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Sample records for 16-ary quadrature amplitude

  1. A new 16-ary modulation for super-Nyquist-WDM systems: Dual-polarized quadrature duoquaternary (DP-QDQ) modulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Chun; Huang, Benxiong; Xu, Zhengguang; Li, Bin

    2015-12-01

    A partial-response-pulse-shaped 16-ary quadrature amplitude modulation (16QAM) format called quadrature duoquaternary (QDQ) modulation, which can achieve higher spectral efficiency than Nyquist-pulse-shaped 16QAM and realize super-Nyquist wavelength-division-multiplexing (WDM) transmission, is proposed. The dual-polarized QDQ (DP-QDQ) modulation principle and coherent reception based on digital signal processing (DSP) are presented. The performance of the DP-QDQ scheme is investigated in 32-GBaud super-Nyquist-WDM systems by simulation. The simulation results show that DP-QDQ has only a 1.3 dB optical-signal-to-noise-ratio (OSNR) penalty for the 28-GHz-spaced 5-channel super-Nyquist-WDM case relative to the single-channel case. Compared with Nyquist-pulse-shaped 16QAM, DP-QDQ not only has a higher spectral efficiency, but also a lower sensitivity to sampling time error and a better dispersion tolerance. The 28-GHz-spaced 5-channel super-Nyquist-WDM DP-QDQ system can successfully implement 1520-km transmission at the forward-error-correction (FEC) bit-error-rate (BER) requirements.

  2. Synchronization techniques for all digital 16-ary QAM receivers operating over land mobile satellite links

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fines, P.; Aghvami, A. H.

    1990-01-01

    The performance of a low bit rate (64 Kb/s) all digital 16-ary Differentially Encoded Quadrature Amplitude Modulation (16-DEQAM) demodulator operating over a mobile satellite channel, is considered. The synchronization and detection techniques employed to overcome the Rician channel impairments, are described. The acquisition and steady state performance of this modem, are evaluated by computer simulation over AWGN and RICIAN channels. The results verify the suitability of the 16-DEQAM transmission over slowly faded and/or mildly faded channels.

  3. Development of a coded 16-ary CPFSK coherent demodulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clarke, Ken; Davis, Robert; Roesch, Jim

    1988-01-01

    Theory and hardware are described for a proof-of-concept 16-ary continuous phase frequency shift keying (16-CPFSK) digital modem. The 16 frequencies are spaced every 1/16th baud rate for 2 bits/sec/Hz operation. Overall rate 3/4 convolutional coding is incorporated. The demodulator differs significantly from typical quadrature phase detector approaches in that phase is coherently measured by processing the baseband output of a frequency discriminator. Baud rate phase samples from the baseband processor are decoded to yield the original data stream. The method of encoding onto the 16-ary phase nodes, together with convolutional coding gain, results in near quad PSK (QPSK) performance. The modulated signal is of constant envelope; thus the power amplifier can be saturated for peak performance. The spectrum is inherently bandlimited and requires no RF filter.

  4. Double-Referential Holography and Spatial Quadrature Amplitude Modulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zukeran, Keisuke; Okamoto, Atsushi; Takabayashi, Masanori; Shibukawa, Atsushi; Sato, Kunihiro; Tomita, Akihisa

    2013-09-01

    We proposed a double-referential holography (DRH) that allows phase-detection without external additional beams. In the DRH, phantom beams, prepared in the same optical path as signal beams and preliminary multiplexed in a recording medium along with the signal, are used to produce interference fringes on an imager for converting a phase into an intensity distribution. The DRH enables stable and high-accuracy phase detection independent of the fluctuations and vibrations of the optical system owing to medium shift and temperature variation. Besides, the collinear arrangement of the signal and phantom beams leads to the compactness of the optical data storage system. We conducted an experiment using binary phase modulation signals for verifying the DRH operation. In addition, 38-level spatial quadrature amplitude modulation signals were successfully reproduced with the DRH by numerical simulation. Furthermore, we verified that the distributed phase-shifting method moderates the dynamic range consumption for the exposure of phantom beams.

  5. Modulator-free quadrature amplitude modulation signal synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zhixin; Kakande, Joseph; Kelly, Brian; O'Carroll, John; Phelan, Richard; Richardson, David J.; Slavík, Radan

    2014-12-01

    The ability to generate high-speed on-off-keyed telecommunication signals by directly modulating a semiconductor laser’s drive current was one of the most exciting prospective applications of the nascent field of laser technology throughout the 1960s. Three decades of progress led to the commercialization of 2.5 Gbit s-1-per-channel submarine fibre optic systems that drove the growth of the internet as a global phenomenon. However, the detrimental frequency chirp associated with direct modulation forced industry to use external electro-optic modulators to deliver the next generation of on-off-keyed 10 Gbit s-1 systems and is absolutely prohibitive for today’s (>)100 Gbit s-1 coherent systems, which use complex modulation formats (for example, quadrature amplitude modulation). Here we use optical injection locking of directly modulated semiconductor lasers to generate complex modulation format signals showing distinct advantages over current and other currently researched solutions.

  6. Modulator-free quadrature amplitude modulation signal synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhixin; Kakande, Joseph; Kelly, Brian; O’Carroll, John; Phelan, Richard; Richardson, David J.; Slavík, Radan

    2014-01-01

    The ability to generate high-speed on–off-keyed telecommunication signals by directly modulating a semiconductor laser’s drive current was one of the most exciting prospective applications of the nascent field of laser technology throughout the 1960s. Three decades of progress led to the commercialization of 2.5 Gbit s−1-per-channel submarine fibre optic systems that drove the growth of the internet as a global phenomenon. However, the detrimental frequency chirp associated with direct modulation forced industry to use external electro-optic modulators to deliver the next generation of on–off-keyed 10 Gbit s−1 systems and is absolutely prohibitive for today’s (>)100 Gbit s−1 coherent systems, which use complex modulation formats (for example, quadrature amplitude modulation). Here we use optical injection locking of directly modulated semiconductor lasers to generate complex modulation format signals showing distinct advantages over current and other currently researched solutions. PMID:25523757

  7. A Simple Approximation for the Symbol Error Rate of Triangular Quadrature Amplitude Modulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duy, Tran Trung; Kong, Hyung Yun

    In this paper, we consider the error performance of the regular triangular quadrature amplitude modulation (TQAM). In particular, using an accurate exponential bound of the complementary error function, we derive a simple approximation for the average symbol error rate (SER) of TQAM over Additive White Gaussian Noise (AWGN) and fading channels. The accuracy of our approach is verified by some simulation results.

  8. Flexible quadrature amplitude modulation with semiconductor optical amplifier and electroabsorption modulator.

    PubMed

    Schrenk, Bernhard; Dris, Stefanos; Bakopoulos, Paraskevas; Lazarou, Ioannis; Voigt, Karsten; Zimmermann, Lars; Avramopoulos, Hercules

    2012-08-01

    Optical quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) is experimentally demonstrated with a low-complexity modulator based on a semiconductor optical amplifier and electroabsorption modulator. Flexible amplitude/phase format transmission is achieved. The applicability of octary QAM for coherent optical access networks with sustainable 3 Gb/s per-user bandwidth is investigated for a long reach of 100 km, and its compatibility with a potentially high split is verified. PMID:22859139

  9. Instrument Reflections and Scene Amplitude Modulation in a Polychromatic Microwave Quadrature Interferometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dobson, Chris C.; Jones, Jonathan E.; Chavers, Greg

    2003-01-01

    A polychromatic microwave quadrature interferometer has been characterized using several laboratory plasmas. Reflections between the transmitter and the receiver have been observed, and the effects of including reflection terms in the data reduction equation have been examined. An error analysis which includes the reflections, modulation of the scene beam amplitude by the plasma, and simultaneous measurements at two frequencies has been applied to the empirical database, and the results are summarized. For reflection amplitudes around 1096, the reflection terms were found to reduce the calculated error bars for electron density measurements by about a factor of 2. The impact of amplitude modulation is also quantified. In the complete analysis, the mean error bar for high- density measurements is 7.596, and the mean phase shift error for low-density measurements is 1.2". .

  10. Performance of a Coded Non-Square Quadrature Amplitude Modulation Scheme over Fading Channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, L.; Divsalar, D.; Dolinar, S.

    2004-02-01

    It is shown that a non-square (NS) 2^(2n+1)-ary quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) can be decomposed into a single-parity-check (SPC) block encoder and a memoryless modulator with independent in-phase (I) and quadrature (Q) symbol mapping. When NS-2^(2n+1)-QAM is concatenated with a forward-error-correcting (FEC) code, iterative demodulation and decoding of the FEC code and the inherent SPC code of NS-2^(2n+1)-QAM exploits the modulation's inherent memory and its independent I- and Q-channel mapping and demapping. The capacity and the bit-/symbol-error-rate (BER/SER) performance of coded and uncoded NS-2^(2n+1)-QAM systems are given for both additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) channels and Rayleigh fading channels and are compared to those of other conventional 2^(2n+1)-ary systems. Simulation results show that, with iterative demodulation and decoding, coded NS-8QAM outperforms three conventional 8-ary systems by at least 0.65 dB on AWGN channels and by at least 0.57 dB on Rayleigh fading channels at BER = 10^(-5), when the FEC code is a concatenation of (15,11) Hamming codes with rate-1 accumulator codes, while coded NS-32QAM outperforms standard 32QAM by about 0.45 dB on AWGN channels and by about 0.27 dB on Rayleigh fading channels.

  11. Reconfigurable optical quadrature amplitude modulation converter/encoder using a tunable complex coefficient optical tapped delay line.

    PubMed

    Khaleghi, Salman; Chitgarha, Mohammad Reza; Yilmaz, Omer F; Tur, Moshe; Haney, Michael W; Langrock, Carsten; Fejer, Martin M; Willner, Alan E

    2013-05-15

    We experimentally demonstrate a reconfigurable optical converter/encoder for quadrature amplitude modulated (QAM) signals. The system utilizes nonlinear wavelength multicasting, conversion-dispersion delays, and simultaneous nonlinear multiplexing and sampling. We show baud rate tunability (31 and 20 Gbaud) and reconfigurable conversions from lower-order QAM signals to higher-order QAM signals (e.g., 64-QAM). PMID:23938882

  12. Digital services using quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) over CATV analog DWDM system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeh, JengRong; Selker, Mark D.; Trail, J.; Piehler, David; Levi, Israel

    2000-04-01

    Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexing (DWDM) has recently gained great popularity as it provides a cost effective way to increase the transmission capacity of the existing fiber cable plant. For a long time, Dense WDM was exclusively used for baseband digital applications, predominantly in terrestrial long haul networks and in some cases in metropolitan and enterprise networks. Recently, the performance of DWDM components and frequency-stabilized lasers has substantially improved while the costs have down significantly. This makes a variety of new optical network architectures economically viable. The first commercial 8- wavelength DWDM system designed for Hybrid Fiber Coax networks was reported in 1998. This type of DWDM system utilizes Sub-Carrier Multiplexing (SCM) of Quadrature Amplitude Modulated (QAM) signals to transport IP data digital video broadcast and Video on Demand on ITU grid lightwave carriers. The ability of DWDM to provide scalable transmission capacity in the optical layer with SCM granularity is now considered by many to be the most promising technology for future transport and distribution of broadband multimedia services.

  13. Amplitude and Transverse Quadrature Component Squeezing of Coherent Light in High Q Cavity by Injection of Atoms of Two-Photon Transition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cao, Chang-Qi

    1996-01-01

    The amplitude and transverse quadrature component squeezing of coherent light in high Q cavity by injection of atoms of two-photon transition are studied. The Golubev-Sokolov master equation and generating function approach are utilized to derive the exact variances of photon number and of transverse quadrature component as function of t. The correlation functions and power spectrums of photon number noise and of output photon current noise are also investigated.

  14. Symbol rate identification for auxiliary amplitude modulation optical signal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Junyu; Dong, Zhi; Huang, Zhiping; Zhang, Yimeng

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, we creatively propose and demonstrate a method for symbol rate identification (SRI) of auxiliary amplitude modulation (AAM) optical signal based on asynchronous delay-tap sampling (ADTS) and average magnitude difference function (AMDF). The method can accurately estimate symbol rate and has large transmission impairments tolerance. Furthermore, it can be realized in the digital signal processor (DSP) with low logical resources because of multiplication-free. In order to improve the accuracy of SRI, the peak to valley ratio (PTVR) of AMDF is introduced into our method for blind chromatic dispersion (CD) compensation. The results of the numerical simulations show that the overall maximum SRI error is smaller 0.079% for return-to-zero (RZ) on-off keying (OOK), RZ differential phase-shift keying (DPSK), RZ differential quadrature phase-shift keying (DQPSK) and RZ 16-ary quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) with 50% duty cycles.

  15. Detection and alignment of dual-polarization optical quadrature amplitude transmitter IQ and XY skews using reconfigurable interference.

    PubMed

    Yue, Yang; Zhang, Bo; Wang, Qiang; Lofland, Rob; O'Neil, Jason; Anderson, Jon

    2016-03-21

    Dual-polarization quadrature amplitude modulation (DP-QAM) is one of the feasible paths towards 100-Gb/s, 400-Gb/s and 1-Tb/s optical fiber communications systems. For DP-QAM transmitter, the time mismatch between the in-phase and quadrature (IQ) or x-polarized and y-polarized (XY) tributary channels is known as the IQ or XY skew. Large uncompensated IQ or XY skew can significantly degrade the optical fiber communications system performance. Sometimes, time-interleaved return-to-zero (RZ) DP signal is preferred with lower nonlinear polarization scattering induced penalty. In this work, detection and alignment of DP-QAM transmitter IQ and XY skews using reconfigurable interference is experimentally demonstrated. For IQ skew detection, a total dynamic range of 26.4 dB is achieved with ~1-dB power change for 0.5-ps skew from well alignment. For XY skew detection, it shows 23.2-dB dynamic range, and ~1.5-dB power change is achieved for 1-ps XY skew. Fast detection algorithm for arbitrary skew is also proposed and experimentally verified. The scheme is compatible with different modulation formats, flexible data sequences, and variable waveforms. PMID:27136859

  16. Quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) using binary-driven coupling-modulated rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karimelahi, Samira; Sheikholeslami, Ali

    2016-05-01

    We propose and fully analyze a compact structure for DAC-free pure optical QAM modulation. The proposed structure is the first ring resonator-based DAC-free QAM modulator reported in the literature, to the best of our knowledge. The device consists of two segmented add-drop Mach Zehnder interferometer-assisted ring modulators (MZIARM) in an IQ configuration. The proposed architecture is investigated based on the parameters from SOI technology where various key design considerations are discussed. We have included the loss in the MZI arms in our analysis of phase and amplitude modulation using MZIARM for the first time and show that the imbalanced loss results in a phase error. The output level linearity is also studied for both QAM-16 and QAM-64 not only based on optimizing RF segment lengths but also by optimizing the number of segments. In QAM-16, linearity among levels is achievable with two segments while in QAM-64 an additional segment may be required.

  17. Bounds and Simulation Results of 32-ary and 64-ary Quadrature Amplitude Modulation for Broadband-ISDN via Satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kifle, Muli; Vanderaar, Mark

    1994-01-01

    Union bounds and Monte Carlo simulation Bit-Error-Rate (BER) performance results are presented for various 32-ary and 64-ary Quadrature Amplitude Modulation (QAM) schemes. Filtered and unfiltered modulation formats are compared for the best packing arrangement in peak power limited systems. It is verified that circular constellations which populate as many symbols as possible at the peak magnitude offer the best performance. For example: a 32-ary QAM scheme based on concentric circles offers about 1.05 dB better peak power improvement at a BER of 10(exp -6) over the scheme optimized for average power using triangular symbol packing. This peak power improvement increases to 1.25 dB for comparable 64-ary QAM schemes. This work serves as a precursor to determine the feasibility of a combined modem/codec that can accommodate Broadband Integrated Services Digital Network (B-ISDN) at a rate of 155.52 Mbps through typical transponder bandwidths of 36 MHz and 54 MHz.

  18. Quadrature Mixer LO Leakage Suppression Through Quadrature DC Bias

    SciTech Connect

    BALDWIN, JESSE G; DUBBERT, DALE F.

    2002-05-01

    A new concept has been developed which allows direct-to-RF conversion of digitally synthesized waveforms. The concept named Quadrature Error Corrected Digital Waveform Synthesis (QECDWS) employs quadrature amplitude and phase predistortion to the complex waveform to reduce the undesirable quadrature image. Another undesirable product of QECDWS-based RF conversion is the Local Oscillator (LO) leakage through the quadrature upconverter (mixer). A common technique for reducing this LO leakage is to apply a quadrature bias to the mixer I and Q inputs. This report analyzes this technique through theory, lab measurement, and data analysis for a candidate quadrature mixer for Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) applications.

  19. Eight-state trellis-coded optical modulation with signal constellations of four-dimensional M-ary quadrature-amplitude modulation.

    PubMed

    Ishimura, Shota; Kikuchi, Kazuro

    2015-03-01

    We apply the eight-state trellis-coded modulation (TCM) using signal constellations of four-dimensional M-ary quadrature-amplitude modulation (4D-MQAM) to optical communication systems for the first time to our knowledge. In the TCM scheme, the free distance of the trellis diagram is equal to the minimum distance between constellation points in partitioned subsets, which enlarges the coding gain effectively. In fact, its asymptotic power efficiency is 3-dB larger than that of the set-partitioned 4D-MQAM (SP-4D-MQAM) format, while their spectral efficiencies are the same. Such theoretical predictions are confirmed through computer simulations on eight-state TCM with constellations of 4D-4QAM (i.e., 4D quadrature phase-shift keying: 4D-QPSK) and 4D-16QAM. In particular, eight-state TCM with 4D-QPSK constellations is practically important because of its simple encoder structure, relatively low computational cost, and high coding gain against dual-polarization QPSK (DP-QPSK) and SP-4D-QPSK. Through measurements of its bit-error rate (BER) performance, we confirm that the coding gain against DP-QPSK is about 3 dB at BER=10(-3). PMID:25836886

  20. Receiver Architecture for 12.5 Gb/s 16-ary Pulse Position Modulation (PPM) Signaling

    SciTech Connect

    Mendez, A J; Gagliardi, R M; Hernandez, V J; Bennett, C V

    2008-07-11

    PPM is a signaling scheme that enables the transmission of multiple bits per symbol [1]. It has found favor in the regime of free space optical communications ('FSO' or 'Lasercom'); however, PPM has yet to be widely applied to fiber optic-based communications. Its limitation in fiber results from the exceedingly high bandwidth requirements needed to electronically process a directly detected pulse, especially as the symbol rate increases and the pulse width correspondingly decreases. As a solution, we introduced the concept of a virtual quadrant receiver for receiving 1.25 Gb/s 4-ary PPM, where photonic processing reduced the number of required electronic components [2]. In this paper, we extend these photonic process techniques to a 16-ary, 12.5 Gb/s (10 Gb/s plus 8B/10B line coding) PPM communications system for fiber optic avionics, wherein much of the receiver processing is enabled by techniques based on planar lightwave circuits (PLCs). The architecture is applicable to higher input data rates and M-ary PPM. In the following, we present the PPM encoding and decoding architectures and numerically simulated results.

  1. Performance analysis of 100 Gb/s polarization division multiplexed differential quadrature phase shift keying payload with spectral amplitude code labels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jin; Cao, Yongsheng; Chen, Fushen

    2015-01-01

    We present the performance analysis of a spectral amplitude code labeled system with 100 Gb/s polarization division multiplexed (PDM) differential quadrature phase shift keying payload in simulation. Direct detection is chosen to demodulate the PDM payload by applying a polarization tracker, while 4-bits of the 156 Mb/s spectral amplitude code label is coherently detected with a scheme of frequency-swept coherent detection. We optimize the payload laser linewidth as well as the frequency spacing between the payload and label. For back-to-back system and 96 km transmission, label eye opening factors are 0.95 and 0.94, respectively, while payload optical signal-to-noise ratios are 20.6 dB and 22.0 dB, and the payload received optical powers are -15.0 dBm and -14.5 dBm for a bit error rate value of 10-9. The results show that both the payload and label have good transmission performances after long-haul transmission in a standard single mode fiber and dispersion compensating fiber, and the payload could be well demodulated after 288 km transmission.

  2. Amplitude and phase modulated 8-ary and 16-ary multilevel signaling technologies for high-speed optical fiber communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kikuchi, Nobuhiko

    2005-11-01

    The optical multilevel modulation is one of the attractive candidates to significantly increase the channel bit rate and total capacity of future optical fiber communications. We review various multilevel modulation schemes proposed to date, including our experimental results of the 8-level and 16-level APSK modulation/demodulation schemes at 10 Gsymbol/s. We also discuss the advantages and disadvantages, and future issues of the optical multilevel modulation schemes.

  3. Positive quadrature formulas III

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peherstorfer, Franz

    2008-12-01

    First we discuss briefly our former characterization theorem for positive interpolation quadrature formulas (abbreviated qf), provide an equivalent characterization in terms of Jacobi matrices, and give links and applications to other qf, in particular to Gauss-Kronrod quadratures and recent rediscoveries. Then for any polynomial t_n which generates a positive qf, a weight function (depending on n ) is given with respect to which t_n is orthogonal to mathbb{P}_{n-1} . With the help of this result an asymptotic representation of the quadrature weights is derived. In general the asymptotic behaviour is different from that of the Gaussian weights. Only under additional conditions do the quadrature weights satisfy the so-called circle law. Corresponding results are obtained for positive qf of Radau and Lobatto type.

  4. Analog quadrature signal to phase angle data conversion by a quadrature digitizer and quadrature counter

    DOEpatents

    Buchenauer, C.J.

    1981-09-23

    The quadrature phase angle phi (t) of a pair of quadrature signals S/sub 1/(t) and S/sub 2/(t) is digitally encoded on a real time basis by a quadrature digitizer for fractional phi (t) rotational excursions and by a quadrature up/down counter for full phi (t) rotations. The pair of quadrature signals are of the form S/sub 1/(t) = k(t) sin phi (t) and S/sub 2/(t) = k(t) cos phi (t) where k(t) is a signal common to both. The quadrature digitizer and the quadrature up/down counter may be used together or singularly as desired or required. Optionally, a digital-to-analog converter may follow the outputs of the quadrature digitizer and the quadrature up/down counter to provide an analog signal output of the quadrature phase angle phi (t).

  5. Analog quadrature signal to phase angle data conversion by a quadrature digitizer and quadrature counter

    DOEpatents

    Buchenauer, C. Jerald

    1984-01-01

    The quadrature phase angle .phi.(t) of a pair of quadrature signals S.sub.1 (t) and S.sub.2 (t) is digitally encoded on a real time basis by a quadrature digitizer for fractional .phi.(t) rotational excursions and by a quadrature up/down counter for full .phi.(t) rotations. The pair of quadrature signals are of the form S.sub.1 (t)=k(t) sin .phi.(t) and S.sub.2 (t)=k(t) cos .phi.(t) where k(t) is a signal common to both. The quadrature digitizer and the quadrature up/down counter may be used together or singularly as desired or required. Optionally, a digital-to-analog converter may follow the outputs of the quadrature digitizer and the quadrature up/down counter to provide an analog signal output of the quadrature phase angle .phi.(t).

  6. Quadrature wavelength scanning interferometry.

    PubMed

    Moschetti, Giuseppe; Forbes, Alistair; Leach, Richard K; Jiang, Xiang; O'Connor, Daniel

    2016-07-10

    A novel method to double the measurement range of wavelength scanning interferometery (WSI) is described. In WSI the measured optical path difference (OPD) is affected by a sign ambiguity, that is, from an interference signal it is not possible to distinguish whether the OPD is positive or negative. The sign ambiguity can be resolved by measuring an interference signal in quadrature. A method to obtain a quadrature interference signal for WSI is described, and a theoretical analysis of the advantages is reported. Simulations of the advantages of the technique and of signal errors due to nonideal quadrature are discussed. The analysis and simulation are supported by experimental measurements to show the improved performances. PMID:27409307

  7. Gaussian quadrature for sums

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monien, H.

    2010-04-01

    Gaussian quadrature is a well-known technique for numerical integration. Recently Gaussian quadrature with respect to discrete measures corresponding to finite sums has found some new interest. In this paper we apply these ideas to infinite sums in general and give an explicit construction for the weights and abscissae of Gaussian formulas. The abscissae of the Gaussian summation have a very interesting asymptotic distribution function with a kink singularity. We apply the Gaussian summation technique to two problems which have been discussed in the literature. We find that the Gaussian summation has a very rapid convergence rate for the Hardy-Littlewood sum for a large range of parameters.

  8. Quadrature, Interpolation and Observability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hodges, Lucille McDaniel

    1997-01-01

    Methods of interpolation and quadrature have been used for over 300 years. Improvements in the techniques have been made by many, most notably by Gauss, whose technique applied to polynomials is referred to as Gaussian Quadrature. Stieltjes extended Gauss's method to certain non-polynomial functions as early as 1884. Conditions that guarantee the existence of quadrature formulas for certain collections of functions were studied by Tchebycheff, and his work was extended by others. Today, a class of functions which satisfies these conditions is called a Tchebycheff System. This thesis contains the definition of a Tchebycheff System, along with the theorems, proofs, and definitions necessary to guarantee the existence of quadrature formulas for such systems. Solutions of discretely observable linear control systems are of particular interest, and observability with respect to a given output function is defined. The output function is written as a linear combination of a collection of orthonormal functions. Orthonormal functions are defined, and their properties are discussed. The technique for evaluating the coefficients in the output function involves evaluating the definite integral of functions which can be shown to form a Tchebycheff system. Therefore, quadrature formulas for these integrals exist, and in many cases are known. The technique given is useful in cases where the method of direct calculation is unstable. The condition number of a matrix is defined and shown to be an indication of the the degree to which perturbations in data affect the accuracy of the solution. In special cases, the number of data points required for direct calculation is the same as the number required by the method presented in this thesis. But the method is shown to require more data points in other cases. A lower bound for the number of data points required is given.

  9. Optically controlled quadrature coupler on silicon substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhadauria, Avanish; Sharma, Sonia; Sonania, Shikha; Akhtar, Jamil

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, we have proposed and studied an optically controlled quadrature coupler fabricated on silicon substrate. The optically controlled quadrature coupler can be realized by terminating its coupled or through ports by optically induced load. Simulation and experimental results show that by varying optical intensity, we can control the phase and amplitude of output RF signal and can realize optically controlled reflection type attenuator, reflection type phase-shifter and ultrafast switches. The new kind of proposed device can be useful for ultra-fast signal processing and modulation schemes in high speed communication especially in QPSK modulation. The optical control has several advantages over conventional techniques such as MEMS and other semiconductor switching, which have several inherent disadvantages and limitations like low response time, low power handling capacity, device parasitic and non-linearity.

  10. Using a 1.2 GHz bandwidth reflective semiconductor optical amplifier with seeding light by 64-quadrature amplitude modulation orthogonal frequency division multiplexing modulation to achieve a 10-gbits/s upstream rate in long-reach passive optical network access

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeh, Chien-Hung; Chen, Hsing-Yu; Chow, Chi-Wai; Wu, Yu-Fu

    2012-01-01

    We use a commercially available 1.2 GHz bandwidth reflective semiconductor optical amplifier (RSOA)--based optical network unit (ONU) to achieve 10-gbits/s upstream traffic for an optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) long-reach passive optical network (LR-PON). This is the first time the 64--quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) OFDM format has been applied to RSOA-ONU to achieve a 75 km fiber transmission length. In the proposed LR-PON, the upstream power penalty of 5.2 dB at the bit error rate of 3.8×10-3 is measured by using a 64-QAM OFDM modulation after the 75 km fiber transmission without dispersion compensation.

  11. Regenerative Fourier transformation for dual-quadrature regeneration of multilevel rectangular QAM.

    PubMed

    Sorokina, Mariia; Sygletos, Stylianos; Ellis, Andrew; Turitsyn, Sergei

    2015-07-01

    We propose a new nonlinear optical loop mirror based configuration capable of regenerating regular rectangular quadrature amplitude modulated (QAM) signals. The scheme achieves suppression of noise distortion on both signal quadratures through the realization of two orthogonal regenerative Fourier transformations. Numerical simulations show the performance of the scheme for high constellation complexities (including 256-QAM formats). PMID:26125381

  12. Quadrature mixture LO suppression via DSW DAC noise dither

    DOEpatents

    Dubbert, Dale F.; Dudley, Peter A.

    2007-08-21

    A Quadrature Error Corrected Digital Waveform Synthesizer (QECDWS) employs frequency dependent phase error corrections to, in effect, pre-distort the phase characteristic of the chirp to compensate for the frequency dependent phase nonlinearity of the RF and microwave subsystem. In addition, the QECDWS can employ frequency dependent correction vectors to the quadrature amplitude and phase of the synthesized output. The quadrature corrections cancel the radars' quadrature upconverter (mixer) errors to null the unwanted spectral image. A result is the direct generation of an RF waveform, which has a theoretical chirp bandwidth equal to the QECDWS clock frequency (1 to 1.2 GHz) with the high Spurious Free Dynamic Range (SFDR) necessary for high dynamic range radar systems such as SAR. To correct for the problematic upconverter local oscillator (LO) leakage, precision DC offsets can be applied over the chirped pulse using a pseudo-random noise dither. The present dither technique can effectively produce a quadrature DC bias which has the precision required to adequately suppress the LO leakage. A calibration technique can be employed to calculate both the quadrature correction vectors and the LO-nulling DC offsets using the radar built-in test capability.

  13. Digital quadrature phase detection

    DOEpatents

    Smith, J.A.; Johnson, J.A.

    1992-05-26

    A system for detecting the phase of a frequency or phase modulated signal that includes digital quadrature sampling of the frequency or phase modulated signal at two times that are one quarter of a cycle of a reference signal apart, determination of the arctangent of the ratio of a first sampling of the frequency or phase modulated signal to the second sampling of the frequency or phase modulated signal, and a determination of quadrant in which the phase determination is increased by 2[pi] when the quadrant changes from the first quadrant to the fourth quadrant and decreased by 2[pi] when the quadrant changes from the fourth quadrant to the first quadrant whereby the absolute phase of the frequency or phase modulated signal can be determined using an arbitrary reference convention. 6 figs.

  14. Digital quadrature phase detection

    DOEpatents

    Smith, James A.; Johnson, John A.

    1992-01-01

    A system for detecting the phase of a frequency of phase modulated signal that includes digital quadrature sampling of the frequency or phase modulated signal at two times that are one quarter of a cycle of a reference signal apart, determination of the arctangent of the ratio of a first sampling of the frequency or phase modulated signal to the second sampling of the frequency or phase modulated signal, and a determination of quadrant in which the phase determination is increased by 2.pi. when the quadrant changes from the first quadrant to the fourth quadrant and decreased by 2.pi. when the quadrant changes from the fourth quadrant to the first quadrant whereby the absolute phase of the frequency or phase modulated signal can be determined using an arbitrary reference convention.

  15. Wave-Based Inversion & Imaging for the Optical Quadrature Microscope

    SciTech Connect

    Lehman, S K

    2005-10-27

    The Center for Subsurface Sensing & Imaging System's (CenSSIS) Optical Quadrature Microscope (OQM) is a narrow band visible light microscope capable of measuring both amplitude and phase of a scattered field. We develop a diffraction tomography, that is, wave-based, scattered field inversion and imaging algorithm, for reconstructing the refractive index of the scattering object.

  16. Optimized quadrature surface coil designs

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Ananda; Bottomley, Paul A.

    2008-01-01

    Background Quadrature surface MRI/MRS detectors comprised of circular loop and figure-8 or butterfly-shaped coils offer improved signal-to-noise-ratios (SNR) compared to single surface coils, and reduced power and specific absorption rates (SAR) when used for MRI excitation. While the radius of the optimum loop coil for performing MRI at depth d in a sample is known, the optimum geometry for figure-8 and butterfly coils is not. Materials and methods The geometries of figure-8 and square butterfly detector coils that deliver the optimum SNR are determined numerically by the electromagnetic method of moments. Figure-8 and loop detectors are then combined to create SNR-optimized quadrature detectors whose theoretical and experimental SNR performance are compared with a novel quadrature detector comprised of a strip and a loop, and with two overlapped loops optimized for the same depth at 3 T. The quadrature detection efficiency and local SAR during transmission for the three quadrature configurations are analyzed and compared. Results The SNR-optimized figure-8 detector has loop radius r8 ∼ 0.6d, so r8/r0 ∼ 1.3 in an optimized quadrature detector at 3 T. The optimized butterfly coil has side length ∼ d and crossover angle of ≥ 150° at the center. Conclusions These new design rules for figure-8 and butterfly coils optimize their performance as linear and quadrature detectors. PMID:18057975

  17. Length Scales in Bayesian Automatic Adaptive Quadrature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adam, Gh.; Adam, S.

    2016-02-01

    Two conceptual developments in the Bayesian automatic adaptive quadrature approach to the numerical solution of one-dimensional Riemann integrals [Gh. Adam, S. Adam, Springer LNCS 7125, 1-16 (2012)] are reported. First, it is shown that the numerical quadrature which avoids the overcomputing and minimizes the hidden floating point loss of precision asks for the consideration of three classes of integration domain lengths endowed with specific quadrature sums: microscopic (trapezoidal rule), mesoscopic (Simpson rule), and macroscopic (quadrature sums of high algebraic degrees of precision). Second, sensitive diagnostic tools for the Bayesian inference on macroscopic ranges, coming from the use of Clenshaw-Curtis quadrature, are derived.

  18. Radio frequency path characterization for wide band quadrature amplitude modulation

    SciTech Connect

    Bracht, R.

    1998-12-31

    Remote, high speed, high explosive wave front monitoring requires very high bandwidth telemetry to allow transmission of diagnostic data before the explosion destroys the sensor system itself. The main motivation for this study is that no known existing implementation of this sort has been applied to realistic weapons environments. These facts have prompted the research and gathering of data that can be used to extrapolate towards finding the best modulation method for this application. In addition to research of similar existing analysis and testing operations, data was recently captured from a Joint Test Assembly (JTA) Air Launched Cruise Missile (ALCM) flight.

  19. Quadrature formulas for Fourier coefficients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bojanov, Borislav; Petrova, Guergana

    2009-09-01

    We consider quadrature formulas of high degree of precision for the computation of the Fourier coefficients in expansions of functions with respect to a system of orthogonal polynomials. In particular, we show the uniqueness of a multiple node formula for the Fourier-Tchebycheff coefficients given by Micchelli and Sharma and construct new Gaussian formulas for the Fourier coefficients of a function, based on the values of the function and its derivatives.

  20. Microwave photonic quadrature filter based on an all-optical programmable Hilbert transformer.

    PubMed

    Huang, Thomas X H; Yi, Xiaoke; Minasian, Robert A

    2011-11-15

    A microwave photonic quadrature filter, new to our knowledge, based on an all-optical Hilbert transformer is presented. It is based on mapping of a Hilbert transform transfer function between the optical and electrical domains, using a programmable Fourier-domain optical processor and high-speed photodiodes. The technique enables the realization of an extremely wide operating bandwidth, tunable programmable bandwidth, and a highly precise amplitude and phase response. Experimental results demonstrate a microwave quadrature filter from 10 to 20 GHz, which achieves an amplitude imbalance of less than ±0.23 dB and a phase imbalance of less than ±0.5°. PMID:22089590

  1. Error Analysis of Quadrature Rules. Classroom Notes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glaister, P.

    2004-01-01

    Approaches to the determination of the error in numerical quadrature rules are discussed and compared. This article considers the problem of the determination of errors in numerical quadrature rules, taking Simpson's rule as the principal example. It suggests an approach based on truncation error analysis of numerical schemes for differential…

  2. Parametric generation of quadrature squeezing of mirrors in cavity optomechanics

    SciTech Connect

    Liao, Jie-Qiao; Law, C. K.

    2011-03-15

    We propose a method to generate quadrature-squeezed states of a moving mirror in a Fabry-Perot cavity. This is achieved by exploiting the fact that when the cavity is driven by an external field with a large detuning, the moving mirror behaves as a parametric oscillator. We show that parametric resonance can be reached approximately by modulating the driving field amplitude at a frequency matching the frequency shift of the mirror. The parametric resonance leads to an efficient generation of squeezing, which is limited by the thermal noise of the environment.

  3. A generalized discrepancy and quadrature error bound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hickernell, F. J.

    1998-01-01

    An error bound for multidimensional quadrature is derived that includes the Koksma-Hlawka inequality as a special case. This error bound takes the form of a product of two terms. One term, which depends only on the integrand, is defined as a generalized variation. The other term, which depends only on the quadrature rule, is defined as a generalized discrepancy. The generalized discrepancy is a figure of merit for quadrature rules and includes as special cases the L-p-star discrepancy and P-alpha that arises in the study of lattice rules.

  4. Gaussian quadrature formulae for arbitrary positive measures.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Andrew D; Atchley, William R

    2006-01-01

    We present computational methods and subroutines to compute Gaussian quadrature integration formulas for arbitrary positive measures. For expensive integrands that can be factored into well-known forms, Gaussian quadrature schemes allow for efficient evaluation of high-accuracy and -precision numerical integrals, especially compared to general ad hoc schemes. In addition, for certain well-known density measures (the normal, gamma, log-normal, Student's t, inverse-gamma, beta, and Fisher's F) we present exact formulae for computing the respective quadrature scheme. PMID:19455218

  5. Photonic microwave quadrature filter with low phase imbalance and high signal-to-noise ratio performance.

    PubMed

    Cao, Yuan; Chan, Erwin H W; Wang, Xudong; Feng, Xinhuan; Guan, Bai-ou

    2015-10-15

    A photonic microwave quadrature filter is presented. It has a very simple structure, very low phase imbalance, and high signal-to-noise ratio performance. Experimental results are presented that demonstrate a photonic microwave quadrature filter with a 3 dB operating frequency range of 10.5-26.5 GHz, an amplitude and phase imbalance of less than ±0.3  dB and ±0.15°, and a signal-to-noise ratio of more than 121 dB in a 1 Hz noise bandwidth. PMID:26469589

  6. Antenna-array, phase quadrature tracking system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cubley, H. D.

    1970-01-01

    Phase relationship between input signals appearing on widely-spaced parallel connected antenna elements in array is automatically adjusted in phase quadrature tracking system. Compact and lightweight design permit use in wide variety of airborne communications networks.

  7. Structured eigenvalue problems for rational gauss quadrature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fasino, Dario; Gemignani, Luca

    2007-08-01

    The connection between Gauss quadrature rules and the algebraic eigenvalue problem for a Jacobi matrix was first exploited in the now classical paper by Golub and Welsch (Math. Comput. 23(106), 221?230, 1969). From then on many computational problems arising in the construction of (polynomial) Gauss quadrature formulas have been reduced to solving direct and inverse eigenvalue problems for symmetric tridiagonals. Over the last few years (rational) generalizations of the classical Gauss quadrature formulas have been studied, i.e., formulas integrating exactly in spaces of rational functions. This paper wants to illustrate that stable and efficient procedures based on structured numerical linear algebra techniques can also be devised for the solution of the eigenvalue problems arising in the field of rational Gauss quadrature.

  8. Calculates Angular Quadrature Weights and Cosines.

    1988-02-18

    DSNQUAD calculates the angular quadrature weights and cosines for use in CCC-254/ANISN-ORNL. The subroutines in DSNQUAD were lifted from the XSDRN-PM code, which is supplied with the CCC-475/ SCALIAS-77 package.

  9. Past and Future SOHO-Ulysses Quadratures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suess, Steven; Poletto, G.

    2006-01-01

    With the launch of SOHO, it again became possible to carry out quadrature observations. In comparison with earlier observations, the new capabilities of coronal spectroscopy with UVCS and in situ ionization state and composition with Ulysses/SWICS enabled new types of studies. Results from two studies serve as examples: (i) The acceleration profile of wind from small coronal holes. (ii) A high-coronal reconnecting current sheet as the source of high ionization state Fe in a CME at Ulysses. Generally quadrature observations last only for a few days, when Ulysses is within ca. 5 degrees of the limb. This means luck is required for the phenomenon of interest to lie along the radial direction to Ulysses. However, when Ulysses is at high southern latitude in winter 2007 and high northern latitude in winter 2008, there will be unusually favorable configurations for quadrature observations with SOHO and corresponding bracketing limb observations from STEREO A/B. Specifically, Ulysses will be within 5 degrees of the limb from December 2006 to May 2007 and within 10 degrees of the limb from December 2007 to May 2008. These long-lasting quadratures and bracketing STEREO A/B observations overcome the limitations inherent in the short observation intervals of typical quadratures. Furthermore, ionization and charge state measurements like those on Ulysses will also be made on STEREO and these will be essential for identification of CME ejecta - one of the prime objectives for STEREO.

  10. Quadrature formulae for problems in mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milovanović, Gradimir V.; Igić, Tomislav; Tončev, Novica

    2012-09-01

    The fast progress in recent years in symbolic computation and variable-precision arithmetic provide a possibility for generating the recursion coefficients in the three-term recurrence relation for orthogonal polynomials with respect to several nonclassical weight functions, as well as the construction of the corresponding quadrature rules of Gaussian type. Such quadratures are very important in many applications in engineering (fracture mechanics, damage mechanics, etc.), as well as in other computational and applied sciences. The boundary element method (BEM), finite element method (FEM), methods for solving integral equations, etc. very often require the numerical evaluation of one dimensional or multiple integrals with singular or near singular integrands with a high precision. In this paper we give some improvements of quadrature rules of Gaussian type with logarithmic and/or algebraic singularities. A numerical examples is included.

  11. Summation Paths in Clenshaw-Curtis Quadrature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adam, S.; Adam, Gh.

    2016-02-01

    Two topics concerning the use of Clenshaw-Curtis quadrature within the Bayesian automatic adaptive quadrature approach to the numerical solution of Riemann integrals are considered. First, it is found that the efficient floating point computation of the coefficients of the Chebyshev series expansion of the integrand is to be done within a mathematical structure consisting of the union of coefficient families ordered into complete binary trees. Second, the scrutiny of the decay rates of the involved even and odd rank Chebyshev expansion coefficients with the increase of their rank labels enables the definition of Bayesian decision paths for the advancement to the numerical output.

  12. Composite Gauss-Legendre Quadrature with Error Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prentice, J. S. C.

    2011-01-01

    We describe composite Gauss-Legendre quadrature for determining definite integrals, including a means of controlling the approximation error. We compare the form and performance of the algorithm with standard Newton-Cotes quadrature. (Contains 1 table.)

  13. Runge-Kutta based generalized convolution quadrature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez-Fernandez, Maria; Sauter, Stefan

    2016-06-01

    We present the Runge-Kutta generalized convolution quadrature (gCQ) with variable time steps for the numerical solution of convolution equations for time and space-time problems. We present the main properties of the method and a convergence result.

  14. Gauss-Laguerre interval quadrature rule

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milovanovic, Gradimir V.; Cvetkovic, Aleksandar S.

    2005-10-01

    In this paper we prove the existence and uniqueness of the Gaussian interval quadrature formula with respect to the generalized Laguerre weight function. An algorithm for numerical construction has also investigated and some suitable solutions are proposed. A few numerical examples are included.

  15. Error Bounds for Quadrature Methods Involving Lower Order Derivatives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engelbrecht, Johann; Fedotov, Igor; Fedotova, Tanya; Harding, Ansie

    2003-01-01

    Quadrature methods for approximating the definite integral of a function f(t) over an interval [a,b] are in common use. Examples of such methods are the Newton-Cotes formulas (midpoint, trapezoidal and Simpson methods etc.) and the Gauss-Legendre quadrature rules, to name two types of quadrature. Error bounds for these approximations involve…

  16. Accurate cell counts in live mouse embryos using optical quadrature and differential interference contrast microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warger, William C., II; Newmark, Judith A.; Zhao, Bing; Warner, Carol M.; DiMarzio, Charles A.

    2006-02-01

    Present imaging techniques used in in vitro fertilization (IVF) clinics are unable to produce accurate cell counts in developing embryos past the eight-cell stage. We have developed a method that has produced accurate cell counts in live mouse embryos ranging from 13-25 cells by combining Differential Interference Contrast (DIC) and Optical Quadrature Microscopy. Optical Quadrature Microscopy is an interferometric imaging modality that measures the amplitude and phase of the signal beam that travels through the embryo. The phase is transformed into an image of optical path length difference, which is used to determine the maximum optical path length deviation of a single cell. DIC microscopy gives distinct cell boundaries for cells within the focal plane when other cells do not lie in the path to the objective. Fitting an ellipse to the boundary of a single cell in the DIC image and combining it with the maximum optical path length deviation of a single cell creates an ellipsoidal model cell of optical path length deviation. Subtracting the model cell from the Optical Quadrature image will either show the optical path length deviation of the culture medium or reveal another cell underneath. Once all the boundaries are used in the DIC image, the subtracted Optical Quadrature image is analyzed to determine the cell boundaries of the remaining cells. The final cell count is produced when no more cells can be subtracted. We have produced exact cell counts on 5 samples, which have been validated by Epi-Fluorescence images of Hoechst stained nuclei.

  17. Uniform positive-weight quadratures for discrete ordinate transport calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Carew, J.F.; Zamonsky, G.

    1999-02-01

    Mechanical quadratures that allow systematic improvement and solution convergence are derived for application of the discrete ordinates method to the Boltzmann transport equation. the quadrature directions are arranged on n latitudinal levels, are uniformly distributed over the unit sphere, and have positive weights. Both a uniform and equal-weight quadrature set UE{sub n} and a uniform and Gauss-weight quadrature set UG{sub n} are derived. These quadratures have the advantage over the standard level-symmetric LQ{sub n} quadrature sets in that the weights are positive for all orders, and the solution may be systematically converged by increasing the order of the quadrature set. As the order of the quadrature is increased the points approach a uniform continuous distribution on the unit sphere and the quadrature is invariant with respect to spatial rotations. The numerical integrals converge for continuous functions as the order of the quadrature is increased. Numerical calculations were performed to evaluate the application of the UE{sub n} quadrature set. Comparisons of the exact moments and those calculated using the UE{sub n} quadrature set demonstrate that the moment integrals are performed accurately except for distributions that are very sharply peaked along the direction of the polar axis. A series of DORT transport calculations of the >1-Mev neutron flux for a typical reactor core/pressure vessel geometry were also carried out. These calculations employed the UE{sub n} (n = 6, 10, 12, 18, and 24) quadratures and indicate that the UE{sub n} solutions have converged to within {approximately}0.5%. The UE{sub 24} solutions were also found to be more accurate than the calculations performed with the S{sub 16} level-symmetric quadratures.

  18. Exponential fitting quadrature rule for functional equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardone, A.; Paternoster, B.; Santomauro, G.

    2012-09-01

    A Gaussian quadrature rule for periodic integrand function is presented. The weights and nodes depend on the frequency of the problem and they are constructed by following the exponential fitting theory. The composite rule based on this formula is derived. The analysis of the error is carried out and it proves that the exponentially fitted Gaussian rule is more accurate than the classical Gauss-Legendre rule when oscillatory functions are treated. Some numerical tests are presented.

  19. Modeling of optical quadrature microscopy for imaging mouse embryos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warger, William C., II; DiMarzio, Charles A.

    2008-02-01

    Optical quadrature microscopy (OQM) has been shown to provide the optical path difference through a mouse embryo, and has led to a novel method to count the total number of cells further into development than current non-toxic imaging techniques used in the clinic. The cell counting method has the potential to provide an additional quantitative viability marker for blastocyst transfer during in vitro fertilization. OQM uses a 633 nm laser within a modified Mach-Zehnder interferometer configuration to measure the amplitude and phase of the signal beam that travels through the embryo. Four cameras preceded by multiple beamsplitters record the four interferograms that are used within a reconstruction algorithm to produce an image of the complex electric field amplitude. Here we present a model for the electric field through the primary optical components in the imaging configuration and the reconstruction algorithm to calculate the signal to noise ratio when imaging mouse embryos. The model includes magnitude and phase errors in the individual reference and sample paths, fixed pattern noise, and noise within the laser and detectors. This analysis provides the foundation for determining the imaging limitations of OQM and the basis to optimize the cell counting method in order to introduce additional quantitative viability markers.

  20. Tools for detecting entanglement between different degrees of freedom in quadrature squeezed cylindrically polarized modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabriel, C.; Aiello, A.; Berg-Johansen, S.; Marquardt, Ch.; Leuchs, G.

    2012-07-01

    Quadrature squeezed cylindrically polarized modes contain entanglement not only in the polarization and spatial electric field variables but also between these two degrees of freedom [C. Gabriel et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 060502 (2011)]. In this paper we present tools to generate and detect this entanglement. Experimentally we demonstrate the generation of quadrature squeezing in cylindrically polarized modes by mode transforming a squeezed Gaussian mode. Specifically, -1.2 dB ± 0.1 dB of amplitude squeezing are achieved in the radially and azimuthally polarized mode. Furthermore, theoretically it is shown how the entanglement contained within these modes can be measured and how strong the quantum correlations are, depending on the measurement scheme.

  1. Gauss Legendre Quadrature Formulae for Tetrahedra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rathod, H. T.; Venkatesudu, B.; Nagaraja, K. V.

    2005-09-01

    In this paper we consider the Gauss Legendre quadrature method for numerical integration over the standard tetrahedron: {(x, y, z)|0 = x, y, z = 1, x + y + z = 1} in the Cartesian three-dimensional (x, y, z) space. The mathematical transformation from the (x, y, z) space to (?, ?, ?) space is described to map the standard tetrahedron in (x, y, z) space to a standard 2-cube: {(?, ?, ?)| - 1 = ?, ?,? = 1} in the (?, ?, ?) space. This overcomes the difficulties associated with the derivation of new weight co-efficients and sampling points. The effectiveness of the formulae is demonstrated by applying them to the integration of three nonpolynomial and three polynomial functions.

  2. Positive interpolatory quadrature formulas and para-orthogonal polynomials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bultheel, Adhemar; Daruis, Leyla; Gonzalez-Vera, Pablo

    2005-07-01

    We establish a relation between quadrature formulas on the interval [-1,1] that approximate integrals of the form and Szego quadrature formulas on the unit circle that approximate integrals of the form . The functions [mu](x) and [omega]([theta]) are assumed to be weight functions on [-1,1] and [-[pi],[pi

  3. Correlated quadratures of resonance fluorescence and the generalized uncertainty relation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnoldus, Henk F.; George, Thomas F.; Gross, Rolf W. F.

    1994-01-01

    Resonance fluorescence from a two-state atom has been predicted to exhibit quadrature squeezing below the Heisenberg uncertainty limit, provided that the optical parameters (Rabi frequency, detuning, laser linewidth, etc.) are chosen carefully. When the correlation between two quadratures of the radiation field does not vanish, however, the Heisenberg limit for quantum fluctuations might be an unrealistic lower bound. A generalized uncertainty relation, due to Schroedinger, takes into account the possible correlation between the quadrature components of the radiation, and it suggests a modified definition of squeezing. We show that the coherence between the two levels of a laser-driven atom is responsible for the correlation between the quadrature components of the emitted fluorescence, and that the Schrodinger uncertainty limit increases monotonically with the coherence. On the other hand, the fluctuations in the quadrature field diminish with an increasing coherence, and can disappear completely when the coherence reaches 1/2, provided that certain phase relations hold.

  4. Method of differential-phase/absolute-amplitude QAM

    DOEpatents

    Dimsdle, Jeffrey William

    2007-07-03

    A method of quadrature amplitude modulation involving encoding phase differentially and amplitude absolutely, allowing for a high data rate and spectral efficiency in data transmission and other communication applications, and allowing for amplitude scaling to facilitate data recovery; amplitude scale tracking to track-out rapid and severe scale variations and facilitate successful demodulation and data retrieval; 2.sup.N power carrier recovery; incoherent demodulation where coherent carrier recovery is not possible or practical due to signal degradation; coherent demodulation; multipath equalization to equalize frequency dependent multipath; and demodulation filtering.

  5. Method of differential-phase/absolute-amplitude QAM

    DOEpatents

    Dimsdle, Jeffrey William

    2008-10-21

    A method of quadrature amplitude modulation involving encoding phase differentially and amplitude absolutely, allowing for a high data rate and spectral efficiency in data transmission and other communication applications, and allowing for amplitude scaling to facilitate data recovery; amplitude scale tracking to track-out rapid and severe scale variations and facilitate successful demodulation and data retrieval; 2.sup.N power carrier recovery; incoherent demodulation where coherent carrier recovery is not possible or practical due to signal degradation; coherent demodulation; multipath equalization to equalize frequency dependent multipath; and demodulation filtering.

  6. Method of differential-phase/absolute-amplitude QAM

    DOEpatents

    Dimsdle, Jeffrey William

    2007-07-17

    A method of quadrature amplitude modulation involving encoding phase differentially and amplitude absolutely, allowing for a high data rate and spectral efficiency in data transmission and other communication applications, and allowing for amplitude scaling to facilitate data recovery; amplitude scale tracking to track-out rapid and severe scale variations and facilitate successful demodulation and data retrieval; 2.sup.N power carrier recovery; incoherent demodulation where coherent carrier recovery is not possible or practical due to signal degradation; coherent demodulation; multipath equalization to equalize frequency dependent multipath; and demodulation filtering.

  7. Method of differential-phase/absolute-amplitude QAM

    DOEpatents

    Dimsdle, Jeffrey William

    2007-10-02

    A method of quadrature amplitude modulation involving encoding phase differentially and amplitude absolutely, allowing for a high data rate and spectral efficiency in data transmission and other communication applications, and allowing for amplitude scaling to facilitate data recovery; amplitude scale tracking to track-out rapid and severe scale variations and facilitate successful demodulation and data retrieval; 2.sup.N power carrier recovery; incoherent demodulation where coherent carrier recovery is not possible or practical due to signal degradation; coherent demodulation; multipath equalization to equalize frequency dependent multipath; and demodulation filtering.

  8. Method of differential-phase/absolute-amplitude QAM

    DOEpatents

    Dimsdle, Jeffrey William

    2009-09-01

    A method of quadrature amplitude modulation involving encoding phase differentially and amplitude absolutely, allowing for a high data rate and spectral efficiency in data transmission and other communication applications, and allowing for amplitude scaling to facilitate data recovery; amplitude scale tracking to track-out rapid and severe scale variations and facilitate successful demodulation and data retrieval; 2.sup.N power carrier recovery; incoherent demodulation where coherent carrier recovery is not possible or practical due to signal degradation; coherent demodulation; multipath equalization to equalize frequency dependent multipath; and demodulation filtering.

  9. New formalism for two-photon quantum optics. I - Quadrature phases and squeezed states. II - Mathematical foundation and compact notation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caves, C. M.; Schumaker, B. L.

    1985-01-01

    A new formalism for analyzing two-photon devices, such as parametric amplifiers and phase-conjugate mirrors, is proposed in part I, focusing on the properties and the significance of the quadrature-phase amplitudes and two-mode squeezed states. Time-stationary quasi-probability noise is also detailed for the case of Gaussian noise, and uncertainty principles for the quadrature-phase amplitudes are outlined, as well as some important properties of the two-mode states. Part II establishes a mathematical foundation for the formalism, with introduction of a vector notation for compact representation of two-mode properties. Fundamental unitary operators and special quantum states are also examined with an emphasis on the two-mode squeezed states. The results are applied to a previously studied degenerate limit (epsilon = 0).

  10. Two-frequency-dependent Gauss quadrature rules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Kyung Joong

    2005-02-01

    We construct two-frequency-dependent Gauss quadrature rules which can be applied for approximating the integration of the product of two oscillatory functions with different frequencies [beta]1 and [beta]2 of the forms,yi(x)=fi,1(x) cos([beta]ix)+fi,2(x) sin([beta]ix), i=1,2,where the functions fi,j(x) are smooth. A regularization procedure is presented to avoid the singularity of the Jacobian matrix of nonlinear system of equations which is induced as one frequency approaches the other frequency. We provide numerical results to compare the accuracy of the classical Gauss rule and one- and two-frequency-dependent rules.

  11. The May 1997 SOHO-Ulysses Quadrature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suess, Steven T.; Poletto, G.; Romoli, M.; Neugebauer, M.; Goldstein, B. E.; Simnett, G.

    2000-01-01

    We present results from the May 1997 SOHO-Ulysses quadrature, near sunspot minimum. Ulysses was at 5.1 AU, 100 north of the solar equator, and off the east limb. It was, by chance, also at the very northern edge of the streamer belt. Nevertheless, SWOOPS detected only slow, relatively smooth wind and there was no direct evidence of fast wind from the northern polar coronal hole or of mixing with fast wind. LASCO images show that the streamer belt at 10 N was narrow and sharp at the beginning and end of the two week observation interval, but broadened in the middle. A corresponding change in density, but not flow speed, occurred at Ulysses. Coronal densities derived from UVCS show that physical parameters in the lower corona are closely related to those in the solar wind, both over quiet intervals and in transient events on the limb. One small transient observed by both LASCO and UVCS is analyzed in detail.

  12. Quadrature conductivity: A quantitative indicator of bacterial abundance in porous media

    SciTech Connect

    Chi Zhang; Andre Revil; Yoshiko Fujita; Junko Munakata-Marr; George Redden

    2014-09-01

    ABSTRACT The abundance and growth stages of bacteria in subsurface porous media affect the concentrations and distributions of charged species within the solid-solution interfaces. Therefore, spectral induced polarization (SIP) measurements can be used to monitor changes in bacterial biomass and growth stage. Our goal was to gain a better understanding of the SIP response of bacteria present in a porous material. Bacterial cell surfaces possess an electric double layer and therefore become polarized in an electric field. We performed SIP measurements over the frequency range of 0.1–1 kHz on cell suspensions alone and cell suspensions mixed with sand at four pore water conductivities. We used Zymomonas mobilis at four different cell densities (in- cluding the background). The quadrature conductivity spectra exhibited two peaks, one around 0.05–0.10 Hz and the other around 1–10 Hz. Because SIP measurements on bacterial suspensions are typically made at frequencies greater than 1 Hz, these peaks have not been previously reported. In the bac-terial suspensions in growth medium, the quadrature conduc-tivity at peak I was linearly proportional to the density of the bacteria. For the case of the suspensions mixed with sands, we observed that peak II presented a smaller increase in the quadrature conductivity with the cell density. A comparison of the experiments with and without sand grains illustrated the effect of the porous medium on the overall quadrature con- ductivity response (decrease in the amplitude and shift of the peaks to the lower frequencies). Our results indicate that for a given porous medium, time-lapse SIP has potential for mon- itoring changes in bacterial abundance within porous media.

  13. Power flow control using quadrature boosters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadanandan, Sandeep N.

    A power system that can be controlled within security constraints would be an advantage to power planners and real-time operators. Controlling flows can lessen reliability issues such as thermal limit violations, power stability problems, and/or voltage stability conditions. Control of flows can also mitigate market issues by reducing congestion on some lines and rerouting power to less loaded lines or onto preferable paths. In the traditional control of power flows, phase shifters are often used. More advanced methods include using Flexible AC Transmission System (FACTS) Controllers. Some examples include Thyristor Controlled Series Capacitors, Synchronous Series Static Compensators, and Unified Power Flow Controllers. Quadrature Boosters (QBs) have similar structures to phase-shifters, but allow for higher voltage magnitude during real power flow control. In comparison with other FACTS controllers QBs are not as complex and not as expensive. The present study proposes to use QBs to control power flows on a power system. With the inclusion of QBs, real power flows can be controlled to desired scheduled values. In this thesis, the linearized power flow equations used for power flow analysis were modified for the control problem. This included modifying the Jacobian matrix, the power error vector, and calculating the voltage injected by the quadrature booster for the scheduled real power flow. Two scenarios were examined using the proposed power flow control method. First, the power flow in a line in a 5-bus system was modified with a QB using the method developed in this thesis. Simulation was carried out using Matlab. Second, the method was applied to a 30-bus system and then to a 118-bus system using several QBs. In all the cases, the calculated values of the QB voltages led to desired power flows in the designated line.

