edge of a step, had a greater influence on symmetry than the dorsiflexion features of prosthetic feet.

  4. 49 CFR 231.24 - Box and other house cars with roofs, 16 feet 10 inches or more above top of rail. 1

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Box and other house cars with roofs, 16 feet 10... APPLIANCE STANDARDS § 231.24 Box and other house cars with roofs, 16 feet 10 inches or more above top of... each bottom handhold shall have foot guard or upward projection not less than two (2) inches in...

  5. 30 CFR 250.1156 - What steps must I take to receive approval to produce within 500 feet of a unit or lease line?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... produce within 500 feet of a unit or lease line? 250.1156 Section 250.1156 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF... Prior to Production § 250.1156 What steps must I take to receive approval to produce within 500 feet of... producing from a reservoir within a well that has any portion of the completed interval less than 500...

  6. 49 CFR 231.24 - Box and other house cars with roofs, 16 feet 10 inches or more above top of rail. 1

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Box and other house cars with roofs, 16 feet 10... APPLIANCE STANDARDS § 231.24 Box and other house cars with roofs, 16 feet 10 inches or more above top of... each bottom handhold shall have foot guard or upward projection not less than two (2) inches in...

  7. 49 CFR 231.24 - Box and other house cars with roofs, 16 feet 10 inches or more above top of rail. 1

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Box and other house cars with roofs, 16 feet 10... APPLIANCE STANDARDS § 231.24 Box and other house cars with roofs, 16 feet 10 inches or more above top of... each bottom handhold shall have foot guard or upward projection not less than two (2) inches in...

  8. Full Scale Tunnel (FST) and Seaplane Tow Channel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1930-01-01

    Installation of Careystone covering at the Full-Scale Tunnel (FST) facility. The corrugated concrete and asbestos panels (1/4 inch thick; 42 inches wide; 62 inches long) which were used as siding and roofing for the Full-Scale Tunnel were manufactured by The Philip Carey Company. For the NACA, the choice of Careystone had been based on several factors. First and foremost was its low cost. NACA engineers had observed the very durable, low-maintenance and fireproof qualities of the concrete-asbestos covering of the airship hanger at Langley Field. Further, tests showed the material to be 3.8 times stronger than required (The maximum load the material was expected to withstand was 52 lbs. per square foot; the breaking load was 196 lbs. per sq. ft.). L4695 shows the interior view of construction of the Tow Tank. In the late 1920s, the NACA decided to investigate the aero/hydro dynamics of floats for seaplanes. A Hydrodynamics Branch was established in 1929 and special towing basin was authorized in March of that same year. Starr Truscott (the first head of the new division) described the tank in NACA TR 470: 'The N.A.C.A. tank is of the Froude type; that is, the model which is being tested is towed through still water at successive constant speeds from a carriage spanning the tank. At each constant speed the towing pull is measured, the trim and the rise, or change of draft, are recorded and, if the model is being towed at a fixed trim, the moment required to hold it there is measured and recorded.' 'The reinforced concrete basin containing the water has the following dimensions: (1) Length on water, extreme, 2,020 feet; (2) Normal width of water surface, 24 feet; (3) Normal depth of water, 12 feet; (4) Length of 12 foot depth, 1,980 feet.' This picture shows the tank before the coving was added. This brought the rails for the carriage closer together and helped suppress waves produced by the models. The finished tank would be filled with approximately 4 million

  9. Model Investigation of Technique for Full Scale Landing Impact Tests at Simulated Lunar Gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1965-01-01

    Model Investigation of Technique for Full Scale Landing Impact Tests at Simulated Lunar Gravity. An investigation of a 1/6-scale dynamic model has been made to develop and evaluate a technique for conducting full-scale landing-impact tests at simulated lunar gravity. Landings were made at touchdown pitch attitudes of -15 degrees, 0 degrees, and 15 degrees. All landings were made with two gear pads forward and at a roll attitude of 0 degrees. Both roll and yaw attitudes were constrained. Vertical landing speed was varied from 5 to 15 feet per second (1.5 to 4.6 m/s) and horizontal speed was varied from 0 to 10 feet per second (0 to 3.0 m/s). Most of the landings were made at a vertical and horizontal speed of 10 feet per second or 3.0 m/s (45 degree flight-path angle) while pitch attitude and surface characteristics, friction and topography, were varied. These parameters were investigated with the free-body earth-gravity and the simulated lunar-gravity test techniques. The landings were made at a model mass corresponding to a full-scale lunar weight (force due to gravity) of 1,440 pounds (6.41 kN) or an earth weight of 8,640 pounds (38.4 kN). [Entire movie available on DVD from CASI as Doc ID 20070030977. Contact help@sti.nasa.gov

  10. Hydrologic effects of annually diverting 131,000 acre-feet of water from Dillon Reservoir, central Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Alley, William M.; Bauer, D.P.; Veenhuis, J.E.; Brennan, Robert

    1979-01-01

    Because of the increased demands for water in eastern Colorado, principally in the urbanizing Denver metropolitan area, increased diversions of water from Dillon Reservoir are planned. Estimates of end-of-month storage in Dillon Reservoir, assuming the reservoir was in place and 131,000 acre-feet of water were diverted from the reservoir each year, were reconstructed by mass balance for the 1931-77 water years. Based on the analysis, the annual maximum end-of-month drawdown below the elevation at full storage would have averaged 54 feet. The maximum end-of-month drawdown below the elevation at full storage would have been 171 feet. The mean-annual discharge-weighted dissolved-solids concentrations in the Colorado River near Glenwood Springs and Cameo, Colo., and Cisco, Utah, for the 1942-77 water years, were computed assuming an annual diversion of 131,000 acre-feet of water from Dillon Reservoir. The average increases in the dissolved-solids concentrations with the 131 ,000-acre-foot diversion were 15 to 16 milligrams per liter at the three sites. (Woodard-USGS)

  11. Design and Construction of a Simple 3D Straight-Legged Passive Walker with Flat Feet and Ankle Springs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narukawa, Terumasa; Yokoyama, Kazuto; Takahashi, Masaki; Yoshida, Kazuo

    To date, most passive walkers have been designed with arc-shaped feet rigidly attached to the legs. However, the friction torque against yaw is often insufficient because of their contact conditions with the ground. We developed a simple 3D straight-legged passive walker with flat feet and ankle springs. Flat feet were used to gain enough scrubbing friction to oppose unstable yaw motion. Springs were attached to the ankle to produce torque resulting in roll and pitch motions that mimic those of 3D passive walkers with arc-shaped feet, while the friction torque against yaw should be sufficient. The spring constant for the roll motion at the stance ankle is obviously an important factor in enabling the straight-legged robot to rock adequately from side to side to avoid problematic scuffing of the swing leg so it can swing forward. We used numerical simulations to determine the value of the spring constant. Experimental results indicated that our 3D straight-legged passive walker with a 0.77-m leg can walk more than 2 m at about 0.46 m/s.

  12. A comparison of foot kinematics in people with normal- and flat-arched feet using the Oxford Foot Model.

    PubMed

    Levinger, Pazit; Murley, George S; Barton, Christian J; Cotchett, Matthew P; McSweeney, Simone R; Menz, Hylton B

    2010-10-01

    Foot posture is thought to influence predisposition to overuse injuries of the lower limb. Although the mechanisms underlying this proposed relationship are unclear, it is thought that altered foot kinematics may play a role. Therefore, this study was designed to investigate differences in foot motion between people with normal- and flat-arched feet using the Oxford Foot Model (OFM). Foot posture in 19 participants was documented as normal-arched (n=10) or flat-arched (n=9) using a foot screening protocol incorporating measurements from weightbearing antero-posterior and lateral foot radiographs. Differences between the groups in triplanar motion of the tibia, rearfoot and forefoot during walking were evaluated using a three-dimensional motion analysis system incorporating a multi-segment foot model (OFM). Participants with flat-arched feet demonstrated greater peak forefoot plantar-flexion (-13.7° ± 5.6° vs -6.5° ± 3.7°; p=0.004), forefoot abduction (-12.9° ± 6.9° vs -1.8° ± 6.3°; p=0.002), and rearfoot internal rotation (10.6° ± 7.5° vs -0.2°± 9.9°; p=0.018) compared to those with normal-arched feet. Additionally, participants with flat-arched feet demonstrated decreased peak forefoot adduction (-7.0° ± 9.2° vs 5.6° ± 7.3°; p=0.004) and a trend towards increased rearfoot eversion (-5.8° ± 4.4° vs -2.5° ± 2.6°; p=0.06). These findings support the notion that flat-arched feet have altered motion associated with greater pronation during gait; factors that may increase the risk of overuse injury.

  13. Water footbath, automatic flushing, and disinfection to improve the health of bovine feet.

    PubMed

    Fjeldaas, T; Knappe-Poindecker, M; Bøe, K E; Larssen, R B

    2014-05-01

    Disinfecting footbaths are used to treat and prevent interdigital dermatitis (ID) and heel horn erosion (HHE). However, many disinfectants are disadvantageous for the environment and, as an alternative, washing of the feet has been introduced. Our aim was to investigate the effect of water footbaths (trial 1), footbaths with CuSO4 (trial 2), automatic water flushing (trial 3), and water flushing followed by disinfection with a glutaraldehyde-based compound (trial 4) in 4 randomized controlled clinical trials performed in a freestall dairy herd of approximately 45 Norwegian Red cows. At trimming before and after each trial, hind foot diseases, hardness of the claw horn (in D-units), locomotion, and cleanliness of the claws were recorded. Before each trial, the cows were divided in comparable study and control groups, based on prevalence of ID and HHE, parity, and days in milk. Using a transponder-regulated gate, the study groups were led through a footbath (trials 1 and 2) or an automatic washer (trials 3 and 4), whereas the control groups were left untreated. Each trial lasted 3 mo and the curative effect in diseased cows and the preventive effect in cows with healthy feet on ID, HHE, and ID + HHE were analyzed. In trial 2, a preventive effect of CuSO4 on HHE compared with the untreated cows was observed. During trial 1, 100% (11/11) of the treated cows with ID got better and 22% (2/9) without ID became diseased, whereas 92% (11/12) of the treated cows with ID + HHE got better and 38% (3/8) without ID + HHE became diseased. During trial 2, 69% (9/13) of the treated cows with ID got better and 11% (1/9) without ID became diseased. During trial 4, 19% (3/16) of the untreated cows with ID + HHE got better and 71% (5/7) without ID + HHE became diseased. In trial 3, no significant effects on ID, HHE, or ID + HHE were revealed. In trial 2 (CuSO4), the treated cows' claw horn was harder after the trial compared with the controls (D-unit difference: 13.25). In trial 3

  14. Biomechanical characteristics, patient preference and activity level with different prosthetic feet: a randomized double blind trial with laboratory and community testing.

    PubMed

    Raschke, Silvia U; Orendurff, Michael S; Mattie, Johanne L; Kenyon, David E A; Jones, O Yvette; Moe, David; Winder, Lorne; Wong, Angie S; Moreno-Hernández, Ana; Highsmith, M Jason; J Sanderson, David; Kobayashi, Toshiki

    2015-01-01

    Providing appropriate prosthetic feet to those with limb loss is a complex and subjective process influenced by professional judgment and payer guidelines. This study used a small load cell (Europa™) at the base of the socket to measure the sagittal moments during walking with three objective categories of prosthetic feet in eleven individuals with transtibial limb loss with MFCL K2, K3 and K4 functional levels. Forefoot stiffness and hysteresis characteristics defined the three foot categories: Stiff, Intermediate, and Compliant. Prosthetic feet were randomly assigned and blinded from participants and investigators. After laboratory testing, participants completed one week community wear tests followed by a modified prosthetics evaluation questionnaire to determine if a specific category of prosthetic feet was preferred. The Compliant category of prosthetic feet was preferred by the participants (P=0.025) over the Stiff and Intermediate prosthetic feet, and the Compliant and Intermediate feet had 15% lower maximum sagittal moments during walking in the laboratory (P=0.0011) compared to the Stiff feet. The activity level of the participants did not change significantly with any of the wear tests in the community, suggesting that each foot was evaluated over a similar number of steps, but did not inherently increase activity. This is the first randomized double blind study in which prosthetic users have expressed a preference for a specific biomechanical characteristic of prosthetic feet: those with lower peak sagittal moments were preferred, and specifically preferred on slopes, stairs, uneven terrain, and during turns and maneuvering during real world use. PMID:25480541

  15. Effects of surface characteristics on the plantar shape of feet and subjects' perceived sensations.

    PubMed

    Witana, Channa P; Goonetilleke, Ravindra S; Xiong, Shuping; Au, Emily Y L

    2009-03-01

    Orthotics and other types of shoe inserts are primarily designed to reduce injury and improve comfort. The interaction between the plantar surface of the foot and the load-bearing surface contributes to foot and surface deformations and hence to perceived comfort, discomfort or pain. The plantar shapes of 16 participants' feet were captured when standing on three support surfaces that had different cushioning properties in the mid-foot region. Foot shape deformations were quantified using 3D laser scans. A questionnaire was used to evaluate the participant's perceptions of perceived shape and perceived feeling. The results showed that the structure in the mid-foot could change shape, independent of the rear-foot and forefoot regions. Participants were capable of identifying the shape changes with distinct preferences towards certain shapes. The cushioning properties of the mid-foot materials also have a direct influence on perceived feelings. This research has strong implications for the design and material selection of orthotics, insoles and footwear.

  16. Radiographic protocol and normal anatomy of the hind feet in the white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum).

    PubMed

    Dudley, Robert J; Wood, Simon P; Hutchinson, John R; Weller, Renate

    2015-01-01

    Foot pathology is a common and important health concern in captive rhinoceroses worldwide, but osteopathologies are rarely diagnosed, partly because of a lack of radiographic protocols. Here, we aimed to develop the first radiographic protocol for rhinoceros feet and describe the radiographic anatomy of the white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum) hind foot (pes). Computed tomographic images were obtained of nine cadaver pedes from seven different white rhinoceroses and assessed for pathology. A single foot deemed free of pathology was radiographed using a range of different projections and exposures to determine the best protocol. 3D models were produced from the CT images and were displayed with the real radiographs to describe the normal radiographic anatomy of the white rhinoceros pes. An optimal radiographic projection was determined for each bone in the rhinoceros pes focusing on highlighting areas where pathology has been previously described. The projections deemed to be most useful were D60Pr-PlDiO (digit III), D45Pr45M-PlDiLO (digit II), and D40Pr35L-PlDiLO (digit IV). The primary beam was centered 5-7 cm proximal to the cuticle on the digit of interest. Articular surfaces, ridges, grooves, tubercles, processes and fossae were identified. The radiographic protocol we have developed along with the normal radiographic anatomy we have described will allow for more accessible and effective diagnosis of white rhinoceros foot osteopathologies.

  17. Mechanical analysis of avian feet: multiarticular muscles in grasping and perching

    PubMed Central

    Backus, Spencer B.; Sustaita, Diego; Odhner, Lael U.; Dollar, Aaron M.

    2015-01-01

    The grasping capability of birds' feet is a hallmark of their evolution, but the mechanics of avian foot function are not well understood. Two evolutionary trends that contribute to the mechanical complexity of the avian foot are the variation in the relative lengths of the phalanges and the subdivision and variation of the digital flexor musculature observed among taxa. We modelled the grasping behaviour of a simplified bird foot in response to the downward and upward forces imparted by carrying and perching tasks, respectively. Specifically, we compared the performance of various foot geometries performing these tasks when actuated by distally inserted flexors only, versus by both distally inserted and proximally inserted flexors. Our analysis demonstrates that most species possess relative phalanx lengths that are conducive to grasps actuated only by a single distally inserted tendon per digit. Furthermore, proximally inserted flexors are often required during perching, but the distally inserted flexors are sufficient when grasping and carrying objects. These results are reflected in differences in the relative development of proximally and distally inserted digital flexor musculature among ‘perching’ and ‘grasping’ taxa. Thus, our results shed light on the relative roles of variation in phalanx length and digit flexor muscle distribution in an integrative, mechanical context. PMID:26064598

  18. Role of arm motion in feet-in-place balance recovery.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Kuangyou B; Wang, Kuan-Mao; Kuo, Shih-Yu

    2015-09-18

    Although considerable arm movements have been observed at loss of balance, research on standing balance focused primarily on the ankle and hip strategies. This study aimed to investigate the effect of arm motion on feet-in-place balance recovery. Participants stood on a single force plate and leaned forward with a straight body posture. They were then released from three forward-lean angles and regained balance without moving their forefeet under arm-swing (AS) and arm-constrained (AC) conditions. Higher success rates and shorter recovery times were found with arm motion under moderate balance perturbations. Recovery time was significantly correlated with peak linear momentum of the arms. Circumduction arm motion caused initial shoulder extension (backward arm movement) to generate reaction forces to pull the body forward, but later forward linear momentum of the arms helped move the whole body backward to avoid forward falling. However, greater lean angles increased difficulty in balance recovery, making the influences of the arms less significant. Since arm motions were observed in all participants with significantly enhanced performance under moderate balance perturbation, it was concluded that moving the arms should also be considered (together with the ankles and hips) as an effective strategy for balance recovery. PMID:26209086

  19. Children with flat feet have weaker toe grip strength than those having a normal arch

    PubMed Central

    Tashiro, Yuto; Fukumoto, Takahiko; Uritani, Daisuke; Matsumoto, Daisuke; Nishiguchi, Shu; Fukutani, Naoto; Adachi, Daiki; Hotta, Takayuki; Morino, Saori; Shirooka, Hidehiko; Nozaki, Yuma; Hirata, Hinako; Yamaguchi, Moe; Aoyama, Tomoki

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This study investigated the relationship between toe grip strength and foot posture in children. [Subjects and Methods] A total of 619 children participated in this study. The foot posture of the participants was measured using a foot printer and toe grip strength was measured using a toe grip dynamometer. Children were classified into 3 groups; flatfoot, normal, and high arch, according to Staheli’s arch index. The differences in demographic data and toe grip strength among each foot posture group were analyzed by analysis of variance. Additionally, toe grip strength differences were analyzed by analysis of covariance, adjusted to body mass index, age, and gender. [Results] The number of participants classified as flatfoot, normal, and high arch were 110 (17.8%), 468 (75.6%), and 41 (6.6%), respectively. The toe grip strength of flatfoot children was significantly lower than in normal children, as shown by both analysis of variance and analysis of covariance. [Conclusion] A significant difference was detected in toe grip strength between the low arch and normal foot groups. Therefore, it is suggested that training to increase toe grip strength during childhood may prevent the formation of flat feet or help in the development of arch. PMID:26696732

  20. From hands to feet: Abstract response representations in distractor-response bindings.

    PubMed

    Moeller, Birte; Hommel, Bernhard; Frings, Christian

    2015-07-01

    Evidence suggests that, when people respond to target stimuli, distractors that accompany the target become integrated with the response, and can thus subsequently serve as a retrieval cue of that response-an example of distractor-response binding. In two experiments, we investigated whether the response codes that become part of such distractor-response bindings are effector-specific or abstract. In a prime-probe design, participants gave left and right responses with their hands or their feet. The required effector set was systematically varied between prime and probe responses. If participants executed each response immediately, effects of distractor-response binding were only observed for effector repetitions but not for effector changes. However, distractor-response binding was observed in effector-change trials if participants were keeping the prime-action plan active during probe-response execution. These results indicate that it is rather abstract response codes that are integrated with distractor stimuli and retrieved upon distractor repetition.

  1. Alleged silk spigots on tarantula feet: electron microscopy reveals sensory innervation, no silk.

    PubMed

    Foelix, Rainer; Erb, Bruno; Rast, Bastian

    2013-05-01

    Several studies on tarantulas have claimed that their tarsi could secrete fine silk threads which would provide additional safety lines for maintaining a secure foot-hold on smooth vertical surfaces. This interpretation was seriously questioned by behavioral experiments, and more recently morphological evidence indicated that the alleged spigots ("ribbed hairs") were not secretory but most likely sensory hairs (chemoreceptors). However, since fine structural studies were lacking, the sensory nature was not proven convincingly. By using transmission electron microscopy we here present clear evidence that these "ribbed hairs" contain many dendrites inside the hair lumen - as is the case in the well-known contact chemoreceptors of spiders and insects. For comparison, we also studied the fine structure of regular silk spigots on the spinnerets and found them distinctly different from sensory hairs. Finally, histological studies of a tarantula tarsus did not reveal any silk glands, which, by contrast, are easily found within the spinnerets. In conclusion, the alleged presence of silk spigots on tarantula feet is refuted. PMID:23474440

  2. F-16XL ship #1 CAWAP flight - alpha 15 degrees, altitude 5,000 feet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The single-seat F-16XL (ship #1) makes another run during the Cranked-Arrow Wing Aerodynamic Project (CAWAP) at Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. The modified airplane features a delta 'cranked-arrow' wing with strips of tubing along the leading edge to the trailing edge to sense static on the wing and obtain pressure distribution data. The right wing receives data on pressure distribution and the left wing has three types of instrumentation - preston tubes to measure local skin friction, boundary layer rakes to measure boundary layer profiles (the layer where the air interacts with the surfaces of a moving aircraft), and hot films to determine boundary layer transition locations. This photo shows the aircraft gathering data at an altitude of 5000 feet, with an angle of attack of 15 degrees. The program also gathered aero data on two wing planforms for NASA's High Speed Research Program. The first flight of CAWAP occurred on November 21, 1995, and the test program ended in April 1996.

  3. F-16XL ship #1 CAWAP flight - alpha 21 degrees, altitude 17,500 feet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The single-seat F-16XL (ship #1) makes another run during the Cranked-Arrow Wing Aerodynamic Project (CAWAP) at Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. The modified airplane features a delta 'cranked-arrow' wing with strips of tubing along the leading edge to the trailing edge to sense static on the wing and obtain pressure distribution data. The right wing receives data on pressure distribution and the left wing (visible here) has three types of instrumentation - preston tubes to measure local skin friction, boundary layer rakes to measure boundary layer profiles (the layer where the air interacts with the surfaces of a moving aircraft), and hot films to determine boundary layer transition locations. This photo shows the aircraft gathering data at an altitude of 17,500 feet, with an angle of attack of 21 degrees The program also gathered aero data on two wing planforms for NASA's High Speed Research Program. The first flight of CAWAP occurred on November 21, 1995, and the test program ended in April 1996.

  4. Silk secretion from tarantula feet revisited: alleged spigots are probably chemoreceptors.

    PubMed

    Foelix, Rainer F; Rast, Bastian; Peattie, Anne M

    2012-04-01

    Controversial views have been expressed about whether tarantula feet can secrete fine silk threads that could prevent them from falling off smooth vertical surfaces. Two studies have claimed that 'ribbed hairs' on the tarsi of tarantulas produce silk. We examined these ribbed hairs in several tarantula species using light and scanning electron microscopy, and compared them with the silk-producing spigots on the abdominal spinnerets. We found that, morphologically, these ribbed hairs correspond very closely to known chemosensitive hairs in spiders; they have a distinct socket, a bent hair shaft with fine cuticular ridges, an eccentric double lumen within the hair shaft, and a blunt tip with a subterminal pore. Spigots on the spinnerets have a large bulbous base instead of a socket, a long shaft with a scaly surface and a central terminal pore. We never observed any silk threads coming out of these ribbed hairs under the electron microscope. By contrast, silk threads exiting the spigots on the spinnerets were common. Interestingly, ribbed hairs also occur on the spinnerets, often side by side with the silk-producing spigots. Our conclusion is that the ribbed hairs are chemoreceptors, not spigots. Observations of live tarantulas clinging inverted to glass coverslips confirmed that some substance is produced by the ribbed hairs, but it remains unclear whether this secretion is actually silk. In any case, the thousands of adhesive setae on the tarsi of legs and pedipalps almost certainly far outweigh any potential contribution from the sparsely distributed trails secreted by the ribbed hairs.

  5. Lapses in skin conductance responding across anatomical sites: Comparison of fingers, feet, forehead, and wrist.

    PubMed

    Payne, Andrew F H; Schell, Anne M; Dawson, Michael E

    2016-07-01

    The fingers are widely accepted as the gold standard for skin conductance (SC) recording, with the feet as a strong alternative. However, there are gaps in the current literature comparing these sites. There is also a great deal of interest in alternative recording sites to permit mobility, but data evaluating these are few and inconsistent. The present report compared multiple sites (fingers, abductor hallucis of the foot, arch of the foot, toes, forehead, and wrist) from 45 college student participants in a short-term sedentary laboratory setting and found large variation in both tonic and phasic SC responses, as well as crucial lapses in responding at nonpalmar sites. Across-site correlations between participants and within participants were also examined. The present data show that, in the laboratory setting employing commonly used recording techniques and stimuli, the nonpalmar sites are generally less responsive than the fingers, and the wrist in particular is the lowest in responding, whereas the toes are most similar to the fingers in responding. Within-participant correlations between the fingers and other sites were greatest for the plantar sites and least for the forehead. PMID:27015847

  6. Difference in static and dynamic stability between flexible flatfeet and neutral feet.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jeong-Ah; Lim, One-Bin; Yi, Chung-Hwi

    2015-02-01

    Different postural stability may be a contributor to secondary injuries in individuals with flexible flatfeet (FF) compared to those with neutral feet (NF). However, the differences between static and dynamic stability of FF and NF have not been examined. This study compared the static and dynamic stability of subjects with FF and NF and investigated the relationship between static and dynamic stability. Twenty-eight subjects (14 each in the FF and NF groups) performed three tasks (single leg standing with eyes open, with eyes closed, and the Y balance test). We quantified the center of pressure (COP) speed and Y balance test score (Y score) within the tasks. COP speed was significantly greater in the FF group than in the NF group under both conditions (eyes open and closed) and directions (anteroposterior and mediolateral). Y scores did not differ significantly between the two groups. No significant relationship was observed between the COP speed and Y score in either group. These results show that individuals with FF have different static stabilities, but not dynamic stabilities, compared with those with NF. This might indicate the absence of a relationship between static and dynamic stabilities.

  7. Neuroanatomy of the tube feet and tentacles in Holothuria glaberrima (Holothuroidea, Echinodermata)

    PubMed Central

    Díaz-Balzac, Carlos A.; Abreu-Arbelo, José E.

    2010-01-01

    Echinoderms are a key group in understanding the evolution of the nervous system in the Metazoa. Remarkably, little is known about echinoderm neurobiology. The echinoderm podia, which are unique echinoderm modifications and comprise structures responsible for locomotion and feeding, have been largely neglected in nervous system studies. Here, we have applied immunohistological approaches using different neuronal markers to describe the neuroanatomy of the holothurian podia and its relation to the muscular component. We show, using the sea cucumber Holothuria glaberrima (Selenka, 1867), the direct innervation of the podia by the ectoneural component of the nervous system, as well as the existence of a connection between the nervous system components in the main nerves, the muscle, and the connective tissue. These findings confirm the ectoneural origin of the tube feet’s main nervous system and demonstrate its neuroanatomic complexity. We also show the presence of fibers and neurons within the tube feet mesothelium and connective tissue. The study of these simple structures will help us elucidate the echinoderms’ neuromuscular circuit and their evolutionary relationships. PMID:20461218

  8. Acrylonitrile polymerization by Cy3PCuMe and (Bipy)2FeEt2.

    PubMed

    Schaper, Frank; Foley, Stephen R; Jordan, Richard F

    2004-02-25

    Cy(3)PCuMe (1) undergoes reversible ligand redistribution at low temperature in solution to form the tight ion pair [Cu(PCy(3))(2)][CuMe(2)] (3). The structure of 3 was assigned on the basis of (i) the stoichiometry of the 1 = 3 equilibrium, (ii) the observation of a triplet for the PCy(3) C1 (13)C NMR resonance due to virtual coupling to two (31)P nuclei, and (iii) reverse synthesis of 1 by combining separately generated Cu(PCy(3))(2)(+) and CuMe(2)(-) ions. Complex 1 and [Cu(PCy(3))(2)][PF(6)] (5) coordinate additional PCy(3) to form (Cy(3)P)(2)CuMe and [Cu(PCy(3))(3)][PF(6)], respectively, while 3 does not. Complex 1, free PCy(3), and (bipy)(2)FeEt(2) (2) each initiate the polymerization of acrylonitrile. In each case, the polyacrylonitrile contains branches that are characteristic of an anionic polymerization mechanism. The major initiator in acrylonitrile polymerization by 1 is PCy(3), which is liberated from 1. A transient iron hydride complex is proposed to initiate acrylonitrile polymerization by 2. PMID:14971946

  9. The institutional official and postapproval monitoring: the view from 10,000 feet.

    PubMed

    Lowman, Robert P

    2008-01-01

    The role of the institutional official (IO) in ensuring a high-quality program of laboratory animal care and use has received relatively little attention in the literature compared to that of the institutional animal care and use committee (IACUC) or attending veterinarian. Yet the IO is critical to institutional effectiveness. Often not a scientist, especially at colleges and universities, the IO is an executive who bears ultimate responsibility for the care and use of laboratory animals. An IO operates largely through delegation to the IACUC and the institutional veterinarian, yet must maintain a clear view of the program from the executive level--the "view from 10,000 feet." To do so, the IO must bring four critical leadership qualities to the position: (1) vision, (2) a commitment to quality and integrity, (3) strong planning and resource development, and (4) accountability to the laboratory animal program. The IO's ability to act on these qualities and to evaluate the effectiveness of the resulting program requires reliance on a strong program of postapproval monitoring (PAM). Summary data from PAM, based on metrics carefully defined by the IO in consultation with the IACUC and the institutional veterinarian, provide the feedback necessary to guide executive decisions and allow the IO to place the needs of the program of laboratory animal care and use successfully into the larger context of the mission of the institution.

