There has been a move in recent years towards the greater inclusion of social and ethical issues within science courses. This paper examines a new context-based course for 16-18 year-olds (Salters-Nuffield Advanced Biology) who are studying biology in England and Wales. The course is taught through contexts and has an emphasis on social issues and…
Piotrowska, Ewa; Zechałko-Czajkowska, Alicja; Biernat, Jadwiga; Mikołajczak, Jolanta
The aim of the study was to analyze nutritional habits of 409 16-18 year old girls from Wrocław. They are one of three elements shaping health attitude of girls. This research indicates mostly committing nutritional mistakes of the girls e.g.: irregularity of meals consumption 73% of girls, incorrect number of meals about 60% of girls, omission of breakfast about 15% of girls and lunch 20% of girls, movement of main meal up to late evening and night hours, and regular snaking meals 53.0% of girls.
Piotrowska, Ewa; Zechałko-Czajkowska, Alicja; Biernat, Jadwiga; Mikołajczak, Jolanta
The aim of the study was to analyze health attitude of 409 16-18 year old girls from Wrocław in three areas: physical activity, dieting, and smoking and alcohol use. Research indicated different levels of underweight among 17.4% of girls, overweight and obesity among 11.2% of girls, and inappropriate level of physical activity among 60% of girls. Negative self-evaluation of own appearance among 50% of girls contributed to dieting among 32% of girls. Studies indicated as well that 49% of girls smoke, and 89% of girls drink alcohol occasionally or every week.
KAPLAN, LEON L.
A SURVEY WAS CONDUCTED TO ASCERTAIN NECESSARY PROCEDURES FOR ESTABLISHING WORK-STUDY PROGRAMS FOR ACTUAL OR POTENTIAL DROPOUTS, AGES 16 AND 17, IN THE LOS ANGELES UNIFIED SCHOOL DISTRICT. THIS SURVEY WAS MADE TO HELP PROVIDE MEANS TO MEET THE CALIFORNIA EDUCATION CODE REQUIREMENTS FOR COMPULSORY CONTINUATION EDUCATION. THE STUDY DETERMINED THAT…
Colardyn, Danielle; Malglaive, Gerard
In 1982, the French Government instituted a new National Vocational Education Plan (NVEP) to combat the nationwide problem of students leaving the school system prior to receiving adequate vocational preparation. This plan affects 100,000 young people between the ages of 16 and 18 years. The NVEP gave to each Regional Government the opportunity to create its own programmes and curricula; it renewed counselling and individual assessment facilities; it established new tracks within the education system; it also established co-operative education (linking education to the world of work). Concurrently, an Assessment and Observation System was created. During the first assessment year (1982-1983), information was gathered about existing local educational resources, counselling facilities, characteristics of the 16 to 18 year-old population, functioning of the educational tracks and co-operative education system. During the second year (1983-1984), the assessment provided quantitative statistical results. The most striking result concerns the configurations of educational and employment experiences which seemed to determine the ability of students to find employment. Students with a background of `job intensive experiences' were more successful in finding subsequent employment than those without. Students with `education intensive experiences' entered an educational programme because they were unable to find a first job. While the benefits of the NVEP were not immediately apparent, it nevertheless became evident that at this level of training, education was not necessarily the royal road to employment. However, employment criteria cannot be the only way to assess a vocational education system.
Hawe, J. Michael, Comp.
A survey investigated what employers in the Thames Valley, England, were looking for in their recruitment of young people aged 16-18. Of 600 companies, 37 percent responded. Twenty percent did not recruit at that age level; 76 percent required two advanced ("A") levels and Pass grades. Recruitment of young people with a General…
Davies, Bronwyn; Dormer, Suzy; Gannon, Sue; Laws, Cath; Taguchi, Hillevi Lenz; McCann, Helen; Rocco, Sharn
The authors examine the concept of subjectification, using Judith Butler's theorizing of subjection to investigate their memories of being subjected in school settings and analyze subjectification. Their collective biography highlights aspects of the achievement of the individual appropriated schoolgirl subject who simultaneously constitutes…
Brown, Nicola; Smith, Jenny; Brasher, Amanda; Omrani, Atefeh; Wakefield-Scurr, Joanna
Adolescent girls are an important target group for breast cancer education and promoting breast awareness. However, research has not established schoolgirls' perceived importance of breast cancer education or explored factors that may impact engagement. This study aimed to identify schoolgirls' concerns about breast cancer, desire to know more and perceived importance of breast cancer education, and explored associations with demographic factors. Of 2089 schoolgirls (11-18 years) surveyed, 1958 completed all relevant breast cancer questions and demographic factors (ethnicity, school type, breast size, physical activity level and age). χ-Tests assessed associations between demographics, desire to know more and perceived importance of breast cancer. Overall, 44% of schoolgirls reported concerns about breast cancer, 72% wanted to know more and 77% rated the topic as extremely important. Breast size was not associated with wanting to know more about breast cancer. Schoolgirls who wanted to know more about breast cancer were White, from single-sex schools with boys at sixth form, more physically active and older. However, among other ethnic groups, school types and physical activity levels, the proportion of girls who wanted to know more about breast cancer was still high (≥61%). This study provides evidence of the need for breast cancer education for schoolgirls across all school types, irrespective of breast size or physical activity levels. The results highlight the need to be inclusive and engage schoolgirls from all ethnic groups and to promote breast awareness at a young age to ensure effective breast cancer education.
Wilson, David; And Others
Examines the relationship of field differences to LOGO performance among Black and White Zimbabwean schoolgirls. Finds field independence and performance were related among both groups and remained significant when the intelligence variant was eliminated. Suggests field differentiation is an important concomitant of LOGO competence and simply not…
Sukhareva, L M; Kuindzhi, N N; Iampol'skaia, Iu A
This paper is based on the results of medical examination (single-step and longitudinal) of more than 10,000 schoolgirls and students aged 8-17 and 17-23 years respectively undertaken in Moscow in 1960-2004 and on the archival data (6500 medical cards of primipara women) from maternity hospitals dated to 1981-1990. It was shown that a main feature of growth and development of the female organism in the recent years was gracialization of the girls' stature due to reduced transverse and circumferential body measures including diameter of pelvis. This finding implies a risk of reproductive health impairment with time. Future reproductive potential of schoolgirls is negatively affected by such social factors as excess academic load, psychoemotional stress during the last school year and prior to entering a higher education institution, schoolwork-dominated life style hampering realization of biological needs of the developing organism (in the first place motor activity).
Gammage, R.B. ); Hanna, W.T.; Painter, P.B. )
Two schoolgirls developed a syndrome resembling Henoch-Schonlein purpura while attending a recently opened school insulated with urea-formaldehyde foam (UFFI). Skin rashes and swellings were accompanied by bizarre, blue-green discoloration of the skin. Subsequent investigations by county, state and federal authorities, and low measured concentrations of formaldehyde, prompted initial conclusions that in-school formaldehyde exposures were not responsible for the girls' problems. Subsequent controlled exposures to UFFI and formaldehyde while in hospital elicited the whole cascade of symptoms. The chronology of the onset and amplification of systems make it probable that the formaldehyde exposures precipitating the girls' hypersensitivity, occurred in the school. 3 refs.
Mousa, Tamara Y; Mashal, Rima H; Al-Domi, Hayder A; Jibril, Musa A
The present study has investigated the occurrence of body image dissatisfaction among adolescent schoolgirls in Amman, Jordan, and the risk factors that are known to predispose it including individual, familial and social variables. A sample of 326 adolescent girls aged 10-16 years was recruited from public and private schools in Amman. Participants completed a socio-demographic data sheet, eating attitude test, and body shape questionnaire. Approximately, 21.2% of participants displayed body image dissatisfaction in which physical changes associated with puberty and exhibiting negative eating attitudes were associated with this dissatisfaction. Additionally, mass media messages, as well as peers and family pressures towards thinness were associated with participants' preoccupation with their body image. In conclusion, negative body image perception was observed in the present sample. Therefore, well-controlled prospective studies and development of intervention programs on body image among adolescent girls in Jordan are needed.
Latzer, Yael; Tzischinsky, Orna; Geraisy, Nabil
Objective: The aims of the study were to examine weight concerns, dieting and eating behaviours in a group of Israeli-Arab schoolgirls as compared with Israeli-Jewish schoolgirls, as well as to investigate the reliability of the Arabic (Palestinian) version of the eating disorder inventory-2 (EDI-2). Method: The sample consisted of 2548 Israeli…
Kaarma, Helje; Kasmel, Jaan; Koskel, Säde; Tiit, Ene-Margit
Two data-sets containing the anthropometric measurements of Estonian schoolgirls aged 7-18 were analysed, one (set A) from the late sixties, size 1627 and the other (set K) from the late nineties, size 1546. In all data sets 8 measurements--three height, three breadth measures, chest circumference and mass--were measured using the same methodology, as well as BMI was calculated. The means of all the characteristics in age groups (size 100-150 individuals) were calculated and growth curves of means were approximated using polynomial least squares approximation. The maximal velocity points were found and the growth intensities in different body build groups were compared. It was proved that the usage of cross-sectional data for estimating growth curves is suitable for estimating the velocity of acceleration in different age groups. We found that the height of Estonian girls has increased during the last 30 years by about 4-5%, the breadth measurements--by about 1-2%, chest circumference up to 8% and BMI has decreased by 3-5%. The changes are quite modest in pre-puberty, most significant for girls aged 12-16 and smaller again for girls aged 17 and more. The maximal growth velocity has shifted for all characteristics to the earlier time. Comparison of different body build groups showed that the small girls of the sixties are quite similar to small girls in the nineties, but the differences are greater in the case of large and pycnomorphic girls.
El-Gilany, Abdel-Hady; Badawi, Karima; El-Fedawy, Sanaa
Learning about menstrual hygiene is a vital aspect of health education for adolescent girls. This study among 664 schoolgirls aged 14-18 in Mansoura, Egypt, asked about type of sanitary protection used, frequency of changing pads or cloths, means of disposal and bathing during menstruation. Girls were selected by cluster sampling technique in public secondary schools in urban and rural areas. Data were collected through an anonymous, self-administered, open-ended questionnaire during class time. The significant predictors of use of sanitary pads were availability of mass media at home, high and middle social class and urban residence. Use of sanitary pads may be increasing, but not among girls from rural and poor families, and other aspects of personal hygiene were generally found to be poor, such as not changing pads regularly or at night, and not bathing during menstruation. Lack of privacy was an important problem. Mass media were the main source of information about menstrual hygiene, followed by mothers, but a large majority of girls said they needed more information. Instruction in menstrual hygiene should be linked to an expanded programme of health education in schools. A supportive environment for menstrual hygiene has to be provided both at home and in school and sanitary pads made more affordable.
Felimban, Naila; Jawdat, Dunia; Al-Twaijri, Yasmin; Al-Mutair, Angham; Tamimi, Waleed; Shoukri, Mohamed; Tamim, Hani; Al-Alwan, Ibrahim
Puberty is the gradual transition period between childhood and adulthood. Many factors may contribute to the onset of puberty. The objective of the study was to determine the age of onset of secondary pubertal characteristics among Saudi Arabian girls. A cross-sectional study was conducted using a cluster sample design. Seven hundred and twenty-five schoolgirls between the ages of 6 and 16 years from diverse socioeconomic levels were included. During physical examinations, the height and weight of the girls were recorded, and the stages of breast and pubic hair development were determined according to Tanner stages; axillary hair development was determined according to modified stages. The median age at Tanner stage 2 for breast and pubic hair development was 10 years. The median age at stage 2 in modified scales for axillary hair development was 12 years. In conclusion, the median age of the onset of breast development at Tanner stage 2 for Saudi girls in Riyadh is lower than what has been reported in some countries in Europe, South Africa, Turkey and India but similar to girls in Hong Kong, China and white girls in the USA, which may support secular trends of an earlier onset of puberty.
Jones, Shelley; Norton, Bonny
This article makes the case that current conceptions of sexual health literacy have limited relevance to the Ugandan context because they assume that knowledge of unsafe sexual practices will lead to changes in behavior and lifestyle. Drawing on a longitudinal case study with 15 Ugandan schoolgirls in rural Uganda from August 2004 to September…
Fontana, D.; Rees, Valerie
Research among adolescent English schoolgirls indicated that although girls with primary dysmenorrhea appeared to be more neurotic than those who did not experience menstrual distress, there was no apparent difference between the two groups on cognitive and academic performance measures or in school attendance. (Author/MJL)
This paper highlights key themes which emerged from schoolgirls' responses to focus group questions regarding perceptions of Information Communication Technology (ICT) subjects in the Queensland senior secondary curriculum, primarily, Information Processing Technology (IPT) and Information Technology Systems (ITS). The 2006 focus group interviews…
Michelson, Daniel; Sclare, Irene; Stahl, Daniel; Morant, Nicola; Bonin, Eva-Maria; Brown, June S L
Adolescence is a vulnerable period for the development of mental health problems. The DISCOVER intervention aims to provide accessible, acceptable and cost-effective psychological support for stressed adolescents in inner-city secondary schools. The intervention uses age-appropriate cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) methods and materials, delivered in an interactive 1-day workshop with additional telephone support. An open-access entry route allows students to self-refer. This protocol describes a feasibility cluster randomised controlled trial (RCT) comparing DISCOVER with a waitlist control condition. The study will run across 10 clusters (secondary schools) in the inner London Boroughs of Southwark and Lambeth. Participants are students aged over 16years who are seeking help with anxiety and/or depressive symptoms. Key feasibility parameters relate to the proportion of students willing to participate in the research following publicity events; the proportion of students who complete the intervention; and response rates for outcome measures. Outcome variance estimates and intra-cluster correlations will be obtained for future power calculations. Qualitative methods will be used to explore the acceptability of the intervention and research procedures for students and school staff. The feasibility of an economic evaluation will also be examined. The results will (i) determine the appropriateness of proceeding to a definitive full-scale trial; and (ii) inform the development of an optimised version of the DISCOVER intervention that can be tested within feasible parameters.
Age at menarche was analysed in 753 Mozambican schoolgirls taking part in across-sectional anthropometric study in Maputo, Mozambique, in 2000. The probit analysis of the status quo data yielded an median age at menarche of 13.20 +/- 1.18 years. The retrospective method was applied only to recall data of the 396 post-menarcheal girls and it yielded an average of 13.91 +/- 1.29 years. Mean age at menarche in girls living in the urban centre of Maputo was 13.35 and 12.96 years, for recall age and probit analysis, respectively, and 14.51 and 13.68 years for girls living in the slums surrounding the centre. The differences in age at menarche, calculated by recall method, between girls from central Maputo and girls from the slums were statistically significant (p = 0.000). Parent's educational level also revealed a significant effect on age at menarche. Girls whose parents had a lower educational level showed a later age at menarche. For the size of the family, girls who were later borne had a higher age at menarche. In the 1960s, the age at menarche was 13.55 and 13.83 years in urban and rural girls, respectively. In this study, we found a lack of decrease in the mean age at menarche (13.9 years), which could be due to the poor living conditions in Mozambique between 1960 and 2000 as a result of the civil war from 1976 to 1990. Despite the economic growth of the country in the last decade, Mozambique is still in the group of the poorest countries in the world; in spite of this fact, the mean menarcheal age in these girls are amongst the lowest values presented for African countries.
Rocco, Pier Luigi; Ciano, Rossana P.; Balestrieri, Matteo
The aim of this report is to analyse the impact of a psychoeducational preventive programme on the eating habits of a sample of adolescent schoolgirls. Of the 112 schoolgirls attending five classes, about 86% agreed to participate in the program. Of these, 63 participants belonged to the experimental group and 33 agreed to the control group. The psychoeducational sessions were performed once a month for each of three experimental classes. The programme involved discussions on the nature of eating disorders, on epidemiological aspects and on the importance of early detection of risk factors. The tests used to evaluate the sample were the EDI-2 and the PF-16. The results showed a significant improvement in bulimic attitudes, asceticism, feelings of ineffectiveness, and maturity fears. Anxiety traits were also better managed in the experimental group. Our conclusions suggest that correct information about eating disorders can ameliorate unhealthy attitudes towards eating behaviour.
Sallam, T A; Raja'a, Y A; Benbrake, M S; Al-Shaibani, K S; Al-Hababi, A A
To determine the prevalence of rubella antibodies and age of exposure to rubella among Yemeni schoolgirls, we studied the sera samples of 323 female students (age range 11-21 years; mean age 16.26 +/- 1.89 years) drawn from three schools in Sana'a. All samples were screened for rubella IgG antibodies using enzyme linked immunosorbent assay and, if negative, for IgM in order to exclude the possibility of recent exposure. Of 323 sera, 296 (91.64%) were positive for rubella IgG. All IgG negative sera were also IgM negative. Comparable antibody prevalence was observed in all age groups. The prevalence of rubella IgG among Yemeni schoolgirls is high, with most becoming immune between the ages of 11 and 21 years. Although the age of exposure seems to be < or = 13 years, further investigation is needed to confirm this.
Rocco, P L; Ciano, R P; Balestrieri, M
The aim of this report is to analyse the impact of a psychoeducational preventive programme on the eating habits of a sample of adolescent schoolgirls. Of the 112 schoolgirls attending five classes, about 86% agreed to participate in the program. Of these, 63 participants belonged to the experimental group and 33 agreed to the control group. The psychoeducational sessions were performed once a month for each of three experimental classes. The programme involved discussions on the nature of eating disorders, on epidemiological aspects and on the importance of early detection of risk factors. The tests used to evaluate the sample were the EDI-2 and the PF-16. The results showed a significant improvement in bulimic attitudes, asceticism, feelings of ineffectiveness, and maturity fears. Anxiety traits were also better managed in the experimental group. Our conclusions suggest that correct information about eating disorders can ameliorate unhealthy attitudes towards eating behaviour.
This article examines the reasons behind the decline of schoolgirl cricket in the years between 1945 and 1960. It considers the impact of the Education Act 1944 and "secondary education for all" on girls' physical education in general, focusing on why certain sports, in particular cricket, were not widely introduced into the new…
This article uses the notion of resistance as an analytical tool, emphasizing its sociopolitical significance and multidimensionality, to understand the complex link between ways of being Malay, Chinese and Indian schoolgirls, schooling and the wider Malaysian society. The macro and micro dynamics of the Malaysian ethnoscape, namely the ethnic…
Vincent, Kerry; Thomson, Pat
Policy in England identifies pregnant schoolgirls as a particularly vulnerable group and emphasises the importance of education as a way of improving the life chances of those who become pregnant while young. This paper draws on repeat interviews conducted over a twelve-month period to compare and contrast the stories of four young women. The…
Bhugra, Dinesh; Mastrogianni, Anastasia; Maharajh, Hari; Harvey, Sharon
We investigated eating attitudes and the prevalence of bulimic disorders in a group of 362 schoolgirls from the islands of Trinidad and Barbados using key questions from the Bulimia Investigatory Test, Edinburgh (BITE) and additional questions for the exploration of eating attitudes and dieting practices. A random sample of 92 girls were interviewed using the DSM-III-R Bulimia Diagnostic Interview. Only three subjects (0.8%) scored over the cut-off point on the BITE. None of the interviewees was diagnosed as having bulimia nervosa. Two hundred and forty-five girls (67.7%) reported being terrified of becoming fat and fat-fear was associated with higher Body Mass Index, dieting and exercising for losing weight. Girls of African origin were found to have a more unusual eating pattern and more concerns about their eating habits. The prevalence of bulimic disorders in Caribbean schoolgirls is still very low, but they are a population at increasing risk since they share the western ideals of slimness and engage in dieting behaviours.
Opare-Addo, P M; Stowe, M; Ankobea-Kokroe, F; Zheng, T
To determine menarcheal and pubertal ages and possible factors responsible for current pubertal trends in Kumasi, Ghana, a cross-sectional study was conducted among 720 urban and rural Kumasi 7-17-year-old schoolgirls and their mothers in 2008. Heights and weights were measured and additional information obtained by survey. Mantel-Haenzsel, χ(2), ordered logistic regression and probit analyses were used to analyse the data collected. With 40.42% menarcheal prevalence, median menarcheal ages were significantly different: 12.37 ± 1.48 years urban and 13.41 ± 2.25 years rural; 12.89 ± 1.93 years, overall. Obesity (OR = 2.57; p = 0.033) and high socioeconomic status (OR = 2.12; p = 0.008) were predictors of early menarche, while a younger mother was protective against early menarche (OR = 0.32; p = 0.039). Age at menarche among Kumasi schoolgirls has dropped 0.76 years since it was last determined among similarly aged girls in 1986, declining at a rate of about 0.32 years/decade. The predicting factors provide an important opportunity for intervention through school curricula and targeted education of adolescents.
Tavares, C H; Haeffner, L S; Barbieri, M A; Bettiol, H; Barbieri, M R; Souza, L
The purpose of this study was to determine the 3rd percentile (P3), 50th percentile (P50 = median age at menarche = MAM), and amplitude between the extremes (P97 and P3) of age at menarche among schoolgirls in the county of Barrinha, São Paulo, Brazil. Values were correlated with socioeconomic conditions such as social class, number of siblings, and father's employment status. This was a cross-sectional study based on the use of status quo adjusted by logit for calculation of percentiles. A questionnaire was applied to 1,602 schoolgirls aged 8 to 17 years (incomplete). MAM was 12 years (y) and 6 months (m), with a P97 of 10 y and 2 m and a P3 of 14 y and 10 m. Girls from lower-income families and those with unemployed fathers showed later MAM. No difference in MAM was observed with respect to number of siblings. Amplitude between P97 ad P3 was great in the overall sample. We conclude that Barrinha presented a MAM similar to and even lower than regional values for Brazil and for some developed countries. The study of the interval between extreme percentiles proved to be a better indicator of biological diversity and socioeconomic inequality than MAM alone.
Anderson-Fye, Eileen P; Lin, Jielu
This study investigates components of eating attitudes in a sample of Belizean schoolgirls and argues for separate analysis of eating beliefs and eating behaviors using the EAT-26 in populations undergoing rapid cultural change. The EAT-26 was utilized in a novel manner, preserving the ethnographic and empirical distinction between belief and behavior components of eating attitudes. Participants included a sample of secondary schoolgirls (n = 80) undergoing acculturative stress. Participants reported more disordered eating beliefs than behaviors. Respondents having higher belief scores than behavior scores were more likely to prefer thinner body build and to be concerned about boys' assessments of their bodies. Girls with higher behavior scores were less likely to report eating when hungry and stopping when full. In conclusion, discriminant validity was found between attitudinal and behavioral aspects of the EAT-26 as evidenced by face validity and patterns in predicting body image preference and desired weight change. Such a distinction has implications for assessing risk for disordered eating among populations undergoing acculturative stress. Among such populations, while behavioral symptoms might be absent or present in subclinical levels, disordered beliefs associated with psychological distress or potential precursors to eating-disordered behavior might be detected and should be investigated further.
Flin, P.; Panko, E.
Tadeusz Banachiewicz (1882--1954) was an outstanding Polish astro\\-nomer, mathematician and geodesist. He was a professor at the Jagiellonian University in Cracow and director of the Astronomical Observatory (1919--1954), and had a strong influence on Polish astronomy. His achievements led to honorary degrees at universities, fellowships in academies of sciences, and the prestige of high positions in international organizations, such as the International Astronomical Union and the Baltic Geodetic Commission. He is known from both his theoretical and observational studies, his famous motto being: ``observo ergo sum''. Here we recall three years of his activity in Tartu, where Tadeusz Banachiewicz made the most important steps in his career. He arrived at Yuryev in October of 1915, employed as a young assistant. In March 1918 he became the extraordinary professor and director of the Astronomical Observatory.
Bose, Kaushik; Bisai, Samiran; Mukhopadhyay, Ashish; Bhadra, Mithu
A cross-sectional study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of overweight and obesity among 431 Bengalee schoolgirls aged 6-9 years in Kolkata, India. Anthropometric measurements of height and weight were made on 431 girls. The body mass index (BMI) was computed following the standard equation. Overweight and obesity was defined following the internationally accepted BMI cut-off points. Results revealed that the overall rates of overweight and obesity were 17.63% and 5.10%, respectively. A steady increase in number of overweight individuals was observed from 6 to 9 years. The prevalence of overweight among affluent Bengalee children was higher than those reported from other Asian countries.
Tavares, Carlos H F; Barbieri, Marco A; Bettiol, Heloisa; Barbieri, Marisa R; De Souza, Luiz
We studied the monthly distribution of menarche among schoolgirls from Barrinha, Brazil, a municipality of rural characteristics in the process of transition to urbanization, economically dependent on sugar cane culture and processing. The association between season of the year, month of the year, and birth month and the occurrence of menarche was evaluated. The schoolgirls who provided the date of menarche (month and year) by the recall method and who had menarche up to 36 months before the interview were selected for analysis (460 girls). The correlations between month of occurrence of menarche and month of birth and between menarche and seasons of the year were determined by the chi-square test and the mean monthly ages at menarche were compared by Student's t-test, with a significance level of 0.05. There was a correlation between month of birth and month at menarche, with a peak of occurrence of menarche in December not affected by the menstruating patterns of maturation, but no correlation between menarche and seasons of the year. The difference between mean age at menarche in December (spring-summer transition) and in June (autumn-winter transition) was not significant. Mean age at menarche during the month following school vacations was lower. We conclude that situations of stress-relaxation transition, such as end of the school year, beginning of school vacation, and, perhaps most important, the socioeconomic factor-the end of the sugar cane harvest, when rural workers receive their final payments-favor the occurrence of the peak of menarche in December.
Abdelrahim, Ishraga I; Mahgoub, Hyder M; Mohamed, Ayoub A; Ali, Naji I; Elbashir, Mustafa I; Adam, I
Anaemia is a widespread problem especially in the tropics. Among adolescent girls, it has negative consequences on growth, school performance, morbidity and reproductive performance. A cross-sectional study was conducted to investigate the prevalence of anaemia, iron, folate, zinc and copper deficiencies amongst adolescent schoolgirls in New Halfa, eastern Sudan, and to examine the relationship of these micronutrients with haemoglobin (Hb) levels. Out of 187 adolescent schoolgirls, 181 (96.8%) had anaemia (Hb<12 g/dl); 21% had mild anaemia (Hb 11.0-11.9 g/dl); 66.8.1% had moderate anaemia (Hb 8.0-10.9 g/dl), and 12.1% had severe anaemia (Hb<8 g/dl), respectively. Iron deficiency (S-ferritin<12 μg/l), iron deficiency anaemia (<12 m/dl and S- ferritin<12 μg/l) and folate deficiency (S-folate<3 ng/ml) were prevalent in 17.6%, 16.5% and 69% of these girls, respectively. Nine percent and 5.9% of these girls had zinc (<75 μg/ml) and copper deficiency (<75 μg/ml), respectively. Twenty-six (14%) girls had ≥ 2 micronutrient deficiencies. S-ferritin and zinc were significantly lower in patients with severe anaemia. Haemoglobin levels were significantly positively correlated with zinc levels (r=0.161, P=0.03) and with copper levels (r=0.151, P=0.03). Thus, interventions are required to prevent and control anaemia in this setting. Further research is needed.
Mojola, Sanyu A.
In this paper, I use qualitative data to explore the practices engaged in by Kenyan schoolgirls to participate in modern consuming womanhood, as well as the contradictory implications of these practices for thinking about globalized mediated femininities and their enactment in resource-poor settings. The paper examines the centrality of consumption to valued modern femininity among young women around the world, as well as the structural reality of gendered access to income. I show how the cooptation of the materiality of romantic love and normative expectations of male provision in romantic relationships bridge the gap between consumption desires and economic realities among Kenyan schoolgirls in both powerful and problematic ways. The paper ends with a reflection of the implications of these findings for post-girl power, the post-feminist age and the re-inscription of patriarchy. PMID:28344428
Kaarma, Helje; Stamm, Raini; Kasmel, Jaan; Koskel, Slide
The article describes two Estonian anthropometric cross-sectional studies of 1549 ordinary schoolgirls (aged 7-18) and 46 girls, who regularly practised volleyball (aged 13-16). Data are presented on 22 basic anthropometric measurements and 6 body composition characteristics (body mass index, mean skinfold, body density, relative mass of fat by Siri, absolute mass and relative mass of subcutaneous adipose tissue). All anthropometric variables were classified into five height-weight SD classes. Schoolgirls were divided into six age groups (7-8, 9-10, 11-12, 13-14, 15-16, 17-18). Volleyballers were observed as one group as their age in SD classes did not differ significantly. The classification consisted of five categories: three height-weight concordant categories: I--small (small height, small weight), II--medium (medium height, medium weight), III large--(big height, big weight) and two height/weight discordant categories: IV--so-called pyknomorphs, V--so-called leptomorphs. To assess the differences between classes the Scheffé-test was used (alpha = 0.05). It proved likewise possible to comparatively systematize length, breadth and depth measurements, circumferences and body composition characteristics in all six age groups (7-18 years) of ordinary schoolgirls and in 13-16-year-old volleyballers as in their case the average age did not differ significantly between the classes.
Leenstra, Tjalling; Phillips-Howard, Penelope A; Kariuki, Simon K; Hawley, William A; Alaii, Jane A; Rosen, Daniel H; Oloo, Aggrey J; Nahlen, Bernard L; Kager, Piet A; ter Kuile, Feiko O
The impact of insecticide (permethrin)-treated bed nets (ITNs) on the health of adolescent schoolgirls was investigated during a community-based, randomized, controlled trial of ITNs in western Kenya. Two school-based cross-sectional surveys were conducted to determine the prevalence of malaria and anemia in 644 schoolgirls 12-18 years old in a rural area with intense perennial malaria transmission. In 12- and 13-year-old schoolgirls, ITNs were associated with a reduced prevalence of all cause anemia (hemoglobin level <12 g/dL, 16.9% versus 31.4%, adjusted odds ratio [OR] = 0.38, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.21, 0.69%) and a 0.34 g/dL (95% CI = 0.02, 0.66) increase in mean hemoglobin concentrations. No beneficial effect on all-cause anemia (adjusted OR = 0.79, 95% CI = 0.43, 1.45) or hemoglobin concentrations (difference in mean = 0.14 g/dL, 95% CI = -0.24, 0.53) was evident in older girls. In all age groups, no effect was found on malaria parasite prevalence or density, clinical malaria, all-cause morbidity, standard measures of nutritional status and growth, or the use of antimalarials and other medications. ITNs approximately halved the prevalence of mild anemia in young, school-attending, non-pregnant, adolescent girls, but had no impact in older girls or on other malaria-associated morbidity or nutritional status.