  14. All-optical tunable multilevel amplitude regeneration based on coherent wave mixing using a polarizer.

    PubMed

    Bakhtiari, Zahra; Sawchuk, Alexander A

    2015-04-20

    We describe and demonstrate an all-optical tunable phase- preserving scheme for multilevel amplitude regeneration based on coherent optical wave mixing using a polarizer for optical star 8-quadrature-amplitude modulation (star-8QAM) and star-16QAM signals with a power ratio of 1:5. Amplitude noise can be efficiently suppressed on both amplitude levels. A regeneration factor of nearly 5 for the higher-amplitude level of star-8QAM and 3 for lower-amplitude level are achieved. The system robustness against nonlinear phase noise originating from the Gordon-Mollenauer effect in a 150 km transmission line is investigated using the proposed amplitude regenerator. PMID:25969093

  15. Combining optical quadrature and differential interference contrast to facilitate embryonic cell counting with fluorescence imaging for confirmation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warger, William C., II; Newmark, Judith A.; Chang, ChihChing; Brooks, Dana H.; Warner, Carol M.; DiMarzio, Charles A.

    2005-03-01

    The Multifunctional Staring Mode Microscope was developed to permit three modes of imaging for cell counting in mouse embryos: Optical Quadrature, Differential Interference Contrast (DIC), and Fluorescence Imaging. The Optical Quadrature Microscope, consisting of a modified Mach-Zender Interferometer, uses a 632.8 nm laser to measure the amplitude and phase of the signal beam that travels through the embryo. Four cameras, preceded by multiple beamsplitters, are used to read the four interferograms, which are then combined to produce an image of the complex electric field amplitude. The phase of the complex amplitude is then unwrapped using a 2-D phase unwrap algorithm and images of optical path length are produced. To combine the additional modes of DIC and Fluorescence Imaging with the Optical Quadrature Microscope, a 632.8 nm narrow bandpass beamsplitter was placed at the output of the microscope. This allows the laser light to continue through the Mach-Zender while all other wavelengths are reflected at 90 degrees to another camera. This was effective in combining the three modes as the fluorescence wavelength for the Hoechst stain is well below the bandpass window of the beamsplitter. Both live and fixed samples have been successfully imaged in all three modes. Accuracy in cell counting was achieved by using the DIC image for detecting cell boundaries and the Optical Quadrature image for phase mapping to determine where cells overlap. The final results were verified by Hoechst fluorescence imaging to count the individual nuclei. Algorithms are currently being refined so larger cell counts can be done more efficiently.

  16. First CFOA-based explicit-current-output quadrature sinusoidal oscillators using grounded capacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lahiri, Abhirup; Jaikla, Winai; Siripruchyanun, Montree

    2013-02-01

    To date, no current-feedback operational amplifier (CFOA)-based sinusoidal oscillator has been reported which provides all the following features simultaneously: (i) current-mode quadrature sinusoidal oscillator providing two explicit-current-outputs (ECOs) from high output impedance terminals, (ii) employing no more than three CFOA ICs and six passive components, which include two grounded capacitors, (iii) offers independent tuning of the condition of oscillation (CO) via a resistor and (iv) provides tunability of the ratio of amplitudes of the generated quadrature ECOs via a separate resistor. To the best of authors' knowledge, this article reports first CFOA-based QOs in current-mode (i.e. providing two ECO signals). Experimental results using AD844 CFOA ICs from Analog Devices have been included to verify the workability of the proposed oscillator circuits. An example automatic gain control (AGC) loop to regulate the oscillation amplitude and control the THD has also been used and verified using SPICE simulations using the AD844 macro-model.

  17. Algorithm 699 - A new representation of Patterson's quadrature formulae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krogh, Fred T.; Van Snyder, W.

    1991-01-01

    A method is presented to reduce the number of coefficients necessary to represent Patterson's quadrature formulae. It also reduces the amount of storage necessary for storing function values, and produces slightly smaller error in evaluating the formulae.

  18. Experimental study of quadrature spring rate at tuned dry gyro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayakawa, Yoshiaki; Murayama, Naoshi

    A survey result on the mechanism of quadrature spring rate occurring at the tuned dry gyro is given. It is noted that the quadrature spring rate is a damping torque. This damping torque is similar to the spring reaction torque generated by the flexure displacement angles and drives the gyro rotor back to a balanced position. In order to investigate the mechanism of damping occurring at the gyro rotor, the relation between surrounding gas pressure and damping factor under gyro nonoperating was measured. Furthermore, the drag torque acting on the gyro rotor was measured by the back EMF method at different surrounding gas pressure. As a result of these testings, it was found out that the quadrature spring rate was generated by gas movement of the flexure around and drag forces due to bearing loss and windage loss, and the mechanism and magnitude of each damping torque which are contributor to the quadrature spring rate were extracted separately.

  19. Squeezing quadrature rotation in the acoustic band via optomechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guccione, Giovanni; Slatyer, Harry J.; Carvalho, André R. R.; Buchler, Ben C.; Lam, Ping Koy

    2016-03-01

    We examine the use of optomechanically generated squeezing to obtain a sensitivity enhancement for interferometers in the gravitational-wave band. The intrinsic dispersion characteristics of optomechanical squeezing around the mechanical frequency are able to produce squeezing at different quadratures over the spectrum, a feature required by gravitational-wave interferometers to beat the standard quantum limit over an extended frequency range. Under realistic assumptions we show that the amount of available squeezing and the intrinsic quadrature rotation may provide, compared to similar amounts of fixed-quadrature squeezing, a detection advantage. A significant challenge for this scheme, however, is the amount of excess noise that is generated in the unsqueezed quadrature at frequencies near the mechanical resonance.

  20. Optical encryption system using quadrature multiplexing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Islam, Mohammed Nazrul; Alam, Mohammad S.

    2006-08-01

    Optical security systems have attracted much research interest recently for information security and fraud deterrent applications. A number of encryption techniques have been proposed in the literature, which includes double random-phase encryption, polarization encoding, encryption and verification using a multiplexed minimum average correlation energy phase-encrypted filter. Most of these reports employ a pseudo-random code for each information to be encrypted, where it requires individual storage capacity or transmission channel for further processing of each information. The objective of this paper is to develop an optical encryption system employing quadrature multiplexing to enhance the storage/transmission capacity of the system. Two information signals are encrypted using the same code but employing two orthogonal functions and then they are multiplexed together in the same domain. As the orthogonal functions have zero cross-correlation between them, so the encrypted information are expected to be unaffected by each other. Each encryption and multiplexing process can accommodate two information signals for a single code and a single storage cell or transmission channel. The same process can be performed in multiple steps to increase the multiplexing capability of the system. For decryption purpose, the composite encoded signal is correlated using the appropriate code and the appropriate function. The proposed technique has been found to work excellent in computer simulation with binary as well as gray level images. It has also been verified that the encrypted images remain secure, because no unwanted reproduction is possible without having the appropriate code and function.

  1. Two integrator loop quadrature oscillators: A review

    PubMed Central

    Soliman, Ahmed M.

    2012-01-01

    A review of the two integrator loop oscillator circuits providing two quadrature sinusoidal output voltages is given. All the circuits considered employ the minimum number of capacitors namely two except one circuit which uses three capacitors. The circuits considered are classified to four different classes. The first class includes floating capacitors and floating resistors and the active building blocks realizing these circuits are the Op Amp or the OTRA. The second class employs grounded capacitors and includes floating resistors and the active building blocks realizing these circuits are the DCVC or the unity gain cells or the CFOA. The third class employs grounded capacitors and grounded resistors and the active building blocks realizing these circuits are the CCII. The fourth class employs grounded capacitors and no resistors and the active building blocks realizing these circuits are the TA. Transformation methods showing the generation of different classes from each other is given in details and this is one of the main objectives of this paper. PMID:25685396

  2. All-atomic generation and noise-quadrature filtering of squeezed vacuum in hot Rb vapor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horrom, Travis; Romanov, Gleb; Novikova, Irina; Mikhailov, Eugeniy E.

    2013-01-01

    With our all-atomic squeezing and filtering setup, we demonstrate control over the noise amplitudes and manipulation of the frequency-dependent squeezing angle of a squeezed vacuum quantum state by passing it through an atomic medium with electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT). We generate low sideband frequency squeezed vacuum using the polarization self-rotation effect in a hot Rb vapor cell, and direct it through a second atomic vapor subject to EIT conditions. We use the frequency-dependent absorption of the EIT window to demonstrate an example of squeeze amplitude attenuation and squeeze angle rotation of the quantum noise quadratures of the squeezed probe. These studies have implications for quantum memory and storage as well as gravitational wave interferometric detectors.

  3. Orthogonal rational functions and quadrature on an interval

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Deun, J.; Bultheel, A.

    2003-04-01

    Rational functions with real poles and poles in the complex lower half-plane, orthogonal on the real line, are well known. Quadrature formulas similar to the Gauss formulas for orthogonal polynomials have been studied. We generalize to the case of arbitrary complex poles and study orthogonality on a finite interval. The zeros of the orthogonal rational functions are shown to satisfy a quadratic eigenvalue problem. In the case of real poles, these zeros are used as nodes in the quadrature formulas.

  4. An exponentially fitted quadrature rule over unbounded intervals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conte, D.; Paternoster, B.; Santomauro, G.

    2012-09-01

    A new class of quadrature formulae for the computation of integrals over unbounded intervals with oscillating integrand is illustrated. Such formulae are a generalization of the gaussian quadrature formulae by exploiting the Exponential Fitting theory. The coefficients depend on the frequency of oscillation, in order to improve the accuracy of the solution. The construction of the methods with 1, 2 and 3 nodes is described, together with the comparison of the order of accuracy with respect to classical formulae.

  5. Gaussian quadrature inference for continuous-variable quantum key distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gyongyosi, L.; Imre, S.

    2016-05-01

    We propose the Gaussian quadrature inference (GQI) method for multicarrier continuous-variable quantum key distribution (CVQKD). A multicarrier CVQKD protocol utilizes Gaussian subcarrier quantum continuous variables (CV) for information transmission. The GQI framework provides a minimal error estimate of the quadratures of the CV quantum states from the discrete, measured noisy subcarrier variables. GQI utilizes the fundamentals of regularization theory and statistical information processing. We characterize GQI for multicarrier CVQKD, and define a method for the statistical modeling and processing of noisy Gaussian subcarrier quadratures. We demonstrate the results through the adaptive multicarrier quadrature division (AMQD) scheme. We introduce the terms statistical secret key rate and statistical private classical information, which quantities are derived purely by the statistical functions of GQI. We prove the secret key rate formulas for a multiple access multicarrier CVQKD via the AMQD-MQA (multiuser quadrature allocation) scheme. The framework can be established in an arbitrary CVQKD protocol and measurement setting, and are implementable by standard low-complexity statistical functions, which is particularly convenient for an experimental CVQKD scenario.

  6. The Fall 2000 and Fall 2001 SOHO-Ulysses Quadratures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suess, S. T.; Poletto, G.

    2000-01-01

    SOHO-Ulysses quadrature occurs when the SOHO-Sun-Ulysses included angle is 90 degrees. It is only at such times that the same plasma leaving the Sun in the direction of Ulysses can first be remotely analyzed with SOHO instruments and then later be sampled in situ by Ulysses instruments. The quadratures in December 2000 and 2001 are of special significance because Ulysses will be near the south and north heliographic poles, respectively, and the solar cycle will be near sunspot maximum. Quadrature geometry is sometimes confusing and observations are influenced by solar rotation. The Fall 2000 and 2001 quadratures are more complex than usual because Ulysses is not in a true polar orbit and the orbital speed of Ulysses about the Sun is becoming comparable to the speed of SOHO about the Sun. In 2000 Ulysses will always be slightly behind the pole but will appear to hang over the pole for over two months because it is moving around the Sun in the same direction as SOHO. In 20001, Ulysses will be slightly in front of the pole so that its footpoint will be directly observable. Detailed plots will be shown of the relative positions of SOHO and Ulysses will their relative positions. In neither case is true quadrature actually achieved, but this works to the observers advantage in 2001.

  7. The Fall 2000 and Fall 2001 SOHO-Ulysses Quadratures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suess, S. T.; Poletto, G.; Rose, M. Franklin (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    SOHO-Ulysses quadrature occurs when the SOHO-Sun-Ulysses included angle is 90 degrees. It is only at such times that the same plasma leaving the Sun in the direction of Ulysses can first be remotely analyzed with SOHO instruments and then later be sampled in situ by Ulysses instruments. The quadratures in December 2000 and 2001 are of special significance because Ulysses will be near the south and north heliographic poles, respectively, and the solar cycle will be near sunspot maximum. Quadrature geometry is sometimes confusing and observations are influenced by solar rotation. The Fall 2000 and 2001 quadratures are more complex than usual because Ulysses is not in a true polar orbit and the orbital speed of Ulysses about the Sun is becoming comparable to the speed of SOHO about the Sun. In 2000 Ulysses will always be slightly behind the pole but will appear to hang over the pole for over two months because it is moving around the Sun in the same direction as SOHO. In 2001 Ulysses will be slightly in front of the pole so that its footpoint will be directly observable. Detailed plots will be shown of the relative positions of SOHO and Ulysses will their relative positions. In neither case is true quadrature actually achieved, but this works to the observers advantage in 2001.

  8. Gauss Quadratures - the Keystone of Lattice Boltzmann Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piaud, Benjamin; Blanco, Stéphane; Fournier, Richard; Ambruş, Victor Eugen; Sofonea, Victor

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we compare two families of Lattice Boltzmann (LB) models derived by means of Gauss quadratures in the momentum space. The first one is the HLB(N;Qx,Qy,Qz) family, derived by using the Cartesian coordinate system and the Gauss-Hermite quadrature. The second one is the SLB(N;K,L,M) family, derived by using the spherical coordinate system and the Gauss-Laguerre, as well as the Gauss-Legendre quadratures. These models order themselves according to the maximum order N of the moments of the equilibrium distribution function that are exactly recovered. Microfluidics effects (slip velocity, temperature jump, as well as the longitudinal heat flux that is not driven by a temperature gradient) are accurately captured during the simulation of Couette flow for Knudsen number (kn) up to 0.25.

  9. Discrete Ordinate Quadrature Selection for Reactor-based Eigenvalue Problems

    SciTech Connect

    Jarrell, Joshua J; Evans, Thomas M; Davidson, Gregory G

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we analyze the effect of various quadrature sets on the eigenvalues of several reactor-based problems, including a two-dimensional (2D) fuel pin, a 2D lattice of fuel pins, and a three-dimensional (3D) reactor core problem. While many quadrature sets have been applied to neutral particle discrete ordinate transport calculations, the Level Symmetric (LS) and the Gauss-Chebyshev product (GC) sets are the most widely used in production-level reactor simulations. Other quadrature sets, such as Quadruple Range (QR) sets, have been shown to be more accurate in shielding applications. In this paper, we compare the LS, GC, QR, and the recently developed linear-discontinuous finite element (LDFE) sets, as well as give a brief overview of other proposed quadrature sets. We show that, for a given number of angles, the QR sets are more accurate than the LS and GC in all types of reactor problems analyzed (2D and 3D). We also show that the LDFE sets are more accurate than the LS and GC sets for these problems. We conclude that, for problems where tens to hundreds of quadrature points (directions) per octant are appropriate, QR sets should regularly be used because they have similar integration properties as the LS and GC sets, have no noticeable impact on the speed of convergence of the solution when compared with other quadrature sets, and yield more accurate results. We note that, for very high-order scattering problems, the QR sets exactly integrate fewer angular flux moments over the unit sphere than the GC sets. The effects of those inexact integrations have yet to be analyzed. We also note that the LDFE sets only exactly integrate the zeroth and first angular flux moments. Pin power comparisons and analyses are not included in this paper and are left for future work.

  10. Error estimates for Gaussian quadratures of analytic functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milovanovic, Gradimir V.; Spalevic, Miodrag M.; Pranic, Miroslav S.

    2009-12-01

    For analytic functions the remainder term of Gaussian quadrature formula and its Kronrod extension can be represented as a contour integral with a complex kernel. We study these kernels on elliptic contours with foci at the points ±1 and the sum of semi-axes [varrho]>1 for the Chebyshev weight functions of the first, second and third kind, and derive representation of their difference. Using this representation and following Kronrod's method of obtaining a practical error estimate in numerical integration, we derive new error estimates for Gaussian quadratures.

  11. The development of accurate and efficient methods of numerical quadrature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feagin, T.

    1973-01-01

    Some new methods for performing numerical quadrature of an integrable function over a finite interval are described. Each method provides a sequence of approximations of increasing order to the value of the integral. Each approximation makes use of all previously computed values of the integrand. The points at which new values of the integrand are computed are selected in such a way that the order of the approximation is maximized. The methods are compared with the quadrature methods of Clenshaw and Curtis, Gauss, Patterson, and Romberg using several examples.

  12. An Algorithm to Evaluate Imbalances of Quadrature Mixers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asami, Koji; Arai, Michiaki

    It is essential, as bandwidths of wireless communications get wider, to evaluate the imbalances among quadrature mixer ports, in terms of carrier phase offset, IQ gain imbalance, and IQ skew. Because it is time consuming to separate skew, gain imbalance and carrier phase offset evaluation during test is often performed using a composite value, without separation of the imbalance factors. This paper describes an algorithm for enabling separation among quadrature mixer gain imbalance, carrier phase offset, and skew. Since the test time is reduced by the proposed method, it can be applied during high volume production testing.

  13. Trapezoidal rule quadrature algorithms for MIMD distributed memory computers

    SciTech Connect

    Lyness, J.N.; Plowman, S.E.

    1994-08-01

    An approach to multi-dimensional quadrature, designed to exploit parallel architectures, is described. This involves transforming the integral in such a way that an accurate result is given by the trapezoidal rule; and by evaluating the resulting sum in a manner which may be efficiently implemented on parallel architectures. This approach is to be implemented in the Liverpool NAG transputer library.

  14. From Lobatto Quadrature to the Euler Constant "e"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khattri, Sanjay Kumar

    2010-01-01

    Based on the Lobatto quadrature, we develop several new closed form approximations to the mathematical constant "e." For validating effectiveness of our approximations, a comparison of our results to the existing approximations is also presented. Another objective of our work is to inspire students to formulate other better approximations by using…

  15. Gaussian rational quadrature formulas for ill-scaled integrands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Illán González, J. R.

    2009-12-01

    A flexible treatment of Gaussian quadrature formulas based on rational functions is given to evaluate the integral , when f is meromorphic in a neighborhood V of the interval I and W(x) is an ill-scaled weight function. Some numerical tests illustrate the power of this approach in comparison with Gautschi's method.

  16. Archimedes Quadrature of the Parabola: A Mechanical View

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oster, Thomas J.

    2006-01-01

    In his famous quadrature of the parabola, Archimedes found the area of the region bounded by a parabola and a chord. His method was to fill the region with infinitely many triangles each of whose area he could calculate. In his solution, he stated, without proof, three preliminary propositions about parabolas that were known in his time, but are…

  17. Applying Quadrature Rules with Multiple Nodes to Solving Integral Equations

    SciTech Connect

    Hashemiparast, S. M.; Avazpour, L.

    2008-09-01

    There are many procedures for the numerical solution of Fredholm integral equations. The main idea in these procedures is accuracy of the solution. In this paper, we use Gaussian quadrature with multiple nodes to improve the solution of these integral equations. The application of this method is illustrated via some examples, the related tables are given at the end.

  18. Extraction of quadrature phase information from multiple pulse NMR signals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rhim, W.-K.; Burum, D. P.; Vaughan, R. W.

    1976-01-01

    A multiple pulse sequence (8-pulse sequence) used for high-resolution solid state NMR is analyzed with regard to the information available from each of the four wide sampling windows. It is demonstrated that full quadrature phase information can be obtained using only a single phase detector and that, for the commonly encountered situation where the spectral width is much less than the folding frequency, the signals from the various windows can be combined easily using standard complex Fourier transform software. An improvement in the signal-to-noise ratio equal to the square root of 3 is obtained over either standard single or quadrature phase detection schemes. Procedures for correcting spectral distortions are presented.

  19. On a quadrature formula of Gori and Micchelli

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Shijun

    2005-04-01

    Sparked by Bojanov (J. Comput. Appl. Math. 70 (1996) 349), we provide an alternate approach to quadrature formulas based on the zeros of the Chebyshev polynomial of the first kind for any weight function w introduced and studied in Gori and Micchelli (Math. Comp. 65 (1996) 1567), thereby improving on their observations. Upon expansion of the divided differences, we obtain explicit expressions for the corresponding Cotes coefficients in Gauss-Turan quadrature formulas for and I(fTn;w) for a Gori-Micchelli weight function. It is also interesting to mention what has been neglected for about 30 years by the literature is that, as a consequence of expansion of the divided differences in the special case when , the solution of the famous Turan's Problem 26 raised in 1980 was in fact implied by a result of Micchelli and Rivlin (IBM J. Res. Develop. 16 (1972) 372) in 1972. Some concluding comments are made in the final section.

  20. Accurate Computation of Gaussian Quadrature for Tension Powers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singer, Saša

    2007-09-01

    We consider Gaussian quadrature formulæ which exactly integrate a system of tension powers 1,x,x2,…,xn-3, sinh(px), cosh(px), on a given interval [a,b], where n⩾4 is an even integer and p>0 is a given tension parameter. In some applications it is essential that p can be changed dynamically, and we need an efficient "on-demand" algorithm that calculates the nodes and weights of Gaussian quadrature formulas for many different values of p, which are not known in advance. It is an interesting numerical challenge to achieve the required full machine precision accuracy in such an algorithm, for all possible values of p. By exploiting various analytic and numerical techniques, we show that this can be done efficiently for all reasonably low values of n that are of any practical importance.

  1. Quadrature formulae for classes of functions of low smoothness

    SciTech Connect

    Nursultanov, E D; Tleukhanova, N T

    2003-10-31

    For Sobolev and Korobov spaces of functions of several variables a quadrature formula with explicitly defined coefficients and nodes is constructed. This formula is precise for trigonometric polynomials with harmonics from the corresponding step hyperbolic cross. The error of the quadrature formula in the classes W{sup {alpha}}{sub p}[0,1]{sup n}, E{sup {alpha}}[0,1]{sup n} is o((ln M){sup {beta}}/M{sup {alpha}}), where M is the number of nodes and {beta} is a parameter depending on the class. The problem of the approximate calculation of multiple integrals for functions in W{sup {alpha}}{sub p}[0,1]{sup n} is considered in the case when this class does not lie in the space of continuous functions, that is, for {alpha}{<=}1/p.

  2. Efficient quadrature multichannel processor algorithms for MCD applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corden, I. R.; Carrasco, R. A.

    1992-06-01

    The forthcoming third generation of satellites incorporating multichannel demodulator (MCD) processors, and the needs apparent within aviation systems, induce the requirement for efficient band processing algorithms with specific regard to the quadrature processing arrangement. This paper presents a coherent z-domain formulation of the pertinent digital transmultiplexer algorithms for the on-board processing (OBP) scenario, with a view to establishig a set of desirable algorithmic properties suitable for the preferred complex oriented quadrature processing algorithms. Stemming from the principles set forth, an ensemble of new algorithms based upon mixes of Hilbert transforming and real transform algorithms is presented, wherein the established concepts relating to the telephone network transmultiplexer algorithms are able to be exploited in certain cases. Further, the computational load of one of the methods is lower than that of a known prominent OBP related technique. The computational necessities of the various algorithms are laid down for comparative purposes in addition to the mathematical descriptions.

  3. Best quadrature formula on Sobolev class with Chebyshev weight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Congcong

    2008-05-01

    Using best interpolation function based on a given function information, we present a best quadrature rule of function on Sobolev class KWr[-1,1] with Chebyshev weight. The given function information means that the values of a function f[set membership, variant]KWr[-1,1] and its derivatives up to r-1 order at a set of nodes x are given. Error bounds are obtained, and the method is illustrated by some examples.

  4. Some new applications of truncated Gauss-Laguerre quadrature formulas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mastroianni, G.; Monegato, G.

    2008-12-01

    We show how truncated Gauss-Laguerre quadrature formulas can be used to produce accurate approximations and high rates of convergence, also when they are applied to integrand functions having only an algebraic type decay to zero at infinity. The approach presented in the paper is proposed for the computation of integrals and for the construction of Nyström type interpolants for some second kind integral equations.

  5. Solar Wind Characteristics from SOHO-Sun-Ulysses Quadrature Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poletto, Giannina; Suess, Steve T.; Six, N. Frank (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Over the past few years, we have been running SOHO (Solar and Heliospheric Observatory)-Sun-Ulysses quadrature campaigns, aimed at comparing the plasma properties at coronal altitudes with plasma properties at interplanetary distances. Coronal plasma has been observed by SOHO experiments: mainly, we used LASCO (Large Angle and Spectrometric Coronagraph Experiment) data to understand the overall coronal configuration at the time of quadratures and analyzed SUMER (Solar Ultraviolet Measurements of Emitted Radiation), CDS (Coronal Diagnostic Spectrometer) and UVCS (Ultraviolet Coronagraph Spectrometer) data to derive its physical characteristics. At interplanetary distances, SWICS (Solar Wind Ion Composition Spectrometer) and SWOOPS (Solar Wind Observation over the Poles of the Sun) aboard Ulysses provided us with interplanetary plasma data. Here we report on results from some of the campaigns. We notice that, depending on the geometry of the quadrature, i.e. on whether the radial to Ulysses traverses the corona at high or low latitudes, we are able to study different kinds of solar wind. In particular, a comparison between low-latitude and high-latitude wind, allowed us to provide evidence for differences in the acceleration of polar, fast plasma and equatorial, slow plasma: the latter occurring at higher levels and through a more extended region than fast wind. These properties are shared by both the proton and heavy ions outflows. Quadrature observations may provide useful information also on coronal vs. in situ elemental composition. To this end, we analyzed spectra taken in the corona, at altitudes ranging between approx. 1.02 and 2.2 solar radii, and derived the abundances of a number of ions, including oxygen and iron. Values of the O/Fe ratio, at coronal levels, have been compared with measurements of this ratio made by SWICS at interplanetary distances. Our results are compared with previous findings and predictions from modeling efforts.

  6. An efficient approach to study the pulsatile blood flow in femoral and coronary arteries by Differential Quadrature Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghasemi, Seiyed E.; Hatami, M.; Hatami, J.; Sahebi, S. A. R.; Ganji, D. D.

    2016-02-01

    In this paper, flow analysis for a non-Newtonian third grade blood in coronary and femoral arteries is simulated numerically. Blood is considered as the third grade non-Newtonian fluid under periodic body acceleration motion and pulsatile pressure gradient. Differential Quadrature Method (DQM) and Crank Nicholson Method (CNM) are used to solve the Partial Differential Equation (PDE) governing equation by which a good agreement between them was observed in the results. The influences of some physical parameters such as amplitude, lead angle and body acceleration frequency on non-dimensional velocity and profiles are considered. For instance, the results show that increasing the amplitude, Ag, and reducing the lead angle of body acceleration, ϕ, make higher velocity profiles in the center line of both arteries.

  7. Statistical Quadrature Evolution for Continuous-Variable Quantum Key Distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gyongyosi, Laszlo; Imre, Sandor

    2016-05-01

    We propose a statistical quadrature evolution (SQE) method for multicarrier continuous-variable quantum key distribution (CVQKD). A multicarrier CVQKD protocol utilizes Gaussian subcarrier quantum continuous variables (CV) for information transmission. The SQE framework provides a minimal error estimate of the quadratures of the CV quantum states from the discrete, measured noisy subcarrier variables. We define a method for the statistical modeling and processing of noisy Gaussian subcarrier quadratures. We introduce the terms statistical secret key rate and statistical private classical information, which quantities are derived purely by the statistical functions of our method. We prove the secret key rate formulas for a multiple access multicarrier CVQKD. The framework can be established in an arbitrary CVQKD protocol and measurement setting, and are implementable by standard low-complexity statistical functions, which is particularly convenient for an experimental CVQKD scenario. This work was partially supported by the GOP-1.1.1-11-2012-0092 project sponsored by the EU and European Structural Fund, by the Hungarian Scientific Research Fund - OTKA K-112125, and by the COST Action MP1006.

  8. Discrete ordinates with new quadrature sets and modified source conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Ganguly, K.; Allen, E.J., Victory, H.D. Jr. )

    1989-01-01

    A major shortcoming of the discrete ordinates method with the Gauss-Legendre quadrature set is that when the number of secondaries per primary c and the order of approximation N are not too large, all the (N + 1)v (the flux being of the form exp({minus}x/v)) lie in ({minus}1,1). It is known, however, that the largest v{sub j} corresponding to the asymptotic flux is greater than unity. The Legendre polynomial used for obtaining the quadrature set is orthogonal with respect to weight unity in the range ({minus}1,1). However, the Case and Zweifel eigenfunctions derived from the exact solution of one-speed transport theory are orthogonal with respect to a complicated weight function w({mu}) and {mu} in the half-range and full-range cases, respectively. In this paper, the authors have used a set of orthogonal polynomials with respect to w ({mu}) to develop quadrature sets to be used in the discrete ordinates calculation.

  9. Fast evaluation of quadrature formulae on the sphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keiner, Jens; Potts, Daniel

    2008-03-01

    Recently, a fast approximate algorithm for the evaluation of expansions in terms of standard mathrm{L}^2left(mathbb{S}^2right) -orthonormal spherical harmonics at arbitrary nodes on the sphere mathbb{S}^2 has been proposed in [S. Kunis and D. Potts. Fast spherical Fourier algorithms. JE Comput. Appl. Math., 161:75-98, 2003]. The aim of this paper is to develop a new fast algorithm for the adjoint problem which can be used to compute expansion coefficients from sampled data by means of quadrature rules. We give a formulation in matrix-vector notation and an explicit factorisation of the spherical Fourier matrix based on the former algorithm. Starting from this, we obtain the corresponding factorisation of the adjoint spherical Fourier matrix and are able to describe the associated algorithm for the adjoint transformation which can be employed to evaluate quadrature rules for arbitrary weights and nodes on the sphere. We provide results of numerical tests showing the stability of the obtained algorithm using as examples classical Gauss-Legendre and Clenshaw-Curtis quadrature rules as well as the HEALPix pixelation scheme and an equidistribution.

  10. Testing the Empirical Shock Arrival Model Using Quadrature Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gopalswamy, N.; Makela, P.; Xie, H.; Yashiro, S.

    2013-01-01

    The empirical shock arrival (ESA) model was developed based on quadrature data from Helios (in situ) and P-78 (remote sensing) to predict the Sun-Earth travel time of coronal mass ejections (CMEs). The ESA model requires earthward CME speed as input, which is not directly measurable from coronagraphs along the Sun-Earth line. The Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory (STEREO) and the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) were in quadrature during 20102012, so the speeds of Earth-directed CMEs were observed with minimal projection effects. We identified a set of 20 full halo CMEs in the field of view of SOHO that were also observed in quadrature by STEREO. We used the earthward speed from STEREO measurements as input to the ESA model and compared the resulting travel times with the observed ones from L1 monitors. We find that the model predicts the CME travel time within about 7.3 h, which is similar to the predictions by the ENLIL model. We also find that CME-CME and CME-coronal hole interaction can lead to large deviations from model predictions.

  11. An Application of the Quadrature-Free Discontinuous Galerkin Method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lockard, David P.; Atkins, Harold L.

    2000-01-01

    The process of generating a block-structured mesh with the smoothness required for high-accuracy schemes is still a time-consuming process often measured in weeks or months. Unstructured grids about complex geometries are more easily generated, and for this reason, methods using unstructured grids have gained favor for aerodynamic analyses. The discontinuous Galerkin (DG) method is a compact finite-element projection method that provides a practical framework for the development of a high-order method using unstructured grids. Higher-order accuracy is obtained by representing the solution as a high-degree polynomial whose time evolution is governed by a local Galerkin projection. The traditional implementation of the discontinuous Galerkin uses quadrature for the evaluation of the integral projections and is prohibitively expensive. Atkins and Shu introduced the quadrature-free formulation in which the integrals are evaluated a-priori and exactly for a similarity element. The approach has been demonstrated to possess the accuracy required for acoustics even in cases where the grid is not smooth. Other issues such as boundary conditions and the treatment of non-linear fluxes have also been studied in earlier work This paper describes the application of the quadrature-free discontinuous Galerkin method to a two-dimensional shear layer problem. First, a brief description of the method is given. Next, the problem is described and the solution is presented. Finally, the resources required to perform the calculations are given.

  12. Fast wavelength-scanning interferometry technique with derivative detection of quadrature signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Číp, O.; Mikel, B.; Lazar, J.

    2006-04-01

    We present a laser interferometer where a narrow-line width tuneable VCSEL laser (Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Laser) working at 760 nm is used. For the detection of an absolute distance, we have used a fast wavelength-scanning interferometry technique. In the first part of the work we introduce the absolute laser interferometer as a demonstrator for research of a digital detection of quadrature signals (X-cos and Y-sin). This interferometer uses polarized beams and magnitude division of interference fringes. The wavelength of VCSEL laser is swept with the mode-hop free tuning range more than 1.2 nm, by means of the amplitude modulation of the injection current. At the same time, the operating temperature of the VCSEL is stabilized with a fast digital temperature controller. We control the wavelength value and whole tuning process of the laser with the frequency lock to selected modes of an external Fabry-Perot etalon. Except the frequency lock, the Fabry-Perot mode spectrum identifies wavelength-tuning interval of VCSEL during each sweep. A digital signal processor (DSP) is heart of the control and detection system. It samples intensity signal from Fabry- Perot etalon and X-Y quadrature signals from the detection unit of the interferometer. After 1 nm sweep of the VCSEL wavelength, we obtain a number of passed interference fringes and the number of passed Fabry-Perot resonance modes, at the same time. On basis of these measured quantities we are able to calculate the instantaneous value of the optical path length difference between the measuring and reference arm of the demonstrational interferometer. The other part of the work is oriented to research and experimental testing of the digital detection of quadrature signals (X-cos and Y-sin) processed only on basis of one intensity signal (X-axis) that is produced by a simple photo-detector. On basis of traditional inversion function arctan(Y/X) we are able to determine instantaneous phase between interference

  13. Optical performance monitoring technique using software-based synchronous amplitude histograms.

    PubMed

    Choi, H G; Chang, J H; Kim, Hoon; Chung, Y C

    2014-10-01

    We propose and demonstrate a simple technique to monitor both the optical signal-to-noise ratio (OSNR) and chromatic dispersion (CD) by using the software-based synchronous amplitude histogram (SAH) analysis. We exploit the software-based synchronization technique to construct SAHs from the asynchronously sampled intensities of the signal. The use of SAHs facilitates the accurate extraction of the monitoring parameters at the center of the symbol. Thus, unlike in the case of using the technique based on the asynchronous amplitude histogram (AAH), this technique is not affected by the transient characteristics of the modulated signals. The performance of the proposed monitoring technique is evaluated experimentally by using 10-Gbaud quadrature phase-shift keying (QPSK) and quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) signals over wide ranges of OSNR and CD. We also evaluate the robustness of the proposed technique to the signal's transient characteristics. PMID:25321978

  14. Advanced quadratures and periodic boundary conditions in parallel 3D S{sub n} transport

    SciTech Connect

    Manalo, K.; Yi, C.; Huang, M.; Sjoden, G.

    2013-07-01

    Significant updates in numerical quadratures have warranted investigation with 3D Sn discrete ordinates transport. We show new applications of quadrature departing from level symmetric (S{sub 2}o). investigating 3 recently developed quadratures: Even-Odd (EO), Linear-Discontinuous Finite Element - Surface Area (LDFE-SA), and the non-symmetric Icosahedral Quadrature (IC). We discuss implementation changes to 3D Sn codes (applied to Hybrid MOC-Sn TITAN and 3D parallel PENTRAN) that can be performed to accommodate Icosahedral Quadrature, as this quadrature is not 90-degree rotation invariant. In particular, as demonstrated using PENTRAN, the properties of Icosahedral Quadrature are suitable for trivial application using periodic BCs versus that of reflective BCs. In addition to implementing periodic BCs for 3D Sn PENTRAN, we implemented a technique termed 'angular re-sweep' which properly conditions periodic BCs for outer eigenvalue iterative loop convergence. As demonstrated by two simple transport problems (3-group fixed source and 3-group reflected/periodic eigenvalue pin cell), we remark that all of the quadratures we investigated are generally superior to level symmetric quadrature, with Icosahedral Quadrature performing the most efficiently for problems tested. (authors)

  15. Decision-directed automatic gain control for MAPSK systems. [M-ary Amplitude and Phase Shift Keying

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weber, W. J., III

    1974-01-01

    An automatic gain control (AGC) loop is presented for use with M-ary amplitude and phase shift keying (MAPSK) systems. The gain control amplifier is regulated by an error signal formed by the difference between the estimated amplitude level and the received amplitude level. The AGC performance is thus independent of the short-term average received signal energy. AGC loop analysis and simulation is presented for M-ary amplitude shift keying and quadrature amplitude shift keying. The AGC is shown to have a negligible degradation on the symbol probability of error for most practical cases. A generalized AGC for an arbitrary MAPSK system is presented.

  16. Quadrature rules with multiple nodes for evaluating integrals with strong singularities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milovanovic, Gradimir V.; Spalevic, Miodrag M.

    2006-05-01

    We present a method based on the Chakalov-Popoviciu quadrature formula of Lobatto type, a rather general case of quadrature with multiple nodes, for approximating integrals defined by Cauchy principal values or by Hadamard finite parts. As a starting point we use the results obtained by L. Gori and E. Santi (cf. On the evaluation of Hilbert transforms by means of a particular class of Turan quadrature rules, Numer. Algorithms 10 (1995), 27-39; Quadrature rules based on s-orthogonal polynomials for evaluating integrals with strong singularities, Oberwolfach Proceedings: Applications and Computation of Orthogonal Polynomials, ISNM 131, Birkhauser, Basel, 1999, pp. 109-119). We generalize their results by using some of our numerical procedures for stable calculation of the quadrature formula with multiple nodes of Gaussian type and proposed methods for estimating the remainder term in such type of quadrature formulae. Numerical examples, illustrations and comparisons are also shown.

  17. Electronically tunable quadrature oscillator using grounded components with current and voltage outputs.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hua-Pin

    2014-01-01

    The electronically tunable quadrature oscillator using a single multiple-output current controlled current differencing transconductance amplifier (MO-CCCDTA) and grounded passive components is presented. The proposed configuration uses a single MO-CCCDTA, two grounded capacitors and one grounded resistor. Two high-output impedance quadrature current signals and two quadrature voltage signals with 90° phase difference. The oscillation condition and oscillation frequency of the proposed quadrature oscillator are independently controllable. The use of only grounded passive components makes the proposed circuit ideal for integrated circuit implementation. PMID:25121124

  18. Experimental demonstration of microring quadrature phase-shift keying modulators.

    PubMed

    Dong, Po; Xie, Chongjin; Chen, Long; Fontaine, Nicolas K; Chen, Young-kai

    2012-04-01

    Advanced optical modulation formats are a key technology to increase the capacity of optical communication networks. Mach-Zehnder modulators are typically used to generate various modulation formats. Here, we report the first experimental demonstration of quadrature phase-shift keying (QPSK) modulation using compact microring modulators. Generation of 20 Gb/s QPSK signals is demonstrated with 30 μm radius silicon ring modulators with drive voltages of ~6 V. These compact QPSK modulators may be used in miniature optical transponders for high-capacity optical data links. PMID:22466187

  19. Noise-cancelling quadrature magnetic position, speed and direction sensor

    DOEpatents

    Preston, Mark A.; King, Robert D.

    1996-01-01

    An array of three magnetic sensors in a single package is employed with a single bias magnet for sensing shaft position, speed and direction of a motor in a high magnetic noise environment. Two of the three magnetic sensors are situated in an anti-phase relationship (i.e., 180.degree. out-of-phase) with respect to the relationship between the other of the two sensors and magnetically salient target, and the third magnetic sensor is situated between the anti-phase sensors. The result is quadrature sensing with noise immunity for accurate relative position, speed and direction measurements.

  20. Multilevel phase and amplitude modulation method for holographic memories with programmable phase modulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Honma, Satoshi; Sekiguchi, Toru

    2014-09-01

    The utilization of spatial quadrature amplitude modulation (SQAM) signals with amplitude and phase modulation is a simple method used to improve storage capacity in a holographic data storage system. We propose a multilevel phase and amplitude modulation method for holographic memories with a programmable phase modulator (PPM). In this method, holographic page data is recorded by a two-step exposure process for different phase-modulated data. There is no need to adjust the positions of spatial light modulators (SLM) with high accuracy because we use only one spatial modulator. We estimate the quality of 16 SQAM signals produced by our technique.

  1. Amplitude and phase modulation of radiation in a travelling-wave amplifier based on a laser diode

    SciTech Connect

    Bogatov, A P; D'yachkov, N V; Drakin, A E; Gushchik, T I

    2013-08-31

    An analytical solution (in quadratures) to the problem of propagation of quasi-monochromatic optical signal in a semiconductor amplifier under harmonic modulation of its pump current is obtained for the first time. It is shown that the modulation of the output radiation has amplitude and phase features. The relation is found between the coefficients of the amplitude and phase modulation with the effect of gain saturation taken into account. Adequacy of the results obtained is confirmed experimentally. (control of laser radiation parameters)

  2. Calculating scattering amplitudes efficiently

    SciTech Connect

    Dixon, L.

    1996-01-01

    We review techniques for more efficient computation of perturbative scattering amplitudes in gauge theory, in particular tree and one- loop multi-parton amplitudes in QCD. We emphasize the advantages of (1) using color and helicity information to decompose amplitudes into smaller gauge-invariant pieces, and (2) exploiting the analytic properties of these pieces, namely their cuts and poles. Other useful tools include recursion relations, special gauges and supersymmetric rearrangements. 46 refs., 11 figs.

  3. The Nature of the Nodes, Weights and Degree of Precision in Gaussian Quadrature Rules

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prentice, J. S. C.

    2011-01-01

    We present a comprehensive proof of the theorem that relates the weights and nodes of a Gaussian quadrature rule to its degree of precision. This level of detail is often absent in modern texts on numerical analysis. We show that the degree of precision is maximal, and that the approximation error in Gaussian quadrature is minimal, in a…

  4. A Family of Exponential Fitting Direct Quadrature Methods for Volterra Integral Equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardone, A.; Ferro, M.; Ixaru, L. Gr.; Paternoster, B.

    2010-09-01

    A new class of direct quadrature methods for the solution of Volterra Integral Equations with periodic solution is illustrated. Such methods are based on an exponential fitting gaussian quadrature formula, whose coefficients depend on the problem parameters, in order to better reproduce the behavior the analytical solution. The construction of the methods is described, together with the analysis of the order of accuracy.

  5. General n-dimensional quadrature transform and its application to interferogram demodulation.

    PubMed

    Servin, Manuel; Quiroga, Juan Antonio; Marroquin, Jose Luis

    2003-05-01

    Quadrature operators are useful for obtaining the modulating phase phi in interferometry and temporal signals in electrical communications. In carrier-frequency interferometry and electrical communications, one uses the Hilbert transform to obtain the quadrature of the signal. In these cases the Hilbert transform gives the desired quadrature because the modulating phase is monotonically increasing. We propose an n-dimensional quadrature operator that transforms cos(phi) into -sin(phi) regardless of the frequency spectrum of the signal. With the quadrature of the phase-modulated signal, one can easily calculate the value of phi over all the domain of interest. Our quadrature operator is composed of two n-dimensional vector fields: One is related to the gradient of the image normalized with respect to local frequency magnitude, and the other is related to the sign of the local frequency of the signal. The inner product of these two vector fields gives us the desired quadrature signal. This quadrature operator is derived in the image space by use of differential vector calculus and in the frequency domain by use of a n-dimensional generalization of the Hilbert transform. A robust numerical algorithm is given to find the modulating phase of two-dimensional single-image closed-fringe interferograms by use of the ideas put forward. PMID:12747439

  6. Ultrasonic study of adhesive bond quality at a steel-to-rubber interface by using quadrature phase detection techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, A. C.; Yang, H.

    1989-01-01

    The quadrature phase detection technique was used to simultaneously monitor the phase and amplitude of a toneburst signal normally reflected from an adhesively bonded steel-to-rubber interface. The measured phase was found to show a positive shift for all bonded samples with respect to the disbonded state - the phase shift being larger for samples with weaker bonds, as manifested by smaller values of applied tensile loads at failure. A model calculation, which incorporates the concept of interfacial strength into the usual problem of wave propagation in multilayered media, was used to deduce a bond-quality parameter from an experimentally measured phase shift. This bond-quality parameter was found to be correlated with the tensile strength of the adhesive bonds at failure loads.

  7. Bandwidth Efficient Wireless Digital Modem Developed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kifle, Muli

    1999-01-01

    NASA Lewis Research Center has developed a digital approach for broadcasting highfidelity audio (nearly compact disk (CD) quality sound) in the commercial frequencymodulated (FM) broadcast band. This digital approach provides a means of achieving high data transmission rates with low hardware complexity--including low mass, size, and power consumption. Lewis has completed the design and prototype development of a bandwidth-efficient digital modem (modulator and demodulator) that uses a spectrally efficient modulation scheme: 16-ary rectangular quadrature amplitude modulation, or 16- ary QAM. The digital implementation is based strictly on inexpensive, commercial off-theshelf digital signal processing (DSP) hardware to perform up and down conversions and pulse shaping. The digital modem transmits data at rates up to 76 kilobits per second (kbps), which is almost 3 times faster than standard 28.8-kbps telephone modems. In addition, the modem offers improved power and spectral performance, flexible operation, and low-cost implementation.

  8. Quadrature phase interferometer for high resolution force spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paolino, Pierdomenico; Aguilar Sandoval, Felipe A.; Bellon, Ludovic

    2013-09-01

    In this article, we present a deflection measurement setup for Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). It is based on a quadrature phase differential interferometer: we measure the optical path difference between a laser beam reflecting above the cantilever tip and a reference beam reflecting on the static base of the sensor. A design with very low environmental susceptibility and another allowing calibrated measurements on a wide spectral range are described. Both enable a very high resolution (down to 2.5 × 10^{-15} m/sqrtHz), illustrated by thermal noise measurements on AFM cantilevers. They present an excellent long-term stability and a constant sensitivity independent of the optical phase of the interferometer. A quick review shows that our precision is equaling or out-performing the best results reported in the literature, but for a much larger deflection range, up to a few μm.

  9. Quadrature phase interferometer for high resolution force spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Paolino, Pierdomenico; Aguilar Sandoval, Felipe A.; Bellon, Ludovic

    2013-09-15

    In this article, we present a deflection measurement setup for Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). It is based on a quadrature phase differential interferometer: we measure the optical path difference between a laser beam reflecting above the cantilever tip and a reference beam reflecting on the static base of the sensor. A design with very low environmental susceptibility and another allowing calibrated measurements on a wide spectral range are described. Both enable a very high resolution (down to 2.5×10{sup −15} m/√(Hz)), illustrated by thermal noise measurements on AFM cantilevers. They present an excellent long-term stability and a constant sensitivity independent of the optical phase of the interferometer. A quick review shows that our precision is equaling or out-performing the best results reported in the literature, but for a much larger deflection range, up to a few μm.

  10. Weighted discrete least-squares polynomial approximation using randomized quadratures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Tao; Narayan, Akil; Xiu, Dongbin

    2015-10-01

    We discuss the problem of polynomial approximation of multivariate functions using discrete least squares collocation. The problem stems from uncertainty quantification (UQ), where the independent variables of the functions are random variables with specified probability measure. We propose to construct the least squares approximation on points randomly and uniformly sampled from tensor product Gaussian quadrature points. We analyze the stability properties of this method and prove that the method is asymptotically stable, provided that the number of points scales linearly (up to a logarithmic factor) with the cardinality of the polynomial space. Specific results in both bounded and unbounded domains are obtained, along with a convergence result for Chebyshev measure. Numerical examples are provided to verify the theoretical results.

  11. Quadrature phase interferometer for high resolution force spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Paolino, Pierdomenico; Aguilar Sandoval, Felipe A; Bellon, Ludovic

    2013-09-01

    In this article, we present a deflection measurement setup for Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). It is based on a quadrature phase differential interferometer: we measure the optical path difference between a laser beam reflecting above the cantilever tip and a reference beam reflecting on the static base of the sensor. A design with very low environmental susceptibility and another allowing calibrated measurements on a wide spectral range are described. Both enable a very high resolution (down to 2.5×10(-15) m/√Hz), illustrated by thermal noise measurements on AFM cantilevers. They present an excellent long-term stability and a constant sensitivity independent of the optical phase of the interferometer. A quick review shows that our precision is equaling or out-performing the best results reported in the literature, but for a much larger deflection range, up to a few μm. PMID:24089852

  12. Terahertz single-shot quadrature phase-shifting interferometry.

    PubMed

    Földesy, Péter

    2012-10-01

    A single-shot quadrature phase-shifting interferometry architecture is presented that is applicable to antenna coupled detector technologies. The method is based on orthogonally polarized object and reference beams and on linear and circular polarization sensitive antennas in space-division multiplexing. The technique can be adapted to two-, three-, and four-step and Gabor holography recordings. It is also demonstrated that the space-division multiplexing does not necessarily cause sparse sampling. A sub-THz detector array is presented containing multiple on-chip antennas and FET plasma wave detectors implemented in a 90 nm complementary metal-oxide semiconductor technology. As an example, two-step phase-shifting reconstruction results are given at 360 GHz. PMID:23027273

  13. Quadrature squeezed photons from a two-level system.

    PubMed

    Schulte, Carsten H H; Hansom, Jack; Jones, Alex E; Matthiesen, Clemens; Le Gall, Claire; Atatüre, Mete

    2015-09-10

    Resonance fluorescence arises from the interaction of an optical field with a two-level system, and has played a fundamental role in the development of quantum optics and its applications. Despite its conceptual simplicity, it entails a wide range of intriguing phenomena, such as the Mollow-triplet emission spectrum, photon antibunching and coherent photon emission. One fundamental aspect of resonance fluorescence--squeezing in the form of reduced quantum fluctuations in the single photon stream from an atom in free space--was predicted more than 30 years ago. However, the requirement to operate in the weak excitation regime, together with the combination of modest oscillator strength of atoms and low collection efficiencies, has continued to necessitate stringent experimental conditions for the observation of squeezing with atoms. Attempts to circumvent these issues had to sacrifice antibunching, owing to either stimulated forward scattering from atomic ensembles or multi-photon transitions inside optical cavities. Here, we use an artificial atom with a large optical dipole enabling 100-fold improvement of the photon detection rate over the natural atom counterpart and reach the necessary conditions for the observation of quadrature squeezing in single resonance-fluorescence photons. By implementing phase-dependent homodyne intensity-correlation detection, we demonstrate that the electric field quadrature variance of resonance fluorescence is three per cent below the fundamental limit set by vacuum fluctuations, while the photon statistics remain antibunched. The presence of squeezing and antibunching simultaneously is a fully non-classical outcome of the wave-particle duality of photons. PMID:26322581

  14. Residual Distribution Schemes for Conservation Laws Via Adaptive Quadrature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barth, Timothy; Abgrall, Remi; Biegel, Bryan (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    This paper considers a family of nonconservative numerical discretizations for conservation laws which retains the correct weak solution behavior in the limit of mesh refinement whenever sufficient order numerical quadrature is used. Our analysis of 2-D discretizations in nonconservative form follows the 1-D analysis of Hou and Le Floch. For a specific family of nonconservative discretizations, it is shown under mild assumptions that the error arising from non-conservation is strictly smaller than the discretization error in the scheme. In the limit of mesh refinement under the same assumptions, solutions are shown to satisfy an entropy inequality. Using results from this analysis, a variant of the "N" (Narrow) residual distribution scheme of van der Weide and Deconinck is developed for first-order systems of conservation laws. The modified form of the N-scheme supplants the usual exact single-state mean-value linearization of flux divergence, typically used for the Euler equations of gasdynamics, by an equivalent integral form on simplex interiors. This integral form is then numerically approximated using an adaptive quadrature procedure. This renders the scheme nonconservative in the sense described earlier so that correct weak solutions are still obtained in the limit of mesh refinement. Consequently, we then show that the modified form of the N-scheme can be easily applied to general (non-simplicial) element shapes and general systems of first-order conservation laws equipped with an entropy inequality where exact mean-value linearization of the flux divergence is not readily obtained, e.g. magnetohydrodynamics, the Euler equations with certain forms of chemistry, etc. Numerical examples of subsonic, transonic and supersonic flows containing discontinuities together with multi-level mesh refinement are provided to verify the analysis.

  15. PULSE AMPLITUDE ANALYZER

    DOEpatents

    Greenblatt, M.H.

    1958-03-25

    This patent pertains to pulse amplitude analyzers for sorting and counting a serles of pulses, and specifically discloses an analyzer which ls simple in construction and presents the puise height distribution visually on an oscilloscope screen. According to the invention, the pulses are applied to the vertical deflection plates of an oscilloscope and trigger the horizontal sweep. Each pulse starts at the same point on the screen and has a maximum amplitude substantially along the same vertical line. A mask is placed over the screen except for a slot running along the line where the maximum amplitudes of the pulses appear. After the slot has been scanned by a photocell in combination with a slotted rotating disk, the photocell signal is displayed on an auxiliary oscilloscope as vertical deflection along a horizontal time base to portray the pulse amplitude distribution.

  16. PULSE AMPLITUDE ANALYSERS

    DOEpatents

    Lewis, I.A.D.

    1956-05-15

    This patent pentains to an electrical pulse amplitude analyzer, capable of accepting input pulses having a separation between adjacent pulses in the order of one microsecond while providing a large number of channels of classification. In its broad aspect the described pulse amplitude analyzer utilizes a storage cathode ray tube und control circuitry whereby the amplitude of the analyzed pulses controls both the intensity and vertical defiection of the beam to charge particular spots in horizontal sectors of the tube face as the beam is moved horizontally across the tube face. As soon as the beam has swept the length of the tube the information stored therein is read out by scanning individually each horizontal sector corresponding to a certain range of pulse amplitudes and applying the output signal from each scan to separate indicating means.

  17. Topics in Scattering Amplitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dennen, Tristan Lucas

    In Part 1, we combine on-shell methods with the six-dimensional helicity formalism of Cheung and O'Connell to construct tree-level and multiloop scattering amplitudes. As a nontrivial multiloop example, we confirm that the recently constructed four-loop four-point amplitude of N=4 super-Yang-Mills theory, including nonplanar contributions, is valid for dimensions less than or equal to six. We demonstrate that the tree-level amplitudes of maximal super-Yang-Mills theory in six dimensions, when stripped of their overall momentum and supermomentum delta functions, are covariant with respect to the six-dimensional dual conformal group. We demonstrate that this property is also present for loop amplitudes. In Part 2, we explore consequences of the recently discovered duality between color and kinematics, which states that kinematic numerators in a diagrammatic expansion of gauge-theory amplitudes can be arranged to satisfy Jacobi-like identities in one-to-one correspondence to the associated color factors. The related squaring relations express gravity amplitudes in terms of gauge-theory ingredients. We then present a Yang-Mills Lagrangian whose diagrams through five points manifestly satisfy the duality between color and kinematics. Finally, we compute the coefficient of the potential three-loop divergence in pure N=4 supergravity and show that it vanishes, contrary to expectations from symmetry arguments.

  18. Multidimensional Hermite-Gaussian quadrature formulae and their application to nonlinear estimation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcreynolds, S. R.

    1975-01-01

    A simplified technique is proposed for calculating multidimensional Hermite-Gaussian quadratures that involves taking the square root of a matrix by the Cholesky algorithm rather than computation of the eigenvectors of the matrix. Ways of reducing the dimension, number, and order of the quadratures are set forth. If the function f(x) under the integral sign is not well approximated by a low-order algebraic expression, the order of the quadrature may be reduced by factoring f(x) into an expression that is nearly algebraic and one that is Gaussian.

  19. Programs for computing abscissas and weights for classical and nonclassical Gaussian quadrature formulas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Desmarais, R. N.

    1975-01-01

    Computer programs for computing Gaussian quadrature abscissas and weights are described. For the classical case the programs use Laguerre iteration to compute abscissas as zeros of orthogonal polynomials. The polynomials are evaluated from known recursion coefficients. The nonclassical case is handled similarly except that the recursion coefficients are computed by numerical integration. A sample problem, with input and output, is presented to illustrate the use of the programs. It computes the quadrature abscissas and weights associated with the weight function over the interval (0,1) for quadrature orders from 16 to 96 in increments of 8.

  20. Sensitivity of the Lanczos recurrence to Gaussian quadrature data: How malignant can small weights be?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knizhnerman, Leonid

    2010-01-01

    Stability of passing from Gaussian quadrature data to the Lanczos recurrence coefficients is considered. Special attention is paid to estimates explicitly expressed in terms of quadrature data and not having weights in denominators. It has been shown that the recent approach, exploiting integral representation of Hankel determinants, implies quantitative improvement of D. Laurie's constructive estimate. It has also been demonstrated that a particular implementation on the Hankel determinant approach gives an estimate being unimprovable up to a coefficient; the corresponding example involves quadrature data with a small but not too small weight. It follows that polynomial increase of a general case upper bound in terms of the dimension is unavoidable.

  1. Gaussian quadrature for optical design with noncircular pupils and fields, and broad wavelength range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauman, Brian J.; Xiao, Hong

    2010-08-01

    Forbes introduced the usage of Gaussian quadratures in optical design for circular pupils and fields, and for a specific visible wavelength band. In this paper, Gaussian quadrature methods of selecting rays in ray-tracing are derived for noncircular pupil shapes, such as obscured and vignetted apertures. In addition, these methods are generalized for square fields, and for integrating performance over arbitrary wavelength bands. Integration over wavelength is aided by the use of a novel chromatic coordinate. These quadratures achieve low calculations with fewer rays (by orders of magnitude) than uniform sampling schemes.

  2. Reissner-Mindlin Legendre Spectral Finite Elements with Mixed Reduced Quadrature

    SciTech Connect

    Brito, K. D.; Sprague, M. A.

    2012-10-01

    Legendre spectral finite elements (LSFEs) are examined through numerical experiments for static and dynamic Reissner-Mindlin plate bending and a mixed-quadrature scheme is proposed. LSFEs are high-order Lagrangian-interpolant finite elements with nodes located at the Gauss-Lobatto-Legendre quadrature points. Solutions on unstructured meshes are examined in terms of accuracy as a function of the number of model nodes and total operations. While nodal-quadrature LSFEs have been shown elsewhere to be free of shear locking on structured grids, locking is demonstrated here on unstructured grids. LSFEs with mixed quadrature are, however, locking free and are significantly more accurate than low-order finite-elements for a given model size or total computation time.

  3. On numerical integration with high-order quadratures: with application to the Rayleigh-Sommerfeld integral

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, W. A. B.; Torre, A.

    2012-11-01

    The paper focusses on the advantages of using high-order Gauss-Legendre quadratures for the precise evaluation of integrals with both smooth and rapidly changing integrands. Aspects of their precision are analysed in the light of Gauss' error formula. Some "test examples" are considered and evaluated in multiple precision to ≈ 200 significant decimal digits with David Bailey's multiprecision package to eliminate truncation/rounding errors. The increase of precision on doubling the number of subintervals is analysed, the relevant quadrature attribute being the precision increment. In order to exemplify the advantages that high-order quadrature afford, the technique is then used to evaluate several plots of the Rayleigh-Sommerfeld diffraction integral for axi-symmetric source fields defined on a planar aperture. A comparison of the high-order quadrature method against various FFT-based methods is finally given.