  10. Treatment of sandal burns of the feet in children in a moist environment.

    PubMed

    Shakirov, Babur M

    2014-05-01

    Burns to children's feet are often due to scalds, from hot tap water, as an infant's skin is thinner and hence more susceptible to a full-thickness injury. In Central Asia, and particularly in Uzbekistan, many episodes of burns take place at homes because of using sandal heaters. In the case of sandal burns of the foot, it usually is not only skin that is injured but also underlying tissues: subcutaneous fat, fasciae, muscles and even bones. Many controlled studies have confirmed that wounds heal more readily in a moist, physiological environment. After performing the toilet of burn wounds of the foot, we applied Dermazin cream on the affected areas and then the foot was placed onto a polyethylene packet of large size and fixed by a bandage. Measurement of wound water evaporation was performed every day post-burn. Surgery was usually performed 15-17 days after burn by applying a perforated skin graft or a 0.2-0.3-mm-thick non-perforated skin graft. The procedures helped to improve the general condition of patients, shortened their stay in hospital and also reduced expenses and lessened joint deformities and contracture deformities. PMID:24094987

  11. Design of a novel mobility device controlled by the feet motion of a standing child.

    PubMed

    Schoepflin, Zachary R; Chen, Xi; Ragonesi, Christina B; Galloway, James C; Agrawal, Sunil K

    2011-01-01

    Self-generated mobility is a major contributor to the physical, emotional, cognitive, and social development of infants and toddlers. When young children have disorders that hinder self locomotion, their development is at risk for delay. Independent mobility via traditional power mobility devices may prevent this delay, but do little to encourage the child's development of gross motor skills. This research aims to develop a bio-driven mobile-assistive device that is controlled and driven by moving the feet, which may encourage the development of gross motor skills. In this study, system feasibility is shown by experiments on five typically developing toddlers and one special needs toddler with spastic cerebral palsy. Children were placed in the bio-driven device and instructed to navigate through a maze. All subjects were able to successfully complete the maze in multiple trials. Additionally, two toddlers showed evidence of improved driving skill by completing the maze in shorter times in successive trials on a given testing day. The results suggest that such a device is feasible for purposeful driving. Recommendations are given for the device and protocol redesign for related future testing. PMID:22275559

  12. Full Scale Tunnel (FST) and Seaplane Tow Channel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1930-01-01

    Aerial and ground views of the overall construction of Full-Scale Tunnel (FST) and the Seaplane Tow Channel. In November 1929, Smith DeFrance submitted his recommendations for the general design of the Full Scale Wind Tunnel. The last on his list concerned the division of labor required to build this unusual facility. He believed the job had five parts and described them as follows: 'It is proposed that invitations be sent out for bids on five groups of items. The first would be for one contract on the complete structure; second the same as first, including the erection of the cones but not the fabrication, since this would be more of a shipyard job; third would cover structural steel, cover, sash and doors, but not cones or foundation; fourth, foundations; an fifth, fabrication of cones.' DeFrance's memorandum prompted the NACA to solicit estimates from a large number of companies. Preliminary designs and estimates were prepared and submitted to the Bureau of the Budget and Congress appropriated funds on February 20, 1929. The main construction contract with the J.A. Jones Company of Charlotte, North Carolina was signed one year later on February 12, 1930. It was a peculiar structure as the building's steel framework is visible on the outside of the building. DeFrance described this in NACA TR No. 459: 'The entire equipment is housed in a structure, the outside walls of which serve as the outer walls of the return passages. The over-all length of the tunnel is 434 feet 6 inches, the width 222 feet, and the maximum height 97 feet. The framework is of structural steel....' (pp. 292-293). Ground shots of work in progress, aerials of east area.

  13. Performance Characteristics of a Preformed Elliptical Parachute at Altitudes between 200,000 and 100,000 Thousand Feet Obtained by In-Flight Photography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murro, Harold N.; Whitlock, Charles, H.

    1963-01-01

    The performance characteristics of a pre-formed elliptical parachute at altitudes between 200,000 and 100,000 feet were obtained by means of in-flight photography. The tests demonstrate that this type of parachute will open at altitudes of about 200,000 feet if conditions such as twisting of the suspension lines or draping of the suspension lines over the canopy do not occur. Drag-coefficient values between 0.6 and 0.8 were found to be reasonable for this type of parachute system in the altitude range between 200,000 and 100,000 feet.

  14. Heart rate detection from single-foot plantar bioimpedance measurements in a weighing scale.

    PubMed

    Diaz, Delia H; Casas, Oscar; Pallas-Areny, Ramon

    2010-01-01

    Electronic bathroom scales are an easy-to-use, affordable mean to measure physiological parameters in addition to body weight. They have been proposed to obtain the ballistocardiogram (BCG) and derive from it the heart rate, cardiac output and systolic blood pressure. Therefore, weighing scales may suit intermittent monitoring in e-health and patient screening. Scales intended for bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) have also been proposed to estimate the heart rate by amplifying the pulsatile impedance component superimposed on the basal impedance. However, electronic weighing scales cannot easily obtain the BCG from people that have a single leg neither are bioimpedance measurements between both feet recommended for people wearing a pacemaker or other electronic implants, neither for pregnant women. We propose a method to detect the heart rate (HR) from bioimpedance measured in a single foot while standing on an bathroom weighting scale intended for BIA. The electrodes built in the weighing scale are used to apply a 50 kHz voltage between the outer electrode pair and to measure the drop in voltage across the inner electrode pair. The agreement with the HR simultaneously obtained from the ECG is excellent. We have also compared the drop in voltage across the waist and the thorax with that obtained when measuring bioimpedance between both feet to compare the possible risk of the proposed method to that of existing BIA scales.

  15. Can you give me a hand? A comparison of hands and feet as optimal anatomical sites for skin conductance recording.

    PubMed

    Payne, Andrew F H; Dawson, Michael E; Schell, Anne M; Singh, Kulwinder; Courtney, Christopher G

    2013-11-01

    The fingers and feet have long been accepted as optimal anatomical recording sites for electrodermal activity. The available literature suggests that the feet are more responsive than the fingers. The present report compared skin conductance level (SCL) and responses (SCRs) from the left foot and the distal phalanges of the fingers on the nondominant hand among 19 participants. The principal results were (a) SCRs recorded from the fingers were significantly larger and more frequent with shorter latencies than SCRs from the foot, (b) SCL from the fingers was significantly higher than from the foot, (c) the fingers exhibited significantly greater discrimination conditioning than the foot, and (d) skin conductance measures recorded from the fingers and foot were significantly positively correlated. Specifically, our results demonstrate that the distal phalanges of the fingers are electrodermally more responsive than the abductor hallucis area of the foot.

  16. Cloning, Characterization, and Expression Levels of the Nectin Gene from the Tube Feet of the Sea Urchin Paracentrotus Lividus.

    PubMed

    Toubarro, Duarte; Gouveia, Analuce; Ribeiro, Raquel Mesquita; Simões, Nélson; da Costa, Gonçalo; Cordeiro, Carlos; Santos, Romana

    2016-06-01

    Marine bioadhesives perform in ways that manmade products simply cannot match, especially in wet environments. Despite their technological potential, bioadhesive molecular mechanisms are still largely understudied, and sea urchin adhesion is no exception. These animals inhabit wave-swept shores, relying on specialized adhesive organs, tube feet, composed by an adhesive disc and a motile stem. The disc encloses a duo-gland adhesive system, producing adhesive and deadhesive secretions for strong reversible substratum attachment. The disclosure of sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus tube foot disc proteome led to the identification of a secreted adhesion protein, Nectin, never before reported in adult adhesive organs but, that given its adhesive function in eggs/embryos, was pointed out as a putative substratum adhesive protein in adults. To further understand Nectin involvement in sea urchin adhesion, Nectin cDNA was amplified for the first time from P. lividus adhesive organs, showing that not only the known Nectin mRNA, called Nectin-1 (GenBank AJ578435), is expressed in the adults tube feet but also a new mRNA sequence, called Nectin-2 (GenBank KT351732), differing in 15 missense nucleotide substitutions. Nectin genomic DNA was also obtained for the first time, indicating that both Nectin-1 and Nectin-2 derive from a single gene. In addition, expression analysis showed that both Nectins are overexpressed in tube feet discs, its expression being significantly higher in tube feet discs from sea urchins just after collection from the field relative to sea urchin from aquarium. These data further advocate for Nectin involvement in sea urchin reversible adhesion, suggesting that its expression might be regulated according to the hydrodynamic conditions.

  17. Cloning, Characterization, and Expression Levels of the Nectin Gene from the Tube Feet of the Sea Urchin Paracentrotus Lividus.

    PubMed

    Toubarro, Duarte; Gouveia, Analuce; Ribeiro, Raquel Mesquita; Simões, Nélson; da Costa, Gonçalo; Cordeiro, Carlos; Santos, Romana

    2016-06-01

    Marine bioadhesives perform in ways that manmade products simply cannot match, especially in wet environments. Despite their technological potential, bioadhesive molecular mechanisms are still largely understudied, and sea urchin adhesion is no exception. These animals inhabit wave-swept shores, relying on specialized adhesive organs, tube feet, composed by an adhesive disc and a motile stem. The disc encloses a duo-gland adhesive system, producing adhesive and deadhesive secretions for strong reversible substratum attachment. The disclosure of sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus tube foot disc proteome led to the identification of a secreted adhesion protein, Nectin, never before reported in adult adhesive organs but, that given its adhesive function in eggs/embryos, was pointed out as a putative substratum adhesive protein in adults. To further understand Nectin involvement in sea urchin adhesion, Nectin cDNA was amplified for the first time from P. lividus adhesive organs, showing that not only the known Nectin mRNA, called Nectin-1 (GenBank AJ578435), is expressed in the adults tube feet but also a new mRNA sequence, called Nectin-2 (GenBank KT351732), differing in 15 missense nucleotide substitutions. Nectin genomic DNA was also obtained for the first time, indicating that both Nectin-1 and Nectin-2 derive from a single gene. In addition, expression analysis showed that both Nectins are overexpressed in tube feet discs, its expression being significantly higher in tube feet discs from sea urchins just after collection from the field relative to sea urchin from aquarium. These data further advocate for Nectin involvement in sea urchin reversible adhesion, suggesting that its expression might be regulated according to the hydrodynamic conditions. PMID:27194026

  18. Effect of alignment changes on socket reaction moments while walking in transtibial prostheses with energy storage and return feet

    PubMed Central

    Kobayashi, Toshiki; Arabian, Adam K.; Orendurff, Michael S.; Rosenbaum-Chou, Teri G.; Boone, David A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Energy storage and return feet are designed for active amputees. However, little is known about the socket reaction moments in transtibial prostheses with energy storage and return feet. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of alignment changes on the socket reaction moments during gait while using the energy storage and return feet. Methods A Smart Pyramid™ was used to measure the socket reaction moments in 10 subjects with transtibial prostheses while walking under 25 alignment conditions, including a nominal alignment (as defined by conventional clinical methods), as well as angle malalignments of 2°, 4° and 6° (flexion, extension, abduction, and adduction) and translation malalignments of 5mm, 10mm and 15mm (anterior, posterior, lateral, and medial) referenced from the nominal alignment. The socket reaction moments of the nominal alignment were compared with each malalignment. Findings Both coronal and sagittal alignment changes demonstrated systematic effects on the socket reaction moments. In the sagittal plane, angle and translation alignment changes demonstrated significant differences (P<0.05) in the minimum moment, the moment at 45% of stance and the maximum moment for some comparisons. In the coronal plane, angle and translation alignment changes demonstrated significant differences (P<0.05) in the moment at 30% and 75% of stance for all comparisons. Interpretation The alignment may have systematic effects on the socket reaction moments in transtibial prostheses with energy storage and return feet. The socket reaction moments could potentially be a useful biomechanical parameter to evaluate the alignment of the transtibial prostheses. PMID:24315709

  19. Neurotoxins: Current Concepts in Cosmetic Use on the Face and Neck--Upper Face (Glabella, Forehead, and Crow's Feet).

    PubMed

    Monheit, Gary

    2015-11-01

    There are 3 Food and Drug Administration-approved botulinum toxin formulations now being successfully used for treatment in the upper face. The most common areas for botulinum toxin treatment are the upper face, including the glabella, forehead, brows, and lateral canthal lines or crow's feet. The frozen look is no more desired in patients. Thus, physicians are more commonly individualizing dosage based on the patient's variation in anatomy, muscle mass, asymmetry, and, most importantly, desired outcome.

  20. Micro- and nanostructure of the adhesive material secreted by the tube feet of the sea star Asterias rubens.

    PubMed

    Hennebert, Elise; Viville, Pascal; Lazzaroni, Roberto; Flammang, Patrick

    2008-10-01

    To attach to underwater surfaces, sea stars rely on adhesive secretions produced by specialised organs, the tube feet. Adhesion is temporary and tube feet can also voluntarily become detached. The adhesive material is produced by two types of adhesive secretory cells located in the epidermis of the tube foot disc, and is deposited between the disc surface and the substratum. After detachment, this material remains on the substratum as a footprint. Using LM, SEM, and AFM, we described the fine structure of footprints deposited on various substrata by individuals of Asterias rubens. Ultrastructure of the adhesive layer of attached tube feet was also investigated using TEM. Whatever the method used, the adhesive material appeared as made up of globular nanostructures forming a meshwork deposited on a thin homogeneous film. This appearance did not differ according to whether the footprints were fixed or not, and whether they were observed hydrated or dry. TEM observations suggest that type 2 adhesive cells would be responsible for the release of the material constituting the homogeneous film whereas type 1 adhesive cells would produce the material forming the meshwork. This reticulated pattern would originate from the arrangement of the adhesive cell secretory pores on the disc surface.

  1. Lateral Sesamoid Position Relative to the Second Metatarsal in Feet With and Without Hallux Valgus: A Prospective Study.

    PubMed

    Geng, Xiang; Zhang, Chao; Ma, Xin; Wang, Xu; Huang, Jiazhang; Xu, Jian; Wang, Chen

    2016-01-01

    We sought to determine whether hallux valgus displaces the sesamoid bones laterally away from a stationary first metatarsal or whether the first metatarsal head is displaced medially from the stationary sesamoids, which remain in position relative to the rest of the forefoot. We reviewed weightbearing radiographs in the dorsal plantar view of 128 consecutive patients (149 feet) seen over 2 months in 2014. Of these, 82 feet (55%) had a hallux valgus angle of >15° (hallux valgus group) and 67 feet (45%) had an angle of no more than 15° (control group). We measured the absolute distances from the center of the lateral sesamoid and the first metatarsal head to the long axis of the second metatarsal. Next, the relative distances, defined as the ratio of these 2 absolute distances to the length of the second metatarsal, were calculated to adjust for foot size. Both the absolute and the relative distances from the center of the first metatarsal head to the second metatarsal differed significantly between the 2 groups and correlated positively with the hallux valgus angle and first intermetatarsal angle. However, neither the absolute nor the relative distance to the lateral sesamoid bone differed significantly between the groups, nor did they correlate with either of the 2 angles. Thus, despite medial shifting of the first metatarsal in hallux valgus, the lateral sesamoid retains its relationship to the second metatarsal in transverse plane. Its apparent lateral movement is a radiographic misinterpretation. Awareness of this misinterpretation should improve the success of corrective surgery.

  2. Age-related changes in distribution of body weight on soles of feet for selected actions and postures.

    PubMed

    Yanagida, T; Asami, T

    1997-12-01

    We investigated age-related changes in the distribution of body weight on soles of feet in 878 healthy subjects ranging from 5 to 80 years of age. By modifying Morton's Staticometer, we constructed an instrument for measuring body-weight distribution over three areas of soles of the feet, the big toe (inner forefoot), the other four toes combined (outer forefoot) and the heels for both feet, thus a total of six areas. The weights in the six areas were recorded at the completion of nine selected actions and postures. We observed that for inhaling and exhaling standing postures, generally younger subjects had a ratio close to 1:2:3 for weights recorded for the inner toe:outer toes:heels as observed by Morton, but elderly subjects had a smaller value than 3 for the heel. The body-weight distribution tended to shift from heels to outer toes across age groups, which was more distinctly observed in women than in men.

  3. Hubble Space Telescope Scale Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    This is a photograph of a 1/15 scale model of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). The HST is the product of a partnership between NASA, European Space Agency Contractors, and the international community of astronomers. It is named after Edwin P. Hubble, an American Astronomer who discovered the expanding nature of the universe and was the first to realize the true nature of galaxies. The purpose of the HST, the most complex and sensitive optical telescope ever made, is to study the cosmos from a low-Earth orbit. By placing the telescope in space, astronomers are able to collect data that is free of the Earth's atmosphere. The HST detects objects 25 times fainter than the dimmest objects seen from Earth and provides astronomers with an observable universe 250 times larger than visible from ground-based telescopes, perhaps as far away as 14 billion light-years. The HST views galaxies, stars, planets, comets, possibly other solar systems, and even unusual phenomena such as quasars, with 10 times the clarity of ground-based telescopes. The major elements of the HST are the Optical Telescope Assembly (OTA), the Support System Module (SSM), and the Scientific Instruments (SI). The HST is 42.5-feet (13- meters) long and weighs about 25,000 pounds (11,600 kilograms). The HST was deployed from the Space Shuttle Discovery (STS-31 mission) into Earth orbit in April 1990. The Marshall Space Flight Center had responsibility for design, development, and construction of the HST. The Perkin-Elmer Corporation, in Danbury, Cornecticut, developed the optical system and guidance sensors. The Lockheed Missile and Space Company of Sunnyvale, California produced the protective outer shroud and spacecraft systems, and assembled and tested the finished telescope.

  4. The modified Kidner-Cobb procedure for symptomatic flexible pes planovalgus and posterior tibial tendon dysfunction stage II: review of 50 feet in 39 patients.

    PubMed

    Giorgini, Renato; Giorgini, Tara; Calderaro, Michele; Japour, Christopher; Cortes, Jane; Kim, David

    2010-01-01

    Symptomatic flatfoot is a prevalent disorder. We undertook a review of 50 feet in 39 patients with flexible flatfoot treated between August 2000 and January 2008 in order to evaluate the modified Kidner-Cobb procedure. Overall clinical results were rated as good in 48 (96%) feet and fair in 2 (4%) feet, and there were no poor results. Average follow-up was 4.6 years, and total recovery time was 5.7 months in older patients and 3.7 months in children. Manual muscle-strength testing revealed no difference in tibialis anterior strength between the operated and contralateral extremity. All patients visually demonstrated postoperative elevation of the medial longitudinal arch height. Complications included 2 feet with wound dehiscence and 1 foot with fractured hardware. The results of this review indicate that the modified Kidner-Cobb procedure is a useful treatment option for patients with symptomatic flexible flatfoot with posterior tibial tendon dysfunction stage 2. PMID:20797583

  5. Improvement of crow's feet lines by topical application of 1-carbamimidoyl-L-proline (CLP).

    PubMed

    Kawashima, Makoto; Yokose, Urara; Hachiya, Akira; Fujimura, Tsutomu; Tsukahara, Kazue; Kawada, Hiromitsu; Kitahara, Takashi; Takema, Yoshinori; Terui, Tadashi; Nakagawa, Hidemi

    2013-04-01

    Wrinkles, one of the characteristics of chronic sun-damaged and/or aged skin, are associated with psychological distress. Apart from the deterioration of collagen and elastic fibers in the dermis, which induces the loss of skin elasticity, it has been recently proposed that decreased flexibility or elasticity of the stratum corneum (SC) is also correlated with wrinkle formation. The elasticity of the SC has been shown to be regulated, at least in part, by the amounts and types of amino acids. To evaluate the ability of our newly developed amino acid-derivative (1-carbamimidoyl-L-proline; CLP), which recovers the elastic properties of the SC ex vivo, to improve wrinkles, a clinical test was performed with 126 Japanese female subjects aged 32-50 years who had crow's feet lines on their faces. Three eligible dermatologists evaluated the study according to authorized grades by the Japanese Cosmetic Science Society and scored the subjects who were much improved or improved as 29.7% and 57.8% of all CLP-treated subjects at 4 and 8 weeks, respectively. In contrast, only 1.5% and 8.1% of subjects improved with the placebo lotion at 4 and 8 weeks, respectively. These results suggest a significant efficacy of CLP to improve wrinkles. In parallel with the dermatologists' assessments, skin surface roughness in the CLP-treated group was significantly reduced after treatment with CLP for 4 and 8 weeks compared to the placebo-treated group. The sum of these data suggests that CLP is a promising and useful ingredient for the improvement of wrinkles through its ability to enhance the elasticity of the SC.

  6. Are flexible flat feet associated with proximal joint problems in children?

    PubMed

    Kothari, A; Dixon, P C; Stebbins, J; Zavatsky, A B; Theologis, T

    2016-03-01

    The role of flexible flat feet (FF) in the development of musculoskeletal symptoms at joints proximal to the ankle is unclear. We undertook an observational study to investigate the relationship between foot posture and the proximal joints in children. It was hypothesised that reduced arch height would be associated with proximal joint symptoms and altered gait kinematics and kinetics particularly in the transverse plane at the hip and knee. Ninety-five children between the ages of 8-15 were recruited into this ethically approved study. Foot posture was classified using the arch height index (AHI). The frequency of knee and hip/back pain was documented, and each child underwent three dimensional gait analysis. Reduced arch height was associated with increased odds of knee symptoms (p<0.01) and hip/back symptoms (p=0.01). A flat foot posture was also significantly associated with a reduction in the second peak of the vertical ground reaction force (p=0.03), which concomitantly affected late stance hip and knee moments. A reduced AHI was also associated with increased pelvic retraction and increased knee valgus in midstance. No kinematic and kinetic parameter associated with a flat foot posture related to increased proximal joint symptoms in the FF group. Children with a flatter foot posture are more likely to have pain or discomfort at the knee, hip and back; however, the mechanisms by which this occurs remain unclear. Treating FF without explicit understanding of how it relates to symptoms is difficult, and further work in this area is required. PMID:26979907

  7. On Heating Large Bright Coronal Loops by Magnetic Microexplosions at their Feet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Ronald L; Falconer, D. A.; Porter, Jason G.

    1999-01-01

    In previous work, by registering Yohkoh SXT coronal X-ray images with MSFC vector magnetograms, we found that: (1) many of the larger bright coronal loops rooted at one or both ends in an active region are rooted around magnetic islands of included polarity, (2) the core field encasing the neutral line encircling the island is strongly sheared, and (3) this sheared core field is the seat of frequent microflares. This suggests that the coronal heating in these extended bright loops is driven by many small explosive releases of stored magnetic energy from the sheared core field at their feet, some of which magnetic microexplosions also produce the microflare heating in the core fields. In this paper, we show that this scenario is feasible in terms of the energy Abstract: required for the observed coronal heating and the magnetic energy available in the observed sheared core fields. In a representative active region, from the X-ray and vector field data, we estimate the coronal heating consumption by a selected typical large bright loop, the coronal heating consumption by a typical microflare at the foot of this loop, the frequency of microflares at the foot, and the available magnetic energy in the microflaring core field. We find that: (1) the rate of magnetic energy release to power the microflares at the foot (approx. 6 x 10(ext 25)erg/s) is enough to also power the coronal heating in the body of the extended loop (approx. 2 x l0(exp 25 erg/s), and (2) there is enough stored magnetic energy in the sheared core field to sustain the microflaring and extended loop heating for about a day, which is a typical time for buildup of neutral-line magnetic shear in an active region. This work was funded by the Solar Physics Branch of NASA's Office of Space Science through the SR&T Program and the SEC Guest Investigator Program.

  8. Dynamic force distribution during level walking under the feet of patients with chronic ankle instability

    PubMed Central

    Nyska, M; Shabat, S; Simkin, A; Neeb, M; Matan, Y; Mann, G

    2003-01-01

    Objectives: To examine changes in the pattern of force transfer between the foot and the floor associated with chronically sprained ankles by measuring the peak forces and their timing under several regions of the feet during level walking. Methods: Twelve young male subjects (mean (SD) age 21 (2) years) with recurrent ankle sprains were studied. Seven of them had unilateral and bilateral chronic instability and laxity, and five had bilateral instability. Twelve healthy men (without orthopaedic or medical disease) served as a control group. Subjects walked at their own pace along a 7 m walkway, which included a Mini-EMED pressure distribution measuring system. The variables measured were relative peak force (fraction of body weight) and relative timing (fraction of stance time). These variables were measured under six regions of interest in each foot print: heel, midfoot, medial, central, and lateral forefoot, and toes. Results: (a) A significant delay to the time of peak force under the central and lateral forefoot and toes in subjects with chronic ankle instability. (b) A significant decrease in the relative forces under the heel and toes and an increase in the relative forces under the midfoot and lateral forefoot in subjects with chronic ankle instability. (c) In the patients with unilateral instability, there were no significant differences in any of the variables between the injured and non-injured foot. Conclusions: In patients with chronic ankle instability, there is a slowing down of weight transfer from heel strike to toe off, a reduced impact at the beginning and end of the stance phase, and a lateral shift of body weight. PMID:14665586

  9. Sex-related differences in foot shape of adult Caucasians--a follow-up study focusing on long and short feet.

    PubMed

    Krauss, I; Langbein, C; Horstmann, T; Grau, S

    2011-03-01

    The study's purpose was to substantiate findings on sex-related differences in foot morphology focusing on fringe sizes. Altogether, 287 Caucasian adults with long or short feet were scanned. Data were analysed together with data from 847 subjects from a previous study with comparable inclusion criteria and anthropometric data by: (1)comparing absolute measures within 237-277 mm foot length (FL); (2) comparing averaged measures across sizes in % of foot length for 203-323 mm FL; (3) reclassifying the additional subjects into a previously defined foot type classification. Male feet were wider and higher for the same FL. Averaged across sizes, no relevant differences between sexes were found for widths and heights. Slender or flat-pointed foot types were more common in longer feet, shorter feet tended to be bigger. Definitions for 'long' and 'short' are sex-related with an offset of three shoe sizes (EU). Results of this follow-up study on long and short feet can substantiate previous findings mainly described for the most common sizes. STATEMENT OF RELEVANCE: Improper footwear can cause pain and injury and proper fit is a major criterion for shoe buyers. Knowledge about sex-related differences in foot shape is important for shoe design. This study supplements the field of knowledge for very small and large feet.

  10. The Prevalence of Spine Deformities and Flat Feet among 10-12 Year Old Children Who Train Basketball--Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Puzovic, Vladimir; Rotim, Kresimir; Jurisic, Vladimir; Samardzic, Miroslav; Zivkovic, Bojana; Savic, Andrija; Rasulic, Lukas

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study is to estimate the prevalence of spine and feet deformities among children who are regularly involved in basketball trainings, as well as finding differences in the prevalence of those deformities between children of different gender and age. The study included a total of 64 children, of which 43 were boys and 21 were girls, ages 10-12. All subjects have been regularly participating in basketball trainings for at least one year. Postural disorder is defined as an irregularity in posture of the spine and feet, and it is assessed by visual methods from the front, side and rear side of the body. The prevalence of spinal deformities in our group was 53.13%. The boys had a significantly higher prevalence than girls, 65.1% compared to 28.57% (p=0.006). There was no significant difference in prevalence of spine deformities between children of different ages. The prevalence of feet deformities was 64.06%. There was a statistically significant difference between the sexes, where boys had a significantly greater prevalence of the feet deformities than girls, 83.7% compared to 23.81% (p=0.001). Flat feet were the most common in 10 year old children (85.71%). In conclusion, it can be said that despite regular participation in basketball training, subjects in this study have high prevalence of deformities; especially boys who stand out with the high prevalence of flat feet. PMID:26898058

  11. The Prevalence of Spine Deformities and Flat Feet among 10-12 Year Old Children Who Train Basketball--Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Puzovic, Vladimir; Rotim, Kresimir; Jurisic, Vladimir; Samardzic, Miroslav; Zivkovic, Bojana; Savic, Andrija; Rasulic, Lukas

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study is to estimate the prevalence of spine and feet deformities among children who are regularly involved in basketball trainings, as well as finding differences in the prevalence of those deformities between children of different gender and age. The study included a total of 64 children, of which 43 were boys and 21 were girls, ages 10-12. All subjects have been regularly participating in basketball trainings for at least one year. Postural disorder is defined as an irregularity in posture of the spine and feet, and it is assessed by visual methods from the front, side and rear side of the body. The prevalence of spinal deformities in our group was 53.13%. The boys had a significantly higher prevalence than girls, 65.1% compared to 28.57% (p=0.006). There was no significant difference in prevalence of spine deformities between children of different ages. The prevalence of feet deformities was 64.06%. There was a statistically significant difference between the sexes, where boys had a significantly greater prevalence of the feet deformities than girls, 83.7% compared to 23.81% (p=0.001). Flat feet were the most common in 10 year old children (85.71%). In conclusion, it can be said that despite regular participation in basketball training, subjects in this study have high prevalence of deformities; especially boys who stand out with the high prevalence of flat feet.

