Science.gov

Sample records for 16-day research mission

  1. MARS Mission research center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The Mars Mission Research Center (M2RC) is one of nine University Space Engineering Research Centers established by NASA in June 1988. It is a cooperative effort between NCSU and A&T in Greensboro. The goal of the Center is to focus on research and educational technologies for planetary exploration with particular emphasis on Mars. The research combines Mission Analysis and Design, Hypersonic Aerodynamics and Propulsion, Structures and Controls, Composite Materials, and Fabrication Methods in a cross-disciplined program directed towards the development of space transportation systems for lunar and planetary travel. The activities of the students and faculty in the M2RC for the period 1 Jul. 1990 to 30 Jun. 1991 are described.

  2. Mars mission research center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    The Mars Mission Research Center is one of nine University Space Engineering Research Centers established by NASA to broaden the nation's engineering capability to meet the critical needs of the civilian space program. It has the goal of focusing on research and training technologies for planetary exploration with particular emphasis on Mars. The research combines: (1) composite materials and fabrication, (2) light weight structures and controls, and (3) hypersonic aerodynamics and propulsion in a cross disciplined program directed towards the development of the space transportation system for planetary travel.

  3. Geopotential Research Mission (GRM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    The Geopotential Research Mission (GRM) is a satellite system proposed to determine variations in the gravitational and magnetic fields to a resolution of about 100 kilometers. Knowledge and interpretations of the potential fields on scales of 100 kilometers and greater, to clarify the needs for better data in this range of wavelengths were reviewed. The potential contribution of these data to the determination, by satellite altimetry, of a more accurate geoidal reference was discussed.

  4. Mission Overview STS-107: Providing 24/7 Space Science Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Columbia's 16-day mission is dedicated to a mixed complement of competitively selected and commercially sponsored research in the space, life and physical sciences. An international crew of seven, including the first Israeli astronaut, will work 24 hours a day in two alternating shifts to carry out experiments in the areas of astronaut health and safety; advanced technology development; and Earth and space sciences.

  5. Hydrologic Research for the SWOT Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alsdorf, Doug; Mognard, Nelly; Cretaux, Jean-Francois; Calmant, Stephane; Biancamaria, Sylvain; Andreadis, Kostas; Schumann, Guy

    2013-04-01

    The Surface Water and Ocean Topography satellite mission (SWOT, http://swot.jpl.nasa.gov/) is designed to measure the elevations of the world's water surfaces including both terrestrial surface waters and the oceans. CNES, NASA, and the CSA are partners in the mission, which is now in Phase A with a launch date of 2020. The mission teams have already made exciting advances, most notably the formation of the Science Definition Team. The SDT consists of three-dozen lead investigators and their research teams, spanning Europe and the U.S. and across oceanography and hydrology. The group will address hydrologic issues such as: What are the spatial resolutions, temporal samplings, and height accuracies required to address SWOT's hydrologic science questions? Can these be relaxed or improved from preliminary designs and thus what are the expected impacts on mission power requirements? To help address these issues, an airborne platform called "AirSWOT" has been developed. While AirSWOT flights are still in the planning stages, it is hoped that measurements will occur over several U.S. and French rivers, including some braided Alaskan rivers and some tropical rivers. These various hydrogeomorphic regimes will provide different settings in which to test discharge algorithms. Based on the results of a workshop held in June 2012, it is thought that river reaches, rather than river cross-sections, are optimum for SWOT estimates of discharge. As the SDT works through these important mission design issues, they will also help to further refine the mission hydrologic goals. For example, reservoirs around the world impact the water cycle via storage and release. Yet, a global comprehensive understanding of these changes remains unknown. What role will SWOT have in solving this problem, e.g., what are the fluvial geomorphic environments best suited for SWOT measurements of reservoirs?

  6. The Space Time Asymmetry Research Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scargle, Jeffrey; Goebel, John; Buchman, Sasha; Byer, Robert; Sun, Ke-Xun; Lipa, John; Chu-Thielbar, Lisa; Hall, John

    We will use precision molecular iodine stabilized Nd:YAG laser interferometers to search for small deviations from Lorentz Invariance, a cornerstone of relativity and particle physics, and thus our understanding of the Universe. A Lorentz violation would have profound implications for cosmology and particle physics. An improved null result will constrain theories attempting to unite particle physics and gravity. Science Objectives: Measure the absolute anisotropy of the velocity of light to 10-18 (100-fold improvement) Derive the Michelson-Morley coefficient to 10-12 (100-fold improvement) Derive the Kennedy-Thorndyke coefficient to 7x10-10 (400-fold improvement) Derive the coefficients of Lorentz violation in the Standard Model Extension, in the range 7x10-18 to 10-14 (50 to 500-fold improvement) Thermal control, stabilization and uniformitization are great concerns, so new technology has been devised that keeps these parameters within strict specified limits. Thereby STAR is able to operate effectively in all possible orbits. The spacecraft is based on a bus development by NASA Ames Research Center. STAR is designed to fly as a secondary payload on a Delta IV launch vehicle with an ESPA ring into an 850 km circular orbit. It will have a one-year mission and is capable of even longer duration. Other orbit options are possible depending on the launch opportunities available. The STAR project is a partnership between Stanford University, NASA Ames Research Center and NASA Goddard Space Flight Center.

  7. Digestive enzyme expression and epithelial structure of small intestine in neonatal rats after 16 days spaceflight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyake, M.; Yamasaki, M.; Hazama, A.; Ijiri, K.; Shimizu, T.

    It is important to assure whether digestive system can develop normally in neonates during spaceflight. Because the small intestine changes its function and structure drastically around weaning known as redifferentiation. Lactase expression declines and sucrase increases in small intestine for digestion of solid food before weaning. In this paper, we compared this enzyme transition and structural development of small intestine in neonatal rats after spaceflight. To find digestive genes differentially expressed in fight rats, DNA membrane macroarray was also used. Eight-day old rats were loaded to Space Shuttle Columbia, and housed in the animal facility for 16 days in space (STS-90, Neurolab mission). Two control groups (AGC; asynchronous ground control and VIV; vivarium) against flight group (FLT) were prepared. There was no difference in structure (crypt depth) and cell differentiation of epithelium between FLT and AGC by immunohistochemical analysis. We found that the amount of sucrase mRNA compared to lactase was decreased in FLT by RT-PCR. It reflected the enzyme transition was inhibited. Increase of 5 genes (APO A-I, APO A-IV, ACE, aFABP and aminopeptidase M) and decrease of carboxypeptidase-D were detected in FLT using macroarray. We think nutrition differences (less nourishment and late weaning) during spaceflight may cause inhibition of enzyme transition at least partly. The weightlessness might contribute to the inhibition through behavioral change.

  8. Research e-infrastructure for "Geophysics" mission.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nazarov, V.; Mogilevsky, M.; Nazirov, R.; Eismont, N.; Melnik, A.

    2009-04-01

    Space mission "Geophysics" intended for monitoring of ionospheric plasma parameters, electromagnetic emission and solar activity. In the frame of the project will be launched five small satellites on solar-synchronous orbits: two satellites on circular orbit, altitude ~700 km, orbit plane - morning-evening, another two satellites at the same altitude but orbit plane - day-night and the last satellite - on elliptic orbit with ~1200 km apogee and ~400 km perigee. Such choice of spacecraft constellation configuration is so some extent similar to the configuration usually used for the Earth remote sensing tasks. It gives advantages for the project because it allows to apply technologies of remote sensing satellites practically off shelved. From the other side it gives new possibilities for geophysics experiments followed from the fact that the measurements may be considered as the ones done by the instruments having the size of the Earth scale. However it brings more strict requirements for information support of the mission in general and for ground segment particularly. In needs not only on-line processing but on-line interpretation too, operative feedback link between interpretation and operation subsystems etc. Satisfaction of such strict requirements from one side and necessity for using of existing ground resources (taking in account budget limitations) implied creating of unified ground information infrastructure for target payload of the mission. This e-infrastructure will cover traditional ground systems which are treated as systems based on Resource-Oriented Architecture (ROA) and will produce unified integration platform based on Service-Oriented Architecture (SOA) which will collects all needed services and provides access to them in frame of unified cyber-infrastructure. The article describes technology and methodology aspects of design of this system.

  9. Magnetospheric research as accomplished by IMS mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, R. N.

    1990-12-01

    This study is based on the International Magnetospheric Study (IMS) program launched and carried out during 1976-1979. Brief descriptions of various experiments aboard the different satellites are given. The magnetospheric features revealed by these measurements are described and discussed. The experiments covered include those aboard the ISEE, GEOS, ATS-6, P78-2 (SCATHA), S3-3, and Prognoz-7 missions. The IMS ground-based experiments are also briefly outlined. Among the results discussed are the tangential and rotational discontinuities in the magnetopause, flux transfer events at the magnetopause, plasma sheet and magnetotail phenomena, and the magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling.

  10. Research Support: The New Mission for Libraries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Erik T.

    2013-01-01

    Research support services are growing areas of importance in academic libraries and are part of the libraries' larger goal to provide wider support for research-related services. Ithaka's "Library Survey 2010" indicated that research support services, along with teaching facilitation, are the two growth areas projected by library directors. In…

  11. Workshop on Balloon Science: Connecting Mission Research with Educational Opportunities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waller, William H.; Austin, S.; Johnson, L.; Ruberg, L.

    2006-06-01

    In the past 3 decades, balloon-borne research missions have contributed to dramatic advances in our understanding of the terrestrial atmosphere’s ozone hole, the ultraviolet and infrared emitting properties of galaxies, the nature of cosmic rays, and the cosmic microwave background. Balloon science research and education are closely interconnected and interdependent endeavors. Through mission-related educational programs, the development of future space scientists and engineers is assured. Moreover, the same unique attributes that make balloon science attractive to researchers also make it a natural for educating the next generation of explorers. Compared to orbital and interplanetary space missions, suborbital balloon science missions are relatively low-cost, short-term, and more amenable to direct hands-on involvement by students. Indeed, students can make authentic contributions to all phases of balloon science missions - from developing the hardware and software to facilitating the launch, telemetry, and recovery to handling the data reduction and analysis. Payloads are almost always recovered, allowing for iterative learning through updating equipment and methods.In this workshop, we will explore the inter-relations between mission-oriented balloon science opportunities and the educational opportunities that can enrich and advance these missions. Experienced balloon science researchers will share their experiences and contribute to the collective knowledge base regarding future research opportunities and existing resources for furthering one’s particular research agenda. This workshop will provide a forum to heighten awareness of scientific ballooning and will hopefully encourage participants to forge new partnerships via this meeting. Towards these ends, presenters will give overviews of the wide-ranging balloon science investigations that are currently underway. They will also describe and discuss successful faculty/student team projects, from small

  12. Missions of Research University and Choice of Its Organizational Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xuan, Yong

    2006-01-01

    This paper delineates the distinctive facets of the research university and further explores the features of scientific research. On this basis, it is established that the mission of the research university is to achieve knowledge creation and academic advances. With a comparison of the organizational framework between the general university and…

  13. The Neurolab Spacelab Mission: Neuroscience Research in Space: Results from the STS-90, Neurolab Spacelab Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buckey, Jay C., Jr. (Editor); Homick, Jerry L. (Editor)

    2003-01-01

    Neurolab (STS-90) represents a major scientific achievement that built upon the knowledge and capabilities developed during the preceding 15 successful Spacelab module missions. NASA proposed a dedicated neuroscience research flight in response to a Presidential declaration that the 1990's be the Decade of the Brain. Criteria were established for selecting research proposals in partnership with the National Institutes of Health (NM), the National Science Foundation, the Department of Defense, and a number of the International Space Agencies. The resulting Announcement of Opportunity for Neurolab in 1993 resulted in 172 proposals from scientists worldwide. After an NIH-managed peer review, NASA ultimately selected 26 proposals for flight on the Neurolab mission.

  14. PFERD Mission: Pluto Flyby Exploration/Research Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lemke, Gary; Zayed, Husni; Herring, Jason; Fuehne, Doug; Sutton, Kevin; Sharkey, Mike

    1990-01-01

    The Pluto Flyby Exploration/Research Design (PFERD) mission will consist of a flyby spacecraft to Pluto and its satellite, Charon. The mission lifetime is expected to be 18 years. The Titan 4 with a Centaur upper stage will be utilized to launch the craft into the transfer orbit. The proposal was divided into six main subsystems: (1) scientific instrumentation; (2) command, communications, and control: (3) altitude and articulation control; (4) power and propulsion; (5) structures and thermal control; and (6) mission management and costing. Tradeoff studies were performed to optimize all factors of design, including survivability, performance, cost, and weight. Problems encountered in the design are also presented.

  15. The HAMMER: High altitude multiple mission environmental researcher

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayashi, Darren; Zylla, Cara; Amaro, Ernesto; Colin, Phil; Klause, Thomas; Lopez, Bernardo; Williamson, Danna

    1991-01-01

    At the equator, the ozone layer ranges from 65,000 to 130,000+ feet which is beyond the capabilities of the ER-2, NASA's current high altitude reconnaissance aircraft. The Universities Space Research Association, in cooperation with NASA, is sponsoring an undergraduate program which is geared to designing an aircraft that can study the ozone layer at the equator. This aircraft must be able to satisfy four mission profiles. Mission one is a polar mission which ranges from Chile to the South Pole and back to Chile, a total range of 6000 n. mi. at 100,000 feet with a 2500 lb. payload. The second mission is also a polar mission with a decreased altitude of 70,000 feet and an increased payload of 4000 lb. For the third mission, the aircraft will take-off at NASA Ames, cruise at 100,000 feet carrying a 2500 lb. payload, and land in Puerto Montt, Chile. The final mission requires the aircraft to take-off at NASA Ames, cruise at 100,000 feet with a 1000 lb. payload, make an excursion to 120,000 feet, and land at Howard AFB, Panama. All three missions require that a subsonic Mach number is maintained due to constraints imposed by the air sampling equipment. The aircraft need not be manned for all four missions. Three aircraft configurations were determined to be the most suitable for meeting the above requirements. The performance of each configuration is analyzed to investigate the feasibility of the project requirements. In the event that a requirement can not be obtained within the given constraints, recommendations for proposal modifications are given.

  16. Restoration of plasma volume after 16 days of head-down tilt induced by a single bout of maximal exercise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Convertino, V. A.; Engelke, K. A.; Ludwig, D. A.; Doerr, D. F.

    1996-01-01

    Seven healthy men performed maximal exercise 24 h before the end of 16 days exposure to 6 degrees head-down tilt (HDT) to test the hypothesis that such an exercise technique could restore plasma volume (PV) at the end of a simulated space mission. Exercise consisted of supine cycling with graded work rates increasing by 16 W/min to volitional fatigue and required an average of 16 min. The experimental protocol was a standard cross-over design in which the order of treatment (exercise or control) was counterbalanced across all seven subjects. PV, fluid intake (ad libitum), urine output, renal function, and hormones associated with fluid homeostasis were measured before HDT, 24 h before the end of HDT just prior to exercise, and at the end of HDT 24 h after exercise. HDT reduced PV by 16% in both control and exercise conditions. Maximal exercise completely restored plasma volume within 24 h to 3.9 +/- 3.2% of pre-HDT levels despite continued HDT. Compared with control, exercise induced a 660-ml larger positive fluid balance because of greater fluid intake and reduced urine volume during the 24 h after exercise. These results suggest that one bout of maximal leg exercise before return from 16 days of spaceflight may be completely effective in stimulating thirst and restoring plasma volume to preflight levels.

  17. Mechanisms driving the global and seasonal structure of the 16-day planetary wave

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, V.; Chang, L. C.; Liu, H.; Palo, S. E.

    2013-12-01

    Past observations have shown that the effects of the quasi 16-day planetary wave, representing the second symmetric Rossby normal mode, are prevalent throughout the middle atmosphere and occasionally, some portions of the upper atmosphere. In the presented work, we investigate the mechanisms driving the propagation of the quasi 16-day planetary wave from a source in the lower atmosphere to higher altitudes by using the NCAR Thermosphere Ionosphere Mesosphere Electrodynamics General Circulation Model (TIME-GCM). The quasi 16-day planetary wave is simulated in the model by introducing perturbations in geopotential height at the lower boundary of the model and comparing it to a control run. Analysis of the model runs over the course of a year show that the background zonal winds play an important role in driving seasonal changes in the quasi 16-day planetary wave structure. Derived quasi-geostrophic potential vorticity gradient and Eliassen-Palm flux from the model output also show that the penetration of the wave into regions of mean wind instability can drive wave amplification in certain regions. The model results are compared to the quasi 16-day wave structure derived from TIMED-SABER observations to identify similarities/differences between the model and observations, and provide further insight into the mechanisms driving the wave propagation.

  18. Past missions - the best way to train future planetary researchers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozlova, Natalia; Solodovnikova, Anastasiya; Zubarev, Anatoly; Garov, Andrey; Patraty, Vyacheslav; Kokhanov, Alexander; Karachevtseva, Irina; Nadezhdina, Irina; Konopikhin, Anatoly; Oberst, Juergen

    2015-04-01

    Practice shows that it is much more interesting and useful to learn from real examples than on imaginary tasks from exercise books. The more technologies and software improves and develops, the more information and new products can be obtained from new processing of archive information collected by past planetary missions. So at MIIGAiK we carry out modern processing of lunar panoramic images obtained by Soviet Lunokhod missions (1970-1973). During two years of the study, which is a part of PRoViDE project (http://www.provide-space.eu/), many students, PhD students, young scientists, as well as professors have taken part in this research. Processing of the data obtained so long ago requires development of specific methods, techniques, special software and extraordinary approach. All these points help to interest young people in planetary science and develop their skills as researchers. Another advantage of data from previous missions is that you can compare your results with the ones obtained during the mission. This also helps to test the developed techniques and software on real data and adjust them for implementation in future missions. The work on Lunokhod data processing became the basis of master and PhD theses of MIIGAiK students and scientists at MExLab. Acknowledgments: The research leading to these results has received funding from the European Community's Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013) under grant agreement No 312377 PRoViDE.

  19. Collaborative Mission Design at NASA Langley Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gough, Kerry M.; Allen, B. Danette; Amundsen, Ruth M.

    2005-01-01

    NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) has developed and tested two facilities dedicated to increasing efficiency in key mission design processes, including payload design, mission planning, and implementation plan development, among others. The Integrated Design Center (IDC) is a state-of-the-art concurrent design facility which allows scientists and spaceflight engineers to produce project designs and mission plans in a real-time collaborative environment, using industry-standard physics-based development tools and the latest communication technology. The Mission Simulation Lab (MiSL), a virtual reality (VR) facility focused on payload and project design, permits engineers to quickly translate their design and modeling output into enhanced three-dimensional models and then examine them in a realistic full-scale virtual environment. The authors were responsible for envisioning both facilities and turning those visions into fully operational mission design resources at LaRC with multiple advanced capabilities and applications. In addition, the authors have created a synergistic interface between these two facilities. This combined functionality is the Interactive Design and Simulation Center (IDSC), a meta-facility which offers project teams a powerful array of highly advanced tools, permitting them to rapidly produce project designs while maintaining the integrity of the input from every discipline expert on the project. The concept-to-flight mission support provided by IDSC has shown improved inter- and intra-team communication and a reduction in the resources required for proposal development, requirements definition, and design effort.

  20. Human missions to Mars: new psychological challenges and research issues.

    PubMed

    Manzey, Dietrich

    2004-01-01

    Human exploratory missions to Mars represent the most exciting future vision of human space flight. With respect to the distance to travel and mission duration, these missions will provide unique psychological challenges that do not compare to any other endeavor humans ever have attempted. The present paper presents outcomes of two recent projects sponsored by the European Space Agency--Humex and Reglisse--where these challenges and risks have been analyzed in some detail, and where concepts for future research have been developed. This presentation involves three steps. At first, it will be shown that our current psychological knowledge derived from orbital spaceflight and analogue environments is not sufficient to assess the specific risks of mission into outer space. Secondly, new psychological challenges of missions to Mars will be identified with respect to three different areas: (1) individual adaptation and performance, (2) crew interactions, and (3) concept and methods of psychological countermeasures. Finally, different options and issues of preparatory psychological research will be discussed. PMID:15806750

  1. Geopotential research mission, science, engineering and program summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keating, T. (Editor); Taylor, P. (Editor); Kahn, W. (Editor); Lerch, F. (Editor)

    1986-01-01

    This report is based upon the accumulated scientific and engineering studies pertaining to the Geopotential Research Mission (GRM). The scientific need and justification for the measurement of the Earth's gravity and magnetic fields are discussed. Emphasis is placed upon the studies and conclusions of scientific organizations and NASA advisory groups. The engineering design and investigations performed over the last 4 years are described, and a spacecraft design capable of fulfilling all scientific objectives is presented. In addition, critical features of the scientific requirements and state-of-the-art limitations of spacecraft design, mission flight performance, and data processing are discussed.

  2. Superconductor Semiconductor Research for NASA's Submillimeter Wavelength Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crowe, Thomas W.

    1997-01-01

    Wideband, coherent submillimeter wavelength detectors of the highest sensitivity are essential for the success of NASA's future radio astronomical and atmospheric space missions. The critical receiver components which need to be developed are ultra- wideband mixers and suitable local oscillator sources. This research is focused on two topics, (1) the development of reliable varactor diodes that will generate the required output power for NASA missions in the frequency range from 300 GHZ through 2.5 THz, and (2) the development of wideband superconductive mixer elements for the same frequency range.

  3. Research into language concepts for the mission control center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dellenback, Steven W.; Barton, Timothy J.; Ratner, Jeremiah M.

    1990-01-01

    A final report is given on research into language concepts for the Mission Control Center (MCC). The Specification Driven Language research is described. The state of the image processing field and how image processing techniques could be applied toward automating the generation of the language known as COmputation Development Environment (CODE or Comp Builder) are discussed. Also described is the development of a flight certified compiler for Comps.

  4. Neurolab - A Space Shuttle Mission Dedicated to Neuroscience Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Session JA5 includes short reports concerning: (1) NASA/NIH Neurolab Collaborations; (2) Neurolab Mission: An Example of International Cooperation; (3) Neurolab: An Overview of the Planned Scientific Investigations; (4) EDEN: A Payload for NEUROLAB, dedicated to Neuro Vestibular Research; (5) Neurolab Experiments on the Role of Visual Cues in Microgravity Spatial Orientation; and (6) The Role of Space in the Exploration of the Mammalian Vestibular System.

  5. Future Soil Moisture Satellite Missions and Research Needs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Njoku, E. G.; Jackson, T. J.; O'Neill, P. E.

    2001-12-01

    many opportunities, and research needs, to be addressed in developing innovative approaches to utilization of the new satellite-derived data. Issues include development of new processing and retrieval algorithms, methods for jointly assimilating satellite-derived and in-situ data into hydrologic models, and validation of derived soil moisture data and products. An overview of the current soil moisture mission and planning status, and ongoing and needed research, will be provided in this paper.

  6. Recent Applications of Space Weather Research to NASA Space Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Willis, Emily M.; Howard, James W., Jr.; Miller, J. Scott; Minow, Joseph I.; NeergardParker, L.; Suggs, Robert M.

    2013-01-01

    Marshall Space Flight Center s Space Environments Team is committed to applying the latest research in space weather to NASA programs. We analyze data from an extensive set of space weather satellites in order to define the space environments for some of NASA s highest profile programs. Our goal is to ensure that spacecraft are designed to be successful in all environments encountered during their missions. We also collaborate with universities, industry, and other federal agencies to provide analysis of anomalies and operational impacts to current missions. This presentation is a summary of some of our most recent applications of space weather data, including the definition of the space environments for the initial phases of the Space Launch System (SLS), acquisition of International Space Station (ISS) frame potential variations during geomagnetic storms, and Nascap-2K charging analyses.

  7. Simulation and analysis of a geopotential research mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, Lisa K.

    1987-01-01

    Methods for the determination of the initial conditions for the two satellites that will satisfy Geopotential Research Mission (GRM) requirements are investigated. For certain gravitational recovery techniques, the satellites must remain close to a specified separation distance and their groundtracks must repeat after a specified interval of time. Since the objective of the GRM mission is to improve the gravity model, any pre-mission orbit predicted using existing gravity models will be in error. A technique has been developed to eliminate the drift between the two satellites caused by gravitational modeling errors and return them to repeating groundtracks. The concept of frozen orbits, which minimize altitude variations over given latitudes, was investigated. Finally, the effects of temporal perturbations on the relative range-rate signal were studied. At the proposed altitude of 160 km, the range-rate signal produced by perturbations other than the static geopotential field are dominated by the luni-solar effect. This study demonstrates that the combined effects of all the temporal perturbations does not prevent the orbit from being frozen or the satellites from obtaining a repeating groundtrack to within a specified closure distance.

  8. Research Needs in Electrostatics for Lunar and Mars Space Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calle, Carlos I.

    2005-01-01

    The new space exploratory vision announced by President Bush on January 14, 2004, initiated new activities at the National Science and Space Administration (NASA) for human space missions to further explore our solar system. NASA is undertaking Lunar exploration to support sustained human and robotic exploration of Mars and beyond. A series of robotic missions to the Moon by 2008 to prepare for human exploration as early as 2015 but no later than 2020 are anticipated. In a similar way, missions to the Moon and Mars are being planned in Europe, Japan and Russia. These space missions will require international participation to solve problems in a number of important technological areas where research is needed, including biomedical risk mitigation as well as life support and habitability on the surface of Mars. Mitigation of dust hazards is one of the most important problems to be resolved for both Lunar and Mars missions. Both Lunar and Martian regolith are unique materials and completely different from the terrestrial soils that we are exposed to on earth. The total absence of water and an atmosphere on the moon and the formation of soil and fine dust by micrometeorite impacts over billions of years resulted in a layer of soil with unique properties. The soil is primarily basaltic in composition with a high glass concentration. The depth of the soil layer varies from a few meters in the mare areas (dark areas on the Lunar near side) to tens of meters in the highland areas (the lighter mountainous areas) and the particle size distribution of this dust layer varies widely with a major mass fraction less than 10 micrometer in diameter. The hard soil from the moon which has been extensively studied by several researchers showed clearly unique properties of Lunar soil. Apollo astronauts became aware of the potentially serious threat to crew health and mission hardware that can be caused by the lunar dust. As reported by McKay and Carrier the mass fraction of the lunar

  9. ACRM's evolving mission: opportunities to promote rehabilitation research.

    PubMed

    Heinemann, Allen W

    2006-02-01

    This presidential address reflects on the history and mission of the American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine (ACRM) and considers the benefits derived from joint ownership of Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation with the American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation (AAPM&R). Much of ACRM's history has been distinguished by collaboration with AAPM&R on essential concerns. Evolving organizational priorities have resulted in distinct association missions that have consequences for joint ownership of Archives. The journal has grown in important ways in the past 86 years from a solo editor to an editorial board and to joint ownership and sponsorship of alternating issues. The quality of Archives has improved substantially in the past decade, with an improving impact factor and an increasing number of manuscript submissions. A new contract with the publisher provides an opportunity to consider the relationship between the Congress and Archives and what kind of benefit ACRM desires it to be for its members, to the larger community of physical medicine and rehabilitation (PM&R), and to the persons with disabilities we as PM&R professionals seek to serve. Archives is well positioned to fulfill ACRM's focus on promoting rehabilitation research and facilitating information dissemination and technology transfer. An internationally respected journal is an excellent means to disseminate rehabilitation research that promotes health, independence, productivity, and quality of life for people with disabling conditions. This new chapter in the relationship between Archives and the Academy and Congress provides several opportunities for rehabilitation research leadership. More than ever, Archives provides a premier mechanism to fulfill the Congress's mission and to promote our sense of community. PMID:16442965

  10. Life and Microgravity Sciences Spacelab Mission: Human Research Pilot Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnaud, Sara B. (Editor); Walker, Karen R. (Editor); Hargens, Alan (Editor)

    1996-01-01

    The Life Sciences, Microgravity Science and Spacelab Mission contains a number of human experiments directed toward identifying the functional, metabolic and neurological characteristics of muscle weakness and atrophy during space flight. To ensure the successful completion of the flight experiments, a ground-based pilot study, designed to mimic the flight protocols as closely as possible, was carried out in the head-down tilt bed rest model. This report records the rationales, procedures, preliminary results and estimated value of the pilot study, the first of its kind, for 12 of the 13 planned experiments in human research. The bed rest study was conducted in the Human Research Facility at Ames Research Center from July 11 - August 28, 1995. Eight healthy male volunteers performed the experiments before, during and after 17 days bed rest. The immediate purposes of this simulation were to integrate the experiments, provide data in a large enough sample for publication of results, enable investigators to review individual experiments in the framework of a multi-disciplinary study and relay the experience of the pilot study to the mission specialists prior to launch.

  11. Latitudinal variability of the quasi-16-day wave in the middle atmosphere over Brazilian stations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guharay, Amitava; Prado Batista, Paulo; Clemesha, Barclay Robert; Arlen Buriti, Ricardo; Schuch, Nelson Jorge

    2016-04-01

    A comparative study of the quasi-16-day wave (QSDW) in the middle atmosphere using meteor radar observations and reanalysis data from three Brazilian stations, Sao Joao do Cariri (7.4° S, 36.5° W) (CA), Cachoeira Paulista (22.7° S, 45° W) (CP), and Santa Maria (29.7° S, 53.7° W) (SM) has been carried out in the year 2005 to delineate its latitudinal variability characteristics. The broad spectral behavior around 16-day periodicity may indicate multiple modes of the concerned wave component. The wave amplitude shows a number of peaks over the year with the largest one in summer and winter in the case of mesosphere-lower thermosphere (MLT) and stratosphere, respectively. A potential coupling of the concerned wave with other short period planetary waves, especially at CA and CP is evinced. Although zonal propagation exhibits both eastward as well as westward waves there is a general preference of eastward waves at mid-latitude and westward waves at tropical latitudes. The prevailing westerly background wind in the middle atmosphere is conceived to favor the wave filtering of westward propagating Rossby waves at lower latitude.

  12. School Mission Statements and School Performance: A Mixed Research Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slate, John R.; Jones, Craig H.; Wiesman, Karen; Alexander, Jeanie; Saenz, Tracy

    2008-01-01

    Background: Schools in K-12 have generated mission statements as ways of focusing their efforts and energies in specific areas. These mission statements vary by institutional setting as a function of the stakeholders and constituent groups who facilitate their development. To date, no studies were located in which the mission statements of…

  13. Comparison of MODIS and AVHRR 16-day normalized difference vegetation index composite data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gallo, K.; Ji, L.; Reed, B.; Dwyer, J.; Eidenshink, J.

    2004-01-01

    Normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) data derived from visible and near-infrared data acquired by the MODIS and AVHRR sensors were compared over the same time periods and a variety of land cover classes within the conterminous USA. The relationship between the AVHRR derived NDVI values and those of future sensors is critical to continued long term monitoring of land surface properties. The results indicate that the 16-day composite values are quite similar over the 23 intervals of 2001 that were analyzed, and a linear relationship exists between the NDVI values from the two sensors. The composite AVHRR NDVI data were associated with over 90% of the variation in the MODIS NDVI values. Copyright 2004 by the American Geophysical Union.

  14. Executive function on the 16-day of bed rest in young healthy men

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishizaki, Yuko; Fukuoka, Hideoki; Tanaka, Hidetaka; Ishizaki, Tatsuro; Fujii, Yuri; Hattori-Uchida, Yuko; Nakamura, Minako; Ohkawa, Kaoru; Kobayashi, Hodaka; Taniuchi, Shoichiro; Kaneko, Kazunari

    2009-05-01

    Microgravity due to prolonged bed rest may cause changes in cerebral circulation, which is related to brain function. We evaluate the effect of simulated microgravity due to a 6° head-down tilt bed rest experiment on executive function among 12 healthy young men. Four kinds of psychoneurological tests—the table tapping test, the trail making test, the pointing test and losing at rock-paper-scissors—were performed on the baseline and on day 16 of the experiment. There was no significant difference in the results between the baseline and day 16 on all tests, which indicated that executive function was not impaired by the 16-day 6° head-down tilting bed rest. However, we cannot conclude that microgravity did not affect executive function because of the possible contribution of the following factors: (1) the timing of tests, (2) the learning effect, or (3) changes in psychophysiology that were too small to affect higher brain function.

  15. A New National MODIS-Derived Phenology Data Set Every 16 Days, 2002 through 2006

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hargrove, W. W.; Spruce, J.; Gasser, G.; Hoffman, F. M.; Lee, D.

    2008-12-01

    A new national phenology data set has been developed, comprised of a series of seamless 231m national maps, every 16 days from 2001 through 2006. The data set was developed jointly by the Eastern Forest Environmental Threat Assessment Center (EFETAC) of the USDA Forest Service, and contractors of the NASA Stennis Space Center. The data are available now for dissemination and use. The first half of the National Phenology Data Set is the cumulative area under the NDVI curve since Jan 1, and increases monotonically every 16 days until the end of the year. These cumulative data values "latch" in the event of clouds or snow, remaining at the value when we last saw this cell. The second half is a set of diagnostic parameters fit to the annual NDVI function. The spring minimum, the 20% rise, the 80% rise, the leaf-on maximum, the 80% fall, the 20% fall, and the trailing fall minimum are determined for each map cell. For each parameter, we produce both a national map of the NDVI value, and a map of the day-of-year when that NDVI value was reached. Length of growing season, as the difference between the spring and fall 20% DOYs, and date of middle of growing season can be mapped as well. The new dataset has permitted the development of a set of national phonological ecoregions, and has also proven useful for mapping Gypsy Moth defoliation, simultaneously delineating the aftermath of three Gulf Coast hurricanes, and quantifying suburban/ex-urban development surrounding metro Atlanta.

  16. A New National MODIS-Derived Phenology Data Set Every 16 Days, 2002 through 2006

    SciTech Connect

    HargroveJr., William Walter; Spruce, Joe; Gasser, Gerry; Hoffman, Forrest M; Lee, Danny C

    2008-01-01

    A new national phenology data set has been developed, comprised of a series of seamless 231 m national maps, every 16 days from 2001 through 2006. The data set was developed jointly by the Eastern Forest Environmental Threat Assessment Center (EFETAC) of the USDA Forest Service, and contractors of the NASA Stennis Space Center. The data are available now for dissemination and use. The first half of the National Phenology Data Set is the cumulative area under the NDVI curve since Jan 1, and increases monotonically every 16 days until the end of the year. These cumulative data values 'latch' in the event of clouds or snow, remaining at the value when we last saw this cell. The second half is a set of diagnostic parameters fit to the annual NDVI function. The spring minimum, the 20% rise, the 80% rise, the leaf-on maximum, the 80% fall, the 20% fall, and the trailing fall minimum are determined for each map cell. For each parameter, we produce both a national map of the NDVI value, and a map of the day-of-year when that NDVI value was reached. Length of growing season, as the difference between the spring and fall 20% DOYs, and date of middle of growing season can be mapped as well. The new dataset has permitted the development of a set of national phonological ecoregions, and has also proven useful for mapping Gypsy Moth defoliation, simultaneously delineating the aftermath of three Gulf Coast hurricanes, and quantifying suburban/ex-urban development surrounding metro Atlanta.

  17. Suborbital Research and Education Missions with Commercial Reusable Launch Vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodway, K.; Nelson, A.; Voigt, J.

    2012-12-01

    Suborbital reusable launch vehicles (sRLV) will provide low-cost, flexible, and frequent access to space. In the case of XCOR's Lynx, the vehicle design and capabilities work well for hosting specially designed experiments that can be flown with a human-tended researcher or alone with the pilot on a unique mission on a customized flight trajectory. This new manned, reusable commercial platform will allow for repeated observations with a single instrument, but without the need to refurbish the vehicle between flights. In addition, the short turn-around means a researcher can do multiple observations, measurements, or targets. The vehicle is designed for multi-mission primary and secondary payload capabilities, including: in-cockpit experiments and instrumentation testing, externally mounted experiments, upper atmospheric sampling, and microsatellite launch. This vehicle takes off horizontally from a runway and will go into a powered ascent attaining Mach 2.9 maximum airspeed. After about three minutes and at approximately 58 km (190,000 ft) the engines are shutdown and the RLV then coasts upwards. The low gravity period (at or below 0.001go) begins soon after at 3.35 minutes and the microgravity period (at or below 10-6go) starts at 4.25 minutes. At approximately four and half minutes the vehicle reaches apogee of 100 km (328, 000 ft). After reentry and a Max-G force pullout of 4 g, the Lynx touches down on the takeoff runway after approximately 30 minutes.Typical Lynx Mark II flight profile

  18. The Scintillation Prediction Observations Research Task (SPORT) Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spann, James; Swenson, Charles; Durão, Otavio; Loures, Luis; Heelis, Rod; Bishop, Rebecca; Le, Guan; Abdu, Mangalathayil; Krause, Linda; Nardin, Clezio; Fonseca, Eloi

    2016-04-01

    Structure in the charged particle number density in the equatorial ionosphere can have a profound impact on the fidelity of HF, VHF and UHF radio signals that are used for ground-to-ground and space-to-ground communication and navigation. The degree to which such systems can be compromised depends in large part on the spatial distribution of the structured regions in the ionosphere and the background plasma density in which they are embedded. In order to address these challenges it is necessary to accurately distinguish the background ionospheric conditions that favor the generation of irregularities from those that do not. Additionally we must relate the evolution of those conditions to the subsequent evolution of the irregular plasma regions themselves. The background ionospheric conditions are conveniently described by latitudinal profiles of the plasma density at nearly constant altitude, which describe the effects of ExB drifts and neutral winds, while the appearance and growth of plasma structure requires committed observations from the ground from at least one fixed longitude. This talk will present an international collaborative CubeSat mission called SPORT that stands for the Scintillation Prediction Observations Research Task. This mission will advance our understanding of the nature and evolution of ionospheric structures around sunset to improve predictions of disturbances that affect radio propagation and telecommunication signals. The science goals will be accomplished by a unique combination of satellite observations from a nearly circular middle inclination orbit and the extensive operation of ground based observations from South America near the magnetic equator. This approach promises Explorer class science at a CubeSat price.

  19. The Scintillation Prediction Observations Research Task (SPORT) Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spann, James; Le, Guan; Swenson, Charles; Denardini, Clezio Marcos; Bishop, Rebecca L.; Abdu, Mangalathayil A.; Cupertino Durao, Otavio S.; Heelis, Roderick; Loures, Luis; Krause, Linda; Fonseca, Eloi

    2016-07-01

    Structure in the charged particle number density in the equatorial ionosphere can have a profound impact on the fidelity of HF, VHF and UHF radio signals that are used for ground-to-ground and space-to-ground communication and navigation. The degree to which such systems can be compromised depends in large part on the spatial distribution of the structured regions in the ionosphere and the background plasma density in which they are embedded. In order to address these challenges it is necessary to accurately distinguish the background ionospheric conditions that favor the generation of irregularities from those that do not. Additionally we must relate the evolution of those conditions to the subsequent evolution of the irregular plasma regions themselves. The background ionospheric conditions are conveniently described by latitudinal profiles of the plasma density at nearly constant altitude, which describe the effects of ExB drifts and neutral winds, while the appearance and growth of plasma structure requires committed observations from the ground from at least one fixed longitude. This talk will present an international collaborative CubeSat mission called SPORT that stands for the Scintillation Prediction Observations Research Task. This mission will advance our understanding of the nature and evolution of ionospheric structures around sunset to improve predictions of disturbances that affect radio propagation and telecommunication signals. The science goals will be accomplished by a unique combination of satellite observations from a nearly circular middle inclination orbit and the extensive operation of ground based observations from South America near the magnetic equator. This approach promises Explorer class science at a CubeSat price.

  20. The Scintillation Prediction Observations Research Task (SPORT) Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spann, J. F.; Swenson, C.; Durão, O.; Loures, L.; Heelis, R. A.; Bishop, R. L.; Le, G.; Abdu, M. A.; Habash Krause, L.; De Nardin, C. M.; Fonseca, E.

    2015-12-01

    Structure in the charged particle number density in the equatorial ionosphere can have a profound impact on the fidelity of HF, VHF and UHF radio signals that are used for ground-to-ground and space-to-ground communication and navigation. The degree to which such systems can be compromised depends in large part on the spatial distribution of the structured regions in the ionosphere and the background plasma density in which they are embedded. In order to address these challenges it is necessary to accurately distinguish the background ionospheric conditions that favor the generation of irregularities from those that do not. Additionally we must relate the evolution of those conditions to the subsequent evolution of the irregular plasma regions themselves. The background ionospheric conditions are conveniently described by latitudinal profiles of the plasma density at nearly constant altitude, which describe the effects of ExB drifts and neutral winds, while the appearance and growth of plasma structure requires committed observations from the ground from at least one fixed longitude. This talk will present an international collaborative CubeSat mission called SPORT that stands for Scintillation Prediction Observations Research Task. This mission that will advance our understanding of the nature and evolution of ionospheric structures around sunset to improve predictions of disturbances that affect radio propagation and telecommunication signals. The science goals will be accomplished by a unique combination of satellite observations from a nearly circular middle inclination orbit and the extensive operation of ground based observations from South America near the magnetic equator. This approach promises Explorer class science at a CubeSat price.

  1. Air Breathing Propulsion Controls and Diagnostics Research at NASA Glenn Under NASA Aeronautics Research Mission Programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garg, Sanjay

    2015-01-01

    The Intelligent Control and Autonomy Branch (ICA) at NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) Glenn Research Center (GRC) in Cleveland, Ohio, is leading and participating in various projects in partnership with other organizations within GRC and across NASA, the U.S. aerospace industry, and academia to develop advanced controls and health management technologies that will help meet the goals of the NASA Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate (ARMD) Programs. These efforts are primarily under the various projects under the Advanced Air Vehicles Program (AAVP), Airspace Operations and Safety Program (AOSP) and Transformative Aeronautics Concepts Program (TAC). The ICA Branch is focused on advancing the state-of-the-art of aero-engine control and diagnostics technologies to help improve aviation safety, increase efficiency, and enable operation with reduced emissions. This paper describes the various ICA research efforts under the NASA Aeronautics Research Mission Programs with a summary of motivation, background, technical approach, and recent accomplishments for each of the research tasks.

  2. Air Breathing Propulsion Controls and Diagnostics Research at NASA Glenn Under NASA Aeronautics Research Mission Programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garg, Sanjay

    2014-01-01

    The Intelligent Control and Autonomy Branch (ICA) at NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) Glenn Research Center (GRC) in Cleveland, Ohio, is leading and participating in various projects in partnership with other organizations within GRC and across NASA, the U.S. aerospace industry, and academia to develop advanced controls and health management technologies that will help meet the goals of the NASA Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate (ARMD) Programs. These efforts are primarily under the various projects under the Fundamental Aeronautics Program (FAP) and the Aviation Safety Program (ASP). The ICA Branch is focused on advancing the state-of-the-art of aero-engine control and diagnostics technologies to help improve aviation safety, increase efficiency, and enable operation with reduced emissions. This paper describes the various ICA research efforts under the NASA Aeronautics Research Mission Programs with a summary of motivation, background, technical approach, and recent accomplishments for each of the research tasks.

  3. Astronaut Maurizio Cheli, mission specialist, works with the Tether Optical Phenomenon System (TOPS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Astronaut Maurizio Cheli, mission specialist, works with the Tether Optical Phenomenon System (TOPS) on the flight deck of the Earth-orbiting Space Shuttle Columbia. Cheli, representing the European Space Agency (ESA), joined four other astronauts and an international payload specialists for 16 days of scientific research in Earth-orbit.

  4. Astronaut Andrew M. Allen, mission commander, sets up systems for a television downlink on the

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    STS-75 ONBOARD VIEW --- Astronaut Andrew M. Allen, mission commander, sets up systems for a television downlink on the flight deck of the Space Shuttle Columbia. Allen was joined by four other astronauts and an international payload specialist for more than 16 days of research aboard Columbia. The photograph was taken with a 70mm handheld camera.

  5. Agreement evaluation of AVHRR and MODIS 16-day composite NDVI data sets

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ji, L.; Gallo, K.; Eidenshink, J.C.; Dwyer, J.

    2008-01-01

    Satellite-derived normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) data have been used extensively to detect and monitor vegetation conditions at regional and global levels. A combination of NDVI data sets derived from AVHRR and MODIS can be used to construct a long NDVI time series that may also be extended to VIIRS. Comparative analysis of NDVI data derived from AVHRR and MODIS is critical to understanding the data continuity through the time series. In this study, the AVHRR and MODIS 16-day composite NDVI products were compared using regression and agreement analysis methods. The analysis shows a high agreement between the AVHRR-NDVI and MODIS-NDVI observed from 2002 and 2003 for the conterminous United States, but the difference between the two data sets is appreciable. Twenty per cent of the total difference between the two data sets is due to systematic difference, with the remainder due to unsystematic difference. The systematic difference can be eliminated with a linear regression-based transformation between two data sets, and the unsystematic difference can be reduced partially by applying spatial filters to the data. We conclude that the continuity of NDVI time series from AVHRR to MODIS is satisfactory, but a linear transformation between the two sets is recommended.

  6. The Mission and Purpose of TRUCEN (The Research University Civic Engagement Network)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Higher Education Outreach and Engagement, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The mission of The Research University Civic Engagement Network (TRUCEN) is to advance civic engagement and engaged scholarship among research universities. TRUCEN has adopted the following goals for advancing civic engagement and engaged scholarship as part of the core mission of all research universities: (1) Encourage community-engaged…

  7. Using full-mission simulation for human factors research in air transport operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orlady, Harry W.; Hennessy, Robert W.; Obermayer, Richard; Vreuls, Donald; Murphy, Miles R.

    1988-01-01

    This study examined state-of-the-art mission oriented simulation and its use in human factors research. Guidelines were developed for doing full-mission human factors research on crew member behavior during simulated air transport operations. The existing literature was reviewed. However, interviews with experienced investigators provided the most useful information. The fundamental scientific and practical issues of behavioral research in a simulation environment are discussed. Guidelines are presented for planning, scenario development, and the execution of behavioral research using full-mission simulation in the context of air transport flight operations . Research is recommended to enhance the validity and productivity of full-mission research by: (1) validating the need for high-fidelity simulation of all major elements in the operational environment, (2) improving methods for conducting full-mission research, and (3) examining part-task research on specific problems through the use of vehicles which contain higher levels of abstraction (and lower fidelity) of the operational environment.

  8. STS-107 Mission after the Mission: Recovery of Data from the Debris of Columbia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Over, A. P.; Cassanto, J. M.; Cassanto, V. A.; DeLucas, L. J.; Reichert, P.; otil, S. M.; Reed, D. W.; Ahmay, F. T.

    2003-01-01

    STS-107 was a 16-day, dedicated research mission that included over 80 experiments, spanning many disciplines including biology, physics, chemistry, and earth sciences, including many student experiments. The mission was considered a resounding success until February 1, 2003, when tragedy struck the Columbia and her crew as she re-entered the atmosphere over Texas. During the mission, approximately one third of the overall data was obtained but much more was stored in the flight hardware systems. This paper documents a new set of STS-107 experiment objectives, a "mission after the mission," in which several experiment teams attempted, and, in many cases succeeded, to recover data from their flight hardware, now debris. A description of the data recovery efforts is included for these five experiment facilities: Combustion Module-2, Critical Viscosity of Xenon-2, Commercial Instrumentation Technology Associates Biomedical Experiments-2, Biological Research in Canisters-14, and Commercial Protein Crystal Growth.

  9. Mission and Design of the Fusion Ignition Research Experiment (FIRE)

    SciTech Connect

    Meade, D. M.; Jardin, S. C.; Schmidt, J. A.; Thome, R. J.; Sauthoff, N. R.; Heitzenroeder, P.; Nelson, Brad E; Ulrickson, M. A.; Kessel, C. E.; Mandrekas, J.; Neumeyer, C. L.; Schultz, J. H.; Rutherford, P. H.; Wesley, J. C.; Young, K. M.; Nevins, W. M.; Houlberg, Wayne A; Uckan, Nermin A; Woolley, R. W.; Baker, C. C.

    2001-01-01

    Experiments are needed to test and extend present understanding of confinement, macroscopic stability, alpha-driven instabilities, and particle/power exhaust in plasmas dominated by alpha heating. A key issue is to what extent pressure profile evolution driven by strong alpha heating will act to self-organize advanced configurations with large bootstrap current fractions and internal transport barriers. A design study of a Fusion Ignition Research Experiment (FIRE) is underway to assess near term opportunities for advancing the scientific understanding of self-heated fusion plasmas. The emphasis is on understanding the behavior of fusion plasmas dominated by alpha heating (Q ≥ 5) that are sustained for durations comparable to the characteristic plasma time scales (≥ 20 τE and ~ τskin, where τskin is the time for the plasma current profile to redistribute at fixed current). The programmatic mission of FIRE is to attain, explore, understand and optimize alphadominated plasmas to provide knowledge for the design of attractive magnetic fusion energy systems. The programmatic strategy is to access the alpha-heating-dominated regime with confidence using the present advanced tokamak data base (e.g., Elmy-H-mode, ≤ 0.75 Greenwald density) while maintaining the flexibility for accessing and exploring other advanced tokamak modes (e. g., reversed shear, pellet enhanced performance) at lower magnetic fields and fusion power for longer durations in later stages of the experimental program. A major goal is to develop a design concept that could meet these physics objectives with a construction cost in the range of $1B.

  10. STS-87 Mission Specialist Takao Doi suits up

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    STS-87 Mission Specialist Takao Doi, Ph.D., of the National Space Development Agency of Japan, gives a thumbs up in his launch and entry suit in the Operations and Checkout Building. He and the five other crew members will depart shortly for Launch Pad 39B, where the Space Shuttle Columbia awaits liftoff on a 16-day mission to perform microgravity and solar research. Dr. Doi is scheduled to perform an extravehicular activity spacewalk with Mission Specialist Winston Scott during STS-87.

  11. STS-87 Mission Specialist Winston E. Scott suits up

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    STS-87 Mission Specialist Winston Scott dons his launch and entry suit with the assistance of a suit technician in the Operations and Checkout Building. This is Scotts second space flight. He and the five other crew members will depart shortly for Launch Pad 39B, where the Space Shuttle Columbia awaits liftoff on a 16-day mission to perform microgravity and solar research. Scott is scheduled to perform an extravehicular activity spacewalk with Mission Specialist Takao Doi, Ph.D., of the National Space Development Agency of Japan, during STS-87. He also performed a spacewalk on STS-72.

  12. Fuel Cell Research and Development for Future NASA Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manzo, Michelle A.; Hoberecht, Mark; Loyselle, Patricia; Burke, Kenneth; Bents, David; Farmer, Serene; Kohout, Lisa

    2006-01-01

    NASA has been using fuel cell systems since the early days of space flight. Polymer Exchange Membrane Fuel cells provided the primary power for the Gemini and Apollo missions and more recently, alkaline fuel cells serve as the primary power source for the Space Shuttle. NASA's current investments in fuel cell technology support both Exploration and Aeronautics programs. This presentation provides an overview of NASA's fuel cell development programs.

  13. Air Breathing Propulsion Controls and Diagnostics Research at NASA Glenn Under NASA Aeronautics Research Mission Programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garg, Sanjay

    2014-01-01

    This lecture will provide an overview of the aircraft turbine engine control research at NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) Glenn Research Center (GRC). A brief introduction to the engine control problem is first provided with a description of the current state-of-the-art control law structure. A historical aspect of engine control development since the 1940s is then provided with a special emphasis on the contributions of GRC. The traditional engine control problem has been to provide a means to safely transition the engine from one steady-state operating point to another based on the pilot throttle inputs. With the increased emphasis on aircraft safety, enhanced performance and affordability, and the need to reduce the environmental impact of aircraft, there are many new challenges being faced by the designers of aircraft propulsion systems. The Controls and Dynamics Branch (CDB) at GRC is leading and participating in various projects in partnership with other organizations within GRC and across NASA, other government agencies, the U.S. aerospace industry, and academia to develop advanced propulsion controls and diagnostics technologies that will help meet the challenging goals of NASA programs under the Aeronautics Research Mission. The second part of the lecture provides an overview of the various CDB technology development activities in aircraft engine control and diagnostics, both current and some accomplished in the recent past. The motivation for each of the research efforts, the research approach, technical challenges and the key progress to date are summarized. The technologies to be discussed include system level engine control concepts, gas path diagnostics, active component control, and distributed engine control architecture. The lecture will end with a futuristic perspective of how the various current technology developments will lead to an Intelligent and Autonomous Propulsion System requiring none to very minimum pilot interface

  14. Space research activities during missions of the past

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frey, M. A.

    1996-01-01

    For over 30 yr, men and women have lived for various periods of time in a weightless (or free-fall) environment while orbiting the Earth. During these years, we have learned that humans function quite well for short periods of weightlessness, that is, for up to a little more than a year. Some space flight missions have provided physiologic data, including cardiovascular data, from the spacefarers. In fact, some missions have provided laboratories for systematic study of cardiovascular responses and adaptation to space flight. However, the opportunity to obtain physiologic data from people in space is a rarity. It is important to remember that the population sample sizes are small, other stresses may confound the effects of weightlessness, and in some situations the crewmembers are subjects for several experiments at the same time. Furthermore, comparison of cardiovascular data from space flight to data obtained on the ground is sometimes difficult because the subject's posture on the ground is not always reported; in a gravity environment, posture influences the hydrostatic gradient. This over view describes what we have learned about cardiovascular function during flight and after return to Earth.

  15. Strategic Research to Enable NASA's Exploration Missions Conference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nahra, Henry (Compiler)

    2004-01-01

    Abstracts are presented from a conference sponsored by the NASA Office of Biological and Physical Research and hosted by NASA Glenn Research Center and the National Center for Microgravity Research on Fluids and Combustion, held in Cleveland, Ohio, June 22-23, 2004. Topics pertained to the behavior of processes and materials in microgravity as well as physiological-biological studies and microgravity effects.

  16. Pathfinder technologies for bold new missions. [U.S. research and development program for space exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sadin, Stanley R.; Rosen, Robert

    1987-01-01

    Project Pathfinder is a proposed U.S. Space Research and Technology program intended to enable bold new missions of space exploration. Pathfinder continues the advancement of technological capabilities and extends the foundation established under the Civil Space Technology Initiative, CSTI. By filling critical technological gaps, CSTI enhances access to Earth orbit and supports effective operations and science missions therein. Pathfinder, with a longer-term horizon, looks to a future that builds on Shuttle and Space Station and addresses technologies that support a range of exploration missions including: a return to the Moon to build an outpost; piloted missions to Mars; and continued scientific exploration of Earth and the other planets. The program's objective is to develop, within reasonable time frames, those emerging and innovative technologies that will make possible both new and enhanced missions and system concepts.

  17. The FedSat Experience: An Australian Research Satellite Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fraser, B. J.

    In December 2002 FedSat, Australia's first satellite mission in thirty years, was launched from the Tanegashima Space Centre on the H11A-F4 rocket as a secondary payload. FedSat carries a complement of four scientific and engineering payloads in a near-circular sun synchronous 10:30 LT polar orbit at an altitude 800 km and an inclination of 98.7. Scientific experiments include a triaxial fluxgate magnetometer with a frequency response up to 100 Hz and a GPS receiver to monitor total electron content (TEC) and provide a precise orbit determination. A star camera provides precise attitude information. Communications experiments include a Ka-band transponder and a UHF packet data service. A high performance computer payload is testing reconfigurable computing technology. This paper will outline the design and development of FedSat commencing in 1998, and the unique funding situation under which the satellite and some of the payloads were successfully fabricated tested and launched.

  18. Astrobiology and Habitability Studies Supporting Mars Research and Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foing, B. H.; Thiel, C.; Direito, S.; Ehrenfreund, P.; Roling, W.; Martins, Z.; Sephton, M.; Stoker, C.; Zhavaleta, J.; Orzechowska, G.; Kidd, R.; Quinn, R.; Kotler, M.; Eurogeomars Mdrs Team

    2011-03-01

    During EuroGeoMars 2009 campaign, we characterized the mineralogy, organic compounds and microbiology of selected samples from different geological sites, and established correlations (Special Issue: “Astrobiology field research in Moon/Mars analog environments”: IJA 2011).

  19. Exploration-Related Research on ISS: Connecting Science Results to Future Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rhatigan, Jennifer L.; Robinson, Julie A.; Sawin, Charles F.

    2005-01-01

    In January, 2004, the U.S. President announced The Vision for Space Exploration, and charged the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) with using the International Space Station (ISS) for research and technology targeted at supporting U.S. space exploration goals. This paper describes: What we have learned from the first four years of research on ISS relative to the exploration mission; The on-going research being conducted in this regard; and Our current understanding of the major exploration mission risks that the ISS can be used to address. Specifically, we discuss research carried out on the ISS to determine the mechanisms by which human health is affected on long-duration missions, and to develop countermeasures to protect humans from the space environment. These bioastronautics experiments are key enablers of future long duration human exploration missions. We also discuss how targeted technological developments can enable mission design trade studies. We discuss the relationship between the ultimate number of human test subjects available on the ISS to the quality and quantity of scientific insight that can be used to reduce health risks to future explorers. We discuss the results of NASA's efforts over the past year to realign the ISS research programs to support a product-driven portfolio that is directed towards reducing the major risks of exploration missions. The fundamental challenge to science on ISS is completing experiments that answer key questions in time to shape design decisions for future exploration. In this context, exploration relevant research must do more than be conceptually connected to design decisions - it must become a part of the mission design process.

  20. SMAP Mission Applications; Post Launch Research and the Early Adopter Program Socioeconomic Impact Analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Escobar, V. M.

    2015-12-01

    NASA's Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) Mission, launched January 31, 2015, has grown an Early Adopter (EA) community since 2010. Over the next two years, the mission Applications Team will conduct socioeconomic impact analyses on thematic EA research in an effort to demonstrate the value of SMAP products in societally relevant, decision support applications. The SMAP mission provides global observations of the Earth's surface soil moisture, providing high accuracy, resolution and continuous global coverage. The SMAP Applications Team will document and evaluate the use of SMAP science products in applications related to weather forecasting, drought, agriculture productivity, floods, human health and national security. SMAP EA research in applied science cases such as sea ice and sea surface winds will also be evaluated. SMAP EAs provide a thematically scaled perspective on the use and impact of SMAP data. This analysis will demonstrate how the investments in pre-launch applications and early adopter efforts contributed to the mission value, product impact and fueled new research that contributes to the use of mission products, thereby enhancing mission success. This paper presents a set of Early Adopter case studies that show how EAs plan to use SMAP science products to enhance decision support systems, and about how the SMAP data stream affects these users. Detailed tracking of this comprehensive set of case studies will enable quantification and monetization of the benefits of an application by the end of the first two years after launch.

  1. Establishing a University-Based Mars Mission Research Center.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeJarnette, Fred R.

    1988-01-01

    Outlines one university's process of planning and preparing a successful proposal for a space research center which focused on a broad, cross-disciplinary study. States that as a result of the center, four new graduate courses were offered and a higher than average enrollment was attracted to the school. (RT)

  2. Renewing the Civic Mission of the American Research University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Checkoway, Barry

    2001-01-01

    Provides perspectives on the research university as an institution that can contribute to civic engagement and create change in higher education. Identifies some of the elements in a renewal strategy for strengthening student learning, involving the faculty, increasing institutional capacity, and connecting democracy and diversity as complementary…

  3. STS-107 Mission INSIGNIA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    JOHNSON SPACE CENTER, HOUSON, TEXAS -- STS-107 INSIGNIA -- This is the insignia for STS-107, which is a multi-discipline microgravity and Earth science research mission with a multitude of international scientific investigations conducted continuously during the planned 16 days on orbit. The central element of the patch is the microgravity symbol flowing into the rays of the astronaut symbol. The mission inclination is portrayed by the 39-degree angle of the astronaut symbol to the Earth's horizon. The sunrise is representative of the numerous experiments that are the dawn of a new era for continued microgravity research on the International Space Station and beyond. The breadth of science conducted on this mission will have widespread benefits to life on Earth and our continued exploration of space, illustrated by the Earth and stars. The constellation Columba (the dove) was chosen to symbolize peace on Earth and the Space Shuttle Columbia. The seven stars also represent the mission crew members and honor the original astronauts who paved the way to make research in space possible. The Israeli flag is adjacent to the name of the payload specialist who is the first person from that country to fly on the Space Shuttle. The NASA insignia design for Space Shuttle flights is reserved for use by the astronauts and for other official use as the NASA Administrator may authorize. Public availability has been approved only in the form of illustrations by the various news media. When and if there is any change in this policy, which we do not anticipate, it will be publicly announced.

