Science.gov

Sample records for 16-day sts-90 mission

  1. STS-90 Mission Insignia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    The STS-90 crew patch reflects the dedication of the mission to neuroscience in celebration of the decade of the brain. Earth is revealed through a neuron-shaped window, which symbolizes new perspectives in the understanding of nervous system development, structure and function, both here on Earth and in the microgravity environment of space. The Space Shuttle Columbia is depicted with its open payload bay doors revealing the Spacelab within. An integral component of the mission, the laboratory/science module provided by the European Space Agency (ESA), signifies the strong international involvement in the mission. The seven crew members and two alternate payload specialists, Chiaki Naito-Mukai and Alexander W. Dunlap, are represented by the nine major stars of the constellation Cetus (the whale) in recognition of the International Year of the Ocean. The distant stars illustrate the far reaching implications of the mission science to the many sponsoring agencies, helping prepare for long-duration space flight aboard the International Space Station (ISS). The moon and Mars are depicted to reflect the crew's recognition that those two celestial bodies will be the next great challenges in human exploration of space and represent the key role that life science research will play in supporting such missions.

  2. STS-90 Mission Highlights Resource Tape

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    The flight crew of the STS-90 mission, Cmdr. Richard A. Searfoss, Pilot Scott D. Altman, and Mission Specialists Richard M. Linnehan, Dafydd Rhys Williams and Kathryn P. Hire, and Payload Specialists Jay C. Buckey and James A. Pawelczyk can be seen performing pre-launch activities such as eating the traditional breakfast, crew suit-up, and the ride out to the launch pad. Also, included are various panoramic views of the shuttle on the pad. The crew is readied in the 'white room' for their mission. After the closing of the hatch and arm retraction, launch activities are shown including countdown, engine ignition, launch, and the separation of the Solid Rocket Boosters. In the second part of the video the crew turn their attention to a variety of experiments inside the Shuttle's cabin. These experiments include the processing of several samples of materials in the glovebox facility in Shuttle's middeck; the experiment called PEP, which involves heating samples and then recording the mixture as it resolidifies; and the study of plant growth in space.

  3. STS-90 Mission Specialist Richard Linnehan suits up

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    STS-90 Mission Specialist Richard Linnehan, D.V.M., sits in a chair during suitup activities in the Operations and Checkout Building. Linnehan and the rest of the STS-90 crew will shortly depart for Launch Pad 39B, where the Space Shuttle Columbia awaits a second liftoff attempt at 2:19 p.m. EDT. His second trip into space, Linnehan is participating in a life sciences research flight that will focus on the most complex and least understood part of the human body -- the nervous system. Neurolab will examine the effects of spaceflight on the brain, spinal cord, peripheral nerves and sensory organs in the human body.

  4. The Neurolab Spacelab Mission: Neuroscience Research in Space: Results from the STS-90, Neurolab Spacelab Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buckey, Jay C., Jr. (Editor); Homick, Jerry L. (Editor)

    2003-01-01

    Neurolab (STS-90) represents a major scientific achievement that built upon the knowledge and capabilities developed during the preceding 15 successful Spacelab module missions. NASA proposed a dedicated neuroscience research flight in response to a Presidential declaration that the 1990's be the Decade of the Brain. Criteria were established for selecting research proposals in partnership with the National Institutes of Health (NM), the National Science Foundation, the Department of Defense, and a number of the International Space Agencies. The resulting Announcement of Opportunity for Neurolab in 1993 resulted in 172 proposals from scientists worldwide. After an NIH-managed peer review, NASA ultimately selected 26 proposals for flight on the Neurolab mission.

  5. STS-90 Landing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    A flock of birds takes flight as the orbiter Columbia, with its drag chute deployed, touches down on Runway 22 of KSC's Shuttle Landing Facility to complete the nearly 16-day STS-90 mission. Main gear touchdown was at 12:08:59 p.m. EDT on May 3, 1998, landing on orbit 256 of the mission. The wheels stopped at 12:09:58 EDT, completing a total mission time of 15 days, 21 hours, 50 minutes and 58 seconds. The 90th Shuttle mission was Columbia's 13th landing at the Space Center and the 43rd KSC landing in the history of the Space Shuttle program. During the mission, the crew conducted research to contribute to a better understanding of the human nervous system. The crew of the STS-90 Neurolab mission included Commander Richard Searfoss; Pilot Scott Altman; Mission Specialists Richard Linnehan, D.V.M., Dafydd (Dave) Williams, M.D., with the Canadian Sapce Agency, and Kathryn (Kay) Hire; and Payload Specialists Jay Buckey, M.D., and James Pawelczyk, Ph.D.

  6. Debris/Ice/TPS Assessment and Integrated Photographic Analysis of Shuttle Mission STS-90

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katnik, Gregory N.

    1998-01-01

    A debris/ice/thermal protection system assessment and integrated photographic analysis was conducted for Shuttle mission STS-90. Debris inspections of the flight elements and launch pad were performed before and after launch. Icing conditions on the External Tank were assessed by the use of computer programs and infrared scanned data during cryogenic loading of the vehicle, followed by on-pad visual inspection. High speed photography of the launch was analyzed to identify ice/debris sources and evaluate potential vehicle damage and/or in-flight anomalies. This report documents the ice/debris/thermal protection system-conditions and integrated photographic analysis of Space Shuttle mission STS-90 and the resulting effect on the Space Shuttle Program.

  7. STS-90 Mission Specialist Dave Williams is suited up for launch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    STS-90 Mission Specialist Dafydd (Dave) Williams, M.D., with the Canadian Space Agency sits in a chair during suitup activities in the Operations and Checkout Building. Williams and the rest of the STS-90 crew will shortly depart for Launch Pad 39B, where the Space Shuttle Columbia awaits a second liftoff attempt at 2:19 p.m. EDT. His first trip into space, Williams is participating in this life sciences research flight that will focus on the most complex and least understood part of the human body -- the nervous system. Neurolab will examine the effects of spaceflight on the brain, spinal cord, peripheral nerves and sensory organs in the human body.

  8. STS-90 Mission Specialist Kathryn (Kay) Hire is suited up for launch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    STS-90 Mission Specialist Kathryn (Kay) Hire prepares for launch during suitup activities in the Operations and Checkout Building as Astronaut Support Personnel team member Heidi Piper braids Hire's hair. Hire and the rest of the STS-90 crew will shortly depart for Launch Pad 39B, where the Space Shuttle Columbia awaits a second liftoff attempt at 2:19 p.m. EDT. Her first trip into space, Hire is participating in this life sciences research flight that will focus on the most complex and least understood part of the human body -- the nervous system. Neurolab will examine the effects of spaceflight on the brain, spinal cord, peripheral nerves and sensory organs in the human body.

  9. STS-90 Mission Commander Richard Searfoss is suited up for launch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    STS-90 Mission Specialist Kathryn (Kay) Hire prepares for launch during suitup activities in the Operations and Checkout Building as Astronaut Support Personnel team member Heidi Piper braids Hire's hair. Hire and the rest of the STS-90 crew will shortly depart for Launch Pad 39B, where the Space Shuttle Columbia awaits a second liftoff attempt at 2:19 p.m. EDT. Her first trip into space, Hire is participating in this life sciences research flight that will focus on the most complex and least understood part of the human body -- the nervous system. Neurolab will examine the effects of spaceflight on the brain, spinal cord, peripheral nerves and sensory organs in the human body.

  10. STS-90 Day 01 Highlights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    On this first day of the STS-90 mission, the flight crew, Cmdr. Richard A. Searfoss, Pilot Scott D. Altman, and Mission Specialists Richard M. Linnehan, Dafydd Rhys Williams and Kathryn P. Hire, and Payload Specialists Jay C. Buckey and James A. Pawelczyk, can be seen performing pre-launch activities such as eating the traditional breakfast, crew suit-up, and the ride out to the launch pad. Also, included are various panoramic views of the shuttle on the pad. The crew is readied in the white room' for their mission. After the closing of the hatch and arm retraction, launch activities are shown including countdown, engine ignition, launch, and the separation of the Solid Rocket Boosters. The shuttle's payload bay doors are then opened in anticipation of the 16-day scientific mission. The astronauts then are seen readying the Spacelab module for various experiments.

  11. STS-90 Day 05 Highlights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    On this fifth day of the STS-90 mission, the flight crew, Cmdr. Richard A. Searfoss, Pilot Scott D. Altman, and Mission Specialists Richard M. Linnehan, Dafydd Rhys Williams and Kathryn P. Hire, and Payload Specialists Jay C. Buckey and James A. Pawelczyk perform tests associated with the STS-90 Neurolab Vestibular Team's efforts to gain insight into the balance organs in the ear and all the connections that system has to the eyes, brain, and muscles in adapting to the weightless condition in space and then readapts to the gravity environment found on Earth.

  12. STS-90 Columbia landing at KSC's runway 33

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    A flock of birds takes flight as the orbiter Columbia, with its drag chute deployed, touches down on Runway 33 of KSC's Shuttle Landing Facility to complete the nearly 16-day STS-90 mission. Main gear touchdown was at 12:08:59 p.m. EDT on May 3, 1998, landing on orbit 256 of the mission. The wheels stopped at 12:09:58 EDT, completing a total mission time of 15 days, 21 hours, 50 minutes and 58 seconds. The 90th Shuttle mission was Columbia's 13th landing at the space center and the 43rd KSC landing in the history of the Space Shuttle program. During the mission, the crew conducted research to contribute to a better understanding of the human nervous system. The crew of the STS-90 Neurolab mission include Commander Richard Searfoss; Pilot Scott Altman; Mission Specialists Richard Linnehan, D.V.M., Dafydd (Dave) Williams, M.D., with the Canadian Space Agency, and Kathryn (Kay) Hire; and Payload Specialists Jay Buckey, M.D., and James Pawelczyk, Ph.D.

  13. STS-90 Columbia RSS rollback

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    With the Rotating Service Structure (RSS) rolled back, at left, the Space Shuttle Columbia is nearly ready for launch of STS-90. Rollback of the RSS is a major preflight milestone, typically occurring during the T-11-hour hold on L-1 (the day before launch). The scheduled launch of Columbia on Apr. 16 from Launch Pad 39B was postponed 24 hours due to difficulty with network signal processor No. 2 on the orbiter. This device formats data and voice communications between the ground and the Space Shuttle. The unit, which is located in the orbiter's mid-deck, will be removed and replaced. Prior to launch, one of the final steps will be to load the external tank with approximately 500,000 gallons of liquid hydrogen and liquid oxygen for fueling the orbiters three main engines. Tanking had not yet begun when the launch scheduled for Apr. 16 was scrubbed. STS-90 is slated to be the launch of Neurolab, a nearly 17-day mission to examine the effects of spaceflight on the brain, spinal cord, peripheral nerves and sensory organs in the human body.

  14. STS-90 Day 14 Highlights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    On this fourteenth day of the STS-90 mission, the flight crew, Cmdr. Richard A. Searfoss, Pilot Scott D. Altman, and Mission Specialists Richard M. Linnehan, Dafydd Rhys Williams and Kathryn P. Hire, and Payload Specialists Jay C. Buckey and James A. Pawelczyk focus on the efforts of Neurolab's Neuronal Plasticity Team to better understand how the adult nervous system adapts to the new environment of space. Columbia's science crew -- Mission Specialists Rick Linnehan and Dave Williams and Payload Specialists Jay Buckey and Jim Pawelczyk -- perform the second and final in-flight dissections of the adult male rats on board. The crew euthanizes and dissects nine rats and remove the vestibular or balance organs of the inner ear; the cerebellum, the part of the brain critical for maintaining balance and for processing information from the limbs so they can be moved smoothly; and the cerebrum, one part of which controls automatic functions such as body temperature regulation and the body's internal clock, and the cortical region that controls cognitive functions such as thinking. The first dissection, which was performed on the second day of the flight, went extremely well, according to Neurolab scientists.

  15. STS-90 Post Flight Presentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    The flight crew of the STS-90 mission, Cmdr. Richard A. Searfoss, Pilot Scott D. Altman, and Mission Specialists Richard M. Linnehan, Dafydd Rhys Williams and Kathryn P. Hire, and Payload Specialists Jay C. Buckey and James A. Pawelczyk can be seen performing pre-launch activities such as eating the traditional breakfast, crew suit-up, and the ride out to the launch pad. Also, included are various panoramic views of the shuttle on the pad. The crew is readied in the 'white room' for their mission. After the closing of the hatch and arm retraction, launch activities are shown including countdown, engine ignition, launch, and the separation of the Solid Rocket Boosters. In the second part of the video the crew turns its attention to a variety of experiments inside the Shuttle's cabin. These experiments include the processing of several samples of materials in the glovebox facility in Columbia's middeck; the experiment called PEP, which involves heating samples as they resolidify; and the study of plant growth in space.

  16. Ambient Light Intensity, Actigraphy, Sleep and Respiration, Circadian Temperature and Melatonin Rhythms and Daytime Performance of Crew Members During Space Flight on STS-90 and STS-95 Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Czeisler, Charles A.; Dijk, D.-J.; Neri, D. F.; Hughes, R. J.; Ronda, J. M.; Wyatt, J. K.; West, J. B.; Prisk, G. K.; Elliott, A. R.; Young, L. R.

    1999-01-01

    assessed during the STS-90 (Neurolab) and STS-95 missions in a double-blind placebo-controlled trial. In both flight-based experiments, the effects of melatonin on sleep stages and spectral composition of the EEG during sleep will be determined as well as its effects on daytime alertness and performance; (5) the impact of space flight on sleep and waking neurobehavioral alertness and performance in 30-45-year-old astronauts is compared with its impact in a 77-year-old astronaut. This case study is the first to assess the effects of space flight on an older individual. Because the investigators are still blind to the treatment in this double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, preliminary results will be presented independent of the drug condition.

  17. STS-90 Payload Specialist James Pawelczyk arrives at KSC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    STS-90 Payload Specialist James Pawelczyk, Ph.D., tosses mission hats to his two children shortly after arrival at Kennedy Space Center's Shuttle Landing Facility. The crew of STS-90 arrived at KSC in preparation for their mission, scheduled for launch from KSC's Launch Pad 39B on April 16 at 2:19 p.m. EDT. The flight of Neurolab is scheduled to last nearly 17 days.

  18. STS-90 crew during TCDT activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Members of the STS-90 flight crew train in the braking pit area for the emergency egress system slidewire baskets for Launch Pad 39B during Terminal Countdown Demonstration Test (TCDT) activities for that mission. The TCDT is held at KSC prior to each Space Shuttle flight to provide crews with the opportunity to participate in simulated countdown activities. From left to right are Commander Richard Searfoss, Mission Specialist Kathryn (Kay) Hire, Pilot Scott Altman, Payload Specialist Jay Buckey, M.D. (behind), Mission Specialist Dafydd (Dave) Williams, M.D., with the Canadian Space Agency, Payload Specialist James Pawelczyk, Ph.D., and Mission Specialist Richard Linnehan, D.V.M. Backup Payload Specialists Alexander Dunlap (holding camera), D.V.M., M.D., and Chiaki Mukai, M.D., Ph.D., with the National Space Development Agency of Japan are also listening to the trainer's instruction. Columbia is targeted for launch of STS-90 on April 16 at 2:19 p.m. EST and will be the second mission of 1998. The mission is scheduled to last nearly 17 days.

  19. Oyster toadfish fly on STS-90 as part of Neurolab

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    An oyster toadfish (Opsanus tau), like those that are part of the Neurolab payload on Space Shuttle Mission STS-90, is shown in its holding tank in the Space Station Processing Facility. Each fish is between eight and 14 inches long. Toadfish live in an estuarine environment and are native to areas along the Northeast coast of the United States. Investigations during the Neurolab mission will focus on the effects of microgravity on the nervous system. This fish is an excellent model for looking at vestibular function because the architecture of its inner and middle ear are similar to those of mammals with respect to the vestibular apparatus. The crew of STS-90, slated for launch April 16 at 2:19 p.m. EDT, includes Commander Richard Searfoss, Pilot Scott Altman, Mission Specialists Richard Linnehan, Dafydd (Dave) Williams, M.D., and Kathryn (Kay) Hire, and Payload Specialists Jay Buckey, M.D., and James Pawelczyk, Ph.D.

  20. Swordtail fish fly on STS-90 as part of Neurolab

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Swordtail fish (Xiphophorus helleri), like those that are part of the Neurolab payload on Space Shuttle Mission STS-90, are shown in their holding tank in the Operations and Checkout Building. The fish will fly in the Closed Equilibrated Biological Aquatic System (CEBAS) Minimodule, a middeck locker-sized fresh water habitat, designed to allow the controlled incubation of aquatic species in a self-stabilizing, artifical ecosystem for up to three weeks under space conditions. Investigations during the Neurolab mission will focus on the effects of microgravity on the nervous system. The crew of STS-90, slated for launch April 16 at 2:19 p.m. EDT, include Commander Richard Searfoss, Pilot Scott Altman, Mission Specialists Richard Linnehan, D.V.M., Dafydd (Dave) Williams, M.D., and Kathryn (Kay) Hire, and Payload Specialists Jay Buckey, M.D., and James Pawelczyk, Ph.D.

  1. Swordtail fish fly on STS-90 as part of Neurolab

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Swordtail fish (Xiphophorus helleri), like those that are part of the Neurolab payload on Space Shuttle Mission STS-90, are shown in their holding tanks in the Operations and Checkout Building. The fish will fly in the Closed Equilibrated Biological Aquatic System (CEBAS) Minimodule, a middeck locker-sized fresh water habitat, designed to allow the controlled incubation of aquatic species in a self-stabilizing, artifical ecosystem for up to three weeks under space conditions. Investigations during the Neurolab mission will focus on the effects of microgravity on the nervous system. The crew of STS-90, slated for launch April 16 at 2:19 p.m. EDT, include Commander Richard Searfoss, Pilot Scott Altman, Mission Specialists Richard Linnehan, D.V.M., Dafydd (Dave) Williams, M.D., and Kathryn (Kay) Hire, and Payload Specialists Jay Buckey, M.D., and James Pawelczyk, Ph.D.

  2. Swordtail fish fly on STS-90 as part of Neurolab

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Ingo Ronny Wortmann (left) and Dr. Dirk Voeste, scientists with Ruhr-University of Bochum, Germany, examine swordtail fish (Xiphophorus helleri), like those that are part of the Neurolab payload on Space Shuttle Mission STS-90, in their holding tanks in the Operations and Checkout Building. The fish will fly in the Closed Equilibrated Biological Aquatic System (CEBAS) Minimodule, a middeck locker-sized freshwater habitat, designed to allow the controlled incubation of aquatic species in a self-stabilizing, artifical ecosystem for up to three weeks under space conditions. Investigations during the Neurolab mission will focus on the effects of microgravity on the nervous system. The crew of STS- 90, slated for launch April 16 at 2:19 p.m. EDT, include Commander Richard Searfoss, Pilot Scott Altman, Mission Specialists Richard Linnehan, D.V.M., Dafydd (Dave) Williams, M.D., and Kathryn (Kay) Hire, and Payload Specialists Jay Buckey, M.D., and James Pawelczyk, Ph.D.

  3. Swordtail fish fly on STS-90 as part of Neurolab

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Dr. Dirk Voeste, a scientist with Ruhr-University of Bochum, Germany, examines some swordtail fish (Xiphophorus helleri), like those that are part of the Neurolab payload on Space Shuttle Mission STS-90, in their holding tank in the Operations and Checkout Building. The fish will fly in the Closed Equilibrated Biological Aquatic System (CEBAS) Minimodule, a middeck locker- sized fresh water habitat, designed to allow the controlled incubation of aquatic species in a self-stabilizing, artifical ecosystem for up to three weeks under space conditions. Investigations during the Neurolab mission will focus on the effects of microgravity on the nervous system. The crew of STS- 90, slated for launch April 16 at 2:19 p.m. EDT, include Commander Richard Searfoss, Pilot Scott Altman, Mission Specialists Richard Linnehan, D.V.M., Dafydd (Dave) Williams, M.D., and Kathryn (Kay) Hire, and Payload Specialists Jay Buckey, M.D., and James Pawelczyk, Ph.D.

  4. STS-90 payload bay door closure in OPF Bay 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    The STS-90 Neurolab payload and two of the four Getaway Specials (GAS) await payload bay door closure in the orbiter Columbia today in Orbiter Processing Facility bay 3. Investigations during the Neurolab mission will focus on the effects of microgravity on the nervous system. The GAS container on the left contains the COLLisions Into Dust Experiment, or COLLIDE, which will study low velocity collisions between space-borne particles in an attempt to better understand planetary ring dynamics. The STS-90 mission is a joint venture of six space agencies and seven U.S. research agencies. Agencies participating in this mission include six institutes of the National Institutes of Health, the National Science Foundation, and the Office of Naval Research, as well as the space agencies of Canada, France, Germany, and Japan, and the European Space Agency (ESA).