  12. Construction of a 40-mile long roadside scale model of the solar system in northern Maine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCartney, K.

    2001-05-01

    The Maine Solar System Model is currently under construction along Route 1 between Houlton and Presque Isle, in Aroostook County, northern Maine. The scale is 1:93,000,000, or 1 mile equals an astronomical unit. There is a 40 mile distance between the Sun (diameter 49.5 feet) and Pluto (diameter 1 inch). The model will include the Sun, nine planets and seven moons, with diameters and distances all to the same scale. Except for the Sun, all components will be three-dimensional and built to withstand the northern Maine climate. Construction is generally of steel with fiberglass globes positioned on steel posts at least ten feet above ground and 55 feet off the roadway. Road safety concerns require that the Jupiter and Saturn sites include parking lots. Educational information associated with the model will be provided on brochures, since textual information at the sites would require excessive stops and parking problems. Learning exercises will also be provided by travelling trunks prepared by Maine teachers to support the State of Maine Learning Results. This is a community project with the various components being built by ten area schools and with active assistance from many community members and organizations. It is being built with with very little money, with most materials and labor donated.

  13. On the Uses of Full-Scale Schlieren Flow Visualization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Settles, G. S.; Miller, J. D.; Dodson-Dreibelbis, L. J.

    2000-11-01

    A lens-and-grid-type schlieren system using a very large grid as a light source was described at earlier APS/DFD meetings. With a field-of-view of 2.3x2.9 m (7.5x9.5 feet), it is the largest indoor schlieren system in the world. Still and video examples of several full-scale airflows and heat-transfer problems visualized thus far will be shown. These include: heating and ventilation airflows, flows due to appliances and equipment, the thermal plumes of people, the aerodynamics of an explosive trace detection portal, gas leak detection, shock wave motion associated with aviation security problems, and heat transfer from live crops. Planned future projects include visualizing fume-hood and grocery display freezer airflows and studying the dispersion of insect repellent plumes at full scale.

  14. Full-scale Wind-tunnel and Flight Tests of a Fairchild 22 Airplane Equipped with a Fowler Flap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dearborn, C H; Soule, H A

    1936-01-01

    Full-scale wind-tunnel and flight tests were made of a Fairchild 22 airplane equipped with a Fowler flap to determine the effect of the flap on the performance and control characteristics of the airplane. In the wind-tunnel tests of the airplane with the horizontal tail surfaces removed, the flap was found to increase the maximum lift coefficient from 1.27 to 2.41. In the flight test, the flap was found to decrease the minimum speed from 58.8 to 44.4 miles per hour. The required take-off run to attain an altitude of 50 feet was reduced from 935 feet to 700 feet by the use of the flap, the minimum distance being obtained with five-sixths full deflection. The landing run from a height of 50 feet was reduced one-third. The longitudinal and directional control was adversely affected by the flap, indicating that the design of the tail surfaces is more critical with a flapped than a plain wing.

  15. Statistical parametric mapping of the regional distribution and ontogenetic scaling of foot pressures during walking in Asian elephants (Elephas maximus).

    PubMed

    Panagiotopoulou, Olga; Pataky, Todd C; Hill, Zoe; Hutchinson, John R

    2012-05-01

    Foot pressure distributions during locomotion have causal links with the anatomical and structural configurations of the foot tissues and the mechanics of locomotion. Elephant feet have five toes bound in a flexible pad of fibrous tissue (digital cushion). Does this specialized foot design control peak foot pressures in such giant animals? And how does body size, such as during ontogenetic growth, influence foot pressures? We addressed these questions by studying foot pressure distributions in elephant feet and their correlation with body mass and centre of pressure trajectories, using statistical parametric mapping (SPM), a neuro-imaging technology. Our results show a positive correlation between body mass and peak pressures, with the highest pressures dominated by the distal ends of the lateral toes (digits 3, 4 and 5). We also demonstrate that pressure reduction in the elephant digital cushion is a complex interaction of its viscoelastic tissue structure and its centre of pressure trajectories, because there is a tendency to avoid rear 'heel' contact as an elephant grows. Using SPM, we present a complete map of pressure distributions in elephant feet during ontogeny by performing statistical analysis at the pixel level across the entire plantar/palmar surface. We hope that our study will build confidence in the potential clinical and scaling applications of mammalian foot pressures, given our findings in support of a link between regional peak pressures and pathogenesis in elephant feet.

  16. Statistical parametric mapping of the regional distribution and ontogenetic scaling of foot pressures during walking in Asian elephants (Elephas maximus).

    PubMed

    Panagiotopoulou, Olga; Pataky, Todd C; Hill, Zoe; Hutchinson, John R

    2012-05-01

    Foot pressure distributions during locomotion have causal links with the anatomical and structural configurations of the foot tissues and the mechanics of locomotion. Elephant feet have five toes bound in a flexible pad of fibrous tissue (digital cushion). Does this specialized foot design control peak foot pressures in such giant animals? And how does body size, such as during ontogenetic growth, influence foot pressures? We addressed these questions by studying foot pressure distributions in elephant feet and their correlation with body mass and centre of pressure trajectories, using statistical parametric mapping (SPM), a neuro-imaging technology. Our results show a positive correlation between body mass and peak pressures, with the highest pressures dominated by the distal ends of the lateral toes (digits 3, 4 and 5). We also demonstrate that pressure reduction in the elephant digital cushion is a complex interaction of its viscoelastic tissue structure and its centre of pressure trajectories, because there is a tendency to avoid rear 'heel' contact as an elephant grows. Using SPM, we present a complete map of pressure distributions in elephant feet during ontogeny by performing statistical analysis at the pixel level across the entire plantar/palmar surface. We hope that our study will build confidence in the potential clinical and scaling applications of mammalian foot pressures, given our findings in support of a link between regional peak pressures and pathogenesis in elephant feet. PMID:22496296

  17. Vibration induced white-feet: Overview and field study of vibration exposure and reported symptoms in workers

    PubMed Central

    Eger, Tammy; Thompson, Aaron; Leduc, Mallorie; Krajnak, Kristine; Goggins, Katie; Godwin, Alison; House, Ron

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Workers who stand on platforms or equipment that vibrate are exposed to foot-transmitted vibration (FTV). Exposure to FTV can lead to vibration white feet/toes resulting in blanching of the toes, and tingling and numbness in the feet and toes. OBJECTIVES The objectives are 1) to review the current state of knowledge of the health risks associated with foot-transmitted vibration (FTV), and 2) to identify the characteristics of FTV and discuss the associated risk of vibration-induced injury. PARTICIPANTS Workers who operated locomotives (n = 3), bolting platforms (n = 10), jumbo drills (n = 7), raise drilling platforms (n = 4), and crushers (n = 3), participated. METHODS A tri-axial accelerometer was used to measure FTV in accordance with ISO 2631-1 guidelines. Frequency-weighted root-mean-square acceleration and the dominant frequency are reported. Participants were also asked to report pain/ache/discomfort in the hands and/or feet. RESULTS Reports of pain/discomfort/ache were highest in raise platform workers and jumbo drill operators who were exposed to FTV in the 40 Hz and 28 Hz range respectively. Reports of discomfort/ache/pain were lowest in the locomotive and crusher operators who were exposed to FTV below 10 Hz. These findings are consistent with animal studies that have shown vascular and neural damage in exposed appendages occurs at frequencies above 40 Hz. CONCLUSIONS Operators exposed to FTV at 40 Hz appear to be at greater risk of experiencing vibration induced injury. Future research is required to document the characteristics of FTV and epidemiological evidence is required to link exposure with injury. PMID:24004754

  18. The 0.040-scale space shuttle orbiter base heating model tests in the Lewis Research Center space power facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dezelick, R. A.

    1976-01-01

    Space shuttle base heating tests were conducted using a 0.040-scale model in the Plum Brook Space Power Facility of The NASA Lewis Research Center. The tests measured heat transfer rates, pressure distributions, and gas recovery temperatures on the orbiter vehicle 2A base configuration resulting from engine plume impingement. One hundred and sixty-eight hydrogen-oxygen engine firings were made at simulated flight altitudes ranging from 120,000 to 360,000 feet.

  19. Genetic parameters for hoof lesions and their relationship with feet and leg traits in Canadian Holstein cows.

    PubMed

    Chapinal, N; Koeck, A; Sewalem, A; Kelton, D F; Mason, S; Cramer, G; Miglior, F

    2013-04-01

    The objectives were (1) to estimate the genetic parameters and breeding values of hoof lesions, (2) to estimate the phenotypic effect of each feet and legs conformation traits on hoof lesions, and (3) to estimate genetic correlations between hoof lesions with feet and legs conformation traits. The presence or absence of specific hoof lesions was recorded for each hoof. Lesions were classified into infectious (digital and interdigital dermatitis, foot rot, and heel erosion), horn (sole and toe ulcer, sole hemorrhage, and white line disease), and other lesions (interdigital hyperplasia, fissures, thin soles, and corkscrew claw). A total of 34,905 hoof health records from 27,179 cows and 365 herds, collected by 18 different hoof-trimmers in Ontario, Alberta, and British Columbia, were analyzed using linear animal models. In addition, 5 feet and leg conformation traits (foot angle, heel depth, bone quality, rear leg side view, and rear leg rear view) and locomotion from primiparous cows were considered (n=11,419 and 6,966 cows, for conformation traits and locomotion, respectively). At least one lesion was found in nearly 40% of the hoof trimming records. The heritability estimates for hoof lesions ranged from 0.01 for front horn lesions to 0.09 for rear infectious lesions. Despite the low heritability estimates, we observed large variability in sire estimated breeding value (EBV) for resistance to hoof lesions. Positive genetic correlations were found between the occurrence of front and rear infectious lesions (0.77) and between front and rear horn lesions (0.61), but not between infectious and horn lesions (0.08). For most of the conformation traits, low scores were phenotypically associated with higher incidence of horn lesions, whereas we found no evidence of a phenotypic effect of feet and leg traits on infectious lesions. The heritability of the conformation traits ranged from 0.04 for rear leg rear view to 0.22 for bone quality, whereas that for locomotion was 0

  20. Some gamma-ray shielding measurements made at altitudes greater than 115000 feet using large Ge(Li) detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chapman, G. T.; Cumby, R. P.; Gibbons, J. H.; Macklin, R. L.; Parker, H. W.

    1972-01-01

    A series of balloon-flight experiments at altitudes greater than 115,000 feet were conducted to gain information relative to the use of composite shields (passive and/or active) for shielding large-volume, lithium-drifted, germanium (Ge(Li)) detectors used in gamma-ray spectrometers. Data showing the pulse-height spectra of the environmental gamma radiation as measured at 5.3 and 3.8 gms sq cm residual atmosphere with an unshielded diode detector are also presented.

  1. Survival following a vertical free fall from 300 feet: the crucial role of body position to impact surface.

    PubMed

    Weckbach, Sebastian; Flierl, Michael A; Blei, Michael; Burlew, Clay Cothren; Moore, Ernest E; Stahel, Philip F

    2011-10-25

    We report the case of a 28-year old rock climber who survived an "unsurvivable" injury consisting of a vertical free fall from 300 feet onto a solid rock surface. The trauma mechanism and injury kinetics are analyzed, with a particular focus on the relevance of body positioning to ground surface at the time of impact. The role of early patient transfer to a level 1 trauma center, and "damage control" management protocols for avoiding delayed morbidity and mortality in this critically injured patient are discussed.

  2. Educational Scale-Making

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nespor, Jan

    2004-01-01

    The article explores the complexities of educational scale-making. "Educational scales" are defined as the spatial and temporal orders generated as pupils and teachers move and are moved through educational systems; scales are "envelopes of spacetime" into which certain schoolbased identities (and not others) can be folded. Scale is thus both an…

  3. Raters & Rating Scales.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez, Winifred A.; Stone, Mark H.

    1998-01-01

    The first article in this section, "Rating Scales and Shared Meaning," by Winifred A. Lopez, discusses the analysis of rating scale data. The second article, "Rating Scale Categories: Dichotomy, Double Dichotomy, and the Number Two," by Mark H. Stone, argues that dichotomies in rating scales are more useful than multiple ratings. (SLD)

  4. Occupational Cohort Time Scales

    PubMed Central

    Roth, H. Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This study explores how highly correlated time variables (occupational cohort time scales) contribute to confounding and ambiguity of interpretation. Methods: Occupational cohort time scales were identified and organized through simple equations of three time scales (relational triads) and the connections between these triads (time scale web). The behavior of the time scales was examined when constraints were imposed on variable ranges and interrelationships. Results: Constraints on a time scale in a triad create high correlations between the other two time scales. These correlations combine with the connections between relational triads to produce association paths. High correlation between time scales leads to ambiguity of interpretation. Conclusions: Understanding the properties of occupational cohort time scales, their relational triads, and the time scale web is helpful in understanding the origins of otherwise obscure confounding bias and ambiguity of interpretation. PMID:25647318

  5. Characterisation of the carbohydrate fraction of the temporary adhesive secreted by the tube feet of the sea star Asterias rubens.

    PubMed

    Hennebert, Elise; Wattiez, Ruddy; Flammang, Patrick

    2011-06-01

    In sea stars, adhesion takes place at the level of a multitude of small appendages, the tube feet. It involves the secretion of an adhesive material which, after tube foot detachment, remains on the substratum as a footprint. It was previously reported that the two main organic components of this material are proteins and carbohydrates. The carbohydrate moiety of the adhesive secretion of Asterias rubens was investigated using a set of 16 lectins which were used on sections through tube feet, on footprints, and on the proteins extracted from these footprints. After gel electrophoresis, these proteins separate into eight protein bands which were named sea star footprint proteins (Sfps). Eleven lectins label the tube foot epidermis at the level of the adhesive cells, four react with footprints, and eight with two of the extracted footprint proteins, which are therefore classified as glycoproteins. Sfp-290 appears to bear mostly N-linked oligosaccharides and Sfp-210 principally O-linked oligosaccharides. The outer chains of both glycoproteins enclose galactose, N-acetylgalactosamine, fucose, and sialic acid residues. Another part of the carbohydrate fraction of the footprints would be in the form of larger molecules, such as sialylated proteoglycans. These two types of glycoconjugates are presumably key components of the sea star temporary adhesive providing both cohesive and adhesive contributions through electrostatic interactions by the polar and hydrogen-bonding functional groups of their glycan chains.

  6. Foot pressure analysis of adults with flat and normal feet at different gait speeds on an ascending slope

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Myoung-Kwon

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This study was conducted to determine the difference in foot pressures between flat and normal feet at different gait speeds on an ascending slope. [Subjects] This study enrolled 30 adults with normal (n=15) and flat feet (n=15), with ages from 21 to 30 years old, who had no history of neurological disorders or gait problems. A treadmill was used for the analysis of kinematic features during gait, using a slope of 10%, and gait velocities of slow, normal, and fast. [Methods] A foot pressure analyzer was used to measure changes in foot pressure. [Results] Compared to the normal subjects, the foot pressure of the flatfoot subjects showed a significant increase in the 2–3rd metatarsal region with increasing gait speed, whereas there were significant decreases in the 1st toe and 1st metatarsal regions with increasing gait speed. [Conclusion] The body weight of adults with flatfoot was concentrated on the 2–3rd metatarsal region during the stance phase and increased with walking speed on the ascending slope due to weakening of function of the medial longitudinal arch. PMID:26834348

  7. Foot pressure analysis of adults with flat and normal feet at different gait speeds on an ascending slope.

    PubMed

    Kim, Myoung-Kwon

    2015-12-01

    [Purpose] This study was conducted to determine the difference in foot pressures between flat and normal feet at different gait speeds on an ascending slope. [Subjects] This study enrolled 30 adults with normal (n=15) and flat feet (n=15), with ages from 21 to 30 years old, who had no history of neurological disorders or gait problems. A treadmill was used for the analysis of kinematic features during gait, using a slope of 10%, and gait velocities of slow, normal, and fast. [Methods] A foot pressure analyzer was used to measure changes in foot pressure. [Results] Compared to the normal subjects, the foot pressure of the flatfoot subjects showed a significant increase in the 2-3rd metatarsal region with increasing gait speed, whereas there were significant decreases in the 1st toe and 1st metatarsal regions with increasing gait speed. [Conclusion] The body weight of adults with flatfoot was concentrated on the 2-3rd metatarsal region during the stance phase and increased with walking speed on the ascending slope due to weakening of function of the medial longitudinal arch.

  8. Effect of Custom-Molded Foot Orthoses on Foot Pain and Balance in Children With Symptomatic Flexible Flat Feet

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hong-Jae; Lim, Kil-Byung; Yoo, JeeHyun; Yun, Hyun-Ju; Jeong, Tae-Ho

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effect of custom-molded foot orthoses on foot pain and balance in children with symptomatic flexible flat foot 1 month and 3 months after fitting foot orthosis. Method A total of 24 children over 6 years old with flexible flat feet and foot pain for at least 6 months were recruited for this study. Their resting calcaneal stance position and calcaneal pitch angle were measured. Individual custom-molded rigid foot orthoses were prescribed using inverted orthotic technique to control foot overpronation. Pain questionnaire was used to obtain pain sites, degree, and frequency. Balancing ability was determined using computerized posturography. These evaluations were performed prior to custom-molded foot orthoses, 1 month, and 3 months after fitting foot orthoses. Result Of 24 children with symptomatic flexible flat feet recruited for this study, 20 completed the study. Significant (p<0.001) improvements in pain degree and frequency were noted after 1 and 3 months of custom-molded foot orthoses. In addition, significant (p<0.05) improvement in balancing ability was found after 3 months of custom-molded foot orthoses. Conclusion Short-term use of custom-molded foot orthoses significantly improved foot pain and balancing ability in children with symptomatic flexible flat foot. PMID:26798604

  9. Apollo Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1964-01-01

    Construction of Model 1 used in the LOLA simulator. This was a twenty-foot sphere which simulated for the astronauts what the surface of the moon would look like from 200 miles up. Project LOLA or Lunar Orbit and Landing Approach was a simulator built at Langley to study problems related to landing on the lunar surface. It was a complex project that cost nearly $2 million dollars. James Hansen wrote: 'This simulator was designed to provide a pilot with a detailed visual encounter with the lunar surface; the machine consisted primarily of a cockpit, a closed-circuit TV system, and four large murals or scale models representing portions of the lunar surface as seen from various altitudes. The pilot in the cockpit moved along a track past these murals which would accustom him to the visual cues for controlling a spacecraft in the vicinity of the moon. Unfortunately, such a simulation--although great fun and quite aesthetic--was not helpful because flight in lunar orbit posed no special problems other than the rendezvous with the LEM, which the device did not simulate. Not long after the end of Apollo, the expensive machine was dismantled.' (p. 379) Ellis J. White wrote: 'Model 1 is a 20-foot-diameter sphere mounted on a rotating base and is scaled 1 in. = 9 miles. Models 2,3, and 4 are approximately 15x40 feet scaled sections of model 1. Model 4 is a scaled-up section of the Crater Alphonsus and the scale is 1 in. = 200 feet. All models are in full relief except the sphere.' Published in James R. Hansen, Spaceflight Revolution: NASA Langley Research Center From Sputnik to Apollo, (Washington: NASA, 1995), p. 379; Ellis J. White, 'Discussion of Three Typical Langley Research Center Simulation Programs,' Paper presented at the Eastern Simulation Council (EAI's Princeton Computation Center), Princeton, NJ, October 20, 1966.

  10. Apollo Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1964-01-01

    Artists used paintbrushes and airbrushes to recreate the lunar surface on each of the four models comprising the LOLA simulator. Project LOLA or Lunar Orbit and Landing Approach was a simulator built at Langley to study problems related to landing on the lunar surface. It was a complex project that cost nearly $2 million dollars. James Hansen wrote: 'This simulator was designed to provide a pilot with a detailed visual encounter with the lunar surface; the machine consisted primarily of a cockpit, a closed-circuit TV system, and four large murals or scale models representing portions of the lunar surface as seen from various altitudes. The pilot in the cockpit moved along a track past these murals which would accustom him to the visual cues for controlling a spacecraft in the vicinity of the moon. Unfortunately, such a simulation--although great fun and quite aesthetic--was not helpful because flight in lunar orbit posed no special problems other than the rendezvous with the LEM, which the device did not simulate. Not long after the end of Apollo, the expensive machine was dismantled.' (p. 379) Ellis J. White further described LOLA in his paper 'Discussion of Three Typical Langley Research Center Simulation Programs,' 'Model 1 is a 20-foot-diameter sphere mounted on a rotating base and is scaled 1 in. = 9 miles. Models 2,3, and 4 are approximately 15x40 feet scaled sections of model 1. Model 4 is a scaled-up section of the Crater Alphonsus and the scale is 1 in. = 200 feet. All models are in full relief except the sphere.' Published in James R. Hansen, Spaceflight Revolution: NASA Langley Research Center From Sputnik to Apollo, (Washington: NASA, 1995), p. 379; Ellis J. White, 'Discussion of Three Typical Langley Research Center Simulation Programs,' Paper presented at the Eastern Simulation Council (EAI's Princeton Computation Center), Princeton, NJ, October 20, 1966.

  11. Apollo Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1965-01-01

    Artists used paintbrushes and airbrushes to recreate the lunar surface on each of the four models comprising the LOLA simulator. Project LOLA or Lunar Orbit and Landing Approach was a simulator built at Langley to study problems related to landing on the lunar surface. It was a complex project that cost nearly $2 million dollars. James Hansen wrote: 'This simulator was designed to provide a pilot with a detailed visual encounter with the lunar surface; the machine consisted primarily of a cockpit, a closed-circuit TV system, and four large murals or scale models representing portions of the lunar surface as seen from various altitudes. The pilot in the cockpit moved along a track past these murals which would accustom him to the visual cues for controlling a spacecraft in the vicinity of the moon. Unfortunately, such a simulation--although great fun and quite aesthetic--was not helpful because flight in lunar orbit posed no special problems other than the rendezvous with the LEM, which the device did not simulate. Not long after the end of Apollo, the expensive machine was dismantled.' (p. 379) Ellis J. White described the simulator as follows: 'Model 1 is a 20-foot-diameter sphere mounted on a rotating base and is scaled 1 in. = 9 miles. Models 2,3, and 4 are approximately 15x40 feet scaled sections of model 1. Model 4 is a scaled-up section of the Crater Alphonsus and the scale is 1 in. = 200 feet. All models are in full relief except the sphere.' Published in James R. Hansen, Spaceflight Revolution: NASA Langley Research Center From Sputnik to Apollo, (Washington: NASA, 1995), p. 379; Ellis J. White, 'Discussion of Three Typical Langley Research Center Simulation Programs,' Paper presented at the Eastern Simulation Council (EAI's Princeton Computation Center), Princeton, NJ, October 20, 1966.

  12. Apollo Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1963-01-01

    Construction of Model 1 used in the LOLA simulator. This was a twenty-foot sphere which simulated for the astronauts what the surface of the moon would look like from 200 miles up. Project LOLA or Lunar Orbit and Landing Approach was a simulator built at Langley to study problems related to landing on the lunar surface. It was a complex project that cost nearly $2 million dollars. James Hansen wrote: 'This simulator was designed to provide a pilot with a detailed visual encounter with the lunar surface; the machine consisted primarily of a cockpit, a closed-circuit TV system, and four large murals or scale models representing portions of the lunar surface as seen from various altitudes. The pilot in the cockpit moved along a track past these murals which would accustom him to the visual cues for controlling a spacecraft in the vicinity of the moon. Unfortunately, such a simulation--although great fun and quite aesthetic--was not helpful because flight in lunar orbit posed no special problems other than the rendezvous with the LEM, which the device did not simulate. Not long after the end of Apollo, the expensive machine was dismantled.' (p. 379) Ellis J. White wrote in his paper 'Discussion of Three Typical Langley Research Center Simulation Programs,' 'Model 1 is a 20-foot-diameter sphere mounted on a rotating base and is scaled 1 in. = 9 miles. Models 2,3, and 4 are approximately 15x40 feet scaled sections of model 1. Model 4 is a scaled-up section of the Crater Alphonsus and the scale is 1 in. = 200 feet. All models are in full relief except the sphere.' Published in James R. Hansen, Spaceflight Revolution: NASA Langley Research Center From Sputnik to Apollo, (Washington: NASA, 1995), p. 379; Ellis J. White, 'Discussion of Three Typical Langley Research Center Simulation Programs,' Paper presented at the Eastern Simulation Council (EAI's Princeton Computation Center), Princeton, NJ, October 20, 1966.

  13. Apollo Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1963-01-01

    Construction of Model 2 used in the LOLA simulator: Project LOLA or Lunar Orbit and Landing Approach was a simulator built at Langley to study problems related to landing on the lunar surface. It was a complex project that cost nearly $2 million dollars. James Hansen wrote: 'This simulator was designed to provide a pilot with a detailed visual encounter with the lunar surface; the machine consisted primarily of a cockpit, a closed-circuit TV system, and four large murals or scale models representing portions of the lunar surface as seen from various altitudes. The pilot in the cockpit moved along a track past these murals which would accustom him to the visual cues for controlling a spacecraft in the vicinity of the moon. Unfortunately, such a simulation--although great fun and quite aesthetic--was not helpful because flight in lunar orbit posed no special problems other than the rendezvous with the LEM, which the device did not simulate. Not long after the end of Apollo, the expensive machine was dismantled.' (p. 379) Ellis J. White wrote in his paper, 'Discussion of Three Typical Langley Research Center Simulation Programs,' 'Model 1 is a 20-foot-diameter sphere mounted on a rotating base and is scaled 1 in. = 9 miles. Models 2,3, and 4 are approximately 15x40 feet scaled sections of model 1. Model 4 is a scaled-up section of the Crater Alphonsus and the scale is 1 in. = 200 feet. All models are in full relief except the sphere.' Published in James R. Hansen, Spaceflight Revolution: NASA Langley Research Center From Sputnik to Apollo, NASA SP-4308, p. 379; Ellis J. White, 'Discussion of Three Typical Langley Research Center Simulation Programs,' Paper presented at the Eastern Simulation Council (EAI's Princeton Computation Center), Princeton, NJ, October 20, 1966.

  14. Apollo Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1964-01-01

    Artists used paintbrushes and airbrushes to recreate the lunar surface on each of the four models comprising the LOLA simulator. Project LOLA or Lunar Orbit and Landing Approach was a simulator built at Langley to study problems related to landing on the lunar surface. It was a complex project that cost nearly $2 million dollars. James Hansen wrote: 'This simulator was designed to provide a pilot with a detailed visual encounter with the lunar surface; the machine consisted primarily of a cockpit, a closed-circuit TV system, and four large murals or scale models representing portions of the lunar surface as seen from various altitudes. The pilot in the cockpit moved along a track past these murals which would accustom him to the visual cues for controlling a spacecraft in the vicinity of the moon. Unfortunately, such a simulation--although great fun and quite aesthetic--was not helpful because flight in lunar orbit posed no special problems other than the rendezvous with the LEM, which the device did not simulate. Not long after the end of Apollo, the expensive machine was dismantled.' (p. 379) Ellis J. White further described LOLA in his paper 'Discussion of Three Typical Langley Research Center Simulation Programs,' 'Model 1 is a 20-foot-diameter sphere mounted on a rotating base and is scaled 1 in. = 9 miles. Models 2,3, and 4 are approximately 15x40 feet scaled sections of model 1. Model 4 is a scaled-up section of the Crater Alphonsus and the scale is 1 in. = 200 feet. All models are in full relief except the sphere.' Published in James R. Hansen, Spaceflight Revolution: NASA Langley Research Center From Sputnik to Apollo, (Washington: NASA, 1995), p. 379; From Ellis J. White, 'Discussion of Three Typical Langley Research Center Simulation Programs,' Paper presented at the Eastern Simulation Council (EAI's Princeton Computation Center), Princeton, NJ, October 20, 1966.