  4. Human factors research as part of a Mars exploration analogue mission on Devon Island

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Binsted, Kim; Kobrick, Ryan L.; Griofa, Marc Ó.; Bishop, Sheryl; Lapierre, Judith

    2010-06-01

    Human factors research is a critical element of space exploration as it provides insight into a crew's performance, psychology and interpersonal relationships. Understanding the way humans work in space-exploration analogue environments permits the development and testing of countermeasures for and responses to potential hazardous situations, and can thus help improve mission efficiency and safety. Analogue missions, such as the one described here, have plausible mission constraints and operational scenarios, similar to those that a real Mars crew would experience. Long duration analogue studies, such as those being conducted at the Flashline Mars Arctic Research Station (FMARS) on Devon Island, Canada, offer an opportunity to study mission operations and human factors in a semi-realistic environment, and contribute to the design of missions to explore the Moon and Mars. The FMARS XI Long Duration Mission (F-XI LDM) was, at four months, the longest designed analogue Mars mission conducted to date, and thus provides a unique insight into human factors issues for long-duration space exploration. Here, we describe the six human factors studies that took place during F-XI LDM, and give a summary of their results, where available. We also present a meta-study, which examined the impact of the human-factors research itself on crew schedule and workload. Based on this experience, we offer some lessons learnt: some aspects (perceived risk and crew motivation, for example) of analogue missions must be realistic for study results to be valid; human factors studies are time-consuming, and should be fully integrated into crew schedules; and crew-ground communication and collaboration under long-term exploration conditions can present serious challenges.

  5. Research as Mission Creep? Reconsidering Scholarship in the Community College. In Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gump, Steven E.

    2006-01-01

    Community college faculty clearly do more than teach. When the potential scholarly activities of full-time community college faculty are narrowly defined as research, however, mission creep is insinuated, and community colleges are accused of attempting to encroach upon the purview of four-year research institutions in an expression of "goal…

  6. National Aeronautics and Space Administration and the Indian Space Research Organisation Synthetic Aperture Radar Mission Concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bawden, G. W.; Rosen, P. A.; Dubayah, R.; Hager, B. H.; Joughin, I. R.

    2014-12-01

    The U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration and the Indian Space Research Organisation are planning a synthetic aperture radar (currently named NISAR) mission for launch in 2020. The mission is a dual L- and S-band polarimetric SAR satellite with a 12-day interferometric orbit and 240 km wide ground swath. The 3-year mission will have a circular sun synchronous orbit (6 am and 6 pm) with a 98° inclination and 747 km altitude that will provide systematic global coverage. Its primary science objectives are to: measure solid Earth surface deformation (earthquakes, volcanic unrest, land subsidence/uplift, landslides); track and understand cryosphere dynamics (glaciers, ice sheets, sea ice, and permafrost); characterize and track changes in vegetation structure and wetlands for understanding ecosystem dynamics and carbon cycle; and support global disaster response. We will describe the current mission concept: the satellite design/capabilities, spacecraft, launch vehicle, and data flow.

  7. Outstanding Research Issues in Systematic Technology Prioritization for New Space Missions: Workshop Proceedings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weisbin, C. R. (Editor)

    2004-01-01

    A workshop entitled, "Outstanding Research Issues in Systematic Technology Prioritization for New Space Missions," was convened on April 21-22, 2004 in San Diego, California to review the status of methods for objective resource allocation, to discuss the research barriers remaining, and to formulate recommendations for future development and application. The workshop explored the state-of-the-art in decision analysis in the context of being able to objectively allocate constrained technical resources to enable future space missions and optimize science return. This article summarizes the highlights of the meeting results.

  8. Student Planetary Investigators: A Program to Engage Students in Authentic Research Using NASA Mission Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hallau, K.; Turney, D.; Beisser, K.; Edmonds, J.; Grigsby, B.

    2015-12-01

    The Student Planetary Investigator (PI) Program engages students in authentic scientific research using NASA mission data. This student-focused STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering and Math) program combines problem-based learning modules, Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) aligned curriculum, and live interactive webinars with mission scientists to create authentic research opportunities and career-ready experiences that prepare and inspire students to pursue STEM occupations. Primarily for high school students, the program employs distance-learning technologies to stream live presentations from mission scientists, archive those presentations to accommodate varied schedules, and collaborate with other student teams and scientists. Like its predecessor, the Mars Exploration Student Data Team (MESDT) program, the Student PI is free and open to teams across the country. To date, students have drafted research-based reports using data from the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Mini-RF instrument and the MESSENGER Mercury orbiter, with plans to offer similar programs aligned with additional NASA missions in the future pending available funding. Overall, the program has reached about 600 students and their educators. Assessments based on qualitative and quantitative data gathered for each Student PI program have shown that students gain new understanding about the scientific process used by real-world scientists as well as gaining enthusiasm for STEM. Additionally, it is highly adaptable to other disciplines and fields. The Student PI program was created by the Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory (APL) Space Department Education and Public Outreach office with support from NASA mission and instrument science and engineering teams.

  9. The STEREO Mission: A New Approach to Space Weather Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaiser, michael L.

    2006-01-01

    With the launch of the twin STEREO spacecraft in July 2006, a new capability will exist for both real-time space weather predictions and for advances in space weather research. Whereas previous spacecraft monitors of the sun such as ACE and SOH0 have been essentially on the sun-Earth line, the STEREO spacecraft will be in 1 AU orbits around the sun on either side of Earth and will be viewing the solar activity from distinctly different vantage points. As seen from the sun, the two spacecraft will separate at a rate of 45 degrees per year, with Earth bisecting the angle. The instrument complement on the two spacecraft will consist of a package of optical instruments capable of imaging the sun in the visible and ultraviolet from essentially the surface to 1 AU and beyond, a radio burst receiver capable of tracking solar eruptive events from an altitude of 2-3 Rs to 1 AU, and a comprehensive set of fields and particles instruments capable of measuring in situ solar events such as interplanetary magnetic clouds. In addition to normal daily recorded data transmissions, each spacecraft is equipped with a real-time beacon that will provide 1 to 5 minute snapshots or averages of the data from the various instruments. This beacon data will be received by NOAA and NASA tracking stations and then relayed to the STEREO Science Center located at Goddard Space Flight Center in Maryland where the data will be processed and made available within a goal of 5 minutes of receipt on the ground. With STEREO's instrumentation and unique view geometry, we believe considerable improvement can be made in space weather prediction capability as well as improved understanding of the three dimensional structure of solar transient events.

  10. JSC Advanced Curation: Research and Development for Current Collections and Future Sample Return Mission Demands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fries, M. D.; Allen, C. C.; Calaway, M. J.; Evans, C. A.; Stansbery, E. K.

    2015-01-01

    Curation of NASA's astromaterials sample collections is a demanding and evolving activity that supports valuable science from NASA missions for generations, long after the samples are returned to Earth. For example, NASA continues to loan hundreds of Apollo program samples to investigators every year and those samples are often analyzed using instruments that did not exist at the time of the Apollo missions themselves. The samples are curated in a manner that minimizes overall contamination, enabling clean, new high-sensitivity measurements and new science results over 40 years after their return to Earth. As our exploration of the Solar System progresses, upcoming and future NASA sample return missions will return new samples with stringent contamination control, sample environmental control, and Planetary Protection requirements. Therefore, an essential element of a healthy astromaterials curation program is a research and development (R&D) effort that characterizes and employs new technologies to maintain current collections and enable new missions - an Advanced Curation effort. JSC's Astromaterials Acquisition & Curation Office is continually performing Advanced Curation research, identifying and defining knowledge gaps about research, development, and validation/verification topics that are critical to support current and future NASA astromaterials sample collections. The following are highlighted knowledge gaps and research opportunities.

  11. Structure and Function of the Snail Statocyst System after a 16-Day Flight on Foton-M-2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balaban, P. M.; Malyshev, A. Y.; Zakharov, I. S.; Aseev, N. A.; Bravarenko, N. I.; Ierusalimsky, V. N.; Samarova, A. I.; Vorontzov, D. D.; Popova, Y.; Boyle, R.

    2006-01-01

    In terrestrial gastropod snail Helix lucorum L. we studied the changes after a 16-day exposure to microgravity in: behavior, neural responses to adequate motion stimulation, intersensory interactions between the photosensory pathways and the statocyst receptors, and in expression of the HPeP gene in the statocyst receptors. In behavioral experiments it was found that the latency of body position change to sudden orientation change (flip from horizontal to downwards position) was significantly reduced in the postflight snails. Extracellularly recorded neural responses of the statocyst nerve to adequate motion stimulation in the postflight snails were independent of the motion direction while in the control animals an orientation selectivity was observed. Significant differences in the HPeP gene mRNA expression pattern in the statocyst receptor neurons were observed in postflight (30h) and control snails. Obtained results confirm the possibility to elucidate the influence of microgravity exposure on mechanisms and function of gravireceptors using this simple model animal.

  12. Flight controls/avionics research - Impact on future civil helicopter operating efficiency and mission reliability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snyder, W. J.; Christensen, J. V.

    1979-01-01

    Operational efficiency and mission reliability are key capabilities which will impact the future use of helicopters in the civil segment and areas where flight control/avionics research can play a major role. The present paper reviews flight control/avionics system needs for each major area of civil helicopter use. Technology requirements to meet civil needs are discussed. The review points up the need for the development of all-weather flight control concepts and the validation of cost effective active control/fly-by-wire/fly-by-light system concepts with modular architecture which can be tailored to specific mission requirements.

  13. Design of a Mission Data Storage and Retrieval System for NASA Dryden Flight Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lux, Jessica; Downing, Bob; Sheldon, Jack

    2007-01-01

    The Western Aeronautical Test Range (WATR) at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center (DFRC) employs the WATR Integrated Next Generation System (WINGS) for the processing and display of aeronautical flight data. This report discusses the post-mission segment of the WINGS architecture. A team designed and implemented a system for the near- and long-term storage and distribution of mission data for flight projects at DFRC, providing the user with intelligent access to data. Discussed are the legacy system, an industry survey, system operational concept, high-level system features, and initial design efforts.

  14. Ames Research Center Life Sciences Payload Project for Spacelab Mission 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callahan, P. X.; Tremor, J.; Lund, G.; Wagner, W. L.

    1983-01-01

    The Research Animal Holding Facility, developed to support rodent and squirrel monkey animal husbandry in the Spacelab environment, is to be tested during the Spacelab Mission 3 flight. The configuration and function of the payload hardware elements, the assembly and test program, the operational rationale, and the scientific approach of this mission are examined. Topics covered include animal life support systems, the squirrel monkey restraint, the camera-mirror system, the dynamic environment measurement system, the biotelemetry system, and the ground support equipment. Consideration is also given to animal pretests, loading the animals during their 12 hour light cycle, and animal early recovery after landing. This mission will be the first time that relatively large samples of monkeys and rats will be flown in space and also cared for and observed by man.

  15. Mission to Stars: a contextualized Project-Based Learning on Universe and Astronomic Research.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domènech-Casal, Jordi; Ruiz, Neus

    2016-04-01

    Students' knowledge about astronomy is often limited to the Solar System and their knowledge about the structure of the Universe and astronomic research beyond the Kuipper belt is scarce. We have developed and applied an Inquiry Project-Based Learning activity where 12 years-old students are asked to design a Spatial Research Mission. In this activity, students design experiments, select targets and calculate astronomic distances, and construct a 3D model of an Orbital Telescope for their mission, selecting the necessary detectors, programming by informatics its routines and calculating the budget. The activity aims to develop scientific skills and attitudes, make students understand how astronomic research is undertaken, and to know the main elements (Exoplanets, Galaxies, Supernovas...), and the basic geography of the known Universe.

  16. Relationship of Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Mission to Global Change Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Eric A.; Starr, David OC. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    In late 2001, the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission was approved as a new start by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). This new mission is motivated by a number of scientific questions that are posed over a range of space and time scales that generally fall within the discipline of the global water and energy cycle (GWEC). Recognizing that satellite rainfall datasets are now a foremost tool for understanding global climate variability out to decadal scales and beyond, for improving weather forecasting, and for producing better predictions of hydrometeorological processes including short-term hazardous flooding and seasonal fresh water resources assessment, a comprehensive and internationally sanctioned global measuring strategy has led to the GPM mission. The GPM mission plans to expand the scope of rainfall measurement through use of a multi-member satellite constellation that will be contributed by a number of world nations. This talk overviews the GPM scientific research program that has been fostered within NASA, then focuses on scientific progress that is being made in various research areas in the course of the mission formulation phase that are of interest to the global change scientific community. This latter part of the talk addresses research issues that have become central to the GPM science implementation plan concerning: (1) the rate of global water cycling through the atmosphere and surface and the relationship of precipitation variability to the sustained rate of the water cycle; (2) the relationship between climate change and cloud macrophysical- microphysical processes; and (3) the general improvement in measuring precipitation at the fundamental microphysical level that will take place during the GPM era and an explanation of how these improvements are expected to come about.

  17. Simultaneous observation of quasi 16 day wave in the mesospheric winds and temperature over low latitudes with the SKiYMET radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Siddarth Shankar; Kumar, K. Kishore; Veena, S. B.; Ramkumar, Geetha

    2010-12-01

    The seasonal characteristics of a 16 day planetary wave simultaneously in mesospheric temperature and winds over a low-latitude station Thumba (8.5°N, 76.5°E) using meteor radar observations are discussed for the first time. Four years (2005-2008) of meteor radar winds and temperature observations are used for the present study. It is observed that the amplitude of a 16 day wave in zonal component is more than that of meridional. Further analysis shows that the westerly phase of zonal wind is more favorable for the 16 day waves. The maximum amplitude of a 16 day wave in mesospheric temperature is observed during January-February and August-September. Climatology of a 16 day wave shows the signature of semiannual oscillation (SAO) in mesospheric temperature but not in winds. The vertical amplitude structure of zonal component shows the maximum amplitude at ˜88-92 km with constant phase. It is also noticed that zonal and meridional winds are in phase, whereas the temperature leads zonal wind by 5 ± 1 days. The significance of the present study lies in showing the 16 day wave characteristics, effect of background winds, and manifestation of SAO on their variability.

  18. Effects of handling, anaesthesia, ovariectomy and adrenalectomy on serial measurements of plasma progesterone in 16-day pregnant rats.

    PubMed

    Bruce, N W; Willcox, D L; Meyer, G T; Waddell, B J

    1984-02-01

    The basal concentrations of progesterone in plasma of 16-day pregnant rats were measured after seven different sampling procedures. Progesterone concentrations in serial samples from rats held at the time of sampling (restrained group) were compared with those obtained from rats allowed to remain free in their cage (free group). In addition, the effects on plasma progesterone concentrations of anaesthesia induced by ether or pentobarbitone sodium, and of adrenalectomy and/or ovariectomy were studied. Over the 8-h sampling period, progesterone concentrations in the plasma of restrained rats, with or without anaesthesia, were about 30% higher and more variable than those in free rats. Progesterone concentrations rose sharply over the first 30 min in restrained rats and in those treated with ether. Rats adrenalectomized the day before sampling did not show this early rise and their progesterone concentrations were similar to those of free rats. Progesterone concentrations were lowest in ovariectomized rats which had also been adrenalectomized. These findings show that adrenal secretion can increase plasma concentrations of progesterone in pregnant rats which have been handled or anaesthetized. Such a rise might well modulate the effects of experimental stimuli. PMID:6693829

  19. An engineering research and technology program for an evolving, multi-decade Mission to Planet Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sadin, Stanley R.; Johnston, Gordon I.; Hudson, Wayne R.

    1991-01-01

    A study is presented that examines the technological needs of future systems, surveys current and planned activities and highlights significant accomplishments in the research and technology program of the multidecade Mission to Planet Earth (MTPE). Consideration is given to recent program redirection in MTPE, the initiation of the high performance computing and communications program and the potential impact on the technology programs. The technology set is divided into three subsets covering information, observation, and infrastructure technologies.

  20. Strategic Research to Enable NASA's Exploration Missions Conference and Workshop: Poster Session. Volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nahra, Henry (Compiler)

    2004-01-01

    Reports are presented from volume 2 of the conference titled Strategic Research to Enable NASA's Exploration Missions, poster session. Topics included spacecraft fire suppression and fire extinguishing agents,materials flammability, various topics on the effects of microgravity including crystal growth, fluid mechanics, electric particulate suspension, melting and solidification, bubble formation, the sloshing of liquid fuels, biological studies, separation of carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide for Mars ISRU.

  1. Technology needs assessment of an atmospheric observation system for tropospheric research missions, part 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alvarado, D. R.; Bortner, M. H.; Grenda, R. N.; Frippel, G. G.; Halsey, H.; Neste, S. L.; Kritikos, H.; Keafer, L. S.; Deryder, L. J.

    1982-01-01

    The technology advancements needed to implement the atmospheric observation satellite systems for air quality research were identified. Tropospheric measurements are considered. The measurements and sensors are based on a model of knowledge objectives in atmospheric science. A set of potential missions and attendant spacecraft and sensors is postulated. The results show that the predominant technology needs will be in passive and active sensors for accurate and frequent global measurements of trace gas concentration profiles.

  2. Continuation of research into language concepts for the mission support environment: Source code

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barton, Timothy J.; Ratner, Jeremiah M.

    1991-01-01

    Research into language concepts for the Mission Control Center is presented. A computer code for source codes is presented. The file contains the routines which allow source code files to be created and compiled. The build process assumes that all elements and the COMP exist in the current directory. The build process places as much code generation as possible on the preprocessor as possible. A summary is given of the source files as used and/or manipulated by the build routine.

  3. Exploration-Related Research on the International Space Station: Connecting Science Results to the Design of Future Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rhatigan, Jennifer L.; Robinson, Julie A.; Sawin, Charles F.; Ahlf, Peter R.

    2005-01-01

    In January, 2004, the US President announced a vision for space exploration, and charged NASA with utilizing the International Space Station (ISS) for research and technology targeted at supporting the US space exploration goals. This paper describes: 1) what we have learned from the first four years of research on ISS relative to the exploration mission, 2) the on-going research being conducted in this regard, 3) our current understanding of the major exploration mission risks that the ISS can be used to address, and 4) current progress in realigning NASA s research portfolio for ISS to support exploration missions. Specifically, we discuss the focus of research on solving the perplexing problems of maintaining human health on long-duration missions, and the development of countermeasures to protect humans from the space environment, enabling long duration exploration missions. The interchange between mission design and research needs is dynamic, where design decisions influence the type of research needed, and results of research influence design decisions. The fundamental challenge to science on ISS is completing experiments that answer key questions in time to shape design decisions for future exploration. In this context, exploration-relevant research must do more than be conceptually connected to design decisions-it must become a part of the mission design process.

  4. Research Objectives for Human Missions in the Proving Ground of Cis-Lunar Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spann, James; Niles, Paul B.; Eppler, Dean B.; Kennedy, Kriss J.; Lewis, Ruthan.; Sullivan, Thomas A.

    2016-04-01

    Introduction: This talk will introduce the preliminary findings in support of NASA's Future Capabilities Team. In support of the ongoing studies conducted by NASA's Future Capabilities Team, we are tasked with collecting research objectives for the Proving Ground activities. The objectives could include but are certainly not limited to: demonstrating crew well being and performance over long duration missions, characterizing lunar volatiles, Earth monitoring, near Earth object search and identification, support of a far-side radio telescope, and measuring impact of deep space environment on biological systems. Beginning in as early as 2023, crewed missions beyond low Earth orbit will begin enabled by the new capabilities of the SLS and Orion vehicles. This will initiate the "Proving Ground" phase of human exploration with Mars as an ultimate destination. The primary goal of the Proving Ground is to demonstrate the capability of suitably long duration spaceflight without need of continuous support from Earth, i.e. become Earth Independent. A major component of the Proving Ground phase is to conduct research activities aimed at accomplishing major objectives selected from a wide variety of disciplines including but not limited to: Astronomy, Heliophysics, Fundamental Physics, Planetary Science, Earth Science, Human Systems, Fundamental Space Biology, Microgravity, and In Situ Resource Utilization. Mapping and prioritizing the most important objectives from these disciplines will provide a strong foundation for establishing the architecture to be utilized in the Proving Ground. Possible Architectures: Activities and objectives will be accomplished during the Proving Ground phase using a deep space habitat. This habitat will potentially be accompanied by a power/propulsion bus capable of moving the habitat to accomplish different objectives within cis-lunar space. This architecture can also potentially support staging of robotic and tele-robotic assets as well as

  5. Research Objectives for Human Missions in the Proving Ground of Cis-Lunar Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spann, James; Niles, Paul; Eppler, Dean; Kennedy, Kriss; Lewis, Ruthan; Sullivan, Thomas

    2016-07-01

    Introduction: This talk will introduce the preliminary findings in support of NASA's Future Capabilities Team. In support of the ongoing studies conducted by NASA's Future Capabilities Team, we are tasked with collecting re-search objectives for the Proving Ground activities. The objectives could include but are certainly not limited to: demonstrating crew well being and performance over long duration missions, characterizing lunar volatiles, Earth monitoring, near Earth object search and identification, support of a far-side radio telescope, and measuring impact of deep space environment on biological systems. Beginning in as early as 2023, crewed missions beyond low Earth orbit will be enabled by the new capabilities of the SLS and Orion vehicles. This will initiate the "Proving Ground" phase of human exploration with Mars as an ultimate destination. The primary goal of the Proving Ground is to demonstrate the capability of suitably long dura-tion spaceflight without need of continuous support from Earth, i.e. become Earth Independent. A major component of the Proving Ground phase is to conduct research activities aimed at accomplishing major objectives selected from a wide variety of disciplines including but not limited to: Astronomy, Heliophysics, Fun-damental Physics, Planetary Science, Earth Science, Human Systems, Fundamental Space Biology, Microgravity, and In Situ Resource Utilization. Mapping and prioritizing the most important objectives from these disciplines will provide a strong foundation for establishing the architecture to be utilized in the Proving Ground. Possible Architectures: Activities and objectives will be accomplished during the Proving Ground phase using a deep space habitat. This habitat will potentially be accompanied by a power/propulsion bus capable of moving the habitat to accomplish different objectives within cis-lunar space. This architecture can also potentially support stag-ing of robotic and tele-robotic assets as well as

  6. A single bout of exhaustive exercise affects integrated baroreflex function after 16 days of head-down tilt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Engelke, K. A.; Doerr, D. F.; Convertino, V. A.

    1995-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that one bout of maximal exercise performed 24 h before reambulation from 16 days of 6 degrees head-down tilt (HDT) could increase integrated baroreflex sensitivity. Isolated carotid-cardiac and integrated baroreflex function was assessed in seven subjects before and after two periods of HDT separated by 11 mo. On the last day of one HDT period, subjects performed a single bout of maximal cycle ergometry (exercise). Subjects did not exercise after the other HDT period (control). Carotid-cardiac baroreflex sensitivity was evaluated using a neck collar device. Integrated baroreflex function was assessed by recording heart rate (HR) and blood pressure (MAP) during a 15-s Valsalva maneuver (VM) at a controlled expiratory pressure of 30 mmHg. The ratio of change in HR to change in MAP (delta HR/ delta MAP) during phases II and IV of the VM was used as an index of cardiac baroreflex sensitivity. Baroreflex-mediated vasoconstriction was assessed by measuring the late phase II rise in MAP. Following HDT, carotid-cardiac baroreflex sensitivity was reduced (2.8 to 2.0 ms/mmHg; P = 0.05) as was delta HR/ delta MAP during phase II (-1.5 to -0.8 beats/mmHg; P = 0.002). After exercise, isolated carotid baroreflex activity and phase II delta HR/ delta MAP returned to pre-HDT levels but remained attenuated in the control condition. Phase IV delta HR/ delta MAP was not altered by HDT or exercise. The late phase II increase of MAP was 71% greater after exercise compared with control (7 vs. 2 mmHg; P = 0.041).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS).

  7. Future Requirements for Satellite Altimetry: Recommendations from the GAMBLE Project for Future Missions and Research Programmes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cotton, P. D.; Menard, Y.

    2006-07-01

    The GAMBLE th ematic network brought together European exper ts in ocean altimetry to consider future developmen ts in satellite altimetry. The aim was to provide r ecommendations for research activ ities, and future altimeter missions, th at w ere necessary to support and build on present developments in operational o ceanography and to main tain o cean monitoring programmes. This paper reviews user r equiremen ts for operational products th at rely on altimeter d ata, and assess how well presen t and planned activities satisfy those requ irements. It provides recommendations for future missions required to form a cost-eff ectiv e, robust, operational satellite altimeter measuremen t system. [1] provides a full discussion.

  8. Moon-Mars Analogue Mission (EuroMoonMars 1 at the Mars Desert Research Station)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lia Schlacht, Irene; Voute, Sara; Irwin, Stacy; Foing, Bernard H.; Stoker, Carol R.; Westenberg, Artemis

    The Mars Desert Research Station (MDRS) is situated in an analogue habitat-based Martian environment, designed for missions to determine the knowledge and equipment necessary for successful future planetary exploration. For this purpose, a crew of six people worked and lived together in a closed-system environment. They performed habitability experiments within the dwelling and conducted Extra-Vehicular Activities (EVAs) for two weeks (20 Feb to 6 Mar 2010) and were guided externally by mission support, called "Earth" within the simulation. Crew 91, an international, mixed-gender, and multidisciplinary group, has completed several studies during the first mission of the EuroMoonMars campaign. The crew is composed of an Italian designer and human factors specialist, a Dutch geologist, an American physicist, and three French aerospace engineering students from Ecole de l'Air, all with ages between 21 and 31. Each crewmember worked on personal research and fulfilled a unique role within the group: commander, executive officer, engineer, health and safety officer, scientist, and journalist. The expedition focused on human factors, performance, communication, health and safety pro-tocols, and EVA procedures. The engineers' projects aimed to improve rover manoeuvrability, far-field communication, and data exchanges between the base and the rover or astronaut. The crew physicist evaluated dust control methods inside and outside the habitat. The geologist tested planetary geological sampling procedures. The crew designer investigated performance and overall habitability in the context of the Mars Habitability Experiment from the Extreme-Design group. During the mission the crew also participated in the Food Study and in the Ethospace study, managed by external groups. The poster will present crew dynamics, scientific results and daily schedule from a Human Factors perspective. Main co-sponsors and collaborators: ILEWG, ESA ESTEC, NASA Ames, Ecole de l'Air, SKOR, Extreme

  9. The Landsat 7 mission: terrestrial research and applications for the 21st century

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goward, Samuel N.; Masek, Jeffrey G.; Williams, Darrel L.; Irons, James R.; Thompson, R.J.

    2001-01-01

    The Landsat Earth observation approach introduced in 1972 created a new way of monitoring land cover and land use globally. The Landsat 7 mission, successfully launched on April 15, 1999, continues those observations and demonstrates significant progress in precise numerical radiometry, spectral differentiation, and seasonally repetitive monitoring. Substantial improvements in calibration procedures, both prior to launch and during normal operations, have also been made to ensure long-term stability in the acquired spectral radiometry. Landsat 7 data acquisitions are being driven by a long-term data acquisition plan that was designed to ensure that substantially cloud-free, seasonal coverage would be recorded and archived in the US for all land areas of the globe. NASA competitively selected a Landsat Science Team, consisting of representatives from US universities and government agencies, to exploit the Landsat 7 record for global change research. This team is addressing the technical and analytical means to process and analyze the core of this observation record, and for the first time in the history of the Landsat mission, the technical and operational aspects of the mission are being driven by the goals of the US science community. The expected outcome of these efforts is a rapid improvement in understanding the Earth system, as well as conceptual knowledge that will underpin significant advancements in the application of this technology for commercial, operational, educational, and research purposes. Pathways to achieve effective Landsat continuity in the early decades of the 21st century are also being given careful attention, and there is no question that the lessons learned from the Landsat 7 mission will strongly influence these next-generation sensor systems.

  10. Concurrent Mission and Systems Design at NASA Glenn Research Center: The Origins of the COMPASS Team

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McGuire, Melissa L.; Oleson, Steven R.; Sarver-Verhey, Timothy R.

    2012-01-01

    Established at the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) in 2006 to meet the need for rapid mission analysis and multi-disciplinary systems design for in-space and human missions, the Collaborative Modeling for Parametric Assessment of Space Systems (COMPASS) team is a multidisciplinary, concurrent engineering group whose primary purpose is to perform integrated systems analysis, but it is also capable of designing any system that involves one or more of the disciplines present in the team. The authors were involved in the development of the COMPASS team and its design process, and are continuously making refinements and enhancements. The team was unofficially started in the early 2000s as part of the distributed team known as Team JIMO (Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter) in support of the multi-center collaborative JIMO spacecraft design during Project Prometheus. This paper documents the origins of a concurrent mission and systems design team at GRC and how it evolved into the COMPASS team, including defining the process, gathering the team and tools, building the facility, and performing studies.

  11. Effect of 16-Day Spaceflight on the Morphology of Thick-Toed Geckos (Pachydactylus Bibronii Smith, 1846)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gulimova, V. I.; Nikitin, V. B.; Asadchikov, V. E.; Buzmakov, A. V.; Okshtein, I. L.; Almeida, E. A. C.; Ilyin, E. A.; Tairbekov, M. G.; Saveliev, S. V.

    2006-01-01

    There are grounds to believe that space flown experiments on thick-toed geckos may help solve the problem of floatation of vertebrates in microgravity. Geckos of this species carry on the lower surface of their toes numerous setae, which allow them to remain attached to any surfaces regardless of the gravitational effects. Experiments were performed on 5 animals in each of the following groups: flight, basal, synchronous and laboratory controls. 32 hours after a 16- day flight the animals were euthanazed and examined using traditional histology and X-ray microtomography. Body mass losses were 10% in the flight animals, 7.4% in the synchronous controls, and 12.3% in the laboratory controls. Since the flight and synchronous animals were kept at 15-19 C, whereas the laboratory controls - at 26-28 C, it can be inferred that environmental temperatures impacted animal metabolism no less than flight induced stress. Blood tests of the flown animals showed a 12% decrease of erythrocytes and a 40% decrease of dark-nuclear granulocytes, with the number of light-nuclear granulocytes remaining unchanged. In the small intestine the number of goblet cells increased allowing them to occupy a large portion of the cyptal surface. Enhanced secretion was accompanied by the appearance of dead intestinal cells in the lumen. Clusters of degraded hepatocytes were found at the liver edges of flight animals. Signs of liver involution were similar to the changes produced by alcohol consumption but did not spread to its central part. In the heart, insignificant hypertrophy and excessive blood supply that still remained within the physiological norm were detected. No significant changes were found in the pancreas, lungs, nervous systems or the snouts of the flown animals, but the volume of their gallbladders was greater than in controls. The epithelium of toe pads of the flight animals became thinner. Histological examination of the humerus did not demonstrate significant mineral losses

  12. Expanding the scope of medical mission volunteer groups to include a research component

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Serving on volunteer groups undertaking medical mission trips is a common activity for health care professionals and students. Although volunteers hope such work will assist underserved populations, medical mission groups have been criticized for not providing sustainable health services that focus on underlying health problems. As members of a volunteer medical mission group, we performed a bed net indicator study in rural Mali. We undertook this project to demonstrate that volunteers are capable of undertaking small-scale research, the results of which offer locally relevant results useful for disease prevention programs. The results of such projects are potentially sustainable beyond the duration of a mission trip. Methods Volunteers with Medicine for Mali interviewed 108 households in Nana Kenieba, Mali during a routine two-week medical mission trip. Interviewees were asked structured questions about family demographics, use of insecticide treated bed nets the previous evening, as well as about benefits of net use and knowledge of malaria. Survey results were analyzed using logistic regression. Results We found that 43.7% of households had any family member sleep under a bed net the previous evening. Eighty seven percent of households owned at least one ITN and the average household owned 1.95 nets. The regression model showed that paying for a net was significantly correlated with its use, while low perceived mosquito density, obtaining the net from the public sector and more than four years of education in the male head of the household were negatively correlated with net use. These results differ from national Malian data and peer-reviewed studies of bed net use. Conclusions We completed a bed net study that provided results that were specific to our service area. Since these results were dissimilar to peer-reviewed literature and Malian national level data on bed net use, the results will be useful to develop locally specific teaching materials

  13. Performance evaluation in full-mission simulation - Methodological advances and research challenges. [in air transport operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chidester, Thomas R.; Kanki, Barbara G.; Helmreich, Robert L.

    1989-01-01

    The crew-factors research program at NASA Ames has developed a methodology for studying the impact of a variety of variables on the effectiveness of crews flying realistic but high workload simulated trips. The validity of investigations using the methodology is enhanced by careful design of full-mission scenarios, performance assessment using converging sources of data, and recruitment of representative subjects. Recently, portions of this methodology have been adapted for use in assessing the effectiveness of crew coordination among participants in line-oriented flight training.

  14. Propulsion Controls and Diagnostics Research in Support of NASA Aeronautics and Exploration Mission Programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garg, Sanjay

    2011-01-01

    The Controls and Dynamics Branch (CDB) at National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Glenn Research Center (GRC) in Cleveland, Ohio, is leading and participating in various projects in partnership with other organizations within GRC and across NASA, the U.S. aerospace industry, and academia to develop advanced propulsion controls and diagnostics technologies that will help meet the challenging goals of NASA programs under the Aeronautics Research and Exploration Systems Missions. This paper provides a brief overview of the various CDB tasks in support of the NASA programs. The programmatic structure of the CDB activities is described along with a brief overview of each of the CDB tasks including research objectives, technical challenges, and recent accomplishments. These tasks include active control of propulsion system components, intelligent propulsion diagnostics and control for reliable fault identification and accommodation, distributed engine control, and investigations into unsteady propulsion systems.

  15. Gravity Related Research with Aquatic Animals - Overview and Perspectives towards Exploratory Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slenzka, K.

    Gravity related research with aquatic animals has not only a long tradition in manned and unmanned space flight but also in ground based research using clinostats and centrifuges In this presentation an overview will be given starting from the early beginning with such experiments Skylab Apollo-Soyuz etc up to today s flight experiments and ground based studies In addition verification will be presented how this research contributes to Earth s benefits and application as well as an outlook will be given how potential follow-up studies may contribute in manned exploratory missions on Earth Moon Mars and maybe beyond This review will summarize results obtained and will try to transfer them into future perspectives in space exploration

  16. Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate Integrated Systems Research Program (ISRP) and UAS Integration in the NAS Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolfe, Jean

    2010-01-01

    Program Goal: Conduct research at an integrated system-level on promising concepts and technologies and explore, assess, or demonstrate the benefits in a relevant environment.Criteria for selection of projects for Integrated Systems Research: a) Technology has attained enough maturity in the foundational research program that they merit more in-depth evaluation at an integrated system level in a relevant environment. b) Technologies which systems analysis indicates have the most potential for contributing to the simultaneous attainment of goals. c) Technologies identified through stakeholder input as having potential for simultaneous attainment of goals. d) Research not being done by other government agencies and appropriate for NASA to conduct. e) Budget augmentation. Environmentally Responsible Aviation (ERA) Project Explore and assess new vehicle concepts and enabling technologies through system-level experimentation to simultaneously reduce fuel burn, noise, and emissions Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) Integration in the National Airspace System (NAS) Project Contribute capabilities that reduce technical barriers related to the safety and operational challenges associated with enabling routine UAS access to the NAS Innovative Concepts for Green Aviation (ICGA) Project Spur innovation by offering research opportunities to the broader aeronautics community through peer-reviewed proposals, with a focus on making aviation more eco-friendly. Establish incentive prizes similar to the Centennial Challenges and sponsor innovation demonstrations of selected technologies that show promise of reducing aviation s impact on the environment

  17. Funding and Strategic Alignment Guidance for Infusing Small Business Innovation Research Technology Into Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate Projects at NASA Glenn Research Center for 2015

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Hung D.; Steele, Gynelle C.; Morris, Jessica R.

    2015-01-01

    This document is intended to enable the more effective transition of NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) SBIR technologies funded by the Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) program as well as its companion, the Small Business Technology Transfer (STTR) program into NASA Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate (ARMD) projects. Primarily, it is intended to help NASA program and project managers find useful technologies that have undergone extensive research and development (RRD), through Phase II of the SBIR program; however, it can also assist non-NASA agencies and commercial companies in this process. aviation safety, unmanned aircraft, ground and flight test technique, low emissions, quiet performance, rotorcraft

  18. NASA Space Weather Research Center: Addressing the Unique Space Weather Needs of NASA Robotic Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Y.; Pulkkinen, A. A.; Kuznetsova, M. M.; Maddox, M. M.; Mays, M. L.; Taktakishvili, A.; Chulaki, A.; Thompson, B. J.; Collado-Vega, Y. M.; Muglach, K.; Evans, R. M.; Wiegand, C.; MacNeice, P. J.; Rastaetter, L.

    2014-12-01

    The Space Weather Research Center (SWRC) has been providing space weather monitoring and forecasting services to NASA's robotic missions since its establishment in 2010. Embedded within the Community Coordinated Modeling Center (CCMC) (see Maddox et al. in Session IN026) and located at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, SWRC has easy access to state-of-the-art modeling capabilities and proximity to space science and research expertise. By bridging space weather users and the research community, SWRC has been a catalyst for the efficient transition from research to operations and operations to research. In this presentation, we highlight a few unique aspects of SWRC's space weather services, such as addressing space weather throughout the solar system, pushing the frontier of space weather forecasting via the ensemble approach, providing direct personnel and tool support for spacecraft anomaly resolution, prompting development of multi-purpose tools and knowledge bases (see Wiegand et al. in the same session SM004), and educating and engaging the next generation of space weather scientists.

  19. Physical-Chemical Solid Waste Processing for Space Missions at Ames Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, John W.; Pisharody, Suresh; Moran, Mark; Wignarajah, K.; Tleimat, Maher; Pace, Greg

    2001-01-01

    As space missions become longer in duration and reach out to more distant locations such as Mars, solids waste processing progresses from storage technologies to reclamation technologies. Current low Earth orbit technologies consist of store-and dispose to space or return to Earth. Fully regenerative technologies recycle wastes. The materials reclaimed from waste can be used to provide the basic materials to support plant growth for food including carbon dioxide, water, and nutrients. Other products can also be reclaimed from waste such as hydrocarbons and activated carbon. This poster describes development at Ames Research Center of a process to make activated carbon from space mission wastes and to make an incineration system that produces clean flue gas. Inedible biomass and feces contain hydrocarbons in a form that can be pyrolyzed and converted to activated carbon. The activated carbon can then be used to clean up contaminants from various other life support systems; in particular, the activated carbon can be used regeneratively to remove NOx from incinerator flue gas. Incinerator flue gas can also be cleaned up by the use of reductive and oxidative catalysts. A catalytic incinerator flue gas cleanup system has been developed at ARC that produces flue gas clean enough (with the exception of carbon dioxide) to meet the Space Minimum Allowable Concentration limits for human exposure.

  20. The Aditya-L1 Mission of Indian Space Research Organization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tripathi, Durgesh

    2016-07-01

    The Aditya-L1 is the first mission of the Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO) dedicated to solar observations. The spacecraft will be located at the first Lagrangian point and will provide continuous observations of the Sun using remote sensing as well as in-situ measurements. The spacecraft will carry 7 payloads including a coronagraph that will image the corona in visible and IR wavelength and will provide measurements of coronal magnetic field and will study the dynamics of coronal mass ejections; a NUV imaging telescope to study the coupling between solar photosphere and chromosphere and to measure spatially resolved solar spectral irradiance and its variation. There will be two payloads to study the soft X-ray and hard X-ray emission from the Sun, two payloads for in-situ measurements of the charged particles and a magnetometer to study the magnetic field variations during energetic events. Some of the salient features of the experiments on board Aditya-L1 mission will be discussed.

  1. A critical review of the life sciences project management at Ames Research Center for the Spacelab Mission development test 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helmreich, R. L.; Wilhelm, J. M.; Tanner, T. A.; Sieber, J. E.; Burgenbauch, S. F.

    1979-01-01

    A management study was initiated by ARC (Ames Research Center) to specify Spacelab Mission Development Test 3 activities and problems. This report documents the problems encountered and provides conclusions and recommendations to project management for current and future ARC life sciences projects. An executive summary of the conclusions and recommendations is provided. The report also addresses broader issues relevant to the conduct of future scientific missions under the constraints imposed by the space environment.

  2. NASA Johnson Space Center's Planetary Sample Analysis and Mission Science (PSAMS) Laboratory: A National Facility for Planetary Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Draper, D. S.

    2016-01-01

    NASA Johnson Space Center's (JSC's) Astromaterials Research and Exploration Science (ARES) Division, part of the Exploration Integration and Science Directorate, houses a unique combination of laboratories and other assets for conducting cutting edge planetary research. These facilities have been accessed for decades by outside scientists, most at no cost and on an informal basis. ARES has thus provided substantial leverage to many past and ongoing science projects at the national and international level. Here we propose to formalize that support via an ARES/JSC Plane-tary Sample Analysis and Mission Science Laboratory (PSAMS Lab). We maintain three major research capa-bilities: astromaterial sample analysis, planetary process simulation, and robotic-mission analog research. ARES scientists also support planning for eventual human ex-ploration missions, including astronaut geological training. We outline our facility's capabilities and its potential service to the community at large which, taken together with longstanding ARES experience and expertise in curation and in applied mission science, enable multi-disciplinary planetary research possible at no other institution. Comprehensive campaigns incorporating sample data, experimental constraints, and mission science data can be conducted under one roof.

  3. Cooperative research in microgravity sciences during the French manned MIR missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zappoli, Bernard; Kuhl, Rainer; Robey, Judith; Ivanov, Alexander

    2003-12-01

    During the past ten years the French laboratories working in the field of fluids and material sciences had access to regular, long-lasting manned missions onboard the Russian MIR Space Station. Beyond the French scientific program that was performed with the ALICE apparatus, a cooperative research program was developed with DLR, NASA and RSA. This cooperation was based on bartered agreements that included the joint utilization of the instruments onboard the MIR station (ALICE, TITUS furnace from DLR, vibration device from RKK Energia) and the funding of dedicated cartridges (DLR) or thermostats (DLR and NASA), as well as launch services (NASA) by the Cooperating Agencies. We present a review of this program with a particular emphasis on its scientific results and on the progress that has been achieved in science and applications. They covered a large field of condensed matter physics, from material sciences to near-critical and off-critical phase separation kinetics and near critical fluid hydrodynamics (thermoacoustic heat transport and vibrational convection). The high microgravity relevance of all these investigations naturally led to outstanding results that was published in the world's best scientific journals. The analysis of the latest experiments performed during the PEGASUS mission shows they will not be an exception to that evaluation. Off-critical phase separation with NASA, pressure-driven piston effect and equiaxed solidification with DLR, heat transport under calibrated vibrations with RKK Energia, all will be presented. The conclusion will stress the international character of this microgravity research program, the conditions of its success and what can be gained from it in the perspective of the space station utilization.

  4. The Soil Moisture Active and Passive (SMAP) Mission: Improving Science Application Tools and Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Escobar, V. M.; Brown, M. E.; Moran, S. M.

    2011-12-01

    NASA depends on the science community to identify and prioritize leading-edge scientific questions and the observations required to answer them. The Soil Moisture Active and Passive (SMAP) Mission has been identified as a priority for NASA's Science Mission Directorate through the most recent decadal survey. Following launch in 2014, SMAP will deliver global maps of soil moisture content and surface freeze/thaw state. Global measurements of these variables are critical for terrestrial hydrologic and carbon cycle applications. The SMAP observatory consists of two multipolarization L-band sensors, a radar and radiometer that share a deployable mesh reflector antenna. The combined observations from the two sensors will allow accurate estimation of soil moisture at spatial scales. The wide-swath (1000 km) measurements will allow global mapping of soil moisture and freeze/thaw state with a 2-3 day revisit frequency and 1-2 day revisit in boreal latitudes. The synergy of active and passive observations enables measurements of soil moisture and freeze/thaw state with unprecedented resolution, sensitivity, area coverage and revisit frequency. SMAP data are valuable for both scientific research and practical applications. SMAP has the potential to drive a diverse range of novel research in drought and flood guidance, agricultural productivity estimation, weather forecasting, climate prediction, human health risk analysis and defense systems. The accuracy, resolution, and global coverage of SMAP soil moisture and freeze/thaw measurements will provide new information for many science and applications disciplines. A SMAP Applications Team will explore ways to measure interaction and integration of SMAP data with the Emergency Management User community of Maryland in order to produce quantitative metrics related to long-term projects, milestone completion, and movement of SMAP products into routine operations for emergency response.

  5. Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Precipitation Data and Services for Research and Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Zhong; Ostrenga, Dana; Teng, William; Kempler, Steven

    2012-01-01

    Precipitation is a critical component of the Earth's hydrological cycle. Launched on 27 November 1997, TRMM is a joint U.S.-Japan satellite mission to provide the first detailed and comprehensive data set of the four-dimensional distribution of rainfall and latent heating over vastly under-sampled tropical and subtropical oceans and continents (40 S - 40 N). Over the past 14 years, TRMM has been a major data source for meteorological, hydrological and other research and application activities around the world. The purpose of this short article is to inform that the NASA Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center (GES DISC) provides TRMM archive and near-real-time precipitation data sets and services for research and applications. TRMM data consist of orbital data from TRMM instruments at the sensor s resolution, gridded data at a range of spatial and temporal resolutions, subsets, ground-based instrument data, and ancillary data. Data analysis, display, and delivery are facilitated by the following services: (1) Mirador (data search and access); (2) TOVAS (TRMM Online Visualization and Analysis System); (3) OPeNDAP (Open-source Project for a Network Data Access Protocol); (4) GrADS Data Server (GDS); and (5) Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) Web Map Service (WMS) for the GIS community. Precipitation data application services are available to support a wide variety of applications around the world. Future plans include enhanced and new services to address data related issues from the user community. Meanwhile, the GES DISC is preparing for the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission which is scheduled for launch in 2014.

  6. A Conceptual Framework for the Mission of the NIE Research and Development Center for Teacher Quality and Effectiveness: Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawley, Willis D.; And Others

    This report presents a conceptual framework for the mission of the National Institute of Education (NIE) Research and Development Center for Teacher Quality and Effectiveness. Several important issues that should be the focus of the Center are identified, and the theoretical foundations to guide the research and development activities to study…

  7. Mission scheduling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaspin, Christine

    1989-01-01

    How a neural network can work, compared to a hybrid system based on an operations research and artificial intelligence approach, is investigated through a mission scheduling problem. The characteristic features of each system are discussed.

  8. Testing and Application in Mission Critical Settings and Transmission, Siting, and Metrics Models Research

    SciTech Connect

    Rich Sedano-Regulatory Assistance Project; Mariana Uhrlaub

    2006-10-31

    The Distributed Generation: Testing and Application in Mission Critical Settings and Transmission, Siting, and Metrics Models Research grant has been in place for several years and has accomplished all the objectives and deliverables that were originally set forth in the proposal. The National Association of State Energy Officials (NASEO), the City of Portland, OR, Bureau of Environmental Services and the Regulatory Assistance Project (RAP) have been able to successfully monitor and evaluate DG applications in a wastewater treatment plant environment, develop a metrics model for new voluntary DG guidelines that could be used as a prototype, and through outreach and education venues provide the results of these projects to state, professional, and national organizations and their members addressing similar issues. This project had three specific tasks associated with it: (1) Field Research and Testing; (2) Metrics/Verification Model for DG Guidelines; and (3) Northeastern Transmission/Siting Data Research. Each task had its own set of challenges and lessons learned but overall there were many successes that will serve as learning opportunities in these technology areas. Continuing to share the outcomes of this project with a wider audience will be beneficial for all those involved in distributed generation and combined heat and power projects.

  9. Acquisition and Analysis of NASA Ames Sunphotometer Measurements during SAGE III Validation Campaigns and other Tropospheric and Stratospheric Research Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Livingston, John M.

    2004-01-01

    NASA Cooperative Agreement NCC2-1251 provided funding from April 2001 through December 2003 for Mr. John Livingston of SRI International to collaborate with NASA Ames Research Center scientists and engineers in the acquisition and analysis of airborne sunphotometer measurements during various atmospheric field studies. Mr. Livingston participated in instrument calibrations at Mauna Loa Observatory, pre-mission hardware and software preparations, acquisition and analysis of sunphotometer measurements during the missions, and post-mission analysis of data and reporting of scientific findings. The atmospheric field missions included the spring 2001 Intensive of the Asian Pacific Regional Aerosol Characterization Experiment (ACE-Asia), the Asian Dust Above Monterey-2003 (ADAM-2003) experiment, and the winter 2003 Second SAGE III Ozone Loss and Validation Experiment (SOLVE II).

  10. LEMUR: Large European module for solar Ultraviolet Research. European contribution to JAXA's Solar-C mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teriaca, Luca; Andretta, Vincenzo; Auchère, Frédéric; Brown, Charles M.; Buchlin, Eric; Cauzzi, Gianna; Culhane, J. Len; Curdt, Werner; Davila, Joseph M.; Del Zanna, Giulio; Doschek, George A.; Fineschi, Silvano; Fludra, Andrzej; Gallagher, Peter T.; Green, Lucie; Harra, Louise K.; Imada, Shinsuke; Innes, Davina; Kliem, Bernhard; Korendyke, Clarence; Mariska, John T.; Martínez-Pillet, Valentin; Parenti, Susanna; Patsourakos, Spiros; Peter, Hardi; Poletto, Luca; Rutten, Robert J.; Schühle, Udo; Siemer, Martin; Shimizu, Toshifumi; Socas-Navarro, Hector; Solanki, Sami K.; Spadaro, Daniele; Trujillo-Bueno, Javier; Tsuneta, Saku; Dominguez, Santiago Vargas; Vial, Jean-Claude; Walsh, Robert; Warren, Harry P.; Wiegelmann, Thomas; Winter, Berend; Young, Peter

    2012-10-01

    The solar outer atmosphere is an extremely dynamic environment characterized by the continuous interplay between the plasma and the magnetic field that generates and permeates it. Such interactions play a fundamental role in hugely diverse astrophysical systems, but occur at scales that cannot be studied outside the solar system. Understanding this complex system requires concerted, simultaneous solar observations from the visible to the vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) and soft X-rays, at high spatial resolution (between 0.1'' and 0.3''), at high temporal resolution (on the order of 10 s, i.e., the time scale of chromospheric dynamics), with a wide temperature coverage (0.01 MK to 20 MK, from the chromosphere to the flaring corona), and the capability of measuring magnetic fields through spectropolarimetry at visible and near-infrared wavelengths. Simultaneous spectroscopic measurements sampling the entire temperature range are particularly important. These requirements are fulfilled by the Japanese Solar-C mission (Plan B), composed of a spacecraft in a geosynchronous orbit with a payload providing a significant improvement of imaging and spectropolarimetric capabilities in the UV, visible, and near-infrared with respect to what is available today and foreseen in the near future. The Large European Module for solar Ultraviolet Research (LEMUR), described in this paper, is a large VUV telescope feeding a scientific payload of high-resolution imaging spectrographs and cameras. LEMUR consists of two major components: a VUV solar telescope with a 30 cm diameter mirror and a focal length of 3.6 m, and a focal-plane package composed of VUV spectrometers covering six carefully chosen wavelength ranges between 170 Å and 1270 Å. The LEMUR slit covers 280'' on the Sun with 0.14'' per pixel sampling. In addition, LEMUR is capable of measuring mass flows velocities (line shifts) down to 2 km s - 1 or better. LEMUR has been proposed to ESA as the European contribution to the Solar

  11. Dusty plasmas over the Moon: theory research in support of the upcoming lunar missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popel, Sergey; Zelenyi, Lev; Zakharov, Alexander; Izvekova, Yulia; Dolnikov, Gennady; Dubinskii, Andrey; Kopnin, Sergey; Golub, Anatoly

    The future Russian lunar missions Luna 25 and Luna 27 are planned to be equipped with instruments for direct detection of nano- and microscale dust particles and determination of plasma properties over the surface of the Moon. Lunar dust over the Moon is usually considered as a part of a dusty plasma system. Here, we present the main our theory results concerning the lunar dusty plasmas. We start with the description of the observational data on dust particles on and over the surface of the Moon. We show that the size distribution of dust on the lunar surface is in a good agreement with the Kolmogorov distribution, which is the size distribution of particles in the case of multiple crushing. We discuss the role of adhesion which has been identified as a significant force in the dust particle launching process. We evaluate the adhesive force for lunar dust particles with taking into account the roughness and adsorbed molecular layers. We show that dust particle launching can be explained if the dust particles rise at a height of about dozens of nanometers owing to some processes. This is enough for the particles to acquire charges sufficient for the dominance of the electrostatic force over the gravitational and adhesive forces. The reasons for the separation of the dust particles from the surface of the Moon are, in particular, their heating by solar radiation and cooling. We consider migration of free protons in regolith from the viewpoint of the photoemission properties of the lunar soil. Finally, we develop a model of dusty plasma system over the Moon and show that it includes charged dust, photoelectrons, and electrons and ions of the solar wind. We determine the distributions of the photoelectrons and find the characteristics of the dust which rise over the lunar regolith. We show that there are no significant constraints on the Moon landing sites for future lunar missions that will study dusty plasmas in the surface layer of the Moon. We discuss also waves in

  12. Health care competition, strategic mission, and patient satisfaction: research model and propositions

    PubMed Central

    Rivers, Patrick A.; Glover, Saundra H.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose In all industries, competition among businesses has long been encouraged as a mechanism to increase value for patients. In other words, competition ensures the provision of better products and services to satisfy the needs of customers This paper aims to develop a model that can be used to empirically investigate a number of complex issues and relationships associated with competition in the health care industry. Design/methodology/approach A literature review was conducted. A total of 50 items of literature related to the subject were reviewed.. Various perspectives of competition, the nature of service quality, health system costs, and patient satisfaction in health care are examined Findings A model of the relationship among these variables is developed. The model depicts patient satisfaction as an outcome measure directly dependent on competition. Quality of care and health care systems costs, while also directly dependent on the strategic mission and goals, are considered as determinants of customer satisfaction as well. The model is discussed in the light of propositions for empirical research. Practical implications Empirical studies based on the model proposed in this paper should help identify areas with significant impact on patient satisfaction while maintaining high quality of service at lower costs in a competitive environment. Originality/value The authors develop a research model which included propositions to examine the complex issues of competition in the health care industry. PMID:19579575

  13. Research Objectives for Human Missions in the Proving Ground of Cis-Lunar Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Niles, P. B.; Eppler, D. B.; Kennedy, K. J.; Lewis, R.; Spann, J. F.; Sullivan, T. A.

    2016-01-01

    Beginning in as early as 2023, crewed missions beyond low Earth orbit will begin enabled by the new capabilities of the SLS and Orion vehicles. This will initiate the "Proving Ground" phase of human exploration with Mars as an ultimate destination. The primary goal of the Proving Ground is to demonstrate the capability of suitably long duration spaceflight without need of continuous support from Earth, i.e. become Earth Independent. A major component of the Proving Ground phase is to conduct research activities aimed at accomplishing major objectives selected from a wide variety of disciplines including but not limited to: Astronomy, Heliophysics, Fundamental Physics, Planetary Science, Earth Science, Human Systems, Fundamental Space Biology, Microgravity, and In A major component of the Proving Ground phase is to conduct research activities aimed at accomplishing major objectives selected from a wide variety of disciplines including but not limited to: Astronomy, Heliophysics, Fundamental Physics, Planetary Science, Earth Science, Human Systems, Fundamental Space Biology, Microgravity, and In Situ Resource Utilization. Mapping and prioritizing the most important objectives from these disciplines will provide a strong foundation for establishing the architecture to be utilized in the Proving Ground.

  14. Recent Efforts in Communications Research and Technology at the Glenn Research Center in Support of NASA's Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miranda, Felix A.

    2015-01-01

    As it has done in the past, NASA is currently engaged in furthering the frontiers of space and planetary exploration. The effectiveness in gathering the desired science data in the amount and quality required to perform this pioneering work relies heavily on the communications capabilities of the spacecraft and space platforms being considered to enable future missions. Accordingly, the continuous improvement and development of radiofrequency and optical communications systems are fundamental to prevent communications to become the limiting factor for space explorations. This presentation will discuss some of the research and technology development efforts currently underway at the NASA Glenn Research Center in the radio frequency (RF) and Optical Communications. Examples of work conducted in-house and also in collaboration with academia, industry, and other government agencies (OGA) in areas such as antenna technology, power amplifiers, radio frequency (RF) wave propagation through Earths atmosphere, ultra-sensitive receivers, thin films ferroelectric-based tunable components, among others, will be presented. In addition, the role of these and other related RF technologies in enabling the NASA next generation space communications architecture will be also discussed.

  15. Mission and Research Scientists in NASA EPO and STEM Education: The Results of 15 Years of EPO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebofsky, L. A.; McCarthy, D. W.; Higgins, M. L.; Mueller, B.; Lebofsky, N. R.

    2014-07-01

    Exploration of the Solar System and beyond is a team effort, from research programs to space missions. The same is true for science education. James Webb Space Telescope's Near InfraRed Camera EPO Team has been teamed with Girl Scouts of Southern Arizona for nearly a decade. We now have collaborations throughout Arizona and across the nation.

  16. Coherent Doppler Wind Lidar Development at NASA Langley Research Center for NASA Space-Based 3-D Winds Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, Upendra N.; Kavaya, Michael J.; Yu, Jirong; Koch, Grady J.

    2012-01-01

    We review the 20-plus years of pulsed transmit laser development at NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) to enable a coherent Doppler wind lidar to measure global winds from earth orbit. We briefly also discuss the many other ingredients needed to prepare for this space mission.

  17. An orbit simulation study of a geopotential research mission including satellite-to-satellite tracking and disturbance compensation systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Antreasian, Peter G.

    1988-01-01

    Two orbit simulations, one representing the actual Geopotential Research Mission (GRM) orbit and the other representing the orbit estimated from orbit determination techniques, are presented. A computer algorithm was created to simulate GRM's drag compensation mechanism so the fuel expenditure and proof mass trajectories relative to the spacecraft centroid could be calculated for the mission. The results of the GRM DISCOS simulation demonstrated that the spacecraft can essentially be drag-free. The results showed that the centroid of the spacecraft can be controlled so that it will not deviate more than 1.0 mm in any direction from the centroid of the proof mass.

  18. Mission Specific Platforms: Past achievements and future developments in European led ocean research drilling.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cotterill, Carol; McInroy, David; Stevenson, Alan

    2013-04-01

    Mission Specific Platform (MSP) expeditions are operated by the European Consortium for Ocean Research Drilling (ECORD). Each MSP expedition is unique within the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP). In order to complement the abilities of the JOIDES Resolution and the Chikyu, the ECORD Science Operator (ESO) must source vessels and technology suitable for each MSP proposal on a case-by-case basis. The result is that ESO can meet scientific requirements in a flexible manner, whilst maintaining the measurements required for the IODP legacy programme. The process of tendering within EU journals for vessels and technology means that the planning process for each MSP Expedition starts many years in advance of the operational phase. Involvement of proposal proponents from this early stage often leads to the recognition for technological research and development to best meet the scientific aims and objectives. One example of this is the planning for the Atlantis Massif proposal, with collaborative development between the British Geological Survey (BGS) and MARUM, University of Bremen, on suitable instruments for seabed drills, with the European Petrophysics Consortium (EPC) driving the development of suitable wireline logging tools that can be used in association with such seabed systems. Other technological developments being undertaken within the European IODP community include in-situ pressure sampling for gas hydrate expeditions, deep biosphere and fluid sampling equipment and CORK technology. This multi-national collaborative approach is also employed by ESO in the operational phase. IODP Expedition 302 ACEX saw vessel and ice management support from Russia and Sweden to facilitate the first drilling undertaken in Arctic sea ice. A review of MSP expeditions past, present and future reveal the significant impact of European led operations and scientific research within the current IODP programme, and also looking forward to the start of the new International

  19. Planetary quarantine: Space research and technology. [satellite quarantine constraints on outer planet mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    The impact of satisfying satellite quarantine constraints on current outer planet mission and spacecraft designs is considered. Tools required to perform trajectory and navigation analyses for determining satellite impact probabilities are developed.