  5. Contribution of REM sleep to Fos and FRA expression in the vestibular nuclei of rat leading to vestibular adaptation during the STS-90 Neurolab Mission.

    PubMed

    Pompeiano, O

    2007-01-01

    1. Electrophysical studies performed in ground-based experiments have shown that VN neurons respond to labyrinthine signals following stimulation of macular gravity receptors. Additional evidence indicates that VN neurons may also respond to extralabyrinthine signals of pontine origin, which occur during the PGO waves typical of REM sleep (Bizzi et al., 1964a, b; cf. also Pompeiano, 1967, 1970, 1974 for ref.). 2. In a previous study (Pompeiano et al., 2002) changes in Fos and FRA expression were used to identify the short-term (Fos) and the long-term (FRA) molecular changes which affect the VN neurons at different time points of the space flight. In particular, while Fos protein persists in the brain tissue only for a few hours (6-8 hrs) after its induction, FRA proteins, which can also be induced in the same experimental conditions, persist in the brain tissue for longer periods of time (i.e. from 12/24 hrs to days). 3. In order to relate the changes in gene expression which occurred in the VN during the space flight either to gravity changes or to REM sleep, we investigated in a recent study (Centini et al, 2006) the changes in Fos and FRA expression which occurred in different phases of the sleep-waking cycle, thus being indicative of the animal state. We could then compare the results obtained during the space lab Mission with those previously observed either in ground-based experiments during the physiological state of waking and slow-wave (SWS) or during neurochemically induced episodes of PS, as obtained after microinjection of appropriate agents in dorsal pontine structures of rats. 4. Our findings indicated that a waking state possibly associated with episodes of SWS, occurred at FD2 and FD14, i.e. at launch and after exposure of the animal to microgravity. It appeared also that at the reentry (R + 1) rather than at launch (FD2), an increase in Fos and FRA expression affected the noradrenergic LC neurons, as well as several related structures. These

  6. STS-90 Crew Breakfast in O&C building

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    The STS-90 flight crew enjoy the traditional pre-liftoff breakfast in the crew quarters of the Operations and Checkout Building. They are, from left, Payload Specialist Jay Buckey, M.D., Mission Specialist Dafydd (Dave) Williams, M.D., with the Canadian Space Agency, Pilot Scott Altman, Commander Richard Searfoss, Mission Specialist Kathryn (Kay) Hire, Mission Specialist Richard Linnehan, D.V.M., and Payload Specialist James Pawelczyk, Ph.D. After a weather briefing, the flight crew will be fitted with their launch and entry suits and depart for Launch Pad 39B. Once there, they will take their positions in the crew cabin of the Space Shuttle Columbia to await liftoff during a two-and-a-half-hour window that will open at 2:19 p.m. EDT, Apr. 17. STS-90 is the launch of Neurolab, a nearly 17-day mission to examine the effects of spaceflight on the brain, spinal cord, peripheral nerves and sensory organs in the human body.

  7. Oyster toadfish fly on STS-90 as part of Neurolab

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    An oyster toadfish (Opsanus tau), like those that are part of the Neurolab payload on Space Shuttle Mission STS-90, is shown in its holding tank in the Space Station Processing Facility. Each fish is between eight and 14 inches long. Toadfish live in an estuarine environment and are native to areas along the Northeast coast of the United States. Since they are bottom dwellers that live in cracks and crevices, a tube is provided in its tank to give it a place to retreat and hide. Investigations during the Neurolab mission will focus on the effects of microgravity on the nervous system. This fish is an excellent model for looking at vestibular function because the architecture of its inner and middle ear are similar to those of mammals with respect to the vestibular apparatus. The crew of STS-90, slated for launch April 16 at 2:19 p.m. EDT, includes Commander Richard Searfoss, Pilot Scott Altman, Mission Specialists Richard Linnehan, Dafydd (Dave) Williams, M.D., and Kathryn (Kay) Hire, and Payload Specialists Jay Buckey, M.D., and James Pawelczyk, Ph.D.

  8. Oyster toadfish fly on STS-90 as part of Neurolab

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Bill Kroeger, an aquatic technician for the Bionetics Corporation, examines an oyster toadfish (Opsanus tau), like those that are part of the Neurolab payload on Space Shuttle Mission STS-90, in its holding tank in the Space Station Processing Facility. Each fish is between eight and 14 inches long. Toadfish live in an estuarine environment and are native to areas along the Northeast coast of the United States. Investigations during the Neurolab mission will focus on the effects of microgravity on the nervous system. This fish is an excellent model for looking at vestibular function because the architecture of its inner and middle ear are similar to those of mammals with respect to the vestibular apparatus. The crew of STS-90, slated for launch April 16 at 2:19 p.m. EDT, includes Commander Richard Searfoss, Pilot Scott Altman, Mission Specialists Richard Linnehan, Dafydd (Dave) Williams, M.D., and Kathryn (Kay) Hire, and Payload Specialists Jay Buckey, M.D., and James Pawelczyk, Ph.D.

  9. Oyster toadfish fly on STS-90 as part of Neurolab

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Oyster toadfish (Opsanus tau), like those that are part of the Neurolab payload on Space Shuttle Mission STS-90, are shown in their holding tank in the Space Station Processing Facility. Each fish is between 8 and 14 inches long. Toadfish live in an estuarine environment and are native to areas along the Northeast coast of the United States. Since they are bottom dwellers that live in cracks and crevices, tubes are provided in their tank to give them a place to retreat and hide. Investigations during the Neurolab mission will focus on the effects of microgravity on the nervous system. The toadfish fish is an excellent model for looking at vestibular function because the architecture of its inner and middle ear are similar to those of mammals with respect to the vestibular apparatus. The crew of STS-90, slated for launch April 16 at 2:19 p.m. EDT, includes Commander Richard Searfoss, Pilot Scott Altman, Mission Specialists Richard Linnehan, Dafydd (Dave) Williams, M.D., and Kathryn (Kay) Hire, and Payload Specialists Jay Buckey, M.D., and James Pawelczyk, Ph.D.

  10. STS-90 Columbia launch from LC-39B at KSC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Columbia lifts off from Launch Pad 39B at 2:19 p.m. EDT Apr. 17 to begin the nearly 17-day STS-90 Neurolab mission. A torrent of water is seen flowing onto the mobile launcher platform as several large quench nozzles, or 'rainbirds,' mounted on platform's surface operate as a sound suppression system. The crew members are Commander Richard Searfoss, Pilot Scott Altman, Mission Specialists Richard Linnehan, D.V.M., Dafydd (Dave) Williams, M.D., with the Canadian Space Agency, and Kathryn (Kay) Hire; and Payload Specialists Jay Buckey, M.D., and James Pawelczyk, Ph.D. Investigations during the Neurolab mission will focus on the effects of microgravity on the nervous system.

  11. STS-90 payload bay door closure in OPF Bay 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    The STS-90 Neurolab payload and two of the four Getaway Specials (GAS) await payload bay door closure in the orbiter Columbia today in Orbiter Processing Facility bay 3. Investigations during the Neurolab mission will focus on the effects of microgravity on the nervous system. The mission is a joint venture of six space agencies and seven U.S. research agencies. Investigator teams from nine countries will conduct 31 studies in the microgravity environment of space. Other agencies participating in this mission include six institutes of the National Institutes of Health, the National Science Foundation, and the Office of Naval Research, as well as the space agencies of Canada, France, Germany, and Japan, and the European Space Agency (ESA).

  12. A water snail catches a ride on STS-90 as part of Neurolab

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    A water snail (Biomphalaria glabrata), like those that are part of the Neurolab payload on Space Shuttle Mission STS-90, is held up for inspection in the Operations and Checkout Building. The snails will fly in the Closed Equilibrated Biological Aquatic System (CEBAS) Minimodule, a middeck locker-sized fresh water habitat, designed to allow the controlled incubation of aquatic species in a self-stabilizing, artifical ecosystem for up to three weeks under space conditions. Investigations during the Neurolab mission will focus on the effects of microgravity on the nervous system. The crew of STS-90, slated for launch April 16 at 2:19 p.m. EDT, includes Commander Richard Searfoss, Pilot Scott Altman, Mission Specialists Richard Linnehan, D.V.M., Dafydd (Dave) Williams, M.D., and Kathryn (Kay) Hire, and Payload Specialists Jay Buckey, M.D., and James Pawelczyk, Ph.D.

  13. STS-90 M.S. Kathryn Hire waves to family and friends near Pad 39B

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    STS-90 Mission Specialist Kathryn (Kay) Hire waves to friends and family members near Launch Pad 39B, from which she and the rest of the seven-member crew are scheduled to launch aboard Columbia on May 16 at 2:19 p.m. EDT. The astronauts are under strict health stabilization guidelines to protect them from close contact with persons who do not have health stabilization clearance. This is the 25th flight of Columbia and the 90th mission flown since the start of the Space Shuttle program. STS- 90 is a nearly 17-day life sciences research flight that will focus on the most complex and least understood part of the human body -- the nervous system. Neurolab will examine the effects of spaceflight on the brain, spinal cord, peripheral nerves and sensory organs in the human body.

  14. STS-90 Pilot Scott Altman is suited up for launch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    STS-90 Pilot Scott Altman is assisted during suit-up activities by Lockheed Suit Technician Valerie McNeil from Johnson Space Center in KSC's Operations and Checkout Building. Altman and the rest of the STS-90 crew will shortly depart for Launch Pad 39B, where the Space Shuttle Columbia awaits a second liftoff attempt at 2:19 p.m. EDT. His first trip into space, Altman is participating in a life sciences research flight that will focus on the most complex and least understood part of the human body - - the nervous system. Neurolab will examine the effects of spaceflight on the brain, spinal cord, peripheral nerves and sensory organs in the human body.

  15. The STS-90 crew wave to family and friends in front of Launch Pad 39B

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    The STS-90 crew wave to friends and family members near Launch Pad 39B, from which they are scheduled to launch aboard Columbia on May 16 at 2:19 p.m. EDT. The crew include, left to right, Mission Specialist Richard Linnehan, D.V.M., Commander Richard Searfoss, Pilot Scott Altman, Payload Specialists James Pawelczyk, Ph.D., and Jay Buckey, M.D., and Mission Specialists Dafydd (Dave) Williams, M.D., with the Canadian Space Agency, and Kathryn (Kay) Hire. The Space Shuttle Columbia is seen in the background, protected by its Rotating Service Structure. This is the 25th flight of Columbia and the 90th mission flown since the start of the Space Shuttle program. STS-90 is a nearly 17-day life sciences research flight that will focus on the most complex and least understood part of the human body -- the nervous system. Neurolab will examine the effects of spaceflight on the brain, spinal cord, peripheral nerves and sensory organs in the human body.

  16. STS-90 M.S. Williams and back-up P.S. Mukai, participate in CEIT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    STS-90 Mission Specialist Dafydd 'Dave' Rhys Williams, M.D., with the Canadian Space Agency, and back-up Payload Specialist Chiaki Mukai, M.D., Ph.D., with the National Space Development Agency of Japan, examine items to be used during the Crew Equipment Interface Test (CEIT) in Kennedy Space Center's (KSC's) Operations and Checkout Building, where the Neurolab payload is undergoing processing. The CEIT gives astronauts an opportunity to get a hands-on look at the payloads with which they will be working on-orbit. STS-90 is scheduled to launch aboard the Shuttle Columbia from KSC on April 2. Investigations during the Neurolab mission will focus on the effects of microgravity on the nervous system. Specifically, experiments will study the adaptation of the vestibular system, the central nervous system, and the pathways that control the ability to sense location in the absence of gravity, as well as the effect of microgravity on a developing nervous system.

  17. STS-90 M.S. Williams with the CSA waves to family and friends near Pad 39B

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    STS-90 Mission Specialist Dafydd (Dave) Williams, M.D., with the Canadian Space Agency speaks with friends and family members near Launch Pad 39B, from which he and the rest of the seven-member crew are scheduled to launch aboard Columbia on May 16 at 2:19 p.m. EDT. The astronauts are under strict health stabilization guidelines to protect them from close contact with persons who do not have health stabilization clearance. This is the 25th flight of Columbia and the 90th mission flown since the start of the Space Shuttle program. STS-90 is a nearly 17-day life sciences research flight that will focus on the most complex and least understood part of the human body -- the nervous system. Neurolab will examine the effects of spaceflight on the brain, spinal cord, peripheral nerves and sensory organs in the human body.

  18. STS-90 Columbia is transferred from OPF bay 3 to the VAB

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    The Space Shuttle orbiter Columbia was transferred from Orbiter Processing Facility Bay 3 today to the Vehicle Assembly Building, where it will be mated to its external tank and solid rocket boosters. Here it is shown backing out of the bay, with first motion occurring at 10:48 a.m. Columbia is being prepared for the STS-90 mission, carrying the Neurolab payload. Investigations during the Neurolab mission will focus on the effects of microgravity on the nervous system. The mission is a joint venture of six space agencies and seven U.S. research agencies. Investigator teams from nine countries will conduct 31 studies in the microgravity environment of space. The launch is targeted for April 16 at 2:19 p.m. EDT.

  19. Bulgarian singer Dyana presents PA Director Dickinson with her new CD on STS-90 launch day

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    David Dickinson, the acting director of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Public Affairs Office at Kennedy Space Center, accepts a copy of Bulgarian singer Dyana Dafova's latest compact disc (CD) from her on behalf of NASA. The 525-foot tall Vehicle Assembly Building, where Space Shuttle orbiters are mated to their external tank/solid rocket booster stacks, looms in the background. Dyana is touring the United States to promote her CD, entitled 'Sounds of the Earth,' and was an invited guest of NASA for the launch of Columbia on STS-90, the Neurolab mission, earlier in the day. Columbia lifted off from Launch Pad 39B at 2:19 p.m. EDT. Dyana characterized the music on her CD as a new sound, incorporating jazz and new age classics, sung in a newly created language comprised of Bulgarian, English, Sanskrit, Aramski and Hebrew.

  20. STS-90 M.S. Pawelczyk stands behind his children near Pad 39B

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    STS-90 Payload Specialist James Pawelczyk, Ph.D., stands behind his two children, Bradley and Katlyn (left to right), as they smile to photographers near Launch Pad 39B. James and the rest of the seven-member crew are scheduled to launch aboard Columbia, seen in the background, on May 16 at 2:19 p.m. EDT. The astronauts are under strict health stabilization guidelines to protect them from close contact with persons who do not have health stabilization clearance. This is the 25th flight of Columbia and the 90th mission flown since the start of the Space Shuttle program. This launch of Neurolab will examine the effects of spaceflight on the brain, spinal cord, peripheral nerves and sensory organs in the human body.

  1. Digestive enzyme expression and epithelial structure of small intestine in neonatal rats after 16 days spaceflight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyake, M.; Yamasaki, M.; Hazama, A.; Ijiri, K.; Shimizu, T.

    It is important to assure whether digestive system can develop normally in neonates during spaceflight. Because the small intestine changes its function and structure drastically around weaning known as redifferentiation. Lactase expression declines and sucrase increases in small intestine for digestion of solid food before weaning. In this paper, we compared this enzyme transition and structural development of small intestine in neonatal rats after spaceflight. To find digestive genes differentially expressed in fight rats, DNA membrane macroarray was also used. Eight-day old rats were loaded to Space Shuttle Columbia, and housed in the animal facility for 16 days in space (STS-90, Neurolab mission). Two control groups (AGC; asynchronous ground control and VIV; vivarium) against flight group (FLT) were prepared. There was no difference in structure (crypt depth) and cell differentiation of epithelium between FLT and AGC by immunohistochemical analysis. We found that the amount of sucrase mRNA compared to lactase was decreased in FLT by RT-PCR. It reflected the enzyme transition was inhibited. Increase of 5 genes (APO A-I, APO A-IV, ACE, aFABP and aminopeptidase M) and decrease of carboxypeptidase-D were detected in FLT using macroarray. We think nutrition differences (less nourishment and late weaning) during spaceflight may cause inhibition of enzyme transition at least partly. The weightlessness might contribute to the inhibition through behavioral change.

  2. STS-90 Payload Specialist James Pawelczyk is suited up for launch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    STS-90 Payload Specialist James Pawelczyk, Ph.D., stands ready for launch during suitup activities in the Operations and Checkout Building. Pawelczyk and the rest of the STS-90 crew will shortly depart for Launch Pad 39B, where the Space Shuttle Columbia awaits a second liftoff attempt at 2:19 p.m. EDT. His first trip into space, Pawelczyk is participating in this life sciences research flight that will focus on the most complex and least understood part of the human body -- the nervous system. Neurolab will examine the effects of spaceflight on the brain, spinal cord, peripheral nerves and sensory organs in the human body.

  3. STS-90 Payload Specialist Jay Buckey is suited up for launch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    STS-90 Payload Specialist Jay Buckey, M.D., prepares for launch during suit-up activities in KSC's Operations and Checkout Building. Buckey and the rest of the STS-90 crew will shortly depart for Launch Pad 39B, where the Space Shuttle Columbia awaits a second liftoff attempt at 2:19 p.m. EDT. His first trip into space, Buckey is participating in a life sciences research flight that will focus on the most complex and least understood part of the human body -- the nervous system. Neurolab will examine the effects of spaceflight on the brain, spinal cord, peripheral nerves and sensory organs in the human body.

  4. Isolation and characterization of a novel gene sfig in rat skeletal muscle up-regulated by spaceflight (STS-90)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kano, Mihoko; Kitano, Takako; Ikemoto, Madoka; Hirasaka, Katsuya; Asanoma, Yuki; Ogawa, Takayuki; Takeda, Shinichi; Nonaka, Ikuya; Adams, Gregory R.; Baldwin, Kenneth M.; Oarada, Motoko; Kishi, Kyoichi; Nikawa, Takeshi

    2003-01-01

    We obtained the skeletal muscle of rats exposed to weightless conditions during a 16-day-spaceflight (STS-90). By using a differential display technique, we identified 6 up-regulated and 3 down-regulated genes in the gastrocnemius muscle of the spaceflight rats, as compared to the ground control. The up-regulated genes included those coding Casitas B-lineage lymphoma-b, insulin growth factor binding protein-1, titin and mitochondrial gene 16 S rRNA and two novel genes (function unknown). The down-regulated genes included those encoding RNA polymerase II elongation factor-like protein, NADH dehydrogenase and one novel gene (function unknown). In the present study, we isolated and characterized one of two novel muscle genes that were remarkably up-regulated by spaceflight. The deduced amino acid sequence of the spaceflight-induced gene (sfig) comprises 86 amino acid residues and is well conserved from Drosophila to Homo sapiens. A putative leucine-zipper structure located at the N-terminal region of sfig suggests that this gene may encode a transcription factor. The up-regulated expression of this gene, confirmed by Northern blot analysis, was observed not only in the muscles of spaceflight rats but also in the muscles of tail-suspended rats, especially in the early stage of tail-suspension when gastrocnemius muscle atrophy initiated. The gene was predominantly expressed in the kidney, liver, small intestine and heart. When rat myoblastic L6 cells were grown to 100% confluence in the cell culture system, the expression of sfig was detected regardless of the cell differentiation state. These results suggest that spaceflight has many genetic effects on rat skeletal muscle.

  5. Quasi 16-day oscillation in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forbes, J. M.; Hagan, M. E.; Miyahara, S.; Vial, F.; Manson, A. H.; Meek, C. E.; Portnyagin, Y. I.