  15. Apollo Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1964-01-01

    Artists used paintbrushes and airbrushes to recreate the lunar surface on each of the four models comprising the LOLA simulator. Project LOLA or Lunar Orbit and Landing Approach was a simulator built at Langley to study problems related to landing on the lunar surface. It was a complex project that cost nearly $2 million dollars. James Hansen wrote: 'This simulator was designed to provide a pilot with a detailed visual encounter with the lunar surface; the machine consisted primarily of a cockpit, a closed-circuit TV system, and four large murals or scale models representing portions of the lunar surface as seen from various altitudes. The pilot in the cockpit moved along a track past these murals which would accustom him to the visual cues for controlling a spacecraft in the vicinity of the moon. Unfortunately, such a simulation--although great fun and quite aesthetic--was not helpful because flight in lunar orbit posed no special problems other than the rendezvous with the LEM, which the device did not simulate. Not long after the end of Apollo, the expensive machine was dismantled.' (p. 379) Ellis J. White further described LOLA in his paper 'Discussion of Three Typical Langley Research Center Simulation Programs,' 'Model 1 is a 20-foot-diameter sphere mounted on a rotating base and is scaled 1 in. = 9 miles. Models 2,3, and 4 are approximately 15x40 feet scaled sections of model 1. Model 4 is a scaled-up section of the Crater Alphonsus and the scale is 1 in. = 200 feet. All models are in full relief except the sphere.' Published in James R. Hansen, Spaceflight Revolution, NASA SP-4308, p. 379; Ellis J. White, 'Discussion of Three Typical Langley Research Center Simulation Programs,' Paper presented at the Eastern Simulation Council (EAI's Princeton Computation Center), Princeton, NJ, October 20, 1966.

  16. Small Scale Organic Techniques

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horak, V.; Crist, DeLanson R.

    1975-01-01

    Discusses the advantages of using small scale experimentation in the undergraduate organic chemistry laboratory. Describes small scale filtration techniques as an example of a semi-micro method applied to small quantities of material. (MLH)

  17. Weak scale supersymmetry

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, L.J. California Univ., Berkeley, CA . Dept. of Physics)

    1990-11-12

    An introduction to the ideas and current state of weak scale supersymmetry is given. It is shown that LEP data on Z decays has already excluded two of the most elegant models of weak scale supersymmetry. 14 refs.

  18. On Quantitative Rorschach Scales.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haggard, Ernest A.

    1978-01-01

    Two types of quantitative Rorschach scales are discussed: first, those based on the response categories of content, location, and the determinants, and second, global scales based on the subject's responses to all ten stimulus cards. (Author/JKS)

  19. Cross-scale morphology

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Allen, Craig R.; Holling, Crawford S.; Garmestani, Ahjond S.; El-Shaarawi, Abdel H.; Piegorsch, Walter W.

    2013-01-01

    The scaling of physical, biological, ecological and social phenomena is a major focus of efforts to develop simple representations of complex systems. Much of the attention has been on discovering universal scaling laws that emerge from simple physical and geometric processes. However, there are regular patterns of departures both from those scaling laws and from continuous distributions of attributes of systems. Those departures often demonstrate the development of self-organized interactions between living systems and physical processes over narrower ranges of scale.

  20. Influence of urban tree canopy on single-family residential structure energy consumption at the community scale in Hutchinson, Minnesota

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Potyondy, Philip John

    Community forests are vulnerable to invasive pests and a changing climate. Urban forests provide a host of environmental, social, and economic benefits to communities. Cold, long, and windy winters dominate the energy budget of upper Midwest communities. Hot and humid summers are becoming increasingly constant. Quantifying the relationship between energy use and trees has been simulated and estimated in a variety of ways. Few studies have successfully measured this interaction across the landscape, especially in heating dominated climates. Digitized urban tree canopy data at multiple scales has been correlated with weather adjusted normalized energy consumption data while controlling for a variety of housing characteristics. A significant relationship between increased tree canopy and reduced winter heating energy consumption is found at 500-1100 feet (p<0.01), and also from 400-1500 feet (p<0.05) from parcels. Summer cooling energy reduction from increased tree canopy at the parcel (p<0.05) and distances beyond 900 feet (p<0.10) was also found significant. Saving energy with urban forest canopy is a community scale opportunity and obligation.

  1. Reading Graduated Scales.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Lucien T., Jr.

    1982-01-01

    Ways of teaching students to read scales are presented as process instructions that are probably overlooked or taken for granted by most instructors. Scales on such devices as thermometers, rulers, spring scales, speedometers, and thirty-meter tape are discussed. (MP)

  2. The Positivity Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caprara, Gian Vittorio; Alessandri, Guido; Eisenberg, Nancy; Kupfer, A.; Steca, Patrizia; Caprara, Maria Giovanna; Yamaguchi, Susumu; Fukuzawa, Ai; Abela, John

    2012-01-01

    Five studies document the validity of a new 8-item scale designed to measure "positivity," defined as the tendency to view life and experiences with a positive outlook. In the first study (N = 372), the psychometric properties of Positivity Scale (P Scale) were examined in accordance with classical test theory using a large number of college…

  3. Extreme Scale Visual Analytics

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, Pak C.; Shen, Han-Wei; Pascucci, Valerio

    2012-05-08

    Extreme-scale visual analytics (VA) is about applying VA to extreme-scale data. The articles in this special issue examine advances related to extreme-scale VA problems, their analytical and computational challenges, and their real-world applications.

  4. Full Scale Wind Tunnel and Seaplane Tow Channel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1931-01-01

    Construction progress, studding in Tow Channel office area, Full Scale motor fairing in west exit cone, motor fairing in east exit cone. Propeller and motor fairing for west exit cone. Smith DeFrance described the propellers and motors in NACA TR No. 459. ' The propellers are located side by side and 48 feet aft of the throat of the exit-cone bell. The propellers are 35 feet 5 inches in diameter and each consists of four cast aluminum alloy blades screwed into a cast steel hub.' 'The most commonly used power plant for operating a wind tunnel is a direct-current motor and motor-generator set with Ward Leonard control system. For the full-scale wind tunnel it was found that alternating current slip-ring induction motors, together with satisfactory control equipment, could be purchased for approximately 30 percent less than the direct-current equipment. Two 4,000-horsepower slip-ring induction motors with 24 steps of speed between 75 and 300 r.p.m. were therefore installed. In order to obtain the range of speed one pole change was provided and the other variations are obtained by the introduction of resistance in the rotor circuit. This control permits a variation in air speed from 25 to 118 miles per hour. The two motors are connected through an automatic switchboard to one drum-type controller located in the test chamber. All the control equipment is interlocked and connected through time-limit relays, so that regardless of how fast the controller handle is moved the motors will increase in speed at regular intervals.' (p. 294-295)

  5. Long-pulsed 1064-nm neodymium:yttrium-aluminum-garnet laser treatment for refractory warts on hands and feet.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Utako; Takeuchi, Kaori; Kinoshita, Ayako; Takamori, Kenji; Suga, Yasushi

    2014-03-01

    Common warts (verruca vulgaris) are the most commonly seen benign cutaneous tumors. However, warts in the hands and feet regions often respond poorly to treatment, some are resistant to more than 6 months of treatment with currently available modalities, including cryotherapy, being defined as refractory warts. We investigated the usefulness of long-pulsed neodymium:yttrium-aluminum-garnet (LP-Nd:YAG) treatment for refractory warts. The clinical trial was conducted on 20 subjects (11 male, nine female) with a total of 34 lesions (periungual/subungual areas, plantar areas, fingers and/or toes). All the subjects suffered from refractory warts despite conventional treatments for more than 6 months. The patients were administrated up to six sessions of treatment, at intervals of 4 weeks between sessions, with an LP-Nd:YAG at a spot size of 5 mm, pulse duration of 15 msec and fluence of 150-185 J/cm(2) . Evaluation of the treatment results at 24 weeks after the initial treatment showed complete clearance of the refractory warts in 56% of the patients. Histological evaluation showed separation of the dermis and epidermis at the basement membrane with coagulated necrosis of the wart tissue in the lower epidermis, as well as coagulation and destruction of the blood vessels in the papillary dermis following the laser irradiation. No scarring, post-hyperpigmentary changes or serious adverse events were documented. Our preliminary results show that LP-Nd:YAG treatments are safe and effective for refractory warts of hands and feet, causing minimal discomfort, and is a viable treatment alternative.

  6. EVALUATION OF METATARSAL RELATIONSHIPS IN THE BIOMECHANICS OF 332 NORMAL FEET USING THE METHOD OF MEASURING RELATIVE LENGTHS

    PubMed Central

    Barrôco, Rui; Nery, Caio; Favero, Gabriela; Mombach, Renan; Nascimento, Oswaldo; Jorge, Silvia; Monteiro, Marina; Diedrichs, Letícia; Abreu, Felipe

    2015-01-01

    To identify the mean normal length of the metatarsals and the most common metatarsal formulas through a simple measurement method, thereby providing surgeons with data for planning treatment on symptomatic individuals with biometric abnormalities of the foot. Methods: We evaluated and measured dorsoplantar weight-bearing radiographs of normal adult feet (83 males and 83 females). Results: We found relative mean lengths for metatarsus I of 125.4 mm for males and 115.1 mm for females; for metatarsus II, 127.8 mm for males and 117.3 mm for females; for metatarsus III, 123.4 mm for males and 113.5 mm for females; for metatarsus IV, 114.2 mm for males and 105.3 mm for females; for metatarsus V, 99.5 mm for males and 91.7 mm for females. The mean forefoot width was 87.1 mm for males and 80.8 mm for females. Conclusion: Feet with index minus occurred most frequently in both sexes, although all three metatarsal formulas can be considered to be normal patterns. The mean normal pattern for males and females respectively was the following: metatarsus I 2.4 mm and 2.2 mm shorter than metatarsus II; metatarsus III 4.4 mm and 3.8 mm shorter than metatarsus II; metatarsus IV 9.2 mm and 8.2 mm shorter than metatarsus III; metatarsus V 14.7 mm and 13.6 mm shorter than metatarsus IV. PMID:27027034

  7. The Helios Prototype aircraft in a northerly climb over Niihau Island, Hawaii, at about 8,000 feet a

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    As a follow-on to the Centurion (and earlier Pathfinder and Pathfinder-Plus) aircraft, the solar-powered Helios Prototype is the latest and largest example of a slow-flying ultralight flying wing designed for long-duration, high-altitude Earth science or telecommunications relay missions in the stratosphere. Developed by AeroVironment, Inc., of Monrovia, California, under NASA's Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology (ERAST) project, the unique craft is intended to demonstrate two key missions: the ability to reach and sustain horizontal flight at 100,000 feet altitude on a single-day flight in 2001, and to maintain flight above 50,000 feet altitude for at least four days in 2003, with the aid of a regenerative fuel cell-based energy storage system now in development. Both of these missions will be powered by electricity derived from non-polluting solar energy. The Helios Prototype is an enlarged version of the Centurion flying wing, which flew a series of test flights at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center in late 1998. The craft has a wingspan of 247 feet, 41 feet greater than the Centurion, 2 1/2 times that of its solar-powered Pathfinder flying wing, and longer than the wingspans of either the Boeing 747 jetliner or Lockheed C-5 transport aircraft. The remotely piloted, electrically powered Helios Prototype went aloft on its maiden low-altitude checkout flight Sept. 8, 1999, over Rogers Dry Lake adjacent to NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center in the Southern California desert. The initial flight series was flown on battery power as a risk-reduction measure. In all, six flights were flown in the Helios Protoype's initial development series. In upgrading the Centurion to the Helios Prototype configuration, AeroVironment added a sixth wing section and a fifth landing gear pod, among other improvements. The additional wingspan increased the area available for installation of solar cells and improved aerodynamic efficiency, allowing the Helios

  8. The Helios Prototype aircraft at approximately 10,000 feet flying above cloud cover northwest of Kau

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    As a follow-on to the Centurion (and earlier Pathfinder and Pathfinder-Plus) aircraft, the solar-powered Helios Prototype is the latest and largest example of a slow-flying ultralight flying wing designed for long-duration, high-altitude Earth science or telecommunications relay missions in the stratosphere. Developed by AeroVironment, Inc., of Monrovia, California, under NASA's Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology (ERAST) project, the unique craft is intended to demonstrate two key missions: the ability to reach and sustain horizontal flight at 100,000 feet altitude on a single-day flight in 2001, and to maintain flight above 50,000 feet altitude for at least four days in 2003, with the aid of a regenerative fuel cell-based energy storage system now in development. Both of these missions will be powered by electricity derived from non-polluting solar energy. The Helios Prototype is an enlarged version of the Centurion flying wing, which flew a series of test flights at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center in late 1998. The craft has a wingspan of 247 feet, 41 feet greater than the Centurion, 2 1/2 times that of its solar-powered Pathfinder flying wing, and longer than the wingspans of either the Boeing 747 jetliner or Lockheed C-5 transport aircraft. The remotely piloted, electrically powered Helios Prototype went aloft on its maiden low-altitude checkout flight Sept. 8, 1999, over Rogers Dry Lake adjacent to NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center in the Southern California desert. The initial flight series was flown on battery power as a risk-reduction measure. In all, six flights were flown in the Helios Protoype's initial development series. In upgrading the Centurion to the Helios Prototype configuration, AeroVironment added a sixth wing section and a fifth landing gear pod, among other improvements. The additional wingspan increased the area available for installation of solar cells and improved aerodynamic efficiency, allowing the Helios

  9. Belt scales user's guide

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenberg, N.I. )

    1993-02-01

    A conveyor-belt scale provides a means of obtaining accurate weights of dry bulk materials without delaying other plant operations. In addition, for many applications a belt scale is the most cost-effective alternative among many choices for a weighing system. But a number of users are not comfortable with the accuracy of their belt scales. In cases of unsatisfactory scale performance, it is often possible to correct problems and achieve the accuracy that was expected. To have a belt scale system that is accurate, precise, and cost effective, practical experience has shown that certain basic requisites must be satisfied. These requisites include matching the scale capability to the needs of the application, selecting durable scale equipment and conveyor idlers, adopting improved conveyor support methods, employing superior scale installation and alignment techniques, and establishing and practicing an effective scale testing and performance monitoring program. The goal of the Belt Scale Users' Guide is to enable utilities to reap the benefits of consistently accurate output from their new or upgraded belt scale installations. Such benefits include eliminating incorrect payments for coal receipts, improving coal pile inventory data, providing better heat rate results to enhance plant efficiency and yield more economical power dispatch, and satisfying regulatory agencies. All these benefits can reduce the cost of power generation.

  10. Manual of Scaling Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bond, Thomas H. (Technical Monitor); Anderson, David N.

    2004-01-01

    This manual reviews the derivation of the similitude relationships believed to be important to ice accretion and examines ice-accretion data to evaluate their importance. Both size scaling and test-condition scaling methods employing the resulting similarity parameters are described, and experimental icing tests performed to evaluate scaling methods are reviewed with results. The material included applies primarily to unprotected, unswept geometries, but some discussion of how to approach other situations is included as well. The studies given here and scaling methods considered are applicable only to Appendix-C icing conditions. Nearly all of the experimental results presented have been obtained in sea-level tunnels. Recommendations are given regarding which scaling methods to use for both size scaling and test-condition scaling, and icing test results are described to support those recommendations. Facility limitations and size-scaling restrictions are discussed. Finally, appendices summarize the air, water and ice properties used in NASA scaling studies, give expressions for each of the similarity parameters used and provide sample calculations for the size-scaling and test-condition scaling methods advocated.

  11. Representations of Mexican American Migrant Childhood in Rivera's "...y no se lo trago la tierra" and Viramontes's "Under the Feet of Jesus"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beck, Scott A.; Rangel, Dolores E.

    2009-01-01

    This article gives an analysis of two books: Thomas Rivera's "...y no se lo trago la tierra" and Helena Maria Viramontes's "Under the Feet of Jesus". The two books are strong and important literary texts that stand in close relation to each other. Both texts treat the subject of migrant childhood by affirming central themes of Chicano literature.…

  12. 40 CFR 201.24 - Procedures for measurement at a 30 meter (100 feet) distance of the noise from locomotive and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... meter (100 feet) distance of the noise from locomotive and rail car operations and locomotive load cell... locomotive and rail car operations and locomotive load cell test stands. (a) Microphone positions. (1) The... measured. (b) Stationary locomotive and locomotive load cell test stand tests. (1) For...

  13. 40 CFR 201.24 - Procedures for measurement at a 30 meter (100 feet) distance of the noise from locomotive and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... meter (100 feet) distance of the noise from locomotive and rail car operations and locomotive load cell... locomotive and rail car operations and locomotive load cell test stands. (a) Microphone positions. (1) The... measured. (b) Stationary locomotive and locomotive load cell test stand tests. (1) For...

  14. 40 CFR 201.24 - Procedures for measurement at a 30 meter (100 feet) distance of the noise from locomotive and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... meter (100 feet) distance of the noise from locomotive and rail car operations and locomotive load cell... locomotive and rail car operations and locomotive load cell test stands. (a) Microphone positions. (1) The... measured. (b) Stationary locomotive and locomotive load cell test stand tests. (1) For...

  15. 40 CFR 201.24 - Procedures for measurement at a 30 meter (100 feet) distance of the noise from locomotive and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... meter (100 feet) distance of the noise from locomotive and rail car operations and locomotive load cell... locomotive and rail car operations and locomotive load cell test stands. (a) Microphone positions. (1) The... measured. (b) Stationary locomotive and locomotive load cell test stand tests. (1) For...

  16. 40 CFR 201.24 - Procedures for measurement at a 30 meter (100 feet) distance of the noise from locomotive and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... meter (100 feet) distance of the noise from locomotive and rail car operations and locomotive load cell... locomotive and rail car operations and locomotive load cell test stands. (a) Microphone positions. (1) The... measured. (b) Stationary locomotive and locomotive load cell test stand tests. (1) For...

  17. Soles of the Feet: A Mindfulness-Based Self-Control Intervention for Aggression by an Individual with Mild Mental Retardation and Mental Illness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singh, Nirbhay N.; Wahler, Robert G.; Adkins, Angela D.; Myers, Rachel E.

    2003-01-01

    A mindfulness-based, self-control strategy was developed for an adult with mental retardation and mental illness whose aggression had precluded successful community placement. He was taught a simple meditation technique that required him to shift his attention and awareness from the anger-producing situation to the soles of his feet. (Contains…

  18. Why do the Karo Batak prefer women with big feet? Flexible mate preferences and the notion that one size fits all.

    PubMed

    Kushnick, Geoff

    2013-09-01

    Men may find women with small feet relative to body size more attractive because foot size reliably indexes nubility-i.e., age and parity. I collected judgments of attractiveness in response to drawings of women with varying foot sizes from a sample of 159 Karo Batak respondents from North Sumatra, Indonesia, as part of a collaborative project on foot size and attractiveness. The data revealed a contrarian preference among the Karo Batak for women with big feet. The judgments were compared with the results of an existing cross-cultural study that found a preference for women with small feet in aggregate, but a mix of small- and large-foot preferences in the societies taken individually. Using contingency table analysis, I found that ecology and less exposure to Western media were associated with a preference for women with big feet; patriarchal values were not. The findings suggest that human mating preferences may arise in response to local ecological conditions, and may persist and spread via cultural transmission. This has implications for the concept of universality espoused in some versions of evolutionary psychology.

  19. 77 FR 16949 - Pacific Cod by Catcher Vessels Greater Than or Equal to 50 Feet (15.2 Meters) Length Overall...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-23

    ... Vessels Greater Than or Equal to 50 Feet (15.2 Meters) Length Overall Using Hook-and-Line Gear in the... meters (m)) in length overall (LOA) using hook-and-line gear in the Central Regulatory Area of the Gulf of Alaska (GOA). This action is necessary to prevent exceeding the A season allowance of the...

  20. Scaled models, scaled frequencies, and model fitting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roxburgh, Ian W.

    2015-12-01

    I show that given a model star of mass M, radius R, and density profile ρ(x) [x = r/R], there exists a two parameter family of models with masses Mk, radii Rk, density profile ρk(x) = λρ(x) and frequencies νknℓ = λ1/2νnℓ, where λ,Rk/RA are scaling factors. These models have different internal structures, but all have the same value of separation ratios calculated at given radial orders n, and all exactly satisfy a frequency matching algorithm with an offset function determined as part of the fitting procedure. But they do not satisfy ratio matching at given frequencies nor phase shift matching. This illustrates that erroneous results may be obtained when model fitting with ratios at given n values or frequency matching. I give examples from scaled models and from non scaled evolutionary models.

  1. Salzburger State Reactance Scale (SSR Scale)

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Abstract. This paper describes the construction and empirical evaluation of an instrument for measuring state reactance, the Salzburger State Reactance (SSR) Scale. The results of a confirmatory factor analysis supported a hypothesized three-factor structure: experience of reactance, aggressive behavioral intentions, and negative attitudes. Correlations with divergent and convergent measures support the validity of this structure. The SSR Subscales were strongly related to the other state reactance measures. Moreover, the SSR Subscales showed modest positive correlations with trait measures of reactance. The SSR Subscales correlated only slightly or not at all with neighboring constructs (e.g., autonomy, experience of control). The only exception was fairness scales, which showed moderate correlations with the SSR Subscales. Furthermore, a retest analysis confirmed the temporal stability of the scale. Suggestions for further validation of this questionnaire are discussed. PMID:27453806

  2. Scale and scaling in agronomy and environmental sciences

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Scale is of paramount importance in environmental studies, engineering, and design. The unique course covers the following topics: scale and scaling, methods and theories, scaling in soils and other porous media, scaling in plants and crops; scaling in landscapes and watersheds, and scaling in agro...

  3. Pressure distributions obtained on a 0.10-scale model of the Space Shuttle Orbiter's forebody in the Ames Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siemers, P. M., III; Henry, M. W.

    1986-01-01

    Pressure distribution test data obtained on a 0.10-scale model of the forward fuselage of the Space Shuttle Orbiter are presented without analysis. The tests were completed in the Ames Unitary Wind Tunnel (UPWT). The UPWT tests were conducted in two different test sections operating in the continuous mode, the 8 x 7 feet and 9 x 7 feet test sections. Each test section has its own Mach number range, 1.6 to 2.5 and 2.5 to 3.5 for the 9 x 7 feet and 8 x 7 feet test section, respectively. The test Reynolds number ranged from 1.6 to 2.5 x 10 to the 6th power ft and 0.6 to 2.0 x 10 to the 6th power ft, respectively. The tests were conducted in support of the development of the Shuttle Entry Air Data System (SEADS). In addition to modeling the 20 SEADS orifices, the wind-tunnel model was also instrumented with orifices to match Development Flight Instrumentation (DFI) port locations that existed on the Space Shuttle Columbia (OV-102) during the Orbiter Flight test program. This DFI simulation has provided a means for comparisons between reentry flight pressure data and wind-tunnel and computational data.

  4. Organophosphate pesticide method development and presence of chlorpyrifos in the feet of nearctic-neotropical migratory songbirds from Canada that over-winter in Central America agricultural areas.

    PubMed

    Alharbi, Hattan A; Letcher, Robert J; Mineau, Pierre; Chen, Da; Chu, Shaogang

    2016-02-01

    Recent modeling analysis suggests that numerous birds may be at risk of acute poisoning in insecticide-treated fields. Although the majority of avian field studies on pesticides have focused on treated seed, granule, insect or vegetation (oral exposure) ingestion, dermal exposure is an important exposure route when birds come into contact with deposited pesticides on foliage and other surfaces. Some nearctic-neotropical migratory songbirds are likely exposed to pesticides on their non-breeding habitats and include treated crops, plantations or farmlands. In the present study, we developed a method for four environmentally-relevant organophosphate (OP) pesticides (fenthion, fenamiphos, chlorpyrifos and diazinon) in the feet of migratory songbirds (i.e. Common yellowthroat, Gray catbird, Indigo bunting, America redstart, Northern waterthrush, Northern parula, and an additional 12 species of warblers). A total of 190 specimens of the 18 species of songbirds were sampled from available window-killed birds (spring of 2007 and 2011) in downtown Toronto, Canada. The species that were available most likely over-wintered in Mexican/Central American crops such as citrus, coffee and cacao. The feet of the dead birds were sampled and where OP foot exposure likely occurred during over-wintering foraging on pesticide-treated crops. Chlorpyrifos was the only measurable OP (pg mg feet weight(-1)) and in the 2011-collected feet of Black throated blue warbler (0.5), Tennessee warbler (1.0), Northern parula (1.2), Northern waterthrush (0.6), Common yellowthroat (1.0) and the Blue winged warbler (0.9). Dermal contact with OP pesticides during over-wintering in agricultural areas resulted in low levels of chlorpyrifos and long time retention on the feet of a subset of songbirds. PMID:26421621

  5. Organophosphate pesticide method development and presence of chlorpyrifos in the feet of nearctic-neotropical migratory songbirds from Canada that over-winter in Central America agricultural areas.

    PubMed

    Alharbi, Hattan A; Letcher, Robert J; Mineau, Pierre; Chen, Da; Chu, Shaogang

    2016-02-01

    Recent modeling analysis suggests that numerous birds may be at risk of acute poisoning in insecticide-treated fields. Although the majority of avian field studies on pesticides have focused on treated seed, granule, insect or vegetation (oral exposure) ingestion, dermal exposure is an important exposure route when birds come into contact with deposited pesticides on foliage and other surfaces. Some nearctic-neotropical migratory songbirds are likely exposed to pesticides on their non-breeding habitats and include treated crops, plantations or farmlands. In the present study, we developed a method for four environmentally-relevant organophosphate (OP) pesticides (fenthion, fenamiphos, chlorpyrifos and diazinon) in the feet of migratory songbirds (i.e. Common yellowthroat, Gray catbird, Indigo bunting, America redstart, Northern waterthrush, Northern parula, and an additional 12 species of warblers). A total of 190 specimens of the 18 species of songbirds were sampled from available window-killed birds (spring of 2007 and 2011) in downtown Toronto, Canada. The species that were available most likely over-wintered in Mexican/Central American crops such as citrus, coffee and cacao. The feet of the dead birds were sampled and where OP foot exposure likely occurred during over-wintering foraging on pesticide-treated crops. Chlorpyrifos was the only measurable OP (pg mg feet weight(-1)) and in the 2011-collected feet of Black throated blue warbler (0.5), Tennessee warbler (1.0), Northern parula (1.2), Northern waterthrush (0.6), Common yellowthroat (1.0) and the Blue winged warbler (0.9). Dermal contact with OP pesticides during over-wintering in agricultural areas resulted in low levels of chlorpyrifos and long time retention on the feet of a subset of songbirds.

  6. Gunshot residue inserted under hair scales as a result of a muzzle blast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burnett, Bryan R.

    2009-05-01

    The victim was alleged to have been shot in the head with a .40 caliber pistol from several feet. The defendant claimed that the shot was on the order of inches. Examination in the scanning electron microscope of the hair from around the victim's wound showed no adherent gunshot residue (GSR). However, when the hair was pulled apart by the adhesive of a standard GSR sampler, GSR was found associated with the exposed inner surfaces of the cuticle and cortex fragments. The pistol was discharged close enough to the victim's head that some of the cuticular scales were lifted in the muzzle blast which allowed GSR to be inserted under those scales. Gunshot residue associated with the surface of the victim's hair had somehow been removed. The defendant's account of the shooting was verified by the presence of under-scale GSR.

  7. HRV analysis and blood pressure monitoring on weighing scale using BCG.

    PubMed

    Shin, Jae Hyuk; Park, Kwang Suk

    2012-01-01

    Using the Ballistocardiogram(BCG) measured on weighing scale, heart rate variability(HRV) and blood pressure were estimated. BCG was measured while subjects were on weighing scale in resting state and under the Valsalva maneuver and static exercise condition to induce the change in cardiac autonomic rhythm. Time domain, frequency domain and nonlinear HRV parameters were estimated from the measured BCG and compared with the ones calculated from ECG measured simultaneously. For blood pressure(BP) estimation, ECG was measured additionally on the feet using dry electrodes simultaneously installed on weighing scale and R-J intervals were extracted as a BP correlated parameter at every beat cycle. HRV estimation results shows the correlation higher than 0.97, and the estimated BP was similar to the measured BP with a reliable correlations.