  20. Development of Laser Ablation Tine-of-Flight Mass Spectrometer for Future Mission and Planetary Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, X.; Brinckerhoff, W. B.; Managadze, G. G.; Pugel, D. E.; Corrigan, C. M.

    2012-10-01

    Laser ablation time-of-flight mass spectrometry has attractive features for sample analysis on planetary missions. We demonstrated its capability to perform as a standoff sensor and for trace-element detection.

  1. Operational training for the mission operations at the Brazilian National Institute for Space Research (INPE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rozenfeld, Pawel

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes the selection and training process of satellite controllers and data network operators performed at INPE's Satellite Tracking and Control Center in order to prepare them for the mission operations of the INPE's first (SCD1) satellite. An overview of the ground control system and SCD1 architecture and mission is given. Different training phases are described, taking into account that the applicants had no previous knowledge of space operations requiring, therefore, a training which started from the basics.

  2. NASA COAST and OCEANIA Airborne Missions Support Ecosystem and Water Quality Research in the Coastal Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guild, L. S.; Kudela, R. M.; Hooker, S. B.; Morrow, J. H.; Russell, P. B.; Palacios, S. L.; Livingston, J. M.; Negrey, K.; Torres-Perez, J. L.; Broughton, J.

    2014-12-01

    NASA has a continuing requirement to collect high-quality in situ data for the vicarious calibration of current and next generation ocean color satellite sensors and to validate the algorithms that use the remotely sensed observations. Recent NASA airborne missions over Monterey Bay, CA, have demonstrated novel above- and in-water measurement capabilities supporting a combined airborne sensor approach (imaging spectrometer, microradiometers, and a sun photometer). The results characterize coastal atmospheric and aquatic properties through an end-to-end assessment of image acquisition, atmospheric correction, algorithm application, plus sea-truth observations from state-of-the-art instrument systems. The primary goal is to demonstrate the following in support of calibration and validation exercises for satellite coastal ocean color products: 1) the utility of a multi-sensor airborne instrument suite to assess the bio-optical properties of coastal California, including water quality; and 2) the importance of contemporaneous atmospheric measurements to improve atmospheric correction in the coastal zone. The imaging spectrometer (Headwall) is optimized in the blue spectral domain to emphasize remote sensing of marine and freshwater ecosystems. The novel airborne instrument, Coastal Airborne In-situ Radiometers (C-AIR) provides measurements of apparent optical properties with high dynamic range and fidelity for deriving exact water leaving radiances at the land-ocean boundary, including radiometrically shallow aquatic ecosystems. Simultaneous measurements supporting empirical atmospheric correction of image data are accomplished using the Ames Airborne Tracking Sunphotometer (AATS-14). Flight operations are presented for the instrument payloads using the CIRPAS Twin Otter flown over Monterey Bay during the seasonal fall algal bloom in 2011 (COAST) and 2013 (OCEANIA) to support bio-optical measurements of phytoplankton for coastal zone research.

  3. Research on Life Science and Life Support Engineering Problems of Manned Deep Space Exploration Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Bin; Guo, Linli; Zhang, Zhixian

    2016-07-01

    Space life science and life support engineering are prominent problems in manned deep space exploration mission. Some typical problems are discussed in this paper, including long-term life support problem, physiological effect and defense of varying extraterrestrial environment. The causes of these problems are developed for these problems. To solve these problems, research on space life science and space medical-engineering should be conducted. In the aspect of space life science, the study of space gravity biology should focus on character of physiological effect in long term zero gravity, co-regulation of physiological systems, impact on stem cells in space, etc. The study of space radiation biology should focus on target effect and non-target effect of radiation, carcinogenicity of radiation, spread of radiation damage in life system, etc. The study of basic biology of space life support system should focus on theoretical basis and simulating mode of constructing the life support system, filtration and combination of species, regulation and optimization method of life support system, etc. In the aspect of space medical-engineering, the study of bio-regenerative life support technology should focus on plants cultivation technology, animal-protein production technology, waste treatment technology, etc. The study of varying gravity defense technology should focus on biological and medical measures to defend varying gravity effect, generation and evaluation of artificial gravity, etc. The study of extraterrestrial environment defense technology should focus on risk evaluation of radiation, monitoring and defending of radiation, compound prevention and removal technology of dust, etc. At last, a case of manned lunar base is analyzed, in which the effective schemes of life support system, defense of varying gravity, defense of extraterrestrial environment are advanced respectively. The points in this paper can be used as references for intensive study on key

  4. The transmission of -125-I-labelled immunoglobulin G by proximal and distal regions of the small intestine of 16-day-old rats.

    PubMed Central

    Morris, B

    1975-01-01

    1. Standard doses of -125-I-labelled rat IgG were injected into the intestinal lumen of rats aged 16 days, and their sera were sampled 2 and 3 hr later. High concentration quotients were obtained after injection into the proximal small intestime, whereas very little immunoglobulin was transmitted from doses injected into the terminal 20 cm of the small intestine. 2. The villi of the terminal 18--20 cm of the small intestine of 16-day-old rats, the region from which very little transmission of IgG occurred, were lined by tall columnar absorptive cells with very larg supra-nuclear vacuoles. The extent of the terminal intestine, in which this cell type predominated in the absorptive epithelium, varied with age. The importance of defining the precise location of the region of the intestine under examination is stressed. 3. The experimental results and the histological observations are discussed in relation to (a) the results which have been obtained using PVP, which is unsuitable as an indicator of immunoglobulin transport in the rat and (b) the histological composition of the absorptive epithelium and the maturation changes which affect the epithelium between 18 and 21 days. Images A B C D PMID:1127610

  5. Funding and Strategic Alignment Guidance for Infusing Small Business Innovation Research Technology into NASA Programs Associated with the Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Hung D.; Steele, Gynelle C.

    2015-01-01

    This report is intended to help NASA program and project managers incorporate Small Business Innovation Research/Small Business Technology Transfer (SBIR/STTR) technologies that have gone through Phase II of the SBIR program into NASA Aeronautics and Mission Directorate (ARMD) programs. Other Government and commercial program managers can also find this information useful.

  6. RICIS Symposium 1992: Mission and Safety Critical Systems Research and Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    This conference deals with computer systems which control systems whose failure to operate correctly could produce the loss of life and or property, mission and safety critical systems. Topics covered are: the work of standards groups, computer systems design and architecture, software reliability, process control systems, knowledge based expert systems, and computer and telecommunication protocols.

  7. Estimation of Trans Fatty Acid Intake in Japanese Adults Using 16-Day Diet Records Based on a Food Composition Database Developed for the Japanese Population

    PubMed Central

    Yamada, Mai; Sasaki, Satoshi; Murakami, Kentaro; Takahashi, Yoshiko; Okubo, Hitomi; Hirota, Naoko; Notsu, Akiko; Todoriki, Hidemi; Miura, Ayako; Fukui, Mitsuru; Date, Chigusa

    2010-01-01

    Background The Standard Tables of Food Composition in Japan do not include information on trans fatty acids. Previous studies estimating trans fatty acid intake among Japanese have limitations regarding the databases utilized and diet assessment methodologies. We developed a comprehensive database of trans fatty acid food composition, and used this database to estimate intake among a Japanese population. Methods The database was developed using analytic values from the literature and nutrient analysis software encompassing foods in the US, as well as values estimated from recipes or nutrient compositions. We collected 16-day diet records from 225 adults aged 30 to 69 years living in 4 areas of Japan. Trans fatty acid intake was estimated based on the database and the 16-day diet records. Results Mean total fat and trans fatty acid intake was 56.9 g/day (27.7% total energy) and 1.7 g/day (0.8% total energy), respectively, for women and 66.8 g/day (25.5% total energy) and 1.7 g/day (0.7% total energy) for men. Trans fatty acid intake accounted for greater than 1% of total energy intake, which is the maximum recommended according to the World Health Organization, in 24.4% of women and 5.7% of men, and was particularly high among women living in urban areas and those aged 30–49 years. The largest contributors to trans fatty acid intake were confectionaries in women and fats and oils in men. Conclusions Although mean trans fatty acid intake was below the maximum recommended intake of the World Health Organization, intake among subgroups was of concern. Further public health efforts to reduce trans fatty acid intake should be encouraged. PMID:20037259

  8. Recent Efforts in Advanced High Frequency Communications at the Glenn Research Center in Support of NASA Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miranda, Felix A.

    2015-01-01

    This presentation will discuss research and technology development work at the NASA Glenn Research Center in advanced frequency communications in support of NASAs mission. An overview of the work conducted in-house and also in collaboration with academia, industry, and other government agencies (OGA) in areas such as antenna technology, power amplifiers, radio frequency (RF) wave propagation through Earths atmosphere, ultra-sensitive receivers, among others, will be presented. In addition, the role of these and other related RF technologies in enabling the NASA next generation space communications architecture will be also discussed.

  9. Editing the Mission.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Sharon; Fogg, Piper

    2002-01-01

    Discusses the decision by Columbia University's new president to reevaluate the mission of its journalism school before naming a new dean, in order to explore how the journalism school fits into the mission of a research university. (EV)

  10. The PC/AT compatible computer as a mission control center display processor at Ames-Dryden Flight Research Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hammons, Kevin R.

    1988-01-01

    Since 1982, the Western Aeronautical Test Range of the Ames-Dryden Flight Research Facility has been separating the data acquisition and processing function required on all telemetry pulse code modulation (PCM) data and the display processing function required in the flight research mission control centers (MCCs). These two functions historically have been done on the same set of superminicomputers remote from the MCCs. Removing the display processing function from the realm of the superminis or telemetry-radar acquisition and processing system (TRAPS) and out into the MCCs will allow the research engineers the flexibility to configure their own display processing system to optimize performance during a flight research mission. Meanwhile, the TRAPS will have more time to acquire data. One of the processors chosen is an IBM PC/AT compatible rack-mounted personal computer. This class and type machine will not only allow the transfer of the display processing function into the MCCs, but also allow the research engineers a personalized set of analytic and display tools for use on their own unique sets of data.

  11. Promoting space research and applications in developing countries through small satellite missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sweeting, M.

    The high vantage-point of space offers very direct and tangible benefits to developing countries when carefully focused upon their real and particular communications and Earth observation needs. However, until recently, access to space has been effectively restricted to only those countries prepared to invest enormous sums in complex facilities and expensive satellites and launchers: this has placed individual participation in space beyond the sensible grasp of developing countries. However, during the last decade, highly capable and yet inexpensive small satellites have been developed which provide an opportunity for developing countries realistically to acquire and operate their own independent space assets - customized to their particular national needs. Over the last 22 years, the Surrey Space Centre has pioneered, developed and launched 23 nano-micro-minisatellite missions, and has worked in partnership with 12 developing countries to enable them to take their first independent steps into space. Surrey has developed a comprehensive and in-depth space technology know-how transfer and 'hands-on' training programme that uses a collaborative project comprising the design, construction, launch and operation of a microsatellite to acquire an indigenous space capability and create the nucleus of a national space agency and space industry. Using low cost small satellite projects as a focus, developing countries are able to initiate a long term, affordable and sustainable national space programme specifically tailored to their requirements, that is able to access the benefits derived from Earth observation for land use and national security; improved communications services; catalyzing scientific research and indigenous high-technology supporting industries. Perhaps even more important is the long-term benefit to the country provided by stimulating educational and career opportunities for your scientists and engineers and retaining them inside the country rather the

  12. Competing Influences of the Direct High Energy Solar Radiation and Mesospheric Planetary Wave (Quasi 16-Day Oscillation) Effects on the Equatorial Electrojet (EEJ)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramkumar, T. K.; Gurubaran, S.; Rajaram, R.

    2001-05-01

    The free propagating or normal resonant or Rossby mode (sometimes called slow moving second symmetric Kelvin wave) 16-day (12-20 day periodicity band) planetary wave in the mesosphere and its influence on the equatorial electrojet strength (EEJS) is searched in the present work. Hourly averaged wind data obtained from the medium frequency (MF 1.98 MHz) partial reflection (spaced antenna) radar located at the near dip equatorial station Tirunelveli (8.7° N, 77.8° E, geographic; 0.35° N magnetic dip) India and the ground based magnetic field measurements obtained from Trivandrum (8.5° N, 77.0° E, geographic; 0.65° N magnetic dip) and Alibag (18.6° N, 72.9° E, geographic; 25.5° N magnetic dip) India are subjected to fast Fourier transform (FFT) spectral analysis for the years 1995 and 1996. Hourly solar X-ray flux (1-8 Å) data obtained from GOES-7 satellite is read manually from the analog charts published in the solar geophysical data reports (NGDC) and subjected to the same FFT analysis. Our observation shows that the hourly averaged raw data (both wind and EEJS) itself shows a noticeable ~16-day periodicity modulation. However, the actual period of oscillation lies in the 12-20 day band. More often it is concentrated near 15-day and its amplitudes are accordingly with theory and earlier observations made both in the Northern and Southern midlatitudes. The four data segments (1024 hours each) for the year 1996 is looked more closely and presented here. The first segment, 1 January to 25 March, shows a pronounced peak near 15.2 day in both the zonal wind and EEJS. This shows that the periodiocity of 15.2 day found in the EEJS is associated more with the influence of the upward propagation of the mesospheric planetary wave. However, the peak near the 16-day period found in the EEJS is not seems to be associated with the mesospheric planetary wave for the second segment 26 March to 18 June 1996. In this case, we found that the X-ray flux showed a well

  13. Upper Atmospheric Research Satellite (UARS) ground data system - The first operational data system for the Mission to Planet Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herring, Ellen L.; Smith, Janice K.; Taylor, K. D.

    1993-01-01

    The initiation of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Mission to Planet Earth was realized with the activation of the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (LIARS) in mid-September 1991 following deployment from the Shuttle Transport System (STS) - 48. The UARS provides the first comprehensive study of the chemistry and dynamics of the upper atmosphere. The UARS ground data system provides the capabilities required to support upper atmospheric studies in a timely and flexible manner. The UARS ground data system policy and implementation plan incorporated by the UARS Project team provided the flexibility necessary to be able to respond to changing priorities and requirements and to permit the ground data system to evolve far beyond initial expectations. This paper describes the policies and plans in place during the initial design and implementation phases and provides an overview of the UARS ground data system. The paper then addresses the changing UARS ground data system design and implementation priorities, the early mission experiences instrumental in the achievement of higher than expected goals, and a brief look at the future for UARS, the first Mission to Planet Earth.

  14. Research from the NASA Twins Study and Omics in Support of Mars Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kundrot, C.; Shelhamer, M.; Scott, G.

    2015-01-01

    The NASA Twins Study, NASA's first foray into integrated omic studies in humans, illustrates how an integrated omics approach can be brought to bear on the challenges to human health and performance on a Mars mission. The NASA Twins Study involves US Astronaut Scott Kelly and his identical twin brother, Mark Kelly, a retired US Astronaut. No other opportunity to study a twin pair for a prolonged period with one subject in space and one on the ground is available for the foreseeable future. A team of 10 principal investigators are conducting the Twins Study, examining a very broad range of biological functions including the genome, epigenome, transcriptome, proteome, metabolome, gut microbiome, immunological response to vaccinations, indicators of atherosclerosis, physiological fluid shifts, and cognition. A novel aspect of the study is the integrated study of molecular, physiological, cognitive, and microbiological properties. Major sample and data collection from both subjects for this study began approximately six months before Scott Kelly's one year mission on the ISS, continue while Scott Kelly is in flight and will conclude approximately six months after his return to Earth. Mark Kelly will remain on Earth during this study, in a lifestyle unconstrained by this study, thereby providing a measure of normal variation in the properties being studied. An overview of initial results and the future plans will be described as well as the technological and ethical issues raised for spaceflight studies involving omics.

  15. ICESat-2: the next generation laser altimeter mission for polar research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neumann, Thomas; Markus, Thorsten; Martino, Anthony

    2015-04-01

    NASA's Ice, Cloud, and land Elevation Satellite-2 (ICESat-2) mission objectives are to quantify polar ice sheet contributions to sea level change, quantify regional signatures of ice sheet changes to assess driving mechanisms, estimate sea ice thickness, and to enable measurements of global canopy height as a basis for estimating large-scale biomass. Its predecessor ICESat, which operated from 2003 to 2009, pioneered the use of laser altimeters in space to study the elevation of the Earth's surface and its changes. Among other contributions to the cryospheric sciences, ICESat proved adept at making centimeter-level elevation measurements over both ice sheets and sea ice. Since ICESat stopped collecting data in October 2009, the IceBridge and CryoSat-2 missions continue these important observations. The well-documented and ongoing dramatic and rapid changes in the Earth's ice cover have strengthened the need for sustained observations beyond what CryoSat-2 and IceBridge are expected to provide. Lessons learned from ICESat demonstrated the need for cross-track slope information over the ice sheets (realized through ICESat-2's multiple beams), a smaller footprint size, and gapless along-track data collection. These needs resulted in a different measurement concept for ICESat-2. The presentation will provide a brief summary of the measurement concept, the status of hardware development (instrument Integration and Testing has started in May 2014), and progress on geophysical algorithm development.

  16. STS-78 Space Shuttle Mission Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fricke, Robert W., Jr.

    1996-01-01

    The STS-78 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report summarizes the Payload activities as well as the Orbiter, External Tank (ET), Solid Rocket Booster (SRB), Reusable Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM), and the Space Shuttle main engine (SSME) systems performance during the seventy-eighth flight of the Space Shuttle Program, the fifty-third flight since the return-to-flight, and the twentieth flight of the Orbiter Columbia (OV-102). In addition to the Orbiter, the flight vehicle consisted of an ET that was designated ET-79; three SSME's that were designated as serial numbers 2041, 2039, and 2036 in positions 1, 2, and 3, respectively; and two SRB's that were designated BI-081. The RSRM's, designated RSRM-55, were installed in each SRB and the individual RSRM's were designated as 360L055A for the left SRB, and 360L055B for the right SRB. The STS-78 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report fulfills the Space Shuttle Program requirement as documented in NSTS 07700, Volume 7, Appendix E. The requirement stated in that document is that each organizational element supporting the Program will report the results of their hardware (and software) evaluation and mission performance plus identify all related in-flight anomalies. The primary objective of this flight was to successfully perform the planned operations of the Life and Microgravity Spacelab experiments. The secondary objectives of this flight were to complete the operations of the Orbital Acceleration Research Experiment (OARE), Biological Research in Canister Unit-Block II (BRIC), and the Shuttle Amateur Radio Experiment II-Configuration C (SAREX-II). The STS-78 mission was planned as a 16-day, plus one day flight plus two contingency days, which were available for weather avoidance or Orbiter contingency operations. The sequence of events for the STS-78 mission is shown in Table 1, and the Space Shuttle Vehicle Management Office Problem Tracking List is shown in Table 2. The Government Furnished Equipment/Flight Crew Equipment

  17. Research study on neutral thermodynamic atmospheric model. [for space shuttle mission and abort trajectory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hargraves, W. R.; Delulio, E. B.; Justus, C. G.

    1977-01-01

    The Global Reference Atmospheric Model is used along with the revised perturbation statistics to evaluate and computer graph various atmospheric statistics along a space shuttle reference mission and abort trajectory. The trajectory plots are height vs. ground range, with height from ground level to 155 km and ground range along the reentry trajectory. Cross sectional plots, height vs. latitude or longitude, are also generated for 80 deg longitude, with heights from 30 km to 90 km and latitude from -90 deg to +90 deg, and for 45 deg latitude, with heights from 30 km to 90 km and longitudes from 180 deg E to 180 deg W. The variables plotted are monthly average pressure, density, temperature, wind components, and wind speed and standard deviations and 99th inter-percentile range for each of these variables.

  18. Integrating Assessment and Research Strategies on a Large Development and Research Project: Kids as Airborne Mission Scientists (KaAMS).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grabowski, Barbara L.; Koszalka, Tiffany A.

    Combining assessment and research components on a large development and research project is a complex task. There are many descriptions of how either assessment or research should be conducted, but detailed examples illustrating integration of such strategies in complex projects are scarce. This paper provides definitions of assessment,…

  19. Small Body GN&C Research Report: A G-Guidance Enhancement to Increase Mission Functionality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carson, John M., III; Ackmese, Behcet

    2006-01-01

    G-Guidance is a robust G&C (guidance and control) algorithm developed under the small-body GN&C task. The G-Guidance scheme utilizes a model predictive control approach, along with a convexification of the governing dynamics, control constraints, and trajectory/state constraints. This report details an enhancement to the FY2005 G-Guidance algorithm; the addition of a fire-second approach helps to nullify velocity errors and hit desired final velocities much more precisely than the original Fire-first scheme developed in FY2005. The enhancement preserves the primary benefit of the algorithm, which is to ensure required thruster silent times during trajectory maneuvers. The fire-second scheme increases the versatility of the algorithm for missions employing G-Guidance. For instance, a landing sequence could employ the fire-second scheme to ensure a null final velocity at landing, whereas an ascent sequence could utilize a fire-first scheme to ensure there is no drift of the spacecraft toward the ground at the beginning of the maneuver. Examples are provided within to demonstrate a fire-first versus fire-second guidance scheme. As in the existing G-Guidance algorithm, the examples and schemes incorporate gravity models and thruster firing times into discrete dynamics that are solved as a optimal control problem to minimize fuel consumption or thruster energy expenditure.

  20. Reference Mission Operational Analysis Document (RMOAD) for the Life Sciences Research Facilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    The space station will be constructed during the next decade as an orbiting, low-gravity, permanent facility. The facility will provide a multitude of research opportunities for many different users. The pressurized research laboratory will allow life scientists to study the effects of long-term exposure to microgravity on humans, animals, and plants. The results of these studies will increase our understanding of this foreign environment on basic life processes and ensure the safety of man's long-term presence in space. This document establishes initial operational requirements for the use of the Life Sciences Research Facility (LSRF) during its construction.

  1. DC-8 Airborne Laboratory in flight during research mission - view from above

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    The DC-8 Airborne Science Laboratroy is shown flying above a solid layer of clouds. The aircraft was transferred from the Ames Research Center to the Dryden Flight Research Center in late 1997. Over the past several years, it has undertaken a wide range of research in such fields as archeology, ecology, hydrology, meteorology, oceanography, volcanology, atmospheric chemistry, and other fields. In this photo, it is shown flying over a bank of clouds. NASA is using a DC-8 aircraft as a flying science laboratory. The platform aircraft, based at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, Calif., collects data for many experiments in support of scientific projects serving the world scientific community. Included in this community are NASA, federal, state, academic and foreign investigators. Data gathered by the DC-8 at flight altitude and by remote sensing have been used for scientific studies in archeology, ecology, geography, hydrology, meteorology, oceanography, volcanology, atmospheric chemistry, soil science and biology.

  2. Getting ready for the manned mission to Mars: bioassays for space research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baumstark-Khan, Christa; Hellweg, Christine E.; Arenz, Andrea; Meier, Matthias M.; Horneck, Gerda

    2004-06-01

    Harmful environmental factors - namely ionizing radiation - will continue to influence future manned space missions. The Cellular Biodiagnostic group at the German Aerospace Center (DLR) develops cellular monitoring systems, which include bacterial and mammalian cell systems capable of recognizing DNA damage as a consequence of the presence of genotoxic conditions. Such bioassay or biosensor systems will complement the physical detector systems used in space, insofar as they yield intrinsically biologically weighted measures of cellular responses. Furthermore, synergistic mutagenic and cancerogenic impacts of the radiation environment together with other potentially genotoxic constituents of the space habitat can be quantified using such systems, whose signals are especially relevant for the molecular damage to the DNA or the chromosomes. The experiment Cellular Responses to Radiation in Space (CERASP) has been selected by NASA to be performed on the International Space Station. It will supply basic information on the cellular response to radiation applied in microgravity. One of the biological end-points under investigation will be survival reflected by radiation-dependent reduction of constitutive expression of the enhanced variant of green fluorescent protein (EGFP), originally isolated from the bioluminescent jellyfish Aequorea victoria. A second end-point will be gene activation by space flight conditions in mammalian cells, based on fluorescent promoter reporter systems using the destabilized EGFP variant (d2EGFP). The promoter element to be investigated will reflect the activity of the NF-kappaB stress response pathway as an anti-apoptotic radiation response. DNA damage will be measured by fluorescent analysis of DNA unwinding (FADU). The systems have worked properly for terrestrial applications during the first experiments. Experiments using accelerated particles produced at the French heavy ion accelerator GANIL have given insights into cellular mechanisms

  3. AIM satellite-based research bridges the unique scientific aspects of the mission to informal education programs globally

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, D.; Maggi, B.

    2003-04-01

    The Education and Public Outreach (EPO) component of the satellite-based research mission "Aeronomy of Ice In the Mesosphere" (AIM) will bridge the unique scientific aspects of the mission to informal education organizations. The informal education materials developed by the EPO will utilize AIM data and educate the public about the environmental implications associated with the data. This will assist with creating a scientifically literate workforce and in developing a citizenry capable of making educated decisions related to environmental policies and laws. The objective of the AIM mission is to understand the mechanisms that cause Polar Mesospheric Clouds (PMCs) to form, how their presence affects the atmosphere, and how change in the atmosphere affects them. PMCs are sometimes known as Noctilucent Clouds (NLCs) because of their visibility during the night from appropriate locations. The phenomenon of PMCs is an observable indicator of global change, a concern to all citizens. Recent sightings of these clouds over populated regions have compelled AIM educators to expand informal education opportunities to communities worldwide. Collaborations with informal organizations include: Museums/Science Centers; NASA Sun-Earth Connection Forum; Alaska Native Ways of Knowing Project; Amateur Noctilucent Cloud Observers Organization; National Parks Education Programs; After School Science Clubs; Public Broadcasting Associations; and National Public Radio. The Native Ways of Knowing Project is an excellent example of informal collaboration with the AIM EPO. This Alaska based project will assist native peoples of the state with photographing NLCs for the EPO website. It will also aid the EPO with developing materials for informal organizations that incorporate traditional native knowledge and science, related to the sky. Another AIM collaboration that will offer citizens lasting informal education opportunities is the one established with the United States National Parks

  4. Cubesat Gravity Field Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burla, Santoshkumar; Mueller, Vitali; Flury, Jakob; Jovanovic, Nemanja

    2016-04-01

    CHAMP, GRACE and GOCE missions have been successful in the field of satellite geodesy (especially to improve Earth's gravity field models) and have established the necessity towards the next generation gravity field missions. Especially, GRACE has shown its capabilities beyond any other gravity field missions. GRACE Follow-On mission is going to continue GRACE's legacy which is almost identical to GRACE mission with addition of laser interferometry. But these missions are not only quite expensive but also takes quite an effort to plan and to execute. Still there are few drawbacks such as under-sampling and incapability of exploring new ideas within a single mission (ex: to perform different orbit configurations with multi satellite mission(s) at different altitudes). The budget is the major limiting factor to build multi satellite mission(s). Here, we offer a solution to overcome these drawbacks using cubesat/ nanosatellite mission. Cubesats are widely used in research because they are cheaper, smaller in size and building them is easy and faster than bigger satellites. Here, we design a 3D model of GRACE like mission with available sensors and explain how the Attitude and Orbit Control System (AOCS) works. The expected accuracies on final results of gravity field are also explained here.

  5. Selected case studies of technology transfer from mission-oriented applied research

    SciTech Connect

    Daellenbach, K.K.; Watts, R.L.; Young, J.K. ); Abarcar, R.B. )

    1992-07-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) Advanced Industrial Concepts Division (AICD) under the Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT) supports interdisciplinary applied research and exploratory development that will expand the knowledge base to enable industry to improve its energy efficiency and its capability to use alternative energy resources. AICD capitalizes on scientific and technical advances from the United States and abroad, applying them to address critical technical needs of American industry. As a result, AICD research and development products are many and varied, and the effective transfer of these products to diverse targeted users requires different strategies as well. This paper describes the products of AICD research, how they are transferred to potential users, and how actual transfer is determined.

  6. [Organisation of clinical research in France: the new missions of inter-regional delegations for clinical research].

    PubMed

    Jaillon, Patrice

    2008-05-01

    The organisation of clinical research in French teaching hospitals has been profoundly modified over the past 15 years. The first call for clinical research projects was made by the Ministry of Health in 1993. This Hospital Program for Clinical Research was created by the public welfare system, a situation unique in Europe and the USA at the time. Every year since 1993, new clinical research projects have been supported through this program. In 2007, more than 14 million euros was provided for clinical research in oncology more than 21 million euros for clinical research in other fields, and more than 11 million euros through interregional grants. Overall, more than 50 million euros will be provided in 2008 to support clinical research with public sponsorship in French teaching hospitals. Major organisational changes were made to support this unprecedented financial effort in favor of clinical research. In each of the 29 French teaching hospitals, a Delegation for Clinical Research (DRC) was created to promote public sponsorship of clinical trials, to monitor these trials, to guarantee that Good Clinical Practices are respected, and to control the financial aspects of research projects. Clinical Research Assistants were recruited by DRC to monitor clinical trials. Clinical Investigation Centers (CIC) were organized in conjunction with teaching hospitals and with the French biomedical research council (INSERM). Today, there are 54 CICs located in 23 teaching hospitals, conducting clinical trials and other research in epidemiology and biotechnology. In May 2005, seven interregional delegations for clinical research (DIRC) were created to coordinate these activities on a regional basis. The aim was to improve scientific collaboration between teaching hospitals in a given region, to organize the training of clinical investigators and technicians, and to support the development of clinical trial monitoring, quality assurance, and pharmacovigilance. A 2006 survey of

  7. The History of Winter Thermochron Mission: Utilizing An Innovative Technology to Promote Science Research in the Classroom.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bender, K. J.

    2007-12-01

    The goal of the Thermochron Mission, an embedded strand of the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center History of Winter (HOW) Program, is to engage participants actively in research methods while focusing on the observation and analysis of changes in ambient temperature. Through experiential learning opportunities, peer coaching, and expert instruction sessions, participants including in-service teachers, pre-service teachers, and ultimately their K-12 students, enhance their understanding of the processes and methods of science research. The initial engagement and exploration training has been provided to participants in the History of Winter (HOW) workshop since 2004. Supportive web-based multimedia resources utilized through modeling within the training program are available to participants online for continued later use within a classroom setting. The Thermochron Mission echoes the learning cycle embedded within the History of Winter Program. Emphasized are critical aspects of inquiry investigation including active and immersive experiences, opportunities for comparison and analysis of data, application of findings to new situations, and the communication of information in an appropriate forum. As a result, past HOW participants have utilized the Thermochron in settings as different as environmental studies through an outdoor education center and the study of acid mine drainage and its effect on local stream. In 2007, we collaborated with the FINNMARK 2007 and the GO NORTH expeditions, providing snow collection information and Thermochrons to gather a continual temperature record during these remote expeditions to the Arctic region. Both FINNMARK2007 and the POLAR Husky GoNorth 2007 dog sled expeditions took a complement of Thermochrons with multimedia instructions and the tools and protocols of the Global Snowflake Network (GSN), an International Polar Year project of the History of Winter Program, to measure temperature and the shape and characteristics of snow

  8. GLORIA: A new instrument for atmospheric research deployed to Geophysica and HALO during the ESSENCE and TACTS/ESMVAL missions.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oelhaf, Hermann; Preusse, Peter; Friedl-Vallon, Felix

    2013-04-01

    The Gimballed Limb Radiance Imager of the Atmosphere (GLORIA) is a newly developed unique instrument that bridges the gap from scanning to imaging in the Infrared spectral domain. This is realized by combining a classical Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS) with a 2-D detector array tailored to the FTS needs. Imaging allows the spatial sampling to be improved by up to an order of magnitude when compared to a limb scanning instrument. GLORIA is designed to operate on various high altitude research platforms. The instrument is a joint development of the Helmholtz Large Research Facilities Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) and Research Centre Jülich (FZJ). GLORIA builds upon the heritage of KIT and FZJ in developing and operating IR limb sounders (CRISTA, MIPAS). Atmospheric quantities to be measured are Temperature, H2O, HDO, O3, N2O, CH4, CFCs, HNO3, ClONO2 and some minor species indicating biomass burning and pollution, along with cloud distribution. A unique property of GLORIA measurements is the provision of well-resolved 2D-cross sections ('curtains') of atmospheric parameters along the flight path of the airplane or even 3D fields of trace species when dedicated flight patterns are carried out. These capabilities are a valuable added value to missions that are primarily equipped with in-situ instruments since it complements the vertical domain to the measurements taken by in-situ instruments on the flight level. GLORIA has flown for the first time in December 2011 on board the Russian Geophysica M55 research aircraft from Kiruna/Sweden in the framework of the ESSENCE campaign. In August and September 2012 GLORIA was an integral part of the first large HALO missions dedicated to atmospheric research, TACTS and ESMVAL. The data which span latitudes from 80°N to 65°S form a unique treasure which allows to study a number of scientific questions, such as outflow of biomass burning products from Africa to the Atlantic Sea, filamentation at the edge of the

  9. Human Research Program: Long Duration, Exploration-Class Mission Training Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barshi, Immanuel; Dempsey, Donna L.

    2016-01-01

    This is a presentation to the International Training Control Board that oversees astronaut training for ISS. The presentation explains the structure of HRP, the training-related work happening under the different program elements, and discusses in detail the research plan for the Training Risk under SHFHSHFE. The group includes the crew training leads for all the space agencies involved in ISS: Japan, Europe, Russia, Canada, and the US.

  10. Pre-Mission Communication And Awareness Stratgies For Positive Group Functioning And Development: Analysis Of A Crew At The Mars Desert Research Station (MDRS) In Utah, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allner, Matthew; Bishop, Sheryl; Gushin, Vadim; McKay, Chris; Rygalov, Vadim; Allner, Matthew

    Introduction: Psychosocial group functioning has become an increased international focus of many space faring nations due to the recent shift in focus of colonizing the Moon and then preparing to travel to Mars and beyond. Purpose: This study investigates the effects of pre-mission communication and awareness strategies for positive group functioning in extreme environments as well as suggestive countermeasures to maintain positive group dynamic development in isolated and confined extreme (ICE) environments. The study is supported by both preand intra-mission management efforts, which included crewmember assessments at various mission phases (pre-, intra-, and end-mission). Methods: A six person heterogeneous American crew conducted a Mars simulation mission at the Mars Society's Mars Desert Research Station in Utah, USA in 2006 as part of a new NASA training program called Spaceward Bound. Participants were administered assessments of personality, personal and group identity/functioning, subjective stress, coping, and subjective motivation. All participants were also provided information (pre-mission) regarding past research and tendencies of group functioning, stressors, cognitive functioning, and mission mistakes from a mission phase analysis approach, to see if this would be a factor in positive group dynamic development. Results: Data collected and obtained by both assessment and journaling methods were both consistent and indicative of positive personalities desirable of expedition crews. Assessment data further indicated positive group cohesion and group interactions, along with supportive and strong leadership, all which led to positive personal and group experiences for crewmembers. Crewmembers all displayed low levels of competition while still reporting high motivation and satisfaction for the group dynamic development and the mission objectives that were completed. Journals kept by the crew psychologist indicated that crewmembers all felt that the pre-mission

  11. Magnetic levitation systems for future aeronautics and space research and missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blankson, Isaiah M.; Mankins, John C.

    1996-01-01

    The objectives, advantages, and research needs for several applications of superconducting magnetic levitation to aerodynamics research, testing, and space-launch are discussed. Applications include very large-scale magnetic balance and suspension systems for high alpha testing, support interference-free testing of slender hypersonic propulsion/airframe integrated vehicles, and hypersonic maglev. Current practice and concepts are outlined as part of a unified effort in high magnetic fields R&D within NASA. Recent advances in the design and construction of the proposed ground-based Holloman test track (rocket sled) that uses magnetic levitation are presented. It is protected that ground speeds of up to Mach 8 to 11 at sea-level are possible with such a system. This capability may enable supersonic combustor tests as well as ramjet-to-scramjet transition simulation to be performed in clean air. Finally a novel space launch concept (Maglifter) which uses magnetic levitation and propulsion for a re-usable 'first stage' and rocket or air-breathing combined-cycle propulsion for its second stage is discussed in detail. Performance of this concept is compared with conventional advanced launch systems and a preliminary concept for a subscale system demonstration is presented.

  12. Predicting Mission Success in Small Satellite Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saunders, Mark; Richie, R. Wayne; Moore, Arlene; Rogers, John

    1999-01-01

    In our global society with its increasing international competition and tighter financial resources, governments, commercial entities and other organizations are becoming critically aware of the need to ensure that space missions can be achieved on time and within budget. This has become particularly true for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA's) Office of Space Science (OSS) which has developed their Discovery and Explorer programs to meet this need. As technologies advance, space missions are becoming smaller and more capable than their predecessors. The ability to predict the mission success of these small satellite missions is critical to the continued achievement of NASA science mission objectives. The NASA Office of Space Science, in cooperation with the NASA Langley Research Center, has implemented a process to predict the likely success of missions proposed to its Discovery and Explorer Programs. This process is becoming the basis for predicting mission success in many other NASA programs as well. This paper describes the process, methodology, tools and synthesis techniques used to predict mission success for this class of mission.

  13. Predicting Mission Success in Small Satellite Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saunders, Mark; Richie, Wayne; Rogers, John; Moore, Arlene

    1992-01-01

    In our global society with its increasing international competition and tighter financial resources, governments, commercial entities and other organizations are becoming critically aware of the need to ensure that space missions can be achieved on time and within budget. This has become particularly true for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Office of Space Science (OSS) which has developed their Discovery and Explorer programs to meet this need. As technologies advance, space missions are becoming smaller and more capable than their predecessors. The ability to predict the mission success of these small satellite missions is critical to the continued achievement of NASA science mission objectives. The NASA Office of Space Science, in cooperation with the NASA Langley Research Center, has implemented a process to predict the likely success of missions proposed to its Discovery and Explorer Programs. This process is becoming the basis for predicting mission success in many other NASA programs as well. This paper describes the process, methodology, tools and synthesis techniques used to predict mission success for this class of mission.

  14. How to achieve benefit from mission-oriented research: lessons from the U.S. Department of Agriculture and the Naval Research Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Logar, N. J.

    2006-12-01

    Does the research performed by government mission agencies contribute to improved decision-making? Climate research within the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) has the stated goal of providing "optimal benefit" to decision makers on all levels, and the meteorology division of Department of Defense's Naval Research Laboratory promises research directed towards application. Assuming that research can lead to benefit for decision makers with minimal guidance can lead to irrelevance, wasted effort, and missed opportunities. Moving beyond the assumption leads to critical consideration of processes creating climate and meteorological science. I report the results of contextual mapping, of research on decision processes, and of interviews with agency scientists and users of science to evaluate their science regimes. In the case of the USDA scientists do target stakeholders through formal and informal mechanisms, but much of the science does not find use due to institutional constraints, political considerations, and disciplinary inertia. The research results will provide options for closing these policy gaps, such as higher-level stakeholder interaction and better representation of diverse interests. I apply the economic concept of supply and demand to describe where supply of science provides decision support that matches user demand, and where science policies might miss opportunities or mischaracterize research as useful to a specific user. This analysis leads to increased understanding of how factors such as the definition of scientific problems, hierarchies in science decision-making structures, quality control mechanisms beyond peer review, distribution of participants in the knowledge production enterprise, and social accountability guide the process of producing useful information.

  15. A review of the US Global Change Research Program and NASA's Mission to Planet Earth/Earth Observing System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Berrien, III; Anderson, James G.; Costanza, Robert; Gates, W. Lawrence; Grew, Priscilla C.; Leinen, Margaret S.; Mayewski, Paul A.; McCarthy, James J.; Sellers, Piers J.

    1995-01-01

    This report reflects the results of a ten-day workshop convened at the Scripps Institution of Oceanography July 19-28, 1995. The workshop was convened as the first phase of a two part review of the U.S. Global Change Research Program (USGCRP). The workshop was organized to provide a review of the scientific foundations and progress to date in the USGCRP and an assessment of the implications of new scientific insights for future USGCRP and Mission to Planet Earth/Earth Observing System (MTPE/EOS) activities; a review of the role of NASA's MTPE/EOS program in the USGCRP observational strategy; a review of the EOS Data and Information System (EOSDIS) as a component of USGCRP data management activities; and an assessment of whether recent developments in the following areas lead to a need to readjust MTPE/EOS plans. Specific consideration was given to: proposed convergence of U.S. environmental satellite systems and programs, evolving international plans for Earth observation systems, advances in technology, and potential expansion of the role of the private sector. The present report summarizes the findings and recommendations developed by the Committee on Global Change Research on the basis of the presentations, background materials, working group deliberations, and plenary discussions of the workshop. In addition, the appendices include summaries prepared by the six working groups convened in the course of the workshop.

  16. THE MISSION AND ACCOMPLISHMENTS FROM DOE’S FUEL CYCLE RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT (FCRD) ADVANCED FUELS CAMPAIGN

    SciTech Connect

    J. Carmack; L. Braase; F. Goldner

    2015-09-01

    The mission of the Advanced Fuels Campaign (AFC) is to perform Research, Development, and Demonstration (RD&D) activities for advanced fuel forms (including cladding) to enhance the performance and safety of the nation’s current and future reactors, enhance proliferation resistance of nuclear fuel, effectively utilize nuclear energy resources, and address the longer-term waste management challenges. This includes development of a state of the art Research and Development (R&D) infrastructure to support the use of a “goal oriented science based approach.” AFC uses a “goal oriented, science based approach” aimed at a fundamental understanding of fuel and cladding fabrication methods and performance under irradiation, enabling the pursuit of multiple fuel forms for future fuel cycle options. This approach includes fundamental experiments, theory, and advanced modeling and simulation. One of the most challenging aspects of AFC is the management, integration, and coordination of major R&D activities across multiple organizations. AFC interfaces and collaborates with Fuel Cycle Technologies (FCT) campaigns, universities, industry, various DOE programs and laboratories, federal agencies (e.g., Nuclear Regulatory Commission [NRC]), and international organizations. Key challenges are the development of fuel technologies to enable major increases in fuel performance (safety, reliability, power and burnup) beyond current technologies, and development of characterization methods and predictive fuel performance models to enable more efficient development and licensing of advanced fuels. Challenged with the research and development of fuels for two different reactor technology platforms, AFC targeted transmutation fuel development and focused ceramic fuel development for Advanced LWR Fuels.

  17. Funding and Strategic Alignment Guidance for Infusing Small Business Innovation Research Technology Into NASA Programs Associated With the Human Exploration and Operations Mission Directorate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Hung D.; Steele, Gynelle C.

    2015-01-01

    This report is intended to help NASA program and project managers incorporate Small Business Innovation Research/Small Business Technology Transfer (SBIR/STTR) technologies that have gone through Phase II of the SBIR program into NASA Human Exploration and Operations Mission Directorate (HEOMD) programs. Other Government and commercial project managers can also find this information useful.

  18. Policy Reform and Academic Drift: Research Mission and Institutional Legitimacy in the Development of the Swedish Higher Education System 1977-2012

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmberg, Daniel; Hallonsten, Olof

    2015-01-01

    Twentieth-century "massification" of higher education and academic research led to mission diversification and structural diversification of national higher education systems (HESs), but also a tendency of non-university colleges to seek to develop into full-scale universities by the emulation of practices of established academic…

  19. Funding and Strategic Alignment Guidance for Infusing Small Business Innovation Research Technology into NASA Programs Associated with the Science Mission Directorate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Hung D.; Steele, Gynelle C.

    2015-01-01

    This report is intended to help NASA program and project managers incorporate Small Business Innovation Research/Small Business Technology Transfer (SBIR/STTR) technologies that have gone through Phase II of the SBIR program into NASA Science Mission Directorate (SMD) programs. Other Government and commercial project managers can also find this information useful.

  20. NASA COAST and OCEANIA Airborne Missions in Support of Ecosystem and Water Quality Research in the Coastal Zone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guild, Liane S.; Hooker, Stanford B.; Kudela, Raphael; Morrow, John; Russell, Philip; Myers, Jeffrey; Dunagan, Stephen; Palacios, Sherry; Livingston, John; Negrey, Kendra; Torres-Perez, Juan

    2015-01-01

    Worldwide, coastal marine ecosystems are exposed to land-based sources of pollution and sedimentation from anthropogenic activities including agriculture and coastal development. Ocean color products from satellite sensors provide information on chlorophyll (phytoplankton pigment), sediments, and colored dissolved organic material. Further, ship-based in-water measurements and emerging airborne measurements provide in situ data for the vicarious calibration of current and next generation satellite ocean color sensors and to validate the algorithms that use the remotely sensed observations. Recent NASA airborne missions over Monterey Bay, CA, have demonstrated novel above- and in-water measurement capabilities supporting a combined airborne sensor approach (imaging spectrometer, microradiometers, and a sun photometer). The results characterize coastal atmospheric and aquatic properties through an end-to-end assessment of image acquisition, atmospheric correction, algorithm application, plus sea-truth observations from state-of-the-art instrument systems. The primary goal of the airborne missions was to demonstrate the following in support of calibration and validation exercises for satellite coastal ocean color products: 1) the utility of a multi-sensor airborne instrument suite to assess the bio-optical properties of coastal California, including water quality; and 2) the importance of contemporaneous atmospheric measurements to improve atmospheric correction in the coastal zone. Utilizing an imaging spectrometer optimized in the blue to green spectral domain enables higher signal for detection of the relatively dark radiance measurements from marine and freshwater ecosystem features. The novel airborne instrument, Coastal Airborne In-situ Radiometers (C-AIR) provides measurements of apparent optical properties with high dynamic range and fidelity for deriving exact water leaving radiances at the land-ocean boundary, including radiometrically shallow aquatic

  1. The Role of Decision Support in Climate Science Research Policy: can the US Climate Science Program Fulfill its Mission?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, R. M.

    2006-12-01

    The US Climate Change Science Program (CCSP) is a massive, $2 billion-per-year effort to combine a broad portfolio of scientific activity into one coherent and integrated climate science program. The bulk of this is manifested in traditional scientific inquiry to generate knowledge about Earth systems, and the development of the infrastructure needed to support this effort. But the guiding vision and supporting mission of the program itself are expressed in terms of societal outcomes that rely on the use of knowledge, not just its generation. Thus an important question for CCSP is how will it translate scientific activity to meet the societal goals it has set for itself? Traditional research policy analysis has tended to focus on products (peer-reviewed papers, new research tools, etc.) or impacts (usually economic) that have no necessary connection to the achievement of societal goals such as those outlined in the CCSP. In this poster I present some initial analysis based on a new methodology called Public Value Mapping which addresses this challenge. With Public Value Mapping, the internal logic of a science policy structure is taken as a starting point for assessing its ability to achieve self- defined goals of intrinsic public value. In the case of the CCSP, decision support is highlighted as a key component that will determine whether or not the program can successfully translate its basic and applied science to socially robust knowledge that is of value to the stakeholders it seeks to serve. I discuss the CCSP's approach to decision support, and the implications of this for the program as a whole, in the context of previous work on the use of science in decision support.

  2. A Summary of the Rendezvous, Proximity Operations, Docking, and Undocking (RPODU) Lessons Learned from the Defense Advanced Research Project Agency (DARPA) Orbital Express (OE) Demonstration System Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dennehy, Cornelius J.; Carpenter, James R.

    2011-01-01

    The Guidance, Navigation, and Control (GN&C) Technical Discipline Team (TDT) sponsored Dr. J. Russell Carpenter, a Navigation and Rendezvous Subject Matter Expert (SME) from NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), to provide support to the Defense Advanced Research Project Agency (DARPA) Orbital Express (OE) rendezvous and docking flight test that was conducted in 2007. When that DARPA OE mission was completed, Mr. Neil Dennehy, NASA Technical Fellow for GN&C, requested Dr. Carpenter document his findings (lessons learned) and recommendations for future rendezvous missions resulting from his OE support experience. This report captures lessons specifically from anomalies that occurred during one of OE's unmated operations.

  3. STS-87 Mission Specialist Doi in white room

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    STS-87 Mission Specialist Takao Doi, Ph.D., of the National Space Development Agency of Japan, is assisted with his ascent and re- entry flight suit by Dave Law, USA mechanical technician, in the white room at Launch Pad 39B as Dr. Doi prepares to enter the Space Shuttle orbiter Columbia on launch day. At right wearing glasses is Danny Wyatt, NASA quality assurance specialist. STS-87 is the fourth flight of the United States Microgravity Payload and Spartan-201. The 16-day mission will include a spacewalk by Dr. Doi and Mission Specialist Winston Scott.

  4. [The mission].

    PubMed

    Ruiz Moreno, J; Blanch Mon, A

    2000-01-01

    After having made a historical review of the concept of mission statement, of evaluating its importance (See Part I), of describing the bases to create a mission statement from a strategic perspective and of analyzing the advantages of this concept, probably more important as a business policy (See Parts I and II), the authors proceed to analyze the mission statement in health organizations. Due to the fact that a mission statement is lacking in the majority of health organizations, the strategy of health organizations are not exactly favored; as a consequence, neither are its competitive advantage nor the development of its essential competencies. After presenting a series of mission statements corresponding to Anglo-Saxon health organizations, the authors highlight two mission statements corresponding to our social context. The article finishes by suggesting an adequate sequence for developing a mission statement in those health organizations having a strategic sense. PMID:10983153

  5. Solar Cells from Plastics? Mission Possible at the PHaSE Energy Research Center, UMass Amherst (A "Life at the Frontiers of Energy Research" contest entry from the 2011 Energy Frontier Research Centers (EFRCs) Summit and Forum)

    ScienceCinema

    Russell, Thomas P; Lahti, Paul M. (PHaSE - Polymer-Based Materials for Harvesting Solar Energy); PHaSE Staff

    2011-11-03

    'Solar Cells from Plastics? Mission Possible at the PHaSE Energy Research Center, UMass Amherst' was submitted by the Polymer-Based Materials for Harvesting Solar Energy (PHaSE) EFRC to the 'Life at the Frontiers of Energy Research' video contest at the 2011 Science for Our Nation's Energy Future: Energy Frontier Research Centers (EFRCs) Summit and Forum. Twenty-six EFRCs created short videos to highlight their mission and their work. PHaSE, an EFRC co-directed by Thomas P. Russell and Paul M. Lahti at the University of Massachusetts, Amherst, is a partnership of scientists from six institutions: UMass (lead), Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Pennyslvania State University, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, and the University of Pittsburgh. The Office of Basic Energy Sciences in the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Science established the 46 Energy Frontier Research Centers (EFRCs) in 2009. These collaboratively-organized centers conduct fundamental research focused on 'grand challenges' and use-inspired 'basic research needs' recently identified in major strategic planning efforts by the scientific community. The overall purpose is to accelerate scientific progress toward meeting the nation's critical energy challenges.

  6. The Arctic Research of the Composition of the Troposphere from Aircraft and Satellites (ARCTAS) mission: design, execution, and first results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacob, D. J.; Crawford, J. H.; Maring, H.; Clarke, A. D.; Dibb, J. E.; Emmons, L. K.; Ferrare, R. A.; Hostetler, C. A.; Russell, P. B.; Singh, H. B.; Thompson, A. M.; Shaw, G. E.; McCauley, E.; Pederson, J. R.; Fisher, J. A.

    2010-06-01

    The NASA Arctic Research of the Composition of the Troposphere from Aircraft and Satellites (ARCTAS) mission was conducted in two 3-week deployments based in Alaska (April 2008) and western Canada (June-July 2008). Its goal was to better understand the factors driving current changes in Arctic atmospheric composition and climate, including (1) influx of mid-latitude pollution, (2) boreal forest fires, (3) aerosol radiative forcing, and (4) chemical processes. The June-July deployment was preceded by one week of flights over California (ARCTAS-CARB) focused on (1) improving state emission inventories for greenhouse gases and aerosols, (2) providing observations to test and improve models of ozone and aerosol pollution. ARCTAS involved three aircraft: a DC-8 with a detailed chemical payload, a P-3 with an extensive aerosol and radiometric payload, and a B-200 with aerosol remote sensing instrumentation. The aircraft data augmented satellite observations of Arctic atmospheric composition, in particular from the NASA A-Train. The spring phase (ARCTAS-A) revealed pervasive Asian pollution throughout the Arctic as well as significant European pollution below 2 km. Unusually large Siberian fires in April 2008 caused high concentrations of carbonaceous aerosols and also affected ozone. Satellite observations of BrO column hotspots were found not to be related to Arctic boundary layer events but instead to tropopause depressions, suggesting the presence of elevated inorganic bromine (5-10 pptv) in the lower stratosphere. Fresh fire plumes from Canada and California sampled during the summer phase (ARCTAS-B) indicated low NOx emission factors from the fires, rapid conversion of NOx to PAN, no significant secondary aerosol production, and no significant ozone enhancements except when mixed with urban pollution.

  7. NASA Hurricane Mission - GRIP

    NASA Video Gallery

    This is an overview of NASA's hurricane research campaign called Genesis and Rapid Intensification Processes (GRIP). The six-week mission was conducted in coordination with NOAA and the National Sc...

  8. Cassini Mission

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, Robert

    2005-08-10

    The Cassini/Huygens mission is a joint NASA/European Space Agency/Italian Space Agency project which has a spacecraft currently in orbit about Saturn, and has successfully sent an atmospheric probe through the atmosphere of Saturn's largest moon Titan and down to its previously hidden surface. This presentation will describe the overall mission, how it got a rather massive spacecraft to Saturn, and will cover some of the scientific results of the mission to date.

  9. Strategic considerations for support of humans in space and Moon/Mars exploration missions. Life sciences research and technology programs, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    During the next several decades, our nation will embark on human exploration in space. In the microgravity environment we will learn how human physiology responds to the absence of gravity and what procedures and systems are required to maintain health and performance. As the human experience is extended for longer periods in low Earth orbit, we will also be exploring space robotically. Robotic precursor missions, to learn more about the lunar and Martian environments will be conducted so that we can send crews to these planetary surfaces to further explore and conduct scientific investigations that include examining the very processes of life itself. Human exploration in space requires the ability to maintain crew health and performance in spacecraft, during extravehicular activities, on planetary surfaces, and upon return to Earth. This goal can only be achieved through focused research and technological developments. This report provides the basis for setting research priorities and making decisions to enable human exploration missions.

  10. The "Fourth Mission": The Time Commitment of Anesthesiology Faculty for Management Is Comparable to Their Time Commitments to Education, Research, and Indirect Patient Care.

    PubMed

    Dexter, Franklin; Wachtel, Ruth E; Todd, Michael M; Hindman, Bradley J

    2015-12-01

    Academic anesthesia departments have management responsibilities (e.g., coordinating sedation, directing the operating rooms [ORs], informatics, ongoing professional performance evaluation, staff scheduling, and workroom inventory management). For each of the 64 faculty, a survey sampled 10 weekdays and 4 weekend days of professional activity over N=56 days. Faculty time in managerial activities was 126% of time spent on education, 107% of time spent in research, and 112% of time spent on mandatory indirect clinical support (e.g., fire safety training). The 95% lower confidence limits calculated using Fieller's theorem were 107%, 89%, and 91%, respectively. Corresponding bootstrap limits were 107%, 89%, and 90%, respectively. Thus, although our College of Medicine tripartite mission includes clinical care, education, and research, administrative activities constitute a "fourth mission" of our department. PMID:26595329

  11. Mars Analog Research and Technology Experiment (MARTE): A Simulated Mars Drilling Mission to Search for Subsurface Life at the Rio Tinto, Spain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoker, Carol; Lemke, Larry; Mandell, Humboldt; McKay, David; George, Jeffrey; Gomez-Alvera, Javier; Amils, Ricardo; Stevens, Todd; Miller, David

    2003-01-01

    The MARTE (Mars Astrobiology Research and Technology Experiment) project was selected by the new NASA ASTEP program, which supports field experiments having an equal emphasis on Astrobiology science and technology development relevant to future Astrobiology missions. MARTE will search for a hypothesized subsurface anaerobic chemoautotrophic biosphere in the region of the Tinto River in southwestern Spain while also demonstrating technology needed to search for a subsurface biosphere on Mars. The experiment is informed by the strategy for searching for life on Mars.

  12. IMP mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The program requirements and operations requirements for the IMP mission are presented. The satellite configuration is described and the missions are analyzed. The support equipment, logistics, range facilities, and responsibilities of the launching organizations are defined. The systems for telemetry, communications, satellite tracking, and satellite control are identified.

  13. Manned Mars mission accommodation: Sprint mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cirillo, William M.; Kaszubowski, Martin J.; Ayers, J. Kirk; Llewellyn, Charles P.; Weidman, Deene J.; Meredith, Barry D.

    1988-01-01

    The results of a study conducted at the NASA-LaRC to assess the impacts on the Phase 2 Space Station of Accommodating a Manned Mission to Mars are documented. In addition, several candidate transportation node configurations are presented to accommodate the assembly and verification of the Mars Mission vehicles. This study includes an identification of a life science research program that would need to be completed, on-orbit, prior to mission departure and an assessment of the necessary orbital technology development and demonstration program needed to accomplish the mission. Also included is an analysis of the configuration mass properties and a preliminary analysis of the Space Station control system sizing that would be required to control the station. Results of the study indicate the Phase 2 Space Station can support a manned mission to Mars with the addition of a supporting infrastructure that includes a propellant depot, assembly hangar, and a heavy lift launch vehicle to support the large launch requirements.

  14. Manned Mars mission accommodation: Sprint mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cirillo, William M.; Kaszubowski, Martin J.; Ayers, J. Kirk; Llewellyn, Charles P.; Weidman, Deene J.; Meredith, Barry D.

    1988-04-01

    The results of a study conducted at the NASA-LaRC to assess the impacts on the Phase 2 Space Station of Accommodating a Manned Mission to Mars are documented. In addition, several candidate transportation node configurations are presented to accommodate the assembly and verification of the Mars Mission vehicles. This study includes an identification of a life science research program that would need to be completed, on-orbit, prior to mission departure and an assessment of the necessary orbital technology development and demonstration program needed to accomplish the mission. Also included is an analysis of the configuration mass properties and a preliminary analysis of the Space Station control system sizing that would be required to control the station. Results of the study indicate the Phase 2 Space Station can support a manned mission to Mars with the addition of a supporting infrastructure that includes a propellant depot, assembly hanger, and a heavy lift launch vehicle to support the large launch requirements.

  15. Advanced planetary analyses. [for planetary mission planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    The results are summarized of research accomplished during this period concerning planetary mission planning are summarized. The tasks reported include the cost estimations research, planetary missions handbook, and advanced planning activities.