Phillips-Howard, Penelope A.; Caruso, Bethany; Torondel, Belen; Zulaika, Garazi; Sahin, Murat; Sommer, Marni
Background A lack of adequate guidance on menstrual management; water, disposal, and private changing facilities; and sanitary hygiene materials in low- and middle-income countries leaves schoolgirls with limited options for healthy personal hygiene during monthly menses. While a plethora of observational studies have described how menstrual hygiene management (MHM) barriers in school impact girls’ dignity, well-being, and engagement in school activities, studies have yet to confirm if inadequate information and facilities for MHM significantly affects quantifiable school and health outcomes influencing girls’ life chances. Evidence on these hard outcomes will take time to accrue; however, a current lack of standardized methods, tools, and research funding is hampering progress and must be addressed. Objectives Compile research priorities for MHM and types of research methods that can be used. Results In this article, we highlight the current knowledge gaps in school-aged girls’ MHM research, and identify opportunities for addressing the dearth of hard evidence limiting the ability of governments, donors, and other agencies to appropriately target resources. We outline a series of research priorities and methodologies that were drawn from an expert panel to address global priorities for MHM in schools for the next 10 years. Conclusions A strong evidence base for different settings, standardized definitions regarding MHM outcomes, improved study designs and methodologies, and the creation of an MHM research consortia to focus attention on this neglected global issue. PMID:27938648
Katić, R; Males, B; Miletić, D
The effects of six-month athletic training on improving motor abilities in 7-year-old schoolgirls were assessed. Analysis of the results of 12 motor tests showed significant improvement in the study group (n = 38) in comparison with control group (n = 140) subjected to conventional physical education classes only. The improvement referred to the variables of aerobic endurance (3-min run), flexibility (forward bow), explosive strength (ball throwing and 20-m run), keeping balance (bench standing), static strength (bent arm hang), and repetitive strength (sit-ups). These are probably adaptive changes brought up by discriminant functions. The varimax factor and discriminative function correlations indicated that all four factors of changes contributed significantly to the explanation of discriminative function. An almost equally high correlation of varimax factors and discriminative function was obtained on the basis of differences in the third factor responsible for changes in the frequency of movements and in the explosive strength of the jump type; in the second factor responsible for changes in coordination with changes in the repetitive strength of the body; and in the fourth factor responsible for changes in the explosive strength of the throw and sprint types with changes and endurance.
Akramipour, Reza; Rezaei, Mansour; Rahimi, Zohreh
Iron deficiency anemia is a major health problem in developing countries. Anemia reduces physical work capacity and cognitive function and adversely affects learning and scholastic performance in schoolgirls entering adolescence. A cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the prevalence of iron deficiency, iron deficiency anemia and anemia among adolescent school girls aged 14-20 years from 20 different high schools located in three educational areas of Kermanshah, the capital of Kermanshah province in Western Iran. The prevalence of anemia (Hb<12 mg/dl) among adolescent school girls was 21.4%. Iron deficiency using a ferritin level <12 microg/l was found in 23.7% of studied girls. There were 47 girls (12.2%) with iron deficiency anemia (Hb<12 g/dl and ferritin <20 microg/l). Around 57.3% of anemic girls were iron deficient. There were no significant differences between the presence of anemia and the level of education of parents. The mean levels of hemoglobin (Hb), hematocrit (Hct), mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean cell hemoglobin (MCH) and mean cell hemoglobin concentration (MCHC) in studied adolescent girls from Western Iran were found to be lower than those reported for females aged 12-18 years. In conclusion, regarding the detrimental long-term effects and high prevalence of iron deficiency, iron deficiency anemia and anemia in Kermanshah, Western Iran its prevention could be a high priority in the programs of health system of the country and supplementation of a weekly iron dose is recommended.
Phillips-Howard, Penelope A; Caruso, Bethany; Torondel, Belen; Zulaika, Garazi; Sahin, Murat; Sommer, Marni
Background A lack of adequate guidance on menstrual management; water, disposal, and private changing facilities; and sanitary hygiene materials in low- and middle-income countries leaves schoolgirls with limited options for healthy personal hygiene during monthly menses. While a plethora of observational studies have described how menstrual hygiene management (MHM) barriers in school impact girls' dignity, well-being, and engagement in school activities, studies have yet to confirm if inadequate information and facilities for MHM significantly affects quantifiable school and health outcomes influencing girls' life chances. Evidence on these hard outcomes will take time to accrue; however, a current lack of standardized methods, tools, and research funding is hampering progress and must be addressed. Objectives Compile research priorities for MHM and types of research methods that can be used. Results In this article, we highlight the current knowledge gaps in school-aged girls' MHM research, and identify opportunities for addressing the dearth of hard evidence limiting the ability of governments, donors, and other agencies to appropriately target resources. We outline a series of research priorities and methodologies that were drawn from an expert panel to address global priorities for MHM in schools for the next 10 years. Conclusions A strong evidence base for different settings, standardized definitions regarding MHM outcomes, improved study designs and methodologies, and the creation of an MHM research consortia to focus attention on this neglected global issue.
Chow, Daniel H K; Kwok, Monica L Y; Cheng, Jack C Y; Lao, Miko L M; Holmes, Andrew D; Au-Yang, Alexander; Yao, Fiona Y D; Wong, M S
Concerns have been raised regarding the effect of carrying a backpack on adolescent posture and balance, but the effect of backpack loading combined with other factors affecting balance, such as adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS), has not been determined. This study examines the effects of backpack load on the posture and balance of schoolgirls with AIS and normal controls. The standing posture of 26 schoolgirls with mild AIS (mean age 13, Cobb angle 10-25 degrees ) and 20 age-matched normal schoolgirls were recorded without a backpack and while carrying a standard dual-strap backpack loaded at 7.5%, 10%, 12.5% and 15% of the subject's bodyweight (BW). Kinematics of the pelvis, trunk and head were recorded using a motion analysis system and centre of pressure (COP) data were recorded using a force platform. Reliable COP data could only be derived for 13 of the subjects with AIS. Increasing backpack load causes a significantly increased flexion of the trunk in relation to the pelvis and extension of the head in relation to the trunk, as well as increased antero-posterior range of COP motion. While backpack load appears to affect balance predominantly in the antero-posterior direction, differences between groups were more evident in the medio-lateral direction, with AIS subjects showing poor balance in this direction. Overall, carrying a backpack causes similar sagittal plane changes in posture and balance in both normal and AIS groups. Load size or subject group did not influence balance, but the additive effect of backpack carrying and AIS on postural control alters the risk of fall in this population. Therefore, load limit recommendations based on normal subjects should not be applicable to subjects with AIS.
Development of an air traffic control (ATC) training course at Tartu Aviation College in Estonia had to start at ground zero, creating new rules and regulations for ATC, writing special study materials, building simulators, and finding enough applicants with sufficient English skills. (SK)
Al-Yami, Salwa Ahmed
The present study aims to investigate the effectiveness of scaffolding interactive activities in developing the English listening comprehension skills of sixth grade elementary schoolgirls in Jeddah. The subjects in this study were 50 sixth grade pupils at an elementary school in Jeddah. They were assigned to two groups--control and…
Chow, Daniel H K; Leung, Dawn S S; Holmes, Andrew D
The balance function of children is known to be affected by carriage of a school backpack. Children with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) tend to show poorer balance performance, and are typically treated by bracing, which further affects balance. The objective of this study is to examine the combined effects of school backpack carriage and bracing on girls with AIS. A force platform was used to record center of pressure (COP) motion in 20 schoolgirls undergoing thoraco-lumbar-sacral orthosis (TLSO brace) treatment for AIS. COP data were recorded with and without brace while carrying a backpack loaded at 0, 7.5, 10, 12.5 and 15% of the participant's bodyweight (BW). Ten participants stood on a solid base and ten stood on a foam base, while all participants kept their eyes closed throughout. Sway parameters were analyzed by repeated measures ANOVA. No effect of bracing was found for the participants standing on the solid base, but wearing the brace significantly increased the sway area, displacement and medio-lateral amplitude in the participants standing on the foam base. The medio-lateral sway amplitude of participants standing on the solid base significantly increased with backpack load, whereas significant increases in antero-posterior sway amplitude, sway path length, sway area per second and short term diffusion coefficient were found in participants standing on the foam base. The poorer balance performance exhibited by participants with AIS when visual and somatosensory input is challenged appears to be exacerbated by wearing a TLSO brace, but no interactive effect between bracing and backpack loading was found.
Jackson, Robert T; Rashed, Motaza; Saad-Eldin, Rawia
Overweight and obesity prevalence among adolescents is increasing worldwide and may be associated with increased risk for the development of obesity and chronic diseases in adulthood. Dissatisfaction with weight and body shapes is a contributor to the growing incidence of adolescent eating disorders. Our purpose was to compare the relationship between body weight and body image in a convenience sample of rural and urban girls. We also wanted to examine the influence of the mothers on their daughters by asking the girls how their mothers would classify their body shapes. Three hundred and forty adolescent Egyptian schoolgirls representing Cairo and surrounding rural areas were studied. The girls were from private and public schools. Weight, height, waist and hip circumferences were measured. Body image was determined by asking participants to indicate which of five silhouettes of a female body most closely resembled her own current body size. We also asked them to select the silhouette that closely resembled their mothers' current body size. Using the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention reference standards, 35% of the girls were > or = 85th percentile, while 13% were > or = 95th percentile. Overweight was more prevalent in urban than rural girls and in those with higher socio-economic status than in lower socio-economic status girls. Girls' perceptions of how their mothers viewed their bodies differed from how the girls viewed their own bodies. From a policy point of view, these data underscore the need to consider not only the health risks associated with overweight and its distribution on the body, but also the weight and body image of the target audience in the design of clinical and public health intervention programs worldwide.
Turiho, Andrew Kampikaho; Okello, Elialilia S; Muhwezi, Wilson W; Nakasujja, Noeline; Katahoire, Anne R
Schoolgirls in two Ugandan districts were recently vaccinated against human papillomavirus that causes most cervical cancer. This cross-sectional comparative study used mixed research methods to assess influence of human papillomavirus vaccination on adolescents' worrisome thoughts about being vaccinated and psychological distress. Vaccination predicted worrisome thoughts among the recently vaccinated (adjusted odds ratio: 1.65, confidence interval: 1.13-2.41; p = 0.01). Vaccination predicted distress (1.75, confidence interval: 1.09-2.82; p = 0.02), particularly among those recently vaccinated (1.92, confidence interval: 1.27-2.89; p = 0.001) and those who experienced worrisome thoughts (1.80, confidence interval: 1.06-3.07; p = 0.02). Parental communication mitigated distress (0.50, confidence interval: 0.35-0.72; p = 0.000).
Puri, Seema; Marwaha, Raman K; Agarwal, Neha; Tandon, Nikhil; Agarwal, Rashmi; Grewal, Khushi; Reddy, D H K; Singh, Satveer
Forty to fifty per cent of skeletal mass, accumulated during childhood and adolescence, is influenced by sunlight exposure, physical activity, lifestyle, endocrine status, nutrition and gender. In view of scarce data on association of nutrition and lifestyle with hypovitaminosis D in Indian children and adolescents, an in-depth study on 3,127 apparently healthy Delhi schoolgirls (6-18 years) from the lower (LSES, n 1,477) and upper socioeconomic strata (USES, n 1650) was carried out. These girls were subjected to anthropometry and clinical examination for hypovitaminosis D. Girls randomly selected from the two strata (LSES, n 193; USES, n 211) underwent detailed lifestyle, dietary, biochemical and hormonal assessment. Clinical vitamin D deficiency was noted in 11.5 % girls (12.4 % LSES, 10.7 % USES). USES girls had significantly higher BMI than LSES counterparts. Prevalence of biochemical hypovitaminosis D (serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D < 50 nmol/l) was seen in 90.8 % of girls (89.6 % LSES, 91.9 % USES, NS). Mean intake of energy, protein, fat, Ca, vitamin D and milk/milk products was significantly higher in USES than LSES girls. Conversely, carbohydrate, fibre, phytate and cereal intakes were higher in LSES than USES girls. Physical activity and time spent outdoors was significantly higher in LSES girls (92.8 v. 64 %, P = 0.000). Significant correlation between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D and estimated sun exposure (r 0.185, P = 0.001) and percentage body surface area exposed (r 0.146, P = 0.004) suggests that these lifestyle-related factors may contribute significantly to the vitamin D status of the apparently healthy schoolgirls. Hence, in the absence of vitamin D fortification of foods, diet alone appears to have an insignificant role.
Htet, Min Kyaw; Fahmida, Umi; Thurnham, David I; Hlaing, Lwin Mar; Akib, Arwin; Utomo, Budi; Houghton, Lisa A
The aim of the present study was to assess the prevalence of deficiency of folate and vitamin B12 and, simultaneously, the nutrient intake adequacy of folate, vitamin B12, iron, vitamin A, vitamin C, vitamin B6 and calcium in 391 adolescent anaemic (Hb<120 g/l) schoolgirls living in the delta region of Myanmar (Burma). Dietary intakes were assessed using a 3 d estimated food record. The distribution of observed intakes calculated from the food records were adjusted for usual intakes, and the prevalence of inadequacy was estimated using the estimated average requirement cut-point method. Median (first, third quartile) serum folate and vitamin B12 concentrations were 6·5 (4·6, 8·5) nmol/l and 612·8 (443·2, 795·2) pmol/l, respectively. The prevalence of folate deficiency defined as <6·8 nmol/l was 54 %; however, vitamin B12 deficiency defined as <148 pmol/l was negligible (<1 %). The prevalence of inadequate intake of folate was high (100 %) as was the prevalence of inadequate intakes of vitamin A, vitamin C, vitamin B6 and calcium, ranging from 60 to 100 %. Red meat or poultry was rarely consumed, but fish was consumed on a daily basis. Green leafy vegetables were also consumed frequently but consumption of dairy products was uncommon. Folate deficiency was high, and the prevalence of inadequate intake of folate among other key micronutrients was relatively common in this sample of anaemic adolescent schoolgirls. Appropriate strategies such as food fortification and dietary diversification are needed to improve the micronutrient status of these young women to ensure optimal health and future reproductive success.
Morrison, John A; Glueck, Charles J; Daniels, Stephen R; Wang, Ping
The prevalence of Class 3 obesity (BMI ≥40 kg/m(2)) has more than doubled in the past 25 years. In a 14-year prospective study from age 10 to 24 of a biracial schoolgirl cohort (293 black, 256 white), we assessed childhood correlates of Class 3 BMI at age 24. Of 42 girls with Class 3 BMI at age 24, 36 (86%) were black. By logistic regression, significant explanatory variables of Class 3 BMI at age 24 included top decile waist circumference at age 11 (odds ratio (OR) 5.7, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.3-13.9, P = 0.0002), age 10 BMI ≥ the Center for Disease Control (CDC) 2000 top 15% (OR 7.0, 95% CI 2.5-19.3, P = 0.0002), and a three-way interaction between race, childhood insulin, and average caloric intake from age 10 to age 19 (for each unit increase, OR 1.7 95% CI 1.3-2.2, P = 0.0003). Age 10 BMI, age 11 waist circumference, and interaction of race, childhood insulin, and childhood caloric intake predict Class 3 obesity in young adulthood, facilitating childhood identification of girls at high risk for developing Class 3 obesity.
Hennegan, Julie; Wu, Maryalice; Scott, Linda; Montgomery, Paul
Objectives The primary objective was to describe Ugandan schoolgirls’ menstrual hygiene management (MHM) practices and estimate the prevalence of inadequate MHM. Second, to assess the relative contribution of aspects of MHM to health, education and psychosocial outcomes. Design Secondary analysis of survey data collected as part of the final follow-up from a controlled trial of reusable sanitary pad and puberty education provision was used to provide a cross-sectional description of girls’ MHM practices and assess relationships with outcomes. Setting Rural primary schools in the Kamuli district, Uganda. Participants Participants were 205 menstruating schoolgirls (10–19 years) from the eight study sites. Primary and secondary outcome measures The prevalence of adequate MHM, consistent with the concept definition, was estimated using dimensions of absorbent used, frequency of absorbent change, washing and drying procedures and privacy. Self-reported health, education (school attendance and engagement) and psychosocial (shame, insecurity, embarrassment) outcomes hypothesised to result from poor MHM were assessed as primary outcomes. Outcomes were measured through English surveys loaded on iPads and administered verbally in the local language. Results 90.5% (95% CI 85.6% to 93.9%) of girls failed to meet available criteria for adequate MHM, with no significant difference between those using reusable sanitary pads (88.9%, 95% CI 79.0% to 94.4%) and those using existing methods, predominantly cloth (91.5%, 95% CI 85.1% to 95.3%; χ2 (1)=0.12, p=0.729). Aspects of MHM predicted some consequences including shame, not standing in class to answer questions and concerns about odour. Conclusions This study was the first to assess the prevalence of MHM consistent with the concept definition. Results suggest that when all aspects of menstrual hygiene are considered together, the prevalence is much higher than has previously been reported based on absorbents alone. The
Chickering, Lawrence; Tyagi, Anjula
The challenges of poverty and development have long been regarded in terms of transitive relationships, in which the rich help the poor because the poor are not seen as able to help themselves. This view of the poor assumes they have mainly needs and no assets. With so many people believing this view it isn't surprising that the poor themselves…
Lassen, Brian; Jokelainen, Pikka
Several zoonotic pathogens are shed in the feces of infected animals. If they are allowed to contaminate the environment, they cause a public health concern. In this study, we investigated the presence of Toxocara spp. eggs in dog feces in the urban area of Tartu, Estonia. Samples were collected by veterinary students in 2014 and examined using a modified concentration-flotation technique. Toxocara spp. eggs were detected by microscopy in 4 (1.7%) out of 234 canine fecal samples.
Mda, Pamela; Yogeswaran, Parimalarani; Wright, Graham
Background In South Africa the teenage fertility rate is high. About 42% of women have their sexual debut by 18 years of age and 5% by 15. These young women are also at risk of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Despite widespread availability of contraception, 18% of sexually active teenagers do not use any. Previous research on the knowledge of, attitudes to and practices of contraception by teenagers has focused on older adolescents. Objectives This study explored knowledge, attitudes and practices about contraception amongst 12–14 year old unmarried schoolgirls with a view to inform planning of programmes to assist in reducing teenage pregnancies. Methods A qualitative study design with purposive sampling was used to select participants from two government-run schools in King Sabata Dalindyebo Municipality. In-depth and focus group interviews were conducted after obtaining written consent from parents and assent from participants. Interviews were audiotaped, transcribed verbatim, translated and analysed thematically. Findings Participants reported that young adolescents were sexually active, which included high-risk sexual behaviour such as multiple partners and casual and transactional sex. Knowledge about contraceptives varied widely. Condoms were the most preferred method of contraception, but it is unknown whether they ever used condoms as they professed to talk about the behaviour of others rather than themselves. Injectable contraceptives were believed to have long-term negative effects. Common sources of contraceptive information were friends or peers, school curriculum and to a lesser extent family members. Conclusions Findings of the study suggest that young adolescents are sexually active and have inadequate knowledge and misconceptions about contraception. These findings should inform educational programmes about risks of early sexual activity and about contraception.
Mason, Linda; Nyothach, Elizabeth; Alexander, Kelly; Odhiambo, Frank O.; Eleveld, Alie; Vulule, John; Rheingans, Richard; Laserson, Kayla F.; Mohammed, Aisha; Phillips-Howard, Penelope A.
Background Keeping girls in school offers them protection against early marriage, teen pregnancy, and sexual harms, and enhances social and economic equity. Studies report menstruation exacerbates school-drop out and poor attendance, although evidence is sparse. This study qualitatively examines the menstrual experiences of young adolescent schoolgirls. Methods and Findings The study was conducted in Siaya County in rural western Kenya. A sample of 120 girls aged 14–16 years took part in 11 focus group discussions, which were analysed thematically. The data gathered were supplemented by information from six FGDs with parents and community members. Emergent themes were: lack of preparation for menarche; maturation and sexual vulnerability; menstruation as an illness; secrecy, fear and shame of leaking; coping with inadequate alternatives; paying for pads with sex; and problems with menstrual hygiene. Girls were unprepared and demonstrated poor reproductive knowledge, but devised practical methods to cope with menstrual difficulties, often alone. Parental and school support of menstrual needs is limited, and information sparse or inaccurate. Girls’ physical changes prompt boys and adults to target and brand girls as ripe for sexual activity including coercion and marriage. Girls admitted ‘others’ rather than themselves were absent from school during menstruation, due to physical symptoms or inadequate sanitary protection. They described difficulties engaging in class, due to fear of smelling and leakage, and subsequent teasing. Sanitary pads were valued but resource and time constraints result in prolonged use causing chafing. Improvised alternatives, including rags and grass, were prone to leak, caused soreness, and were perceived as harmful. Girls reported ‘other girls’ but not themselves participated in transactional sex to buy pads, and received pads from boyfriends. Conclusions In the absence of parental and school support, girls cope, sometimes
Thomas Clausen was born in Snogbaek in Denmark on January 16, 1801 and died in Dorpat (now Tartu) in Estonia on May 23, 1885. In 1824 Clausen became Schumacher's assistant at Altona observatory. Between 1828 and 1840 he worked in München as successor of Fraunhofer. After two years again in Altona he became observer at Dorpat observatory in 1842. Apart from his activities as astronomer he played a perhaps still underestimated role in mathematics. In Denmark Clausen seems to be nearly forgotten as an important astronomer. However, the Danish Mathematical Society has one of his drawings as its logo. In Germany Clausen is not so much discussed since Altona was a Danish observatory. The second half of Clausen's life in Estonia is not well known in Central Europe since Tartu is far away from Germany and Denmark. Clausen's life and work in the century of Olbers and Bessel are discussed, also from the point of view of international relations in astronomy. In particular, Clausen's Danish and Northern German context and the soon approaching 200th anniversary of his birthday in January 2001 were responsible for the choice of my topic.
Morrison, John A; Glueck, Charles J; Daniels, Stephen R; Horn, Paul S; Wang, Ping
The objectives were to prospectively assess determinants of apolipoproteins B (ApoB), A1 (ApoA1), and the ApoB/ApoA1 ratio in 797 healthy black and white schoolgirls from mean ages 10 to 19. There was prospective 9-year follow-up, with measures of ApoB at mean ages 10, 12, 14, 16 and 19, ApoA1 at mean ages 12, 14, 16, and 19, and assessment of annual reports of delayed menstrual cyclicity (≥42 days) from ages 14 to 19. Studies of 402 black and 395 white healthy schoolgirls were done in public and private schools, in urban and suburban Cincinnati. Black girls had lower ApoB, higher ApoA1, and lower ApoB/ApoA1. SHBG at age 14 in white and black girls was inversely correlated with the ApoB/ApoA1. At age 19, ≥3 annual reports of menstrual delay ≥42 days and metabolic syndrome were associated with higher ApoB and a higher ApoB/ApoA1 ratio. From ages 14 to 19, BMI and TG were independently positively associated with ApoB. Menstrual cyclicity ≥42 days, metabolic syndrome, BMI, and TG were independently positively associated with ApoB/ApoA1 ratios, while black race was negatively associated. The atherogenic ApoB/ApoA1 ratio from ages 14 to 19 is lower in black girls, and positively associated with hyperandrogenism, menstrual cyclicity ≥42 days, BMI, TG, and the metabolic syndrome, facilitating an adolescent approach to primary prevention of cardiovascular disease.
Jaadla, Hannaliis; Puur, Allan
Evidence from a number of historical studies has demonstrated a strong impact of the provision of clean water on mortality risks, while no clear effect has been reported in others. We investigated the relationship between water supply, sanitation, and infant survival in Tartu, a university town in Estonia, 1897-1900. Based on data from parish registers, which were linked to the first census of the Russian Empire, the analysis reveals a clear disadvantage for infants in households using surface water, compared with families that acquired water from groundwater or artesian wells. The impact is stronger in the later stages of infancy. Competing-risk analysis shows that the effect is more pronounced for deaths caused by diseases of the digestive system. Our findings suggest that it may have been possible to improve the water supply, and consequently reduce infant mortality, before the introduction of piped water and sewage systems.
Effect of long-term intermittent supplementation with multiple micronutrients compared with iron-and-folic acid supplementation on Hb and micronutrient status of non-anaemic adolescent schoolgirls in rural Bangladesh.
Ahmed, Faruk; Khan, Moududur R; Akhtaruzzaman, Mohammad; Karim, Rezaul; Williams, Gail; Banu, Cadi P; Nahar, Badrun; Darnton-Hill, Ian
The present study examined whether long-term supplementation with once- and twice-weekly multiple micronutrients (MMN-1 and MMN-2) can improve Hb and micronutrient status more than twice-weekly Fe-folic acid (IFA-2) supplementation in non-anaemic adolescent girls in Bangladesh. An equal number of 324 rural schoolgirls aged 11-17 years were given MMN-1 or MMN-2 or IFA-2 supplements for 52 weeks in a randomised, double-blind trial. Blood samples were collected at baseline, and at 26 and 52 weeks of supplementation. The girls receiving IFA-2 supplements were more likely to be anaemic than the girls receiving MMN-2 supplements for 26 weeks (OR 5·1, 95% CI 1·3, 19·5; P = 0·018). All three supplements reduced Fe deficiency effectively. Both the MMN-1 and MMN-2 groups showed significantly greater improvements in vitamins A, B(2) and C status than the girls in the IFA-2 group, as might be expected. Receiving a MMN-1 supplement was found to be less effective than MMN-2 supplement in improving Fe, vitamins A, B(2) and folic acid status. Receiving micronutrient supplements beyond 26 weeks showed little additional benefit in improving micronutrient status. In conclusion, given twice-weekly for 26 weeks, MMN supplements can improve micronutrient status effectively with no significant increase in Hb concentration compared with IFA supplements in non-anaemic Bangladeshi adolescent girls. However, it significantly reduces the risk of anaemia. Before any recommendations can be made, further research, including into cost-effectiveness, is needed to see whether MMN supplementation has any additional longer-term health benefits over that of IFA supplementation in this population.
Nõmmiste, Ergo; Kirm, Marco; Plank, Toomas
The annual international conference Functional Materials and Nanotechnologies (FM&NT) was started in 2006 by scientists from the Institute of Solid State Physics, University of Latvia. The warm welcome and open atmosphere of this scientific conference has turned it into an event where people from different countries and different fields come and meet under the shared umbrella of functional materials and nanotechnology. It is particularly important for early stage scientists who are looking for new knowledge and contacts with people from various fields to build their own network. Our Latvian colleagues, with their success in internationalization, made us neighbouring Estonians so jealous that we could not help but propose organising the conference every second year in Estonia. In a way, this conference is a continuation of the idea of the famous Baltic seminars which took place over several decades in the last century. Due to political constraints, these seminars were only open to scientists of former Eastern Europe countries, but had a great popularity and attendance from over the whole Soviet Union. Many collaborations started from the initial personal contact between scientists at these twice yearly seminars, held alternately in Latvia and Estonia. At the FM&NT 2012 conference, the decision was made that Institute of Physics, University of Tartu would organise the next event in Tartu in 2013. FM&NT-2013 was hence held in Tartu (Estonia) from 21-24 April 2013 at the Dorpat Conference Centre. The main selected topics of the conference were: (i) multifunctional materials, (ii) nanomaterials, (iii) materials for sustainable energy applications and (vi) theory. Additionally, the focus in this conference was on studies with the help of synchrotron radiation and other novel light sources such as free electron lasers. The conference provided an opportunity for 300 scientists from 21 countries to meet, establish contacts, exchange knowledge and discuss their research
Background A previous study found marked differences in smoking between employees in various university faculties in Tartu, Estonia, soon after the disruption of communism. The present study was conducted to see whether such differences still exist and how the patterns had changed during the country's first transitional decade. Methods All employees at the University of Tartu (UT) were surveyed for smoking habits by means of a questionnaire in 1992 and 2003. The present paper is based on respondents whose faculty or workplace was known (1390 people in 1992, 1790 in 2003). Smoking differences were assessed in terms of regression-based adjusted figures. Results While 20% of the male employees smoked daily in 1992, 13% did so in 2003, the figures for females being 10% and 7%, respectively. The prevalence of men's daily smoking varied between faculties and other workplaces in the range 4-30% in 1992, and 0-24% in 2003, with corresponding ranges of 3-21% and 0-10% among females. Men in the medical faculty in both surveys, and those in the faculty of philosophy in the second survey showed higher rates than men in most other faculties, as did women in the faculty of law in the first survey and those in the faculty of philosophy in the second. The figures were usually low in the faculties of sports & exercise, physics & chemistry and mathematics. The sex pattern was reversed in the faculty of law and also in that of economics, where the women smoked more than the men. Conclusions Even in this low-smoking academic community, wide smoking differences existed between the faculties and other workplaces. Faculties where physical or mental performance is of prime importance are leading the way towards a smoke-free community, while men in the faculty of philosophy and, paradoxically, men in the medical faculty are lagging behind. The reversed sex ratio in the faculties of law and economics may indicate women's intensified drive for equality in this transitional society. We assume
Morrison, John A; Glueck, Charles J; Umar, Muhammad; Daniels, Stephen; Dolan, Lawrence M; Wang, Ping
The objective of the study was to evaluate preteen insulin and metabolic syndrome (MS) as independent predictors of impaired fasting glucose (IFG) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in black and white females by mean age of 24 years. This was a prospective cohort study. There were 8 measures of fasting glucose and insulin from mean age of 10 years through mean age of 24 years, and insulin also at mean age of 25 years. Childhood MS was defined by at least 3 abnormal values among waist circumference, triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, blood pressure, and glucose. Hyperinsulinemia was defined by insulin greater than or equal to race-specific 75th percentile. Patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus were excluded. The study was held in schools and in an outpatient clinical center. Participants were schoolgirls (260 white, 296 black). There was no intervention. The outcome measures were IFG (fasting glucose of at least 100 to 125 mg/dL) and T2DM (fasting glucose of at least 126 mg/dL). By the age of 24 years, there were 11 cases of T2DM (2%) and 108 cases of IFG (19%). By the age of 24 years, IFG + T2DM was present in 18% of women (73/412) who had normal insulin-no MS at the age of 10 years vs 28% (34/122) of those with high insulin-no MS at the age of 10 years (P = .014) and 67% (10/15) of those with high insulin + MS at the age of 10 years (P < .0001). By stepwise logistic regression, significant, independent, positive predictors of IFG + T2DM were first insulin measure in childhood, age at last sampling, childhood MS, change in body mass index over 15 years, and, separately, initial glucose of at least 100 mg/dL and average of all insulin quartile ranks over 15 years. The correlation between childhood insulin z score and insulin z score 15 years later was r = .30, P < .0001. Insulin and MS at a mean age of 10 years plus change in body mass index over 15 years, and 15-year average insulin rank independently predict IFG + T2DM by mean age of 24 years
Orru, Hans; Jõgi, Rain; Kaasik, Marko; Forsberg, Bertil
The relationship between exposure to traffic induced particles, respiratory health and cardiac diseases was studied in the RHINE Tartu cohort. A postal questionnaire with commonly used questions regarding respiratory symptoms, cardiac disease, lifestyle issues such as smoking habits, indoor environment, occupation, early life exposure and sleep disorders was sent to 2,460 adults. The annual concentrations of local traffic induced particles were modelled with an atmospheric dispersion model with traffic flow data, and obtained PM(exhaust) concentrations in 40 x 40 m grids were linked with home addresses with GIS. The relationship between the level of exhaust particles outside home and self-reported health problems were analyzed using a multiple logistic regression model. We found a significant relation between fine exhaust particles and cardiac disease, OR = 1.64 (95% CI 1.12-2.43) for increase in PM(exhaust) corresponding to the fifth to the 95th percentile range. The associations also were positive but non-significant for hypertension OR = 1.42 (95% CI 0.94-2.13), shortness of breath OR = 1.27 (95% CI 0.84-1.94) and other respiratory symptoms.