  8. Parabolic scaling beams.

    PubMed

    Gao, Nan; Xie, Changqing

    2014-06-15

    We generalize the concept of diffraction free beams to parabolic scaling beams (PSBs), whose normalized intensity scales parabolically during propagation. These beams are nondiffracting in the circular parabolic coordinate systems, and all the diffraction free beams of Durnin's type have counterparts as PSBs. Parabolic scaling Bessel beams with Gaussian apodization are investigated in detail, their nonparaxial extrapolations are derived, and experimental results agree well with theoretical predictions.

  9. Multi-scale renormalization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ford, C.; Wiesendanger, C.

    1997-02-01

    The standard MS renormalization prescription is inadequate for dealing with multi-scale problems. To illustrate this we consider the computation of the effective potential in the Higgs-Yukawa model. It is argued that it is natural to employ a two-scale renormalization group. We give a modified version of a two-scale scheme introduced by Einhorn and Jones. In such schemes the beta functions necessarily contain potentially large logarithms of the RG scale ratios. For credible perturbation theory one must implement a large logarithms resummation on the beta functions themselves. We show how the integrability condition for the two RG equations allows one to perform this resummation.

  10. The Family Constellation Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lemire, David

    The Family Constellation Scale (FC Scale) is an instrument that assesses perceived birth order in families. It can be used in counseling to help initiate conversations about various traits and assumptions that tend to characterize first-born, middle-born children, youngest-born, and only children. It provides both counselors and clients insights…

  11. INL Laboratory Scale Atomizer

    SciTech Connect

    C.R. Clark; G.C. Knighton; R.S. Fielding; N.P. Hallinan

    2010-01-01

    A laboratory scale atomizer has been built at the Idaho National Laboratory. This has proven useful for laboratory scale tests and has been used to fabricate fuel used in the RERTR miniplate experiments. This instrument evolved over time with various improvements being made ‘on the fly’ in a trial and error process.

  12. Scaling up as Catachresis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tobin, Joseph

    2005-01-01

    The metaphor of scaling up is the wrong one to use for describing and prescribing educational change. Many of the strategies being employed to achieve scaling up are counter-productive: they conceive of practitioners as delivery agents or consumers, rather than as co-constructors of change. An approach to educational innovation based on the…

  13. Thoughts on Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoenfeld, Alan H.

    2015-01-01

    This essay reflects on the challenges of thinking about scale--of making sense of phenomena such as continuous professional development (CPD) at the system level, while holding on to detail at the finer grain size(s) of implementation. The stimuli for my reflections are three diverse studies of attempts at scale--an attempt to use ideas related to…

  14. Premarital Attitude Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vancouver Board of School Trustees (British Columbia). Dept. of Planning and Evaluation.

    The thirty-one item questionnaire was developed to measure how prepared high school students are for marriage. The students are directed to read each statement and to select a response on a five point scale ranging from agreeing strongly to disagreeing strongly. The scale is scored to indicate three factors which are considered important for a…

  15. Everyday Scale Errors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ware, Elizabeth A.; Uttal, David H.; DeLoache, Judy S.

    2010-01-01

    Young children occasionally make "scale errors"--they attempt to fit their bodies into extremely small objects or attempt to fit a larger object into another, tiny, object. For example, a child might try to sit in a dollhouse-sized chair or try to stuff a large doll into it. Scale error research was originally motivated by parents' and…

  16. Teaching Satisfaction Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ho, Chung-Lim; Au, Wing-Tung

    2006-01-01

    The present study proposes a teaching satisfaction measure and examines the validity of its scores. The measure is based on the Life Satisfaction Scale (LSS). Scores on the five-item Teaching Satisfaction Scale (TSS) were validated on a sample of 202 primary and secondary school teachers and favorable psychometric properties were found. As…

  17. Teacher Observation Scales.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purdue Univ., Lafayette, IN. Educational Research Center.

    The Teacher Observation Scales include four instruments: Observer Rating Scale (ORS), Reading Strategies Check List, Arithmetic Strategies Check List, and Classroom Description. These instruments utilize trained observers to describe the teaching behavior, instructional strategies and physical characteristics in each classroom. On the ORS, teacher…

  18. New scale factor measure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bousso, Raphael

    2012-07-01

    The computation of probabilities in an eternally inflating universe requires a regulator or “measure.” The scale factor time measure truncates the Universe when a congruence of timelike geodesics has expanded by a fixed volume factor. This definition breaks down if the generating congruence is contracting—a serious limitation that excludes from consideration gravitationally bound regions such as our own. Here we propose a closely related regulator which is well defined in the entire spacetime. The new scale factor cutoff restricts to events with a scale factor below a given value. Since the scale factor vanishes at caustics and crunches, this cutoff always includes an infinite number of disconnected future regions. We show that this does not lead to divergences. The resulting measure combines desirable features of the old scale factor cutoff and of the light-cone time cutoff, while eliminating some of the disadvantages of each.

  19. The inflationary energy scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liddle, Andrew R.

    1994-01-01

    The energy scale of inflation is of much interest, as it suggests the scale of grand unified physics, governs whether cosmological events such as topological defect formation can occur after inflation, and also determines the amplitude of gravitational waves which may be detectable using interferometers. The COBE results are used to limit the energy scale of inflation at the time large scale perturbations were imprinted. An exact dynamical treatment based on the Hamilton-Jacobi equations is then used to translate this into limits on the energy scale at the end of inflation. General constraints are given, and then tighter constraints based on physically motivated assumptions regarding the allowed forms of density perturbation and gravitational wave spectra. These are also compared with the values of familiar models.

  20. Parallel Computing in SCALE

    SciTech Connect

    DeHart, Mark D; Williams, Mark L; Bowman, Stephen M

    2010-01-01

    The SCALE computational architecture has remained basically the same since its inception 30 years ago, although constituent modules and capabilities have changed significantly. This SCALE concept was intended to provide a framework whereby independent codes can be linked to provide a more comprehensive capability than possible with the individual programs - allowing flexibility to address a wide variety of applications. However, the current system was designed originally for mainframe computers with a single CPU and with significantly less memory than today's personal computers. It has been recognized that the present SCALE computation system could be restructured to take advantage of modern hardware and software capabilities, while retaining many of the modular features of the present system. Preliminary work is being done to define specifications and capabilities for a more advanced computational architecture. This paper describes the state of current SCALE development activities and plans for future development. With the release of SCALE 6.1 in 2010, a new phase of evolutionary development will be available to SCALE users within the TRITON and NEWT modules. The SCALE (Standardized Computer Analyses for Licensing Evaluation) code system developed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) provides a comprehensive and integrated package of codes and nuclear data for a wide range of applications in criticality safety, reactor physics, shielding, isotopic depletion and decay, and sensitivity/uncertainty (S/U) analysis. Over the last three years, since the release of version 5.1 in 2006, several important new codes have been introduced within SCALE, and significant advances applied to existing codes. Many of these new features became available with the release of SCALE 6.0 in early 2009. However, beginning with SCALE 6.1, a first generation of parallel computing is being introduced. In addition to near-term improvements, a plan for longer term SCALE enhancement

  1. Comparison of bacterial DNA profiles of footwear insoles and soles of feet for the forensic discrimination of footwear owners.

    PubMed

    Goga, Haruhisa

    2012-09-01

    It is crucial to identify the owner of unattended footwear left at a crime scene. However, retrieving enough DNA for DNA profiling from the owner's foot skin (plantar skin) cells from inside the footwear is often unsuccessful. This is sometimes because footwear that is used on a daily basis contains an abundance of bacteria that degrade DNA. Further, numerous other factors related to the inside of the shoe, such as high humidity and temperature, can encourage bacterial growth inside the footwear and enhance DNA degradation. This project sought to determine if bacteria from inside footwear could be used for footwear trace evidence. The plantar skins and insoles of shoes of volunteers were swabbed for bacteria, and their bacterial community profiles were compared using bacterial 16S rRNA terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. Sufficient bacteria were recovered from both footwear insoles and the plantar skins of the volunteers. The profiling identified that each volunteer's plantar skins harbored unique bacterial communities, as did the individuals' footwear insoles. In most cases, a significant similarity in the bacterial community was identified for the matched foot/insole swabs from each volunteer, as compared with those profiles from different volunteers. These observations indicate the probability to discriminate the owner of footwear by comparing the microbial DNA fingerprint from inside footwear with that of the skin from the soles of the feet of the suspected owner. This novel strategy will offer auxiliary forensic footwear evidence for human DNA identification, although further investigations into this technique are required.

  2. Differences in Cortical Representation and Structural Connectivity of Hands and Feet between Professional Handball Players and Ballet Dancers.

    PubMed

    Meier, Jessica; Topka, Marlene Sofie; Hänggi, Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    It is known that intensive training and expertise are associated with functional and structural neuroadaptations. Most studies, however, compared experts with nonexperts; hence it is, specifically for sports, unclear whether the neuroplastic adaptations reported are sport-specific or sport-general. Here we aimed at investigating sport-specific adaptations in professional handball players and ballet dancers by focusing on the primary motor and somatosensory grey matter (GM) representation of hands and feet using voxel-based morphometry as well as on fractional anisotropy (FA) of the corticospinal tract by means of diffusion tensor imaging-based fibre tractography. As predicted, GM volume was increased in hand areas of handball players, whereas ballet dancers showed increased GM volume in foot areas. Compared to handball players, ballet dancers showed decreased FA in both fibres connecting the foot and hand areas, but they showed lower FA in fibres connecting the foot compared to their hand areas, whereas handball players showed lower FA in fibres connecting the hand compared to their foot areas. Our results suggest that structural adaptations are sport-specific and are manifested in brain regions associated with the neural processing of sport-specific skills. We believe this enriches the plasticity research in general and extends our knowledge of sport expertise in particular. PMID:27247805

  3. Cold Hypersensitivity in the Hands and Feet May Be Associated with Functional Dyspepsia: Results of a Multicenter Survey Study

    PubMed Central

    Bae, Kwang-Ho; Lee, Ju Ah; Park, Ki-Hyun; Yoo, Jong-Hyang; Lee, Siwoo

    2016-01-01

    Aim. To investigate whether dyspepsia symptoms differ depending on the presence or absence of cold hypersensitivity in the hands and feet (CHHF). Methods. In all, 6044 patients were recruited and provided with a questionnaire about CHHF and dyspepsia. Based on their responses, subjects were divided into a CHHF group (persons who noted cold sensations; n = 1209) and a non-CHHF group (persons who noted warm or intermediate sensations; n = 1744). The groups were compared in terms of their usual digestion status, using chi-square tests and logistic regression analyses to calculate the propensity score and odds ratios (ORs). We analyzed the participants' responses to questions on dyspepsia symptoms. Results. After matching, chi-square tests indicated that the CHHF group had higher frequencies of the following symptoms: bad digestion, poor appetite, discomfort in the upper abdomen, motion sickness, epigastric burning, postprandial fullness, nausea, and bloating. Additionally, CHHF was associated with an increased OR for dyspepsia (bad digestion, vomiting, motion sickness, epigastric burning, postprandial fullness, nausea, epigastric pain, and bloating) compared with the non-CHHF group. Conclusion. This study confirmed that CHHF patients have elevated frequencies of most dyspepsia symptoms. PMID:27069497

  4. Experimental Investigation of Two Low-Drag Supercavitating Hydrofoils at Speeds up to 200 Feet per Second

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christopher, Kenneth W.; Johnson, Virgil E., Jr.

    1960-01-01

    An experimental investigation has been made in the Langley highspeed hydrodynamics facility to determine the force and moment characteristics of two hydrofoils (one having an aspect ratio of 1 and the other having an aspect ratio of 3) designed to have improved lift-drag ratios when operating under either supercavitating or ventilated conditions. Measurements were made of lift, drag, and pitching moment over a range of angles of attack from 40 to 200 for depths of submersion varying from 0 to approximately 1 chord. The range of speed for the investigation was from 110 to 200 feet per second. When the upper surface of the hydrofoils was completely unwetted, the experimental values of lift and drag forces were in good agreement with the theoretical values obtained from the zero-cavitation-number theory. The theoretical values for minimum angle of attack for operation with the upper surface of the hydrofoil unwetted define the lower limits of angle of attack for which the experimental values of lift coefficient are either in agreement with or slightly greater than those predicted by theory.

  5. Differences in Cortical Representation and Structural Connectivity of Hands and Feet between Professional Handball Players and Ballet Dancers

    PubMed Central

    Meier, Jessica; Topka, Marlene Sofie; Hänggi, Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    It is known that intensive training and expertise are associated with functional and structural neuroadaptations. Most studies, however, compared experts with nonexperts; hence it is, specifically for sports, unclear whether the neuroplastic adaptations reported are sport-specific or sport-general. Here we aimed at investigating sport-specific adaptations in professional handball players and ballet dancers by focusing on the primary motor and somatosensory grey matter (GM) representation of hands and feet using voxel-based morphometry as well as on fractional anisotropy (FA) of the corticospinal tract by means of diffusion tensor imaging-based fibre tractography. As predicted, GM volume was increased in hand areas of handball players, whereas ballet dancers showed increased GM volume in foot areas. Compared to handball players, ballet dancers showed decreased FA in both fibres connecting the foot and hand areas, but they showed lower FA in fibres connecting the foot compared to their hand areas, whereas handball players showed lower FA in fibres connecting the hand compared to their foot areas. Our results suggest that structural adaptations are sport-specific and are manifested in brain regions associated with the neural processing of sport-specific skills. We believe this enriches the plasticity research in general and extends our knowledge of sport expertise in particular. PMID:27247805

  6. Evaluation of a peer-led self-management education programme PEP Talk: Diabetes, Healthy Feet and You.

    PubMed

    Woodbury, M Gail; Botros, Mariam; Kuhnke, Janet L; Greene, Julie

    2013-12-01

    PEP (Peer Education Programme) Talk: Diabetes, Healthy Feet and You is a peer-led self-management programme developed to address the problems of growing prevalence of diabetes and its complications, and limited health care dollars. An evaluation of the programme, how it might be situated within a public health perspective and potential bridges for its implementation in communities throughout Canada and worldwide, are presented. The programme consisted of workshops that were conducted by volunteer peer leaders and health care professionals in 12 communities in 10 Canadian provinces; the volunteers were supported through monthly mentoring teleconferences, on-line tips and discussion board conversations. A web portal was developed to be used by the team, volunteers and community participants. Workshop curriculum was developed based on diabetes footcare and self-management best practise guidelines. Community participants answered pre-and post-workshop statements that indicated that learning occurred, as indicated by an increase in the number of statements answered correctly. Participants' feedback about the workshops was positive. In telephone follow-up interviews, 97% of respondents reported having changed their foot self-management behaviours. The portal was commonly used according to website visits, but not as much as expected for registration of community participants. It is recommended that this programme be made widely available and tailored to the specific needs of the communities and that further evaluation be conducted.

  7. F-16XL ship #1 CAWAP flight - alpha 10 degrees, beta -5 degrees, altitude 10,000 feet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The single-seat F-16XL (ship #1) makes another run during the Cranked-Arrow Wing Aerodynamic Project (CAWAP) at Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. The modified airplane features a delta 'cranked-arrow' wing with strips of tubing along the leading edge to the trailing edge to sense static on the wing and obtain pressure distribution data. The right wing receives data on pressure distribution and the left wing has three types of instrumentation - preston tubes to measure local skin friction, boundary layer rakes to measure boundary layer profiles (the layer where the air interacts with the surfaces of a moving aircraft), and hot films to determine boundary layer transition locations. This photo shows the aircraft gathering data at an altitude of 10,000 feet, with an angle of attack of 10 degrees and a sideslip angle of -5 degrees. The program also gathered aero data on two wing planforms for NASA's High Speed Research Program. The first flight of CAWAP occurred on November 21, 1995, and the test program ended in April 1996.

  8. Aeromechanics of the Spider Cricket Jump: How to Jump 60+ Times Your Body Length and Still Land on Your Feet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palmer, Emily; Deshler, Nicolas; Gorman, David; Neves, Catarina; Mittal, Rajat

    2015-11-01

    Flapping, gliding, running, crawling and swimming have all been studied extensively in the past and have served as a source of inspiration for engineering designs. In the current project, we explore a mode of locomotion that straddles ground and air: jumping. The subject of our study is among the most proficient of long-jumpers in Nature: the spider cricket of the family Rhaphidophoridae, which can jump more than 60 times its body length. Despite jumping this immense distance, these crickets usually land on their feet, indicating an ability to control their posture during ``flight.'' We employ high-speed videogrammetry, to examine the jumps and to track the crickets' posture and appendage orientation throughout their jumps. Simple aerodynamic models are developed to predict the aerodynamic forces and moment on the crickets during `flight`. The analysis shows that these wingless insects employ carefully controlled and coordinated positioning of the limbs during flight so as to increase jump distance and to stabilize body posture during flight. The principles distilled from this study could serve as an inspiration for small jumping robots that can traverse complex terrains.

  9. Design of a novel mobility device controlled by the feet motion of a standing child: a feasibility study.

    PubMed

    Schoepflin, Zachary R; Chen, Xi; Ragonesi, Christina B; Galloway, James C; Agrawal, Sunil K

    2011-10-01

    Self-generated mobility is a major contributor to the physical, emotional, cognitive, and social development of infants and toddlers. When young children have disorders that hinder self locomotion, their development is at risk for delay. Independent mobility via traditional power mobility devices may prevent this delay, but do little to encourage the child's development of gross motor skills. This research aims to develop a bio-driven mobile-assistive device that is controlled and driven by moving the feet, which may encourage the development of gross motor skills. In this study, system feasibility is shown by experiments on five typically developing toddlers and one special needs toddler with spastic cerebral palsy. Children were placed in the bio-driven device and instructed to navigate through a maze. All subjects were able to successfully complete the maze in multiple trials. In addition, two toddlers showed evidence of improved driving skill by completing the maze in shorter times in successive trials on a given testing day. The results suggest that such a device is feasible for purposeful driving. Recommendations are given for the device and protocol redesign for related future testing. PMID:21850470

  10. Moving the hands and feet specifically impairs working memory for arm- and leg-related action words.

    PubMed

    Shebani, Zubaida; Pulvermüller, Friedemann

    2013-01-01

    Language and action systems of the human brain are functionally interwoven. Speaking about actions and understanding action-related speech sparks the motor system of the human brain and, conversely, motor system activation has an influence on the comprehension of action words and sentences. Although previous research has shown that motor systems become active when we understand language, a major question still remains whether these motor system activations are necessary for processing action words. We here report that rhythmic movements of either the hands or the feet lead to a differential impairment of working memory for concordant arm- and leg-related action words, with hand/arm movements predominantly impairing working memory for words used to speak about arm actions and foot/leg movements primarily impairing leg-related word memory. The resulting cross-over double dissociation demonstrates that body part specific and meaning-related processing resources in specific cortical motor systems are shared between overt movements and working memory for action-related words, thus documenting a genuine motor locus of semantic meaning.

  11. Composite rating scales.

    PubMed

    Martinez-Martin, Pablo

    2010-02-15

    Rating scales are instruments that are very frequently used by clinicians to perform patient assessments. Typically, rating scales grade the attribute on an ordinal level of measurement, i.e., a rank ordering, meaning that the numbers assigned to the different ranks (item scores) do not represent 'real numbers' or 'physical magnitudes'. Single-item scales have some advantages, such as simplicity and low respondent burden, but they may also suffer from disadvantages, such as ambiguous score meanings and low responsiveness. Multi-item scales, in contrast, seem more adequate for assessment of complex constructs, allowing for detailed evaluation. Total scores representing the value of the construct may be quite precise and thus the responsiveness of the scale may be high. The most common strategy for obtaining the total score is the sum of the item scores, a strategy that constitutes one of the most important problems with these types of scales. A summative score of ordinal figures is not a 'real magnitude' and may have little sense. This paper is a review of the theoretical frameworks of the main theories used to develop rating scales (Classical Test Theory and Item Response Theory). Bearing in mind that no alternative is perfect, additional research in this field and judicious decisions are called for.

  12. Allometric Scaling in Biology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banavar, Jayanth

    2009-03-01

    The unity of life is expressed not only in the universal basis of inheritance and energetics at the molecular level, but also in the pervasive scaling of traits with body size at the whole-organism level. More than 75 years ago, Kleiber and Brody and Proctor independently showed that the metabolic rates, B, of mammals and birds scale as the three-quarter power of their mass, M. Subsequent studies showed that most biological rates and times scale as M-1/4 and M^1/4 respectively, and that these so called quarter-power scaling relations hold for a variety of organisms, from unicellular prokaryotes and eukaryotes to trees and mammals. The wide applicability of Kleiber's law, across the 22 orders of magnitude of body mass from minute bacteria to giant whales and sequoias, raises the hope that there is some simple general explanation that underlies the incredible diversity of form and function. We will present a general theoretical framework for understanding the relationship between metabolic rate, B, and body mass, M. We show how the pervasive quarter-power biological scaling relations arise naturally from optimal directed resource supply systems. This framework robustly predicts that: 1) whole organism power and resource supply rate, B, scale as M^3/4; 2) most other rates, such as heart rate and maximal population growth rate scale as M-1/4; 3) most biological times, such as blood circulation time and lifespan, scale as M^1/4; and 4) the average velocity of flow through the network, v, such as the speed of blood and oxygen delivery, scales as M^1/12. Our framework is valid even when there is no underlying network. Our theory is applicable to unicellular organisms as well as to large animals and plants. This work was carried out in collaboration with Amos Maritan along with Jim Brown, John Damuth, Melanie Moses, Andrea Rinaldo, and Geoff West.

  13. Sulfate scale dissolution

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, R.L.; Paul, J.M.

    1992-01-28

    This patent describes a method for removing barium sulfate scale. It comprises contacting the scale with an aqueous solution having a pH of about 8 to about 14 and consisting essentially of a chelating agent comprising a polyaminopolycarboxylic acid or salt of such an acid in a concentration of 0.1 to 1.0 M, and anions of a monocarboxylic acid selected form mercaptoacetic acid, hydroxyacetic acid, aminoacetic acid, or salicyclic acid in a concentration of 0.1 to 1.0 M and which is soluble in the solution under the selected pH conditions, to dissolve the scale.

  14. CLINICAL MANAGEMENT OF BILATERAL CUTANEOUS SQUAMOUS CELL CARCINOMA OF THE HIND FEET PADS IN A SOUTHERN WHITE RHINOCEROS (CERATOTHERIUM SIMUM SIMUM).

    PubMed

    Greunz, Eva Maria; Simon, Marie; Lemberger, Karin; Galateanu, Gabriela; Hermes, Robert; Leclerc, Antoine

    2016-06-01

    The current report describes the temporary regression, due to intensive symptomatic treatment, of ulcerative skin lesions caused by squamous cell carcinoma in a white rhinoceros. A captive, 40-yr-old southern white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum simum) developed profound, ulcerative skin lesions on the pads of both hind feet. At the peak of the disease, at least one quarter of the pads was affected. A diagnosis of squamous cell carcinoma was made via biopsy. Treatment included anti-inflammatory drugs, antibiotics, and local care. The lesions regressed on both feet until they seemed clinically healed. It was presumed that long-term, anti-inflammatory treatment and local bandaging had induced the temporary regression of the lesions. Two years later, however, a small ulcerative lesion reappeared on one pad and post mortem examination confirmed that the carcinoma was also histologically present in the clinically intact tissue. No metastasis was found and computed tomography showed normal digital bones. PMID:27468043

  15. Charts Depicting Kinematic and Heating Parameters for a Ballistic Reentry at Speeds of 26,000 to 45,000 Feet Per Second

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lovelace, Uriel M.

    1961-01-01

    Reentry trajectories, including computations of convective and radiative stagnation-point heat transfer, have been calculated by using equations for a point-mass reentry vehicle entering the atmosphere of a rotating, oblate earth. Velocity was varied from 26,000 to 45,000 feet per second; reentry angle, from the skip limit to -20 deg; ballistic drag parameter, from 50 to 200. Initial altitude was 400,000 feet. Explicit results are presented in charts which were computed for an initial latitude of 38 deg N and an azimuth of 90 deg from north. A method is presented whereby these results may be made valid for a range of initial latitude and azimuth angles.

  16. Scaling in sensitivity analysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Link, W.A.; Doherty, P.F.

    2002-01-01

    Population matrix models allow sets of demographic parameters to be summarized by a single value 8, the finite rate of population increase. The consequences of change in individual demographic parameters are naturally measured by the corresponding changes in 8; sensitivity analyses compare demographic parameters on the basis of these changes. These comparisons are complicated by issues of scale. Elasticity analysis attempts to deal with issues of scale by comparing the effects of proportional changes in demographic parameters, but leads to inconsistencies in evaluating demographic rates. We discuss this and other problems of scaling in sensitivity analysis, and suggest a simple criterion for choosing appropriate scales. We apply our suggestions to data for the killer whale, Orcinus orca.

  17. Lifshitz scale anomalies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arav, Igal; Chapman, Shira; Oz, Yaron

    2015-02-01

    We analyse scale anomalies in Lifshitz field theories, formulated as the relative cohomology of the scaling operator with respect to foliation preserving diffeomorphisms. We construct a detailed framework that enables us to calculate the anomalies for any number of spatial dimensions, and for any value of the dynamical exponent. We derive selection rules, and establish the anomaly structure in diverse universal sectors. We present the complete cohomologies for various examples in one, two and three space dimensions for several values of the dynamical exponent. Our calculations indicate that all the Lifshitz scale anomalies are trivial descents, called B-type in the terminology of conformal anomalies. However, not all the trivial descents are cohomologically non-trivial. We compare the conformal anomalies to Lifshitz scale anomalies with a dynamical exponent equal to one.

  18. Large scale dynamic systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doolin, B. F.

    1975-01-01

    Classes of large scale dynamic systems were discussed in the context of modern control theory. Specific examples discussed were in the technical fields of aeronautics, water resources and electric power.

  19. Reconsidering earthquake scaling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomberg, J.; Wech, A.; Creager, K.; Obara, K.; Agnew, D.

    2016-06-01

    The relationship (scaling) between scalar moment, M0, and duration, T, potentially provides key constraints on the physics governing fault slip. The prevailing interpretation of M0-T observations proposes different scaling for fast (earthquakes) and slow (mostly aseismic) slip populations and thus fundamentally different driving mechanisms. We show that a single model of slip events within bounded slip zones may explain nearly all fast and slow slip M0-T observations, and both slip populations have a change in scaling, where the slip area growth changes from 2-D when too small to sense the boundaries to 1-D when large enough to be bounded. We present new fast and slow slip M0-T observations that sample the change in scaling in each population, which are consistent with our interpretation. We suggest that a continuous but bimodal distribution of slip modes exists and M0-T observations alone may not imply a fundamental difference between fast and slow slip.

  20. Scaling in Columnar Joints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morris, Stephen

    2007-03-01

    Columnar jointing is a fracture pattern common in igneous rocks in which cracks self-organize into a roughly hexagonal arrangement, leaving behind an ordered colonnade. We report observations of columnar jointing in a laboratory analog system, desiccated corn starch slurries. Using measurements of moisture density, evaporation rates, and fracture advance rates, we suggest an advective-diffusive system is responsible for the rough scaling behavior of columnar joints. This theory explains the order of magnitude difference in scales between jointing in lavas and in starches. We investigated the scaling of average columnar cross-sectional areas in experiments where the evaporation rate was fixed using feedback methods. Our results suggest that the column area at a particular depth is related to both the current conditions, and hysteretically to the geometry of the pattern at previous depths. We argue that there exists a range of stable column scales allowed for any particular evaporation rate.

  1. Digital scale converter

    DOEpatents

    Upton, Richard G.

    1978-01-01

    A digital scale converter is provided for binary coded decimal (BCD) conversion. The converter may be programmed to convert a BCD value of a first scale to the equivalent value of a second scale according to a known ratio. The value to be converted is loaded into a first BCD counter and counted down to zero while a second BCD counter registers counts from zero or an offset value depending upon the conversion. Programmable rate multipliers are used to generate pulses at selected rates to the counters for the proper conversion ratio. The value present in the second counter at the time the first counter is counted to the zero count is the equivalent value of the second scale. This value may be read out and displayed on a conventional seven-segment digital display.

  2. Outdoor dynamic subject-specific evaluation of internal stresses in the residual limb: hydraulic energy-stored prosthetic foot compared to conventional energy-stored prosthetic feet.