  16. Desert Research and Technology Studies (DRATS) 2010 science operations: Operational approaches and lessons learned for managing science during human planetary surface missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eppler, Dean; Adams, Byron; Archer, Doug; Baiden, Greg; Brown, Adrian; Carey, William; Cohen, Barbara; Condit, Chris; Evans, Cindy; Fortezzo, Corey; Garry, Brent; Graff, Trevor; Gruener, John; Heldmann, Jennifer; Hodges, Kip; Hörz, Friedrich; Hurtado, Jose; Hynek, Brian; Isaacson, Peter; Juranek, Catherine; Klaus, Kurt; Kring, David; Lanza, Nina; Lederer, Susan; Lofgren, Gary; Marinova, Margarita; May, Lisa; Meyer, Jonathan; Ming, Doug; Monteleone, Brian; Morisset, Caroline; Noble, Sarah; Rampe, Elizabeth; Rice, James; Schutt, John; Skinner, James; Tewksbury-Christle, Carolyn M.; Tewksbury, Barbara J.; Vaughan, Alicia; Yingst, Aileen; Young, Kelsey

    2013-10-01

    Desert Research and Technology Studies (Desert RATS) is a multi-year series of hardware and operations tests carried out annually in the high desert of Arizona on the San Francisco Volcanic Field. These activities are designed to exercise planetary surface hardware and operations in conditions where long-distance, multi-day roving is achievable, and they allow NASA to evaluate different mission concepts and approaches in an environment less costly and more forgiving than space. The results from the RATS tests allow selection of potential operational approaches to planetary surface exploration prior to making commitments to specific flight and mission hardware development. In previous RATS operations, the Science Support Room has operated largely in an advisory role, an approach that was driven by the need to provide a loose science mission framework that would underpin the engineering tests. However, the extensive nature of the traverse operations for 2010 expanded the role of the science operations and tested specific operational approaches. Science mission operations approaches from the Apollo and Mars-Phoenix missions were merged to become the baseline for this test. Six days of traverse operations were conducted during each week of the 2-week test, with three traverse days each week conducted with voice and data communications continuously available, and three traverse days conducted with only two 1-hour communications periods per day. Within this framework, the team evaluated integrated science operations management using real-time, tactical science operations to oversee daily crew activities, and strategic level evaluations of science data and daily traverse results during a post-traverse planning shift. During continuous communications, both tactical and strategic teams were employed. On days when communications were reduced to only two communications periods per day, only a strategic team was employed. The Science Operations Team found that, if

  17. Desert Research and Technology Studies (DRATS) 2010 Science Operations: Operational Approaches and Lessons Learned for Managing Science during Human Planetary Surface Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eppler, Dean; Adams, Byron; Archer, Doug; Baiden, Greg; Brown, Adrian; Carey, William; Cohen, Barbara; Condit, Chris; Evans, Cindy; Fortezzo, Corey; Garry, Brent; Graff, Trevor; Gruener, John; Heldmann, Jennifer; Hodges, Kip; Horz, Friedrich; Hurtado, Jose; Hynek, Brian; Isaacson, Peter; Juranek, Catherine; Klaus, Kurt; Kring, David; Lanza, Nina; Lederer, Susan; Lofgren, Gary

    2012-01-01

    Desert Research and Technology Studies (Desert RATS) is a multi-year series of hardware and operations tests carried out annually in the high desert of Arizona on the San Francisco Volcanic Field. These activities are designed to exercise planetary surface hardware and operations in conditions where long-distance, multi-day roving is achievable, and they allow NASA to evaluate different mission concepts and approaches in an environment less costly and more forgiving than space.The results from the RATS tests allows election of potential operational approaches to planetary surface exploration prior to making commitments to specific flight and mission hardware development. In previous RATS operations, the Science Support Room has operated largely in an advisory role, an approach that was driven by the need to provide a loose science mission framework that would underpin the engineering tests. However, the extensive nature of the traverse operations for 2010 expanded the role of the science operations and tested specific operational approaches. Science mission operations approaches from the Apollo and Mars-Phoenix missions were merged to become the baseline for this test. Six days of traverse operations were conducted during each week of the 2-week test, with three traverse days each week conducted with voice and data communications continuously available, and three traverse days conducted with only two 1-hour communications periods per day. Within this framework, the team evaluated integrated science operations management using real-time, tactical science operations to oversee daily crew activities, and strategic level evaluations of science data and daily traverse results during a post-traverse planning shift. During continuous communications, both tactical and strategic teams were employed. On days when communications were reduced to only two communications periods per day, only a strategic team was employed. The Science Operations Team found that, if

  18. The Subsurface Geology of Río Tinto: Material Examined During a Simulated Mars Drilling Mission for the Mars Astrobiology Research and Technology Experiment (MARTE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prieto-Ballesteros, Olga; Martínez-Frías, Jesús; Schutt, John; Sutter, Brad; Heldmann, Jennifer L.; Bell Johnson, Mary Sue; Battler, Melissa; Cannon, Howard; Gómez-Elvira, Javier; Stoker, Carol R.

    2008-10-01

    The 2005 Mars Astrobiology Research and Technology Experiment (MARTE) project conducted a simulated 1-month Mars drilling mission in the Río Tinto district, Spain. Dry robotic drilling, core sampling, and biological and geological analytical technologies were collectively tested for the first time for potential use on Mars. Drilling and subsurface sampling and analytical technologies are being explored for Mars because the subsurface is the most likely place to find life on Mars. The objectives of this work are to describe drilling, sampling, and analytical procedures; present the geological analysis of core and borehole material; and examine lessons learned from the drilling simulation. Drilling occurred at an undis closed location, causing the science team to rely only on mission data for geological and biological interpretations. Core and borehole imaging was used for micromorphological analysis of rock, targeting rock for biological analysis, and making decisions regarding the next day's drilling operations. Drilling reached 606 cm depth into poorly consolidated gossan that allowed only 35% of core recovery and contributed to borehole wall failure during drilling. Core material containing any indication of biology was sampled and analyzed in more detail for its confirmation. Despite the poorly consolidated nature of the subsurface gossan, dry drilling was able to retrieve useful core material for geological and biological analysis. Lessons learned from this drilling simulation can guide the development of dry drilling and subsurface geological and biological analytical technologies for future Mars drilling missions.

  19. The subsurface geology of Río Tinto: material examined during a simulated Mars drilling mission for the Mars Astrobiology Research and Technology Experiment (MARTE).

    PubMed

    Prieto-Ballesteros, Olga; Martínez-Frías, Jesús; Schutt, John; Sutter, Brad; Heldmann, Jennifer L; Bell, Mary Sue; Battler, Melissa; Cannon, Howard; Gómez-Elvira, Javier; Stoker, Carol R

    2008-10-01

    The 2005 Mars Astrobiology Research and Technology Experiment (MARTE) project conducted a simulated 1-month Mars drilling mission in the Río Tinto district, Spain. Dry robotic drilling, core sampling, and biological and geological analytical technologies were collectively tested for the first time for potential use on Mars. Drilling and subsurface sampling and analytical technologies are being explored for Mars because the subsurface is the most likely place to find life on Mars. The objectives of this work are to describe drilling, sampling, and analytical procedures; present the geological analysis of core and borehole material; and examine lessons learned from the drilling simulation. Drilling occurred at an undisclosed location, causing the science team to rely only on mission data for geological and biological interpretations. Core and borehole imaging was used for micromorphological analysis of rock, targeting rock for biological analysis, and making decisions regarding the next day's drilling operations. Drilling reached 606 cm depth into poorly consolidated gossan that allowed only 35% of core recovery and contributed to borehole wall failure during drilling. Core material containing any indication of biology was sampled and analyzed in more detail for its confirmation. Despite the poorly consolidated nature of the subsurface gossan, dry drilling was able to retrieve useful core material for geological and biological analysis. Lessons learned from this drilling simulation can guide the development of dry drilling and subsurface geological and biological analytical technologies for future Mars drilling missions. PMID:19105757

  20. NASA Earth science missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neeck, Steven P.; Volz, Stephen M.

    2013-10-01

    NASA's Earth Science Division (ESD) conducts pioneering work in Earth system science, the interdisciplinary view of Earth that explores the interaction among the atmosphere, oceans, ice sheets, land surface interior, and life itself that has enabled scientists to measure global and climate changes and to inform decisions by governments, organizations, and people in the United States and around the world. The ESD makes the data collected and results generated by its space missions accessible to other agencies and organizations to improve the products and services they provide, including air quality indices, disaster management, agricultural yield projections, and aviation safety. Through partnerships with national and international agencies, NASA enables the application of this understanding. The ESD's Flight Program provides the spacebased observing systems and supporting ground segment infrastructure for mission operations and scientific data processing and distribution that support NASA's Earth system science research and modeling activities. The Flight Program currently has 15 operating Earth observing space missions, including the recently launched Landsat-8/Landsat Data Continuity Mission (LDCM). The ESD has 16 more missions planned for launch over the next decade. These include first and second tier missions from the 2007 Earth Science Decadal Survey, Climate Continuity missions to assure availability of key data sets needed for climate science and applications, and small-sized competitively selected orbital missions and instrument missions of opportunity utilizing rideshares that are part of the Earth Venture (EV) Program. The recently selected Cyclone Global Navigation Satellite System (CYGNSS) microsatellite constellation and the Tropospheric Emissions: Monitoring of Pollution (TEMPO) instrument are examples. In addition, the International Space Station (ISS) is being increasingly used to host NASA Earth observing science instruments. An overview of plans

  1. The impact of the military mission in Afghanistan on mental health in the Canadian Armed Forces: a summary of research findings

    PubMed Central

    Zamorski, Mark A.; Boulos, David

    2014-01-01

    Background As Canada's mission in Afghanistan winds down, the Canadian Forces (CF) are reflecting on the psychological impact of the mission on more than 40,000 deployed personnel. Methods All major CF studies of mental health outcomes done before and during the Afghanistan era are summarized, with an eye toward getting the most complete picture of the mental health impact of the mission. Studies on traumatic brain injury (TBI), high-risk drinking, and suicidality are included given their conceptual link to mental health. Results CF studies on the mental health impact of pre-Afghanistan deployments are few, and they have inadequate detail on deployment experiences. Afghanistan era findings confirm service-related mental health problems (MHPs) in an important minority. The findings of the studies cohere, both as a group and in the context of data from our Allies. Combat exposure is the most important driver of deployment-related MHPs, but meaningful rates will be found in those in low-threat areas. Reserve service and cumulative effects of multiple deployments are not major risk factors in the CF. Many deployed personnel will seek care, but further efforts to decrease the delay are needed. Only a fraction of the overall burden of mental illness is likely deployment attributable. Deployment-related mental disorders do not translate into an overall increase in in-service suicidal behavior in the CF, but there is concerning evidence of increased suicide risk after release. TBI occurred in a distinct minority on this deployment, but severe forms were rare. Most TBI cases do not have persistent “post-concussive” symptoms; such symptoms are closely associated with MHPs. Conclusion The mental health impact of the mission in Afghanistan is commensurate with its difficult nature. While ongoing and planned studies will provide additional detail on its impacts, greater research attention is needed on preventive and therapeutic interventions. PMID:25206951

  2. Antarctic Planetary Testbed (APT): A facility in the Antarctic for research, planning and simulation of manned planetary missions and to provide a testbed for technological development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahmadi, Mashid; Bottelli, Alejandro Horacio; Brave, Fernando Luis; Siddiqui, Muhammad Ali

    1988-01-01

    The notion of using Antarctica as a planetary analog is not new. Ever since the manned space program gained serious respect in the 1950's, futurists have envisioned manned exploration and ultimate colonization of the moon and other extraterrestrial bodies. In recent years, much attention has been focused on a permanently manned U.S. space station, a manned Lunar outpost and a manned mission to Mars and its vicinity. When such lofty goals are set, it is only prudent to research, plan and rehearse as many aspects of such a mission as possible. The concept of the Antarctic Planetary Testbed (APT) project is intended to be a facility that will provide a location to train and observe potential mission crews under conditions of isolation and severity, attempting to simulate an extraterrestrial environment. Antarctica has been considered as an analog by NASA for Lunar missions and has also been considered by many experts to be an excellent Mars analog. Antarctica contains areas where the environment and terrain are more similar to regions on the Moon and Mars than any other place on Earth. These features offer opportunities for simulations to determine performance capabilities of people and machines in harsh, isolated environments. The initial APT facility, conceived to be operational by the year 1991, will be constructed during the summer months by a crew of approximately twelve. Between six and eight of these people will remain through the winter. As in space, structures and equipment systems will be modular to facilitate efficient transport to the site, assembly, and evolutionary expansion. State of the art waste recovery/recycling systems are also emphasized due to their importance in space.

  3. Icesat-2: The Next Generation Laser Altimeter Mission for Polar Research - an Update on Development Status and Science Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markus, T.; Neumann, T.; Anthony, M.

    2014-12-01

    NASA's Ice, Cloud, and land Elevation Satellite-2 (ICESat-2) mission objectives are to quantify polar ice sheet contributions to sea level change, quantify regional signatures of ice sheet changes to assess driving mechanisms, estimate sea ice thickness, and to enable measurements of canopy height as a basis for estimating large-scale biomass. Its predecessor ICESat, which operated from 2003 to 2009, pioneered the use of laser altimeters in space to study the elevation of the Earth's surface and its changes. Among other contributions to the cryospheric sciences, ICESat proved adept at making centimeter-level elevation measurements over both ice sheets and sea ice. Since ICESat stopped collecting data in October 2009, the IceBridge and CryoSat-2 missions continue these important observations. The well-documented and ongoing dramatic and rapid changes in the Earth's ice cover have strengthened the need for sustained observations beyond what CryoSat-2 and IceBridge are expected to provide. Lessons learned from ICESat are the need for cross-track slope information (realized through ICESat-2's multiple beams), a smaller footprint size, and gapless along-track data collection. These needs resulted in a different measurement concept for ICESat-2. The talk will provide a brief summary of the measurement concept, the status of hardware development (instrument Integration and Testing has started in May 2014), and progress on geophysical algorithm development.

  4. Glass-Cockpit Pilot Subjective Ratings of Predictive Information, Collocation, and Mission Status Graphics: An Analysis and Summary of the Future Focus of Flight Deck Research Survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bartolone, Anthony; Trujillo, Anna

    2002-01-01

    NASA Langley Research Center has been researching ways to improve flight crew decision aiding for systems management. Our current investigation is how to display a wide variety of aircraft parameters in ways that will improve the flight crew's situation awareness. To accomplish this, new means are being explored that will monitor the overall health of a flight and report the current status of the aircraft and forecast impending problems to the pilots. The initial step in this research was to conduct a survey addressing how current glass-cockpit commercial pilots would value a prediction of the status of critical aircraft systems. We also addressed how this new type of data ought to be conveyed and utilized. Therefore, two other items associated with predictive information were also included in the survey. The first addressed the need for system status, alerts and procedures, and system controls to be more logically grouped together, or collocated, on the flight deck. The second idea called for the survey respondents opinions on the functionality of mission status graphics; a display methodology that groups a variety of parameters onto a single display that can instantaneously convey a complete overview of both an aircraft's system and mission health.

  5. Mission Possible

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kittle, Penny, Ed.

    2009-01-01

    As teachers, our most important mission is to turn our students into readers. It sounds so simple, but it's hard work, and we're all on a deadline. Kittle describes a class in which her own expectations that students would become readers combined with a few impassioned strategies succeeded ... at least with a young man named Alan.

  6. NEEMO 7 undersea mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thirsk, Robert; Williams, David; Anvari, Mehran

    2007-02-01

    The NEEMO 7 mission was the seventh in a series of NASA-coordinated missions utilizing the Aquarius undersea habitat in Florida as a human space mission analog. The primary research focus of this mission was to evaluate telementoring and telerobotic surgery technologies as potential means to deliver medical care to astronauts during spaceflight. The NEEMO 7 crewmembers received minimal pre-mission training to perform selected medical and surgical procedures. These procedures included: (1) use of a portable ultrasound to locate and measure abdominal organs and structures in a crewmember subject; (2) use of a portable ultrasound to insert a small needle and drain into a fluid-filled cystic cavity in a simulated patient; (3) surgical repair of two arteries in a simulated patient; (4) cystoscopy and use of a ureteral basket to remove a renal stone in a simulated patient; and (5) laparoscopic cholecystectomy in a simulated patient. During the actual mission, the crewmembers performed the procedures without or with telementoring and telerobotic assistance from experts located in Hamilton, Ontario. The results of the NEEMO 7 medical experiments demonstrated that telehealth interventions rely heavily on a robust broadband, high data rate telecommunication link; that certain interventional procedures can be performed adequately by minimally trained individuals with telementoring assistance; and that prior clinical experience does not always correlate with better procedural performance. As space missions become longer in duration and take place further from Earth, enhancement of medical care capability and expertise will be required. The kinds of medical technologies demonstrated during the NEEMO 7 mission may play a significant role in enabling the human exploration of space beyond low earth orbit, particularly to destinations such as the Moon and Mars.

  7. Mission planning for autonomous systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pearson, G.

    1987-01-01

    Planning is a necessary task for intelligent, adaptive systems operating independently of human controllers. A mission planning system that performs task planning by decomposing a high-level mission objective into subtasks and synthesizing a plan for those tasks at varying levels of abstraction is discussed. Researchers use a blackboard architecture to partition the search space and direct the focus of attention of the planner. Using advanced planning techniques, they can control plan synthesis for the complex planning tasks involved in mission planning.

  8. PRISM (processes research by an imaging spaceborne mission) high-resolution hyperspectral imager for scientific land processes monitoring applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kunkel, Bernd P.; Blechinger, Fritz; Lutz, Reinhold; Posselt, Winfried; Del Bello, Umberto; Meynart, Roland; Lobb, Daniel R.; Saint-Pe, Olivier

    1995-11-01

    Dasa (Daimler-Benz Aerospace) currently is in charge of an ESA contract for the PRISM feasibility study, including MATRA MS/France and SIRA/UK. The main PRISM mission objectives are to monitor selected target areas with emphasis on bio-chemical stress analyses which are the subject of changes such as vegetation, in particular deforestation; further areas include glaciers, land/water boundaries, and similar features. The Dasa study team makes use of a similar ESA instrument currently the subject of dedicated subunits technology developments, the HRIS (high resolution imaging spectrometer), also lead by Dasa. Its main features and technology developments are covered in a survey. PRISM is covering most of the HRIS features, i.e., it will have an imaging spectrometer segment for the visible/NIR and the SWIR spectrum (450-2350 nm) as HRIS, but implements four MIR and TIR channels to provide surface temperature data, represented by linear detector arrays (essentially the features of another currently pursued ESA development program designated HRTIR). In a first study phase it also included a novel feature, a wide-angle two-axis pointing system for along- and across-track pointing in order to yield multi-directional reflectance data of dedicated targets, which turned out to be the greatest design driver in the instrument, it was omitted in the later phases. The geometric sampling interval is defined to 50 m (design goal) at 50 km swath. PRISM is currently studied in a feasibility study in a competitive way by two teams, one being lead by Dasa. At the time of the Symposium both studies are completed. The results of the Dasa team are presented. Since PRISM covers most of the HRIS mission it is rather likely that in the case of a successful concept feasibility proof (performance and technology wise), it may later replace the HRIS instrument. It is anticipated that a major part of the technology developments currently performed for HRIS will be utilized -- with some

  9. The Research Mission of Universities of Applied Sciences and the Future Configuration of Higher Education Systems in Europe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lepori, Benedetto; Kyvik, Svein

    2010-01-01

    This article presents a comparative analysis of the development of research in universities of applied sciences (UAS) in eight European countries and its implications for the configuration of the higher education system. The enhancement of research has mostly been seen as a case of academic drift where UAS attempt to become more similar to…

  10. Mineralogical, chemical, organic and microbial properties of subsurface soil cores from Mars Desert Research Station (Utah, USA): Phyllosilicate and sulfate analogues to Mars mission landing sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoker, Carol R.; Clarke, Jonathan; Direito, Susana O. L.; Blake, David; Martin, Kevin R.; Zavaleta, Jhony; Foing, Bernard

    2011-07-01

    We collected and analysed soil cores from four geologic units surrounding Mars Desert Research Station (MDRS) Utah, USA, including Mancos Shale, Dakota Sandstone, Morrison formation (Brushy Basin member) and Summerville formation. The area is an important geochemical and morphological analogue to terrains on Mars. Soils were analysed for mineralogy by a Terra X-ray diffractometer (XRD), a field version of the CheMin instrument on the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) mission (2012 landing). Soluble ion chemistry, total organic content and identity and distribution of microbial populations were also determined. The Terra data reveal that Mancos and Morrison soils are rich in phyllosilicates similar to those observed on Mars from orbital measurements (montmorillonite, nontronite and illite). Evaporite minerals observed include gypsum, thenardite, polyhalite and calcite. Soil chemical analysis shows sulfate the dominant anion in all soils and SO4>>CO3, as on Mars. The cation pattern Na>Ca>Mg is seen in all soils except for the Summerville where Ca>Na. In all soils, SO4 correlates with Na, suggesting sodium sulfates are the dominant phase. Oxidizable organics are low in all soils and range from a high of 0.7% in the Mancos samples to undetectable at a detection limit of 0.1% in the Morrison soils. Minerals rich in chromium and vanadium were identified in Morrison soils that result from diagenetic replacement of organic compounds. Depositional environment, geologic history and mineralogy all affect the ability to preserve and detect organic compounds. Subsurface biosphere populations were revealed to contain organisms from all three domains (Archaea, Bacteria and Eukarya) with cell density between 3.0×106 and 1.8×107 cells ml-1 at the deepest depth. These measurements are analogous to data that could be obtained on future robotic or human Mars missions and results are relevant to the MSL mission that will investigate phyllosilicates on Mars.

  11. An Analysis for the Use of Research and Education Networks and Commercial Network Vendors in Support of Space Based Mission Critical and Non-Critical Networking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bradford, Robert N.

    2002-01-01

    Currently, and in the past, dedicated communication circuits and "network services" with very stringent performance requirements are being used to support manned and unmanned mission critical ground operations at GSFC, JSC, MSFC, KSC and other NASA facilities. Because of the evolution of network technology, it is time to investigate using other approaches to providing mission services for space ground operations. The current NASA approach is not in keeping with the evolution of network technologies. In the past decade various research and education networks dedicated to scientific and educational endeavors have emerged, as well as commercial networking providers, that employ advanced networking technologies. These technologies have significantly changed networking in recent years. Significant advances in network routing techniques, various topologies and equipment have made commercial networks very stable and virtually error free. Advances in Dense Wave Division Multiplexing will provide tremendous amounts of bandwidth for the future. The question is: Do these networks, which are controlled and managed centrally, provide a level of service that equals the stringent NASA performance requirements. If they do, what are the implication(s) of using them for critical space based ground operations as they are, without adding high cost contractual performance requirements? A second question is the feasibility of applying the emerging grid technology in space operations. Is it feasible to develop a Space Operations Grid and/or a Space Science Grid? Since these network's connectivity is substantial, both nationally and internationally, development of these sorts of grids may be feasible. The concept of research and education networks has evolved to the international community as well. Currently there are international RENs connecting the US in Chicago to and from Europe, South America, Asia and the Pacific rim, Russia and Canada. And most countries in these areas have their

  12. Lunar Prospector Extended Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Folta, David; Beckman, Mark; Lozier, David; Galal, Ken

    1999-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) selected Lunar Prospector as one of the discovery missions to conduct solar system exploration science investigations. The mission is NASA's first lunar voyage to investigate key science objectives since Apollo and was launched in January 1998. In keeping with discovery program requirements to reduce total mission cost and utilize new technology, Lunar Prospector's mission design and control focused on the use of innovative and proven trajectory analysis programs. As part of this effort, the Ames Research Center and the Goddard Space Flight Center have become partners in the Lunar Prospector trajectory team to provide the trajectory analysis, maneuver planning, orbit determination support, and product generation. At the end of 1998, Lunar Prospector completed its one-year primary mission at 100 km altitude above the lunar surface. On December 19, 1998, Lunar Prospector entered the extended mission phase. Initially the mission orbit was lowered from 100 km to a mean altitude of 40 km. The altitude of Lunar Prospector varied between 25 and 55 km above the mean lunar geode due to lunar potential effects. After one month, the lunar potential model was updated based upon the new tracking data at 40 km. On January 29, 1999, the altitude was lowered again to a mean altitude of 30 km. This altitude varies between 12 and 48 km above the mean lunar geode. Since the minimum altitude is very close to the mean geode, various approaches were employed to get accurate lunar surface elevation including Clementine altimetry and line of sight analysis. Based upon the best available terrain maps, Lunar Prospector will reach altitudes of 8 km above lunar mountains in the southern polar and far side regions. This extended mission phase of six months will enable LP to obtain science data up to 3 orders of magnitude better than at the mission orbit. This paper details the trajectory design and orbit determination planning, and

  13. Lunar Prospector Extended Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Folta, David; Beckman, Mark; Lozier, David; Galal, Ken

    1999-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) selected Lunar Prospector (LP) as one of the discovery missions to conduct solar system exploration science investigations. The mission is NASA's first lunar voyage to investigate key science objectives since Apollo and was launched in January 1998. In keeping with discovery program requirements to reduce total mission cost and utilize new technology, Lunar Prospector's mission design and control focused on the use of innovative and proven trajectory analysis programs. As part of this effort, the Ames Research Center and the Goddard Space Flight Center have become partners in the Lunar Prospector trajectory team to provide the trajectory analysis, maneuver planning, orbit determination support, and product generation. At the end of 1998, Lunar Prospector completed its one-year primary mission at 100 km altitude above the lunar surface. On December 19, 1998, Lunar Prospector entered the extended mission phase. Initially the mission orbit was lowered from 100 km to a mean altitude of 40 km. The altitude of Lunar Prospector varied between 25 and 55 km above the mean lunar geode due to lunar potential effects. After one month, the lunar potential model was updated based upon the new tracking data at 40 km. On January 29, 1999, the altitude was lowered again to a mean altitude of 30 km. This altitude varies between 12 and 48 km above the mean lunar geode. Since the minimum altitude is very close to the mean geode, various approaches were employed to get accurate lunar surface elevation including Clementine altimetry and line of sight analysis. Based upon the best available terrain maps, Lunar Prospector will reach altitudes of 8 km above lunar mountains in the southern polar and far side regions. This extended mission phase of six months will enable LP to obtain science data up to 3 orders of magnitude better than at the mission orbit. This paper details the trajectory design and orbit determination planning and

  14. Lunar Prospector Extended Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Folta, David; Beckman, Mark; Lozier, David; Galal, Ken

    1999-05-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) selected Lunar Prospector (LP) as one of the discovery missions to conduct solar system exploration science investigations. The mission is NASA's first lunar voyage to investigate key science objectives since Apollo and was launched in January 1998. In keeping with discovery program requirements to reduce total mission cost and utilize new technology, Lunar Prospector's mission design and control focused on the use of innovative and proven trajectory analysis programs. As part of this effort, the Ames Research Center and the Goddard Space Flight Center have become partners in the Lunar Prospector trajectory team to provide the trajectory analysis, maneuver planning, orbit determination support, and product generation. At the end of 1998, Lunar Prospector completed its one-year primary mission at 100 km altitude above the lunar surface. On December 19, 1998, Lunar Prospector entered the extended mission phase. Initially the mission orbit was lowered from 100 km to a mean altitude of 40 km. The altitude of Lunar Prospector varied between 25 and 55 km above the mean lunar geode due to lunar potential effects. After one month, the lunar potential model was updated based upon the new tracking data at 40 km. On January 29, 1999, the altitude was lowered again to a mean altitude of 30 km. This altitude varies between 12 and 48 km above the mean lunar geode. Since the minimum altitude is very close to the mean geode, various approaches were employed to get accurate lunar surface elevation including Clementine altimetry and line of sight analysis. Based upon the best available terrain maps, Lunar Prospector will reach altitudes of 8 km above lunar mountains in the southern polar and far side regions. This extended mission phase of six months will enable LP to obtain science data up to 3 orders of magnitude better than at the mission orbit. This paper details the trajectory design and orbit determination planning and

  15. STS-70 mission highlights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1995-09-01

    The highlights of the STS-70 mission are presented in this video. The flight crew consisted of Cmdr. John Hendricks, Pilot Kevin Kregel, Flight Engineer Nancy Curie, and Mission Specialists Dr. Don Thomas and Dr. Mary Ellen Weber. The mission's primary objective was the deployment of the 7th Tracking Data and Relay Satellite (TDRS), which will provide a communication, tracking, telemetry, data acquisition, and command services space-based network system essential to low Earth orbital spacecraft. Secondary mission objectives included activating and studying the Physiological and Anatomical Rodent Experiment/National Institutes of Health-Rodents (PARE/NIH-R), The Bioreactor Demonstration System (BDS), the Commercial Protein Crystal Growth (CPCG) studies, the Space Tissue Loss/National Institutes of Health-Cells (STL/NIH-C) experiment, the Biological Research in Canisters (BRIC) experiment, Shuttle Amateur Radio Experiment-2 (SAREX-2), the Visual Function Tester-4 (VFT-4), the Hand-Held, Earth Oriented, Real-Time, Cooperative, User-Friendly, Location-Targeting and Environmental System (HERCULES), the Microcapsules in Space-B (MIS-B) experiment, the Windows Experiment (WINDEX), the Radiation Monitoring Equipment-3 (RME-3), and the Military Applications of Ship Tracks (MAST) experiment. There was an in-orbit dedication ceremony by the spacecrew and the newly Integrated Mission Control Center to commemorate the Center's integration. The STS-70 mission was the first mission monitored by this new control center. Earth views included the Earth's atmosphere, a sunrise over the Earth's horizon, several views of various land masses, some B/W lightning shots, some cloud cover, and a tropical storm.

  16. Space station accommodations for life sciences research facilities. Phase 1: Conceptual design and programmatics studies for Missions SAAX0307, SAAX0302 and the transition from SAAX0307 to SAAX0302. Volume 2: Study results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    Lockheed Missiles and Space Company's conceptual designs and programmatics for a Space Station Nonhuman Life Sciences Research Facility (LSRF) are presented. Conceptual designs and programmatics encompass an Initial Orbital Capability (IOC) LSRF, a growth or follow-on Orbital Capability (FOC), and the transitional process required to modify the IOC LSFR to the FOC LSFR. The IOC and FOC LSFRs correspond to missions SAAX0307 and SAAX0302 of the Space Station Mission Requirements Database, respectively.

  17. Mission Simulation Toolkit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pisaich, Gregory; Flueckiger, Lorenzo; Neukom, Christian; Wagner, Mike; Buchanan, Eric; Plice, Laura

    2007-01-01

    The Mission Simulation Toolkit (MST) is a flexible software system for autonomy research. It was developed as part of the Mission Simulation Facility (MSF) project that was started in 2001 to facilitate the development of autonomous planetary robotic missions. Autonomy is a key enabling factor for robotic exploration. There has been a large gap between autonomy software (at the research level), and software that is ready for insertion into near-term space missions. The MST bridges this gap by providing a simulation framework and a suite of tools for supporting research and maturation of autonomy. MST uses a distributed framework based on the High Level Architecture (HLA) standard. A key feature of the MST framework is the ability to plug in new models to replace existing ones with the same services. This enables significant simulation flexibility, particularly the mixing and control of fidelity level. In addition, the MST provides automatic code generation from robot interfaces defined with the Unified Modeling Language (UML), methods for maintaining synchronization across distributed simulation systems, XML-based robot description, and an environment server. Finally, the MSF supports a number of third-party products including dynamic models and terrain databases. Although the communication objects and some of the simulation components that are provided with this toolkit are specifically designed for terrestrial surface rovers, the MST can be applied to any other domain, such as aerial, aquatic, or space.

  18. STS-95 Mission Insignia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    The STS-95 patch, designed by the crew, is intended to reflect the scientific, engineering, and historic elements of the mission. The Space Shuttle Discovery is shown rising over the sunlit Earth limb, representing the global benefits of the mission science and the solar science objectives of the Spartan Satellite. The bold number '7' signifies the seven members of Discovery's crew and also represents a historical link to the original seven Mercury astronauts. The STS-95 crew member John Glenn's first orbital flight is represented by the Friendship 7 capsule. The rocket plumes symbolize the three major fields of science represented by the mission payloads: microgravity material science, medical research for humans on Earth and in space, and astronomy.

  19. STS-90 Mission Insignia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    The STS-90 crew patch reflects the dedication of the mission to neuroscience in celebration of the decade of the brain. Earth is revealed through a neuron-shaped window, which symbolizes new perspectives in the understanding of nervous system development, structure and function, both here on Earth and in the microgravity environment of space. The Space Shuttle Columbia is depicted with its open payload bay doors revealing the Spacelab within. An integral component of the mission, the laboratory/science module provided by the European Space Agency (ESA), signifies the strong international involvement in the mission. The seven crew members and two alternate payload specialists, Chiaki Naito-Mukai and Alexander W. Dunlap, are represented by the nine major stars of the constellation Cetus (the whale) in recognition of the International Year of the Ocean. The distant stars illustrate the far reaching implications of the mission science to the many sponsoring agencies, helping prepare for long-duration space flight aboard the International Space Station (ISS). The moon and Mars are depicted to reflect the crew's recognition that those two celestial bodies will be the next great challenges in human exploration of space and represent the key role that life science research will play in supporting such missions.

  20. Negotiating Meaning with Educational Practice: Alignment of Preservice Teachers' Mission, Identity, and Beliefs with the Practice of Collaborative Action Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carpenter, Jan Marie

    2010-01-01

    The case studies examined how three preservice teachers within a Master of Arts in Teaching program at a small, private university negotiated meaning around an educational practice--collaborative action research. Preservice teachers must negotiate multiple, and often competing, internal and external discourses as they "sort out" what educational…

  1. Using Evaluation Research as a Means for Policy Analysis in a "New" Mission-Oriented Policy Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amanatidou, Effie; Cunningham, Paul; Gök, Abdullah; Garefi, Ioanna

    2014-01-01

    Grand challenges stress the importance of multi-disciplinary research, a multi-actor approach in examining the current state of affairs and exploring possible solutions, multi-level governance and policy coordination across geographical boundaries and policy areas, and a policy environment for enabling change both in science and technology and in…

  2. The NASA Thunderstorm Observations and Research (ThOR) Mission: Lightning Mapping from Space to Improve the Short-term Forecasting of Severe Storms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodman, S. J.; Christian, H. J.; Boccippio, D. J.; Koshak, W. J.; Cecil, D. J.; Arnold, James E. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The ThOR mission uses a lightning mapping sensor in geostationary Earth orbit to provide continuous observations of thunderstorm activity over the Americas and nearby oceans. The link between lightning activity and cloud updrafts is the basis for total lightning observations indicating the evolving convective intensification and decay of storms. ThOR offers a national operational demonstration of the utility of real-time total lightning mapping for earlier and more reliable identification of potentially severe and hazardous storms. Regional pilot projects have already demonstrated that the dominance in-cloud lightning and increasing in-cloud lash rates are known to precede severe weather at the surface by tens of minutes. ThOR is currently planned for launch in 2005 on a commercial or research satellite. Real-time data will be provided to selected NWS Weather Forecast Offices and National Centers (EMC/AWC/SPC) for evaluation.

  3. Kepler Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borucki, William J.; DeVincenzi, D. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The first step in discovering, the extent of life in our galaxy is to determine the number of terrestrial planets in the habitable zone (HZ). The Kepler Mission is a 0.95 m aperture photometer scheduled to be launched in 2006. It is designed to continuously monitor the brightness of 100,000 solar-like stars to detect the transits of Earth-size and larger planets. The depth and repetition time of transits provide the size of the planet relative to the star and its orbital period. When combined with ground-based spectroscopy of these stars to fix the stellar parameters, the true planet radius and orbit scale, hence the relation to the HZ are determined. These spectra are also used to discover the relationships between the characteristics of planets and the stars they orbit. In particular, the association of planet size and occurrence frequency with stellar mass and metallicity will be investigated. Based on the results of the current Doppler - velocity discoveries, over a thousand giant planets will be found. Information on the albedos and densities of those giants showing transits will be obtained. At the end of the four year mission, hundreds of terrestrial planets should be discovered in and near the HZ of their stars if such planets are common. A null result would imply that terrestrial planets in the HZ occur in less than 1% of the stars and that life might be quite rare.

  4. Payload missions integration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, R. A. K.

    1983-01-01

    Highlights of the Payload Missions Integration Contract (PMIC) are summarized. Spacelab Missions no. 1 to 3, OSTA partial payloads, Astro-1 Mission, premission definition, and mission peculiar equipment support structure are addressed.

  5. STS-107 Mission Specialist Laurel Clark at SPACEHAB

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- At SPACEHAB, STS-107 Mission Specialist Laurel Clark gets hands-on experience with equipment that will be on the mission. Watching in the left foreground is Mission Specialist Kalpana Chawla; next to her at left is Mission Specialist Michael Anderson. Identified as a research mission, STS-107 is scheduled for launch July 19, 2001

  6. STS-83 Mission Commander James D. Halsell, Jr. suits up

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    STS-83 Mission Commander James D. Halsell, Jr., gives a thumbs-up after he is assisted into his launch/entry suit in the Operations and Checkout (O&C) Building. Halsell is on his third space flight, having served as pilot of both STS-74 and STS-65. He is a lieutenant colonel in the Air Force and a former SR-71 Blackbird test pilot and holds master's degrees in management and space operations. Halsell will have responsibility for the success of the mission and will operate and maintain Columbia during the Red, or second shift. He will also assist with a materials science experiment and a protein crystal growth payload during the 16-day mission. Halsell and six fellow crew members will shortly depart the O&C and head for Launch Pad 39A, where the Space Shuttle Columbia will lift off during a launch window that opens at 2:00 p.m. EST, April 4.

  7. The Erroneous Accusation of Research "Mission Creep" at Master's Institutions: Why Teaching in the 21st Century Must Be Research-Based

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kassiola, Joel J.

    2007-01-01

    This article argues that the dominant invidious segmentation in American higher education between universities designated as "research" institutions and those relegated to "teaching" status is both erroneous and deleterious. Moreover, the trend of increasing research activities at master's institutions is not, as followers of the current…

  8. STS-89 Mission Insignia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    In the STS-89 crew insignia, the link between the United States and Russia is symbolically represented by the Space Shuttle Endeavour and Russia's Mir Space Station orbiting above the Bering Strait between Siberia and Alaska. The success of the joint United States-Russian missions is depicted by the Space Shuttle and Mir colored by the rising sun in the background. A shadowed representation of the International Space Station (ISS) rising with the sun represents the future program for which the Shuttle-Mir missions are prototypes. The inside rim of the insignia describes the outline of the number eight representing STS-89 as the eighth Shuttle/Mir docking mission. The nine stars represent the nine joint missions to be flown of the program and when combined with the number eight in the rim, reflect the mission number. The nine stars also symbolize the children of the crew members who will be the future beneficiaries of the joint development work of the space programs of the two countries. Along the rim are the crew members' names with David A. Wolf's name on the left and Andrew S. W. Thomas' name on the right, the returning and upgoing cosmonaut guest researcher crew members. In between and at the bottom is the name of Salizan S. Sharipov, payload specialist representing Russian Space Agency (RSA), in Cyrillic alphabet. The other crew members are Terrence W. Wilcutt, commander; Joe F. Edwards, Jr., pilot; and mission specialists Michael P. Anderson, Bonnie J. Dunbar, and James F. Reilly. The red, white and blue of the rim reflect the colors of the American and Russian flags which are also represented in the rim on either side of the joined spacecraft.

  9. In-flight estimation of gyro noise on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS) and Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer (EUVE) missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, M.; Crouse, P.; Harman, R.; Leid, Terry; Davis, W.; Underwood, S.

    1994-01-01

    This paper characterizes the low-frequency noise response of the Teledyne dry rotor inertial reference unit (DRIRU) gyroscopes on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS) and the Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer (EUVE). The accuracy of spacecraft attitude estimation algorithms that use gyro data for propagating the spacecraft attitude is sensitive to gyro noise. EUVE gyro data were processed to validate a single-axis gyro noise model, which is used onboard various spacecraft. The paper addresses the potential impact of temperature effects on the gyro noise model and the overall impact on attitude determination accuracy. The power spectral density (PSD) of the gyro noise is estimated from UARS in-flight data by Fast Fourier Transform (FFT). The role of actuator dynamics on the PSD function is also discussed.

  10. Mission specification for three generic mission classes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Mission specifications for three generic mission classes are generated to provide a baseline for definition and analysis of data acquisition platform system concepts. The mission specifications define compatible groupings of sensors that satisfy specific earth resources and environmental mission objectives. The driving force behind the definition of sensor groupings is mission need; platform and space transportation system constraints are of secondary importance. The three generic mission classes are: (1) low earth orbit sun-synchronous; (2) geosynchronous; and (3) non-sun-synchronous, nongeosynchronous. These missions are chosen to provide a variety of sensor complements and implementation concepts. Each mission specification relates mission categories, mission objectives, measured parameters, and candidate sensors to orbits and coverage, operations compatibility, and platform fleet size.

  11. Ground water applications of the heat capacity mapping mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heilman, J. L.; Moore, D. G.

    1981-01-01

    The paper discusses the ground water portion of a hydrologic investigation of eastern South Dakota using data from the Heat Capacity Mapping Mission (HCMM) satellite. The satellite carries a two-channel radiometer (0.5-1.1 and 10.5-12.5 microns) in a sun synchronous orbit and collects data at approximately 0230 and 1330 local standard time with repeat coverage of 5 to 16 days depending on latitude. It is shown that HCMM data acquired at appropriate periods of the diurnal and annual temperature cycle can provide useful information on shallow ground water.

  12. A decision model for planetary missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hazelrigg, G. A., Jr.; Brigadier, W. L.

    1976-01-01

    Many techniques developed for the solution of problems in economics and operations research are directly applicable to problems involving engineering trade-offs. This paper investigates the use of utility theory for decision making in planetary exploration space missions. A decision model is derived that accounts for the objectives of the mission - science - the cost of flying the mission and the risk of mission failure. A simulation methodology for obtaining the probability distribution of science value and costs as a function spacecraft and mission design is presented and an example application of the decision methodology is given for various potential alternatives in a comet Encke mission.

  13. Thermostructural Analysis of Unconventional Wing Structures of a Hyper-X Hypersonic Flight Research Vehicle for the Mach 7 Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ko, William L.; Gong, Leslie

    2001-01-01

    Heat transfer, thermal stresses, and thermal buckling analyses were performed on the unconventional wing structures of a Hyper-X hypersonic flight research vehicle (designated as X-43) subjected to nominal Mach 7 aerodynamic heating. A wing midspan cross section was selected for the heat transfer and thermal stress analyses. Thermal buckling analysis was performed on three regions of the wing skin (lower or upper); 1) a fore wing panel, 2) an aft wing panel, and 3) a unit panel at the middle of the aft wing panel. A fourth thermal buckling analysis was performed on a midspan wing segment. The unit panel region is identified as the potential thermal buckling initiation zone. Therefore, thermal buckling analysis of the Hyper-X wing panels could be reduced to the thermal buckling analysis of that unit panel. "Buckling temperature magnification factors" were established. Structural temperature-time histories are presented. The results show that the concerns of shear failure at wing and spar welded sites, and of thermal buckling of Hyper-X wing panels, may not arise under Mach 7 conditions.

  14. Titan Saturn System Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reh, Kim R.

    2009-01-01

    Titan is a high priority for exploration, as recommended by NASA's 2006 Solar System Exploration (SSE) Roadmap. NASA's 2003 National Research Council (NRC) Decadal Survey and ESA's Cosmic Vision Program Themes. Recent revolutionary Cassini-Huygens discoveries have dramatically escalated interest in Titan as the next scientific target in the outer solar system. This study demonstrates that an exciting Titan Saturn System Mission (TSSM) that explores two worlds of intense astrobiological interest can be initiated now as a single NASA/ESA collaboration.

  15. NASA's STEREO Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kucera, T. A.

    2011-01-01

    NASA's STEREO (Solar TErrestrial RElations Observatory) mission consists of two nearly identical spacecraft hosting an array of in situ and imaging instruments for studying the sun and heliosphere. Launched in 2885 and in orbit about the Sun near 1 AU, the spacecraft are now swinging towards the farside of the sun. I will provide the latest information with regards to STEREO space weather data and also recent STEREO research.

  16. Strategic considerations for support of humans in space and Moon/Mars exploration missions. Life sciences research and technology programs, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    Summary charts of the following topics are presented: the Percentage of Critical Questions in Constrained and Robust Programs; the Executive Committee and AMAC Disposition of Critical Questions for Constrained and Robust Programs; and the Requirements for Ground-based Research and Flight Platforms for Constrained and Robust Programs. Data Tables are also presented and cover the following: critical questions from all Life Sciences Division Discipline Science Plans; critical questions listed by category and criticality; all critical questions which require ground-based research; critical questions that would utilize spacelabs listed by category and criticality; critical questions that would utilize Space Station Freedom (SSF) listed by category and criticality; critical questions that would utilize the SSF Centrifuge; facility listed by category and criticality; critical questions that would utilize a Moon base listed by category and criticality; critical questions that would utilize robotic missions listed by category and criticality; critical questions that would utilize free flyers listed by category and criticality; and critical questions by deliverables.

  17. The Joint Space Operations Center (JSpOC) Mission System (JMS) and the Advanced Research, Collaboration, and Application Development Environment (ARCADE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Runco, A.; Echeverry, J.; Kim, R.; Sabol, C.; Zetocha, P.; Murray-Krezan, J.

    2014-09-01

    The JSpOC Mission System is a modern service-oriented architecture (SOA) infrastructure with increased process automation and improved tools to enhance Space Situational Awareness (SSA). The JMS program has already delivered Increment 1 in April 2013 as initial capability to operations. The programs current focus, Increment 2, will be completed by 2016 and replace the legacy Space Defense Operations Center (SPADOC) and Astrodynamics Support Workstation (ASW) capabilities. Post 2016, JMS Increment 3 will continue to provide additional SSA and C2 capabilities that will require development of new applications and procedures as well as the exploitation of new data sources with more agility. In 2012, the JMS Program Office entered into a partnership with AFRL/RD (Directed Energy) and AFRL/RV (Space Vehicles) to create the Advanced Research, Collaboration, and Application Development Environment (ARCADE). The purpose of the ARCADE is to: (1) serve as a centralized testbed for all research and development (R&D) activities related to JMS applications, including algorithm development, data source exposure, service orchestration, and software services, and provide developers reciprocal access to relevant tools and data to accelerate technology development, (2) allow the JMS program to communicate user capability priorities and requirements to developers, (3) provide the JMS program with access to state-of-the-art research, development, and computing capabilities, and (4) support market research efforts by identifying outstanding performers that are available to shepherd into the formal transition process. AFRL/RV and AFRL/RD have created development environments at both unclassified and classified levels that together allow developers to develop applications and work with data sources. The unclassified ARCADE utilizes the Maui high performance computing (HPC) Portal, and can be accessed using a CAC or Kerberos using Yubikey. This environment gives developers a sandbox

  18. STS-80 Mission Insignia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    This mission patch for mission STS-80 depicts the Space Shuttle Columbia and the two research satellites its crew deployed into the blue field of space. The uppermost satellite is the Orbiting Retrievable Far and Extreme Ultraviolet Spectrograph-Shuttle Pallet Satellite (ORFEUS-SPAS), a telescope aimed at unraveling the life cycles of stars and understanding the gases that drift between them. The lower satellite is the Wake Shield Facility (WSF), flying for the third time. It will use the vacuum of space to create advanced semiconductors for the nation's electronics industry. ORFEUS and WSF are joined by the symbol of the Astronaut Corps, representing the human contribution to scientific progress in space. The two bright blue stars represent the mission's Extravehicular Activities (EVA), final rehearsals for techniques and tools to be used in assembly of the International Space Station (ISS). Surrounding Columbia is a constellation of 16 stars, one for each day of the mission, representing the stellar talents of the ground and flight teams that share the goal of expanding knowledge through a permanent human presence in space.

  19. The ATLAS-1 mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Torr, Marsha R.

    1994-01-01

    Atmospheric Laboratory for Applications and Science (ATLAS)-1 was launched on March 24, 1992, carrying an international payload of 14 investigations, and conducted a successful series of experiments and observations over the subsequent 9 days. The objectives included: measuring the solar irradiance at high precision; remote sensing of the composition of the stratosphere, mesosphere, and thermosphere using techniques for wavelengths from 300 A to 5 mm; and inducing auroras by means of 1.2 amp electron beams. A subset of these instruments will subsequently be flown in a series of shuttle missions at roughly 1-year intervals over an 11-year solar cycle. The frequent recalibration opportunities afforded by such a program allows the transfer of calibrations to longer duration orbiting observatories. The ATLAS-1 mission occurred at the same time as the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS), TIROS-N, and ERB satellites were in operation, and correlative measurements were conducted with these. In all, the mission was most successful in achieving its objectives and a unique and important database was acquired, with many scientific firsts accomplished. This paper provides the mission overview for the series of papers that follow.

  20. The LISA Pathfinder Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armano, M.; Audley, H.; Auger, G.; Baird, J.; Binetruy, P.; Born, M.; Bortoluzzi, D.; Brandt, N.; Bursi, A.; Caleno, M.; Cavalleri, A.; Cesarini, A.; Cruise, M.; Danzmann, K.; Diepholz, I.; Dolesi, R.; Dunbar, N.; Ferraioli, L.; Ferroni, V.; Fitzsimons, E.; Freschi, M.; Gallegos, J.; García Marirrodriga, C.; Gerndt, R.; Gesa, L. I.; Gibert, F.; Giardini, D.; Giusteri, R.; Grimani, C.; Harrison, I.; Heinzel, G.; Hewitson, M.; Hollington, D.; Hueller, M.; Huesler, J.; Inchauspé, H.; Jennrich, O.; Jetzer, P.; Johlander, B.; Karnesis, N.; Kaune, B.; Korsakova, N.; Killow, C.; Lloro, I.; Maarschalkerweerd, R.; Madden, S.; Mance, D.; Martín, V.; Martin-Porqueras, F.; Mateos, I.; McNamara, P.; Mendes, J.; Mendes, L.; Moroni, A.; Nofrarias, M.; Paczkowski, S.; Perreur-Lloyd, M.; Petiteau, A.; Pivato, P.; Plagnol, E.; Prat, P.; Ragnit, U.; Ramos-Castro, J.; Reiche, J.; Romera Perez, J. A.; Robertson, D.; Rozemeijer, H.; Russano, G.; Sarra, P.; Schleicher, A.; Slutsky, J.; Sopuerta, C. F.; Sumner, T.; Texier, D.; Thorpe, J.; Trenkel, C.; Tu, H. B.; Vetrugno, D.; Vitale, S.; Wanner, G.; Ward, H.; Waschke, S.; Wass, P.; Wealthy, D.; Wen, S.; Weber, W.; Wittchen, A.; Zanoni, C.; Ziegler, T.; Zweifel, P.

    2015-05-01

    LISA Pathfinder (LPF), the second of the European Space Agency's Small Missions for Advanced Research in Technology (SMART), is a dedicated technology validation mission for future spaceborne gravitational wave detectors, such as the proposed eLISA mission. LISA Pathfinder, and its scientific payload - the LISA Technology Package - will test, in flight, the critical technologies required for low frequency gravitational wave detection: it will put two test masses in a near-perfect gravitational free-fall and control and measure their motion with unprecedented accuracy. This is achieved through technology comprising inertial sensors, high precision laser metrology, drag-free control and an ultra-precise micro-Newton propulsion system. LISA Pathfinder is due to be launched in mid-2015, with first results on the performance of the system being available 6 months thereafter. The paper introduces the LISA Pathfinder mission, followed by an explanation of the physical principles of measurement concept and associated hardware. We then provide a detailed discussion of the LISA Technology Package, including both the inertial sensor and interferometric readout. As we approach the launch of the LISA Pathfinder, the focus of the development is shifting towards the science operations and data analysis - this is described in the final section of the paper

  1. Mission Accomplished: Deep Submergence Science Routinely Supported Using Multiple Vehicles Throughout the Hawaii Undersea Research Laboratory's 2005 South Pacific Expedition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerby, T.; Smith, J. R.; Shackelford, R.; Wiltshire, J. C.; Malahoff, A.

    2005-12-01

    The Hawaii Undersea Research Laboratory (HURL) recently completed an internationally partnered 5-month, 14,500 nautical mile multiple leg expedition to the South Pacific that included 21 study sites in the waters of American Samoa, New Zealand, Tonga, and the U.S. Line Islands to commemorate its 25th anniversary of supporting deep submergence science in the Pacific Ocean. During this voyage, HURL successfully operated its two human occupied vehicles ( Pisces IV and Pisces V) each capable of diving to 2000 m from their support ship, the R/V Ka'imikai-o-Kanaloa ( KoK). In addition, a remotely operated vehicle ( RCV-150) with a nearly 1000-m depth limit was utilized alternately with the Pisces HOV's. The size and organized placement of these vehicles on the compact but efficiently run KoK (70-m length, 2000-tons displacement, 14 crew) allowed for deployment of a CTD rosette system and recovery of instrument package moorings during the same cruise leg. The Pisces submersibles are 20-ft long, 13-ton, 3-person vehicles with 7-10 hours duration, up to 350-lb payload capacities, and three forward looking viewports. The small size of the Pisces' relative to much larger deeper diving HOV's increases their agility, thus allowing maneuvering into more difficult sampling site terrain. The smaller package also facilitates rapid launch (8 min avg, stdev=1) and recovery (12 min avg, stdev=2) in heavier seas (up to sea state 5), as routinely experienced in the South Pacific during the austral winter. In addition to the enhanced safety aspect of having two compatible submersibles aboard, scientific efficiency has benefited by allowing the rotation of vehicles on extended deployments prior to battery servicing, thus maintaining an overall dive time average of 7.1 hr (stdev=1.52) for an average dive depth of 891 m (stdev=431) in 2005. Having the two fully operational submersibles also provides a contingency for equipment malfunction while on site that saved 7 dive days in 2005 alone

  2. Low Cost Mission Operations Workshop. [Space Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    The presentations given at the Low Cost (Space) Mission Operations (LCMO) Workshop are outlined. The LCMO concepts are covered in four introductory sections: Definition of Mission Operations (OPS); Mission Operations (MOS) Elements; The Operations Concept; and Mission Operations for Two Classes of Missions (operationally simple and complex). Individual presentations cover the following topics: Science Data Processing and Analysis; Mis sion Design, Planning, and Sequencing; Data Transport and Delivery, and Mission Coordination and Engineering Analysis. A list of panelists who participated in the conference is included along with a listing of the contact persons for obtaining more information concerning LCMO at JPL. The presentation of this document is in outline and graphic form.

  3. Spacelab mission development tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dalton, B. P.

    1978-01-01

    The paper describes Spacelab Mission Development Test III (SMD III) whose principal scientific objective was to demonstrate the feasibility of conducting biological research in the Life Sciences Spacelab. The test also provided an opportunity to try out several items of Common Operational Research Equipment (CORE) hardware being developed for operational use in Shuttle/Spacelab, such as rodent and primate handling, transportation units, and a 'zero-g' surgical bench. Operational concepts planned for Spacelab were subjected to evaluation, including animal handling procedures, animal logistics, crew selection and training, and a 'remote' ground station concept. It is noted that all the objectives originally proposed for SMD III were accomplished

  4. STS-99 / Endeavour Mission Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The primary objective of the STS-99 mission was to complete high resolution mapping of large sections of the Earth's surface using the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). This radar system will produce unrivaled 3-D images of the Earth's Surface. This videotape presents a mission overview press briefing. The panel members are Dr. Ghassem Asrar, NASA Associate Administrator Earth Sciences; General James C. King, Director National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA); Professor Achim Bachem, Member of the Executive Board, Deutschen Zentrum fur Luft- und Raumfahrt (DLR), the German National Aerospace Research Center; and Professor Sergio Deiulio, President of the Italian Space Agency. Dr. Asrar opened with a summary of the history of Earth Observations from space, relating the SRTM to this history. This mission, due to cost and complexity, required partnership with other agencies and nations, and the active participation of the astronauts. General King spoke to the expectations of NIMA, and the use of the Synthetic Aperture Radar to produce the high resolution topographic images. Dr. Achim Bachem spoke about the international cooperation that this mission required, and some of the commercial applications and companies that will use this data. Dr Deiulio spoke of future plans to improve knowledge of the Earth using satellites. Questions from the press concerned use of the information for military actions, the reason for the restriction on access to the higher resolution data, the mechanism to acquire that data for scientific research, and the cost sharing from the mission's partners. There was also discussion about the mission's length.

  5. Missional Imaginations for Theological Education: Mixed Model, Exploratory, Action-Oriented Research Mapping the Theological Identity and Organizational Readiness for Change of Five Theological School Systems in the United States Originating after 1945

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Small, Kyle J. A.

    2009-01-01

    This dissertation explores the formal theologies and organizational readiness for change with a view towards adopting missional prototypes for theological education across a school's (system's) tradition, curriculum, and structure. The research assessed five theological schools in the United States through an exploratory, action-oriented,…

  6. Manned Mars mission psychological issues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Santy, Patricia A.

    1986-01-01

    The research on isolated environments over the last thirty years suggests that psychological factors associated with such environments will lead to negative changes in individual and group performance. A mission to Mars will be the greatest undertaking ever devised by the human species. The members of such a mission will be in an environment whose potential dangers are not even completely known at this time. The psychological factors generated by such an environment, and which might adversely affect accomplishment of mission goals, can be minimized or planned for in advance. It is hoped that these issues will not be ignored in planning for this great adventure.

  7. Mars mission gravity profile simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuznetz, Lawrence H.

    1990-01-01

    A flight experiment designed to determine the need for artificial gravity for Mars mission architectures at earlier stages of the design process is proposed. The Soviet Mir space station, the NASA Space Shuttle, and the resources of NASA Ames Research Center would be used to duplicate in the terrestrial environment the complete Mars-mission gravity profile in order to assess the need for artificial gravity. All mission phases of 1 G would be on earth; all mission phases of zero or micro G would be in space aboard Mir; and all launch, ascent, orbit, deorbit, approach, departure, and descent G loads would be provided by actual spacecraft in operations that could be designed to simulate the actual G loads, while the Mars stay time would be simulated on earth or in a variable-gravity research facility in space. Methods of simulating activities on the Martian surface are outlined along with data monitoring, countermeasures, and launch site and vehicle selection criteria.

  8. PlanHab: the combined and separate effects of 16 days of bed rest and normobaric hypoxic confinement on circulating lipids and indices of insulin sensitivity in healthy men.

    PubMed

    Simpson, Elizabeth J; Debevec, Tadej; Eiken, Ola; Mekjavic, Igor; Macdonald, Ian A

    2016-04-15

    PlanHab is a planetary habitat simulation study. The atmosphere within future space habitats is anticipated to have reduced Po2, but information is scarce as to how physiological systems may respond to combined exposure to moderate hypoxia and reduced gravity. This study investigated, using a randomized-crossover design, how insulin sensitivity, glucose tolerance, and circulating lipids were affected by 16 days of horizontal bed rest in normobaric normoxia [NBR: FiO2 = 0.209; PiO2 = 133.1 (0.3) mmHg], horizontal bed rest in normobaric hypoxia [HBR: FiO2 = 0.141 (0.004); PiO2 = 90.0 (0.4) mmHg], and confinement in normobaric hypoxia combined with daily moderate intensity exercise (HAMB). A mixed-meal tolerance test, with arterialized-venous blood sampling, was performed in 11 healthy, nonobese men (25-45 yr) before (V1) and on the morning ofday 17of each intervention (V2). Postprandial glucose and c-peptide response were increased at V2 of both bed rest interventions (P< 0.05 in each case), with c-peptide:insulin ratio higher at V2 in HAMB and HBR, both in the fed and fasted state (P< 0.005 in each case). Fasting total cholesterol was reduced at V2 in HAMB [-0.47 (0.36) mmol/l;P< 0.005] and HBR [-0.55 (0.41) mmol/l;P< 0.005]. Fasting HDL was lower at V2 in all interventions, with the reduction observed in HBR [-0.30 (0.21) mmol/l] greater than that measured in HAMB [-0.13 (0.14) mmol/l;P< 0.005] and NBR [-0.17 (0.15) mmol/l;P< 0.05]. Hypoxia did not alter the adverse effects of bed rest on insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance but appeared to increase insulin clearance. The negative effect of bed rest on HDL was compounded in hypoxia, which may have implications for long-term health of those living in future space habitats. PMID:26769956

  9. Intravenous Solutions for Exploration Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Fletcher J.; Niederhaus, Charles; Barlow, Karen; Griffin, DeVon

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes the intravenous (IV) fluids requirements being developed for medical care during NASA s future exploration class missions. Previous research on IV solution generation and mixing in space is summarized. The current exploration baseline mission profiles are introduced, potential medical conditions described and evaluated for fluidic needs, and operational issues assessed. We briefly introduce potential methods for generating IV fluids in microgravity. Conclusions on the recommended fluid volume requirements are presented.

  10. Interplanetary mission planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    A long range plan for solar system exploration is presented. The subjects discussed are: (1) science payload for first Jupiter orbiters, (2) Mercury orbiter mission study, (3) preliminary analysis of Uranus/Neptune entry probes for Grand Tour Missions, (4) comet rendezvous mission study, (5) a survey of interstellar missions, (6) a survey of candidate missions to explore rings of Saturn, and (7) preliminary analysis of Venus orbit radar missions.

  11. The Joint Space Operations Center (JSpOC) Mission System (JMS) and the Advanced Research, Collaboration, and Application Development Environment (ARCADE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, K.; Kim, R.; Echeverry, J.