    1995-05-01

    A quasi-16-day wave in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere is investigated through analyses of radar data during January/February 1979 and through numerical simulations for various background wind conditions. Previous workers have examined about 19 days of tropospheric and stratospheric data during January 10-28, 1979, and present conflicting evidence as to whether a large westward propagating wavenumber 1 oscillation observed during this period can be identified in terms of the second symmetric Rossby normal mode of zonal wavenumber 1, commonly referred to as the ``16-day wave.'' In the present work we have applied spectral analysis techniques to meridional and zonal winds near 95 km altitude obtained from radar measurements over Obninsk, Russia (54°N, 38°E) and Saskatoon, Canada (52°N, 107°W). These data reveal oscillations of the order of +/-10 m s-1 with a period near 16 days as well as waves with periods near 5 and 10 days. These periodicities all correspond to expected resonant frequencies of atmospheric disturbances associated with westward propagating free Rossby modes of zonal wavenumber 1. Numerical simulations are performed which demonstrate that the 95-km measurements of the 16-day wave are consistent with upward extension of the oscillation determined from the tropospheric and stratospheric data. Noteworthy features of the model in terms of its applicability in the mesosphere/lower thermosphere regime are explicit inclusion of eddy and molecular diffusion of heat and momentum and realistic distributions of mean winds, especially between 80 and 100 km. The latter include a westerly wind regime above the summer easterly mesospheric jet, thus providing a ducting channel enabling interhemispheric penetration of the winter planetary wave disturbance. This serves to explain the appearance of a quasi-16-day wave recently reported in the high-latitude summer mesopause (Williams and Avery, 1992). However, the efficiency of this interhemispheric coupling

  6. Sleep, Circadian Rhythms, and Performance During Space Shuttle Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neri, David F.; Czeisler, Charles A.; Dijk, Derk-Jan; Wyatt, James K.; Ronda, Joseph M.; Hughes, Rod J.

    2003-01-01

    Sleep and circadian rhythms may be disturbed during spaceflight, and these disturbances can affect crewmembers' performance during waking hours. The mechanisms underlying sleep and circadian rhythm disturbances in space are not well understood, and effective countermeasures are not yet available. We investigated sleep, circadian rhythms, cognitive performance, and light-dark cycles in five astronauts prior to, during, and after the 16-day STS-90 mission and the IO-day STS-95 mission. The efficacy of low-dose, alternative-night, oral melatonin administration as a countermeasure for sleep disturbances was evaluated. During these missions, scheduled rest activity cycles were 20-35 minutes shorter than 24 hours. Light levels on the middeck and in the Spacelab were very low; whereas on the flight deck (which has several windows), they were highly variable. Circadian rhythm abnormalities were observed. During the second half of the missions, the rhythm of urinary cortisol appeared to be delayed relative to the sleep-wake schedule. Performance during wakefulness was impaired. Astronauts slept only about 6.5 hours per day, and subjective sleep quality was lower in space. No beneficial effects of melatonin (0.3 mg administered prior to sleep episodes on alternate nights) were observed. A surprising finding was a marked increase in rapid eye movement (REM) sleep upon return to Earth. We conclude that these Space Shuttle missions were associated with circadian rhythm disturbances, sleep loss, decrements in neurobehavioral performance, and alterations in REM sleep homeostasis. Shorter than 24-hour rest-activity schedules and exposure to light-dark cycles inadequate for optimal circadian synchronization may have contributed to these disturbances.

  7. Sleep research in space: expression of immediate early genes in forebrain structures of rats during the nasa neurolab mission (STS-90).

    PubMed

    Centini, C; Pompeiano, O

    2007-05-01

    1. Electrophysiological and behavioural observations have shown that changes in the sleep-waking activity occur in astronauts during the space flight. Experiments performed in ground-based experiments have previously shown that the immediate early gene (IEG) c-fos, a marker of neuronal activation, can be used as a molecular correlate of sleep and waking. However, while Fos expression peaks within 2-4 hours after the stimulus and returns to baseline within 6-8 hours, other IEGs as the FRA proteins which are also synthetized soon after their induction, persist in the cell nuclei for longer periods of time, ranging from 1-2 days to weeks. 2. Both Fos and FRA expression were evaluated in several adult albino rats sacrificed at different time points of the space flight, i.e. either at FD2 and FD14, i.e. at launch and about two weeks after launch, respectively, or at R + 1 and R + 13, i.e. at the reentry and about two weeks after landing. The changes in Fos and FRA expression were then compared with those obtained in ground controls. These experiments demonstrate activation of several brain areas which varies during the different phases of the space flight. Due to their different time of persistence, Fos and FRA immunohistochemistry can provide only correlative observations. In particular, FRA expression has been quite helpful to identify the occurrence of short-lasting events such as those related either to stress or to REM-sleep, whose episodes last in the rat only a few min and could hardly be detected by using only Fos expression. 3. Evidence was presented indicating that at FD2 and FD14 Fos-labeled cells were observed in several brain areas in which Fos had been previously identified as being induced by spontaneous or forced waking in ground-based experiments. In contrast to these findings FLT rats sacrificed at R + 1 showed low levels of Fos immunostaining in the cerebral cortex (neocortex) and several forebrain structures such as the hypothalamus and thalamus. Some Fos staining was also present in limbic cortical areas, the septum, and the hippocampus. The main area of the forebrain of FLT rats sacrificed at R + 1, showing an increased expression of Fos, was the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA) (cf. 127), as well as the noradrenergic locus coeruleus (LC) nucleus (cf. 122). At R + 13 Fos immunostaining was variable among FLT rats. However, none of these rats showed a significant number of Fos-positive cells in CeA. 4. Most of the rats studied for Fos expression were also tested for FRA expression. In particular, a scattered amount of FRA expression occurred at FD14 in different areas of the neocortex and in limbic forebrain regions (such as the cingulate, retrosplenial and entorhinal cortex). It included also the hippocampus, the lateral septum, the caudate/putamen, as well as some hypothalamic regions. At the reentry (R + 1) it was previously shown that a prominent increase in FRA expression occurred in the LC of FLT rats (cf. 122). This finding was associated with an increase in FRA expression which affected not only the nucleus paragigantocellularis lateralis of the medulla, which sends excitatory glutamatergic afferents to the LC (cf. 31 for ref.), but also structures which are known to produce corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF), a neuropeptide which activates the noradrenergic LC neurons during stress. 5. These findings which result from acceleration stress were followed by REMS episodes, which probably occurred after a long period of sleep deprivation following exposure to microgravity. It was previously shown that an increase in Fos and FRA expression occurred at the reentry in some pontine and medullary reticular structures (cf. 128), which are likely to be involved in both the descending (postural atonia) and the ascending manifestations of PS. These findings can be integrated by results of the present experiments showing that at the reentry high levels of FRA expression occurred in the hippocampus and the limbic system, i.e. in structures which are involved in the generalized pattern of EEG desynchronization and the theta activity, typical of REMS (cf. 83, 84). A prominent increase in FRA expression also affected at the reentry some components of the amygdaloid complex, particularly the CeA. as well as some related structures, such as the lateral parabrachial nucleus (cf. 122) and the nucleus of the tractus solitarius (cf. 127). These structures are known to contribute to the PGO waves, which drive the oculomotor system either directly or through the medial vestibular nuclei (128, cf. also 126). Unfortunately due to our brainstem transections we were unable to evaluate the changes in gene expression which could affect the dorsolateral pontine structures during the occurrence of REMS episodes. Further experiments are thus required to investigate the role that these pontine structures exert in determining adaptive changes following exposure to microgravity after launch as well as readaptation to the terrestrial environment after landing.

  8. Restoration of plasma volume after 16 days of head-down tilt induced by a single bout of maximal exercise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Convertino, V. A.; Engelke, K. A.; Ludwig, D. A.; Doerr, D. F.

    1996-01-01

    Seven healthy men performed maximal exercise 24 h before the end of 16 days exposure to 6 degrees head-down tilt (HDT) to test the hypothesis that such an exercise technique could restore plasma volume (PV) at the end of a simulated space mission. Exercise consisted of supine cycling with graded work rates increasing by 16 W/min to volitional fatigue and required an average of 16 min. The experimental protocol was a standard cross-over design in which the order of treatment (exercise or control) was counterbalanced across all seven subjects. PV, fluid intake (ad libitum), urine output, renal function, and hormones associated with fluid homeostasis were measured before HDT, 24 h before the end of HDT just prior to exercise, and at the end of HDT 24 h after exercise. HDT reduced PV by 16% in both control and exercise conditions. Maximal exercise completely restored plasma volume within 24 h to 3.9 +/- 3.2% of pre-HDT levels despite continued HDT. Compared with control, exercise induced a 660-ml larger positive fluid balance because of greater fluid intake and reduced urine volume during the 24 h after exercise. These results suggest that one bout of maximal leg exercise before return from 16 days of spaceflight may be completely effective in stimulating thirst and restoring plasma volume to preflight levels.

  9. Mechanisms driving the global and seasonal structure of the 16-day planetary wave

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, V.; Chang, L. C.; Liu, H.; Palo, S. E.

    2013-12-01

    Past observations have shown that the effects of the quasi 16-day planetary wave, representing the second symmetric Rossby normal mode, are prevalent throughout the middle atmosphere and occasionally, some portions of the upper atmosphere. In the presented work, we investigate the mechanisms driving the propagation of the quasi 16-day planetary wave from a source in the lower atmosphere to higher altitudes by using the NCAR Thermosphere Ionosphere Mesosphere Electrodynamics General Circulation Model (TIME-GCM). The quasi 16-day planetary wave is simulated in the model by introducing perturbations in geopotential height at the lower boundary of the model and comparing it to a control run. Analysis of the model runs over the course of a year show that the background zonal winds play an important role in driving seasonal changes in the quasi 16-day planetary wave structure. Derived quasi-geostrophic potential vorticity gradient and Eliassen-Palm flux from the model output also show that the penetration of the wave into regions of mean wind instability can drive wave amplification in certain regions. The model results are compared to the quasi 16-day wave structure derived from TIMED-SABER observations to identify similarities/differences between the model and observations, and provide further insight into the mechanisms driving the wave propagation.

  10. Comparison of MODIS and AVHRR 16-day normalized difference vegetation index composite data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gallo, K.; Ji, L.; Reed, B.; Dwyer, J.; Eidenshink, J.

    2004-01-01

    Normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) data derived from visible and near-infrared data acquired by the MODIS and AVHRR sensors were compared over the same time periods and a variety of land cover classes within the conterminous USA. The relationship between the AVHRR derived NDVI values and those of future sensors is critical to continued long term monitoring of land surface properties. The results indicate that the 16-day composite values are quite similar over the 23 intervals of 2001 that were analyzed, and a linear relationship exists between the NDVI values from the two sensors. The composite AVHRR NDVI data were associated with over 90% of the variation in the MODIS NDVI values. Copyright 2004 by the American Geophysical Union.

  11. A New National MODIS-Derived Phenology Data Set Every 16 Days, 2002 through 2006

    SciTech Connect

    HargroveJr., William Walter; Spruce, Joe; Gasser, Gerry; Hoffman, Forrest M; Lee, Danny C

    2008-01-01

    A new national phenology data set has been developed, comprised of a series of seamless 231 m national maps, every 16 days from 2001 through 2006. The data set was developed jointly by the Eastern Forest Environmental Threat Assessment Center (EFETAC) of the USDA Forest Service, and contractors of the NASA Stennis Space Center. The data are available now for dissemination and use. The first half of the National Phenology Data Set is the cumulative area under the NDVI curve since Jan 1, and increases monotonically every 16 days until the end of the year. These cumulative data values 'latch' in the event of clouds or snow, remaining at the value when we last saw this cell. The second half is a set of diagnostic parameters fit to the annual NDVI function. The spring minimum, the 20% rise, the 80% rise, the leaf-on maximum, the 80% fall, the 20% fall, and the trailing fall minimum are determined for each map cell. For each parameter, we produce both a national map of the NDVI value, and a map of the day-of-year when that NDVI value was reached. Length of growing season, as the difference between the spring and fall 20% DOYs, and date of middle of growing season can be mapped as well. The new dataset has permitted the development of a set of national phonological ecoregions, and has also proven useful for mapping Gypsy Moth defoliation, simultaneously delineating the aftermath of three Gulf Coast hurricanes, and quantifying suburban/ex-urban development surrounding metro Atlanta.

  12. A New National MODIS-Derived Phenology Data Set Every 16 Days, 2002 through 2006

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hargrove, W. W.; Spruce, J.; Gasser, G.; Hoffman, F. M.; Lee, D.

    2008-12-01

    A new national phenology data set has been developed, comprised of a series of seamless 231m national maps, every 16 days from 2001 through 2006. The data set was developed jointly by the Eastern Forest Environmental Threat Assessment Center (EFETAC) of the USDA Forest Service, and contractors of the NASA Stennis Space Center. The data are available now for dissemination and use. The first half of the National Phenology Data Set is the cumulative area under the NDVI curve since Jan 1, and increases monotonically every 16 days until the end of the year. These cumulative data values "latch" in the event of clouds or snow, remaining at the value when we last saw this cell. The second half is a set of diagnostic parameters fit to the annual NDVI function. The spring minimum, the 20% rise, the 80% rise, the leaf-on maximum, the 80% fall, the 20% fall, and the trailing fall minimum are determined for each map cell. For each parameter, we produce both a national map of the NDVI value, and a map of the day-of-year when that NDVI value was reached. Length of growing season, as the difference between the spring and fall 20% DOYs, and date of middle of growing season can be mapped as well. The new dataset has permitted the development of a set of national phonological ecoregions, and has also proven useful for mapping Gypsy Moth defoliation, simultaneously delineating the aftermath of three Gulf Coast hurricanes, and quantifying suburban/ex-urban development surrounding metro Atlanta.

  13. Agreement evaluation of AVHRR and MODIS 16-day composite NDVI data sets

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ji, L.; Gallo, K.; Eidenshink, J.C.; Dwyer, J.

    2008-01-01

    Satellite-derived normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) data have been used extensively to detect and monitor vegetation conditions at regional and global levels. A combination of NDVI data sets derived from AVHRR and MODIS can be used to construct a long NDVI time series that may also be extended to VIIRS. Comparative analysis of NDVI data derived from AVHRR and MODIS is critical to understanding the data continuity through the time series. In this study, the AVHRR and MODIS 16-day composite NDVI products were compared using regression and agreement analysis methods. The analysis shows a high agreement between the AVHRR-NDVI and MODIS-NDVI observed from 2002 and 2003 for the conterminous United States, but the difference between the two data sets is appreciable. Twenty per cent of the total difference between the two data sets is due to systematic difference, with the remainder due to unsystematic difference. The systematic difference can be eliminated with a linear regression-based transformation between two data sets, and the unsystematic difference can be reduced partially by applying spatial filters to the data. We conclude that the continuity of NDVI time series from AVHRR to MODIS is satisfactory, but a linear transformation between the two sets is recommended.

  14. Structure and Function of the Snail Statocyst System after a 16-Day Flight on Foton-M-2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balaban, P. M.; Malyshev, A. Y.; Zakharov, I. S.; Aseev, N. A.; Bravarenko, N. I.; Ierusalimsky, V. N.; Samarova, A. I.; Vorontzov, D. D.; Popova, Y.; Boyle, R.

    2006-01-01

    In terrestrial gastropod snail Helix lucorum L. we studied the changes after a 16-day exposure to microgravity in: behavior, neural responses to adequate motion stimulation, intersensory interactions between the photosensory pathways and the statocyst receptors, and in expression of the HPeP gene in the statocyst receptors. In behavioral experiments it was found that the latency of body position change to sudden orientation change (flip from horizontal to downwards position) was significantly reduced in the postflight snails. Extracellularly recorded neural responses of the statocyst nerve to adequate motion stimulation in the postflight snails were independent of the motion direction while in the control animals an orientation selectivity was observed. Significant differences in the HPeP gene mRNA expression pattern in the statocyst receptor neurons were observed in postflight (30h) and control snails. Obtained results confirm the possibility to elucidate the influence of microgravity exposure on mechanisms and function of gravireceptors using this simple model animal.

  15. Using Computer Simulation for Neurolab 2 Mission Planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sanders, Betty M.

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the procedure used in the creation of a computer simulation video generated by the Graphics Research and Analysis Facility at NASA/Johnson Space Center. The simulation was preceded by an analysis of anthropometric characteristics of crew members and workspace requirements for 13 experiments to be conducted on Neurolab 2 which is dedicated to neuroscience and behavioral research. Neurolab 2 is being carried out as a partnership among national domestic research institutes and international space agencies. The video is a tour of the Spacelab module as it will be configured for STS-90, scheduled for launch in the spring of 1998, and identifies experiments that can be conducted in parallel during that mission. Therefore, this paper will also address methods for using computer modeling to facilitate the mission planning activity.

  16. A single bout of exhaustive exercise affects integrated baroreflex function after 16 days of head-down tilt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Engelke, K. A.; Doerr, D. F.; Convertino, V. A.

    1995-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that one bout of maximal exercise performed 24 h before reambulation from 16 days of 6 degrees head-down tilt (HDT) could increase integrated baroreflex sensitivity. Isolated carotid-cardiac and integrated baroreflex function was assessed in seven subjects before and after two periods of HDT separated by 11 mo. On the last day of one HDT period, subjects performed a single bout of maximal cycle ergometry (exercise). Subjects did not exercise after the other HDT period (control). Carotid-cardiac baroreflex sensitivity was evaluated using a neck collar device. Integrated baroreflex function was assessed by recording heart rate (HR) and blood pressure (MAP) during a 15-s Valsalva maneuver (VM) at a controlled expiratory pressure of 30 mmHg. The ratio of change in HR to change in MAP (delta HR/ delta MAP) during phases II and IV of the VM was used as an index of cardiac baroreflex sensitivity. Baroreflex-mediated vasoconstriction was assessed by measuring the late phase II rise in MAP. Following HDT, carotid-cardiac baroreflex sensitivity was reduced (2.8 to 2.0 ms/mmHg; P = 0.05) as was delta HR/ delta MAP during phase II (-1.5 to -0.8 beats/mmHg; P = 0.002). After exercise, isolated carotid baroreflex activity and phase II delta HR/ delta MAP returned to pre-HDT levels but remained attenuated in the control condition. Phase IV delta HR/ delta MAP was not altered by HDT or exercise. The late phase II increase of MAP was 71% greater after exercise compared with control (7 vs. 2 mmHg; P = 0.041).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS).

  17. Effect of 16-Day Spaceflight on the Morphology of Thick-Toed Geckos (Pachydactylus Bibronii Smith, 1846)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gulimova, V. I.; Nikitin, V. B.; Asadchikov, V. E.; Buzmakov, A. V.; Okshtein, I. L.; Almeida, E. A. C.; Ilyin, E. A.; Tairbekov, M. G.; Saveliev, S. V.

    2006-01-01

    There are grounds to believe that space flown experiments on thick-toed geckos may help solve the problem of floatation of vertebrates in microgravity. Geckos of this species carry on the lower surface of their toes numerous setae, which allow them to remain attached to any surfaces regardless of the gravitational effects. Experiments were performed on 5 animals in each of the following groups: flight, basal, synchronous and laboratory controls. 32 hours after a 16- day flight the animals were euthanazed and examined using traditional histology and X-ray microtomography. Body mass losses were 10% in the flight animals, 7.4% in the synchronous controls, and 12.3% in the laboratory controls. Since the flight and synchronous animals were kept at 15-19 C, whereas the laboratory controls - at 26-28 C, it can be inferred that environmental temperatures impacted animal metabolism no less than flight induced stress. Blood tests of the flown animals showed a 12% decrease of erythrocytes and a 40% decrease of dark-nuclear granulocytes, with the number of light-nuclear granulocytes remaining unchanged. In the small intestine the number of goblet cells increased allowing them to occupy a large portion of the cyptal surface. Enhanced secretion was accompanied by the appearance of dead intestinal cells in the lumen. Clusters of degraded hepatocytes were found at the liver edges of flight animals. Signs of liver involution were similar to the changes produced by alcohol consumption but did not spread to its central part. In the heart, insignificant hypertrophy and excessive blood supply that still remained within the physiological norm were detected. No significant changes were found in the pancreas, lungs, nervous systems or the snouts of the flown animals, but the volume of their gallbladders was greater than in controls. The epithelium of toe pads of the flight animals became thinner. Histological examination of the humerus did not demonstrate significant mineral losses

  18. AltitudeOmics: impaired pulmonary gas exchange efficiency and blunted ventilatory acclimatization in humans with patent foramen ovale after 16 days at 5,260 m.