  4. Homodyne laser interferometer involving minimal quadrature phase error to obtain subnanometer nonlinearity.

    PubMed

    Cui, Junning; He, Zhangqiang; Jiu, Yuanwei; Tan, Jiubin; Sun, Tao

    2016-09-01

    The demand for minimal cyclic nonlinearity error in laser interferometry is increasing as a result of advanced scientific research projects. Research shows that the quadrature phase error is the main effect that introduces cyclic nonlinearity error, and polarization-mixing cross talk during beam splitting is the main error source that causes the quadrature phase error. In this paper, a new homodyne quadrature laser interferometer configuration based on nonpolarization beam splitting and balanced interference between two circularly polarized laser beams is proposed. Theoretical modeling indicates that the polarization-mixing cross talk is elaborately avoided through nonpolarizing and Wollaston beam splitting, with a minimum number of quadrature phase error sources involved. Experimental results show that the cyclic nonlinearity error of the interferometer is up to 0.6 nm (peak-to-valley value) without any correction and can be further suppressed to 0.2 nm with a simple gain and offset correction method. PMID:27607285

  5. Information entropy of Gegenbauer polynomials and Gaussian quadrature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez-Ruiz, Jorge

    2003-05-01

    In a recent paper (Buyarov V S, López-Artés P, Martínez-Finkelshtein A and Van Assche W 2000 J. Phys. A: Math. Gen. 33 6549-60), an efficient method was provided for evaluating in closed form the information entropy of the Gegenbauer polynomials C(lambda)n(x) in the case when lambda = l in Bbb N. For given values of n and l, this method requires the computation by means of recurrence relations of two auxiliary polynomials, P(x) and H(x), of degrees 2l - 2 and 2l - 4, respectively. Here it is shown that P(x) is related to the coefficients of the Gaussian quadrature formula for the Gegenbauer weights wl(x) = (1 - x2)l-1/2, and this fact is used to obtain the explicit expression of P(x). From this result, an explicit formula is also given for the polynomial S(x) = limnrightarrowinfty P(1 - x/(2n2)), which is relevant to the study of the asymptotic (n rightarrow infty with l fixed) behaviour of the entropy.

  6. Electronically Tunable Differential Integrator: Linear Voltage Controlled Quadrature Oscillator

    PubMed Central

    Nandi, Rabindranath; Pattanayak, Sandhya; Das, Sagarika

    2015-01-01

    A new electronically tunable differential integrator (ETDI) and its extension to voltage controlled quadrature oscillator (VCQO) design with linear tuning law are proposed; the active building block is a composite current feedback amplifier with recent multiplication mode current conveyor (MMCC) element. Recently utilization of two different kinds of active devices to form a composite building block is being considered since it yields a superior functional element suitable for improved quality circuit design. The integrator time constant (τ) and the oscillation frequency (ωo) are tunable by the control voltage (V) of the MMCC block. Analysis indicates negligible phase error (θe) for the integrator and low active ωo-sensitivity relative to the device parasitic capacitances. Satisfactory experimental verifications on electronic tunability of some wave shaping applications by the integrator and a double-integrator feedback loop (DIFL) based sinusoid oscillator with linear fo variation range of 60 KHz~1.8 MHz at low THD of 2.1% are verified by both simulation and hardware tests. PMID:27347537

  7. Quantitative phase imaging using grating-based quadrature phase interferometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Jigang; Yaqoob, Zahid; Heng, Xin; Cui, Xiquan; Yang, Changhuei

    2007-02-01

    In this paper, we report the use of holographic gratings, which act as the free-space equivalent of the 3x3 fiber-optic coupler, to perform full field phase imaging. By recording two harmonically-related gratings in the same holographic plate, we are able to obtain nontrivial phase shift between different output ports of the gratings-based Mach-Zehnder interferometer. The phase difference can be adjusted by changing the relative phase of the recording beams when recording the hologram. We have built a Mach-Zehnder interferometer using harmonically-related holographic gratings with 600 and 1200 lines/mm spacing. Two CCD cameras at the output ports of the gratings-based Mach-Zehnder interferometer are used to record the full-field quadrature interferograms, which are subsequently processed to reconstruct the phase image. The imaging system has ~12X magnification with ~420μmx315μm field-of-view. To demonstrate the capability of our system, we have successfully performed phase imaging of a pure phase object and a paramecium caudatum.

  8. Radiation transport modeling using extended quadrature method of moments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vikas, V.; Hauck, C. D.; Wang, Z. J.; Fox, R. O.

    2013-08-01

    The radiative transfer equation describes the propagation of radiation through a material medium. While it provides a highly accurate description of the radiation field, the large phase space on which the equation is defined makes it numerically challenging. As a consequence, significant effort has gone into the development of accurate approximation methods. Recently, an extended quadrature method of moments (EQMOM) has been developed to solve univariate population balance equations, which also have a large phase space and thus face similar computational challenges. The distinct advantage of the EQMOM approach over other moment methods is that it generates moment equations that are consistent with a positive phase space density and has a moment inversion algorithm that is fast and efficient. The goal of the current paper is to present the EQMOM method in the context of radiation transport, to discuss advantages and disadvantages, and to demonstrate its performance on a set of standard one-dimensional benchmark problems that encompass optically thin, thick, and transition regimes. Special attention is given in the implementation to the issue of realizability—that is, consistency with a positive phase space density. Numerical results in one dimension are promising and lay the foundation for extending the same framework to multiple dimensions.

  9. Electronically Tunable Differential Integrator: Linear Voltage Controlled Quadrature Oscillator.

    PubMed

    Nandi, Rabindranath; Pattanayak, Sandhya; Venkateswaran, Palaniandavar; Das, Sagarika

    2015-01-01

    A new electronically tunable differential integrator (ETDI) and its extension to voltage controlled quadrature oscillator (VCQO) design with linear tuning law are proposed; the active building block is a composite current feedback amplifier with recent multiplication mode current conveyor (MMCC) element. Recently utilization of two different kinds of active devices to form a composite building block is being considered since it yields a superior functional element suitable for improved quality circuit design. The integrator time constant (τ) and the oscillation frequency (ω o ) are tunable by the control voltage (V) of the MMCC block. Analysis indicates negligible phase error (θ e ) for the integrator and low active ω o -sensitivity relative to the device parasitic capacitances. Satisfactory experimental verifications on electronic tunability of some wave shaping applications by the integrator and a double-integrator feedback loop (DIFL) based sinusoid oscillator with linear f o variation range of 60 KHz~1.8 MHz at low THD of 2.1% are verified by both simulation and hardware tests. PMID:27347537

  10. A fast method of numerical quadrature for p-version finite element matrices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinnant, Howard E.

    1993-01-01

    A new technique of numerical quadrature especially suited for p-version finite element matrices is presented. This new technique separates the integrand into two parts, and numerically operates on each part separately. The objective of this scheme is to minimize the computational cost of integrating the entire element matrix as opposed to minimizing the cost of integrating a single function. The efficiency of the new technique is compared with Gaussian quadrature and found to take a small fraction of the computational effort.

  11. Optimization and Experimentation of Dual-Mass MEMS Gyroscope Quadrature Error Correction Methods

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Huiliang; Li, Hongsheng; Kou, Zhiwei; Shi, Yunbo; Tang, Jun; Ma, Zongmin; Shen, Chong; Liu, Jun

    2016-01-01

    This paper focuses on an optimal quadrature error correction method for the dual-mass MEMS gyroscope, in order to reduce the long term bias drift. It is known that the coupling stiffness and demodulation error are important elements causing bias drift. The coupling stiffness in dual-mass structures is analyzed. The experiment proves that the left and right masses’ quadrature errors are different, and the quadrature correction system should be arranged independently. The process leading to quadrature error is proposed, and the Charge Injecting Correction (CIC), Quadrature Force Correction (QFC) and Coupling Stiffness Correction (CSC) methods are introduced. The correction objects of these three methods are the quadrature error signal, force and the coupling stiffness, respectively. The three methods are investigated through control theory analysis, model simulation and circuit experiments, and the results support the theoretical analysis. The bias stability results based on CIC, QFC and CSC are 48 °/h, 9.9 °/h and 3.7 °/h, respectively, and this value is 38 °/h before quadrature error correction. The CSC method is proved to be the better method for quadrature correction, and it improves the Angle Random Walking (ARW) value, increasing it from 0.66 °/√h to 0.21 °/√h. The CSC system general test results show that it works well across the full temperature range, and the bias stabilities of the six groups’ output data are 3.8 °/h, 3.6 °/h, 3.4 °/h, 3.1 °/h, 3.0 °/h and 4.2 °/h, respectively, which proves the system has excellent repeatability. PMID:26751455

  12. Reinforcing Saccadic Amplitude Variability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paeye, Celine; Madelain, Laurent

    2011-01-01

    Saccadic endpoint variability is often viewed as the outcome of neural noise occurring during sensorimotor processing. However, part of this variability might result from operant learning. We tested this hypothesis by reinforcing dispersions of saccadic amplitude distributions, while maintaining constant their medians. In a first experiment we…

  13. Directional dual-tree complex wavelet packet transforms for processing quadrature signals.

    PubMed

    Serbes, Gorkem; Gulcur, Halil Ozcan; Aydin, Nizamettin

    2016-03-01

    Quadrature signals containing in-phase and quadrature-phase components are used in many signal processing applications in every field of science and engineering. Specifically, Doppler ultrasound systems used to evaluate cardiovascular disorders noninvasively also result in quadrature format signals. In order to obtain directional blood flow information, the quadrature outputs have to be preprocessed using methods such as asymmetrical and symmetrical phasing filter techniques. These resultant directional signals can be employed in order to detect asymptomatic embolic signals caused by small emboli, which are indicators of a possible future stroke, in the cerebral circulation. Various transform-based methods such as Fourier and wavelet were frequently used in processing embolic signals. However, most of the times, the Fourier and discrete wavelet transforms are not appropriate for the analysis of embolic signals due to their non-stationary time-frequency behavior. Alternatively, discrete wavelet packet transform can perform an adaptive decomposition of the time-frequency axis. In this study, directional discrete wavelet packet transforms, which have the ability to map directional information while processing quadrature signals and have less computational complexity than the existing wavelet packet-based methods, are introduced. The performances of proposed methods are examined in detail by using single-frequency, synthetic narrow-band, and embolic quadrature signals. PMID:25388779

  14. Performance of Low-Density Parity-Check Coded Modulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamkins, Jon

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports the simulated performance of each of the nine accumulate-repeat-4-jagged-accumulate (AR4JA) low-density parity-check (LDPC) codes [3] when used in conjunction with binary phase-shift-keying (BPSK), quadrature PSK (QPSK), 8-PSK, 16-ary amplitude PSK (16- APSK), and 32-APSK.We also report the performance under various mappings of bits to modulation symbols, 16-APSK and 32-APSK ring scalings, log-likelihood ratio (LLR) approximations, and decoder variations. One of the simple and well-performing LLR approximations can be expressed in a general equation that applies to all of the modulation types.

  15. Compensation of a distorted N-fold orbital angular momentum multicasting link using adaptive optics.

    PubMed

    Li, Shuhui; Wang, Jian

    2016-04-01

    By using an adaptive feedback correction technique, we experimentally demonstrate turbulence compensation for free-space four-fold and eight-fold 16-ary quadrature amplitude modulation (16-QAM) carrying orbital angular momentum (OAM) multicasting links. The performance of multicasted OAM beams through emulated atmospheric turbulence and adaptive optics assisted compensation loop is investigated. The experimental results show that the scheme can efficiently compensate for the atmospheric turbulence induced distortions, i.e., reducing power fluctuation of multicasted OAM channels, suppressing inter-channel crosstalk, and improving the bit-error rate (BER) performance. PMID:27192267

  16. All-optical multi-channel wavelength conversion of Nyquist 16 QAM signal using a silicon waveguide.

    PubMed

    Long, Yun; Liu, Jun; Hu, Xiao; Wang, Andong; Zhou, Linjie; Zou, Kaiheng; Zhu, Yixiao; Zhang, Fan; Wang, Jian

    2015-12-01

    We experimentally demonstrate on-chip all-optical multi-channel wavelength conversion of Nyquist 16 ary quadrature amplitude modulation (16 QAM) signal in a silicon waveguide. The measured optical signal-to-noise ratio (OSNR) penalties of wavelength conversion are ∼2  dB. The observed constellations of converted idlers indicate favorable performance of silicon-waveguide-based multi-channel wavelength conversion. We also experimentally study and compare the phase-conjugated wavelength conversion by degenerate four-wave mixing (FWM) and transparent wavelength conversion by non-degenerate FWM in the silicon waveguide. PMID:26625029

  17. Flexible digital modulation and coding synthesis for satellite communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanderaar, Mark; Budinger, James; Hoerig, Craig; Tague, John

    1991-01-01

    An architecture and a hardware prototype of a flexible trellis modem/codec (FTMC) transmitter are presented. The theory of operation is built upon a pragmatic approach to trellis-coded modulation that emphasizes power and spectral efficiency. The system incorporates programmable modulation formats, variations of trellis-coding, digital baseband pulse-shaping, and digital channel precompensation. The modulation formats examined include (uncoded and coded) binary phase shift keying (BPSK), quatenary phase shift keying (QPSK), octal phase shift keying (8PSK), 16-ary quadrature amplitude modulation (16-QAM), and quadrature quadrature phase shift keying (Q squared PSK) at programmable rates up to 20 megabits per second (Mbps). The FTMC is part of the developing test bed to quantify modulation and coding concepts.

  18. Amplitude Modulator Chassis

    SciTech Connect

    Erbert, G

    2009-09-01

    The Amplitude Modulator Chassis (AMC) is the final component in the MOR system and connects directly to the PAM input through a 100-meter fiber. The 48 AMCs temporally shape the 48 outputs of the MOR using an arbitrary waveform generator coupled to an amplitude modulator. The amplitude modulation element is a two stage, Lithium Niobate waveguide device, where the intensity of the light passing through the device is a function of the electrical drive applied. The first stage of the modulator is connected to a programmable high performance Arbitrary Waveform Generator (AWG) consisting of 140 impulse generators space 250 ps apart. An arbitrary waveform is generated by independently varying the amplitude of each impulse generator and then summing the impulses together. In addition to the AWG a short pulse generator is also connected to the first stage of the modulator to provide a sub 100-ps pulse used for timing experiments. The second stage of the modulator is connect to a square pulse generator used to further attenuate any pre or post pulse light passing through the first stage of the modulator. The fast rise and fall time of the square pulse generator is also used to produce fast rise and fall times of the AWG by clipping the AWG pulse. For maximum extinction, a pulse bias voltage is applied to each stage of the modulator. A pulse voltage is applied as opposed to a DC voltage to prevent charge buildup on the modulator. Each bias voltage is adjustable to provide a minimum of 50-dB extinction. The AMC is controlled through ICCS to generate the desired temporal pulse shape. This process involves a closed-loop control algorithm, which compares the desired temporal waveform to the produced optical pulse, and iterates the programming of the AWG until the two waveforms agree within an allowable tolerance.

  19. China Amplitude Tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hearn, T. M.

    2014-12-01

    Modern data from the China Bulletin and temporary network deployments has been used to update amplitude tomography using ML and MS seismic amplitudes. This work builds on the results of Hearn et al., 2008. ML attenuation estimates are much better resolved due to the inclusion of subnet data. We find that the trade-off between geometrical spreading and attenuation estimates are well constrained; however, both of these parameters have significant trade-off with the frequency dependence of attenuation. Maps of attenuation using the ML amplitudes are similar to those of Lg attenuation found by other authors suggesting that ML attenuation estimates form a suitable proxy for Lg attenuation estimates. We are now able to associate high attenuation directly with the Longmen Shan and the Qilian Shan mountains and also, where resolved, with the Kunlun Shan, Altyn Tag, and Tian Shan mountains. Grabens around the Ordos Platform also show high attenuation. Basins, however, do not in general show high attenuation. The main exception to this is the Bohai Basin. We conclude that the ML waveforms, like the Lg waveforms, interrogate the entire crustal column and are most sensitive to tectonically active structures and rapid changes in crustal structure. Data from MS data do not include subnet readings and do not have the resolution that was obtained with the ML data. Nonetheless, features are similar with the exception that basins appear more highly attenuative.

  20. PULSE AMPLITUDE ANALYZER

    DOEpatents

    Gray, G.W.; Jensen, A.S.

    1957-10-22

    A pulse-height analyzer system of improved design for sorting and counting a series of pulses, such as provided by a scintillation detector in nuclear radiation measurements, is described. The analyzer comprises a main transmission line, a cathode-ray tube for each section of the line with its deflection plates acting as the line capacitance; means to bias the respective cathode ray tubes so that the beam strikes a target only when a prearranged pulse amplitude is applied, with each tube progressively biased to respond to smaller amplitudes; pulse generating and counting means associated with each tube to respond when the beam is deflected; a control transmission line having the same time constant as the first line per section with pulse generating means for each tube for initiating a pulse on the second transmission line when a pulse triggers the tube of corresponding amplitude response, the former pulse acting to prevent successive tubes from responding to the pulse under test. This arrangement permits greater deflection sensitivity in the cathode ray tube and overcomes many of the disadvantages of prior art pulse-height analyzer circuits.

  1. Extended Gaussian quadratures for functions with an end-point singularity of logarithmic type

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pachucki, K.; Puchalski, M.; Yerokhin, V. A.

    2014-11-01

    The extended Gaussian quadrature rules are shown to be an efficient tool for numerical integration of wide class of functions with singularities of logarithmic type. The quadratures are exact for the functions pol1n-1(x)+lnx pol2n-1(x), where pol1n-1(x) and pol2n-1(x) are two arbitrary polynomials of degree n-1 and n is the order of the quadrature formula. We present an implementation of numerical algorithm that calculates the nodes and the weights of the quadrature formulas, provide a Fortran code for numerical integration, and test the performance of different kinds of Gaussian quadratures for functions with logarithmic singularities. Catalogue identifier: AETP_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AETP_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen’s University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 2535 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 39 963 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: Mathematica, Fortran. Computer: PCs or higher performance computers. Operating system: Linux, Windows, MacOS. RAM: Kilobytes. Classification: 4.11. Nature of problem: Quadrature formulas for numerical integration, effective for a wide class of functions with end-point singularities of logarithmic type. Solution method: The method of solution is based on the algorithm developed in Ref. [1] with some modifications. Running time: Milliseconds to minutes. J. Ma, V. Rokhlin, S. Wandzura, Generalized Gaussian quadrature rules for systems of arbitrary functions, Soc. Indust. Appl. Math. J. Numer. Anal. 33 (3) (1996) 971-996.

  2. Towards efficient ab initio calculations of electron scattering by polyatomic molecules: I. Efficient numerical quadrature of the UGT term

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Čársky, Petr

    2010-09-01

    The UGU term was used as a model of the UGT term, and its evaluation by numerical quadrature was examined systematically with a training set of eight molecules. Minimum numbers of points have been determined for radial Gauss-Legendre and angular Lebedev quadratures that preserve the accuracy needed for practical applications. These quadratures are recommended for efficient calculation of electron scattering by polyatomic molecules.

  3. The generation of arbitrary order, non-classical, Gauss-type quadrature for transport applications

    SciTech Connect

    Spence, Peter J.

    2015-09-01

    A method is presented, based upon the Stieltjes method (1884), for the determination of non-classical Gauss-type quadrature rules, and the associated sets of abscissae and weights. The method is then used to generate a number of quadrature sets, to arbitrary order, which are primarily aimed at deterministic transport calculations. The quadrature rules and sets detailed include arbitrary order reproductions of those presented by Abu-Shumays in [4,8] (known as the QR sets, but labelled QRA here), in addition to a number of new rules and associated sets; these are generated in a similar way, and we label them the QRS quadrature sets. The method presented here shifts the inherent difficulty (encountered by Abu-Shumays) associated with solving the non-linear moment equations, particular to the required quadrature rule, to one of the determination of non-classical weight functions and the subsequent calculation of various associated inner products. Once a quadrature rule has been written in a standard form, with an associated weight function having been identified, the calculation of the required inner products is achieved using specific variable transformations, in addition to the use of rapid, highly accurate quadrature suited to this purpose. The associated non-classical Gauss quadrature sets can then be determined, and this can be done to any order very rapidly. In this paper, instead of listing weights and abscissae for the different quadrature sets detailed (of which there are a number), the MATLAB code written to generate them is included as Appendix D. The accuracy and efficacy (in a transport setting) of the quadrature sets presented is not tested in this paper (although the accuracy of the QRA quadrature sets has been studied in [12,13]), but comparisons to tabulated results listed in [8] are made. When comparisons are made with one of the azimuthal QRA sets detailed in [8], the inherent difficulty in the method of generation, used there, becomes apparent

  4. Nonuniform sampling of hypercomplex multidimensional NMR experiments: Dimensionality, quadrature phase and randomization

    PubMed Central

    Schuyler, Adam D; Maciejewski, Mark W; Stern, Alan S; Hoch, Jeffrey C

    2015-01-01

    Nonuniform sampling (NUS) in multidimensional NMR permits the exploration of higher dimensional experiments and longer evolution times than the Nyquist Theorem practically allows for uniformly sampled experiments. However, the spectra of NUS data include sampling-induced artifacts and may be subject to distortions imposed by sparse data reconstruction techniques, issues not encountered with the discrete Fourier transform (DFT) applied to uniformly sampled data. The characterization of these NUS-induced artifacts allows for more informed sample schedule design and improved spectral quality. The DFT–Convolution Theorem, via the point-spread function (PSF) for a given sampling scheme, provides a useful framework for exploring the nature of NUS sampling artifacts. In this work, we analyze the PSFs for a set of specially constructed NUS schemes to quantify the interplay between randomization and dimensionality for reducing artifacts relative to uniformly undersampled controls. In particular, we find a synergistic relationship between the indirect time dimensions and the “quadrature phase dimension” (i.e. the hypercomplex components collected for quadrature detection). The quadrature phase dimension provides additional degrees of freedom that enable partial-component NUS (collecting a subset of quadrature components) to further reduce sampling-induced aliases relative to traditional full-component NUS (collecting all quadrature components). The efficacy of artifact reduction is exponentially related to the dimensionality of the sample space. Our results quantify the utility of partial-component NUS as an additional means for introducing decoherence into sampling schemes and reducing sampling artifacts in high dimensional experiments. PMID:25899289

  5. Design and Application of Quadrature Compensation Patterns in Bulk Silicon Micro-Gyroscopes

    PubMed Central

    Ni, Yunfang; Li, Hongsheng; Huang, Libin

    2014-01-01

    This paper focuses on the detailed design issues of a peculiar quadrature reduction method named system stiffness matrix diagonalization, whose key technology is the design and application of quadrature compensation patterns. For bulk silicon micro-gyroscopes, a complete design and application case was presented. The compensation principle was described first. In the mechanical design, four types of basic structure units were presented to obtain the basic compensation function. A novel layout design was proposed to eliminate the additional disturbing static forces and torques. Parameter optimization was carried out to maximize the available compensation capability in a limited layout area. Two types of voltage loading methods were presented. Their influences on the sense mode dynamics were analyzed. The proposed design was applied on a dual-mass silicon micro-gyroscope developed in our laboratory. The theoretical compensation capability of a quadrature equivalent angular rate no more than 412 °/s was designed. In experiments, an actual quadrature equivalent angular rate of 357 °/s was compensated successfully. The actual compensation voltages were a little larger than the theoretical ones. The correctness of the design and the theoretical analyses was verified. They can be commonly used in planar linear vibratory silicon micro-gyroscopes for quadrature compensation purpose. PMID:25356646

  6. On the Computation of High Order Rys Quadrature Weights and Nodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwenke, David W.

    2014-01-01

    Since its introduction in 1976, the Rys Quadrature method has proven a very attractive method for evaluating electron repulsion integrals for calculations using Gaussian type orbitals. Since then, there have been considerable refinements of the method, but at it's core, Gaussian weights and nodes are used to exactly evaluate using a numerical approach to the transform integral. One of the powers of the Rys Quadrature method is the relative ease in evaluating integrals involving functions of high angular momentum. In this work we report on the complete resolution of these numerical difficulties, and we have easily computed accurate quadrature weights and nodes up to order 101. All calculations were carried out using 128-bit precision.

  7. Surmounting intrinsic quantum-measurement uncertainties in Gaussian-state tomography with quadrature squeezing

    PubMed Central

    Řeháček, Jaroslav; Teo, Yong Siah; Hradil, Zdeněk; Wallentowitz, Sascha

    2015-01-01

    We reveal that quadrature squeezing can result in significantly better quantum-estimation performance with quantum heterodyne detection (of H. P. Yuen and J. H. Shapiro) as compared to quantum homodyne detection for Gaussian states, which touches an important aspect in the foundational understanding of these two schemes. Taking single-mode Gaussian states as examples, we show analytically that the competition between the errors incurred during tomogram processing in homodyne detection and the Arthurs-Kelly uncertainties arising from simultaneous incompatible quadrature measurements in heterodyne detection can often lead to the latter giving more accurate estimates. This observation is also partly a manifestation of a fundamental relationship between the respective data uncertainties for the two schemes. In this sense, quadrature squeezing can be used to overcome intrinsic quantum-measurement uncertainties in heterodyne detection. PMID:26195198

  8. Quadrature rules for finite element approximations of 1D nonlocal problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiaoping; Gunzburger, Max; Ju, Lili

    2016-04-01

    It is well known that calculations of the entries of the stiffness matrix in the finite element approximations of nonlocal diffusion and mechanics models are often very time-consuming due to the double integration process over the domain and the singularities of the nonlocal kernel functions. In this paper, we propose some effective and accurate quadrature rules for computing these double integrals for one-dimensional nonlocal problems; in particular, for problems with highly singular kernels, the corresponding inner integrals can be first evaluated exactly in our method, and the outer one then will be approximated by some popular quadrature rules. With these quadrature rules, the assembly of the stiffness matrix in the finite element method for the nonlocal problems becomes similar to that for the classical partial differential equations and is thus quite efficient.

  9. Phase measurement device using inphase and quadrature components for phase estimation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halverson, Peter G. (Inventor); Ware, Brent (Inventor); Shaddock, Daniel A. (Inventor); Spero, Robert E. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    A phasemeter for estimating the phase of a signal. For multi-tone signals, multiple phase estimates may be provided. An embodiment includes components operating in the digital domain, where a sampled input signal is multiplied by cosine and sine terms to provide estimates of the inphase and quadrature components. The quadrature component provides an error signal that is provided to a feedback loop, the feedback loop providing a model phase that tends to track the phase of a tone in the input signal. The cosine and sine terms are generated from the model phase. The inphase and quadrature components are used to form a residual phase, which is added to the model phase to provide an estimate of the phase of the input signal. Other embodiments are described and claimed.

  10. Low-Latitude Solar Wind During the Fall 1998 SOHO-Ulysses Quadrature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poletto, G.; Suess, S. T.; Biesecker, D. A.; Esser, R.; Gloeckler, G.; Ko, Y.-K.; Zurbuchen, T. H.

    2002-01-01

    Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOH0)-Ulysses quadratures occur when the SOHO-Sun-Ulysses-included angle is 90 deg. These offer the opportunity to directly compare properties of plasma parcels, observed by SOHO [Dorningo et al.] in the low corona, with properties of the same parcels measured, in due time, in situ, by Ulysses [ Wenzel et al]. We refer the reader to Suess et al. for an extended discussion of SOHO-Ulysses quadrature geometry. Here it suffices to recall that there are two quadratures per year, as SOHO makes its one-year revolution around the Sun. This, because SOHO is at the L1 Lagrangian point, in essentially the same place as the Earth, while Ulysses is in a near-polar -5-year solar orbit with a perihelion of 1.34 AU and aphelion of 5.4 AU.

  11. Discrete variable representation in electronic structure theory: quadrature grids for least-squares tensor hypercontraction.

    PubMed

    Parrish, Robert M; Hohenstein, Edward G; Martínez, Todd J; Sherrill, C David

    2013-05-21

    We investigate the application of molecular quadratures obtained from either standard Becke-type grids or discrete variable representation (DVR) techniques to the recently developed least-squares tensor hypercontraction (LS-THC) representation of the electron repulsion integral (ERI) tensor. LS-THC uses least-squares fitting to renormalize a two-sided pseudospectral decomposition of the ERI, over a physical-space quadrature grid. While this procedure is technically applicable with any choice of grid, the best efficiency is obtained when the quadrature is tuned to accurately reproduce the overlap metric for quadratic products of the primary orbital basis. Properly selected Becke DFT grids can roughly attain this property. Additionally, we provide algorithms for adopting the DVR techniques of the dynamics community to produce two different classes of grids which approximately attain this property. The simplest algorithm is radial discrete variable representation (R-DVR), which diagonalizes the finite auxiliary-basis representation of the radial coordinate for each atom, and then combines Lebedev-Laikov spherical quadratures and Becke atomic partitioning to produce the full molecular quadrature grid. The other algorithm is full discrete variable representation (F-DVR), which uses approximate simultaneous diagonalization of the finite auxiliary-basis representation of the full position operator to produce non-direct-product quadrature grids. The qualitative features of all three grid classes are discussed, and then the relative efficiencies of these grids are compared in the context of LS-THC-DF-MP2. Coarse Becke grids are found to give essentially the same accuracy and efficiency as R-DVR grids; however, the latter are built from explicit knowledge of the basis set and may guide future development of atom-centered grids. F-DVR is found to provide reasonable accuracy with markedly fewer points than either Becke or R-DVR schemes. PMID:23697409

  12. Discrete variable representation in electronic structure theory: Quadrature grids for least-squares tensor hypercontraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parrish, Robert M.; Hohenstein, Edward G.; Martínez, Todd J.; Sherrill, C. David

    2013-05-01

    We investigate the application of molecular quadratures obtained from either standard Becke-type grids or discrete variable representation (DVR) techniques to the recently developed least-squares tensor hypercontraction (LS-THC) representation of the electron repulsion integral (ERI) tensor. LS-THC uses least-squares fitting to renormalize a two-sided pseudospectral decomposition of the ERI, over a physical-space quadrature grid. While this procedure is technically applicable with any choice of grid, the best efficiency is obtained when the quadrature is tuned to accurately reproduce the overlap metric for quadratic products of the primary orbital basis. Properly selected Becke DFT grids can roughly attain this property. Additionally, we provide algorithms for adopting the DVR techniques of the dynamics community to produce two different classes of grids which approximately attain this property. The simplest algorithm is radial discrete variable representation (R-DVR), which diagonalizes the finite auxiliary-basis representation of the radial coordinate for each atom, and then combines Lebedev-Laikov spherical quadratures and Becke atomic partitioning to produce the full molecular quadrature grid. The other algorithm is full discrete variable representation (F-DVR), which uses approximate simultaneous diagonalization of the finite auxiliary-basis representation of the full position operator to produce non-direct-product quadrature grids. The qualitative features of all three grid classes are discussed, and then the relative efficiencies of these grids are compared in the context of LS-THC-DF-MP2. Coarse Becke grids are found to give essentially the same accuracy and efficiency as R-DVR grids; however, the latter are built from explicit knowledge of the basis set and may guide future development of atom-centered grids. F-DVR is found to provide reasonable accuracy with markedly fewer points than either Becke or R-DVR schemes.

  13. Extended Kalman filtering for joint mitigation of phase and amplitude noise in coherent QAM systems.

    PubMed

    Pakala, Lalitha; Schmauss, Bernhard

    2016-03-21

    We numerically investigate our proposed carrier phase and amplitude noise estimation (CPANE) algorithm using extend Kalman filter (EKF) for joint mitigation of linear and non-linear phase noise as well as amplitude noise on 4, 16 and 64 polarization multiplexed (PM) quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) 224 Gb/s systems. The results are compared to decision directed (DD) carrier phase estimation (CPE), DD phase locked loop (PLL) and universal CPE (U-CPE) algorithms. Besides eliminating the necessity of phase unwrapping function, EKF-CPANE shows improved performance for both back-to-back (BTB) and transmission scenarios compared to the aforementioned algorithms. We further propose a weighted innovation approach (WIA) of the EKF-CPANE which gives an improvement of 0.3 dB in the Q-factor, compared to the original algorithm. PMID:27136830

  14. On the remainder term of Gauss-Radau quadratures for analytic functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milovanovic, Gradimir V.; Spalevic, Miodrag M.; Pranic, Miroslav S.

    2008-09-01

    For analytic functions the remainder term of Gauss-Radau quadrature formulae can be represented as a contour integral with a complex kernel. We study the kernel on elliptic contours with foci at the points ±1 and a sum of semi-axes [varrho]>1 for the Chebyshev weight function of the second kind. Starting from explicit expressions of the corresponding kernels the location of their maximum modulus on ellipses is determined. The corresponding Gautschi's conjecture from [On the remainder term for analytic functions of Gauss-Lobatto and Gauss-Radau quadratures, Rocky Mountain J. Math. 21 (1991), 209-226] is proved.

  15. Quadrature formulas on the unit circle with prescribed nodes and maximal domain of validity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bultheel, Adhemar; Daruis, Leyla; González-Vera, Pablo

    2009-09-01

    In this paper we investigate the Szego-Radau and Szego-Lobatto quadrature formulas on the unit circle. These are (n+m)-point formulas for which m nodes are fixed in advance, with m=1 and m=2 respectively, and which have a maximal domain of validity in the space of Laurent polynomials. This means that the free parameters (free nodes and positive weights) are chosen such that the quadrature formula is exact for all powers zj, -p<=j<=p, with p=p(n,m) as large as possible.

  16. An evaluation of Clenshaw-Curtis quadrature rule for integration w.r.t. singular measures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calabrò, F.; Corbo Esposito, A.

    2009-07-01

    This work is devoted to the study of quadrature rules for integration with respect to (w.r.t.) general probability measures with known moments. Automatic calculation of the Clenshaw-Curtis rules is considered and analyzed. It is shown that it is possible to construct these rules in a stable manner for quadrature w.r.t. balanced measures. In order to make a comparison Gauss rules and their stable implementation for integration w.r.t. balanced measures are recalled. Convergence rates are tested in the case of binomial measures.

  17. An I/Q mixer with an integrated differential quadrature all-pass filter for on-chip quadrature LO signal generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amin, Najam Muhammad; Zhigong, Wang; Zhiqun, Li

    2015-05-01

    A down-conversion in-phase/quadrature (I/Q) mixer employing a folded-type topology, integrated with a passive differential quadrature all-pass filter (D-QAF), in order to realize the final down-conversion stage of a 60 GHz receiver architecture is presented in this work. Instead of employing conventional quadrature generation techniques such as a polyphase filter or a frequency divider for the local oscillator (LO) of the mixer, a passive D-QAF structure is employed. Fabricated in a 65 nm CMOS process, the mixer exhibits a voltage gain of 7-8 dB in an intermediate frequency (IF) band ranging from 10 MHz-1.75 GHz. A fixed LO frequency of 12 GHz is used to down-convert a radio frequency (RF) band of 10.25-13.75 GHz. The mixer displays a third order input referred intercept point (IIP3) ranging from -8.75 to -7.37 dBm for a fixed IF frequency of 10 MHz and a minimum single-sideband noise figure (SSB-NF) of 11.3 dB. The mixer draws a current of 6 mA from a 1.2 V supply voltage dissipating a power of 7.2 mW. Project supported by the National High Technology Research and Development Program of China (No. 2011AA010200).

  18. Reduced computational cost, totally symmetric angular quadrature sets for discrete ordinates radiation transport. Master`s thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Oder, J.M.

    1997-12-01

    Several new quadrature sets for use in the discrete ordinates method of solving the Boltzmann neutral particle transport equation are derived. These symmetric quadratures extend the traditional symmetric quadratures by allowing ordinates perpendicular to one or two of the coordinate axes. Comparable accuracy with fewer required ordinates is obtained. Quadratures up to seventh order are presented. The validity and efficiency of the quadratures is then tested and compared with the Sn level symmetric quadratures relative to a Monte Carlo benchmark solution. The criteria for comparison include current through the surface, scalar flux at the surface, volume average scalar flux, and time required for convergence. Appreciable computational cost was saved when used in an unstructured tetrahedral cell code using highly accurate characteristic methods. However, no appreciable savings in computation time was found using the new quadratures compared with traditional Sn methods on a regular Cartesian mesh using the standard diamond difference method. These quadratures are recommended for use in three-dimensional calculations on an unstructured mesh.

  19. PULSE AMPLITUDE DISTRIBUTION RECORDER

    DOEpatents

    Cowper, G.

    1958-08-12

    A device is described for automatica1ly recording pulse annplitude distribution received from a counter. The novelty of the device consists of the over-all arrangement of conventional circuit elements to provide an easy to read permanent record of the pulse amplitude distribution during a certain time period. In the device a pulse analyzer separates the pulses according to annplitude into several channels. A scaler in each channel counts the pulses and operates a pen marker positioned over a drivable recorder sheet. Since the scalers in each channel have the sanne capacity, the control circuitry permits counting of the incoming pulses until one scaler reaches capacity, whereupon the input is removed and an internal oscillator supplies the necessary pulses to fill up the other scalers. Movement of the chart sheet is initiated wben the first scaler reaches capacity to thereby give a series of marks at spacings proportional to the time required to fill the remaining scalers, and accessory equipment marks calibration points on the recorder sheet to facilitate direct reading of the number of external pulses supplied to each scaler.

  20. Numerical Quadrature and Operator Splitting in Finite Element Methods for Cardiac Electrophysiology

    PubMed Central

    Krishnamoorthi, Shankarjee; Sarkar, Mainak; Klug, William S.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY We examine carefully the numerical accuracy and computational efficiency of alternative formulations of the finite-element solution procedure for the mono-domain equations of cardiac electrophysiology (EP), focusing on the interaction of spatial quadrature implementations with operator splitting, examining both nodal and Gauss quadrature methods, and implementations that mix nodal storage of state variables with Gauss quadrature. We evaluate the performance of all possible combinations of “lumped” approximations of consistent capacitance and mass matrices. Most generally we find that quadrature schemes and lumped approximations that produce decoupled nodal ionic equations allow for the greatest computational efficiency, this being afforded through the use of asynchronous adaptive time-stepping of the ionic state-variable ODEs. We identify two lumped approximation schemes that exhibit superior accuracy, rivaling that of the most expensive variationally consistent implementations. Finally we illustrate some of the physiological consequences of discretization error in EP simulation relevant to cardiac arrhythmia and fibrillation. These results suggest caution with the use of semi-automated free-form tetrahedral and hexahedral meshing algorithms available in most commercially available meshing software, which produce non-uniform meshes having a large distribution of element sizes. PMID:23873868

  1. Symmetrical modified dual tree complex wavelet transform for processing quadrature Doppler ultrasound signals.

    PubMed

    Serbes, G; Aydin, N

    2011-01-01

    Dual-tree complex wavelet transform (DTCWT), which is a shift invariant transform with limited redundancy, is an improved version of discrete wavelet transform. Complex quadrature signals are dual channel signals obtained from the systems employing quadrature demodulation. An example of such signals is quadrature Doppler signal obtained from blood flow analysis systems. Prior to processing Doppler signals using the DTCWT, directional flow signals must be obtained and then two separate DTCWT applied, increasing the computational complexity. In this study, in order to decrease computational complexity, a symmetrical modified DTCWT algorithm is proposed (SMDTCWT). A comparison between the new transform and the symmetrical phasing-filter technique is presented. Additionally denoising performance of SMDTCWT is compared with the DWT and the DTCWT using simulated signals. The results show that the proposed method gives the same output as the symmetrical phasing-filter method, the computational complexity for processing quadrature signals using DTCWT is greatly reduced and finally the SMDTCWT based denoising outperforms conventional DWT with same computational complexity. PMID:22255416

  2. Saturation dependence of the quadrature conductivity of oil-bearing sands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmutz, M.; Blondel, A.; Revil, A.

    2012-02-01

    We have investigated the complex conductivity of oil-bearing sands with six distinct oil types including sunflower oil, silicone oil, gum rosin, paraffin, engine oil, and an industrial oil of complex composition. In all these experiments, the oil was the non-wetting phase. The in-phase (real) conductivity follows a power law relationship with the saturation (also known as the second Archie's law) but with a saturation exponent n raging from 1.1 to 3.1. In most experiments, the quadrature conductivity follows also a power law relationship with the water saturation but with a power law exponent p can be either positive or negative. For some samples, the quadrature conductivity first increases with saturation and then decreases indicating that two processes compete in controlling the quadrature conductivity. One is related to the insulating nature of the oil phase and a second could be associated with the surface area of the oil / water interface. The quadrature conductivity seems to be influenced not only by the value of the saturation exponent n (according to the Vinegar and Waxman model, p = n - 1), but also by the surface area between the oil phase and the water phase especially for very water-repellent oil having a fractal oil-water interface.

  3. A multivariate quadrature based moment method for LES based modeling of supersonic combustion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donde, Pratik; Koo, Heeseok; Raman, Venkat

    2012-07-01

    The transported probability density function (PDF) approach is a powerful technique for large eddy simulation (LES) based modeling of scramjet combustors. In this approach, a high-dimensional transport equation for the joint composition-enthalpy PDF needs to be solved. Quadrature based approaches provide deterministic Eulerian methods for solving the joint-PDF transport equation. In this work, it is first demonstrated that the numerical errors associated with LES require special care in the development of PDF solution algorithms. The direct quadrature method of moments (DQMOM) is one quadrature-based approach developed for supersonic combustion modeling. This approach is shown to generate inconsistent evolution of the scalar moments. Further, gradient-based source terms that appear in the DQMOM transport equations are severely underpredicted in LES leading to artificial mixing of fuel and oxidizer. To overcome these numerical issues, a semi-discrete quadrature method of moments (SeQMOM) is formulated. The performance of the new technique is compared with the DQMOM approach in canonical flow configurations as well as a three-dimensional supersonic cavity stabilized flame configuration. The SeQMOM approach is shown to predict subfilter statistics accurately compared to the DQMOM approach.

  4. NUMERICAL APPROXIMATION OF SEMI-INTEGRALS AND SEMIDERIVATIVES BY PRODUCT QUADRATURE RULES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper is concerned with the numerical calculation of the semi-integral and semiderivative of a function f, whose values f (xj) are known on a discrete set of abscissas 0 = x(1) < x(2) < ... < x(n). A family of product quadrature rules is developed to approximate the semi-int...

  5. Exact Integrations of Polynomials and Symmetric Quadrature Formulas over Arbitrary Polyhedral Grids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Yen; Vinokur, Marcel

    1997-01-01

    This paper is concerned with two important elements in the high-order accurate spatial discretization of finite volume equations over arbitrary grids. One element is the integration of basis functions over arbitrary domains, which is used in expressing various spatial integrals in terms of discrete unknowns. The other consists of quadrature approximations to those integrals. Only polynomial basis functions applied to polyhedral and polygonal grids are treated here. Non-triangular polygonal faces are subdivided into a union of planar triangular facets, and the resulting triangulated polyhedron is subdivided into a union of tetrahedra. The straight line segment, triangle, and tetrahedron are thus the fundamental shapes that are the building blocks for all integrations and quadrature approximations. Integrals of products up to the fifth order are derived in a unified manner for the three fundamental shapes in terms of the position vectors of vertices. Results are given both in terms of tensor products and products of Cartesian coordinates. The exact polynomial integrals are used to obtain symmetric quadrature approximations of any degree of precision up to five for arbitrary integrals over the three fundamental domains. Using a coordinate-free formulation, simple and rational procedures are developed to derive virtually all quadrature formulas, including some previously unpublished. Four symmetry groups of quadrature points are introduced to derive Gauss formulas, while their limiting forms are used to derive Lobatto formulas. Representative Gauss and Lobatto formulas are tabulated. The relative efficiency of their application to polyhedral and polygonal grids is detailed. The extension to higher degrees of precision is discussed.

  6. A high precision method for mapping phase to amplitude in direct digital synthesis and its hardware implementation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Zhang; Song, Wei; Peng, Zhicong; Xu, Lijun

    2014-11-01

    There exist a number of algorithms to map the phase to amplitude in direct digital synthesis (DDS). For DDS with more than 14 output bits, the Coordinate Rotation Digital Computer (CORDIC) algorithm is well known for its high precision. Also, it is effective in solutions where there is the need of in-phase and quadrature components simultaneously because the algorithm calculates both. In this paper, a Taylor expansion based method was proposed to calculate both in-phase and quadrature at the same time. Numerical simulations for different data format, e.g., double and finite bits, were carried out in Matlab and Quartus, which were followed by the hardware implementation in Field Programmable Gate Array. The results demonstrated that the proposed method possessed higher precision and exhausted less logic elements than the CORDIC algorithm.

  7. A high precision method for mapping phase to amplitude in direct digital synthesis and its hardware implementation.

    PubMed

    Cao, Zhang; Song, Wei; Peng, Zhicong; Xu, Lijun

    2014-11-01

    There exist a number of algorithms to map the phase to amplitude in direct digital synthesis (DDS). For DDS with more than 14 output bits, the Coordinate Rotation Digital Computer (CORDIC) algorithm is well known for its high precision. Also, it is effective in solutions where there is the need of in-phase and quadrature components simultaneously because the algorithm calculates both. In this paper, a Taylor expansion based method was proposed to calculate both in-phase and quadrature at the same time. Numerical simulations for different data format, e.g., double and finite bits, were carried out in Matlab and Quartus, which were followed by the hardware implementation in Field Programmable Gate Array. The results demonstrated that the proposed method possessed higher precision and exhausted less logic elements than the CORDIC algorithm. PMID:25430130

  8. 622-Mbps Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing Modulator Developed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Na T.

    1999-01-01

    The Communications Technology Division at the NASA Lewis Research Center is developing advanced electronic technologies for the space communications and remote sensing systems of tomorrow. As part of the continuing effort to advance the state-of-the art in satellite communications and remote sensing systems, Lewis is developing a programmable Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) modulator card for high-data-rate communication links. The OFDM modulator is particularly suited to high data-rate downlinks to ground terminals or direct data downlinks from near-Earth science platforms. It can support data rates up to 622 megabits per second (Mbps) and high-order modulation schemes such as 16-ary quadrature amplitude modulation (16-ary QAM) or 8- phase shift keying (8PSK). High order modulations can obtain the bandwidth efficiency over the traditional binary phase shift keying (BPSK) or quadrature phase shift keying (QPSK) modulator schemes. The OFDM modulator architecture can also be precompensated for channel disturbances and alleviate amplitude degradations caused by nonlinear transponder characteristics.

  9. On the Period-Amplitude and Amplitude-Period Relationships

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Robert M.; Hathaway, David H.

    2008-01-01

    Examined are Period-Amplitude and Amplitude-Period relationships based on the cyclic behavior of the 12-month moving averages of monthly mean sunspot numbers for cycles 0.23, both in terms of Fisher's exact tests for 2x2 contingency tables and linear regression analyses. Concerning the Period-Amplitude relationship (same cycle), because cycle 23's maximum amplitude is known to be 120.8, the inferred regressions (90-percent prediction intervals) suggest that its period will be 131 +/- 24 months (using all cycles) or 131 +/- 18 months (ignoring cycles 2 and 4, which have the extremes of period, 108 and 164 months, respectively). Because cycle 23 has already persisted for 142 months (May 1996 through February 2008), based on the latter prediction, it should end before September 2008. Concerning the Amplitude-Period relationship (following cycle maximum amplitude versus preceding cycle period), because cycle 23's period is known to be at least 142 months, the inferred regressions (90-percent prediction intervals) suggest that cycle 24's maximum amplitude will be about less than or equal to 96.1 +/- 55.0 (using all cycle pairs) or less than or equal to 91.0 +/- 36.7 (ignoring statistical outlier cycle pairs). Hence, cycle 24's maximum amplitude is expected to be less than 151, perhaps even less than 128, unless cycle pair 23/24 proves to be a statistical outlier.

  10. Quadrature transmit array design using single-feed circularly polarized patch antenna for parallel transmission in MR imaging.

    PubMed

    Pang, Yong; Yu, Baiying; Vigneron, Daniel B; Zhang, Xiaoliang

    2014-02-01

    Quadrature coils are often desired in MR applications because they can improve MR sensitivity and also reduce excitation power. In this work, we propose, for the first time, a quadrature array design strategy for parallel transmission at 298 MHz using single-feed circularly polarized (CP) patch antenna technique. Each array element is a nearly square ring microstrip antenna and is fed at a point on the diagonal of the antenna to generate quadrature magnetic fields. Compared with conventional quadrature coils, the single-feed structure is much simple and compact, making the quadrature coil array design practical. Numerical simulations demonstrate that the decoupling between elements is better than -35 dB for all the elements and the RF fields are homogeneous with deep penetration and quadrature behavior in the area of interest. Bloch equation simulation is also performed to simulate the excitation procedure by using an 8-element quadrature planar patch array to demonstrate its feasibility in parallel transmission at the ultrahigh field of 7 Tesla. PMID:24649430

  11. Quadrature transmit array design using single-feed circularly polarized patch antenna for parallel transmission in MR imaging

    PubMed Central

    Pang, Yong; Yu, Baiying; Vigneron, Daniel B.

    2014-01-01

    Quadrature coils are often desired in MR applications because they can improve MR sensitivity and also reduce excitation power. In this work, we propose, for the first time, a quadrature array design strategy for parallel transmission at 298 MHz using single-feed circularly polarized (CP) patch antenna technique. Each array element is a nearly square ring microstrip antenna and is fed at a point on the diagonal of the antenna to generate quadrature magnetic fields. Compared with conventional quadrature coils, the single-feed structure is much simple and compact, making the quadrature coil array design practical. Numerical simulations demonstrate that the decoupling between elements is better than –35 dB for all the elements and the RF fields are homogeneous with deep penetration and quadrature behavior in the area of interest. Bloch equation simulation is also performed to simulate the excitation procedure by using an 8-element quadrature planar patch array to demonstrate its feasibility in parallel transmission at the ultrahigh field of 7 Tesla. PMID:24649430

  12. Numerical quadrature methods for integrals of singular periodic functions and their application to singular and weakly singular integral equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sidi, A.; Israeli, M.

    1986-01-01

    High accuracy numerical quadrature methods for integrals of singular periodic functions are proposed. These methods are based on the appropriate Euler-Maclaurin expansions of trapezoidal rule approximations and their extrapolations. They are used to obtain accurate quadrature methods for the solution of singular and weakly singular Fredholm integral equations. Such periodic equations are used in the solution of planar elliptic boundary value problems, elasticity, potential theory, conformal mapping, boundary element methods, free surface flows, etc. The use of the quadrature methods is demonstrated with numerical examples.

  13. Pilot-symbols-aided cycle slip mitigation for DP-16QAM optical communication systems.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Haiquan; Li, Yan; Zhang, Fangzheng; Wu, Jian; Lu, Jianxin; Zhang, Guoyi; Xu, Jian; Lin, Jintong

    2013-09-23

    A pilot-symbols-aided phase unwrapping (PAPU), which utilizes the time-division multiplexed pilot symbols that are transmitted with data, is proposed to do cycle slip detection and correction with the carrier phase estimation (CPE). Numerical simulations for 10 Gbaud dual-polarization 16-ary quadrature amplitude modulation (DP-16QAM) systems show that the block averaging quadrature phase-shift keying (QPSK) partitioning with PAPU greatly eliminates the performance degradation caused by cycle slips, maintains a low CS probability with less influence of filter length, and achieves a bit-error-rate (BER) performance below soft-decision forward error correction (FEC) limit 2 × 10⁻² at 15 dB optical signal-to-noise ratio with only 1.56% overhead and 6 MHz combined laser linewidth. PMID:24104108

  14. Transmission and reception of PDM dual-subcarrier coherent 16QAM-OFDM signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Fan; Zhang, Junwen; Yu, Jianjun; Li, Xinying

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, 16-Gbaud polarization-division-multiplexed (PDM) dual-subcarrier coherent optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (CO-OFDM) transmission and reception are successfully demonstrated without overhead. The in-phase and quadrature (I/Q) components of dual-subcarrier 16-ary quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) OFDM signal are both seven-level signals in time domain, and thus can be equalized like a 49 QAM signal in time domain with cascaded multi-modulus algorithm (CMMA) equalization method. The experimental results show that there is no power penalty observed between optical back to back (OBTB) and after 80-km single-mode fiber-28 (SMF-28) with time domain CMMA equalization method. A 0.4 dB optical signal to noise ratio (OSNR) penalty in OBTB is observed when the bandwidth of channel is set at 26 GHz at the BER of 2.0 × 10-2.

  15. High spectral density transmission emulation using amplified spontaneous emission noise.

    PubMed

    Elson, Daniel J; Galdino, Lidia; Maher, Robert; Killey, Robert I; Thomsen, Benn C; Bayvel, Polina

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate the use of spectrally shaped amplified spontaneous emission (SS-ASE) noise for wideband channel loading in the investigation of nonlinear transmission limits in wavelength-division multiplexing transmission experiments using Nyquist-spaced channels. The validity of this approach is explored through statistical analysis and experimental transmission of Nyquist-spaced 10 GBaud polarization-division multiplexing (PDM) quadrature phase-shift keying and PDM-16-ary quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) channels, co-propagated with SS-ASE over single mode fiber. It is shown that this technique, which is simpler to implement than a fully modulated comb of channels, is valid for distances exceeding 240 km for PDM-16QAM with dispersion of 16 ps/nm/km, yields a good agreement with theory, and provides a conservative measure of system performance. PMID:26696160

  16. Substorm statistics: Occurrences and amplitudes

    SciTech Connect

    Borovsky, J.E.; Nemzek, R.J.

    1994-05-01

    The occurrences and amplitudes of substorms are statistically investigated with the use of three data sets: the AL index, the Los Alamos 3-satellite geosynchronous energetic-electron measurements, and the GOES-5 and -6 geosynchronous magnetic-field measurements. The investigation utilizes {approximately} 13,800 substorms in AL, {approximately} 1400 substorms in the energetic-electron flux, and {approximately} 100 substorms in the magnetic field. The rate of occurrence of substorms is determined as a function of the time of day, the time of year, the amount of magnetotail bending, the orientation of the geomagnetic dipole, the toward/away configuration of the IMF, and the parameters of the solar wind. The relative roles of dayside reconnection and viscous coupling in the production of substorms are assessed. Three amplitudes are defined for a substorms: the jump in the AL index, the peak of the >30-keV integral electron flux at geosynchronous orbit near midnight, and the angle of rotation of the geosynchronous magnetic field near midnight. The substorm amplitudes are statistically analyzed, the amplitude measurements are cross correlated with each other, and the substorm amplitudes are determined as functions of the solar-wind parameters. Periodically occurring and randomly occurring substorms are analyzed separately. The energetic-particle-flux amplitudes are consistent with unloading and the AL amplitudes are consistent with direct driving plus unloading.

  17. CHY formula and MHV amplitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Yi-Jian; Teng, Fei; Wu, Yong-Shi

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, we study the relation between the Cachazo-He-Yuan (CHY) formula and the maximal-helicity-violating (MHV) amplitudes of Yang-Mills and gravity in four dimensions. We prove that only one special rational solution of the scattering equations found by Weinzierl supports the MHV amplitudes. Namely, localized at this solution, the integrated CHY formula produces the Parke-Taylor formula for MHV Yang-Mills amplitudes as well as the Hodges formula for MHV gravitational amplitudes, with an arbitrary number of external gluons/gravitons. This is achieved by developing techniques, in a manifestly Möbius covariant formalism, to explicitly compute relevant reduced Pfaffians/determinants. We observe and prove two interesting properties (or identities), which facilitate the computations. We also check that all the other ( n - 3)! - 1 solutions to the scattering equations do not support the MHV amplitudes, and prove analytically that this is indeed true for the other special rational solution proposed by Weinzierl, that actually supports the anti-MHV amplitudes. Our results reveal a mysterious feature of the CHY formalism that in Yang-Mills and gravity theory, solutions of scattering equations, involving only external momenta, somehow know about the configuration of external polarizations of the scattering amplitudes.

  18. A PWM quadrature-booster phase shifter for ac power transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Lopes, L.A.C.; Joos, G.; Ooi, B.T.

    1997-01-01

    The conventional structures used for phase shifters employ quadrature voltage injection controlled by means of on-load tap changers that require considerable maintenance. Line-commutated thyristor structures have been proposed to replace tap changers, but problems related to filter requirements or the number of switches have limited their utilization. This paper proposes a pulse width modulation (PWM) quadrature-booster phase shifter based on a force-commutated ac controller. It offers features such as fast dynamic response, continuous variation of the phase angle with low harmonic injection, and it requires a simple power structure and can be controlled by adjusting the duty cycle of the switches. The operating principles of the proposed phase shifter are analyzed and their feasibility is demonstrated through digital simulation and experimental implementation.

  19. Solution of stochastic media transport problems using a numerical quadrature-based method

    SciTech Connect

    Pautz, S. D.; Franke, B. C.; Prinja, A. K.; Olson, A. J.

    2013-07-01

    We present a new conceptual framework for analyzing transport problems in random media. We decompose such problems into stratified subproblems according to the number of material pseudo-interfaces within realizations. For a given subproblem we assign pseudo-interface locations in each realization according to product quadrature rules, which allows us to deterministically generate a fixed number of realizations. Quadrature integration of the solutions of these realizations thus approximately solves each subproblem; the weighted superposition of solutions of the subproblems approximately solves the general stochastic media transport problem. We revisit some benchmark problems to determine the accuracy and efficiency of this approach in comparison to randomly generated realizations. We find that this method is very accurate and fast when the number of pseudo-interfaces in a problem is generally low, but that these advantages quickly degrade as the number of pseudo-interfaces increases. (authors)

  20. Unstructured finite element-based digital image correlation with enhanced management of quadrature and lens distortions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierré, J.-E.; Passieux, J.-C.; Périé, J.-N.; Bugarin, F.; Robert, L.

    2016-02-01

    Like subset-based methods, the very first finite element versions of digital image correlation were closely related to the regular structure of images, as they were based on regular quadrilateral elements corresponding to an integer number of pixels. The use of unstructured meshes, to exploit the full potential of FE-DIC in structural mechanics, is now widespread. Most of the time, the formulation, the quadrature and the definition of the region of interest still rely on the pixels grid. In this paper, a formulation in the physical coordinate system and not in the image frame is proposed for 2D digital image correlation. In addition to a more precise definition of the region of interest, it allows the use of a more accurate quadrature rule. It is also shown that lens distortions can be successfully taken into account directly with such a formalism.

  1. Diffusion-synthetic acceleration given anisotropic scattering, general quadratures, and multidimensions

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, M.L. ); Wareing, T.A. )

    1993-01-01

    We study diffusion-synthetic acceleration (DSA) for within-group scattering iterations in discrete ordinates calculations. We consider analytic (not spatially discretized) equations in Cartesian coordinates with linearly anisotropic scattering. We place no restrictions on the discrete ordinates quadrature set. We assume an infinite homogeneous medium. Our main results are as follows: 1. DSA is unstable in two dimensions (2D) and three dimensions (3D), given forward-peaked scattering. It can be stabilized by taking extra transport sweeps each iteration. 2. Standard DSA is unstable, given any quadrature set that does not correctly integrate linear functions of angle. 3. Relative to one dimension (ID), DSA's performance is degraded in 2D and 3D.

  2. A note on the bounds of the error of Gauss-Turan-type quadratures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milovanovic, Gradimir V.; Spalevic, Miodrag M.

    2007-03-01

    This note is concerned with estimates for the remainder term of the Gauss-Turan quadrature formula,where is the Gori-Michelli weight function, with Un-1(t) denoting the (n-1)th degree Chebyshev polynomial of the second kind, and f is a function analytic in the interior of and continuous on the boundary of an ellipse with foci at the points +/-1 and sum of semiaxes [varrho]>1. The present paper generalizes the results in [G.V. Milovanovic, M.M. Spalevic, Bounds of the error of Gauss-Turan-type quadratures, J. Comput. Appl. Math. 178 (2005) 333-346], which is concerned with the same problem when s=1.

  3. A novel interferometric vibration measurement sensor with quadrature detection based on 1/8 wave plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhen, Shenglai; Chen, Bo; Yuan, Liang; Li, Min; Liang, Jing; Yu, Benli

    2010-03-01

    In-phase and quadrature-phase (I/Q) signals often need to be formed in the laser interferometric vibration measurement technique. To avoid the disadvantages of traditional I/Q signals forming methods such as effect of piezoelectric ceramic (PZT) for generating high frequency carrier, or optical configuration with complicated structure, a novel interferometric vibration measurement sensor with quadrature detection is proposed. The sensor utilizes simple optical configuration which contains 1/8 wave plate to generate two I/Q signals, then the signals were processed by arctangent algorithm which is compiled by Labview software through data acquisition card. Theoretical analysis and experimental Lissajous figures synthesis prove the phase orthogonality of the two signals. The experimental results indicate that the system can measure the vibration displacement accurately.