    The Joint Space Operations Center (JSpOC) is a command and control center focused on executing the Space Control mission of the Joint Functional Component Command for Space (JFCC-SPACE) to ensure freedom of action of United States (US) space assets, while preventing adversary use of space against the US. To accomplish this, the JSpOC tasks a network of space surveillance sensors to collect Space Situational Awareness (SSA) data on resident space objects (RSOs) in near earth and deep space orbits. SSA involves the ingestion of data sources and use of algorithms and tools to build, maintain, and disseminate situational awareness of RSOs in space. On the heels of emergent and complex threats to space assets, the JSpOC's capabilities are limited by legacy systems and CONOPs. The JSpOC Mission System (JMS) aims to consolidate SSA efforts across US agencies, international partners, and commercial partners. The JMS program is intended to deliver a modern service-oriented architecture (SOA) based infrastructure with increased process automation and improved tools to remove the current barriers to JSpOC operations. JMS has been partitioned into several developmental increments. Increment 1, completed and operational in early 2013, and Increment 2, which is expected to be completed in 2016, will replace the legacy Space Defense Operations Center (SPADOC) and Astrodynamics Support Workstation (ASW) capabilities. In 2017 JMS Increment 3 will continue to provide additional SSA and C2 capabilities that will require development of new applications and procedures as well as the exploitation of new data sources. Most importantly, Increment 3 is uniquely postured to evolve the JSpOC into the centralized and authoritative source for all Space Control applications by using its SOA to aggregate information and capabilities from across the community. To achieve this goal, Scitor Corporation has supported the JMS Program Office as it has entered into a partnership with AFRL/RD (Directed

  12. The Joint Space Operations Center (JSpOC) Mission System (JMS) and the Advanced Research, Collaboration, and Application Development Environment (ARCADE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, K.; Kim, R.; Echeverry, J.

    The Joint Space Operations Center (JSpOC) is a command and control center focused on executing the Space Control mission of the Joint Functional Component Command for Space (JFCC-SPACE) to ensure freedom of action of United States (US) space assets, while preventing adversary use of space against the US. To accomplish this, the JSpOC tasks a network of space surveillance sensors to collect Space Situational Awareness (SSA) data on resident space objects (RSOs) in near earth and deep space orbits. SSA involves the ingestion of data sources and use of algorithms and tools to build, maintain, and disseminate situational awareness of RSOs in space. On the heels of emergent and complex threats to space assets, the JSpOC's capabilities are limited by legacy systems and CONOPs. The JSpOC Mission System (JMS) aims to consolidate SSA efforts across US agencies, international partners, and commercial partners. The JMS program is intended to deliver a modern service-oriented architecture (SOA) based infrastructure with increased process automation and improved tools to remove the current barriers to JSpOC operations. JMS has been partitioned into several developmental increments. Increment 1, completed and operational in early 2013, and Increment 2, which is expected to be completed in 2016, will replace the legacy Space Defense Operations Center (SPADOC) and Astrodynamics Support Workstation (ASW) capabilities. In 2017 JMS Increment 3 will continue to provide additional SSA and C2 capabilities that will require development of new applications and procedures as well as the exploitation of new data sources. Most importantly, Increment 3 is uniquely postured to evolve the JSpOC into the centralized and authoritative source for all Space Control applications by using its SOA to aggregate information and capabilities from across the community. To achieve this goal, Scitor Corporation has supported the JMS Program Office as it has entered into a partnership with AFRL/RD (Directed

  13. Priority Planetary Science Missions Identified

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2011-03-01

    The U.S. National Research Council's (NRC) planetary science decadal survey report, released on 7 March, lays out a grand vision for priority planetary science missions for 2013-2022 within a tightly constrained fiscal environment. The cost-conscious report, issued by NRC's Committee on the Planetary Science Decadal Survey, identifies high-priority flagship missions, recommends a number of potential midsized missions, and indicates support for some smaller missions. The report states that the highest-priority flagship mission for the decade is the Mars Astrobiology Explorer-Cacher (MAX-C)—the first of three components of a NASA/European Space Agency Mars sample return campaign—provided that the mission scope can be reduced so that MAX-C costs no more than $2.5 billion. The currently estimated mission cost of $3.5 billion “would take up a disproportionate near-term share of the overall budget for NASA's Planetary Science Division,” the report notes.

  14. Idaho National Laboratory Mission Accomplishments, Fiscal Year 2015

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, Todd Randall; Wright, Virginia Latta

    2015-09-01

    A summary of mission accomplishments for the research organizations at the Idaho National Laboratory for FY 2015. Areas include Nuclear Energy, National and Homeland Security, Science and Technology Addressing Broad DOE Missions; Collaborations; and Stewardship and Operation of Research Facilities.

  15. Bion-11 Spaceflight Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skidmore, M.

    1999-01-01

    The Sensors 2000! Program, in support of the Space Life Sciences Payloads Office at NASA Ames Research Center developed a suite of bioinstrumentation hardware for use on the Joint US/Russian Bion I I Biosatellite Mission (December 24, 1996 - January 7, 1997). This spaceflight included 20 separate experiments that were organized into a complimentary and interrelated whole, and performed by teams of US, Russian, and French investigators. Over 40 separate parameters were recorded in-flight on both analog and digital recording media for later analysis. These parameters included; Electromyogram (7 ch), Electrogastrogram, Electrooculogram (2 ch), ECG/EKG, Electroencephlogram (2 ch), single fiber firing of Neurovestibular afferent nerves (7 ch), Tendon Force, Head Motion Velocity (pitch & yaw), P02 (in vivo & ambient), temperature (deep body, skin, & ambient), and multiple animal and spacecraft performance parameters for a total of 45 channels of recorded data. Building on the close cooperation of previous missions, US and Russian engineers jointly developed, integrated, and tested the physiologic instrumentation and data recording system. For the first time US developed hardware replaced elements of the Russian systems resulting in a US/Russian hybrid instrumentation and data system that functioned flawlessly during the 14 day mission.

  16. STS-79 Mission Insignia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    STS-79 was the fourth in a series of NASA docking missions to the Russian Mir Space Station, leading up to the construction and operation of the International Space Station (ISS). As the first flight of the Spacehab Double Module, STS-79 encompassed research, test and evaluation of ISS, as well as logistics resupply for the Mir Space Station. STS-79 was also the first NASA-Mir American crew member exchange mission, with John E. Blaha (NASA-Mir-3) replacing Shannon W. Lucid (NASA-Mir-2) aboard the Mir Space Station. The lettering of their names either up or down denotes transport up to the Mir Space Station or return to Earth on STS-79. The patch is in the shape of the Space Shuttle's airlock hatch, symbolizing the gateway to international cooperation in space. The patch illustrates the historic cooperation between the United States and Russia in space. With the flags of Russia and the United States as a backdrop, the handshake of Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) which are suited crew members symbolizes mission teamwork, not only of the crew members but also the teamwork between both countries space personnel in science, engineering, medicine and logistics.

  17. Factors Contributing to Unsuccessful Re-Proposed Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anteau, Gillian R.

    2012-01-01

    JPL often re-proposes unselected missions after technology advancement and mission concept development. Feedback given as major and minor weaknesses and strengths in prior rounds are addressed in later versions of proposals. This feedback provides insight into the factors that affect perceptions of risk and value. My research involved an in-depth case study of an original mission, Mission-A, and the re-proposed mission, Mission-B, after a multi-year technology development effort.In 2002, Mission-A was rated as Category III, with above average science merit (top score) and High Risk. To reduce risk, NASA invested technology development funds. In 2006 the re-formulated Mission-A mission, renamed Mission-B, was rated Category IV, good to very good science, and Medium Risk. While the risk rating improved from Mission-A to Mission-B, the overall results were worse.

  18. FORMOSAT-3/COSMIC Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, F. C.; Cheng, C.

    2006-12-01

    Six identical micro-satellites of the FORMOSAT-3/COSMIC mission were successfully launched on April 14, 2006 US time. The mission is a Taiwan-US collaborative project jointly carried out by the National Space Organization (NSPO) in Taiwan and the University Corporation for Atmospheric Research (UCAR) in the United States. Each satellite carries three science payloads: a Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver which measures the amplitude and phase of GPS signals, a Tri-Band Beacon (TBB) transmitter which emits three coherent frequencies at 150 MHz, 400 MHz and 1066.7 MHz, and a Tiny Ionospheric Photometer (TIP) which measures photon emission at 135.6 nm wavelength. The FORMOSAT-3/COSMIC mission provides the first satellite constellation to obtain vertical profiles in near-real time of temperature, pressure, and water vapor in the neutral atmosphere and electron density in the ionosphere. Using the GPS radio occultation (RO) technique, the satellite constellation will take at least 2,500 measurements of vertical profiles of atmospheric air density, temperature and water vapor and ionospheric electron density every 24 hours around the globe, filling in current atmospheric data gaps over the oceans and the polar region. Combining the GPS RO data with the data from TIP and ground TBB receivers, the 3D global distribution of electron density and scintillation in the ionosphere can be obtained for space weather monitoring and modeling. Taiwan science teams are conducting an Intensive Observation Period (IOP) campaign to cross validate RO data with other observations (ground based radiosonde, weather satellites, and balloons, radars, ionosondes, etc.), and to assess the impact of FORMOSAT-3/COSMIC observations on predictions of typhoon intensity and track over eastern Asia as well as ionospheric response to storms and substorms. Highlights of early results from the FORMOSAT- 3/COSMIC mission will be presented.

  19. Reflection Grating Array Associated with the Reflection Grating Spectrometer Developed by the Space Research Organization of the Netherlands for the X-ray Multi-Mirror Mission (XMM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kahn, Steven M.

    2001-01-01

    The University of California, Berkeley (UCB) served as the Principal Investigator institution for the United States participation in the development of the Reflection Grating Spectrometer (RGS) which included the design, development, fabrication, and testing of the Reflection Grating Assembly (RGA). UCB was assisted in this role by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and Columbia University who provided the primary facilities, materials, services and personnel necessary to complete the development. UC Berkeley's Dr. Steven Kahn provided the technical and scientific oversight for the design. development and testing of the RGA units by monitoring the performance of the units at various stages in their development. Dr. Kahn was also the primary contact with the Space Research Organization of the Netherlands (SRON) and represented the RGA development at all SRON and European Space Agency (ESA) reviews of the RGA status. In accordance with the contract, the team designed and developed novel optical technology to meet the unique requirements of the RGS. The ESA XMM-Newton Mission carries two identical Reflection Grating Spectrometers (RGS) behind two of its three nested sets of Wolter I type mirrors. The instrument allows high-resolution measurements in the soft X-ray range (6 to 38 angstroms or 2.1 to 0.3 keV) with a maximum effective area of about 140 sq cm at 15 angstroms. Its design is optimized for the detection of the K-shell transitions of carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, neon, magnesium, and silicon. as well as the L shell transitions of iron. The RGA itself consists of two units. A structure for each unit was designed to hold up to 220 gratings. In its final configuration, one unit holds 182 gratings and the second hold 181 gratings.

  20. STS-62 Mission Insignia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    The STS-62 crew patch depicts the world's first reusable spacecraft on its sixteenth flight. Columbia is in its entry-interface attitude as it prepares to return to Earth. The varied hues of the rainbow on the horizon connote the varied, but complementary, nature of all the payloads united on this mission. The upward-pointing vector shape of the patch is symbolic of America's reach for excellence in its unswerving pursuit to explore the frontiers of space. The brilliant sunrise just beyond Columbia suggests the promise that research in space holds for the hopes and dreams of future generations. The STS-62 insignia was designed by Mark Pestana.

  1. Shuttle mission plans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Visentine, J. T.; Lee, C. M.

    1978-01-01

    Shuttle mission plans recently developed by NASA for the time period 1980-1991 are presented. Standard and optional services, which will be available to users of the Space Transportation System (STS) when it becomes operational in the 1980's, are described. Pricing policies established by NASA to encourage use of the STS by commercial, foreign and other U.S. Government users are explained. The small Self-Contained Payload Program, which will make space flight opportunities available to private citizens and individual experimenters who wish to use the Space Shuttle for investigative research, is discussed.

  2. NASA's STEREO Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gurman, Joseph B.

    2010-01-01

    NASA's Solar-TErrestrial Relations Observatory mission, launched in 2006 October, consists of two nearly identical spacecraft in heliocentric orbits and currently 1380 of heliolongitude apart. Instrumentation on both spacecraft monitor solar wind plasma and magnetic field parameters, energetic particles, radio flux, and provide EUV and visible-light imaging of the corona, as well as novel, visible-light images of the ecliptic heliosphere. In addition to higher-resolution telemetry that enables a broad range of research into the propagation of disturbances in the inner heliosphere, a low-bandwidth, space weather beacon telemetry stream provides near-realtime information on each of these measurement types.

  3. Estimating continental hydrology parameters from existing space missions: the need for a dedicated surface water mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mognard, N. M.; Cazenave, A.; Alsdorf, D. E.; Rodriguez, E.

    2006-12-01

    Different instruments on board Earth observing satellite missions that were designed either for ocean missions or land surface classification have been used to retrieve continental surface hydrology parameters. Conventional altimeter profilers that have been designed for measuring the ocean surface topography provide limited use for surface hydrology. Analysis of conventional altimeter time series over lakes and rivers clearly indicates superimposed seasonal and interannual variabilities while the synergy of altimeter water height estimate with the water extent provided by radiometers is a means of estimating water volume variations. The synergy with the GRACE gravimetry mission, which estimates the variations of the integrated water mass, can provide estimates of the underground water mass variability. However, profiling altimetric methods of measuring water surface elevations and their changes are incapable of capturing the inherent dynamics of all continental surface waters. For example, using a profiling altimeter and a 16-day orbital repeat cycle, like that of Terra, misses about 30 percent of the rivers and 70 percent of the lakes in the global data bases. An international team is proposing the Water Elevation Recovery mission (WatER), a high-resolution, image- based approach with two-dimensional acquisitions of water surface elevations h, dh/dt, and dh/dx required to answer important hydrologic questions. A key technology of the WatER mission is a Ka-band Radar INterferometer (KaRIN) which is a near-nadir viewing, 120 km wideswath based instrument that uses interferometric SAR processing of the returned pulses to yield single-look 5m azimuth and 10m to 70m range resolution, with an elevation accuracy of approximately 50 cm. Polynomial based averaging of heights along the water body increases the height accuracy to about 3 cm. The entire globe is covered twice every 16 days and orbit subcycles allow the average visit to be about half this time at low to mid

  4. Mir Mission Chronicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McDonald, Sue

    1998-01-01

    Dockings, module additions, configuration changes, crew changes, and major mission events are tracked for Mir missions 17 through 21 (November 1994 through August 1996). The international aspects of these missions are presented, comprising joint missions with ESA and NASA, including three U.S. Space Shuttle dockings. New Mir modules described are Spektr, the Docking Module, and Priroda.

  5. Space physics missions handbook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, Robert A. (Compiler); Burks, David H. (Compiler); Hayne, Julie A. (Editor)

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this handbook is to provide background data on current, approved, and planned missions, including a summary of the recommended candidate future missions. Topics include the space physics mission plan, operational spacecraft, and details of such approved missions as the Tethered Satellite System, the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory, and the Atmospheric Laboratory for Applications and Science.

  6. Missions and Moral Judgement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bushnell, Amy Turner

    2000-01-01

    Addresses the history of Spanish-American missions, discussing the view of missions in church history, their role in the Spanish conquest, and the role and ideas of Herbert E. Bolton. Focuses on differences among Spanish borderlands missions, paying particular attention to the Florida missions. (CMK)

  7. NASA Antarctic Mission Operation ICE Bridge 2009

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA's Operation ICE Bridge is the most recent success for the Airborne Science Program, NASA scientists and climate researchers. This six minute video summarizes NASA's research mission over west ...

  8. GPM Mission Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hou, Arthur Y.; Skofronick-Jackson, Gail

    2011-01-01

    The Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Mission is an international satellite mission to unify and advance precipitation measurements from a constellation of research and operational sensors to provide "next-generation" precipitation products. Relative to current global rainfall products, GPM data products will be characterized by: (1) more accurate instantaneous precipitation measurements (especially for light rain and cold-season solid/snow precipitation), (2) more frequent sampling by an expanded constellation of microwave radiometers that include operational humidity sounders over land, (3) inter-calibrated microwave brightness temperatures from constellation radiometers within a unified framework, and (4) physical-based precipitation retrievals from constellation radiometers using a common a priori cloud hydrometeor database derived from GPM Core sensor measurements. The cornerstone of the GPM mission is the deployment of a Core Observatory in a unique 65 degree non-Sun-synchronous orbit to serve as a physics observatory and a calibration reference to improve precipitation measurements by a constellation of dedicated and operational passive microwave sensors. The Core Observatory will carry a KulKa-band Dual-frequency Precipitation Radar (DPR) and a multi-channel (10-183 GHz) GPM Microwave Radiometer (GMI). The combined use ofDPR and GMI measurements will place greater constraints on possible solutions to radiometer retrievals to improve the accuracy and consistency of precipitation retrievals from all constellation radiometers. As a science mission with integrated application goals, GPM is designed to (1) advance precipitation measurement capability from space through combined use of active and passive microwave sensors, (2) advance the knowledge of the global water/energy cycle and freshwater availability through better description of the space-time variability of global precipitation, and (3) improve weather, climate, and hydrological prediction

  9. STS-58 Mission Insignia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Designed by members of the flight crew, the STS-58 insignia depicts the Space Shuttle Columbia with a Spacelab module in its payload bay in orbit around Earth. The Spacelab and the lettering Spacelab Life Sciences ll highlight the primary mission of the second Space Shuttle flight dedicated to life sciences research. An Extended Duration Orbiter (EDO) support pallet is shown in the aft payload bay, stressing the scheduled two-week duration of the longest Space Shuttle mission to date. The hexagonal shape of the patch depicts the carbon ring, a molecule common to all living organisms. Encircling the inner border of the patch is the double helix of DNA, representing the genetic basis of life. Its yellow background represents the sun, energy source for all life on Earth. Both medical and veterinary caducei are shown to represent the STS- 58 life sciences experiments. The position of the spacecraft in orbit about Earth with the United States in the background symbolizes the ongoing support of the American people for scientific research intended to benefit all mankind.

  10. KEPLER Mission: development and overview.

    PubMed

    Borucki, William J

    2016-03-01

    The Kepler Mission is a space observatory launched in 2009 by NASA to monitor 170,000 stars over a period of four years to determine the frequency of Earth-size and larger planets in and near the habitable zone of Sun-like stars, the size and orbital distributions of these planets, and the types of stars they orbit. Kepler is the tenth in the series of NASA Discovery Program missions that are competitively-selected, PI-directed, medium-cost missions. The Mission concept and various instrument prototypes were developed at the Ames Research Center over a period of 18 years starting in 1983. The development of techniques to do the 10 ppm photometry required for Mission success took years of experimentation, several workshops, and the exploration of many 'blind alleys' before the construction of the flight instrument. Beginning in 1992 at the start of the NASA Discovery Program, the Kepler Mission concept was proposed five times before its acceptance for mission development in 2001. During that period, the concept evolved from a photometer in an L2 orbit that monitored 6000 stars in a 50 sq deg field-of-view (FOV) to one that was in a heliocentric orbit that simultaneously monitored 170,000 stars with a 105 sq deg FOV. Analysis of the data to date has detected over 4600 planetary candidates which include several hundred Earth-size planetary candidates, over a thousand confirmed planets, and Earth-size planets in the habitable zone (HZ). These discoveries provide the information required for estimates of the frequency of planets in our galaxy. The Mission results show that most stars have planets, many of these planets are similar in size to the Earth, and that systems with several planets are common. Although planets in the HZ are common, many are substantially larger than Earth. PMID:26863223

  11. KEPLER Mission: development and overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borucki, William J.

    2016-03-01

    The Kepler Mission is a space observatory launched in 2009 by NASA to monitor 170 000 stars over a period of four years to determine the frequency of Earth-size and larger planets in and near the habitable zone of Sun-like stars, the size and orbital distributions of these planets, and the types of stars they orbit. Kepler is the tenth in the series of NASA Discovery Program missions that are competitively-selected, PI-directed, medium-cost missions. The Mission concept and various instrument prototypes were developed at the Ames Research Center over a period of 18 years starting in 1983. The development of techniques to do the 10 ppm photometry required for Mission success took years of experimentation, several workshops, and the exploration of many ‘blind alleys’ before the construction of the flight instrument. Beginning in 1992 at the start of the NASA Discovery Program, the Kepler Mission concept was proposed five times before its acceptance for mission development in 2001. During that period, the concept evolved from a photometer in an L2 orbit that monitored 6000 stars in a 50 sq deg field-of-view (FOV) to one that was in a heliocentric orbit that simultaneously monitored 170 000 stars with a 105 sq deg FOV. Analysis of the data to date has detected over 4600 planetary candidates which include several hundred Earth-size planetary candidates, over a thousand confirmed planets, and Earth-size planets in the habitable zone (HZ). These discoveries provide the information required for estimates of the frequency of planets in our galaxy. The Mission results show that most stars have planets, many of these planets are similar in size to the Earth, and that systems with several planets are common. Although planets in the HZ are common, many are substantially larger than Earth.

  12. A university-based distributed satellite mission control network for operating professional space missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitts, Christopher; Rasay, Mike

    2016-03-01

    For more than a decade, Santa Clara University's Robotic Systems Laboratory has operated a unique, distributed, internet-based command and control network for providing professional satellite mission control services for a variety of government and industry space missions. The system has been developed and is operated by students who become critical members of the mission teams throughout the development, test, and on-orbit phases of these missions. The mission control system also supports research in satellite control technology and hands-on student aerospace education. This system serves as a benchmark for its comprehensive nature, its student-centric nature, its ability to support NASA and industry space missions, and its longevity in providing a consistent level of professional services. This paper highlights the unique features of this program, reviews the network's design and the supported spacecraft missions, and describes the critical programmatic features of the program that support the control of professional space missions.

  13. University and Community Partners in Oral History Projects: Fulfilling the Urban University Research and Service Mission within the Complexity of Engaged Scholarship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winston, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Central to the urban university's academic mission is supporting scholarship that expands knowledge and "service to the state" and local region. Documenting local history is an aspect of scholarship that supports the community directly. This manuscript addresses the role of the urban university in collaborating with community…

  14. Potential Mission Scenarios Post Asteroid Crewed Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lopez, Pedro, Jr.; McDonald, Mark A.

    2015-01-01

    A deep-space mission has been proposed to identify and redirect an asteroid to a distant retrograde orbit around the moon, and explore it by sending a crew using the Space Launch System and the Orion spacecraft. The Asteroid Redirect Crewed Mission (ARCM), which represents the third segment of the Asteroid Redirect Mission (ARM), could be performed on EM-3 or EM-4 depending on asteroid return date. Recent NASA studies have raised questions on how we could progress from current Human Space Flight (HSF) efforts to longer term human exploration of Mars. This paper will describe the benefits of execution of the ARM as the initial stepping stone towards Mars exploration, and how the capabilities required to send humans to Mars could be built upon those developed for the asteroid mission. A series of potential interim missions aimed at developing such capabilities will be described, and the feasibility of such mission manifest will be discussed. Options for the asteroid crewed mission will also be addressed, including crew size and mission duration.

  15. Voyager - a mission for life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williamson, Mark

    2012-12-01

    There may be no such thing as a "job for life" these days, but NASA's Voyager mission to Jupiter, Saturn and beyond has kept hundreds of scientists busy for as much as 35 years. Mark Williamson reveals how researchers stay motivated and scientifically productive during such a long-term project.

  16. BRRISON Mission Overview (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, A. F.; Hibbitts, C.; Bernasconi, P. N.; Young, E. F.; Tibor, K.; Arnold, S. P.; Adams, D.

    2013-12-01

    The Balloon Rapid Response for ISON (BRRISON) mission will make balloon observations of Comet C/2012S1 ISON prior to the comet's perihelion on Nov. 28, 2013. Comet ISON is a sun-grazing comet, which has freshly emerged from the Oort Cloud and may not survive intact its plunge through the solar atmosphere. BRRISON will make unique observations of CO2 and H20 emissions in the fundamental vibrational bands of these most important cometary volatiles. The BRRISON stratospheric balloon-borne platform will launch from Fort Sumner, NM on a one-day flight, with the launch window opening September 17, 2013. The science payload consists of two instruments, the BRRISON IR Camera (BIRC) supplied by The Johns Hopkins Applied Physics Laboratory for imaging in the 2.5 micron to 5 micron range, and the UVVis near-ultraviolet and visible camera imager supplied by the Southwest Research Institute. The UVVis Imager includes a fast steering mirror and fine pointing system. BRRISON plans to observe, in addition to the Oort Cloud comet ISON, the evolved Jupiter Family Comet 2/P Encke to compare the CO2 and H20 emissions of these end-members of the comet population. In addition, BRRISON plans to observe the Jupiter system, the Moon, hydrated main belt asteroids, and the bright, multiple star systems Castor and Mizar for calibration and for demonstration of the fine pointing system. I will present an overview of the BRRISON mission and its initial results.

  17. The Global Precipitation Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Braun, Scott; Kummerow, Christian

    2000-01-01

    The Global Precipitation Mission (GPM), expected to begin around 2006, is a follow-up to the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM). Unlike TRMM, which primarily samples the tropics, GPM will sample both the tropics and mid-latitudes. The primary, or core, satellite will be a single, enhanced TRMM satellite that can quantify the 3-D spatial distributions of precipitation and its associated latent heat release. The core satellite will be complemented by a constellation of very small and inexpensive drones with passive microwave instruments that will sample the rainfall with sufficient frequency to be not only of climate interest, but also have local, short-term impacts by providing global rainfall coverage at approx. 3 h intervals. The data is expected to have substantial impact upon quantitative precipitation estimation/forecasting and data assimilation into global and mesoscale numerical models. Based upon previous studies of rainfall data assimilation, GPM is expected to lead to significant improvements in forecasts of extratropical and tropical cyclones. For example, GPM rainfall data can provide improved initialization of frontal systems over the Pacific and Atlantic Oceans. The purpose of this talk is to provide information about GPM to the USWRP (U.S. Weather Research Program) community and to discuss impacts on quantitative precipitation estimation/forecasting and data assimilation.

  18. Mission to Planet Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tilford, Shelby G.; Koczor, Ron; Lee, Jonathan; Grady, Kevin J.; Hudson, Wayne R.; Johnston, Gordon I.; Njoku, Eni G.

    1990-01-01

    To preserve the earth, it is necessary to understand the tremendously complex interactions of the atmosphere, oceans, land, and man's activities deeply enough to construct models that can predict the consequences of our actions and help us make sound environmental, energy, agriculture, and economic decisions. Mission to Planet Earth is NASA's suggested share and the centerpiece of the U.S. contribution to understanding the environment, the Global Change Research Program. The first major element of the mission would be the Earth Observing System, which would give the simultaneous, comprehensive, long-term earth coverage lacking previously. NASA's Geosynchronous Earth Observatory with two additional similar spacecraft would be orbited by the U.S., plus one each by Japan and the European Space Agency. These would be the first geostationary satellites to span all the disciplines of the earth sciences. A number of diverse data gathering payloads are also planned to be carried aboard the Polar Orbiting Platform. Making possible the long, continuous observations planned and coping with the torrent of data acquired will require technical gains across a wide front. Finally, how all this data is consolidated and disseminated by the EOS Data and Information System is discussed.

  19. Soviet Mission Control Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    This photo is an overall view of the Mission Control Center in Korolev, Russia during the Expedition Seven mission. The Expedition Seven crew launched aboard a Soyez spacecraft on April 26, 2003. Photo credit: NASA/Bill Ingalls

  20. Space missions to comets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neugebauer, M. (Editor); Yeomans, D. K. (Editor); Brandt, J. C. (Editor); Hobbs, R. W. (Editor)

    1979-01-01

    The broad impact of a cometary mission is assessed with particular emphasis on scientific interest in a fly-by mission to Halley's comet and a rendezvous with Tempel 2. Scientific results, speculations, and future plans are discussed.

  1. Cyberinfrastructure for Aircraft Mission Support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freudinger, Lawrence C.

    2010-01-01

    Forth last several years NASA's Airborne Science Program has been developing and using infrastructure and applications that enable researchers to interact with each other and with airborne instruments via network communications. Use of these tools has increased near realtime situational awareness during field operations, resulting it productivity improvements, improved decision making, and the collection of better data. Advances in pre-mission planning and post-mission access have also emerged. Integrating these capabilities with other tools to evolve coherent service-oriented enterprise architecture for aircraft flight and test operations is the subject of ongoing efforts.

  2. ATLAS Series of Shuttle Missions. Volume 23

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    This technical paper contains selected papers from Geophysical Research Letters (Volume 23, Number 17) on ATLAS series of shuttle missions. The ATLAS space shuttle missions were conducted in March 1992, April 1993, and November 1994. This paper discusses solar irradiance, middle atmospheric temperatures, and trace gas concentrations measurements made by the ATLAS payload and companion instruments.

  3. Outer planet probe missions, designs and science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colin, L.

    1978-01-01

    The similarities and differences of atmosphere entry probe mission designs and sciences appropriate to certain solar system objects, are reviewed. Candidate payloads for Saturn and Titan probes are suggested. Significant supporting research and technology efforts are required to develop mission-peculiar technology for probe exploration of the Saturnian system.

  4. Benchmark Problems for Spacecraft Formation Flying Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carpenter, J. Russell; Leitner, Jesse A.; Burns, Richard D.; Folta, David C.

    2003-01-01

    To provide high-level focus to distributed space system flight dynamics and control research, several benchmark problems are suggested. These problems are not specific to any current or proposed mission, but instead are intended to capture high-level features that would be generic to many similar missions.

  5. Threads of Mission Success

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gavin, Thomas R.

    2006-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the many parts of the JPL mission planning process that the project manager has to work with. Some of them are: NASA & JPL's institutional requirements, the mission systems design requirements, the science interactions, the technical interactions, financial requirements, verification and validation, safety and mission assurance, and independent assessment, review and reporting.

  6. Mission objectives and trajectories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The present state of the knowledge of asteroids was assessed to identify mission and target priorities for planning asteroidal flights in the 1980's and beyond. Mission objectives, mission analysis, trajectory studies, and cost analysis are discussed. A bibliography of reports and technical memoranda is included.

  7. A Neptune Orbiter Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wallace, R. A.; Spilker, T. R.

    1998-01-01

    This paper describes the results of new analyses and mission/system designs for a low cost Neptune Orbiter mission. Science and measurement objectives, instrumentation, and mission/system design options are described and reflect an aggressive approach to the application of new advanced technologies expected to be available and developed over the next five to ten years.

  8. Mission operations management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rocco, David A.

    1994-01-01

    Redefining the approach and philosophy that operations management uses to define, develop, and implement space missions will be a central element in achieving high efficiency mission operations for the future. The goal of a cost effective space operations program cannot be realized if the attitudes and methodologies we currently employ to plan, develop, and manage space missions do not change. A management philosophy that is in synch with the environment in terms of budget, technology, and science objectives must be developed. Changing our basic perception of mission operations will require a shift in the way we view the mission. This requires a transition from current practices of viewing the mission as a unique end product, to a 'mission development concept' built on the visualization of the end-to-end mission. To achieve this change we must define realistic mission success criteria and develop pragmatic approaches to achieve our goals. Custom mission development for all but the largest and most unique programs is not practical in the current budget environment, and we simply do not have the resources to implement all of our planned science programs. We need to shift our management focus to allow us the opportunity make use of methodologies and approaches which are based on common building blocks that can be utilized in the space, ground, and mission unique segments of all missions.

  9. Spacelab 3 Mission Science Review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fichtl, George H. (Editor); Theon, John S. (Editor); Hill, Charles K. (Editor); Vaughan, Otha H. (Editor)

    1987-01-01

    Papers and abstracts of the presentations made at the symposium are given as the scientific report for the Spacelab 3 mission. Spacelab 3, the second flight of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) orbital laboratory, signified a new era of research in space. The primary objective of the mission was to conduct applications, science, and technology experiments requiring the low-gravity environment of Earth orbit and stable vehicle attitude over an extended period (e.g., 6 days) with emphasis on materials processing. The mission was launched on April 29, 1985, aboard the Space Shuttle Challenger which landed a week later on May 6. The multidisciplinary payload included 15 investigations in five scientific fields: material science, fluid dynamics, life sciences, astrophysics, and atmospheric science.

  10. Extended mission life support systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quattrone, P. D.

    1985-01-01

    Extended manned space missions which include interplanetary missions require regenerative life support systems. Manned mission life support considerations are placed in perspective and previous manned space life support system technology, activities and accomplishments in current supporting research and technology (SR&T) programs are reviewed. The life support subsystem/system technologies required for an enhanced duration orbiter (EDO) and a space operations center (SOC), regenerative life support functions and technology required for manned interplanetary flight vehicles, and future development requirements are outlined. The Space Shuttle Orbiters (space transportation system) is space cabin atmosphere is maintained at Earth ambient pressure of 14.7 psia (20% O2 and 80% N2). The early Shuttle flights will be seven-day flights, and the life support system flight hardware will still utilize expendables.

  11. STS 107 Shuttle Press Kit: Providing 24/7 Space Science Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Space shuttle mission STS-107, the 28th flight of the space shuttle Columbia and the 113th shuttle mission to date, will give more than 70 international scientists access to both the microgravity environment of space and a set of seven human researchers for 16 uninterrupted days. Columbia's 16-day mission is dedicated to a mixed complement of competitively selected and commercially sponsored research in the space, life and physical sciences. An international crew of seven, including the first Israeli astronaut, will work 24 hours a day in two alternating shifts to carry out experiments in the areas of astronaut health and safety; advanced technology development; and Earth and space sciences. When Columbia is launched from Kennedy Space Center's Launch Pad 39A it will carry a SPACEHAB Research Double Module (RDM) in its payload bay. The RDM is a pressurized environment that is accessible to the crew while in orbit via a tunnel from the shuttle's middeck. Together, the RDM and the middeck will accommodate the majority of the mission's payloads/experiments. STS-107 marks the first flight of the RDM, though SPACEHAB Modules and Cargo Carriers have flown on 17 previous space shuttle missions. Astronaut Rick Husband (Colonel, USAF) will command STS-107 and will be joined on Columbia's flight deck by pilot William 'Willie' McCool (Commander, USN). Columbia will be crewed by Mission Specialist 2 (Flight Engineer) Kalpana Chawla (Ph.D.), Mission Specialist 3 (Payload Commander) Michael Anderson (Lieutenant Colonel, USAF), Mission Specialist 1 David Brown (Captain, USN), Mission Specialist 4 Laurel Clark (Commander, USN) and Payload Specialist 1 Ilan Ramon (Colonel, Israeli Air Force), the first Israeli astronaut. STS-107 marks Husband's second flight into space - he served as pilot during STS-96, a 10-day mission that saw the first shuttle docking with the International Space Station. Husband served as Chief of Safety for the Astronaut Office until his selection to command

  12. STS 107 Shuttle Press Kit: Providing 24/7 Space Science Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2002-12-01

    Space shuttle mission STS-107, the 28th flight of the space shuttle Columbia and the 113th shuttle mission to date, will give more than 70 international scientists access to both the microgravity environment of space and a set of seven human researchers for 16 uninterrupted days. Columbia's 16-day mission is dedicated to a mixed complement of competitively selected and commercially sponsored research in the space, life and physical sciences. An international crew of seven, including the first Israeli astronaut, will work 24 hours a day in two alternating shifts to carry out experiments in the areas of astronaut health and safety; advanced technology development; and Earth and space sciences. When Columbia is launched from Kennedy Space Center's Launch Pad 39A it will carry a SPACEHAB Research Double Module (RDM) in its payload bay. The RDM is a pressurized environment that is accessible to the crew while in orbit via a tunnel from the shuttle's middeck. Together, the RDM and the middeck will accommodate the majority of the mission's payloads/experiments. STS-107 marks the first flight of the RDM, though SPACEHAB Modules and Cargo Carriers have flown on 17 previous space shuttle missions. Astronaut Rick Husband (Colonel, USAF) will command STS-107 and will be joined on Columbia's flight deck by pilot William 'Willie' McCool (Commander, USN). Columbia will be crewed by Mission Specialist 2 (Flight Engineer) Kalpana Chawla (Ph.D.), Mission Specialist 3 (Payload Commander) Michael Anderson (Lieutenant Colonel, USAF), Mission Specialist 1 David Brown (Captain, USN), Mission Specialist 4 Laurel Clark (Commander, USN) and Payload Specialist 1 Ilan Ramon (Colonel, Israeli Air Force), the first Israeli astronaut. STS-107 marks Husband's second flight into space - he served as pilot during STS-96, a 10-day mission that saw the first shuttle docking with the International Space Station. Husband served as Chief of Safety for the Astronaut Office until his selection to command

  13. Mission to Planet Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Gregory S.; Backlund, Peter W.

    1992-01-01

    Mission to Planet Earth (MTPE) is NASA's concept for an international science program to produce the understanding needed to predict changes in the Earth's environment. NASA and its interagency and international partners will place satellites carrying advanced sensors in strategic Earth orbits to gather multidisciplinary data. A sophisticated data system will process and archive an unprecedented amount of information about the Earth and how it works as a system. Increased understanding of the Earth system is a basic human responsibility, a prerequisite to informed management of the planet's resources and to the preservation of the global environment. An overview of the MTPE, flight programs, data and information systems, interdisciplinary research efforts, and international coordination, is presented.

  14. Computer graphics aid mission operations. [NASA missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jeletic, James F.

    1990-01-01

    The application of computer graphics techniques in NASA space missions is reviewed. Telemetric monitoring of the Space Shuttle and its components is discussed, noting the use of computer graphics for real-time visualization problems in the retrieval and repair of the Solar Maximum Mission. The use of the world map display for determining a spacecraft's location above the earth and the problem of verifying the relative position and orientation of spacecraft to celestial bodies are examined. The Flight Dynamics/STS Three-dimensional Monitoring System and the Trajectroy Computations and Orbital Products System world map display are described, emphasizing Space Shuttle applications. Also, consideration is given to the development of monitoring systems such as the Shuttle Payloads Mission Monitoring System and the Attitude Heads-Up Display and the use of the NASA-Goddard Two-dimensional Graphics Monitoring System during Shuttle missions and to support the Hubble Space Telescope.

  15. Applications Explorer Missions (AEM): Mission planners handbook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, S. R. (Editor)

    1974-01-01

    The Applications Explorer Missions (AEM) Program is a planned series of space applications missions whose purpose is to perform various tasks that require a low cost, quick reaction, small spacecraft in a dedicated orbit. The Heat Capacity Mapping Mission (HCMM) is the first mission of this series. The spacecraft described in this document was conceived to support a variety of applications instruments and the HCMM instrument in particular. The maximum use of commonality has been achieved. That is, all of the subsystems employed are taken directly or modified from other programs such as IUE, IMP, RAE, and Nimbus. The result is a small versatile spacecraft. The purpose of this document, the AEM Mission Planners Handbook (AEM/MPH) is to describe the spacecraft and its capabilities in general and the HCMM in particular. This document will also serve as a guide for potential users as to the capabilities of the AEM spacecraft and its achievable orbits. It should enable each potential user to determine the suitability of the AEM concept to his mission.

  16. Cg/Stability Map for the Reference H Cycle 3 Supersonic Transport Concept Along the High Speed Research Baseline Mission Profile

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giesy, Daniel P.; Christhilf, David M.

    1999-01-01

    A comparison is made between the results of trimming a High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) concept along a reference mission profile using two trim modes. One mode uses the stabilator. The other mode uses fore and aft placement of the center of gravity. A comparison is make of the throttle settings (cruise segments) or the total acceleration (ascent and descent segments) and of the drag coefficient. The comparative stability of trimming using the two modes is also assessed by comparing the stability margins and the placement of the lateral and longitudinal eigenvalues.

  17. Approach to rapid mission design and planning. [earth orbit missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, W. G.; Matthys, V. J.

    1973-01-01

    Methods and techniques are described for implementation in automated computer systems to assess parametric data, capabilities, requirements and constraints for planning earth orbit missions. Mission planning and design procedures are defined using two types of typical missions as examples. These missions were the high energy Astronomical Observatory Satellite missions, and Small Applications Technology Satellite missions.

  18. Technology transfer and space science missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Acuna, Mario

    1992-01-01

    Viewgraphs on technology transfer and space science missions are provided. Topics covered include: project scientist role within NASA; role of universities in technology transfer; role of government laboratories in research; and technology issues associated with science.

  19. Space Mission Human Reliability Analysis (HRA) Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boyer, Roger

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the Space Mission Human Reliability Analysis (HRA) Project is to extend current ground-based HRA risk prediction techniques to a long-duration, space-based tool. Ground-based HRA methodology has been shown to be a reasonable tool for short-duration space missions, such as Space Shuttle and lunar fly-bys. However, longer-duration deep-space missions, such as asteroid and Mars missions, will require the crew to be in space for as long as 400 to 900 day missions with periods of extended autonomy and self-sufficiency. Current indications show higher risk due to fatigue, physiological effects due to extended low gravity environments, and others, may impact HRA predictions. For this project, Safety & Mission Assurance (S&MA) will work with Human Health & Performance (HH&P) to establish what is currently used to assess human reliabiilty for human space programs, identify human performance factors that may be sensitive to long duration space flight, collect available historical data, and update current tools to account for performance shaping factors believed to be important to such missions. This effort will also contribute data to the Human Performance Data Repository and influence the Space Human Factors Engineering research risks and gaps (part of the HRP Program). An accurate risk predictor mitigates Loss of Crew (LOC) and Loss of Mission (LOM).The end result will be an updated HRA model that can effectively predict risk on long-duration missions.

  20. NASA Laboratory Analysis for Manned Exploration Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krihak, Michael K.; Shaw, Tianna E.

    2014-01-01

    The Exploration Laboratory Analysis (ELA) project supports the Exploration Medical Capability Element under the NASA Human Research Program. ELA instrumentation is identified as an essential capability for future exploration missions to diagnose and treat evidence-based medical conditions. However, mission architecture limits the medical equipment, consumables, and procedures that will be available to treat medical conditions during human exploration missions. Allocated resources such as mass, power, volume, and crew time must be used efficiently to optimize the delivery of in-flight medical care. Although commercial instruments can provide the blood and urine based measurements required for exploration missions, these commercial-off-the-shelf devices are prohibitive for deployment in the space environment. The objective of the ELA project is to close the technology gap of current minimally invasive laboratory capabilities and analytical measurements in a manner that the mission architecture constraints impose on exploration missions. Besides micro gravity and radiation tolerances, other principal issues that generally fail to meet NASA requirements include excessive mass, volume, power and consumables, and nominal reagent shelf-life. Though manned exploration missions will not occur for nearly a decade, NASA has already taken strides towards meeting the development of ELA medical diagnostics by developing mission requirements and concepts of operations that are coupled with strategic investments and partnerships towards meeting these challenges. This paper focuses on the remote environment, its challenges, biomedical diagnostics requirements and candidate technologies that may lead to successful blood-urine chemistry and biomolecular measurements in future space exploration missions.

  1. Mission Reliability Estimation for Repairable Robot Teams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trebi-Ollennu, Ashitey; Dolan, John; Stancliff, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    A mission reliability estimation method has been designed to translate mission requirements into choices of robot modules in order to configure a multi-robot team to have high reliability at minimal cost. In order to build cost-effective robot teams for long-term missions, one must be able to compare alternative design paradigms in a principled way by comparing the reliability of different robot models and robot team configurations. Core modules have been created including: a probabilistic module with reliability-cost characteristics, a method for combining the characteristics of multiple modules to determine an overall reliability-cost characteristic, and a method for the generation of legitimate module combinations based on mission specifications and the selection of the best of the resulting combinations from a cost-reliability standpoint. The developed methodology can be used to predict the probability of a mission being completed, given information about the components used to build the robots, as well as information about the mission tasks. In the research for this innovation, sample robot missions were examined and compared to the performance of robot teams with different numbers of robots and different numbers of spare components. Data that a mission designer would need was factored in, such as whether it would be better to have a spare robot versus an equivalent number of spare parts, or if mission cost can be reduced while maintaining reliability using spares. This analytical model was applied to an example robot mission, examining the cost-reliability tradeoffs among different team configurations. Particularly scrutinized were teams using either redundancy (spare robots) or repairability (spare components). Using conservative estimates of the cost-reliability relationship, results show that it is possible to significantly reduce the cost of a robotic mission by using cheaper, lower-reliability components and providing spares. This suggests that the

  2. JPL Mission Bibliometrics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coppin, Ann

    2013-01-01

    For a number of years ongoing bibliographies of various JPL missions (AIRS, ASTER, Cassini, GRACE, Earth Science, Mars Exploration Rovers (Spirit & Opportunity)) have been compiled by the JPL Library. Mission specific bibliographies are compiled by the Library and sent to mission scientists and managers in the form of regular (usually quarterly) updates. Charts showing publications by years are periodically provided to the ASTER, Cassini, and GRACE missions for supporting Senior Review/ongoing funding requests, and upon other occasions as a measure of the impact of the missions. Basically the Web of Science, Compendex, sometimes Inspec, GeoRef and Aerospace databases are searched for the mission name in the title, abstract, and assigned keywords. All get coded for journal publications that are refereed publications.

  3. Manned Mars mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Terrapin Technologies proposes a Manned Mars Mission design study. The purpose of the Manned Mars Mission is to transport ten people and a habitat with all required support systems and supplies from low Earth orbit (LEO) to the surface of Mars and, after an expedition of three months to return the personnel safely to LEO. The proposed hardware design is based on systems and components of demonstrated high capability and reliability. The mission design builds on past mission experience but incorporates innovative design approaches to achieve mission priorities. These priorities, in decreasing order of importance, are safety, reliability, minimum personnel transfer time, minimum weight, and minimum cost. The design demonstrates the feasibility and flexibility of a waverider transfer module. Information is given on how the plan meets the mission requirements.

  4. End of Mission Considerations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hull, Scott M.

    2013-01-01

    While a great deal of effort goes into planning and executing successful mission operations, it is also important to consider the End of the Mission during the planning, design, and operations phases of any mission. Spacecraft and launch vehicles must be disposed of properly in order to limit the generation of orbital debris, and better preserve the orbital environment for all future missions. Figure 30-1 shows a 1990's projected growth of debris with and without the use of responsible disposal techniques. This requires early selection of a responsible disposal scenario, so that the necessary capabilities can be incorporated into the hardware designs. The mission operations must then be conducted in such a way as to preserve, and then actually perform, the planned, appropriate end of mission disposal.

  5. 2001 Mars Odyssey Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Varghese, Philip

    2008-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the 2001 Mars Odyssey Mission. The contents include: 1) Mission Overview; 2) Current Scope of Work: 3) Facilities; 4) Critical Role of DSN; 5) Relay as Mission Supplement; 6) Current Mars Telecom Infrastructure; 7) PHX EDL Comm Overview; 8) EDL Geometry (Entry through Landing); 9) Phoenix Support; 10) Preparations for Phoenix; 11) EDL Support Timeline; 12) One Year Rolling Schedule; 13) E3 Rationale; and 14) Spacecraft Status.

  6. Provocative results during the CWVCS tropical mini-mission in Costa Rica in August 2001 using the NASA WB57F research aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weinstock, E.; Moyer, L.; Smith, J.; Kirk-Davidoff, D.; Pittman, J.; Sayres, D.; Anderson, J.; Thompson, T.

    2003-04-01

    Our current inability to constrain models of stratospheric dehydration results in large part on the lack of sufficient accurate high-resolution tracer data in the tropical tropopause layer (TTL). The mechanistic source of apparent trends in the stratospheric water vapor budget needs to be identified in the context of our changing climate. Toward this end, the Clouds and Water Vapor in the Climate System mission to Costa Rica during August of 2001 was organized as a highly cost-effective mini-mission to gather as much TTL data as possible. Based out of San Jose, Costa Rica from August 4-18, 2001, it included in situ measurements of ozone, water vapor, total water, pressure, temperature, and horizontal winds. During the 2 week period in San Jose there were a total of six flights, typically of about 6 hours duration in regions with local conditions ranging from clear sky to heavy convective activity. The mission provides a significant increase in the body of high-resolution high quality data in the TTL. It also provides data during the summer, with the presence of significant convective activity in a region that is significantly under-sampled. Accordingly, it is of interest to evaluate whether and/or how this data set can be used to validate any of the mechanisms proposed for the control of water in the TTL. While the instrument array here is limited, this does represent the first time that simultaneous measurements of water vapor, total water, and ozone have been made in the TTL. The critical addition of total water allows for the unambiguous determination of clouds and their total water content in the TTL, providing evidence of condensation (but not necessarily dehydration). In this presentation we contrast the results of flights on August 9, during which clear unsaturated air was observed in the tropopause region, and on August 15, during which thin cirrus and supersaturation are observed in the tropopause region, with evidence of hydration above the cirrus. Within

  7. Open Source Next Generation Visualization Software for Interplanetary Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trimble, Jay; Rinker, George

    2016-01-01

    Mission control is evolving quickly, driven by the requirements of new missions, and enabled by modern computing capabilities. Distributed operations, access to data anywhere, data visualization for spacecraft analysis that spans multiple data sources, flexible reconfiguration to support multiple missions, and operator use cases, are driving the need for new capabilities. NASA's Advanced Multi-Mission Operations System (AMMOS), Ames Research Center (ARC) and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) are collaborating to build a new generation of mission operations software for visualization, to enable mission control anywhere, on the desktop, tablet and phone. The software is built on an open source platform that is open for contributions (http://nasa.github.io/openmct).

  8. Lunar Missions and Datasets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, Barbara A.

    2009-01-01

    There are two slide presentations contained in this document. The first reviews the lunar missions from Surveyor, Galileo, Clementine, the Lunar Prospector, to upcoming lunar missions, Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO), Lunar Crater Observation & Sensing Satellite (LCROSS), Acceleration, Reconnection, Turbulence and Electrodynamics of Moon's Interaction with the Sun (ARTEMIS), Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory (GRAIL), Lunar Atmosphere, Dust and Environment Explorer (LADEE), ILN and a possible Robotic sample return mission. The information that the missions about the moon is reviewed. The second set of slides reviews the lunar meteorites, and the importance of lunar meteorites to adding to our understanding of the moon.

  9. STEREO Mission Design Implementation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guzman, Jose J.; Dunham, David W.; Sharer, Peter J.; Hunt, Jack W.; Ray, J. Courtney; Shapiro, Hongxing S.; Ossing, Daniel A.; Eichstedt, John E.

    2007-01-01

    STEREO (Solar-TErrestrial RElations Observatory) is the third mission in the Solar Terrestrial Probes program (STP) of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Science Mission Directorate Sun-Earth Connection theme. This paper describes the successful implementation (lunar swingby targeting) of the mission following the first phasing orbit to deployment into the heliocentric mission orbits following the two lunar swingbys. The STEREO Project had to make some interesting trajectory decisions in order to exploit opportunities to image a bright comet and an unusual lunar transit across the Sun.

  10. SEI reference mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weary, Dwayne

    1992-01-01

    Information is given in viewgraph form on the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI). The goal of the reference mission is to expand the human presence to the moon and Mars in order to enhance our understanding of the universe, to seek terrestrial benefits from this exploration, and to establish the beginnings of a sustainable spacefaring civilization. Topics covered here include a phased definition of initial programmatic milestones and follow-on capabilities, near-term mission strategy, a lunar mission timeline, and a Mars mission timeline.

  11. Juno Mission Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Meemong; Weidner, Richard J.

    2008-01-01

    The Juno spacecraft is planned to launch in August of 2012 and would arrive at Jupiter four years later. The spacecraft would spend more than one year orbiting the planet and investigating the existence of an ice-rock core; determining the amount of global water and ammonia present in the atmosphere, studying convection and deep- wind profiles in the atmosphere; investigating the origin of the Jovian magnetic field, and exploring the polar magnetosphere. Juno mission management is responsible for mission and navigation design, mission operation planning, and ground-data-system development. In order to ensure successful mission management from initial checkout to final de-orbit, it is critical to share a common vision of the entire mission operation phases with the rest of the project teams. Two major challenges are 1) how to develop a shared vision that can be appreciated by all of the project teams of diverse disciplines and expertise, and 2) how to continuously evolve a shared vision as the project lifecycle progresses from formulation phase to operation phase. The Juno mission simulation team addresses these challenges by developing agile and progressive mission models, operation simulations, and real-time visualization products. This paper presents mission simulation visualization network (MSVN) technology that has enabled a comprehensive mission simulation suite (MSVN-Juno) for the Juno project.

  12. Mission: PHH2O

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, D.; Bays, J.; Kronschnabl, G.; Mccutchon, J.; Minier, E.; Rush, P.

    1989-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to design a mission and a spacecraft capable of retrieving 120,000 kg of water from Phobos, a martian moon. There were no restrictions on the types of propulsion or power systems used. The duration of the mission was not defined, but a factor influencing the length of the mission was the statement that it would be cyclic in nature and the spacecraft could be manned or unmanned. The only assumptions provided were that a pumping and refueling station existed on Phobos and that a base existed on the Moon. The technology used for this mission was to be of the year 2007 and beyond.

  13. The Europa Jupiter System Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hendrix, A. R.; Clark, K.; Erd, C.; Pappalardo, R.; Greeley, R. R.; Blanc, M.; Lebreton, J.; van Houten, T.

    2009-05-01

    Europa Jupiter System Mission (EJSM) will be an international mission that will achieve Decadal Survey and Cosmic Vision goals. NASA and ESA have concluded a joint study of a mission to Europa, Ganymede and the Jupiter system with orbiters developed by NASA and ESA; contributions by JAXA are also possible. The baseline EJSM architecture consists of two primary elements operating in the Jovian system: the NASA-led Jupiter Europa Orbiter (JEO), and the ESA-led Jupiter Ganymede Orbiter (JGO). The JEO mission has been selected by NASA as the next Flagship mission to the out solar system. JEO and JGO would execute an intricately choreographed exploration of the Jupiter System before settling into orbit around Europa and Ganymede, respectively. JEO and JGO would carry eleven and ten complementary instruments, respectively, to monitor dynamic phenomena (such as Io's volcanoes and Jupiter's atmosphere), map the Jovian magnetosphere and its interactions with the Galilean satellites, and characterize water oceans beneath the ice shells of Europa and Ganymede. EJSM will fully addresses high priority science objectives identified by the National Research Council's (NRC's) Decadal Survey and ESA's Cosmic Vision for exploration of the outer solar system. The Decadal Survey recommended a Europa Orbiter as the highest priority outer planet flagship mission and also identified Ganymede as a highly desirable mission target. EJSM would uniquely address several of the central themes of ESA's Cosmic Vision Programme, through its in-depth exploration of the Jupiter system and its evolution from origin to habitability. EJSM will investigate the potential habitability of the active ocean-bearing moons Europa and Ganymede, detailing the geophysical, compositional, geological and external processes that affect these icy worlds. EJSM would also explore Io and Callisto, Jupiter's atmosphere, and the Jovian magnetosphere. By understanding the Jupiter system and unraveling its history, the

  14. LISA Pathfinder: mission and status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antonucci, F.; Armano, M.; Audley, H.; Auger, G.; Benedetti, M.; Binetruy, P.; Boatella, C.; Bogenstahl, J.; Bortoluzzi, D.; Bosetti, P.; Caleno, M.; Cavalleri, A.; Cesa, M.; Chmeissani, M.; Ciani, G.; Conchillo, A.; Congedo, G.; Cristofolini, I.; Cruise, M.; Danzmann, K.; De Marchi, F.; Diaz-Aguilo, M.; Diepholz, I.; Dixon, G.; Dolesi, R.; Dunbar, N.; Fauste, J.; Ferraioli, L.; Fertin, D.; Fichter, W.; Fitzsimons, E.; Freschi, M.; García Marin, A.; García Marirrodriga, C.; Gerndt, R.; Gesa, L.; Gilbert, F.; Giardini, D.; Grimani, C.; Grynagier, A.; Guillaume, B.; Guzmán, F.; Harrison, I.; Heinzel, G.; Hewitson, M.; Hollington, D.; Hough, J.; Hoyland, D.; Hueller, M.; Huesler, J.; Jeannin, O.; Jennrich, O.; Jetzer, P.; Johlander, B.; Killow, C.; Llamas, X.; Lloro, I.; Lobo, A.; Maarschalkerweerd, R.; Madden, S.; Mance, D.; Mateos, I.; McNamara, P. W.; Mendes, J.; Mitchell, E.; Monsky, A.; Nicolini, D.; Nicolodi, D.; Nofrarias, M.; Pedersen, F.; Perreur-Lloyd, M.; Perreca, A.; Plagnol, E.; Prat, P.; Racca, G. D.; Rais, B.; Ramos-Castro, J.; Reiche, J.; Romera Perez, J. A.; Robertson, D.; Rozemeijer, H.; Sanjuan, J.; Schleicher, A.; Schulte, M.; Shaul, D.; Stagnaro, L.; Strandmoe, S.; Steier, F.; Sumner, T. J.; Taylor, A.; Texier, D.; Trenkel, C.; Tombolato, D.; Vitale, S.; Wanner, G.; Ward, H.; Waschke, S.; Wass, P.; Weber, W. J.; Zweifel, P.

    2011-05-01

    LISA Pathfinder, the second of the European Space Agency's Small Missions for Advanced Research in Technology (SMART), is a dedicated technology demonstrator for the joint ESA/NASA Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) mission. The technologies required for LISA are many and extremely challenging. This coupled with the fact that some flight hardware cannot be fully tested on ground due to Earth-induced noise led to the implementation of the LISA Pathfinder mission to test the critical LISA technologies in a flight environment. LISA Pathfinder essentially mimics one arm of the LISA constellation by shrinking the 5 million kilometre armlength down to a few tens of centimetres, giving up the sensitivity to gravitational waves, but keeping the measurement technology: the distance between the two test masses is measured using a laser interferometric technique similar to one aspect of the LISA interferometry system. The scientific objective of the LISA Pathfinder mission consists then of the first in-flight test of low frequency gravitational wave detection metrology. LISA Pathfinder is due to be launched in 2013 on-board a dedicated small launch vehicle (VEGA). After a series of apogee raising manoeuvres using an expendable propulsion module, LISA Pathfinder will enter a transfer orbit towards the first Sun-Earth Lagrange point (L1). After separation from the propulsion module, the LPF spacecraft will be stabilized using the micro-Newton thrusters, entering a 500 000 km by 800 000 km Lissajous orbit around L1. Science results will be available approximately 2 months after launch.

  15. Spaceport operations for deep space missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holt, Alan C.

    1990-01-01

    Space Station Freedom is designed with the capability to cost-effectively evolve into a transportation node which can support manned lunar and Mars missions. To extend a permanent human presence to the outer planets (moon outposts) and to nearby star systems, additional orbiting space infrastructure and great advances in propulsion system and other technologies will be required. To identify primary operations and management requirements for these deep space missions, an interstellar design concept was developed and analyzed. The assembly, test, servicing, logistics resupply, and increment management techniques anticipated for lunar and Mars missions appear to provide a pattern which can be extended in an analogous manner to deep space missions. A long range, space infrastructure development plan (encompassing deep space missions) coupled with energetic, breakthrough level propulsion research should be initiated now to assist in making the best budget and schedule decisions.

  16. Mission requirements: Second Skylab mission SL-3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    Complete SL-3 mission objectives and requirements, as revised 1 February 1972 (Rev. 6), are presented. Detailed test objectives are also given on the medical experiments, Apollo Telescope Mount experiments, Earth Resources Experiment Package, and corollary experiments and environmental microbiology experiments.

  17. Legacy of Biomedical Research During the Space Shuttle Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayes, Judith C.