    PubMed

    Elliott, Jonathan E; Laurie, Steven S; Kern, Julia P; Beasley, Kara M; Goodman, Randall D; Kayser, Bengt; Subudhi, Andrew W; Roach, Robert C; Lovering, Andrew T

    2015-05-01

    A patent foramen ovale (PFO), present in ∼40% of the general population, is a potential source of right-to-left shunt that can impair pulmonary gas exchange efficiency [i.e., increase the alveolar-to-arterial Po2 difference (A-aDO2)]. Prior studies investigating human acclimatization to high-altitude with A-aDO2 as a key parameter have not investigated differences between subjects with (PFO+) or without a PFO (PFO-). We hypothesized that in PFO+ subjects A-aDO2 would not improve (i.e., decrease) after acclimatization to high altitude compared with PFO- subjects. Twenty-one (11 PFO+) healthy sea-level residents were studied at rest and during cycle ergometer exercise at the highest iso-workload achieved at sea level (SL), after acute transport to 5,260 m (ALT1), and again at 5,260 m after 16 days of high-altitude acclimatization (ALT16). In contrast to PFO- subjects, PFO+ subjects had 1) no improvement in A-aDO2 at rest and during exercise at ALT16 compared with ALT1, 2) no significant increase in resting alveolar ventilation, or alveolar Po2, at ALT16 compared with ALT1, and consequently had 3) an increased arterial Pco2 and decreased arterial Po2 and arterial O2 saturation at rest at ALT16. Furthermore, PFO+ subjects had an increased incidence of acute mountain sickness (AMS) at ALT1 concomitant with significantly lower peripheral O2 saturation (SpO2). These data suggest that PFO+ subjects have increased susceptibility to AMS when not taking prophylactic treatments, that right-to-left shunt through a PFO impairs pulmonary gas exchange efficiency even after acclimatization to high altitude, and that PFO+ subjects have blunted ventilatory acclimatization after 16 days at altitude compared with PFO- subjects.

  19. Planetary missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mclaughlin, William I.

    1989-01-01

    The scientific and engineering aspects of near-term missions for planetary exploration are outlined. The missions include the Voyager Neptune flyby, the Magellan survey of Venus, the Ocean Topography Experiment, the Mars Observer mission, the Galileo Jupiter Orbiter and Probe, the Comet Rendezvous Asteroid Flyby mission, the Mars Rover Sample Return mission, the Cassini mission to Saturn and Titan, and the Daedalus probe to Barnard's star. The spacecraft, scientific goals, and instruments for these missions are noted.

  20. STS-107 Mission INSIGNIA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    JOHNSON SPACE CENTER, HOUSON, TEXAS -- STS-107 INSIGNIA -- This is the insignia for STS-107, which is a multi-discipline microgravity and Earth science research mission with a multitude of international scientific investigations conducted continuously during the planned 16 days on orbit. The central element of the patch is the microgravity symbol flowing into the rays of the astronaut symbol. The mission inclination is portrayed by the 39-degree angle of the astronaut symbol to the Earth's horizon. The sunrise is representative of the numerous experiments that are the dawn of a new era for continued microgravity research on the International Space Station and beyond. The breadth of science conducted on this mission will have widespread benefits to life on Earth and our continued exploration of space, illustrated by the Earth and stars. The constellation Columba (the dove) was chosen to symbolize peace on Earth and the Space Shuttle Columbia. The seven stars also represent the mission crew members and honor the original astronauts who paved the way to make research in space possible. The Israeli flag is adjacent to the name of the payload specialist who is the first person from that country to fly on the Space Shuttle. The NASA insignia design for Space Shuttle flights is reserved for use by the astronauts and for other official use as the NASA Administrator may authorize. Public availability has been approved only in the form of illustrations by the various news media. When and if there is any change in this policy, which we do not anticipate, it will be publicly announced.

  1. STS-107 Mission after the Mission: Recovery of Data from the Debris of Columbia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Over, A. P.; Cassanto, J. M.; Cassanto, V. A.; DeLucas, L. J.; Reichert, P.; otil, S. M.; Reed, D. W.; Ahmay, F. T.

    2003-01-01

    STS-107 was a 16-day, dedicated research mission that included over 80 experiments, spanning many disciplines including biology, physics, chemistry, and earth sciences, including many student experiments. The mission was considered a resounding success until February 1, 2003, when tragedy struck the Columbia and her crew as she re-entered the atmosphere over Texas. During the mission, approximately one third of the overall data was obtained but much more was stored in the flight hardware systems. This paper documents a new set of STS-107 experiment objectives, a "mission after the mission," in which several experiment teams attempted, and, in many cases succeeded, to recover data from their flight hardware, now debris. A description of the data recovery efforts is included for these five experiment facilities: Combustion Module-2, Critical Viscosity of Xenon-2, Commercial Instrumentation Technology Associates Biomedical Experiments-2, Biological Research in Canisters-14, and Commercial Protein Crystal Growth.

  2. Earth Observing-1 Extended Mission

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2003-01-01

    From its beginning in November 2000, the NASA Earth Observing-1 (EO-1) mission demonstrated the feasibility and performance of a dozen innovative sensor, spacecraft, and operational technologies. The 1-year mission tested a variety of technologies, some of which may be included on the planned 2007 Landsat Data Continuity Mission. Onboard the spacecraft are two land remote sensing instruments: the Advanced Land Imager (ALI), which acquires data in spectral bands and at resolutions similar to Landsat, and Hyperion, which acquires data in 220 10-nanometer-wide bands covering the visible, near-, and shortwave-infrared bands. Recognizing the remarkable performance of the satellite's instruments and the exceptional value of the data, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and NASA agreed in December 2001 to share responsibility for operating EO-1 on a cost-reimbursable basis as long as customer sales are sufficient to recover flight and ground operations costs. The EO-1 extended mission operates within constraints imposed by its technology-pioneering origins, but it also provides unique and valuable capabilities. The spacecraft can acquire a target scene three times in a 16-day period. The ALI instrument has additional spectral coverage and greater radiometric dynamic range compared with the sensors on Landsat 7. Hyperion is the first civilian spaceborne hyperspectral imager. As of January 2003, more than 5,000 scenes had been acquired, indexed, and archived.

  3. STS-87 Mission Specialist Winston E. Scott suits up

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    STS-87 Mission Specialist Winston Scott dons his launch and entry suit with the assistance of a suit technician in the Operations and Checkout Building. This is Scotts second space flight. He and the five other crew members will depart shortly for Launch Pad 39B, where the Space Shuttle Columbia awaits liftoff on a 16-day mission to perform microgravity and solar research. Scott is scheduled to perform an extravehicular activity spacewalk with Mission Specialist Takao Doi, Ph.D., of the National Space Development Agency of Japan, during STS-87. He also performed a spacewalk on STS-72.

  4. STS-87 Mission Specialist Doi in white room

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    STS-87 Mission Specialist Takao Doi, Ph.D., of the National Space Development Agency of Japan, is assisted with his ascent and re- entry flight suit by Dave Law, USA mechanical technician, in the white room at Launch Pad 39B as Dr. Doi prepares to enter the Space Shuttle orbiter Columbia on launch day. At right wearing glasses is Danny Wyatt, NASA quality assurance specialist. STS-87 is the fourth flight of the United States Microgravity Payload and Spartan-201. The 16-day mission will include a spacewalk by Dr. Doi and Mission Specialist Winston Scott.

  5. STS-87 Mission Specialist Takao Doi suits up

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    STS-87 Mission Specialist Takao Doi, Ph.D., of the National Space Development Agency of Japan, gives a thumbs up in his launch and entry suit in the Operations and Checkout Building. He and the five other crew members will depart shortly for Launch Pad 39B, where the Space Shuttle Columbia awaits liftoff on a 16-day mission to perform microgravity and solar research. Dr. Doi is scheduled to perform an extravehicular activity spacewalk with Mission Specialist Winston Scott during STS-87.

  6. Cassini Mission

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, Robert

    2005-08-10

    The Cassini/Huygens mission is a joint NASA/European Space Agency/Italian Space Agency project which has a spacecraft currently in orbit about Saturn, and has successfully sent an atmospheric probe through the atmosphere of Saturn's largest moon Titan and down to its previously hidden surface. This presentation will describe the overall mission, how it got a rather massive spacecraft to Saturn, and will cover some of the scientific results of the mission to date.

  7. IMP mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The program requirements and operations requirements for the IMP mission are presented. The satellite configuration is described and the missions are analyzed. The support equipment, logistics, range facilities, and responsibilities of the launching organizations are defined. The systems for telemetry, communications, satellite tracking, and satellite control are identified.

  8. Mission scheduling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaspin, Christine

    1989-01-01

    How a neural network can work, compared to a hybrid system based on an operations research and artificial intelligence approach, is investigated through a mission scheduling problem. The characteristic features of each system are discussed.

  9. Mission Overview STS-107: Providing 24/7 Space Science Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2002-12-01

    Columbia's 16-day mission is dedicated to a mixed complement of competitively selected and commercially sponsored research in the space, life and physical sciences. An international crew of seven, including the first Israeli astronaut, will work 24 hours a day in two alternating shifts to carry out experiments in the areas of astronaut health and safety; advanced technology development; and Earth and space sciences.

  10. Astronaut Andrew M. Allen, mission commander, sets up systems for a television downlink on the

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    STS-75 ONBOARD VIEW --- Astronaut Andrew M. Allen, mission commander, sets up systems for a television downlink on the flight deck of the Space Shuttle Columbia. Allen was joined by four other astronauts and an international payload specialist for more than 16 days of research aboard Columbia. The photograph was taken with a 70mm handheld camera.

  11. Mission Overview STS-107: Providing 24/7 Space Science Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Columbia's 16-day mission is dedicated to a mixed complement of competitively selected and commercially sponsored research in the space, life and physical sciences. An international crew of seven, including the first Israeli astronaut, will work 24 hours a day in two alternating shifts to carry out experiments in the areas of astronaut health and safety; advanced technology development; and Earth and space sciences.

  12. Mission Possible

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kittle, Penny, Ed.

    2009-01-01

    As teachers, our most important mission is to turn our students into readers. It sounds so simple, but it's hard work, and we're all on a deadline. Kittle describes a class in which her own expectations that students would become readers combined with a few impassioned strategies succeeded ... at least with a young man named Alan.

  13. Kepler Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borucki, William J.; DeVincenzi, D. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The first step in discovering, the extent of life in our galaxy is to determine the number of terrestrial planets in the habitable zone (HZ). The Kepler Mission is a 0.95 m aperture photometer scheduled to be launched in 2006. It is designed to continuously monitor the brightness of 100,000 solar-like stars to detect the transits of Earth-size and larger planets. The depth and repetition time of transits provide the size of the planet relative to the star and its orbital period. When combined with ground-based spectroscopy of these stars to fix the stellar parameters, the true planet radius and orbit scale, hence the relation to the HZ are determined. These spectra are also used to discover the relationships between the characteristics of planets and the stars they orbit. In particular, the association of planet size and occurrence frequency with stellar mass and metallicity will be investigated. Based on the results of the current Doppler - velocity discoveries, over a thousand giant planets will be found. Information on the albedos and densities of those giants showing transits will be obtained. At the end of the four year mission, hundreds of terrestrial planets should be discovered in and near the HZ of their stars if such planets are common. A null result would imply that terrestrial planets in the HZ occur in less than 1% of the stars and that life might be quite rare.

  14. Payload missions integration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, R. A. K.

    1983-01-01

    Highlights of the Payload Missions Integration Contract (PMIC) are summarized. Spacelab Missions no. 1 to 3, OSTA partial payloads, Astro-1 Mission, premission definition, and mission peculiar equipment support structure are addressed.

  15. STS-83 Mission Commander James D. Halsell, Jr. suits up

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    STS-83 Mission Commander James D. Halsell, Jr., gives a thumbs-up after he is assisted into his launch/entry suit in the Operations and Checkout (O&C) Building. Halsell is on his third space flight, having served as pilot of both STS-74 and STS-65. He is a lieutenant colonel in the Air Force and a former SR-71 Blackbird test pilot and holds master's degrees in management and space operations. Halsell will have responsibility for the success of the mission and will operate and maintain Columbia during the Red, or second shift. He will also assist with a materials science experiment and a protein crystal growth payload during the 16-day mission. Halsell and six fellow crew members will shortly depart the O&C and head for Launch Pad 39A, where the Space Shuttle Columbia will lift off during a launch window that opens at 2:00 p.m. EST, April 4.

  16. Ground water applications of the heat capacity mapping mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heilman, J. L.; Moore, D. G.

    1981-01-01

    The paper discusses the ground water portion of a hydrologic investigation of eastern South Dakota using data from the Heat Capacity Mapping Mission (HCMM) satellite. The satellite carries a two-channel radiometer (0.5-1.1 and 10.5-12.5 microns) in a sun synchronous orbit and collects data at approximately 0230 and 1330 local standard time with repeat coverage of 5 to 16 days depending on latitude. It is shown that HCMM data acquired at appropriate periods of the diurnal and annual temperature cycle can provide useful information on shallow ground water.

  17. Low Cost Mission Operations Workshop. [Space Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    The presentations given at the Low Cost (Space) Mission Operations (LCMO) Workshop are outlined. The LCMO concepts are covered in four introductory sections: Definition of Mission Operations (OPS); Mission Operations (MOS) Elements; The Operations Concept; and Mission Operations for Two Classes of Missions (operationally simple and complex). Individual presentations cover the following topics: Science Data Processing and Analysis; Mis sion Design, Planning, and Sequencing; Data Transport and Delivery, and Mission Coordination and Engineering Analysis. A list of panelists who participated in the conference is included along with a listing of the contact persons for obtaining more information concerning LCMO at JPL. The presentation of this document is in outline and graphic form.

  18. Interplanetary mission planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    A long range plan for solar system exploration is presented. The subjects discussed are: (1) science payload for first Jupiter orbiters, (2) Mercury orbiter mission study, (3) preliminary analysis of Uranus/Neptune entry probes for Grand Tour Missions, (4) comet rendezvous mission study, (5) a survey of interstellar missions, (6) a survey of candidate missions to explore rings of Saturn, and (7) preliminary analysis of Venus orbit radar missions.

  19. PlanHab: the combined and separate effects of 16 days of bed rest and normobaric hypoxic confinement on circulating lipids and indices of insulin sensitivity in healthy men.

    PubMed

    Simpson, Elizabeth J; Debevec, Tadej; Eiken, Ola; Mekjavic, Igor; Macdonald, Ian A

    2016-04-15

    PlanHab is a planetary habitat simulation study. The atmosphere within future space habitats is anticipated to have reduced Po2, but information is scarce as to how physiological systems may respond to combined exposure to moderate hypoxia and reduced gravity. This study investigated, using a randomized-crossover design, how insulin sensitivity, glucose tolerance, and circulating lipids were affected by 16 days of horizontal bed rest in normobaric normoxia [NBR: FiO2 = 0.209; PiO2 = 133.1 (0.3) mmHg], horizontal bed rest in normobaric hypoxia [HBR: FiO2 = 0.141 (0.004); PiO2 = 90.0 (0.4) mmHg], and confinement in normobaric hypoxia combined with daily moderate intensity exercise (HAMB). A mixed-meal tolerance test, with arterialized-venous blood sampling, was performed in 11 healthy, nonobese men (25-45 yr) before (V1) and on the morning ofday 17of each intervention (V2). Postprandial glucose and c-peptide response were increased at V2 of both bed rest interventions (P< 0.05 in each case), with c-peptide:insulin ratio higher at V2 in HAMB and HBR, both in the fed and fasted state (P< 0.005 in each case). Fasting total cholesterol was reduced at V2 in HAMB [-0.47 (0.36) mmol/l;P< 0.005] and HBR [-0.55 (0.41) mmol/l;P< 0.005]. Fasting HDL was lower at V2 in all interventions, with the reduction observed in HBR [-0.30 (0.21) mmol/l] greater than that measured in HAMB [-0.13 (0.14) mmol/l;P< 0.005] and NBR [-0.17 (0.15) mmol/l;P< 0.05]. Hypoxia did not alter the adverse effects of bed rest on insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance but appeared to increase insulin clearance. The negative effect of bed rest on HDL was compounded in hypoxia, which may have implications for long-term health of those living in future space habitats. PMID:26769956

  20. Space physics missions handbook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, Robert A. (Compiler); Burks, David H. (Compiler); Hayne, Julie A. (Editor)

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this handbook is to provide background data on current, approved, and planned missions, including a summary of the recommended candidate future missions. Topics include the space physics mission plan, operational spacecraft, and details of such approved missions as the Tethered Satellite System, the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory, and the Atmospheric Laboratory for Applications and Science.

  1. Mir Mission Chronicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McDonald, Sue

    1998-01-01

    Dockings, module additions, configuration changes, crew changes, and major mission events are tracked for Mir missions 17 through 21 (November 1994 through August 1996). The international aspects of these missions are presented, comprising joint missions with ESA and NASA, including three U.S. Space Shuttle dockings. New Mir modules described are Spektr, the Docking Module, and Priroda.

  2. Missions and Moral Judgement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bushnell, Amy Turner

    2000-01-01

    Addresses the history of Spanish-American missions, discussing the view of missions in church history, their role in the Spanish conquest, and the role and ideas of Herbert E. Bolton. Focuses on differences among Spanish borderlands missions, paying particular attention to the Florida missions. (CMK)

  3. Shared mission operations concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spradlin, Gary L.; Rudd, Richard P.; Linick, Susan H.

    1994-01-01

    Historically, new JPL flight projects have developed a Mission Operations System (MOS) as unique as their spacecraft, and have utilized a mission-dedicated staff to monitor and control the spacecraft through the MOS. NASA budgetary pressures to reduce mission operations costs have led to the development and reliance on multimission ground system capabilities. The use of these multimission capabilities has not eliminated an ongoing requirement for a nucleus of personnel familiar with a given spacecraft and its mission to perform mission-dedicated operations. The high cost of skilled personnel required to support projects with diverse mission objectives has the potential for significant reduction through shared mission operations among mission-compatible projects. Shared mission operations are feasible if: (1) the missions do not conflict with one another in terms of peak activity periods, (2) a unique MOS is not required, and (3) there is sufficient similarity in the mission profiles so that greatly different skills would not be required to support each mission. This paper will further develop this shared mission operations concept. We will illustrate how a Discovery-class mission would enter a 'partner' relationship with the Voyager Project, and can minimize MOS development and operations costs by early and careful consideration of mission operations requirements.

  4. Predicting Mission Success in Small Satellite Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saunders, Mark; Richie, Wayne; Rogers, John; Moore, Arlene

    1992-01-01

    In our global society with its increasing international competition and tighter financial resources, governments, commercial entities and other organizations are becoming critically aware of the need to ensure that space missions can be achieved on time and within budget. This has become particularly true for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Office of Space Science (OSS) which has developed their Discovery and Explorer programs to meet this need. As technologies advance, space missions are becoming smaller and more capable than their predecessors. The ability to predict the mission success of these small satellite missions is critical to the continued achievement of NASA science mission objectives. The NASA Office of Space Science, in cooperation with the NASA Langley Research Center, has implemented a process to predict the likely success of missions proposed to its Discovery and Explorer Programs. This process is becoming the basis for predicting mission success in many other NASA programs as well. This paper describes the process, methodology, tools and synthesis techniques used to predict mission success for this class of mission.

  5. Potential Mission Scenarios Post Asteroid Crewed Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lopez, Pedro, Jr.; McDonald, Mark A.

    2015-01-01

    A deep-space mission has been proposed to identify and redirect an asteroid to a distant retrograde orbit around the moon, and explore it by sending a crew using the Space Launch System and the Orion spacecraft. The Asteroid Redirect Crewed Mission (ARCM), which represents the third segment of the Asteroid Redirect Mission (ARM), could be performed on EM-3 or EM-4 depending on asteroid return date. Recent NASA studies have raised questions on how we could progress from current Human Space Flight (HSF) efforts to longer term human exploration of Mars. This paper will describe the benefits of execution of the ARM as the initial stepping stone towards Mars exploration, and how the capabilities required to send humans to Mars could be built upon those developed for the asteroid mission. A series of potential interim missions aimed at developing such capabilities will be described, and the feasibility of such mission manifest will be discussed. Options for the asteroid crewed mission will also be addressed, including crew size and mission duration.

  6. Mission design options for human Mars missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wooster, Paul D.; Braun, Robert D.; Ahn, Jaemyung; Putnam, Zachary R.

    Trajectory options for conjunction-class human Mars missions are examined, including crewed Earth-Mars trajectories with the option for abort to Earth, with the intent of serving as a resource for mission designers. An analysis of the impact of Earth and Mars entry velocities on aeroassist systems is included, and constraints are suggested for interplanetary trajectories based upon aeroassist system capabilities.