Pindus, Mihkel; Orru, Hans; Maasikmets, Marek; Kaasik, Marko; Jõgi, Rain
Background: Traffic and residential heating are the main sources of particulate matter (PM) in Northern Europe. Wood is widely used for residential heating and vehicle numbers are increasing. Besides traffic exhaust, studded tires produce road dust that is the main source of traffic-related PM10. Several studies have associated total PM mass with health symptoms; however there has been little research on the effects of PM from specific sources. Objective: To study the health effects resulting from traffic and local heating PM. Methods: Data on respiratory and cardiac diseases were collected within the framework of RHINE III (2011/2012) in Tartu, Estonia. Respondents’ geocoded home addresses were mapped in ArcGIS and linked with local heating-related PM2.5, traffic-related PM10 and total PM2.5 concentrations. Association between self-reported health and PM was assessed using multiple logistic regression analysis. Results: The annual mean modelled exposure for local heating PM2.5 was 2.3 μg/m3, for traffic PM10 3.3 μg/m3 and for all sources PM2.5 5.6 μg/m3. We found relationship between traffic induced PM10 as well as all sources induced PM2.5 with cardiac disease, OR=1.45 (95% CI 1.06−1.93) and 1.42 (95% CI 1.02−1.95), respectively. However, we did not find any significant association between residential heating induced particles and self-reported health symptoms. People with longer and better confirmed exposure period were also significantly associated with traffic induced PM10, all sources induced PM2.5 and cardiac diseases. Conclusion: Traffic-related PM10 and all sources induced PM2.5 associated with cardiac disease; whereas residential heating induced particles did not. PMID:27843509
Milde, Katarzyna; Tomaszewski, Pawel; Stupnicki, Romuald
The aim of the study was to assess physical fitness of girls with Turner syndrome (TS) and to determine the relative contributions of age, body height, and body mass to performance in fitness tests. Girls with TS aged 10-18 years (n = 184), and age- and stature-matched healthy controls (n = 280) were studied with the use of the EUROFIT test battery. Girls with TS were significantly inferior to the control group in maintaining balance, standing broad jump, sit-ups, shuttle run, and endurance shuttle run (p < .001). No significant differences were found for plate tapping, but girls with TS were superior to their healthy mates (p < .001) in handgrip, sit-and-reach, and bent-arm hang. Unlike controls, body height in girls with TS had significant effects on handgrip strength (positive) and on plate tapping speed (negative), other contributions being relatively similar in both groups. It thus seems that the somatic specificity of girls with TS explains most differences in motor fitness. The identified motor deficiencies of girls with TS call for undertaking steps toward attracting those girls to motor activities.
Pillai, Vijayan K.; Gupta, Rashmi
Proposes a model of sexual activity among secondary school-going Zambian girls. Identifies the role of dating as an intervening variable in explaining the variation in sexual activity among teenagers. Schools are an important setting for the young to meet and initiate sexual relationships. Theoretical and policy implications are discussed.…
Harrison, Charles H.
The school policy of denying a pregnant girl any formal education for months, years, or forever, is the current policy that exists today in the majority of America's school districts. However, court decisions, revised state policies, and changing attitudes of people of all ages are putting more and more pressure on local school boards and…
Link, Patricia W.
The paper describes the Lafayette Parish Homebound Program (Louisiana) for students in grades K-12, with particular emphasis on the program's services for pregnant girls. Procedures for admitting students into the program, objectives for the pregnant girls (12-18 years old), and program components are considered. It is explained that the special…
Dietrich, Lisa C.
"Westhills" is a multiethnic coastal community in San Diego County, California, in which Mexican Americans comprise approximately 22 percent of the population. This book reports ethnographic research on a group of working-class Chicana adolescents in one Westhills barrio and their problems, school experiences, immersion in two…
This article discusses the possibility for expanding our understanding of the visual to include the "spoken visual" within oral history analysis. It suggests that adding a further reading, that of the visualized body, to the voice-centred relational method we can consider the meaning of the uniformed body for the individual. It uses as a…
Leach, Fiona; Sitaram, Shashikala
This article reports on a small exploratory study of adolescent girls' experiences of sexual harassment and abuse while attending secondary school in Karnataka State, South India. In South Asia, public discussion of sexual matters, especially relating to children, is largely taboo, and the study uncovers a hidden aspect of schooling, which…
Mojola, Sanyu A
Why are orphaned girls at particular risk of acquiring HIV infection? Using a transition-to-adulthood framework, this study employs qualitative data from Nyanza Province, Kenya, to explore pathways to HIV risk among orphaned and nonorphaned high-school girls. It shows how simultaneous processes such as leaving their parental home, negotiating financial access, and relationship transitions interact to produce disproportionate risk for orphaned girls. The role of financial provision and parental love in modifying girls' trajectories to risk are also explored. A testable theoretical model is proposed based on the qualitative findings, and policy implications are suggested.
Huguet, Pascal; Regner, Isabelle
There is ample evidence today in the stereotype threat literature that women and girls are influenced by gender-stereotyped expectations on standardized math tests. Despite its high relevance to education, this phenomenon has not received much attention in school settings. The present studies offer the 1st evidence to date indicating that middle…
Allsop, John F.; Feldman, M. Philip
Four groups of Ss, ranging from 11 and 12 year-olds to 14 and 15 year-olds, were tested on the Junior P.Q., and on an anonymous self-report questionnaire. Results indicate that Eysenck's theory of antisocial behavior is capable of predictions concerning the range of misbehavior engaged in by secondary school girls. (Author)
Mukai, Takayo; McCloskey, Laura A.
Examined familial and peer correlates of eating attitudes in 38 American and 70 Japanese preadolescent girls. Responses showed correlates of eating attitudes shared by American and Japanese girls were self-perception of being overweight, number of friends dieting, and frequency of talking with mother about food and diet. Japanese girls were more…
Leskosek, Bojan; Strel, Janko; Kovac, Marjeta
The proportion of overweight children and adults has been growing rapidly in the last few years in many European and other countries. Certain consequences of overweight are already manifested in youth; in adulthood they are one of the main causes of death and several diseases. The study examined the proportion of overweight and obese Slovenian girls aged 7 to 18 with the use of an annually repeated cross-sectional study. The study lasted from 1991 to 2006 and was based on the body mass index according to IOTF norms. The results show that in this period the proportion of overweight girls increased by almost 30% (from 13.5% to 18.8%), whereas the proportion of obese girls doubled (from 2.3% to 4.6%). The prevalence of overweight and obesity is highest in childhood and early adolescence where it is around two to three times higher than at the age of 18.
Vincent, Kerry Anne
Qualitative interviewing is a commonly used approach in the social sciences and is generally regarded as an effective way of developing understandings about everyday experiences and the meanings people attach to them. Where fieldwork time-frames are relatively short, a single interview with each participant is common. This paper explores the…
Reports on surveys in Britain on educational provision for pregnant students and student mothers. Discusses educational access and equity, and points out policy questions that need addressing. Responds to characterization of these women as a "drain" on the national purse and advocates provision of education and child care to increase…
Bhana, Deevia; Mcambi, Sithembile Judith
Schools are obliged to support young women who become mothers. Drawing from an interview study of young women in a Durban school, this article shows how their experience is situated within discourses of shame and stigma. Such shame works to reduce their agency and increase their vulnerability to drop out of school. Both teachers and peers are…
Goodman, Robin Truth
In 2008, the Florida state legislature, by a nearly unanimous vote, rushed passage on a statute that allowed sex segregation in public school classrooms. According to the version of the bill that passed through the Florida House, sex-segregated public school classrooms would be an expansion of school choice and would be implemented only…
Maintains that 19th-century French boarding school culture used the idea of community to transmit feminine but not necessarily domestic values. These included obedience, selflessness, and interdependence. Students, however, transformed and reworked these messages to fit their individual needs, as revealed by one young woman's diary. (MJP)
The goal of this study is to determine the age at menarche of girls from Tanzania examined in 2005 considering their families' social and material status. For the purpose of the analysis of the age at menarche, N = 71 girls were qualified (N = 8 from Dares Salaam and N = 63 from Mafinga) out of N = 98 who took part in the anthropological study. The calendar age of the girls who qualified for the determination of the age at menarche ranged from 12.9 to 22.7 years of age (X = 15.9 +/- 1.9). The age at menarche revealed using the recall method was 14.3 +/- 1.1 years. The menarche of the girls included in the study with a parent (mother or father) residing in town was found to be earlier (14.1 and 14.0 respectively). When neither parent completed schooling or had only primary education, the age at the daughter's menarche was on average 15.0 years. The girls whose fathers completed secondary school had their first menstruation at 14.8 years, while the daughters of mothers who finished secondary school--at 14.5. The lowest age at menarche was found in the group of girls whose parents obtained higher education (13.4 years in the case of the father and 13.3 in the case of the mother). A higher age at menarche was typical of the group of girls from families in which the number of children in the household was > or = 6 (15.2). In the two-way ANOVA equation, the lowest age at menarche was found in the girls whose families lived in town and had higher education, while the highest--where the family lived in the countryside and did not finish school or had primary school only. In the two-way ANOVA equation (education*self-estimation of the family's material situation), the lowest age at menarche (13.2) was found in the group where the father had higher education and the material situation was assessed as very good or rather good. My own studies are representative for similar African environments. The results obtained allow for comparison with research findings for highly developed countries, yet it is difficult to ascertain unanimously whether the causes for the age at menarche decreasing are the same. It seems that Africa with its environmental conditioning is governed by its own rules.
A survey conducted by the American Association of University Women (AAUW) polled 3,000 boys and girls between the ages of 9 and 15 years regarding their attitudes toward self, school, family, and friends. Results confirmed that the passage into adolescence is marked by a girl's loss of confidence in herself and her abilities. The AAUW discovered…
An historical look at the rationale for women's education in the late 1800s. The elementary and secondary school curriculum for girls centered on the teaching of domestic subjects, based on social-Darwinistic arguments. (ND)
Teenage mothers in the UK have been found to be at risk of early school leaving, low levels of educational achievement and low levels of post-compulsory educational participation. Current policy in the UK emphasizes the importance of education as a way of improving the life chances of those who become pregnant while young and, as part of that,…
Vannier, Sarah A; Currie, Anna B; O'Sullivan, Lucia F
Viewing free online pornographic videos has increasingly become a common behavior among young people, although little is known about the content of these videos. The current study analyzed the content of two popular female-age-based types of free, online pornography (teen and MILF) and examined nuances in the portrayal of gender and access to power in relation to the age of the female actor. A total of 100 videos were selected from 10 popular Web sites, and their content was coded using independent raters. Vaginal intercourse and fellatio were the most frequently depicted sexual acts. The use of sex toys, paraphilias, cuddling, and condom use were rare, as were depictions of coercion. Control of the pace and direction of sexual activity was typically shared by the male and female actors. Moreover, there were no gender differences in initiation of sexual activity, use of persuasion, portrayals of sexual experience, or in professional status. However, female actors in MILF videos were portrayed as more agentic and were more likely to initiate sexual activity, control the pace of sexual activity, and have a higher professional status. Implications regarding the role of pornography in generating or reinforcing sexual norms or scripts are discussed.
Neary, Ann; Joseph, Stephen
Sixty 10- to 12-year-old Irish girls completed questionnaires that assessed depression and self-perception and a newly developed scale that assessed peer victimization. Girls were also asked to identify themselves or their classmates as being the victims of bullying. The 12 girls who said they were bullied scored higher on the peer victimization…
Barry, Christopher T.; Grafeman, Sarah J.; Adler, Kristy K.; Pickard, Jessica D.
The present study explores the relation between narcissism and delinquency among 372 at-risk 16-18-year-olds. The study also considered the relation between narcissism and self-esteem, as well as the potential interaction between narcissism and self-esteem for predicting delinquency in this age group. Narcissism and self-esteem were positively…
This paper defines flipped learning and then examines its practical implementation in AS and A2 level physics classes, that is, classes for 16-18 year olds. The effect of this teaching style on student learning behaviour and its impact on test results are evaluated. The paper recounts the difficulties of implementing it and evaluates student…
Christensen, Mette Krogh
This article presents a case study concerning biographical learning as health promotion among 16-18-year-old school girls in a Danish upper-secondary school. The case study shows a conflict in the students' perception of the learning in traditional physical education (PE) compared to a four-week pilot project employing dialogue groups as a…
Hirsch, L.; Saeedi, M.; Cornillon, J.; Litosseliti, L.
This paper presents a structured environment for Computer-Supported Collaborative Argumentation, which we call the Argumentative Learning Experience (ALEX). The system aims to improve understanding of argumentation and to widen and deepen the space of debate among 16-18-year-old students. To use ALEX users make arguments by selecting and…
Who's Who among American High School Students, Lake Forest, IL.
The annual Survey of High Achievers conducted by Who's Who Among American High School Students is the nation's largest, most comprehensive independent sampling of high school students' opinions, attitudes, and behaviors. All the high-achieving 16-18 year old students surveyed have "A" or "B" averages, and 98 percent plan to…
Solbes, Jordi; Guisasola, Jenaro; Tarin, Francisco
In this work we present the design and assessment of a teaching sequence aimed at introducing the principle of energy conservation at post-compulsory secondary school level (16-18 year olds). The proposal is based on the result of research into teaching-learning difficulties and on the analysis of the physics framework. Evidence is shown that this…
Helms, Sara E.
Volunteer rates vary tremendously across states and age groups. In recent years, young people have exhibited rising volunteering rates, particularly high school students and college freshmen. When comparing the volunteer rates for different age groups in 2002 and 2003, 16-18 year olds volunteer at consistently higher rates than their college-age…
Bar-Eli, Michael; Blumenstein, Boris
In this study, the relationship between mental training with biofeedback and performance was investigated. An adapted version of the Wingate five-step approach was used as a mental preparation technique for enhancing the short-running performance among 16-18-year-old adolescent physical education pupils. Participants (n = 79) were randomly…
Plonka, Malgorzata; Toton-Morys, A; Adamski, P; Suder, A; Bielanski, W; Dobrzanska, M J; Kaminska, A; Piorecka, B; Glodzik, J
Decreased physical activity is undoubtedly significantly associated with obesity. Similarly, the proper hormones secretion, the proper weight and body development. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between body mass composition and leptin concentration in relation to the degree of physical activity expressed in MET-h/week (metabolic equivalent per week). The study included 59 girls, aged 9-16 years (12.55±1.67) and divided into two groups: 1) PA: a physically active group of 29 girls and 2) PI: a group of 30 physically inactive girls. In all, physical activity was assessed using modified questionnaire concerning "activity for adolescents" and expressed in MET-h/week. Serum blood leptin concentrations in fasting girls were determined by RIA. Anthropometric parameters were measured and fatness indices calculated (BMI, SF, WHtR). Body composition (%BF, FM, FFM) was assessed using bioelectrical impedance analysis method (BIA). Statistical analysis showed significant differences between groups of PA and PI concerning values of BMI, WHtR, %BF, WC and MET-h/week as well as in leptin concentrations. In both groups of girls negative correlations between physical activity measured in MET and leptin concentrations and in WHtR were observed. The concentration of leptin was directly proportional to the degree of body fat and to the body composition expressed by BMI, WHtR, log SF, WC and %BF, FM and FFM, respectively. Increased physical activity was associated with lower body fat ratios and WHtR, BMI, WC, %BF, but did not affect significantly the changes in the values of log SF, FM and FFM. Higher values of BMI, WHtR and WC can provide not only a greater risk of obesity in general, but also cause excessive accumulation of fat in the central part of the body (abdominal obesity).
Malinauskas, Romualdas; Malinauskaiene, Vilija
The study aimed to investigate the associations between physical inactivity and health complaints in relation to posttraumatic stress (PTS) symptoms, behavioral and nutritional factors, and sense of coherence (SOC) in eighth-grade girls enrolled in secondary schools in Kaunas, Lithuania. A random sample of girls (N = 862) was interviewed anonymously on health complaints, physical activity level, PTS symptoms, Antonovsky's SOC scale, health behaviors, and dietary patterns. All health complaints were significantly associated with physical inactivity. Crude odds ratio (OR) for physical inactivity and health complaints was 1.67 (95%CI: 1.09-2.56); after adjusting for PTS symptoms, the OR decreased to 1.57 (95%CI: 0.95-2.45); further adjustment for smoking, daily alcohol intake, daily consumption of fresh vegetables, and SOC decreased the OR to 1.25 (95%CI: 0.76-2.04). The effect of PTS symptoms and sense of coherence remained stable after all adjustments. The significant association between physical inactivity and health complaints was mediated by PTS symptoms.
Clark, Linda L.
A survey of textbooks used in French elementary schools during the Third Republic illustrates that period's attitudes toward female roles, social class, and religious differences. A sample of 126 public school books and 43 Catholic textbooks reveals that young students were presented the ideal of a woman content to remain inside an orderly…
Steckelberg, Anke; Albrecht, Martina; Kezle, Anna; Kasper, Jürgen; Mühlhauser, Ingrid
Einführung: In Deutschland wurde die Implementierung der Humanen Papillomavirus (HPV)-Impfung für 12–17-jährige Mädchen von diversen Kampagnen begleitet. Evidenz-basierte Informationen, die Zahlenangaben beinhalten, wurden nicht zur Verfügung gestellt. Stattdessen führten die Standardinformationen zu einer Überschätzung des Krebsrisikos und den Effekten der HPV-Impfung. Das Vertrauen in die Fähigkeit von Kindern mit Risiken umzugehen ist gering, insbesondere wenn es sich um sozial benachteiligte Schüler handelt. Das Ziel dieser Studie ist ein Vergleich der Effekte eines Standard-Flyers mit einem Informationsflyer, der Zahlenangaben beinhaltet, hinsichtlich des Risikowissens über die HPV-Impfung bei Schülerinnen. Methoden: Randomisiert-kontrollierte Kurzzeitstudie. Es wurden alle 108 Schülerinnen aus sieben Schulklassen auf die Teilnahme angesprochen und 105 stimmten zu. Die Teilnehmerinnen waren Berufsfachschülerinnen, die den Abschluss der 10. Klasse anstrebten und zur Zielgruppe für eine HPV-Impfung gehörten. Die Kontrollgruppe wurde gebeten, den Standardflyer des Nationalen Netzwerks Frauen und Gesundheit zu lesen. Die Interventionsgruppe erhielt den gleichen Flyer, der jedoch mit numerischen Informationen zum Krebsrisiko und zu den angenommenen Effekten der HPV-Impfung auf die Krebsprävention ergänzt worden war. Als Basischarakteristika wurden Alter, Impfstatus, Einstellung zur HPV-Impfung und Aspekte bezüglich des Migrationshintergrunds erhoben. Der primäre Endpunkt war Risikowissen. Die Fragebogenerhebungen erfolgten unter experimentellen Bedingungen. Die individuelle Randomisierung, die Teilnehmerinnen und die intention-to-treat Datenanalyse waren verblindet. Die Studie wurde vom Ministerium für Bildung und Kultur des Landes Schleswig-Holstein und der Ethikkommission der Hamburger Ärztekammer genehmigt. Ergebnisse: Risikowissen wurde für alle 105 randomisierten Teilnehmerinnen analysiert. Die Basischarakteristika der beiden Gruppen waren vergleichbar. Die Schülerinnen, die den Flyer mit Zahlenangaben erhielten, gaben häufiger korrekte Antworten im Vergleich zur Kontrollgruppe mit der Standardinformation: Mittelwert des Risikowissens (0–5 Punkte): 4,6±1,0 vs. 2,6±1,2 (Differenz 2,0 (95% CI 1,6–2,4)); (P<0,001). Post hoc wurde eine Distraktorenanalyse der einzelnen Items durchgeführt. Die inkorrekten Antworten der Teilnehmerinnen der Kontrollgruppe zeigten, dass das Zervixkarzinom-Risiko stark überschätzt wurde, das Risiko für Krebserkrankungen im Allgemeinen meist unterschätzt wurde und der mögliche Einfluss der HPV-Impfung auf die Krebsprävention überschätzt wurde. Schlussfolgerung: Die Ergänzung eines Informationsflyers zur HPV-Impfung mit Zahlenangaben verbesserte das Risikowissen von Schülerinnen.
Teachers often report that their A-level pupils are unwilling to read physics-related material. What is it about physics texts that deters pupils from reading them? Are they just too difficult for 16 - 18 year olds, or is it that pupils lack specific reading skills? This article describes some of the results from my research into pupils' reading of physics-related texts and tries to clarify the situation.
Since the post-war years the popularity of day release has grown to the extent that in 1977-78 approximately one-fifth of Britain's population of 16-18 year olds in employment were released by their employers to continue their education. Most of these youths are enrolled in non-advanced courses of general or vocational education up to the standard…
This article focuses on heroic images of Spanish women in schoolbooks for girls published during the dictatorial regime of General Franco (1939-75). Alongside the female members of Spain's royal ranks and the holy women of the Catholic Church's canon, who were domesticated by association with the needle, some schoolbooks also recovered a small…
Kvist Lindholm, Sofia; Zetterqvist Nelson, Karin
The article draws on interviews with participants in a psychotherapeutic education programme, called Depression in Swedish Adolescents, which has seen wide distribution within Swedish schools. We demonstrate how, in their accounts, self-disclosure in front of classmates is made into a central and both positive and problematic aspect of the…
Parikh, Shanti A
In 1990 women's rights activists in Uganda successfully lobbied to amend the Defilement Law, raising the age of sexual consent for adolescent females from fourteen to eighteen years old and increasing the maximum sentence to death by hanging. The amendment can be considered a macro-level intervention designed to address the social and health inequalities affecting young women and girls, particularly their disproportionately high rate of HIV as compared to their male counterparts. While the intention of the law and aggressive campaign was to prosecute "sugar daddies" and "pedophiles," the average age of men charged with defilement was twenty-one years old and many were believe to be "boyfriends" in consensual sexual liaisons with the alleged victims. This article uses court records, case studies, and longitudinal ethnographic data gathered in east-central Uganda to examine the impact of the age of consent law at national and local levels, and specifically what the disjunctures between national intentions and local uses reveal about conflicting views about sexual privilege and rights. I argue that existing class, gender, and age hierarchies have shaped how the Defilement Law has been applied locally, such that despite the stated aim of "protecting" young women, the law reinstates patriarchal privilege (especially against men of lower social class) while simultaneously increasing the regulation of adolescent female sexuality and undermining their autonomy. This paper demonstrates how ethnography and critical gender theory-which emphasizes the intersectionality of gender, age, and class in the (re)production of inequalities-can be used to examine consequences of macro-level interventions in ways that may be undetected in conventional public health evaluation techniques but that are crucial for designing and modifying effective interventions.
Lindstrom, Denise Lorraine
This dissertation is an exploratory study of the literacy practices of three fifth-grade girls as they used a social network site (SNS) for school related purposes. SNSs are widely used by adolescents, and because communication in these sites is accomplished mainly through writing, it is important to improve our understanding of what this kind of…
There is an unrecognised crisis in the education of pregnant schoolgirls and schoolgirl mothers. Girls leaving school due to pregnancy are not reported in official statistics. This has serious consequences in terms of resource allocation and planning of service provision. This article examines how girls are forced out of the mainstream education…
Robertson, Claire C.
Ghanian women have a long history as traders. In early 1978, 42 Central Accra schoolgirls and 42 girls engaged in selling were surveyed to determine the relationship of formal education to marketing skills. Formal education was not significantly helpful in promoting schoolgirls' trading knowledge nor in providing skills likely to land them jobs.…
Oruko, Kelvin; Nyothach, Elizabeth; Zielinski-Gutierrez, Emily; Mason, Linda; Alexander, Kelly; Vulule, John; Laserson, Kayla F; Phillips-Howard, Penelope A
Education is an effective way to improve girls' self-worth, health, and productivity; however there remains a gender gap between girls' and boys' completion of school. The literature around factors influencing girls' decision to stay in school is limited. Seven focus group discussions took place among 79 girls in forms 2 to 4 at secondary schools in rural western Kenya, to examine their views on why girls absent themselves or dropout from school. Data were analysed thematically. Lack of resources, sexual relationships with boyfriends, and menstrual care problems were reported to lead directly to dropout or school absence. These were tied to girls increased vulnerability to pregnancy, poor performance in school, and punishments, which further increase school absence and risk of dropout. Poverty, unmet essential needs, coercive sexual relationships, and an inequitable school environment collude to counter girls' resolve to complete their schooling. Lack of resources drive girls to have sex with boyfriends or men who provide them with essentials their family cannot afford, such as sanitary pads and transport to school. While these improve quality of their school life, this dynamic increases their exposure to sexual risk, pregnancy, punishment, and dropout. Evaluation of interventions to ameliorate these challenges is warranted, including provision of pocket money to address their needs.
Barry, Christopher T; Grafeman, Sarah J; Adler, Kristy K; Pickard, Jessica D
The present study explores the relation between narcissism and delinquency among 372 at-risk 16-18-year-olds. The study also considered the relation between narcissism and self-esteem, as well as the potential interaction between narcissism and self-esteem for predicting delinquency in this age group. Narcissism and self-esteem were positively interrelated; however, only narcissism was significantly correlated with delinquency. The results suggested that low self-esteem was actually associated with delinquency when controlling for narcissism. So-called adaptive narcissism was positively correlated with self-esteem, but maladaptive narcissism was not related to self-esteem. Limitations and directions for future research in this area are discussed.
Sterken, Christiaan; Leedjärv, Laurits; Tempel, Elmo
Proceedings of the International Conference EXPANDING THE UNIVERSE, On the occasion of the 200th anniversary of the Tartu Observatory, Tartu, Estonia 2011 April 27-29. C. Sterken, L. Leedjarv, E. Tempel (Eds.)
Learning and Educational Media. The Third IARTEM Volume. Proceedings of the International Conference of the International Association for Research on Textbooks and Educational Media (IARTEM) (Tartu, Estonia, September 20-22, 2001).
Mikk, Jaan, Ed.; Meisalo, Veijo, Ed.; Kukemelk, Hasso, Ed.; Horsley, Mike, Ed.
Papers from an international conference on research on textbooks and educational media are presented, grouped into four content areas. The first, Textbooks and Curricular Reform, contains: (1) The Norwegian CanonIs It Nationally Conditioned? (Bente Aamotsbakken); (2) Estonian Language Textbooks for Russian Schools and Their Accordance with New…
The young people quoted in this paper attend two high schools in Umlazi Township, KwaZulu Natal, South Africa. Poverty is rife in the area: some students are known to go five days at a stretch without food. Parts of the vast, sprawling township are notorious for shootings and violent crime. The rape of schoolgirls on their way to and from school…
This study offers a rhetorical analysis of the 2002 South Korean Candlelight Vigils ["ch'otpul siwi"] with a focus on the role of the Internet in public opinion building, the rise in anti-American sentiment in South Korea, and rhetorical agency residing in the collective. In 2002, two South Korean schoolgirls walking along a rural road…
Nelson, Mary Carroll
Annie Dodge Wauneka, daughter of a great Navajo leader, is in her own right a respected leader of her people. The first woman ever to be elected to the Navajo Tribal Council, she has worked tirelessly to improve the health and welfare of the Navajos. Ever since she, as a young schoolgirl, helped nurse her classmates through a disastrous flu…
Jacobs, Andrea; Goodman, Joyce
This article adopts a Bourdieusian and gendered frame of analysis to examine how the aesthetic education increasingly extended to the "ordinary" pupil in English girls' secondary schools during the interwar period, and the music curriculum in particular, related to the reproduction of culture, class and gender for secondary schoolgirls.…
Sommer, Marni; Ackatia-Armah, Nana; Connolly, Susan; Smiles, Dana
The barriers to menstrual hygiene management faced by adolescent schoolgirls in low-income countries are gaining interest at practice and policy levels. The challenges include inadequate water, sanitation and disposal facilities for the management of menses with privacy and dignity, and insufficient guidance to help girls feel confident in…
Renold, Emma; Allan, Alexandra
This paper refocuses attention on and problematizes girls' experiences of school achievement and the construction of schoolgirl femininities. In particular, it centres on the relatively neglected experiences and identity work of high achieving primary school girls. Drawing upon ethnographic data (observations, interviews, and pupil diaries) from a…
Reviews and compares "Gender and Mathematics" edited by Leone Burton and Valerie Walkerdine's book "Schoolgirl Fictions" on proposed truths related to gender issues in mathematics. Issues include (1) attention given to boys and girls in mathematics class; (2) the effects of noncompetitive classroom environments; and (3) sex differences in…
This report begins with a discussion of the present position of girls and women in science and technology, commenting on several kinds of problems to which interventions to encourage schoolgirls into science and technology may be addressed; these problems relate to enrollment, interest, and career intentions. The major portion of the report is…
Reports on first stage of a planned prospective study of self-esteem and risk for eating disorders in 594 schoolgirls aged 11-12. Results indicated low self-esteem was associated with increased fatness concern, but also with problems in general. Girls will be followed up in detail at age 15-16. (Author/ABL)
Meekers, Dominique; Ahmed, Ghyasuddin
In many Sub-Saharan African countries, there are concerns about high rates of pregnancy-related school dropouts. Data from the 1988 Botswana Family Health Survey, in conjunction with focus group interviews, were used in this study. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the impact of family life education on schoolgirl pregnancy, and to identify…
Although students in Jonesboro, Arkansas, repeatedly claimed that the March 1998 killing of four schoolgirls and a teacher was motivated by a rejected boy's desire for revenge, reporters and authorities dismissed this explanation and gender's role in the crime. Closer analysis suggests opportunities and difficulties for educators who want…
Pregnant and mothering schoolgirls have been identified as an educationally vulnerable group. Many are not welcomed in their mainstream schools and as a consequence, access a range of educational alternatives. This article presents the views and experiences of 14 young women in the English Midlands, who became pregnant while still of statutory…
Whenever gender violence and schooling have been the topic of South African research, the investigations focus on African boys in secondary schools. In contrast, this paper focuses on the ways in which violence is mobilized by African schoolgirls in a working-class primary school context. By drawing on selected elements of an ethnographic study of…
The schools outreach programme at the University of London Observatory includes guided visits to the observatory by school groups and also visiting lectures to schools. Two of the lectures are outlined together with a description of playground solar observing using a portable Ha telescope. Finally, plans for expanding the programme are presented, together with positive feedback from a schoolgirl.
This paper examines the notion of schooling and draws on the experiences of Malaysian teenage schoolgirls in contemporary postcolonial Malaysia. Using a critical approach to understandings of schooling, the author unpacks the links between the macro, micro and the personal in examining these girls' negotiations with discourses of schooling. The…
Highlights some causes for silence in schoolgirls and other marginalized students. Suggests ways teachers can help these students participate more fully as speakers and writers in language arts classes. Shows how language arts instruction can change students' attitudes about themselves as gendered subjects, agents, and communicators. (SR)
This article, based largely on participant observation by a British 18-year-old schoolgirl, considers forces that crush creativity in teenagers, including pressures at school, at home, and by peers. The article shows how teenagers whose creativity has been crushed then humiliate and crush the creativity of other teenagers. Mentoring is seen as one…
Actions of school systems with respect to pregnant schoolgirls are neglectful and often hostile and punitive. The way schools treat such girls may influence what kinds of citizens and parents the girls will become and how they will relate to the school system as their children grow up in it. (Author/CB)
Keddie, Arlene M.