    2011-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Program provided many opportunities to study the role of spaceflight on human life for over 30 years and represented the longest and largest US human spaceflight program. Outcomes of the research were understanding the effect of spaceflight on human physiology and performance, countermeasures, operational protocols, and hardware. The Shuttle flights were relatively short, < 16 days and routinely had 4 to 6 crewmembers for a total of 135 flights. Biomedical research was conducted on the Space Shuttle using various vehicle resources. Specially constructed pressurized laboratories called Spacelab and SPACEHAB housed many laboratory instruments to accomplish experiments in the Shuttle s large payload bay. In addition to these laboratory flights, nearly every mission had dedicated human life science research experiments conducted in the Shuttle middeck. Most Shuttle astronauts participated in some life sciences research experiments either as test subjects or test operators. While middeck experiments resulted in a low sample per mission compared to many Earth-based studies, this participation allowed investigators to have repetition of tests over the years on successive Shuttle flights. In addition, as a prelude to the International Space Station (ISS), NASA used the Space Shuttle as a platform for assessing future ISS hardware systems and procedures. The purpose of this panel is to provide an understanding of science integration activities required to implement Shuttle research, review biomedical research, characterize countermeasures developed for Shuttle and ISS as well as discuss lessons learned that may support commercial crew endeavors. Panel topics include research integration, cardiovascular physiology, neurosciences, skeletal muscle, and exercise physiology. Learning Objective: The panel provides an overview from the Space Shuttle Program regarding research integration, scientific results, lessons learned from biomedical research and

  18. Analogue Missions on Earth, a New Approach to Prepare Future Missions on the Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebeuf, Martin

    well as using analogue missions to meet agency programmatic needs, the Canadian Space Agency encourages scientists and engineers to make use of opportunities presented by analogue missions to further their own research objectives. Specific objectives of Analogue Missions are to (1) foster a multidisciplinary approach to planning, data acquisition, processing and interpretation, calibration of instruments, and telemetry during mission operations; (2) integrate new science with emerging technologies; and (3) develop an expertise on exploration architecture design from projects carried out at terrestrial analogue sites. Within Analogue Missions, teams develop planning tools, use mission-specific software and technology, and communicate results as well as lessons learned during tactical operations. The expertise gained through Analogue Missions will contribute to inform on all aspects of exploration architectures, including planetary mobility requirements and astronaut training.

  19. Mission Medical Information System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson-Throop, Kathy A.; Joe, John C.; Follansbee, Nicole M.

    2008-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation gives an overview of the Mission Medical Information System (MMIS). The topics include: 1) What is MMIS?; 2) MMIS Goals; 3) Terrestrial Health Information Technology Vision; 4) NASA Health Information Technology Needs; 5) Mission Medical Information System Components; 6) Electronic Medical Record; 7) Longitudinal Study of Astronaut Health (LSAH); 8) Methods; and 9) Data Submission Agreement (example).

  20. Comet rendezvous mission study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friedlander, A. L.; Wells, W. C.

    1971-01-01

    Four periodic comets with perihelia between 1980 and 1986 (Encke, d'Arrest, Kipff, and Halley) are used as candidates for the comet rendezvous mission study. All these comet apparitions are especially favorable for rendezvous missions, because of early earth-based comet recovery, good opportunities to view their activity from earth, and reasonable launch vehicle and trajectory requirements for nominal payloads.

  1. NASA Mission: The Universe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    This booklet is mainly a recruitment tool for the various NASA Centers. This well illustrated booklet briefly describes NASA's mission and career opportunities on the NASA team. NASA field installations and their missions are briefly noted. NASA's four chief program offices are briefly described. They are: (1) Aeronautics, Exploration, and Space Technology; (2) Space Flight; (3) Space Operations; and (4) Space Science and Applications.

  2. The Pioneer Venus Missions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Mountain View, CA. Ames Research Center.

    This document provides detailed information on the atmosphere and weather of Venus. This pamphlet describes the technological hardware including the probes that enter the Venusian atmosphere, the orbiter and the launch vehicle. Information is provided in lay terms on the mission profile, including details of events from launch to mission end. The…

  3. STS-51 Mission Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Robert Castle, Lead Flight Director, gives an overview of the STS-51 Discovery mission, including details on the Space Shuttle, the payloads (ACTS-TOS, ORFEUS-SPAS, etc.), the crew, mission objectives, and the spacewalks to be performed. Simulations of the ACT-TS deployment and the ORPFEUS-SPAS operations are shown.

  4. The Community College Mission.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaughan, George B.

    1988-01-01

    Argues that the community college's mission has been and will be constant with respect to its social role to educate; its responsiveness to community needs; its focus on teaching; its open access philosophy; and its commitment to a comprehensive curriculum. Examines social tensions affecting the mission. (DMM)

  5. An interstellar precursor mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaffe, L. D.; Ivie, C.; Lewis, J. C.; Lipes, R.; Norton, H. N.; Stearns, J. W.; Stimpson, L. D.; Weissman, P.

    1980-01-01

    A mission out of the planetary system, launched about the year 2000, could provide valuable scientific data as well as test some of the technology for a later mission to another star. Primary scientific objectives for the precursor mission concern characteristics of the heliopause, the interstellar medium, stellar distances (by parallax measurements), low-energy cosmic rays, interplanetary gas distribution, and the mass of the solar system. Secondary objectives include investigation of Pluto. The mission should extend to 400-1000 AU from the sun. A heliocentric hyperbolic escape velocity of 50-100 km/sec or more is needed to attain this distance within a reasonable mission duration (20-50 years). The trajectory should be toward the incoming interstellar gas. For a year 2000 launch, a Pluto encounter and orbiter can be included. A second mission targeted parallel to the solar axis would also be worthwhile. The mission duration is 20 years, with an extended mission to a total of 50 years. A system using one or two stages of nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) was selected as a possible baseline. The most promising alternatives are ultralight solar sails or laser sailing, with the lasers in earth orbit, for example. The NEP baseline design allows the option of carrying a Pluto orbiter as a daughter spacecraft.

  6. A mission to Mercury and a mission to the moons of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Two Advanced Design Projects were completed this academic year at Penn State - a mission to the planet Mercury and a mission to the moons of Mars (Phobos and Deimos). At the beginning of the fall semester the students were organized into six groups and given their choice of missions. Once a mission was chosen, the students developed conceptual designs. These designs were then evaluated at the end of the fall semester and combined into two separate mission scenarios. To facilitate the work required for each mission, the class was reorganized in the spring semester by combining groups to form two mission teams. An integration team consisting of two members from each group was formed for each mission team so that communication and exchange of information would be easier among the groups. The types of projects designed by the students evolved from numerous discussions with Penn State faculty and mission planners at the Lewis Research Center Advanced Projects Office. Robotic planetary missions throughout the solar system can be considered valuable precursors to human visits and test beds for innovative technology. For example, by studying the composition of the Martian moons, scientists may be able to determine if their resources may be used or synthesized for consumption during a first human visit.

  7. The four candidate Earth Explorer core missions. Report for mission selection. 3. Earth Radiation Mission.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ingmann, P.; Poiares Baptista, J. P.

    1999-07-01

    The primary aim of the ERM is to determine world-wide the vertical profiles of aerosol and cloud field characteristics to provide basic input data for numerical modelling and atmospheric studies. The mission supports the goals of the World Climate Research Programme (WCRP) and, in particular, of its sub-programme Global Energy and Water Experiment (GEWEX), which is intended to develop an improved understanding of energy and water fluxes within the climate system, to secure reliable forecasts of weather and climate.

  8. STS-69 Mission Insignia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    Designed by the mission crew members, the patch for STS-69 symbolizes the multifaceted nature of the flight's mission. The primary payload, the Wake Shield Facility (WSF), is represented in the center by the astronaut emblem against a flat disk. The astronaut emblem also signifies the importance of human beings in space exploration, reflected by the planned space walk to practice for International Space Station (ISS) activities and to evaluate space suit design modifications. The two stylized Space Shuttles highlight the ascent and entry phases of the mission. Along with the two spiral plumes, the stylized Space Shuttles symbolize a NASA first, the deployment and recovery on the same mission of two spacecraft (both the Wake Shield Facility and the Spartan). The constellations Canis Major and Canis Minor represent the astronomy objectives of the Spartan and International Extreme Ultraviolet Hitchhiker (IEH) payload. The two constellations also symbolize the talents and dedication of the support personnel who make Space Shuttle missions possible.

  9. Mars Surface Mission Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duke, M. B. (Editor)

    1997-01-01

    A workshop was held at the Lunar and Planetary Institute on September 4-5, 1997, to address the surface elements of the Mars Reference Mission now being reviewed by NASA. The workshop considered the current reference mission and addressed the types of activities that would be expected for science and resource exploration and facilities operations. A set of activities was defined that can be used to construct "vignettes" of the surface mission. These vignettes can form the basis for describing the importance of the surface mission, for illustrating aspects of the surface mission, and for allowing others to extend and revise these initial ideas. The topic is rich with opportunities for additional conceptualization. It is recommended that NASA consider supporting university design teams to conduct further analysis of the possibilities.

  10. Outer Planet Flagship Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cutts, James; Niebur, C.; Dudzinski, L.; Coradini, M.; Lebreton, J.

    2008-09-01

    Studies for Outer Planet Missions have been ongoing for many years, but in 2007 NASA commissioned four specific studies to be considered for further examination; the Europa Explorer, Titan Explorer, Enceladus Mission and Jupiter Science Orbiter. During the same time frame ESA invited Outer Planet proposals under the Cosmic Vision call. Two were submitted, TandEm and LaPlace, which focused on Titan/Enceladus and Jupiter System science respectively. In 2008, NASA selected two of the missions, Europa Explorer and Titan Explorer, and ESA selected the two outer planet proposals for further study. This poster describes the process by which NASA and ESA are collaborating on the current studies which are now named the Titan/Saturn (TSSM) and Europa/Jupiter Missions (EJSM). We provide an update on the background, organization and schedule for these two mission studies.

  11. Outer Planet Flagship Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niebur, C.; Dudzinski, L.; Coradini, M.; Lebreton, J.; Cutts, J. A.

    2008-05-01

    Studies for Outer Planet Missions have been ongoing for many years, but in 2007 NASA commissioned four specific studies to be considered for further examination; the Europa Explorer, Titan Explorer, Enceladus Mission and Jupiter Science Orbiter. During the same time frame ESA invited Outer Planet proposals under the Cosmic Vision call. Two were submitted, TandEM and LaPlace, which focused on Titan/Enceladus and Jupiter System science respectively. In 2008, NASA selected two of the missions, Europa Explorer and Titan Explorer, and ESA selected the two outer planet proposals for further study. This poster describes the process by which NASA and ESA are collaborating on the current studies which are now named the Titan/Saturn and Europa/Jupiter Missions. We provide the background, organization and schedule that are presently envisaged for these two mission studies.

  12. Outer Planets Flagship Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niebur, C.; Dudzinski, L.; Coradini, M.; Lebreton, J. P.; Cutts, J. A.

    2008-09-01

    Studies for Outer Planet Missions have been ongoing for many years, but in 2007 NASA commissioned four specific studies to be considered for further examination; the Europa Explorer, Titan Explorer, Enceladus Mission and Jupiter Science Orbiter. During the same time frame ESA invited Outer Planet proposals under the Cosmic Vision call. Two were submitted, TandEm and LaPlace, which focused on Titan/Enceladus and Jupiter System science respectively. In 2008, NASA selected two of the missions, Europa Explorer and Titan Explorer, and ESA selected the two outer planet proposals for further study. This poster describes the process by which NASA and ESA are collaborating on the current studies which are now named the Titan/Saturn (TSSM) and Europa/Jupiter Missions (EJSM). We provide an update on the background, organization and schedule for these two mission studies.

  13. Kepler Mission Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koch, David; Borucki, William; Lissauer, J.; Mayer, David; Voss, Janice; Basri, Gibor; Gould, Alan; Brown, Timothy; Cockran, William; Caldwell, Douglas

    2005-01-01

    The Kepler Mission is in the development phase with launch planned for 2007. The mission goal first off is to reliably detect a significant number of Earth-size planets in the habitable zone of solar-like stars. The mission design allows for exploring the diversity of planetary sizes, orbital periods, stellar spectral types, etc. In this paper we describe the technical approach taken for the mission design; describing the flight and ground system, the detection methodology, the photometer design and capabilities, and the way the data are taken and processed. (For Stellar Classification program. Finally the detection capability in terms of planet size and orbit are presented as a function of mission duration and stellar type.

  14. The Europa Jupiter system mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, K.; Stankov, A.; Pappalardo, R. T.; Greeley, R.; Blanc, M.; Lebreton, J.-P.; van Houten, T.

    2009-04-01

    Europa Jupiter System Mission (EJSM)— would be an international mission that would achieve Decadal Survey and Cosmic Vision goals. NASA and ESA have concluded a joint study of a mission to Europa, Ganymede and the Jupiter system with orbiters developed by NASA and ESA; contributions by JAXA are also possible. The baseline EJSM architecture consists of two primary elements operating in the Jovian system: the NASA-led Jupiter Europa Orbiter (JEO), and the ESA-led Jupiter Ganymede Orbiter (JGO). JEO and JGO would execute an intricately choreographed exploration of the Jupiter System be-fore settling into orbit around Europa and Ganymede, respectively. JEO and JGO would carry eleven and ten complementary instruments, respectively, to monitor dynamic phenomena (such as Io's volcanoes and Jupi-ter's atmosphere), map the Jovian magnetosphere and its interactions with the Galilean satellites, and charac-terize water oceans beneath the ice shells of Europa and Ganymede. EJSM would fully addresses high priority science objectives identified by the National Research Coun-cil's (NRC's) Decadal Survey and ESA's Cosmic Vi-sion for exploration of the outer solar system. The De-cadal Survey recommended a Europa Orbiter as the highest priority outer planet flagship mission and also identified Ganymede as a highly desirable mission tar-get. EJSM would uniquely addresse several of the cen-tral themes of ESA's Cosmic Vision Programme, through its in-depth exploration of the Jupiter system and its evolution from origin to habitability. EJSM would investigate the potential habitability of the active ocean-bearing moons Europa and Gany-mede, detailing the geophysical, compositional, geo-logical, and external processes that affect these icy worlds. EJSM would also explore Io and Callisto, Jupi-ter's atmosphere, and the Jovian magnetosphere. By understanding the Jupiter system and unraveling its history, the formation and evolution of gas giant plan-ets and their satellites would be

  15. PERCIVAL mission to Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reed, David W.; Lilley, Stewart; Sirman, Melinda; Bolton, Paul; Elliott, Susan; Hamilton, Doug; Nickelson, James; Shelton, Artemus

    1992-01-01

    With the downturn of the world economy, the priority of unmanned exploration of the solar system has been lowered. Instead of foregoing all missions to our neighbors in the solar system, a new philosophy of exploration mission design has evolved to insure the continued exploration of the solar system. The 'Discovery-class' design philosophy uses a low cost, limited mission, available technology spacecraft instead of the previous 'Voyager-class' design philosophy that uses a 'do-everything at any cost' spacecraft. The Percival Mission to Mars was proposed by Ares Industries as one of the new 'Discovery-class' of exploration missions. The spacecraft will be christened Percival in honor of American astronomer Percival Lowell who proposed the existence of life on Mars in the early twentieth century. The main purpose of the Percival mission to Mars is to collect and relay scientific data to Earth suitable for designing future manned and unmanned missions to Mars. The measurements and observations made by Percival will help future mission designers to choose among landing sites based on the feasibility and scientific interest of the sites. The primary measurements conducted by the Percival mission include gravity field determination, surface and atmospheric composition, sub-surface soil composition, sub-surface seismic activity, surface weather patterns, and surface imaging. These measurements will be taken from the orbiting Percival spacecraft and from surface penetrators deployed from Mars orbit. The design work for the Percival Mission to Mars was divided among four technical areas: Orbits and Propulsion System, Surface Penetrators, Gravity and Science Instruments, and Spacecraft Structure and Systems. The results for each of the technical areas is summarized and followed by a design cost analysis and recommendations for future analyses.

  16. Field observations of stratospheric trace gases in support of the upper atmospheric research satellite mission during the antarctic spring of 1992

    SciTech Connect

    De Zafra, R.L.; Emmons, L.K.; Reeves, M.; Shindell, D.; Trimble, C. )

    1993-01-01

    This research is intended to provide correlative data in support of instruments on NASA's upper atmospheric research satellite (UARS) as well as to gather independent data pertaining to ozone loss during the antarctic spring season. Of particular interest are the measurements of stratospheric chlorine monoxide, the direct product of ozone destruction by chlorine. 5 refs.

  17. Compaction of Space Mission Wastes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, John; Pisharody, Suresh; Wignarajah, K.

    2004-01-01

    The current solid waste management system employed on the International Space Station (ISS) consists of compaction, storage, and disposal. Wastes such plastic food packaging and trash are compacted manually and wrapped in duct tape footballs by the astronauts. Much of the waste is simply loaded either into the empty Russian Progress vehicle for destruction on reentry or into Shuttle for return to Earth. This manual method is wasteful of crew time and does not transition well to far term missions. Different wastes onboard spacecraft vary considerably in their characteristics and in the appropriate method of management. In advanced life support systems for far term missions, recovery of resources such as water from the wastes becomes important. However waste such as plastic food packaging, which constitutes a large fraction of solid waste (roughly 21% on ISS, more on long duration missions), contains minimal recoverable resource. The appropriate management of plastic waste is waste stabilization and volume minimization rather than resource recovery. This paper describes work that has begun at Ames Research Center on development of a heat melt compactor that can be used on near term and future missions, that can minimize crew interaction, and that can handle wastes with a significant plastic composition. The heat melt compactor takes advantage of the low melting point of plastics to compact plastic materials using a combination of heat and pressure. The US Navy has demonstrated successful development of a similar unit for shipboard application. Ames is building upon the basic approach demonstrated by the Navy to develop an advanced heat melt type compactor for space mission type wastes.

  18. Sleep, Circadian Rhythms, and Performance During Space Shuttle Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neri, David F.; Czeisler, Charles A.; Dijk, Derk-Jan; Wyatt, James K.; Ronda, Joseph M.; Hughes, Rod J.

    2003-01-01

    Sleep and circadian rhythms may be disturbed during spaceflight, and these disturbances can affect crewmembers' performance during waking hours. The mechanisms underlying sleep and circadian rhythm disturbances in space are not well understood, and effective countermeasures are not yet available. We investigated sleep, circadian rhythms, cognitive performance, and light-dark cycles in five astronauts prior to, during, and after the 16-day STS-90 mission and the IO-day STS-95 mission. The efficacy of low-dose, alternative-night, oral melatonin administration as a countermeasure for sleep disturbances was evaluated. During these missions, scheduled rest activity cycles were 20-35 minutes shorter than 24 hours. Light levels on the middeck and in the Spacelab were very low; whereas on the flight deck (which has several windows), they were highly variable. Circadian rhythm abnormalities were observed. During the second half of the missions, the rhythm of urinary cortisol appeared to be delayed relative to the sleep-wake schedule. Performance during wakefulness was impaired. Astronauts slept only about 6.5 hours per day, and subjective sleep quality was lower in space. No beneficial effects of melatonin (0.3 mg administered prior to sleep episodes on alternate nights) were observed. A surprising finding was a marked increase in rapid eye movement (REM) sleep upon return to Earth. We conclude that these Space Shuttle missions were associated with circadian rhythm disturbances, sleep loss, decrements in neurobehavioral performance, and alterations in REM sleep homeostasis. Shorter than 24-hour rest-activity schedules and exposure to light-dark cycles inadequate for optimal circadian synchronization may have contributed to these disturbances.

  19. STS-50 Mission Insignia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    Designed by the flight crew, the insignia for STS-50, United States Microgravity Laboratory (USML-l), captures a Space Shuttle traveling above Earth while trailing the USML banner. The orbiter is oriented vertically in a typical attitude for microgravity science and in this position represents the numeral 1 in the mission's abbreviated title. Visible in the payload bay are the Spacelab module, and the extended duration orbiter cryo pallet which will made its first flight. The small g and Greek letter mu on the Spacelab module symbolize the microgravity environment being used for research in the areas of materials science and fluid physics. The large block letter U extends outside the patch perimeter, symbolizing the potential for the experiments on this flight to expand the current boundaries of knowledge in microgravity science. The Stars and Stripes of the USML block letters and the U.S. landmass in the Earth scene below reflect the crew's pride in the U.S. origin of all onboard experiments.

  20. Spacelab 2 Mission-Artist's Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    This illustration depicts the configuration of the Spacelab-2 in the cargo bay of the orbiter. Spacelab was a versatile laboratory carried in the Space Shuttle's cargo bay for scientific research flights. Each Spacelab mission had a unique design appropriate to the mission's goals. A number of Spacelab configurations could be assembled from pressurized habitation modules and exposed platforms called pallets. Spacelab-2 was the first pallet-only mission. One of the goals of the mission was to verify that the pallets' configuration was satisfactory for observations and research. Except for two biological experiments and an experiment that used ground-based instruments, the Spacelab-2 scientific instruments needed direct exposure to space. On the first pallet, three solar instruments and one atmospheric instrument were mounted on the Instrument Pointing System, which was being tested on its first flight. The second Spacelab pallet held a large double x-ray telescope and three plasma physics detectors. The last pallet supported an infrared telescope, a superfluid helium technology experiment, and a small plasma diagnostics satellite. The Spacelab-2 mission was designed to capitalize on the Shuttle-Spacelab capabilities, to launch and retrieve satellites, and to point several instruments independently with accuracy and stability. Spacelab-2 (STS-51F, 19th Shuttle mission) was launched aboard Space Shuttle Orbiter Challenger on July 29, 1985. The Marshall Space Flight Center had overall management responsibilities of the Spacelab missions.

  1. Mars MetNet Mission Payload Overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harri, A.-M.; Haukka, H.; Alexashkin, S.; Guerrero, H.; Schmidt, W.; Genzer, M.; Vazquez, L.

    2012-09-01

    A new kind of planetary exploration mission for Mars is being developed in collaboration between the Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI), Lavochkin Association (LA), Space Research Institute (IKI) and Institutio Nacional de Tecnica Aerospacial (INTA). The Mars MetNet mission [1] is based on a new semi-hard landing vehicle called MetNet Lander (MNL). The scientific payload of the Mars MetNet Precursor mission is divided into three categories: Atmospheric instruments, Optical devices and Composition and structure devices. Each of the payload instruments will provide crucial scientific data about the Martian atmospheric phenomena.

  2. Benchmark Problems for Space Mission Formation Flying

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carpenter, J. Russell; Leitner, Jesse A.; Folta, David C.; Burns, Richard

    2003-01-01

    To provide a high-level focus to distributed space system flight dynamics and control research, several benchmark problems are suggested for space mission formation flying. The problems cover formation flying in low altitude, near-circular Earth orbit, high altitude, highly elliptical Earth orbits, and large amplitude lissajous trajectories about co-linear libration points of the Sun-Earth/Moon system. These problems are not specific to any current or proposed mission, but instead are intended to capture high-level features that would be generic to many similar missions that are of interest to various agencies.

  3. Mission Scenario Development Workbench

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kordon, Mark; Baker, John; Gilbert, John; Hanks, David; Mandutianu, Dan; Hooper, David

    2006-01-01

    The Mission Scenario Development Workbench (MSDW) is a multidisciplinary performance analysis software tool for planning and optimizing space missions. It provides a number of new capabilities that are particularly useful for planning the surface activities on other planets. MSDW enables rapid planning of a space mission and supports flight system and scientific-instrumentation trades. It also provides an estimate of the ability of flight, ground, and science systems to meet high-level mission goals and provides means of evaluating expected mission performance at an early stage of planning in the project life cycle. In MSDW, activity plans and equipment-list spreadsheets are integrated with validated parameterized simulation models of spacecraft systems. In contrast to traditional approaches involving worst-case estimates with large margins, the approach embodied in MSDW affords more flexibility and more credible results early in the lifecycle through the use of validated, variable- fidelity models of spacecraft systems. MSDW is expected to help maximize the scientific return on investment for space missions by understanding early the performance required to have a successful mission while reducing the risk of costly design changes made at late stages in the project life cycle.

  4. Recce mission planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    York, Andrew M.

    2000-11-01

    The ever increasing sophistication of reconnaissance sensors reinforces the importance of timely, accurate, and equally sophisticated mission planning capabilities. Precision targeting and zero-tolerance for collateral damage and civilian casualties, stress the need for accuracy and timeliness. Recent events have highlighted the need for improvement in current planning procedures and systems. Annotating printed maps takes time and does not allow flexibility for rapid changes required in today's conflicts. We must give aircrew the ability to accurately navigate their aircraft to an area of interest, correctly position the sensor to obtain the required sensor coverage, adapt missions as required, and ensure mission success. The growth in automated mission planning system capability and the expansion of those systems to include dedicated and integrated reconnaissance modules, helps to overcome current limitations. Mission planning systems, coupled with extensive integrated visualization capabilities, allow aircrew to not only plan accurately and quickly, but know precisely when they will locate the target and visualize what the sensor will see during its operation. This paper will provide a broad overview of the current capabilities and describe how automated mission planning and visualization systems can improve and enhance the reconnaissance planning process and contribute to mission success. Think about the ultimate objective of the reconnaissance mission as we consider areas that technology can offer improvement. As we briefly review the fundamentals, remember where and how TAC RECCE systems will be used. Try to put yourself in the mindset of those who are on the front lines, working long hours at increasingly demanding tasks, trying to become familiar with new operating areas and equipment, while striving to minimize risk and optimize mission success. Technical advancements that can reduce the TAC RECCE timeline, simplify operations and instill Warfighter

  5. The Cassini Extended Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seal, David A.; Buffington, Brent B.

    Based on the overwhelming success of the Cassini/Huygens 4-year tour of Saturn from July 2004 to June 2008, NASA Headquarters approved at least two years of extended mission for continued study of the target-rich Saturnian system. After a rigorous phase of science objective definition and trajectory design and analysis, the Cassini project initiated an efficient, scientifically intense and operationally challenging mission phase, including 60 orbits around Saturn, 26 close Titan flybys, and 10 close icy satellite flybys — including seven more flybys of Enceladus. At the conclusion of the 2-year extended mission, substantial operating margins should be present with some fascinating options for further extensions

  6. Sustainable and Autonomic Space Exploration Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinchey, Michael G.; Sterritt, Roy; Rouff, Christopher; Rash, James L.; Truszkowski, Walter

    2006-01-01

    Visions for future space exploration have long term science missions in sight, resulting in the need for sustainable missions. Survivability is a critical property of sustainable systems and may be addressed through autonomicity, an emerging paradigm for self-management of future computer-based systems based on inspiration from the human autonomic nervous system. This paper examines some of the ongoing research efforts to realize these survivable systems visions, with specific emphasis on developments in Autonomic Policies.

  7. Guidelines and Capabilities for Designing Human Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, Christopher S.; Burnett, Rebeka; Charles, John; Cucinotta, Frank; Fullerton, Richard; Goodman, Jerry R.; Griffith, Anthony D., Sr.; Kosmo, Joseph J.; Perchonok, Michele; Railsback, Jan; Rajulu, Sudhakar; Stilwell, Don; Thomas, Gretchen; Tri, Terry; Joshi, Jitendra; Wheeler, Ray; Rudisill, Marianne; Wilson, John; Mueller, Alyssa; Simmons, Anne

    2003-01-01

    These guidelines and capabilities identify the points of intersection between human spaceflight crews and mission considerations such as architecture, vehicle design, technologies, operations, and science requirements. In these chapters, we will provide clear, top-level guidelines for human-related exploration studies and technology research that will address common questions and requirements. As a result, we hope that ongoing mission trade studies will consider common, standard, and practical criteria for human interfaces.

  8. Core Science Systems--Mission overview

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gallagher, Kevin T.

    2012-01-01

    CSS provides a foundation for all USGS Mission Areas, as well as for the mission of the Department of the Interior (DOI), in the following ways: 1) Conducts basic and applied science research and development 2) Fosters broad understanding and application of analyses and information 3) Provides a framework for data and information sharing 4) Creates new geospatially enabled data and information 5) Provides technical expertise in standards and methods 6) Builds and facilitates partnerships and innovation

  9. Exobiology and Future Mars Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mckay, Christopher P. (Editor); Davis, Wanda, L. (Editor)

    1989-01-01

    Scientific questions associated with exobiology on Mars were considered and how these questions should be addressed on future Mars missions was determined. The mission that provided a focus for discussions was the Mars Rover/Sample Return Mission.

  10. Apollo 15 mission report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    A detailed discussion is presented of the Apollo 15 mission, which conducted exploration of the moon over longer periods, greater ranges, and with more instruments of scientific data acquisition than previous missions. The topics include trajectory, lunar surface science, inflight science and photography, command and service module performance, lunar module performance, lunar surface operational equipment, pilot's report, biomedical evaluation, mission support performance, assessment of mission objectives, launch phase summary, anomaly summary, and vehicle and equipment descriptions. The capability of transporting larger payloads and extending time on the moon were demonstrated. The ground-controlled TV camera allowed greater real-time participation by earth-bound personnel. The crew operated more as scientists and relied more on ground support team for systems monitoring. The modified pressure garment and portable life support system provided better mobility and extended EVA time. The lunar roving vehicle and the lunar communications relay unit were also demonstrated.

  11. EUVE Outsourced Extended Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malina, R. F.; Biroscak, D.; Herz, A.; Christian, D.; Kaier, K.; Kaplan, G. C.; Lilly, S.; Quinn, T.; Stroozas, B.; Tucker, T.

    1996-05-01

    NASA has accepted an unsolicited proposal by the Center for EUV Atrophysics (CEA) at the University of California at Berkeley to manage spacecraft operations for the Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer (EUVE) extended mission. The proposal can serve as a model for university, government, and industry collaborations to respond to NASA's stated strategic goal to outsource all routine operations of scientific satellites to academia and industry. CEA has taken a conservative, low-cost approach to outsourcing that continues observatory operations, maintains the science return, and preserves the EUVE science archive. The Outsourced Extended Mission reduces yearly EUVE program costs, which may allow for a further extension of the science mission. This poster discusses the outsourced EUVE mission, its operations concept, NASA institutional support, and the roles and responsibilities of the government, university, and industry.

  12. Mission X Introduction

    NASA Video Gallery

    Expedition 26 Flight Engineer Cady Coleman delivers a message to student teams participating in the Mission X: Train Like An Astronaut international education and fitness challenge. To learn more, ...

  13. Students on Hayabusa Mission

    NASA Video Gallery

    Three Massachusetts high school students began their summer with a journey halfway around the world to participate in a NASA airborne mission to image the Japanese Hayabusa spacecraft's fiery retur...

  14. The Spacelab J mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cremin, J. W.; Leslie, F. W.

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes Spacelab J (SL-J), its mission characteristics, features, parameters and configuration, the unique nature of the shared reimbursable cooperative effort with the National Space Development Agency (NASDA) of Japan and the evolution, content and objectives of the mission scientific experiment complement. The mission is planned for launch in 1991. This long module mission has 35 experiments from Japan as well as 9 investigations from the United States. The SL-J payload consists of two broad scientific disciplines which require the extended microgravity or cosmic ray environment: (1) materials science such as crystal growth, solidification processes, drop dynamics, free surface flows, gas dynamics, metallurgy and semiconductor technology; and (2) life science including cell development, human physiology, radiation-induced mutations, vestibular studies, embryo development, and medical technology. Through an international agreement with NASDA, NASA is preparing to fly the first Japanese manned, scientific, cooperative endeavor with the United States.

  15. Cassini's Solstice Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seal, David; Mitchell, Robert

    2010-01-01

    With the recent approval of NASA's flagship Cassini mission for seven more years of continued operations, dozens more Titan, Enceladus and other icy moon flybys await, as well as many occultations and multiple close passages to Saturn. Seasonal change is the principal scientific theme as Cassini extends its survey of the target-rich system over one full half-season, from just after northern winter solstice at arrival back in 2004, to northern summer solstice at the end of mission in 2017. The new seven-year mission extension requires careful propellant management as well as streamlined operations strategies with smaller spacecraft, sequencing and science teams. Cassini's never-before-envisioned end of mission scenario also includes nearly two dozen high-inclination orbits which pass between the rings and the planet allowing thrilling and unique science opportunities before entry into Saturn's atmosphere.

  16. An interstellar precursor mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaffe, L. D.; Ivie, C.; Lewis, J. C.; Lipes, R. G.; Norton, H. N.; Stearns, J. W.; Stimpson, L.; Weissman, P.

    1977-01-01

    A mission out of the planetary system, with launch about the year 2000, could provide valuable scientific data as well as test some of the technology for a later mission to another star. Primary scientific objectives for the precursor mission concern characteristics of the heliopause, the interstellar medium, stellar distances (by parallax measurements), low energy cosmic rays, interplanetary gas distribution, and mass of the solar system. Secondary objectives include investigation of Pluto. Candidate science instruments are suggested. Individual spacecraft systems for the mission were considered, technology requirements and problem areas noted, and a number of recommendations made for technology study and advanced development. The most critical technology needs include attainment of 50-yr spacecraft lifetime and development of a long-life NEP system.

  17. Mission critical technology development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sliwa, Nancy

    1991-01-01

    Mission critical technology development is presented in the form of the viewgraphs. The following subject areas are covered: organization/philosophy overview; fault management technology; and introduction to optical processing.

  18. Technology Demonstration Missions

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA's Technology Demonstration Missions (TDM) Program seeks to infuse new technology into space applications, bridging the gap between mature “lab-proven” technology and "flight-ready" status....

  19. Giotto mission support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stelzried, C.; Howe, T.

    1986-01-01

    Deep Space Network (DSN) support of the Giotto mission to Comet Halley is summarized. The support is described beginning with the prelaunch testing and continues through the post comet encounter period.

  20. Mars Exploration Rover Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, Barbara A.

    2008-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the Mars Exploration Rover Mission. The design of the Rover along with the Athena science payload is also described. Photographs of the Gusev Crater and Meridiani rocks are also shown.

  1. STS-83 Mission Insignia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    The crew patch for NASA's STS-83 mission depicts the Space Shuttle Columbia launching into space for the first Microgravity Sciences Laboratory 1 (MSL-1) mission. MSL-1 investigated materials science, fluid dynamics, biotechnology, and combustion science in the microgravity environment of space, experiments that were conducted in the Spacelab Module in the Space Shuttle Columbia's cargo bay. The center circle symbolizes a free liquid under microgravity conditions representing various fluid and materials science experiments. Symbolic of the combustion experiments is the surrounding starburst of a blue flame burning in space. The 3-lobed shape of the outermost starburst ring traces the dot pattern of a transmission Laue photograph typical of biotechnology experiments. The numerical designation for the mission is shown at bottom center. As a forerunner to missions involving International Space Station (ISS), STS-83 represented the hope that scientific results and knowledge gained during the flight will be applied to solving problems on Earth for the benefit and advancement of humankind.

  2. Space Mission Operations Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Squibb, Gael F.

    1996-01-01

    This paper will discuss the concept of developing a space mission operations concept; the benefits of starting this system engineering task early; the neccessary inputs to the process; and the products that are generated.

  3. Mission Control Roses

    NASA Video Gallery

    The 110th bouquet of roses arrived in Mission Control on Saturday, July 9, 2011. They were sent as quietly as they have been for more than 23 years by a family near Dallas, Texas. For 110 shuttle m...

  4. The IRIS Mission Timeline

    NASA Video Gallery

    This animation shows the timeline of activities for the IRIS mission. Following launch, during the initial orbits, the spacecraft “detumbles”, opens the solar arrays, acquires the sun and com...

  5. LEO and GEO missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mercanti, Enrico

    1987-01-01

    The occurrence of the Challenger disaster in early 1986 caused a severe reevaluation of the space program. Plans already established had to be drastically revised and new plans had to be made. NASA created the Space Leadership Planning Group (SLPG) to formulate space mission plans covering a 50 year period based on Agency goals and objectives responsive to the National Commission on Space recommendations. An interim view of the status of SLPG plans for low altitude and geosynchronous missions is presented.

  6. Galileo Mission Science Briefing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    The first of two tapes of the Galileo Mission Science press briefing is presented. The panel is moderated by George Diller from the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) Public Affairs Office. The participants are John Conway, the director of Payload and operations at Kennedy; Donald E. Williams, Commander of STS-43, the shuttle mission which will launch the Galileo mission; John Casani, the Deputy Assistant Director of Flight Projects at the Jet Propulsion Lab (JPL); Dick Spehalski, Galileo Project Manager at JPL; and Terrence Johnson, Galileo Project Scientist at JPL. The briefing begins with an announcement of the arrival of the Galileo Orbiter at KSC. The required steps prior to the launch are discussed. The mission trajectory and gravity assists from planetary and solar flybys are reviewed. Detailed designs of the orbiter are shown. The distance that Galileo will travel from the sun precludes the use of solar energy for heat. Therefore Radioisotope heater units are used to keep the equipment at operational temperature. A video of the arrival of the spacecraft at KSC and final tests and preparations is shown. Some of the many science goals of the mission are reviewed. Another video showing an overview of the Galileo mission is presented. During the question and answer period, the issue of the use of plutonium on the mission is broached, which engenders a review of the testing methods used to ensure the safety of the capsules containing the hazardous substance. This video has actual shots of the orbiter, as it is undergoing the final preparations and tests for the mission.

  7. STEREO Mission Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunham, David W.; Guzman, Jose J.; Sharer, Peter J.; Friessen, Henry D.

    2007-01-01

    STEREO (Solar-TErestrial RElations Observatory) is the third mission in the Solar Terrestrial Probes program (STP) of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). STEREO is the first mission to utilize phasing loops and multiple lunar flybys to alter the trajectories of more than one satellite. This paper describes the launch computation methodology, the launch constraints, and the resulting nine launch windows that were prepared for STEREO. More details are provided for the window in late October 2006 that was actually used.

  8. The EOS Aura Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schoeberl, Mark R.; Douglass, A. R.; Hilsenrath, E.; Luce, M.; Barnett, J.; Beer, R.; Waters, J.; Gille, J.; Levelt, P. F.; DeCola, P.; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The EOS Aura Mission is designed to make comprehensive chemical measurements of the troposphere and stratosphere. In addition the mission will make measurements of important climate variables such as aerosols, and upper tropospheric water vapor and ozone. Aura will launch in late 2003 and will fly 15 minutes behind EOS Aqua in a polar sun synchronous ascending node orbit with a 1:30 pm equator crossing time.

  9. Apollo mission experience

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaefer, H. J.

    1972-01-01

    Dosimetric implications for manned space flight are evaluated by analyzing the radiation field behind the heavy shielding of a manned space vehicle on a near-earth orbital mission and how it compares with actual exposure levels recorded on Apollo missions. Emphasis shifts from flux densities and energy spectra to incident radiation and absorbed doses and dose equivalents as they are recorded within the ship at locations close to crew members.

  10. Apollo 17 mission report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Operational and engineering aspects of the Apollo 17 mission are outlined. The vehicle configuration was similar to those of Apollo 15 and 16. There were significant differences in the science payload for Apollo 17 and spacecraft hardware differences and experiment equipment are described. The mission achieved a landing in the Taurus-Littrow region of the moon and returned samples of the pre-Imbrium highlands and young craters.

  11. Human exploration mission studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cataldo, Robert L.

    1989-01-01

    The Office of Exploration has established a process whereby all NASA field centers and other NASA Headquarters offices participate in the formulation and analysis of a wide range of mission strategies. These strategies were manifested into specific scenarios or candidate case studies. The case studies provided a systematic approach into analyzing each mission element. First, each case study must address several major themes and rationale including: national pride and international prestige, advancement of scientific knowledge, a catalyst for technology, economic benefits, space enterprise, international cooperation, and education and excellence. Second, the set of candidate case studies are formulated to encompass the technology requirement limits in the life sciences, launch capabilities, space transfer, automation, and robotics in space operations, power, and propulsion. The first set of reference case studies identify three major strategies: human expeditions, science outposts, and evolutionary expansion. During the past year, four case studies were examined to explore these strategies. The expeditionary missions include the Human Expedition to Phobos and Human Expedition to Mars case studies. The Lunar Observatory and Lunar Outpost to Early Mars Evolution case studies examined the later two strategies. This set of case studies established the framework to perform detailed mission analysis and system engineering to define a host of concepts and requirements for various space systems and advanced technologies. The details of each mission are described and, specifically, the results affecting the advanced technologies required to accomplish each mission scenario are presented.

  12. Missions to Venus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Titov, D. V.; Baines, K. H.; Basilevsky, A. T.; Chassefiere, E.; Chin, G.; Crisp, D.; Esposito, L. W.; Lebreton, J.-P.; Lellouch, E.; Moroz, V. I.; Nagy, A. F.; Owen, T. C.; Oyama, K.-I.; Russell, C. T.; Taylor, F. W.; Young, R. E.

    2002-10-01

    Venus has always been a fascinating objective for planetary studies. At the beginning of the space era Venus became one of the first targets for spacecraft missions. Our neighbour in the solar system and, in size, the twin sister of Earth, Venus was expected to be very similar to our planet. However, the first phase of Venus spacecraft exploration in 1962-1992 by the family of Soviet Venera and Vega spacecraft and US Mariner, Pioneer Venus, and Magellan missions discovered an entirely different, exotic world hidden behind a curtain of dense clouds. These studies gave us a basic knowledge of the conditions on the planet, but generated many more questions concerning the atmospheric composition, chemistry, structure, dynamics, surface-atmosphere interactions, atmospheric and geological evolution, and the plasma environment. Despite all of this exploration by more than 20 spacecraft, the "morning star" still remains a mysterious world. But for more than a decade Venus has been a "forgotten" planet with no new missions featuring in the plans of the world space agencies. Now we are witnessing the revival of interest in this planet: the Venus Orbiter mission is approved in Japan, Venus Express - a European orbiter mission - has successfully passed the selection procedure in ESA, and several Venus Discovery proposals are knocking at the doors of NASA. The paper presents an exciting story of Venus spacecraft exploration, summarizes open scientific problems, and builds a bridge to the future missions.

  13. Future Titan Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waite, J. H.; Coustenis, A.; Lorenz, R.; Lunine, J.; Stofan, E.

    2012-04-01

    New discoveries about Titan from the Cassini-Huygens mission have led to a broad range of mission class studies for future missions, ranging from NASA Discovery class to International Flagship class. Three consistent science themes emerge and serve as a framework for discussing the various mission concepts: Goal A: Explore Titan, an Earth-Like System - How does Titan function as a system? How are the similarities and differences with Earth, and other solar system bodies, a result of the interplay of the geology, hydrology, meteorology, and aeronomy present in the Titan system?; Goal B: Examine Titan’s Organic Inventory—A Path to Prebiological Molecules - What is the complexity of Titan’s organic chemistry in the atmosphere, within its lakes, on its surface, and in its putative subsurface water ocean and how does this inventory differ from known abiotic organic material in meteorites and therefore contribute to our understanding of the origin of life in the Solar System?; and Goal C: Explore Enceladus and Saturn’s magnetosphere—clues to Titan’s origin and evolution - What is the exchange of energy and material with the Saturn magnetosphere and solar wind? What is the source of geysers on Enceladus? Does complex chemistry occur in the geyser source? Within this scientific framework the presentation will overview the Titan Explorer, Titan AND Enceladus Mission, Titan Saturn System Mission, Titan Mare Explorer, and Titan Submersible. Future timelines and plans will be discussed.

  14. The Voyager Interstellar Mission.

    PubMed

    Rudd, R P; Hall, J C; Spradlin, G L

    1997-01-01

    The Voyager Interstellar Mission began on January 1, 1990, with the primary objective being to characterize the interplanetary medium beyond Neptune and to search for the transition region between the interplanetary medium and the interstellar medium. At the start of this mission, the two Voyager spacecraft had already been in flight for over twelve years, having successfully returned a wealth of scientific information about the planetary systems of Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune, and the interplanetary medium between Earth and Neptune. The two spacecraft have the potential to continue returning science data until around the year 2020. With this extended operating lifetime, there is a high likelihood of one of the two spacecraft penetrating the termination shock and possibly the heliopause boundary, and entering interstellar space before that time. This paper describes the Voyager Interstellar Mission--the mission objectives, the spacecraft and science payload, the mission operations system used to support operations, and the mission operations strategy being used to maximize science data return even in the event of certain potential spacecraft subsystem failures. The implementation of automated analysis tools to offset and enable reduced flight team staffing levels is also discussed. PMID:11540770

  15. Public Progress, Data Management and the Land Grant Mission: A Survey of Agriculture Researchers' Practices and Attitudes at Two Land-Grant Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernandez, Peter; Eaker, Christopher; Swauger, Shea; Davis, Miriam L. E. Steiner

    2016-01-01

    This article reports results from a survey about data management practices and attitudes sent to agriculture researchers and extension personnel at the University of Tennessee Institute of Agriculture (UTIA) and the College of Agricultural Sciences and Warner College of Natural Resources at Colorado State University. Results confirm agriculture…

  16. Mission Drift in Qualitative Research, or Moving Toward a Systematic Review of Qualitative Studies, Moving Back to a More Systematic Narrative Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Kip

    2004-01-01

    The paper argues that the systematic review of qualitative research is best served by reliance upon qualitative methods themselves. A case is made for strengthening the narrative literature review and using narrative itself as a method of review. A technique is proposed that builds upon recent developments in qualitative systematic review by the…

  17. INTEGRITY -- Integrated Human Exploration Mission Simulation Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henninger, D.; Tri, T.; Daues, K.

    , the best management techniques will have been developed, implemented, and validated. A trained cadre of managers experienced with a large, complex program would then be available. Three other critical items of this approach are as follows: 1) International Cooperation/Collaboration. New paradigms and new techniques for international collaboration would be developed. These paradigms can be developed to include built-in metrics to allow for improvements ultimately to yield proven paradigms for application in the real mission. Note that since this approach is much lower cost than an actual flight mission, smaller countries that could not afford to participate in a program as large as the ISS can become partners. As a result, these nations--along with their citizens--become advocates for human space exploration as well. Since eventual human planetary exploration missions are likely to be truly international, the means for building the requisite working relationships are through cooperative research and technology development activities. 2) Commercial Partnering. Improved paradigms for commercial partnering would be developed - both U.S. and international commercial entities. An examination of what commercial entities would like to gain, what they would expect to contribute, and what NASA wants out of such a relationship would be determined to develop appropriate paradigms. Again, metrics would be included such that continual evaluations can be conducted and adjustments can be made to the working paradigms. Then, after these ground missions are completed, a proven set of paradigms (and a cadre of people trained and comfortable with their use) would be available for the actual mission. Again, since this is a much lower cost program (lower than an actual flight mission), smaller domestic and international commercial entities can participate. 3) Academic Partnering. Improved paradigms for academic partnering can be developed -- both U.S. and international academic

  18. Space missions in the Arab countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mosalam Shaltout, M. A.

    Since about twenty years ago, artificial satellites for the Arab countries, were manufactured and released by developed countries for TV and communication purposes such as Arabsat, Nilesat, and Soryia. But with the starting of the 21st century, there are few space missions developed by Arab Countries in Cooperation with International Partners, in Alger, Saudi Arabia, and Egypt. Where: 1. The National Administration of Space Science and Technology in Alger developed two Experimental Space Missions released at November 2002 (AlgerSat-1), and November 2003 (AlgerSat-2). The program is still continuous for developing more space missions with High Technology for different purposes. 2. Space Research Institute in King Abd-Alaziz city for science and Technology, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia developed three space missions in collaboration with international partners, where the three missions are released for different purposes. 3. The National Authority for Remote Sensing and Space Sciences (NARSS) in Cairo-Egypt developed in cooperation with Ukraine a mission Egyptsat-1, by total price 30 million US, for the purpose of studding the desert geology and Environment. It will be released at October 2004. The program will be continued for developing more space mission by high technology. This paper describe in detail Arabian three programs for the three Arabian countries (Alger, Saudi Arabia, and Egypt), and will discuss on what we can expect for the future, focussing on international cooperation in the field of space science and technology.

  19. Airborne Lidar Simulator for the Lidar Surface Topography (LIST) Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yu, Anthony W.; Krainak, Michael A.; Abshire, James B.; Cavanaugh, John; Valett, Susan; Ramos-Izquierdo, Luis

    2010-01-01

    In 2007, the National Research Council (NRC) completed its first decadal survey for Earth science at the request of NASA, NOAA, and USGS. The Lidar Surface Topography (LIST) mission is one of fifteen missions recommended by NRC, whose primary objectives are to map global topography and vegetation structure at 5 m spatial resolution, and to acquire global surface height mapping within a few years. NASA Goddard conducted an initial mission concept study for the LIST mission in 2007, and developed the initial measurement requirements for the mission.

  20. The SCOPE Mission

    SciTech Connect

    Fujimoto, M.; Tsuda, Y.; Saito, Y.; Shinohara, I.; Takashima, T.; Matsuoka, A.; Kojima, H.; Kasaba, Y.

    2009-06-16

    In order to reach the new horizon of the space physics research, the Plasma Universe, via in-situ measurements in the Earth's magnetosphere, SCOPE will perform formation flying observations combined with high-time resolution electron measurements. The simultaneous multi-scale observations by SCOPE of various plasma dynamical phenomena will enable data-based study of the key space plasma processes from the cross-scale coupling point of view. Key physical processes to be studied are magnetic reconnection under various boundary conditions, shocks in space plasma, collisionless plasma mixing at the boundaries, and physics of current sheets embedded in complex magnetic geometries. The SCOPE formation is made up of 5 spacecraft and is put into the equatorial orbit with the apogee at 30 Re (Re: earth radius). One of the spacecraft is a large mother ship which is equipped with a full suite of particle detectors including ultra-high time resolution electron detector. Among other 4 small spacecraft, one remains near ({approx}10 km) the mother ship and the spacecraft-pair will focus on the electron-scale physics. Others at the distance of 100{approx}3000 km(electron{approx}ion spatial scales) from the mother ship will monitor plasma dynamics surrounding the mother-daughter pair. There is lively on-going discussion on Japan-Europe international collaboration (ESA's Cross-Scale), which would certainly make better the coverage over the scales of interest and thus make the success of the mission, i.e., clarifying the multi-scale nature of the Plasma Universe, to be attained at an even higher level.

  1. STS-87 Payload Specialist Kadenyuk participates in the CEIT for his mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Participating in the Crew Equipment Integration Test (CEIT) at Kennedy Space Center is STS-87 Payload Specialist Leonid Kadenyuk of the National Space Agency of Ukraine (NSAU). Here, Cosmonaut Kadenyuk is inspecting flowers for pollination and fertilization, which will occur as part of the Collaborative Ukrainian Experiment, or CUE, aboard Columbia during its 16-day mission, scheduled to take off from KSC's Launch Pad 39-B on Nov. 19. The CUE experiment is a collection of 10 plant space biology experiments that will fly in Columbia's middeck and feature an educational component that involves evaluating the effects of microgravity on the pollinating Brassica rapa seedlings. Students in Ukrainian and American schools will participate in the same experiment on the ground and have several live opportunities to discuss the experiment with Kadenyuk in Space. Kadenyuk of the Ukraine will be flying his first Shuttle mission on STS-87.

  2. MMPM - Mars MetNet Precursor Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harri, A.-M.; Schmidt, W.; Pichkhadze, K.; Linkin, V.; Vazquez, L.; Uspensky, M.; Polkko, J.; Genzer, M.; Lipatov, A.; Guerrero, H.; Alexashkin, S.; Haukka, H.; Savijarvi, H.; Kauhanen, J.

    2008-09-01

    We are developing a new kind of planetary exploration mission for Mars - MetNet in situ observation network based on a new semi-hard landing vehicle called the Met-Net Lander (MNL). The eventual scope of the MetNet Mission is to deploy some 20 MNLs on the Martian surface using inflatable descent system structures, which will be supported by observations from the orbit around Mars. Currently we are working on the MetNet Mars Precursor Mission (MMPM) to deploy one MetNet Lander to Mars in the 2009/2011 launch window as a technology and science demonstration mission. The MNL will have a versatile science payload focused on the atmospheric science of Mars. Detailed characterization of the Martian atmospheric circulation patterns, boundary layer phenomena, and climatology cycles, require simultaneous in-situ measurements by a network of observation posts on the Martian surface. The scientific payload of the MetNet Mission encompasses separate instrument packages for the atmospheric entry and descent phase and for the surface operation phase. The MetNet mission concept and key probe technologies have been developed and the critical subsystems have been qualified to meet the Martian environmental and functional conditions. Prototyping of the payload instrumentation with final dimensions was carried out in 2003-2006.This huge development effort has been fulfilled in collaboration between the Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI), the Russian Lavoschkin Association (LA) and the Russian Space Research Institute (IKI) since August 2001. Currently the INTA (Instituto Nacional de Técnica Aeroespacial) from Spain is also participating in the MetNet payload development. To understand the behavior and dynamics of the Martian atmosphere, a wealth of simultaneous in situ observations are needed on varying types of Martian orography, terrain and altitude spanning all latitudes and longitudes. This will be performed by the Mars MetNet Mission. In addition to the science aspects the

  3. NASA's Missions for Exoplanet Exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Unwin, Stephen

    2014-05-01

    Exoplanets are detected and characterized using a range of observational techniques - including direct imaging, astrometry, transits, microlensing, and radial velocities. Each technique illuminates a different aspect of exoplanet properties and statistics. This diversity of approach has contributed to the rapid growth of the field into a major research area in only two decades. In parallel with exoplanet observations, major efforts are now underway to interpret the physical and atmospheric properties of exoplanets for which spectroscopy is now possible. In addition, comparative planetology probes questions of interest to both exoplanets and solar system studies. In this talk I describe NASA's activities in exoplanet research, and discuss plans for near-future missions that have reflected-light spectroscopy as a key goal. The WFIRST-AFTA concept currently under active study includes a major microlensing survey, and now includes a visible light coronagraph for exoplanet spectroscopy and debris disk imaging. Two NASA-selected community-led teams are studying probe-scale (< 1B) mission concepts for imaging and spectroscopy. These concepts complement existing NASA missions that do exoplanet science (such as transit spectroscopy and debris disk imaging with HST and Spitzer) or are under development (survey of nearby transiting exoplanets with TESS, and followup of the most important targets with transit spectroscopy on JWST), and build on the work of ground-based instruments such as LBTI and observing with HIRES on Keck. This research was carried out at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under a contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Copyright 2014. California Institute of Technology. Government sponsorship acknowledged.

  4. Manned Mars flyby mission and configuration concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, Archie; Meredith, Ollie; Brothers, Bobby

    1986-01-01

    A concept is presented for a flyby mission of the planet. The mission was sized for the 2001 time period, has a crew of three, uses all propulsive maneuvers, and requires 442 days. Such a flyby mission results in significantly smaller vehicles than would a landing mission, but of course loses the value of the landing and the associated knowledge and prestige. Stay time in the planet vicinity is limited to the swingby trajectory but considerable time still exists for enroute science and research experiments. All propulsive braking was used in the concept due to unacceptable g-levels associated with aerobraking on this trajectory. LEO departure weight for the concept is approximately 594,000 pounds.

  5. Operational efficiency subpanel advanced mission control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friedland, Peter

    1990-01-01

    Herein, the term mission control will be taken quite broadly to include both ground and space based operations as well as the information infrastructure necessary to support such operations. Three major technology areas related to advanced mission control are examined: (1) Intelligent Assistance for Ground-Based Mission Controllers and Space-Based Crews; (2) Autonomous Onboard Monitoring, Control and Fault Detection Isolation and Reconfiguration; and (3) Dynamic Corporate Memory Acquired, Maintained, and Utilized During the Entire Vehicle Life Cycle. The current state of the art space operations are surveyed both within NASA and externally for each of the three technology areas and major objectives are discussed from a user point of view for technology development. Ongoing NASA and other governmental programs are described. An analysis of major research issues and current holes in the program are provided. Several recommendations are presented for enhancing the technology development and insertion process to create advanced mission control environments.

  6. Life sciences flight experiments program mission science requirements document. The first life sciences dedicated Spacelab mission, part 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rummel, J. A.

    1982-01-01

    The Mission Science Requirements Document (MSRD) for the First Dedicated Life Sciences Mission (LS-1) represents the culmination of thousands of hours of experiment selection, and science requirement definition activities. NASA life sciences has never before attempted to integrate, both scientifically and operationally, a single mission dedicated to life sciences research, and the complexity of the planning required for such an endeavor should be apparent. This set of requirements completes the first phase of a continual process which will attempt to optimize (within available programmatic and mission resources) the science accomplished on this mission.

  7. Comets and the Stardust Mission

    SciTech Connect

    LLNL - University of California Television

    2008-05-16

    The occasional appearance of comets has awed humans throughout history. But how much do we really know about comets? Did a comet kill the dinosaurs? And, what can comets tell us about our own ancient history? With comet dust from NASA's Stardust mission, scientists like Hope Ishii, a Research Scientist at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, are beginning to answer these questions. She and high school teacher Tom Shefler look at how comets formed, their role in the Earth's history and the clues about what happened over 4 billion years ago. Series: Science on Saturday [5/2008] [Science] [Show ID: 14492

  8. Comets and the Stardust Mission

    ScienceCinema

    LLNL - University of California Television

    2009-09-01

    The occasional appearance of comets has awed humans throughout history. But how much do we really know about comets? Did a comet kill the dinosaurs? And, what can comets tell us about our own ancient history? With comet dust from NASA's Stardust mission, scientists like Hope Ishii, a Research Scientist at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, are beginning to answer these questions. She and high school teacher Tom Shefler look at how comets formed, their role in the Earth's history and the clues about what happened over 4 billion years ago. Series: Science on Saturday [5/2008] [Science] [Show ID: 14492

  9. Autonomous mission operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frank, J.; Spirkovska, L.; McCann, R.; Wang, Lui; Pohlkamp, K.; Morin, L.

    NASA's Advanced Exploration Systems Autonomous Mission Operations (AMO) project conducted an empirical investigation of the impact of time delay on today's mission operations, and of the effect of processes and mission support tools designed to mitigate time-delay related impacts. Mission operation scenarios were designed for NASA's Deep Space Habitat (DSH), an analog spacecraft habitat, covering a range of activities including nominal objectives, DSH system failures, and crew medical emergencies. The scenarios were simulated at time delay values representative of Lunar (1.2-5 sec), Near Earth Object (NEO) (50 sec) and Mars (300 sec) missions. Each combination of operational scenario and time delay was tested in a Baseline configuration, designed to reflect present-day operations of the International Space Station, and a Mitigation configuration in which a variety of software tools, information displays, and crew-ground communications protocols were employed to assist both crews and Flight Control Team (FCT) members with the long-delay conditions. Preliminary findings indicate: 1) Workload of both crewmembers and FCT members generally increased along with increasing time delay. 2) Advanced procedure execution viewers, caution and warning tools, and communications protocols such as text messaging decreased the workload of both flight controllers and crew, and decreased the difficulty of coordinating activities. 3) Whereas crew workload ratings increased between 50 sec and 300 sec of time delay in the Baseline configuration, workload ratings decreased (or remained flat) in the Mitigation configuration.

  10. Rosetta Mission Status update

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Matthew

    2015-04-01

    The Rosetta Mission is the third cornerstone mission the ESA programme Horizon 2000. The aim of the mission is to map the comet 67-P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko by remote sensing, to ex-amine its environment insitu and its evolution in the inner solar system. The lander Philae is the first device to land on a comet and perform in-situ science on the surface. Nearly 10 years after launch in 2004, on 20th January 2014 at 10:00 UTC the spacecraft woke up from hibernation. Following successful instrument commissioning, Rosetta successfully rendezvoused with the comet. Following an intense period of map-ping and characterisation, a landing site for Philae was selected and on 12 November 2014, Philae was suc-cessfully deployed. This presentation will provide a brief overview of the mission up to date and where we stand in main science phase, which began with Philae's separation. It will also provide a look forward. IT is given on behalf of ALL Rosetta mission science, in-strument and operations teams.

  11. Rosetta Mission Status Update

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, M. G.; Altobelli, N.; Alexander, C. J.; Schwehm, G. H.; Jansen, F.; Küppers, M.; O'Rourke, L.; Barthelemy, M.; Geiger, B.; Grieger, B.; Moissl, R.; Vallat, C.

    2014-12-01

    The Rosetta Mission is the third cornerstone mission the ESA programme Horizon 2000. The aim of the mission is to map the comet 67-P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko by remote sensing, to examine its environment insitu and its evolution in the inner solar system. The lander Philae will be the first device to land on a comet and perform in-situ science on the surface. Nearly 10 years after launch in 2004, on 20th January 2014 at 10:00 UTC the spacecraft woke up from hibernation. Following successful instrument commissioning, at the time of writing the spacecraft is about to rendez-vous with the comet. The rest of 2014 will involve careful mapping and characterisation of the nucleus and its environs, for science and to identify a landing site for the lander Philae in November. This presentation will provide a brief overview of the mission up to date and where we stand in early part of the escort phase of the mission which runs until end of 2015.