  7. Cubesat Gravity Field Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burla, Santoshkumar; Mueller, Vitali; Flury, Jakob; Jovanovic, Nemanja

    2016-04-01

    CHAMP, GRACE and GOCE missions have been successful in the field of satellite geodesy (especially to improve Earth's gravity field models) and have established the necessity towards the next generation gravity field missions. Especially, GRACE has shown its capabilities beyond any other gravity field missions. GRACE Follow-On mission is going to continue GRACE's legacy which is almost identical to GRACE mission with addition of laser interferometry. But these missions are not only quite expensive but also takes quite an effort to plan and to execute. Still there are few drawbacks such as under-sampling and incapability of exploring new ideas within a single mission (ex: to perform different orbit configurations with multi satellite mission(s) at different altitudes). The budget is the major limiting factor to build multi satellite mission(s). Here, we offer a solution to overcome these drawbacks using cubesat/ nanosatellite mission. Cubesats are widely used in research because they are cheaper, smaller in size and building them is easy and faster than bigger satellites. Here, we design a 3D model of GRACE like mission with available sensors and explain how the Attitude and Orbit Control System (AOCS) works. The expected accuracies on final results of gravity field are also explained here.

  8. STS-78 Space Shuttle Mission Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fricke, Robert W., Jr.

    1996-01-01

    The STS-78 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report summarizes the Payload activities as well as the Orbiter, External Tank (ET), Solid Rocket Booster (SRB), Reusable Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM), and the Space Shuttle main engine (SSME) systems performance during the seventy-eighth flight of the Space Shuttle Program, the fifty-third flight since the return-to-flight, and the twentieth flight of the Orbiter Columbia (OV-102). In addition to the Orbiter, the flight vehicle consisted of an ET that was designated ET-79; three SSME's that were designated as serial numbers 2041, 2039, and 2036 in positions 1, 2, and 3, respectively; and two SRB's that were designated BI-081. The RSRM's, designated RSRM-55, were installed in each SRB and the individual RSRM's were designated as 360L055A for the left SRB, and 360L055B for the right SRB. The STS-78 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report fulfills the Space Shuttle Program requirement as documented in NSTS 07700, Volume 7, Appendix E. The requirement stated in that document is that each organizational element supporting the Program will report the results of their hardware (and software) evaluation and mission performance plus identify all related in-flight anomalies. The primary objective of this flight was to successfully perform the planned operations of the Life and Microgravity Spacelab experiments. The secondary objectives of this flight were to complete the operations of the Orbital Acceleration Research Experiment (OARE), Biological Research in Canister Unit-Block II (BRIC), and the Shuttle Amateur Radio Experiment II-Configuration C (SAREX-II). The STS-78 mission was planned as a 16-day, plus one day flight plus two contingency days, which were available for weather avoidance or Orbiter contingency operations. The sequence of events for the STS-78 mission is shown in Table 1, and the Space Shuttle Vehicle Management Office Problem Tracking List is shown in Table 2. The Government Furnished Equipment/Flight Crew Equipment

  9. Soviet Mission Control Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    This photo is an overall view of the Mission Control Center in Korolev, Russia during the Expedition Seven mission. The Expedition Seven crew launched aboard a Soyez spacecraft on April 26, 2003. Photo credit: NASA/Bill Ingalls

  10. Space missions to comets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neugebauer, M. (Editor); Yeomans, D. K. (Editor); Brandt, J. C. (Editor); Hobbs, R. W. (Editor)

    1979-01-01

    The broad impact of a cometary mission is assessed with particular emphasis on scientific interest in a fly-by mission to Halley's comet and a rendezvous with Tempel 2. Scientific results, speculations, and future plans are discussed.

  11. Editing the Mission.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Sharon; Fogg, Piper

    2002-01-01

    Discusses the decision by Columbia University's new president to reevaluate the mission of its journalism school before naming a new dean, in order to explore how the journalism school fits into the mission of a research university. (EV)

  12. A Neptune Orbiter Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wallace, R. A.; Spilker, T. R.

    1998-01-01

    This paper describes the results of new analyses and mission/system designs for a low cost Neptune Orbiter mission. Science and measurement objectives, instrumentation, and mission/system design options are described and reflect an aggressive approach to the application of new advanced technologies expected to be available and developed over the next five to ten years.

  13. Mission operations management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rocco, David A.

    1994-01-01

    Redefining the approach and philosophy that operations management uses to define, develop, and implement space missions will be a central element in achieving high efficiency mission operations for the future. The goal of a cost effective space operations program cannot be realized if the attitudes and methodologies we currently employ to plan, develop, and manage space missions do not change. A management philosophy that is in synch with the environment in terms of budget, technology, and science objectives must be developed. Changing our basic perception of mission operations will require a shift in the way we view the mission. This requires a transition from current practices of viewing the mission as a unique end product, to a 'mission development concept' built on the visualization of the end-to-end mission. To achieve this change we must define realistic mission success criteria and develop pragmatic approaches to achieve our goals. Custom mission development for all but the largest and most unique programs is not practical in the current budget environment, and we simply do not have the resources to implement all of our planned science programs. We need to shift our management focus to allow us the opportunity make use of methodologies and approaches which are based on common building blocks that can be utilized in the space, ground, and mission unique segments of all missions.

  14. Mission objectives and trajectories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The present state of the knowledge of asteroids was assessed to identify mission and target priorities for planning asteroidal flights in the 1980's and beyond. Mission objectives, mission analysis, trajectory studies, and cost analysis are discussed. A bibliography of reports and technical memoranda is included.

  15. Threads of Mission Success

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gavin, Thomas R.

    2006-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the many parts of the JPL mission planning process that the project manager has to work with. Some of them are: NASA & JPL's institutional requirements, the mission systems design requirements, the science interactions, the technical interactions, financial requirements, verification and validation, safety and mission assurance, and independent assessment, review and reporting.

  16. Advanced solar space missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bohlin, J. D.

    1979-01-01

    The space missions in solar physics planned for the next decade are similar in that they will have, for the most part, distinct, unifying science objectives in contrast to the more general 'exploratory' nature of the Orbiting Solar Observatory and Skylab/ATM missions of the 1960's and 70's. In particular, the strategy for advanced solar physics space missions will focus on the quantitative understanding of the physical processes that create and control the flow of electromagnetic and particulate energy from the sun and through interplanetary space at all phases of the current sunspot cycle No. 21. Attention is given to the Solar Maximum Mission, the International Solar Polar Mission, solar physics on an early Shuttle mission, principal investigator class experiments for future spacelabs, the Solar Optical Telescope, the Space Science Platform, the Solar Cycle and Dynamics Mission, and an attempt to send a spacecraft to within 4 solar radii of the sun's surface.

  17. Mars landing exploration mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzaki, Megumi

    1991-07-01

    The overall concept for Mars observation missions and the systems to implement the missions are reviewed. Reviews are conducted on the following items: (1) profiles of the candidate missions; (2) aerodynamic capture deceleration estimates; (3) prospective Mars orbit decisions; (4) landing methods as the prerequisites for mission accomplishment; and (5) explorer systems to accomplish the missions. The major processes involved in the mission, from the launch to the beginning of observation of the surface, are outlined. Reviews of possible orbits taken by the explorer from Mars transfer orbit (Hohmann orbit) to Mars revolving orbit are presented. Additionally, the possible orbits for the landing vehicle from departing from the revolving orbit through landing are presented. Transportation and landing module design concepts concerning the structure, weight, and electric power balances of the explorer system are presented. Critical Mars mission technologies are cited as follows: (1) inter-planet navigation; (2) aerodynamic capture; (3) automatic and autonomous operation; and (4) landing technology.

  18. Ongoing Mars Missions: Extended Mission Plans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zurek, Richard; Diniega, Serina; Crisp, Joy; Fraeman, Abigail; Golombek, Matt; Jakosky, Bruce; Plaut, Jeff; Senske, David A.; Tamppari, Leslie; Thompson, Thomas W.; Vasavada, Ashwin R.

    2016-10-01

    Many key scientific discoveries in planetary science have been made during extended missions. This is certainly true for the Mars missions both in orbit and on the planet's surface. Every two years, ongoing NASA planetary missions propose investigations for the next two years. This year, as part of the 2016 Planetary Sciences Division (PSD) Mission Senior Review, the Mars Odyssey (ODY) orbiter project submitted a proposal for its 7th extended mission, the Mars Exploration Rover (MER-B) Opportunity submitted for its 10th, the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) for its 4th, and the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Curiosity rover and the Mars Atmosphere and Volatile Evolution (MVN) orbiter for their 2nd extended missions, respectively. Continued US participation in the ongoing Mars Express Mission (MEX) was also proposed. These missions arrived at Mars in 2001, 2004, 2006, 2012, 2014, and 2003, respectively. Highlights of proposed activities include systematic observations of the surface and atmosphere in twilight (early morning and late evening), building on a 13-year record of global mapping (ODY); exploration of a crater rim gully and interior of Endeavour Crater, while continuing to test what can and cannot be seen from orbit (MER-B); refocused observations of ancient aqueous deposits and polar cap interiors, while adding a 6th Mars year of change detection in the atmosphere and the surface (MRO); exploration and sampling by a rover of mineralogically diverse strata of Mt. Sharp and of atmospheric methane in Gale Crater (MSL); and further characterization of atmospheric escape under different solar conditions (MVN). As proposed, these activities follow up on previous discoveries (e.g., recurring slope lineae, habitable environments), while expanding spatial and temporal coverage to guide new detailed observations. An independent review panel evaluated these proposals, met with project representatives in May, and made recommendations to NASA in June 2016. In this

  19. Manned Mars mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Terrapin Technologies proposes a Manned Mars Mission design study. The purpose of the Manned Mars Mission is to transport ten people and a habitat with all required support systems and supplies from low Earth orbit (LEO) to the surface of Mars and, after an expedition of three months to return the personnel safely to LEO. The proposed hardware design is based on systems and components of demonstrated high capability and reliability. The mission design builds on past mission experience but incorporates innovative design approaches to achieve mission priorities. These priorities, in decreasing order of importance, are safety, reliability, minimum personnel transfer time, minimum weight, and minimum cost. The design demonstrates the feasibility and flexibility of a waverider transfer module. Information is given on how the plan meets the mission requirements.

  20. The First Spacelab Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Craft, H.

    1984-01-01

    The role of the mission manager in coordinating the payload with the space transportation system is studied. The establishment of the investigators working group to assist in achieving the mission objectives is examined. Analysis of the scientific requirements to assure compatibility with available resources, and analysis of the payload in order to define orbital flight requirements are described. The training of payload specialists, launch site integration, and defining the requirements for the operation of the integrated payload and the payload operations control center are functions of the mission manager. The experiences gained from the management of the Spacelab One Mission, which can be implemented in future missions, are discussed. Examples of material processing, earth observations, and life sciences advances from the First Spacelab Mission are presented.

  1. End of Mission Considerations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hull, Scott M.

    2013-01-01

    While a great deal of effort goes into planning and executing successful mission operations, it is also important to consider the End of the Mission during the planning, design, and operations phases of any mission. Spacecraft and launch vehicles must be disposed of properly in order to limit the generation of orbital debris, and better preserve the orbital environment for all future missions. Figure 30-1 shows a 1990's projected growth of debris with and without the use of responsible disposal techniques. This requires early selection of a responsible disposal scenario, so that the necessary capabilities can be incorporated into the hardware designs. The mission operations must then be conducted in such a way as to preserve, and then actually perform, the planned, appropriate end of mission disposal.

  2. Juno Mission Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Meemong; Weidner, Richard J.

    2008-01-01

    The Juno spacecraft is planned to launch in August of 2012 and would arrive at Jupiter four years later. The spacecraft would spend more than one year orbiting the planet and investigating the existence of an ice-rock core; determining the amount of global water and ammonia present in the atmosphere, studying convection and deep- wind profiles in the atmosphere; investigating the origin of the Jovian magnetic field, and exploring the polar magnetosphere. Juno mission management is responsible for mission and navigation design, mission operation planning, and ground-data-system development. In order to ensure successful mission management from initial checkout to final de-orbit, it is critical to share a common vision of the entire mission operation phases with the rest of the project teams. Two major challenges are 1) how to develop a shared vision that can be appreciated by all of the project teams of diverse disciplines and expertise, and 2) how to continuously evolve a shared vision as the project lifecycle progresses from formulation phase to operation phase. The Juno mission simulation team addresses these challenges by developing agile and progressive mission models, operation simulations, and real-time visualization products. This paper presents mission simulation visualization network (MSVN) technology that has enabled a comprehensive mission simulation suite (MSVN-Juno) for the Juno project.

  3. Cassini Solstice Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spilker, Linda J.; Pappalardo, R.; Scientists, Cassini

    2009-09-01

    Our understanding of the Saturn system has been greatly enhanced by the Cassini-Huygens mission. Fundamental new discoveries have altered our views of Saturn, Titan, the rings, moons, and magnetosphere of the system. The proposed 7-year Cassini Solstice Mission will address new questions that have arisen during the Prime and Equinox Missions, and observe seasonal and temporal change in the Saturn system to prepare for future missions. The proposed Solstice Mission will provide new science in three ways: first, by observing seasonally and temporally dependent processes on Titan, Saturn, and other icy satellites, and within the rings and magnetosphere, in a hitherto unobserved seasonal phase from equinox to solstice; second, by addressing new questions that have arisen during the mission thus far, for example providing qualitatively new measurements of Enceladus which could not be accommodated in the earlier mission phases, and third, by conducting a close-in mission at Saturn that will provide a unique comparison to the Juno observations at Jupiter. These types of observations, absent Cassini, will not be fulfilled for decades to come. This poster summarizes a white paper that has been prepared for the Space Studies Board 2013-2022 Planetary Science Decadal Survey on the Cassini Solstice mission. This work was carried out at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under contract with NASA. Copyright 2009 California Institute of Technology. Government sponsorship acknowledged.

  4. STEREO Mission Design Implementation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guzman, Jose J.; Dunham, David W.; Sharer, Peter J.; Hunt, Jack W.; Ray, J. Courtney; Shapiro, Hongxing S.; Ossing, Daniel A.; Eichstedt, John E.

    2007-01-01

    STEREO (Solar-TErrestrial RElations Observatory) is the third mission in the Solar Terrestrial Probes program (STP) of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Science Mission Directorate Sun-Earth Connection theme. This paper describes the successful implementation (lunar swingby targeting) of the mission following the first phasing orbit to deployment into the heliocentric mission orbits following the two lunar swingbys. The STEREO Project had to make some interesting trajectory decisions in order to exploit opportunities to image a bright comet and an unusual lunar transit across the Sun.

  5. Mission requirements: Second Skylab mission SL-3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    Complete SL-3 mission objectives and requirements, as revised 1 February 1972 (Rev. 6), are presented. Detailed test objectives are also given on the medical experiments, Apollo Telescope Mount experiments, Earth Resources Experiment Package, and corollary experiments and environmental microbiology experiments.

  6. The Pioneer Venus Missions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Mountain View, CA. Ames Research Center.

    This document provides detailed information on the atmosphere and weather of Venus. This pamphlet describes the technological hardware including the probes that enter the Venusian atmosphere, the orbiter and the launch vehicle. Information is provided in lay terms on the mission profile, including details of events from launch to mission end. The…

  7. NASA Mission: The Universe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    This booklet is mainly a recruitment tool for the various NASA Centers. This well illustrated booklet briefly describes NASA's mission and career opportunities on the NASA team. NASA field installations and their missions are briefly noted. NASA's four chief program offices are briefly described. They are: (1) Aeronautics, Exploration, and Space Technology; (2) Space Flight; (3) Space Operations; and (4) Space Science and Applications.

  8. The Rosetta mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Matt; Altobelli, Nicolas; Martin, Patrick; Buratti, Bonnie J.; Choukroun, Mathieu

    2016-10-01

    The Rosetta Mission is the third cornerstone mission the ESA programme Horizon 2000. The aim of the mission is to map the comet 67-P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko by remote sensing, to examine its environment insitu and its evolution in the inner solar system. The lander Philae is the first device to land on a comet and perform in-situ science on the surface. Following its launch in March 2004, Rosetta underwent 3 Earth and 1 Mars flybys to achieve the correct trajectory to capture the comet, including flybys of asteroid on 2867 Steins and 21 Lutetia. For June 2011- January 2014 the spacecraft passed through a period of hibernation, due to lack of available power for full payload operation and following successful instrument commissioning, successfully rendezvoused with the comet in August 2014. Following an intense period of mapping and characterisation, a landing site for Philae was selected and on 12 November 2014, Philae was successfully deployed. Rosetta then embarked on the main phase of the mission, observing the comet on its way into and away from perihelion in August 2015. At the time of writing the mission is planned to terminate with the Rosetta orbiter impacting the comet surface on 30 September 2016. This presentation will provide a brief overview of the mission and its science. The first author is honoured to give this talk on behalf of all Rosetta mission science, instrument and operations teams, for it is they who have worked tirelessly to make this mission the success it is.

  9. An interstellar precursor mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaffe, L. D.; Ivie, C.; Lewis, J. C.; Lipes, R.; Norton, H. N.; Stearns, J. W.; Stimpson, L. D.; Weissman, P.

    1980-01-01

    A mission out of the planetary system, launched about the year 2000, could provide valuable scientific data as well as test some of the technology for a later mission to another star. Primary scientific objectives for the precursor mission concern characteristics of the heliopause, the interstellar medium, stellar distances (by parallax measurements), low-energy cosmic rays, interplanetary gas distribution, and the mass of the solar system. Secondary objectives include investigation of Pluto. The mission should extend to 400-1000 AU from the sun. A heliocentric hyperbolic escape velocity of 50-100 km/sec or more is needed to attain this distance within a reasonable mission duration (20-50 years). The trajectory should be toward the incoming interstellar gas. For a year 2000 launch, a Pluto encounter and orbiter can be included. A second mission targeted parallel to the solar axis would also be worthwhile. The mission duration is 20 years, with an extended mission to a total of 50 years. A system using one or two stages of nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) was selected as a possible baseline. The most promising alternatives are ultralight solar sails or laser sailing, with the lasers in earth orbit, for example. The NEP baseline design allows the option of carrying a Pluto orbiter as a daughter spacecraft.

  10. Mission Medical Information System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson-Throop, Kathy A.; Joe, John C.; Follansbee, Nicole M.

    2008-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation gives an overview of the Mission Medical Information System (MMIS). The topics include: 1) What is MMIS?; 2) MMIS Goals; 3) Terrestrial Health Information Technology Vision; 4) NASA Health Information Technology Needs; 5) Mission Medical Information System Components; 6) Electronic Medical Record; 7) Longitudinal Study of Astronaut Health (LSAH); 8) Methods; and 9) Data Submission Agreement (example).

  11. Fulfilling an Ambitious Mission

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rourke, James; Mero, Dianne

    2008-01-01

    Given its success as a high achieving, award-winning magnet school for academically oriented students in grades 9-12, Columbus Alternative High School has more than successfully fulfilled its ambitious mission in the 30 years since it was named. According to the school's mission statement, Columbus Alternative aims "to create a truly alternative…

  12. STS-69 Mission Insignia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    Designed by the mission crew members, the patch for STS-69 symbolizes the multifaceted nature of the flight's mission. The primary payload, the Wake Shield Facility (WSF), is represented in the center by the astronaut emblem against a flat disk. The astronaut emblem also signifies the importance of human beings in space exploration, reflected by the planned space walk to practice for International Space Station (ISS) activities and to evaluate space suit design modifications. The two stylized Space Shuttles highlight the ascent and entry phases of the mission. Along with the two spiral plumes, the stylized Space Shuttles symbolize a NASA first, the deployment and recovery on the same mission of two spacecraft (both the Wake Shield Facility and the Spartan). The constellations Canis Major and Canis Minor represent the astronomy objectives of the Spartan and International Extreme Ultraviolet Hitchhiker (IEH) payload. The two constellations also symbolize the talents and dedication of the support personnel who make Space Shuttle missions possible.

  13. The LISA Pathfinder Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vitale, Stefano; LISA Pathfinder Team

    2013-04-01

    LISA Pathfinder is a mission of the European Space Mission aimed at demonstrating the space-time metrology required for space-borne gravitational wave observatories like eLISA. In particular the mission aims at experimentally test the detailed physical model of the eLISA instrument using the hardware to be flown on eLISA. This model predicts that no true forces on test-bodies will compete with gravitational signals in excess to fN/Hz^(-1/2). The mission is in phase C/D and is due to launch in two years. The talk will describe the mission, its development status, and the metrology under test.

  14. Mars Surface Mission Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duke, M. B. (Editor)

    1997-01-01

    A workshop was held at the Lunar and Planetary Institute on September 4-5, 1997, to address the surface elements of the Mars Reference Mission now being reviewed by NASA. The workshop considered the current reference mission and addressed the types of activities that would be expected for science and resource exploration and facilities operations. A set of activities was defined that can be used to construct "vignettes" of the surface mission. These vignettes can form the basis for describing the importance of the surface mission, for illustrating aspects of the surface mission, and for allowing others to extend and revise these initial ideas. The topic is rich with opportunities for additional conceptualization. It is recommended that NASA consider supporting university design teams to conduct further analysis of the possibilities.