  4. An accurate quadrature technique for the contact boundary in 3D finite element computations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duong, Thang X.; Sauer, Roger A.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a new numerical integration technique for 3D contact finite element implementations, focusing on a remedy for the inaccurate integration due to discontinuities at the boundary of contact surfaces. The method is based on the adaptive refinement of the integration domain along the boundary of the contact surface, and is accordingly denoted RBQ for refined boundary quadrature. It can be used for common element types of any order, e.g. Lagrange, NURBS, or T-Spline elements. In terms of both computational speed and accuracy, RBQ exhibits great advantages over a naive increase of the number of quadrature points. Also, the RBQ method is shown to remain accurate for large deformations. Furthermore, since the sharp boundary of the contact surface is determined, it can be used for various purposes like the accurate post-processing of the contact pressure. Several examples are presented to illustrate the new technique.

  5. Quadrature algorithms to the luminosity distance with a time-dependent dark energy model

    SciTech Connect

    Yue, Nan-Nan; Liu, De-Zi; Pei, Xiao-Xing; Zhang, Tong-Jie; Yang, Zhi-Liang; Zhu, Fang-Fang E-mail: bingzi@mail.bnu.edu.cn E-mail: fiona-90@live.cn E-mail: zlyang@bnu.edu.cn

    2011-11-01

    In our previous work [1], we have proposed two methods for computing the luminosity distance d{sub L}{sup Λ} in ΛCDM model. In this paper, two effective quadrature algorithms, known as Romberg Integration and composite Gaussian Quadrature, are presented to calculate the luminosity distance d{sub L}{sup CPL} in the Chevallier-Polarski-Linder parametrization(CPL) model. By comparing both the efficiency and accuracy of the two algorithms, we find that the second is more promising. Moreover, we develop another strategy adapted for approximating d{sub L}{sup Λ} in flat ΛCDM universe. To some extent, our methods can make contributions to the recent numerical stimulation for the investigation of dark energy cosmology.

  6. New Adaptive Method for IQ Imbalance Compensation of Quadrature Modulators in Predistortion Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zareian, Hassan; Vakili, Vahid Tabataba

    2009-12-01

    Imperfections in quadrature modulators (QMs), such as inphase and quadrature (IQ) imbalance, can severely impact the performance of power amplifier (PA) linearization systems, in particular in adaptive digital predistorters (PDs). In this paper, we first analyze the effect of IQ imbalance on the performance of a memory orthogonal polynomials predistorter (MOP PD), and then we propose a new adaptive algorithm to estimate and compensate the unknown IQ imbalance in QM. Unlike previous compensation techniques, the proposed method was capable of online IQ imbalance compensation with faster convergence, and no special calibration or training signals were needed. The effectiveness of the proposed IQ imbalance compensator was validated by simulations. The results clearly show the performance of the MOP PD to be enhanced significantly by adding the proposed IQ imbalance compensator.

  7. Analysis of V-cycle multigrid algorithms for forms defined by numerical quadrature

    SciTech Connect

    Bramble, J.H. . Dept. of Mathematics); Goldstein, C.I.; Pasciak, J.E. . Applied Mathematics Dept.)

    1994-05-01

    The authors describe and analyze certain V-cycle multigrid algorithms with forms defined by numerical quadrature applied to the approximation of symmetric second-order elliptic boundary value problems. This approach can be used for the efficient solution of finite element systems resulting from numerical quadrature as well as systems arising from finite difference discretizations. The results are based on a regularity free theory and hence apply to meshes with local grid refinement as well as the quasi-uniform case. It is shown that uniform (independent of the number of levels) convergence rates often hold for appropriately defined V-cycle algorithms with as few as one smoothing per grid. These results hold even on applications without full elliptic regularity, e.g., a domain in R[sup 2] with a crack.

  8. Off-shell CHY amplitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lam, C. S.; Yao, York-Peng

    2016-06-01

    The Cachazo-He-Yuan (CHY) formula for on-shell scattering amplitudes is extended off-shell. The off-shell amplitudes (amputated Green's functions) are Möbius invariant, and have the same momentum poles as the on-shell amplitudes. The working principles which drive the modifications to the scattering equations are mainly Möbius covariance and energy momentum conservation in off-shell kinematics. The same technique is also used to obtain off-shell massive scalars. A simple off-shell extension of the CHY gauge formula which is Möbius invariant is proposed, but its true nature awaits further study.

  9. Rational Gauss-Chebyshev quadrature formulas for complex poles outside [-1,1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deckers, Karl; van Deun, Joris; Bultheel, Adhemar

    2008-06-01

    In this paper we provide an extension of the Chebyshev orthogonal rational functions with arbitrary real poles outside [-1,1] to arbitrary complex poles outside [-1,1] . The zeros of these orthogonal rational functions are not necessarily real anymore. By using the related para-orthogonal functions, however, we obtain an expression for the nodes and weights for rational Gauss-Chebyshev quadrature formulas integrating exactly in spaces of rational functions with arbitrary complex poles outside [-1,1] .

  10. Variable transformations and Gauss-Legendre quadrature for integrals with endpoint singularities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sidi, Avram

    2009-09-01

    Gauss-Legendre quadrature formulas have excellent convergence properties when applied to integrals int^1_0f(x) dx with fin C^infty[0,1] . However, their performance deteriorates when the integrands f(x) are in C^infty(0,1) but are singular at x=0 and/or x=1 . One way of improving the performance of Gauss-Legendre quadrature in such cases is by combining it with a suitable variable transformation such that the transformed integrand has weaker singularities than those of f(x) . Thus, if x=psi(t) is a variable transformation that maps [0,1] onto itself, we apply Gauss-Legendre quadrature to the transformed integral int^1_{0}f(psi(t))psi'(t) dt , whose singularities at t=0 and/or t=1 are weaker than those of f(x) at x=0 and/or x=1 . In this work, we first define a new class of variable transformations we denote widetilde{mathcal{S}}_{p,q} , where p and q are two positive parameters that characterize it. We also give a simple and easily computable representative of this class. Next, by invoking some recent results by the author concerning asymptotic expansions of Gauss-Legendre quadrature approximations as the number of abscissas tends to infinity, we present a thorough study of convergence of the combined approximation procedure, with variable transformations from widetilde{mathcal{S}}_{p,q} . We show how optimal results can be obtained by adjusting the parameters p and q of the variable transformation in an appropriate fashion. We also give numerical examples that confirm the theoretical results.

  11. Empirical and quadrature approximation of acoustic field and array response probability density functions.

    PubMed

    Hayward, Thomas J; Oba, Roger M

    2013-07-01

    Numerical methods are presented for approximating the probability density functions (pdf's) of acoustic fields and receiver-array responses induced by a given joint pdf of a set of acoustic environmental parameters. An approximation to the characteristic function of the random acoustic field (the inverse Fourier transform of the field pdf) is first obtained either by construction of the empirical characteristic function (ECF) from a random sample of the acoustic parameters, or by application of generalized Gaussian quadrature to approximate the integral defining the characteristic function. The Fourier transform is then applied to obtain an approximation of the pdf by a continuous function of the field variables. Application of both the ECF and generalized Gaussian quadrature is demonstrated in an example of a shallow-water ocean waveguide with two-dimensional uncertainty of sound speed and attenuation coefficient in the ocean bottom. Both approximations lead to a smoother estimate of the field pdf than that provided by a histogram, with generalized Gaussian quadrature providing a smoother estimate at the tails of the pdf. Potential applications to acoustic system performance quantification and to nonparametric acoustic signal processing are discussed. PMID:23862782

  12. A Gaussian quadrature method for total energy analysis in electronic state calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukushima, Kimichika

    This article reports studies by Fukushima and coworkers since 1980 concerning their highly accurate numerical integral method using Gaussian quadratures to evaluate the total energy in electronic state calculations. Gauss-Legendre and Gauss-Laguerre quadratures were used for integrals in the finite and infinite regions, respectively. Our previous article showed that, for diatomic molecules such as CO and FeO, elliptic coordinates efficiently achieved high numerical integral accuracy even with a numerical basis set including transition metal atomic orbitals. This article will generalize straightforward details for multiatomic systems with direct integrals in each decomposed elliptic coordinate determined from the nuclear positions of picked-up atom pairs. Sample calculations were performed for the molecules O3 and H2O. This article will also try to present, in another coordinate, a numerical integral by partially using the Becke's decomposition published in 1988, but without the Becke's fuzzy cell generated by the polynomials of internuclear distance between the pair atoms. Instead, simple nuclear weights comprising exponential functions around nuclei are used. The one-center integral is performed with a Gaussian quadrature pack in a spherical coordinate, included in the author's original program in around 1980. As for this decomposition into one-center integrals, sample calculations are carried out for Li2.

  13. Positive amplitudes in the amplituhedron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arkani-Hamed, Nima; Hodges, Andrew; Trnka, Jaroslav

    2015-08-01

    The all-loop integrand for scattering amplitudes in planar SYM is determined by an "amplitude form" with logarithmic singularities on the boundary of the amplituhedron. In this note we provide strong evidence for a new striking property of the superamplitude, which we conjecture to be true to all loop orders: the amplitude form is positive when evaluated inside the amplituhedron. The statement is sensibly formulated thanks to the natural "bosonization" of the superamplitude associated with the amplituhedron geometry. However this positivity is not manifest in any of the current approaches to scattering amplitudes, and in particular not in the cellulations of the amplituhedron related to on-shell diagrams and the positive grassmannian. The surprising positivity of the form suggests the existence of a "dual amplituhedron" formulation where this feature would be made obvious. We also suggest that the positivity is associated with an extended picture of amplituhedron geometry, with the amplituhedron sitting inside a co-dimension one surface separating "legal" and "illegal" local singularities of the amplitude. We illustrate this in several simple examples, obtaining new expressions for amplitudes not associated with any triangulations, but following in a more invariant manner from a global view of the positive geometry.

  14. Shape of Pion Distribution Amplitude

    SciTech Connect

    Radyushkin, Anatoly

    2009-11-01

    A scenario is investigated in which the leading-twist pion distribution amplitude $\\varphi_\\pi (x)$ is approximated by the pion decay constant $f_\\pi$ for all essential values of the light-cone fraction $x$. A model for the light-front wave function $\\Psi (x, k_\\perp)$ is proposed that produces such a distribution amplitude and has a rapidly decreasing (exponential for definiteness) dependence on the light-front energy combination $ k_\\perp^2/x(1-x)$. It is shown that this model easily reproduces the fit of recent large-$Q^2$ BaBar data on the photon-pion transition form factor. Some aspects of scenario with flat pion distribution amplitude are discussed.

  15. OPE for all helicity amplitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basso, Benjamin; Caetano, João; Córdova, Lucía; Sever, Amit; Vieira, Pedro

    2015-08-01

    We extend the Operator Product Expansion (OPE) for scattering amplitudes in planar SYM to account for all possible helicities of the external states. This is done by constructing a simple map between helicity configurations and so-called charged pentagon transitions. These OPE building blocks are generalizations of the bosonic pentagons entering MHV amplitudes and they can be bootstrapped at finite coupling from the integrable dynamics of the color flux tube. A byproduct of our map is a simple realization of parity in the super Wilson loop picture.

  16. Toward complete pion nucleon amplitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathieu, V.; Danilkin, I. V.; Fernández-Ramírez, C.; Pennington, M. R.; Schott, D.; Szczepaniak, Adam P.; Fox, G.

    2015-10-01

    We compare the low-energy partial-wave analyses of π N scattering with high-energy data via finite-energy sum rules. We construct a new set of amplitudes by matching the imaginary part from the low-energy analysis with the high-energy, Regge parametrization and reconstruct the real parts using dispersion relations.

  17. Toward complete pion nucleon amplitudes

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Mathieu, Vincent; Danilkin, Igor V.; Fernández-Ramírez, Cesar; Pennington, Michael R.; Schott, Diane M.; Szczepaniak, Adam P.; Fox, G.

    2015-10-05

    We compare the low-energy partial wave analyses πN scattering with a high-energy data via finite energy sum rules. We also construct a new set of amplitudes by matching the imaginary part from the low-energy analysis with the high-energy, Regge parametrization and then reconstruct the real parts using dispersion relations.

  18. Large amplitude drop shape oscillations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trinh, E. H.; Wang, T. G.

    1982-01-01

    An experimental study of large amplitude drop shape oscillation was conducted in immiscible liquids systems and with levitated free liquid drops in air. In liquid-liquid systems the results indicate the existence of familiar characteristics of nonlinear phenomena. The resonance frequency of the fundamental quadrupole mode of stationary, low viscosity Silicone oil drops acoustically levitated in water falls to noticeably low values as the amplitude of oscillation is increased. A typical, experimentally determined relative frequency decrease of a 0.5 cubic centimeters drop would be about 10% when the maximum deformed shape is characterized by a major to minor axial ratio of 1.9. On the other hand, no change in the fundamental mode frequency could be detected for 1 mm drops levitated in air. The experimental data for the decay constant of the quadrupole mode of drops immersed in a liquid host indicate a slight increase for larger oscillation amplitudes. A qualitative investigation of the internal fluid flows for such drops revealed the existence of steady internal circulation within drops oscillating in the fundamental and higher modes. The flow field configuration in the outer host liquid is also significantly altered when the drop oscillation amplitude becomes large.

  19. Employing helicity amplitudes for resummation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moult, Ian; Stewart, Iain W.; Tackmann, Frank J.; Waalewijn, Wouter J.

    2016-05-01

    Many state-of-the-art QCD calculations for multileg processes use helicity amplitudes as their fundamental ingredients. We construct a simple and easy-to-use helicity operator basis in soft-collinear effective theory (SCET), for which the hard Wilson coefficients from matching QCD onto SCET are directly given in terms of color-ordered helicity amplitudes. Using this basis allows one to seamlessly combine fixed-order helicity amplitudes at any order they are known with a resummation of higher-order logarithmic corrections. In particular, the virtual loop amplitudes can be employed in factorization theorems to make predictions for exclusive jet cross sections without the use of numerical subtraction schemes to handle real-virtual infrared cancellations. We also discuss matching onto SCET in renormalization schemes with helicities in 4- and d -dimensions. To demonstrate that our helicity operator basis is easy to use, we provide an explicit construction of the operator basis, as well as results for the hard matching coefficients, for p p →H +0 , 1, 2 jets, p p →W /Z /γ +0 , 1, 2 jets, and p p →2 , 3 jets. These operator bases are completely crossing symmetric, so the results can easily be applied to processes with e+e- and e-p collisions.

  20. N-loop string amplitude

    SciTech Connect

    Mandelstam, S.

    1986-06-01

    Work on the derivation of an explicit perturbation series for string and superstring amplitudes is reviewed. The light-cone approach is emphasized, but some work on the Polyakov approach is also mentioned, and the two methods are compared. The calculation of the measure factor is outlined in the interacting-string picture. (LEW)

  1. Positivity of spin foam amplitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baez, John C.; Christensen, J. Daniel

    2002-04-01

    The amplitude for a spin foam in the Barrett-Crane model of Riemannian quantum gravity is given as a product over its vertices, edges and faces, with one factor of the Riemannian 10j symbols appearing for each vertex, and simpler factors for the edges and faces. We prove that these amplitudes are always nonnegative for closed spin foams. As a corollary, all open spin foams going between a fixed pair of spin networks have real amplitudes of the same sign. This means one can use the Metropolis algorithm to compute expectation values of observables in the Riemannian Barrett-Crane model, as in statistical mechanics, even though this theory is based on a real-time (eiS) rather than imaginary-time e-S path integral. Our proof uses the fact that when the Riemannian 10j symbols are nonzero, their sign is positive or negative depending on whether the sum of the ten spins is an integer or half-integer. For the product of 10j symbols appearing in the amplitude for a closed spin foam, these signs cancel. We conclude with some numerical evidence suggesting that the Lorentzian 10j symbols are always nonnegative, which would imply similar results for the Lorentzian Barrett-Crane model.

  2. Constant-amplitude RC oscillator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerwin, W. J.; Westbrook, R. M.

    1970-01-01

    Sinusoidal oscillator has a frequency determined by resistance-capacitance /RC/ values of two charge control devices and a constant-amplitude voltage independent of frequency and RC values. RC elements provide either voltage-control, resistance-control, or capacitance-control of the frequency.

  3. Solutions of radiative heat transfer in nonhomogeneous participating media using the quadrature method

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, S.H.; Wu, C.Y.; Hsu, P.

    1996-12-31

    This work considers radiative heat transfer in a three-dimensional, rectangular, scattering medium exposed to diffuse radiation. Applying the quadrature method with singularity subtraction to the exact integral equations in terms of the moments of intensity can generate highly accurate solutions, and so the method is adopted in this work. The example solutions provided are for radiative equilibrium in homogeneous absorbing-emitting media, and for radiative transfer in nonhomogeneous absorbing-scattering (isotropic and linearly anisotropic) media with non-reflecting surfaces. To validate the solutions, the present results are compared with the solutions obtained by the YIX method and other methods.

  4. A Synthetic Quadrature Phase Detector/Demodulator for Fourier Transform Transform Spectrometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, Joel

    2008-01-01

    A method is developed to demodulate (velocity correct) Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS) data that is taken with an analog to digital converter that digitizes equally spaced in time. This method makes it possible to use simple low cost, high resolution audio digitizers to record high quality data without the need for an event timer or quadrature laser hardware, and makes it possible to use a metrology laser of any wavelength. The reduced parts count and simplicity implementation makes it an attractive alternative in space based applications when compared to previous methods such as the Brault algorithm.

  5. Exponential characteristic spatial quadrature for discrete ordinates radiation transport on an unstructured grid of triangular cells

    SciTech Connect

    Mathews, K.A.; Brennan, C.R.

    1995-12-31

    The exponential characteristic method is one of a family of nonlinear spatial quadratures which are positive and at least second order accurate. The authors initially developed the method in slab geometry, where it gave accurate results for deep penetration problems using coarse meshes. Characteristic methods are restricted to Cartesian geometries, so they next tested it with rectangular cells, where it was again a strong performer. Here the authors extend the method to unstructured grids of arbitrarily shaped and oriented triangles and report on its performance.

  6. Optimization of quadrature signal processing for laser interferometers for demanding applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    PodŻorny, Tomasz; Budzyń, Grzegorz; Tkaczyk, Jakub

    2016-06-01

    Presented paper performs an analysis of quadrature signal processing algorithms for high demanding laser interferometry applications. Careful signal processing is required to minimize nonlinearities which come from optical path and components' imperfections, and reduce overall instrumental error. Paper focuses on algebraic fits, because implementation for real time systems was a main requirement. The most demanding applications are stationary measurements where the position slightly fluctuates in the range below one fringe period. Therefore, analysis was performed for samples that were spread along a few milliradians of a full circle.

  7. Nodal systems with maximal domain of exactness for Gaussian quadrature formulas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berriochoa, E.; Cachafeiro, A.

    2008-03-01

    The aim of this work is to study quadrature formulas for measures on the complex plane. The novelty of our contribution is to consider the exactness on subspaces of polynomials on the variables z and . Using this approach we characterize, in a unified way, the classical nodal systems for measures on the real line and the nodal systems for measures on the unit circle, which are based on para-orthogonal polynomials. We also characterize the nodal systems on the unit circle, which are not based on para-orthogonal polynomials (only for the case of nodal systems with 1 or 2 points).

  8. Extremal states for photon number and quadratures as gauges for nonclassicality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hradil, Z.; Řeháček, J.; de la Hoz, P.; Leuchs, G.; Sánchez-Soto, L. L.

    2015-04-01

    Rotated quadratures carry the phase-dependent information of the electromagnetic field, so they are somehow conjugate to the photon number. We analyze this noncanonical pair, finding an exact uncertainty relation, as well as a couple of weaker inequalities obtained by relaxing some restrictions of the problem. We also find the intelligent states saturating that relation and complete their characterization by considering extra constraints on the second-order moments of the variables involved. Using these moments, we construct performance measures tailored to diagnose photon-added and Schrödinger-cat-like states, among others.

  9. On bi-orthogonal systems of trigonometric functions and quadrature formulas for periodic integrands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cruz-Barroso, Ruymán; González-Vera, Pablo; Njåstad, Olav

    2007-04-01

    In this paper, quadrature formulas with an arbitrary number of nodes and exactly integrating trigonometric polynomials up to degree as high as possible are constructed in order to approximate 2?-periodic weighted integralsE For this purpose, certain bi-orthogonal systems of trigonometric functions are introduced and their most relevant properties studied. Some illustrative numerical examples are also given. The paper completes the results previously given by Szeg? in Magy Tud Akad Mat Kut Intez K?zl 8:255?273, 1963 and by some of the authors in Annales Mathematicae et Informaticae 32:5?44, 2005.

  10. Automatic IQ Imbalance Compensation Technique for Quadrature Modulator by Single-Tone Testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Minseok; Konishi, Yohei; Takada, Jun-Ichi; Gao, Boxin

    This letter proposes an automatic IQ imbalance compensation technique for quadrature modulators by means of spectrum measurement of RF signal using a spectrum analyzer. The analyzer feeds back only magnitude information of the frequency spectrum of the signal. To realize IQ imbalance compensation, the conventional method of steepest descent is modified; the descent direction is empirically determined and a variable step-size is introduced for accelerating convergence. The experimental results for a four-channel transmitter operating at 11GHz are presented for verification.

  11. Vibration analysis of shear deformable circular arches by the differential quadrature method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, K.; Bert, C. W.; Striz, A. G.

    1995-06-01

    The differential quadrature method is applied in the computation of the eigenvalues of the equations of motion governing in-plane and out-of-plane vibration of circular arches, based on the Bresse-Timoshenko beam theory in which both rotatory inertia and shear deformation are taken into account. Fundamental frequencies are calculated for arches of rectangular and circular cross sections under clamped-clamped end conditions and the results are compared with numerical solutions by another method. The present method gives good accuracy with only a limited number of grid points.

  12. True amplitude prestack depth migration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Feng

    Reliable analysis of amplitude variation with offset (or with angle) requires accurate amplitudes from prestack migration. In routine seismic data processing, amplitude balancing and automatic gain control are often used to reduce amplitude lateral variations. However, these methods are empirical and lack a solid physical basis; thus, there are uncertainties that might produce erroneous conclusions, and hence cause economic loss. During wavefield propagation, geometrical spreading, intrinsic attenuation, transmission losses and the energy conversion significantly distort the wavefield amplitude. Most current true-amplitude migrations usually compensate only for geometrical spreading. A new prestack depth migration based on the framework of reverse-time migration in the time-space domain was developed in this dissertation with the aim of compensating all of the propagation effects in one integrated algorithm. Geometrical spreading is automatically included because of the use of full two-way wave extrapolation. Viscoelastic wave equations are solved to handle the intrinsic attenuation with a priori quality factor. Transmission losses for both up- and down-going waves are compensated using a two-pass, recursive procedure based on extracting the angle-dependent reflection/transmission coefficients from prestack migration. The losses caused by the conversion of energy from one elastic model to another are accounted for through elastic wave extrapolation; the influence of the S wave velocity contrast on the P wave reflection coefficient is implicitly included by using the Zoeppritz equations to describe the reflection and transmission at an elastic interface. Only smooth background models are assumed to be known. The contrasts/ratios of the model parameters can be estimated by fitting the compensated angle-dependent reflection coefficients obtained from data for multiple sources. This is one useful by-product of the algorithm. Numerical tests on both 2D and 3D scalar

  13. Application of Quadrature Methods for Re-Weighting in Lattice QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Abdou Abdel-Rehim, William Detmold, Kostas Orginos

    2011-12-01

    Re-weighting is a useful tool that has been employed in Lattice QCD in different contexts including, tuning the strange quark mass, approaching the light quark mass regime, and simulating electromagnetic fields on top of QCD gauge configurations. In case of re-weighting the sea quark mass, the re-weighting factor is given by the ratio of the determinants of two Dirac operators D{sub a} and D{sub b}. A popular approach for computing this ratio is to use a pseudofermion representation of the determinant of the composite operator {Omega} = D{sub a}(D{sub b}{sup {dagger}}D{sub b}){sup -1} D{sub a}{sup {dagger}}. Here, we study using quadrature methods together with noise vectors to compute the ratio of determinants. We show that, with quadrature methods each determinant can be computed separately using the operators {Omega}{sub a} = D{sub a}{sup {dagger}}D{sub a} and {Omega}{sub b} = D{sub b}{sup {dagger}} D{sub b}. We also discuss using bootstrap re-sampling to remove the bias from the determinant estimator.

  14. Achromatic registration of quadrature components of the optical spectrum in spectral domain optical coherence tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Shilyagin, P A; Gelikonov, G V; Gelikonov, V M; Moiseev, A A; Terpelov, D A

    2014-07-31

    We have thoroughly investigated the method of simultaneous reception of spectral components with the achromatised quadrature phase shift between two portions of a reference wave, designed for the effective suppression of the 'mirror' artefact in the resulting image obtained by means of spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD OCT). We have developed and experimentally tested a phase-shifting element consisting of a beam divider, which splits the reference optical beam into the two beams, and of delay lines being individual for each beam, which create a mutual phase difference of π/2 in the double pass of the reference beam. The phase shift achromatism over a wide spectral range is achieved by using in the delay lines the individual elements with different dispersion characteristics. The ranges of admissible adjustment parameters of the achromatised delay line are estimated for exact and inexact conformity of the geometric characteristics of its components to those calculated. A possibility of simultaneous recording of the close-to-quadrature spectral components with a single linear photodetector element is experimentally confirmed. The suppression of the artefact mirror peak in the OCT-signal by an additional 9 dB relative to the level of its suppression is experimentally achieved when the air delay line is used. Two-dimensional images of the surface positioned at an angle to the axis of the probe beam are obtained with the correction of the 'mirror' artefact while maintaining the dynamic range of the image. (laser biophotonics)

  15. Evaluation of angular quadrature and spatial differencing schemes for discrete ordinates method in rectangular furnaces

    SciTech Connect

    Selcuk, N.; Kayakol, N.

    1996-11-01

    Effects of order of approximation (S{sub 2} and S{sub 4}), angular quadrature (S{sub n} and S{sub n}{prime}) and spatial differencing (diamond and variable-weight) schemes, on the predictive accuracy of discrete ordinates method were investigated by predicting the distributions of radiative flux density and source term of a rectangular enclosure problem and comparing the results with exact solutions produced previously. The enclosure problem is based on data reported earlier on a large-scale experimental furnace with steep temperature gradients. It is a black-walled enclosure containing an absorbing-emitting medium of constant properties. Comparisons show that better agreement is obtained in radiative energy source terms than in flux densities and that the order of approximation plays a more significant role than angular quadrature and spatial differencing schemes in the accuracy of predicted radiative flux densities and radiative energy source terms. Only slight improvements are obtained when S{sub n} and variable-weight differencing schemes are employed.

  16. Exponential characteristics spatial quadrature for discrete ordinates radiation transport in slab geometry

    SciTech Connect

    Mathews, K.; Sjoden, G.; Minor, B. )

    1994-09-01

    The exponential characteristic spatial quadrature for discrete ordinates neutral particle transport in slab geometry is derived and compared with current methods. It is similar to the linear characteristic (or, in slab geometry, the linear nodal) quadrature but differs by assuming an exponential distribution of the scattering source within each cell, S(x) = a exp(bx), whose parameters are root-solved to match the known (from the previous iteration) average and first moment of the source over the cell. Like the linear adaptive method, the exponential characteristic method is positive and nonlinear but more accurate and more readily extended to other cell shapes. The nonlinearity has not interfered with convergence. The authors introduce the exponential moment functions,'' a generalization of the functions used by Walters in the linear nodal method, and use them to avoid numerical ill-conditioning. The method exhibits O([Delta]x[sup 4]) truncation error on fine enough meshes; the error is insensitive to mesh size for coarse meshes. In a shielding problem, it is accurate to 10% using 16-mfp-thick cells; conventional methods err by 8 to 15 orders of magnitude. The exponential characteristic method is computationally more costly per cell than current methods but can be accurate with very thick cells, leading to increased computational efficiency on appropriate problems.

  17. Maximum of the modulus of kernels in Gauss-Turan quadratures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milovanovic, Gradimir V.; Spalevic, Miodrag M.; Pranic, Miroslav S.

    2008-06-01

    We study the kernels K_{n,s}(z) in the remainder terms R_{n,s}(f) of the Gauss-Turan quadrature formulae for analytic functions on elliptical contours with foci at pm 1 , when the weight omega is a generalized Chebyshev weight function. For the generalized Chebyshev weight of the first (third) kind, it is shown that the modulus of the kernel \\vert K_{n,s}(z)\\vert attains its maximum on the real axis (positive real semi-axis) for each ngeq n_0, n_0Dn_0(rho,s) . It was stated as a conjecture in [Mathematics of Computation 72 (2003), 1855-1872]. For the generalized Chebyshev weight of the second kind, in the case when the number of the nodes n in the corresponding Gauss-Turan quadrature formula is even, it is shown that the modulus of the kernel attains its maximum on the imaginary axis for each ngeq n_0, n_0Dn_0(rho,s) . Numerical examples are included. Retrieve articles in all Journals with MSC (1991): [41]41A55, [42]65D30, [43]65D32

  18. Methods to Prescribe Particle Motion to Minimize Quadrature Error in Meshfree Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Templeton, Jeremy; Erickson, Lindsay; Morris, Karla; Poliakoff, David

    2015-11-01

    Meshfree methods are an attractive approach for simulating material systems undergoing large-scale deformation, such as spray break up, free surface flows, and droplets. Particles, which can be easily moved, are used as nodes and/or quadrature points rather than a relying on a fixed mesh. Most methods move particles according to the local fluid velocity that allows for the convection terms in the Navier-Stokes equations to be easily accounted for. However, this is a trade-off against numerical accuracy as the flow can often move particles to configurations with high quadrature error, and artificial compressibility is often required to prevent particles from forming undesirable regions of high and low concentrations. In this work, we consider the other side of the trade-off: moving particles based on reducing numerical error. Methods derived from molecular dynamics show that particles can be moved to minimize a surrogate for the solution error, resulting in substantially more accurate simulations at a fixed cost. Sandia National Laboratories is a multiprogram laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the United States Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  19. A dual-band quadrature VCO with gain proportional to oscillation frequency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wenrui, Zhu; Haigang, Yang; Tongqiang, Gao; Hui, Zhang

    2013-08-01

    This paper presents a novel dual-band quadrature voltage controlled oscillator (VCO) with the gain proportional to the oscillation frequency. Frequency synthesizers with this VCO can reduce the bandwidth fluctuation over all the frequency ranges without compensation or calibration. Besides the original switched capacitor array, an extra switched varactor array is adopted for the implementation of the proposed VCO. The tuning technique of changing the values of the capacitor and varactor at the same ratio is also derived. For verification purposes, a 2.5 G/3.5 G dual-band quadrature VCO is fabricated in a 0.13 μm CMOS process for WiMAX applications. Measurement results show that the VCO gain is closely proportional to the oscillation frequency with ±16% variation over the entire frequency range. The phase noise is -138.15 dBc/Hz at 10 MHz from the 2.5 GHz carrier and -137.44 dBc/Hz at 10 MHz from the 3.5 GHz carrier.

  20. A multivariate quadrature based approach for LES based supersonic combustion modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donde, Pratik; Koo, Heeseok; Raman, Venkat

    2010-11-01

    The direct quadrature method of moments (DQMOM) was developed to solve high-dimensional probability density function (PDF) equations that arise in the description of turbulent combustion. This method is particularly useful in shock-containing supersonic internal flows such as those encountered in scramjet engines. In the DQMOM approach, the PDF is described in terms of a finite number of weighted delta functions whose weights and locations in composition space are obtained by solving specific transport equations. Since this approach is fully Eulerian in nature, it is advantageous compared to conventional Lagrangian methods used for solving the PDF transport equation. However, implementation of this formulation in the context of the large eddy simulation (LES) methodology leads to large numerical errors. For instance, the high-resolution numerical schemes used in LES lead to non-realizable and diffusive evolution of the DQMOM equations. Here, we propose a novel semi-discrete quadrature method of moments (SeQMOM) that overcomes this problem. A decoupling procedure is used to extend this method to multivariate PDF descriptions. The numerical implementation in LES as well as validation exercises will be presented.

  1. Low-Latitude Solar Wind During the Fall 1998 SOHO-Ulysses Quadrature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poletto, G.; Suess, Steven T.; Biesecker, D.; Esser, R.; Gloeckler, G.; Zurbuchen, T.; Whitaker, Ann F. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The Fall 1998 SOlar-Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) - Ulysses quadrature occurred when Ulysses was at 5.2 AU, 17.4 deg South of the equator, and off the West line of the Sun. SOHO coronal observations, at heliocentric distances of a few solar radii, showed that the line through the solar center and Ulysses crossed, over the first days of observations, a dark, weakly emitting area and through the northern edge of a streamer complex during the second half of the quadrature campaign. Ulysses in situ observations showed this transition to correspond to a decrease from higher speed wind typical of coronal hole flow to low speed wind. Physical parameters (density, temperature, flow speed) of the low latitude coronal plasma sampled over the campaign are determined using constraints from what is the same plasma measured later in situ and simulating the intensities of the Hydrogen Lyman-alpha and OVI 1032 and 1037 Angstrom lines, measured by the Ultra Violet Coronagraph Spectrometer (UVCS) on SOHO. The densities, temperatures and outflow speed are compared with the same characteristic flow parameters for high-latitude fast wind streams and typical slow solar wind.

  2. A quadrature based method of moments for nonlinear Fokker-Planck equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otten, Dustin L.; Vedula, Prakash

    2011-09-01

    Fokker-Planck equations which are nonlinear with respect to their probability densities and occur in many nonequilibrium systems relevant to mean field interaction models, plasmas, fermions and bosons can be challenging to solve numerically. To address some underlying challenges, we propose the application of the direct quadrature based method of moments (DQMOM) for efficient and accurate determination of transient (and stationary) solutions of nonlinear Fokker-Planck equations (NLFPEs). In DQMOM, probability density (or other distribution) functions are represented using a finite collection of Dirac delta functions, characterized by quadrature weights and locations (or abscissas) that are determined based on constraints due to evolution of generalized moments. Three particular examples of nonlinear Fokker-Planck equations considered in this paper include descriptions of: (i) the Shimizu-Yamada model, (ii) the Desai-Zwanzig model (both of which have been developed as models of muscular contraction) and (iii) fermions and bosons. Results based on DQMOM, for the transient and stationary solutions of the nonlinear Fokker-Planck equations, have been found to be in good agreement with other available analytical and numerical approaches. It is also shown that approximate reconstruction of the underlying probability density function from moments obtained from DQMOM can be satisfactorily achieved using a maximum entropy method.

  3. Suppressing the mechanical quadrature error of a quartz double-H gyroscope through laser trimming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Ke; Feng, Li-Hui; Wang, Qian-Qian; Liu, Ming-Zhi; Wang, Ben-Guo; Cui, Fang; Sun, Yu-Nan

    2013-11-01

    In this paper, we introduce a z-axis quartz gyroscope using a double-H tuning fork, which has a high sensitivity. However, it also causes a large mechanical quadrature error. The laser trimming method is used to suppress this error at quartz level. The trimming law is obtained through the finite element method (FEM). A femtosecond laser processing system is used to trim the gold balancing masses on the beams, and experimental results are basically consistent with the simulated ones. The mechanical quadrature error is suppressed by 96%, from 26.3° s-1 to 1.1° s-1. Nonlinearity changes from 1.48% to 0.30%, angular random walk (ARW) is reduced from 2.19° h-1/2 to 1.42° h-1/2, and bias instability is improved by a factor of 7.7, from 197.6° h-1 to 25.4° h-1.

  4. 'EXTREME ULTRAVIOLET WAVES' ARE WAVES: FIRST QUADRATURE OBSERVATIONS OF AN EXTREME ULTRAVIOLET WAVE FROM STEREO

    SciTech Connect

    Patsourakos, Spiros; Vourlidas, Angelos E-mail: vourlidas@nrl.navy.mil

    2009-08-01

    The nature of coronal mass ejection (CME)-associated low corona propagating disturbances, 'extreme ultraviolet (EUV) waves', has been controversial since their discovery by EIT on SOHO. The low-cadence, single-viewpoint EUV images and the lack of simultaneous inner corona white-light observations have hindered the resolution of the debate on whether they are true waves or just projections of the expanding CME. The operation of the twin EUV imagers and inner corona coronagraphs aboard STEREO has improved the situation dramatically. During early 2009, the STEREO Ahead (STA) and Behind (STB) spacecrafts observed the Sun in quadrature having a {approx}90 deg. angular separation. An EUV wave and CME erupted from active region 11012, on February 13, when the region was exactly at the limb for STA and hence at disk center for STB. The STEREO observations capture the development of a CME and its accompanying EUV wave not only with high cadence but also in quadrature. The resulting unprecedented data set allowed us to separate the CME structures from the EUV wave signatures and to determine without doubt the true nature of the wave. It is a fast-mode MHD wave after all.

  5. Randomized gap and amplitude estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zintchenko, Ilia; Wiebe, Nathan

    2016-06-01

    We provide a method for estimating spectral gaps in low-dimensional systems. Unlike traditional phase estimation, our approach does not require ancillary qubits nor does it require well-characterized gates. Instead, it only requires the ability to perform approximate Haar random unitary operations, applying the unitary whose eigenspectrum is sought and performing measurements in the computational basis. We discuss application of these ideas to in-place amplitude estimation and quantum device calibration.

  6. Genus dependence of superstring amplitudes

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, Simon

    2006-11-15

    The problem of the consistency of the finiteness of the supermoduli space integral in the limit of vanishing super-fixed point distance and the genus-dependence of the integral over the super-Schottky coordinates in the fundamental region containing a neighborhood of |K{sub n}|=0 is resolved. Given a choice of the categories of isometric circles representing the integration region, the exponential form of bounds for superstring amplitudes is derived.

  7. Pulse amplitude modulated chlorophyll fluorometer

    SciTech Connect

    Greenbaum, Elias; Wu, Jie

    2015-12-29

    Chlorophyll fluorometry may be used for detecting toxins in a sample because of changes in micro algae. A portable lab on a chip ("LOAC") based chlorophyll fluorometer may be used for toxin detection and environmental monitoring. In particular, the system may include a microfluidic pulse amplitude modulated ("PAM") chlorophyll fluorometer. The LOAC PAM chlorophyll fluorometer may analyze microalgae and cyanobacteria that grow naturally in source drinking water.

  8. Phase variation of hadronic amplitudes

    SciTech Connect

    Dedonder, J.-P.; Gibbs, W. R.; Nuseirat, Mutazz

    2008-04-15

    The phase variation with angle of hadronic amplitudes is studied with a view to understanding the underlying physical quantities that control it and how well it can be determined in free space. We find that unitarity forces a moderately accurate determination of the phase in standard amplitude analyses but that the nucleon-nucleon analyses done to date do not give the phase variation needed to achieve a good representation of the data in multiple scattering calculations. Models are examined that suggest its behavior near forward angles is related to the radii of the real and absorptive parts of the interaction. The dependence of this phase on model parameters is such that if these radii are modified in the nuclear medium (in combination with the change due to the shift in energy of the effective amplitude in the medium) then the larger magnitudes of the phase needed to fit the data might be attainable but only for negative values of the phase variation parameter.

  9. An extended doubly-adaptive quadrature method based on the combination of the Ninomiya and the FLR schemes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasegawa, Takemitsu; Hibino, Susumu; Hosoda, Yohsuke; Ninomiya, Ichizo

    2007-08-01

    An improvement is made to an automatic quadrature due to Ninomiya (J. Inf. Process. 3:162?170, 1980) of adaptive type based on the Newton?Cotes rule by incorporating a doubly-adaptive algorithm due to Favati, Lotti and Romani (ACM Trans. Math. Softw. 17:207?217, 1991; ACM Trans. Math. Softw. 17:218?232, 1991). We compare the present method in performance with some others by using various test problems including Kahaner?s ones (Computation of numerical quadrature formulas. In: Rice, J.R. (ed.) Mathematical Software, 229?259. Academic, Orlando, FL, 1971).

  10. Real-Time Quadrature Measurement of a Single-Photon Wave Packet with Continuous Temporal-Mode Matching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogawa, Hisashi; Ohdan, Hideaki; Miyata, Kazunori; Taguchi, Masahiro; Makino, Kenzo; Yonezawa, Hidehiro; Yoshikawa, Jun-ichi; Furusawa, Akira

    2016-06-01

    Real-time controls based on quantum measurements are powerful tools for various quantum protocols. However, their experimental realization has been limited by mode mismatch between the temporal mode of quadrature measurement and that heralded by photon detection. Here, we demonstrate real-time quadrature measurement of a single-photon wave packet induced by photon detection by utilizing continuous temporal-mode matching between homodyne detection and an exponentially rising temporal mode. Single photons in exponentially rising modes are also expected to be useful resources for interactions with other quantum systems.

  11. Calculation of Scattering Amplitude Without Partial Analysis. II; Inclusion of Exchange

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Temkin, Aaron; Shertzer, J.; Fisher, Richard R. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    There was a method for calculating the whole scattering amplitude, f(Omega(sub k)), directly. The idea was to calculate the complete wave function Psi numerically, and use it in an integral expression for f, which can be reduced to a 2 dimensional quadrature. The original application was for e-H scattering without exchange. There the Schrodinger reduces a 2-d partial differential equation (pde), which was solved using the finite element method (FEM). Here we extend the method to the exchange approximation. The S.E. can be reduced to a pair of coupled pde's, which are again solved by the FEM. The formal expression for f(Omega(sub k)) consists two integrals, f+/- = f(sub d) +/- f(sub e); f(sub d) is formally the same integral as the no-exchange f. We have also succeeded in reducing f(sub e) to a 2-d integral. Results will be presented at the meeting.

  12. Simultaneous and independent optical impairments monitoring using singular spectrum analysis of asynchronously sampled signal amplitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guesmi, Latifa; Menif, Mourad

    2015-09-01

    Optical performance monitoring (OPM) becomes an inviting topic in high speed optical communication networks. In this paper, a novel technique of OPM based on a new elaborated computation approach of singular spectrum analysis (SSA) for time series prediction is presented. Indeed, various optical impairments among chromatic dispersion (CD), polarization mode dispersion (PMD) and amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) noise are a major factors limiting quality of transmission data in the systems with data rates lager than 40 Gbit/s. This technique proposed an independent and simultaneous multi-impairments monitoring, where we used SSA of time series analysis and forecasting. It has proven their usefulness in the temporal analysis of short and noisy time series in several fields, that it is based on the singular value decomposition (SVD). Also, advanced optical modulation formats (100 Gbit/s non-return-to zero dual-polarization quadrature phase shift keying (NRZ-DP-QPSK) and 160 Gbit/s DP-16 quadrature amplitude modulation (DP-16QAM)) offering high spectral efficiencies have been successfully employed by analyzing their asynchronously sampled amplitude. The simulated results proved that our method is efficient on CD, first-order PMD, Q-factor and OSNR monitoring, which enabled large monitoring ranges, the CD in the range of 170-1700 ps/nm.Km and 170-1110 ps/nm.Km for 100 Gbit/s NRZ-DP-QPSK and 160 Gbit/s DP-16QAM respectively, and also the DGD up to 20 ps is monitored. We could accurately monitor the OSNR in the range of 10-40 dB with monitoring error remains less than 1 dB in the presence of large accumulated CD.

  13. Digitally generated excitation and near-baseband quadrature detection of rapid scan EPR signals

    PubMed Central

    Quine, Richard W.; Rinard, George A.; Eaton, Sandra S.; Eaton, Gareth R.

    2014-01-01

    The use of multiple synchronized outputs from an AWG provides the opportunity to perform EPR experiments differently than by conventional EPR. We report a method for reconstructing the quadrature EPR spectrum from periodic signals that are generated with sinusoidal magnetic field modulation such as continuous wave (CW), multiharmonic, or rapid scan experiments. The signal is down-converted to an intermediate frequency (IF) that is less than the field scan or field modulation frequency and then digitized in a single channel. This method permits use of a high-pass analog filter before digitization to remove the strong non-EPR signal at the IF, that might otherwise overwhelm the digitizer. The IF is the difference between two synchronized X-band outputs from a Tektronix AWG 70002A arbitrary waveform generator (AWG), one of which is for excitation and the other is the reference for down-conversion. To permit signal averaging, timing was selected to give an exact integer number of full cycles for each frequency. In the experiments reported here the IF was 5 kHz and the scan frequency was 40 kHz. To produce sinusoidal rapid scans with a scan frequency eight times IF, a third synchronized output generated a square wave that was converted to a sine wave. The timing of the data acquisition with a Bruker SpecJet II was synchronized by an external clock signal from the AWG. The baseband quadrature signal in the frequency domain was reconstructed. This approach has the advantages that (i) the non-EPR response at the carrier frequency is eliminated, (ii) both real and imaginary EPR signals are reconstructed from a single physical channel to produce an ideal quadrature signal, and (iii) signal bandwidth does not increase relative to baseband detection. Spectra were obtained by deconvolution of the reconstructed signals for solid BDPA (1,3-bisdiphenylene-2-phenylallyl) in air, 0.2 mM trityl OX63 in water, 15N perdeuterated tempone, and a nitroxide with a 0.5 G partially

  14. Digitally generated excitation and near-baseband quadrature detection of rapid scan EPR signals.

    PubMed

    Tseitlin, Mark; Yu, Zhelin; Quine, Richard W; Rinard, George A; Eaton, Sandra S; Eaton, Gareth R

    2014-10-30

    The use of multiple synchronized outputs from an arbitrary waveform generator (AWG) provides the opportunity to perform EPR experiments differently than by conventional EPR. We report a method for reconstructing the quadrature EPR spectrum from periodic signals that are generated with sinusoidal magnetic field modulation such as continuous wave (CW), multiharmonic, or rapid scan experiments. The signal is down-converted to an intermediate frequency (IF) that is less than the field scan or field modulation frequency and then digitized in a single channel. This method permits use of a high-pass analog filter before digitization to remove the strong non-EPR signal at the IF, that might otherwise overwhelm the digitizer. The IF is the difference between two synchronized X-band outputs from a Tektronix AWG 70002A, one of which is for excitation and the other is the reference for down-conversion. To permit signal averaging, timing was selected to give an exact integer number of full cycles for each frequency. In the experiments reported here the IF was 5kHz and the scan frequency was 40kHz. To produce sinusoidal rapid scans with a scan frequency eight times IF, a third synchronized output generated a square wave that was converted to a sine wave. The timing of the data acquisition with a Bruker SpecJet II was synchronized by an external clock signal from the AWG. The baseband quadrature signal in the frequency domain was reconstructed. This approach has the advantages that (i) the non-EPR response at the carrier frequency is eliminated, (ii) both real and imaginary EPR signals are reconstructed from a single physical channel to produce an ideal quadrature signal, and (iii) signal bandwidth does not increase relative to baseband detection. Spectra were obtained by deconvolution of the reconstructed signals for solid BDPA (1,3-bisdiphenylene-2-phenylallyl) in air, 0.2mM trityl OX63 in water, (15)N perdeuterated tempone, and a nitroxide with a 0.5G partially-resolved proton

  15. Digitally generated excitation and near-baseband quadrature detection of rapid scan EPR signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tseitlin, Mark; Yu, Zhelin; Quine, Richard W.; Rinard, George A.; Eaton, Sandra S.; Eaton, Gareth R.

    2014-12-01

    The use of multiple synchronized outputs from an arbitrary waveform generator (AWG) provides the opportunity to perform EPR experiments differently than by conventional EPR. We report a method for reconstructing the quadrature EPR spectrum from periodic signals that are generated with sinusoidal magnetic field modulation such as continuous wave (CW), multiharmonic, or rapid scan experiments. The signal is down-converted to an intermediate frequency (IF) that is less than the field scan or field modulation frequency and then digitized in a single channel. This method permits use of a high-pass analog filter before digitization to remove the strong non-EPR signal at the IF, that might otherwise overwhelm the digitizer. The IF is the difference between two synchronized X-band outputs from a Tektronix AWG 70002A, one of which is for excitation and the other is the reference for down-conversion. To permit signal averaging, timing was selected to give an exact integer number of full cycles for each frequency. In the experiments reported here the IF was 5 kHz and the scan frequency was 40 kHz. To produce sinusoidal rapid scans with a scan frequency eight times IF, a third synchronized output generated a square wave that was converted to a sine wave. The timing of the data acquisition with a Bruker SpecJet II was synchronized by an external clock signal from the AWG. The baseband quadrature signal in the frequency domain was reconstructed. This approach has the advantages that (i) the non-EPR response at the carrier frequency is eliminated, (ii) both real and imaginary EPR signals are reconstructed from a single physical channel to produce an ideal quadrature signal, and (iii) signal bandwidth does not increase relative to baseband detection. Spectra were obtained by deconvolution of the reconstructed signals for solid BDPA (1,3-bisdiphenylene-2-phenylallyl) in air, 0.2 mM trityl OX63 in water, 15N perdeuterated tempone, and a nitroxide with a 0.5 G partially

  16. Constraints on string resonance amplitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheung, Kingman; Liu, Yueh-Feng

    2005-07-01

    We perform a global analysis of the tree-level open-string amplitudes in the limit s≪M2S. Based on the present data from the Tevatron, HERA, and LEP 2, we set a lower limit on the string scale MS≥0.69 1.96 TeV at 95% confidence level for the Chan-Paton factors |T|=0-4. We also estimate the expected sensitivities at the CERN LHC, which can be as high as 19 TeV for |T|=4.

  17. Dynamic pressure sensing with a fiber-optic polarimetric pressure transducer with two-wavelength passive quadrature readout.

    PubMed

    Fürstenau, N; Schmidt, M; Bock, W J; Urbanczyk, W

    1998-02-01

    We describe the combination of a polarimetric pressure sensor with a two-wavelength passive quadrature demodulation system allowing for dynamic pressure sensing in the 10-MPa range with unambiguous fringe counting. Furthermore, continuous phase measurement with the arctan method applied to the quadrature interference signals after automatic offset subtraction is demonstrated for the first time, to our knowledge. A single low-coherent superluminescent diode is used as a light source, and a polarizing beam splitter in combination with two adjustable interference filters of slightly different central wavelengths serves for the creation of the quadrature signals. Results of initial experiments with 60-ms pressure relaxation-time constants with the fringe-counting technique demonstrate the performance that was predicted theoretically. The measured pressure sensitivity exhibits excellent agreement with the previous research of Bock and Urbanczyk [IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 44, 694-697 (1995)] using a polarimetric readout. The fringe-contrast variation and the measurement range obtained experimentally show the fiber dispersion to influence dephasing (deviation from quadrature) and visibility decrease significantly with increasing pressure. PMID:18268638

  18. Efficient quadrature-free high-order spectral volume method on unstructured grids: Theory and 2D implementation

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, R.; Wang, Z.; Liu, Y.

    2007-11-19

    An efficient implementation of the high-order spectral volume (SV) method is presented for multi-dimensional conservation laws on unstructured grids. In the SV method, each simplex cell is called a spectral volume (SV), and the SV is further subdivided into polygonal (2D), or polyhedral (3D) control volumes (CVs) to support high-order data reconstructions. In the traditional implementation, Gauss quadrature formulas are used to approximate the flux integrals on all faces. In the new approach, a nodal set is selected and used to reconstruct a high-order polynomial approximation for the flux vector, and then the flux integrals on the internal faces are computed analytically, without the need for Gauss quadrature formulas. This gives a significant advantage over the traditional SV method in efficiency and ease of implementation. For SV interfaces, a quadrature-free approach is compared with the Gauss quadrature approach to further evaluate the accuracy and efficiency. A simplified treatment of curved boundaries is also presented that avoids the need to store a separate reconstruction for each boundary cell. Fundamental properties of the new SV implementation are studied and high-order accuracy is demonstrated for linear and non-linear advection equations, and the Euler equations. Several well known inviscid flow test cases are utilized to show the effectiveness of the simplified curved boundary representation.

  19. Efficient quadrature-free high-order spectral volume method on unstructured grids: Theory and 2D implementation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, Rob; Wang, Z. J.; Liu, Yen

    2008-01-01

    An efficient implementation of the high-order spectral volume (SV) method is presented for multi-dimensional conservation laws on unstructured grids. In the SV method, each simplex cell is called a spectral volume (SV), and the SV is further subdivided into polygonal (2D), or polyhedral (3D) control volumes (CVs) to support high-order data reconstructions. In the traditional implementation, Gauss quadrature formulas are used to approximate the flux integrals on all faces. In the new approach, a nodal set is selected and used to reconstruct a high-order polynomial approximation for the flux vector, and then the flux integrals on the internal faces are computed analytically, without the need for Gauss quadrature formulas. This gives a significant advantage over the traditional SV method in efficiency and ease of implementation. For SV interfaces, a quadrature-free approach is compared with the Gauss quadrature approach to further evaluate the accuracy and efficiency. A simplified treatment of curved boundaries is also presented that avoids the need to store a separate reconstruction for each boundary cell. Fundamental properties of the new SV implementation are studied and high-order accuracy is demonstrated for linear and non-linear advection equations, and the Euler equations. Several well known inviscid flow test cases are utilized to show the effectiveness of the simplified curved boundary representation.

  20. Optimizing MRI signal-to-noise ratio for quadrature unmatched RF coils: two preamplifiers are better than one.

    PubMed

    Sorgenfrei, B L; Edelstein, W A

    1996-07-01

    Using separate preamplifiers for the two outputs of a quadrature receive coil (and then combining the preamplifier outputs in a quadrature hybrid) provides a better signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) than is obtained by directly combining the quadrature outputs in a hybrid followed by a single preamplifier. The advantage of the two-preamplifier configuration increases when the body coil impedance changes and is no longer matched to 50 ohms. Using 0.4 dB noise figure preamplifiers, theory predicts 1.53, 0.42, 0, 0.42, and 1.53 dB SNR advantage of the two-preamplifier configuration over the one-preamplifier arrangement at body coil impedances of 12.5, 25, 50, 100, and 200 ohms, respectively. Experimental hot/cold resistor noise figure measurements indicate 2.86, 0.65, 0.36, 0.83, and 1.40 dB noise figure advantage for the two preamplifier configuration relative to the one-preamplifier configuration at those impedances. Empirical gains larger than theoretically calculated are attributable to insertion losses of various circuit elements, such as the quadrature hybrid, for the one-preamplifier configuration. PMID:8795028

  1. An efficient nonclassical quadrature for the calculation of nonresonant nuclear fusion reaction rate coefficients from cross section data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shizgal, Bernie D.

    2016-08-01

    Nonclassical quadratures based on a new set of half-range polynomials, Tn(x) , orthogonal with respect to w(x) =e - x - b /√{ x } for x ∈ [ 0 , ∞) are employed in the efficient calculation of the nuclear fusion reaction rate coefficients from cross section data. The parameter b = B /√{kB T } in the weight function is temperature dependent and B is the Gamow factor. The polynomials Tn(x) satisfy a three term recurrence relation defined by two sets of recurrence coefficients, αn and βn. These recurrence coefficients define in turn the tridiagonal Jacobi matrix whose eigenvalues are the quadrature points and the weights are calculated from the first components of the eigenfunctions. For nonresonant nuclear reactions for which the astrophysical function can be expressed as a lower order polynomial in the relative energy, the convergence of the thermal average of the reactive cross section with this nonclassical quadrature is extremely rapid requiring in many cases 2-4 quadrature points. The results are compared with other libraries of nuclear reaction rate coefficient data reported in the literature.

  2. Spherical-earth gravity and magnetic anomaly modeling by Gauss-Legendre quadrature integration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Von Frese, R. R. B.; Hinze, W. J.; Braile, L. W.; Luca, A. J.

    1981-01-01

    Gauss-Legendre quadrature integration is used to calculate the anomalous potential of gravity and magnetic fields and their spatial derivatives on a spherical earth. The procedure involves representation of the anomalous source as a distribution of equivalent point gravity poles or point magnetic dipoles. The distribution of equivalent point sources is determined directly from the volume limits of the anomalous body. The variable limits of integration for an arbitrarily shaped body are obtained from interpolations performed on a set of body points which approximate the body's surface envelope. The versatility of the method is shown by its ability to treat physical property variations within the source volume as well as variable magnetic fields over the source and observation surface. Examples are provided which illustrate the capabilities of the technique, including a preliminary modeling of potential field signatures for the Mississippi embayment crustal structure at 450 km.

  3. Stochastic path integral approach to continuous quadrature measurement of a single fluorescing qubit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jordan, Andrew N.; Chantasri, Areeya; Huard, Benjamin

    I will present a theory of continuous quantum measurement for a superconducting qubit undergoing fluorescent energy relaxation. The fluorescence of the qubit is detected via a phase-preserving heterodyne measurement, giving the cavity mode quadrature signals as two continuous qubit readout results. By using the stochastic path integral approach to the measurement physics, we obtain the most likely fluorescence paths between chosen boundary conditions on the state, and compute approximate correlation functions between all stochastic variables via diagrammatic perturbation theory. Of particular interest are most-likely paths describing increasing energy during the florescence. Comparison to Monte Carlo numerical simulation and experiment will be discussed. This work was supported by US Army Research Office Grants No. W911NF-09-0-01417 and No. W911NF-15-1-0496, by NSF Grant DMR-1506081, by John Templeton Foundation Grant ID 58558, and by the DPSTT Project Thailand.

  4. New quadrature approach based on operational matrix for solving a class of fractional variational problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ezz-Eldien, S. S.

    2016-07-01

    This manuscript presents a new numerical approach to approximate the solution of a class of fractional variational problems. The presented approach is consisting of using the shifted Legendre orthonormal polynomials as basis functions of the operational matrix of fractional derivatives (described in the Caputo sense) and that of fractional integrals (described in the sense of Riemann-Liouville) with the help of the Legendre-Gauss quadrature formula together with the Lagrange multipliers method for converting such fractional variational problems into easier problems that consist of solving an algebraic system in the unknown coefficients. The convergence of the proposed method is analyzed. Finally, in order to demonstrate the accuracy of the present method, some test problems are introduced with their approximate solutions and comparisons with other numerical approaches.

  5. Real-space quadrature: A convenient, efficient representation for multipole expansions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogers, David M.

    2015-02-01

    Multipoles are central to the theory and modeling of polarizable and nonpolarizable molecular electrostatics. This has made a representation in terms of point charges a highly sought after goal, since rotation of multipoles is a bottleneck in molecular dynamics implementations. All known point charge representations are orders of magnitude less efficient than spherical harmonics due to either using too many fixed charge locations or due to nonlinear fitting of fewer charge locations. We present the first complete solution to this problem—completely replacing spherical harmonic basis functions by a dramatically simpler set of weights associated to fixed, discrete points on a sphere. This representation is shown to be space optimal. It reduces the spherical harmonic decomposition of Poisson's operator to pairwise summations over the point set. As a corollary, we also shows exact quadrature-based formulas for contraction over trace-free supersymmetric 3D tensors. Moreover, multiplication of spherical harmonic basis functions translates to a direct product in this representation.

  6. Stress fields around two pores in an elastic body: exact quadrature domain solutions

    PubMed Central

    Crowdy, Darren

    2015-01-01

    Analytical solutions are given for the stress fields, in both compression and far-field shear, in a two-dimensional elastic body containing two interacting non-circular pores. The two complex potentials governing the solutions are found by using a conformal mapping from a pre-image annulus with those potentials expressed in terms of the Schottky–Klein prime function for the annulus. Solutions for a three-parameter family of elastic bodies with two equal symmetric pores are presented and the compressibility of a special family of pore pairs is studied in detail. The methodology extends to two unequal pores. The importance for boundary value problems of plane elasticity of a special class of planar domains known as quadrature domains is also elucidated. This observation provides the route to generalization of the mathematical approach here to finding analytical solutions for the stress fields in bodies containing any finite number of pores. PMID:26339198

  7. STEREO QUADRATURE OBSERVATIONS OF THE THREE-DIMENSIONAL STRUCTURE AND DRIVER OF A GLOBAL CORONAL WAVE

    SciTech Connect

    Kienreich, I. W.; Temmer, M.; Veronig, A. M. E-mail: mat@igam.uni-graz.a

    2009-10-01

    We present the first observations of a global coronal wave ('EIT wave') from the two STEREO satellites in quadrature. The wave's initiation site was at the disk center in STEREO-B and precisely on the limb in STEREO-A. These unprecedented observations from the STEREO Extreme Ultraviolet Imaging (EUVI) instruments enable us to gain insight into the wave's kinematics, initiation, and three-dimensional structure. The wave propagates globally over the whole solar hemisphere visible to STEREO-B with a constant velocity of {approx}263 +- 16 km s{sup -1}. From the two STEREO observations, we derive a height of the wave in the range of {approx}80-100 Mm. Comparison of the wave kinematics with the early phase of the erupting coronal mass ejection (CME) structure indicates that the wave is initiated by the CME lateral expansion, and then propagates freely with a velocity close to the fast magnetosonic speed in the quiet solar corona.