Compared self-esteem and perceived maternal care and control of 134 Jamaican schoolgirls and 108 pregnant adolescents and teenage mothers. Subjects were 14 through 17 years old, from working-class backgrounds, and living in rural and urban areas. Findings suggest that father-figure absence and low self-esteem may combine as risk factors for…
Appalachian Regional Commission, Washington, DC.
Directed toward the improvement of health care for mothers and young children, this report describes a number of comprehensive programs focused on health and reports on projects which have singled out one or more specific maternal or child health services. Included are descriptions of existing community programs for pregnant schoolgirls, health…
Examines the educational history of a black woman teacher in an African-Canadian, low-income setting in southern Ontario. Discusses the interactions and influences of race, gender, and class in her formative years as a schoolgirl of African descent and in her teaching practice. (MMU)
Heikkila, Anitta; Maatta, Kaarina
In this article, we analyse schoolchildren's clothing at the village school of Rautiosaari in northern Finland between 1909 and 1939. Accordingly, we describe the kind of clothes that schoolgirls and schoolboys used during the target period. Interviews with elderly people were used as sources for the study. The research had a micro-historical…
Elliott, Dave; Hoyle, Kathryn
This study examined barriers to Physical Education (PE) in a sample of Christian and Muslim schoolgirls attending UK comprehensive secondary schools. Also assessed was whether religion and school year (age) had any impact upon barrier strength and if school year × religion interactions existed. A questionnaire was developed and exploratory factor…
The author wants to relate a little incident that certainly made her realize that something is lacking in civilizing mechanisms today. She and a friend of hers were having a snack on a weekday afternoon at a fast food restaurant in which a number of people were eating. Near them was a group of schoolgirls talking in loud, piercing voices. Her…
Cuero, Kimberley K.
Jeniffer, a self-proclaimed "schoolgirl" who was a bilingual Mexican American fifth-grade student, lacked confidence in her abilities in reading and language arts. However, her dialogue journal correspondence with her teacher in her native language of Spanish describing her transnational experiences demonstrated vivid, descriptive writing with…
Baird, Sarah; de Hoop, Jacobus; Ozler, Berk
We investigate the effects of a positive income shock on mental health among adolescent girls using evidence from a cash transfer experiment in Malawi. Offers of cash transfers strongly reduced psychological distress among baseline schoolgirls. However, these large beneficial effects declined with increases in the transfer amount offered to the…
This paper discusses the processes and practices that link crafts and gender in the upbringing and education of girls. The paper is based on a study conducted among female primary school trainee teachers in Finland. The data are comprised of their experiences with crafts as schoolgirls. The methods of the study were memory work and writing of…
Solomon, Brett Johnson; Garibaldi, Mark
There is an overwhelming disconnect between young adolescent girls and adults, in relationship to perceptions of middle schoolgirl risk taking. This mixed-methods study investigates the differences between adult practitioners and middle school girls' perceptions of risk taking, understanding of consequences, and needs among middle school girls.…
Uitto, Minna; Estola, Eila
This narrative inquiry analyses the memories of a group of female teachers telling about their own teachers. We ask how gender and emotions are intertwined to teacher-student relationships. Gender was present in the stories where the teachers described being a schoolgirl in relationship with a teacher and told about their teachers as women and…
Bermúdez de Castro, J M; Martinón-Torres, M; Sarmiento, S; Lozano, M; Arsuaga, J L; Carbonell, E
This study presents quantitative data on the rates of anterior tooth wear in a Pleistocene human population. The data were obtained for the hominin sample of the Sima de los Huesos site in Atapuerca, Spain. The fossil record belongs to a minimum of 28 individuals of the same biological population, assigned to the species Homo heidelbergensis. We have estimated the original and the preserved crown height of the mandibular incisors (I1 and I2) of 11 individuals, whose age at death can be ascertained from the mineralization stage and tooth eruption. Results provide a range of 0.276-0.348 and 0.288-0.360 mm per year for the mean wear rate of the mandibular I1 and I2, respectively, in individuals approximately 16-18 years old. These data suggest that incisors' crowns would be totally worn out toward the fifth decade of life. Thus, we expect the life expectancy of this population to be seriously limited. These data, which could be contrasted with results obtained on hominins at other sites, could be of interest for estimating the death age of adult individuals.
Yang, M S; Su, I H; Wen, J K; Ko, Y C
The prevalence and related risk factors of betel quid chewing among adolescent students were studied in a junior high school (group 1) and in a vocational school (group 2) in southern Taiwan. Group 1 consisted of 3548 participants (89.7% response rate) and group 2 of 1358 (97.6% response rate). The students were asked to complete a questionnaire anonymously. In the junior high school 1.9% of students including all grades (13-15 years old) and both sexes was found to be a current betel quid chewer and 14% was an ex-chewer, whereas 10.2% of vocational school students (16-18 years old) was a current chewer and 31% was an ex-chewer. The prevalence of betel chewing was significantly higher among boys than girls. A high proportion of chewers was also a smoker and alcohol drinker. A statistical analysis of sociodemographic factors showed that male students who smoked tobacco, consumed alcohol and were friends or classmates of students who were betel quid chewers, were the likeliest adolescents to chew betel quid.
Rothman, Emily F.; Kaczmarsky, Courtney; Burke, Nina; Jansen, Emily; Baughman, Allyson
Information about pornography-viewing habits of urban, low income, youth of color in the U.S. is lacking. This study was designed to answer the following using a sample of 16-18 year old urban-residing, low income, Black or Hispanic youth: (1) What types of pornography do youth report watching, where, and for what purpose?; (2) Do youth feel that pornography exposure has an impact on their own sexual behaviors?; and (3) How do parents react to their pornography use? The following themes emerged from interviews with 23 youth: (a) Youth primarily reported watching pornography that featured one-on-one sexual intercourse, but also reported having seen extreme pornography (e.g., public humiliation, incest); (b) youth reported watching pornography on home computers or smartphones, and that pornography was frequently watched in school; (c) youth reported watching for entertainment, for sexual stimulation, instructional purposes, and to alleviate boredom; many copied what they saw in pornography during their own sexual encounters; (d) pressure to make or to imitate pornography was an element of some unhealthy dating relationships; and (e) parents were generally described as unsupportive of youths’ use of pornography, but under-equipped to discuss it. Approximately one-fifth expressed a prefererence for pornography featuring actors of their same race/ethnicity. PMID:25350847
van Ark, M; Docking, S I; van den Akker-Scheek, I; Rudavsky, A; Rio, E; Zwerver, J; Cook, J L
Patellar tendinopathy (jumper's knee) has a high prevalence in jumping athletes. Excessive load on the patellar tendon through high volumes of training and competition is an important risk factor. Structural changes in the tendon are related to a higher risk of developing patellar tendinopathy. The critical tendon load that affects tendon structure is unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate patellar tendon structure on each day of a 5-day volleyball tournament in an adolescent population (16-18 years). The right patellar tendon of 41 players in the Australian Volleyball Schools Cup was scanned with ultrasound tissue characterization (UTC) on every day of the tournament (Monday to Friday). UTC can quantify structure of a tendon into four echo types based on the stability of the echo pattern. Generalized estimating equations (GEE) were used to test for change of echo type I and II over the tournament days. Participants played between eight and nine matches during the tournament. GEE analysis showed no significant change of echo type percentages of echo type I (Wald chi-square = 4.603, d.f. = 4, P = 0.331) and echo type II (Wald chi-square = 6.070, d.f. = 4, P = 0.194) over time. This study shows that patellar tendon structure of 16-18-year-old volleyball players is not affected during 5 days of cumulative loading during a volleyball tournament.
Heuckmann, Benedikt; Asshoff, Roman
Cancer diseases are pertinent topics to young people, who are confronted with the issue through media or family members that suffer from these diseases. Based on a paper-and-pencil questionnaire, we investigated German high school students' (N = 369, 16-18 years old) interest in and their attitudes towards cancer. Attitude was assessed measuring multiple dimensions that included scales to measure several components: the cognitive (beliefs about the controllability of cancer), the affective (emotional responses towards cancer) and the behavioural (intention for proactive behaviour towards cancer) components. A student assessment of carcinogenic risk factor was executed. Our results suggest that students' willingness to deal with the topic cancer (e.g. to communicate about cancer or to reconsider their lifestyle) is highly dependent on their interest, their emotional responses and their beliefs about the controllability of cancer. Their assessment of carcinogenic risk factors does not have a direct influence on their intentions to behave proactively against cancer but might have an indirect influence on their beliefs about the controllability of cancer. Based on these results, we have drawn teaching implications and discussed which factors should be included in teaching processes in order to stimulate proactive behaviour related to cancer prevention.
Krishna, K P
This article offers 12 suggestions for improving the protection of sexually victimized children and discusses the extent, form, causes, and consequences of sexual victimization of female children in India. Female victimization includes child marriage, polygamy, rape, incest, and kidnapping for immoral purposes. A female child is victimized from birth to maturity. Girls are born into a secondary status and married off. If her dowry is meager, a girl is subjected to ridicule, criticism, or denigration. The number of prosecuted sex offenses against girls and the number of reported sex offenses increased during 1980-89. However, most sex offenses are unreported. About 63% of rape cases pertain to girls 16-30 years old. Only 18% of rape cases occur among women over age 30. During 1971-89, kidnapping increased by over 79%. Most kidnapping involves girls 3-16 years old and is connected with prostitution, begging, sexual gratification, unemployment, extreme poverty, broken homes, and antisocial surroundings. One study in 1991 found that 48% of adolescent school girls had been molested. Another study in 1985 found that 54.29% of rape victims were 7-16 years old, and 3.27% were under 7 years old. 53.88% were unmarried, and 45.32% were married. Most of the victims were unemployed, dependents, or students. Most rapists are known by the victims. The rapist and the victims tend to come from middle or lower socioeconomic classes. Brother-sister incest is about 5 times more common than father-daughter incest. The literature suggests that children are sexually abused for pleasure or material gain. A current city study found that 15% of prostitutes were under 15 years old; 24.5% were 16-18 years old. Girls enter prostitution through a temple devdasi life, abduction, regular employment, and initiation by parents and brothel keepers. Marriage victimizes girls who marry at an early age or with a poor dowry.
Rocha, F. L.; Silveira, G. M.; Moreira, G.; Afonso, I. P.; Maciel, B. A. P. C.; Melo, M. O.; Neto, R. P.; Gonçalves, M.; Marques, G.; Hartmann, R. P.
Teaching students, aged from 4 up to 18 years old, is a challenging task. It continuously implies new strategies and new subjects adapted to all of them. This is even more evident, when we have to teach natural-hazards scientific aspects and safe attitudes toward risk. We often see that most of the high-school students (16 -18 years old) are not motivated for extra-curricular activities implying science and/or behaviours changes. But, they have a very positive response when we give them some responsibility. On top of that, we also realised that young children are quite receptive to the involvement of older students in the school environment Taking this into consideration, our project use the k12 students to prepare scientific activities and subjects, based in questions, which they need to answer themselves. The students need to answer those questions and, only then, adapt and teach the right answers to the different school-levels. With this approach, we challenged the students to solve three questions: How to use a SEP seismometer at school, and its data? How to set up a shaking table? How to introduce waves and vibrations contents to all ages of students? During the project they developed many science skills, and worked in straight cooperation with teachers, the parents association and the seismology research group at Instituto Dom Luíz. As a result, it was possible to reach all school students with the help of the k-12 ones. This is an outcome of the project W-Shake, a Parents-in-Science Initiative to promote the study of seismology and related subjects. This project, supported by the Portuguese "Ciência Viva" program, results from a direct cooperation between the parents association, science school-teachers and the seismology research group at Instituto Dom Luíz.
Fox, Orly; Adi-Japha, Esther; Karni, Avi
Individuals with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) have difficulties in achieving optimal performance in many everyday and academic tasks, deficits attributed to impaired skill acquisition and procedural memory consolidation. We tested the effect of a skipped dose of methylphenidate (MPH) on learning a movement sequence and its subsequent consolidation into procedural memory in adolescents with ADHD. A crossover double-blind design with placebo was used. Sixteen male adolescents, 16-18 years-old, with ADHD and taking MPH formulations on a daily basis, were trained on performing a 5-element sequence of finger-to-thumb opposition movements. Participants took part in two study conditions, 2 months apart. In each condition a different movement sequence was trained and tested. Participants trained on the task either with active medication or placebo on the day of training, crossed-over between study conditions. Learning effects, speed and accuracy, were assessed within-session, during a 24-h memory consolidation phase. Retention was tested by 2 weeks post-training. There were robust gains in performance both within-session and during the 24-h consolidation phase, in both conditions. However, the discontinuation of MPH on the day of training significantly reduced performance speed, with no loss of accuracy. By 2 weeks, post-training performance was comparable. Adolescents with ADHD who are treated daily but skip a dose of MPH show significant slowing of performance relative to their own performance on medication. However, on a background of daily treatment a skipped dose has no deleterious effect on memory consolidation and retention.
Isabel Hernández, Marıa; Rıos, Raquel; Pintó, Roser
This study has been carried out within the REVIR scenario, which is a project promoting that secondary school students have access to a computerized laboratory at the Faculty of Education of our university and work in small groups during four hours with specific instructional material. One of the laboratory sessions included in the REVIR project deals with IR radiation-matter interaction, and is addressed to post-compulsory secondary students (16-18 year-old students). Within this framework, we have conducted a research study to analyse students' conceptualizations of the processes or mechanisms that take place in IR radiation-matter interaction (energy transfer, selective absorption), and its effects at a macroscopic level (temperature increase) and at a molecular level (vibration). For data collection, a question was posed to all students at the end of each REVIR session, asking students to relate what was described in an article about the application of an IR laser for acne treatment to what they had learnt throughout the session. The analysis of the 67 students' answers to that question revealed that many students explained the effects of the IR laser in vague terms, often repeating information included in the article, without explaining absorption of IR radiation in terms of energy. In consecutive versions of the instructional material, more oriented application questions were added after the article and explicit discussion around synthesis and exploratory (of students' previous ideas) questions was carried out during the session. From the analysis of 49 and 119 students' answers in consecutive later versions, we found that the introduction of these changes resulted in a greater number of students' descriptions in macroscopic and microscopic terms, and a lower number of answers simply repeating information extracted from the reading. Furthermore, more students explicitly explained absorption in terms of energy associated to IR light. Implications for the
Background Bullying in schools has been associated with suicidal ideation but the confounding effect of psychiatric morbidity has not always been taken into account. Our main aim was to test the association between bullying behavior and early stages of suicidal ideation in a sample of Greek adolescents and to examine whether this is independent of the presence of psychiatric morbidity, including sub-threshold symptoms. Methods 5614 pupils 16-18 years old and attending 25 senior high schools were screened in the first phase and a stratified random sample of 2431 were selected for a detailed interview at the second phase. Psychiatric morbidity and suicidal ideation were assessed with the revised Clinical Interview Schedule (CIS-R) while bullying was assessed with the revised Olweus bully/victim questionnaire. Results Victims of bullying behavior were more likely to express suicidal ideation. This association was particularly strong for those who were bullied on a weekly basis and it was independent of the presence of psychiatric morbidity (Odds Ratio: 7.78; 95% Confidence Interval: 3.05 - 19.90). In contrast, being a perpetrator ("bullying others") was not associated with this type of ideation after adjustment. These findings were similar in both boys and girls, although the population impact of victimization in the prevalence of suicidal ideation was potentially higher for boys. Conclusions The strong cross-sectional association between frequent victimization and suicidal ideation in late adolescence offers an opportunity for identifying pupils in the school setting that are in a higher risk for exhibiting suicidal ideation. PMID:21303551
Background Bullying is quite prevalent in the school setting and has been associated with the socioeconomic position and psychiatric morbidity of the pupils. The aim of the study was to investigate the association between bullying and socioeconomic status in a sample of Greek adolescents and to examine whether this is confounded by the presence of psychiatric morbidity, including sub-threshold forms of illness. Methods 5,614 adolescents aged 16-18 years old and attending 25 senior high schools were screened and a stratified random sample of 2,427 were selected for a detailed interview. Psychiatric morbidity was assessed with a fully structured psychiatric interview, the revised Clinical Interview Schedule (CIS-R), while bullying was assessed with the revised Olweus bully/victim questionnaire. The following socio-economic variables were assessed: parental educational level and employment status, financial difficulties of the family and adolescents' school performance. The associations were investigated using multinomial logit models. Results 26.4% of the pupils were involved in bullying-related behaviours at least once monthly either as victims, perpetrators or both, while more frequent involvement (at least once weekly) was reported by 4.1%. Psychiatric morbidity was associated with all types of bullying-related behaviours. No socioeconomic associations were reported for victimization. A lower school performance and unemployment of the father were significantly more likely among perpetrators, while economic inactivity of the mother was more likely in pupils who were both victims and perpetrators. These results were largely confirmed when we focused on high frequency behaviours only. In addition, being overweight increased the risk of frequent victimization. Conclusions The prevalence of bullying among Greek pupils is substantial. Perpetration was associated with some dimensions of adolescents' socioeconomic status, while victimization showed no socioeconomic
Kipper, T.; Klochkova, V.
The spectral data for this Atlas were obtained during 1984 - 1986 with the main stellar spectrograph of the 6 meter telescope of the Special Astrophysical Observatory of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR. For photometric calibration separate calibration spectra were exposed with an auxiliary spectrograph. All the used spectra were scanned with the PDS microphotometer of the Tartu Astrophysical Observatory. For processing of the Atlas spectra a semiautomatic spectrophotometric reduction system developed at the Tartu Astrophysical Observatory (Kipper, 1981) was used. The Atlas is also available on a magnetic tape at the Tartu Astrophysical Observatory.
Kerubo, Emily; Laserson, Kayla F; Otecko, Newton; Odhiambo, Collins; Mason, Linda; Nyothach, Elizabeth; Oruko, Kelvin O; Bauman, Ashley; Vulule, John; Zeh, Clement
Objectives Reproductive tract infections (RTIs), including sexually acquired, among adolescent girls is a public health concern, but few studies have measured prevalence in low-middle-income countries. The objective of this study was to examine prevalence in rural schoolgirls in Kenya against their reported symptoms. Methods In 2013, a survey was conducted in 542 adolescent schoolgirls aged 14–17 years who were enrolled in a menstrual feasibility study. Vaginal self-swabbing was conducted after girls were interviewed face-to-face by trained nurses on symptoms. The prevalence of girls with symptoms and laboratory-confirmed infections, and the sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values of symptoms compared with laboratory results, were calculated. Results Of 515 girls agreeing to self-swab, 510 answered symptom questions. A quarter (24%) reported one or more symptoms; most commonly vaginal discharge (11%), pain (9%) or itching (4%). Laboratory tests confirmed 28% of girls had one or more RTI. Prevalence rose with age; among girls aged 16–17 years, 33% had infections. Bacterial vaginosis was the most common (18%), followed by Candida albicans (9%), Chlamydia trachomatis (3%), Trichomonas vaginalis (3%) and Neisseria gonorrhoeae (1%). Reported symptoms had a low sensitivity and positive predictive value. Three-quarters of girls with bacterial vaginosis and C. albicans, and 50% with T. vaginalis were asymptomatic. Conclusions There is a high prevalence of adolescent schoolgirls with RTI in rural Kenya. Public efforts are required to identify and treat infections among girls to reduce longer-term sequelae but poor reliability of symptom reporting minimises utility of symptom-based diagnosis in this population. Trial registration number ISRCTN17486946. PMID:26819339
The films Mädchen in Uniform (Leontine Sagan, 1931, Germany; Géza von Radványi, 1958, Germany) both tell the story of a schoolgirl falling in love with her teacher at a Prussian boarding school. Whereas the 1931 version is regarded as a lesbian classic in queer (German) cinema, the 1958 remake, however, is not even considered part of the lesbian genre. The following analysis examines both films within their historical context to answer the question what makes Mädchen in Uniform (1931) a lesbian film and why the remake did not measure up to its original's significance.
Spencer, Cherrill M.
To start on the path to a career in science, technology, engineering, or mathematics (STEM), girls must take appropriate prerequisite-to-college mathematics and science courses when they are 15 to 18 years old. The Expanding Your Horizons in Science, Engineering, and Mathematics (EYH) conferences are one-day conferences for girls aged 12 to 18, designed to encourage girls towards a STEM career. These conferences engage schoolgirls in enjoyable hands-on STEM activities, created and led by women STEM professionals. This paper describes the history of EYH conferences, what happens at one, the impact of an EYH conference on the girls, and how to start one.
Vorona, Robert Daniel; Szklo-Coxe, Mariana; Lamichhane, Rajan; Ware, J. Catesby; McNallen, Ann; Leszczyszyn, David
Background and Objective: Early high school start times (EHSST) may lead to sleep loss in adolescents (“teens”), thus resulting in higher crash rates. (Vorona et al., 2011). In this study, we examined two other adjacent Virginia counties for the two years subsequent to the above-mentioned study. We again hypothesized that teens from jurisdictions with EHSST (versus later) experience higher crash rates. Methods: Virginia Department of Motor Vehicles supplied de-identified aggregate data on weekday crashes and time-of-day for 16-18 year old (teen) and adult drivers for school years 2009-2010 and 2010-2011 in Henrico and Chesterfield Counties (HC and CC, respectively). Teen crash rates for counties with early (CC) versus later (HC) school start-times were compared using two-sample Z-tests and these compared to adult crash rates using pair-wise tests. Results: Chesterfield teens manifested a statistically higher crash rate of 48.8/1,000 licensed drivers versus Henrico's 37.9/1,000 (p = 0.04) for 2009-2010. For 2010-2011, CC 16-17 year old teens demonstrated a statistically significant higher crash rate (53.2/1,000 versus 42.0/1,000), while for 16-18 teens a similar trend was found, albeit nonsignificant (p = 0.09). Crash peaks occurred 1 hour earlier in the morning and 2 hours earlier in the afternoon in Chesterfield, consistent with commute times. Post hoc analyses found significantly more run-off road crashes to the right (potentially sleep-related) in Chesterfield teens. Adult crash rates and traffic congestion did not differ between counties. Conclusions: Higher teen crash rates occurred in jurisdictions with EHSST, as in our prior study. This study contributes to and extends existing data on preventable teen crashes and high school start times. Citation: Vorona RD, Szklo-Coxe M, Lamichhane R, Ware JC, McNallen A, Leszczyszyn D. Adolescent crash rates and school start times in two central Virginia counties, 2009-2011: a follow-up study to a southeastern
Smith, William Bradford, Jr.
The National Guard Youth ChalleNGe Program (ChalleNGe) is a 17 month quasi-military training program authorized by Congress in the 1993 Defense Authorization Bill designed to improve life skills, education levels, and employment potential of 16--18 year old youth who drop out of high school. ChalleNGe is currently operational in 27 states/territories with the focus of this study on the Mississippi National Guard Program operated at Camp Shelby, Mississippi. During the five month residential portion of the program students are guided through an eight step process designed to meet the goals of improving life skills, education levels, and employment potential while ultimately leading to completion of high school equivalency credentials followed by a 12 month mentoring phase to encourage and track progress toward goals. The purpose of this study was to investigate the attitude toward science of a group of students enrolled in the ChalleNGe Program at Camp Shelby (ChalleNGe). The GED test is administered approximately two months into the residential phase of the program. While the program boasts an overall GED pass rate of nearly 80%, approximately 30--35% of students successfully complete the initial offering of the GED. As high school graduates, these students are offered college courses through William Carey College in Hattiesburg, Mississippi. Twenty four students elected to take the Introduction to Environmental Science course and formed the experimental group while 24 other students who passed the GED comprised the control group. Each group was administered the Scientific Attitude Inventory II, a 40 statement instrument with Likert Scale responses, as a pretest. Paired samples t-tests indicated no significant difference in attitude toward science between the experimental and control groups on the pretest. Following the two week Introduction to Environmental Science course for the experimental group, both groups were post tested. As predicted, the attitude toward
Teral, Maarika; Rammo, Sirje
This presentation focuses on computer-assisted learning of Estonian, one of the lesser taught European languages belonging to the Finno-Ugric language family. Impulses for this paper came from Estonian courses that started in the University of Tartu in 2010, 2011 and 2012. In all the courses the students gain introductory knowledge of Estonian and…
Crape, Byron L; Kenefick, Eric; Cavalli-Sforza, Tommaso; Busch-Hallen, Jennifer; Milani, Silvano; Kanal, Koum
A social marketing program promoting weekly iron-folic acid supplementation improved hemoglobin levels in women of reproductive age in Cambodia. Supplementation was increasingly effective among women of higher socioeconomic status (SES). Among higher SES schoolgirls, 58% took the supplements, compared with 49% for lower SES (P = 0.07). Garment factory workers with an 11th- or 12th-grade education had a mean improvement in hemoglobin of 0.72 g/dL over those with a 5th-grade education or less (P = 0.04). The percentage of rural village women taking supplements increased with increasing SES (linear trend P = 0.046). These results suggest that women with lower SES be given special attention for future programs.
Phillips, Katherine A.; Barrow, Lloyd H.; Chandrasekhar, Meera
A residential summer program, the New Experiences far Women in Science and Technology (Newton) Academy, was developed to encourage high school girls' interest in the physical sciences and engineering. The goal of the Newton Academy was to increase and/or maintain interest and participation in the physical sciences among high schoolgirls. This study, part of a larger evaluation of the academy, reports the results of a follow-up of the 1998 Newton Academy participants 1 year after participation. It focuses on the participants' interests in the physical sciences and related careers as measured by the Strong Interest Inventory before and 1 year after participation. The results a/participant interviews conducted to further illuminate the findings from the quantitative data are also presented.
Becker, Anne E.; Fay, Kristen; Agnew-Blais, Jessica; Guarnaccia, Peter M.; Striegel-Moore, Ruth H.; Gilman, Stephen E.
Acculturation has been examined as a risk factor for eating disorders, but interpretation of findings has been limited by inconsistent operationalization of this construct across studies. The study aim was to develop and evaluate a population-specific measure of acculturation for ethnic Fijian adolescent schoolgirls, to use in future analyses related to eating disorders. Our findings suggest that acculturation is a multidimensional construct characterized by distinct, though related, dimensions of orientation to ethnic Fijian and/or western/global culture with respect to a range of behaviors and attitudes. In contrast to theoretical models positing uni-dimensional, orthogonal, or oblique relations between cultural identities in individuals undergoing acculturation, our study findings support a heterogeneous pattern among correlations of dimensions across contrasting cultural identities. We suggest multidimensional measures of acculturation are optimal — and socio-demographic proxies inadequate — for characterization of this complex process for health research. PMID:21088103
Grant, Monica J; Hallman, Kelly K
This study uses data from KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, to examine the factors associated with schoolgirl pregnancy and subsequent educational pathways. We find that prior schooling discontinuities--defined as instances of non-pregnancy-related grade repetition or temporary withdrawals from school--are strongly associated with a young woman's likelihood of later becoming pregnant while enrolled in school, dropping out of school if she becomes pregnant, and not returning to school following a pregnancy-related dropout. Young women who are the primary caregivers to their children are also significantly more likely to leave school than are those who have help with their childcare responsibilities. Given the increasing importance of female school participation in sub-Saharan Africa, programs must be designed to reach girls and their families early to increase incentives for ensuring their timely progression through school and to increase their access to reproductive health information and services.
Jahanbin, A; Mokhber, N; Jabbarimani, A
Prolonged duration of finger- and pacifier-sucking may be a risk factor for maldevelopment of orofacial structures and dental occlusion. This study assessed the prevalence of nutritive and non-nutritive sucking habits and their association with some contributing factors among 7-year-old girls in Mashhad, Islamic Republic of Iran. Based on a questionnaire to the parents of 436 schoolgirls, the rate of current or previous pacifier-sucking was 26.6% and of finger-sucking was 10.6%. Child's birth rank and number of siblings and parents' educational level were significantly related to ever pacifier-sucking but not to finger-sucking. The highest prevalence of ever pacifier-sucking was among children who had been breast- and bottle-fed but finger-sucking was more common among exclusively breastfed children.
Sommer, Marni; Hirsch, Jennifer S; Nathanson, Constance; Parker, Richard G
In recent years, the menstrual hygiene management challenges facing schoolgirls in low-income-country contexts have gained global attention. We applied Gusfield's sociological analysis of the culture of public problems to better understand how this relatively newly recognized public health challenge rose to the level of global public health awareness and action. We similarly applied the conceptualization by Dorfman et al. of the role of public health messaging in changing corporate practice to explore the conceptual frames and the news frames that are being used to shape the perceptions of menstrual hygiene management as an issue of social justice within the context of public health. Important lessons were revealed for getting other public health problems onto the global-, national-, and local-level agendas.
Becker, Anne E; Fay, Kristen; Agnew-Blais, Jessica; Guarnaccia, Peter M; Striegel-Moore, Ruth H; Gilman, Stephen E
Acculturation has been examined as a risk factor for eating disorders, but interpretation of findings has been limited by inconsistent operationalization of this construct across studies. The study aim was to develop and evaluate a population-specific measure of acculturation for ethnic Fijian adolescent schoolgirls, to use in future analyses related to eating disorders. Our findings suggest that acculturation is a multidimensional construct characterized by distinct, though related, dimensions of orientation to ethnic Fijian and/or western/global culture with respect to a range of behaviors and attitudes. In contrast to theoretical models positing uni-dimensional, orthogonal, or oblique relations between cultural identities in individuals undergoing acculturation, our study findings support a heterogeneous pattern among correlations of dimensions across contrasting cultural identities. We suggest multidimensional measures of acculturation are optimal--and socio-demographic proxies inadequate--for characterization of this complex process for health research.
Kang, Ju Wan
Second-generation antihistamines are widely prescribed for the control of symptoms of allergic inflammation such as itchy hives, coryza, and itchy eyes. In rare circumstances, these drugs might provoke allergic inflammation. Hypersensitivity to bepotastine besilate, a second-generation antihistamine has never been reported. A 17-year-old schoolgirl, whose paroxysmal itchy hives had been controlled with bepotastine, experienced aggravation of the hives. An oral provocation test confirmed her hypersensitivity to bepotastine and cross-reactivity to levocetirizine. She showed no reaction to chlorpheniramine, ketotifen, or olopatadine among the 13 antihistamines tested. While searching for an antihistamine to control her itchy hives, we found that she also exhibited cross-reactivity to various antihistamines with different chemical structures from that of bepotastine, which is not predicted according to the chemical classification of antihistamines. We report a case of hypersensitivity to bepotastine besilate in a patient with chronic spontaneous urticaria. PMID:27803886
Iodine is an essential component of the thyroid hormones, which play a crucial role in brain and neurological development. At least one-third of the world's population is estimated to be iodine deficient predominantly in developing countries. Recently concern had also been expressed about the iodine status in industrialised countries such as the UK. A recent survey of the UK iodine status found that that more than two-thirds of schoolgirls aged 14-15 years were iodine deficient due to the reduced milk intake. Maternal iodine deficiency in pregnancy is correlated with cognitive outcomes such as intelligence quotient and reading ability in offspring. No randomised trial data exist for iodine supplementation in mild-moderate iodine-deficient pregnant women. It is possible to combine population interventions to reduce population salt intake with salt iodisation programmes in order to maintain adequate levels of iodine nutrition.