  15. Kepler Mission Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koch, David; Borucki, William; Lissauer, J.; Mayer, David; Voss, Janice; Basri, Gibor; Gould, Alan; Brown, Timothy; Cockran, William; Caldwell, Douglas

    2005-01-01

    The Kepler Mission is in the development phase with launch planned for 2007. The mission goal first off is to reliably detect a significant number of Earth-size planets in the habitable zone of solar-like stars. The mission design allows for exploring the diversity of planetary sizes, orbital periods, stellar spectral types, etc. In this paper we describe the technical approach taken for the mission design; describing the flight and ground system, the detection methodology, the photometer design and capabilities, and the way the data are taken and processed. (For Stellar Classification program. Finally the detection capability in terms of planet size and orbit are presented as a function of mission duration and stellar type.

  16. PERCIVAL mission to Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reed, David W.; Lilley, Stewart; Sirman, Melinda; Bolton, Paul; Elliott, Susan; Hamilton, Doug; Nickelson, James; Shelton, Artemus

    1992-01-01

    With the downturn of the world economy, the priority of unmanned exploration of the solar system has been lowered. Instead of foregoing all missions to our neighbors in the solar system, a new philosophy of exploration mission design has evolved to insure the continued exploration of the solar system. The 'Discovery-class' design philosophy uses a low cost, limited mission, available technology spacecraft instead of the previous 'Voyager-class' design philosophy that uses a 'do-everything at any cost' spacecraft. The Percival Mission to Mars was proposed by Ares Industries as one of the new 'Discovery-class' of exploration missions. The spacecraft will be christened Percival in honor of American astronomer Percival Lowell who proposed the existence of life on Mars in the early twentieth century. The main purpose of the Percival mission to Mars is to collect and relay scientific data to Earth suitable for designing future manned and unmanned missions to Mars. The measurements and observations made by Percival will help future mission designers to choose among landing sites based on the feasibility and scientific interest of the sites. The primary measurements conducted by the Percival mission include gravity field determination, surface and atmospheric composition, sub-surface soil composition, sub-surface seismic activity, surface weather patterns, and surface imaging. These measurements will be taken from the orbiting Percival spacecraft and from surface penetrators deployed from Mars orbit. The design work for the Percival Mission to Mars was divided among four technical areas: Orbits and Propulsion System, Surface Penetrators, Gravity and Science Instruments, and Spacecraft Structure and Systems. The results for each of the technical areas is summarized and followed by a design cost analysis and recommendations for future analyses.

  17. Recce mission planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    York, Andrew M.

    2000-11-01

    The ever increasing sophistication of reconnaissance sensors reinforces the importance of timely, accurate, and equally sophisticated mission planning capabilities. Precision targeting and zero-tolerance for collateral damage and civilian casualties, stress the need for accuracy and timeliness. Recent events have highlighted the need for improvement in current planning procedures and systems. Annotating printed maps takes time and does not allow flexibility for rapid changes required in today's conflicts. We must give aircrew the ability to accurately navigate their aircraft to an area of interest, correctly position the sensor to obtain the required sensor coverage, adapt missions as required, and ensure mission success. The growth in automated mission planning system capability and the expansion of those systems to include dedicated and integrated reconnaissance modules, helps to overcome current limitations. Mission planning systems, coupled with extensive integrated visualization capabilities, allow aircrew to not only plan accurately and quickly, but know precisely when they will locate the target and visualize what the sensor will see during its operation. This paper will provide a broad overview of the current capabilities and describe how automated mission planning and visualization systems can improve and enhance the reconnaissance planning process and contribute to mission success. Think about the ultimate objective of the reconnaissance mission as we consider areas that technology can offer improvement. As we briefly review the fundamentals, remember where and how TAC RECCE systems will be used. Try to put yourself in the mindset of those who are on the front lines, working long hours at increasingly demanding tasks, trying to become familiar with new operating areas and equipment, while striving to minimize risk and optimize mission success. Technical advancements that can reduce the TAC RECCE timeline, simplify operations and instill Warfighter

  18. Voyager Interstellar Mission (VIM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rudd, R.; Textor, G.

    1991-01-01

    The DSN (Deep Space Network) mission support requirements for the Voyager Interstellar Mission (VIM) are summarized. The general objectives of the VIM are to investigate the interplanetary and interstellar media and to continue the Voyager program of ultraviolet astronomy. The VIM will utilize both Voyager spacecraft for the period from January 1990 through December 2019. The mission objectives are outlined and the DSN support requirements are defined through the presentation of tables and narratives describing the spacecraft flight profile; DSN support coverage; frequency assignments; support parameters for telemetry, control and support systems; and tracking support responsibility.

  19. Moon manned mission scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Angelis, G.; Tripathi, R. K.; Wilson, J. W.; Clowdsley, M. S.; Nealy, J. E.; Badavi, F. F.

    An analysis is performed on the radiation environment found around and on the surface of the Moon, and applied to different possible lunar mission scenarios. An optimization technique has been used to obtain mission scenarios minimizing the astronaut radiation exposure and at the same time controlling the effect of shielding, in terms of mass addition and material choice, as a mission cost driver. The scenarios are evaluated from the point of view of radiation safety with the radiation protection quantities recommended for LEO scenarios.

  20. Exobiology and Future Mars Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mckay, Christopher P. (Editor); Davis, Wanda, L. (Editor)

    1989-01-01

    Scientific questions associated with exobiology on Mars were considered and how these questions should be addressed on future Mars missions was determined. The mission that provided a focus for discussions was the Mars Rover/Sample Return Mission.

  1. Defining departmental mission.

    PubMed

    Hartman, M D; Barrow, J A; Sawyer, W R

    1990-02-01

    Mission statements have long been recognized by corporate America as a way to define an enterprise. The necessary business orientation of the health care industry requires that hospitals and hospital departments define their scope of services and reason for existence. The accelerating reprofessionalization affecting departments of pharmacy requires the same. "Improving the quality of patient care" can no longer represent a euphemism for simply reacting to external factors or acting on a whim without clear meaningful intent. Professional departments and hospitals must demonstrate a sense of direction and purpose and be able to justify costs to a budget-conscious management and skeptical public. Mission statements are not substitutes for a clearly defined sense of professional mission. However, well-constructed mission statements contribute to clarity of departmental and professional purpose and effective achievement of goals. PMID:10128549

  2. Theme: A Mission Statement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mannebach, Alfred J; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Discusses what the future holds for vocational agriculture. Includes seven articles on the mission of agricultural education, teacher education, the public image, planning, secondary vocational agriculture, needed changes, and a vision for the future. (JOW)

  3. The Mars Observer Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palluconi, F. D.

    1985-01-01

    The Mars Observer Mission is to be the first in a series of modest-cost inner-planet missions. Launch is planned for the August/September 1990 Mars opportunity with arrival at Mars one year later. The geoscience/climatology objectives are to be met during a mapping mission over the course of one Mars year (687 days). The mapping orbit will be near-polar (93 degree orbital inclination), sun-synchronous (2 PM sunward equator crossing), and near-circular (350 km orbit altitude, 116 minute period). The spacecraft, to be selected in late 1985, will be a modified version of an existing commercial design which, in the mapping orbit, will maintain a nadir orientation. Experiments and instruments will be selected through an Announcement of Opportunity (AO) process with release of the AO in April 1985, and selection in early 1986. A description of current planning for this mission, with emphasis on climatology, is presented here.

  4. Technology Demonstration Missions

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA's Technology Demonstration Missions (TDM) Program seeks to infuse new technology into space applications, bridging the gap between mature “lab-proven” technology and "flight-ready" status....

  5. STS-111 Mission Insignia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Pictured here is the Space Shuttle Orbiter Endeavour, STS-111 mission insignia. The International Space Station (ISS) recieved a new crew, Expedition Five, replacing Expedition Four after a record-setting 196 days in space, when STS-111 visited in June 2002. Three spacewalks enabled the STS-111 crew to accomplish additional mission objectives: the delivery and installation of a new platform for the ISS robotic arm, the Mobile Base System (MBS) which is an important part of the Station's Mobile Servicing System allowing the robotic arm to travel the length of the Station; the replacement of a wrist roll joint on the Station's robotic arm; and unloading supplies and science experiments from the Leonardo Multi-Purpose Logistics Module, which made its third trip to the orbital outpost. The STS-111 mission, the 14th Shuttle mission to visit the ISS, was launched on June 5, 2002 and landed June 19, 2002.

  6. The Spacelab J mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cremin, J. W.; Leslie, F. W.

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes Spacelab J (SL-J), its mission characteristics, features, parameters and configuration, the unique nature of the shared reimbursable cooperative effort with the National Space Development Agency (NASDA) of Japan and the evolution, content and objectives of the mission scientific experiment complement. The mission is planned for launch in 1991. This long module mission has 35 experiments from Japan as well as 9 investigations from the United States. The SL-J payload consists of two broad scientific disciplines which require the extended microgravity or cosmic ray environment: (1) materials science such as crystal growth, solidification processes, drop dynamics, free surface flows, gas dynamics, metallurgy and semiconductor technology; and (2) life science including cell development, human physiology, radiation-induced mutations, vestibular studies, embryo development, and medical technology. Through an international agreement with NASDA, NASA is preparing to fly the first Japanese manned, scientific, cooperative endeavor with the United States.

  7. Mission Control Roses

    NASA Video Gallery

    The 110th bouquet of roses arrived in Mission Control on Saturday, July 9, 2011. They were sent as quietly as they have been for more than 23 years by a family near Dallas, Texas. For 110 shuttle m...

  8. Mars Exploration Rover Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, Barbara A.

    2008-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the Mars Exploration Rover Mission. The design of the Rover along with the Athena science payload is also described. Photographs of the Gusev Crater and Meridiani rocks are also shown.

  9. An interstellar precursor mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaffe, L. D.; Ivie, C.; Lewis, J. C.; Lipes, R. G.; Norton, H. N.; Stearns, J. W.; Stimpson, L.; Weissman, P.

    1977-01-01

    A mission out of the planetary system, with launch about the year 2000, could provide valuable scientific data as well as test some of the technology for a later mission to another star. Primary scientific objectives for the precursor mission concern characteristics of the heliopause, the interstellar medium, stellar distances (by parallax measurements), low energy cosmic rays, interplanetary gas distribution, and mass of the solar system. Secondary objectives include investigation of Pluto. Candidate science instruments are suggested. Individual spacecraft systems for the mission were considered, technology requirements and problem areas noted, and a number of recommendations made for technology study and advanced development. The most critical technology needs include attainment of 50-yr spacecraft lifetime and development of a long-life NEP system.

  10. NASA Hurricane Mission - GRIP

    NASA Video Gallery

    This is an overview of NASA's hurricane research campaign called Genesis and Rapid Intensification Processes (GRIP). The six-week mission was conducted in coordination with NOAA and the National Sc...

  11. Apollo 15 mission report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    A detailed discussion is presented of the Apollo 15 mission, which conducted exploration of the moon over longer periods, greater ranges, and with more instruments of scientific data acquisition than previous missions. The topics include trajectory, lunar surface science, inflight science and photography, command and service module performance, lunar module performance, lunar surface operational equipment, pilot's report, biomedical evaluation, mission support performance, assessment of mission objectives, launch phase summary, anomaly summary, and vehicle and equipment descriptions. The capability of transporting larger payloads and extending time on the moon were demonstrated. The ground-controlled TV camera allowed greater real-time participation by earth-bound personnel. The crew operated more as scientists and relied more on ground support team for systems monitoring. The modified pressure garment and portable life support system provided better mobility and extended EVA time. The lunar roving vehicle and the lunar communications relay unit were also demonstrated.

  12. Students on Hayabusa Mission

    NASA Video Gallery

    Three Massachusetts high school students began their summer with a journey halfway around the world to participate in a NASA airborne mission to image the Japanese Hayabusa spacecraft's fiery retur...

  13. The IRIS Mission Timeline

    NASA Video Gallery

    This animation shows the timeline of activities for the IRIS mission. Following launch, during the initial orbits, the spacecraft “detumbles”, opens the solar arrays, acquires the sun and com...

  14. Mission X Introduction

    NASA Video Gallery

    Expedition 26 Flight Engineer Cady Coleman delivers a message to student teams participating in the Mission X: Train Like An Astronaut international education and fitness challenge. To learn more, ...

  15. Theme: The Expanded Mission.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finley, Eddy; And Others

    1991-01-01

    This theme issue covers the following topics: modernization of agricultural education, an expanded mission for the field, community development, a national presence for agricultural education, revising curriculum, and interesting students in new careers in agriculture. (SK)

  16. STS-83 Mission Insignia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    The crew patch for NASA's STS-83 mission depicts the Space Shuttle Columbia launching into space for the first Microgravity Sciences Laboratory 1 (MSL-1) mission. MSL-1 investigated materials science, fluid dynamics, biotechnology, and combustion science in the microgravity environment of space, experiments that were conducted in the Spacelab Module in the Space Shuttle Columbia's cargo bay. The center circle symbolizes a free liquid under microgravity conditions representing various fluid and materials science experiments. Symbolic of the combustion experiments is the surrounding starburst of a blue flame burning in space. The 3-lobed shape of the outermost starburst ring traces the dot pattern of a transmission Laue photograph typical of biotechnology experiments. The numerical designation for the mission is shown at bottom center. As a forerunner to missions involving International Space Station (ISS), STS-83 represented the hope that scientific results and knowledge gained during the flight will be applied to solving problems on Earth for the benefit and advancement of humankind.

  17. STS-133 Mission Highlights

    NASA Video Gallery

    Space shuttle Discovery and the STS-133 crew launched Feb. 24, 2011, on a mission to deliver the Permanent Multipurpose Module, Robonaut 2 and the Express Logistics Carrier 4 to the International S...

  18. The EOS Aura Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schoeberl, Mark R.; Douglass, A. R.; Hilsenrath, E.; Luce, M.; Barnett, J.; Beer, R.; Waters, J.; Gille, J.; Levelt, P. F.; DeCola, P.; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The EOS Aura Mission is designed to make comprehensive chemical measurements of the troposphere and stratosphere. In addition the mission will make measurements of important climate variables such as aerosols, and upper tropospheric water vapor and ozone. Aura will launch in late 2003 and will fly 15 minutes behind EOS Aqua in a polar sun synchronous ascending node orbit with a 1:30 pm equator crossing time.

  19. Apollo 17 mission report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Operational and engineering aspects of the Apollo 17 mission are outlined. The vehicle configuration was similar to those of Apollo 15 and 16. There were significant differences in the science payload for Apollo 17 and spacecraft hardware differences and experiment equipment are described. The mission achieved a landing in the Taurus-Littrow region of the moon and returned samples of the pre-Imbrium highlands and young craters.

  20. Galileo Mission Science Briefing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1989-07-01

    The first of two tapes of the Galileo Mission Science press briefing is presented. The panel is moderated by George Diller from the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) Public Affairs Office. The participants are John Conway, the director of Payload and operations at Kennedy; Donald E. Williams, Commander of STS-43, the shuttle mission which will launch the Galileo mission; John Casani, the Deputy Assistant Director of Flight Projects at the Jet Propulsion Lab (JPL); Dick Spehalski, Galileo Project Manager at JPL; and Terrence Johnson, Galileo Project Scientist at JPL. The briefing begins with an announcement of the arrival of the Galileo Orbiter at KSC. The required steps prior to the launch are discussed. The mission trajectory and gravity assists from planetary and solar flybys are reviewed. Detailed designs of the orbiter are shown. The distance that Galileo will travel from the sun precludes the use of solar energy for heat. Therefore Radioisotope heater units are used to keep the equipment at operational temperature. A video of the arrival of the spacecraft at KSC and final tests and preparations is shown. Some of the many science goals of the mission are reviewed. Another video showing an overview of the Galileo mission is presented. During the question and answer period, the issue of the use of plutonium on the mission is broached, which engenders a review of the testing methods used to ensure the safety of the capsules containing the hazardous substance. This video has actual shots of the orbiter, as it is undergoing the final preparations and tests for the mission.

  1. Apollo mission experience

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaefer, H. J.

    1972-01-01

    Dosimetric implications for manned space flight are evaluated by analyzing the radiation field behind the heavy shielding of a manned space vehicle on a near-earth orbital mission and how it compares with actual exposure levels recorded on Apollo missions. Emphasis shifts from flux densities and energy spectra to incident radiation and absorbed doses and dose equivalents as they are recorded within the ship at locations close to crew members.

  2. Galileo Mission Science Briefing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    The first of two tapes of the Galileo Mission Science press briefing is presented. The panel is moderated by George Diller from the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) Public Affairs Office. The participants are John Conway, the director of Payload and operations at Kennedy; Donald E. Williams, Commander of STS-43, the shuttle mission which will launch the Galileo mission; John Casani, the Deputy Assistant Director of Flight Projects at the Jet Propulsion Lab (JPL); Dick Spehalski, Galileo Project Manager at JPL; and Terrence Johnson, Galileo Project Scientist at JPL. The briefing begins with an announcement of the arrival of the Galileo Orbiter at KSC. The required steps prior to the launch are discussed. The mission trajectory and gravity assists from planetary and solar flybys are reviewed. Detailed designs of the orbiter are shown. The distance that Galileo will travel from the sun precludes the use of solar energy for heat. Therefore Radioisotope heater units are used to keep the equipment at operational temperature. A video of the arrival of the spacecraft at KSC and final tests and preparations is shown. Some of the many science goals of the mission are reviewed. Another video showing an overview of the Galileo mission is presented. During the question and answer period, the issue of the use of plutonium on the mission is broached, which engenders a review of the testing methods used to ensure the safety of the capsules containing the hazardous substance. This video has actual shots of the orbiter, as it is undergoing the final preparations and tests for the mission.

  3. STEREO Mission Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunham, David W.; Guzman, Jose J.; Sharer, Peter J.; Friessen, Henry D.

    2007-01-01

    STEREO (Solar-TErestrial RElations Observatory) is the third mission in the Solar Terrestrial Probes program (STP) of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). STEREO is the first mission to utilize phasing loops and multiple lunar flybys to alter the trajectories of more than one satellite. This paper describes the launch computation methodology, the launch constraints, and the resulting nine launch windows that were prepared for STEREO. More details are provided for the window in late October 2006 that was actually used.

  4. NEEMO 7 undersea mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thirsk, Robert; Williams, David; Anvari, Mehran

    2007-02-01

    The NEEMO 7 mission was the seventh in a series of NASA-coordinated missions utilizing the Aquarius undersea habitat in Florida as a human space mission analog. The primary research focus of this mission was to evaluate telementoring and telerobotic surgery technologies as potential means to deliver medical care to astronauts during spaceflight. The NEEMO 7 crewmembers received minimal pre-mission training to perform selected medical and surgical procedures. These procedures included: (1) use of a portable ultrasound to locate and measure abdominal organs and structures in a crewmember subject; (2) use of a portable ultrasound to insert a small needle and drain into a fluid-filled cystic cavity in a simulated patient; (3) surgical repair of two arteries in a simulated patient; (4) cystoscopy and use of a ureteral basket to remove a renal stone in a simulated patient; and (5) laparoscopic cholecystectomy in a simulated patient. During the actual mission, the crewmembers performed the procedures without or with telementoring and telerobotic assistance from experts located in Hamilton, Ontario. The results of the NEEMO 7 medical experiments demonstrated that telehealth interventions rely heavily on a robust broadband, high data rate telecommunication link; that certain interventional procedures can be performed adequately by minimally trained individuals with telementoring assistance; and that prior clinical experience does not always correlate with better procedural performance. As space missions become longer in duration and take place further from Earth, enhancement of medical care capability and expertise will be required. The kinds of medical technologies demonstrated during the NEEMO 7 mission may play a significant role in enabling the human exploration of space beyond low earth orbit, particularly to destinations such as the Moon and Mars.

  5. The Voyager Interstellar Mission.

    PubMed

    Rudd, R P; Hall, J C; Spradlin, G L

    1997-01-01

    The Voyager Interstellar Mission began on January 1, 1990, with the primary objective being to characterize the interplanetary medium beyond Neptune and to search for the transition region between the interplanetary medium and the interstellar medium. At the start of this mission, the two Voyager spacecraft had already been in flight for over twelve years, having successfully returned a wealth of scientific information about the planetary systems of Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune, and the interplanetary medium between Earth and Neptune. The two spacecraft have the potential to continue returning science data until around the year 2020. With this extended operating lifetime, there is a high likelihood of one of the two spacecraft penetrating the termination shock and possibly the heliopause boundary, and entering interstellar space before that time. This paper describes the Voyager Interstellar Mission--the mission objectives, the spacecraft and science payload, the mission operations system used to support operations, and the mission operations strategy being used to maximize science data return even in the event of certain potential spacecraft subsystem failures. The implementation of automated analysis tools to offset and enable reduced flight team staffing levels is also discussed.