  8. Exponential characteristic spatial quadrature for discrete ordinates radiation transport with rectangular cells

    SciTech Connect

    Minor, B.; Mathews, K.

    1995-07-01

    The exponential characteristic (EC) spatial quadrature for discrete ordinates neutral particle transport previously introduced in slab geometry is extended here to x-y geometry with rectangular cells. The method is derived and compared with current methods. It is similar to the linear characteristic (LC) quadrature (a linear-linear moments method) but differs by assuming an exponential distribution of the scattering source within each cell, S(x) = a exp(bx + cy), whose parameters are rootsolved to match the known (from the previous iteration) spatial average and first moments of the source over the cell. Similarly, EC assumes exponential distributions of flux along cell edges through which particles enter the cell, with parameters chosen to match the average and first moments of flux, as passed from the adjacent, upstream cells (or as determined by boundary conditions). Like the linear adaptive (LA) method, EC is positive and nonlinear. It is more accurate than LA and does not require subdivision of cells. The nonlinearity has not interfered with convergence. The exponential moment functions, which were introduced with the slab geometry method, are extended to arbitrary dimensions (numbers of arguments) and used to avoid numerical ill conditioning. As in slab geometry, the method approaches O({Delta}x{sup 4}) global truncation error on fine-enough meshes, while the error is insensitive to mesh size for coarse meshes. Performance of the method is compared with that of the step characteristic, LC, linear nodal, step adaptive, and LA schemes. The EC method is a strong performer with scattering ratios ranging from 0 to 0.9 (the range tested), particularly so for lower scattering ratios. As in slab geometry, EC is computationally more costly per cell than current methods but can be accurate with very thick cells, leading to increased computational efficiency on appropriate problems.

  9. Constructing Amplitudes from Their Soft Limits

    SciTech Connect

    Boucher-Veronneau, Camille; Larkoski, Andrew J.; /SLAC

    2011-12-09

    The existence of universal soft limits for gauge-theory and gravity amplitudes has been known for a long time. The properties of the soft limits have been exploited in numerous ways; in particular for relating an n-point amplitude to an (n-1)-point amplitude by removing a soft particle. Recently, a procedure called inverse soft was developed by which 'soft' particles can be systematically added to an amplitude to construct a higher-point amplitude for generic kinematics. We review this procedure and relate it to Britto-Cachazo-Feng-Witten recursion. We show that all tree-level amplitudes in gauge theory and gravity up through seven points can be constructed in this way, as well as certain classes of NMHV gauge-theory amplitudes with any number of external legs. This provides us with a systematic procedure for constructing amplitudes solely from their soft limits.

  10. New identities among gauge theory amplitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bjerrum-Bohr, N. E. J.; Damgaard, Poul H.; Feng, Bo; Søndergaard, Thomas

    2010-08-01

    Color-ordered amplitudes in gauge theories satisfy non-linear identities involving amplitude products of different helicity configurations. We consider the origin of such identities and connect them to the Kawai-Lewellen-Tye (KLT) relations between gravity and gauge theory amplitudes. Extensions are made to one-loop order of the full N = 4 super Yang-Mills multiplet.

  11. Gauss and Markov quadrature formulae with nodes at zeros of eigenfunctions of a Sturm-Liouville problem, which are exact for entire functions of exponential type

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorbachev, D. V.; Ivanov, V. I.

    2015-08-01

    Gauss and Markov quadrature formulae with nodes at zeros of eigenfunctions of a Sturm-Liouville problem, which are exact for entire functions of exponential type, are established. They generalize quadrature formulae involving zeros of Bessel functions, which were first designed by Frappier and Olivier. Bessel quadratures correspond to the Fourier-Hankel integral transform. Some other examples, connected with the Jacobi integral transform, Fourier series in Jacobi orthogonal polynomials and the general Sturm-Liouville problem with regular weight are also given. Bibliography: 39 titles.

  12. Programmable digital modem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poklemba, John J.

    1991-01-01

    The design of the Programmable Digital Modem (PDM) is outlined. The PDM will be capable of operating with numerous modulation techniques including: 2-, 4-, 8- and 16-ary phase shift keying (PSK), minimum shift keying (MSK), and 16-ary quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM), with spectral occupancy from 1.2x to 2x the data symbol rate. It will also be programmable for transmission rates ranging from 2.34 to 300 Mbit/s, where the maximum symbol rate is 75 Msymbol/s. Furthermore, these parameters will be executable in independent burst, dependent burst, or continuous mode. In dependent burst mode the carrier and clock oscillator sources are common from burst to burst. To achieve as broad a set of requirements as these, it is clear that the essential signal processing must be digital. In addition, to avoid hardware changes when the operational parameters are changed, a fixed interface to an analog intermediate frequency (IF) is necessary for transmission; and, common system level architectures are necessary for the modulator and demodulator. Lastly, to minimize size and power, as much of the design as possible will be implemented with application specific integrated circuit (ASIC) chips.

  13. Dual-mass vibratory rate gyroscope with suppressed translational acceleration response and quadrature-error correction capability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, William A. (Inventor); Juneau, Thor N. (Inventor); Lemkin, Mark A. (Inventor); Roessig, Allen W. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A microfabricated vibratory rate gyroscope to measure rotation includes two proof-masses mounted in a suspension system anchored to a substrate. The suspension has two principal modes of compliance, one of which is driven into oscillation. The driven oscillation combined with rotation of the substrate about an axis perpendicular to the substrate results in Coriolis acceleration along the other mode of compliance, the sense-mode. The sense-mode is designed to respond to Coriolis accelerationwhile suppressing the response to translational acceleration. This is accomplished using one or more rigid levers connecting the two proof-masses. The lever allows the proof-masses to move in opposite directions in response to Coriolis acceleration. The invention includes a means for canceling errors, termed quadrature error, due to imperfections in implementation of the sensor. Quadrature-error cancellation utilizes electrostatic forces to cancel out undesired sense-axis motion in phase with drive-mode position.

  14. Modified cubic B-spline differential quadrature method for numerical solution of three-dimensional coupled viscous Burger equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shukla, H. S.; Tamsir, Mohammad; Srivastava, Vineet K.; Rashidi, Mohammad Mehdi

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, we propose a modified cubic B-spline differential quadrature method (MCB-DQM) to solve three-dimensional (3D) coupled viscous Burger equation with appropriate initial and boundary conditions. In this method, modified cubic B-spline is treated as a basis function in the differential quadrature method (DQM) to compute the weighting coefficients. In this way, the Burger equation is reduced into a system of ordinary differential equations. An optimal strong stability-preserving Runge-Kutta (SSP-RK) method is employed to solve the resulting system of ordinary differential equations. In order to illustrate the accuracy and efficiency of the proposed method, a numerical problem is considered. From the numerical experiment, it is found that the computed result is in good agreement with the exact solution. Stability analysis of the method is also carried out using the matrix stability analysis method and found to be unconditionally stable.

  15. Error analysis in some Gauss-Turan-Radau and Gauss-Turan-Lobatto quadratures for analytic functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milovanovic, Gradimir V.; Spalevic, Miodrag M.

    2004-03-01

    We consider the generalized Gauss-Turan quadrature formulae of Radau and Lobatto type for approximating . The aim of this paper is to analyze the remainder term in the case when f is an analytic function in some region of the complex plane containing the interval [-1,1] in its interior. The remainder term is presented in the form of a contour integral over confocal ellipses (cf. SIAM J. Numer. Anal. 80 (1983) 1170). Sufficient conditions on the convergence for some of such quadratures, associated with the generalized Chebyshev weight functions, are found. Using some ideas from Hunter (BIT 35 (1995) 64) we obtain new estimates of the remainder term, which are very exact. Some numerical results and illustrations are shown.

  16. Numerical solution of two dimensional coupled viscous Burger equation using modified cubic B-spline differential quadrature method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shukla, H. S.; Tamsir, Mohammad; Srivastava, Vineet K.; Kumar, Jai

    2014-11-01

    In this paper, a numerical solution of two dimensional nonlinear coupled viscous Burger equation is discussed with appropriate initial and boundary conditions using the modified cubic B-spline differential quadrature method. In this method, the weighting coefficients are computed using the modified cubic B-spline as a basis function in the differential quadrature method. Thus, the coupled Burger equation is reduced into a system of ordinary differential equations. An optimal five stage and fourth-order strong stability preserving Runge-Kutta scheme is applied for solving the resulting system of ordinary differential equations. The accuracy of the scheme is illustrated by taking two numerical examples. Computed results are compared with the exact solutions and other results available in literature. Obtained numerical result shows that the described method is efficient and reliable scheme for solving two dimensional coupled viscous Burger equation.

  17. SOHO-Ulysses Coordinated Studies During the Two Extended Quadratures and the Radial Alignment of 2007-2008

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suess, S. T.; Poletto, G.

    2007-01-01

    During quadrature, plasma seen on the limb of the Sun, along the radi al direction to Ulysses, by SOHO or STEREO can be sampled in situ as lt later passes Ulysses. A figure shows a coronagraph image, the rad ial towards Ulysses at 58 deg. S. and the SOHO/UVCS slit positions d uring one set of observations. A CME subsequently occurred and passed Ulysses (at 3/4 AU) 15 days later.

  18. Revival-collapse phenomenon in the quadrature squeezing of the multiphoton intensity-dependent Jaynes Cummings model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Orany, Faisal A. A.

    2006-12-01

    For the multiphoton intensity-dependent Jaynes Cummings model (JCM) described by a two-level atom interacting with a radiation field, we prove that there is a relationship between the atomic inversion and the quadrature squeezing. We give the required condition to obtain best information from this relation. Also we show that this relation is only sensitive to large values of the detuning parameter. Furthermore, we discuss briefly such relation for the off-resonance standard JCM.

  19. Phase Conjugated and Transparent Wavelength Conversions of Nyquist 16-QAM Signals Employing a Single-Layer Graphene Coated Fiber Device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Xiao; Zeng, Mengqi; Long, Yun; Liu, Jun; Zhu, Yixiao; Zou, Kaiheng; Zhang, Fan; Fu, Lei; Wang, Jian

    2016-03-01

    We fabricate a nonlinear optical device based on a fiber pigtail cross-section coated with a single-layer graphene grown by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method. Using the fabricated graphene-assisted nonlinear optical device and employing Nyquist 16-ary quadrature amplitude modulation (16-QAM) signal, we experimentally demonstrate phase conjugated wavelength conversion by degenerate four-wave mixing (FWM) and transparent wavelength conversion by non-degenerate FWM in graphene. We study the conversion efficiency as functions of the pump power and pump wavelength and evaluate the bit-error rate (BER) performance. We also compare the time-varying symbol sequence for graphene-assisted phase conjugated and transparent wavelength conversions of Nyquist 16-QAM signal.

  20. Gigabit polarization division multiplexing in visible light communication.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuanquan; Yang, Chao; Wang, Yiguang; Chi, Nan

    2014-04-01

    In this Letter, polarization division multiplexing is proposed and experimentally demonstrated for the first time that we know of, in visible light communication systems based on incoherent light emitting diodes and two orthogonal groups of linear polarizers. Spectrally efficient 16-ary quadrature amplitude modulation Nyquist single carrier frequency domain equalization is employed to obtain a maximum spectral efficiency. We achieve an aggregate data rate of 1  Gb/s, with bit error rate results for two polarization directions both below the 7% pre-forward-error-correction threshold of 3.8×10(-3) after 80 cm free-space transmission. Moreover, the cross talk between x and y polarization is also discussed and analyzed. PMID:24686614

  1. Phase Conjugated and Transparent Wavelength Conversions of Nyquist 16-QAM Signals Employing a Single-Layer Graphene Coated Fiber Device.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xiao; Zeng, Mengqi; Long, Yun; Liu, Jun; Zhu, Yixiao; Zou, Kaiheng; Zhang, Fan; Fu, Lei; Wang, Jian

    2016-01-01

    We fabricate a nonlinear optical device based on a fiber pigtail cross-section coated with a single-layer graphene grown by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method. Using the fabricated graphene-assisted nonlinear optical device and employing Nyquist 16-ary quadrature amplitude modulation (16-QAM) signal, we experimentally demonstrate phase conjugated wavelength conversion by degenerate four-wave mixing (FWM) and transparent wavelength conversion by non-degenerate FWM in graphene. We study the conversion efficiency as functions of the pump power and pump wavelength and evaluate the bit-error rate (BER) performance. We also compare the time-varying symbol sequence for graphene-assisted phase conjugated and transparent wavelength conversions of Nyquist 16-QAM signal. PMID:26932470

  2. Phase Conjugated and Transparent Wavelength Conversions of Nyquist 16-QAM Signals Employing a Single-Layer Graphene Coated Fiber Device

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Xiao; Zeng, Mengqi; Long, Yun; Liu, Jun; Zhu, Yixiao; Zou, Kaiheng; Zhang, Fan; Fu, Lei; Wang, Jian

    2016-01-01

    We fabricate a nonlinear optical device based on a fiber pigtail cross-section coated with a single-layer graphene grown by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method. Using the fabricated graphene-assisted nonlinear optical device and employing Nyquist 16-ary quadrature amplitude modulation (16-QAM) signal, we experimentally demonstrate phase conjugated wavelength conversion by degenerate four-wave mixing (FWM) and transparent wavelength conversion by non-degenerate FWM in graphene. We study the conversion efficiency as functions of the pump power and pump wavelength and evaluate the bit-error rate (BER) performance. We also compare the time-varying symbol sequence for graphene-assisted phase conjugated and transparent wavelength conversions of Nyquist 16-QAM signal. PMID:26932470

  3. Novel full-duplex SSB WDM-RoF system with SLM technique for decreasing PAPR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Yao-qiang; Chen, Lin; Li, Fan; He, Hai-zhen

    2013-07-01

    A novel full-duplex single-sideband (SSB) wavelength division multiplexing radio over fiber (WDM-RoF) system with selected mapping (SLM) technique for decreasing peak-to-average power ratio (PAPR) is proposed in this paper. At the central office (CO), the generated SSB signal carrying 10 Gbit/s 16-ary quadrature amplitude modulation orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (16QAM-OFDM) downstream signal with SLM technique is sent to the base station, and 60 GHz SSB optical signal carrying 10 Gbit/s 16QAM-OFDM upstream signal is sent back to CO utilizing the wavelength-reuse technology. Simulation results show the proposed method for PAPR reduction can effectively improve the sensitivity of receiver, and the power penalty of the 16QAM-OFDM downlink (uplink) signal is about 2 dB (3 dB) at BER of 1×10-3 after 42 km standard single-mode fiber (SSMF) transmission.

  4. A Homodyne Quadrature Laser Interferometer for Micro-Asperity Deformation Analysis

    PubMed Central

    PogaČnik, Aljaž; Požar, Tomaž; Kalin, Mitjan; Možina, Janez

    2013-01-01

    We report on the successful realization of a contactless, non-perturbing, displacement-measuring system for characterizing the surface roughness of polymer materials used in tribological applications. A single, time-dependent, scalar value, dubbed the collective micro-asperity deformation, is extracted from the normal-displacement measurements of normally loaded polymer samples. The displacement measurements with a sub-nanometer resolution are obtained with a homodyne quadrature laser interferometer. The measured collective micro-asperity deformation is critical for a determination of the real contact area and thus for the realistic contact conditions in tribological applications. The designed measuring system senses both the bulk creep as well as the micro-asperity creep occurring at the roughness peaks. The final results of our experimental measurements are three time-dependent values of the collective micro-asperity deformation for the three selected surface roughnesses. These values can be directly compared to theoretical deformation curves, which can be derived using existing real-contact-area models. PMID:23296328

  5. Generation of fast neturon spectra using an adaptive Gauss-Kronrod Quadrature algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Triplett, Brian Scott

    A lattice physics calculation is often the first step in analyzing a nuclear reactor. This calculation condenses regions of the reactor into average parameters (i.e., group constants) that can be used in coarser full-core, time-dependent calculations. This work presents a high-fidelity deterministic method for calculating the neutron energy spectrum in an infinite medium. The spectrum resulting from this calculation can be used to generate accurate group constants. This method includes a numerical algorithm based on Gauss-Kronrod Quadrature to determine the neutron transfer source to a given energy while controlling numerical error. This algorithm was implemented in a pointwise transport solver program called Pointwise Fast Spectrum Generator (PWFSG). PWFSG was benchmarked against the Monte Carlo program MCNP and another pointwise spectrum generation program, CENTRM, for a set of fast reactor infinite medium example cases. PWFSG showed good agreement with MCNP, yielding coefficients of determination above 98% for all example cases. In addition, PWFSG had 6 to 8 times lower flux estimation error than CENTRM in the cases examined. With run-times comparable to CENTRM, PWFSG represents a robust set of methods for generation of fast neutron spectra with increased accuracy without increased computational cost.

  6. Recursive, in-place algorithm for the hexagonal orthogonal oriented quadrature image pyramid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, Andrew B.

    1989-01-01

    Pyramid image transforms have proven useful in image coding and pattern recognition. The hexagonal orthogonal oriented quadrature image pyramid (HOP), transforms an image into a set of orthogonal, oriented, odd and even bandpass subimages. It operates on a hexagonal input lattice and employs seven kernels, each of which occupies a neighborhood consisting of a point and a hexagon of six nearest neighbors. The kernels consist of one lowpass and six bandpass kernels that are orthogonal, self-similar, and localized in space, spatial frequency, orientation, and phase. The kernels are first applied to the image samples to create the first level of the pyramid, then to the lowpass coefficients to create the next level. The resulting pyramid is a compact, efficient image code. Here, a recursive, in-place algorithm for computation of the HOP transform is described. The transform may be regarded as a depth-first traversal of a tree structure. It is shown that the algorithm requires a number of operations that is on the order of the number of pixels.

  7. Accurate phase measurements for thick spherical objects using optical quadrature microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warger, William C., II; DiMarzio, Charles A.

    2009-02-01

    In vitro fertilization (IVF) procedures have resulted in the birth of over three million babies since 1978. Yet the live birth rate in the United States was only 34% in 2005, with 32% of the successful pregnancies resulting in multiple births. These multiple pregnancies were directly attributed to the transfer of multiple embryos to increase the probability that a single, healthy embryo was included. Current viability markers used for IVF, such as the cell number, symmetry, size, and fragmentation, are analyzed qualitatively with differential interference contrast (DIC) microscopy. However, this method is not ideal for quantitative measures beyond the 8-cell stage of development because the cells overlap and obstruct the view within and below the cluster of cells. We have developed the phase-subtraction cell-counting method that uses the combination of DIC and optical quadrature microscopy (OQM) to count the number of cells accurately in live mouse embryos beyond the 8-cell stage. We have also created a preliminary analysis to measure the cell symmetry, size, and fragmentation quantitatively by analyzing the relative dry mass from the OQM image in conjunction with the phase-subtraction count. In this paper, we will discuss the characterization of OQM with respect to measuring the phase accurately for spherical samples that are much larger than the depth of field. Once fully characterized and verified with human embryos, this methodology could provide the means for a more accurate method to score embryo viability.

  8. Multipole-preserving quadratures for the discretization of functions in real-space electronic structure calculations.

    PubMed

    Genovese, Luigi; Deutsch, Thierry

    2015-12-21

    Discretizing an analytic function on a uniform real-space grid is often done via a straightforward collocation method. This is ubiquitous in all areas of computational physics and quantum chemistry. An example in density functional theory (DFT) is given by the external potential or the pseudo-potential describing the interaction between ions and electrons. The accuracy of the collocation method used is therefore very important for the reliability of subsequent treatments like self-consistent field solutions of the electronic structure problems. By construction, the collocation method introduces numerical artifacts typical of real-space treatments, like the so-called egg-box error, which may spoil the numerical stability of the description when the real-space grid is too coarse. As the external potential is an input of the problem, even a highly precise computational treatment cannot cope this inconvenience. We present in this paper a new quadrature scheme that is able to exactly preserve the moments of a given analytic function even for large grid spacings, while reconciling with the traditional collocation method when the grid spacing is small enough. In the context of real-space electronic structure calculations, we show that this method improves considerably the stability of the results for large grid spacings, opening up the path towards reliable low-accuracy DFT calculations with a reduced number of degrees of freedom. PMID:26372293

  9. Real-space quadrature: A convenient, efficient representation for multipole expansions

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, David M.

    2015-02-21

    Multipoles are central to the theory and modeling of polarizable and nonpolarizable molecular electrostatics. This has made a representation in terms of point charges a highly sought after goal, since rotation of multipoles is a bottleneck in molecular dynamics implementations. All known point charge representations are orders of magnitude less efficient than spherical harmonics due to either using too many fixed charge locations or due to nonlinear fitting of fewer charge locations. We present the first complete solution to this problem—completely replacing spherical harmonic basis functions by a dramatically simpler set of weights associated to fixed, discrete points on a sphere. This representation is shown to be space optimal. It reduces the spherical harmonic decomposition of Poisson’s operator to pairwise summations over the point set. As a corollary, we also shows exact quadrature-based formulas for contraction over trace-free supersymmetric 3D tensors. Moreover, multiplication of spherical harmonic basis functions translates to a direct product in this representation.

  10. Algorithm for the Time-Propagation of the Radial Diffusion Equation Based on a Gaussian Quadrature

    PubMed Central

    Gillespie, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    The numerical integration of the time-dependent spherically-symmetric radial diffusion equation from a point source is considered. The flux through the source can vary in time, possibly stochastically based on the concentration produced by the source itself. Fick’s one-dimensional diffusion equation is integrated over a time interval by considering a source term and a propagation term. The source term adds new particles during the time interval, while the propagation term diffuses the concentration profile of the previous time step. The integral in the propagation term is evaluated numerically using a combination of a new diffusion-specific Gaussian quadrature and interpolation on a diffusion-specific grid. This attempts to balance accuracy with the least number of points for both integration and interpolation. The theory can also be extended to include a simple reaction-diffusion equation in the limit of high buffer concentrations. The method is unconditionally stable. In fact, not only does it converge for any time step Δt, the method offers one advantage over other methods because Δt can be arbitrarily large; it is solely defined by the timescale on which the flux source turns on and off. PMID:26208111

  11. Real-space quadrature: a convenient, efficient representation for multipole expansions.

    PubMed

    Rogers, David M

    2015-02-21

    Multipoles are central to the theory and modeling of polarizable and nonpolarizable molecular electrostatics. This has made a representation in terms of point charges a highly sought after goal, since rotation of multipoles is a bottleneck in molecular dynamics implementations. All known point charge representations are orders of magnitude less efficient than spherical harmonics due to either using too many fixed charge locations or due to nonlinear fitting of fewer charge locations. We present the first complete solution to this problem-completely replacing spherical harmonic basis functions by a dramatically simpler set of weights associated to fixed, discrete points on a sphere. This representation is shown to be space optimal. It reduces the spherical harmonic decomposition of Poisson's operator to pairwise summations over the point set. As a corollary, we also shows exact quadrature-based formulas for contraction over trace-free supersymmetric 3D tensors. Moreover, multiplication of spherical harmonic basis functions translates to a direct product in this representation. PMID:25701996

  12. Direct Quadrature Method of Moments for LES-based Modeling of Supersonic Combustion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donde, Pratik; Koo, Heeseok; Raman, Venkat

    2009-11-01

    The LES/transported probability density function (PDF) model has been successfully used for predictive modeling of turbulent combustion in low-speed flows. The PDF approach evolves the joint-distribution of the gas-phase thermochemical composition and is ideally suited for supersonic flows, where conserved-scalar approaches are not valid due to the compressible nature of the flow. In low-speed flows, the high-dimensionality of the PDF transport equation is handled through the use of Monte-Carlo based stochastic methods. However, the presence of shocks and large density and pressure gradients pose significant challenges in the use of these stochastic methods for high-speed flows. In this work, we propose a direct quadrature method of moments (DQMOM) approach, which is a fully Eulerian method for solving the PDF transport equation. Here, the subfilter PDF is discretized in terms of a finite number of delta functions, each characterized by a weight and an abscissa. Eulerian transport equations for these quantities are similar in structure to scalar transport equations and can be solved using finite-volume/finite difference approaches. Here, the accuracy of the DQMOM approach and the numerical implementation of this method using shock-capturing schemes are discussed.

  13. Numerical Investigation of Evaporating Droplets with Direct Quadrature-Based Moments of Closure Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jamaly, Seyed Mohammad; Hasan Saidi, Mohammad; Ghafourian, Akbar

    2007-11-01

    In this study, due to the weaknesses of the models with Lagrangian approaches, an attempt has been made to model the spray flow with Eulerian approach. In this regard, the quadrature-based moment closure model for the spray equation, the so-called DQMOM, is applied. This method overcomes the shortcoming of other Eulerian methods while it is in good agreement with the Lagrangian methods. After that, the model has been developed to be able to deal with the evaporating droplets. Moreover, the feasibility of applying non-linear external forces, such as drag forces, and evaporation laws for the droplets are considered and implemented. The required order for the equations in this method has been studied thoroughly as well. Finally, the solution procedure for accurate computations of multi dimension problems is presented. In general, the proposed modified DQMOM method can consider and solve all kinds of spray flows with any desirable dimension for the problem. Here, assuming one-way coupling situation with the gas-phase in an axial engine, the spray phase equations are solved by the proposed method to account for evaporating droplets. Results are compared with the methods with Lagrangian approach and the computational costs and accuracies of the methods are compared as well.

  14. Quadrature Method of Moments for the Simulation of Turbulent Reacting Flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raman, Venkatramanan; Pitsch, Heinz; Fox, Rodney

    2003-11-01

    Computational schemes for turbulent reacting flow systems typically solve the species transport equations using a grid-based Eulerian technique. Such schemes inherently do not contain information about the sub-grid scalar PDF required for the computation of the non-linear reaction source terms and sub-grid scalar dissipation. Though a transport equation for the scalar PDF can be formulated, the high-dimensional equation has to be solved using a computationally expensive particle-based Lagrangian scheme. To overcome this difficulty, the Direct Quadrature Method of Moments (DQMOM) is used to approximate the joint composition PDF by a set of delta functions. The delta-functions are characterized by their location and size, both of which are obtained by solving Eulerian transport equations. Using a N-peak description, N species-moments can be forced to be accurate. The Direct QMOM model is extended to LES schemes and comparisons are made with transported-PDF simulations for both reacting and non-reacting mixing layer setup. Re-formulation of the DQMOM equation leads to conditional multi-environment method that can be used for describing combustion systems that exhibit extinction.

  15. Bottom-series coupled quadrature VCO using the inductive gate voltage boosting technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jang, Sheng-Lyang; Chou, Li-Te

    2013-09-01

    This article presents a new low-voltage bottom-series coupled quadrature voltage-controlled oscillator (QVCO), which consists of two n-core cross-coupled VCOs with the bottom-series coupling transistors. The low-voltage operation is obtained via an inductive gate voltage boosting technique. The proposed CMOS QVCO has been implemented with the TSMC 0.18 µm CMOS technology and the die area is 0.897 × 0.767 mm2. At the supply voltage of 0.7 V, the total power consumption is 1.5 mW. The free-running frequency of the QVCO is tuneable from 3.77 to 4.12 GHz as the tuning voltage is varied from 0.0 to 0.7 V. The measured phase noise at 1 MHz frequency offset is -123.35 dBc/Hz at the oscillation frequency of 4.12 GHz and the figure of merit of the proposed QVCO is -193.5 dBc/Hz.

  16. Low Voltage Low Power Quadrature LC Oscillator Based on Back-gate Superharmonic Capacitive Coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Minglin; Li, Zhijun

    2013-09-01

    This work introduces a new low voltage low power superharmonic capacitive coupling quadrature LC oscillator (QLCO) made by coupling two identical cross-connected LC oscillators without tail transistor. In each of the core oscillators, the back-gate nodes of the cross-coupled NMOS pair and PMOS pair, acting as common mode nodes, have been connected directly. Then the core oscillators are coupled together via capacitive coupling of the PMOS common mode node in one of the core oscillators to the NMOS common mode node in the other core oscillator, and vice versa. Only capacitors are used for coupling of the two core oscillators and therefore no extra noise sources are imposed on the circuit. Operation of the proposed QLCO was investigated with simulation using a commercial 0.18 µm RF CMOS technology: it shows a power dissipation of 5.2 mW from a 0.6 V supply voltage. Since the proposed core oscillator has Complementary NMOS and PMOS cross coupled pairs, and capacitive coupling method will not introduce extra phase noise, so this circuit can operate with a low phase noise as low as -126.8 dBc/Hz at 1 MHz offset from center oscillation frequency of 2.4 GHz, as confirmed with simulation.

  17. Noncontact accurate measurement of cardiopulmonary activity using a compact quadrature Doppler radar sensor.

    PubMed

    Hu, Wei; Zhao, Zhangyan; Wang, Yunfeng; Zhang, Haiying; Lin, Fujiang

    2014-03-01

    The designed sensor enables accurate reconstruction of chest-wall movement caused by cardiopulmonary activities, and the algorithm enables estimation of respiration, heartbeat rate, and some indicators of heart rate variability (HRV). In particular, quadrature receiver and arctangent demodulation with calibration are introduced for high linearity representation of chest displacement; 24-bit ADCs with oversampling are adopted for radar baseband acquisition to achieve a high signal resolution; continuous-wavelet filter and ensemble empirical mode decomposition (EEMD) based algorithm are applied for cardio/pulmonary signal recovery and separation so that accurate beat-to-beat interval can be acquired in time domain for HRV analysis. In addition, the wireless sensor is realized and integrated on a printed circuit board compactly. The developed sensor system is successfully tested on both simulated target and human subjects. In simulated target experiments, the baseband signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) is 73.27 dB, high enough for heartbeat detection. The demodulated signal has 0.35% mean squared error, indicating high demodulation linearity. In human subject experiments, the relative error of extracted beat-to-beat intervals ranges from 2.53% to 4.83% compared with electrocardiography (ECG) R-R peak intervals. The sensor provides an accurate analysis for heart rate with the accuracy of 100% for p = 2% and higher than 97% for p = 1%. PMID:24235293

  18. S-duality and helicity amplitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colwell, Kitran; Terning, John

    2016-03-01

    We examine interacting Abelian theories at low energies and show that holomorphically normalized photon helicity amplitudes transform into dual amplitudes under SL(2, {Z} ) as modular forms with weights that depend on the number of positive and negative helicity photons and on the number of internal photon lines. Moreover, canonically normalized helicity amplitudes transform by a phase, so that even though the amplitudes are not duality invariant, their squares are duality invariant. We explicitly verify the duality transformation at one loop by comparing the amplitudes in the case of an electron and the dyon that is its SL(2, {Z} ) image, and extend the invariance of squared amplitudes order by order in perturbation theory. We demonstrate that S-duality is a property of all low-energy effective Abelian theories with electric and/or magnetic charges and see how the duality generically breaks down at high energies.

  19. Gravity and Yang-Mills amplitude relations

    SciTech Connect

    Bjerrum-Bohr, N. E. J.; Damgaard, Poul H.; Soendergaard, Thomas; FengBo

    2010-11-15

    Using only general features of the S matrix and quantum field theory, we prove by induction the Kawai-Lewellen-Tye relations that link products of gauge theory amplitudes to gravity amplitudes at tree level. As a bonus of our analysis, we provide a novel and more symmetric form of these relations. We also establish an infinite tower of new identities between amplitudes in gauge theories.

  20. Minimal Basis for Gauge Theory Amplitudes

    SciTech Connect

    Bjerrum-Bohr, N. E. J.; Damgaard, Poul H.; Vanhove, Pierre

    2009-10-16

    Identities based on monodromy for integrations in string theory are used to derive relations between different color-ordered tree-level amplitudes in both bosonic and supersymmetric string theory. These relations imply that the color-ordered tree-level n-point gauge theory amplitudes can be expanded in a minimal basis of (n-3)exclamation amplitudes. This result holds for any choice of polarizations of the external states and in any number of dimensions.

  1. Cascaded phase-preserving multilevel amplitude regeneration.

    PubMed

    Roethlingshoefer, Tobias; Onishchukov, Georgy; Schmauss, Bernhard; Leuchs, Gerd

    2014-12-29

    The performance of cascaded in-line phase-preserving amplitude regeneration using nonlinear amplifying loop mirrors has been studied in numerical simulations. As an example of a spectrally efficient modulation format with two amplitude states and multiple phase states, the regeneration performance of a star-16QAM format, basically an 8PSK format with two amplitude levels, was evaluated. An increased robustness against amplified spontaneous emission and nonlinear phase noise was observed resulting in a significantly increased transmission distance. PMID:25607142

  2. Discontinuities of multi-Regge amplitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fadin, V. S.

    2015-04-01

    In the BFKL approach, discontinuities of multiple production amplitudes in invariant masses of produced particles are discussed. It turns out that they are in evident contradiction with the BDS ansatz for n-gluon amplitudes in the planar N = 4 SYM at n ≥ 6. An explicit expression for the NLO discontinuity of the two-to-four amplitude in the invariant mass of two produced gluons is is presented.

  3. DVCS amplitude with kinematical twist-3 terms

    SciTech Connect

    Radyushkin, A.V.; Weiss, C.

    2000-08-01

    The authors compute the amplitude of deeply virtual Compton scattering (DVCS) using the calculus of QCD string operators in coordinate representation. To restore the electromagnetic gauge invariance (transversality) of the twist-2 amplitude they include the operators of twist-3 which appear as total derivatives of twist-2 operators. The results are equivalent to a Wandzura-Wilczek approximation for twist-3 skewed parton distributions. They find that this approximation gives a finite result for the amplitude of a longitudinally polarized virtual photon, while the amplitude for transverse polarization is divergent, i.e., factorization breaks down in this term.

  4. The 2011 February 15 Coronal Mass Ejection: Reconciling SOHO and STEREO Observations in Quadrature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gopalswamy, Natchimuthuk

    2011-01-01

    The Large-Angle and Spectrometric Coronagraph (LASCO) on board SOHO observed a fast halo coronal mass ejection on 2011 February 15. The STEREO spacecraft were in quadrature with SOHO (STEREO-A ahead of Earth by 87 degrees and STEREO-B 94 degrees behind Earth), enabling CME measurement using the three spacecraft. The sky-plane speed measured by SOHO/LASCO is closely related to the expansion speed of the CME, while the radial speed was measured by STEREO-A and STEREO-B. In addition, STEREO-A and STEREO-B images measured the width of the CME, which is unknown from Earth view. From the SOHO and STEREO measurements, we confirm the relationship between the expansion speed (V(sub exp) ) and radial speed (V(sub rad)) derived previously from geometrical considerations (Gopalswamy et al. 2009): = V(sub rad) = 1/2 (1 + cot w) V(sub exp), where w is the half width of the CME. We can also measure the Earthward speed of the CME directly from the STEREO measurements. The travel time to Earth predicted from the Earthward speed using the Empirical Shock Arrival model is approximately 12 hours shorter than the actual travel time obtained from in situ measurements at Ll. The primary reason for this discrepancy seems to be the interaction with the two preceding CMEs that slowed down the CME in question. The CME interaction is also confirmed from the radio enhancement observed by Wind/WAVES and STEREO WAVES experiments.

  5. A quadrature demodulation method based on tracking the ultrasound echo frequency.

    PubMed

    Feng, Naizhang; Zhang, Jianqiu; Wang, Weiqi

    2006-12-22

    The ultrasound echo attenuation depends on frequency, propagating depth and tissue characteristics. Thus, the attenuation dependent on frequency results in a larger attenuation of high frequencies than lower when the wave propagates through the tissue. As a result, the central frequency of the echo generates the increasing downshift with the increasing of depth. In the traditional I/Q demodulation method, it is assumed that the central frequency of the echo is the same as the transmitting frequency and unchanged all time. The assumption directly causes that the acquired I/Q signals are not perfect baseband ones but biased due to the echo attenuation. In addition, the unreasonable assumption will keep the echo from getting better signal-to-noise ratio. A quadrature demodulation method based on tracking the ultrasound echo frequency is proposed in this paper. The method consists of the traditional I/Q demodulator, the frequency tracking module, the phase compensation module and the dynamic filtering module. The outputs of I/Q demodulator are biased. Autocorrelation technique is utilized in the frequency tracking unit to estimate the frequency bias according to the outputs of I/Q demodulator. The estimated bias feeds to the phase compensation unit which can eliminate the frequency bias by simple trigonometric function transform. The compensated signals feed to the dynamic filter and are further processed. The bandwidth of the dynamic filter decreases with the increasing of the depth, which makes the echo acquire better SNR in different depth. The efficiency of the proposed method is testified by both simulations and experiments. PMID:16860363

  6. Balancing a retroreflector to minimize rotation errors using a pendulum and quadrature interferometer.

    PubMed

    Niebauer, T M; Constantino, A; Billson, R; Hankla, A; Nelson, P G

    2015-06-20

    A corner-cube retroreflector has the property that the optical path length for a reflected laser beam is insensitive to rotations about a mathematical point called its optical center (OC). This property is exploited in ballistic absolute gravity meters in which a proof mass containing a corner-cube retroreflector is dropped in a vacuum, and its position is accurately determined with a laser interferometer. In order to avoid vertical position errors when the proof mass rotates during free fall, it is important to collocate its center of mass (COM) with the OC of the retroreflector. This is commonly done using a mechanical scale-based balancing procedure, which has limited accuracy due to the difficulty in finding the exact position of the COM and the OC. This paper describes a novel way to achieve the collocation by incorporating the proof mass into a pendulum and using a quadrature interferometer to interrogate its apparent translation in its twist mode. The mismatch between the COM and OC generates a signal in a quiet part of the spectrum where no mechanical resonance exists. This allows us to tune the position of the COM relative to the OC to an accuracy of about 1 μm in all three axes. This provides a way to directly demonstrate that a rotation of the proof mass by several degrees causes an apparent translation in the direction of the laser beam of less than 1 nm. This technique allows an order of magnitude improvement over traditional methods of balancing. PMID:26193025

  7. Thermal cracking and amplitude dependent attenuation

    SciTech Connect

    Johnston, D.H.; Toksoez, M.N.

    1980-02-10

    The role of crack and grain boundary contacts in determining seismic wave attenuation in rock is investigated by examining Q as a function of thermal cycling (cracking) and wave strain amplitude. Q values are obtained using a longitudinal resonant bar technique in the 10- to 20-kHz range for maximum strain amplitudes varying from roughly 10/sup -8/ to 10/sup -5/. The samples studied include the Berea and Navajo sandstones, Plexiglas, Westerly granite, Solenhofen limestone, and Frederick diabase, the latter two relatively crack free in their virgin state. Measurements were made at room temperature and pressure in air. Q values for both sandstones are constant at low strains (<10/sup -6/) but decrease rapidly with amplitude at higher strains. There is no hysteresis of Q with amplitude. Q values for Plexiglas show no indication of amplitude dependent behavior. The granite, limestone, and diabase are thermally cycled at both fast and slow heating rates in order to induce cracking. Samples slowly cycled at 400/sup 0/C show a marked increase in Q that cannot be entirely explained by outgassing of volatiles. Cycling may also widen thin cracks and grain boundaries, reducing contact areas. Samples heated beyond 400/sup 0/C, or rapidly heated, result in generally decreasing Q values. The amplitude dependence of Q is found to be coupled to the effects of thermal cycling. For rock slowly cycled 400)C or less, the transition from low-amplitude contant Q to high-amplitude variable Q behavior decreases to lower amplitudes as a function of maximum temperature. Above 400/sup 0/C, and possibly in th rapidly heated samples also, the transition moves to higher amplitudes.

  8. A novel chromatic dispersion monitoring method for 400 Gbit/s 256 QAM fiber-optic system based on asynchronous amplitude sampling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Hui-jun; Zhu, Bo; Liu, Guo-qing; Shen, Jia-wei; Hu, Fang-ren

    2015-11-01

    A novel chromatic dispersion (CD) monitoring technique based on asynchronous amplitude sampling (AAS) is proposed for a higher modulation format and higher rate system. The dispersion and other impairment factors can be separated with the definition of monitoring parameter M. A 400 Gbit/s 256 quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) system is built using Optisystem13.0 beta software. Simulations of CD monitoring technique for different bandwidths of sampling Gaussian filter, optical signal to noise ratios ( OSNRs) and duty cycles are investigated, and the tolerance is also discussed. Simulation results show that the method can be less affected by noise, and a higher accuracy of 600 ps/(nm·km) can be achieved. The technique supports a wide range of data traffic and enhances operation flexibility of optical networks.

  9. Helicity amplitudes on the light-front

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cruz Santiago, Christian A.

    Significant progress has been made recently in the field of helicity amplitudes. Currently there are on-shell recursion relations with shifted complex momenta, geometric interpretations of amplitudes and gauge invariant off-shell amplitudes. All this points to helicity amplitudes being a rich field with much more to say. In this work we take initial steps in understanding amplitudes through the light-front formalism for the first time. We begin by looking at crossing symmetry. In the light-front it is not obvious that crossing symmetry should be present as there are non-local energy denominators that mix energies of different states. Nevertheless, we develop a systematic approach to relate, for example, 1 → N gluon processes to 2 → N -- 1 processes. Using this method, we give a perturbative proof of crossing symmetry on the light-front. One important caveat is that the proof requires the amplitudes to be on-shell. We also saw that the analytic continuation from outgoing to incoming particle produces a phase that's dependent on the choice of polarizations. Next, we reproduce the Parke-Taylor amplitudes. For this purpose we found a recursion relation for an off-shell object called the fragmentation function. This recursion relies on the factorization property of the fragmentation functions, and it becomes apparent that this recursion is the light-front analog of the Berends-Giele recursion relation. We also found this object's connection to off-shell and on-shell amplitudes. The solution for the off-shell amplitude, which does reproduce the Parke-Taylor amplitudes in the on-shell limit, turns out to be very interesting. It can be written as a linear sum of off-shell objects with the same structure as MHV amplitudes. Finally, we look at the Wilson line approach to generate gauge invariant off-shell amplitudes. It turns out that the exact same recursion relation appears on both frameworks, thereby providing the interpretation that our recursion relation has it

  10. Improving the Accuracy of Quadrature Method Solutions of Fredholm Integral Equations That Arise from Nonlinear Two-Point Boundary Value Problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sidi, Avram; Pennline, James A.

    1999-01-01

    In this paper we are concerned with high-accuracy quadrature method solutions of nonlinear Fredholm integral equations of the form y(x) = r(x) + definite integral of g(x, t)F(t,y(t))dt with limits between 0 and 1,0 less than or equal to x les than or equal to 1, where the kernel function g(x,t) is continuous, but its partial derivatives have finite jump discontinuities across x = t. Such integral equations arise, e.g., when one applied Green's function techniques to nonlinear two-point boundary value problems of the form y "(x) =f(x,y(x)), 0 less than or equal to x less than or equal to 1, with y(0) = y(sub 0) and y(l) = y(sub l), or other linear boundary conditions. A quadrature method that is especially suitable and that has been employed for such equations is one based on the trepezoidal rule that has a low accuracy. By analyzing the corresponding Euler-Maclaurin expansion, we derive suitable correction terms that we add to the trapezoidal rule, thus obtaining new numerical quadrature formulas of arbitrarily high accuracy that we also use in defining quadrature methods for the integral equations above. We prove an existence and uniqueness theorem for the quadrature method solutions, and show that their accuracy is the same as that of the underlying quadrature formula. The solution of the nonlinear systems resulting from the quadrature methods is achieved through successive approximations whose convergence is also proved. The results are demonstrated with numerical examples.

  11. Improving the Accuracy of Quadrature Method Solutions of Fredholm Integral Equations that Arise from Nonlinear Two-Point Boundary Value Problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sidi, Avram; Pennline, James A.

    1999-01-01

    In this paper we are concerned with high-accuracy quadrature method solutions of nonlinear Fredholm integral equations of the form y(x) = r(x) + integral(0 to 1) g(x,t) F(t, y(t)) dt, 0 less than or equal to x less than or equal to 1, where the kernel function g(x,t) is continuous, but its partial derivatives have finite jump discontinuities across x = t. Such integrals equations arise, e.g., when one applies Green's function techniques to nonlinear two-point boundary value problems of the form U''(x) = f(x,y(x)), 0 less than or equal to x less than or equal to 1, with y(0) = y(sub 0) and g(l) = y(sub 1), or other linear boundary conditions. A quadrature method that is especially suitable and that has been employed for such equations is one based on the trapezoidal rule that has a low accuracy. By analyzing the corresponding Euler-Maclaurin expansion, we derive suitable correction terms that we add to the trapezoidal thus obtaining new numerical quadrature formulas of arbitrarily high accuracy that we also use in defining quadrature methods for the integral equations above. We prove an existence and uniqueness theorem for the quadrature method solutions, and show that their accuracy is the same as that of the underlying quadrature formula. The solution of the nonlinear systems resulting from the quadrature methods is achieved through successive approximations whose convergence is also proved. The results are demonstrated with numerical examples.

  12. A link representation for gravity amplitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Song

    2013-10-01

    We derive a link representation for all tree amplitudes in supergravity, from a recent conjecture by Cachazo and Skinner. The new formula explicitly writes amplitudes as contour integrals over constrained link variables, with an integrand naturally expressed in terms of determinants, or equivalently tree diagrams. Important symmetries of the amplitude, such as supersymmetry, parity and (partial) permutation invariance, are kept manifest in the formulation. We also comment on rewriting the formula in a GL( k)-invariant manner, which may serve as a starting point for the generalization to possible Grassmannian contour integrals.

  13. Amplitude- and rise-time-compensated filters

    DOEpatents

    Nowlin, Charles H.

    1984-01-01

    An amplitude-compensated rise-time-compensated filter for a pulse time-of-occurrence (TOOC) measurement system is disclosed. The filter converts an input pulse, having the characteristics of random amplitudes and random, non-zero rise times, to a bipolar output pulse wherein the output pulse has a zero-crossing time that is independent of the rise time and amplitude of the input pulse. The filter differentiates the input pulse, along the linear leading edge of the input pulse, and subtracts therefrom a pulse fractionally proportional to the input pulse. The filter of the present invention can use discrete circuit components and avoids the use of delay lines.

  14. Form factor and boundary contribution of amplitude

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Rijun; Jin, Qingjun; Feng, Bo

    2016-06-01

    The boundary contribution of an amplitude in the BCFW recursion relation can be considered as a form factor involving boundary operator and unshifted particles. At the tree-level, we show that by suitable construction of Lagrangian, one can relate the leading order term of boundary operators to some composite operators of mathcal{N} = 4 superYang-Mills theory, then the computation of form factors is translated to the computation of amplitudes. We compute the form factors of these composite operators through the computation of corresponding double trace amplitudes.

  15. SOHO-Ulysses Coordinated Studies During the Two Extended Quadratures and the Alignment of 2007-2008

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suess, S. T.; Poletto, G.

    2007-01-01

    During SOHO-Sun-Ulysses quadratures the geometry of the configuration makes it possible to sample "in situ" the plasma parcels that are remotely observed in the corona. Although the quadrature position occurs at a well defined instant in time, we typically take data while Ulysses is within +/- 5 degrees of the limb, with the understanding that plasma sampled by Ulysses over this time interval can all be traced to its source in the corona. The relative positions of SOHO and Ulysses in winter 2007 (19 Dec 2006-28 May 2007) are unusual: the SOHO-Sun-Ulysses included angle is always between 85 and 95 degrees - the quadrature lasts for 5 months! This provides an opportunity for extended observations of specific observing objectives. In addition, in summer 2007, Ulysses (at 1.34 AU) is in near-radial alignment with Earth/ACE/Wind and SOHO, allowing us to analyze radial gradients and propagation in the solar wind and inner heliosphere. Our own quadrature campaigns rely heavily on LASCO and UVCS coronal observations: LASCO giving the overall context above 2 solar radii while the UVCS spectrograph acquired data from - 1.5 to, typically, 4-5 solar radii. In the past, coronal parameters have been derived from data acquired by these two experiments and compared with "in situ" data of Ulysses' SWOOPS and SWICS. Data from other experiments like EIT, CDS, SUMER, Sac Peak Fe XIV maps, magnetic field maps from the Wilcox solar magnetograph, MLSO, from MDI, and from the Ulysses magnetograph experiment have been, and will be, used to complement LASCO/UVCS/SWOOPS and SWICS data. We anticipate that observations by ACE/WIND/STEREO/Hinode and other missions will be relevant as well. During the IHY campaigns, Ulysses will be 52-80 degrees south in winter 2007, near sunspot minimum. Hence, our own scientific objective will be to sample high speed wind or regions of transition between slow and fast wind. This might be a very interesting situation - not met in previous quadratures - allowing

  16. Constant-amplitude, frequency- independent phase shifter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deboo, G. J.

    1971-01-01

    Electronic circuit using operational amplifiers provides output with constant phase shift amplitude, with respect to sinusoidal input, over wide range of frequencies. New circuit includes field effect transistor, Q, operational amplifiers, A1 and A2, and phase detector.

  17. Effective string theory and QCD scattering amplitudes

    SciTech Connect

    Makeenko, Yuri

    2011-01-15

    QCD string is formed at distances larger than the confinement scale and can be described by the Polchinski-Strominger effective string theory with a nonpolynomial action, which has nevertheless a well-defined semiclassical expansion around a long-string ground state. We utilize modern ideas about the Wilson-loop/scattering-amplitude duality to calculate scattering amplitudes and show that the expansion parameter in the effective string theory is small in the Regge kinematical regime. For the amplitudes we obtain the Regge behavior with a linear trajectory of the intercept (d-2)/24 in d dimensions, which is computed semiclassically as a momentum-space Luescher term, and discuss an application to meson scattering amplitudes in QCD.

  18. Amplitude dynamics favors synchronization in complex networks

    PubMed Central

    Gambuzza, Lucia Valentina; Gómez-Gardeñes, Jesus; Frasca, Mattia

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we study phase synchronization in random complex networks of coupled periodic oscillators. In particular, we show that, when amplitude dynamics is not negligible, phase synchronization may be enhanced. To illustrate this, we compare the behavior of heterogeneous units with both amplitude and phase dynamics and pure (Kuramoto) phase oscillators. We find that in small network motifs the behavior crucially depends on the topology and on the node frequency distribution. Surprisingly, the microscopic structures for which the amplitude dynamics improves synchronization are those that are statistically more abundant in random complex networks. Thus, amplitude dynamics leads to a general lowering of the synchronization threshold in arbitrary random topologies. Finally, we show that this synchronization enhancement is generic of oscillators close to Hopf bifurcations. To this aim we consider coupled FitzHugh-Nagumo units modeling neuron dynamics. PMID:27108847

  19. Seismic directional beamforming using cosine amplitude distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, T.; Xu, X.; Song, J.; Jia, H.; Ge, L.

    2013-12-01

    o improve the signal-to-noise ratio in seismic exploration, we studied the method of time domain seismic beam-forming based on receiver array (TSBBRA). TSBBRA is useful to extract reflected waves from some target layers and decrease noise from other direction. When noise is strong enough, the control parameter of the method of TSBBRA need to be increased. It means that we have to use more raw records to form a directional seismic record. Therefore, the signal energy in beam is much denser, and the beam becomes narrower accordingly. When the beam can not cover the receiver array, the signal-to-noise ratios in different traces are quite unbalanced and average quality of data probably is still quite low. Therefore, this paper proposes seismic directional beamforming using the cosine amplitude distribution (SDBCAD). SDBCAD can adjust seismic beam shape by introducing cosine amplitude distribution, an amplitude weighting method, in the procedure of beamforming. We studied cosine amplitude weighting function, analyzed the characteristics of uniform and cosine amplitude distribution in beamforming, and compared directivity of beams from the two kind of amplitude pattern. It shows that the main beam of cosine-weighted amplitude is different from uniform distribution. The coverage of main beam from SDBCAD is wider than uniform amplitude, and the width of beam is varied with different number of cosine order. So we simulated the seismic raw record, and used TSBBRA and SDBCAD to process simulated data at the receiving array. The results show that SDBCAD can broaden directional beam, and the main beam from SDBCAD can cover the entire traces instead of partial coverage in TSBBRA. The average signal-to-noise ratio increased 0.2~4.5dB. It concludes that SDBCAD is competent to stretch beam reasonable, and it is useful to boost signal-to-noise ratio when beam from TSBBRA is too narrow to illuminate receiver array properly. Updated results will be presented at the meeting.

  20. Nucleon Distribution Amplitudes from Lattice QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Goeckeler, Meinulf; Kaltenbrunner, Thomas; Warkentin, Nikolaus; Horsley, Roger; Zanotti, James M.; Nakamura, Yoshifumi; Pleiter, Dirk; Schierholz, Gerrit; Rakow, Paul E. L.; Schaefer, Andreas; Stueben, Hinnerk

    2008-09-12

    We calculate low moments of the leading-twist and next-to-leading-twist nucleon distribution amplitudes on the lattice using two flavors of clover fermions. The results are presented in the MS scheme at a scale of 2 GeV and can be immediately applied in phenomenological studies. We find that the deviation of the leading-twist nucleon distribution amplitude from its asymptotic form is less pronounced than sometimes claimed in the literature.

  1. The amplitude of quantum field theory

    SciTech Connect

    Medvedev, B.V. ); Pavlov, V.P.; Polivanov, M.K. ); Sukhanov, A.D. )

    1989-05-01

    General properties of the transition amplitude in axiomatic quantum field theory are discussed. Bogolyubov's axiomatic method is chosen as the variant of the theory. The axioms of this method are analyzed. In particular, the significance of the off-shell extension and of the various forms of the causality condition are examined. A complete proof is given of the existence of a single analytic function whose boundary values are the amplitudes of all channels of a process with given particle number.

  2. Complete gravity field of an ellipsoidal prism by Gauss-Legendre quadrature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roussel, C.; Verdun, J.; Cali, J.; Masson, F.

    2015-12-01

    The increasing availability of geophysical models of the Earth's lithosphere and mantle has generated renewed interest in computation of theoretical gravity effects at global and regional scales. At the same time, the increasing availability of gravity gradient anomalies derived from satellite measurements, such as those provided by GOCE satellite, requires mathematical methods that directly model the gravity gradient anomalies in the same reference frame as GOCE gravity gradients. Our main purpose is to interpret these anomalies in terms of source and density distribution. Numerical integration methods for calculating gravity gradient values are generally based on a mass discretization obtained by decomposing the Earth's layers into a finite number of elementary solid bodies. In order to take into account the curvature of the Earth, spherical prisms or `tesseroids' have been established unequivocally as accurate computation tools for determining the gravitational effects of large-scale structures. The question which then arises from, is whether gravity calculation methods using spherical prisms remain valid when factoring in the ellipticity of the Earth. In the paper, we outline a comprehensive method to numerically compute the complete gravity field with the help of the Gauss-Legendre quadrature involving ellipsoidal shaped prisms. The assessment of this new method is conducted by comparison between the gravity gradient values of simple sources obtained by means of numerical and analytical calculations, respectively. A comparison of the gravity gradients obtained from PREM and LITHO1.0 models using spherical- and ellipsoidal-prism-based methods is also presented. Numerical results indicate that the error on gravity gradients, caused by the use of the spherical prism instead of its ellipsoidal counterpart to describe an ellipsoidally shaped Earth, is useful for a joint analysis with those deduced from GOCE satellite measurements. Provided that a suitable scaling

  3. Quasi-Periodic Long-Term Quadrature Light Variability in Early Type Interacting Binary Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peters, Geraldine Joan

    2015-08-01

    Four years of Kepler observations have revealed a class of Algol-type binaries in which the relative brightness of the quadrature light varies from > 1 to <1 on a time scale of about 100-400 days. The behavior pattern is quasi-periodic. We call these systems L/T (leading hemisphere/ trailing hemisphere) variables. Although L/T inequality in eclipsing binaries has been noted from ground-based photometry by several observers since the early 1950s, the regular or quasi-regular switching between maxima is new. Twenty L/T systems have so far been found in the Kepler database and at least three classes of L/T behavior have been identified. In this presentation I will give an update on the L/T phenomenon gleaned from the Kepler and K2 databases. The Kepler and K2 light curves are being analyzed with the 2015 version of the Wilson-Devinney (WD) program that includes major improvements in modeling star spots (i.e. spot motions due to drift and stellar rotation and spot growth and decay). The prototype L/T variable is WX Draconis (A8V + K0IV, P=1.80 d) which shows L/ T light variations of 2-3%. The primary is a delta Scuti star with a dominant pulsation period of 41 m. Preliminary analysis of the WX Dra data suggests that the L/T variability can be fit with either an accretion hot spot on the primary (T = 2.3 Tphot) that jumps in longitude or a magnetic cool spotted region on the secondary. If the latter model is correct the dark region must occupy at least 20% of the surface of the facing hemisphere of the secondary if it is completely black, or a larger area if not completely black. In both hot and cool spot scenarios magnetic fields must play a role in the activity. Support from NASA grants NNX11AC78G and NNX12AE44G and USC’s Women in Science and Engineering (WiSE) program is greatly appreciated.

  4. Large eddy simulations of coal jet flame ignition using the direct quadrature method of moments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pedel, Julien

    The Direct Quadrature Method of Moments (DQMOM) was implemented in the Large Eddy Simulation (LES) tool ARCHES to model coal particles. LES coupled with DQMOM was first applied to nonreacting particle-laden turbulent jets. Simulation results were compared to experimental data and accurately modeled a wide range of particle behaviors, such as particle jet waviness, spreading, break up, particle clustering and segregation, in different configurations. Simulations also accurately predicted the mean axial velocity along the centerline for both the gas phase and the solid phase, thus demonstrating the validity of the approach to model particles in turbulent flows. LES was then applied to the prediction of pulverized coal flame ignition. The stability of an oxy-coal flame as a function of changing primary gas composition (CO2 and O2) was first investigated. Flame stability was measured using optical measurements of the flame standoff distance in a 40 kW pilot facility. Large Eddy Simulations (LES) of the facility provided valuable insight into the experimentally observed data and the importance of factors such as heterogeneous reactions, radiation or wall temperature. The effects of three parameters on the flame stand-off distance were studied and simulation predictions were compared to experimental data using the data collaboration method. An additional validation study of the ARCHES LES tool was then performed on an air-fired pulverized coal jet flame ignited by a preheated gas flow. The simulation results were compared qualitatively and quantitatively to experimental observations for different inlet stoichiometric ratios. LES simulations were able to capture the various combustion regimes observed during flame ignition and to accurately model the flame stand-off distance sensitivity to the stoichiometric ratio. Gas temperature and coal burnout predictions were also examined and showed good agreement with experimental data. Overall, this research shows that high

  5. Twistor-strings and gravity tree amplitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adamo, Tim; Mason, Lionel

    2013-04-01

    Recently we discussed how Einstein supergravity tree amplitudes might be obtained from the original Witten and Berkovits twistor-string theory when external conformal gravitons are restricted to be Einstein gravitons. Here we obtain a more systematic understanding of the relationship between conformal and Einstein gravity amplitudes in that twistor-string theory. We show that although it does not in general yield Einstein amplitudes, we can nevertheless obtain some partial twistor-string interpretation of the remarkable formulae recently been found by Hodges and generalized to all tree amplitudes by Cachazo and Skinner. The Hodges matrix and its higher degree generalizations encode the world sheet correlators of the twistor string. These matrices control both Einstein amplitudes and those of the conformal gravity arising from the Witten and Berkovits twistor-string. Amplitudes in the latter case arise from products of the diagonal elements of the generalized Hodges matrices and reduced determinants give the former. The reduced determinants arise if the contractions in the worldsheet correlator are restricted to form connected trees at MHV. The (generalized) Hodges matrices arise as weighted Laplacian matrices for the graph of possible contractions in the correlators and the reduced determinants of these weighted Laplacian matrices give the sum of the connected tree contributions by an extension of the matrix-tree theorem.