Having seen a meteorite as a schoolgirl in Iowa, Eliza Kimberly was convinced that the heavy black stones found scattered over her homestead in Kiowa County, Kansas were meteorites. She tirelessly collected more than 2000 pounds of them, and resolutely correspondet with nearby scientists over a five year period in an unsuccessful attempt to arouse their interest. When the meteorite nature of her stones was finally confirmed in 1890, scientists flocked to Kimberley's "Meteorite Farm" to purchase specimens. Eliza proved to be a clever businesswoman, and put the money earned from meteorite sales to good practical use. In the mid 1920s, Harvey Nininger made several visits to the "Meteorite Farm". He used the specimens he purchased there to help launch his career as the first full-time, self-employed meteoriticist, and carried out the first excavation of the Haviland crater.
Seys, J.; Copejans, E.; Ameije, K.
It is a major challenge to bring science and technology to the public at large and more particular to young people. This is even more true for marine sciences, due to the very nature of the study field and the fact that the underwater world is difficult to experience and communicate. Therefore it is not surprising that in Europe there are only few examples of marine educational projects that try to go beyond the ‘observe and describe' approach. In 2004 SHE Consultancy, the Flanders Marine Institute VLIZ and DAB Vloot developed a first Belgian e-learning programme dedicated to oceans and seas, with the support of the Flemish government ("Action plan Science Communication"). This programme ‘Expedition Zeeleeuw' (www.expeditiezeeleeuw.be), ran from 2005 till 2007 and challenged some 3000 Flemish students of 16-18 years old all over Flanders to find creative solutions for 10 major marine issues at the Belgian coast. The class that could convince the jury to have discovered the most creative and intelligent solutions, wan a one-week scientific expedition at sea on board the vessel Zeeleeuw. As a successor to ‘Expedition Zeeleeuw', a new e-learning project on marine science was developed in 2007: ‘Planeet Zee' i.e. ‘Planet Ocean' (www.planeetzee.org; info via email@example.com + demo-site in English available at www.planetocean.eu). The new marine and coastal e-learning project is presented as a virtual sailing trip on the Atlantic Ocean. It follows the adventures of two youngsters "borrowing" the yacht of their father and getting into trouble on the open ocean. On this journey they face 21 problems (eg. out of food, drinking water or fuel, fear for whales, Bermuda triangle, tsunami's etc… ), each of them introduced by a short movie clip. When they realize they can not solve the problem, they ask for radio help and - what a surprise! - get interesting answers from the Zeeleeuw research vessel and its 21 marine scientists on board, that appears to be in the
Milić, Mirjana; Grgantov, Zoran; Katić, Ratko
The aim of this study was to define processes of orientation and/or selection towards sports game of volleyball in schoolgirls of Kastela, aged 10-12, by examining the relations between regular classes of physical education (PE) and extracurricular sport activities. For this purpose, two morphological measures were used (body height and body mass) and a set of 11 motor tests (6 basic motor abilities tests and 5 motor achievement tests) on a sample of 242 girls aged 10-12 was used, divided into a subsample of 42 girls participating in volleyball training (Volleyball players) and a subsample of 200 girls who do not participate in volleyball training (volleyball non-players). Based on the comparison of test results of schoolgirls from Kastela and Croatian norms, factor analysis of applied variables and discriminant analysis of these variables between volleyball players and non-players, processes and/or phases of selection in forming quality volleyball players were defined. Selection processes are preceded by orientation processes in physical education classes, i.e. choosing those sport activities which are in accordance with the biomotor status of students. Results have shown that orientation and initial selection in female volleyball needs to be executed based on the motor set of psychomotor speed, repetitive strength of the trunk and flexibility (muscle tone regulation), and body height. Volleyball training has affected the muscle mass development and the development of strength factors, so that explosive strength of jumping and/or takeoff along with body height, has predominantly differentiated female volleyball players from non-players, aged 10 to 12, and serve and spike quality will have dominant influence on the match outcome.
Gross, K; Kokk, A; Kaasik, A E
A population-based study of MS was carried out in South Estonia in 1988-1989. Cases were identified from the Tartu University Hospital archives where all MS cases in South Estonia are diagnosed, from all neurologists and nursing homes of the region, and from the local Multiple Sclerosis Society. The prevalence in South Estonia is 51 per 100,000, for native Estonians 55, for Russians 29, for other nationalities 42 per 100,000. The prevalence rate in different counties was demonstrated as low as 31 per 100,000 in the County of Tartu, to 72 per 100,000 in Pôlva County; 55% of patients have retired because of their handicap and only 2 patients (1%) were living in nursing homes.
imeni I. Lauristin and the associations imeni V. Klementi, Norma , Standard, and Marat where thousands of people work. The reports of director...as the Vazar and Norma associations, the Oruskiy Peat Combine, the Tartu Model Foundry and Machinery Plant, and others. Bonds often have a formal...old Aynash- Apa , entering the water and softly caressing the waves. "This is how I have bathed my entire life," She explains, "It has become my
An account of scientific, popularisation papers and books of the astronomer Konstantine Dormidontovich Pokrovskij (1868, Perm, Russia- 1944, Odesa, NKVD prison) has been given. He was a Rector of the Perm University, a profesor of astronomy at the University of Dorpat (actually Tartu, Estonia), a director of the Astronomical Observatory in Odessa, a corresponding Member of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR and a Professor of the Odessa University.
Defense College, Tartu, Estonia ; the Pentagon; AFRICOM HQ; EUCOM HQ; FORSCOM HQ; Armed Service Committee Staff; Center for New American Security; Center...mechanism to a cyber-attack. This fact was made all too clear to Estonia , who had joined NATO to ensure its freedom and security, only to find that...attack similar to the one experienced by Estonia in 2007. Debilitating cyber-attacks will continue to challenge the relevance of the Alliance despite an
Phillips-Howard, Penelope A; Nyothach, Elizabeth; ter Kuile, Feiko O; Omoto, Jackton; Wang, Duolao; Zeh, Clement; Onyango, Clayton; Mason, Linda; Alexander, Kelly T; Odhiambo, Frank O; Eleveld, Alie; Mohammed, Aisha; van Eijk, Anna M; Edwards, Rhiannon Tudor; Vulule, John; Faragher, Brian; Laserson, Kayla F
Objectives Conduct a feasibility study on the effect of menstrual hygiene on schoolgirls' school and health (reproductive/sexual) outcomes. Design 3-arm single-site open cluster randomised controlled pilot study. Setting 30 primary schools in rural western Kenya, within a Health and Demographic Surveillance System. Participants Primary schoolgirls 14–16 years, experienced 3 menses, no precluding disability, and resident in the study area. Interventions 1 insertable menstrual cup, or monthly sanitary pads, against ‘usual practice’ control. All participants received puberty education preintervention, and hand wash soap during intervention. Schools received hand wash soap. Primary and secondary outcome measures Primary: school attrition (drop-out, absence); secondary: sexually transmitted infection (STI) (Trichomonas vaginalis, Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoea), reproductive tract infection (RTI) (bacterial vaginosis, Candida albicans); safety: toxic shock syndrome, vaginal Staphylococcus aureus. Results Of 751 girls enrolled 644 were followed-up for a median of 10.9 months. Cups or pads did not reduce school dropout risk (control=8.0%, cups=11.2%, pads=10.2%). Self-reported absence was rarely reported and not assessable. Prevalence of STIs in the end-of-study survey among controls was 7.7% versus 4.2% in the cups arm (adjusted prevalence ratio (aPR) 0.48, 0.24 to 0.96, p=0.039), 4.5% with pads (aPR=0.62; 0.37 to 1.03, p=0.063), and 4.3% with cups and pads pooled (aPR=0.54, 0.34 to 0.87, p=0.012). RTI prevalence was 21.5%, 28.5% and 26.9% among cup, pad and control arms, 71% of which were bacterial vaginosis, with a prevalence of 14.6%, 19.8% and 20.5%, per arm, respectively. Bacterial vaginosis was less prevalent in the cups (12.9%) compared with pads (20.3%, aPR=0.65, 0.44 to 0.97, p=0.034) and control (19.2%, aPR=0.67, 0.43 to 1.04, p=0.075) arm girls enrolled for 9 months or longer. No adverse events were identified. Conclusions Provision of
Baird, Sarah; Chirwa, Ephraim; McIntosh, Craig; Ozler, Berk
Recent evidence suggests that conditional cash transfer (CCT) programs for schooling are effective in raising school enrollment and attendance. However, there is also reason to believe that such programs can affect other outcomes, such as the sexual behavior of their young beneficiaries. Zomba Cash Transfer Program is a randomized ongoing CCT intervention targeting young women in Malawi that provides incentives (in the form of school fees and cash transfers) to current schoolgirls and recent dropouts to stay in or return to school. An average offer of US$10/month conditional on satisfactory school attendance - plus direct payment of secondary school fees - led to significant declines in early marriage, teenage pregnancy, and self-reported sexual activity among program beneficiaries after just one year of program implementation. For program beneficiaries who were out of school at baseline, the probability of getting married and becoming pregnant declined by more than 40 and 30%, respectively. In addition, the incidence of the onset of sexual activity was 38% lower among all program beneficiaries than the control group. Overall, these results suggest that CCT programs not only serve as useful tools for improving school attendance but may also reduce sexual activity, teen pregnancy, and early marriage.
Gawdzik, Dorota; Jurczyk, Mieczysława U.; Sporny, Stanisław; Opala, Tomasz
Introduction Cervical cancer (CC) is a malignant tumor which for many years has been a serious epidemiological problem in Poland. This issue is important because CC is the second most common type of malignant tumor, after breast cancer, and the second most common cause of death among women. The aim of this study was to assess the knowledge and awareness of women living in the Wielkopolska region (Gniezno district) of risk factors for cervical cancer. Material and methods The study used the diagnostic poll method, based on a previously developed survey questionnaire. The study was carried out between March and April 2013. The study group consisted of 100 women, involving schoolgirls from the secondary school in Gniezno (Group I), workers (doctors, nurses and midwives) of two outpatient clinics in the Gniezno district (Group II) and patients of the same clinics (Group III). Results According to the respondents, the main cause of CC is human papillomavirus (Group II – 36%) and genetic predisposition (Group III – 35%). It is alarming that 26% of women did not know the risk factors for CC. Conclusions It is necessary to improve health education, especially concerning the main factors affecting the development of CC, in order to reduce the morbidity and mortality rates related to this cancer. PMID:26327882
The aim of this paper was to establish whether the influence of socioeconomic factors on BMI and the prevalence of underweight and overweight changes with age. The data were obtained from 1008 schoolgirls aged 16-18 years for whom earlier data on weight and height were available. Their height and body mass were measured and their BMIs calculated. Height and weight in early life were assessed by medical records review. The girls were measured by trained school nurses at 7, 9, 14 years of age. Socioeconomic differences in BMI were found to increase with age. Parents' higher education and urban environment were associated with smaller BMI gain between the ages of 7 and 18 years. Among subjects whose mother and/or father had higher education the prevalence of underweight increased with age, and in other groups it remained at a similar level. In the younger age categories (7- and 9-year-olds) underweight was less frequent in subjects from towns than those from rural areas, while in the older categories (14, 16-18 years of age) the opposite tendency was found. As subjects grew up, there was a decline in the prevalence of overweight and obesity in all groups. Parental education and place of residence seem to influence weight status in a different way in childhood than during adolescence.
Rakic, R; Bozic-Krstic, V; Pavlica, T
Obesity is a very important issue in developed societies and depends on many factors. The aim of this paper was to determine a possible relationship between overweight, obesity and socioeconomic factors among adolescents in Vojvodina. A cross-sectional anthropometric study was carried out from 2001 to 2004 in towns of Vojvodina, northern Serbia. The research included height and body weight measurements as well as body mass index (BMI) of 1236 schoolboys and 1414 schoolgirls aged 15-18 years. The socioeconomic factors (SES) included parents' level of education and monthly income per family member. The overweight prevalence of about 10% (85
95) were recorded in both male and female adolescents. A significant correlation (p<0.01) between all socioeconomic factors was observed in male subjects, although there were no significant differences in the prevalence of overweight and obesity when different categories of subjects set by SES were compared. In females lower rates of the prevalence of overweight and obesity were detected in the subjects whose parents had a university education, but the difference was not significant. Regarding the prevalence of obesity, a significant difference was recorded between females with high and low incomes, those with a high income showing significantly greater prevalence of obesity than females coming from low income families. The results of the research indicate that in Vojvodina the family income is the only factor that significantly correlates with female obesity.
Bachar, Eytan; Gur, Eitan; Canetti, Laura; Berry, Elliot; Stein, Daniel
This paper examines the role that selflessness and perfectionism may play as possible predictors of pathological eating attitudes and eating disorders (ED). 1057 schoolgirls (seventh to ninth grade) participated in the initial screening phase. They were administered the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26), Selflessness Scale (SS) and Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale (MPS). Based on their EAT-26 scores, 150 girls were invited to a clinical interview 2 years later (second phase). In the third phase 4 years later, 243 girls who completed the questionnaires in the seventh grade were the target of re-administration of these scales. Seventh-grade selflessness scores at initial screening phase predicted ED status determined in clinical interview at the 2-year interval and abnormal eating attitudes at the 4-year interval, above and beyond baseline seventh-grade eating-attitude scores. Perfectionism was not found to predict the development of neither ED nor abnormal eating attitudes. Preventional and therapeutic implications of the role of selflessness as a predisposing factor for ED are discussed.
Feldman-Savelsberg, P; Ndonko, F T; Schmidt-Ehry, B
In 1990 a rumor that public health workers were administering a vaccine to sterilize girls and women spread throughout Cameroon. Schoolgirls leapt from windows to escape the vaccination teams, and the vaccination campaign (part of the Year of Universal Child Immunization) was aborted. This article traces the origin and development of this rumor. Theories of rumor and ambiguous cultural response to new technologies shed some light on its genesis and spread, but explain neither its timing nor its content. For this task we need to examine the historical context of Cameroonian experience with colonial vaccination campaigns and the contemporary contexts of the turmoil of democratization movements and economic crisis, concurrent changes in contraceptive policy, and regional mistrust of the state and its "hegemonic project." Drawing on Bayart's politique du ventre and White's thoughts on gossip, we explore this rumor as diagnostic of local response to global and national projects. This response, expressed in this case through the idiom of threats to local reproductive capacity, reveals a feminine side to local-global relations, a politics of the womb.
Nicolle, Lindsay E.
Asymptomatic bacteriuria, also called asymptomatic urinary infection, is a common finding in healthy women, and in women and men with abnormalities of the genitourinary tract. The characterization and introduction of the quantitative urine culture in the 1950s first allowed the reliable recognition of asymptomatic bacteriuria. The observations that a substantial proportion of patients with chronic pyelonephritis at autopsy had no history of symptomatic urinary infection, and the high frequency of pyelonephritis observed in pregnant women with untreated asymptomatic bacteriuria, supported a conclusion that asymptomatic bacteriuria was harmful. Subsequent screening and long term follow-up programs for asymptomatic bacteriuria in schoolgirls and women reported an increased frequency of symptomatic urinary tract infection for subjects with asymptomatic bacteriuria, but no increased morbidity from renal failure or hypertension, or increased mortality. Treatment of asymptomatic bacteriuria did not decrease the frequency of symptomatic infection. Prospective, randomized, comparative trials enrolling premenopausal women, children, elderly populations, patients with long term catheters, and diabetic patients consistently report no benefits with antimicrobial treatment of asymptomatic bacteriuria, and some evidence of harm. Several studies have also reported that antimicrobial treatment of asymptomatic bacteriuria increases the short term risk of pyelonephritis. Current investigations are exploring the potential therapeutic intervention of establishing asymptomatic bacteriuria with an avirulent Escherichia coli strain to prevent symptomatic urinary tract infection for selected patients. PMID:27104571
Grant, Monica J.
Despite its relative infrequency, pregnancy is perceived by parents in rural Malawi as a leading cause of school dropout among female students. This paper explores parents’ beliefs about adolescent sexual activity and schoolgirl pregnancy, and how these perceptions frame parents’ aspirations and expectations about girls’ schooling. In-depth interviews were collected in rural Malawi from 60 adults aged 25–50 who were the parent of at least one school-aged child. Four themes emerged from the data: how expectations about sexual activity frame parental expectations about schooling duration and dropout; the loss of parental control; the negative influence of classmates; and schools as unsafe environments. These concerns frame how parents consider a daughter’s schooling prospects and are active even for parents whose daughters are not sexually active or who are not yet old enough to have gone through puberty. Although all parents aspire for their children to attend secondary school, these perceptions of daughters’ relative risk weaken parents’ motivation to encourage daughters to remain in school. PMID:22077580
Flore, Paulette C; Wicherts, Jelte M
Although the effect of stereotype threat concerning women and mathematics has been subject to various systematic reviews, none of them have been performed on the sub-population of children and adolescents. In this meta-analysis we estimated the effects of stereotype threat on performance of girls on math, science and spatial skills (MSSS) tests. Moreover, we studied publication bias and four moderators: test difficulty, presence of boys, gender equality within countries, and the type of control group that was used in the studies. We selected study samples when the study included girls, samples had a mean age below 18years, the design was (quasi-)experimental, the stereotype threat manipulation was administered between-subjects, and the dependent variable was a MSSS test related to a gender stereotype favoring boys. To analyze the 47 effect sizes, we used random effects and mixed effects models. The estimated mean effect size equaled -0.22 and significantly differed from 0. None of the moderator variables was significant; however, there were several signs for the presence of publication bias. We conclude that publication bias might seriously distort the literature on the effects of stereotype threat among schoolgirls. We propose a large replication study to provide a less biased effect size estimate.
Laver, S M
Picture codes, poster-size collections of drawings that present a real-life problem, are being used in Zimbabwe to stimulate discussion on acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Unlike posters, which are intended for pubic display and present a solution to a problem, picture codes are used in small-group discussions and have no captions. Group members describe what they think is occurring in the picture code, seek a reason for the problem depicted, link the problem to real-life issues, identify the underlying causes of the problem, and then propose solutions. The effectiveness of this technique in stimulating discussion and identifying community problems was illustrated by pretesting of a picture code depicting a wealthy middle-aged man sexually propositioning a young schoolgirl. The code was shown separately to 20 mothers and 30 adolescent girls in Harare. The mothers focused on the need for the formal education system to assume a greater role in sex education given erosion of the traditional extended family. The adolescents also expressed a need for sex education in the schools and acknowledged their difficulties in rejecting sexual advances.
Balla, Bettina Claudia; Terebessy, András; Tóth, Emese; Balázs, Péter
(1) Background: Hungarys's estimated cervical cancer mortality was 6.9/100,000 in 2012, above the average of the EU27 countries (3.7/100,000) in the same year. Since 2014, the bivalent HPV vaccine has been offered to schoolgirls aged 12-13. (2) Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study among 1022 high school seniors (492 girls, 530 boys) in 19 randomly selected schools in Budapest. Our anonymous questionnaire contained 54 items: basic socio-demographic data, knowledge about HPV infection/cervical cancer and HPV vaccination. (3) Results: 54.9% knew that HPV caused cervical cancer, and 52.1% identified HPV as an STD. Knowledge of risk factors such as promiscuity (46.9%) and early sexual activity (15.6%) was low, but higher than that of further HPV-induced diseases: genital warts (in females 9.9%, in males 9%), anal cancer (in females 2.2%, in males 1.9%), penile cancer (9.4%), and vulvar cancer (7.8%). A percentage of 14.6% feared getting infected, and 35.7% supported compulsory HPV vaccination. A percentage of 51.2% would have their future children vaccinated-significantly more girls than boys. (4) Conclusion: Our results support the findings of previous studies about young adults' HPV-related knowledge, which was poor, especially regarding pathologies in men. Despite the low level of awareness, the students' attitude was mostly positive when asked about vaccinating their future children.
Cilla, G.; Dorronsoro, M.; Sáenz-Domínguez, J. R.; Serrano, E.; Pérez-Trallero, E.
In Spain, vaccination against rubella was initiated in schoolgirls in the mid-1970s. In Gipuzkoa, subsequent extensions to the vaccination schedule culminated in 1992 with the introduction of the two-dose measles, mumps and rubella vaccine in children and adolescents of both sexes. Moreover, in 1985 a programme for the identification and vaccination of non-immune parturient women was implemented in the region's main hospital. The prevalence of rubella-susceptible parturient women decreased from 3.7 % at the beginning of the study to < 1.5 % by 1992. Despite this overall decrease, 4.8 % of adolescent parturients were susceptible to rubella during 2001--2002. From 1984, the number of reported cases of rubella (children and adults) progressively decreased until 1997, after which there have been no cases of indigenous rubella. There have been no cases of reported congenital rubella since 1984. These results indicate that the vaccine policy carried out in this geographical area has been effective in achieving considerable progress towards rubella elimination. PMID:15310170
Cilla, G; Dorronsoro, M; Sáenz-Domínguez, J R; Serrano, E; Pérez-Trallero, E
In Spain, vaccination against rubella was initiated in schoolgirls in the mid-1970s. In Gipuzkoa, subsequent extensions to the vaccination schedule culminated in 1992 with the introduction of the two-dose measles, mumps and rubella vaccine in children and adolescents of both sexes. Moreover, in 1985 a programme for the identification and vaccination of non-immune parturient women was implemented in the region's main hospital. The prevalence of rubella-susceptible parturient women decreased from 3.7 % at the beginning of the study to < 1.5 % by 1992. Despite this overall decrease, 4.8 % of adolescent parturients were susceptible to rubella during 2001--2002. From 1984, the number of reported cases of rubella (children and adults) progressively decreased until 1997, after which there have been no cases of indigenous rubella. There have been no cases of reported congenital rubella since 1984. These results indicate that the vaccine policy carried out in this geographical area has been effective in achieving considerable progress towards rubella elimination.
Grant, Monica J
Despite its relative infrequency, pregnancy is perceived by parents in rural Malawi as a leading cause of school dropout among female students. This paper explores parents' beliefs about adolescent sexual activity and schoolgirl pregnancy and how these perceptions frame parents' aspirations and expectations about girls' schooling. In-depth interviews were collected in rural Malawi from 60 adults aged 25-50 who were the parent of at least one school-aged child. Four themes emerged from the data: how expectations about sexual activity frame parental expectations about schooling duration and dropout, the loss of parental control, the negative influence of classmates and schools as unsafe environments. These concerns frame how parents consider a daughter's schooling prospects and are active even for parents whose daughters are not sexually active or who are not yet old enough to have gone through puberty. Although all parents aspire for their children to attend secondary school, these perceptions of daughters' relative risk weaken parents' motivation to encourage daughters to remain in school.
Constant change is here to stay Curriculum change was a major theme in the workshops of Physics On Stage - the Europe-wide meeting of physics teachers hosted at CERN in November. And, human nature being what it is, we all want to manage this change. There are many issues of ownership, consultation and management to consider when undertaking change, but there are a few basic laws we can follow: You can't please everybody all the time. Trying to do so is a recipe for displeasing everybody. If you really want to see the effect of a change you can only change one thing at a time; So if you change too many things at once you can't possibly predict the outcome. But education is so full of so many changes that making a prediction as to how well a curriculum change will work makes weather-forecasting look easy. There are few countries where some kind of educational reform is not taking place. The UK education system is currently coping with over 100 different initiatives. The reform of the post-16 pre-university curriculum into one-year courses (including AS and A2 exams which replace A-levels) is just one of many changes. A recent request for a reference had me dusting off some of the earliest copies of Physics Education from the late sixties and early seventies. It was fascinating to note that curriculum change was probably just as much an issue then as now. Mixed-ability, comprehensive and Nuffield-style education were happening. And we were beginning to ask the question `Computers - will we be using them in Physics classes?' It left me wondering: in thirty years, have we made any real progress in the teaching of physics? Is it better than it was? In this issue of Physics Education we take stock of the changes for 16-18 year-olds in UK schools. Whilst many may question the progress made in physics education over the last thirty years, few can doubt the massive leaps of knowledge made through astronomy and planetary science. 2001 may not have turned out as the 1960s
Kuusk, P.; Muursepp, P. V.; Piir, Ivar
The first popular lecture on the Einstein theory of relativity was given in Estonia already in 1914 by Jaan Sarv (1877-1954),afterwards a professor of mathematics at the Tartu University. The first student courses on special relativity were delivered by Professor of Mathematics Juri Nuut (1892-1952): non-Euclidean geometry (1930), the mathematical theory of relativity (1932/1933),the Lorenz transformations (1937). His own research work concerned the Lobachevsky geometry  and its application to cosmology . Harald Keres qraguated from the Tartu University in 1936. He gave the first student course on general relativity (based on books [11-14]in 1940.In 1942,he got the dr.phil.nat degree form the Tartu University for his theses "Raum und Zeit in der allgemeinen Relativitatstheorie". The degree of the doctor of mathematical and physical sciences was confirmed by VAK (the All-Union Higher Attestation Commission) in 1949.In this period, he got aquainted with the leading Soviet scientists working on General Relativity, prof.V.A.Fock,Prof.D.D.Ivanenko,Prof.A.Z.Petrov,and Prof.M.F.Shirokov. After World War two all-union university courses were introduced in Tartu State University. According to the curriculum of the course the special theory of relativity is a part of electrodynamics obligatory for all students of the department of Physics. From 1947 till 1985 this course was delivered by Prof.PaulKard(1914-1985).He also published a number of text-books on the subject [15-19]. The general theory of relativity was read by Prof.H.Keres in 1951-1960 and later by his pupils R.Lias and A.Koppel [20-23] as a special course for students specializing in theoretical Physics. The first PHD-s in general relativity were made by R.Lias (1954) and I.Piir  (1955). In 1961, Prof.H.Keres was elected a member of the Academy of Sciences of the Estonian S.S.R. He left the TArtu State University and began to work in the Institute of Physics as the head of the Department of
Krasnikov, A.; Nikl, M.; Zazubovich, S.
The cover picture refers to the article by Aleksei Krasnikov et al., that was selected as Editor's Choice . It depicts a fragment of a lead tungstate (PbWO4) crystal lattice structure and illustrates the complex anion (WO4)2- tetrahedra bonded to the Pb2+ cation. Perturbation of the (WO4)2- tetrahedra by defects nearby results in exciton localization near the defects and a slightly different emission spectrum, which is shown in the diagram. Localized excitons are evidenced for the first time in the PbWO4 structure. Under selective irradiation of PbWO4 crystals in the ultraviolet spectral region, the decay of various localized excitons into stable defects takes place, which can be detected by a sensitive thermally stimulated luminescence method. Aleksei Krasnikov is a PhD student at the University of Tartu, Estonia. Martin Nikl holds a position as a senior scientist and head of the Laboratory of Luminescence and Scintillation Materials at the Institute of Physics of the Czech Academy of Sciences. Svetlana Zazubovich is a senior scientist at the Institute of Physics, University of Tartu. The research groups of Martin Nikl and Svetlana Zazubovich have been collaborating closely for the last 15 years mainly in the field of optical spectroscopy of wide band-gap scintillation materials
Putku, Elsa; Astover, Alar; Ritz, Christian
Soil monitoring networks provide a powerful base for estimating and predicting nation's soil status in many aspects. The datasets of soil monitoring are often hierarchically structured demanding sophisticated data analyzing methods. The National Soil Monitoring of Estonia was based on a hierarchical data sampling scheme as each of the monitoring site was divided into four transects with 10 sampling points on each transect. We hypothesized that the hierarchical structure in Estonian Soil Monitoring network data requires a multi-level mixed model approach to achieve good prediction accuracy of soil properties. We used this database to predict soil bulk density and soil organic carbon concentration of mineral soils in arable land using different statistical methods: median approach, linear regression and mixed model; additionally, random forests for SOC concentration. We compared the prediction results and selected the model with the best prediction accuracy to estimate soil organic carbon stock. The mixed model approach achieved the best prediction accuracy in both soil organic carbon (RMSE 0.22%) and bulk density (RMSE 0.09 g cm-3) prediction. Other considered methods under- or overestimated higher and lower values of soil parameters. Thus, using these predictions we calculated the soil organic carbon stock of mineral arable soils and applied the model to a specific case of Tartu County in Estonia. Average estimated SOC stock of Tartu County is 54.8 t C ha-1 and total topsoil SOC stock 1.8 Tg in humus horizon.
Nõmmiste, Ergo; Kirm, Marco; Plank, Toomas
The International Conference Functional Materials and Nanotechnologies (FM&NT - 2013) was held in Tartu, 21-24 April 2013 at the Dorpat Conference Centre. The conference was organised by Institute of Physics, University of Tartu. The FM&NT conference series was started in 2006 by scientists from the Institute of Solid State Physics, University of Latvia. It is an annual conference bringing together researchers from the whole world. The warm and open atmosphere of this scientific conference has turned it into event where people from different fields meet under the common name of functional materials and nanotechnology. It is particularly important for early stage scientists who are looking for new knowledge and contact with people from various fields. Our Latvian colleagues with their success in internationalization made us neighbouring Estonians so envious that we could not withstand proposing that we host the conference in every second year in Estonia. Actually this is in a way the continuation of the idea of the famous Baltic seminars which took place over several decades during the last century. Due to political constraints these seminars were only opened to scientist of the former Eastern European countries, but which were extremely popular and attracted attendees from over the whole Soviet Union. Much fruitful cooperation started from the initial personal contacts of scientists at these seminars held twice per year, once in Latvia and the second time in Estonia. At the last FM&NT 2012 conference, the decision was made that Institute of Physics, University of Tartu would organise the event in Tartu in 2013. Along with traditional topics such as multifunctional materials, nanomaterials, materials for sustainable energy applications and theory, this conference focused on studies using synchrotron radiation and other novel light sources. The number of registered participants from 21 countries was nearly 300. During the three days of the conference 14 invited, 45
Balla, Bettina Claudia; Terebessy, András; Tóth, Emese; Balázs, Péter
(1) Background: Hungarys’s estimated cervical cancer mortality was 6.9/100,000 in 2012, above the average of the EU27 countries (3.7/100,000) in the same year. Since 2014, the bivalent HPV vaccine has been offered to schoolgirls aged 12–13. (2) Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study among 1022 high school seniors (492 girls, 530 boys) in 19 randomly selected schools in Budapest. Our anonymous questionnaire contained 54 items: basic socio-demographic data, knowledge about HPV infection/cervical cancer and HPV vaccination. (3) Results: 54.9% knew that HPV caused cervical cancer, and 52.1% identified HPV as an STD. Knowledge of risk factors such as promiscuity (46.9%) and early sexual activity (15.6%) was low, but higher than that of further HPV-induced diseases: genital warts (in females 9.9%, in males 9%), anal cancer (in females 2.2%, in males 1.9%), penile cancer (9.4%), and vulvar cancer (7.8%). A percentage of 14.6% feared getting infected, and 35.7% supported compulsory HPV vaccination. A percentage of 51.2% would have their future children vaccinated—significantly more girls than boys. (4) Conclusion: Our results support the findings of previous studies about young adults’ HPV-related knowledge, which was poor, especially regarding pathologies in men. Despite the low level of awareness, the students’ attitude was mostly positive when asked about vaccinating their future children. PMID:28036070
Bath, Sarah C.; Rayman, Margaret P.