  6. The Voyager Interstellar Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rudd, R. P.; Hall, J. C.; Spradlin, G. L.

    1997-01-01

    The Voyager Interstellar Mission began on January 1, 1990, with the primary objective being to characterize the interplanetary medium beyond Neptune and to search for the transition region between the interplanetary medium and the interstellar medium. At the start of this mission, the two Voyager spacecraft had already been in flight for over twelve years, having successfully returned a wealth of scientific information about the planetary systems of Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune, and the interplanetary medium between Earth and Neptune. The two spacecraft have the potential to continue returning science data until around the year 2020. With this extended operating lifetime, there is a high likelihood of one of the two spacecraft penetrating the termination shock and possibly the heliopause boundary, and entering interstellar space before that time. This paper describes the Voyager Interstellar Mission--the mission objectives, the spacecraft and science payload, the mission operations system used to support operations, and the mission operations strategy being used to maximize science data return even in the event of certain potential spacecraft subsystem failures. The implementation of automated analysis tools to offset and enable reduced flight team staffing levels is also discussed.

  7. The LISA Pathfinder Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNamara, Paul

    2013-04-01

    LISA Pathfinder, the second of the European Space Agency's Small Missions for Advanced Research in Technology (SMART), is a dedicated technology validation mission for future interferometric spaceborne gravitational wave observatories, for example the proposed eLISA mission. The technologies required for eLISA are many and extremely challenging. This coupled with the fact that some flight hardware cannot be fully tested on ground due to Earth-induced noise, led to the implementation of the LISA Pathfinder mission to test the critical eLISA technologies in a flight environment. LISA Pathfinder essentially mimics one arm of the eLISA constellation by shrinking the 1 million kilometre armlength down to a few tens of centimetres, giving up the sensitivity to gravitational waves, but keeping the measurement technology: the distance between the two test masses is measured using a laser interferometric technique similar to one aspect of the eLISA interferometry system. The scientific objective of the LISA Pathfinder mission consists then of the first in-flight test of low frequency gravitational wave detection metrology. Here I will present an overview of the mission, focusing on scientific and technical goals, followed by the current status of the project.

  8. The Voyager Interstellar Mission.

    PubMed

    Rudd, R P; Hall, J C; Spradlin, G L

    1997-01-01

    The Voyager Interstellar Mission began on January 1, 1990, with the primary objective being to characterize the interplanetary medium beyond Neptune and to search for the transition region between the interplanetary medium and the interstellar medium. At the start of this mission, the two Voyager spacecraft had already been in flight for over twelve years, having successfully returned a wealth of scientific information about the planetary systems of Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune, and the interplanetary medium between Earth and Neptune. The two spacecraft have the potential to continue returning science data until around the year 2020. With this extended operating lifetime, there is a high likelihood of one of the two spacecraft penetrating the termination shock and possibly the heliopause boundary, and entering interstellar space before that time. This paper describes the Voyager Interstellar Mission--the mission objectives, the spacecraft and science payload, the mission operations system used to support operations, and the mission operations strategy being used to maximize science data return even in the event of certain potential spacecraft subsystem failures. The implementation of automated analysis tools to offset and enable reduced flight team staffing levels is also discussed. PMID:11540770

  9. Human exploration mission studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cataldo, Robert L.

    1989-01-01

    The Office of Exploration has established a process whereby all NASA field centers and other NASA Headquarters offices participate in the formulation and analysis of a wide range of mission strategies. These strategies were manifested into specific scenarios or candidate case studies. The case studies provided a systematic approach into analyzing each mission element. First, each case study must address several major themes and rationale including: national pride and international prestige, advancement of scientific knowledge, a catalyst for technology, economic benefits, space enterprise, international cooperation, and education and excellence. Second, the set of candidate case studies are formulated to encompass the technology requirement limits in the life sciences, launch capabilities, space transfer, automation, and robotics in space operations, power, and propulsion. The first set of reference case studies identify three major strategies: human expeditions, science outposts, and evolutionary expansion. During the past year, four case studies were examined to explore these strategies. The expeditionary missions include the Human Expedition to Phobos and Human Expedition to Mars case studies. The Lunar Observatory and Lunar Outpost to Early Mars Evolution case studies examined the later two strategies. This set of case studies established the framework to perform detailed mission analysis and system engineering to define a host of concepts and requirements for various space systems and advanced technologies. The details of each mission are described and, specifically, the results affecting the advanced technologies required to accomplish each mission scenario are presented.

  10. Mission management - Lessons learned from early Spacelab missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Craft, H. G., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    The concept and the responsibilities of a mission manager approach are reviewed, and some of the associated problems in implementing Spacelab mission are discussed. Consideration is given to program control, science management, integrated payload mission planning, and integration requirements. Payload specialist training, payload and launch site integration, payload flight/mission operations, and postmission activities are outlined.

  11. STS 41-D mission crew training in Shuttle Mission simulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    View of members of the STS 41-D mission crew training in Shuttle Mission simulator. The crew members are in the simulated flight deck. Seated behind the pilot is mission specialist Steven Hawley. Beside him are mission specialist Judith Resnick and pilot Michael Coats. All three are wearing their communication kit assemblies.

  12. Asteroid Rescue Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Izon, S.; Kokan, T.; Lee, S.; Miller, J.; Morrell, R.; Richie, D.; Rohrschneider, R.; Rostan, S.; Staton, E.; Olds, J.

    2001-01-01

    This paper is in response to a request for papers from the Lunar and Planetary Institute in Houston, Texas as part of a National University Competition. A human rescue mission to the asteroid 16 Psyche was designed based around a failed Mars mission scenario. The scenario assumed the second human Mars mission, based on the Mars Design Reference Mission 3.0, failed to propulsively capture into Mars orbit, resulting in a higher energy trajectory headed towards the asteroid belt on an intercept trajectory with 16 Psyche. The task was to design a mission that could rescue the astronauts using existing Mars mission hardware prior to the failure of their life support system. Analysis tools were created in the following six disciplines for the design of the mission: trajectory, propulsion, habitat and life support, space rescue vehicle and earth reentry vehicle, space transfer vehicle, and operations. The disciplinary analysis tools were integrated into a computational framework in order to aid the design process. The problem was solved using a traditional fixed-point iteration method with user controlled design variables. Additionally, two other methods of optimization were implemented: design of experiments and collaborative optimization. These were looked at in order to evaluate their ease of implementation and use at solving a complex, multidisciplinary problem. The design of experiments methodology was used to create a central composite design array and a non-linear response surface equation. The response surface equation allows rapid system level optimization. Collaborative optimization is a true multidisciplinary optimization technique which benefits from disciplinary level optimization in conjunction with system level optimization. By reformatting the objective functions of the disciplinary optimizers, collaborative optimization guides the discipline optimizers toward the system optimum.

  13. Geospace Magnetospheric Dynamics Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, C. T.; Kluever, C.; Burch, J. L.; Fennell, J. F.; Hack, K.; Hillard, G. B.; Kurth, W. S.; Lopez, R. E.; Luhmann, J. G.; Martin, J. B.; Hanson, J. E.

    1998-01-01

    The Geospace Magnetospheric Dynamics (GMD) mission is designed to provide very closely spaced, multipoint measurements in the thin current sheets of the magnetosphere to determine the relation between small scale processes and the global dynamics of the magnetosphere. Its trajectory is specifically designed to optimize the time spent in the current layers and to minimize radiation damage to the spacecraft. Observations are concentrated in the region 8 to 40 R(sub E) The mission consists of three phases. After a launch into geostationary transfer orbit the orbits are circularized to probe the region between geostationary orbit and the magnetopause; next the orbit is elongated keeping perigee at the magnetopause while keeping the line of apsides down the tail. Finally, once apogee reaches 40 R(sub E) the inclination is changed so that the orbit will match the profile of the noon-midnight meridian of the magnetosphere. This mission consists of 4 solar electrically propelled vehicles, each with a single NSTAR thruster utilizing 100 kg of Xe to tour the magnetosphere in the course of a 4.4 year mission, the same thrusters that have been successfully tested on the Deep Space-1 mission.

  14. The LISA Pathfinder mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNamara, Paul

    LISA Pathfinder (formerly known as SMART-2) is an ESA mission designed to pave the way for the joint ESA/NASA Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) mission by testing in flight the critical technologies required for space-borne gravitational wave detection: it will put two test masses in a near-perfect gravitational free-fall and control and measure their motion with unprecedented accuracy. This is achieved through technology comprising inertial sensors, high precision laser metrology, drag-free control and an ultra-precise micro-Newton propulsion system LISA Pathfinder is scheduled to be launched in the first half of 2010 to a Lissajous orbit around the first Sun-Earth Lagrange point, L1. In addition to a complete European technology package (the LISA Technology Package, or LTP), LISA Pathfinder will also carry thrusters and software, known as ST-7, a part of NASA's New Millennium Program. Here I will give an introduction to, and status of, the mission, followed by a discussion on the technologies to be tested. Finally I will discuss the ways in which the LISA Pathfinder mission will be used for preparation of LISA (e.g. ground segment development as well as technology development) and for other future missions (formation flying, Fundamental Physics Explorer, etc.).

  15. Rosetta Mission Status update

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Matthew

    2015-04-01

    The Rosetta Mission is the third cornerstone mission the ESA programme Horizon 2000. The aim of the mission is to map the comet 67-P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko by remote sensing, to ex-amine its environment insitu and its evolution in the inner solar system. The lander Philae is the first device to land on a comet and perform in-situ science on the surface. Nearly 10 years after launch in 2004, on 20th January 2014 at 10:00 UTC the spacecraft woke up from hibernation. Following successful instrument commissioning, Rosetta successfully rendezvoused with the comet. Following an intense period of map-ping and characterisation, a landing site for Philae was selected and on 12 November 2014, Philae was suc-cessfully deployed. This presentation will provide a brief overview of the mission up to date and where we stand in main science phase, which began with Philae's separation. It will also provide a look forward. IT is given on behalf of ALL Rosetta mission science, in-strument and operations teams.

  16. Rosetta Mission Status Update

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, M. G.; Altobelli, N.; Alexander, C. J.; Schwehm, G. H.; Jansen, F.; Küppers, M.; O'Rourke, L.; Barthelemy, M.; Geiger, B.; Grieger, B.; Moissl, R.; Vallat, C.

    2014-12-01

    The Rosetta Mission is the third cornerstone mission the ESA programme Horizon 2000. The aim of the mission is to map the comet 67-P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko by remote sensing, to examine its environment insitu and its evolution in the inner solar system. The lander Philae will be the first device to land on a comet and perform in-situ science on the surface. Nearly 10 years after launch in 2004, on 20th January 2014 at 10:00 UTC the spacecraft woke up from hibernation. Following successful instrument commissioning, at the time of writing the spacecraft is about to rendez-vous with the comet. The rest of 2014 will involve careful mapping and characterisation of the nucleus and its environs, for science and to identify a landing site for the lander Philae in November. This presentation will provide a brief overview of the mission up to date and where we stand in early part of the escort phase of the mission which runs until end of 2015.

  17. Updated Integrated Mission Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dauro, Vincent A., Sr.

    2003-01-01

    Integrated Mission Program (IMP) is a computer program for simulating spacecraft missions around the Earth, Moon, Mars, and/or other large bodies. IMP solves the differential equations of motion by use of a Runge-Kutta numerical-integration algorithm. Users control missions through selection from a large menu of events and maneuvers. Mission profiles, time lines, propellant requirements, feasibility analyses, and perturbation analyses can be computed quickly and accurately. A prior version of IMP, written in FORTRAN 77, was reported in Program Simulates Spacecraft Missions (MFS-28606), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 17, No. 4 (April 1993), page 60. The present version, written in double-precision Lahey FORTRAN 90, incorporates a number of improvements over the prior version. Some of the improvements modernize the code to take advantage of today's greater central-processing-unit speeds. Other improvements render the code more modular; provide additional input, output, and debugging capabilities; and add to the variety of maneuvers, events, and means of propulsion that can be simulated. The IMP user manuals (of which there are now ten, each addressing a different aspect of the code and its use) have been updated accordingly.

  18. Autonomous mission operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frank, J.; Spirkovska, L.; McCann, R.; Wang, Lui; Pohlkamp, K.; Morin, L.

    NASA's Advanced Exploration Systems Autonomous Mission Operations (AMO) project conducted an empirical investigation of the impact of time delay on today's mission operations, and of the effect of processes and mission support tools designed to mitigate time-delay related impacts. Mission operation scenarios were designed for NASA's Deep Space Habitat (DSH), an analog spacecraft habitat, covering a range of activities including nominal objectives, DSH system failures, and crew medical emergencies. The scenarios were simulated at time delay values representative of Lunar (1.2-5 sec), Near Earth Object (NEO) (50 sec) and Mars (300 sec) missions. Each combination of operational scenario and time delay was tested in a Baseline configuration, designed to reflect present-day operations of the International Space Station, and a Mitigation configuration in which a variety of software tools, information displays, and crew-ground communications protocols were employed to assist both crews and Flight Control Team (FCT) members with the long-delay conditions. Preliminary findings indicate: 1) Workload of both crewmembers and FCT members generally increased along with increasing time delay. 2) Advanced procedure execution viewers, caution and warning tools, and communications protocols such as text messaging decreased the workload of both flight controllers and crew, and decreased the difficulty of coordinating activities. 3) Whereas crew workload ratings increased between 50 sec and 300 sec of time delay in the Baseline configuration, workload ratings decreased (or remained flat) in the Mitigation configuration.

  19. The Euclid Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Racca, Giuseppe; Laureijs, Rene

    Euclid is a space-based optical/near-infrared survey mission of the European Space Agency (ESA) designed to investigate the nature of dark energy, dark matter and gravity by observing their signatures on the geometry of the Universe and on the formation of large structures over cosmological timescales. Euclid is optimised for two primary cosmological probes: Weak gravitational Lensing, which requires the measurement of the shape and photometric redshifts of distant galaxies, and Galaxy Clustering, based on the measurement of the 3-dimensional distribution of galaxies through their spectroscopic redshifts. The mission is scheduled for a launch date in the first half of 2020 and is designed for 6 years of nominal survey operations. The Euclid Spacecraft is composed of a Service Module and a Payload Module. The Service Module comprises all the conventional spacecraft subsystems, the instruments warm electronics units, the sun shield and the solar arrays. The Payload Module consists of a 1.2 m three-mirror Korsch type telescope and of two instruments, the visible imager and the near-infrared spectro-photometer, both covering a large common field-of-view enabling to survey more than 35% of the entire sky. The ground segment is broken down into three elements: the Mission Operations, the Science Operations under the responsibility of ESA and the Science Data Centres belonging to the Euclid Consortium. We will describe the overall mission, the mission elements architecture and the current project status.

  20. Autonomous Mission Operations Roadmap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frank, Jeremy David

    2014-01-01

    As light time delays increase, the number of such situations in which crew autonomy is the best way to conduct the mission is expected to increase. However, there are significant open questions regarding which functions to allocate to ground and crew as the time delays increase. In situations where the ideal solution is to allocate responsibility to the crew and the vehicle, a second question arises: should the activity be the responsibility of the crew or an automated vehicle function? More specifically, we must answer the following questions: What aspects of mission operation responsibilities (Plan, Train, Fly) should be allocated to ground based or vehicle based planning, monitoring, and control in the presence of significant light-time delay between the vehicle and the Earth?How should the allocated ground based planning, monitoring, and control be distributed across the flight control team and ground system automation? How should the allocated vehicle based planning, monitoring, and control be distributed between the flight crew and onboard system automation?When during the mission should responsibility shift from flight control team to crew or from crew to vehicle, and what should the process of shifting responsibility be as the mission progresses? NASA is developing a roadmap of capabilities for Autonomous Mission Operations for human spaceflight. This presentation will describe the current state of development of this roadmap, with specific attention to in-space inspection tasks that crews might perform with minimum assistance from the ground.

  1. Russian program of planetary missions.

    PubMed

    Galeev, A A

    1996-01-01

    In the area of Solar System Exploration most of recently proposed mission oriented to the studies of Mars. Except MARS-96 and possibly MARS SAMPLE RETURN missions other Mars missions use Molnija class launchers. All Russian missions heavily involve international partners.

  2. The PROBA-3 Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhukov, Andrei

    2016-07-01

    PROBA-3 is the next ESA mission in the PROBA line of small technology demonstration satellites. The main goal of PROBA-3 is in-orbit demonstration of formation flying techniques and technologies. The mission will consist of two spacecraft together forming a giant (150 m long) coronagraph called ASPIICS (Association of Spacecraft for Polarimetric and Imaging Investigation of the Corona of the Sun). The bigger spacecraft will host the telescope, and the smaller spacecraft will carry the external occulter of the coronagraph. ASPIICS heralds the next generation of solar coronagraphs that will use formation flying to observe the inner corona in eclipse-like conditions for extended periods of time. The occulter spacecraft will also host the secondary payload, DARA (Davos Absolute RAdiometer), that will measure the total solar irradiance. PROBA-3 is planned to be launched in 2019. The scientific objectives of PROBA-3 will be discussed in the context of other future solar and heliospheric space missions.

  3. Multiple asteroid rendezvous missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bender, D. F.; Friedlander, A. L.

    1979-01-01

    Asteroid missions, centered on multiple asteroid rendezvous missions to main belt asteroids, are discussed and the required solar electric propulsion for these missions as well as the current performance estimates are examined. A brief statistical analysis involving asteroid availability transfer requirements and propulsion system capabilities is given, leading to a prediction that 5 to 8 asteroids can be encountered with a single launch. Measurement techniques include visual imaging, radio tracking, magnetometry, and in the case of landers, seismometry. The spacecraft will be propelled by a solar electric system with a power level of 25 kW to 40 kW and tour possibilities for 13 different asteroids have been developed. Preliminary estimates of asteroid triaxiality are made to calculate the effect of close orbits.

  4. STS-95 Mission Insignia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    The STS-95 patch, designed by the crew, is intended to reflect the scientific, engineering, and historic elements of the mission. The Space Shuttle Discovery is shown rising over the sunlit Earth limb, representing the global benefits of the mission science and the solar science objectives of the Spartan Satellite. The bold number '7' signifies the seven members of Discovery's crew and also represents a historical link to the original seven Mercury astronauts. The STS-95 crew member John Glenn's first orbital flight is represented by the Friendship 7 capsule. The rocket plumes symbolize the three major fields of science represented by the mission payloads: microgravity material science, medical research for humans on Earth and in space, and astronomy.

  5. Athena Mission Status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lumb, D.

    2016-07-01

    Athena has been selected by ESA for its second large mission opportunity of the Cosmic Visions programme, to address the theme of the Hot and Energetic Universe. Following the submission of a proposal from the community, the technical and programmatic aspects of the mission design were reviewed in ESA's Concurrent Design Facility. The proposed concept was deemed to betechnically feasible, but with potential constraints from cost and schedule. Two parallel industry study contracts have been conducted to explore these conclusions more thoroughly, with the key aim of providing consolidated inputs to a Mission Consolidation Review that was conducted in April-May 2016. This MCR has recommended a baseline design, which allows the agency to solicit proposals for a community provided payload. Key design aspects arising from the studies are described, and the new reference design is summarised.

  6. STS-89 Mission Insignia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    In the STS-89 crew insignia, the link between the United States and Russia is symbolically represented by the Space Shuttle Endeavour and Russia's Mir Space Station orbiting above the Bering Strait between Siberia and Alaska. The success of the joint United States-Russian missions is depicted by the Space Shuttle and Mir colored by the rising sun in the background. A shadowed representation of the International Space Station (ISS) rising with the sun represents the future program for which the Shuttle-Mir missions are prototypes. The inside rim of the insignia describes the outline of the number eight representing STS-89 as the eighth Shuttle/Mir docking mission. The nine stars represent the nine joint missions to be flown of the program and when combined with the number eight in the rim, reflect the mission number. The nine stars also symbolize the children of the crew members who will be the future beneficiaries of the joint development work of the space programs of the two countries. Along the rim are the crew members' names with David A. Wolf's name on the left and Andrew S. W. Thomas' name on the right, the returning and upgoing cosmonaut guest researcher crew members. In between and at the bottom is the name of Salizan S. Sharipov, payload specialist representing Russian Space Agency (RSA), in Cyrillic alphabet. The other crew members are Terrence W. Wilcutt, commander; Joe F. Edwards, Jr., pilot; and mission specialists Michael P. Anderson, Bonnie J. Dunbar, and James F. Reilly. The red, white and blue of the rim reflect the colors of the American and Russian flags which are also represented in the rim on either side of the joined spacecraft.