  6. Relations between closed string amplitudes at higher-order tree level and open string amplitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yi-Xin; Du, Yi-Jian; Ma, Qian

    2010-01-01

    KLT relations almost factorize closed string amplitudes on S by two open string tree amplitudes which correspond to the left- and the right-moving sectors. In this paper, we investigate string amplitudes on D and RP. We find that KLT factorization relations do not hold in these two cases. The relations between closed and open string amplitudes have new forms. On D and RP, the left- and the right-moving sectors are connected into a single sector. Then an amplitude with closed strings on D or RP can be given by one open string tree amplitude except for a phase factor. The relations depends on the topologies of the world-sheets. Under T-duality, the relations on D and RP give the amplitudes between closed strings scattering from D-brane and O-plane respectively by open string partial amplitudes. In the low energy limits of these two cases, the factorization relations for graviton amplitudes do not hold. The amplitudes for gravitons must be given by the new relations instead.

  7. Tectonic Tremor Source Amplitude in Northern Cascadia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulberg, C. W.; Creager, K. C.; Klaus, A. J.; Wech, A.

    2012-12-01

    Most studies of tectonic tremor have focused on tremor location and duration. We examine tremor source amplitude in northern Cascadia, and explore its importance in understanding the physical processes generating tremor and slow slip. In Cascadia, we observe a linear increase in tremor source amplitude during the approximately five-day initiation phase of episodic tremor and slip (ETS) events, apparently associated with a linear increase in the area where tremor is occurring. There is also mounting evidence that tremor amplitude during ETS events is strongly modulated by tidal stresses (e.g. Rubinstein et al, Science, 2008), including the most recent northern Cascadia ETS events of 2010 and 2011. This suggests a low coefficient of friction on the subduction interface. We will extend our existing amplitude catalog of the 2010 and 2011 Cascadia ETS events to include all of 2006 to 2012, incorporating multiple data sets and providing more insight into the spatial distribution of tremor, the initiation phase of ETS events, and tidal forcing of ETS and inter-ETS tremor. Tremor source amplitudes are estimated with a method similar to Maeda and Obara (JGR, 2009), using the proportional relationship between source amplitude and the root-mean square of band-limited (1.5 to 5.5 Hz) ground velocity for every 5-minute window. We use horizontal component seismograms from the CAFE (2006-2008) and Array of Arrays (2009-2011) experiments, as well as permanent PNSN stations. Tremor locations were determined using a waveform envelope cross-correlation method (Wech and Creager, GRL, 2008). We perform an inversion using these tremor locations and station ground velocities to determine the tremor source amplitude and station statics, taking into account geometric spreading and seismic attenuation.

  8. Exponential-characteristic spatial quadrature for discrete-ordinates neutral-particle transport in slab geometry. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Sjoden, G.E.

    1992-03-01

    A new discrete ordinates spatial quadrature scheme is presented for solving neutral particle transport problems. This new scheme, called the exponential characteristic method, is developed here in slab geometry with isotropic scattering. This method uses a characteristic integration of the Boltzmann transport equation with an exponential function as the assumed from of the source distribution, continuous across each spatial cell. The exponential source function is constructed to globally conserve zeroth and first spatial source moments and is non-negative. Characteristic integration ensures non-negative fluxes and flux moments. Numerical testing indicates that convergence of the exponential characteristic scheme is fourth order in the limit of vanishingly thin cells. Highly accurate solutions to optically thick problems can result using this scheme with very coarse meshes. Comparing accuracy and computational cost with existing spatial quadrature schemes (diamond difference, linear discontinuous, linear characteristic, linear adaptive, etc.), the exponential characteristic scheme typically performed best. This scheme is expected to be expandable to two dimensions in a straight forward manner. Due to the high accuracies achievable using coarse meshes, this scheme may allow researchers to obtain solutions to transport problems once thought too large or too difficult to be adequately solved conventional computer systems.

  9. Adaptive Square-Root Cubature-Quadrature Kalman Particle Filter for satellite attitude determination using vector observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiani, Maryam; Pourtakdoust, Seid H.

    2014-12-01

    A novel algorithm is presented in this study for estimation of spacecraft's attitudes and angular rates from vector observations. In this regard, a new cubature-quadrature particle filter (CQPF) is initially developed that uses the Square-Root Cubature-Quadrature Kalman Filter (SR-CQKF) to generate the importance proposal distribution. The developed CQPF scheme avoids the basic limitation of particle filter (PF) with regards to counting the new measurements. Subsequently, CQPF is enhanced to adjust the sample size at every time step utilizing the idea of confidence intervals, thus improving the efficiency and accuracy of the newly proposed adaptive CQPF (ACQPF). In addition, application of the q-method for filter initialization has intensified the computation burden as well. The current study also applies ACQPF to the problem of attitude estimation of a low Earth orbit (LEO) satellite. For this purpose, the undertaken satellite is equipped with a three-axis magnetometer (TAM) as well as a sun sensor pack that provide noisy geomagnetic field data and Sun direction measurements, respectively. The results and performance of the proposed filter are investigated and compared with those of the extended Kalman filter (EKF) and the standard particle filter (PF) utilizing a Monte Carlo simulation. The comparison demonstrates the viability and the accuracy of the proposed nonlinear estimator.

  10. Planar quadrature RF transceiver design using common-mode differential-mode (CMDM) transmission line method for 7T MR imaging.

    PubMed

    Li, Ye; Yu, Baiying; Pang, Yong; Vigneron, Daniel B; Zhang, Xiaoliang

    2013-01-01

    The use of quadrature RF magnetic fields has been demonstrated to be an efficient method to reduce transmit power and to increase the signal-to-noise (SNR) in magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. The goal of this project was to develop a new method using the common-mode and differential-mode (CMDM) technique for compact, planar, distributed-element quadrature transmit/receive resonators for MR signal excitation and detection and to investigate its performance for MR imaging, particularly, at ultrahigh magnetic fields. A prototype resonator based on CMDM method implemented by using microstrip transmission line was designed and fabricated for 7T imaging. Both the common mode (CM) and the differential mode (DM) of the resonator were tuned and matched at 298MHz independently. Numerical electromagnetic simulation was performed to verify the orthogonal B1 field direction of the two modes of the CMDM resonator. Both workbench tests and MR imaging experiments were carried out to evaluate the performance. The intrinsic decoupling between the two modes of the CMDM resonator was demonstrated by the bench test, showing a better than -36 dB transmission coefficient between the two modes at resonance frequency. The MR images acquired by using each mode and the images combined in quadrature showed that the CM and DM of the proposed resonator provided similar B1 coverage and achieved SNR improvement in the entire region of interest. The simulation and experimental results demonstrate that the proposed CMDM method with distributed-element transmission line technique is a feasible and efficient technique for planar quadrature RF coil design at ultrahigh fields, providing intrinsic decoupling between two quadrature channels and high frequency capability. Due to its simple and compact geometry and easy implementation of decoupling methods, the CMDM quadrature resonator can possibly be a good candidate for design blocks in multichannel RF coil arrays. PMID:24265823

  11. Planar Quadrature RF Transceiver Design Using Common-Mode Differential-Mode (CMDM) Transmission Line Method for 7T MR Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ye; Yu, Baiying; Pang, Yong; Vigneron, Daniel B.; Zhang, Xiaoliang

    2013-01-01

    The use of quadrature RF magnetic fields has been demonstrated to be an efficient method to reduce transmit power and to increase the signal-to-noise (SNR) in magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. The goal of this project was to develop a new method using the common-mode and differential-mode (CMDM) technique for compact, planar, distributed-element quadrature transmit/receive resonators for MR signal excitation and detection and to investigate its performance for MR imaging, particularly, at ultrahigh magnetic fields. A prototype resonator based on CMDM method implemented by using microstrip transmission line was designed and fabricated for 7T imaging. Both the common mode (CM) and the differential mode (DM) of the resonator were tuned and matched at 298MHz independently. Numerical electromagnetic simulation was performed to verify the orthogonal B1 field direction of the two modes of the CMDM resonator. Both workbench tests and MR imaging experiments were carried out to evaluate the performance. The intrinsic decoupling between the two modes of the CMDM resonator was demonstrated by the bench test, showing a better than -36 dB transmission coefficient between the two modes at resonance frequency. The MR images acquired by using each mode and the images combined in quadrature showed that the CM and DM of the proposed resonator provided similar B1 coverage and achieved SNR improvement in the entire region of interest. The simulation and experimental results demonstrate that the proposed CMDM method with distributed-element transmission line technique is a feasible and efficient technique for planar quadrature RF coil design at ultrahigh fields, providing intrinsic decoupling between two quadrature channels and high frequency capability. Due to its simple and compact geometry and easy implementation of decoupling methods, the CMDM quadrature resonator can possibly be a good candidate for design blocks in multichannel RF coil arrays. PMID:24265823

  12. Application of a quadrature-based moments method to the modeling of volcanic plumes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de'Michieli Vitturi, Mattia; Barsotti, Sara; Neri, Augusto

    2014-05-01

    (namely the moments) are then derived and their transport equations formulated. For this work we extended, by adopting the method of moments, the Eulerian steady-state volcanic plume model presented in Barsotti et al. (2008). Differently from the original works where pyroclastic particles were partitioned in a finite number of classes with different size and properties, the new model is able to consider a continuous size distribution function of pyroclasts, f(D), representing the particles (for unit volume) with diameter between D and D+dD. Accordingly, transport equations for the moments of the ash particles size distribution are derived and the equations of the plume are expressed in terms of the moments. Here we present the new multiphase model formulation based on the implementation of the quadrature method of moments together with its advantages and drawbacks with respect to previous approaches. Results of a sensitivity analysis of the model with respect to the parameters of the continuous distribution describing the grain sizes at the vent (lognormal or beta distributions) are also shown and discussed. Barsotti, S., Neri, A., and Scire, J.: The VOL-CALPUFF model for atmospheric ash dispersal: 1. Approach and physical formulation, Journal of Geophysical Research, 113, 2008.

  13. A description of seismic amplitude techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shadlow, James

    2014-02-01

    The acquisition of seismic data is a non-invasive technique used for determining the sub surface geology. Changes in lithology and fluid fill affect the seismic wavelet. Analysing seismic data for direct hydrocarbon indicators (DHIs), such as full stack amplitude anomalies, or amplitude variation with offset (AVO), can help a seismic interpreter relate the geophysical response to real geology and, more importantly, to distinguish the presence of hydrocarbons. Inversion is another commonly used technique that attempts to tie the seismic data back to the geology. Much has been written about these techniques, and attempting to gain an understanding on the theory and application of them by reading through various journals can be quite daunting. The purpose of this paper is to briefly outline DHI analysis, including full stack amplitude anomalies, AVO and inversion and show the relationship between all three. The equations presented have been included for completeness, but the reader can pass over the mathematical detail.

  14. Periodic amplitude variations in Jovian continuum radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurth, W. S.; Gurnett, D. A.; Scarf, F. L.

    1986-12-01

    An analysis of periodic variations in the amplitude of continuum radiation near 3 kHz trapped in the Jovian magnetosphere shows structure with periods near both 5 and 10 horus. Contrary to a plausible initial idea, the continuum amplitudes are not organized by the position of the observer relative to the dense plasma sheet. Instead, there seem to be perferred orientations of system III longitude with respect to the direction to the sun which account for the peaks. This implies a clocklike modulation of the continuum radiation intensity as opposed to a searchlight effect. The importance of the dipole longitude solar wind alignment to the amplitude of the continuum radiation implies that the source region of the radiation is near the magnetopause and may indirectly tie the generation of the radio waves to the clocklike modulation of energetic electron fluxes from Jupiter.

  15. Connecting physical resonant amplitudes and lattice QCD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolton, Daniel R.; Briceño, Raúl A.; Wilson, David J.

    2016-06-01

    We present a determination of the isovector, P-wave ππ scattering phase shift obtained by extrapolating recent lattice QCD results from the Hadron Spectrum Collaboration using mπ = 236 MeV. The finite volume spectra are described using extensions of Lüscher's method to determine the infinite volume Unitarized Chiral Perturbation Theory scattering amplitude. We exploit the pion mass dependence of this effective theory to obtain the scattering amplitude at mπ = 140 MeV. The scattering phase shift is found to agree with experiment up to center of mass energies of 1.2 GeV. The analytic continuation of the scattering amplitude to the complex plane yields a ρ-resonance pole at Eρ = [ 755 (2) (1) (20 -i/2 129 (3) (1) 7 1) ] MeV. The techniques presented illustrate a possible pathway towards connecting lattice QCD observables of few-body, strongly interacting systems to experimentally accessible quantities.

  16. Cut-constructible part of QCD amplitudes

    SciTech Connect

    Britto, Ruth; Feng Bo; Mastrolia, Pierpaolo

    2006-05-15

    Unitarity cuts are widely used in analytic computation of loop amplitudes in gauge theories such as QCD. We expand upon the technique introduced in hep-ph/0503132 to carry out any finite unitarity cut integral. This technique naturally separates the contributions of bubble, triangle and box integrals in one-loop amplitudes and is not constrained to any particular helicity configurations. Loop momentum integration is reduced to a sequence of algebraic operations. We discuss the extraction of the residues at higher-order poles. Additionally, we offer concise algebraic formulas for expressing coefficients of three-mass triangle integrals. As an application, we compute all remaining coefficients of bubble and triangle integrals for nonsupersymmetric six-gluon amplitudes.

  17. Perturbative type II amplitudes for BPS interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basu, Anirban

    2016-02-01

    We consider the perturbative contributions to the {{ R }}4, {D}4{{ R }}4 and {D}6{{ R }}4 interactions in toroidally compactified type II string theory. These BPS interactions do not receive perturbative contributions beyond genus three. We derive Poisson equations satisfied by these moduli dependent string amplitudes. These T-duality invariant equations have eigenvalues that are completely determined by the structure of the integrands of the multi-loop amplitudes. The source terms are given by boundary terms of the moduli space of Riemann surfaces corresponding to both separating and non-separating nodes. These are determined directly from the string amplitudes, as well as from U-duality constraints and logarithmic divergences of maximal supergravity. We explicitly solve these Poisson equations in nine and eight-dimensions.

  18. Connecting physical resonant amplitudes and lattice QCD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolton, Daniel R.; Briceño, Raúl A.; Wilson, David J.

    2016-06-01

    We present a determination of the isovector, P-wave ππ scattering phase shift obtained by extrapolating recent lattice QCD results from the Hadron Spectrum Collaboration using mπ = 236 MeV. The finite volume spectra are described using extensions of Lüscher's method to determine the infinite volume Unitarized Chiral Perturbation Theory scattering amplitude. We exploit the pion mass dependence of this effective theory to obtain the scattering amplitude at mπ = 140 MeV. The scattering phase shift is found to agree with experiment up to center of mass energies of 1.2 GeV. The analytic continuation of the scattering amplitude to the complex plane yields a ρ-resonance pole at Eρ = [ 755 (2) (1) (20 02) -i/2 129 (3) (1) (7 1) ] MeV. The techniques presented illustrate a possible pathway towards connecting lattice QCD observables of few-body, strongly interacting systems to experimentally accessible quantities.

  19. Amplitude for N-Gluon Superstring Scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Stieberger, Stephan; Taylor, Tomasz R.

    2006-11-24

    We consider scattering processes involving N gluonic massless states of open superstrings with a certain Regge slope {alpha}{sup '}. At the semiclassical level, the string world-sheet sweeps a disk and N gluons are created or annihilated at the boundary. We present exact expressions for the corresponding amplitudes, valid to all orders in {alpha}{sup '}, for the so-called maximally helicity violating configurations, with N=4, 5 and N=6. We also obtain the leading O({alpha}{sup '2}) string corrections to the zero-slope N-gluon Yang-Mills amplitudes.

  20. Microstrip amplitude-weighted wilkinson power dividers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huck, K. D.

    1986-03-01

    Unequal-split reactive power dividers were examined for use in forming amplitude tapers for microstrip array antennas. Circuits with power ratios of up to 5.0 between arms were constructed on Rexolite substrate, for operation at 4.0 GHz and 7.5 GHz. The 4.0 GHz circuits were very accurate in forming the correct amplitude ratio between outputs, and in maintaining phase balance between outputs. Of those circuits designed for 7.5 GHz, only those with split ratios less than 2.5 worked correctly. This report includes a review of the theory, measured results, and recommendations for improved power dividers.

  1. Dual amplitude pulse generator for radiation detectors

    DOEpatents

    Hoggan, Jerry M.; Kynaston, Ronnie L.; Johnson, Larry O.

    2001-01-01

    A pulsing circuit for producing an output signal having a high amplitude pulse and a low amplitude pulse may comprise a current source for providing a high current signal and a low current signal. A gate circuit connected to the current source includes a trigger signal input that is responsive to a first trigger signal and a second trigger signal. The first trigger signal causes the gate circuit to connect the high current signal to a pulse output terminal whereas the second trigger signal causes the gate circuit to connect the low current signal to the pulse output terminal.

  2. Amplitude Frequency Response Measurement: A Simple Technique

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Satish, L.; Vora, S. C.

    2010-01-01

    A simple method is described to combine a modern function generator and a digital oscilloscope to configure a setup that can directly measure the amplitude frequency response of a system. This is achieved by synchronously triggering both instruments, with the function generator operated in the "Linear-Sweep" frequency mode, while the oscilloscope…

  3. Particle Distribution Modification by Low Amplitude Modes

    SciTech Connect

    White, R. B.; Gorelenkov, N.; Heidbrink, W. W.; Van Zeeland, M. A.

    2009-08-28

    Modification of a high energy particle distribution by a spectrum of low amplitude modes is investigated using a guiding center code. Only through resonance are modes effective in modifying the distribution. Diagnostics are used to illustrate the mode-particle interaction and to find which effects are relevant in producing significant resonance, including kinetic Poincare plots and plots showing those orbits with time averaged mode-particle energy transfer. Effects of pitch angle scattering and drag are studied, as well as plasma rotation and time dependence of the equilibrium and mode frequencies. A specific example of changes observed in a DIII-D deuterium beam distribution in the presence of low amplitude experimentally validated Toroidal Alfven (TAE) eigenmodes and Reversed Shear Alfven (RSAE) eigenmodes is examined in detail. Comparison with experimental data shows that multiple low amplitude modes can account for significant modification of high energy beam particle distributions. It is found that there is a stochastic threshold for beam profile modification, and that the experimental amplitudes are only slightly above this threshold.

  4. Amplitude analyses of charmless B decays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Latham, Thomas

    2016-05-01

    We present recent results from the LHCb experiment of Amplitude Analyses of charmless decays of B0 and BS0 mesons to two vector mesons. Measurements obtained include the branching fractions and polarization fractions, as well as CP asymmetries. The analyses use the data recorded by the LHCb experiment during Run 1 of the LHC.

  5. Cardiac phase: Amplitude analysis using macro programming

    SciTech Connect

    Logan, K.W.; Hickey, K.A.

    1981-11-01

    The analysis of EKG gated radionuclide cardiac imaging data with Fourier amplitude and phase images is becoming a valuable clinical technique, demonstrating location, size, and severity of regional ventricular abnormalities. Not all commercially available nuclear medicine computer systems offer software for phase and amplitude analysis; however, many systems do have the capability of linear image arithmetic using simple macro commands which can easily be sequenced into stored macro-strings or programs. Using simple but accurate series approximations for the Fourier operations, macro programs have been written for a Digital Equipment Corporation Gamma-11 system to obtain phase and amplitude images from routine gated cardiac studies. In addition, dynamic cine-mode presentation of the onset of mechanical systole is generated from the phase data, using only a second set of macro programs. This approach is easily adapted to different data acquisition protocols, and can be used on any system with macro commands for image arithmetic. Key words: Fourier analysis, cardiac cycle, gated blood pool imaging, amplitude image, phase image

  6. An adaptive quadrature-free implementation of the high-order spectral volume method on unstructured grids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, Robert Evan

    2008-10-01

    An efficient implementation of the high-order spectral volume (SV) method is presented for multi-dimensional conservation laws on unstructured grids. In the SV method, each simplex cell is called a spectral volume (SV), and the SV is further subdivided into polygonal (2D), or polyhedral (3D) control volumes (CVs) to support high-order data reconstructions. In the traditional implementation, Gauss quadrature formulas are used to approximate the flux integrals on all faces. In the new approach, a nodal set is selected and used to reconstruct a high-order polynomial approximation for the flux vector, and then the flux integrals on the internal faces are computed analytically, without the need for Gauss quadrature formulas. This gives a significant advantage over the traditional SV method in efficiency and ease of implementation. Fundamental properties of the new SV implementation are studied and high-order accuracy is demonstrated for linear and nonlinear advection equations, and the Euler equations. The new quadrature-free approach is then extended to handle local adaptive hp-refinement (grid and order refinement). Efficient edge-based adaptation utilizing a binary tree search algorithm is employed. Several different adaptation criteria which focus computational effort near high gradient regions are presented. Both h- and p-refinements are presented in a general framework where it is possible to perform either or both on any grid cell at any time. Several well-known inviscid flow test cases, subjected to various levels of adaptation, are utilized to demonstrate the effectiveness of the method. An analysis of the accuracy and stability properties of the spectral volume (SV) method is then presented. The current work seeks to address the issue of stability, as well as polynomial quality, in the design of SV partitions. A new approach is presented, which efficiently locates stable partitions by means of constrained minimization. Once stable partitions are located, a

  7. Wide and Narrow CMEs and Their Source Explosions Observed at the Spring 2003 SOHO-Sun-Ulysses Quadrature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suess, Steven; Corti, G.; Poletto, G.; Sterling, A.; Moore, R.

    2006-01-01

    At the time of the spring 2003 Ulysses-SOHO-Sun quadrature, Ulysses was off the East limb of the Sun at 14.5 degrees north latitude and 4.91 AU. LASCO/C2 images show small transient events that originated from near the limb on May 25, 26 and 27 in the north-east quadrant, along with a large Coronal Mass Ejection (CME) that originated from an active region near disk center on May 26. Ulysses data bear clear signatures of the large CME, specifically including an enhanced abundance of highly ionized Fe. SOHO/UVCS spectra at 1.75 solar radii, near the radial direction to Ulysses, give no evidence of emission from high temperature lines, even for the large CME: instead, for the small events, occasional transient high emission in cool lines was observed, such as the CIII 977 Angstrom line usually absent at coronal levels. Each of these events lasted ca. 1 hour or less and never affected lines from ions forming above ca. 106K. Compact eruptions in Helium 304 Angstrom EIT images, related to the small UVCS transients, were observed at the limb of the Sun over the same period. At least one of these surge events produced a narrow CME observed in LASCO/C2. Most probably all these events are compact magnetic explosions (surges/jets, from around a small island of included polarity) which ejected cool material from lower levels. Ulysses data have been analyzed to find evidence of the cool, narrow CME events, but none or little was found. This puzzling scenario, where events seen by UVCS have no in situ counterparts and vice versa, can be partially explained once the region where the large CME originated is recognized as being at the center of the solar disk so that the CME material was actually much further from the Sun than the 1.7 Rsun height of the UVCS slit off the limb. Conversely, the narrow events may simply have missed Ulysses or been too brief for reliable signatures in composition and ionization state. A basic feature demonstrated by these observations is that large

  8. Comment on '3-D frequency-domain seismic wave modelling in heterogeneous, anisotropic media using a Gaussian quadrature grid approach' by Bing Zhou and S. A. Greenhalgh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Basabe, Jonás D.

    2011-08-01

    Zhou & Greenhalgh have recently presented an application of the Gaussian quadrature grid to seismic modelling in which the authors propose a meshing scheme that partitions the domain independently of the discontinuities in the media parameters. This comment aims to clarify the implications that this strategy has on the accuracy.

  9. Performance analysis of a swept-source optical coherence tomography system with a quadrature interferometer and optical amplification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, Youxin; Flueraru, Costel; Chang, Shoude; Popescu, Dan P.; Sowa, Michael G.

    2011-05-01

    A performance analysis of signal to noise ratio for an optical coherence tomography system with quadrature detection and a semiconductor optical amplifier in the sample arm is discussed. The results are compared and discussed in relation to a conventional OCT system (without optical amplification). An increase of the signal to noise ratio up to 14 dB at a depth of 0.5 mm is obtained compared to the system without the optical amplifier. Overall, an improvement was demonstrated for signal coming from deeper regions within the samples. Arterial plaque from a myocardial infarction-prone Watanabe heritable hyperlipidemic (WHHLMI) rabbit is visualized and characterized using this system. Improvement of signal to noise ratio increases the penetration depth possible for OCT images, from 1 mm to 2 mm within the vessel wall of an artery. Preliminary results show that vulnerable plaque with fibrous cap, macrophage accumulations and calcification in the arterial tissue are measurable with this OCT system.

  10. Exponential characteristic spatial quadrature for discrete ordinates neutral particle transport in two-dimensional cartesian coordinates. Doctoral thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Minor, B.M.

    1993-09-01

    The exponential characteristic spatial quadrature for discrete ordinates neutral particle transport with rectangular cells is developed. Numerical problems arising in the derivation required the development of exponential moment functions. These functions are used to remove indeterminant forms which can cause catastrophic cancellations. The EC method is positive and nonlinear. It conserves particles and satisfies first moment balance. Comparisons of the EC method's performance to other methods in optically thin and thick spatial cells were performed. For optically thin cells, the EC method was shown to converge to the correct answer, with third order truncation error in the thin cell limit. In deep penetration problems, the EC method attained its highest computational efficiencies compared to the other methods. For all the deep penetration problems examined, the number of spatial cells required by the EC method to attain a desired accuracy was less than the other methods.... Mathematics functions, Nuclear radiation, Nuclear engineering, Radiation attenuation, Radiation shielding, Transport theory, Radiation transport.

  11. An analytic method to account for drag in the Vinti satellite theory. [computer program using quadrature algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, J. S.; Mistretta, G. D.; Bonavito, N. L.

    1975-01-01

    A quadrature algorithm is presented which employs analytical expressions for the variations of satellite orbital elements caused by air drag. The Hamiltonian is formally preserved and the Jacobi constants of the motion are advanced with time through the variational equations. The atmospheric density profile is written as a fitted exponential function of the eccentric anomaly, which adheres to tabulated data at all altitudes and simultaneously reduces the variational equations to definite integrals with closed form evaluations, whose limits are in terms of the eccentric anomaly. Results are given for two intense air drag satellites and indicate that the satellite ephemerides produced by this method in conjunction with the Vinti program are of very high accuracy.

  12. Quadrature Rotating-Frame Gradient Fields for Ultra-Low FieldNuclear Magnetic Resonance and Imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Bouchard, Louis-Serge

    2005-12-30

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in very low fields isfundamentally limited by untruncated concomitant gradients which causesevere distortions in image acquisition and volume selection if thegradient fields are strong compared to the static field. In this paper,it is shown that gradient fields oscillating in quadrature can be usedfor spatial encoding in low fields and provide substantial improvementsover conventional encoding methods using static gradients. In particular,cases where the gradient field is comparable to or higher than theexternal field, Gmax/B0>1, are examined. It is shown thatundistorted slice selection and image encoding is possible because ofsmaller geometric phase errors introduced during cyclic motions of theHamiltonian. In the low field limit (Gmax/B_0 ->infinity) sliceselection is achieved with a combination of soft pulse segments and acoherent train of hard pulses to average out concomitant fields over thefast scale of the rf Hamiltonian.

  13. 3-D frequency-domain seismic wave modelling in heterogeneous, anisotropic media using a Gaussian Quadrature Grid (GQG) approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenhalgh, Stewart; Zhou, Bing; Maurer, Hansruedi

    2010-05-01

    We have developed a modified version of the spectral element method (SEM), called the Gaussian Quadrature Grid (GQG) approach, for frequency domain 3D seismic modelling in arbitrary heterogeneous, anisotropic media. The model may incorporate an arbitrary free-surface topography and irregular subsurface interfaces. Unlike the SEM ,it does not require a powerful mesh generator such as the Delauney Triangular or TetGen. Rather, the GQG approach replaces the element mesh with Gaussian quadrature abscissae to directly sample the physical properties of the model parameters and compute the weighted residual or variational integral. This renders the model discretisation simple and easily matched to the model topography, as well as direct control of the model paramterisation for subsequent inversion. In addition, it offers high accuracy in numerical modelling provided that an appropriate density of the Gaussian quadrature abscissae is employed. The second innovation of the GQG is the incorporation of a new implementation of perfectly matched layers to suppress artificial reflections from the domain margins. We employ PML model parameters (specified complex valued density and elastic moduli) rather than explicitly solving the governing wave equation with a complex co-ordinate system as in conventional approaches. Such an implementation is simple, general, effective and easily extendable to any class of anisotropy and other numerical modelling methods. The accuracy of the GQG approach is controlled by the number of Gaussian quadrature points per minimum wavelength, the so-called sampling density. The optimal sampling density should be the one which enables high definition of geological characteristics and high precision of the variational integral evaluation and spatial differentiation. Our experiments show that satisfactory results can be obtained using sampling densities of 5 points per minimum wavelength. Efficiency of the GQG approach mainly depends on the linear

  14. Comparison of finite element and differential quadrature algorithms for heat distribution in insulated-tip thin rectangular fin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fakir, Md. Moslemuddin; Khatun, Sabira; Jusoh, Abdul Wahab; Ramli, Mohammad Fadzli; Muhamad, Wan Zuki Azman Wan

    2015-05-01

    Finite Element Method (FEM) and Differential Quadrature Method (DQM) are two very important numerical solution techniques to solve engineering and physical science problems. Usually elements are sub-divided uniformly in FEM (conventional FEM, CFEM) to obtain temperature distribution behavior in a fin with extra computational complexity to obtain a fair solution with required accuracy. In this paper an algorithm to enhance the FEM (named EFEM) is presented by considering non-uniform sub-elements and applied successfully to investigate one dimensional heat distribution phenomenon in an insulated-tip thin rectangular fin. The obtained results are compared with CFEM, efficient DQM (EDQM, with non-uniform mesh generation) and exact solution. EFEM results exhibits more accuracy than CFEM and EDQM and agree very well with exact solution showing its potentiality.

  15. Numerical simulation of spray coalescence in an Eulerian framework: Direct quadrature method of moments and multi-fluid method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fox, R. O.; Laurent, F.; Massot, M.

    2008-03-01

    The scope of the present study is Eulerian modeling and simulation of polydisperse liquid sprays undergoing droplet coalescence and evaporation. The fundamental mathematical description is the Williams spray equation governing the joint number density function f(v,u;x,t) of droplet volume and velocity. Eulerian multi-fluid models have already been rigorously derived from this equation in Laurent et al. [F. Laurent, M. Massot, P. Villedieu, Eulerian multi-fluid modeling for the numerical simulation of coalescence in polydisperse dense liquid sprays, J. Comput. Phys. 194 (2004) 505-543]. The first key feature of the paper is the application of direct quadrature method of moments (DQMOM) introduced by Marchisio and Fox [D.L. Marchisio, R.O. Fox, Solution of population balance equations using the direct quadrature method of moments, J. Aerosol Sci. 36 (2005) 43-73] to the Williams spray equation. Both the multi-fluid method and DQMOM yield systems of Eulerian conservation equations with complicated interaction terms representing coalescence. In order to focus on the difficulties associated with treating size-dependent coalescence and to avoid numerical uncertainty issues associated with two-way coupling, only one-way coupling between the droplets and a given gas velocity field is considered. In order to validate and compare these approaches, the chosen configuration is a self-similar 2D axisymmetrical decelerating nozzle with sprays having various size distributions, ranging from smooth ones up to Dirac delta functions. The second key feature of the paper is a thorough comparison of the two approaches for various test-cases to a reference solution obtained through a classical stochastic Lagrangian solver. Both Eulerian models prove to describe adequately spray coalescence and yield a very interesting alternative to the Lagrangian solver. The third key point of the study is a detailed description of the limitations associated with each method, thus giving criteria for

  16. Polaris: Amplitude, Period Change, and Companions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, N. R.; Sasselov, D. D.; Short, C. I.

    2000-12-01

    Amplitude: Polaris has presented us with the rare phenomenon of a Cepheid with a pulsation amplitude which has decreased over the last 50 years. In this study we investigate whether the amplitude decrease during the last 15 years has had any effect on upper atmosphere heating. We obtained IUE high and low resolution spectra but found no change in either the Mg II chromospheric emission or the flux at 1800 Å/ between 1978 and 1993 when the pulsation amplitude dropped by 50 % (from 2.8 to 1.6 km sec-1). The energy distribution from 1700 Å/ through V, B, R(KC), and I(KC) is like that of a nonvariable supergiant of the same color rather than a full amplitude Cepheid in that it has nonradiative flux at 1800 Å/ which the full amplitude Cepheid δ Cep lacks. Period Change: Polaris also has a rapidly changing period (3.2 sec/year), in common with other overtone pulsators. We argue that this is a natural consequence of the different envelope locations which dominate in growth rates in fundamental and overtone pulsation. In fundamental mode pulsators, the deeper envelope is more important in determining growth rates than for overtone pulsators. For fundamental mode pulsators, evolutionary changes in the radius produce approximately linear changes in period. In overtone pulsators, pulsation reacts to small evolutionary changes in a more unstable way because the modes are more sensitive to high envelope features such as opacity bumps, and the growth rates for the many closely spaced overtone modes change easily. Companions: The upper limit to the X-ray flux from an Einstein observation implies that the companion in the astrometric orbit is probably earlier than F4 V. The combination of upper and lower limits on the companion from IUE and Einstein respectively catch the companion mass between 1.7 and 1.4 M⊙ . The X-ray limit is consistent with the more distant companion α UMi B being a physical companion in a hierarchal triple system. However the X-ray limits imply that

  17. The Construction of Spin Foam Vertex Amplitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bianchi, Eugenio; Hellmann, Frank

    2013-01-01

    Spin foam vertex amplitudes are the key ingredient of spin foam models for quantum gravity. These fall into the realm of discretized path integral, and can be seen as generalized lattice gauge theories. They can be seen as an attempt at a 4-dimensional generalization of the Ponzano-Regge model for 3d quantum gravity. We motivate and review the construction of the vertex amplitudes of recent spin foam models, giving two different and complementary perspectives of this construction. The first proceeds by extracting geometric configurations from a topological theory of the BF type, and can be seen to be in the tradition of the work of Barrett, Crane, Freidel and Krasnov. The second keeps closer contact to the structure of Loop Quantum Gravity and tries to identify an appropriate set of constraints to define a Lorentz-invariant interaction of its quanta of space. This approach is in the tradition of the work of Smolin, Markopoulous, Engle, Pereira, Rovelli and Livine.

  18. Differential equations, associators, and recurrences for amplitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puhlfürst, Georg; Stieberger, Stephan

    2016-01-01

    We provide new methods to straightforwardly obtain compact and analytic expressions for ɛ-expansions of functions appearing in both field and string theory amplitudes. An algebraic method is presented to explicitly solve for recurrence relations connecting different ɛ-orders of a power series solution in ɛ of a differential equation. This strategy generalizes the usual iteration by Picard's method. Our tools are demonstrated for generalized hypergeometric functions. Furthermore, we match the ɛ-expansion of specific generalized hypergeometric functions with the underlying Drinfeld associator with proper Lie algebra and monodromy representations. We also apply our tools for computing ɛ-expansions for solutions to generic first-order Fuchsian equations (Schlesinger system). Finally, we set up our methods to systematically get compact and explicit α‧-expansions of tree-level superstring amplitudes to any order in α‧.

  19. Flutter of articulated pipes at finite amplitude

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rousselet, J.; Herrmann, G.

    1975-01-01

    Previous studies of the behavior of pipes conveying fluid have assumed that the fluid velocity relative to the pipe is a known quantity and is unaffected by the motion of the pipe. This approach eliminates the need to find the flow equations of motion, and is adequate for infinitesimal transverse amplitudes of motion of the pipe system, but is incapable of predicting what will be the effect of larger amplitudes. This last shortcoming may be of importance when flow velocities are near critical velocities, that is, velocities at which the system begins to flutter. It is the purpose of the present study to investigate in greater detail the dynamic behavior of pipes in the vicinity of critical velocities.

  20. Delbrück amplitudes: new calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kahane, Sylvian

    1992-06-01

    Calculations of the first-order Delbrück scattering amplitudes were parallelized in a medium-grain mode assuring a very efficient, equal-load implementation, on systems with a moderate number of processors. New numerical values were calculated in the energy range 7.92-28 MeV and in the angular range 0.001°-120° with an estimated accuracy of as good as 1%. The old tables of Bar-Noy and Kahane are improved by these new calculations especially the values of Re A+- amplitudes. Good agreement is found with the calculations of Turrini, Maino and Ventura with a smoother behaviour of the present values. The calculations were performed on a system of eight transputers.

  1. Multilayered models for electromagnetic reflection amplitudes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Linlor, W. I.

    1976-01-01

    The remote sensing of snowpack characteristics with surface installations or with an airborne system could have important applications in water resource management and flood prediction. To derive some insight into such applications, the electromagnetic response of multilayer snow models is analyzed. Normally incident plane waves are assumed at frequencies ranging from 10 to the 6th power to 10 to the 10th power Hz, and amplitude reflection coefficients are calculated for models having various snow-layer combinations, including ice sheets. Layers are defined by a thickness, permittivity, and conductivity; the electrical parameters are constant or prescribed functions of frequency. To illustrate the effect of various layering combinations, results are given in the form of curves of amplitude reflection coefficients, versus frequency for a variety of models. Under simplifying assumptions, the snow thickness and effective dielectric constant can be estimated from the reflection coefficient variations as a function of frequency.

  2. Amplitudes of MHD Waves in Sunspots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norton, Aimee Ann; Cally, Paul; Baldner, Charles; Kleint, Lucia; Tarbell, Theodore D.; De Pontieu, Bart; Scherrer, Philip H.; Rajaguru, Paul

    2016-05-01

    The conversion of p-modes into MHD waves by strong magnetic fields occurs mainly in the sub-photospheric layers. The photospheric signatures of MHD waves are weak due to low amplitudes at the beta=1 equipartion level where mode-conversion occurs. We report on small amplitude oscillations observed in the photosphere with Hinode SOT/SP in which we analyze time series for sunspots ARs 12186 (11.10.2014) and 12434 (17.10.2015). No significant magnetic field oscillations are recovered in the umbra or penumbra in the ME inversion. However, periodicities in the inclination angle are found at the umbral/penumbral boundary with 5 minute periods. Upward propagating waves are indicated in the intensity signals correlated between HMI and AIA at different heights. We compare SP results with the oscillations observed in HMI data. Simultaneous IRIS data shows transition region brightening above the umbral core.

  3. Chiral extrapolation of SU(3) amplitudes

    SciTech Connect

    Ecker, Gerhard

    2011-05-23

    Approximations of chiral SU(3) amplitudes at NNLO are proposed to facilitate the extrapolation of lattice data to the physical meson masses. Inclusion of NNLO terms is essential for investigating convergence properties of chiral SU(3) and for determining low-energy constants in a controllable fashion. The approximations are tested with recent lattice data for the ratio of decay constants F{sub K}/F{sub {pi}}.

  4. Understanding the amplitudes of noise correlation measurements

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tsai, Victor C.

    2011-01-01

    Cross correlation of ambient seismic noise is known to result in time series from which station-station travel-time measurements can be made. Part of the reason that these cross-correlation travel-time measurements are reliable is that there exists a theoretical framework that quantifies how these travel times depend on the features of the ambient noise. However, corresponding theoretical results do not currently exist to describe how the amplitudes of the cross correlation depend on such features. For example, currently it is not possible to take a given distribution of noise sources and calculate the cross correlation amplitudes one would expect from such a distribution. Here, we provide a ray-theoretical framework for calculating cross correlations. This framework differs from previous work in that it explicitly accounts for attenuation as well as the spatial distribution of sources and therefore can address the issue of quantifying amplitudes in noise correlation measurements. After introducing the general framework, we apply it to two specific problems. First, we show that we can quantify the amplitudes of coherency measurements, and find that the decay of coherency with station-station spacing depends crucially on the distribution of noise sources. We suggest that researchers interested in performing attenuation measurements from noise coherency should first determine how the dominant sources of noise are distributed. Second, we show that we can quantify the signal-to-noise ratio of noise correlations more precisely than previous work, and that these signal-to-noise ratios can be estimated for given situations prior to the deployment of seismometers. It is expected that there are applications of the theoretical framework beyond the two specific cases considered, but these applications await future work.

  5. Deep Inelastic Scattering at the Amplitude Level

    SciTech Connect

    Brodsky, Stanley J.; /SLAC

    2005-08-04

    The deep inelastic lepton scattering and deeply virtual Compton scattering cross sections can be interpreted in terms of the fundamental wavefunctions defined by the light-front Fock expansion, thus allowing tests of QCD at the amplitude level. The AdS/CFT correspondence between gauge theory and string theory provides remarkable new insights into QCD, including a model for hadronic wavefunctions which display conformal scaling at short distances and color confinement at large distances.

  6. Subleading soft factor for string disk amplitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwab, Burkhard U. W.

    2014-08-01

    We investigate the behavior of superstring disk scattering amplitudes in the presence of a soft external momentum at finite string tension. We prove that there are no α'-corrections to the field theory form of the subleading soft factor S (1). At the end of this work, we also comment on the possibility to find the corresponding subleading soft factors in closed string theory using our result and the KLT relations.

  7. Continuous phase and amplitude holographic elements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maker, Paul D. (Inventor); Muller, Richard E. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    A method for producing a phase hologram using e-beam lithography provides n-ary levels of phase and amplitude by first producing an amplitude hologram on a transparent substrate by e-beam exposure of a resist over a film of metal by exposing n is less than or equal to m x m spots of an array of spots for each pixel, where the spots are randomly selected in proportion to the amplitude assigned to each pixel, and then after developing and etching the metal film producing a phase hologram by e-beam lithography using a low contrast resist, such as PMMA, and n-ary levels of low doses less than approximately 200 micro-C/sq cm and preferably in the range of 20-200 micro-C/sq cm, and aggressive development using pure acetone for an empirically determined time (about 6 s) controlled to within 1/10 s to produce partial development of each pixel in proportion to the n-ary level of dose assigned to it.

  8. Amplitude-integrated electroencephalography in neonates.

    PubMed

    El-Dib, Mohamed; Chang, Taeun; Tsuchida, Tammy N; Clancy, Robert R

    2009-11-01

    Conventional electroencephalography (EEG) has been used for decades in the neonatal intensive care unit for formulating neurologic prognoses, demonstrating brain functional state and degree of maturation, revealing cerebral lesions, and identifying the presence and number of electrographic seizures. However, both the immediate availability of conventional EEG and the expertise with which it is interpreted are variable. Amplitude-integrated EEG provides simplified monitoring of cerebral function, and is rapidly gaining popularity among neonatologists, with growing use in bedside decision making and inclusion criteria for randomized clinical studies. Nonetheless, child neurologists and neurophysiologists remain cautious about relying solely on this tool and prefer interpreting conventional EEG. The present review examines the technical aspects of generating, recording, and interpreting amplitude-integrated EEG and contrasts this approach with conventional EEG. Finally, several proposed amplitude-integrated EEG classification schemes are reviewed. A clear understanding of this emerging technology of measuring brain health in the premature or sick neonate is critical in modern care of the newborn infant. PMID:19818932

  9. Polaris: Amplitude, Period Change, and Companions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, Nancy Remage; Sasselov, Dimitar D.; Short, C. Ian

    2002-03-01

    Polaris has presented us with the rare phenomenon of a Cepheid with a pulsation amplitude that has decreased over the last 50 yr. In this study we have used this property to see whether the amplitude decrease during the last 15 yr has had any effect on upper atmosphere heating. We obtained IUE high- and low-resolution spectra but found no change in either the Mg II chromospheric emission or the flux at 1800 Å between 1978 and 1993 when the pulsation amplitude dropped by 50% (from 2.8 to 1.6 km s-1). The energy distribution from 1700 Å through V, B, R(KC), and I(KC) is like that of a nonvariable supergiant of the same color rather than a full amplitude Cepheid in that it has more flux at 1800 Å than the full amplitude Cepheid δ Cep. Polaris also has a rapidly changing period (3.2 s yr-1), in common with other overtone pulsators. We argue that this is a natural consequence of the different envelope locations that dominate pulsation growth rates in fundamental and overtone pulsation. In fundamental mode pulsators, the deeper envelope is more important in determining growth rates than for overtone pulsators. For fundamental mode pulsators, evolutionary changes in the radius produce approximately linear changes in period. In overtone pulsators, pulsation reacts to small evolutionary changes in a more unstable way because the modes are more sensitive to high envelope features such as opacity bumps, and the growth rates for the many closely spaced overtone modes change easily. Finally, the upper limit to the X-ray flux from an Einstein observation implies that the companion in the astrometric orbit is earlier than F4 V. The combination of upper and lower limits on the companion from IUE and Einstein respectively catch the companion mass between 1.7 and 1.4 Msolar. The X-ray limit is consistent with the more distant companion α UMi B being a physical companion in a hierarchal triple system. However the X-ray limits require that the even more distant companions α UMi

  10. All-optical phase-preserving multilevel amplitude regeneration.

    PubMed

    Roethlingshoefer, Tobias; Richter, Thomas; Schubert, Colja; Onishchukov, Georgy; Schmauss, Bernhard; Leuchs, Gerd

    2014-11-01

    The possibility of all-optical phase-preserving amplitude regeneration for star-8QAM is demonstrated using a modified nonlinear optical loop mirror. Experiments show a reduction in amplitude noise on both amplitude levels simultaneously, considering two different types of signal distortions: deterministic low-frequency amplitude modulation and broadband amplitude noise. Furthermore, using this amplitude regeneration, the robustness against nonlinear phase noise from fiber nonlinearity in a transmission line is increased. The scheme suppresses the conversion of amplitude noise to nonlinear phase noise. This is shown for simultaneous amplitude regeneration of the two amplitude states as well as for amplitude regeneration of the high-power states only. If the transmission is limited by nonlinear phase noise, single-level operation at the more critical higher-power state will benefit because of the wider plateau region. Numerical simulations confirm the experimental results. PMID:25401858

  11. Temperature modulation and quadrature detection for selective titration of two-state exchanging reactants.

    PubMed

    Zrelli, K; Barilero, T; Cavatore, E; Berthoumieux, H; Le Saux, T; Croquette, V; Lemarchand, A; Gosse, C; Jullien, L

    2011-04-01

    Biological samples exhibit huge molecular diversity over large concentration ranges. Titrating a given compound in such mixtures is often difficult, and innovative strategies emphasizing selectivity are thus demanded. To overcome limitations inherent to thermodynamics, we here present a generic technique where discrimination relies on the dynamics of interaction between the target of interest and a probe introduced in excess. Considering an ensemble of two-state exchanging reactants submitted to temperature modulation, we first demonstrate that the amplitude of the out-of-phase concentration oscillations is maximum for every compound involved in a reaction whose equilibrium constant is equal to unity and whose relaxation time is equal to the inverse of the excitation angular frequency. Taking advantage of this feature, we next devise a highly specific detection protocol and validate it using a microfabricated resistive heater and an epifluorescence microscope, as well as labeled oligonucleotides to model species displaying various dynamic properties. As expected, quantification of a sought for strand is obtained even if interfering reagents are present in similar amounts. Moreover, our approach does not require any separation and is compatible with imaging. It could then benefit some of the numerous binding assays performed every day in life sciences. PMID:21355619

  12. Phase amplitude conformal symmetry in Fourier transforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuwata, S.

    2015-04-01

    For the Fourier transform ℑ : L2(R) → L2(R) of a complex-valued even or odd function ψ, it is found that the amplitude invariance |ℑψ| = |ψ| leads to a phase invariance or inversion as arg(ℑψ) = ±argψ + θ (θ = constant). The converse holds unless arg ψ = constant. The condition |ψ| = |ℑψ| is required in dealing with, for example, the minimum uncertainty relation between position and momentum. Without the evenness or oddness of ψ, |ℑψ| = |ψ| does not necessarily imply arg(ℑψ) = ±argψ + θ, nor is the converse.

  13. The small amplitude magnetohydrodynamic Riemann problem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, C. C.; Kennel, C. F.

    1993-01-01

    The small-amplitude MHD Riemann problem is studied using the Cohen-Kulsrud-Burgers equations. Unlike the coplanar Riemann problem, the evolution of noncoplanar Riemann problems is not self-similar and its flow structures could change in time. But its large-time behavior is very simple and a time-dependent 2 - 3 intermediate shock is always involved for the noncoplanar field rotations. The time-dependent 2 - 3 intermediate shock has a well-defined structure and exists for any degree of field rotation.

  14. Information transfer for small-amplitude signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kostal, Lubomir; Lansky, Petr

    2010-05-01

    We study the optimality conditions of information transfer in systems with memory in the low signal-to-noise ratio regime of vanishing input amplitude. We find that the optimal mutual information is represented by a maximum variance of the signal time course, with correlation structure determined by the Fisher information matrix. We provide illustration of the method on a simple biologically inspired model of electrosensory neuron. Our general results apply also to the study of information transfer in single neurons subject to weak stimulation, with implications to the problem of coding efficiency in biological systems.

  15. Fatigue crack growth under variable amplitude loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sidawi, Jihad A.

    1994-09-01

    Fatigue crack growth tests were conducted on an Fe 510 E C-Mn steel and a submerged arc welded joint from the same material under constant, variable, and random loading amplitudes. Paris-Erdogan's crack growth rate law was tested for the evaluation of m and C using the stress intensity factor K, the J-integral, the effective stress intensity factor K(sub eff), and the root mean square stress intensity factor K(sub rms) fracture mechanics concepts. The effect of retardation and residual stresses resulting from welding was also considered. It was found that all concepts gave good life predictions in all cases.

  16. Stochastic aspects of nuclear large amplitude motion

    SciTech Connect

    Kolomietz, V.M.

    1995-08-01

    A consistent description of the macroscopic large amplitude dynamics and processes of internal excitation of a nucleus is suggested. The cranking model approach is used for the calculation of the response function of the nucleus in a moving frame. Using spectral statistics smearing, the collective mass, friction, and diffusion coefficients are derived. The relation of the response function in a moving frame to the correlation function in a classical chaotic system is established. The rate of dissipation due to the Landau-Zener transitions and through the Kubo mechanism is considered.

  17. Advanced quadrature sets and acceleration and preconditioning techniques for the discrete ordinates method in parallel computing environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Longoni, Gianluca

    In the nuclear science and engineering field, radiation transport calculations play a key-role in the design and optimization of nuclear devices. The linear Boltzmann equation describes the angular, energy and spatial variations of the particle or radiation distribution. The discrete ordinates method (S N) is the most widely used technique for solving the linear Boltzmann equation. However, for realistic problems, the memory and computing time require the use of supercomputers. This research is devoted to the development of new formulations for the SN method, especially for highly angular dependent problems, in parallel environments. The present research work addresses two main issues affecting the accuracy and performance of SN transport theory methods: quadrature sets and acceleration techniques. New advanced quadrature techniques which allow for large numbers of angles with a capability for local angular refinement have been developed. These techniques have been integrated into the 3-D SN PENTRAN (Parallel Environment Neutral-particle TRANsport) code and applied to highly angular dependent problems, such as CT-Scan devices, that are widely used to obtain detailed 3-D images for industrial/medical applications. In addition, the accurate simulation of core physics and shielding problems with strong heterogeneities and transport effects requires the numerical solution of the transport equation. In general, the convergence rate of the solution methods for the transport equation is reduced for large problems with optically thick regions and scattering ratios approaching unity. To remedy this situation, new acceleration algorithms based on the Even-Parity Simplified SN (EP-SSN) method have been developed. A new stand-alone code system, PENSSn (Parallel Environment Neutral-particle Simplified SN), has been developed based on the EP-SSN method. The code is designed for parallel computing environments with spatial, angular and hybrid (spatial/angular) domain

  18. Relationship Between the Expansion Speed and Radial Speed of CMEs Confirmed Using Quadrature Observations from SOHO and STEREO

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gopalswamy, Nat; Makela, Pertti; Yashiro, Seiji

    2011-01-01

    It is difficult to measure the true speed of Earth-directed CMEs from a coronagraph along the Sun-Earth line because of the occulting disk. However, the expansion speed (the speed with which the CME appears to spread in the sky plane) can be measured by such coronagraph. In order to convert the expansion speed to radial speed (which is important for space weather applications) one can use empirical relationship between the two that assumes an average width for all CMEs. If we have the width information from quadrature observations, we can confirm the relationship between expansion and radial speeds derived by Gopalswamy et al. (2009, CEAB, 33, 115,2009). The STEREO spacecraft were in quadrature with SOHO (STEREO-A ahead of Earth by 87 and STEREO-B 94 behind Earth) on 2011 February 15, when a fast Earth-directed CME occurred. The CME was observed as a halo by the Large-Angle and Spectrometric Coronagraph (LASCO) on board SOHO. The sky-plane speed was measured by SOHO/LASCO as the expansion speed, while the radial speed was measured by STEREO-A and STEREO-B. In addition, STEREO-A and STEREO-B images measured the width of the CME, which is unknown from Earth view. From the SOHO and STEREO measurements, we confirm the relationship between the expansion speed (Vexp ) and radial speed (Vrad ) derived previously from geometrical considerations (Gopalswamy et al. 2009): Vrad = 1/2 (1 + cot w) Vexp, where w is the half width of the CME. STEREO-B images of the CME, we found that CME had a full width of 75 degrees, so w = 37.5 degrees. This gives the relation as Vrad = 1.15 Vexp. From LASCO observations, we measured Vexp = 897 km/s, so we get the radial speed as 1033 km/s. Direct measurement of radial speed from STEREO gives 945 km/s (STEREO-A) and 1057 km/s (STEREO-B). These numbers are different only by 2.3% and 8.5% (for STEREO-A and STEREO-B, respectively) from the computed value.

  19. Small-amplitude synchrotron tune near transition

    SciTech Connect

    Ng, K.Y.; /Fermilab

    2010-05-01

    The separatrices of the rf buckets near transition are mapped when the synchronous phase is neither 0 or {pi}. The small-amplitude synchronous tune is derived when the rf frequency is changed. Synchrotron radiation is present in all electron storage ring. As a result, the synchronous phase is always offset from {phi}{sub s} = {pi} to compensate for the power loss. Even for proton storage rings with negligible synchrotron radiation, the synchronous phase is also required to be offset from {phi}{sub s} = 0 or {pi} slightly to compensate for beam loading. Thus for all storage rings operating near transition, beam particles reside in accelerating buckets instead of stationary bucket. It is of interest to map these buckets and see how they evolve near transition. When the rf frequency is varied, the closed orbit is pushed radially inward or outward. The momentum of the particle synchronous with the rf is thus changed. By measuring the small-amplitude synchrotron tune as a function of the rf frequency, the lowest first few orders of the slip factor can be inferred. Here, we derive this relationship up to the lowest first three orders of the slip factor when the particle velocity is not ultra-relativistic.

  20. Scattering amplitudes with off-shell quarks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Hameren, A.; Kutak, K.; Salwa, T.

    2013-11-01

    We present a prescription to calculate manifestly gauge invariant tree-level scattering amplitudes for arbitrary scattering processes with off-shell initial-state quarks within the kinematics of high-energy scattering. Consider the embedding of the process, in which the off-shell u-quark is replaced by an auxiliary quark qA, and an auxiliary photon γA is added in final state. The momentum flow is as if qA carries momentum k1 and the momentum of γA is identical to 0. γA only interacts via Eq. (3), and qA further only interacts with gluons via normal quark-gluon vertices. qA-line propagators are interpreted as iℓ̸1/(2ℓ1ṡp), and are diagonal in color space. Sum the squared amplitude over helicities of the auxiliary photon. For one helicity, simultaneously assign to the external qA-quark and to γA the spinor and polarization vector |ℓ1], {<ℓ1|γμ|ℓ2]}/{√{2}[ℓ1|ℓ2]}, and for the other helicity assign |ℓ1>, {<ℓ2|γμ|ℓ1]}/{√{2}<ℓ2|ℓ1>}. Multiply the amplitude with √{-x1k12/2}. For the rest, normal Feynman rules apply.Some remarks are at order. Regarding the momentum flow, we stress, as in [20], that momentum components proportional to k1 do not contribute in the eikonal propagators, and there is a freedom in the choice of the momenta flowing through qA-lines.Regarding the sum over helicities, one might argue that only one of them leads to a non-zero result for given helicity of the final-state quark, but there may, for example, be several identical such quarks in the final state with different helicities.In case of more than one quark in the final state with the same flavor as the off-shell quark, the rules as such admit graphs with γA-propagators. These must be omitted. They do not survive the limit Λ→∞ in the derivation, since the γA-propagators are suppressed by 1/Λ.The rules regarding the qA-line could be elaborated further like in [20], leading to simplified vertices for gluons attached to this line and reducing the

  1. Spurious cross-frequency amplitude-amplitude coupling in nonstationary, nonlinear signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeh, Chien-Hung; Lo, Men-Tzung; Hu, Kun

    2016-07-01

    Recent studies of brain activities show that cross-frequency coupling (CFC) plays an important role in memory and learning. Many measures have been proposed to investigate the CFC phenomenon, including the correlation between the amplitude envelopes of two brain waves at different frequencies - cross-frequency amplitude-amplitude coupling (AAC). In this short communication, we describe how nonstationary, nonlinear oscillatory signals may produce spurious cross-frequency AAC. Utilizing the empirical mode decomposition, we also propose a new method for assessment of AAC that can potentially reduce the effects of nonlinearity and nonstationarity and, thus, help to avoid the detection of artificial AACs. We compare the performances of this new method and the traditional Fourier-based AAC method. We also discuss the strategies to identify potential spurious AACs.

  2. Fatigue life prediction of rotor blade composites: Validation of constant amplitude formulations with variable amplitude experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westphal, T.; Nijssen, R. P. L.

    2014-12-01

    The effect of Constant Life Diagram (CLD) formulation on the fatigue life prediction under variable amplitude (VA) loading was investigated based on variable amplitude tests using three different load spectra representative for wind turbine loading. Next to the Wisper and WisperX spectra, the recently developed NewWisper2 spectrum was used. Based on these variable amplitude fatigue results the prediction accuracy of 4 CLD formulations is investigated. In the study a piecewise linear CLD based on the S-N curves for 9 load ratios compares favourably in terms of prediction accuracy and conservativeness. For the specific laminate used in this study Boerstra's Multislope model provides a good alternative at reduced test effort.

  3. Spectral convergence of the quadrature discretization method in the solution of the Schrodinger and Fokker-Planck equations: comparison with sinc methods.

    PubMed

    Lo, Joseph; Shizgal, Bernie D

    2006-11-21

    Spectral methods based on nonclassical polynomials and Fourier basis functions or sinc interpolation techniques are compared for several eigenvalue problems for the Fokker-Planck and Schrodinger equations. A very rapid spectral convergence of the eigenvalues versus the number of quadrature points is obtained with the quadrature discretization method (QDM) and the appropriate choice of the weight function. The QDM is a pseudospectral method and the rate of convergence is compared with the sinc method reported by Wei [J. Chem. Phys., 110, 8930 (1999)]. In general, sinc methods based on Fourier basis functions with a uniform grid provide a much slower convergence. The paper considers Fokker-Planck equations (and analogous Schrodinger equations) for the thermalization of electrons in atomic moderators and for a quartic potential employed to model chemical reactions. The solution of the Schrodinger equation for the vibrational states of I2 with a Morse potential is also considered. PMID:17129090

  4. Performance Analysis of Direct-Sequence Code-Division Multiple-Access Communications with Asymmetric Quadrature Phase-Shift-Keying Modulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, C.-W.; Stark, W.