Iodine, as a component of the thyroid hormones, is crucial for brain development and is therefore especially important during pregnancy when the brain is developing most rapidly. While randomised controlled trials of pregnant women in regions of severe iodine deficiency have shown that prenatal iodine deficiency causes impaired cognition, less is known of the effects in regions of mild deficiency. This is relevant to the UK as the World Health Organisation now classifies the UK as mildly iodine deficient, based on a national study of 14-15 year old schoolgirls in 2011. We have previously published a study, using samples and data from the UK-based Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) that found an association between low iodine status in early pregnancy (urinary iodine-to-creatinine ratio < 150 μg/g) and lower verbal IQ and reading scores in the offspring. Though the women in ALSPAC were recruited in the early 1990s, the results of the study are still relevant as their iodine status was similar to that reported in recent studies of UK pregnant women. This review discusses the evidence that mild-to-moderate iodine deficiency during pregnancy has deleterious effects on child neurodevelopment and relates that evidence to the data on iodine status in the UK. It has highlighted a need for nationwide data on iodine status of pregnant women and that a randomised controlled trial of iodine supplementation in pregnant women in a region of mild-to-moderate iodine deficiency with child outcomes as the primary endpoint is required. PMID:25663363
Hilton, Shona; Hunt, Kate; Langan, Mairi; Bedford, Helen; Petticrew, Mark
In September 2008, the human papillomavirus (HPV) immunisation programme was introduced in the UK for schoolgirls aged between 12 and 18 years of age. The vaccine shows high efficacy in preventing infection against HPV types 16 and 18 responsible for 70% of cervical cancer. However, to be most effective, the vaccine needs to be administered before exposure to the viruses and therefore, ideally, before young people become sexually active. The introduction of any new vaccine, and perhaps particularly one given to young teenage girls to prevent a sexually transmitted cancer-causing virus, has the potential to attract a great deal of media attention. This paper reports on content analysis of 344 articles published between January 2005 and December 2008 in 15 UK newspapers. It includes both manifest and latent analysis to examine newsprint media coverage of the introduction of the HPV vaccination programme and its role in HPV advocacy. We concluded that the newspapers were generally positive towards the new HPV vaccination and that over the 4 years period the newsworthiness of the HPV vaccination programme increased. In 2008 two events dominated coverage, firstly, the introduction of the HPV programme in September 2008 and secondly, in August 2008 the diagnosis on camera of cervical cancer given to Jade Goody, a 27 year old mother of two, who gained fame and notoriety in the UK through her participation in several reality television shows. There are two conclusions from this study. Firstly, the positive media coverage surrounding the introduction of the HPV vaccination programme is to be welcomed as it is likely to contribute towards influencing public perceptions about the acceptability and need for HPV vaccination. Secondly, the focus on prevalence rates of HPV infection among women and on women's sexual behaviours, in relation to HPV vaccination 'encouraging' promiscuity, is an unhelpful aspect of media coverage.
Remes, Pieter; Selestine, Veronica; Changalucha, John; Ross, David A.; Wight, Daniel; de Sanjosé, Silvia; Kapiga, Saidi; Hayes, Richard J.; Watson-Jones, Deborah
Background As human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines become available in developing countries, acceptability studies can help to better understand potential barriers and facilitators of HPV vaccination and guide immunisation programs. Methods Prior to a cluster-randomised phase IV trial of HPV vaccination delivery strategies in Mwanza Region, Tanzania, qualitative research was conducted to assess attitudes and knowledge about cervical cancer and HPV, and acceptability of and potential barriers to HPV vaccination of Tanzanian primary schoolgirls. Semi-structured interviews (n = 31) and group discussions (n = 12) were conducted with a total of 169 respondents (parents, female pupils, teachers, health workers and religious leaders). Results While participants had heard of cancer in general, most respondents had no knowledge of cervical cancer, HPV, or HPV vaccines. Only health workers had heard of cervical cancer but very few knew its cause or had any awareness about HPV vaccines. After participants were provided with information about cervical cancer and HPV vaccination, the majority stated that they would support HPV vaccination of their daughter to protect them against cervical cancer. Opt-out consent for vaccination was considered acceptable. Most preferred age-based vaccination, saying this would target more girls before sexual debut than class-based vaccination. Potential side effects and infertility concerns were raised by 5/14 of participating male teachers. Discussion Reported acceptability of HPV vaccination amongst parents, teachers and other community members was high in this population. Respondents stressed the need to provide adequate information about the vaccine to parents, that also addresses side effects and infertility concerns. PMID:22732428
A group of women formed the Women and AIDS Support Network (WASN) in Zimbabwe in June 1989 to improve women;s self-esteem and confidence and to bring about changes in attitudes and reactions toward AIDS-related problems. Both HIV-positive and HIV-negative women are WASN members. Women have limited control over sexual relationships. Women who know their partners are having intercourse with other women have few options, e.g., they may depend on their partners. A family council settles marital disagreements, but husbands do not always cooperate. Increased peer pressure could change societal acceptance of male infidelity to positive attitudes toward friendship and partnership in marriage. Therefore, WASN explores sexual relationships, especially control and power in them. These discussions should lead to affirmation of positive behavior. For example, men can promote condom use and monogamy to their male peers. They can also talk to their partners and their sons about HIV. Rural women should not blame urban women for their partner's HIV status. WASN also targets schoolgirls. Most early and some current messages of AIDS campaigns reinforces the dichotomy of good and bad women, supported by an earlier link between urban women and sexually transmitted diseases. Yet, they ignored men's role in HIV transmission. WASN speaks out against such negative images, e.g., dramas that depict the HIV-infected woman as evil and the innocent as good while the man worries about which woman infected him instead of feeling awful about infecting other women. WASN also addressee AIDS-related discrimination on the job and stigmatization issues. It now is conducting 2 research projects: information needs of urban and rural women and capacities of family support systems to assist HIV-positive women.
Chiplonkar, Shashi A; Tupe, Rama
Recent dietary guidelines emphasize micronutrient sufficiency by giving importance to consumption of whole grains and a variety of fruits and vegetables. The objective of this study was to identify a measure of micronutrient quality of diets in adolescent girls consuming a lacto-vegetarian diet. Data were collected on the nutritional status of 630 schoolgirls (ages 10 to 16 years) from Pune city, India, in a cross-sectional survey during 2006-2007. Dietary intakes were assessed by 24-hour recall on 3 nonconsecutive days. Nutrient intakes were calculated from the Indian nutritive value databases. Micronutrient adequacy was expressed as a ratio of observed intake to reference intake. An Adolescent Micronutrient Quality Index (AMQI) was formulated using the Indian and the recent US dietary guidelines. Fasting blood samples were analyzed for plasma levels of vitamin C, beta carotene, and zinc. The average energy intake of the majority of the girls was below the Indian recommended dietary intakes, whereas micronutrient intakes were 50% to 70% lower than recommended dietary intakes. The mean AMQI score was 41.5+/-9.4. The age of subjects as well as mother's education and occupation were significantly associated with the AMQI. The AMQI was correlated with nutrient intakes and the ratio of observed intake to reference intake (P<0.01) after controlling for energy intake and sociodemographic factors. Higher AMQI scores were associated with higher concentrations of plasma vitamin C (r=0.26), beta carotene (r=0.34), and zinc (r=0.12). The AMQI is a useful measure of the dietary adequacy and micronutrient quality of the diets of adolescent girls consuming lacto-vegetarian diets.
Rayman, Margaret P; Bath, Sarah C
Adequate iodine intake is important during pregnancy as it is a component of the thyroid hormones that are crucial for fetal brain and neurological development. While randomized controlled trials in severe iodine deficiency have shown that iodine deficiency in pregnancy causes impaired offspring cognition, less is known of the effects in regions of mild/mild-to-moderate deficiency. The United Kingdom is now classified as mildly iodine deficient by the World Health Organization, based on a 2011 national study of 14-15-year-old schoolgirls. As pregnancy is the most critical time for brain development, we evaluated iodine status in pregnant women in Surrey (n = 100) and Oxford (n = 230). The median urinary iodine concentration was 85.3 μg/L in Surrey women, considerably lower than the WHO/United Nations Children's Fund/International Council for the Control of Iodine Deficiency Disorders cut-off of 150 μg/L. Oxford women had similarly low status. We investigated whether that level of iodine deficiency was associated with adverse child cognitive effects using stored samples and data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children cohort. In adjusted analyses, we found a significant association between low maternal iodine status in early pregnancy (urinary iodine-to-creatinine ratio <150 μg/g) such that children had an approximately 60% greater risk of being in the bottom quartile of scores for verbal intelligence quotient, reading accuracy and comprehension. UK women who might become pregnant should ensure they have adequate iodine status to avoid compromising their children's brain development.
Bath, Sarah C; Rayman, Margaret P
Iodine, as a component of the thyroid hormones, is crucial for brain development and is therefore especially important during pregnancy when the brain is developing most rapidly. While randomised controlled trials of pregnant women in regions of severe iodine deficiency have shown that prenatal iodine deficiency causes impaired cognition, less is known of the effects in regions of mild deficiency. This is relevant to the UK as the World Health Organisation now classifies the UK as mildly iodine deficient, based on a national study of 14-15 year old schoolgirls in 2011. We have previously published a study using samples and data from the UK-based Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) that found an association between low iodine status in early pregnancy (urinary iodine-to-creatinine ratio <150 μg/g) and lower verbal IQ and reading scores in the offspring. Though the women in ALSPAC were recruited in the early 1990s, the results of the study are still relevant as their iodine status was similar to that reported in recent studies of UK pregnant women. This review discusses the evidence that mild-to-moderate iodine deficiency during pregnancy has deleterious effects on child neurodevelopment and relates that evidence to the data on iodine status in the UK. It has highlighted a need for nationwide data on iodine status of pregnant women and that a randomised controlled trial of iodine supplementation in pregnant women in a region of mild-to-moderate iodine deficiency with child outcomes as the primary endpoint is required.
Shabani Mirzaee, Hosein; Mosallanejad, Asieh; Rabbani, Ali; Setoodeh, Aria; Abbasi, Farzaneh; Sayarifard, Fatemeh; Memari, Amir Hosein
Background There is limited data on sexual maturation among girls with intellectual, sensory, or physical disabilities. Objectives The present cross-sectional study was conducted to assess the sexual maturation of girls with these disabilities in special schools. Methods In this cross-sectional study, we evaluated the onset and progression of sexual maturation in 642 six to 18-year-old girls with intellectual, sensory, or physical disabilities from special schools in Tehran. The participants were selected by multi-stage random sampling. Pubertal stages were assessed by visual inspection and palpation based on the rating scales of Tanner. Stage two (breast budding and pubic hair growth) and stage five were considered the onset and end of puberty, respectively. Results The mean ages of onset of puberty indicated by breast budding (B2 stage) and by pubic hair growth (P2 stage) were 10.8 ± 1.48 and 10.79 ± 1.64 years, respectively. The process of puberty based on breast budding and pubic hair growth was completed at 15.58 ± 1.85 and 15.59 ± 1.8 years, respectively. The average height at the onset of puberty (stage B2) among participants was 128 ± 28.79 cm and the average weight was 8.31 ± 36.47 kg. Conclusions Among our patients, the mean ages of onset of puberty indicated by breast budding (B2 stage) and by pubic hair growth (P2 stage) were 10.8 ± 1.48 and 10.79 ± 1.64 years, respectively. Compared to the data from healthy Iranian girls, our findings indicate that the mean age of pubertal onset among schoolgirls with disabilities is slightly higher than that of their healthy counterparts. PMID:28203334
Remme, Michelle; Siapka, Mariana; Vassall, Anna; Heise, Lori; Jacobi, Jantine; Ahumada, Claudia; Gay, Jill; Watts, Charlotte
Introduction Harmful gender norms and inequalities, including gender-based violence, are important structural barriers to effective HIV programming. We assess current evidence on what forms of gender-responsive intervention may enhance the effectiveness of basic HIV programmes and be cost-effective. Methods Effective intervention models were identified from an existing evidence review (“what works for women”). Based on this, we conducted a systematic review of published and grey literature on the costs and cost-effectiveness of each intervention identified. Where possible, we compared incremental costs and effects. Results Our effectiveness search identified 36 publications, reporting on the effectiveness of 22 HIV interventions with a gender focus. Of these, 11 types of interventions had a corresponding/comparable costing or cost-effectiveness study. The findings suggest that couple counselling for the prevention of vertical transmission; gender empowerment, community mobilization, and female condom promotion for female sex workers; expanded female condom distribution for the general population; and post-exposure HIV prophylaxis for rape survivors are cost-effective HIV interventions. Cash transfers for schoolgirls and school support for orphan girls may also be cost-effective in generalized epidemic settings. Conclusions There has been limited research to assess the cost-effectiveness of interventions that seek to address women's needs and transform harmful gender norms. Our review identified several promising, cost-effective interventions that merit consideration as critical enablers in HIV investment approaches, as well as highlight that broader gender and development interventions can have positive HIV impacts. By no means an exhaustive package, these represent a first set of interventions to be included in the investment framework. PMID:25373519
Exciting Week Ahead for Winners of Unique Astronomy Contest Following the very successful events of 1993 and 1994 , ESO again opens its doors for an `educational adventure' next week. It takes place within the framework of the `Third European Week for Scientific and Technological Culture', initiated and supported by the European Commission. On Tuesday, November 14, 1995, about forty 16-18 year old students and their teachers will converge towards Munich from all corners of Europe. They are the happy winners of a Europe-wide astronomy contest (`Europe Towards the Stars') that took place during the summer and early autumn. Their prize is a free, week-long stay at the Headquarters of the European Southern Observatory. During this time they will work with professional astronomers and get a hands-on experience within modern astronomy and astrophysics at one of the world's foremost international centres. In particular, the participants will be exposed to the scientific method by carrying through a research programme of their own, all the way from conception to interpretation of the data. The culmination of the stay will be the opportunity to perform remote observations via a satellite link with two major telescopes at the ESO La Silla observatory in Chile, including the very advanced 3.5-metre New Technology Telescope (NTT). The European Contest This year's EU/ESO programme was devised as a contest between joint teams of secondary school students and their teachers. The teams had to choose between four different subjects requiring either practical or theoretical work, and all with strong scientific and technological components. One subject was to devise an observational programme with an existing telescope and instrument and to discuss the resulting data in order to arrive at a scientific conclusion. This was the preferred subject by many teams. For instance, the winning German team observed the moons of Jupiter and the Danish team studied a star cluster in order to
Uusküla, A; Kangur, K; McNutt, L A
Objective This qualitative study assesses knowledge about sexually transmitted infections (STI), identifies perceived barriers to STI testing, and recommends strategies to optimise participation in a home based STI testing programme. Methods Five focus groups composed of 29 total participants were recruited using convenience sampling methods based on age (18–40 years), gender (male and female), and residency (Tartu region, Estonia). Results The focus groups revealed significant knowledge deficits and a widespread attitude of denial. However, participants acknowledged that STIs are a serious problem and recommended strategies for increasing participation in an STI testing and treatment programme. Successful STI prevention programmes must address a number of challenges, including disease stigmatisation and privacy protection. Conclusion The fear of enforced disease control methods coupled with the current stigmatisation of STIs creates a serious challenge for Estonian STI prevention and treatment efforts. This qualitative study provides a good contextual reference for STI control programmes in eastern Europe. PMID:16877585
Sepp, M.; Päädam, K.; Palm, V.; Leito, A.
Migration is one of the most energy-consuming activities in the lives of birds. The timing must be such that flying would not be overly strenuous and that there would be favourable conditions for feeding and nesting available at arrival. The wide year-to-year variation in the arrival dates of migratory birds suggests that birds are able to both accelerate and delay their migration according to the weather conditions in the destination area. Often, the arrival date cannot be explained by the average daily temperature or any other single meteorological parameter. Relatively simple tools for exploring the links between climate and wildlife are weather types that combine most of the meteorological variables. The aim of the present work is to study the connections between the arrival of migratory birds in Estonia and the weather types. We examine the weather types that most frequently occurred on those days when birds arrived in Tartu (located in the Eastern part of Estonian mainland) and in Kuressaare (West-Estonian archipelago). For this purpose, the arrival dates of 42 species of migratory birds were analysed and compared to the weather types of 73 classifications generated by COST 733 action (COST 733 catalogue 1.2). Since the weather type classifications were generated using ERA40 air pressure datasets, the period available for analysis is 1958-2002. We selected weather types that occurred on the arrival dates of each migratory bird species. Also, the data on two days prior to the arrival were analysed. We assume that birds "took the decision" to fly to Estonia due to the weather conditions on those two days. Frequency of the selected weather types was analysed and compared to the long term frequency of these types during the spring season (MAM). We assume that birds "prefer" those weather types whose frequency on migration days exceeds their long-term frequency. Similarly, we studied the weather types that birds seem to avoid. The results show that despite the
Rekand, T; Korv, J; Farbu, E; Roose, M; Gilhus, N; Langeland, N; Aarli, J
Objective: To examine and compare the long term outcome after polio in an east European and a west European country with different access to rehabilitation and with different medical and social conditions. Design and Setting: The patients who were acutely hospitalised for polio 1950–54 in the University Hospital in Bergen, Norway and 1958 in the University Hospital in Tartu, Estonia received the mailed questionnaire in the period between January 1998 and December 1998. Patients: Patient files concerning 334 patients hospitalised in Tartu and 243 patients hospitalised in Bergen were obtained; of these 128 Estonian and 148 Norwegian patients were re-examined. Main results: Despite more pronounced disability in the acute stage, significantly more Norwegian patients were working full time and part time in 1998 (p<0.0001) and also through the period 1958–1998. In both countries, 30% of patients had manual work and 18% changed profession during their career. Low income (below 50% of national average) was reported by 73% of Estonian and 35% of Norwegian patients (p<0.0001). Except for the odds ratio for muscular pain of 1.89 (95%CI =1.14 to 3.14) for Norwegian patients, new symptoms indicating late progression did not differ. Norwegian patients were more independent with significantly less need for assistance in housekeeping (p=0.02), whereas the use of orthopaedic devices did not differ. Conclusions: The long term outcome after polio is different in eastern and western Europe. Access to continuous rehabilitation seems to maintain physical independence in polio patients, improves their ability to earn their own income, and lessens the need for disability pensions. PMID:12700222
Vargas, Aida De; Evans, Kathleen; Ransley, P.; Rosenberg, A. R.; Rothwell, D.; Sherwood, T.; Williams, D. I.; Barratt, T. M.; Carter, C. O.
Vesicoureteric reflux is now considered to be due essentially to congenital malformation of the vesicoureteric junction. It is also considered to be a major cause of renal failure in early adult life. The condition is associated with recurrent urinary tract infection and in some instances with renal scarring. When reflux is detected clinically, in the investigation of patients with recurrent urinary tract infection, renal scarring is often already present. The reflux tends to disappear in later childhood. A family study has been made based on 186 index patients with established primary reflux, with special attention to a history of genitourinary symptoms in the sibs and parents of these patients. There were 39 sibs under the age of 4 years. For these the parents were offered investigation by micturating cystogram. The parents of 20 accepted. Reflux was shown in 3, and in 2 of these there was already renal scarring. The proportion of all infants and young children who have reflux is not accurately known, but the few published surveys of screening of normal infants and young children by micturating cystogram suggest that the prevalence is of the order of 1%. The prevalence in sibs is, then, about 10 times higher. There was a main group of 214 sibs over the age of 4 years. For these the parents were offered investigation by intravenous pyelogram only for those sibs who had a history of recurrent urinary tract infection. If renal scarring was found then a micturating cystogram was done. Of 110 sisters, 12 were `symptomatic', renal scarring was found in 5 of these (1 was on haemodialysis), and reflux was still present in 3. Of 104 brothers 7 were `symptomatic', renal scarring was found in 2 and reflux was present in both. For comparison, the published reports of several surveys of schoolgirls indicate that about 2 in 100 have recurrent urinary tract infection, and in about a quarter of these (0·5%) reflux was present and in about one-eighth (0·25%) renal scarring was
Morrison, John A; Glueck, Charles J; Wang, Ping
We evaluated the associations of teenage insulin and adolescent diet with 10-year weight gain in an analysis sample of black and white girls matched for pubertal stage, body mass index (BMI) (or fat mass), and insulin at ages 9 to 10 years. We hypothesized that preteen insulin and insulin resistance would interact with dietary factors to positively predict increases in BMI. Furthermore, we hypothesized that increased insulin and insulin resistance, interacting with higher caloric intake during adolescence, would lead to greater increments in BMI in black girls than in white girls. Prospective 10-year follow-up was performed on 215 pairs of black and white schoolgirls matched at baseline by BMI (or fat mass), insulin, and pubertal stage, with repeated measures of body habitus, insulin, and dietary intake. When matched for BMI, black girls had higher fat-free mass and white girls had higher fat mass at ages 9 to 10 years. Black-white differences in caloric intake were not significant at ages 9 to 10 years, but black girls consumed more calories at age 19 years. Black girls consumed a greater percentage of calories from fat throughout. At age 19 years, black girls had higher BMI, fat mass index, and insulin. When matched at ages 9 to 10 years for fat mass, black girls were heavier, had higher BMI, and had greater fat-free mass. By ages 18 to 19 years, black girls continued to have higher BMI, but had accrued higher fat mass and a higher percentage of body fat. By stepwise multiple regression, 10-year increases in BMI were predicted by ages 9 to 10 years BMI, 10-year change in insulin, and a 3-way interaction between ages 9 to 10 years insulin, adolescent caloric intake, and race (higher in black girls) (all Ps < .0001). Insulin at ages 9 to 10 years interacts with caloric intake to increase BMI by age 19 years. There appear to be intrinsic black-white metabolic differences that lead to greater gains in fat during adolescence in black girls. Evaluating BMI and insulin
Morrison, John A.; Glueck, Charles J.; Wang, Ping
Objective: We evaluated the associations of teenage insulin and adolescent diet with 10-year weight gain in an analysis sample of black and white girls matched for pubertal stage, BMI (or fat mass), and insulin at ages 9-10. We hypothesized that pre-teen insulin and insulin resistance (IR) would interact with dietary factors to positively predict increases in BMI. Further, we hypothesized that increased insulin and IR, interacting with higher caloric intake during adolescence, would lead to greater increments in BMI in black girls than in white girls. Patients and Methods: Prospective 10-yr follow-up of 215 pairs of black and white schoolgirls matched at baseline by BMI (or fat mass), insulin, and pubertal stage, with repeated measures of body habitus, insulin, and dietary intake. Results: When matched for BMI, black girls had higher fat free mass and white girls had higher fat mass at ages 9-10 years. Black-white differences in caloric intake were not significant at ages 9-10, but black girls consumed more calories at age 19. Black girls consumed a greater percent of calories from fat throughout. At age 19, black girls had higher BMI, fat mass index, and insulin. When matched at ages 9-10 for fat mass, black girls were heavier, had higher BMI, and greater fat free mass. By ages 18-19, black girls continued to have higher BMI, but had accrued higher fat mass and a higher percentage of body fat. By stepwise multiple regression, 10-year increases in BMI were predicted by age 9-10 BMI, 10 year change in insulin, and a 3-way interaction between age 9-10 insulin, adolescent caloric intake, and race (higher in black girls), all p <.0001. Conclusions: Insulin at ages 9-10 interacts with caloric intake to increase BMI by age 19. There appear to be intrinsic black-white metabolic differences that lead to greater gains in fat during adolescence in black girls. Evaluating BMI and insulin at ages 9-10 could identify girls (particularly black) who would optimally benefit from
Hilton, Shona; Smith, Emily
Background The UK human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination programme aims to provide girls aged 12–13 with protection against two of the most carcinogenic strains (types 16 and 18) of this sexually transmitted virus which together account for 70% of cases of cervical cancer. Despite evidence suggesting a general lack of knowledge about HPV and its link with cervical cancer, vaccine uptake rates were generally high in the UK for the first year of the HPV vaccination programme. In countries that implemented the HPV programme ahead of the UK, studies have found that girls’ and parents’ levels of awareness about HPV have increased since implementation of the programme but that knowledge continues to be limited. This study offers some of the first insights from the UK into adolescent girls’ understandings of HPV, its link with cervical cancer, and experiences of vaccination, since the programme was introduced in September 2008. Method Eighteen focus groups were conducted between December 2009 and May 2010 with schoolgirls aged between 12 and 18 living in various parts of the UK. Results Eighty seven girls participated in these discussions. Typically, girls knew very little about HPV or how they could best protect themselves from HPV infection. Although many of the girls linked HPV to cancer, only half specifically associated it with cervical cancer. Most girls had no idea how long the vaccine would offer them protection. They assumed that HPV vaccination must be important for their health because it was recommended by people they trusted, namely parents and immunisation experts. Just over half of the girls were aware that in the future they would need to attend for cervical screening. Key concerns which girls expressed about HPV vaccination reflected their anxieties about needles, anticipated pain on injection, privacy during vaccination and fears about needle cleanliness. Conclusion Our data point to a need to continue to address gaps in knowledge about HPV and
Painvin, C; Schlumberger, M; Chhem, Dy Bun; Savannarom, Dim; Phong, Phing; Gilberg, S
not (χ² of Yates: 11.00; P = 0.0006; 95% CI: 1.23 < RR = 1.51 < 1.84)in spite of their better vaccination status before the immunization, and this was mostly significant for farmers and women more than 45 years of age. Women who saw the documentary either on video or on TV also attended more the second collective session, but not significantly (χ² of Yates: 1.23;P = 0.266; 95% CI: 0.91 < RR = 1.23 < 1.66). Forty-nine percent of women had not attended school and the video documentary was re-run twice after the first performance. Women older than 45 years (55%) completely escaped immunization significantly more often than women of childbearing age (35%) (χ² of Yates: 17.26;P = 0.00003, 95% CI: 1.53 < RR = 2.13 < 2.97), who did it more often than schoolgirls (2%) (χ² of Yates: 9.69;P = 0.002; 95% CI: 0.01 < RR = 0.09 < 0.65). The main reasons for not being vaccinated during catch-up collective tetanus vaccinations were a too short interval between doses according to the WHO schedule (25%), agricultural task (18%), leisure travel (8%), fear of injections (7%), and being completely vaccinated according to the WHO schedule (7%). Only 2% of women were not informed, showing that vaccination was well-publicized. This educational technique should be re-used in all villages during coming catch-up tetanus collective immunizations in Cambodia, mostly in urban contexts where coverage during these sessions is lower. Video is still the best method in rural context if some education is also provided to the audience. According to the WHO schedule, the interval between two catch-up tetanus sessions should be extended to over a year to be able to give booster shots to women who already received three or more tetanus doses. Vaccination of schoolgirls is significantly easier to achieve with the help of the teachers. Vaccinating women aged over 45 should be encouraged as they are at risk of tetanus even in developed Asian countries.
Bashmakova, I.; Belotserkovsky, A.; Ivanov, V.; Karlin, L.; Petrosyan, A.; Room, R.; Serditova, N.; Tyuryakov, S.; Zilitinkevich, S.
The project in question (http://www.combat-meteo.net/) aims to provide the basis for the reform of the system of higher education in the area of hydrometeorology in the Russian Federation to comply with the Bologna Declaration. In this regard, the project puts the following specific objectives: 1. To develop internationally recognized competency-based two-level (Bachelor / Master) curricula in meteorology by December 2007. 2. To transform existing and to develop new syllabi supported by teaching materials according to the developed two-level curricula by December 2008. 3. To implement the developed competency-based two-level curricula in meteorology at Russian State Hydro-meteorological University and universities-members of Academic Association of Russian Universities in hydrometeorology by September 2009. These objectives are met by the consortium headed by the University of Helsinki (Finland) including the University of Tartu (Estonia), the Academic Association of Russian Universities in Hydrometeorology (Russia), the Faculty of Geography of the Moscow State University (Russia) and the State Environmental University (Ukraine), with the Russian State Hydrometeorological University (Russia) as target institution. The project provides opportunities for retraining of academic and administrative staff from target universities in the consortium EU universities, as well as for bidirectional student mobility. The project results in teaching meteorology in Russia according to competency-based two-level curricula that will start by 01 September, 2009.
A short review of the development of experimental psychology from an Estonian perspective is presented. The first rector after the reopening of the University of Dorpat (Tartu) in 1802, Georg Friedrich Parrot (1767-1852) was interested in optical phenomena which he attempted to explain by introducing the concept of unconscious inferences, anticipating a similar theory proposed by Herman von Helmholtz 20 years later. One of the next rectors, Alfred Wilhelm Volkmann (1800-1878) was regarded by Edwin Boring as one of the founding fathers of the experimental psychology. Georg Wilhelm Struve (1793-1864) played an essential part in solving the problem of personal equations. Arthur Joachim von Oettingen (1836-1920) developed a theory of music harmony, which stimulated his student Wilhelm Friedrich Ostwald (1853-1932) to study colour harmony. Emil Kraepelin (1856-1926), the founder of modern psychiatry, is by far the most important experimental psychologist who has worked in Estonia. His successor Wladimir von Tchisch (1855-1922), another student of Wilhelm Wundt, continued Kraepelin's work in experimental psychology. The lives of Wolfgang Köhler (1887-1967), who was born in Reval (Tallinn), and Oswald Külpe (1862-1915), who graduated from the University of Dorpat, extended the link between the history of experimental psychology and Estonia. Karl Gustav Girgensohn (1875-1925), the founder of the Dorpat School of the psychology of religion, stretched the use of experimental methods to the study of religious experience.