    PubMed

    Portnoy, Sigal; Kristal, Anat; Gefen, Amit; Siev-Ner, Itzhak

    2012-01-01

    The prosthetic foot plays an important role in propelling, breaking, balancing and supporting body loads while the amputee ambulates on different grounds. It is therefore important to quantify the effect of the prosthetic foot mechanism on biomechanical parameters, in order to prevent pressure ulcers and deep tissue injury. Our aim was to monitor the internal stresses in the residuum of transtibial amputation (TTA) prosthetic-users ambulating on different terrains, which the amputees encounter during their daily activities, i.e. paved floor, grass, ascending and descending stairs and slope. We specifically aimed to compare between the internal stresses in the TTA residuum of amputees ambulating with a novel hydraulic prosthetic foot compared to conventional energy storage and return (ESR) prosthetic feet. Monitoring of internal stresses was accomplished using a portable subject-specific real-time internal stress monitor. We found significant decrease (p<0.01) in peak internal stresses and in the loading rate of the amputated limb, while walking with the hydraulic foot, compared to walking with ESR feet. The loading rate calculated while ambulating with the hydraulic foot was at least three times lower than the loading rate calculated while ambulating with the ESR foot. Although the average decrease in internal stresses was ≈ 2-fold larger when replacing single-toe ESR feet with the hydraulic foot than when replacing split-toed ESR feet with the hydraulic foot, the differences were statistically insignificant. Our findings suggest that using a hydraulic prosthetic foot may protect the distal tibial end of the TTA residuum from high stresses, therefore preventing pressure-related injury and pain.

  3. Accelerated hand bone mineral density loss is associated with progressive joint damage in hands and feet in recent-onset rheumatoid arthritis

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Introduction To investigate whether accelerated hand bone mineral density (BMD) loss is associated with progressive joint damage in hands and feet in the first year of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and whether it is an independent predictor of subsequent progressive total joint damage after 4 years. Methods In 256 recent-onset RA patients, baseline and 1-year hand BMD was measured in metacarpals 2-4 by digital X-ray radiogrammetry. Joint damage in hands and feet were scored in random order according to the Sharp-van der Heijde method at baseline and yearly up to 4 years. Results 68% of the patients had accelerated hand BMD loss (>-0.003 g/cm2) in the first year of RA. Hand BMD loss was associated with progressive joint damage after 1 year both in hands and feet with odds ratios (OR) (95% confidence intervals [CI]) of 5.3 (1.3-20.9) and 3.1 (1.0-9.7). In univariate analysis, hand BMD loss in the first year was a predictor of subsequent progressive total joint damage after 4 years with an OR (95% CI) of 3.1 (1.3-7.6). Multivariate analysis showed that only progressive joint damage in the first year and anti-citrullinated protein antibody positivity were independent predictors of long-term progressive joint damage. Conclusions In the first year of RA, accelerated hand BMD loss is associated with progressive joint damage in both hands and feet. Hand BMD loss in the first year of recent-onset RA predicts subsequent progressive total joint damage, however not independent of progressive joint damage in the first year. PMID:20482894

  4. Magnetron injection gun scaling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawson, W.

    1988-04-01

    A set of tradeoff equations was simplified to obtain scaling laws for magnetron injection guns (MIGs). The constraints are chosen to examine the maximum-peak-power capabilities of MIGs. The scaling laws are compared with exact solutions of the design equations and are supported by MIG simulations in which each MIG is designed to double the beam power of an existing design by adjusting one of the four fundamental parameters.

  5. Ensemble Pulsar Time Scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, D. S.; Gao, Y. P.; Zhao, S. H.

    2016-05-01

    Millisecond pulsars can generate another type of time scale that is totally independent of the atomic time scale, because the physical mechanisms of the pulsar time scale and the atomic time scale are quite different from each other. Usually the pulsar timing observational data are not evenly sampled, and the internals between data points range from several hours to more than half a month. What's more, these data sets are sparse. And all these make it difficult to generate an ensemble pulsar time scale. Hence, a new algorithm to calculate the ensemble pulsar time scale is proposed. Firstly, we use cubic spline interpolation to densify the data set, and make the intervals between data points even. Then, we employ the Vondrak filter to smooth the data set, and get rid of high-frequency noise, finally adopt the weighted average method to generate the ensemble pulsar time scale. The pulsar timing residuals represent clock difference between the pulsar time and atomic time, and the high precision pulsar timing data mean the clock difference measurement between the pulsar time and atomic time with a high signal to noise ratio, which is fundamental to generate pulsar time. We use the latest released NANOGRAV (North American Nanohertz Observatory for Gravitational Waves) 9-year data set to generate the ensemble pulsar time scale. This data set is from the newest NANOGRAV data release, which includes 9-year observational data of 37 millisecond pulsars using the 100-meter Green Bank telescope and 305-meter Arecibo telescope. We find that the algorithm used in this paper can lower the influence caused by noises in timing residuals, and improve long-term stability of pulsar time. Results show that the long-term (> 1 yr) frequency stability of the pulsar time is better than 3.4×10-15.

  6. The Improbability scale

    SciTech Connect

    Ritchie, David J.; /Fermilab

    2005-03-01

    The Improbability Scale (IS) is proposed as a way of communicating to the general public the improbability (and by implication, the probability) of events predicted as the result of scientific research. Through the use of the Improbability Scale, the public will be able to evaluate more easily the relative risks of predicted events and draw proper conclusions when asked to support governmental and public policy decisions arising from that research.

  7. Scaling, Universality, and Geomorphology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dodds, Peter Sheridan; Rothman, Daniel H.

    Theories of scaling apply wherever similarity exists across many scales. This similarity may be found in geometry and in dynamical processes. Universality arises when the qualitative character of a system is sufficient to quantitatively predict its essential features, such as the exponents that characterize scaling laws. Within geomorphology, two areas where the concepts of scaling and universality have found application are the geometry of river networks and the statistical structure of topography. We begin this review with a pedagogical presentation of scaling and universality. We then describe recent progress made in applying these ideas to networks and topography. This overview leads to a synthesis that attempts a classification of surface and network properties based on generic mechanisms and geometric constraints. We also briefly review how scaling and universality have been applied to related problems in sedimentology-specifically, the origin of stromatolites and the relation of the statistical properties of submarine-canyon topography to the size distribution of turbidite deposits. Throughout the review, our intention is to elucidate not only the problems that can be solved using these concepts, but also those that cannot.

  8. A multi-segment foot model based on anatomically registered technical coordinate systems: method repeatability and sensitivity in pediatric planovalgus feet.

    PubMed

    Saraswat, Prabhav; MacWilliams, Bruce A; Davis, Roy B; D'Astous, Jacques L

    2013-01-01

    Several multisegment foot models have been proposed and some have been used to study foot pathologies. These models have been tested and validated on typically developed populations; however application of such models to feet with significant deformities presents an additional set of challenges. For the first time, in this study, a multisegment foot model is tested for repeatability in a population of children with symptomatic abnormal feet. The results from this population are compared to the same metrics collected from an age matched (8-14 years) typically developing population. The modified Shriners Hospitals for Children, Greenville (mSHCG) foot model was applied to ten typically developing children and eleven children with planovalgus feet by two clinicians. Five subjects in each group were retested by both clinicians after 4-6 weeks. Both intra-clinician and inter-clinician repeatability were evaluated using static and dynamic measures. A plaster mold method was used to quantify variability arising from marker placement error. Dynamic variability was measured by examining trial differences from the same subjects when multiple clinicians carried out the data collection multiple times. For hindfoot and forefoot angles, static and dynamic variability in both groups was found to be less than 4° and 6° respectively. The mSHCG model strategy of minimal reliance on anatomical markers for dynamic measures and inherent flexibility enabled by separate anatomical and technical coordinate systems resulted in a model equally repeatable in typically developing and planovalgus populations.

  9. Earthquake Scaling Relations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jordan, T. H.; Boettcher, M.; Richardson, E.

    2002-12-01

    Using scaling relations to understand nonlinear geosystems has been an enduring theme of Don Turcotte's research. In particular, his studies of scaling in active fault systems have led to a series of insights about the underlying physics of earthquakes. This presentation will review some recent progress in developing scaling relations for several key aspects of earthquake behavior, including the inner and outer scales of dynamic fault rupture and the energetics of the rupture process. The proximate observations of mining-induced, friction-controlled events obtained from in-mine seismic networks have revealed a lower seismicity cutoff at a seismic moment Mmin near 109 Nm and a corresponding upper frequency cutoff near 200 Hz, which we interpret in terms of a critical slip distance for frictional drop of about 10-4 m. Above this cutoff, the apparent stress scales as M1/6 up to magnitudes of 4-5, consistent with other near-source studies in this magnitude range (see special session S07, this meeting). Such a relationship suggests a damage model in which apparent fracture energy scales with the stress intensity factor at the crack tip. Under the assumption of constant stress drop, this model implies an increase in rupture velocity with seismic moment, which successfully predicts the observed variation in corner frequency and maximum particle velocity. Global observations of oceanic transform faults (OTFs) allow us to investigate a situation where the outer scale of earthquake size may be controlled by dynamics (as opposed to geologic heterogeneity). The seismicity data imply that the effective area for OTF moment release, AE, depends on the thermal state of the fault but is otherwise independent of fault's average slip rate; i.e., AE ~ AT, where AT is the area above a reference isotherm. The data are consistent with β = 1/2 below an upper cutoff moment Mmax that increases with AT and yield the interesting scaling relation Amax ~ AT1/2. Taken together, the OTF

  10. Full Scale Wind Tunnel and Seaplane Tow Channel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1930-01-01

    Construction progress, Full Scale exit cone looking south from entrance cone, east switchboard, west switchboard, wind vanes at north end looking north through entrance cone, north end looking south through entrance cone, entrance cone looking north from exit cone, wind vanes south end of west exit cone, wind vanes south end of east exit cone, Tow Channel trolley lines looking north, east and west incline braces at north end. Full-Scale Tunnel (FST) exit cone construction and installation of fan motors. Smith DeFrance describes the entrance cone in NACA TR 459 as follows: 'Forward of the propellers and located on the center line of the tunnel is a smooth fairing which transforms the somewhat elliptic section of the single passage into two circular ones at the propellers. From the propellers aft, the exit cone is divided into two passages and each transforms in the length of 132 feet from a 35-foot 61/2-inch circular section to a 46-foot square. The included angle between the sides of each passage is 6 inches.' (p. 293)

  11. Characterization of the protein fraction of the temporary adhesive secreted by the tube feet of the sea star Asterias rubens.

    PubMed

    Hennebert, Elise; Wattiez, Ruddy; Waite, J Herbert; Flammang, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    Sea stars are able to make firm but temporary attachments to various substrata by secretions released by their tube feet. After tube foot detachment, the adhesive secretions remain on the substratum as a footprint. Proteins presumably play a key role in sea star adhesion, as evidenced by the removal of footprints from surfaces after a treatment with trypsin. However, until now, characterisation was hampered by their high insolubility. In this study, a non-hydrolytic method was used to render most of the proteins constituting the adhesive footprints soluble. After analysis by SDS-PAGE, the proteins separated into about 25 bands, which ranged from 25 to 450 kDa in apparent molecular weight. Using mass spectrometry and a homology-database search, it was shown that several of the proteins are known intracellular proteins, presumably resulting from contamination of footprint material with tube foot epidermal cells. However, 11 protein bands, comprising the most abundant proteins, were not identified and might correspond to novel adhesive proteins. They were named 'Sea star footprint proteins' (Sfps). Tandem mass spectrometry analysis of the protein bands yielded 43 de novo-generated peptide sequences. Most of them were shared by several, if not all, Sfps. Polyclonal antibodies were raised against one of the peptides (HEASGEYYR from Sfp-115) and were used in immunoblotting. They specifically labelled Sfp-115 and other bands with lower apparent molecular weights. The different results suggest that all Sfps might belong to a single family of related proteins sharing similar motifs or, alternatively, they are the products of polymerization and/or degradation processes.

  12. Broadening Students' Perspectives of STEM Disciplines by "Getting their Feet Wet" in an Ecologically Enhanced Stormwater Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Normand, A. E.; Morrison, E. S.; Henson, W.; Clark, M. W.

    2014-12-01

    "It was really fun to get down and dirty in the wetlands. I learned a lot." "It was informational towards different careers in this field." In summer 2014, the University of Florida (UF) Wetlands Club developed a program that exposed rural high school students to different approaches and STEM career paths in earth sciences: hydrology, ecology, soil assessment, and environmental engineering. In total 90 students "got their feet wet" in an ecologically enhanced stormwater basin on UF's campus. Students learned about wetland STEM careers at four stations that were led by Wetlands Club graduate students and STEM professionals. Students "felt a close interaction with the environment" and got "to learn a lot through hands-on experience". At each one hour station, students performed field measurements in the wetland and discussed career opportunities with the instructors. Students at the hydrology station "enjoyed checking the water levels and seeing how rain affected the wetlands". Students "liked how we were able to interact and identify species from duck weed to water bugs" at the ecology station. At the soils station, students "enjoyed taking samples and analyzing the soils texture and pigment". Students at the engineering station "got to see all the math behind wetlands…and learn what it takes to become a hydrologist". This pop up talk will share our instructional design for the wetland STEM career program. An accessible video will detail activities at each station. We will explain the successful aspects of the program and suggested improvements based on student feedback. We are excited to share how a to get a student to say that an earth science STEM career can be "really quite interesting for something I thought I had no interest in"!

  13. The first 100 feet: New options for Internet and broadband access. Final report, June 1, 1996--January 31, 1998

    SciTech Connect

    Branscomb, L.; Hurley, D.; Keller, J.

    1998-04-01

    This project was undertaken to explore new options for connecting homes and small businesses to high-speed communications networks, such as the Internet. Fundamental to this inquiry was an interest in looking at options which are newly enabled through changes in technology and regulation, and which go beyond the traditional topdown, centralized model for local access. In particular, the authors focused on opportunities for end-user and community-level investment. This project was intended to investigate the opportunities presented by the decreasing cost of computing and networking platforms, the unbundling of local exchange network elements, and the intelligent endpoints model of networking best exemplified by the Internet. Do these factors, along with communications technologies such as spread spectrum wireless, digital subscriber line services, and the ability to modulate a communications signal over the electric power line infrastructure, enable new models for end-user investment in intelligent infrastructure as a leverage point for accessing the broadband network? This question was first explored through a two-day conference held at the Freedom Forum in Arlington, Virginia, October 29 and 30, 1996. The workshop addressed issues in the consumer adoption of new communications technologies, use of the electric power line infrastructure, the role of municipalities, and the use of alternative technologies, such as XDSL, satellite, spread spectrum wireless, LMDS, and others. The best of these papers have been further developed, with editorial guidance provided by Harvard, and compiled in the form of a book (The First 100 Feet: New Options for Internet and Broadband Access, Deborah Hurley and James Keller, eds., MIT Press, 1998) to be published as part of the MIT Press Spring 1998 catalogue. A summary of topics covered by the book is given in this report.

  14. Extraarticular Subtalar Arthrodesis for Pes Planovalgus: An Interim Result of 50 Feet in Patients with Spastic Diplegia

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Hong Ki; Park, Kun Bo; Roh, Jae Young; Park, Hui Wan; Chi, Hye Jin

    2010-01-01

    Background There are no reports of the pressure changes across the foot after extraarticular subtalar arthrodesis for a planovalgus foot deformity in cerebral palsy. This paper reviews our results of extraarticular subtalar arthrodesis using a cannulated screw and cancellous bone graft. Methods Fifty planovalgus feet in 30 patients with spastic diplegia were included. The mean age at the time of surgery was 9 years, and the mean follow-up period was 3 years. The radiographic, gait, and dynamic foot pressure changes after surgery were investigated. Results All patients showed union and no recurrence of the deformity. Correction of the abduction of the forefoot, subluxation of the talonavicular joint, and the hindfoot valgus was confirmed radiographically. However, the calcaneal pitch was not improved significantly after surgery. Peak dorsiflexion of the ankle during the stance phase was increased after surgery, and the peak plantarflexion at push off was decreased. The peak ankle plantar flexion moment and power were also decreased. Postoperative elevation of the medial longitudinal arch was expressed as a decreased relative vertical impulse of the medial midfoot and an increased relative vertical impulse (RVI) of the lateral midfoot. However, the lower than normal RVI of the 1st and 2nd metatarsal head after surgery suggested uncorrected forefoot supination. The anteroposterior and lateral paths of the center of pressure were improved postoperatively. Conclusions Our experience suggests that the index operation reliably corrects the hindfoot valgus in patients with spastic diplegia. Although the operation corrects the plantar flexion of the talus, it does not necessarily correct the plantarflexed calcaneus and forefoot supination. However, these findings are short-term and longer term observations will be needed. PMID:20190996

  15. Centurion Quarter-scale Prototype on Lakebed Ready for Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    A battery-powered, quarter-scale prototype of the solar-powered, remotely piloted Centurion flying wing sits on the lakebed at California's El Mirage Dry Lake before one of its early research flights in March 1997. Centurion was a unique remotely piloted, solar-powered airplane developed under NASA's Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor (ERAST) Program at the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. Dryden joined with AeroVironment, Inc., Monrovia, California, under an ERAST Joint Sponsored Research Agreement, to design, develop, manufacture, and conduct flight development tests for the Centurion. The airplane was believed to be the first aircraft designed to achieve sustained horizontal flight at altitudes of 90,000 to 100,000 feet. Achieving this capability would meet the ERAST goal of developing an ultrahigh-altitude airplane that could meet the needs of the science community to perform upper-atmosphere environmental data missions. Much of the technology leading to the Centurion was developed during the Pathfinder and Pathfinder-Plus projects. However, in the course of its development, the Centurion became a prototype technology demonstration aircraft designed to validate the technology for the Helios, a planned future high-altitude, solar-powered aircraft that could fly for weeks or months at a time on science or telecommunications missions. Centurion had 206-foot-long wings and used batteries to supply power to the craft's 14 electric motors and electronic systems. Centurion first flew at Dryden Nov. 10, 1998, and followed up with a second test flight Nov. 19. On its third and final flight on Dec. 3, the craft was aloft for 31 minutes and reached an altitude of about 400 feet. All three flights were conducted over a section of Rogers Dry Lake adjacent to Dryden. For its third flight, the Centurion carried a simulated payload of more than 600 pounds--almost half the lightweight aircraft's empty weight. John Del Frate, Dryden's project manager

  16. Centurion Quarter-scale Prototype Pre-flight Checklist

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Centurion designer Bill Parks and remote pilot Wyatt Sadler go over the checklist for a test flight of the battery-powered quarter-scale prototype of the Centurion flying wing during taxi tests in March 1997 at California's El Mirage Dry Lake. Centurion was a unique remotely piloted, solar-powered airplane developed under NASA's Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor (ERAST) Program at the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. Dryden joined with AeroVironment, Inc., Monrovia, California, under an ERAST Joint Sponsored Research Agreement, to design, develop, manufacture, and conduct flight development tests for the Centurion. The airplane was believed to be the first aircraft designed to achieve sustained horizontal flight at altitudes of 90,000 to 100,000 feet. Achieving this capability would meet the ERAST goal of developing an ultrahigh-altitude airplane that could meet the needs of the science community to perform upper-atmosphere environmental data missions. Much of the technology leading to the Centurion was developed during the Pathfinder and Pathfinder-Plus projects. However, in the course of its development, the Centurion became a prototype technology demonstration aircraft designed to validate the technology for the Helios, a planned future high-altitude, solar-powered aircraft that could fly for weeks or months at a time on science or telecommunications missions. Centurion had 206-foot-long wings and used batteries to supply power to the craft's 14 electric motors and electronic systems. Centurion first flew at Dryden Nov. 10, 1998, and followed up with a second test flight Nov. 19. On its third and final flight on Dec. 3, the craft was aloft for 31 minutes and reached an altitude of about 400 feet. All three flights were conducted over a section of Rogers Dry Lake adjacent to Dryden. For its third flight, the Centurion carried a simulated payload of more than 600 pounds--almost half the lightweight aircraft's empty weight. John Del

  17. Centurion Quarter-scale Prototype Pre-flight Checkout

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Technicians perform pre-test checks of a battery-powered quarter-scale prototype of the remotely-piloted Centurion flying wing during taxi tests In March 1997 at California's El Mirage Dry Lake. Centurion was a unique remotely piloted, solar-powered airplane developed under NASA's Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor (ERAST) Program at the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. Dryden joined with AeroVironment, Inc., Monrovia, California, under an ERAST Joint Sponsored Research Agreement, to design, develop, manufacture, and conduct flight development tests for the Centurion. The airplane was believed to be the first aircraft designed to achieve sustained horizontal flight at altitudes of 90,000 to 100,000 feet. Achieving this capability would meet the ERAST goal of developing an ultrahigh-altitude airplane that could meet the needs of the science community to perform upper-atmosphere environmental data missions. Much of the technology leading to the Centurion was developed during the Pathfinder and Pathfinder-Plus projects. However, in the course of its development, the Centurion became a prototype technology demonstration aircraft designed to validate the technology for the Helios, a planned future high-altitude, solar-powered aircraft that could fly for weeks or months at a time on science or telecommunications missions. Centurion had 206-foot-long wings and used batteries to supply power to the craft's 14 electric motors and electronic systems. Centurion first flew at Dryden Nov. 10, 1998, and followed up with a second test flight Nov. 19. On its third and final flight on Dec. 3, the craft was aloft for 31 minutes and reached an altitude of about 400 feet. All three flights were conducted over a section of Rogers Dry Lake adjacent to Dryden. For its third flight, the Centurion carried a simulated payload of more than 600 pounds--almost half the lightweight aircraft's empty weight. John Del Frate, Dryden's project manager for solar

  18. Centurion Quarter-scale Prototype Pre-flight Taxi Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    As crewmen jog and cycle alongside, a battery-powered, quarter-scale prototype of the remotely-piloted Centurion flying wing rolls across the El Mirage Dry Lake during pre-flight taxi tests. Centurion was a unique remotely piloted, solar-powered airplane developed under NASA's Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor (ERAST) Program at the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. Dryden joined with AeroVironment, Inc., Monrovia, California, under an ERAST Joint Sponsored Research Agreement, to design, develop, manufacture, and conduct flight development tests for the Centurion. The airplane was believed to be the first aircraft designed to achieve sustained horizontal flight at altitudes of 90,000 to 100,000 feet. Achieving this capability would meet the ERAST goal of developing an ultrahigh-altitude airplane that could meet the needs of the science community to perform upper-atmosphere environmental data missions. Much of the technology leading to the Centurion was developed during the Pathfinder and Pathfinder-Plus projects. However, in the course of its development, the Centurion became a prototype technology demonstration aircraft designed to validate the technology for the Helios, a planned future high-altitude, solar-powered aircraft that could fly for weeks or months at a time on science or telecommunications missions. Centurion had 206-foot-long wings and used batteries to supply power to the craft's 14 electric motors and electronic systems. Centurion first flew at Dryden Nov. 10, 1998, and followed up with a second test flight Nov. 19. On its third and final flight on Dec. 3, the craft was aloft for 31 minutes and reached an altitude of about 400 feet. All three flights were conducted over a section of Rogers Dry Lake adjacent to Dryden. For its third flight, the Centurion carried a simulated payload of more than 600 pounds--almost half the lightweight aircraft's empty weight. John Del Frate, Dryden's project manager for solar

  19. Centurion Quarter-scale Prototype Prepared for Taxi Tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    As sunlight breaks over Southern California's El Mirage Dry Lake, Crew members prepare a battery-powered quarter-scale prototype of the remotely-piloted Centurion flying wing for a taxi test. Centurion was a unique remotely piloted, solar-powered airplane developed under NASA's Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor (ERAST) Program at the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. Dryden joined with AeroVironment, Inc., Monrovia, California, under an ERAST Joint Sponsored Research Agreement, to design, develop, manufacture, and conduct flight development tests for the Centurion. The airplane was believed to be the first aircraft designed to achieve sustained horizontal flight at altitudes of 90,000 to 100,000 feet. Achieving this capability would meet the ERAST goal of developing an ultrahigh-altitude airplane that could meet the needs of the science community to perform upper-atmosphere environmental data missions. Much of the technology leading to the Centurion was developed during the Pathfinder and Pathfinder-Plus projects. However, in the course of its development, the Centurion became a prototype technology demonstration aircraft designed to validate the technology for the Helios, a planned future high-altitude, solar-powered aircraft that could fly for weeks or months at a time on science or telecommunications missions. Centurion had 206-foot-long wings and used batteries to supply power to the craft's 14 electric motors and electronic systems. Centurion first flew at Dryden Nov. 10, 1998, and followed up with a second test flight Nov. 19. On its third and final flight on Dec. 3, the craft was aloft for 31 minutes and reached an altitude of about 400 feet. All three flights were conducted over a section of Rogers Dry Lake adjacent to Dryden. For its third flight, the Centurion carried a simulated payload of more than 600 pounds--almost half the lightweight aircraft's empty weight. John Del Frate, Dryden's project manager for solar

  20. Fast ignition breakeven scaling.

    SciTech Connect

    Slutz, Stephen A.; Vesey, Roger Alan

    2005-01-01

    A series of numerical simulations have been performed to determine scaling laws for fast ignition break even of a hot spot formed by energetic particles created by a short pulse laser. Hot spot break even is defined to be when the fusion yield is equal to the total energy deposited in the hot spot through both the initial compression and the subsequent heating. In these simulations, only a small portion of a previously compressed mass of deuterium-tritium fuel is heated on a short time scale, i.e., the hot spot is tamped by the cold dense fuel which surrounds it. The hot spot tamping reduces the minimum energy required to obtain break even as compared to the situation where the entire fuel mass is heated, as was assumed in a previous study [S. A. Slutz, R. A. Vesey, I. Shoemaker, T. A. Mehlhorn, and K. Cochrane, Phys. Plasmas 7, 3483 (2004)]. The minimum energy required to obtain hot spot break even is given approximately by the scaling law E{sub T} = 7.5({rho}/100){sup -1.87} kJ for tamped hot spots, as compared to the previously reported scaling of E{sub UT} = 15.3({rho}/100){sup -1.5} kJ for untamped hotspots. The size of the compressed fuel mass and the focusability of the particles generated by the short pulse laser determines which scaling law to use for an experiment designed to achieve hot spot break even.

  1. Scaling of Thermoacoustic Refrigerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Y.; Zeegers, J. C. H.; ter Brake, H. J. M.

    2008-03-01

    The possibility of scaling-down thermoacoustic refrigerators is theoretically investigated. Standing-wave systems are considered as well as traveling-wave. In the former case, a reference system is taken that consists of a resonator tube (50 cm) with a closed end and a PVC stack (length 5 cm). Helium is used at a mean pressure of 10 bar and an amplitude of 1 bar. The resulting operating frequency is 1 kHz. The variation of the performance of the refrigerator when scaled down in size is computed under the prerequisites that the temperature drop over the stack or the energy flux or its density are fixed. The analytical results show that there is a limitation in scaling-down a standing-wave thermoacoustic refrigerator due to heat conduction. Similar scaling trends are considered in traveling-wave refrigerators. The traveling-wave reference system consists of a feedback inertance tube of 0.567 m long, inside diameter 78 mm, a compliance volume of 2830 cm3 and a 24 cm thermal buffer tube. The regenerator is sandwiched between two heat exchangers. The system is operated at 125 Hz and filled with 30 bar helium gas. Again, the thermal conductance forms a practical limitation in down-scaling.

  2. Universities scale like cities.

    PubMed

    van Raan, Anthony F J

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies of urban scaling show that important socioeconomic city characteristics such as wealth and innovation capacity exhibit a nonlinear, particularly a power law scaling with population size. These nonlinear effects are common to all cities, with similar power law exponents. These findings mean that the larger the city, the more disproportionally they are places of wealth and innovation. Local properties of cities cause a deviation from the expected behavior as predicted by the power law scaling. In this paper we demonstrate that universities show a similar behavior as cities in the distribution of the 'gross university income' in terms of total number of citations over 'size' in terms of total number of publications. Moreover, the power law exponents for university scaling are comparable to those for urban scaling. We find that deviations from the expected behavior can indeed be explained by specific local properties of universities, particularly the field-specific composition of a university, and its quality in terms of field-normalized citation impact. By studying both the set of the 500 largest universities worldwide and a specific subset of these 500 universities--the top-100 European universities--we are also able to distinguish between properties of universities with as well as without selection of one specific local property, the quality of a university in terms of its average field-normalized citation impact. It also reveals an interesting observation concerning the working of a crucial property in networked systems, preferential attachment.

  3. Fire toxicity scaling

    SciTech Connect

    Braun, E.; Levin, B.C.; Paabo, M.; Gurman, J.; Holt, T.