    2005-01-01

    This article considers a quaternary direct-sequence code-division multiple-access (DS-CDMA) communication system with asymmetric quadrature phase-shift-keying (AQPSK) modulation for unequal error protection (UEP) capability. Both time synchronous and asynchronous cases are investigated. An expression for the probability distribution of the multiple-access interference is derived. The exact bit-error performance and the approximate performance using a Gaussian approximation and random signature sequences are evaluated by extending the techniques used for uniform quadrature phase-shift-keying (QPSK) and binary phase-shift-keying (BPSK) DS-CDMA systems. Finally, a general system model with unequal user power and the near-far problem is considered and analyzed. The results show that, for a system with UEP capability, the less protected data bits are more sensitive to the near-far effect that occurs in a multiple-access environment than are the more protected bits.

  5. A Quadrature-Based Tunable Radio-Frequency Sensor for the Detection and Analysis of Aqueous Solutions

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Yan; He, Yuxi; Wang, Pingshan

    2014-01-01

    A highly tunable and sensitive radio-frequency (RF) sensor is presented for the measurement of aqueous-solution dielectric properties. Two quadrature hybrids are utilized to achieve destructive interference that eliminates the probing signals at both measurement ports. As a result, weak signals of material-under-test (MUT) are elevated for high sensitivity detections at different frequencies. The sensor is demonstrated through measuring 2-propanol-water solution permittivity at 0.01 mole fraction concentration level from ~4 GHz to ~12 GHz. De-ionized water and methanol-water solution are used to calibrate the sensor for quantitative MUT analysis through our proposed model. Micro-meter coplanar waveguides (CPW) are fabricated as RF sensing electrodes. A polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microfluidic channel is employed to introduce 250 nL liquid, of which ~1 nL is effectively the MUT. The permittivity and the relaxation time of 2-propanol-water solution are obtained. Compared with our power divider based sensors, the differential reflection coefficients in this work provide additional information that complements the transmission coefficient methods. PMID:25197266

  6. Three-phase quadrature spectral matching imager using correlation image sensor and wavelength-swept monochromatic illumination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimachi, Akira; Ando, Shigeru; Doi, Motonori; Nishi, Shogo

    2011-12-01

    We propose a three-phase spectral matching imager (3PSMI) to realize a novel spectral matching method called quadrature spectral matching (QSM) in real time. The 3PSMI is comprised of the correlation image sensor (CIS) and wavelength-swept monochromatic illumination (WSMI) to perform QSM at each pixel on the CIS at a video frame rate. QSM consists of spectral correlation between an ac component of an object spectrum and an orthonormal pair of reference spectra, being equivalent to projecting the ac object spectrum onto a two-dimensional subspace spanned by the reference spectra. Similarity of the ac object spectrum to the reference spectra is evaluated in terms of the azimuth angle of the projection, independently of the norm of the ac object spectrum as well as spatial intensity distribution of the WSMI. A programable spectral light source is employed to implement the WSMI so that the spectral characteristics of the WSMI and CIS cancel each other and thus do not affect QSM on the 3PSMI. Experimental results confirm that the developed 3PSMI system can distinguish objects with smaller difference in spectral reflectance in real time than RGB imaging with off-the-shelf cameras.

  7. The revival collapse phenomenon in the quadrature field components of the two-mode multiphoton Jaynes Cummings model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Orany, Faisal A. A.

    2005-11-01

    In this paper we consider a system consisting of a two-level atom in an excited state interacting with two modes of a radiation field prepared initially in l-photon coherent states. This system is described by a two-mode multiphoton (i.e., k1,k2) Jaynes-Cummings model (JCM). For this system we investigate the occurrence of the revival-collapse phenomenon (RCP) in the evolution of the single-mode, two-mode, sum and difference quadrature squeezing. We show that there is a class of states for which all these types of squeezing exhibit RCP similar to that involved in the corresponding atomic inversion. Also we show numerically that the single-mode squeezing of the first mode for (k1,k2) = (3,1) provides RCP similar to that of the atomic inversion of the case (k1,k2) = (1,1); however, sum and difference squeezing give partial information on that case. Moreover, we show that single-mode, two-mode and sum squeezing for the case (k1,k2) = (2,2) provides information on the atomic inversion of the single-mode two-photon JCM. We derive the rescaled squeezing factors giving accurate information on the atomic inversion for all cases. The consequences of these results are that the homodyne and heterodyne detectors can be used to detect the RCP for the two-mode JCM.

  8. Realizable high-order finite-volume schemes for quadrature-based moment methods applied to diffusion population balance equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vikas, V.; Wang, Z. J.; Fox, R. O.

    2013-09-01

    Population balance equations with advection and diffusion terms can be solved using quadrature-based moment methods. Recently, high-order realizable finite-volume schemes with appropriate realizability criteria have been derived for the advection term. However, hitherto no work has been reported with respect to realizability problems for the diffusion term. The current work focuses on developing high-order realizable finite-volume schemes for diffusion. The pitfalls of existing finite-volume schemes for the diffusion term based on the reconstruction of moments are discussed, and it is shown that realizability can be guaranteed only with the 2nd-order scheme and that the realizability criterion for the 2nd-order scheme is the same as the stability criterion. However, realizability of moments cannot be guaranteed when higher-order moment-based reconstruction schemes are used. To overcome this problem, realizable high-order finite-volume schemes based on the reconstruction of weights and abscissas are proposed and suitable realizability criteria are derived. The realizable schemes can achieve higher than 2nd-order accuracy for problems with smoothly varying abscissas. In the worst-case scenario of highly nonlinear abscissas, the realizable schemes are 2nd-order accurate but have lower error magnitudes compared to existing schemes. The results obtained using the realizable high-order schemes are shown to be consistent with those obtained using the 2nd-order moment-based reconstruction scheme.

  9. Tensor Green's function evaluation in arbitrarily anisotropic, layered media using complex-plane Gauss-Laguerre quadrature.

    PubMed

    Sainath, Kamalesh; Teixeira, Fernando L

    2014-05-01

    We discuss the application of complex-plane Gauss-Laguerre quadrature (CGLQ) to efficiently evaluate two-dimensional Fourier integrals arising as the solution to electromagnetic fields radiated by elementary dipole antennas embedded within planar-layered media exhibiting arbitrary material parameters. More specifically, we apply CGLQ to the long-standing problem of rapidly and efficiently evaluating the semi-infinite length "tails" of the Fourier integral path while simultaneously and robustly guaranteeing absolute, exponential convergence of the field solution despite diversity in the doubly anisotropic layer parameters, source type (i.e., electric or equivalent magnetic dipole), source orientation, observed field type (magnetic or electric), (nonzero) frequency, and (nonzero) source-observer separation geometry. The proposed algorithm exhibits robustness despite unique challenges arising for the fast evaluation of such two-dimensional integrals. Herein we develop the mathematical treatment to rigorously evaluate the tail integrals using CGLQ, as well as discuss and address the specific issues posed to the CGLQ method when anisotropic, layered media are present. To empirically demonstrate the CGLQ algorithm's computational efficiency, versatility, and accuracy, we perform a convergence analysis along with two case studies related to modeling of electromagnetic resistivity tools employed in geophysical prospection of layered, anisotropic Earth media and validating the ability of isoimpedance substrates to enhance the radiation performance of planar antennas placed in close proximity to metallic ground planes. PMID:25353911

  10. High-resolution coherence domain reflectometry using 1.55 μm supercontinuum source and quadrature spectral detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Elwyn; Wada, Naoya; Chujo, Wataru; Sampson, David D.

    2002-06-01

    High-power ultra-broadband sources such as a supercontinuum are very attractive in optical coherence tomography (OCT) and optical coherence-domain reflectometry (OCDR) due to their very high resolution potential. However, the large and extensive coherence-function sidelobes typical of such sources preclude their use in conventional OCDR and OCT systems. In addition, device or sample dispersion over such broad bandwidths may also significantly limit the achievable performance. Here we describe a novel experiment using a supercontinuum source with a static Michelson interferometer to perform OCDR at 1.55micrometers . Quadrature spectral detection is used to maximize the scanning range and to allow direct compensation for both the undesirable spectral shape of the source and for the dispersion in the system. Such a non-scanning-interferometer approach is an interesting possible alternative for very broadband, ultra-high resolution OCT systems. We demonstrate that an otherwise obscured small reflection next to a large reflection can be revealed by appropriately weighting the data to reshape the supercontinuum spectrum and compensate for dispersion. Significant reduction of the supercontinuum coherence function sidelobes is achieved, and a resolution in air of 7micrometers (FWHM) is obtained, or less than 5micrometers in media of refractive index 1.45.

  11. 0.8-5.2GHz Broad-Band SiGe-MMIC Quadrature Mixer for Software Defined Radio Receiver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murakami, Keishi; Suematsu, Noriharu; Tsutsumi, Koji; Kanazawa, Gakushi; Sekine, Tomotsugu; Kubo, Hiroshi; Isota, Yoji

    For the next generation wireless terminals used in the software defined radio (SDR), multi-band / multi-mode transceivers and their MMIC are required which cover the wide RF frequency range from several hundreds MHz up to several GHz. In this paper, 0.8-5.2GHz broad-band SiGe-MMIC quadrature mixer (Q-MIX) for multi-band / multi-mode direct conversion receiver has been developed. By using a static type frequency divider as a 90 degrees local (LO) power divider, measured error vector magnitude (EVM) of less than 3.1% can be achieved in the cases of 0.8/2.1GHz W-CDMA and 5.2GHz wireless Local Area Network (LAN) (IEEE 802.11a) reception. This Q-MIX also shows broad-band characteristic for base-band signal and is applicable for 4G cellular. By using fabricated Q-MIX, a multi-band / multi-mode (1.9GHz (3rd generation cellular (W-CDMA)) / 5.2GHz (4th generation cellular (Multi-Carrier (MC)-CDMA))) receiver has been developed and it has firstly demonstrated the successful reception of motion picture via W-CDMA and MC-CDMA.

  12. Experimental generation of amplitude squeezed vector beams.

    PubMed

    Chille, Vanessa; Berg-Johansen, Stefan; Semmler, Marion; Banzer, Peter; Aiello, Andrea; Leuchs, Gerd; Marquardt, Christoph

    2016-05-30

    We present an experimental method for the generation of amplitude squeezed high-order vector beams. The light is modified twice by a spatial light modulator such that the vector beam is created by means of a collinear interferometric technique. A major advantage of this approach is that it avoids systematic losses, which are detrimental as they cause decoherence in continuous-variable quantum systems. The utilisation of a spatial light modulator (SLM) gives the flexibility to switch between arbitrary mode orders. The conversion efficiency with our setup is only limited by the efficiency of the SLM. We show the experimental generation of Laguerre-Gauss (LG) modes with radial indices 0 or 1 and azimuthal indices up to 3 with complex polarization structures and a quantum noise reduction up to -0.9dB±0.1dB. The corresponding polarization structures are studied in detail by measuring the spatial distribution of the Stokes parameters. PMID:27410153

  13. Amplitude and phase modulation with waveguide optics

    SciTech Connect

    Burkhart, S.C.; Wilcox, R.B.; Browning, D.; Penko, F.A.

    1996-12-17

    We have developed amplitude and phase modulation systems for glass lasers using integrated electro-optic modulators and solid state high- speed electronics. The present and future generation of lasers for Inertial Confinement Fusion require laser beams with complex temporal and phase shaping to compensate for laser gain saturation, mitigate parametric processes such as transverse stimulated Brillouin scattering in optics, and to provide specialized drive to the fusion targets. These functions can be performed using bulk optoelectronic modulators, however using high-speed electronics to drive low voltage integrated optical modulators has many practical advantages. In particular, we utilize microwave GaAs transistors to perform precision, 250 ps resolution temporal shaping. Optical bandwidth is generated using a microwave oscillator at 3 GHz amplified by a solid state amplifier. This drives an integrated electrooptic modulator to achieve laser bandwidths exceeding 30 GHz.

  14. Evaluation of new spin foam vertex amplitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khavkine, Igor

    2009-06-01

    The Christensen-Egan algorithm is extended and generalized to efficiently evaluate new spin foam vertex amplitudes proposed by Engle, Pereira and Rovelli and Freidel and Krasnov, with or without (factored) boundary states. A concrete pragmatic proposal is made for comparing the different models using uniform methodologies, applicable to the behavior of large spin asymptotics and of expectation values of specific semiclassical observables. The asymptotics of the new models exhibit non-oscillatory, power-law decay similar to that of the Barrett-Crane model, though with different exponents. Also, an analysis of the semiclassical wave packet propagation problem indicates that the Magliaro, Rovelli and Perini's conjecture of good semiclassical behavior of the new models does not hold for generic factored states, which neglect spin-spin correlations.

  15. Flutter of articulated pipes at finite amplitude

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rousselet, J.; Herrmann, G.

    1977-01-01

    The plane motion of an articulated pipe made of two segments is examined and the flow velocity at which flutter manifests itself is sought. The pressure in the reservoir feeding the pipe is kept constant. In contrast to previous works, the flow velocity is not taken as a prescribed parameter of the system but is left to follow the laws of motion. This approach requires a nonlinear formulation of the problem and the equations of motion are solved using Krylov-Bogoliubov's method. A graph of the amplitude of the limit cycles, as a function of the fluid-system mass ratio, is presented and conclusions are drawn as to the necessity of considering nonlinearities in the analysis.

  16. Amplitude Scaling of Active Separation Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stalnov, Oksana; Seifert, Avraham

    2010-01-01

    Three existing and two new excitation magnitude scaling options for active separation control at Reynolds numbers below one Million. The physical background for the scaling options was discussed and their relevance was evaluated using two different sets of experimental data. For F+ approx. 1, 2D excitation: a) The traditional VR and C(mu) - do not scale the data. b) Only the Re*C(mu) is valid. This conclusion is also limited for positive lift increment.. For F+ > 10, 3D excitation, the Re corrected C(mu), the St corrected velocity ratio and the vorticity flux coefficient, all scale the amplitudes equally well. Therefore, the Reynolds weighted C(mu) is the preferred choice, relevant to both excitation modes. Incidence also considered, using Ue from local Cp.

  17. Speech recognition with amplitude and frequency modulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Fan-Gang; Nie, Kaibao; Stickney, Ginger S.; Kong, Ying-Yee; Vongphoe, Michael; Bhargave, Ashish; Wei, Chaogang; Cao, Keli

    2005-02-01

    Amplitude modulation (AM) and frequency modulation (FM) are commonly used in communication, but their relative contributions to speech recognition have not been fully explored. To bridge this gap, we derived slowly varying AM and FM from speech sounds and conducted listening tests using stimuli with different modulations in normal-hearing and cochlear-implant subjects. We found that although AM from a limited number of spectral bands may be sufficient for speech recognition in quiet, FM significantly enhances speech recognition in noise, as well as speaker and tone recognition. Additional speech reception threshold measures revealed that FM is particularly critical for speech recognition with a competing voice and is independent of spectral resolution and similarity. These results suggest that AM and FM provide independent yet complementary contributions to support robust speech recognition under realistic listening situations. Encoding FM may improve auditory scene analysis, cochlear-implant, and audiocoding performance. auditory analysis | cochlear implant | neural code | phase | scene analysis

  18. Oscillation quenching mechanisms: Amplitude vs. oscillation death

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koseska, Aneta; Volkov, Evgeny; Kurths, Jürgen

    2013-10-01

    Oscillation quenching constitutes a fundamental emergent phenomenon in systems of coupled nonlinear oscillators. Its importance for various natural and man-made systems, ranging from climate, lasers, chemistry and a wide range of biological oscillators can be projected from two main aspects: (i) suppression of oscillations as a regulator of certain pathological cases and (ii) a general control mechanism for technical systems. We distinguish two structurally distinct oscillation quenching types: oscillation (OD) and amplitude death (AD) phenomena. In this review we aim to set clear boundaries between these two very different oscillation quenching manifestations and demonstrate the importance for their correct identification from the aspect of theory as well as of applications. Moreover, we pay special attention to the physiological interpretation of OD and AD in a large class of biological systems, further underlying their different properties. Several open issues and challenges that await further resolving are also highlighted.

  19. Evaluating the potential for quantitative monitoring of in situ chemical oxidation of aqueous-phase TCE using in-phase and quadrature electrical conductivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hort, R. D.; Revil, A.; Munakata-Marr, J.; Mao, D.

    2015-07-01

    Electrical resistivity measurements can potentially be used to remotely monitor fate and transport of ionic oxidants such as permanganate (MnO4-) during in situ chemical oxidation (ISCO) of contaminants like trichloroethene (TCE). Time-lapse two-dimensional bulk conductivity and induced polarization surveys conducted during a sand tank ISCO simulation demonstrated that MnO4- plume movement could be monitored in a qualitative manner using bulk conductivity tomograms, although chargeability was below sensitivity limits. We also examined changes to in-phase and quadrature electrical conductivity resulting from ion injection, MnO2 and Cl- production, and pH change during TCE and humate oxidation by MnO4- in homogeneous aqueous solutions and saturated porous media samples. Data from the homogeneous samples demonstrated that inversion of the sand tank resistivity data using a common Tikhonov regularization approach was insufficient to recover an accurate conductivity distribution within the tank. While changes to in-phase conductivity could be successfully modeled, quadrature conductivity values could not be directly related to TCE oxidation product or MnO4- concentrations at frequencies consistent with field induced polarization surveys, limiting the utility of quadrature conductivity for monitoring ISCO.

  20. Generation and transmission of 8 × 112-Gb/s WDM PDM-16QAM on a 25-GHz grid with simplified heterodyne detection.

    PubMed

    Dong, Ze; Li, Xinying; Yu, Jianguo; Yu, Jianjun

    2013-01-28

    We propose and experimentally demonstrate a coherent receiver based on simplified heterodyne detection for 100 G polarization division multiplexing (PDM) signal. Compared to the conventional homodyne detection, only two balanced photo detectors (PDs) and two analog-to-digital converters (ADCs) are used in the simplified heterodyne detection. Compared to the conventional hybrid for homodyne detection, the polarization-diversity hybrid here is also simplified. The in-phase/quadrature (I/Q) separation and corresponding digital signal processing (DSP) following downconversion are realized in digital domain after ADCs. Using this scheme, we successfully demonstrated 8 × 112-Gb/s wavelength-division-multiplexing (WDM) polarization-division-multiplexing 16-ary quadrature amplitude modulation (PDM-16QAM) over 720-km single-mode fiber (SMF)-28 with heterodyne detection based on DSP and erbium-doped fiber amplifier (EDFA)-only amplification. Although the required analog bandwidth and sampling speed of the PDs and ADCs are significantly increased for heterodyne detection, the benefits from the simplified coherent receiver architecture and effective DSP in digital frequency domain are experimentally demonstrated. PMID:23389161

  1. A simple three-stage carrier phase estimation algorithm for 16-QAM systems based on QPSK partitioning and maximum likelihood detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yin; Huang, Xuguang

    2015-05-01

    This paper proposes a simple three-stage carrier phase estimation (CPE) algorithm for 16-ary quadrature amplitude modulation (16-QAM) optical coherent systems, based on a simplified quadrature phase shift keying partition (QPSK-partitioning) scheme for the first stage and the maximum likelihood (ML) detection for the second and the third stage. Only 25% of the symbols of 16-QAM systems are employed for the first stage phase estimation, while only 50% are used for the second stage phase estimation. Therefore, the computational complexity of the proposed three-stage CPE algorithm for 16-QAM systems is similar to that of the QPSK-partitioning+ML algorithm. The performance of two different ML detections is compared and the simulation results show that the "constellation-assisted" ML detection can achieve better linewidth tolerance performance than the "conventional" ML detection for 16-QAM systems. A combined linewidth symbol duration product of 1 ×10-4 is tolerable for a signal noise ratio (SNR) sensitivity penalty of 0.8 dB at a BER of 1 ×10-3 , based on the block averaging instead of the sliding window averaging. A good bit error rate (BER) performance for the proposed three-stage CPE algorithm is achieved especially at high SNR levels in the simulation. The performance of the proposed three-stage CPE algorithm is similar to that of the BPS algorithm with 22 test phase angles, but with reducing the computational complexity by a factor of about 5.3.

  2. Advances in coherent optical modems and 16-QAM transmission with feedforward carrier recovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noé, Reinhold; Hoffmann, Sebastian; Wördehoff, Christian; Al-Bermani, Ali; El-Darawy, Mohamed

    2011-01-01

    Polarization multiplexing and quadrature phase shift keying (QPSK) both double spectral efficiency. Combined with synchronous coherent polarization diverse intradyne receivers this modulation format is ultra-robust and cost-efficient. A feedforward carrier recovery is required in order to tolerate phase noise of normal DFB lasers. Signal processing in the digital domain permits compensation of at least chromatic and polarization mode dispersion. Some companies have products on the market, others are working on them. For 100 GbE transmission, 50 GHz channel spacing is sufficient. 16ary quadrature amplitude modulation (16-QAM) is attractive to double capacity once more, possibly in a modulation format flexible transponder which is switched down to QPSK only if system margin is too low. For 16-QAM the phase noise problem is sharply increased. However, also here a feedforward carrier recovery has been implemented. A number of carrier phase angles is tested in parallel, and the recovered data is selected for that phase angle where squared distance of recovered data to the nearest constellation point, averaged over a number of symbols, is minimum. An intradyne/selfhomodyne synchronous coherent 16-QAM experiment (2.5 Gb/s, 81 km) is presented.

  3. Localized finite-amplitude disturbances and selection of solitary waves

    PubMed

    Kliakhandler; Porubov; Velarde

    2000-10-01

    It turns out that evolution of localized finite-amplitude disturbances in perturbed KdV equation is qualitatively different compared with conventional small-amplitude initial conditions. Namely, relatively fast solitary waves, with one and the same amplitude and velocity, are formed ahead of conventional chaotic-like irregular structures. The amplitude and velocity of the waves, obtained from the asymptotic theory, are in excellent agreement with numerics. PMID:11089043

  4. Feed-forward digital phase and amplitude correction system

    DOEpatents

    Yu, D.U.L.; Conway, P.H.

    1994-11-15

    Phase and amplitude modifications in repeatable RF pulses at the output of a high power pulsed microwave amplifier are made utilizing a digital feed-forward correction system. A controlled amount of the output power is coupled to a correction system for processing of phase and amplitude information. The correction system comprises circuitry to compare the detected phase and amplitude with the desired phase and amplitude, respectively, and a digitally programmable phase shifter and attenuator and digital logic circuitry to control the phase shifter and attenuator. The phase and amplitude of subsequent are modified by output signals from the correction system. 11 figs.

  5. Feed-forward digital phase and amplitude correction system

    DOEpatents

    Yu, David U. L.; Conway, Patrick H.

    1994-01-01

    Phase and amplitude modifications in repeatable RF pulses at the output of a high power pulsed microwave amplifier are made utilizing a digital feed-forward correction system. A controlled amount of the output power is coupled to a correction system for processing of phase and amplitude information. The correction system comprises circuitry to compare the detected phase and amplitude with the desired phase and amplitude, respectively, and a digitally programmable phase shifter and attenuator and digital logic circuitry to control the phase shifter and attenuator. The Phase and amplitude of subsequent are modified by output signals from the correction system.

  6. Leading Wave Amplitude of a Tsunami

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanoglu, U.

    2015-12-01

    Okal and Synolakis (EGU General Assembly 2015, Geophysical Research Abstracts-Vol. 17-7622) recently discussed that why the maximum amplitude of a tsunami might not occur for the first wave. Okal and Synolakis list observations from 2011 Japan tsunami, which reached to Papeete, Tahiti with a fourth wave being largest and 72 min later after the first wave; 1960 Chilean tsunami reached Hilo, Hawaii with a maximum wave arriving 1 hour later with a height of 5m, first wave being only 1.2m. Largest later waves is a problem not only for local authorities both in terms of warning to the public and rescue efforts but also mislead the public thinking that it is safe to return shoreline or evacuated site after arrival of the first wave. Okal and Synolakis considered Hammack's (1972, Ph.D. Dissertation, Calif. Inst. Tech., 261 pp., Pasadena) linear dispersive analytical solution with a tsunami generation through an uplifting of a circular plug on the ocean floor. They performed parametric study for the radius of the plug and the depth of the ocean since these are the independent scaling lengths in the problem. They identified transition distance, as the second wave being larger, regarding the parameters of the problem. Here, we extend their analysis to an initial wave field with a finite crest length and, in addition, to a most common tsunami initial wave form of N-wave as presented by Tadepalli and Synolakis (1994, Proc. R. Soc. A: Math. Phys. Eng. Sci., 445, 99-112). We compare our results with non-dispersive linear shallow water wave results as presented by Kanoglu et al. (2013, Proc. R. Soc. A: Math. Phys. Eng. Sci., 469, 20130015), investigating focusing feature. We discuss the results both in terms of leading wave amplitude and tsunami focusing. Acknowledgment: The research leading to these results has received funding from the European Union's Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013) under grant agreement no 603839 (Project ASTARTE - Assessment, Strategy and Risk

  7. A new polarisation amplitude bias reduction method.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vidal, M.; Leahy, J. P.; Dickinson, C.

    2016-06-01

    Polarisation amplitude estimation is affected by a positive noise bias, particularly important in regions with low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). We present a new approach to correct for this bias in the case there is additional information about the polarisation angle. We develop the `known-angle estimator' that works in the special case when there is an independent and high signal-to-noise ratio (≳ 2σ) measurement of the polarisation angle. It is derived for the general case where the uncertainties in the Q, U Stokes parameters are not symmetric. This estimator completely corrects for the polarisation bias if the polarisation angle is perfectly known. In the realistic case, where the angle template has uncertainties, a small residual bias remains, but that is shown to be much smaller that the one left by other classical estimators. We also test our method with more realistic data, using the noise properties of the three lower frequency maps of WMAP. In this case, the known-angle estimator also produces better results than methods that do not include the angle information. This estimator is therefore useful in the case where the polarisation angle is expected to be constant over different data sets with different SNR.

  8. Automated phase/amplitude EHF measurement system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Potts, B. M.

    1981-05-01

    An automated, computer-controlled measurement system capable of conducting transmission and reflection measurements on components over the 40 to 47 GHz frequency range is described. The measurement system utilizes harmonic mixing in conjunction with a phase locked, dual channel receiver to downconvert signals in the 7 GHz bandwidth to a lower intermediate frequency (1 KHz) where phase and amplitude measurements are made. The system is capable of operating over a dynamic range in excess of 50 dB when used with an EHF source producing a minimum -10 dBm output. Following a description of the system and its operation, some performance characteristics are presented. The measurement system accuracy is demonstrated using two types of reference standards: (1) a rotary vane attenuator for the transmission measurements, and (2) a set of reduced-height waveguide VSWR standards for the return loss measurements. Results obtained using these standards have indicated that measurement accuracies of 0.25 dB and 3 deg are achievable over a 50 dB dynamic range.

  9. A generalized fidelity amplitude for open systems.

    PubMed

    Gorin, T; Moreno, H J; Seligman, T H

    2016-06-13

    We consider a central system which is coupled via dephasing to an open system, i.e. an intermediate system which in turn is coupled to another environment. Considering the intermediate and far environment as one composite system, the coherences in the central system are given in the form of fidelity amplitudes for a certain perturbed echo dynamics in the composite environment. On the basis of the Born-Markov approximation, we derive a master equation for the reduction of that dynamics to the intermediate system alone. In distinction to an earlier paper (Moreno et al 2015 Phys. Rev. A 92, 030104. (doi:10.1103/PhysRevA.92.030104)), where we discussed the stabilizing effect of the far environment on the decoherence in the central system, we focus here on the possibility of using the measurable coherences in the central system for probing the open quantum dynamics in the intermediate system. We illustrate our results for the case of chaotic dynamics in the near environment, where we compare random matrix simulations with our analytical result. PMID:27140969

  10. Sensitivity to changes in amplitude envelope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallun, Erick; Hafter, Ervin R.; Bonnel, Anne-Marie

    2002-05-01

    Detection of a brief increment in a tonal pedestal is less well predicted by energy-detection (e.g., Macmillan, 1973; Bonnel and Hafter, 1997) than by sensitivity to changes in the stimulus envelope. As this implies a mechanism similar to an envelope extractor (Viemeister, 1979), sinusoidal amplitude modulation was used to mask a single ramped increment (10, 45, or 70 ms) added to a 1000-ms pedestal with carrier frequency (cf)=477 Hz. As in informational masking (Neff, 1994) and ``modulation-detection interference'' (Yost and Sheft, 1989), interference occurred with masker cfs of 477 and 2013 Hz. While slight masking was found with modulation frequencies (mfs) from 16 to 96 Hz, masking grew inversely with still lower mfs, being greatest for mf=4 Hz. This division is reminiscent of that said to separate sensations of ``roughness'' and ``beats,'' respectively (Terhardt, 1974), with the latter also being related to durations associated with auditory groupings in music and speech. Importantly, this result held for all of the signal durations and onset-offset ramps tested, suggesting that an increment on a pedestal is treated as a single auditory object whose detection is most difficult in the presence of other objects (in this case, ``beats'').

  11. The pulsed amplitude unit for the SLC

    SciTech Connect

    Rolfe, J.; Browne, M.J.; Jobe, R.K.

    1987-02-01

    There is a recurring requirement in the SLC for the control of devices such as magnets, phase shifters, and attenuators on a beam-by-beam basis. The Pulsed Amplitude Unit (PAU) is a single width CAMAC module developed for this purpose. It provides digitally programmed analog output voltages on a beam-by-beam basis. Up to 32 preprogrammed values of output voltage are available from the single analog output of the module, and any of these values can be associated with any of the 256 possible SLC beam definitions. A 12-bit Analog-to-Digital Converter (ADC) digitizes an analog input signal at the appropriate beam time and stores it in a buffer memory. This feature is normally used to monitor the response of the device being controlled by the PAU at each beam time. Initial application of the PAU is a part of the system that controls the output of Klystrons in the SLC. The PAU combines several different functions in a single module. In order to accommodate these functions in a single width CAMAC module, field programmed logic is used extensively. Field Programmable Logic Arrays, Programmed Array Logic, and a Field Programmable Logic Sequencer are employed.

  12. A new polarization amplitude bias reduction method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vidal, Matias; Leahy, J. P.; Dickinson, C.

    2016-09-01

    Polarization amplitude estimation is affected by a positive noise bias, particularly important in regions with low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). We present a new approach to correct for this bias in the case there is additional information about the polarization angle. We develop the `known-angle estimator' that works in the special case when there is an independent and high SNR (≳ 2σ) measurement of the polarization angle. It is derived for the general case where the uncertainties in the Q, U Stokes parameters are not symmetric. This estimator completely corrects for the polarization bias if the polarization angle is perfectly known. In the realistic case, where the angle template has uncertainties, a small residual bias remains, but that is shown to be much smaller that the one left by other classical estimators. We also test our method with more realistic data, using the noise properties of the three lower frequency maps of Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe. In this case, the known-angle estimator also produces better results than methods that do not include the angle information. This estimator is therefore useful in the case where the polarization angle is expected to be constant over different data sets with different SNR.

  13. New Fermionic Soft Theorems for Supergravity Amplitudes.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei-Ming; Huang, Yu-Tin; Wen, Congkao

    2015-07-10

    Soft limits of a massless S matrix are known to reflect the symmetries of the theory. In particular, for theories with Goldstone bosons, the double-soft limit of scalars reveals the coset structure of the vacuum manifold. In this Letter, we propose that such universal double-soft behavior is not only true for scalars, but also for spin-1/2 particles in four dimensions and fermions in three dimensions. We first consider the Akulov-Volkov theory and demonstrate that the double-soft limit of Goldstinos yields the supersymmetry algebra. More surprisingly, we also find that amplitudes in 4≤N≤8 supergravity theories in four dimensions as well as N=16 supergravity in three dimensions behave universally in the double-soft-fermion limit, analogous to the scalar ones. The validity of the new soft theorems at loop level is also studied. The results for supergravity are beyond what is implied by supersymmetry Ward identities and may impose nontrivial constraints on the possible counterterms for supergravity theories. PMID:26207460

  14. 2-D differential quadrature solution for vibration analysis of functionally graded conical, cylindrical shell and annular plate structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tornabene, Francesco; Viola, Erasmo; Inman, Daniel J.

    2009-12-01

    This paper focuses on the dynamic behavior of functionally graded conical, cylindrical shells and annular plates. The last two structures are obtained as special cases of the conical shell formulation. The first-order shear deformation theory (FSDT) is used to analyze the above moderately thick structural elements. The treatment is developed within the theory of linear elasticity, when materials are assumed to be isotropic and inhomogeneous through the thickness direction. The two-constituent functionally graded shell consists of ceramic and metal that are graded through the thickness, from one surface of the shell to the other. Two different power-law distributions are considered for the ceramic volume fraction. The homogeneous isotropic material is inferred as a special case of functionally graded materials (FGM). The governing equations of motion, expressed as functions of five kinematic parameters, are discretized by means of the generalized differential quadrature (GDQ) method. The discretization of the system leads to a standard linear eigenvalue problem, where two independent variables are involved without using the Fourier modal expansion methodology. For the homogeneous isotropic special case, numerical solutions are compared with the ones obtained using commercial programs such as Abaqus, Ansys, Nastran, Straus, Pro/Mechanica. Very good agreement is observed. Furthermore, the convergence rate of natural frequencies is shown to be very fast and the stability of the numerical methodology is very good. Different typologies of non-uniform grid point distributions are considered. Finally, for the functionally graded material case numerical results illustrate the influence of the power-law exponent and of the power-law distribution choice on the mechanical behavior of shell structures.

  15. QUADRATURE OBSERVATIONS OF WAVE AND NON-WAVE COMPONENTS AND THEIR DECOUPLING IN AN EXTREME-ULTRAVIOLET WAVE EVENT

    SciTech Connect

    Dai, Y.; Ding, M. D.; Chen, P. F.; Zhang, J.

    2012-11-01

    We report quadrature observations of an extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) wave event on 2011 January 27 obtained by the Extreme Ultraviolet Imager on board the Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory, and the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory. Two components are revealed in the EUV wave event. A primary front is launched with an initial speed of {approx}440 km s{sup -1}. It appears that significant emission enhancement occurs in the hotter channel while deep emission reduction occurs in the cooler channel. When the primary front encounters a large coronal loop system and slows down, a secondary, much fainter, front emanates from the primary front with a relatively higher starting speed of {approx}550 km s{sup -1}. Afterward, the two fronts propagate independently with increasing separation. The primary front finally stops at a magnetic separatrix, while the secondary front travels farther until it fades out. In addition, upon the arrival of the secondary front, transverse oscillations of a prominence are triggered. We suggest that the two components are of different natures. The primary front belongs to a non-wave coronal mass ejection (CME) component, which can be reasonably explained with the field-line stretching model. The multi-temperature behavior may be caused by considerable heating due to nonlinear adiabatic compression on the CME frontal loop. As for the secondary front, it is most likely a linear fast-mode magnetohydrodynamic wave that propagates through a medium of the typical coronal temperature. X-ray and radio data provide us with complementary evidence in support of the above scenario.

  16. PDM-16QAM vector signal generation and detection based on intensity modulation and direct detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Long; Yu, Jianjun; Li, Xinying

    2016-07-01

    We experimentally demonstrate a novel and simple method to generate and detect high speed polarization-division-multiplexing 16-ary quadrature-amplitude-modulation (PDM-16QAM) vector signal enabled by Mach-Zehnder modulator-based (MZM-based) optical-carrier-suppression (OCS) intensity modulation and direct detection. Due to the adoption of OCS intensity modulation, carrier beating can be avoided at the receiver, and thus polarization de-multiplexing can be implemented by digital-signal-processing-based (DSP-based) cascaded multi-modulus algorithm (CMMA) equalization instead of a polarization tracking system. The change of both amplitude and phase information due to the adoption of OCS modulation can be equalized by DSP-based amplitude and phase precoding at the transmitter. Up to 64-Gb/s PDM-16QAM vector signal is generated and detected after 2-km single-mode fiber-28 (SMF-28) or 20-km large-effective-area fiber (LEAF) transmission with a bit-error-ratio (BER) less than the hard-decision forward-error-correction (HD-FEC) threshold of 3.8×10-3.

  17. Image measurement technique on vibration amplitude of ultrasonic horn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yong-bin; Wu, Zhi-qun; Zhu, Jian-ping; He, Jian-guo; Liu, Guang-min

    2013-10-01

    The paper proposes a method to measure vibration amplitude of ultrasonic horn which is a very important component in the spindle for micro-electrical-chemical discharging machining. The method of image measuring amplitude on high frequency vibration is introduced. Non-contact measurement system based on vision technology is constructed. High precision location algorithm on image centroid, quadratic location algorithm, is presented to find the center of little light spot. Measurement experiments have been done to show the effect of image measurement technique on vibration amplitude of ultrasonic horn. In the experiments, precise calibration of the vision system is implemented using a normal graticule to obtain the scale factor between image pixel and real distance. The vibration amplitude of ultrasonic horn is changed by modifying the voltage amplitude of pulse power supply. The image of feature on ultrasonic horn is captured and image processing is carried out. The vibration amplitudes are got at different voltages.

  18. N >= 4 Supergravity Amplitudes from Gauge Theory at One Loop

    SciTech Connect

    Bern, Z.; Boucher-Veronneau, C.; Johansson, H.; /Saclay

    2011-08-19

    We expose simple and practical relations between the integrated four- and five-point one-loop amplitudes of N {ge} 4 supergravity and the corresponding (super-)Yang-Mills amplitudes. The link between the amplitudes is simply understood using the recently uncovered duality between color and kinematics that leads to a double-copy structure for gravity. These examples provide additional direct confirmations of the duality and double-copy properties at loop level for a sample of different theories.

  19. Amplitudes and Ultraviolet Behavior of N = 8 Supergravity

    SciTech Connect

    Bern, Zvi; Carrasco, John Joseph; Dixon, Lance J.; Johansson, Henrik; Roiban, Radu; /Penn State U.

    2011-05-20

    In this contribution we describe computational tools that permit the evaluation of multi-loop scattering amplitudes in N = 8 supergravity, in terms of amplitudes in N = 4 super-Yang-Mills theory. We also discuss the remarkable ultraviolet behavior of N = 8 supergravity, which follows from these amplitudes, and is as good as that of N = 4 super-Yang-Mills theory through at least four loops.

  20. Topological field theory amplitudes for A N-1 fibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iqbal, Amer; Khan, Ahsan Z.; Qureshi, Babar A.; Shabbir, Khurram; Shehper, Muhammad A.

    2015-12-01

    We study the partition function N=1 5D U( N) gauge theory with g adjoint hypermultiplets and show that for massless adjoint hypermultiplets it is equal to the partition function of a two dimensional topological field on a genus g Riemann surface. We describe the topological field theory by its amplitudes associated with cap, propagator and pair of pants. These basic amplitudes are open topological string amplitudes associated with certain Calabi-Yau threefolds in the presence of Lagrangian branes.

  1. Transition to amplitude death in scale-free networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Weiqing; Wang, Xingang; Guan, Shuguang; Lai, Choy-Heng

    2009-09-01

    Transition to amplitude death in scale-free networks of nonlinear oscillators is investigated both numerically and analytically. It is found that, as the coupling strength increases, the network will undergo three different stages in approaching the state of complete amplitude death (CAD). In the first stage of the transition, the amplitudes of the oscillators present a 'stair-like' arrangement, i.e. the squared amplitude of an oscillator linearly decreases with the number of links that the oscillator receives (node degree). In this stage, as the coupling strength increases, the amplitude stairs are eliminated hierarchically by descending order of the node degree. At the end of the first stage, except for a few synchronized oscillators, all other oscillators in the network have small amplitudes. Then, in the second stage of the transition, the synchronous clusters formed in the first stage gradually disappear and, as a consequence, the number of small-amplitude oscillators is increased. At the end of the second stage, almost all oscillators in the network have small but finite amplitudes. Finally, in the third stage of the transition, without the support of the synchronous clusters, the amplitudes of the oscillators are quickly decreased, eventually leading to the state of CAD.

  2. Tree-level amplitudes in the nonlinear sigma model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kampf, Karol; Novotný, Jirí; Trnka, Jaroslav

    2013-05-01

    We study in detail the general structure and further properties of the tree-level amplitudes in the SU( N) nonlinear sigma model. We construct the flavor-ordered Feynman rules for various parameterizations of the SU( N) fields U ( x), write down the Berends-Giele relations for the semi-on-shell currents and discuss their efficiency for the amplitude calculation in comparison with those of renormalizable theories. We also present an explicit form of the partial amplitudes up to ten external particles. It is well known that the standard BCFW recursive relations cannot be used for reconstruction of the the on-shell amplitudes of effective theories like the SU( N) nonlinear sigma model because of the inappropriate behavior of the deformed on-shell amplitudes at infinity. We discuss possible generalization of the BCFW approach introducing "BCFW formula with subtractions" and with help of Berends-Giele relations we prove particular scaling properties of the semi-on-shell amplitudes of the SU( N) nonlinear sigma model under specific shifts of the external momenta. These results allow us to define alternative deformation of the semi-on-shell amplitudes and derive BCFW-like recursion relations. These provide a systematic and effective tool for calculation of Goldstone bosons scattering amplitudes and it also shows the possible applicability of on-shell methods to effective field theories. We also use these BCFW-like relations for the investigation of the Adler zeroes and double soft limit of the semi-on-shell amplitudes.

  3. Recurrence relations of Kummer functions and Regge string scattering amplitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jen-Chi; Mitsuka, Yoshihiro

    2013-04-01

    We discover an infinite number of recurrence relations among Regge string scattering amplitudes [11, 30] of different string states at arbitrary mass levels in the open bosonic string theory. As a result, all Regge string scattering amplitudes can be algebraically solved up to multiplicative factors. Instead of decoupling zero-norm states in the fixed angle regime, the calculation is based on recurrence relations and addition theorem of Kummer functions of the second kind. These recurrence relations among Regge string scattering amplitudes are dual to linear relations or symmetries among high-energy fixed angle string scattering amplitudes discovered previously.

  4. Achieving Seventh-Order Amplitude Accuracy in Leapfrog Integrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, P. D.

    2014-12-01

    The leapfrog time-stepping scheme is commonly used in general circulation models of the atmosphere and ocean. The Robert-Asselin filter is used in conjunction with it, to damp the computational mode. Although the leapfrog scheme makes no amplitude errors when integrating linear oscillations, the Robert-Asselin filter introduces first-order amplitude errors. The RAW filter, which was recently proposed as an improvement, eliminates the first-order amplitude errors and yields third-order amplitude accuracy. This development has been shown to significantly increase the skill of medium-range weather forecasts. However, it has not previously been shown how to further improve the accuracy by eliminating the third- and higher-order amplitude errors. This presentation will show that leapfrogging over a suitably weighted blend of the filtered and unfiltered tendencies eliminates the third-order amplitude errors and yields fifth-order amplitude accuracy. It will also show that the use of a more discriminating (1, -4, 6, -4, 1) filter instead of a (1, -2, 1) filter eliminates the fifth-order amplitude errors and yields seventh-order amplitude accuracy. Other related schemes are obtained by varying the values of the filter parameters, and it is found that several combinations offer an appealing compromise of stability and accuracy. The proposed new schemes are shown to yield substantial forecast improvements in a medium-complexity atmospheric general circulation model. They appear to be attractive alternatives to the filtered leapfrog schemes currently used in many weather and climate models.

  5. Amplitude and phase noise of magnetic tunnel junction oscillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quinsat, M.; Gusakova, D.; Sierra, J. F.; Michel, J. P.; Houssameddine, D.; Delaet, B.; Cyrille, M.-C.; Ebels, U.; Dieny, B.; Buda-Prejbeanu, L. D.; Katine, J. A.; Mauri, D.; Zeltser, A.; Prigent, M.; Nallatamby, J.-C.; Sommet, R.

    2010-11-01

    The microwave emission linewidth of spin transfer torque nano-oscillators is closely related to their phase and amplitude noise that can be extracted from the magnetoresistive voltage signal V(t ) using single shot time domain techniques. Here we report on phase and amplitude noise studies for MgO based magnetic tunnel junction oscillators. The analysis of the power spectral densities allows one to separate the linear and nonlinear contributions to the phase noise, the nonlinear contribution being due to the coupling between phase and amplitude. The coupling strength as well as the amplitude relaxation rate can be directly extracted.

  6. Truncated Painleve expansion: Tanh-traveling wave solutions and reduction of sine-Poisson equation to a quadrature for stationary and nonstationary three-dimensional collisionless cold plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Ibrahim, R. S.; El-Kalaawy, O. H.

    2006-10-15

    The relativistic nonlinear self-consistent equations for a collisionless cold plasma with stationary ions [R. S. Ibrahim, IMA J. Appl. Math. 68, 523 (2003)] are extended to 3 and 3+1 dimensions. The resulting system of equations is reduced to the sine-Poisson equation. The truncated Painleve expansion and reduction of the partial differential equation to a quadrature problem (RQ method) are described and applied to obtain the traveling wave solutions of the sine-Poisson equation for stationary and nonstationary equations in 3 and 3+1 dimensions describing the charge-density equilibrium configuration model.

  7. Demonstration of high-speed quadrature phase shift keying vector signal generation employing a single Mach-Zehnder modulator with phase precoding technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yanyi; Li, Xinying; Yu, Jianjun

    2016-01-01

    We numerically and experimentally investigate high-speed quadrature phase shift keying (QPSK) vector signal generation based on a single Mach-Zehnder intensity modulator employing a precoding technique. We experimentally demonstrate 16-Gbaud QPSK vector signal generation at 16-GHz carrier adopting optical carrier suppression with precoding technique, and it is the highest baud rate generated by this technology. The 16-Gbaud QPSK modulated vector signal is delivered over a 20-km large effective area fiber or 2-km single-mode fiber with a bit-error-rate less than the hard-decision forward-error-correction threshold of 3.8×10-3.

  8. Source-Space Cross-Frequency Amplitude-Amplitude Coupling in Tinnitus

    PubMed Central

    Zobay, Oliver; Adjamian, Peyman

    2015-01-01

    The thalamocortical dysrhythmia (TCD) model has been influential in the development of theoretical explanations for the neurological mechanisms of tinnitus. It asserts that thalamocortical oscillations lock a region in the auditory cortex into an ectopic slow-wave theta rhythm (4–8 Hz). The cortical area surrounding this region is hypothesized to generate abnormal gamma (>30 Hz) oscillations (“edge effect”) giving rise to the tinnitus percept. Consequently, the model predicts enhanced cross-frequency coherence in a broad range between theta and gamma. In this magnetoencephalography study involving tinnitus and control cohorts, we investigated this prediction. Using beamforming, cross-frequency amplitude-amplitude coupling (AAC) was computed within the auditory cortices for frequencies (f1, f2) between 2 and 80 Hz. We find the AAC signal to decompose into two distinct components at low (f1, f2 < 30 Hz) and high (f1, f2 > 30 Hz) frequencies, respectively. Studying the correlation of AAC with several key covariates (age, hearing level (HL), tinnitus handicap and duration, and HL at tinnitus frequency), we observe a statistically significant association between age and low-frequency AAC. Contrary to the TCD predictions, however, we do not find any indication of statistical differences in AAC between tinnitus and controls and thus no evidence for the predicted enhancement of cross-frequency coupling in tinnitus. PMID:26665004

  9. Scattering amplitudes in gauge theories: progress and outlook Scattering amplitudes in gauge theories: progress and outlook

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roiban, Radu; Spradlin, Marcus; Volovich, Anastasia

    2011-11-01

    This issue aims to serve as an introduction to our current understanding of the structure of scattering amplitudes in gauge theory, an area which has seen particularly rapid advances in recent years following decades of steady progress. The articles contained herein provide a snapshot of the latest developments which we hope will serve as a valuable resource for graduate students and other scientists wishing to learn about the current state of the field, even if our continually evolving understanding of the subject might soon render this compilation incomplete. Why the fascination with scattering amplitudes, which have attracted the imagination and dedicated effort of so many physicists? Part of it stems from the belief, supported now by numerous examples, that unexpected simplifications of otherwise apparently complicated calculations do not happen by accident. Instead they provide a strong motivation to seek out an underlying explanation. The insight thereby gained can subsequently be used to make the next class of seemingly impossible calculations not only possible, but in some cases even trivial. This two-pronged strategy of exploring and exploiting the structure of gauge theory amplitudes appeals to a wide audience from formal theorists interested in mathematical structure for the sake of its own beauty to more phenomenologically-minded physicists eager to speed up the next generation of analysis software. Understandably it is the maximally supersymmetric 𝒩 = 4 Yang-Mills theory (SYM) which has the simplest structure and has correspondingly received the most attention. Rarely in theoretical physics are we fortunate enough to encounter a toy model which is simple enough to be solved completely yet rich enough to possess interesting non-trivial structure while simultaneously, and most importantly, being applicable (even if only as a good approximation) to a wide range of 'real' systems. The canonical example in quantum mechanics is of course the harmonic

  10. New vibration-rotation code for tetraatomic molecules exhibiting wide-amplitude motion: WAVR4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozin, Igor N.; Law, Mark M.; Tennyson, Jonathan; Hutson, Jeremy M.

    2004-11-01

    A general computational method for the accurate calculation of rotationally and vibrationally excited states of tetraatomic molecules is developed. The resulting program is particularly appropriate for molecules executing wide-amplitude motions and isomerizations. The program offers a choice of coordinate systems based on Radau, Jacobi, diatom-diatom and orthogonal satellite vectors. The method includes all six vibrational dimensions plus three rotational dimensions. Vibration-rotation calculations with reduced dimensionality in the radial degrees of freedom are easily tackled via constraints imposed on the radial coordinates via the input file. Program summaryTitle of program: WAVR4 Catalogue number: ADUN Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/ADUN Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University of Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Persons requesting the program must sign the standard CPC nonprofit use license Computer: Developed under Tru64 UNIX, ported to Microsoft Windows and Sun Unix Operating systems under which the program has been tested: Tru64 Unix, Microsoft Windows, Sun Unix Programming language used: Fortran 90 Memory required to execute with typical data: case dependent No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 11 937 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 84 770 Distribution format: tar.gz Nature of physical problem: WAVR4 calculates the bound ro-vibrational levels and wavefunctions of a tetraatomic system using body-fixed coordinates based on generalised orthogonal vectors. Method of solution: The angular coordinates are treated using a finite basis representation (FBR) based on products of spherical harmonics. A discrete variable representation (DVR) [1] based on either Morse-oscillator-like or spherical-oscillator functions [2] is used for the radial coordinates. Matrix elements are computed using an efficient Gaussian quadrature in the angular coordinates and

  11. Automated force controller for amplitude modulation atomic force microscopy.

    PubMed

    Miyagi, Atsushi; Scheuring, Simon

    2016-05-01

    Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) is widely used in physics, chemistry, and biology to analyze the topography of a sample at nanometer resolution. Controlling precisely the force applied by the AFM tip to the sample is a prerequisite for faithful and reproducible imaging. In amplitude modulation (oscillating) mode AFM, the applied force depends on the free and the setpoint amplitudes of the cantilever oscillation. Therefore, for keeping the applied force constant, not only the setpoint amplitude but also the free amplitude must be kept constant. While the AFM user defines the setpoint amplitude, the free amplitude is typically subject to uncontrollable drift, and hence, unfortunately, the real applied force is permanently drifting during an experiment. This is particularly harmful in biological sciences where increased force destroys the soft biological matter. Here, we have developed a strategy and an electronic circuit that analyzes permanently the free amplitude of oscillation and readjusts the excitation to maintain the free amplitude constant. As a consequence, the real applied force is permanently and automatically controlled with picoNewton precision. With this circuit associated to a high-speed AFM, we illustrate the power of the development through imaging over long-duration and at various forces. The development is applicable for all AFMs and will widen the applicability of AFM to a larger range of samples and to a larger range of (non-specialist) users. Furthermore, from controlled force imaging experiments, the interaction strength between biomolecules can be analyzed. PMID:27250433

  12. Broadband metasurfaces with simultaneous control of phase and amplitude.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lixiang; Zhang, Xueqian; Kenney, Mitchell; Su, Xiaoqiang; Xu, Ningning; Ouyang, Chunmei; Shi, Yunlong; Han, Jiaguang; Zhang, Weili; Zhang, Shuang

    2014-08-01

    By combining the freedom of both the structural design and the orientation of split ring resonator antennas, we demonstrate terahertz metasurfaces that are capable of controlling both the phase and amplitude profiles over a very broad bandwidth. As an example, we show that the phase-amplitude metasurfaces can be engineered to control the diffraction orders arbitrarily. PMID:24863731

  13. Amplitudes in N = 4 Super-Yang-Mills Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spradlin, Marcus

    These lecture notes provide a lightning introduction to some aspects of scattering amplitudes in maximally supersymmetric theory, aimed at the audience of students attending the 2014 TASI summer school "Journeys Through the Precision Frontier: Amplitudes for Colliders". Emphasis is placed on explaining modern terminology so that students needing to delve further may more easily access the available literature.

  14. High Frequency Amplitude Detector for GMI Magnetic Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Asfour, Aktham; Zidi, Manel; Yonnet, Jean-Paul

    2014-01-01

    A new concept of a high-frequency amplitude detector and demodulator for Giant-Magneto-Impedance (GMI) sensors is presented. This concept combines a half wave rectifier, with outstanding capabilities and high speed, and a feedback approach that ensures the amplitude detection with easily adjustable gain. The developed detector is capable of measuring high-frequency and very low amplitude signals without the use of diode-based active rectifiers or analog multipliers. The performances of this detector are addressed throughout the paper. The full circuitry of the design is given, together with a comprehensive theoretical study of the concept and experimental validation. The detector has been used for the amplitude measurement of both single frequency and pulsed signals and for the demodulation of amplitude-modulated signals. It has also been successfully integrated in a GMI sensor prototype. Magnetic field and electrical current measurements in open- and closed-loop of this sensor have also been conducted. PMID:25536003

  15. Effective Field Theories from Soft Limits of Scattering Amplitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheung, Clifford; Kampf, Karol; Novotny, Jiri; Trnka, Jaroslav

    2015-06-01

    We derive scalar effective field theories—Lagrangians, symmetries, and all—from on-shell scattering amplitudes constructed purely from Lorentz invariance, factorization, a fixed power counting order in derivatives, and a fixed order at which amplitudes vanish in the soft limit. These constraints leave free parameters in the amplitude which are the coupling constants of well-known theories: Nambu-Goldstone bosons, Dirac-Born-Infeld scalars, and Galilean internal shift symmetries. Moreover, soft limits imply conditions on the Noether current which can then be inverted to derive Lagrangians for each theory. We propose a natural classification of all scalar effective field theories according to two numbers which encode the derivative power counting and soft behavior of the corresponding amplitudes. In those cases where there is no consistent amplitude, the corresponding theory does not exist.

  16. Nitinol Fatigue Life for Variable Strain Amplitude Fatigue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Z.; Pike, K.; Schlun, M.; Zipse, A.; Draper, J.

    2012-12-01

    Nitinol fatigue testing results are presented for variable strain amplitude cycling. The results indicate that cycles smaller than the constant amplitude fatigue limit may contribute to significant fatigue damage when they occur in a repeating sequence of large and small amplitude cycles. The testing utilized two specimen types: stent-like diamond specimens and Z-shaped wire specimens. The diamond specimens were made from nitinol tubing with stent-like manufacturing processes and the Z-shaped wire specimens were made from heat set nitinol wire. The study explored the hypothesis that duty cycling can have an effect on nitinol fatigue life. Stent-like structures were subjected to different in vivo loadings in order to create more complex strain amplitudes. The main focus in this study was to determine whether a combination of small and large amplitudes causes additional damage that alters the fatigue life of a component.

  17. Amplitude transitions of swimmers and flexors in viscoelastic fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guy, Robert; Thomases, Becca

    2015-11-01

    In both theoretical and experimental studies of the effect of fluid elasticity on micro-organism swimming, very different behavior has been observed for small and large amplitude strokes. We present simulations of an undulatory swimmer in an Oldroyd-B fluid and show that the resulting viscoelastic stresses are a nonlinear function of the amplitude. Specifically, there appears to be an amplitude dependent transition that is key to obtaining a speed-up over the Newtonian swimming speed. To understand the physical mechanism of the transition, we examine the stresses in a time-symmetric oscillatory bending beam, or flexor. We compare the flow in a neighborhood of the flexor tips with a large-amplitude oscillatory extensional flow, and we see similar amplitude dependent transitions. We relate these transitions to observed speed-ups in viscoelastic swimmers.

  18. Renormalization of massless Feynman amplitudes in configuration space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikolov, Nikolay M.; Stora, Raymond; Todorov, Ivan

    2014-05-01

    A systematic study of recursive renormalization of Feynman amplitudes is carried out both in Euclidean and in Minkowski configuration spaces. For a massless quantum field theory (QFT), we use the technique of extending associate homogeneous distributions to complete the renormalization recursion. A homogeneous (Poincaré covariant) amplitude is said to be convergent if it admits a (unique covariant) extension as a homogeneous distribution. For any amplitude without subdivergences — i.e. for a Feynman distribution that is homogeneous off the full (small) diagonal — we define a renormalization invariant residue. Its vanishing is a necessary and sufficient condition for the convergence of such an amplitude. It extends to arbitrary — not necessarily primitively divergent — Feynman amplitudes. This notion of convergence is finer than the usual power counting criterion and includes cancellation of divergences.

  19. Effective Field Theories from Soft Limits of Scattering Amplitudes.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Clifford; Kampf, Karol; Novotny, Jiri; Trnka, Jaroslav

    2015-06-01

    We derive scalar effective field theories-Lagrangians, symmetries, and all-from on-shell scattering amplitudes constructed purely from Lorentz invariance, factorization, a fixed power counting order in derivatives, and a fixed order at which amplitudes vanish in the soft limit. These constraints leave free parameters in the amplitude which are the coupling constants of well-known theories: Nambu-Goldstone bosons, Dirac-Born-Infeld scalars, and Galilean internal shift symmetries. Moreover, soft limits imply conditions on the Noether current which can then be inverted to derive Lagrangians for each theory. We propose a natural classification of all scalar effective field theories according to two numbers which encode the derivative power counting and soft behavior of the corresponding amplitudes. In those cases where there is no consistent amplitude, the corresponding theory does not exist. PMID:26196613

  20. Simplicity in the structure of QED and gravity amplitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badger, Simon; Bjerrum-Bohr, N. E. J.; Vanhove, Pierre

    2009-02-01

    We investigate generic properties of one-loop amplitudes in unordered gauge theories in four dimensions. For such theories the organisation of amplitudes in manifestly crossing symmetric expressions poses restrictions on their structure and results in remarkable cancellations. We show that one-loop multi-photon amplitudes in QED with at least eight external photons are given only by scalar box integral functions. This QED `no-triangle' property is true for all helicity configurations and has similarities to the `no-triangle' property found in the case of maximal Script N = 8 supergravity. Results are derived both via a world-line formalism as well as using on-shell unitarity methods. We show that the simple structure of the loop amplitude originates from the extremely good BCFW scaling behaviour of the QED tree-amplitude.

  1. Discontinuities of BFKL amplitudes and the BDS ansatz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fadin, V. S.; Fiore, R.

    2015-12-01

    We perform an examination of discontinuities of multiple production amplitudes, which are required for further development of the BFKL approach. It turns out that the discontinuities of 2 → 2 + n amplitudes obtained in the BFKL approach contradict to the BDS ansatz for amplitudes with maximal helicity violation in N = 4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory with large number of colors starting with n = 2. Explicit expressions for the discontinuities of the 2 → 3 and 2 → 4 amplitudes in the invariant mass of pairs of produced gluons are obtained in the planar N = 4 SYM in the next-to-leading logarithmic approximation. These expressions can be used for checking the conjectured duality between the light-like Wilson loops and the MHV amplitudes.