Background. Musculoskeletal pain is the most common cause of incapacity among nurses. This study aimed to report the prevalence of musculoskeletal pain among hospital nurses and to explore the associations of work-related psychosocial factors and mental health problems with musculoskeletal pain. Methods. A cross-sectional survey was carried out among registered nurses at Tartu University Hospital during April and May 2011. Binary logistic regression was used to assess the associations between dependent and independent variables. Results. Analysis was based on 404 nurses (45% of the hospital's nursing population). The overall prevalence of MSP was 70% in the past year and 64% in the past month. Lower back (57%) and neck (56%) were the body areas most commonly painful in the past year. Higher quantitative and emotional demands, work pace, low justice and respect in the workplace, influence on work organisation, and role conflicts were significantly associated with musculoskeletal pain among nurses (p < 0.05). All mental health problems and most strongly somatic stress symptoms were associated with musculoskeletal pain. Conclusions. Work-related psychosocial risk factors and mental health problems, especially somatic stress symptoms, have an important impact on the occurrence of musculoskeletal pain among university hospital nurses. PMID:27885319
Synthetic biology promises to create high-impact solutions to challenges in the areas of biotechnology, human/animal health, the environment, energy, materials and food security. Equally, synthetic biologists create tools and strategies that have the potential to help us answer important fundamental questions in biology. Warwick Integrative Synthetic Biology (WISB) pursues both of these mutually complementary ‘build to apply’ and ‘build to understand’ approaches. This is reflected in our research structure, in which a core theme on predictive biosystems engineering develops underpinning understanding as well as next-generation experimental/theoretical tools, and these are then incorporated into three applied themes in which we engineer biosynthetic pathways, microbial communities and microbial effector systems in plants. WISB takes a comprehensive approach to training, education and outreach. For example, WISB is a partner in the EPSRC/BBSRC-funded U.K. Doctoral Training Centre in synthetic biology, we have developed a new undergraduate module in the subject, and we have established five WISB Research Career Development Fellowships to support young group leaders. Research in Ethical, Legal and Societal Aspects (ELSA) of synthetic biology is embedded in our centre activities. WISB has been highly proactive in building an international research and training network that includes partners in Barcelona, Boston, Copenhagen, Madrid, Marburg, São Paulo, Tartu and Valencia. PMID:27284024
The occurrence of helminthiases in Estonia was under extensive observation from 1956 until 1989. Enterobiasis had remained the most prevalent helminthiasis in Estonia in the 1990s. After 1990, the number of helminthological studies decreased. This study was conducted to investigate the occurrence and possible risk factors of enterobiasis among nursery school children in Southeast Estonia. A total of 954 nursery school children were examined from 22 nursery schools in Tartu and Põlva counties in Estonia. Enterobius vermicularis infection was detected using the anal swab technique. The parents of tested children were asked to complete questionnaires so as to ascertain the potential risk factors in children's homes and in their families. The overall rate of being positive for E. vermicularis egg was 24.4%. The occurrence of enterobiasis among the examined nursery schools ranged from 11.8 to 46.2% and from 0 to 61.1% in nursery school groups. All nursery schools were infected. Children 5-8 years of age showed a significantly higher rate of being positive for E. vermicularis egg than the younger children. The overall infection rate was higher among boys and among children from larger families. The infection rate was related to washing of hands after closet use. The socioeconomic status of the family was not associated with the frequency of enterobiasis.
Mäestu, Jarek; Lätt, Evelin; Jürimäe, Jaak; Vainik, Uku
Self-report measures of physical activity (PA) are easy to use and popular but their reliability is often questioned. Therefore, the general aim of the present study was to investigate the association of PA questionnaires with accelerometer derived PA, in a sample of adolescent boys. In total, 191 pubertal boys (mean age 14.0 years) completed three self-report questionnaires and wore an accelerometer (ActiGraph GT1M) for 7 consecutive days. The PA questionnaires were: International Physical Activity Questionnaire-Short Form (IPAQ-SF), Tartu Physical Activity Questionnaire (TPAQ), and the Inactivity subscale from Domain-Specific Impulsivity (DSI) scale. All three questionnaires were significantly correlated with accelerometer derived MVPA: the correlations were 0.31 for the IPAQ-SF MVPA, 0.34 for the TPAQ MVPA and -0.29 for the DSI Inactivity scale. Nevertheless, none of the questionnaires can be used as a reliable individual-level estimate of MVPA in male adolescents. The boys underreported their MVPA in IPAQ-SF as compared to accelerometer-derived MVPA (respective averages 43 and 56 minutes); underreporting was more marked in active boys with average daily MVPA at least 60 minutes, and was not significant in less active boys. Conversely, MVPA index from TPAQ overestimated the MVPA in less active boys but underestimated it in more active boys. The sedentary time reported in IPAQ-SF was an underestimate as compared to accelerometer-derived sedentary time (averages 519 and 545 minutes, respectively). PMID:28056080
McAlister, A.; Sandström, P.; Puska, P.; Veijo, A.; Chereches, R.; Heidmets, L. T.
OBJECTIVE: To study the cultural differences in moral disengagement, which lends support to attitudes used to justify violence. METHODS: We carried out classroom surveys of a total of 3122 students in the USA (Houston, TX, and Washington, DC) and in four European countries--Estonia (Tartu), Finland (Helsinki), Romania (Satu Mare) and the Russian Federation (St Petersburg). Data were also taken from a random sample telephone survey of 341 young adults (aged 18-35 years) in Texas, USA. Ten distinct groups were studied. Seven questions were common to all the surveys, using identical statements about the participants' agreement with attitudes relating to war, diplomacy, killing, and the punishment of children. FINDINGS: The US students were more likely than those in Europe to agree with the following statements: "War is necessary" (20% vs 9%), "A person has the right to kill to defend property" (54% vs 17%), and "Physical punishment is necessary for children" (27% vs 10%). Justification of war and killing was less common among females than males in all groups; other differences within the US groups and the European groups were smaller than the differences between the US and European groups. CONCLUSION: The results confirm the gap between the US and European groups in moral disengagement attitudes and tendencies that could lead to deadly violence. PMID:11417032
Olsson-Liljequist, Barbro; Kõljalg, Siiri; Karlsson, Inga; Kronvall, Göran
Single strain regression analysis, SRA, was used to calibrate disk diffusion fusidic acid susceptibility testing of Staphylococcus aureus in two laboratories using different standard methods but the same interpretative MIC limits. SRA equation constants were calculated using five different fusidic acid disk contents (1.5, 5, 15, 50, 150 microg). These disks were tested on five separate occasions against quality control strain S. aureus ATCC 29213. The National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (NCCLS) method was employed in Tartu, Estonia (TE) and the Swedish Reference Group for Antibiotics (SRGA) method in Sweden at the Karolinska Hospital (KS). SRA constants obtained were used for calculating zone breakpoints corresponding to MIC breakpoints recommended by the SRGA (S < or = 0.5 mg/L, R > or = 1 mg/L). Zone diameter histograms from KS, performed with a 50 microg disk, and from TE, using a 10 microg disk, showed a clustering of wild type strains around 41 mm and 30 mm, respectively, reflecting differences in methodology. Zone breakpoints calculated from the equations were validated by comparison with the histograms. Breakpoints were also calculated for a suggested lower disk content in Sweden, 10 microg, and validated in tests of clinical isolates and by histogram analysis.
Wittmann, Axel D.
During its apparition in 1835 Halley's comet reached its minimum distance from the earth (0.187 au) on 13 October in the constellation of Ursa Major. Telescopic visual observations were made, e.g., by F.W. Bessel at Königsberg and by F.G.W. Struve at Dorpat (Tartu). In particular a drawing made by Struve on 8 October of what he calls the `nucleus' and describes as a small, slightly yellowish glowing piece of coal of elongated shape bears such a striking resemblance to the images of Halley's nucleus obtained in 1986 by the Giotto spacecraft that it merits further examination: Could Struve, who had been using a 24.4 cm refractor at 254-fold magnification, possibly have observed the real nucleus? Closer examination shows that neither Struve's maximum possible resolution (0.13 arc seconds or 23 km at the comet), nor his measured size of the nucleus (160 x 400 km), nor his verbal description of the nucleus (as a bright object) support this idea: It rather seems that the term `nucleus' was used at the time for the brightest, innermost part of the coma. It is concluded that, nevertheless, Struve quite correctly envisaged the structure of the innermost coma, and to a considerable degree of accuracy anticipated the correct shape and structure of the nucleus (elongated, 1:2) and its localized sources of outstreaming gas.
Kõrv, Janika; Vibo, Riina
Estonia is the smallest of the three Baltic countries. The decline in incidence of first-ever stroke during the 1990s has left Tartu, Estonia with a relatively low stroke incidence. However, the incidence rates for younger age groups, and the 28-day case fatality rate are higher compared with several other studies. Developments in the national health care system in recent years have been positive: the decline of mortality rate of stroke in Estonia is greater than the European Union average. However, the mortality of cardiovascular diseases is higher compared with several European countries. The prevalence of most stroke risk factors is comparable with European Union countries, while atrial fibrillation is somewhat more frequent (30%) among the patients having suffered from ischemic stroke. The management of stroke in Estonia has been in accordance with European and national stroke guidelines. Stroke units are organized in regional and central hospitals in bigger cities. A well-developed and free ambulance service, and a high priority of stroke code, enable a quick transportation of patients to the nearest hospital providing thrombolytic therapy. The number of thrombolyzed stroke cases has increased since 2003. The Estonian Stroke Initiative was founded in 2008 to improve stroke care, promote regional networks, and increase stroke knowledge among the general population and medical professionals. Since then, several activities regarding stroke awareness have been organized.
Liba, N.; Berg-Jürgens, J.
Development of photogrammetry has reached a new level due to the use of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV). In Estonia, the main areas of use of UAVs are monitoring overhead power lines for energy companies and fields in agriculture, and estimating the use of stockpile in mining. The project was carried out by the order of the City of Tartu for future road construction. In this research, automation of UAV platform MUST Q aerial image processing and reduction of time spent on the use of ground control points (GCP) is studied. For that two projects were created with software Pix4D. First one was processed automatically without GCP. Second one did use GCP, but all the processing was done automatically. As the result of the project, two orthomosaics with the pixel size of 5 cm were composed. Projects allowed ensuring accuracy limit of three times of the pixel size. The project that turned out to be the most accurate was the one using ground control points to do the levelling, which remained within the error limit allowed and the accuracy of the orthomosaic was 0.132 m. The project that didn't use ground control points had the accuracy of 1.417 m.
Bero, Lisa A; Hill, Suzanne; Habicht, Jarno; Mathiesen, Mari; Starkopf, Joel
Clinical practice guidelines are one of the tools available to improve the quality of health care. However, it may be difficult for countries to develop their own national guidelines "from scratch" because of limitations in time, expertise, and financial resources. The Estonian Health Insurance Fund (EHIF), in collaboration with other stakeholders, has launched a national effort to develop and implement evidence-based clinical practice guidelines aimed at improving the quality of care. Although the first EHIF handbook for preparing guidelines was published in 2004, there has been wide variation in the format and quality of guidelines prepared by medical specialty societies, EHIF, and other organizations in Estonia. An additional challenge to guideline development in Estonia is that it is a country with limited human resources. Therefore, revision of the Estonian guideline process was aimed at developing an efficient method for adapting current high-quality guidelines to the Estonian setting without compromising their quality. In 2010, a comprehensive assessment of guideline development in Estonia was made by the World Health Organization, EHIF, the Medical Faculty at the University of Tartu, and selected national and international experts in an effort to streamline and harmonize the principles and processes of guideline development in Estonia. This study summarizes the evaluation of and revisions to the process. Estonia has made substantial changes in its processes of clinical practice guideline development and implementation as part of an overall program aiming for systematic quality improvement in health care. This experience may be relevant to other small or resource-limited countries.
Leedjärv, L.; Gális, R.; Hric, L.; Merc, J.; Burmeister, M.
Variations of the emission lines in the spectrum of the yellow symbiotic star AG Draconis (AG Dra) have been studied for over 14 yr (1997-2011), using more than 500 spectra obtained with the 1.5-m telescope at Tartu Observatory, Estonia. The time interval covered includes the major (cool) outburst of AG Dra that started in 2006. The main findings can be summarized as follows. (i) The cool and hot outbursts of AG Dra can be distinguished from the variations of optical emission lines. (ii) The Raman scattered emission line of O VI at λ6825 almost disappeared during the cool outburst. (iii) The lower excitation emission lines did not change significantly during the cool outburst, but they do vary in hot outbursts and also follow orbital motion. (iv) The similarity of variations in AG Dra to those in the prototypical symbiotic star Z Andromedae allows us to suggest that a combination nova model proposed for the latter object might also be responsible for the outburst behaviour of AG Dra.
Background The prevalence of unintended pregnancy in Kenya continues to be high. The 2003 Kenya Demographic and Health Survey (KDHS) showed that nearly 50% of unmarried women aged 15–19 and 45% of the married women reported their current pregnancies as mistimed or unwanted. The 2008–09 KDHS showed that 43% of married women in Kenya reported their current pregnancies were unintended. Unintended pregnancy is one of the most critical factors contributing to schoolgirl drop out in Kenya. Up to 13,000 Kenyan girls drop out of school every year as a result of unintended pregnancy. Unsafe pregnancy termination contributes immensely to maternal mortality which currently estimated at 488 deaths per 100 000 live births. In Kenya, the determinants of prevalence and determinants of unintended pregnancy among women in diverse social and economic situations, particularly in urban areas, are poorly understood due to lack of data. This paper addresses the prevalence and the determinants of unintended pregnancy among women in slum and non-slum settlements of Nairobi. Methods This study used the data that was collected among a random sample of 1262 slum and non-slum women aged 15–49 years in Nairobi. The data was analyzed using simple percentages and logistic regression. Results The study found that 24 percent of all the women had unintended pregnancy. The prevalence of unintended pregnancy was 21 per cent among women in slum settlements compared to 27 per cent among those in non-slum settlements. Marital status, employment status, ethnicity and type of settlement were significantly associated with unintended pregnancy. Logistic analysis results indicate that age, marital status and type of settlement had statistically significantly effects on unintended pregnancy. Young women aged 15–19 were significantly more likely than older women to experience unintended pregnancy. Similarly, unmarried women showed elevated risk for unintended pregnancy than ever-married women. Women in
Sternberg, Andris; Muzikante, Inta; Zicans, Janis
Conference photograph ERAF logo International Organizing Committee Andris Sternberg (chairperson), Institute of Solid State Physics, University of Latvia, Latvia, MATERA Juras Banys, Vilnius University, Lithuania Gunnar Borstel, University of Osnabrück, Germany Niels E Christensen, University of Aarhus, Denmark Robert A Evarestov, St. Petersburg State University, Russia Claes-Goran Granqvist, Uppsala University, Sweden Dag Høvik, The Research Council of Norway, Norway, MATERA Marco Kirm, Institute of Physics, University of Tartu, Estonia Vladislav Lemanov, Ioffe Physical Technical Institute, Russia Witold Lojkowski, Institute of High Pressure Physics, Poland Ergo Nommiste, University of Tartu, Estonia Helmut Schober, Institut Laue-Langevin, France Sisko Sipilä, Finnish Funding Agency for Technology and Innovation, Finland, MATERA Ingólfur Torbjörnsson, Icelandic Centre for Research, Iceland, MATERA Marcel H Van de Voorde, University of Technology Delft, The Netherlands International Program Committee Inta Muzikante (chairperson), Institute of Solid State Physics, University of Latvia, Latvia, MATERA Liga Berzina-Cimdina, Institute of Biomaterials and Biomechanics, Riga Technical University, Latvia Janis Grabis, Institute of Inorganic Chemistry, Riga Technical University, Latvia Leonid V Maksimov, Vavilov State Optical Institute, Russia Linards Skuja, Institute of Solid State Physics, University of Latvia, Latvia Maris Springis, Institute of Solid State Physics, University of Latvia, Latvia Ilmars Zalite, Institute of Inorganic Chemistry, Riga Technical University, Latvia Janis Zicans, Institute of Polymers, Riga Technical University Local Committee: Liga Grinberga, Anatolijs Sarakovskis, Jurgis Grube, Raitis Siatkovskis, Maris Kundzins, Anna Muratova, Maris Springis, Aivars Vembris, Krisjanis Smits, Andris Fedotovs, Dmitrijs Bocarovs, Anastasija Jozepa, Andris Krumins.
Suuster, Elsa; Astover, Alar; Kõlli, Raimo; Roostalu, Hugo; Reintam, Endla; Penu, Priit
Soil organic carbon (SOC) determines ecosystem functions, influencing soil fertility, soil physical, chemical and biological properties and crop productivity. Therefore the spatial pattern of SOC stocks and its appropriate management is important at various scales. Due to climate change and the contribution of carbon store in the soils, the national estimates of soil carbon stocks should be determined. Estonian soils have been well studied and mapped at a scale 1:10,000. Previous studies have estimated SOC stocks based on combinations of large groups of Estonian soils and the mean values of the soil profile database, but were not embedded into the geo-referenced databases. These studies have estimated SOC stocks of Estonian arable soils 122.3 Tg. Despite of available soil maps and databases, this information is still very poorly used for spatial soil modelling. The aim of current study is to assess and model spatial pattern of SOC stocks of arable soils on a pilot area Tartu County (area 3089 sq km). Estonian digital soil map and soil monitoring databases are providing a good opportunity to assess SOC stocks at various scales. The qualitative nature of the initial data from a soil map prohibits any straightforward use in modelling. Thus we have used several databases to construct models and linkages between soil properties that can be integrated into soil map. First step was to reorganize the soil map database (44,046 mapping units) so it can be used as an input to modelling. Arable areas were distinguished by a field layer of Agricultural Registers and Information Board, which provides precise information of current land use as it is the basis of paying CAP subsidies. The estimates of SOC content were found by using the arable land evaluation database of Tartu from the Estonian Land Board (comprising 950 sq km and 31,226 fields), where each soil type was assessed separately and average SOC content grouped by texture was derived. SOC content of epipedon varies in
Elser, Miriam; Bozzetti, Carlo; El-Haddad, Imad; Maasikmets, Marek; Teinemaa, Erik; Richter, Rene; Wolf, Robert; Slowik, Jay G.; Baltensperger, Urs; Prévôt, André S. H.
Air pollution is one of the main environmental concerns in urban areas, where anthropogenic emissions strongly affect air quality. This work presents the first spatially resolved detailed characterization of PM2.5 (particulate matter with aerodynamic equivalent diameter daero ≤ 2.5 µm) in two major Estonian cities, Tallinn and Tartu. The measurements were performed in March 2014 using a mobile platform. In both cities, the non-refractory (NR)-PM2.5 was characterized by a high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS) using a recently developed lens which increases the transmission of super-micron particles. Equivalent black carbon (eBC) and several trace gases including carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), and methane (CH4) were also measured. The chemical composition of PM2.5 was found to be very similar in the two cities. Organic aerosol (OA) constituted the largest fraction, explaining on average about 52 to 60 % of the PM2.5 mass. Four sources of OA were identified using positive matrix factorization (PMF): hydrocarbon-like OA (HOA, from traffic emissions), biomass burning OA (BBOA, from biomass combustion), residential influenced OA (RIOA, probably mostly from cooking processes with possible contributions from waste and coal burning), and oxygenated OA (OOA, related to secondary aerosol formation). OOA was the major OA source during nighttime, explaining on average half of the OA mass, while during daytime mobile measurements the OA was affected by point sources and dominated by the primary fraction. A strong increase in the secondary organic and inorganic components was observed during periods with transport of air masses from northern Germany, while the primary local emissions accumulated during periods with temperature inversions. Mobile measurements offered the identification of different source regions within the urban areas and the assessment of the extent to which pollutants concentrations exceeded regional background
Zanetti, Michael; Wilk, Jakob; Joeleht, Argo; Välja, Rudolf; Losiak, Anna; Wisniowski, Tomek; Huber, Matthew; Pavel, Kristiina; Kriiska, Aivar; Plado, Jüri; Geppert, Wolf Dietrich; Kukko, Antero; Kaartinen, Harri
Realworks software. A DEM, Hillshade, Slope Map and Contour Map were created in ESRI ArcScene software. Photogrammetry: Photogrammetric techniques from images of key outcrops were used to create texture, photorealistic 3D representations using Agisoft PhotoScan software. Acknowledgements: We extend our sincerest gratitude to the Estonian National Heritage Board for permission to dig and make measurements at the crater. References:  I.Kolkun (1922) Üldine geologia. Tallin, 170.  J. A.Reinwald (1933) Publications of the Geological Institution of the University of Tartu, 30:1-20.  J.A.Reinwald (1928) thesis; Univ of Tartu  L.J.Spencer (1938) Miner. Mag., 25:75-80.  A.Aaloe (1959) ENSV TA Geoloogia Instituudi Uurimused, 2:105-117.  A.Raukas et al. (2002) Impact Studies 2005, 341-355.
Ohvril, H.; Teral, H.; Neiman, L.; Kannel, Martin; Uustare, M.; Tee, M.; Russak, V.; Okulov, O.; Joeveer, A.; Kallis, A.; Ohvril, Tiiu; Terez, E.; Terez, G.; Gushchin, G.; Abakumova, G. M.; Gorbarenko, Ekaterina V.; Tsvetkov, Anatoly V.; Laulainen, Nels S.
Multiannual changes in atmospheric column transparency based on measurements of direct solar radiation allow us to assess various tendencies in climatic changes. Variability of the atmospheric integral (broadband) transparency coefficient, calculated according to the Bouguer-Lambert law and transformed to a solar elevation of 30°, is used for two Russian locations, Pavlovsk and Moscow, one Ukrainian location, Feodosiya, and three Estonian locations, Tartu, Tõravere, and Tiirikoja, covering together a 102-year period, 1906–2007. The comparison of time series revealed significant parallelism. Multiannual trends demonstrate decrease in transparency during the postwar period until 1983/1984. The trend ends with a steep decline of transparency after a series of four volcanic eruptions of Soufriere (1979), Saint Helens (1980), Alaid (1981), and El Chichón (1982). From 1984/1985 to 1990 the atmosphere remarkably restored its clarity, which almost reached again the level of the 1960s. Following the eruption of Mount Pinatubo (June 1991), there was the most significant reduction in column transparency of the postwar period. However, from the end of 1990s, the atmosphere in all considered locations is characterized with high values of transparency. The clearing of the atmosphere (from 1993) evidently indicates a decrease in the content of aerosol particles and, besides the decline of volcanic activity, may therefore be also traced to environmentally oriented changes in technology (pollution prevention), to general industrial and agricultural decline in the territory of the former USSR and Eastern Europe after deep political changes in 1991, and in part to migration of some industries out of Europe.
Stolin, A.; Abramov, V.; Fuchs, J.; Paal, E.; Shestopalov, Y.; Silvestrov, S.
This proceedings volume presents results obtained by the participants of the 6th Baltic-Nordic workshop 'Algebra, Geometry, and Mathematical Physics (AGMP-6)' held at the Sven Lovén Centre for Marine Sciences in Tjärnö, Sweden on October 25-30, 2010. The Baltic-Nordic Network AGMP 'Algebra, Geometry, and Mathematical Physics' http://www.agmp.eu was created in 2005 on the initiative of two Estonian universities and two Swedish universities: Tallinn University of Technology represented by Eugen Paal (coordinator of the network), Tartu University represented by Viktor Abramov, Lund University represented by Sergei Silvestrov, and Chalmers University of Technology and the University of Gothenburg represented by Alexander Stolin. The goal was to promote international and interdisciplinary cooperation between scientists and research groups in the countries of the Baltic-Nordic region in mathematics and mathematical physics, with special emphasis on the important role played by algebra and geometry in modern physics, engineering and technologies. The main activities of the AGMP network consist of a series of regular annual international workshops, conferences and research schools. The AGMP network also constitutes an important educational forum for scientific exchange and dissimilation of research results for PhD students and Postdocs. The network has expanded since its creation, and nowadays its activities extend beyond countries in the Baltic-Nordic region to universities in other European countries and participants from elsewhere in the world. As one of the important research-dissimilation outcomes of its activities, the network has a tradition of producing high-quality research proceedings volumes after network events, publishing them with various international publishers. The PDF also contains the following: List of AGMP workshops and other AGMP activities Main topics discussed at AGMP-6 Review of AGMP-6 proceedings Acknowledgments List of Conference Participants
Milani, L; Leitsalu, L; Metspalu, A
Milani L, Leitsalu L, Metspalu A (University of Tartu). An epidemiological perspective of personalized medicine: the Estonian experience (Review). J Intern Med 2015; 277: 188–200. The Estonian Biobank and several other biobanks established over a decade ago are now starting to yield valuable longitudinal follow-up data for large numbers of individuals. These samples have been used in hundreds of different genome-wide association studies, resulting in the identification of reliable disease-associated variants. The focus of genomic research has started to shift from identifying genetic and nongenetic risk factors associated with common complex diseases to understanding the underlying mechanisms of the diseases and suggesting novel targets for therapy. However, translation of findings from genomic research into medical practice is still lagging, mainly due to insufficient evidence of clinical validity and utility. In this review, we examine the different elements required for the implementation of personalized medicine based on genomic information. First, biobanks and genome centres are required and have been established for the high-throughput genomic screening of large numbers of samples. Secondly, the combination of susceptibility alleles into polygenic risk scores has improved risk prediction of cardiovascular disease, breast cancer and several other diseases. Finally, national health information systems are being developed internationally, to combine data from electronic medical records from different sources, and also to gradually incorporate genomic information. We focus on the experience in Estonia, one of several countries with national goals towards more personalized health care based on genomic information, where the unique combination of elements required to accomplish this goal are already in place. PMID:25339628
Background Information on the neonatal exposure to excipients is limited. Our aim was to describe the extent of excipient intake by Estonian neonates; to classify the excipients according to potential neonatal toxicity and thereby to measure the extent of exposure of neonates to potentially harmful excipients. Methods A prospective cohort study that recorded all medicines prescribed to patients aged below 28 days admitted to Tartu University Hospital from 01.02-01.08 2008 and to Tallinn Children’s Hospital from 01.02- 01.08 2009 was conducted. Excipients were identified from Summaries of Product Characteristics and classified according to toxicity following a literature review. Results 1961 prescriptions comprising 107 medicines were written for 348/490 neonates admitted. A total of 123 excipients were found in 1620 (83%) prescriptions and 93 (87%) medicines. 47 (38%) of these excipients were classified as potentially or known to be harmful to neonates. Most neonates (97%) received at least one medicine (median number 2) with potentially or known to be harmful excipient. Parabens were the most commonly used known to be harmful excipients and sodium metabisulphite the most commonly used potentially harmful excipient, received by 343 (99%) and 297 (85%) of treated neonates, respectively. Conclusions Hospitalised neonates in Estonia are commonly receiving a wide range of excipients with their medication. Quantitative information about excipients should be made available to pharmacists and neonatologists helping them to take into account excipient issues when selecting medicines and to monitor for adverse effects if administration of medicines containing excipients is unavoidable. PMID:22931304
Silm, Siiri; Ahas, Rein
We studied alcohol consumption and its consequences as a seasonal phenomenon in Estonia and analysed the social and environmental factors that may cause its seasonal rhythm. There are two important questions when researching the seasonality of human activities: (1) whether it is caused by natural or social factors, and (2) whether the impact of the factors is direct or indirect. Often the seasonality of social phenomena is caused by social factors, but the triggering mechanisms are related to environmental factors like temperature, precipitation, and radiation via the circannual calendar. The indicators of alcohol consumption in the current paper are grouped as: (1) pre-consumption phenomena, i.e. production, tax and excise, sales (beer, wine and vodka are analysed separately), and (2) post-consumption phenomena, i.e. alcohol-related crime and traffic accidents and the number of people detained in lockups and admitted to alcohol treatment clinics. In addition, seasonal variability in the amount of alcohol advertising has been studied, and a survey has been carried out among 87 students of Tartu University. The analysis shows that different phenomena related to alcohol have a clear seasonal rhythm in Estonia. The peak period of phenomena related to beer is in the summer, from June to August and the low point is during the first months of the year. Beer consumption correlates well with air temperature. The consumption of vodka increases sharply at the end of the year and in June; the production of vodka does not have a significant correlation with negative temperatures. The consumption of wine increases during summer and in December. The consequences of alcohol consumption, expressed as the rate of traffic accidents or the frequency of medical treatment, also show seasonal variability. Seasonal variability of alcohol consumption in Estonia is influenced by natural factors (temperature, humidity, etc.) and by social factors (celebrations, vacations, etc.). However
Today, forty 16-18 year old students and their teachers are concluding a one-week, educational `working visit' to the ESO Headquarters in Garching (See ESO Press Release 14/95 of 8 November 1995). They are the winners of the Europe-wide contest `Europe Towards the Stars', organised by ESO with the support of the European Union, under the auspices of the Third European Week for Scientific and Technological Culture. From November 14-20, they have worked with professional ESO astronomers in order to get insight into the methods and principles of modern astronomy and astrophysics, as carried out at one of the world's foremost international centres. This included very successful remote observations with the ESO 3.5-m New Technology Telescope (NTT) and the 1.4-m Coude Auxiliary Telescope (CAT) via a satellite link between the ESO Headquarters and the La Silla observatory in Chile, 12,000 kilometres away. After a general introduction to modern astronomy on the first day of the visit, the participants divided into six teams, according to their interests. Some chose to observe distant galaxies, others prefered to have a closer look on binary stars, and one team decided to investigate a star which is thought to be surrounded by a proto-planetary system. Each team was supported by an experienced ESO astronomer. Then followed the observations at the remote consoles during three nights, the first at the NTT and the following at the CAT. Each team had access to the telescope during half a night. Although the work schedule - exactly as in `real' science - was quite hard, especially during the following data reduction and interpretative phase, all teams managed extremely well and in high spirits. The young astronomers' observations were favoured by excellent atmospheric conditions. At the NTT, the seeing was better than 0.5 arcsecond during several hours, an exceptional value that allows very good images to be obtained. All observations represent solid and interesting science, and
Markova, N.; Prinja, R. K.; Markov, H.; Kolka, I.; Morrison, N.; Percy, J.; Adelman, S.