  12. The Euclid Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Racca, Giuseppe; Laureijs, Rene

    Euclid is a space-based optical/near-infrared survey mission of the European Space Agency (ESA) designed to investigate the nature of dark energy, dark matter and gravity by observing their signatures on the geometry of the Universe and on the formation of large structures over cosmological timescales. Euclid is optimised for two primary cosmological probes: Weak gravitational Lensing, which requires the measurement of the shape and photometric redshifts of distant galaxies, and Galaxy Clustering, based on the measurement of the 3-dimensional distribution of galaxies through their spectroscopic redshifts. The mission is scheduled for a launch date in the first half of 2020 and is designed for 6 years of nominal survey operations. The Euclid Spacecraft is composed of a Service Module and a Payload Module. The Service Module comprises all the conventional spacecraft subsystems, the instruments warm electronics units, the sun shield and the solar arrays. The Payload Module consists of a 1.2 m three-mirror Korsch type telescope and of two instruments, the visible imager and the near-infrared spectro-photometer, both covering a large common field-of-view enabling to survey more than 35% of the entire sky. The ground segment is broken down into three elements: the Mission Operations, the Science Operations under the responsibility of ESA and the Science Data Centres belonging to the Euclid Consortium. We will describe the overall mission, the mission elements architecture and the current project status.

  13. Autonomous Mission Operations Roadmap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frank, Jeremy David

    2014-01-01

    As light time delays increase, the number of such situations in which crew autonomy is the best way to conduct the mission is expected to increase. However, there are significant open questions regarding which functions to allocate to ground and crew as the time delays increase. In situations where the ideal solution is to allocate responsibility to the crew and the vehicle, a second question arises: should the activity be the responsibility of the crew or an automated vehicle function? More specifically, we must answer the following questions: What aspects of mission operation responsibilities (Plan, Train, Fly) should be allocated to ground based or vehicle based planning, monitoring, and control in the presence of significant light-time delay between the vehicle and the Earth?How should the allocated ground based planning, monitoring, and control be distributed across the flight control team and ground system automation? How should the allocated vehicle based planning, monitoring, and control be distributed between the flight crew and onboard system automation?When during the mission should responsibility shift from flight control team to crew or from crew to vehicle, and what should the process of shifting responsibility be as the mission progresses? NASA is developing a roadmap of capabilities for Autonomous Mission Operations for human spaceflight. This presentation will describe the current state of development of this roadmap, with specific attention to in-space inspection tasks that crews might perform with minimum assistance from the ground.

  14. Geospace Magnetospheric Dynamics Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, C. T.; Kluever, C.; Burch, J. L.; Fennell, J. F.; Hack, K.; Hillard, G. B.; Kurth, W. S.; Lopez, R. E.; Luhmann, J. G.; Martin, J. B.; Hanson, J. E.

    1998-01-01

    The Geospace Magnetospheric Dynamics (GMD) mission is designed to provide very closely spaced, multipoint measurements in the thin current sheets of the magnetosphere to determine the relation between small scale processes and the global dynamics of the magnetosphere. Its trajectory is specifically designed to optimize the time spent in the current layers and to minimize radiation damage to the spacecraft. Observations are concentrated in the region 8 to 40 R(sub E) The mission consists of three phases. After a launch into geostationary transfer orbit the orbits are circularized to probe the region between geostationary orbit and the magnetopause; next the orbit is elongated keeping perigee at the magnetopause while keeping the line of apsides down the tail. Finally, once apogee reaches 40 R(sub E) the inclination is changed so that the orbit will match the profile of the noon-midnight meridian of the magnetosphere. This mission consists of 4 solar electrically propelled vehicles, each with a single NSTAR thruster utilizing 100 kg of Xe to tour the magnetosphere in the course of a 4.4 year mission, the same thrusters that have been successfully tested on the Deep Space-1 mission.

  15. Missions on the Move: University Systems in England, New York State and California

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Jager, Gerrit

    2011-01-01

    Universities' fundamental missions generally differ. For example, institutions can either focus on research or on teaching. Over time, these missions tend to change, and in some cases this is referred to as "mission creep". This negative epithet is reserved for universities with limited research capacities that try to emulate research-intensive…

  16. Early lunar rover mission studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gillespie, Vernon P.

    1993-01-01

    Results of lunar mission studies aimed at developing mission goals and high level requirements are reported. A mission concept to meet the mission requirements was developed and the design of mission hardware was to follow. Mission concepts not only included operations analysis and plans but also fabrication and test planning, quality control measures, and project organization. The design of mission concepts and hardware identified issues that are not easily resolved. Although none of the issues identified appear to be unresolvable, many will be difficult to resolve within Space Exploration Initiative constraints. These issues discussed which appear to have the potential for negative project impact are rover mobility, power, imaging, telemanagment, and remote control.

  17. Mars Exploration Rover Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adler, M.

    2004-01-01

    Two rovers with a sophisticated geological payload have been operating on the surface of Mars since January of 2004. Future missions and their related technology developments will benefit from the lessons learned during these surface operations. The planning cycle was dictated by the communications opportunities and the times of day that the rovers could operate, and the team and tools were tuned to optimize the mission return for that cycle time. The ability to traverse and to approach and perform in situ investigations on targets was limited in speed by the same cycle time, due to required human involvement in the related planning and risk decisions. In addition traverse was limited by the speed of the on-board terrain and hazard assessment, and in situ operations were limited by a lack of autonomy. Different planning cycles and levels of autonomy should be considered for future surface missions, which will result in different approaches to science decision making.

  18. The LISA Pathfinder Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stebbins, Robin

    2009-01-01

    LISA Pathfinder (formerly known as SMART-2) is a European Space Agency (ESA) mission designed to pave the way for the joint ESA/NASA Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) mission by testing in flight the critical technologies required for spaceborne gravitational wave detection: it will put two test masses in a near-perfect gravitational free-fall and control and measure their motion with unprecedented accuracy. LISA Pathfinder is currently in the integration and test phase of the development, and is due to be launched on a dedicated launch vehicle in late 2011, with first results on the performance of the system being available approx 6 months later. This poster will describe the mission in detail, give the current status of the spacecraft development, and highlight the future milestones in the integration and test campaign.

  19. STS-55 Mission Insignia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The official insignia of the STS-55 mission displays the Space Shuttle Columbia over an Earth-sky background. Depicted beneath the orbiter are the American and German flags flying together, representing the partnership of this laboratory mission. The two blue stars in the border bearing the crewmembers' names signify each of the backup (alternate) payload specialists -- Gerhard Thiele and Renate Brummer. The stars in the sky stand for each of the children of the crewmembers in symbolic representation of the space program's legacy to future generations. The rainbow symbolizes the hope for a brighter tomorrow because of the knowledge and technologies gained from this mission's multifaceted experiments. Each crewmember contributed to the design of the insignia.

  20. Athena Mission Status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lumb, D.

    2016-07-01

    Athena has been selected by ESA for its second large mission opportunity of the Cosmic Visions programme, to address the theme of the Hot and Energetic Universe. Following the submission of a proposal from the community, the technical and programmatic aspects of the mission design were reviewed in ESA's Concurrent Design Facility. The proposed concept was deemed to betechnically feasible, but with potential constraints from cost and schedule. Two parallel industry study contracts have been conducted to explore these conclusions more thoroughly, with the key aim of providing consolidated inputs to a Mission Consolidation Review that was conducted in April-May 2016. This MCR has recommended a baseline design, which allows the agency to solicit proposals for a community provided payload. Key design aspects arising from the studies are described, and the new reference design is summarised.

  1. The PROBA-3 Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhukov, Andrei

    2016-07-01

    PROBA-3 is the next ESA mission in the PROBA line of small technology demonstration satellites. The main goal of PROBA-3 is in-orbit demonstration of formation flying techniques and technologies. The mission will consist of two spacecraft together forming a giant (150 m long) coronagraph called ASPIICS (Association of Spacecraft for Polarimetric and Imaging Investigation of the Corona of the Sun). The bigger spacecraft will host the telescope, and the smaller spacecraft will carry the external occulter of the coronagraph. ASPIICS heralds the next generation of solar coronagraphs that will use formation flying to observe the inner corona in eclipse-like conditions for extended periods of time. The occulter spacecraft will also host the secondary payload, DARA (Davos Absolute RAdiometer), that will measure the total solar irradiance. PROBA-3 is planned to be launched in 2019. The scientific objectives of PROBA-3 will be discussed in the context of other future solar and heliospheric space missions.

  2. The ALEXIS mission recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Bloch, J.; Armstrong, T.; Dingler, B.; Enemark, D.; Holden, D.; Little, C.; Munson, C.; Priedhorsky, B.; Roussel-Dupre, D.; Smith, B.; Warner, R.; Dill, B.; Huffman, G.; McLoughlin, F.; Mills, R.; Miller, R.

    1994-03-01

    The authors report the recovery of the ALEXIS small satellite mission. ALEXIS is a 113-kg satellite that carries an ultrasoft x-ray telescope array and a high-speed VHF receiver/digitizer (BLACKBEARD), supported by a miniature spacecraft bus. It was launched by a Pegasus booster on 1993 April 25, but a solar paddle was damaged during powered flight. Initial attempts to contact ALEXIS were unsuccessful. The satellite finally responded in June, and was soon brought under control. Because the magnetometer had failed, the rescue required the development of new attitude control-techniques. The telemetry system has performed nominally. They discuss the procedures used to recover the ALEXIS mission.

  3. Mission Critical Networking

    SciTech Connect

    Eltoweissy, Mohamed Y.; Du, David H.C.; Gerla, Mario; Giordano, Silvia; Gouda, Mohamed; Schulzrinne, Henning; Youssef, Moustafa

    2010-06-01

    Mission-Critical Networking (MCN) refers to networking for application domains where life or livelihood may be at risk. Typical application domains for MCN include critical infrastructure protection and operation, emergency and crisis intervention, healthcare services, and military operations. Such networking is essential for safety, security and economic vitality in our complex world characterized by uncertainty, heterogeneity, emergent behaviors, and the need for reliable and timely response. MCN comprise networking technology, infrastructures and services that may alleviate the risk and directly enable and enhance connectivity for mission-critical information exchange among diverse, widely dispersed, mobile users.

  4. The Asteroid Impact Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carnelli, Ian; Galvez, Andres; Mellab, Karim

    2016-04-01

    The Asteroid Impact Mission (AIM) is a small and innovative mission of opportunity, currently under study at ESA, intending to demonstrate new technologies for future deep-space missions while addressing planetary defense objectives and performing for the first time detailed investigations of a binary asteroid system. It leverages on a unique opportunity provided by asteroid 65803 Didymos, set for an Earth close-encounter in October 2022, to achieve a fast mission return in only two years after launch in October/November 2020. AIM is also ESA's contribution to an international cooperation between ESA and NASA called Asteroid Impact Deflection Assessment (AIDA), consisting of two mission elements: the NASA Double Asteroid Redirection Test (DART) mission and the AIM rendezvous spacecraft. The primary goals of AIDA are to test our ability to perform a spacecraft impact on a near-Earth asteroid and to measure and characterize the deflection caused by the impact. The two mission components of AIDA, DART and AIM, are each independently valuable but when combined they provide a greatly increased scientific return. The DART hypervelocity impact on the secondary asteroid will alter the binary orbit period, which will also be measured by means of lightcurves observations from Earth-based telescopes. AIM instead will perform before and after detailed characterization shedding light on the dependence of the momentum transfer on the asteroid's bulk density, porosity, surface and internal properties. AIM will gather data describing the fragmentation and restructuring processes as well as the ejection of material, and relate them to parameters that can only be available from ground-based observations. Collisional events are of great importance in the formation and evolution of planetary systems, own Solar System and planetary rings. The AIDA scenario will provide a unique opportunity to observe a collision event directly in space, and simultaneously from ground-based optical and

  5. Mars Stratigraphy Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Budney, C. J.; Miller, S. L.; Cutts, J. A.

    2000-01-01

    The Mars Stratigraphy Mission lands a rover on the surface of Mars which descends down a cliff in Valles Marineris to study the stratigraphy. The rover carries a unique complement of instruments to analyze and age-date materials encountered during descent past 2 km of strata. The science objective for the Mars Stratigraphy Mission is to identify the geologic history of the layered deposits in the Valles Marineris region of Mars. This includes constraining the time interval for formation of these deposits by measuring the ages of various layers and determining the origin of the deposits (volcanic or sedimentary) by measuring their composition and imaging their morphology.

  6. STS-52 Mission Insignia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The STS-52 insignia, designed by the mission's crew members, features a large gold star to symbolize the crew's mission on the frontiers of space. A gold star is often used to symbolize the frontier period of the American West. The red star in the shape of the Greek letter lambda represents both the laser measurements taken from the Laser Geodynamic Satellite (LAGEOS II) and the Lambda Point Experiment, which was part of the United States Microgravity Payload (USMP-l). The remote manipulator and maple leaf are emblematic of the Canadian payload specialist who conducted a series of Canadian flight experiments (CANEX-2), including the Space Vision System test.

  7. Magellan: mission summary.

    PubMed

    Saunders, R S; Pettengill, G H

    1991-04-12

    The Magellan radar mapping mission is in the process of producing a global, high-resolution image and altimetry data set of Venus. Despite initial communications problems, few data gaps have occurred. Analysis of Magellan data is in the initial stages. The radar system data are of high quality, and the planned performance is being achieved in terms of spatial resolution and geometric and radiometric accuracy. Image performance exceeds expectations, and the image quality and mosaickability are extremely good. Future plans for the mission include obtaining gravity data, filling gaps in the initial map, and conducting special studies with the radar. PMID:17769269

  8. Science Formulation of Global Precipitation Mission (GPM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Eric A.; Mehta, Amita; Shepherd, Marshall; Starr, David O. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    In late 2001, the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission was approved as a new start by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). The new mission, which is now in its formulation phase, is motivated by a number of scientific questions that are posed over a range of space and time scales that generally fall within the discipline of the global water and energy cycle (GWEC), although not restricted to that branch of research. Recognizing that satellite rainfall datasets are now a foremost tool for understanding global climate variability out to decadal scales and beyond, for improving weather forecasting, and for producing better predictions of hydrometeorological processes including short-term hazardous flooding and seasonal fresh water resources assessment, a comprehensive and internationally sanctioned global measuring strategy has led to the GPM mission. The GPM mission plans to expand the scope of rainfall measurement through use of a multi-member satellite constellation that will be contributed by a number of world nations. This talk overviews the GPM scientific research program that has been fostered within NASA, then focuses on scientific progress that is being made in various areas in the course of the mission formulation phase that are of interest to the Natural Hazards scientific community. This latter part of the talk addresses research issues that have become central to the GPM science implementation plan concerning the rate of the global water cycling, cloud macrophysical-microphysical processes of flood-producing storms, and the general improvement in measuring precipitation at the fundamental microphysical level.

  9. Teamwork Reasoning and Multi-Satellite Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marsella, Stacy C.; Plaunt, Christian (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    NASA is rapidly moving towards the use of spatially distributed multiple satellites operating in near Earth orbit and Deep Space. Effective operation of such multi-satellite constellations raises many key research issues. In particular, the satellites will be required to cooperate with each other as a team that must achieve common objectives with a high degree of autonomy from ground based operations. The multi-agent research community has made considerable progress in investigating the challenges of realizing such teamwork. In this report, we discuss some of the teamwork issues that will be faced by multi-satellite operations. The basis of the discussion is a particular proposed mission, the Magnetospheric MultiScale mission to explore Earth's magnetosphere. We describe this mission and then consider how multi-agent technologies might be applied in the design and operation of these missions. We consider the potential benefits of these technologies as well as the research challenges that will be raised in applying them to NASA multi-satellite missions. We conclude with some recommendations for future work.

  10. Going beyond: Target selection and mission analysis of human exploration missions to Near-Earth Asteroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimmer, A. K.; Messerschmid, E.

    2011-12-01

    Missions to Near-Earth Asteroids (NEAs) offer a wide range of possibilities for space exploration, scientific research, and technology demonstration. In particular, manned missions to NEAs provide a unique opportunity to be the first human expedition to an interplanetary body beyond the Earth-Moon system and represent the perfect environment to gain experience in deep-space operations, which is an indispensable prerequisite for human missions to Mars. As a starting point for the analysis of such missions, the objectives of this study are to identify target asteroids and evaluate possible transfer trajectories as well as the associated launch windows. The list of accessible asteroids is narrowed down by taking dynamical and structural properties such as size and rotation rate into account. An accessibility model for NEAs is developed allowing pre-selection of asteroid targets for human missions. For this model, a novel approach is taken which assesses the accessibility of a NEA not by considering its orbital parameters separately. Instead, accessibility is determined by evaluating the combination of all orbital parameters only limited by mission duration (less than 365 days) and round-trip Δv (less than 10 km/s). In order to verify the reliability of the model, mission architectures for missions departing from low-Earth orbit are investigated and transfers to 2567 NEAs in the time frame from 2020 to 2040 are simulated. Two hundred and forty asteroids are found to be accessible for human missions under the given boundary conditions and are observed to nicely fit the model developed. Seventy three of these remaining asteroids can be reached with a Δv≤7.5km/s, 15 of which allow mission durations of less than 200 days. One hundred and seventy launch windows strongly varying in duration are found for these 73 asteroids between 2020 and 2040. Launch opportunity analysis shows that several launch windows open every year in the given time frame for missions with

  11. Mission to the Solar System: Exploration and Discovery. A Mission and Technology Roadmap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gulkis, S. (Editor); Stetson, D. S. (Editor); Stofan, E. R. (Editor)

    1998-01-01

    Solar System exploration addresses some of humanity's most fundamental questions: How and when did life form on Earth? Does life exist elsewhere in the Solar System or in the Universe? - How did the Solar System form and evolve in time? - What can the other planets teach us about the Earth? This document describes a Mission and Technology Roadmap for addressing these and other fundamental Solar System Questions. A Roadmap Development Team of scientists, engineers, educators, and technologists worked to define the next evolutionary steps in in situ exploration, sample return, and completion of the overall Solar System survey. Guidelines were to "develop aa visionary, but affordable, mission and technology development Roadmap for the exploration of the Solar System in the 2000 to 2012 timeframe." The Roadmap provides a catalog of potential flight missions. (Supporting research and technology, ground-based observations, and laboratory research, which are no less important than flight missions, are not included in this Roadmap.)

  12. Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Tropical rainfall affects the lives and economics of a majority of the Earth's population. Tropical rain systems, such as hurricanes, typhoons, and monsoons, are crucial to sustaining the livelihoods of those living in the tropics. Excess rainfall can cause floods and great property and crop damage, whereas too little rainfall can cause drought and crop failure. The latent heat release during the process of precipitation is a major source of energy that drives the atmospheric circulation. This latent heat can intensify weather systems, affecting weather thousands of kilometers away, thus making tropical rainfall an important indicator of atmospheric circulation and short-term climate change. Tropical forests and the underlying soils are major sources of many of the atmosphere's trace constituents. Together, the forests and the atmosphere act as a water-energy regulating system. Most of the rainfall is returned to the atmosphere through evaporation and transpiration, and the atmospheric trace constituents take part in the recycling process. Hence, the hydrological cycle provides a direct link between tropical rainfall and the global cycles of carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur, all important trace materials for the Earth's system. Because rainfall is such an important component in the interactions between the ocean, atmosphere, land, and the biosphere, accurate measurements of rainfall are crucial to understanding the workings of the Earth-atmosphere system. The large spatial and temporal variability of rainfall systems, however, poses a major challenge to estimating global rainfall. So far, there has been a lack of rain gauge networks, especially over the oceans, which points to satellite measurement as the only means by which global observation of rainfall can be made. The Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM), jointly sponsored by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) of the United States and the National Space Development Agency (NASDA) of

  13. Future Venus exploration: mission Venera-D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zasova, Ludmila

    Venus was actively studied by Soviet and US missions in 60-90-th years of the last century. The investigations carried out both from the orbit and in situ were highly successful. After a 15-year break in space research of Venus, the ESA Venus Express mission, launched in 2005, successfully continues its work on orbit around Venus, obtaining spectacular results. However, many questions concerning the structure and evolutions of the planet Venus, which are the key questions of comparative planetology and very essential for understanding the possible evolution of the terrestrial climate, cannot be solved by observations only from an orbit. Venera-D includes orbiter, lander, subsatellite, long living station on the surface. Venera-D is focused for both in situ and remote investigations of Venus of surface and atmosphere, as well plasma environment and solar wind interaction. Practically all experiments for Venera-D, will be provided by international teams. A Russia-US Venera-D Joint Science Definition Team has been formed in February 2014 to recommend a possible collaborative and coordinated implementation by considering the common aspects of Venera-D mission as presently defined, as well as the Venus Climate Mission recommended by the US Academies Decadal Survey of Planetary Science and the Venus Flagship mission studied by NASA in 2009. The team will provide its report by March 2015 and will likely lead to a coordinated or joint call for instruements and/or mission elements.

  14. LCROSS: A High Return, Small Satellite Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andrews, Daniel R.

    2010-01-01

    Early in 2006, the NASA Exploration Systems Mission Directorate (ESMD) held a competition for NASA Centers to propose innovative ideas for a secondary payload mission to launch with the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) to the Moon. The successful proposal could cost no more than $80 million dollars (less was preferred), would have to be ready to launch with the LRO in 31 months, could weigh no more than 1000 kg (fuelled), and would be designated a risk-tolerant "Class D" mission. In effect, NASA was offering a fixed-price contract to the winning NASA team to stay within a cost and schedule cap by accepting an unusually elevated risk position. To address this Announcement of Opportunity to develop a cost-and-schedule-capped secondary payload mission to fly with LRO, NASA Ames Research Center (ARC) in Moffett Field, CA, USA embarked on a brainstorming effort termed "Blue Ice" in which a small team was asked to explore a number of mission scenarios that might have a good chance for success and still fit within the stated programmatic constraints. From this work, ARC developed and submitted six of the nineteen mission proposals received by ESMD from throughout the Agency, one of which was LCROSS - a collaborative effort between ARC and its industrial partner, Northrop-Grumman (NG) in Redondo Beach, CA, USA.

  15. Intelligent mission management for uninhabited aerial vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sullivan, Don; Totah, Joseph J.; Wegener, Steve S.; Enomoto, Francis Y.; Frost, Chad R.; Kaneshige, John; Frank, Jeremy E.

    2004-12-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate, is developing Intelligent Mission Management (IMM) technology for Uninhabited Aerial Vehicles (UAV"s) under the Vehicle Systems Program"s Autonomous Robust Avionics Project. The objective of the project is to develop air vehicle and associated ground element technology to enhance mission success by increasing mission return and reducing mission risk. Unanticipated science targets, uncertain conditions and changing mission requirements can all influence a flight plan and may require human intervention during the flight; however, time delays and communications bandwidth limit opportunities for operator intervention. To meet these challenges, we will develop UAV-specific technologies enabling goal-directed autonomy, i.e. the ability to redirect the flight in response to current conditions and the current goals of the flight. Our approach divides goal-directed autonomy into two components, an on-board Intelligent Agent Architecture (IAA) and a ground based Collaborative Decision Environment (CDE). These technologies cut across all aspects of a UAV system, including the payload, inner- and outer-loop onboard control, and the operator"s ground station.

  16. Framing Your Mission

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jarrell, Andrea

    2009-01-01

    St. Paul's School in New Hampshire, the Orchard School in Indiana, Chestnut Hill Academy in Pennsylvania, and Dana Hall School in Massachusetts are like most independent schools--they have qualities that are distinctive and extraordinary. Line up their mission statements, however, and the schools sound almost interchangeable. They're all on a…

  17. Series of JASMINE missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gouda, N.

    2011-02-01

    We are planning three space astrometry missions as a series of JASMINE missions; Nano-JASMINE, Small-JASMINE and (Medium-sized)JASMINE. JASMINE is an abbreviation of Japan Astrometry Satellite Mission of INfrared Exploration. The JASMINE mission will measure in an infrared band annual parallaxes, positions on the celestial sphere, and proper motions of many stars in the bulge of the Milky Way (the Galaxy) with high accuracies. A target launch date is the first half of the 2020s. Before the launch of JASMINE, we are planning Nano-JASMINE and Small-JASMINE. Nano-JASMINE uses a very small nano-satellite and it is determined to be launched in 2011. Small-JASMINE is a downsized version of the JASMINE satellite, which observes toward restricted small regions of the Galactic bulge. A target launch date is around 2016. A completely new "map" of the Galactic bulge given by Small-JASMINE and JASMINE will bring us many exciting scientific results.

  18. Visual Navigation - SARE Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alonso, Roberto; Kuba, Jose; Caruso, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    The SARE Earth Observing and Technological Mission is part of the Argentinean Space Agency (CONAE - Comision Nacional de Actividades Espaciales) Small and Technological Payloads Program. The Argentinean National Space Program requires from the SARE program mission to test in a real environment of several units, assemblies and components to reduce the risk of using these equipments in more expensive Space Missions. The objective is to make use those components with an acceptable maturity in design or development, but without any heritage at space. From the application point of view, this mission offers new products in the Earth Observation data market which are listed in the present paper. One of the technological payload on board of the SARE satellite is the sensor Ground Tracker. It computes the satellite attitude and orbit in real time (goal) and/or by ground processing. For the first operating mode a dedicated computer and mass memory are necessary to be part of the mentioned sensor. For the second operational mode the hardware and software are much simpler.

  19. Inspiration is "Mission Critical"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCarthy, D. W.; DeVore, E.; Lebofsky, L.

    2014-07-01

    In spring 2013, the President's budget proposal restructured the nation's approach to STEM education, eliminating ˜$50M of NASA Science Mission Directorate (SMD) funding with the intent of transferring it to the Dept. of Education, National Science Foundation, and Smithsonian Institution. As a result, Education and Public Outreach (EPO) would no longer be a NASA mission requirement and funds that had already been competed, awarded, and productively utilized were lost. Since 1994, partnerships of scientists, engineers, and education specialists were required to create innovative approaches to EPO, providing a direct source of inspiration for today's youth that may now be lost. Although seldom discussed or evaluated, "inspiration" is the beginning of lasting education. For decades, NASA's crewed and robotic missions have motivated students of all ages and have demonstrated a high degree of leverage in society. Through personal experiences we discuss (1) the importance of inspiration in education, (2) how NASA plays a vital role in STEM education, (3) examples of high-leverage educational materials showing why NASA should continue embedding EPO specialists within mission teams, and (4) how we can document the role of inspiration. We believe that personal histories are an important means of assessing the success of EPO. We hope this discussion will lead other people to document similar stories of educational success and perhaps to undertake longitudinal studies of the impact of inspiration.

  20. Interpreting the Mission.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yarrington, Roger

    1980-01-01

    Underscores the importance of increasing public understanding and support of the community college mission in the 1980s. Suggests increased public relations efforts, community forums, the use of television advertisements, and efforts to gain the support of state legislators and officials. (AYC)

  1. Mission Statement Impossible

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Douglas, Lawrence; George, Alexander

    2008-01-01

    Mission statements are "in" these days. So it was only a matter of time before the authors' own institution was called upon to define itself. What could be easier? The people charged to draft the statement, the faculty, were simply being asked to describe their own doings. The authors discover that with a diverse range of opinions it was not easy…

  2. Spacelab D-1 mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunbar, Bonnie J.

    1990-01-01

    The Spacelab D-1 (Deutchland Eins) Mission is discussed from the points of view of safety, materials handling, and toxic materials; the laboratory and equipment used; and some of the different philosophies utilized on this flight. How to enhance scientific return at the same time as being safe was examined.

  3. EOS Aura Mission Status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guit, William J.

    2015-01-01

    This PowerPoint presentation will discuss EOS Aura mission and spacecraft subsystem summary, recent and planned activities, inclination adjust maneuvers, propellant usage lifetime estimate. Eric Moyer, ESMO Deputy Project Manager-Technical (code 428) has reviewed and approved the slides on April 30, 2015.

  4. Titan Orbiter Aerorover Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sittler Jr., E. C.; Acuna, M.; Burchell, M. J.; Coates, A.; Farrell, W.; Flasar, M.; Goldstein, B. E.; Gorevan, S.; Hartle, R. E.; Johnson, W. T. K.

    2001-01-01

    We propose a combined Titan orbiter and Titan Aerorover mission with an emphasis on both in situ and remote sensing measurements of Titan's surface, atmosphere, ionosphere, and magnetospheric interaction. The biological aspect of the Titan environment will be emphasized by the mission (i.e., search for organic materials which may include simple organics to 'amono' analogues of amino acids and possibly more complex, lightening detection and infrared, ultraviolet, and charged particle interactions with Titan's surface and atmosphere). An international mission is assumed to control costs. NASA will provide the orbiter, launch vehicle, DSN coverage and operations, while international partners will provide the Aerorover and up to 30% of the cost for the scientific instruments through collaborative efforts. To further reduce costs we propose a single PI for orbiter science instruments and a single PI for Aerorover science instruments. This approach will provide single command/data and power interface between spacecraft and orbiter instruments that will have redundant central DPU and power converter for their instruments. A similar approach could be used for the Aerorover. The mission profile will be constructed to minimize conflicts between Aerorover science, orbiter radar science, orbiter radio science, orbiter imaging science, and orbiter fields and particles (FP) science. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  5. Mission and Assets Database

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baldwin, John; Zendejas, Silvino; Gutheinz, Sandy; Borden, Chester; Wang, Yeou-Fang

    2009-01-01

    Mission and Assets Database (MADB) Version 1.0 is an SQL database system with a Web user interface to centralize information. The database stores flight project support resource requirements, view periods, antenna information, schedule, and forecast results for use in mid-range and long-term planning of Deep Space Network (DSN) assets.

  6. The Pioneer Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lasher, Larry E.; Hogan, Robert (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    This article describes the major achievements of the Pioneer Missions and gives information about mission objectives, spacecraft, and launches of the Pioneers. Pioneer was the United States' longest running space program. The Pioneer Missions began forty years ago. Pioneer 1 was launched shortly after Sputnik startled the world in 1957 as Earth's first artificial satellite at the start of the space age. The Pioneer Missions can be broken down into four distinct groups: Pioneer (PN's) 1 through 5, which comprise the first group - the "First Pioneers" - were launched from 1958 through 1960. These Pioneers made the first thrusts into space toward the Moon and into interplanetary orbit. The next group - the "Interplanetary Pioneers" - consists of PN's 6 through 9, with the initial launch being in 1965 (through 1968); this group explored inward and outward from Earth's orbit and travel in a heliocentric orbit around the Sun just as the Earth. The Pioneer group consisting of 10 and 11 - the "Outer Solar System Pioneers" - blazed a trail through the asteroid belt and was the first to explore Jupiter, Saturn and the outer Solar System and is seeking the borders of the heliosphere and will ultimately journey to the distant stars. The final group of Pioneer 12 and 13 the "Planetary Pioneers" - traveled to Earth's mysterious twin, Venus, to study this planet.

  7. Mission Operations Assurance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Faris, Grant

    2012-01-01

    Integrate the mission operations assurance function into the flight team providing: (1) value added support in identifying, mitigating, and communicating the project's risks and, (2) being an essential member of the team during the test activities, training exercises and critical flight operations.

  8. The Phoenix Mars Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tamppari, Leslie K.; Smith, Peter H.

    2008-01-01

    This slide presentation details the Phoenix Mission which was designed to enhance our understanding of water and the potential for habitability on the north polar regions of Mars. The slides show the instruments and the robotics designed to scrape Martian surface material, and analyze it in hopes of identifying water in the form of ice, and other chemicals.

  9. The Lobster Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barthelmy, Scott

    2011-01-01

    I will give an overview of the Goddard Lobster mission: the science goals, the two instruments, the overall instruments designs, with particular attention to the wide-field x-ray instrument (WFI) using the lobster-eye-like micro-channel optics.

  10. The Swift GRB Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gehrels, Neil; Chincarini, Guido

    2004-01-01

    Swift is a MIDEX mission that is in development for launch in October 2004. It is a multiwavelength transient observatory for GRB astronomy. The goals of the mission are to determine the origin of GRBs and their afterglows and use bursts to probe the early Universe. A wide-field gamma-ray camera will detect mare than 100 GRBs per year to -3 times fainter than BATSE. Sensitive narrow-field X-ray and UV/optical telescopes will be pointed at the burst location in 20 to 75 sec by an autonomously controlled spacecraft. Far each burst, aresec positions will be determined and optical/UV/X-ray/gamma-say spectrophotometry performed. Measurements of redshift will be made for many burstes. The instrumentation is a combination of superb existing flight-spare hardware and design from XMM and Spectrum-X/JET-X contributed by collaborators in the UK and Italy and development of a coded-aperture camera with a large-area (approx. 0.5 square meter) CdZnTe detector array. Key components of the mission are vigorous follow-up and outreach programs to engage the astronomical community and public in Swift. The talk vi11 describe the mission statue and give a summary of plans for GRB operations. It is likely that Swift will have just been launched at the time of the conference.

  11. STS-51 Mission Insignia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Designed by the crewmembers, the STS-51 crew patch honors all who have contributed to mission success. It symbolizes NASA's continuing quest to increase mankind's knowledge and use of space through this multi-faceted mission. The gold star represents the U.S. Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS) boosted by the Transfer Orbit Stage (TOS). The rays below the ACTTOS represent the innovative communication technologies to be tested by this experiment. The stylized Shuttle Pallet Satellite (SPAS) represents the German-sponsored ASTROSPAS mission. The constellation Orion below SPAS is representative of the types of stellar objects to be studied by its experimenters. The stars in Orion also commemorate the astronauts who have sacrificed their lives for the space program. The ascending spiral, symbolizing America's continuing commitment to leadership in space exploration and development, originates with the thousands of persons who ensure the success of each Shuttle flight. The five large white stars, representing the five crewmembers, along with the single gold star, fomm the mission's numerical designation.

  12. Revising the Institutional Mission.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dominick, Charles A.

    1990-01-01

    Revision of a college mission statement through a broadly participatory process can provide a new and sharpened sense of direction and priorities and a powerful mechanism for institutional change. Although institutional circumstances and processes may differ, the experience of Wittenberg University (Ohio) serves as an example of a model for…

  13. Planetary cubesats - mission architectures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bousquet, Pierre W.; Ulamec, Stephan; Jaumann, Ralf; Vane, Gregg; Baker, John; Clark, Pamela; Komarek, Tomas; Lebreton, Jean-Pierre; Yano, Hajime

    2016-07-01

    Miniaturisation of technologies over the last decade has made cubesats a valid solution for deep space missions. For example, a spectacular set 13 cubesats will be delivered in 2018 to a high lunar orbit within the frame of SLS' first flight, referred to as Exploration Mission-1 (EM-1). Each of them will perform autonomously valuable scientific or technological investigations. Other situations are encountered, such as the auxiliary landers / rovers and autonomous camera that will be carried in 2018 to asteroid 1993 JU3 by JAXA's Hayabusas 2 probe, and will provide complementary scientific return to their mothership. In this case, cubesats depend on a larger spacecraft for deployment and other resources, such as telecommunication relay or propulsion. For both situations, we will describe in this paper how cubesats can be used as remote observatories (such as NEO detection missions), as technology demonstrators, and how they can perform or contribute to all steps in the Deep Space exploration sequence: Measurements during Deep Space cruise, Body Fly-bies, Body Orbiters, Atmospheric probes (Jupiter probe, Venus atmospheric probes, ..), Static Landers, Mobile landers (such as balloons, wheeled rovers, small body rovers, drones, penetrators, floating devices, …), Sample Return. We will elaborate on mission architectures for the most promising concepts where cubesat size devices offer an advantage in terms of affordability, feasibility, and increase of scientific return.

  14. Apollo 16 mission report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    Information is provided on the operational and engineering aspects of the Apollo 16 mission. Customary units of measurement are used in those sections of the report pertaining to spacecraft systems and trajectories. The International System of Units is used in sections pertaining to science activities.

  15. The OASIS Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, James H., Jr.; Barghouty, Abdulnasser F.; Binns, W. robert; Christl, Mark; Cosse, Charles B.; Guzik, T. Gregory; deNolfo, Georgia A.; Hams,Thomas; Isbert, Joachim; Israel, Martin H.; Krizmanic, John F.; Labrador, Allan W.; Link, Jason T.; Mewaldt, Richard A.; Mitchell, Martin H.; Moiseev, Alexander A.; Sasaki, Makoto; Stochaj, Steven J.; Stone, Edward C.; Steitmatter, Robert E.; Waddington, C. Jake; Watts, John W.; Wefel, John P.; Wiedenbeck, Mark E.

    2010-01-01

    The Orbiting Astrophysical Observatory in Space (OASIS) is a mission to investigate Galactic Cosmic Rays (GCRs), a major feature of our galaxy. OASIS will use measurements of GCRs to determine the cosmic ray source, where they are accelerated, to investigate local accelerators and to learn what they can tell us about the interstellar medium and the processes that occur in it. OASIS will determine the astrophysical sources of both the material and acceleration of GCRs by measuring the abundances of the rare actinide nuclei and make direct measurements of the spectrum and anisotropy of electrons at energies up to approx.10 TeV, well beyond the range of the Fermi and AMS missions. OASIS has two instruments. The Energetic Trans-Iron Composition Experiment (ENTICE) instrument measures elemental composition. It resolves individual elements with atomic number (Z) from 10 to 130 and has a collecting power of 60m2.str.yrs, >20 times larger than previous instruments, and with improved resolution. The sample of 10(exp 10) GCRs collected by ENTICE will include .100 well-resolved actinides. The High Energy Particle Calorimeter Telescope (HEPCaT) is an ionization calorimeter that will extend the electron spectrum into the TeV region for the first time. It has 7.5 sq m.str.yrs of collecting power. This talk will describe the scientific objectives of the OASIS mission and its discovery potential. The mission and its two instruments which have been designed to accomplish this investigation will also be described.

  16. Systematic observations of Volcán Turrialba, Costa Rica, with small unmanned aircraft and aerostats (UAVs): the Costa Rican Airborne Research and Technology Applications (CARTA) missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pieri, D. C.; Diaz, J. A.; Bland, G.; Fladeland, M. M.; Abtahi, A.; Alan, A., Jr.; Alegria, O.; Azofeifa, S.; Berthold, R.; Corrales, E.; Fuerstenau, S.; Gerardi, J.; Herlth, D.; Hickman, G.; Hunter, G.; Linick, J.; Madrigal, Y.; Makel, D.; Miles, T.; Realmuto, V. J.; Storms, B.; Vogel, A.; Kolyer, R.; Weber, K.

    2014-12-01

    For several years, the University of Costa Rica, NASA Centers (e.g., JPL, ARC, GSFC/WFF, GRC) & NASA contractors-partners have made regular in situ measurements of aerosols & gases at Turrialba Volcano in Costa Rica, with aerostats (e.g., tethered balloons & kites), & free-flying fixed wing UAVs (e.g., Dragon Eye, Vector Wing 100, DELTA 150), at altitudes up to 12.5Kft ASL within 5km of the summit. Onboard instruments included gas detectors (e.g., SO2, CO2), visible & thermal IR cameras, air samplers, temperature pressure & humidity sensors, particle counters, & a nephelometer. Deployments are timed to support bimonthly overflights of the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) onboard the NASA Terra satellite (26 deployments to date). In situ observations of dilute plume SO2 concentrations (~1-20ppmv), plume dimensions, and associated temperature, pressure, & humidity profiles, validate detailed radiative transfer-based SO2 retrievals, as well as archive-wide ASTER band-ratio SO2 algorithms. Our recent UAV-based CO2 observations confirm high concentrations (e.g., ~3000ppmv max at summit jet), with 1000-1500ppmv flank values, and essentially global background CO2 levels (400ppmv) over distal surroundings. Transient Turrialba He detections (up to 20ppmv) were obtained with a small (~10kg) airborne mass spectrometer on a light aircraft—a UAV version (~3kg) will deploy there soon on the UCR DELTA 500. Thus, these platforms, though small (most payloads <500gm), can perform valuable systematic measurements of potential eruption hazards, as well as of volcano processes. Because they are economical, flexible, and effective, such platforms promise unprecedented capabilities for researchers and responders throughout Central and South America, undertaking volcanic data acquisitions uniquely suited to such small aircraft in close proximity to known hazards, or that were previously only available using full-sized manned aircraft. This work was

  17. The bering small vehicle asteroid mission concept.

    PubMed

    Michelsen, Rene; Andersen, Anja; Haack, Henning; Jørgensen, John L; Betto, Maurizio; Jørgensen, Peter S

    2004-05-01

    The study of asteroids is traditionally performed by means of large Earth based telescopes, by means of which orbital elements and spectral properties are acquired. Space borne research, has so far been limited to a few occasional flybys and a couple of dedicated flights to a single selected target. Although the telescope based research offers precise orbital information, it is limited to the brighter, larger objects, and taxonomy as well as morphology resolution is limited. Conversely, dedicated missions offer detailed surface mapping in radar, visual, and prompt gamma, but only for a few selected targets. The dilemma obviously being the resolution versus distance and the statistics versus DeltaV requirements. Using advanced instrumentation and onboard autonomy, we have developed a space mission concept whose goal is to map the flux, size, and taxonomy distributions of asteroids. The main focus is on main belt objects, but the mission profile will enable mapping of objects inside the Earth orbit as well. PMID:15220154

  18. Exomars Mission Verification Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cassi, Carlo; Gilardi, Franco; Bethge, Boris

    According to the long-term cooperation plan established by ESA and NASA in June 2009, the ExoMars project now consists of two missions: A first mission will be launched in 2016 under ESA lead, with the objectives to demonstrate the European capability to safely land a surface package on Mars, to perform Mars Atmosphere investigation, and to provide communi-cation capability for present and future ESA/NASA missions. For this mission ESA provides a spacecraft-composite, made up of an "Entry Descent & Landing Demonstrator Module (EDM)" and a Mars Orbiter Module (OM), NASA provides the Launch Vehicle and the scientific in-struments located on the Orbiter for Mars atmosphere characterisation. A second mission with it launch foreseen in 2018 is lead by NASA, who provides spacecraft and launcher, the EDL system, and a rover. ESA contributes the ExoMars Rover Module (RM) to provide surface mobility. It includes a drill system allowing drilling down to 2 meter, collecting samples and to investigate them for signs of past and present life with exobiological experiments, and to investigate the Mars water/geochemical environment, In this scenario Thales Alenia Space Italia as ESA Prime industrial contractor is in charge of the design, manufacturing, integration and verification of the ESA ExoMars modules, i.e.: the Spacecraft Composite (OM + EDM) for the 2016 mission, the RM for the 2018 mission and the Rover Operations Control Centre, which will be located at Altec-Turin (Italy). The verification process of the above products is quite complex and will include some pecu-liarities with limited or no heritage in Europe. Furthermore the verification approach has to be optimised to allow full verification despite significant schedule and budget constraints. The paper presents the verification philosophy tailored for the ExoMars mission in line with the above considerations, starting from the model philosophy, showing the verification activities flow and the sharing of tests

  19. MetNet - Martian Network Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harri, A.-M.

    2009-04-01

    We are developing a new kind of planetary exploration mission for Mars - MetNet in situ observation network based on a new semi-hard landing vehicle called the Met-Net Lander (MNL). The actual practical mission development work started in January 2009 with participation from various countries and space agencies. The scientific rationale and goals as well as key mission solutions will be discussed. The eventual scope of the MetNet Mission is to deploy some 20 MNLs on the Martian surface using inflatable descent system structures, which will be supported by observations from the orbit around Mars. Currently we are working on the MetNet Mars Precursor Mission (MMPM) to deploy one MetNet Lander to Mars in the 2009/2011 launch window as a technology and science demonstration mission. The MNL will have a versatile science payload focused on the atmospheric science of Mars. Detailed characterization of the Martian atmospheric circulation patterns, boundary layer phenomena, and climatology cycles, require simultaneous in-situ measurements by a network of observation posts on the Martian surface. The scientific payload of the MetNet Mission encompasses separate instrument packages for the atmospheric entry and descent phase and for the surface operation phase. The MetNet mission concept and key probe technologies have been developed and the critical subsystems have been qualified to meet the Martian environmental and functional conditions. This development effort has been fulfilled in collaboration between the Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI), the Russian Lavoschkin Association (LA) and the Russian Space Research Institute (IKI) since August 2001. Currently the INTA (Instituto Nacional de Técnica Aeroespacial) from Spain is also participating in the MetNet payload development.

  20. The OCO-3 MIssion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eldering, A.; Kaki, S.; Crisp, D.; Gunson, M. R.

    2013-12-01

    For the OCO-3 mission, NASA has approved a proposal to install the OCO-2 flight spare instrument on the International Space Station (ISS). The OCO-3 mission on ISS will have a key role in delivering sustained, global, scientifically-based, spaceborne measurements of atmospheric CO2 to monitor natural sources and sinks as part of NASA's proposed OCO-2/OCO-3/ASCENDS mission sequence and NASA's Climate Architecture. The OCO-3 mission will contribute to understanding of the terrestrial carbon cycle through enabling flux estimates at smaller spatial scales and through fluorescence measurements that will reduce the uncertainty in terrestrial carbon flux measurements and drive bottom-up land surface models through constraining GPP. The combined nominal missions of both OCO-2 and OCO-3 will likely span a complete El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) cycle, a key indicator of ocean variability. In addition, OCO-3 may allow investigation of the high-frequency and wavenumber structures suggested by eddying ocean circulation and ecosystem dynamics models. Finally, significant growth of urban agglomerations is underway and projected to continue in the coming decades. With the city mode sampling of the OCO-3 instrument on ISS we can evaluate different sampling strategies aimed at studying anthropogenic sources and demonstrate elements of a Greenhouse Gas Information system, as well as providing a gap-filler for tracking trends in the fastest-changing anthropogenic signals during the coming decade. In this presentation, we will describe our science objectives, the overall approach of utilization of the ISS for OCO-3, and the unique features of XCO2 measurements from ISS.

  1. The Double Star mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Z. X.; Escoubet, C. P.; Pu, Z.; Laakso, H.; Shi, J. K.; Shen, C.; Hapgood, M.

    2005-11-01

    The Double Star Programme (DSP) was first proposed by China in March, 1997 at the Fragrant Hill Workshop on Space Science, Beijing, organized by the Chinese Academy of Science. It is the first mission in collaboration between China and ESA. The mission is made of two spacecraft to investigate the magnetospheric global processes and their response to the interplanetary disturbances in conjunction with the Cluster mission. The first spacecraft, TC-1 (Tan Ce means "Explorer"), was launched on 29 December 2003, and the second one, TC-2, on 25 July 2004 on board two Chinese Long March 2C rockets. TC-1 was injected in an equatorial orbit of 570x79000 km altitude with a 28° inclination and TC-2 in a polar orbit of 560x38000 km altitude. The orbits have been designed to complement the Cluster mission by maximizing the time when both Cluster and Double Star are in the same scientific regions. The two missions allow simultaneous observations of the Earth magnetosphere from six points in space. To facilitate the comparison of data, half of the Double Star payload is made of spare or duplicates of the Cluster instruments; the other half is made of Chinese instruments. The science operations are coordinated by the Chinese DSP Scientific Operations Centre (DSOC) in Beijing and the European Payload Operations Service (EPOS) at RAL, UK. The spacecraft and ground segment operations are performed by the DSP Operations and Management Centre (DOMC) and DSOC in China, using three ground station, in Beijing, Shanghai and Villafranca.

  2. The Mothership Mission Architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ernst, S. M.; DiCorcia, J. D.; Bonin, G.; Gump, D.; Lewis, J. S.; Foulds, C.; Faber, D.

    2015-12-01

    The Mothership is considered to be a dedicated deep space carrier spacecraft. It is currently being developed by Deep Space Industries (DSI) as a mission concept that enables a broad participation in the scientific exploration of small bodies - the Mothership mission architecture. A Mothership shall deliver third-party nano-sats, experiments and instruments to Near Earth Asteroids (NEOs), comets or moons. The Mothership service includes delivery of nano-sats, communication to Earth and visuals of the asteroid surface and surrounding area. The Mothership is designed to carry about 10 nano-sats, based upon a variation of the Cubesat standard, with some flexibility on the specific geometry. The Deep Space Nano-Sat reference design is a 14.5 cm cube, which accommodates the same volume as a traditional 3U CubeSat. To reduce cost, Mothership is designed as a secondary payload aboard launches to GTO. DSI is offering slots for nano-sats to individual customers. This enables organizations with relatively low operating budgets to closely examine an asteroid with highly specialized sensors of their own choosing and carry out experiments in the proximity of or on the surface of an asteroid, while the nano-sats can be built or commissioned by a variety of smaller institutions, companies, or agencies. While the overall Mothership mission will have a financial volume somewhere between a European Space Agencies' (ESA) S- and M-class mission for instance, it can be funded through a number of small and individual funding sources and programs, hence avoiding the processes associated with traditional space exploration missions. DSI has been able to identify a significant interest in the planetary science and nano-satellite communities.

  3. Nuclear Electric Propulsion mission operations.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prickett, W. Z.; Spera, R. J.

    1972-01-01

    Mission operations are presented for comet rendezvous and outer planet exploration missions conducted by unmanned Nuclear Electric Propulsion (NEP) system employing in-core thermionic reactors for electric power generation. The selected reference mission are Comet Halley rendezvous and a Jupiter orbiter at 5.9 planet radii, the orbit of the moon Io. Mission operations and options are defined from spacecraft assembly through mission completion. Pre-launch operations and related GSE requirements are identified. Shuttle launch and subsequent injection to earth escape by the Centaur d-1T are discussed, as well as power plant startup and heliocentric mission phases.

  4. Mars mission concepts and opportunities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, Archie C.

    1986-01-01

    Trajectory and mission requirement data are presented for Earth Mars opposition and conjunction class roundtrip flyby and stopover mission opportunities available between 1997 and 2045. The opposition class flyby mission uses direct transfer trajectories to and on return from Mars. The opposition class stopover mission employs the gravitational field of Venus to accelerate the space vehicle on either the outbound or inbound leg in order to reduce the propulsion requirement associated with the opposition class mission. The conjunction class mission minimizes propulsion requirements by optimizing the stopover time at Mars.

  5. Defining Space Mission Architects for the Smaller Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, C.

    1999-01-01

    The definition of the Space Mission Architect (SMA) must be clear in both technical and human terms if we expect to train and/or to find people needed to architect the numbers of smaller missions expected in the future.

  6. Mission of the month: Uganda.

    PubMed

    Snead, B

    1988-04-01

    US Agency for International Development (USAID) assistance to Uganda has been interrupted several times due to Uganda's turbulent history since independence. Mission Director Richard Podol explains that because USAID is not a major donor to Uganda, an effort is made to maximize effectiveness by being cautious about how agency money is spent. USAID looks for critical gaps that are not being filled by other donor programs yet are essential to the development of Uganda at present and in the future. 1 such area is export promotion. Another area is macroeconomic reform. Agricultural rehabilitation is a major factor in the mission's strategy to restore Uganda prosperity. USAID has a package of interrelated projects that work to increase agricultural production and improve processing and marketing, all supported by appropriate economic policies. In 1983, USAID began to fund the Manpower for Agriculture Development (MFAD) Project to assist the MInistry of Agriculture and Makerere University in strengthening their agricultural research and training capabilities. Also designed to increase food production is USAID's 6-year and $20 million Cooperative Agriculture and Agribusiness Support project. IN the health sector, USAID's Family Health Initiatives project works cooperatively with US and international organizations in supporting the MInistry of Health and Ugandan private organizations in their efforts to implement family planning policies and programs. The missions' oral rehydration project is being implemented throughout Uganda to reduce child mortality and severe cases of childhood illness caused by diarrheal diseases. The US in 1986 made pledges toward the budget for UGanda's Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) program. Podol maintains that while there has been significant economic and political progress, the primary issue continues to be political, i.e,, can full peace be restored to Uganda. PMID:12315733

  7. Low Cost Mission to Deimos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quantius, Dominik; Püsler, H.; Braukhane, A.; Gülzow, P.; Bauer, W.; Vollhardt, A.; Romberg, O.; Scheibe, K.; Hoffmann, H.; Bürner, A.

    The German non-profit amateur satellite organisation AMSAT-Deutschland successfully de-signed, built and launched four HEO satellites in the last three decades. Now they are going to build a satellite to leave the Earth orbit based on their flight-proven P3-D satellite design. Due to energetic constraints the most suitable launch date for the planned P5-A satellite to Mars will be in 2018. To efficiently use the relatively long time gap until launch a possible prior Moon mission came into mind. In co-operation with the DLR-Institute of Space Systems in Bremen, Germany, two studies on systems level for a first P5 satellite towards Moon and a following one towards Mars have been performed. By using the DLR's Concurrent Engineering Facility (CEF) two consistent satellite concepts were designed including mission analysis, configuration, propulsion, subsystem dimensioning, payload selection, budgeting and cost. The present paper gives an insight in the accomplished design process and the results of the performed study towards Mars. The developed Mars orbiter is designed to carry the following four main instruments besides flexible communication abilities: • multispectral line scanner for Martian cloud investigations and Deimos (and Phobos) stereo pictures during close flybys • Deimos framing camera for high resolution pictures of Deimos (and Phobos) including video mode • sensor imaging infrared spectrometer for mineralogy of Martian (also Deimos and Phobos) silicates and surface temperature measurements • radio science for research of Deimos ( Phobos) gravity, profiling of Mars ionosphere, occurrence of third meteoritic ionosphere layer; sounding of neutral atmosphere; solar corona activity This study presents a non-industrial satellite concept that could be launched as piggyback load on Ariane 5 into GTO. It promises a low cost mission into a Mars orbit that allows close approaches to Deimos and Phobos.

  8. Sentinel-2 Mission status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoersch, Bianca; Colin, Olivier; Gascon, Ferran; Arino, Olivier; Spoto, Francois; Marchese, Franco; Krassenburg, Mike; Koetz, Benjamin

    2016-04-01

    Copernicus is a joint initiative of the European Commission (EC) and the European Space Agency (ESA), designed to establish a European capacity for the provision and use of operational monitoring information for environment and security applications. Within the Copernicus programme, ESA is responsible for the development of the Space Component, a fully operational space-based capability to supply earth-observation data to sustain environmental information Services in Europe. The Sentinel missions are Copernicus dedicated Earth Observation missions composing the essential elements of the Space Component. In the global Copernicus framework, they are complemented by other satellites made available by third-parties or by ESA and coordinated in the synergistic system through the Copernicus Data-Access system versus the Copernicus Services. The Copernicus Sentinel-2 mission provides continuity to services relying on multi-spectral high-resolution optical observations over global terrestrial surfaces. Sentinel-2 capitalizes on the technology and the vast experience acquired in Europe and the US to sustain the operational supply of data for services such as forest monitoring, land cover changes detection or natural disasters management. The Sentinel-2 mission offers an unprecedented combination of the following capabilities: ○ Systematic global coverage of land surfaces: from 56°South to 84°North, coastal waters and Mediterranean sea; ○ High revisit: every 5 days at equator under the same viewing conditions with 2 satellites; ○ High spatial resolution: 10m, 20m and 60m; ○ Multi-spectral information with 13 bands in the visible, near infra-red and short wave infra-red part of the spectrum; ○ Wide field of view: 290 km. The data from the Sentinel-2 mission are available openly and freely for all users with online easy access since December 2015. The presentation will give a status report on the Sentinel-2 mission, and outlook for the remaining ramp-up Phase, the

  9. Technical Feasibility Assessment of Lunar Base Mission Scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magelssen, Trygve ``Spike''; Sadeh, Eligar

    2005-02-01

    Investigation of the literature pertaining to lunar base (LB) missions and the technologies required for LB development has revealed an information gap that hinders technical feasibility assessment. This information gap is the absence of technical readiness levels (TRL) (Mankins, 1995) and information pertaining to the criticality of the critical enabling technologies (CETs) that enable mission success. TRL is a means of identifying technical readiness stages of a technology. Criticality is defined as the level of influence the CET has on the mission scenario. The hypothesis of this research study is that technical feasibility is a function of technical readiness and technical readiness is a function of criticality. A newly developed research analysis method is used to identify the technical feasibility of LB mission scenarios. A Delphi is used to ascertain technical readiness levels and CET criticality-to-mission. The research analysis method is applied to the Delphi results to determine the technical feasibility of the LB mission scenarios that include: observatory, science research, lunar settlement, space exploration gateway, space resource utilization, and space tourism. The CETs identified encompasses four major system level technologies of: transportation, life support, structures, and power systems. Results of the technical feasibility assessment show the observatory and science research LB mission scenarios to be more technical ready out of all the scenarios, but all mission scenarios are in very close proximity to each other in regard to criticality and TRL and no one mission scenario stands out as being absolutely more technically ready than any of the other scenarios. What is significant and of value are the Delphi results concerning CET criticality-to-mission and the TRL values evidenced in the Tables that can be used by anyone assessing the technical feasibility of LB missions.

  10. ESA plans new missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pedersen, Arne

    The tragic explosion of the space shuttle Challenger has caused a delay of at least 13 months to the European Space Agency/National Aeronautics and Space Administration (ESA/NASA) cooperative mission Ulysses, previously known as the Solar Polar Mission. Ulysses was scheduled for launch in May 1986. The launch of the Hubble Space Telescope, in which ESA is a cooperative partner, is certain to be delayed beyond the October 1986 launch date.As Eos went to press, the Giotto spacecraft, which has been on its way to Comet Halley since July 1985, was performing well, according to ESA. All investigator groups participated in operation rehearsals at the European Space Operations Centre in Darmstadt, Federal Republic of Germany, in preparation for the cometary encounter, which occurred near midnight (UT) on March 13, 1986.

  11. The SPARTAN Halley mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stern, A.

    1985-05-01

    In 1983, scientists at the University of Colorado proposed that NASA loft a pair of UV spectrometers aboard a Spartan autonomous astronomical laboratory in order to study Comet Halley in 1986 (in lieu of the delayed Space Telescope) at the time of the comet's perihelion. Calculations have indicated that the predictive activity for Halley will be about 10 times greater at perihelion than at the time of the various planned intercept flybys. The originators of the Spartan proposal suggested that close-in observations could be conducted if a special solar baffling system could be designed and tested in time. The 'Spartan Halley' mission is scheduled for lofting by the Space Shuttle Challenger mission 51-L, in early 1986.

  12. NEAR mission design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunham, David W.; McAdams, James V.; Farquhar, Robert W.

    2002-01-01

    The Near Earth Asteroid Rendezvous (NEAR) spacecraft took 4 years from launch until it became the first spacecraft to orbit an asteroid in February 2000. A month later, the spacecraft was re-christened NEAR Shoemaker to honor the late Eugene Shoemaker. To save launch costs, the mission used a special 2-year-period trajectory with an Earth gravity assist. On the way, the spacecraft imaged the asteroid 253 Mathilde. On 20 December 1998, NEAR's large engine misfired, failing to brake it for entry into orbit about 433 Eros. Another attempt 2 weeks later succeeded, but the spacecraft was almost a million kilometers away and took over a year to reach the asteroid. The mission was recovered thanks to a generous fuel supply and robust contingency planning. The implementation of the spacecraft's daring orbital maneuvers is described, including those used to land on Eros' surface in February 2001.

  13. The STEREO Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kucera, Therese

    2005-01-01

    STEREO (Solar TErrestrial RElations Observatory) will launch in 2006 on a two-year mission to study Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs) and the solar wind. The mission consists of two space-based observatories - one moving ahead of Earth in its orbit, the other trailing behind - to provide the first-ever stereoscopic measurements to study the Sun and the nature of CMEs. STEREO's scientific objectives are to: 1) Understand the causes and mechanisms of coronal mass ejection (CME) initiation; 2) Characterize the propagation of CMEs through the heliosphere; 3) Discover the mechanisms and sites of energetic particle acceleration in the low corona and the interplanetary medium; 4) Improve the determination of the structure of the ambient solar wind. Additional information is included in the original extended abstract.