  2. Achieving seventh-order amplitude accuracy in leapfrog integrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Paul

    2015-04-01

    The leapfrog time-stepping scheme is commonly used in general circulation models of weather and climate. The Robert-Asselin filter is used in conjunction with it, to damp the computational mode. Although the leapfrog scheme makes no amplitude errors when integrating linear oscillations, the Robert-Asselin filter introduces first-order amplitude errors. The RAW filter, which was recently proposed as an improvement, eliminates the first-order amplitude errors and yields third-order amplitude accuracy. This development has been shown to significantly increase the skill of medium-range weather forecasts. However, it has not previously been shown how to further improve the accuracy by eliminating the third- and higher-order amplitude errors. This presentation will show that leapfrogging over a suitably weighted blend of the filtered and unfiltered tendencies eliminates the third-order amplitude errors and yields fifth-order amplitude accuracy. It will also show that the use of a more discriminating (1,-4,6,-4,1) filter instead of a (1,-2,1) filter eliminates the fifth-order amplitude errors and yields seventh-order amplitude accuracy. Other related schemes are obtained by varying the values of the filter parameters, and it is found that several combinations offer an appealing compromise of stability and accuracy. The proposed new schemes are shown to yield substantial forecast improvements in a medium-complexity atmospheric general circulation model. They appear to be attractive alternatives to the filtered leapfrog schemes currently used in many weather and climate models. Reference Williams PD (2013) Achieving seventh-order amplitude accuracy in leapfrog integrations. Monthly Weather Review 141(9), pp 3037-3051. DOI: 10.1175/MWR-D-12-00303.1

  3. Vibration of low amplitude imaged in amplitude and phase by sideband versus carrier correlation digital holography.

    PubMed

    Verrier, N; Alloul, L; Gross, M

    2015-02-01

    Sideband holography can be used to get field images (E0 and E1) of a vibrating object for both the carrier (E0) and the sideband (E1) frequency with respect to vibration. Here we propose to record E0 and E1 sequentially and to image the product E1E0* or the correlation 〈E1E0*〉. We show that these quantities are insensitive to the phase related to the object roughness and directly reflect the phase of the mechanical motion. The signal to noise can be improved by averaging E1E0* over a neighbor pixel, yielding 〈E1E0*〉. Experimental validation is made with a vibrating cube of wood and a clarinet reed. At 2 kHz, vibrations of amplitude down to 0.01 nm are detected. PMID:25680060

  4. LINEAR RELATIONS BETWEEN STIMULUS AMPLITUDES AND AMPLITUDES OF RETINAL ACTION POTENTIALS FROM THE EYE OF THE WOLF SPIDER.

    PubMed

    DEVOE, R D

    1963-09-01

    Incremental photic stimuli have been used to elicit small amplitude retinal action potentials from light-adapted ocelli of the wolf spider, Lycosa baltimoriana (Keyserling) in order to see whether or not the amplitudes of these potentials are linearly related to the stimulus amplitudes. Sine wave variations of light intensity around a mean elicit sine wave variations in potential which contain inappreciable harmonics of the stimulus frequency and whose amplitudes are linearly related to the stimulus amplitudes. Likewise, the responses to the first two periodic Fourier components of incremental rectangular wave stimuli of variable duty cycle are directly proportional to the amplitudes of these components and have phases dependent only on the frequencies and phases of these components. Thirdly, a linear transfer function can be found which describes the amplitudes and phases of responses recorded at different frequencies of sine wave stimulation and this transfer function is sufficient to predict the responses to incremental step stimuli. Finally, it is shown that flash response amplitudes are linearly related to incremental flash intensities at all levels of adaptation. The relations of these linear responses to non-linear responses and to physiological mechanisms of the eye are discussed. PMID:14060442

  5. Discriminating Simulated Vocal Tremor Source Using Amplitude Modulation Spectra

    PubMed Central

    Carbonell, Kathy M.; Lester, Rosemary A.; Story, Brad H.; Lotto, Andrew J.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives/Hypothesis Sources of vocal tremor are difficult to categorize perceptually and acoustically. This paper describes a preliminary attempt to discriminate vocal tremor sources through the use of spectral measures of the amplitude envelope. The hypothesis is that different vocal tremor sources are associated with distinct patterns of acoustic amplitude modulations. Study Design Statistical categorization methods (discriminant function analysis) were used to discriminate signals from simulated vocal tremor with different sources using only acoustic measures derived from the amplitude envelopes. Methods Simulations of vocal tremor were created by modulating parameters of a vocal fold model corresponding to oscillations of respiratory driving pressure (respiratory tremor), degree of vocal fold adduction (adductory tremor) and fundamental frequency of vocal fold vibration (F0 tremor). The acoustic measures were based on spectral analyses of the amplitude envelope computed across the entire signal and within select frequency bands. Results The signals could be categorized (with accuracy well above chance) in terms of the simulated tremor source using only measures of the amplitude envelope spectrum even when multiple sources of tremor were included. Conclusions These results supply initial support for an amplitude-envelope based approach to identify the source of vocal tremor and provide further evidence for the rich information about talker characteristics present in the temporal structure of the amplitude envelope. PMID:25532813

  6. Bootstrapping Multi-Parton Loop Amplitudes in QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Bern, Zvi; Dixon, Lance J.; Kosower, David A.; /Saclay, SPhT

    2005-07-06

    The authors present a new method for computing complete one-loop amplitudes, including their rational parts, in non-supersymmetric gauge theory. This method merges the unitarity method with on-shell recursion relations. It systematizes a unitarity-factorization bootstrap approach previously applied by the authors to the one-loop amplitudes required for next-to-leading order QCD corrections to the processes e{sup +}e{sup -} {yields} Z, {gamma}* {yields} 4 jets and pp {yields} W + 2 jets. We illustrate the method by reproducing the one-loop color-ordered five-gluon helicity amplitudes in QCD that interfere with the tree amplitude, namely A{sub 5;1}(1{sup -}, 2{sup -}, 3{sup +}, 4{sup +}, 5{sup +}) and A{sub 5;1}(1{sup -}, 2{sup +}, 3{sup -}, 4{sup +}, 5{sup +}). Then we describe the construction of the six- and seven-gluon amplitudes with two adjacent negative-helicity gluons, A{sub 6;1}(1{sup -}, 2{sup -}, 3{sup +}, 4{sup +}, 5{sup +}, 6{sup +}) and A{sub 7;1}(1{sup -}, 2{sup -}, 3{sup +}, 4{sup +}, 5{sup +}, 6{sup +}, 7{sup +}), which uses the previously-computed logarithmic parts of the amplitudes as input. They present a compact expression for the six-gluon amplitude. No loop integrals are required to obtain the rational parts.

  7. Large amplitude ion-acoustic solitons in dusty plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Tiwari, R. S.; Jain, S. L.; Mishra, M. K.

    2011-08-15

    Characteristics of ion-acoustic soliton in dusty plasma, including the dynamics of heavily charged massive dust grains, are investigated following the Sagdeev Potential formalism. Retaining fourth order nonlinearities of electric potential in the expansion of the Sagdeev Potential in the energy equation for a pseudo particle and integrating the resulting energy equation, large amplitude soliton solution is determined. Variation of amplitude (A), half width (W) at half maxima and the product P = AW{sup 2} of the Korteweg-deVries (KdV), dressed and large amplitude soliton as a function of wide range of dust concentration are numerically studied for recently observed parameters of dusty plasmas. We have also presented the region of existence of large amplitude ion-acoustic soliton in the dusty plasma by analyzing the structure of the pseudo potential. It is found that in the presence of positively charged dust grains, system supports only compressive solitons, on the other hand, in the presence of negatively charged dust grains, the system supports compressive solitons up to certain critical concentration of dust grains and above this critical concentration, the system can support rarefactive solitons also. The effects of dust concentration, charge, and mass of the dust grains, on the characteristics of KdV, dressed and large amplitude the soliton, i.e., amplitude (A), half width at half maxima (W), and product of amplitude (A) and half width at half maxima (P = AW{sup 2}), are discussed in detail.

  8. Broadband metasurface holograms: toward complete phase and amplitude engineering.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qiu; Zhang, Xueqian; Xu, Yuehong; Gu, Jianqiang; Li, Yanfeng; Tian, Zhen; Singh, Ranjan; Zhang, Shuang; Han, Jiaguang; Zhang, Weili

    2016-01-01

    As a revolutionary three-dimensional imaging technique, holography has attracted wide attention for its ability to photographically record a light field. However, traditional phase-only or amplitude-only modulation holograms have limited image quality and resolution to reappear both amplitude and phase information required of the objects. Recent advances in metasurfaces have shown tremendous opportunities for using a planar design of artificial meta-atoms to shape the wave front of light by optimal control of both its phase and amplitude. Inspired by the concept of designer metasurfaces, we demonstrate a novel amplitude-phase modulation hologram with simultaneous five-level amplitude modulation and eight-level phase modulation. Such a design approach seeks to turn the perceived disadvantages of the traditional phase or amplitude holograms, and thus enable enhanced performance in resolution, homogeneity of amplitude distribution, precision, and signal-to-noise ratio. In particular, the unique holographic approach exhibits broadband characteristics. The method introduced here delivers more degrees of freedom, and allows for encoding highly complex information into designer metasurfaces, thus having the potential to drive next-generation technological breakthroughs in holography. PMID:27615519

  9. Amplitude path corrections for regional phases in China

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, W.S.; Velasco, A.A.; Taylor, S.R.; Randall, G.E.

    1998-12-31

    The authors investigate the effectiveness of amplitude path corrections for regional phases on seismic event discrimination and magnitude estimation. Waveform data from digital stations in China for regional, shallow (< 50 km) events were obtained from the IRIS Data Management Center (DMC) for years 1986 to 1996 using the USGS Preliminary Determination of Epicenters (PDE) and the Chinese State Seismological Bureau (SSB) catalogs. For each event, the amplitudes for each regional phase (P{sub n}, P{sub g}, S{sub n}, L{sub g}) were measured, as well as the P{sub g} and L{sub g} coda. Measured amplitudes were corrected for source scaling using estimates of m{sub b} and for distance using a power law that accounts for attenuation and spreading. The amplitude residuals were interpolated and mapped as 2-D amplitude correction surfaces. The authors employ several methods to create the amplitude correction surfaces: a waveguide method, and two interpolation methods (Baysian kriging and a circular moving window mean smoother). They explore the sensitivities of the surfaces to the method and to regional propagation, and apply these surfaces to correct amplitude data to reduce scatter in discrimination ratios and magnitude estimates.

  10. Impact of nonlinear and polarization effects in coherent systems.

    PubMed

    Xie, Chongjin

    2011-12-12

    Coherent detection with digital signal processing (DSP) significantly changes the ways impairments are managed in optical communication systems. In this paper, we review the recent advances in understanding the impact of fiber nonlinearities, polarization-mode dispersion (PMD), and polarization-dependent loss (PDL) in coherent optical communication systems. We first discuss nonlinear transmission performance of three coherent optical communication systems, homogeneous polarization-division-multiplexed (PDM) quadrature-phase-shift-keying (QPSK), hybrid PDM-QPSK and on/off keying (OOK), and PDM 16-ary quadrature-amplitude modulation (QAM) systems. We show that while the dominant nonlinear effects in coherent optical communication systems without optical dispersion compensators (ODCs) are intra-channel nonlinearities, the dominant nonlinear effects in dispersion-managed (DM) systems with inline dispersion compensation fiber (DCF) are different when different modulation formats are used. In DM coherent optical communication systems using modulation formats of constant amplitude, the dominant nonlinear effect is nonlinear polarization scattering induced by cross-polarization modulation (XPolM), whereas when modulation formats of non-constant amplitude are used, the impact of inter-channel cross-phase modulation (XPM) is much larger than XPolM. We then describe the effects of PMD and PDL in coherent systems. We show that although in principle PMD can be completely compensated in a coherent optical receiver, a real coherent receiver has limited tolerance to PMD due to hardware limitations. Two PDL models used to evaluate PDL impairments are discussed. We find that a simple lumped model significantly over-estimates PDL impairments and show that a distributed model has to be used in order to accurately evaluate PDL impairments. Finally, we apply system outage considerations to coherent systems, taking into account the statistics of polarization effects in fiber. PMID

  11. Scattering Amplitudes: The Most Perfect Microscopic Structures in the Universe

    SciTech Connect

    Dixon, Lance J.; /CERN /SLAC

    2011-11-04

    This article gives an overview of many of the recent developments in understanding the structure of relativistic scattering amplitudes in gauge theories ranging from QCD to N = 4 super-Yang-Mills theory, as well as (super)gravity. I also provide a pedagogical introduction to some of the basic tools used to organize and illuminate the color and kinematic structure of amplitudes. This article is an invited review introducing a special issue of Journal of Physics A devoted to 'Scattering Amplitudes in Gauge Theories'.

  12. Compact Multigluonic Scattering Amplitudes with Heavy Scalars and Fermions

    SciTech Connect

    Ferrario, Paola; Rodrigo, German; Talavera, Pere

    2006-05-12

    Combining the Berends-Giele and on-shell recursion relations we obtain an extremely compact expression for the scattering amplitude of a complex massive scalar-antiscalar pair and an arbitrary number of positive helicity gluons. This is one of the basic building blocks for constructing other helicity configurations from recursion relations. We also show explicitly that the scattering amplitude of massive fermions to gluons, all with positive helicity, is proportional to the scalar one, confirming in this way the recently advocated SUSY-like Ward identities relating both amplitudes.

  13. Direct Calculation of the Scattering Amplitude Without Partial Wave Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shertzer, J.; Temkin, A.; Fisher, Richard R. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Two new developments in scattering theory are reported. We show, in a practical way, how one can calculate the full scattering amplitude without invoking a partial wave expansion. First, the integral expression for the scattering amplitude f(theta) is simplified by an analytic integration over the azimuthal angle. Second, the full scattering wavefunction which appears in the integral expression for f(theta) is obtained by solving the Schrodinger equation with the finite element method (FEM). As an example, we calculate electron scattering from the Hartree potential. With minimal computational effort, we obtain accurate and stable results for the scattering amplitude.

  14. Amplitude Modulation in the δ Sct star KIC 7106205

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowman, Dominic. M.; Kurtz, Donald W.

    2015-09-01

    The δ Sct star KIC 7106205 showed amplitude modulation in a single p mode, whilst all other p and g modes remained stable in amplitude and phase over 1470 d of the Kepler dataset. The data were divided into 30 time bins of equal length and a series of consecutive Fourier transforms was calculated. A fixed frequency, calculated from a least-squares fit of all data, allowed amplitude and phase for every mode in each time bin to be tracked. The missing p mode energy was not transferred to any other visible modes.

  15. Segmentation Of Multifrequency Complex-Amplitude SAR Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rignot, Eric J.; Chellappa, Ramalingam

    1994-01-01

    Several mathematical models and associated algorithms implement method of segmenting multifrequency, highly speckled, high-resolution, complex-amplitude (amplitude and phase) synthetic-aperture-radar (SAR) digitized image into regions, within each of which radar backscattering characteristics are similar or homogeneous from place to place. Typically, each region represents different type of terrain or other surface; e.g., forest, agricultural land, sea ice, or water. Method of segmentation of SAR scene into regions is product of generalization, to multifrequency case, of single-frequency method described in "Algorithms for Segmentation of Complex-Amplitude SAR Data" (NPO-18524).

  16. Higgs amplitude mode in massless Dirac fermion systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Ming; Liu, Haiwen; Wang, Pei; Xie, X. C.

    2016-02-01

    The Higgs amplitude mode in superconductors is the condensed-matter analogy of Higgs bosons in particle physics. We investigate the time evolution of Higgs amplitude mode in massless Dirac systems induced by a weak quench of an attractive interaction. We find that the Higgs amplitude mode in the half-filled honeycomb lattice has a logarithmic decaying behavior, qualitatively different from the 1 /√{t } decay in the normal superconductors. Our study is also extended to the doped cases in honeycomb lattices. As for the three-dimensional Dirac semimetal at half filling, we obtain an undamped oscillation of the amplitude mode. Our finding is not only an important supplement to the previous theoretical studies on normal fermion systems but also provides an experimental signature to characterize the superconductivity in two- or three-dimensional Dirac systems.

  17. Amplitude chimeras and chimera death in dynamical networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakharova, Anna; Kapeller, Marie; Schöll, Eckehard

    2016-06-01

    We find chimera states with respect to amplitude dynamics in a network of Stuart- Landau oscillators. These partially coherent and partially incoherent spatio-temporal patterns appear due to the interplay of nonlocal network topology and symmetry-breaking coupling. As the coupling range is increased, the oscillations are quenched, amplitude chimeras disappear and the network enters a symmetry-breaking stationary state. This particular regime is a novel pattern which we call chimera death. It is characterized by the coexistence of spatially coherent and incoherent inhomogeneous steady states and therefore combines the features of chimera state and oscillation death. Additionally, we show two different transition scenarios from amplitude chimera to chimera death. Moreover, for amplitude chimeras we uncover the mechanism of transition towards in-phase synchronized regime and discuss the role of initial conditions.

  18. Combination frequencies in high-amplitude δ Scuti stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balona, L. A.

    2016-06-01

    Short-cadence observations of δ Scuti stars in the Kepler field are used to investigate the physical nature of high-amplitude δ Scuti stars (HADS). Although it is often mentioned that HADS are transition objects between classical Cepheids and δ Scuti stars, neither ground-based or space-based observations support this view. It is found that HADS occur randomly within the instability strip. The possibility that HADS may be defined by the presence of combination frequencies is discussed. There is a weak tendency for the number of combination frequencies to increase with increasing amplitude of the parent frequencies. However, even stars with very low amplitudes may have detectable combination frequencies. Very few parent modes have a period ratio appropriate to first-overtone and fundamental radial modes. It appears that a high amplitude, in itself, is not useful as a distinguishing feature of δ Scuti stars.

  19. Moments of pseudoscalar meson distribution amplitudes from the lattice

    SciTech Connect

    Braun, V. M.; Goeckeler, M.; Horsley, R.; Zanotti, J. M.; Perlt, H.; Schiller, A.; Pleiter, D.; Schroers, W.; Schierholz, G.; Stueben, H.

    2006-10-01

    Based on lattice simulations with two flavors of dynamical, O(a)-improved Wilson fermions we present results for the first two moments of the distribution amplitudes of pseudoscalar mesons at several values of the valence quark masses. By extrapolating our results to the physical masses of up/down and strange quarks, we find the first two moments of the K{sup +} distribution amplitude and the second moment of the {pi}{sup +} distribution amplitude. We use nonperturbatively determined renormalization coefficients to obtain results in the MS scheme. At a scale of 4 GeV{sup 2} we find a{sub 2}{sup {pi}}=0.201(114) for the second Gegenbauer moment of the pion's distribution amplitude, while for the kaon, a{sub 1}{sup K}=0.0453(9)(29) and a{sub 2}{sup K}=0.175(18)(47)

  20. Non-perturbative QCD amplitudes in quenched and eikonal approximations

    SciTech Connect

    Fried, H.M.; Grandou, T.; Sheu, Y.-M.

    2014-05-15

    Even though approximated, strong coupling non-perturbative QCD amplitudes remain very difficult to obtain. In this article, in eikonal and quenched approximations at least, physical insights are presented that rely on the newly-discovered property of effective locality. The present article also provides a more rigorous mathematical basis for the crude approximations used in the previous derivation of the binding potential of quarks and nucleons. Furthermore, the techniques of Random Matrix calculus along with Meijer G-functions are applied to analyze the generic structure of fermionic amplitudes in QCD. - Highlights: • We discuss the physical insight of effective locality to QCD fermionic amplitudes. • We show that an unavoidable delta function goes along with the effective locality property. • The generic structure of QCD fermion amplitudes is obtained through Random Matrix calculus.

  1. Remarks on the identities of gluon tree amplitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tye, S.-H. Henry; Zhang, Yang

    2010-10-01

    Recently, Bjerrum-Bohr, Damgaard, Feng, and Sondergaard derived a set of new interesting quadratic identities of the Yang-Mills (YM) tree scattering amplitudes, besides Bern-Carrasco-Johansson (BCJ) identities. Here we comment that these quadratic identities of YM amplitudes actually follow directly from the KLT (Kawai-Lewellen-Tye) relation for graviton-dilaton-axion scattering amplitudes (in four-dimensional spacetime). This clarifies their physical origin and also provides a simpler version of the new identities. We also comment that the recently discovered BCJ identities of YM helicity amplitudes, at least for the maximal helicity-violating case, can be verified by using (repeatedly) the Schouten identity. We also point out additional quadratic identities that can be written down from the KLT relations.

  2. Some tree-level string amplitudes in the NSR formalism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, Katrin; Becker, Melanie; Melnikov, Ilarion V.; Robbins, Daniel; Royston, Andrew B.

    2015-12-01

    We calculate tree level scattering amplitudes for open strings using the NSR formalism. We present a streamlined symmetry-based and pedagogical approach to the computations, which we first develop by checking two-, three-, and four-point functions involving bosons and fermions. We calculate the five-point amplitude for massless gluons and find agreement with an earlier result by Brandt, Machado and Medina. We then compute the five-point amplitudes involving two and four fermions respectively, the general form of which has not been previously obtained in the NSR formalism. The results nicely confirm expectations from the supersymmetric F 4 effective action. Finally we use the prescription of Kawai, Lewellen and Tye (KLT) to compute the amplitudes for the closed string sector.

  3. High Amplitude (delta)-Scutis in the Large Magellanic Cloud

    SciTech Connect

    Garg, A; Cook, K H; Nikolaev, S; Huber, M E; Rest, A; Becker, A C; Challis, P; Clocchiatti, A; Miknaitis, G; Minniti, D; Morelli, L; Olsen, K; Prieto, J L; Suntzeff, N B; Welch, D L; Wood-Vasey, W M

    2010-01-25

    The authors present 2323 High-Amplitude {delta}-Scutis (HADS) candidates discovered in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) by the SuperMACHO survey (Rest et al. 2005). Frequency analyses of these candidates reveal that several are multimode pulsators, including 119 whose largest amplitude of pulsation is in the fundamental (F) mode and 19 whose largest amplitude of pulsation is in the first overtone (FO) mode. Using Fourier decomposition of the HADS light curves, they find that the period-luminosity (PL) relation defined by the FO pulsators does not show a clear separation from the PL-relation defined by the F pulsators. This differs from other instability strip pulsators such as type c RR Lyrae. They also present evidence for a larger amplitude, subluminous population of HADS similar to that observed in Fornax (Poretti et al. 2008).

  4. N >= 4 Supergravity Amplitudes from Gauge Theory at Two Loops

    SciTech Connect

    Boucher-Veronneau, C.; Dixon, L.J.; /SLAC

    2012-02-15

    We present the full two-loop four-graviton amplitudes in N = 4, 5, 6 supergravity. These results were obtained using the double-copy structure of gravity, which follows from the recently conjectured color-kinematics duality in gauge theory. The two-loop four-gluon scattering amplitudes in N = 0, 1, 2 supersymmetric gauge theory are a second essential ingredient. The gravity amplitudes have the expected infrared behavior: the two-loop divergences are given in terms of the squares of the corresponding one-loop amplitudes. The finite remainders are presented in a compact form. The finite remainder for N = 8 supergravity is also presented, in a form that utilizes a pure function with a very simple symbol.

  5. Optical vector network analyzer based on amplitude-phase modulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morozov, Oleg G.; Morozov, Gennady A.; Nureev, Ilnur I.; Kasimova, Dilyara I.; Zastela, Mikhail Y.; Gavrilov, Pavel V.; Makarov, Igor A.; Purtov, Vadim A.

    2016-03-01

    The article describes the principles of optical vector network analyzer (OVNA) design for fiber Bragg gratings (FBG) characterization based on amplitude-phase modulation of optical carrier that allow us to improve the measurement accuracy of amplitude and phase parameters of the elements under test. Unlike existing OVNA based on a single-sideband and unbalanced double sideband amplitude modulation, the ratio of the two side components of the probing radiation is used for analysis of amplitude and phase parameters of the tested elements, and the radiation of the optical carrier is suppressed, or the latter is used as a local oscillator. The suggested OVNA is designed for the narrow band-stop elements (π-phaseshift FBG) and wide band-pass elements (linear chirped FBG) research.

  6. Amplitude sorting of oscillatory burst signals by sampling

    DOEpatents

    Davis, Thomas J.

    1977-01-01

    A method and apparatus for amplitude sorting of oscillatory burst signals is described in which the burst signal is detected to produce a burst envelope signal and an intermediate or midportion of such envelope signal is sampled to provide a sample pulse output. The height of the sample pulse is proportional to the amplitude of the envelope signal and to the maximum burst signal amplitude. The sample pulses are fed to a pulse height analyzer for sorting. The present invention is used in an acoustic emission testing system to convert the amplitude of the acoustic emission burst signals into sample pulse heights which are measured by a pulse height analyzer for sorting the pulses in groups according to their height in order to identify the material anomalies in the test material which emit the acoustic signals.

  7. Movement amplitude and tempo change in piano performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palmer, Caroline

    2001-05-01

    Music performance places stringent temporal and cognitive demands on individuals that should yield large speed/accuracy tradeoffs. Skilled piano performance, however, shows consistently high accuracy across a wide variety of rates. Movement amplitude may affect the speed/accuracy tradeoff, so that high accuracy can be obtained even at very fast tempi. The contribution of movement amplitude changes in rate (tempo) is investigated with motion capture. Cameras recorded pianists with passive markers on hands and fingers, who performed on an electronic (MIDI) keyboard. Pianists performed short melodies at faster and faster tempi until they made errors (altering the speed/accuracy function). Variability of finger movements in the three motion planes indicated most change in the plane perpendicular to the keyboard across tempi. Surprisingly, peak amplitudes of motion before striking the keys increased as tempo increased. Increased movement amplitudes at faster rates may reduce or compensate for speed/accuracy tradeoffs. [Work supported by Canada Research Chairs program, HIMH R01 45764.

  8. 1D Current Source Density (CSD) Estimation in Inverse Theory: A Unified Framework for Higher-Order Spectral Regularization of Quadrature and Expansion-Type CSD Methods.

    PubMed

    Kropf, Pascal; Shmuel, Amir

    2016-07-01

    Estimation of current source density (CSD) from the low-frequency part of extracellular electric potential recordings is an unstable linear inverse problem. To make the estimation possible in an experimental setting where recordings are contaminated with noise, it is necessary to stabilize the inversion. Here we present a unified framework for zero- and higher-order singular-value-decomposition (SVD)-based spectral regularization of 1D (linear) CSD estimation from local field potentials. The framework is based on two general approaches commonly employed for solving inverse problems: quadrature and basis function expansion. We first show that both inverse CSD (iCSD) and kernel CSD (kCSD) fall into the category of basis function expansion methods. We then use these general categories to introduce two new estimation methods, quadrature CSD (qCSD), based on discretizing the CSD integral equation with a chosen quadrature rule, and representer CSD (rCSD), an even-determined basis function expansion method that uses the problem's data kernels (representers) as basis functions. To determine the best candidate methods to use in the analysis of experimental data, we compared the different methods on simulations under three regularization schemes (Tikhonov, tSVD, and dSVD), three regularization parameter selection methods (NCP, L-curve, and GCV), and seven different a priori spatial smoothness constraints on the CSD distribution. This resulted in a comparison of 531 estimation schemes. We evaluated the estimation schemes according to their source reconstruction accuracy by testing them using different simulated noise levels, lateral source diameters, and CSD depth profiles. We found that ranking schemes according to the average error over all tested conditions results in a reproducible ranking, where the top schemes are found to perform well in the majority of tested conditions. However, there is no single best estimation scheme that outperforms all others under all tested

  9. Large-N QCD and the Veneziano amplitude

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armoni, Adi

    2016-05-01

    We consider four scalar mesons scattering in large-Nc QCD. Using the worldline formalism we show that the scattering amplitude can be written as a formal sum over Wilson loops. The AdS/CFT correspondence maps this sum into a sum over string worldsheets in a confining background. We then argue that for well separated mesons the sum is dominated by flat space configurations. Under additional assumptions about the dual string path integral we obtain the Veneziano amplitude.

  10. Multiple parton scattering in nuclei: Beyond helicity amplitude approximation

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Ben-Wei; Wang, Xin-Nian

    2003-01-21

    Multiple parton scattering and induced parton energy loss in deeply inelastic scattering (DIS) off heavy nuclei is studied within the framework of generalized factorization in perturbative QCD with a complete calculation beyond the helicity amplitude (or soft bremsstrahlung) approximation. Such a calculation gives rise to new corrections to the modified quark fragmentation functions. The effective parton energy loss is found to be reduced by a factor of 5/6 from the result of helicity amplitude approximation.

  11. Three-point disc amplitudes in the RNS formalism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, Katrin; Becker, Melanie; Robbins, Daniel; Su, Ning

    2016-06-01

    We calculate all tree level string theory vacuum to Dp-brane disc amplitudes involving an arbitrary RR-state and two NS-NS vertex operators. This computation was earlier performed by K. Becker, Guo, and Robbins for the simplest case of a RR-state of type C (p - 3). Here we use the aid of a computer to calculate all possible three-point amplitudes involving a RR-vertex operator of type C (p + 1 + 2 k).

  12. Weak measurements measure probability amplitudes (and very little else)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sokolovski, D.

    2016-04-01

    Conventional quantum mechanics describes a pre- and post-selected system in terms of virtual (Feynman) paths via which the final state can be reached. In the absence of probabilities, a weak measurement (WM) determines the probability amplitudes for the paths involved. The weak values (WV) can be identified with these amplitudes, or their linear combinations. This allows us to explain the "unusual" properties of the WV, and avoid the "paradoxes" often associated with the WM.

  13. Dependence of kink oscillation damping on the amplitude

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goddard, C. R.; Nakariakov, V. M.

    2016-05-01

    Context. Kink oscillations of coronal loops are one of the most intensively studied oscillatory phenomena in the solar corona. In the large-amplitude rapidly damped regime, these oscillations are observed to have a low quality factor with only a few cycles of oscillation detected before they are damped. The specific mechanism responsible for rapid damping is commonly accepted to be associated with the linear coupling between collective kink oscillations and localised torsional oscillations, the phenomenon of resonant absorption of the kink mode. The role of finite amplitude effects, however, is still not clear. Aims: We investigated the empirical dependence of the kink oscillation damping time and its quality factor, which is defined as the ratio of damping time to oscillation period, on the oscillation amplitude. Methods: We analysed decaying kink oscillation events detected previously with TRACE, SDO/AIA and and STEREO/EUVI in the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) 171 Å band. Results: We found that the ratio of the kink oscillation damping time to the oscillation period systematically decreases with the oscillation amplitude. We approximated the quality factor dependence on the oscillation displacement amplitude via the power-law dependence with the exponent of -1/2, however we stress that this is a by-eye estimate, and a more rigorous estimation of the scaling law requires more accurate measurements and increased statistics. We conclude that damping of kink oscillations of coronal loops depends on the oscillation amplitude, indicating the possible role of non-linear mechanisms for damping.

  14. Perceptual sensitivity to first harmonic amplitude in the voice source.

    PubMed

    Kreiman, Jody; Gerratt, Bruce R

    2010-10-01

    Little is known about the perceptual importance of changes in the shape of the source spectrum, although many measures have been proposed and correlations with different vocal qualities (breathiness, roughness, nasality, strain...) have frequently been reported. This study investigated just-noticeable differences in the relative amplitudes of the first two harmonics (H1-H2) for speakers of Mandarin and English. Listeners heard pairs of vowels that differed only in the amplitude of the first harmonic and judged whether or not the voice tokens were identical in voice quality. Across voices and listeners, just-noticeable-differences averaged 3.18 dB. This value is small relative to the range of values across voices, indicating that H1-H2 is a perceptually valid acoustic measure of vocal quality. For both groups of listeners, differences in the amplitude of the first harmonic were easier to detect when the source spectral slope was steeply falling so that F0 dominated the spectrum. Mandarin speakers were significantly more sensitive (by about 1 dB) to differences in first harmonic amplitudes than were English speakers. Two explanations for these results are possible: Mandarin speakers may have learned to hear changes in harmonic amplitudes due to changes in voice quality that are correlated with the tones of Mandarin; or Mandarin speakers' experience with tonal contrasts may increase their sensitivity to small differences in the amplitude of F0 (which is also the first harmonic). PMID:20968379

  15. Wilson loops and QCD/string scattering amplitudes

    SciTech Connect

    Makeenko, Yuri; Olesen, Poul

    2009-07-15

    We generalize modern ideas about the duality between Wilson loops and scattering amplitudes in N=4 super Yang-Mills theory to large N QCD by deriving a general relation between QCD meson scattering amplitudes and Wilson loops. We then investigate properties of the open-string disk amplitude integrated over reparametrizations. When the Wilson-loop is approximated by the area behavior, we find that the QCD scattering amplitude is a convolution of the standard Koba-Nielsen integrand and a kernel. As usual poles originate from the first factor, whereas no (momentum-dependent) poles can arise from the kernel. We show that the kernel becomes a constant when the number of external particles becomes large. The usual Veneziano amplitude then emerges in the kinematical regime, where the Wilson loop can be reliably approximated by the area behavior. In this case, we obtain a direct duality between Wilson loops and scattering amplitudes when spatial variables and momenta are interchanged, in analogy with the N=4 super Yang-Mills theory case.

  16. A proposed physical analog for a quantum probability amplitude

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyd, Jeffrey

    What is the physical analog of a probability amplitude? All quantum mathematics, including quantum information, is built on amplitudes. Every other science uses probabilities; QM alone uses their square root. Why? This question has been asked for a century, but no one previously has proposed an answer. We will present cylindrical helices moving toward a particle source, which particles follow backwards. Consider Feynman's book QED. He speaks of amplitudes moving through space like the hand of a spinning clock. His hand is a complex vector. It traces a cylindrical helix in Cartesian space. The Theory of Elementary Waves changes direction so Feynman's clock faces move toward the particle source. Particles follow amplitudes (quantum waves) backwards. This contradicts wave particle duality. We will present empirical evidence that wave particle duality is wrong about the direction of particles versus waves. This involves a paradigm shift; which are always controversial. We believe that our model is the ONLY proposal ever made for the physical foundations of probability amplitudes. We will show that our ``probability amplitudes'' in physical nature form a Hilbert vector space with adjoints, an inner product and support both linear algebra and Dirac notation.

  17. An Analysis of Fundamental Mode Surface Wave Amplitude Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schardong, L.; Ferreira, A. M.; van Heijst, H. J.; Ritsema, J.

    2014-12-01

    Seismic tomography is a powerful tool to decipher the Earth's interior structure at various scales. Traveltimes of seismic waves are widely used to build velocity models, whereas amplitudes are still only seldomly accounted for. This mainly results from our limited ability to separate the various physical effects responsible for observed amplitude variations, such as focussing/defocussing, scattering and source effects. We present new measurements from 50 global earthquakes of fundamental-mode Rayleigh and Love wave amplitude anomalies measured in the period range 35-275 seconds using two different schemes: (i) a standard time-domain amplitude power ratio technique; and (ii) a mode-branch stripping scheme. For minor-arc data, we observe amplitude anomalies with respect to PREM in the range of 0-4, for which the two measurement techniques show a very good overall agreement. We present here a statistical analysis and comparison of these datasets, as well as comparisons with theoretical calculations for a variety of 3-D Earth models. We assess the geographical coherency of the measurements, and investigate the impact of source, path and receiver effects on surface wave amplitudes, as well as their variations with frequency in a wider range than previously studied.

  18. Amplitude relations in non-linear sigma model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Gang; Du, Yi-Jian

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate tree-level scattering amplitude relations in U( N) non-linear sigma model. We use Cayley parametrization. As was shown in the recent works [23,24], both on-shell amplitudes and off-shell currents with odd points have to vanish under Cayley parametrization. We prove the off-shell U(1) identity and fundamental BCJ relation for even-point currents. By taking the on-shell limits of the off-shell relations, we show that the color-ordered tree amplitudes with even points satisfy U(1)-decoupling identity and fundamental BCJ relation, which have the same formations within Yang-Mills theory. We further state that all the on-shell general KK, BCJ relations as well as the minimal-basis expansion are also satisfied by color-ordered tree amplitudes. As a consequence of the relations among color-ordered amplitudes, the total 2 m-point tree amplitudes satisfy DDM form of color decomposition as well as KLT relation.

  19. Mapping Pn amplitude spreading and attenuation in Asia

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Xiaoning; Phillips, William S; Stead, Richard J

    2010-12-06

    Pn travels most of its path in the mantle lid. Mapping the lateral variation of Pn amplitude attenuation sheds light on material properties and dynamics of the uppermost region of the mantle. Pn amplitude variation depends on the wavefront geometric spreading as well as material attenuation. We investigated Pn geometric spreading, which is much more complex than a traditionally assumed power-law spreading model, using both synthetic and observed amplitude data collected in Asia. We derived a new Pn spreading model based on the formulation that was proposed previously to account for the spherical shape of the Earth (Yang et. al., BSSA, 2007). New parameters derived for the spreading model provide much better correction for Pn amplitudes in terms of residual behavior. Because we used observed Pn amplitudes to construct the model, the model incorporates not only the effect of the Earth's spherical shape, but also the effect of potential upper-mantle velocity gradients in the region. Using the new spreading model, we corrected Pn amplitudes measured at 1, 2, 4 and 6 Hz and conducted attenuation tomography. The resulting Pn attenuation model correlates well with the regional geology. We see high attenuation in regions such as northern Tibetan Plateau and the western Pacific subduction zone, and low attenuation for stable blocks such as Sichuan and Tarim basins.

  20. One-loop gluonic amplitudes from single unitarity cuts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glover, E. W. Nigel; Williams, Ciaran

    2008-12-01

    We show that one-loop amplitudes in massless gauge theories can be determined from single cuts. By cutting a single propagator and putting it on-shell, the integrand of an n-point one-loop integral is transformed into an (n+2)-particle tree level amplitude. The single-cut approach described here is complementary to the double or multiple unitarity cut approaches commonly used in the literature. In common with these approaches, if the cut is taken in four dimensions, one finds only the cut-constructible parts of the amplitude, while if the cut is in D = 4-2epsilon dimensions, both rational and cut-constructible parts are obtained. We test our method by reproducing the known results for the fully rational all-plus and mostly-plus QCD amplitudes, A(1)4(1+, 2+, 3+, 4+) and A(1)5(1+, 2+, 3+, 4+, 5+). We also rederive expressions for the scalar loop contribution to the four-gluon MHV amplitude, A4(1,Script N = 0)(-, -, +, +) which has both cut-constructible and rational contributions, and the fully cut-constructible n-gluon MHV amplitude in Script N = 4 Supersymmetric Yang-Mills, A4(1,Script N = 4)(-, -, +, ..., +).

  1. Noise tolerance in wavelength-selective switching of optical differential quadrature-phase-shift-keying pulse train by collinear acousto-optic devices.

    PubMed

    Goto, Nobuo; Miyazaki, Yasumitsu

    2014-06-01

    Optical switching of high-bit-rate quadrature-phase-shift-keying (QPSK) pulse trains using collinear acousto-optic (AO) devices is theoretically discussed. Since the collinear AO devices have wavelength selectivity, the switched optical pulse trains suffer from distortion when the bandwidth of the pulse train is comparable to the pass bandwidth of the AO device. As the AO device, a sidelobe-suppressed device with a tapered surface-acoustic-wave (SAW) waveguide and a Butterworth-type filter device with a lossy SAW directional coupler are considered. Phase distortion of optical pulse trains at 40 to 100  Gsymbols/s in QPSK format is numerically analyzed. Bit-error-rate performance with additive Gaussian noise is also evaluated by the Monte Carlo method. PMID:24922411

  2. 0.1 V 13 GHz Transformer-Based Quadrature Voltage-Controlled Oscillator with a Capacitor Coupling Technique in 90 nm Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamimura, Tatsuya; Lee, Sang-yeop; Tanoi, Satoru; Ito, Hiroyuki; Ishihara, Noboru; Masu, Kazuya

    2012-04-01

    A low power-supply voltage and high-frequency quadrature voltage-controlled oscillator (QVCO) using a combination of capacitor coupling and transformer feedback techniques is presented. The capacitor coupling technique can boost the transconductance of the LC-VCO core and coupling transconductance of QVCO at high frequency. Also, this technique can improve the quality factor of the QVCO at high frequency with low power-supply voltage, compared with the conventional QVCO. In addition, the capacitor coupling QVCO with transformer feedback can improve the quality factor of QVCO. Using this topology, the QVCO is able to operate at over 10 GHz with lower power-supply voltage. Implemented in the 90 nm complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) process, the proposed QVCO measures 1-MHz-offset phase noise of -94 dBc/Hz at 13 GHz while consuming 0.68 mW from a 0.1 V power-supply.

  3. Regularized adelic formulas for string and superstring amplitudes in one-class quadratic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vladimirov, V. S.

    2010-09-01

    We obtain regularized adelic formulas for gamma and beta functions for fields of rational numbers and the one-class quadratic fields and arbitrary quasicharacters (ramified or not). We consider applications to four-tachyon tree string amplitudes, generalized Veneziano amplitudes (open string), perturbed Virasoro amplitudes (closed string), massless four-particle tree open and closed superstring amplitudes, Ramond-Neveu-Schwarz superstring amplitudes, and charged heterotic superstring amplitudes. We establish certain relations between different string and superstring amplitudes.

  4. Surface effect on the large amplitude periodic forced vibration of first-order shear deformable rectangular nanoplates with various edge supports

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ansari, R.; Gholami, R.

    2016-01-01

    Surface stress and surface inertia effects may play a significant role in the mechanical characteristics of nanostructures with a high surface to volume ratio. The objective of this study is to present a comprehensive study on the surface stress and surface inertia effects on the large amplitude periodic forced vibration of first-order shear deformable rectangular nanoplates. To this end, the Gurtin-Murdoch theory, first-order shear deformation theory (FSDT) and Hamilton's principle are employed to develop a non-classical continuum plate model capable of taking the surface stress and surface inertia effects and also the rotary and in-plane inertias into account. To solve numerically the geometrically nonlinear forced vibration of nanoplates with different boundary conditions, the generalized differential quadrature (GDQ) method, numerical Galerkin scheme, periodic time differential operators and pseudo arc-length continuation method are employed. The effects of parameters such as thickness, surface residual stress, surface elasticity, surface mass density, length-to-thickness ratio, width-to-thickness ratio and boundary conditions on the nonlinear forced vibration of rectangular nanoplates are fully investigated. The results demonstrate that surface effects on the nonlinear frequency response of aluminum (Al) nanoplate are more prominent in comparison with the silicon (Si) nanoplate.

  5. Forecasting Wave Amplitudes after the Arrival of a Tsunami

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nyland, David; Huang, Paul

    2014-12-01

    The destructive Pacific Ocean tsunami generated off the east coast of Honshu, Japan, on 11 March 2011 prompted the West Coast and Alaska Tsunami Warning Center (WCATWC) to issue a tsunami warning and advisory for the coastal regions of Alaska, British Columbia, Washington, Oregon, and California. Estimating the length of time the warning or advisory would remain in effect proved difficult. To address this problem, the WCATWC developed a technique to estimate the amplitude decay of a tsunami recorded at tide stations within the Warning Center's Area of Responsibly (AOR). At many sites along the West Coast of North America, the tsunami wave amplitudes will decay exponentially following the arrival of the maximum wave ( Mofjeld et al., Nat Hazards 22:71-89, 2000). To estimate the time it will take before wave amplitudes drop to safe levels, the real-time tide gauge data are filtered to remove the effects of tidal variations. The analytic envelope is computed and a 2 h sequence of amplitude values following the tsunami peak is used to obtain a least squares fit to an exponential function. This yields a decay curve which is then combined with an average West Coast decay function to provide an initial tsunami amplitude-duration forecast. This information may then be provided to emergency managers to assist with response planning.

  6. All tree-level amplitudes in massless QCD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dixon, Lance J.; Henn, Johannes M.; Plefka, Jan; Schuster, Theodor

    2011-01-01

    We derive compact analytical formulae for all tree-level color-ordered gauge theory amplitudes involving any number of external gluons and up to four massless quarkanti-quark pairs. A general formula is presented based on the combinatorics of paths along a rooted tree and associated determinants. Explicit expressions are displayed for the next-to-maximally helicity violating (NMHV) and next-to-next-to-maximally helicity violating (NNMHV) gauge theory amplitudes. Our results are obtained by projecting the previously-found expressions for the super-amplitudes of the maximally supersymmetric super Yang-Mills theory ( mathcal{N} = 4 SYM) onto the relevant components yielding all gluon-gluino tree amplitudes in mathcal{N} = 4 SYM. We show how these results carry over to the corresponding QCD amplitudes, including massless quarks of different avors as well as a single electroweak vector boson. The public Mathematica package GGT is described, which encodes the results of this work and yields analytical formulae for all mathcal{N} = 4 SYM gluon-gluino trees. These in turn yield all QCD trees with up to four external arbitrary-flavored massless quark-anti-quark pairs.

  7. Amplitude death of coupled hair bundles with stochastic channel noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Kyung-Joong; Ahn, Kang-Hun

    2014-04-01

    Hair cells conduct auditory transduction in vertebrates. In lower vertebrates such as frogs and turtles, due to the active mechanism in hair cells, hair bundles (stereocilia) can be spontaneously oscillating or quiescent. Recently an amplitude death phenomenon has been proposed [K.-H. Ahn, J. R. Soc. Interface, 10, 20130525 (2013)] as a mechanism for auditory transduction in frog hair-cell bundles, where sudden cessation of the oscillations arises due to the coupling between nonidentical hair bundles. The gating of the ion channel is intrinsically stochastic due to the stochastic nature of the configuration change of the channel. The strength of the noise due to the channel gating can be comparable to the thermal Brownian noise of hair bundles. Thus, we perform stochastic simulations of the elastically coupled hair bundles. In spite of stray noisy fluctuations due to its stochastic dynamics, our simulation shows the transition from collective oscillation to amplitude death as interbundle coupling strength increases. In its stochastic dynamics, the formation of the amplitude death state of coupled hair bundles can be seen as a sudden suppression of the displacement fluctuation of the hair bundles as the coupling strength increases. The enhancement of the signal-to-noise ratio through the amplitude death phenomenon is clearly seen in the stochastic dynamics. Our numerical results demonstrate that the multiple number of transduction channels per hair bundle is an important factor to the amplitude death phenomenon, because the phenomenon may disappear for a small number of transduction channels due to strong gating noise.

  8. All Tree-level Amplitudes in Massless QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Dixon, Lance J.; Henn, Johannes M.; Plefka, Jan; Schuster, Theodor; /Humboldt U., Berlin

    2010-10-25

    We derive compact analytical formulae for all tree-level color-ordered gauge theory amplitudes involving any number of external gluons and up to three massless quark-anti-quark pairs. A general formula is presented based on the combinatorics of paths along a rooted tree and associated determinants. Explicit expressions are displayed for the next-to-maximally helicity violating (NMHV) and next-to-next-to-maximally helicity violating (NNMHV) gauge theory amplitudes. Our results are obtained by projecting the previously-found expressions for the super-amplitudes of the maximally supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory (N = 4 SYM) onto the relevant components yielding all gluon-gluino tree amplitudes in N = 4 SYM. We show how these results carry over to the corresponding QCD amplitudes, including massless quarks of different flavors as well as a single electroweak vector boson. The public Mathematica package GGT is described, which encodes the results of this work and yields analytical formulae for all N = 4 SYM gluon-gluino trees. These in turn yield all QCD trees with up to four external arbitrary-flavored massless quark-anti-quark-pairs.

  9. On the field theory expansion of superstring five point amplitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boels, Rutger H.

    2013-11-01

    A simple recursive expansion algorithm for the integrals of tree level superstring five point amplitudes in a flat background is given which reduces the expansion to simple symbol(ic) manipulations. This approach can be used for instance to prove the expansion is maximally transcendental to all orders and to verify several conjectures made in recent literature to high order. Closed string amplitudes follow from these open string results by the KLT relations. To obtain insight into these results in particular the maximal R-symmetry violating amplitudes (MRV) in type IIB superstring theory are studied. The obtained expansion of the open string amplitudes reduces the analysis for MRV amplitudes to the classification of completely symmetric polynomials of the external legs, up to momentum conservation. Using Molien's theorem as a counting tool this problem is solved by constructing an explicit nine element basis for this class. This theorem may be of wider interest: as is illustrated at higher points it can be used to calculate dimensions of polynomials of external momenta invariant under any finite group for in principle any number of legs, up to momentum conservation. In the closed (or mixed) case this follows after application of the Kawai-Lewellen-Tye [1] relations (or their analogons [2,3]).

  10. Tidal Amplitude Changes over Time Observed in Borehole Strainmeters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Z.; Wen, L.

    2013-12-01

    Global warming, by thermally expanding sea water and increasingly melting land-based ice, raises the sea level by 2-3 millimeters per year in the past few years. The solid tide, one of the most important activities of the Earth, is sensitive to the change of sea level. We carry out an analysis of tidal amplitude in the east coast of Pacific using the Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO) borehole strainmeter data. We extract the tidal amplitude and meteorological effects from the data using the package BAYTAP, which uses a Bayesian modeling procedure to analyze strainmeter data. In the analysis, we first interpolate the missing data, cut off bad data, and then resample the data to 2 samples per hour. We analyze the data with a one-month moving window with a 5-hour shift, and obtain variation of tidal amplitude over time. The results show two interesting phenomena. 1) Almost all stations show an annual variation in their tidal amplitude, 2) tidal amplitudes at some stations, such as B009, B011, B057, increase over time. We will discuss implications of these variations to weather and sea level change.

  11. An overlooked effect of systemic anticholinergics: alteration on accommodation amplitude

    PubMed Central

    Sekeroglu, Mehmet Ali; Hekimoglu, Emre; Anayol, Mustafa Alpaslan; Tasci, Yasemin; Dolen, Ismail

    2016-01-01

    AIM To investigate the effect of oral solifenacin succinate, tolterodine-L-tartarate and oxybutinin hydrochloride (HCl) on accommodation amplitude. METHODS Female overactive bladder syndrome (OAB) patients who were planned to use oral anticholinergics, patients that uses solifenacin succinate 5 mg (Group I, n=25), tolterodine-L-tartarate 4 mg (Group II, n=25), and oxybutinin HCl 5 mg b.i.d (Group III, n=25) and age matched healthy female subjects (Group IV, n=25) were recruited and complete ophthalmological examination and accommodation amplitude assessment were done at baseline and 4wk after initiation of treatment. RESULTS The mean age of 100 consecutive female subjects was 51.6±5.7 (40-60)y and there were no statistically significant difference with regard to the mean age (P=0.107) and baseline accommodation amplitude (P=0.148) between study groups. All treatment groups showed a significant decrease in accommodation amplitude following a 4-week course of anticholinergic treatment (P=0.008 in Group I, P=0.002 in Group II, P=0.001 in Group III), but there was no statistically significant difference in Group IV (P=0.065). CONCLUSION A 4-week course of oral anticholinergic treatment have statistically significant effect on accommodation amplitude. Clinicians should avoid both overestimating this result, as this would unnecessarily restrict therapeutic possibilities, and also underestimating it which may lead to drug intolerance. PMID:27275433

  12. Trends in electrocardiographic R-wave amplitude during intraoperative pneumothorax.

    PubMed

    Tomiyama, Yoshinobu; Higashijima, Sachiyo; Kadota, Takako; Kume, Katsuyoshi; Kawahara, Tomiya; Ohshita, Naohiro

    2014-01-01

    Tension pneumothorax is a rare but potentially life-threating complication of laparoscopic fundoplication. Electrocardiogram (ECG) changes may be used in the diagnosis of intraoperative tension pneumothorax. This case study examines a pediatric patient who underwent laparoscopic fundoplication. Sudden decreases in oxygen saturation were observed during dissection, although the patient's decrease in blood pressure was less marked. Manual ventilation with high inspiratory pressure and inspiratory pause improved oxygenation. The amplitude of the R-wave decreased from 0.8 mV to 0.3 mV in 5 seconds. Twenty minutes later, oxygen saturation decreased again, the R-wave amplitude decreased from 0.3 mV to 0.1 mV in 1 second, and the decrease in blood pressure was marked. Manual ventilation with high inspiratory pressure improved oxygenation, blood pressure, and R-wave amplitude within two minutes. After conversion to open surgery, the cardiorespiratory condition gradually improved, but the R-wave amplitude did not fully recover, even at the end of surgery. Right-side pneumothorax was subsequently confirmed by postoperative chest X-ray. Chest drains were inserted after surgery. This case suggests that trends in R-wave amplitude are potential indicators of intraoperative tension pneumothorax. PMID:25264070

  13. Simulation of absolute amplitudes of ultrasound signals using equivalent circuits.

    PubMed

    Johansson, Jonny; Martinsson, Pär-Erik; Delsing, Jerker

    2007-10-01

    Equivalent circuits for piezoelectric devices and ultrasonic transmission media can be used to cosimulate electronics and ultrasound parts in simulators originally intended for electronics. To achieve efficient system-level optimization, it is important to simulate correct, absolute amplitude of the ultrasound signal in the system, as this determines the requirements on the electronics regarding dynamic range, circuit noise, and power consumption. This paper presents methods to achieve correct, absolute amplitude of an ultrasound signal in a simulation of a pulse-echo system using equivalent circuits. This is achieved by taking into consideration loss due to diffraction and the effect of the cable that connects the electronics and the piezoelectric transducer. The conductive loss in the transmission line that models the propagation media of the ultrasound pulse is used to model the loss due to diffraction. Results show that the simulated amplitude of the echo follows measured values well in both near and far fields, with an offset of about 10%. The use of a coaxial cable introduces inductance and capacitance that affect the amplitude of a received echo. Amplitude variations of 60% were observed when the cable length was varied between 0.07 m and 2.3 m, with simulations predicting similar variations. The high precision in the achieved results show that electronic design and system optimization can rely on system simulations alone. This will simplify the development of integrated electronics aimed at ultrasound systems. PMID:18019234

  14. Performance comparison of 850-nm and 1550-nm VCSELs exploiting OOK, OFDM, and 4-PAM over SMF/MMF links for low-cost optical interconnects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karinou, Fotini; Deng, Lei; Lopez, Roberto Rodes; Prince, Kamau; Jensen, Jesper Bevensee; Monroy, Idelfonso Tafur

    2013-06-01

    We experimentally compare the performance of two commercially available vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser diodes (VCSELs), a multi-mode 850-nm and a single-mode 1550-nm, exploiting on-off keying/direct detection (OOK/DD), and orthogonal frequency division multiplexed (OFDM) quadrature phase-shift keying (QPSK)/16-ary quadrature amplitude modulation (16QAM) with direct detection, over SMF (100 m and 5 km) and MMF (100 m and 1 km) short-range links, for their potential application in low-cost rack-to-rack optical interconnects. Moreover, we assess the performance of quaternary-pulse amplitude modulation (4-PAM), for the 1550-nm transmitter over SMF and MMF links and we compare it to the data-rate equivalent NRZ-OOK. The extensive performance comparison under various transmission scenarios shows the superiority of 1550-nm single-mode VCSEL compared to its multi-mode 850-nm counterpart. Moreover, OFDM/DD and 4-PAM in conjunction with low-cost, inexpensive VCSELs as transmitters prove to be an enabling technology for next-generation WDM, point-to-point, short-reach, SMF/MMF optical interconnects and potential candidates to substitute NRZ-OOK. Nevertheless, the sensitivity requirements are higher in that case, whereas these advanced, spectrally-efficient modulation formats become severely degraded when transmitted over MMF links, especially, when employing the inexpensive 850-nm VCSELs as transmitter. Finally, we compare the performance of the point-to-point links under investigation to the performance of a semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA)- based, scalable permutation switch fabric, the Optical Shared MemOry Supercomputer Interconnect System (OSMOSIS).

  15. Loop Integrands for Scattering Amplitudes from the Riemann Sphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geyer, Yvonne; Mason, Lionel; Monteiro, Ricardo; Tourkine, Piotr

    2015-09-01

    The scattering equations on the Riemann sphere give rise to remarkable formulas for tree-level gauge theory and gravity amplitudes. Adamo, Casali, and Skinner conjectured a one-loop formula for supergravity amplitudes based on scattering equations on a torus. We use a residue theorem to transform this into a formula on the Riemann sphere. What emerges is a framework for loop integrands on the Riemann sphere that promises to have a wide application, based on off-shell scattering equations that depend on the loop momentum. We present new formulas, checked explicitly at low points, for supergravity and super-Yang-Mills amplitudes and for n -gon integrands at one loop. Finally, we show that the off-shell scattering equations naturally extend to arbitrary loop order, and we give a proposal for the all-loop integrands for supergravity and planar super-Yang-Mills theory.

  16. Kernel Phase and Kernel Amplitude in Fizeau Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pope, Benjamin J. S.

    2016-09-01

    Kernel phase interferometry is an approach to high angular resolution imaging which enhances the performance of speckle imaging with adaptive optics. Kernel phases are self-calibrating observables that generalize the idea of closure phases from non-redundant arrays to telescopes with arbitrarily shaped pupils, by considering a matrix-based approximation to the diffraction problem. In this paper I discuss the recent fhistory of kernel phase, in particular in the matrix-based study of sparse arrays, and propose an analogous generalization of the closure amplitude to kernel amplitudes. This new approach can self-calibrate throughput and scintillation errors in optical imaging, which extends the power of kernel phase-like methods to symmetric targets where amplitude and not phase calibration can be a significant limitation, and will enable further developments in high angular resolution astronomy.

  17. Berends-Giele recursion for double-color-ordered amplitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mafra, Carlos R.

    2016-07-01

    Tree-level double-color-ordered amplitudes are computed using Berends-Giele recursion relations applied to the bi-adjoint cubic scalar theory. The standard notion of Berends-Giele currents is generalized to double-currents and their recursions are derived from a perturbiner expansion of linearized fields that solve the non-linear field equations. Two applications are given. Firstly, we prove that the entries of the inverse KLT matrix are equal to Berends-Giele double-currents (and are therefore easy to compute). And secondly, a simple formula to generate tree-level BCJ-satisfying numerators for arbitrary multiplicity is proposed by evaluating the field-theory limit of tree-level string amplitudes for various color orderings using double-color-ordered amplitudes.

  18. Extracting forward strong amplitudes from elastic differential cross sections

    SciTech Connect

    C.M. Chen; D.J. Ernst; Mikkel B. Johnson

    2001-07-01

    The feasibility of a model-independent extraction of the forward strong amplitude from elastic nuclear cross section data in the Coulomb-nuclear interference region is assessed for {pi} and K{sup +} scattering at intermediate energies. Theoretically-generated ''data'' are analyzed to provide criteria for optimally designing experiments to measure these amplitudes, whose energy dependence (particularly that of the real parts) is needed for disentangling various sources of medium modifications of the projectile-nucleon interaction. The issues considered include determining the angular region over which to make the measurements, the role of the most forward angles measured, and the effects of statistical and systematic errors. We find that there is a region near the forward direction where Coulomb-nuclear interference allows reliable extraction of the strong forward amplitude for both pions and the K{sup +} from .3 to 1 GeV/c.

  19. On the four-dimensional formulation of dimensionally regulated amplitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fazio, A. R.; Mastrolia, P.; Mirabella, E.; Torres Bobadilla, W. J.

    2014-12-01

    Elaborating on the four-dimensional helicity scheme, we propose a pure four-dimensional formulation (FDF) of the -dimensional regularization of one-loop scattering amplitudes. In our formulation particles propagating inside the loop are represented by massive internal states regulating the divergences. The latter obey Feynman rules containing multiplicative selection rules which automatically account for the effects of the extra-dimensional regulating terms of the amplitude. We present explicit representations of the polarization and helicity states of the four-dimensional particles propagating in the loop. They allow for a complete, four-dimensional, unitarity-based construction of -dimensional amplitudes. Generalized unitarity within the FDF does not require any higher-dimensional extension of the Clifford and the spinor algebra. Finally we show how the FDF allows for the recursive construction of -dimensional one-loop integrands, generalizing the four-dimensional open-loop approach.

  20. Top Quark Amplitudes with an Anomolous Magnetic Moment

    SciTech Connect

    Larkoski, Andrew J.; Peskin, Michael E.; /SLAC

    2011-06-23

    The anomalous magnetic moment of the top quark may be measured during the first run of the LHC at 7 TeV. For these measurements, it will be useful to have available tree amplitudes with t{bar t} and arbitrarily many photons and gluons, including both QED and color anomalous magnetic moments. In this paper, we present a method for computing these amplitudes using the Britto-Cachazo-Feng-Witten recursion formula. Because we deal with an effective theory with higher-dimension couplings, there are roadblocks to a direct computation with the Britto-Cachazo-Feng-Witten method. We evade these by using an auxiliary scalar theory to compute a subset of the amplitudes.