Aims: We provide a quantitative analysis of time-variable phenomena in the photospheric, near-star, and outflow regions of the late-B supergiant (SG) HD 199 478. This study aims to provide new perspectives on the nature of outflows in late-B SGs and on the influence of large-scale structures rooted at the stellar surface. Methods: The analysis is based primarily on optical spectroscopic datasets secured between 1999 and 2000 from the Bulgarian NAO, Tartu, and Ritter Observatories. The acquired time-series samples a wide range of weak metal lines, He i absorption, and both emission and absorption signatures in Hα. Non-LTE line synthesis modelling is conducted using FASTWIND for a strategic set of late-B SGs to constrain and compare their fundamental parameters within the context of extreme behaviour in the Hα lines. Results: The temporal behaviour of HD 199 478 is characterised by three key empirical properties: (i) systematic central velocity shifts in the photospheric absorption lines, including C ii and He i, over a characteristic time-scale of ~20 days; (ii) extremely strong, variable Hα emission with no clear modulation signal; and (iii) the occurrence in 2000 of a (rare) high-velocity absorption (HVA) event in Hα, which evolved over ~60 days, showing the clear signature of mass infall and outflows. In these properties HD 199 478 resembles few other late-B SGs with peculiar emission and HVAs in Hα (HD 91 619, HD 34 085, HD 96919). Different possibilities accounting for the phenomenon observed are indicated and briefly discussed. Conclusions: At the cooler temperature edge of B SGs, there are objects whose wind properties, as traced by Hα, are inconsistent with the predictions of the smooth, spherically symmetric wind approximation. This discordance is still not fully understood and may highlight the role of a non-spherical, disk-like, geometry, which may result from magnetically-driven equatorial compression of the gas. Ordered dipole magnetic fields may
Mikelsaar, Marika; Zilmer, Mihkel
The paper lays out the short scientific history and characteristics of the new probiotic Lactobacillus fermentum strain ME-3 DSM-14241, elaborated according to the regulations of WHO/FAO (2002). L. fermentum ME-3 is a unique strain of Lactobacillus species, having at the same time the antimicrobial and physiologically effective antioxidative properties and expressing health-promoting characteristics if consumed. Tartu University has patented this strain in Estonia (priority June 2001, patent in 2006), Russia (patent in 2006) and the USA (patent in 2007). The paper describes the process of the identification and molecular typing of this probiotic strain of human origin, its deposition in an international culture collection, and its safety assessment by laboratory tests and testing on experimental animals and volunteers. It has been established that L. fermentum strain ME-3 has double functional properties: antimicrobial activity against intestinal pathogens and high total antioxidative activity (TAA) and total antioxidative status (TAS) of intact cells and lysates, and it is characterized by a complete glutathione system: synthesis, uptake and redox turnover. The functional efficacy of the antimicrobial and antioxidative probiotic has been proven by the eradication of salmonellas and the reduction of liver and spleen granulomas in Salmonella Typhimurium-infected mice treated with the combination of ofloxacin and L. fermentum strain ME-3. Using capsules or foodstuffs enriched with L. fermentum ME-3, different clinical study designs (including double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover studies) and different subjects (healthy volunteers, allergic patients and those recovering from a stroke), it has been shown that this probiotic increased the antioxidative activity of sera and improved the composition of the low-density lipid particles (LDL) and post-prandial lipids as well as oxidative stress status, thus demonstrating a remarkable anti-atherogenic effect. The
Symbiotic stars are interacting binaries whose components are a red giant and a small hot star, usually a white dwarf. The intensive stellar wind from the giant is captured by the companion, giving rise to strong emission lines in the spectra and a range of phenomena, which may include the formation of an accretion disk and the ejection of collimated jets. In this thesis, four symbiotic stars, as different as possible, were chosen for a spectral investigation of the symbiotic phenomenon. Of those, Z Andromedae is a so-called classical symbiotic star with a hot companion that shows a characteristic pattern of brightenings (outbursts). AG Draconis is a bright system like Z Andromedae and shows similar activity, but has an unusually hot yellow donor star. CH Cygni and EG Andromedae have, on the contrary, relatively dim white dwarfs. The former shows irregular outbursts, the origin of which is not easy to explain, the latter is one of the quiet symbiotic stars with no outburst yet recorded. Each of those four stars was observed for at least ten years with the 1.5-m telescope at Tartu Observatory. Several outbursts of Z Andromedae and AG Draconis were witnessed, as well as substantial changes in the CH Cygni spectra. The perhaps most surprising result was the discovery of collimated jets in Z Andromedae spectra on two instances, an event never observed in this star before. In CH Cygni, evidence for the existence of an accretion disk in 1998 was discovered. EG Andromedae stayed quiet and the only changes in its spectra could be ascribed to orbital motion. We found that not all the outbursts of Z Andromedae and AG Draconis are accompanied by similar changes in the spectra: during some brightenings the stars become hotter, during some, cooler. The existence of the disk in CH Cygni in 1998 affirms that the formation of such a structure is possible in symbiotic stars. Moreover, as the ejection of jets is associated to an accretion disk, the jets in Z Andromedae can also be
Gaina, A.; Ionescu-Pallas, N. I.
It is well known, that the president of the first Moldavian Parliament in 1918 was Ion Inculetz (borne on 5 april, 1884, Rezeni vill., Lapusna county, Basarabia - died on 19 november 1940, Bucharest, regraved in Barnova, near Iasi). On 24 January 1918 this Parliament claimed the independence of Basarabia from the Russia (The Democratic Republic of Moldova). On 27 march of the same year in a solennele session the Parliament claimed "The Democratic Republic of Moldova (Basarabia) in its borders between Prut, Dniester rivers, Black Sea, and old borders with Austria, rupted by Russia more than one hundred years from the body of old Moldova, due to the historical right and due to the right of the selfdetermination of peoples, is unifying forever with She's mother Romania ". After the Unification Ion Inculetz activated as representative of Basarabia in the Romanian Parliament. He was a man of democratic views, a partisan of social-democracy in Russia, as well as in Romania after the unification. The progress of peoples was one of His main political goals. It is less known, however, that Inculetz was a remarkable physicist. This is the subject of the conference. After the finish of the secondary studies in Chisinau, He entered to Jur'ev (actually Tartu- Estonia) University Medecine Department, but after one year of studies He moved to Sankt-Petersburg Imperial University, where He specialized in physics and mathematics. After the finish of the Physical Mathematical Department he became private-docent (Associate Professor). Concomittantly He taught methematics at one of the comercial schhols in Sankt Petersburg. In the same time he was a Scientific Secretary of the journal "Nauchnoie Obozrenie" ("Scientific Review") and a researcher at the Meteorological Observatory in Sankt-Petersburg (since 1914). Since 1912 till 1917 He published a series of papers in the fields of physics and meteorology, particularly concerned to anodic rays, Krooks tubes, radiactivity, Doppler effect
irradiation levels on leaf surfaces for direct and diffuse incidence, thus (in theory) allowing more accurate calculation of potential photosynthesis rates. Similarly to the p-theory, the use of multiple spectral invariants facilitates easy parametrization of canopy structure and scaling between different structural levels (leaf-shoot-stand). Spectral invariant-based remote sensing approaches are well suited for relatively large pixels even when no detailed ground truth information is available. In a case study, the theory of multiple spectral invariants was applied to measured canopy scattering. Spectral reflectance and transmittance measurements were carried out in gray alder (Alnus incana) plantation at Tartu Observatory, Estonia, in August 2006. The equations produced by the theory of spectral invariants were fitted to measured radiation fluxes. Preliminary results indicate that quantities with invariant-like behavior may indeed be used to approximate canopy scattering directionality.
Mander, Ülo; Ligi, Teele; Truu, Marika; Truu, Jaak; Pärn, Jaan; Egorov, Sergey; Järveoja, Järvi; Vohla, Christina; Maddison, Martin; Soosaar, Kaido; Oopkaup, Kristjan; Teemusk, Alar; Preem, Jens-Konrad; Uuemaa, Evelyn
This study is aimed to analyse relationships between the environmental factors and the spatial distribution of the main functional genes nirS, nirK, and nosZ regulating the denitrification process. Variations in hydrological regime, soil temperature and peat quality have been taken into the consideration at both local and global scale. Measurements of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions using static chambers, groundwater analysis, gas and peat sampling for further laboratory analysis has been conducted in various peatlands in Iceland (two study areas, 2011), Transylvania/Romania (2012), Santa Catarina/Brazil (2012), Quebec/Canada (2012), Bashkortostan/Russian Federation (two study areas, 2012), Sichuan/China (2012), Estonia (two study areas, 2012), Florida/USA (2013, Sologne/France (2013), Jugra in West Siberia/Russia (2013), Uganda (2013), French Guyana (two study areas, 2013), Tasmania (two study areas, 2014) and New Zealand (two study areas, 2014). In each study area at least 2 transects along the groundwater depth gradient, one preferably in undisturbed, another one in drained area, and at least 3 rows of sampling sites (3-5 replicate chambers and 1 piezometer and soil sampling plot in each) in both has been established for studies. In each transect GHG emission was measured during 2-3 days in at least 5 sessions. In addition, organic sediments from the artificial riverine wetlands in Ohio/USA in 2009 and relevant gas emission studies have been used in the analyses. In the laboratories of Estonian University of Life Sciences and the University of Tartu, the peat chemical quality (pH, N, P, C, NH4, NO3) and N2O, CO2, and CH4 concentration in gas samples (50mL glass bottles and exetainers) were analysed. The peat samples for further pyrosequencing and qPCR analyses are stored in fridge by -22oC. This presentation will consider the variation of GHG emissions and hydrological conditions in the study sites. In addition, several selected biophysical factors will be taken
In section 1, a brief survey about the development of investigations in the field of nonrelativistic (NR) limits of solutions for Einstein's gravitational field equations in Tartu starting from the pioneering works by H.Keres [1-5] is presented. In sect.2, basic principles of the general approach to "NR analysis" of relativistic solutions of gravitational field equations elaborated by the author (see also [15-19,23]) are given. In sect 3, basic formulae of a new simple method (see [25-26]) for calculating Hansen's mass and current (angular momentum) s-pole moments of any asymptotically flat (AF) stationary axisymmetric (SAS) metric are presented. The formulae (3.17-18) that enable to determine the NR analogs of these relativistic AF SAS vacuum metrics may have the non-Newtonian NR limit,i.e., when current (angular momentum) s-pole moments are preserved in the NR limits well. In sect. 4, a combined method for calculating NR limits and multipole structure to analyse modern generation techniques of new exact AF SAS vacuum solutions of Einstein's equations is used. In this way, the change of the multipole structure and NR limit, induced by the generation procedure, will be determined, even without any explicit generation of solutions, and, under certain conditions, some recipes for the generation of solutions with the required relativistic and NR multipole structure can be obtained as well. Thereby, certain new ways of solving the problem formulated by H. Keres for generation new solutions with the required NR (Newtonian and non-Newtonian) limits are provided. Sect 5 gives explicit analytical formulae (3.1,5.16-27) for a new exact AF SAS vacuum metric obtained under certain restrictions (see(5.12)) by Neugebauer's generation method , in case N=1, when the seed solution is static and has the dipole term only (see formulae (4.4-5),(5.1-9)). After the generation has been carried out an Ehlers' transformation (see (3.14),(5.10)) is used. In octupole approximation, the
Shanskiy, Merrit; Krebstein, Kadri
The human influenced soils in urban areas are of prime importance to human populations. Also, it is becoming a trend that there is large increase in reclaimed lands and new users for old industrial areas. Very often the urban soils are heavily modified by different anthropogenic factors. Therefore, it makes it essential to collect the data and knowledge of urban soils in order to understand better how such soils can be managed, rehabilitated or reconditioned to support green infrastructure or urban agriculture. Although the soil organic carbon (SOC) is the largest carbon stock in terrestrial ecosystems and the carbon sequestration is a widely accepted soil function there is still few studies mapping the carbon stocks in urban areas using digital soil mapping techniques. For urban land-use planning and decision making in a process of green infrastructure sustainable development it is in major importance. The urban soils are often lacking sufficient amount of organic matter but they are degraded (compacted, builded, contaminated by construction debris, graded) making them unsuitable as a growing medium. Therefore, the use of certain green infrastructure practices and the development of urban agriculture can be challenging in an urban environment. The issue of assessing soil quality becomes two-fold: the health of the soil as a growing medium needs to be addressed as well as the possible contamination that may be present. Knowing the development history of a parcel is key to determining what type of soil testing should be done, if any, prior to redevelopment or reuse. For current, pilot scale study the soil sampling was carried out in Tartu, Estonia. The different microenvironments were determined inside of urban areas. Soils were collected from such a microenvironments as urban garden areas, parks, other green infrastructure elements. The soils were analyzed for main agrochemical and physical properties at the Estonian University of Life Sciences, laboratory of the
Sternberg, Andris; Grinberga, Liga; Sarakovskis, Anatolijs; Rutkis, Martins
The joint International Symposium RCBJSF-2014-FM&NT successfully has united two international events - 12th Russia/CIS/Baltic/Japan Symposium on Ferroelectricity (RCBJSF-12) and 9th International Conference Functional Materials and Nanotechnologies (FM&NT-2014). The RCBJSF symposium is a continuation of series of meetings on ferroelectricity, the first of which took place in Novosibirsk (USSR) in 1976. FM&NT conferences started in 2006 and have been organized by Institute of Solid State Physics, University of Latvia in Riga. In 2012 the International program committee decided to transform this conference into a traveling Baltic State conference and the FM&NT-2013 was organized by the Institute of Physics, University of Tartu, Estonia. In 2014 the joint international symposium RCBJSF-2014-FM&NT was organized by the Institute of Solid State Physics, University of Latvia and was part of Riga - 2014, the European Capital of Culture event. The purpose of the joint Symposium was to bring together scientists, students and high-level experts in solid state physics, materials science, engineering and related disciplines. The number of the registered participants from 26 countries was over 350. During the Symposium 128 high quality scientific talks (5 plenary, 42 invited, 81 oral) and over 215 posters were presented. All presentations were divided into 4 parallel sessions according to 4 main topics of the Symposium: Ferroelectricity, including ferroelectrics and multiferroics, pyroelectrics, piezoelectrics and actuators, integrated ferroelectrics, relaxors, phase transitions and critical phenomena. Multifunctional Materials, including theory, multiscale and multiphenomenal material modeling and simulation, advanced inorganic, organic and hybrid materials. Nanotechnologies, including progressive methods, technologies and design for production, investigation of nano- particles, composites, structures, thin films and coatings. Energy, including perspective materials and
Kauer, Karin; Tammik, Kerttu
The study aims were the chemical characterization of the soil organic matter and to find out whether the effect of the different plant species on the soil organic matter is possible to detect using the FTIR spectrometer. A special experiment was established in 1964 and initiated in Tartu, Estonia to study pedogenesis and its continuous development under grass-herbaceous vegetation on reddish-brown calcareous sandy loam moraine (BC-horizon) which was practically free from soil organic carbon (SOC) (1.28 g kg-1). There were three treatments: (i) without plants; (ii) grasses and white clover (Phleum pratense, Festuca pratensis, Poa Pratensis, Trifolium repens); (iii) hybrid lucerne (Medicago varia). In 2014 the soil samples were collected from the 0-20 cm depth, air dried and sieved to 1 mm. The content of the SOC was determined by Tjurin method. Also the FTIR spectra were obtained on a Nicolet 550 Magna-IR spectrometer equipped with OMNIC software. The SOC concentration in soil samples from the upper 20 cm of the profile responded significantly to 50 years of different treatments. Without plants the SOC content increased up to 3.5 g kg-1; in grasses-clover treatment up to 9.1 g kg-1 and in hybrid lucerne treatment up to 10.7 g kg-1. The FTIR transformation spectra of the soil from different treatment showed the same peak pattern. A sharp and intense band was recorded in the 1030 cm-1 region (polysaccharides and Si-O vibrations of clay minerals). Intense bands were recorded at 1630 cm-1 (C=O vibrations of carboxylates and aromatic vibrations) and 1450 cm-1 (CH and NH bending motions and carbon oxygen bond vibrations). The peaks at the 1630 and 1450 cm-1 were lower in soil without plants and higher in hybrid lucerne treatment. This indicates that the increase of SOC content is related to the increase of proportion of lignin, other aromatics and aliphatic carboxylates which have phenolic and aliphatic structure.
New policy concerning expanded European and non-European A&A memberships: It is now thirty-five years since the scientific journal Astronomy & Astrophysics (A&A) was founded by the merging of six national journals from four European nations, namely France, Germany, the Netherlands and Sweden; Belgium and the other Nordic countries, Denmark, Finland and Norway, also participated. They were subsequently joined by five other western European nations, namely Austria, Greece, Italy, Spain and Switzerland (Norway later withdrew). A&A has no international legal status as such but is represented by the European Southern Observatory (ESO), which also manages its financial transactions. In the early nineteen-nineties, A&A with great foresight took an important step - which the European Union would follow more than a decade later - by incorporating eastern European countries into its sponsoring membership: the Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland and the Slovak Republic; Estonia became a full member in 1998. A&A was now truly ``A European Journal", as then stated on the front cover. In the meantime, A&A grew in importance as a vehicle for world-wide dissemination of astronomical research and an ever-increasing number of high-quality papers began streaming into the A&A Editorial offices from non-European countries, as well as from other European non-member countries. It became obvious to us that A&A no longer was merely a European Journal and in 2001 we removed the ``A European Journal'' from the front cover. Eventually, some of these non-European countries began approaching us with queries about potential membership in A&A and in 2002 we admitted the first such country, Argentina, with an observer status. Meanwhile, the Board intensified its study of the financial and administrative consequences of a wider expansion including the admission of member countries beyond Europe - a special subcommittee was appointed. The Board of Directors, at its meeting in Tartu, Estonia on 8 May
Astover, Alar; Kõlli, Raimo; Wojciech Szajdak, Lech
Soil organic matter (SOM) is considered to be as the most important factor in soil forming, development and continuous functioning. Sequestrated into SOM organic carbon concentrations, pools and residence time in soil, as well acting intensity of interconnected with SOM edaphon are soil type specific or characteristic to certain soil types. In depending on soil moisture regime, calcareousness and clay content for each soil type certain soil organic carbon (SOC) retaining capacity and its vertical distribution pattern are characteristic. However, land use change (crop rotation, continuous cropping, no-tillage, melioration, rewetting) has greatest influence mainly on fabric of epipedon and biological functions of soil cover. Stagnic Albeluvisols are largely distributed at Tartu County. They form here more than half from arable soils. The establishment of long-term field trial and forest research area in these regions for biochemical analysis of Stagnic Albeluvisols' organic matter is in all respects justified. In 1989, an international long-term experiment on the organic nitrogen or IOSDV (Internationale Organische Stickstoffdauerdiingungsversuche) with three-field crop rotation (potato - spring wheat - spring barley) was started at Eerika near Tartu (58° 22.5' N; 26° 39.8' E) on Stagnic Albeluvisol. The main aims of this study were to determine the long-term effects of cropping systems on physico-chemical properties of soils and their productivity. The design of this field experiment is similar to other European network of IOSDV experiments. Before the establishment of this experiment in 1989 it was in set-aside state (5-6 years) as field-grass fallow. It was used as arable land in condition of state farm during 1957-83. Average agrochemical characteristics of the plough horizon of soil in the year of establishment were the following: humus content 17.1 g kg-1, total nitrogen content 0.9 g kg-1, C:N ratio 11 and pHKCl 6.3. DL soluble phosphorus content was 44 mg
Noormets, M.; Tonutare, T.; Kauer, K.; Szajdak, L.; Kolli, R.
Exhausted milled peat areas have been left behind as a result of decades-lasting intensive peat production in Estonia and Europe. According to different data there in Estonia is 10 000 - 15 000 ha of exhausted milled peat areas that should be vegetated. Restoration using Sphagnum species is most advantageous, as it creates ecological conditions closest to the natural succession towards a natural bog area. It is also thought that the large scale translocation of vegetation from intact bogs, as used in some Canadian restoration trials, is not applicable in most of European sites due to limited availability of suitable donor areas. Another possibility to reduce the CO2 emission in these areas is their use for cultivation of species that requires minimum agrotechnical measures exploitation. It is found by experiments that it is possible to establish on Vaccinium species for revegetation of exhausted milled peat areas. Several physiological activity of the plant is regulated by the number of phytohormones. These substances in low quantities move within the plant from a site of production to a site of action. Phytohormone, indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) is formed in soils from tryptophane by enzymatic conversion. This compound seems to play an important function in nature as result to its influence in regulation of plant growth and development. A principal feature of IAA is its ability to affect growth, development and health of plants. This compound activates root morphology and metabolic changes in the host plant. The physiological impact of this substance is involved in cell elongation, apical dominance, root initiation, parthenocarpy, abscission, callus formation and the respiration. The investigation areas are located in the county of Tartu (58Ë 22' N, 26Ë 43' E), in the southern part of Estonia. The soil of the experimental fields belongs according to the WRB soil classification, to the soils subgroups of Fibri-Dystric Histosols. The investigation areas were
Tauer, Pilvi; Vitsut, Ave; Mattisen, Malle; Sepp, Lii
other part of Estonia. * Soil and Waterbodies as Components of Ecosystems Both these projects - soil and waterbodies - involve meeting with scientists, practical investigation into these ecosystems and laboratory work at school, students' written studies and reports presented at a conference. The above mentioned projects were conducted under the supervision of young academics working at Estonian University of Life Sciences and the Museum of Soils in Tartu, as well as and the Limnology Centre at lake Võrtsjärv. Samples of soils were collected from Viljandi and some fields in the county to determine the texture , pH level, carbonates, content of organic matter, N-P-K level; conductivity and chemical absorption were studied also. In conclusion the soils in the town were in good condition, fertile, mostly sandy loam and lightly acid. As an outcome suggestions were given for garden projects. In the Limnology Centre at lake Võrtsjärv water samples were taken and conclusions drawn on the condition and hydrochemical characteristics and of the ecosystem of Estonia's second largest lake.
1. New A&A memberships and scientific editorial structure for the Letters section At its meeting in Tartu, Estonia on 8 May 2004, the A&A Board of Directors decided to grant observer status on the Board to Brazil, Chile, and Portugal (Sandqvist 2004, A&A, 426, E15). Then on 6-7 May 2005, at its meeting in La Laguna, Spain, the Board of Directors admitted these three countries to full membership in A&A, starting 1 January 2006. The Letters Editor, Dr. P. Schneider, will complete his terms of service on 31 January 2006. A&A is indebted to him for his thoughtful and competent editing over the past several years. As a consequence of his departure, the Board has decided to restructure the manner in which the Letters will be handled as of 1 January 2006. The Associate Editor-in-Chief, Dr. M. Walmsley, will also become Editor-in-Chief for the Letters, and he will forward the Letters to the appropriate topical Associate Editor to organize the reviewing process. Likewise, the Editor-in-Chief, Dr. C. Bertout, will become the Associate Letters-Editor-in-Chief. This change will permit a more specialized treatment of Letters in the future and also allow Letters to benefit from language editing. Hence, after 1 January 2006, manuscripts for Letters should be submitted via the A&A Manuscript Management System (MMS) that is already in place for Main Journal submissions. Letters submitted before that will be handled by the current Letters Editor even after 1 January 2006. 2. New Associate Editor positions Considering both the increased workload on the Associate Editors due to the above change and the continuing specialization of sub-fields in astronomy, the Board decided to open two new positions for Associate Editors, one specialized in Cosmology with a particular interest in theoretical aspects and the other in Observational Stellar Physics. Applications are invited for these two new positions. The Associate Editors are expected to have a broad knowledge of astronomy and
Han, Thang S; Correa, Elon; Lean, Michael E J; Lee, David M; O'Neill, Terrence W; Bartfai, György; Forti, Gianni; Giwercman, Aleksander; Kula, Krzysztof; Pendleton, Neil; Punab, Margus; Rutter, Martin K; Vanderschueren, Dirk; Huhtaniemi, Ilpo T; Wu, Frederick C W; Casanueva, Felipe F
Diversity in lifestyles and socioeconomic status among European populations, and recent socio-political and economic changes in transitional countries, may affect changes in adiposity. We aimed to determine whether change in the prevalence of obesity varies between the socio-politically transitional North-East European (Łódź, Poland; Szeged, Hungary; Tartu, Estonia), and the non-transitional Mediterranean (Santiago de Compostela, Spain; Florence, Italy) and North-West European (Leuven, Belgium; Malmö, Sweden; Manchester, UK) cities. This prospective observational cohort survey was performed between 2003 and 2005 at baseline and followed up between 2008 and 2010 of 3369 community-dwelling men aged 40-79 years. Main outcome measures in the present paper included waist circumference, body mass index and mid-upper arm muscle area. Baseline prevalence of waist circumference ≥ 102 cm and body mass index ≥ 30 kg/m(2), respectively, were 39.0, 29.5 % in North-East European cities, 32.4, 21.9 % in Mediterranean cities, and 30.0, 20.1 % in North-West European cities. After median 4.3 years, men living in cities from transitional countries had mean gains in waist circumference (1.1 cm) and body mass index (0.2 kg/m(2)), which were greater than men in cities from non-transitional countries (P = 0.005). North-East European cities had greater gains in waist circumference (1.5 cm) than in Mediterranean cities (P < 0.001). Over 4.3 years, the prevalence of waist circumference ≥ 102 cm had increased by 13.1 % in North-East European cities, 5.8 % in the Mediterranean cities, 10.0 % in North-West European cities. Odds ratios (95 % confidence intervals), adjusted for lifestyle factors, for developing waist circumference ≥ 102 cm, compared with men from Mediterranean cities, were 2.3 (1.5-3.5) in North-East European cities and 1.6 (1.1-2.4) in North-West European cities, and 1.6 (1.2-2.1) in men living in cities from
Allebrandt, Karla V; Teder-Laving, Maris; Kantermann, Thomas; Peters, Annette; Campbell, Harry; Rudan, Igor; Wilson, James F; Metspalu, Andres; Roenneberg, Till
Little is known about human entrainment under natural conditions, partly due to the complexity of human behavior, torn between biological and social time and influenced by zeitgebers (light-dark cycles) that are progressively "polluted" (and thereby weakened) by artificial light. In addition, data about seasonal variations in sleep parameters are scarce. We, therefore, investigated seasonal variation in cross-sectional assessments of sleep/wake times of 9765 subjects from four European populations (EGCUT = Estonian Genome Centre, University of Tartu in Estonia; KORA = Cooperative Health Research in the Region of Augsburg in Germany; KORCULA = The Korcula study in Croatia; and ORCADES = The Orkney Complex Disease Study in Scotland). We identified time-of-year dependencies for the distribution of chronotype (phase of entrainment assessed as the mid-sleep time point on free days adjusted for sleep deficit of workdays) in cohorts from Estonia (EGCUT) and Germany (KORA). Our results indicate that season (defined as daylight saving time - DST and standard zonetime periods - SZT) specifications of photoperiod influence the distribution of chronotype (adjusted for age and sex). Second, in the largest investigated sample, from Estonia (EGCUT; N = 5878), we could detect that seasonal variation in weekly average sleep duration was dependent on individual chronotype. Later chronotypes in this cohort showed significant variation in their average sleep duration across the year, especially during DST (1 h advance in social time from the end of March to end of October), while earlier chronotypes did not. Later chronotypes not only slept less during the DST period but the average chronotype of the population assessed during this period was earlier than during the SZT (local time for a respective time zone) period. More in detail, hierarchical multiple regression analyses showed that, beyond season of assessment (DST or SZT), social jetlag (SJl; the discrepancy
Tšuiko, O.; Nõukas, M.; Žilina, O.; Hensen, K.; Tapanainen, J.S.; Mägi, R.; Kals, M.; Kivistik, P.A.; Haller-Kikkatalo, K.; Salumets, A.; Kurg, A.
STUDY QUESTION Can spontaneous premature ovarian failure (POF) patients derived from population-based biobanks reveal the association between copy number variations (CNVs) and POF? SUMMARY ANSWER CNVs can hamper the functional capacity of ovaries by disrupting key genes and pathways essential for proper ovarian function. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY POF is defined as the cessation of ovarian function before the age of 40 years. POF is a major reason for female infertility, although its cause remains largely unknown. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION The current retrospective CNV study included 301 spontaneous POF patients and 3188 control individuals registered between 2003 and 2014 at Estonian Genome Center at the University of Tartu (EGCUT) biobank. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS DNA samples from 301 spontaneous POF patients were genotyped by Illumina HumanCoreExome (258 samples) and HumanOmniExpress (43 samples) BeadChip arrays. Genotype and phenotype information was drawn from the EGCUT for the 3188 control population samples, previously genotyped with HumanCNV370 and HumanOmniExpress BeadChip arrays. All identified CNVs were subjected to functional enrichment studies for highlighting the POF pathogenesis. Real-time quantitative PCR was used to validate a subset of CNVs. Whole-exome sequencing was performed on six patients carrying hemizygous deletions that encompass genes essential for meiosis or folliculogenesis. MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE Eleven novel microdeletions and microduplications that encompass genes relevant to POF were identified. For example, FMN2 (1q43) and SGOL2 (2q33.1) are essential for meiotic progression, while TBP (6q27), SCARB1 (12q24.31), BNC1 (15q25) and ARFGAP3 (22q13.2) are involved in follicular growth and oocyte maturation. The importance of recently discovered hemizygous microdeletions of meiotic genes SYCE1 (10q26.3) and CPEB1 (15q25.2) in POF patients was also corroborated. LIMITATIONS, REASONS FOR CAUTION This is a
Sternberg, Andris; Muzikante, Inta; Sarakovskis, Anatolijs; Grinberga, Liga
Organizing Committee sincerely hopes that the Conference gave all the participants new insights into the widespread development of functional materials and nanotechnologies and would enhance the circulation of the information released at the meeting. Inta Muzikante Andris Sternberg Liga Grinberga Anatolijs Sarakovskis Conference photograph The manuscripts are published thanks to the financial support from ERAF project 'Atbalsts starptautiskas sadarbibas projektiem zinatne un tehnologijas LU Cietvielu fizikas instituta' Nr.2010/0204/2DP/22.214.171.124.0./10/APIA/VIAA/010 Sponsors Sponsors flag Sponsors logo International Organizing Committee 1. Andris Sternberg (chairperson), Institute of Solid State Physics, University of Latvia, Latvia 2. Juras Banys, Vilnius University, Lithuania 3. Gunnar Borstel, University of Osnabrück, Germany 4. Niels E Christensen, University of Aarhus, Denmark 5. Robert A Evarestov, St. Petersburg State University, Russia 6. Claes-Goran Granqvist, Uppsala University, Sweden 7. Dag Høvik, The Research Council of Norway, Norway 8. Marco Kirm, Institute of Physics, University of Tartu, Estonia 9. Jiri Kulda, Institut Laue-Langevin, France 10. Witold Lojkowski, Institute of High Pressure Physics, Poland 11. Ergo Nommiste, University of Tartu, Estonia 12. Ingólfur Torbjörnsson, Icelandic Centre for Research, Iceland 13. Marcel H. Van de Voorde, University of Technology Delft, The Netherlands International Program Committee 1. Liga Grinberga (chairperson), Institute of Solid State Physics, University of Latvia, Latvia 2. Eugene Kotomin, Max Planck Institute for Solid State Research, Germany 3. Martins Rutkis, Institute of Solid State Physics, University of Latvia, Latvia 4. Inta Muzikante, Institute of Solid State Physics, University of Latvia, Latvia 5. Liga Berzina-Cimdina, Institute of Biomaterials and Biomechanics, Riga Technical University, Latvia 6. Janis Grabis, Institute of Inorganic Chemistry, Riga Technical University, Latvia 7. Linards Skuja
Punab, M.; Poolamets, O.; Paju, P.; Vihljajev, V.; Pomm, K.; Ladva, R.; Korrovits, P.; Laan, M.
STUDY QUESTION What are the primary causes of severe male factor infertility? SUMMARY ANSWER Although 40% of all patients showed primary causes of infertility, which could be subdivided into three groups based on the severity of their effect, ~75% of oligozoospermia cases remained idiopathic. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY There are few large-scale epidemiological studies analyzing the causes of male factor infertility. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION A prospective clinical-epidemiological study was conducted at the Andrology Centre, Tartu University Hospital between 2005 and 2013, recruiting male partners of couples failing to conceive a child for over ≥12 months. Among 8518 patients, 1737 (20.4%) were diagnosed with severe male factor infertility. A reference group of fertile controls was comprised of 325 partners of pregnant women. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS The mean age of infertility patients and fertile controls was 33.2 ± 7.3 and 31.7 ± 6.3 years, respectively. All participants were examined using a standardized andrology workup, accompanied by a structured medical interview. Hormonal analysis included serum FSH, LH and testosterone. Semen quality was determined in accordance to the World Health Organization recommendations. Cases with spermatozoa concentrations of ≤5 million/ml were screened for chromosomal aberrations and Y-chromosomal microdeletions. MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE The primary cause of infertility was defined for 695 of 1737 patients (~40%). The analyzed causal factors could be divided into absolute (secondary hypogonadism, genetic causes, seminal tract obstruction), severe (oncological diseases, severe sexual dysfunction) and plausible causal factors (congenital anomalies in uro-genital tract, acquired or secondary testicular damage). The latter were also detected for 11 (3.4%) men with proven fertility (diagnoses: unilateral cryptorchidism, testis cancer, orchitis, mumps orchitis). The causal factors behind the most