  14. Spacelab 3 mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dalton, Bonnie P.

    1990-01-01

    Spacelab-3 (SL-3) was the first microgravity mission of extended duration involving crew interaction with animal experiments. This interaction involved sharing the Spacelab environmental system, changing animal food, and changing animal waste trays by the crew. Extensive microbial testing was conducted on the animal specimens and crew and on their ground and flight facilities during all phases of the mission to determine the potential for cross contamination. Macroparticulate sampling was attempted but was unsuccessful due to the unforseen particulate contamination occurring during the flight. Particulate debris of varying size (250 micron to several inches) and composition was recovered post flight from the Spacelab floor, end cones, overhead areas, avionics fan filter, cabin fan filters, tunnel adaptor, and from the crew module. These data are discussed along with solutions, which were implemented, for particulate and microbial containment for future flight facilities.

  15. Gaia Mission Status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prusti, Timo

    2015-08-01

    The commissioning phase of the Gaia satellite was completed in July 2014 and we are well into the first year of routine phase operations out of the nominal 5 year mission. All subsystems are working and the operational parameters have been tuned for optimum science performance. A final upgrade of the on-board detection software is under testing. The aim is to be operational in the final configuration by summer 2015. The magnitude limit of the survey has been set to G=20.7 mag for astrometry and photometry. The spectroscopy magnitude limit is currently G_RVS=16.2 mag, but may be adjusted pending the new on-board software testing. The Science Alerts stream based on photometry has been started while preparations are underway for the first intermediate catalogue release by summer 2016. Examples of Gaia observations will be shown to indicate the scientific power of this ESA cornerstone mission.

  16. STS-44 Mission Insignia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Designed by the participating crewmembers, the STS-44 patch shows the Space Shuttle Atlantis ascending to Earth orbit to expand mankind's knowledge. The patch illustrated by the symbolic red, white and blue of the American flag represents the American contribution and strength derived from this mission. The black background of space, indicative of the mysteries of the universe, is illuminated by six large stars, which depict the American crew of six and the hopes that travel with them. The smaller stars represent Americans who work in support of this mission. Within the Shuttle's payload bay is a Defense Support Program Satellite which will help insure peace. In the words of a crew spokesman, the stars of the flag symbolize our leadership in an exciting quest of space and the boundless dreams for humanity's future.

  17. All about the Mission

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Kendra

    2005-01-01

    It's all about the mission at Berea College. Founded on a Utopian dream, Berea has been doing diversity longer than any school in the South. Berea College isn't a product of the civil rights movement. Not even close. The school pre-dates Reconstruction. In fact, at 150 years old, the first integrated, co-educational school in the South pre-dates…

  18. Human exploration mission studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cataldo, Robert L.

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes several case studies of human space exploration, considered by the NASA's Office of Exploration in 1988. Special attention is given to the mission scenarios, the critical technology required in these expeditions, and the extraterrestrial power requirements of significant system elements. The cases examined include a manned expedition to Phobos, the inner Martian moon; a human expedition to Mars; the Lunar Observatory; and a lunar outpost to early Mars evolution.

  19. A Mars 1984 mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Mission objectives are developed for the next logical step in the investigation of the local physical and chemical environments and the search for organic compounds on Mars. The necessity of three vehicular elements: orbiter, penetrator, and rover for in situ investigations of atmospheric-lithospheric interactions is emphasized. A summary report and committee recommendations are included with the full report of the Mars Science Working Group.

  20. Heat Capacity Mapping Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nilsson, C. S.; Andrews, J. C.; Scully-Power, P.; Ball, S.; Speechley, G.; Latham, A. R. (Principal Investigator)

    1980-01-01

    The Tasman Front was delineated by airborne expendable bathythermograph survey; and an Heat Capacity Mapping Mission (HCMM) IR image on the same day shows the same principal features as determined from ground-truth. It is clear that digital enhancement of HCMM images is necessary to map ocean surface temperatures and when done, the Tasman Front and other oceanographic features can be mapped by this method, even through considerable scattered cloud cover.

  1. Suborbital missions: The Joust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferguson, Bruce W.

    1991-01-01

    Joust 1 will carry a payload of 10 experiments. The experiments in the payload module will be mated with a service module containing accelerometers, avionics, a low gravity rate control system, and battery packs. This suborbital mission will last approximately 21 minutes, providing at least 13 minutes of microgravity time. The experiments are as follow: study into polymer membrane processes; polymer curing; plasma particle generation; automated generic bioprocessing apparatus; biomodule; thin films; materials dispersion apparatus; foam formation; electrodeposition process; and powdered materials processing.

  2. Bion 11 mission hardware.

    PubMed

    Golov, V K; Magedov, V S; Skidmore, M G; Hines, J W; Kozlovskaya, I B; Korolkov, V I

    2000-01-01

    The mission hardware provided for Bion 11 shared primate experiments included the launch vehicle, biosatellite, spaceflight operational systems, spacecraft recovery systems, life support systems, bioinstrumentation, and data collection systems. Under the unique Russia/US bilateral contract, the sides worked together to ensure the reliability and quality of hardware supporting the primate experiments. Parameters recorded inflight covered biophysical, biochemical, biopotential, environmental, and system operational status. PMID:11543453

  3. Asteroid Kinetic Impactor Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chesley, Steven

    2015-08-01

    Asteroid impact missions can be carried out as a relatively low-cost add-ons to most asteroid rendezvous missions and such impact experiments have tremendous potential, both scientifically and in the arena of planetary defense.The science returns from an impactor demonstration begin with the documentation of the global effects of the impact, such as changes in orbit and rotation state, the creation and dissipation of an ejecta plume and debris disk, and morphological changes across the body due to the transmission of seismic waves, which might induce landslides and toppling of boulders, etc. At a local level, an inspection of the impact crater and ejecta blanket reveals critical material strength information, as well as spectral differences between the surface and subsurface material.From the planetary defense perspective, an impact demonstration will prove humankind’s capacity to alter the orbit of a potentially threatening asteroid. This technological leap comes in two parts. First, terminal guidance systems that can deliver an impactor with small errors relative to the ~100-200 meter size of a likely impactor have yet to be demonstrated in a deep space environment. Second, the response of an asteroid to such an impact is only understood theoretically due to the potentially significant dependence on the momentum carried by escaping ejecta, which would tend to enhance the deflection by tens of percent and perhaps as much as a factor of a few. A lack of validated understanding of momentum enhancement is a significant obstacle in properly sizing a real-world impactor deflection mission.This presentation will describe the drivers for asteroid impact demonstrations and cover the range of such concepts, starting with ESA’s pioneering Don Quijote mission concept and leading to a brief description of concepts under study at the present time, including the OSIRIS-REx/ISIS, BASiX/KIX and AIM/DART (AIDA) concepts.

  4. The CRYSTAL-FACE Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newman, P.

    2005-01-01

    The Cirrus Regional Study of Tropical Anvils and Cirrus Layers - Florida Area Cirrus Experiment (CRYSTAL-FACE) was a measurement campaign designed to investigate tropical cirrus cloud physical properties and formation processes. Understanding the production of upper tropospheric cirrus clouds is essential for the successful modeling of the Earth's climate. The mission was staged in July 2002 with flights of 6 aircraft from Key West, Florida. Several aircraft were used for in situ and remote sensing of aerosols, ice crystals, meteorological fields, radiative fluxes, and gas concentrations. The NASA ER-2 and WB-57, the Proteus aircraft, owned by Northrop Grumman and operated by Scaled Composites, CIRPAS provided the DeHavilland UV-l8A, "Twin Otter" aircraft, the University of North Dakota provided a Cessna Citation II aircraft , and NSF supported the ELDORA radar onboard the Naval Research Laboratory P-3 aircraft. In this presentation, I will describe some of the flights, the conditions, and some of the results from the mission.

  5. STS-65 Mission Onboard Photograph

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Astronaut Donald Thomas conducts the Fertilization and Embryonic Development of Japanese Newt in Space (AstroNewt) experiment at the Aquatic Animal Experiment Unit (AAEU) inside the International Microgravity Laboratory-2 (IML-2) science module. The AstroNewt experiment aims to know the effects of gravity on the early developmental process of fertilized eggs using a unique aquatic animal, the Japanese red-bellied newt. The newt egg is a large single cell at the begirning of development. The Japanese newt mates in spring and autumn. In late autumn, female newts enter hibernation with sperm in their body cavity and in spring lay eggs and fertilize them with the stored sperm. The experiment takes advantage of this feature of the newt. Groups of newts were sent to the Kennedy Space Center and kept in hibernation until the mission. The AAEU cassettes carried four newts aboard the Space Shuttle. Two newts in one cassette are treated by hormone injection on the ground to simulate egg laying. The other two newts are treated on orbit by the crew. The former group started maturization of eggs before launch. The effects of gravity on that early process were differentiated by comparison of the two groups. The IML-2 was the second in a series of Spacelab flights designed to conduct research by the international science community in a microgravity environment. Managed by the Marshall Space Flight Center, the IML-2 was launched on July 8, 1994 aboard the STS-65 Space Shuttle mission, Orbiter Columbia.

  6. STS-65 Mission Onboard Photograph

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Astronaut Donald Thomas conducts the Fertilization and Embryonic Development of Japanese Newt in Space (AstroNewt) experiment at the Aquatic Animal Experiment Unit (AAEU) inside the International Microgravity Laboratory-2 (IML-2) science module. The AstroNewt experiment aims to know the effects of gravity on the early developmental process of fertilized eggs using a unique aquatic animal, the Japanese red-bellied newt. The newt egg is a large single cell at the begirning of development. The Japanese newt mates in spring and autumn. In late autumn, female newts enter hibernation with sperm in their body cavity and in spring lay eggs and fertilized them with the stored sperm. The experiment takes advantage of this feature of the newt. Groups of newts were sent to the Kennedy Space Center and kept in hibernation until the mission. The AAEU cassettes carried four newts aboard the Space Shuttle. Two newts in one cassette are treated by hormone injection on the ground to simulate egg laying. The other two newts are treated on orbit by the crew. The former group started maturization of eggs before launch. The effects of gravity on that early process were differentiated by comparison of the two groups. The IML-2 was the second in a series of Spacelab flights designed to conduct research by the international science community in a microgravity environment. Managed by the Marshall Space Flight Center, the IML-2 was launch on July 8, 1994 aboard the STS-65 Space Shuttle Orbiter Columbia mission.

  7. Orion Exploration Mission-1 Animation

    NASA Video Gallery

    Animation of the Orion spacecraft’s Exploration Mission-1 in 2017. Exploration Mission-1 will be the first integrated flight test with both the Orion spacecraft and NASA’s new Space Launch System.

  8. Mars Exploration Rover mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crisp, Joy A.; Adler, Mark; Matijevic, Jacob R.; Squyres, Steven W.; Arvidson, Raymond E.; Kass, David M.

    2003-10-01

    In January 2004 the Mars Exploration Rover mission will land two rovers at two different landing sites that show possible evidence for past liquid-water activity. The spacecraft design is based on the Mars Pathfinder configuration for cruise and entry, descent, and landing. Each of the identical rovers is equipped with a science payload of two remote-sensing instruments that will view the surrounding terrain from the top of a mast, a robotic arm that can place three instruments and a rock abrasion tool on selected rock and soil samples, and several onboard magnets and calibration targets. Engineering sensors and components useful for science investigations include stereo navigation cameras, stereo hazard cameras in front and rear, wheel motors, wheel motor current and voltage, the wheels themselves for digging, gyros, accelerometers, and reference solar cell readings. Mission operations will allow commanding of the rover each Martian day, or sol, on the basis of the previous sol's data. Over a 90-sol mission lifetime, the rovers are expected to drive hundreds of meters while carrying out field geology investigations, exploration, and atmospheric characterization. The data products will be delivered to the Planetary Data System as integrated batch archives.

  9. The LISA Pathfinder Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thorpe, james; McNamara, P. W.

    2011-01-01

    LISA Pathfinder is a dedicated technology demonstration space mission for the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA), a NASA/ESA collaboration to operate a space-based observatory for gravitational waves in the milli-Hertz band. Although the formal partnership between the agencies was dissolved in the Spring of 2011, both agencies are actively pursuing concepts for LISA-like gravitational wave observatories. These concepts take advantage of the significant technology development efforts that have already been made, especially those of the LISA Pathfinder mission. LISA Pathfinder, which is in the late stages of implementation, will place two test masses in drag-free flight and measure the relative acceleration between them. This measurement will validate a number of technologies that are critical to LISA-like gravitational wave instruments including sensing and control of the test masses, drag-free control laws, microNewton thrusters, and picometer-level laser metrology. We will present the current status of the LISA Pathfinder mission and associated activities.

  10. Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate Innovation & Challenges

    NASA Video Gallery

    On June 2, 2016, NASA’s Office of the Chief Technologist hosted the Showcase of Innovation Challenges in Washington to present and discuss ideas for innovation across the agency, the government, in...

  11. NASA Radiation Protection Research for Exploration Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, John W.; Cucinotta, Francis A.; Tripathi, Ram K.; Heinbockel, John H.; Tweed, John; Mertens, Christopher J.; Walker, Steve A.; Blattnig, Steven R.; Zeitlin, Cary J.

    2006-01-01

    The HZETRN code was used in recent trade studies for renewed lunar exploration and currently used in engineering development of the next generation of space vehicles, habitats, and EVA equipment. A new version of the HZETRN code capable of simulating high charge and energy (HZE) ions, light-ions and neutrons with either laboratory or space boundary conditions with enhanced neutron and light-ion propagation is under development. Atomic and nuclear model requirements to support that development will be discussed. Such engineering design codes require establishing validation processes using laboratory ion beams and space flight measurements in realistic geometries. We discuss limitations of code validation due to the currently available data and recommend priorities for new data sets.

  12. Dark Matter research with the PAMELA Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Picozza, P.; Malvezzi, V.

    The PAMELA satellite-borne experiment was launched from the Baikonur launch site on the 15th of June 2006. Since July 2006 it is daily delivering to ground 16GBytes of data. The instrument is composed by a magnetic spectrometer, a time-of-flight system, a silicon-tungsten electromagnetic calorimeter, a neutron detector and anticoincidence scintillators. The primary scientific goal is to searching for evidence of dark matter particle annihilations studying antiparticles fluxes. Preliminary results concerning antiproton-proton and positron-electron ratios are presented.

  13. Prioritizing Medical Resources for Exploration Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shah, R. V.; Kerstman, E. L.

    2015-01-01

    Long duration missions beyond low Earth orbit introduce new constraints to the medical system. Factors such as the inability to evacuate to Earth in a timely manner, communication delay, limitations in available medical equipment, and the clinical background of the crew will all have an impact on the assessment and treatment of medical conditions. The Exploration Medical Capability (ExMC) Element of NASAs Human Research Program seeks to improve the way the element derives its mitigation strategies for the risk of "Unacceptable Health and Mission Outcomes Due to Limitation of In-flight Medical Capabilities."

  14. Power systems for future missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gill, S. P.; Frye, P. E.; Littman, Franklin D.; Meisl, C. J.

    1994-01-01

    A comprehensive scenario of future missions was developed and applicability of different power technologies to these missions was assessed. Detailed technology development roadmaps for selected power technologies were generated. A simple methodology to evaluate economic benefits of current and future power system technologies by comparing Life Cycle Costs of potential missions was developed. The methodology was demonstrated by comparing Life Cycle Costs for different implementation strategies of DIPS/CBC technology to a selected set of missions.

  15. NASA's Terrestrial Planet Finder Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coulter, Daniel R.

    2004-01-01

    NASA has decided to move forward with two complementary Terrestrial Planet Finder (TPF) missions, a visible coronagraph and an infrared formation flying interferometer. These missions are major missions in the NASA Office of Space Science Origins Theme. The primary science objectives of the TPF missions are to search for, detect, and characterize planets and planetary systems beyond our own Solar System, including specifically Earth-like planets.

  16. Mission applications of electric propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atkins, K. L.

    1974-01-01

    This paper reviews the mission applications of electric propulsion. The energy requirements of candidate high-energy missions gaining in NASA priority are used to highlight the potential of electric propulsion. Mission-propulsion interfaces are examined to point out differences between chemical and electric applications. Brief comparisons between ballistic requirements and capabilities and those of electric propulsion show that electric propulsion is presently the most practical and perhaps the only technology which can accomplish missions with these energy requirements.

  17. Nuclear electric propulsion mission performance for fast piloted Mars missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hack, K. J.; George, J. A.; Dudzinski, L. A.

    1991-01-01

    A mission study aimed at minimizing the time humans would spend in the space environment is presented. The use of nuclear electric propulsion (NEP), when combined with a suitable mission profile, can reduce the trip time to durations competitive with other propulsion systems. Specifically, a split mission profile utilizing an earth crew capture vehicle accounts for a significant portion of the trip time reduction compared to previous studies. NEP is shown to be capable of performing fast piloted missions to Mars at low power levels using near-term technology and is considered to be a viable candidate for these missions.

  18. Upgrading Knowledge Competitiveness Is the New Mission of Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Jian-xin; Liao, Hong-zhi

    2010-01-01

    In the era of knowledge economy today, social development and progress are much more relying on HEIS (higher education institutions) than ever before. Besides, the three familiar missions of "training capable persons", "doing research" and "serving the society", in the tussle of knowledge race in East Asia, a new mission for HE (higher education)…

  19. NASA Laboratory Analysis for Manned Exploration Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krihak, Michael (Editor); Shaw, Tianna

    2014-01-01

    The Exploration Laboratory Analysis (ELA) project supports the Exploration Medical Capability Element under the NASA Human Research Program. ELA instrumentation is identified as an essential capability for future exploration missions to diagnose and treat evidence-based medical conditions. However, mission architecture limits the medical equipment, consumables, and procedures that will be available to treat medical conditions during human exploration missions. Allocated resources such as mass, power, volume, and crew time must be used efficiently to optimize the delivery of in-flight medical care. Although commercial instruments can provide the blood and urine based measurements required for exploration missions, these commercial-off-the-shelf devices are prohibitive for deployment in the space environment. The objective of the ELA project is to close the technology gap of current minimally invasive laboratory capabilities and analytical measurements in a manner that the mission architecture constraints impose on exploration missions. Besides micro gravity and radiation tolerances, other principal issues that generally fail to meet NASA requirements include excessive mass, volume, power and consumables, and nominal reagent shelf-life. Though manned exploration missions will not occur for nearly a decade, NASA has already taken strides towards meeting the development of ELA medical diagnostics by developing mission requirements and concepts of operations that are coupled with strategic investments and partnerships towards meeting these challenges. This paper focuses on the remote environment, its challenges, biomedical diagnostics requirements and candidate technologies that may lead to successful blood/urine chemistry and biomolecular measurements in future space exploration missions. SUMMARY The NASA Exploration Laboratory Analysis project seeks to develop capability to diagnose anticipated space exploration medical conditions on future manned missions. To achieve

  20. Preliminary design of an asteroid hopping mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheppa, Michael D.

    In 2010, NASA announced that its new vision is to support private space launch operations. It is anticipated that this new direction will create the need for new and innovative ideas that push the current boundaries of space exploration and contain the promise of substantial gain, both in research and capital. The purpose of the study is to plan and estimate the feasibility of a mission to visit a number of near Earth asteroids (NEAs). The mission would take place before the end of the 21st century, and would only use commercially available technology. Throughout the mission design process, while holding astronaut safety paramount, it was the goal to maximize the return while keeping the cost to a minimum. A mission of the nature would appeal to the private space industry because it could be easily adapted and set into motion. The mission design was divided into three main parts; mission timeline, vehicle design and power sources, with emphasis on nuclear and solar electric power, were investigated. The timeline and associated trajectories were initially selected using a numerical estimation and then optimized using Satellite Tool Kit (STK) 9.s's Design Explorer Optimizer [1]. Next, the spacecraft was design using commercially available parts that would support the mission requirements. The Variable Specific Impulse Magnetoplasma Rocket (VASIMR) was and instrumental piece in maximizing the number of NEAs visited. Once the spacecraft was designed, acceptable power supply options were investigated. The VASIMR VX-200 requires 200 kilowatts of power to maintain thrust. This creates the need for a substantial power supply that consists of either a nuclear reactor of massive solar arrays. STK 9.1's Design Explorer Optimizer was able to create a mission time line that allowed for the exploration of seven NEAs in under two years, while keeping the total mission DeltaV under 71 kilometers per second. Based on these initial findings, it is determined that a mission of this

  1. Study on JAXA elements for international lunar vicinity mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imada, Takane; Sato, Naoki

    2014-11-01

    JAXA has commenced technical research for contributing as a part of international partnership for the space exploration in Lunar vicinity. One of the candidates is the cargo transport mission with the combination of Cryogenic Propulsion Stage(s) (CPS) and a transfer vehicle derived from Japanese un-manned vehicle used for ISS. The CPS needs advanced technologies to keep the propellant for long mission duration and they will be useful in further missions beyond moon. This paper reports the profile of the mission, vehicle configurations, and the transport capabilities.

  2. Astrobiology explorer mission concepts (ABE/ASPIRE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ennico, K. A.; Sandford, S. A.; ABE/ASPIRE Science Teams

    The AstroBiology Explorer (ABE) and the Astrobiology SPace InfraRed Explorer (ASPIRE) Mission Concepts are two missions designed to address the questions (1) "Where do we come from?" and (2) "Are we alone?" as outlined in NASA's Origins Program. Both concepts use infrared spectroscopy to explore the identity, abundance, and distribution of molecules of astrobiological importance throughout the Universe. The ABE mission's observational program is focused on investigating the evolution of ice and organics in all phases of the lifecycle of carbon in the universe, from stellar birth through stellar death and exogenous delivery of these compounds to planetary systems. The ASPIRE mission's observational program expands upon ABE's core mission and also addresses the role of silicates and gas-phase materials in interstellar organic chemistry. ABE (ASPIRE) achieves these goals using a highly sensitive, cryogenically-cooled telescope in an Earth drift-away heliocentric orbit, armed with a suite of infrared spectrometers that cover the 2.5-20 (40) micron spectral region at moderate spectral resolution ( R > 2000). ASPIRE's spectrometer complement also includes a high-resolution ( R > 25,000) module over the 4-8 micron spectral region. Both missions' target lists are chosen to observe a statistically significant sample of a large number of objects of varied types in support of the tasks outlined above. The ABE and ASPIRE mission lifetimes are designed to be 14 months and 3 years, respectively, both with significant cryogen and propellant lifetime margins to support an extended observing campaign. The ABE/ASPIRE Science Operations will be carried out at NASA's Ames Research Center, and the ABE/ASPIRE database will be archived at Caltech/IPAC.

  3. Mission Trades to Explore Saturn with Probes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balint, Tibor; Cutts, James; Kolawa, Elizabeth

    To understand the formation of our solar system, the National Research Council in its 2003 Decadal Survey (NRC DS) for Solar System Exploration (SSE), and NASA in its 2006 SSE Roadmap identified mission concepts for the in situ exploration of the giant planets, namely potential probe missions to Jupiter and Saturn. In response, NASA's upcoming 2008 New Frontiers Announcement of Opportunity (AO) is expected to include Saturn among the exploration targets. Our experience with the Galileo probe to Jupiter, the only mission to date to enter a giant planet, highlighted significant technology items, with a special focus on thermal protection system (TPS) performance. Similarly, a medium class, cost capped, probe mission to Saturn is expected to introduce further mission architecture and technology challenges. This paper will provide an overview of typical mission architecture trades for a Saturn multi-probe concept, addressing the impact of trajectory options; operating scenarios through mission phases in support of a not-obvious power system design for the carrier and the probes, using solar panels and batteries; communication options; and key enabling technologies for the probes that could be used on the deceleration and descent modules. While some of the probe technologies could be considered destination specific (e.g,. the highly dense carbon phenolic ablative TPS material for giant planets entries), others could be used at planetary destinations with significant atmospheres (e.g., thermal management and pressure mitigation on future Venus probes), or at exploration targets with extreme environments, as addressed in the 2007 NASA report on extreme environment technologies for planetary exploration.

  4. Psychological Support Operations and the ISS One-Year Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beven, G.; Vander Ark, S. T.; Holland, A. W.

    2016-01-01

    Since NASA began human presence on the International Space Station (ISS) in November 1998, crews have spent two to seven months onboard. In March 2015 NASA and Russia embarked on a new era of ISS utilization, with two of their crewmembers conducting a one-year mission onboard ISS. The mission has been useful for both research and mission operations to better understand the human, technological, mission management and staffing challenges that may be faced on missions beyond Low Earth Orbit. The work completed during the first 42 ISS missions provided the basis for the pre-flight, in-flight and post-flight work completed by NASA's Space Medicine Operations Division, while our Russian colleagues provided valuable insights from their long-duration mission experiences with missions lasting 10-14 months, which predated the ISS era. Space Medicine's Behavioral Health and Performance Group (BHP) provided pre-flight training, evaluation, and preparation as well as in-flight psychological support for the NASA crewmember. While the BHP team collaboratively planned for this mission with the help of all ISS international partners within the Human Behavior and Performance Working Group to leverage their collective expertise, the US and Russian BHP personnel were responsible for their respective crewmembers. The presentation will summarize the lessons and experience gained within the areas identified by this Working Group as being of primary importance for a one-year mission.

  5. Mission and science activity scheduling language

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hull, Larry G.

    1993-01-01

    To support the distributed and complex operational scheduling required for future National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) missions, a formal, textual language, the Scheduling Applications Interface Language (SAIL), has been developed. Increased geographic dispersion of investigators is leading to distributed mission and science activity planning, scheduling, and operations. SAIL is an innovation which supports the effective and efficient communication of scheduling information among physically dispersed applications in distributed scheduling environments. SAIL offers a clear, concise, unambiguous expression of scheduling information in a readable, hardware independent format. The language concept, syntax, and semantics incorporate language features found useful during five years of research and prototyping with scheduling languages in physically distributed environments. SAIL allows concise specification of mission and science activity plans in a format which promotes repetition and reuse.

  6. Software Schedules Missions, Aids Project Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    NASA missions require advanced planning, scheduling, and management, and the Space Agency has worked extensively to develop the programs and software suites necessary to facilitate these complex missions. These enormously intricate undertakings have hundreds of active components that need constant management and monitoring. It is no surprise, then, that the software developed for these tasks is often applicable in other high-stress, complex environments, like in government or industrial settings. NASA work over the past few years has resulted in a handful of new scheduling, knowledge-management, and research tools developed under contract with one of NASA s partners. These tools have the unique responsibility of supporting NASA missions, but they are also finding uses outside of the Space Program.

  7. Mars MetNet Precursor Mission Status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harri, A.-M.; Aleksashkin, S.; Guerrero, H.; Schmidt, W.; Genzer, M.; Vazquez, L.; Haukka, H.

    2013-09-01

    We are developing a new kind of planetary exploration mission for Mars in collaboration between the Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI), Lavochkin Association (LA), Space Research Institute (IKI) and Institutio Nacional de Tecnica Aerospacial (INTA). The Mars MetNet mission is based on a new semi-hard landing vehicle called MetNet Lander (MNL). The scientific payload of the Mars MetNet Precursor [1] mission is divided into three categories: Atmospheric instruments, Optical devices and Composition and structure devices. Each of the payload instruments will provide significant insights in to the Martian atmospheric behavior. The key technologies of the MetNet Lander have been qualified and the electrical qualification model (EQM) of the payload bay has been built and successfully tested.

  8. Mars MetNet Mission Status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harri, A.-M.; Aleksashkin, S.; Arruego, I.; Schmidt, W.; Genzer, M.; Vazquez, L.; Haukka, H.; Palin, M.; Nikkanen, T.

    2015-10-01

    New kind of planetary exploration mission for Mars is under development in collaboration between the Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI), Lavochkin Association (LA), Space Research Institute (IKI) and Institutio Nacional de Tecnica Aerospacial (INTA). The Mars MetNet mission is based on a new semihard landing vehicle called MetNet Lander (MNL). The scientific payload of the Mars MetNet Precursor [1] mission is divided into three categories: Atmospheric instruments, Optical devices and Composition and structure devices. Each of the payload instruments will provide significant insights in to the Martian atmospheric behavior. The key technologies of the MetNet Lander have been qualified and the electrical qualification model (EQM) of the payload bay has been built and successfully tested.

  9. Some Activities of MISSE 6 Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prasad, Narasimha S.

    2009-01-01

    The objective of the Materials International Space Station Experiment (MISSE) is to study the performance of novel materials when subjected to the synergistic effects of the harsh space environment for several months. In this paper, a few laser and optical elements from NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) that have been flown on MISSE 6 mission will be discussed. These items were characterized and packed inside a ruggedized Passive Experiment Container (PEC) that resembles a suitcase. The PEC was tested for survivability due to launch conditions. Subsequently, the MISSE 6 PEC was transported by the STS-123 mission to International Space Station (ISS) on March 11, 2008. The astronauts successfully attached the PEC to external handrails and opened the PEC for long term exposure to the space environment. The plan is to retrieve the MISSE 6 PEC by STS-128 mission in August 2009.

  10. Ensuring Payload Safety in Missions with Special Partnerships

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Staubus, Calvert A.; Willenbring, Rachel C.; Blankenship, Michael D.

    2016-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Expendable Launch Vehicle (ELV) payload space flight missions involve cooperative work between NASA and partners including spacecraft (or payload) contractors, universities, nonprofit research centers, Agency payload organization, Range Safety organization, Agency launch service organizations, and launch vehicle contractors. The role of NASA's Safety and Mission Assurance (SMA) Directorate is typically fairly straightforward, but when a mission's partnerships become more complex, to realize cost and science benefits (e.g., multi-agency payload(s) or cooperative international missions), the task of ensuring payload safety becomes much more challenging. This paper discusses lessons learned from NASA safety professionals working multiple-agency missions and offers suggestions to help fellow safety professionals working multiple-agency missions.

  11. Solid Waste Management Requirements Definition for Advanced Life Support Missions: Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alazraki, Michael P.; Hogan, John; Levri, Julie; Fisher, John; Drysdale, Alan

    2002-01-01

    Prior to determining what Solid Waste Management (SWM) technologies should be researched and developed by the Advanced Life Support (ALS) Project for future missions, there is a need to define SWM requirements. Because future waste streams will be highly mission-dependent, missions need to be defined prior to developing SWM requirements. The SWM Working Group has used the mission architecture outlined in the System Integration, Modeling and Analysis (SIMA) Element Reference Missions Document (RMD) as a starting point in the requirement development process. The missions examined include the International Space Station (ISS), a Mars Dual Lander mission, and a Mars Base. The SWM Element has also identified common SWM functionalities needed for future missions. These functionalities include: acceptance, transport, processing, storage, monitoring and control, and disposal. Requirements in each of these six areas are currently being developed for the selected missions. This paper reviews the results of this ongoing effort and identifies mission-dependent resource recovery requirements.

  12. Guidelines and Capabilities for Designing Human Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2002-03-01

    The human element is likely the most complex and difficult one of mission design; it significantly influences every aspect of mission planning, from the basic parameters like duration to the more complex tradeoffs between mass, volume, power, risk, and cost. For engineers who rely on precise specifications in data books and other such technical references, dealing with the uncertainty and the variability of designing for human beings can be frustrating. When designing for the human element, questions arise more often than definitive answers. Nonetheless, we do not doubt that the most captivating discoveries in future space missions will necessitate human explorers. These guidelines and capabilities are meant to identify the points of intersection between humans and mission considerations such as architecture, vehicle design, technologies, operations, and science requirements. We seek to provide clear, top-level guidelines for human-related exploration studies and technology research that address common questions and requirements. As a result, we hope that ongoing mission trade studies consider common, standard, and practical criteria for human interfaces.

  13. Streamlining Collaborative Planning in Spacecraft Mission Architectures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Misra, Dhariti; Bopf, Michel; Fishman, Mark; Jones, Jeremy; Kerbel, Uri; Pell, Vince

    2000-01-01

    During the past two decades, the planning and scheduling community has substantially increased the capability and efficiency of individual planning and scheduling systems. Relatively recently, research work to streamline collaboration between planning systems is gaining attention. Spacecraft missions stand to benefit substantially from this work as they require the coordination of multiple planning organizations and planning systems. Up to the present time this coordination has demanded a great deal of human intervention and/or extensive custom software development efforts. This problem will become acute with increased requirements for cross-mission plan coordination and multi -spacecraft mission planning. The Advanced Architectures and Automation Branch of NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center is taking innovative steps to define collaborative planning architectures, and to identify coordinated planning tools for Cross-Mission Campaigns. Prototypes are being developed to validate these architectures and assess the usefulness of the coordination tools by the planning community. This presentation will focus on one such planning coordination too], named Visual Observation Layout Tool (VOLT), which is currently being developed to streamline the coordination between astronomical missions

  14. Guidelines and Capabilities for Designing Human Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The human element is likely the most complex and difficult one of mission design; it significantly influences every aspect of mission planning, from the basic parameters like duration to the more complex tradeoffs between mass, volume, power, risk, and cost. For engineers who rely on precise specifications in data books and other such technical references, dealing with the uncertainty and the variability of designing for human beings can be frustrating. When designing for the human element, questions arise more often than definitive answers. Nonetheless, we do not doubt that the most captivating discoveries in future space missions will necessitate human explorers. These guidelines and capabilities are meant to identify the points of intersection between humans and mission considerations such as architecture, vehicle design, technologies, operations, and science requirements. We seek to provide clear, top-level guidelines for human-related exploration studies and technology research that address common questions and requirements. As a result, we hope that ongoing mission trade studies consider common, standard, and practical criteria for human interfaces.

  15. Science and Deep Space Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon-Miller, Amy

    2011-01-01

    Have you ever wondered about the science goals of various deep space missions? Or why scientists want such seemingly complicated spacecraft and operations scenarios? With a focus on outer planets) this talk will cover the scientific goals and results of several recent and future missions) how scientists approach a requirements flow down) and how the disparate needs of mission engineers and scientists can come together for mission success. It will also touch on several up and coming technologies and how they will change mission architectures in the future.

  16. STS-109 Shuttle Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    This is the insignia of the STS-109 Space Shuttle mission. Carrying a crew of seven, the Space Shuttle Orbiter Columbia was launched with goals of maintenance and upgrades to the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). The Marshall Space Flight Center had the responsibility for the design, development, and construction of the HST, which is the most complex and sensitive optical telescope ever made, to study the cosmos from a low-Earth orbit. The HST detects objects 25 times fainter than the dimmest objects seen from Earth and provides astronomers with an observable universe 250 times larger than is visible from ground-based telescopes, perhaps as far away as 14 billion light-years. The HST views galaxies, stars, planets, comets, possibly other solar systems, and even unusual phenomena such as quasars, with 10 times the clarity of ground-based telescopes. During the STS-109 mission, the telescope was captured and secured on a work stand in Columbia's payload bay using Columbia's robotic arm where four members of the crew performed five spacewalks completing system upgrades to the HST. Included in those upgrades were: The replacement of the solar array panels; replacement of the power control unit (PCU); replacement of the Faint Object Camera (FOC) with a new advanced camera for Surveys (ACS); and installation of the experimental cooling system for the Hubble's Near-Infrared Camera and Multi-object Spectrometer (NICMOS), which had been dormant since January 1999 when it original coolant ran out. Lasting 10 days, 22 hours, and 11 minutes, the STS-109 mission was the 27th flight of the Orbiter Columbia and the 108th flight overall in NASA's Space Shuttle Program.

  17. STS-109 Shuttle Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Carrying a crew of seven, the Space Shuttle Orbiter Columbia soared through some pre-dawn clouds into the sky as it began its 27th flight, STS-109. Launched March 1, 2002, the goal of the mission was the maintenance and upgrade of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). The Marshall Space Flight Center had the responsibility for the design, development, and construction of the HST, which is the most complex and sensitive optical telescope ever made, to study the cosmos from a low-Earth orbit. The HST detects objects 25 times fainter than the dimmest objects seen from Earth and provides astronomers with an observable universe 250 times larger than is visible from ground-based telescopes, perhaps as far away as 14 billion light-years. The HST views galaxies, stars, planets, comets, possibly other solar systems, and even unusual phenomena such as quasars, with 10 times the clarity of ground-based telescopes. During the STS-109 mission, the telescope was captured and secured on a work stand in Columbia's payload bay using Columbia's robotic arm. Here four members of the crew performed five spacewalks completing system upgrades to the HST. Included in those upgrades were: replacement of the solar array panels; replacement of the power control unit (PCU); replacement of the Faint Object Camera (FOC) with a new advanced camera for Surveys (ACS); and installation of the experimental cooling system for the Hubble's Near-Infrared Camera and Multi-object Spectrometer (NICMOS), which had been dormant since January 1999 when it original coolant ran out. Lasting 10 days, 22 hours, and 11 minutes, the STS-109 mission was the 108th flight overall in NASA's Space Shuttle Program.

  18. Solar Electric Propulsion Mission Architectures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerslake, Thomas W.

    2003-01-01

    This presentation reviews Solar Electric Propulsion (SEP) Mission Architectures with a slant towards power system technologies and challenges. The low-mass, high-performance attributes of SEP systems have attracted spacecraft designers and mission planners alike and have led to a myriad of proposed Earth orbiting and planetary exploration missions. These SEP missions are discussed from the earliest missions in the 1960's, to first demonstrate electric thrusters, to the multi-megawatt missions envisioned many decades hence. The technical challenges and benefits of applying high-voltage arrays, thin film and low-intensity, low-temperature (LILT) photovoltaics, gossamer structure solar arrays, thruster articulating systems and microsat systems to SEP spacecraft power system designs are addressed. The overarching conclusion from this review is that SEP systems enhance, and many times enable, a wide class of space missions.

  19. Enabling the human mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bosley, John

    The duplication of earth conditions aboard a spacecraft or planetary surface habitat requires 60 lb/day/person of food, potable and hygiene water, and oxygen. A 1000-day mission to Mars would therefore require 30 tons of such supplies per crew member in the absence of a closed-cycle, or regenerative, life-support system. An account is given of the development status of regenerative life-support systems, as well as of the requisite radiation protection and EVA systems, the health-maintenance and medical care facilities, zero-gravity deconditioning measures, and planetary surface conditions protection.

  20. The CHEOPS Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Broeg, Christopher; benz, willy; fortier, andrea; Ehrenreich, David; beck, Thomas; cessa, Virginie; Alibert, Yann; Heng, Kevin

    2015-12-01

    The CHaracterising ExOPlanet Satellite (CHEOPS) is a joint ESA-Switzerland space mission dedicated to search for exoplanet transits by means of ultra-high precision photometry. It is expected to be launch-ready at the end of 2017.CHEOPS will be the first space observatory dedicated to search for transits on bright stars already known to host planets. It will have access to more than 70% of the sky. This will provide the unique capability of determining accurate radii for planets for which the mass has already been estimated from ground-based radial velocity surveys and for new planets discovered by the next generation ground-based transits surveys (Neptune-size and smaller). The measurement of the radius of a planet from its transit combined with the determination of its mass through radial velocity techniques gives the bulk density of the planet, which provides direct insights into the structure and/or composition of the body. In order to meet the scientific objectives, a number of requirements have been derived that drive the design of CHEOPS. For the detection of Earth and super-Earth planets orbiting G5 dwarf stars with V-band magnitudes in the range 6 ≤ V ≤ 9 mag, a photometric precision of 20 ppm in 6 hours of integration time must be reached. This time corresponds to the transit duration of a planet with a revolution period of 50 days. In the case of Neptune-size planets orbiting K-type dwarf with magnitudes as faint as V=12 mag, a photometric precision of 85 ppm in 3 hours of integration time must be reached. To achieve this performance, the CHEOPS mission payload consists of only one instrument, a space telescope of 30 cm clear aperture, which has a single CCD focal plane detector. CHEOPS will be inserted in a low Earth orbit and the total duration of the CHEOPS mission is 3.5 years (goal: 5 years).The presentation will describe the current payload and mission design of CHEOPS, give the development status, and show the expected performances.

  1. Space Shuttle Missions Summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bennett, Floyd V.; Legler, Robert D.

    2011-01-01

    This document has been produced and updated over a 21-year period. It is intended to be a handy reference document, basically one page per flight, and care has been exercised to make it as error-free as possible. This document is basically "as flown" data and has been compiled from many sources including flight logs, flight rules, flight anomaly logs, mod flight descent summary, post flight analysis of mps propellants, FDRD, FRD, SODB, and the MER shuttle flight data and inflight anomaly list. Orbit distance traveled is taken from the PAO mission statistics.

  2. Missions to Mercury

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grard, Réjean; Laakso, Harry; Svedhem, Håkan

    2002-10-01

    Mercury is a poorly known planet. It is difficult to observe from Earth and to explore with spacecraft, due to its proximity to the Sun. Only the NASA probe Mariner 10 caught a few glimpses of Mercury during three flybys, more than 27 years ago. Still, this planet is an interesting and important object because it belongs, like our own Earth, to the family of the terrestrial planets. After reviewing what we know about Mercury and recapitulating the major findings of Mariner 10, we present the two missions, Messenger and BepiColombo, which will perform the first systematic exploration of this forgotten planet in 2009 and 2014, respectively.

  3. The PICARD mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thuillier, G.; Prado, J.-Y.

    The understanding of the physical processes taking place in the Sun allows construction of solar models. These models are validated by comparison between predictions and observations. Most of the observations are total and spectral solar irradiance, temperature, frequencies of oscillation, diameter, and asphericity, as well as their variations as a function of time. By 2006 and beyond, several missions dedicated to solar observations will be operated in particular PICARD and Solar Dynamics Observer which have complementary measurements and a strong scientific synergy for the study of the solar variability and its consequence for the Earth's climate.

  4. The ADAHELI Solar Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berrilli, F.; Velli, M.; Roselli, L.; Bigazzi, A.; Moretti, P. F.; Romoli, M.; Orsini, S.; Cavallini, F.; Greco, V.; Carbone, V.; Consolini, G.; Di Mauro, M. P.; Ermolli, I.; Pietropaolo, E.; Romano, P.; Ventura, P.; White, S. M.; Zuccarello, F.; Cauzzi, G.; Valdettaro, L.

    2008-09-01

    ADAHELI (Advanced Astronomy for HELIOphysics) is an Italian Space project for the investigation of solar photospheric and chromospheric dynamics, via high-resolution spectro-polarimetric observations in the near-infrared spectral range. The mission has been financed for phase A study in the framework of ASI Italian Space Agency Small Missions Program call of September 2007. Four fields have been selected to highlight the specific benefits of ADAHELI scientific payload: 1) Photospheric and chromospheric dynamics and structure, 2) Emergence and evolution of solar active regions and solar irradiance, 3) Chromospheric and corona heating and turbulence, 4) Solar flares in the millimeter wavelength region. The principal science instrument, ISODY, is a 50 cm solar telescope equipped with an innovative Focal Plane Suite composed of a spectro-polarimetric imager, based upon two Fabry-Perot interferometers operating in the NIR regions around 845nm and 1083nm, a broad band imager, and a correlation tracker used as image stabilization system. Designed Mission Profiles for ADAHELI intend to achieve continuous high-spectral and spatial resolution observations of the Sun for a routine duration of 4 hours with a goal to be extended to 24 hours. ADAHELI also carries MIOS, a millimeter wavelengths radiometer operating at around 90 GHz for flare detection. The ADAHELI payload's instrument suite integrates and complements, without overlap, the present major objectives of ESA, NASA and the International Living with a Star program, in particular Solar Dynamics Observatory, PICARD, Solar Orbiter, and the Solar Probe missions. Proposals for optional instruments are also under evaluation: DIMMI-2h, a double channel MOF based full disk imager operating at 589nm and 770nm, allowing high temporal resolution velocity and magnetic field measurements; EISR a two channel spectrometer operating in the 50-130 nm wavelength range, and NPA, an in-situ Neutral Particle Analyzer to detect Energetic

  5. Mission to Planet Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tilford, Shelby G.; Asrar, Ghassem; Backlund, Peter W.

    1994-01-01

    Mission to Planet Earth (MTPE) is NASA's concept for an international science program to produce the understanding needed to predict changes in the Earth's environment. NASA and its interagency and international partners will place satellites carrying advanced sensors in strategic Earth orbits to gather multidisciplinary data. A sophisticated data system will process and archive an unprecedented amount of information about the Earth and how it works as a system. Increased understanding of the Earth system is a basic human responsibility, a prerequisite to informed management of the planet's resources and to the preservation of the global environment.

  6. Mission to Planet Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Gregory S.; Backlund, Peter W.

    1992-01-01

    Mission to Planet Earth (MTPE) is NASA's concept for an international science program to produce the understanding needed to predict changes in the earth's environment. NASA and its interagency and international partners will place satellites carrying advanced sensors in strategic earth orbits to gather multidisciplinary data. A sophisticated data system will process and archive an unprecedented amount of information about the earth and how it works as a system. Increased understanding of the earth system is a basic human responsibility, a prerequisite to informed management of the planet's resources and to the preservation of the global environment.

  7. The EOS Aura Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schoebert, Mark R.; Douglass, A. R.; Hilsenrath, E.; Bhartia, P. K.; Barnett, J.; Gille, J.; Beer, R.; Gunson, M.; Waters, J.; Levelt, P. F.

    2004-01-01

    The Earth Observing System (EOS) Aura satellite is scheduled to launch in the second quarter of 2004. The Aura mission is designed to attack three science questions: (1) Is the ozone layer recovering as expected? (2) What are the sources and processes that control tropospheric pollutants? (3) What is the quantitative impact of constituents on climate change? Aura will answer these questions by globally measuring a comprehensive set of trace gases and aerosols at high vertical and horizontal resolution. Fig. 1 shows the Aura spacecraft and its four instruments.

  8. The Apollo missions.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scherer, L. R.

    1971-01-01

    The Apollo 11 and 12 lunar landings are briefly reviewed together with the problems experienced with Apollo 13. As a result of the first two landing missions it became known that parts of the moon are at least four and one-half billion years old. If the moon was once part of the earth, it must have split off very early in its history. Starting with Apollo 16, changes in hardware will result in very significant improvements and capabilities. The landed payload will be increased by over 100%.

  9. Climate Benchmark Missions: CLARREO

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wielicki, Bruce A.; Young, David F.

    2010-01-01

    CLARREO (Climate Absolute Radiance and Refractivity Observatory) is one of the four Tier 1 missions recommended by the recent NRC decadal survey report on Earth Science and Applications from Space (NRC, 2007). The CLARREO mission addresses the need to rigorously observe climate change on decade time scales and to use decadal change observations as the most critical method to determine the accuracy of climate change projections such as those used in the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC AR4). A rigorously known accuracy of both decadal change observations as well as climate projections is critical in order to enable sound policy decisions. The CLARREO mission accomplishes this critical objective through highly accurate and SI traceable decadal change observations sensitive to many of the key uncertainties in climate radiative forcings, responses, and feedbacks that in turn drive uncertainty in current climate model projections. The same uncertainties also lead to uncertainty in attribution of climate change to anthropogenic forcing. The CLARREO breakthrough in decadal climate change observations is to achieve the required levels of accuracy and traceability to SI standards for a set of observations sensitive to a wide range of key decadal change variables. These accuracy levels are determined both by the projected decadal changes as well as by the background natural variability that such signals must be detected against. The accuracy for decadal change traceability to SI standards includes uncertainties of calibration, sampling, and analysis methods. Unlike most other missions, all of the CLARREO requirements are judged not by instantaneous accuracy, but instead by accuracy in large time/space scale average decadal changes. Given the focus on decadal climate change, the NRC Decadal Survey concluded that the single most critical issue for decadal change observations was their lack of accuracy and low confidence in

  10. STS-61 mission director's post-mission report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newman, Ronald L.

    1995-01-01

    To ensure the success of the complex Hubble Space Telescope servicing mission, STS-61, NASA established a number of independent review groups to assess management, design, planning, and preparation for the mission. One of the resulting recommendations for mission success was that an overall Mission Director be appointed to coordinate management activities of the Space Shuttle and Hubble programs and to consolidate results of the team reviews and expedite responses to recommendations. This report presents pre-mission events important to the experience base of mission management, with related Mission Director's recommendations following the event(s) to which they apply. All Mission Director's recommendations are presented collectively in an appendix. Other appendixes contain recommendations from the various review groups, including Payload Officers, the JSC Extravehicular Activity (EVA) Section, JSC EVA Management Office, JSC Crew and Thermal Systems Division, and the STS-61 crew itself. This report also lists mission events in chronological order and includes as an appendix a post-mission summary by the lead Payload Deployment and Retrieval System Officer. Recommendations range from those pertaining to specific component use or operating techniques to those for improved management, review, planning, and safety procedures.

  11. Water Cycling &the GPM Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, E. A.

    2003-04-01

    The GPM mission is currently planned for start in the late'07 - early'08 time frame. Its main scientific goal is to help answer pressing scientific problems arising within the context of global and regional water cycles. These problems cut across a hierarchy of scales and include climate-water cycle interactions, techniques for improving weather and climate predictions, and better methods for combining observed precipitation with hydrometeorological prediction models for applications to hazardous flood-producing storms, seasonal flood/draught conditions, and fresh water resource assessments. The GPM mission will expand the scope of precipitation measurement through the use of a constellation of some 9 satellites, one of which will be an advanced TRMM-like "core" satellite carrying a dual-frequency Ku-Ka band precipitation radar and an advanced, multifrequency passive microwave radiometer with vertical-horizontal polarization discrimination. The other constellation members will include new dedicated satellites and co-existing operational/research satellites carrying similar (but not identical) passive microwave radiometers. The goal of the constellation is to achieve 3-hour sampling at any spot on the globe - continuously. The constellation's orbit architecture will consist of a mix of sun-synchronous and non-sun-synchronous satellites with the "core" satellite providing measurements of cloud-precipitation microphysical processes plus calibration-quality rainrates to be used with the other retrieval information to ensure bias-free constellation coverage. GPM is organized internationally, involving existing, pending, projected, and under-study partnerships which will link NASA and NOAA in the US, NASDA in Japan, ESA in Europe, ISRO in India, CNES in France, and possibly ASI in Italy, KARI in South Korea, CSA in Canada, and AEB in Brazil. Additionally, the program is actively pursuing agreements with other international collaborators and domestic scientific agencies

  12. The FAME mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnston, Kenneth J.

    2003-02-01

    The Full-sky Astrometric Mapping Explorer (FAME) space mission will perform an all sky astrometric survey with unprecedented accuracy. FAME will produce an astrometric catalog of 40 million stars between 5th and 15th visual magnitude. For the bright stars (5th to 9th magnitude), FAME will determine the positions and parallaxes to better than 50 μas, with proper motion errors of 70 μas per year. For the fainter stars (between l0th and 15th magnitude), FAME will determine positions and parallaxes accurate to better than 500 μas with proper motions errors less than 500 μas per year. FAME will also collect photometric data on the 40 million stars. The accuracy of a single observation of a 9th magnitude star will be 1 mmag. The FAME mission will impact almost all areas of astrophysics. It will find planets revolving around nearby stars, further studies of stellar evolution, determine the location of dark matter in the Milky Way galaxy, and measure the size and age of the universe. It will also establish a celestial reference frame with an accuracy better than a microarcsecond.

  13. Past experience Skylab mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pogue, William

    1990-01-01

    The design of the Skylab missions, 1973 to 1974, was intended to exclude any direct handling of hazardous, toxic, or reactive materials. The materials processing facility and multipurpose furnace provided a contained environment for conducting metals melting, brazing, sphere forming, and crystal growth experiments. At the end of the third mission, following the completion of all other experiments, the materials processing facility was used for a series of flammability experiments. The flammability tests were done last because of the contamination expected from the burning of the materials within the facility. The flammability tests demonstrated a number of peculiar effects that have implications for future design (fire detection, location, and suppression/control). Although the results of the flammability tests contain lessons appropriate to planning, a number of events during the flight illustrate situations or conditions that pose considerations beyond the commonly accepted range of concern for safety-related matters. This presentation includes a discussion of: Skylab flammability studies and the implications for fire suppression/control; false fire alarms and the Skylab fire detection system; space environmental effects on materials that are normally benign; spills/release of contaminants; the detrimental effect that the release of non-hazardous materials have on detection systems; and the problem of locating sources/originating point of hazards.

  14. The OHMIC Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ergun, R.; Burch, J. L.; Lotko, W.; Frey, H. U.; Chaston, C. C.

    2013-12-01

    The Observatory for Heteroscale Magnetosphere-Ionosphere Coupling (OHMIC) investigates the coupling of Earth's magnetosphere and ionosphere (MI) focusing on the conversion of electromagnetic energy into particle energy in auroral acceleration regions. Energy conversion and acceleration are universal processes that are a critical part of MI coupling and govern the energy deposition into Earth's upper atmosphere. These same processes are known to occur in planetary magnetospheres and in the magnetized plasmas of stars. Energy conversion and acceleration in the auroral regions are known to occur on small spatial scales through dispersive Alfvén waves and nonlinear plasma structures such as double layers. OHMIC advances our understanding of MI coupling over previous missions using two spacecraft equipped with high-time resolution measurements of electron distributions, ion distributions, and vector electric and magnetic fields. One of the spacecraft will carry two high-time and high-spatial resolution imagers and a wide-angle imager in the far ultraviolet. The mission has two phases. The first phase investigates meridional phenomena by using the combination of two-point measurements and high-resolution to distinguishing spatial and temporal phenomena. The second phase investigates field-aligned phenomena with spacecraft separations between 10 and 1100 km. Primary science objectives include (1) determining how energy conversion and transport vary along the magnetic field, (2) determining how ionospheric outflow is mediated by ion heating, convection and field-aligned transport, and (3) determining how charged-particle acceleration and injection vary in time and space.

  15. Apollo 11 Mission Commemorated

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2009-07-01

    On 24 July 1969, 4 days after Apollo 11 Mission Commander Neil Armstrong and Lunar Module Eagle Pilot Eugene “Buzz” Aldrin had become the first people to walk on the Moon, they and Apollo 11 Command Module Pilot Michael Collins peered through a window of the Mobile Quarantine Facility on board the U.S.S. Hornet following splashdown of the command module in the central Pacific as U.S. President Richard Nixon told them, “This is the greatest week in the history of the world since the creation.” Forty years later, the Apollo 11 crew and other Apollo-era astronauts gathered at several events in Washington, D. C., to commemorate and reflect on the Apollo program, that mission, and the future of manned spaceflight. “I don’t know what the greatest week in history is,” Aldrin told Eos. “But it was certainly a pioneering opening the door. With the door open when we touched down on the Moon, that was what enabled humans to put many more footprints on the surface of the Moon.”

  16. STS-54 Mission Insignia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    Designed by the crewmembers, the STS-54 crew patch depicts the Amefican bald eagle soaring above Earth and is emblematic of the Space Shuttle Endeavour in service to the United States and the world. The eagle is clutching an eightpointed star in its talons and is placing this larger star among a constellation of four others, representing the placement of the fifth Tracking and Data Relay Satellite (TDRS) into orbit to join the four already in service. The blackness of space -- with stars conspicuously absent -- represents the crew's other primary mission in carrying the Diffuse X-ray Spectrometer to orbit to conduct astronomical observations of invisible x-ray sources within the Milky Way Galaxy. The depiction of Earth showing North America is an expression of the crewmembers and NASA's intention that the medical and scientific experiments conducted onboard be for the benefit of mankind. The clouds and blue of Earth represent the crew's part in NASA's Mission to Planet Earth in conducting Earthobseation photography.

  17. Instrumentation and new missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicastro, Fabrizio; Cash, W.; Bautz, M.; Elvis, M.

    2012-09-01

    A Soft X-Ray Grating Mission: Missing Baryons, AGN Outflows, Cosmic Feedback, Coronae Doppler Tomography, and much more | I will review the parameters of the new generation of high efficiency high resolution X-ray grating spectrometers, and present possible mission configurations, which would allow soft X-ray spectrometry to be performed on a large variety of astrophysical sources, with high diagnostic power. Resolving powers of R~4000 at 0.5 keV correspond to velocity accuracies of only few tens of km per second, sufficient to separate physical and dynamical phases of the low red shift photo-ionized and shock-heated inter-galactic medium (IGM), investigate mechanical and metal-feedback from galaxies to their surrounding circum- galactic medium (CGM) and IGM, study the physics and kinematics of AGN outflows, probing the dynamics of hot X-ray gas in clusters from their center to their virial radius and beyond, Doppler-mapping X-ray coronae of active stars.

  18. The SPICA mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sibthorpe, B.; Helmich, F.; Roelfsema, P.; Kaneda, H.; Shibai, H.

    2016-05-01

    SPICA is a mid and far-infrared space mission to be submitted as a candidate to ESA's fifth medium class mission call, due in early 2016. This will be a joint project between ESA and JAXA, with ESA taking the lead role. If selected, SPICA will launch in ˜2029 and operate for a goal lifetime of 5 years. The spacecraft will house a 2.5 m telescope actively cooled to 8 K, providing unprecedented sensitivity at mid-far infrared wavelengths. The low background environment and wavelength coverage provided by SPICA will make it possible to conduct detailed spectroscopic surveys of sources in both the local and distant Universe, deep into the most obscured regions. Using these data the evolution of galaxies over a broad and continuous range of cosmic time can be studied, spanning the era of peak star forming activity. SPICA will also provide unique access to, among others, the deep-lying water-ice spectral features and HD lines within planet forming discs. SPICA will conduct an extensive survey of both planet forming discs and evolved planetary systems, with the aim of providing the missing link between planet formation models and the large number of extrasolar planetary systems now being discovered.

  19. AXTAR: Mission Design Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, Paul S.; Chakrabarty, Deepto; Wilson-Hodge, Colleen A.; Philips, Bernard F.; Remillard, Ronald A.; Levine, Alan M.; Wood, Kent S.; Wolff, Michael T.; Gwon, Chul S.; Strohmayer, Tod E.; Briggs, Michael S.; Capizzo, Peter; Fabisinski, Leo; Hopkins, Randall C.; Hornsby, Linda S.; Johnson, Les; Maples, C. Dauphne; Miernik, Janie H.; Thomas, Dan; DeGeronimo, Gianluigi

    2010-01-01

    The Advanced X-ray Timing Array (AXTAR) is a mission concept for X-ray timing of compact objects that combines very large collecting area, broadband spectral coverage, high time resolution, highly flexible scheduling, and an ability to respond promptly to time-critical targets of opportunity. It is optimized for sub-millisecond timing of bright Galactic X-ray sources in order to study phenomena at the natural time scales of neutron star surfaces and black hole event horizons, thus probing the physics of ultra-dense matter, strongly curved spacetimes, and intense magnetic fields. AXTAR s main instrument, the Large Area Timing Array (LATA) is a collimated instrument with 2 50 keV coverage and over 3 square meters effective area. The LATA is made up of an array of super-modules that house 2-mm thick silicon pixel detectors. AXTAR will provide a significant improvement in effective area (a factor of 7 at 4 keV and a factor of 36 at 30 keV) over the RXTE PCA. AXTAR will also carry a sensitive Sky Monitor (SM) that acts as a trigger for pointed observations of X-ray transients in addition to providing high duty cycle monitoring of the X-ray sky. We review the science goals and technical concept for AXTAR and present results from a preliminary mission design study

  20. The microscope mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Touboul, Pierre; Foulon, Bernard; Lafargue, Laurent; Metris, Gilles

    2002-04-01

    The MICROSCOPE mission had been selected at the end of 1999 by the French space agency Cnes for a launch scheduled in 2004. The scientific objective of the mission is the test of the Equivalence Principle (EP) up to an accuracy of 10 -15 with its well-known manifestation, the universality of free fall. This principle, at the origin of general relativity, is only consolidated by experimental results and presently with an accuracy of several 10 -13. The micro-satellite developed by Cnes weighs less than 120 kg and is compatible with a low-cost launch like ASAP ARIANE V. The instrument is composed of two differential electrostatic accelerometers operating at finely stabilised room temperature. Each accelerometer includes two cylindrical and concentric test masses, made of platinum or titanium alloys. The experiment consists in controlling the two masses in the same orbital motion. Because of the drag compensation system of the satellite including field effect electrical thrusters, this motion is quite purely gravitational. The electrostatic control forces used in the differential accelerometers are finely measured. The principle of the experiment is presented, the configuration of the instrument and of the satellite is detailed with regard to the present development status. The specifications for the major parameters of the experiment are detailed.