    1987-02-01

    The toxicity of the thermal-decomposition products from two flexible polyurethane foams (with and without a fire retardant) and a cotton upholstery fabric was evaluated by a series of small-scale and large-scale tests single mock-up upholstery chair tests during smoldering or flaming decomposition. In addition other fire property data such as rates of heat release, effective heats of combustion, specific gas species yields, and smoke obscuration were measured. The degree of toxicity observed during and following the flaming tests (both large-scale room burns and the NBS Toxicity Tests) could be explained by a 3-Gas Model which includes the combined toxicological effects of CO, CO/sub 2/, and HCN. Essentially, no animal deaths were noted during the thirty minute exposures to the non-flaming or smoldering combustion products produced in the NBS Toxicity Test Method or the large-scale room test. In the large-scale room tests, little toxicological difference was noted between decomposition products from the burn room and a second room 12 meters away.

  4. Full Scale Tunnel model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1929-01-01

    Interior view of Full-Scale Tunnel (FST) model. (Small human figures have been added for scale.) On June 26, 1929, Elton W. Miller wrote to George W. Lewis proposing the construction of a model of the full-scale tunnel . 'The excellent energy ratio obtained in the new wind tunnel of the California Institute of Technology suggests that before proceeding with our full scale tunnel design, we ought to investigate the effect on energy ratio of such factors as: 1. small included angle for the exit cone; 2. carefully designed return passages of circular section as far as possible, without sudden changes in cross sections; 3. tightness of walls. It is believed that much useful information can be obtained by building a model of about 1/16 scale, that is, having a closed throat of 2 ft. by 4 ft. The outside dimensions would be about 12 ft. by 25 ft. in plan and the height 4 ft. Two propellers will be required about 28 in. in diameter, each to be driven by direct current motor at a maximum speed of 4500 R.P.M. Provision can be made for altering the length of certain portions, particularly the exit cone, and possibly for the application of boundary layer control in order to effect satisfactory air flow.

  5. Atomic Scale Plasmonic Switch.

    PubMed

    Emboras, Alexandros; Niegemann, Jens; Ma, Ping; Haffner, Christian; Pedersen, Andreas; Luisier, Mathieu; Hafner, Christian; Schimmel, Thomas; Leuthold, Juerg

    2016-01-13

    The atom sets an ultimate scaling limit to Moore's law in the electronics industry. While electronics research already explores atomic scales devices, photonics research still deals with devices at the micrometer scale. Here we demonstrate that photonic scaling, similar to electronics, is only limited by the atom. More precisely, we introduce an electrically controlled plasmonic switch operating at the atomic scale. The switch allows for fast and reproducible switching by means of the relocation of an individual or, at most, a few atoms in a plasmonic cavity. Depending on the location of the atom either of two distinct plasmonic cavity resonance states are supported. Experimental results show reversible digital optical switching with an extinction ratio of 9.2 dB and operation at room temperature up to MHz with femtojoule (fJ) power consumption for a single switch operation. This demonstration of an integrated quantum device allowing to control photons at the atomic level opens intriguing perspectives for a fully integrated and highly scalable chip platform, a platform where optics, electronics, and memory may be controlled at the single-atom level.

  6. Scale adaptive compressive tracking.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Pengpeng; Cui, Shaohui; Gao, Min; Fang, Dan

    2016-01-01

    Recently, the compressive tracking (CT) method (Zhang et al. in Proceedings of European conference on computer vision, pp 864-877, 2012) has attracted much attention due to its high efficiency, but it cannot well deal with the scale changing objects due to its constant tracking box. To address this issue, in this paper we propose a scale adaptive CT approach, which adaptively adjusts the scale of tracking box with the size variation of the objects. Our method significantly improves CT in three aspects: Firstly, the scale of tracking box is adaptively adjusted according to the size of the objects. Secondly, in the CT method, all the compressive features are supposed independent and equal contribution to the classifier. Actually, different compressive features have different confidence coefficients. In our proposed method, the confidence coefficients of features are computed and used to achieve different contribution to the classifier. Finally, in the CT method, the learning parameter λ is constant, which will result in large tracking drift on the occasion of object occlusion or large scale appearance variation. In our proposed method, a variable learning parameter λ is adopted, which can be adjusted according to the object appearance variation rate. Extensive experiments on the CVPR2013 tracking benchmark demonstrate the superior performance of the proposed method compared to state-of-the-art tracking algorithms. PMID:27386298

  7. No-scale inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellis, John; Garcia, Marcos A. G.; Nanopoulos, Dimitri V.; Olive, Keith A.

    2016-05-01

    Supersymmetry is the most natural framework for physics above the TeV scale, and the corresponding framework for early-Universe cosmology, including inflation, is supergravity. No-scale supergravity emerges from generic string compactifications and yields a non-negative potential, and is therefore a plausible framework for constructing models of inflation. No-scale inflation yields naturally predictions similar to those of the Starobinsky model based on R+{R}2 gravity, with a tilted spectrum of scalar perturbations: {n}s∼ 0.96, and small values of the tensor-to-scalar perturbation ratio r\\lt 0.1, as favoured by Planck and other data on the cosmic microwave background (CMB). Detailed measurements of the CMB may provide insights into the embedding of inflation within string theory as well as its links to collider physics.

  8. Scales of rock permeability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guéguen, Y.; Gavrilenko, P.; Le Ravalec, M.

    1996-05-01

    Permeability is a transport property which is currently measured in Darcy units. Although this unit is very convenient for most purposes, its use prevents from recognizing that permeability has units of length squared. Physically, the square root of permeability can thus be seen as a characteristic length or a characteristic pore size. At the laboratory scale, the identification of this characteristic length is a good example of how experimental measurements and theoretical modelling can be integrated. Three distinct identifications are of current use, relying on three different techniques: image analysis of thin sections, mercury porosimetry and nitrogen adsorption. In each case, one or several theoretical models allow us to derive permeability from the experimental data (equivalent channel models, statistical models, effective media models, percolation and network models). Permeability varies with pressure and temperature and this is a decisive point for any extrapolation to crustal conditions. As far as pressure is concerned, most of the effect is due to cracks and a model which does not incorporate this fact will miss its goal. Temperature induced modifications can be the result of several processes: thermal cracking (due to thermal expansion mismatch and anisotropy, or to fluid pressure build up), and pressure solution are the two main ones. Experimental data on pressure and temperature effects are difficult to obtain but they are urgently needed. Finally, an important issue is: up to which point are these small scale data and models relevant when considering formations at the oil reservoir scale, or at the crust scale? At larger scales the identification of the characteristic scale is also a major goal which is examined.

  9. Angular Scaling In Jets

    SciTech Connect

    Jankowiak, Martin; Larkoski, Andrew J.; /SLAC

    2012-02-17

    We introduce a jet shape observable defined for an ensemble of jets in terms of two-particle angular correlations and a resolution parameter R. This quantity is infrared and collinear safe and can be interpreted as a scaling exponent for the angular distribution of mass inside the jet. For small R it is close to the value 2 as a consequence of the approximately scale invariant QCD dynamics. For large R it is sensitive to non-perturbative effects. We describe the use of this correlation function for tests of QCD, for studying underlying event and pile-up effects, and for tuning Monte Carlo event generators.

  10. Scale invariance in biophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanley, H. Eugene

    2000-06-01

    In this general talk, we offer an overview of some problems of interest to biophysicists, medical physicists, and econophysicists. These include DNA sequences, brain plaques in Alzheimer patients, heartbeat intervals, and time series giving price fluctuations in economics. These problems have the common feature that they exhibit features that appear to be scale invariant. Particularly vexing is the problem that some of these scale invariant phenomena are not stationary-their statistical properties vary from one time interval to the next or form one position to the next. We will discuss methods, such as wavelet methods and multifractal methods, to cope with these problems. .

  11. Smouldering Remediation (STAR) Technology: Field Pilot Tests and First Full Scale Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerhard, J.; Kinsman, L.; Torero, J. L.

    2015-12-01

    STAR (Self-sustaining Treatment for Active Remediation) is an innovative remediation technology based on the principles of smoldering combustion where the contaminants are the fuel. The self-sustaining aspect means that a single, local ignition event can result in many days of contaminant destruction in situ. Presented research to date has focused on bench scale experiments, numerical modelling and process understanding. Presented here is the maturation of the in situ technology, including three field pilot tests and a full-scale implementation to treat coal tar-impacted soils. The first pilot determined a Radius of Influence (ROI) for a single ignition of approximately eight feet with an average propagation rate of the reaction of approximately one foot per day. TPH concentrations in soils were reduced from 10,000 milligrams per kilogram to a few hundred milligrams per kilogram. The second pilot was conducted in an area of significant void spaces created through the anthropogenic deposition of clay bricks and tiles. The void spaces led to pre-mature termination of the combustion reaction, limiting ROI and the effectiveness of the technology in this setting. The third case study involved the pilot testing, design, and full-scale implementation of STAR at a 37-acre former chemical manufacturing facility. Three phases of pilot testing were conducted within two hydrogeologic units at the site (i.e., surficial fill and deep alluvial sand units). Pilot testing within the fill demonstrated self-sustained coal tar destruction rates in excess of 800 kg/day supported through air injection at a single well. Deep sand unit testing (twenty-five feet below the water table) resulted in the treatment of a targeted six-foot layer of impacted fine sands to a radial distance of approximately twelve feet. These results (and additional parameters) were used to develop a full-scale STAR design consisting of approximately 1500 surficial fill ignition points and 500 deep sand ignition

  12. Warm Hands and Feet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    Comfort Products, Inc. was responsible for the cold weather glove and thermal boots, adapted from a spacesuit design that kept astronauts warm or cool in the temperature extremes of the Apollo Moon Mission. Gloves and boots are thermally heated. Batteries are worn inside wrist of glove or sealed in sole of skiboot and are rechargeable hundreds of times. They operate flexible resistance circuit which is turned on periodically when wearer wants to be warm.

  13. Itchy Hands or Feet

    MedlinePlus

    ... 2006-2013 Logical Images, Inc. All rights reserved. Advertising Notice This Site and third parties who place ... would like to obtain more information about these advertising practices and to make choices about online behavioral ...

  14. Arthritis and the Feet

    MedlinePlus

    ... for months, or years, then abate, sometimes permanently. Gout (gouty arthritis) : Gout is a condition caused by a buildup of ... sauces, shellfish, and brandy is popularly associated with gout, there are other protein compounds in foods such ...

  15. Why Do Feet Stink?

    MedlinePlus

    ... acids — they also produce stuff called volatile sulfur compounds. Sulfur compounds usually are powerful and awful smelling. If you' ... a rotten egg, you know what volatile sulfur compounds smell like. continue What Can You Do? There’s ...

  16. xi-scaling

    SciTech Connect

    Gunion, J.F.

    1980-04-01

    A class of purely kinematical corrections to xi-scaling is exposed. These corrections are inevitably present in any realistic hadron model with spin and gauge invariance and lead to phenomenologically important M/sub hadron//sup 2//Q/sup 2/ corrections to Nachtmann moments.

  17. Scale, Composition, and Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Victor, Peter A.

    2009-01-01

    Scale (gross domestic product), composition (goods and services), and technology (impacts per unit of goods and services) in combination are the proximate determinants in an economy of the resources used, wastes generated, and land transformed. In this article, we examine relationships among these determinants to understand better the contribution…

  18. Scaling the Salary Heights.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNamee, Mike

    1986-01-01

    Federal cutbacks have created new demand for fund-raisers everywhere. Educational fund-raisers are thinking about "pay for performance"--incentive-based pay plans that can help them retain, reward, and motivate talented fund raisers within the tight pay scales common at colleges and universities. (MLW)

  19. Build an Interplanetary Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Catherine; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Describes an activity in which students use a bathroom scale and a long board to see how their weight changes on other planets and the moon. Materials list, procedures, tables of planet radii, comparative values, and gravitational ratios are provided. (DDR)

  20. Fundamentals of Zoological Scaling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Herbert

    1982-01-01

    The following animal characteristics are considered to determine how properties and characteristics of various systems change with system size (scaling): skeletal weight, speed of running, height and range of jumping, food consumption, heart rate, lifetime, locomotive efficiency, frequency of wing-flapping, and maximum sizes of flying and hovering…

  1. Allometric scaling of countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jiang; Yu, Tongkui

    2010-11-01

    As huge complex systems consisting of geographic regions, natural resources, people and economic entities, countries follow the allometric scaling law which is ubiquitous in ecological, and urban systems. We systematically investigated the allometric scaling relationships between a large number of macroscopic properties and geographic (area), demographic (population) and economic (GDP, gross domestic production) sizes of countries respectively. We found that most of the economic, trade, energy consumption, communication related properties have significant super-linear (the exponent is larger than 1) or nearly linear allometric scaling relations with the GDP. Meanwhile, the geographic (arable area, natural resources, etc.), demographic (labor force, military age population, etc.) and transportation-related properties (road length, airports) have significant and sub-linear (the exponent is smaller than 1) allometric scaling relations with area. Several differences of power law relations with respect to the population between countries and cities were pointed out. First, population increases sub-linearly with area in countries. Second, the GDP increases linearly in countries but not super-linearly as in cities. Finally, electricity or oil consumption per capita increases with population faster than cities.

  2. Scaling up Education Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaffney, Jon D. H.; Richards, Evan; Kustusch, Mary Bridget; Ding, Lin; Beichner, Robert J.

    2008-01-01

    The SCALE-UP (Student-Centered Activities for Large Enrollment for Undergraduate Programs) project was developed to implement reforms designed for small classes into large physics classes. Over 50 schools across the country, ranging from Wake Technical Community College to Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), have adopted it for classes of…

  3. Scaling up Psycholinguistics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Nathaniel J.

    2011-01-01

    This dissertation contains several projects, each addressing different questions with different techniques. In chapter 1, I argue that they are unified thematically by their goal of "scaling up psycholinguistics"; they are all aimed at analyzing large data-sets using tools that reveal patterns to propose and test mechanism-neutral hypotheses about…

  4. The Infant Rating Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindsay, G. A.

    1980-01-01

    A study was made of the usefulness of the Infant Rating Scale (IRS) in the early identification of learning difficulties. Thirteen hundred five-year-olds were rated by their teachers after one term in school. The structure of the IRS, its reliability, and predictive validity are examined. (Author/SJL)

  5. The Spiritual Competency Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robertson, Linda A.

    2010-01-01

    This study describes the development of the Spiritual Competency Scale, which was based on the Association for Spiritual, Ethical and Religious Values in Counseling's original Spiritual Competencies. Participants were 662 counseling students from religiously based and secular universities nationwide. Exploratory factor analysis revealed a 22-item,…

  6. Scales of mantle heterogeneity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, J. C.; Akber-Knutson, S.; Konter, J.; Kellogg, J.; Hart, S.; Kellogg, L. H.; Romanowicz, B.

    2004-12-01

    A long-standing question in mantle dynamics concerns the scale of heterogeneity in the mantle. Mantle convection tends to both destroy (through stirring) and create (through melt extraction and subduction) heterogeneity in bulk and trace element composition. Over time, these competing processes create variations in geochemical composition along mid-oceanic ridges and among oceanic islands, spanning a range of scales from extremely long wavelength (for example, the DUPAL anomaly) to very small scale (for example, variations amongst melt inclusions). While geochemical data and seismic observations can be used to constrain the length scales of mantle heterogeneity, dynamical mixing calculations can illustrate the processes and timescales involved in stirring and mixing. At the Summer 2004 CIDER workshop on Relating Geochemical and Seismological Heterogeneity in the Earth's Mantle, an interdisciplinary group evaluated scales of heterogeneity in the Earth's mantle using a combined analysis of geochemical data, seismological data and results of numerical models of mixing. We mined the PetDB database for isotopic data from glass and whole rock analyses for the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR) and the East Pacific Rise (EPR), projecting them along the ridge length. We examined Sr isotope variability along the East Pacific rise by looking at the difference in Sr ratio between adjacent samples as a function of distance between the samples. The East Pacific Rise exhibits an overall bowl shape of normal MORB characteristics, with higher values in the higher latitudes (there is, however, an unfortunate gap in sampling, roughly 2000 km long). These background characteristics are punctuated with spikes in values at various locations, some, but not all of which are associated with off-axis volcanism. A Lomb-Scargle periodogram for unevenly spaced data was utilized to construct a power spectrum of the scale lengths of heterogeneity along both ridges. Using the same isotopic systems (Sr, Nd

  7. Scaling Applications in hydrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gebremichael, Mekonnen

    2010-05-01

    Besides downscaling applications, scaling properties of hydrological fields can be used to address a variety of research questions. In this presentation, we will use scaling properties to address questions related to satellite evapotranspiration algorithms, precipitation-streamflow relationships, and hydrological model calibration. Most of the existing satellite-based evapotranspiration (ET) algorithms have been developed using fine-resolution Landsat TM and ASTER data. However, these algorithms are often applied to coarse-resolution MODIS data. Our results show that applying the satellite-based algorithms, which are developed at ASTER resolution, to MODIS resolution leads to ET estimates that (1) preserve the overall spatial pattern (spatial correlation in excess of 0.90), (2) increase the spatial standard deviation and maximum value, (3) have modest conditional bias: underestimate low ET rates (< 1 mm/day) and overestimate high ET rates; the overestimation is within 20%. The results emphasize the need for exploring alternatives for estimation of ET from MODIS. Understanding the relationship between the scaling properties of precipitation and streamflow is important in a number of applications. We present the results of a detailed river flow fluctuation analysis on daily records from 14 stations in the Flint River basin in Georgia in the United States with focus on effect of watershed area on long memory of river flow fluctuations. The areas of the watersheds draining to the stations range from 22 km2 to 19,606 km2. Results show that large watersheds have more persistent flow fluctuations and stronger long-term (time greater than scale break point) memory than small watersheds while precipitation time series shows weak long-term correlation. We conclude that a watershed acts as a 'filter' for a 'white noise' precipitation with more significant filtering in case of large watersheds. Finally, we compare the scaling properties of simulated and observed spatial soil

  8. Detailed Sections from Auger Holes in the Emporia 1:100,000-Scale Quadrangle, North Carolina and Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Weems, Robert E.; Schindler, J. Stephen; Lewis, William C.

    2010-01-01

    The Emporia 1:100,000-scale quadrangle straddles the Tidewater Fall Line in southern Virginia and includes a small part of northernmost North Carolina. Sediments of the coastal plain underlie the eastern three-fifths of this area. These sediments onlap crystalline basement rocks toward the west and dip gently to the east, reaching a maximum known thickness of 821 feet in the extreme southeastern part of the map area. The gentle eastward dip is disrupted in several areas due to faulting delineated during the course of mapping. In order to produce a new geologic map of the Emporia 1:100,000-scale quadrangle, the U.S. Geological Survey drilled one corehole to a depth of 223 feet and augered 192 shallow research test holes (maximum depth 135 feet) to supplement sparse outcrop data available from the coastal plain part of the map area. The recovered sediments were studied and data from them recorded to determine the lithologic characteristics, spatial distribution, and temporal framework of the represented coastal plain stratigraphic units. These test holes were critical for accurately determining the distribution of major geologic units and the position of unit boundaries that will be shown on the forthcoming Emporia geologic map, but much of the detailed subsurface data cannot be shown readily through this map product. Therefore, the locations and detailed descriptions of the auger test holes and one corehole are provided in this open-file report for geologists, hydrologists, engineers, and community planners in need of a detailed shallow-subsurface stratigraphic framework for much of the Emporia map region.

  9. Evaluation of postural steadiness in below-knee amputees when wearing different prosthetic feet during various sensory conditions using the Biodex® Stability System.

    PubMed

    Arifin, Nooranida; Abu Osman, Noor Azuan; Ali, Sadeeq; Gholizadeh, Hossein; Wan Abas, Wan Abu Bakar

    2015-07-01

    In recent years, computerized posturography has become an essential tool in quantitative assessment of postural steadiness in the clinical settings. The purpose of this study was to explore the ability of the Biodex(®) Stability System (BSS) to quantify postural steadiness in below-knee amputees. A convenience sample of 10 below-knee amputees participated in the study. The overall (OSI), anterior-posterior (APSI) and medial-lateral (MLSI) stability indexes as well as the percentage of time spent in left and right quadrants and four concentric zones were measured under altered sensory conditions while standing with solid ankle cushion heel (SACH), single-axis (SA) and energy storage and release (ESAR) feet. Significant difference was found between sensory conditions in SACH and ESAR feet for OSI (SACH, p = 0.002; ESAR, p = 0.005), APSI (SACH, p = 0.036; ESAR, p = 0.003) and MLSI (SACH, p = 0.008; ESAR, p = 0.05) stability indexes. The percentage of time spent in Zone A (0°-5°) was significantly greater than the other three concentric zones (p < 0.01). The loading time percentage on their intact limb (80%-94%) was significantly longer than the amputated limb (20%-6%) in all conditions for all three prosthetic feet. Below-knee amputees showed compromised postural steadiness when visual, proprioceptive or vestibular sensory input was altered. The findings highlight that the characteristics of postural stability in amputees can be clinically assessed by utilizing the outcomes produced by the BSS.

  10. Scaling macroscopic aquatic locomotion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gazzola, Mattia; Argentina, Médéric; Mahadevan, L.

    2014-10-01

    Inertial aquatic swimmers that use undulatory gaits range in length L from a few millimetres to 30 metres, across a wide array of biological taxa. Using elementary hydrodynamic arguments, we uncover a unifying mechanistic principle characterizing their locomotion by deriving a scaling relation that links swimming speed U to body kinematics (tail beat amplitude A and frequency ω) and fluid properties (kinematic viscosity ν). This principle can be simply couched as the power law Re ~ Swα, where Re = UL/ν >> 1 and Sw = ωAL/ν, with α = 4/3 for laminar flows, and α = 1 for turbulent flows. Existing data from over 1,000 measurements on fish, amphibians, larvae, reptiles, mammals and birds, as well as direct numerical simulations are consistent with our scaling. We interpret our results as the consequence of the convergence of aquatic gaits to the performance limits imposed by hydrodynamics.

  11. Scaling macroscopic aquatic locomotion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gazzola, Mattia; Argentina, Mederic; Mahadevan, Lakshminarayanan

    2014-11-01

    Inertial aquatic swimmers that use undulatory gaits range in length L from a few millimeters to 30 meters, across a wide array of biological taxa. Using elementary hydrodynamic arguments, we uncover a unifying mechanistic principle characterizing their locomotion by deriving a scaling relation that links swimming speed U to body kinematics (tail beat amplitude A and frequency ω) and fluid properties (kinematic viscosity ν). This principle can be simply couched as the power law Re ~ Swα , where Re = UL / ν >> 1 and Sw = ωAL / ν , with α = 4 / 3 for laminar flows, and α = 1 for turbulent flows. Existing data from over 1000 measurements on fish, amphibians, larvae, reptiles, mammals and birds, as well as direct numerical simulations are consistent with our scaling. We interpret our results as the consequence of the convergence of aquatic gaits to the performance limits imposed by hydrodynamics.

  12. ELECTRONIC PULSE SCALING CIRCUITS

    DOEpatents

    Cooke-Yarborough, E.H.

    1958-11-18

    Electronic pulse scaling circults of the klnd comprlsing a serles of bi- stable elements connected ln sequence, usually in the form of a rlng so as to be cycllcally repetitive at the highest scallng factor, are described. The scaling circuit comprises a ring system of bi-stable elements each arranged on turn-off to cause, a succeeding element of the ring to be turned-on, and one being arranged on turn-off to cause a further element of the ring to be turned-on. In addition, separate means are provided for applying a turn-off pulse to all the elements simultaneously, and for resetting the elements to a starting condition at the end of each cycle.

  13. An elastica arm scale.

    PubMed

    Bosi, F; Misseroni, D; Dal Corso, F; Bigoni, D

    2014-09-01

    The concept of a 'deformable arm scale' (completely different from a traditional rigid arm balance) is theoretically introduced and experimentally validated. The idea is not intuitive, but is the result of nonlinear equilibrium kinematics of rods inducing configurational forces, so that deflection of the arms becomes necessary for equilibrium, which would be impossible for a rigid system. In particular, the rigid arms of usual scales are replaced by a flexible elastic lamina, free to slide in a frictionless and inclined sliding sleeve, which can reach a unique equilibrium configuration when two vertical dead loads are applied. Prototypes designed to demonstrate the feasibility of the system show a high accuracy in the measurement of load within a certain range of use. Finally, we show that the presented results are strongly related to snaking of confined beams, with implications for locomotion of serpents, plumbing and smart oil drilling. PMID:25197248

  14. Fundamentals of zoological scaling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Herbert

    1982-01-01

    Most introductory physics courses emphasize highly idealized problems with unique well-defined answers. Though many textbooks complement these problems with estimation problems, few books present anything more than an elementary discussion of scaling. This paper presents some fundamentals of scaling in the zoological domain—a domain complex by any standard, but one also well suited to illustrate the power of very simple physical ideas. We consider the following animal characteristics: skeletal weight, speed of running, height and range of jumping, food consumption, heart rate, lifetime, locomotive efficiency, frequency of wing flapping, and maximum sizes of animals that fly and hover. These relationships are compared to zoological data and everyday experience, and match reasonably well.

  15. The Extragalactic Distance Scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Livio, Mario; Donahue, Megan; Panagia, Nino

    1997-07-01

    Participants; Preface; Foreword; Early history of the distance scale problem, S. van den Bergh; Cosmology: From Hubble to HST, M. S. Turner; Age constraints nucleocosmochronology, J. Truran; The ages of globular clusters, P. Demarque; The linearity of the Hubble flow M. Postman; Gravitational lensing and the extragalactic distance scale, R. D. Blandford andT . Kundic; Using the cosmic microwave background to constrain the Hubble constant A. Lasenby and T M. Jones; Cepheids as distance indicators, N. R. Tanvir; The I-band Tully-Fisher relation and the Hubble constant, R. Giovanell; The calibration of type 1a supernovae as standard candles, A. Saha; Focusing in on the Hubble constant, G. A. Tammann & M. Federspiel; Interim report on the calibration of the Tully-Fisher relation in the HST Key Project to measure the Hubble constant, J. Mould et al.; Hubble Space Telescope Key Project on the extragalactic distance scale, W. L. Freedman, B. F. Madore and T R. C. Kennicutt; Novae as distance indicators, M. Livio; Verifying the planetary nebula luminosity function method, G. H. Jacoby; On the possible use of radio supernovae for distance determinations, K. W. Weiler et al.; Post-AGB stars as standard candles, H. Bond; Helium core flash at the tip of the red giant branch: a population II distance indicator, B. F. Madore, W. L. Freedman and T S. Sakai; Globular clusters as distance indicators, B. C. Whitmore; Detached eclipsing binaries as primary distance and age indicators, B. Paczynski; Light echoes: geometric measurement of galaxy distances, W. B. Sparks; The SBF survey of galaxy distances J. L. Tonry; Extragalactic distance scales: The long and short of it, V. Trimble.

  16. Earthquake Apparent Stress Scaling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walter, W. R.; Mayeda, K.; Ruppert, S.

    2002-12-01

    There is currently a disagreement within the geophysical community on the way earthquake energy scales with magnitude. One set of recent papers finds evidence that energy release per seismic moment (apparent stress) is constant (e.g. Choy and Boatwright, 1995; McGarr, 1999; Ide and Beroza, 2001). Another set of recent papers finds the apparent stress increases with magnitude (e.g. Kanamori et al., 1993 Abercrombie, 1995; Mayeda and Walter, 1996; Izutani and Kanamori, 2001). The resolution of this issue is complicated by the difficulty of accurately accounting for and determining the seismic energy radiated by earthquakes over a wide range of event sizes in a consistent manner. We have just started a project to reexamine this issue by analyzing aftershock sequences in the Western U.S. and Turkey using two different techniques. First we examine the observed regional S-wave spectra by fitting with a parametric model (Walter and Taylor, 2002) with and without variable stress drop scaling. Because the aftershock sequences have common stations and paths we can examine the S-wave spectra of events by size to determine what type of apparent stress scaling, if any, is most consistent with the data. Second we use regional coda envelope techniques (e.g. Mayeda and Walter, 1996; Mayeda et al, 2002) on the same events to directly measure energy and moment. The coda techniques corrects for path and site effects using an empirical Green function technique and independent calibration with surface wave derived moments. Our hope is that by carefully analyzing a very large number of events in a consistent manner using two different techniques we can start to resolve this apparent stress scaling issue. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by the University of California, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract No. W-7405-Eng-48.

  17. Earthquake Apparent Stress Scaling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayeda, K.; Walter, W. R.

    2003-04-01

    There is currently a disagreement within the geophysical community on the way earthquake energy scales with magnitude. One set of recent papers finds evidence that energy release per seismic moment (apparent stress) is constant (e.g. Choy and Boatwright, 1995; McGarr, 1999; Ide and Beroza, 2001). Another set of recent papers finds the apparent stress increases with magnitude (e.g. Kanamori et al., 1993 Abercrombie, 1995; Mayeda and Walter, 1996; Izutani and Kanamori, 2001). The resolution of this issue is complicated by the difficulty of accurately accounting for and determining the seismic energy radiated by earthquakes over a wide range of event sizes in a consistent manner. We have just started a project to reexamine this issue by applying the same methodology to a series of datasets that spans roughly 10 orders in seismic moment, M0. We will summarize recent results using a coda envelope methodology of Mayeda et al, (2003) which provide the most stable source spectral estimates to date. This methodology eliminates the complicating effects of lateral path heterogeneity, source radiation pattern, directivity, and site response (e.g., amplification, f-max and kappa). We find that in tectonically active continental crustal areas the total radiated energy scales as M00.25 whereas in regions of relatively younger oceanic crust, the stress drop is generally lower and exhibits a 1-to-1 scaling with moment. In addition to answering a fundamental question in earthquake source dynamics, this study addresses how one would scale small earthquakes in a particular region up to a future, more damaging earthquake. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by the University of California, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract No. W-7405-Eng-48.

  18. Extreme Scale Visual Analytics

    SciTech Connect

    Steed, Chad A; Potok, Thomas E; Pullum, Laura L; Ramanathan, Arvind; Shipman, Galen M; Thornton, Peter E; Potok, Thomas E

    2013-01-01

    Given the scale and complexity of today s data, visual analytics is rapidly becoming a necessity rather than an option for comprehensive exploratory analysis. In this paper, we provide an overview of three applications of visual analytics for addressing the challenges of analyzing climate, text streams, and biosurveilance data. These systems feature varying levels of interaction and high performance computing technology integration to permit exploratory analysis of large and complex data of global significance.

  19. Beyond the Planck Scale

    SciTech Connect

    Giddings, Steven B.

    2009-12-15

    I outline motivations for believing that important quantum gravity effects lie beyond the Planck scale at both higher energies and longer distances and times. These motivations arise in part from the study of ultra-high energy scattering, and also from considerations in cosmology. I briefly summarize some inferences about such ultra-planckian physics, and clues we might pursue towards the principles of a more fundamental theory addressing the known puzzles and paradoxes of quantum gravity.

  20. Limb-Bone Scaling Indicates Diverse Stance and Gait in Quadrupedal Ornithischian Dinosaurs

    PubMed Central

    Maidment, Susannah C. R.; Linton, Deborah H.; Upchurch, Paul; Barrett, Paul M.

    2012-01-01

    Background The most primitive ornithischian dinosaurs were small bipeds, but quadrupedality evolved three times independently in the clade. The transition to quadrupedality from bipedal ancestors is rare in the history of terrestrial vertebrate evolution, and extant analogues do not exist. Constraints imposed on quadrupedal ornithischians by their ancestral bipedal bauplan remain unexplored, and consequently, debate continues about their stance and gait. For example, it has been proposed that some ornithischians could run, while others consider that none were cursorial. Methodology/Principal Findings Drawing on biomechanical concepts of limb bone scaling and locomotor theory developed for extant taxa, we use the largest dataset of ornithischian postcranial measurements so far compiled to examine stance and gait in quadrupedal ornithischians. Differences in femoral midshaft eccentricity in hadrosaurs and ceratopsids may indicate that hadrosaurs placed their feet on the midline during locomotion, while ceratopsids placed their feet more laterally, under the hips. More robust humeri in the largest ceratopsids relative to smaller taxa may be due to positive allometry in skull size with body mass in ceratopsids, while slender humeri in the largest stegosaurs may be the result of differences in dermal armor distribution within the clade. Hadrosaurs are found to display the most cursorial morphologies of the quadrupedal ornithischian cades, indicating higher locomotor performance than in ceratopsids and thyreophorans. Conclusions/Significance Limb bone scaling indicates that a previously unrealised diversity of stances and gaits were employed by quadrupedal ornithischians despite apparent convergence in limb morphology. Grouping quadrupedal ornithischians together as a single functional group hides this disparity. Differences in limb proportions and scaling are likely due to the possession of display structures such as horns, frills and dermal armor that may have affected

  1. Design and Fabrication of the First Commercial-Scale Liquid Phase Methanol (LPMEOH) Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    1998-12-21

    The Liquid Phase Methanol (LPMEOHT) process uses a slurry bubble column reactor to convert synthesis gas (syngas), primarily a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen, to methanol. Because of its superior heat management the process can utilize directly the carbon monoxide (CO)-rich syngas characteristic of the gasification of coal, petroleum coke, residual oil, wastes, or other hydrocarbon feedstocks. The LPMEOHM Demonstration Project at Kingsport, Tennessee, is a $213.7 million cooperative agreement between the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and Air Products Liquid Phase Conversion Company, L.P., a partnership between Air Products and Chemicals, Inc. and Eastman Chemical Company, to produce methanol from coal-derived syngas. Construction of the LPMEOH~ Process Demonstration Plant at Eastman's chemicals-from-coal complex in Kingsport was completed in January 1997. Following commissioning and shakedown activities, the fwst production of methanol from the facility occurred on April 2, 1997. Nameplate capacity of 260 short tons per day (TPD) was achieved on April 6, 1997, and production rates have exceeded 300 TPD of methanol at times. This report describes the design, fabrication, and installation of the Kingsport LPMEOEFM reactor, which is the first commercial-scale LPMEOEPM reaetor ever built. The vessel is 7.5 feet in diameter and 70 feet tall with design conditions of 1000 psig at 600 `F. These dimensions represent a significant scale-up from prior experience at the DOE-owned Alternative Fuels Development Unit in LaPorte, Texas, where 18-inch and 22-inch diameter reactors have been tested successfidly over thousands of hours. The biggest obstacles discovered during the scale- up, however, were encountered during fabrication of the vessel. The lessons learned during this process must be considered in tailoring the design for future sites, where the reactor dimensions may grow by yet another factor of two.

  2. Manufacturing process scale-up of optical grade transparent spinel ceramic at ArmorLine Corporation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spilman, Joseph; Voyles, John; Nick, Joseph; Shaffer, Lawrence

    2013-06-01

    While transparent Spinel ceramic's mechanical and optical characteristics are ideal for many Ultraviolet (UV), visible, Short-Wave Infrared (SWIR), Mid-Wave Infrared (MWIR), and multispectral sensor window applications, commercial adoption of the material has been hampered because the material has historically been available in relatively small sizes (one square foot per window or less), low volumes, unreliable supply, and with unreliable quality. Recent efforts, most notably by Technology Assessment and Transfer (TA and T), have scaled-up manufacturing processes and demonstrated the capability to produce larger windows on the order of two square feet, but with limited output not suitable for production type programs. ArmorLine Corporation licensed the hot-pressed Spinel manufacturing know-how of TA and T in 2009 with the goal of building the world's first dedicated full-scale Spinel production facility, enabling the supply of a reliable and sufficient volume of large Transparent Armor and Optical Grade Spinel plates. With over $20 million of private investment by J.F. Lehman and Company, ArmorLine has installed and commissioned the largest vacuum hot press in the world, the largest high-temperature/high-pressure hot isostatic press in the world, and supporting manufacturing processes within 75,000 square feet of manufacturing space. ArmorLine's equipment is capable of producing window blanks as large as 50" x 30" and the facility is capable of producing substantial volumes of material with its Lean configuration and 24/7 operation. Initial production capability was achieved in 2012. ArmorLine will discuss the challenges that were encountered during scale-up of the manufacturing processes, ArmorLine Optical Grade Spinel optical performance, and provide an overview of the facility and its capabilities.

  3. Is this scaling nonlinear?

    PubMed

    Leitão, J C; Miotto, J M; Gerlach, M; Altmann, E G

    2016-07-01

    One of the most celebrated findings in complex systems in the last decade is that different indexes y (e.g. patents) scale nonlinearly with the population x of the cities in which they appear, i.e. y∼x (β) ,β≠1. More recently, the generality of this finding has been questioned in studies that used new databases and different definitions of city boundaries. In this paper, we investigate the existence of nonlinear scaling, using a probabilistic framework in which fluctuations are accounted for explicitly. In particular, we show that this allows not only to (i) estimate β and confidence intervals, but also to (ii) quantify the evidence in favour of β≠1 and (iii) test the hypothesis that the observations are compatible with the nonlinear scaling. We employ this framework to compare five different models to 15 different datasets and we find that the answers to points (i)-(iii) crucially depend on the fluctuations contained in the data, on how they are modelled, and on the fact that the city sizes are heavy-tailed distributed. PMID:27493764

  4. Is this scaling nonlinear?

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    One of the most celebrated findings in complex systems in the last decade is that different indexes y (e.g. patents) scale nonlinearly with the population x of the cities in which they appear, i.e. y∼xβ,β≠1. More recently, the generality of this finding has been questioned in studies that used new databases and different definitions of city boundaries. In this paper, we investigate the existence of nonlinear scaling, using a probabilistic framework in which fluctuations are accounted for explicitly. In particular, we show that this allows not only to (i) estimate β and confidence intervals, but also to (ii) quantify the evidence in favour of β≠1 and (iii) test the hypothesis that the observations are compatible with the nonlinear scaling. We employ this framework to compare five different models to 15 different datasets and we find that the answers to points (i)–(iii) crucially depend on the fluctuations contained in the data, on how they are modelled, and on the fact that the city sizes are heavy-tailed distributed. PMID:27493764

  5. Scaling body size fluctuations

    PubMed Central

    Giometto, Andrea; Altermatt, Florian; Carrara, Francesco; Maritan, Amos; Rinaldo, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    The size of an organism matters for its metabolic, growth, mortality, and other vital rates. Scale-free community size spectra (i.e., size distributions regardless of species) are routinely observed in natural ecosystems and are the product of intra- and interspecies regulation of the relative abundance of organisms of different sizes. Intra- and interspecies distributions of body sizes are thus major determinants of ecosystems’ structure and function. We show experimentally that single-species mass distributions of unicellular eukaryotes covering different phyla exhibit both characteristic sizes and universal features over more than four orders of magnitude in mass. Remarkably, we find that the mean size of a species is sufficient to characterize its size distribution fully and that the latter has a universal form across all species. We show that an analytical physiological model accounts for the observed universality, which can be synthesized in a log-normal form for the intraspecies size distributions. We also propose how ecological and physiological processes should interact to produce scale-invariant community size spectra and discuss the implications of our results on allometric scaling laws involving body mass. PMID:23487793

  6. Urban scaling in Europe.

    PubMed

    Bettencourt, Luís M A; Lobo, José

    2016-03-01

    Over the last few decades, in disciplines as diverse as economics, geography and complex systems, a perspective has arisen proposing that many properties of cities are quantitatively predictable due to agglomeration or scaling effects. Using new harmonized definitions for functional urban areas, we examine to what extent these ideas apply to European cities. We show that while most large urban systems in Western Europe (France, Germany, Italy, Spain, UK) approximately agree with theoretical expectations, the small number of cities in each nation and their natural variability preclude drawing strong conclusions. We demonstrate how this problem can be overcome so that cities from different urban systems can be pooled together to construct larger datasets. This leads to a simple statistical procedure to identify urban scaling relations, which then clearly emerge as a property of European cities. We compare the predictions of urban scaling to Zipf's law for the size distribution of cities and show that while the former holds well the latter is a poor descriptor of European cities. We conclude with scenarios for the size and properties of future pan-European megacities and their implications for the economic productivity, technological sophistication and regional inequalities of an integrated European urban system. PMID:26984190

  7. Urban scaling in Europe

    PubMed Central

    Bettencourt, Luís M. A.; Lobo, José

    2016-01-01

    Over the last few decades, in disciplines as diverse as economics, geography and complex systems, a perspective has arisen proposing that many properties of cities are quantitatively predictable due to agglomeration or scaling effects. Using new harmonized definitions for functional urban areas, we examine to what extent these ideas apply to European cities. We show that while most large urban systems in Western Europe (France, Germany, Italy, Spain, UK) approximately agree with theoretical expectations, the small number of cities in each nation and their natural variability preclude drawing strong conclusions. We demonstrate how this problem can be overcome so that cities from different urban systems can be pooled together to construct larger datasets. This leads to a simple statistical procedure to identify urban scaling relations, which then clearly emerge as a property of European cities. We compare the predictions of urban scaling to Zipf's law for the size distribution of cities and show that while the former holds well the latter is a poor descriptor of European cities. We conclude with scenarios for the size and properties of future pan-European megacities and their implications for the economic productivity, technological sophistication and regional inequalities of an integrated European urban system. PMID:26984190

  8. Effects of Bayofly on specimens of Culicoides species when incubated in hair taken from the feet of previously treated cattle and sheep.

    PubMed

    Mehlhorn, Heinz; Schmahl, Günter; Schumacher, Bärbel; D'Haese, Jochen; Walldorf, Volker; Klimpel, Sven

    2008-02-01

    Sheep and cattle were treated with Bayofly pour-on containing 1 g cyfluthrin per 100 ml ready-to-use solution. Seven, 14, 21 and 28 days after treatment, hair was clipped off from the back and feet and mixed for 10-15 s, 30 s, 1 or 2 min with freshly caught Culicoides midges. It was found that the insecticide on hair from the legs--the predominant biting site of midges--had a significant killing effect on Culicoides for 3-4 weeks, even after a short-term contact.

  9. Microtia Combined With Split Sole of Feet, Deformed Middle Fingers and Café -au-lait Spots on the Trunk: A New Association.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yan; Hu, Jintian; Liu, Tun; Cao, Yilin; Zhang, Qingguo

    2015-11-01

    Microtia is a spectrum of congenital deformities. Approximately, half of the patients are associated with hemifacial microtia. The birth rate of microtia ranges from 2 per 10,000 to 17.4 per 10,000. Microtia and limb deformities sometimes occurred simultaneously as described in the literature. In this report, the patient was found to be with unilateral microtia combined with bilateral split sole of feet, deformed middle fingers on both hands, and café-au-lait spots on the trunk. Despite a thorough literature search, the authors could not achieve a satisfactory diagnosis for the current case with respect to the type of anomalies seen in the case.

  10. Work Capability and physiological effects predictive studies. 4: In He-O2 excursions to pressures of 400- 800- 1200- and 1600 feet of sea water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lambertsen, C. J. (Editor); Gelfand, R. (Editor); Clark, J. M. (Editor); Fletcher, M. E. (Editor)

    1978-01-01

    Experiments which exposed men in chambers, breathing helium with oxygen, to progressive increases of pressure equivalent to 400-800-1200-1600 feet of sea water (fsw) were conducted. Rates of compression and exposure to stable high pressure. Goals included: 1) determination of the specific character and time course of onset of physiological and performance decrements during the intentionally rapid compressions, and determination of rates of adaptation on reaching stable elevated pressure; 2) investigation of accelerated methods for decompression in deep saturation excursion diving; and 3) determination of competence in practical work performed in water at pressures equivalent to the extreme diving depths of 1200 and 1600 fsw.

  11. Combined Limb-Sparing Surgery and Radiation Therapy to Treat Sarcomas of the Hands and Feet: Long-Term Cancer Outcomes and Morbidity

    SciTech Connect

    Bishop, Andrew J.; Zagars, Gunar K.; Moon, Bryan S.; Lin, Patrick P.; Lewis, Valerae O.; Guadagnolo, B. Ashleigh

    2015-08-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate local control, survival outcomes, and complication rates of patients treated with limb-sparing surgery and radiation therapy (RT) for soft tissue sarcomas (STS) of the hands and feet. Methods and Materials: We reviewed the medical records of 85 consecutive patients treated for STS of the hands (n=38, 45%) and feet (n=47, 55%) between 1966 and 2012. The median age was 41 years (range, 10-82 years of age). Sixty-seven patients (79%) received postoperative RT after resection of their tumor (median dose, 60 Gy; range, 45-70 Gy). The remaining 18 patients (21%) were treated with preoperative RT followed by tumor resection (median dose, 50 Gy; range, 50-64 Gy). Results: Median follow-up was 140 months (range, 24-442 months). Five-year local control, overall survival, and disease-specific survival rates were 86%, 89%, and 89%, respectively. Positive or uncertain surgical margin status was the only factor adversely associated with local recurrence (19% vs 6% for negative margins, P=.046) but this lost significance on multivariate analysis when adjusting for RT dose ≥64 Gy. Of the 12 patients who had local relapses, 6 (50%) were salvaged, and only 2 of those required salvage amputation. Five patients had grade ≥3 late RT sequelae, with 2 patients (2%) having moderate limitations of limb function and 3 patients (4%) having severe limitations requiring procedures for skin ulceration. Conclusions: Limb-sparing surgery combined with RT provides excellent local control outcomes for sarcomas arising in the hands or feet. In patients who have local recurrence, salvage without amputation is possible. The excellent cancer control outcomes observed, considering the minimal impact on limb function, support use of combined modality, limb-sparing local therapy for STS arising in the hands or feet.

  12. Mechanism for salt scaling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valenza, John J., II

    Salt scaling is superficial damage caused by freezing a saline solution on the surface of a cementitious body. The damage consists of the removal of small chips or flakes of binder. The discovery of this phenomenon in the early 1950's prompted hundreds of experimental studies, which clearly elucidated the characteristics of this damage. In particular it was shown that a pessimum salt concentration exists, where a moderate salt concentration (˜3%) results in the most damage. Despite the numerous studies, the mechanism responsible for salt scaling has not been identified. In this work it is shown that salt scaling is a result of the large thermal expansion mismatch between ice and the cementitious body, and that the mechanism responsible for damage is analogous to glue-spalling. When ice forms on a cementitious body a bi-material composite is formed. The thermal expansion coefficient of the ice is ˜5 times that of the underlying body, so when the temperature of the composite is lowered below the melting point, the ice goes into tension. Once this stress exceeds the strength of the ice, cracks initiate in the ice and propagate into the surface of the cementitious body, removing a flake of material. The glue-spall mechanism accounts for all of the characteristics of salt scaling. In particular, a theoretical analysis is presented which shows that the pessimum concentration is a consequence of the effect of brine pockets on the mechanical properties of ice, and that the damage morphology is accounted for by fracture mechanics. Finally, empirical evidence is presented that proves that the glue-small mechanism is the primary cause of salt scaling. The primary experimental tool used in this study is a novel warping experiment, where a pool of liquid is formed on top of a thin (˜3 mm) plate of cement paste. Stresses in the plate, including thermal expansion mismatch, result in warping of the plate, which is easily detected. This technique revealed the existence of

  13. The Practicality of Behavioral Observation Scales, Behavioral Expectation Scales, and Trait Scales.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiersma, Uco; Latham, Gary P.

    1986-01-01

    The practicality of three appraisal instruments was measured in terms of user preference, namely, behavioral observation scales (BOS), behavioral expectation scales (BES), and trait scales. In all instances, BOS were preferred to BES, and in all but two instances, BOS were viewed as superior to trait scales. (Author/ABB)

  14. Comparing the theoretical versions of the Beaufort scale, the T-Scale and the Fujita scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meaden, G. Terence; Kochev, S.; Kolendowicz, L.; Kosa-Kiss, A.; Marcinoniene, Izolda; Sioutas, Michalis; Tooming, Heino; Tyrrell, John

    2007-02-01

    2005 is the bicentenary of the Beaufort Scale and its wind-speed codes: the marine version in 1805 and the land version later. In the 1920s when anemometers had come into general use, the Beaufort Scale was quantified by a formula based on experiment. In the early 1970s two tornado wind-speed scales were proposed: (1) an International T-Scale based on the Beaufort Scale; and (2) Fujita's damage scale developed for North America. The International Beaufort Scale and the T-Scale share a common root in having an integral theoretical relationship with an established scientific basis, whereas Fujita's Scale introduces criteria that make its intensities non-integral with Beaufort. Forces on the T-Scale, where T stands for Tornado force, span the range 0 to 10 which is highly useful world wide. The shorter range of Fujita's Scale (0 to 5) is acceptable for American use but less convenient elsewhere. To illustrate the simplicity of the decimal T-Scale, mean hurricane wind speed of Beaufort 12 is T2 on the T-Scale but F1.121 on the F-Scale; while a tornado wind speed of T9 (= B26) becomes F4.761. However, the three wind scales can be uni-fied by either making F-Scale numbers exactly half the magnitude of T-Scale numbers [i.e. F'half = T / 2 = (B / 4) - 4] or by doubling the numbers of this revised version to give integral equivalence with the T-Scale. The result is a decimal formula F'double = T = (B / 2) - 4 named the TF-Scale where TF stands for Tornado Force. This harmonious 10-digit scale has all the criteria needed for world-wide practical effectiveness.

  15. Small-scale strength

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, J.L.

    1995-11-01

    In the world of power project development there is a market for smaller scale cogeneration projects in the range of 1MW to 10MW. In the European Union alone, this range will account for about $25 Billion in value over the next 10 years. By adding the potential that exists in Eastern Europe, the numbers are even more impressive. In Europe, only about 7 percent of needed electrical power is currently produced through cogeneration installations; this is expected to change to around 15 percent by the year 2000. Less than one year ago, two equipment manufacturers formed Dutch Power Partners (DPP) to focus on the market for industrial cogeneration throughout Europe.

  16. Reconsidering Fault Slip Scaling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomberg, J. S.; Wech, A.; Creager, K. C.; Obara, K.; Agnew, D. C.

    2015-12-01

    The scaling of fault slip events given by the relationship between the scalar moment M0, and duration T, potentially provides key constraints on the underlying physics controlling slip. Many studies have suggested that measurements of M0 and T are related as M0=KfT3 for 'fast' slip events (earthquakes) and M0=KsT for 'slow' slip events, in which Kf and Ks are proportionality constants, although some studies have inferred intermediate relations. Here 'slow' and 'fast' refer to slip front propagation velocities, either so slow that seismic radiation is too small or long period to be measurable or fast enough that dynamic processes may be important for the slip process and measurable seismic waves radiate. Numerous models have been proposed to explain the differing M0-T scaling relations. We show that a single, simple dislocation model of slip events within a bounded slip zone may explain nearly all M0-T observations. Rather than different scaling for fast and slow populations, we suggest that within each population the scaling changes from M0 proportional to T3 to T when the slipping area reaches the slip zone boundaries and transitions from unbounded, 2-dimensional to bounded, 1-dimensional growth. This transition has not been apparent previously for slow events because data have sampled only the bounded regime and may be obscured for earthquakes when observations from multiple tectonic regions are combined. We have attempted to sample the expected transition between bounded and unbounded regimes for the slow slip population, measuring tremor cluster parameters from catalogs for Japan and Cascadia and using them as proxies for small slow slip event characteristics. For fast events we employed published earthquake slip models. Observations corroborate our hypothesis, but highlight observational difficulties. We find that M0-T observations for both slow and fast slip events, spanning 12 orders of magnitude in M0, are consistent with a single model based on dislocation

  17. Soil organic carbon across scales.

    PubMed

    O'Rourke, Sharon M; Angers, Denis A; Holden, Nicholas M; McBratney, Alex B

    2015-10-01

    Mechanistic understanding of scale effects is important for interpreting the processes that control the global carbon cycle. Greater attention should be given to scale in soil organic carbon (SOC) science so that we can devise better policy to protect/enhance existing SOC stocks and ensure sustainable use of soils. Global issues such as climate change require consideration of SOC stock changes at the global and biosphere scale, but human interaction occurs at the landscape scale, with consequences at the pedon, aggregate and particle scales. This review evaluates our understanding of SOC across all these scales in the context of the processes involved in SOC cycling at each scale and with emphasis on stabilizing SOC. Current synergy between science and policy is explored at each scale to determine how well each is represented in the management of SOC. An outline of how SOC might be integrated into a framework of soil security is examined. We conclude that SOC processes at the biosphere to biome scales are not well understood. Instead, SOC has come to be viewed as a large-scale pool subjects to carbon flux. Better understanding exists for SOC processes operating at the scales of the pedon, aggregate and particle. At the landscape scale, the influence of large- and small-scale processes has the greatest interaction and is exposed to the greatest modification through agricultural management. Policy implemented at regional or national scale tends to focus at the landscape scale without due consideration of the larger scale factors controlling SOC or the impacts of policy for SOC at the smaller SOC scales. What is required is a framework that can be integrated across a continuum of scales to optimize SOC management.

  18. Soil organic carbon across scales.

    PubMed

    O'Rourke, Sharon M; Angers, Denis A; Holden, Nicholas M; McBratney, Alex B

    2015-10-01

    Mechanistic understanding of scale effects is important for interpreting the processes that control the global carbon cycle. Greater attention should be given to scale in soil organic carbon (SOC) science so that we can devise better policy to protect/enhance existing SOC stocks and ensure sustainable use of soils. Global issues such as climate change require consideration of SOC stock changes at the global and biosphere scale, but human interaction occurs at the landscape scale, with consequences at the pedon, aggregate and particle scales. This review evaluates our understanding of SOC across all these scales in the context of the processes involved in SOC cycling at each scale and with emphasis on stabilizing SOC. Current synergy between science and policy is explored at each scale to determine how well each is represented in the management of SOC. An outline of how SOC might be integrated into a framework of soil security is examined. We conclude that SOC processes at the biosphere to biome scales are not well understood. Instead, SOC has come to be viewed as a large-scale pool subjects to carbon flux. Better understanding exists for SOC processes operating at the scales of the pedon, aggregate and particle. At the landscape scale, the influence of large- and small-scale processes has the greatest interaction and is exposed to the greatest modification through agricultural management. Policy implemented at regional or national scale tends to focus at the landscape scale without due consideration of the larger scale factors controlling SOC or the impacts of policy for SOC at the smaller SOC scales. What is required is a framework that can be integrated across a continuum of scales to optimize SOC management. PMID:25918852

  19. EMG activation of trunk and upper limb muscles following experimentally-induced overpronation and oversupination of the feet in quiet standing.

    PubMed

    Ntousis, Theodoros; Mandalidis, Dimitris; Chronopoulos, Efstathios; Athanasopoulos, Spyros

    2013-02-01

    Kinematic studies have shown that experimentally-induced overpronation or oversupination of the subtalar joint may alter the position of the legs, hips and pelvis and consequently the trunk and upper limb. The purpose of the present study was to examine whether such foot deformity affects the activity of muscles that act on the trunk and upper limb. Twenty-eight healthy individuals (11 males and 17 females) 21.4±1.9 years of age without skeletal deformity, leg length discrepancy (LLD), overpronated or oversupinated feet or excessive lateral pelvic inclination volunteered for the study. Bilateral EMG recordings of the latissimus dorsi, pectoralis major and rectus abdominis were undertaken for 30-s with each subject in the relaxed standing position and at 5° and 10° bilateral or unilateral overpronation or oversupination of the foot on the dominant side using wooden wedge-shape blocks. The recorded EMG activity was normalised based on the EMG activity produced by the muscles under investigation during maximum isometric voluntary contraction. The findings of the present study revealed that neither bilateral nor unilateral overpronation/oversupination of the feet induced a significant alteration of the EMG activity of the latissimus dorsi, pectoralis major and rectus abdominis on either the dominant or non-dominant side. These findings suggest that in the absence of other major structural deformity bilateral or unilateral foot overpronation or oversupination does not affect the EMG activity of muscles that act on the trunk and upper limb in quiet standing. PMID:22940541

  20. Is access to the body structural description sensitive to a body part's significance for action and cognition? A study of the sidedness effect using feet.

    PubMed

    Tessari, Alessia; Ottoboni, Giovanni; Baroni, Giulia; Symes, Ed; Nicoletti, Roberto

    2012-05-01

    There is evidence suggesting that viewing hands triggers automatic access to the Body Structural Description, a visual-spatial representation of human body parts configuration. Hands, however, have a special representational status within the brain because of their significance for action and cognition. We tested whether feet, less important in gestural and object-directed action, would similarly show automatic access to the Body Structural Description. Positive evidence of that would be finding a Sidedness effect (Ottoboni et al. J Exp Psychol Hum Percept Perform 31:778-789, 2005), a Simon-like paradigm previously used to study automatic hand recognition. This effect demonstrates that processing hands generates spatial codes corresponding to the side of the body on which the hand would be located within the Body Structural Description map. Feet were shown with toes pointing upwards (Experiment 1), without any connection to the ankle and the leg (Experiment 2) and with toes pointing downwards (Experiment 3). Results revealed a Sidedness effect in both Experiments 1 and 3: spatial compatibility occurred according to the side of the body that each foot would assume within the Body Structural Description. In Experiment 2, as already found in stimuli similarly featured, no effect emerged, due to the lack of the necessary anatomical links connecting the foot to a body. Results suggest that body parts with variable degrees of significance for action and cognition can access automatically the Body Structural Description hence reinforcing the hypothesis of its pure visuo-spatial nature.