  7. STS-87 Payload Specialist Kadenyuk participates in the CEIT for his mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Participating in the Crew Equipment Integration Test (CEIT) at Kennedy Space Center is STS-87 Payload Specialist Leonid Kadenyuk of the National Space Agency of Ukraine (NSAU). Here, Cosmonaut Kadenyuk is inspecting flowers for pollination and fertilization, which will occur as part of the Collaborative Ukrainian Experiment, or CUE, aboard Columbia during its 16-day mission, scheduled to take off from KSC's Launch Pad 39-B on Nov. 19. The CUE experiment is a collection of 10 plant space biology experiments that will fly in Columbia's middeck and feature an educational component that involves evaluating the effects of microgravity on the pollinating Brassica rapa seedlings. Students in Ukrainian and American schools will participate in the same experiment on the ground and have several live opportunities to discuss the experiment with Kadenyuk in Space. Kadenyuk of the Ukraine will be flying his first Shuttle mission on STS-87.

  8. Magellan: mission summary.

    PubMed

    Saunders, R S; Pettengill, G H

    1991-04-12

    The Magellan radar mapping mission is in the process of producing a global, high-resolution image and altimetry data set of Venus. Despite initial communications problems, few data gaps have occurred. Analysis of Magellan data is in the initial stages. The radar system data are of high quality, and the planned performance is being achieved in terms of spatial resolution and geometric and radiometric accuracy. Image performance exceeds expectations, and the image quality and mosaickability are extremely good. Future plans for the mission include obtaining gravity data, filling gaps in the initial map, and conducting special studies with the radar.

  9. [Disaster medicine: mission Haiti].

    PubMed

    Gamulin, A; Villiger, Y; Hagon, O

    2010-05-12

    On January 12th, 2010, an earthquake of a magnitude of 7 on the Richter scale striked the southwest of Haiti, including the capital Port-au-Prince, and provoked immense human and material damages. Estimated number of victims is 300000 wounded, 230000 dead and 1000000 homeless. This disaster generated at once an immense and urgent need for sanitary resources. In this context, an emergency medical humanitarian mission was engaged by the Swiss Confederation (humanitarian aid depending on the Development and Cooperation Direction); this article describes this emergency mission, its progress, the committed staff and means, and the type of treated patients.

  10. The ALEXIS mission recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Bloch, J.; Armstrong, T.; Dingler, B.; Enemark, D.; Holden, D.; Little, C.; Munson, C.; Priedhorsky, B.; Roussel-Dupre, D.; Smith, B.; Warner, R.; Dill, B.; Huffman, G.; McLoughlin, F.; Mills, R.; Miller, R.

    1994-03-01

    The authors report the recovery of the ALEXIS small satellite mission. ALEXIS is a 113-kg satellite that carries an ultrasoft x-ray telescope array and a high-speed VHF receiver/digitizer (BLACKBEARD), supported by a miniature spacecraft bus. It was launched by a Pegasus booster on 1993 April 25, but a solar paddle was damaged during powered flight. Initial attempts to contact ALEXIS were unsuccessful. The satellite finally responded in June, and was soon brought under control. Because the magnetometer had failed, the rescue required the development of new attitude control-techniques. The telemetry system has performed nominally. They discuss the procedures used to recover the ALEXIS mission.

  11. STS-52 Mission Insignia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The STS-52 insignia, designed by the mission's crew members, features a large gold star to symbolize the crew's mission on the frontiers of space. A gold star is often used to symbolize the frontier period of the American West. The red star in the shape of the Greek letter lambda represents both the laser measurements taken from the Laser Geodynamic Satellite (LAGEOS II) and the Lambda Point Experiment, which was part of the United States Microgravity Payload (USMP-l). The remote manipulator and maple leaf are emblematic of the Canadian payload specialist who conducted a series of Canadian flight experiments (CANEX-2), including the Space Vision System test.

  12. Aquarius Mission Technical Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    LeVine, D. M.; Lagerloef, G. S. E.; Yueh, S.; Dinnat, E.; Pellerano, F.

    2007-01-01

    Aquarius is an L-band microwave instrument being developed to map the surface salinity field of the oceans from space. It is part of the Aquarius/SAC-D mission, a partnership between the USA (NASA) and Argentina (CONAE) with launch scheduled for early in 2009. The primary science objective of this mission is to monitor the seasonal and interannual variation of the large scale features of the surface salinity field in the open ocean with a spatial resolution of 150 km and a retrieval accuracy of 0.2 psu globally on a monthly basis.

  13. Human exploration mission studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cataldo, Robert L.

    1989-01-01

    The nation's efforts to expand human presence and activity beyond Earth orbit into the solar system was given renewed emphasis in January of 1988 when the Presidential Directive on National Space Policy was signed into effect. The expansion of human presence into the solar system has particular significance, in that it defines long-range goals for NASA's future missions. To embark and achieve such ambitious ventures is a significant undertaking, particularly compared to past space activities. Missions to Mars, the Moon, and Phobos, as well as an observatory based on the dark side of the Moon are discussed.

  14. Mission Critical Networking

    SciTech Connect

    Eltoweissy, Mohamed Y.; Du, David H.C.; Gerla, Mario; Giordano, Silvia; Gouda, Mohamed; Schulzrinne, Henning; Youssef, Moustafa

    2010-06-01

    Mission-Critical Networking (MCN) refers to networking for application domains where life or livelihood may be at risk. Typical application domains for MCN include critical infrastructure protection and operation, emergency and crisis intervention, healthcare services, and military operations. Such networking is essential for safety, security and economic vitality in our complex world characterized by uncertainty, heterogeneity, emergent behaviors, and the need for reliable and timely response. MCN comprise networking technology, infrastructures and services that may alleviate the risk and directly enable and enhance connectivity for mission-critical information exchange among diverse, widely dispersed, mobile users.

  15. The Asteroid Impact Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carnelli, Ian; Galvez, Andres; Mellab, Karim

    2016-04-01

    The Asteroid Impact Mission (AIM) is a small and innovative mission of opportunity, currently under study at ESA, intending to demonstrate new technologies for future deep-space missions while addressing planetary defense objectives and performing for the first time detailed investigations of a binary asteroid system. It leverages on a unique opportunity provided by asteroid 65803 Didymos, set for an Earth close-encounter in October 2022, to achieve a fast mission return in only two years after launch in October/November 2020. AIM is also ESA's contribution to an international cooperation between ESA and NASA called Asteroid Impact Deflection Assessment (AIDA), consisting of two mission elements: the NASA Double Asteroid Redirection Test (DART) mission and the AIM rendezvous spacecraft. The primary goals of AIDA are to test our ability to perform a spacecraft impact on a near-Earth asteroid and to measure and characterize the deflection caused by the impact. The two mission components of AIDA, DART and AIM, are each independently valuable but when combined they provide a greatly increased scientific return. The DART hypervelocity impact on the secondary asteroid will alter the binary orbit period, which will also be measured by means of lightcurves observations from Earth-based telescopes. AIM instead will perform before and after detailed characterization shedding light on the dependence of the momentum transfer on the asteroid's bulk density, porosity, surface and internal properties. AIM will gather data describing the fragmentation and restructuring processes as well as the ejection of material, and relate them to parameters that can only be available from ground-based observations. Collisional events are of great importance in the formation and evolution of planetary systems, own Solar System and planetary rings. The AIDA scenario will provide a unique opportunity to observe a collision event directly in space, and simultaneously from ground-based optical and

  16. The Euromir missions.

    PubMed

    Andresen, R D; Domesle, R

    1996-11-01

    The 179-day flight of ESA Astronaut Thomas Reiter onboard the Russian Space Station Mir drew to a successful conclusion on 29 February 1996 with the safe landing of the Soyuz TM-22 capsule near Arkalyk in Kazakhstan. This mission, known as Euromir 95, was part of ESA's precursor flight programme for the International Space Station, and followed the equally successful Euromir 94 mission by ESA Astronaut Ulf Merbold (3 October-4 November 1994). This article discusses the objectives of the two flights and presents an overview of the experiment programme, a preliminary assessment of its results and achievements, and reviews some of the lessons learnt for future Space Station operations.

  17. Planetary cubesats - mission architectures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bousquet, Pierre W.; Ulamec, Stephan; Jaumann, Ralf; Vane, Gregg; Baker, John; Clark, Pamela; Komarek, Tomas; Lebreton, Jean-Pierre; Yano, Hajime

    2016-07-01

    Miniaturisation of technologies over the last decade has made cubesats a valid solution for deep space missions. For example, a spectacular set 13 cubesats will be delivered in 2018 to a high lunar orbit within the frame of SLS' first flight, referred to as Exploration Mission-1 (EM-1). Each of them will perform autonomously valuable scientific or technological investigations. Other situations are encountered, such as the auxiliary landers / rovers and autonomous camera that will be carried in 2018 to asteroid 1993 JU3 by JAXA's Hayabusas 2 probe, and will provide complementary scientific return to their mothership. In this case, cubesats depend on a larger spacecraft for deployment and other resources, such as telecommunication relay or propulsion. For both situations, we will describe in this paper how cubesats can be used as remote observatories (such as NEO detection missions), as technology demonstrators, and how they can perform or contribute to all steps in the Deep Space exploration sequence: Measurements during Deep Space cruise, Body Fly-bies, Body Orbiters, Atmospheric probes (Jupiter probe, Venus atmospheric probes, ..), Static Landers, Mobile landers (such as balloons, wheeled rovers, small body rovers, drones, penetrators, floating devices, …), Sample Return. We will elaborate on mission architectures for the most promising concepts where cubesat size devices offer an advantage in terms of affordability, feasibility, and increase of scientific return.

  18. Mission Simulation Toolkit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pisaich, Gregory; Flueckiger, Lorenzo; Neukom, Christian; Wagner, Mike; Buchanan, Eric; Plice, Laura

    2007-01-01

    The Mission Simulation Toolkit (MST) is a flexible software system for autonomy research. It was developed as part of the Mission Simulation Facility (MSF) project that was started in 2001 to facilitate the development of autonomous planetary robotic missions. Autonomy is a key enabling factor for robotic exploration. There has been a large gap between autonomy software (at the research level), and software that is ready for insertion into near-term space missions. The MST bridges this gap by providing a simulation framework and a suite of tools for supporting research and maturation of autonomy. MST uses a distributed framework based on the High Level Architecture (HLA) standard. A key feature of the MST framework is the ability to plug in new models to replace existing ones with the same services. This enables significant simulation flexibility, particularly the mixing and control of fidelity level. In addition, the MST provides automatic code generation from robot interfaces defined with the Unified Modeling Language (UML), methods for maintaining synchronization across distributed simulation systems, XML-based robot description, and an environment server. Finally, the MSF supports a number of third-party products including dynamic models and terrain databases. Although the communication objects and some of the simulation components that are provided with this toolkit are specifically designed for terrestrial surface rovers, the MST can be applied to any other domain, such as aerial, aquatic, or space.

  19. STS-80 Mission Insignia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    This mission patch for mission STS-80 depicts the Space Shuttle Columbia and the two research satellites its crew deployed into the blue field of space. The uppermost satellite is the Orbiting Retrievable Far and Extreme Ultraviolet Spectrograph-Shuttle Pallet Satellite (ORFEUS-SPAS), a telescope aimed at unraveling the life cycles of stars and understanding the gases that drift between them. The lower satellite is the Wake Shield Facility (WSF), flying for the third time. It will use the vacuum of space to create advanced semiconductors for the nation's electronics industry. ORFEUS and WSF are joined by the symbol of the Astronaut Corps, representing the human contribution to scientific progress in space. The two bright blue stars represent the mission's Extravehicular Activities (EVA), final rehearsals for techniques and tools to be used in assembly of the International Space Station (ISS). Surrounding Columbia is a constellation of 16 stars, one for each day of the mission, representing the stellar talents of the ground and flight teams that share the goal of expanding knowledge through a permanent human presence in space.

  20. EOS Aura Mission Status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guit, William J.

    2015-01-01

    This PowerPoint presentation will discuss EOS Aura mission and spacecraft subsystem summary, recent and planned activities, inclination adjust maneuvers, propellant usage lifetime estimate. Eric Moyer, ESMO Deputy Project Manager-Technical (code 428) has reviewed and approved the slides on April 30, 2015.

  1. The LISA Pathfinder Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armano, M.; Audley, H.; Auger, G.; Baird, J.; Binetruy, P.; Born, M.; Bortoluzzi, D.; Brandt, N.; Bursi, A.; Caleno, M.; Cavalleri, A.; Cesarini, A.; Cruise, M.; Danzmann, K.; Diepholz, I.; Dolesi, R.; Dunbar, N.; Ferraioli, L.; Ferroni, V.; Fitzsimons, E.; Freschi, M.; Gallegos, J.; García Marirrodriga, C.; Gerndt, R.; Gesa, L. I.; Gibert, F.; Giardini, D.; Giusteri, R.; Grimani, C.; Harrison, I.; Heinzel, G.; Hewitson, M.; Hollington, D.; Hueller, M.; Huesler, J.; Inchauspé, H.; Jennrich, O.; Jetzer, P.; Johlander, B.; Karnesis, N.; Kaune, B.; Korsakova, N.; Killow, C.; Lloro, I.; Maarschalkerweerd, R.; Madden, S.; Mance, D.; Martín, V.; Martin-Porqueras, F.; Mateos, I.; McNamara, P.; Mendes, J.; Mendes, L.; Moroni, A.; Nofrarias, M.; Paczkowski, S.; Perreur-Lloyd, M.; Petiteau, A.; Pivato, P.; Plagnol, E.; Prat, P.; Ragnit, U.; Ramos-Castro, J.; Reiche, J.; Romera Perez, J. A.; Robertson, D.; Rozemeijer, H.; Russano, G.; Sarra, P.; Schleicher, A.; Slutsky, J.; Sopuerta, C. F.; Sumner, T.; Texier, D.; Thorpe, J.; Trenkel, C.; Tu, H. B.; Vetrugno, D.; Vitale, S.; Wanner, G.; Ward, H.; Waschke, S.; Wass, P.; Wealthy, D.; Wen, S.; Weber, W.; Wittchen, A.; Zanoni, C.; Ziegler, T.; Zweifel, P.

    2015-05-01

    LISA Pathfinder (LPF), the second of the European Space Agency's Small Missions for Advanced Research in Technology (SMART), is a dedicated technology validation mission for future spaceborne gravitational wave detectors, such as the proposed eLISA mission. LISA Pathfinder, and its scientific payload - the LISA Technology Package - will test, in flight, the critical technologies required for low frequency gravitational wave detection: it will put two test masses in a near-perfect gravitational free-fall and control and measure their motion with unprecedented accuracy. This is achieved through technology comprising inertial sensors, high precision laser metrology, drag-free control and an ultra-precise micro-Newton propulsion system. LISA Pathfinder is due to be launched in mid-2015, with first results on the performance of the system being available 6 months thereafter. The paper introduces the LISA Pathfinder mission, followed by an explanation of the physical principles of measurement concept and associated hardware. We then provide a detailed discussion of the LISA Technology Package, including both the inertial sensor and interferometric readout. As we approach the launch of the LISA Pathfinder, the focus of the development is shifting towards the science operations and data analysis - this is described in the final section of the paper

  2. Titan Orbiter Aerorover Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sittler Jr., E. C.; Acuna, M.; Burchell, M. J.; Coates, A.; Farrell, W.; Flasar, M.; Goldstein, B. E.; Gorevan, S.; Hartle, R. E.; Johnson, W. T. K.

    2001-01-01

    We propose a combined Titan orbiter and Titan Aerorover mission with an emphasis on both in situ and remote sensing measurements of Titan's surface, atmosphere, ionosphere, and magnetospheric interaction. The biological aspect of the Titan environment will be emphasized by the mission (i.e., search for organic materials which may include simple organics to 'amono' analogues of amino acids and possibly more complex, lightening detection and infrared, ultraviolet, and charged particle interactions with Titan's surface and atmosphere). An international mission is assumed to control costs. NASA will provide the orbiter, launch vehicle, DSN coverage and operations, while international partners will provide the Aerorover and up to 30% of the cost for the scientific instruments through collaborative efforts. To further reduce costs we propose a single PI for orbiter science instruments and a single PI for Aerorover science instruments. This approach will provide single command/data and power interface between spacecraft and orbiter instruments that will have redundant central DPU and power converter for their instruments. A similar approach could be used for the Aerorover. The mission profile will be constructed to minimize conflicts between Aerorover science, orbiter radar science, orbiter radio science, orbiter imaging science, and orbiter fields and particles (FP) science. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  3. Apollo 16 mission report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    Information is provided on the operational and engineering aspects of the Apollo 16 mission. Customary units of measurement are used in those sections of the report pertaining to spacecraft systems and trajectories. The International System of Units is used in sections pertaining to science activities.

  4. Inspiration is "Mission Critical"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCarthy, D. W.; DeVore, E.; Lebofsky, L.

    2014-07-01

    In spring 2013, the President's budget proposal restructured the nation's approach to STEM education, eliminating ˜$50M of NASA Science Mission Directorate (SMD) funding with the intent of transferring it to the Dept. of Education, National Science Foundation, and Smithsonian Institution. As a result, Education and Public Outreach (EPO) would no longer be a NASA mission requirement and funds that had already been competed, awarded, and productively utilized were lost. Since 1994, partnerships of scientists, engineers, and education specialists were required to create innovative approaches to EPO, providing a direct source of inspiration for today's youth that may now be lost. Although seldom discussed or evaluated, "inspiration" is the beginning of lasting education. For decades, NASA's crewed and robotic missions have motivated students of all ages and have demonstrated a high degree of leverage in society. Through personal experiences we discuss (1) the importance of inspiration in education, (2) how NASA plays a vital role in STEM education, (3) examples of high-leverage educational materials showing why NASA should continue embedding EPO specialists within mission teams, and (4) how we can document the role of inspiration. We believe that personal histories are an important means of assessing the success of EPO. We hope this discussion will lead other people to document similar stories of educational success and perhaps to undertake longitudinal studies of the impact of inspiration.

  5. The OASIS Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, James H., Jr.; Barghouty, Abdulnasser F.; Binns, W. robert; Christl, Mark; Cosse, Charles B.; Guzik, T. Gregory; deNolfo, Georgia A.; Hams,Thomas; Isbert, Joachim; Israel, Martin H.; Krizmanic, John F.; Labrador, Allan W.; Link, Jason T.; Mewaldt, Richard A.; Mitchell, Martin H.; Moiseev, Alexander A.; Sasaki, Makoto; Stochaj, Steven J.; Stone, Edward C.; Steitmatter, Robert E.; Waddington, C. Jake; Watts, John W.; Wefel, John P.; Wiedenbeck, Mark E.

    2010-01-01

    The Orbiting Astrophysical Observatory in Space (OASIS) is a mission to investigate Galactic Cosmic Rays (GCRs), a major feature of our galaxy. OASIS will use measurements of GCRs to determine the cosmic ray source, where they are accelerated, to investigate local accelerators and to learn what they can tell us about the interstellar medium and the processes that occur in it. OASIS will determine the astrophysical sources of both the material and acceleration of GCRs by measuring the abundances of the rare actinide nuclei and make direct measurements of the spectrum and anisotropy of electrons at energies up to approx.10 TeV, well beyond the range of the Fermi and AMS missions. OASIS has two instruments. The Energetic Trans-Iron Composition Experiment (ENTICE) instrument measures elemental composition. It resolves individual elements with atomic number (Z) from 10 to 130 and has a collecting power of 60m2.str.yrs, >20 times larger than previous instruments, and with improved resolution. The sample of 10(exp 10) GCRs collected by ENTICE will include .100 well-resolved actinides. The High Energy Particle Calorimeter Telescope (HEPCaT) is an ionization calorimeter that will extend the electron spectrum into the TeV region for the first time. It has 7.5 sq m.str.yrs of collecting power. This talk will describe the scientific objectives of the OASIS mission and its discovery potential. The mission and its two instruments which have been designed to accomplish this investigation will also be described.

  6. Spacelab D-1 mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunbar, Bonnie J.

    1990-01-01

    The Spacelab D-1 (Deutchland Eins) Mission is discussed from the points of view of safety, materials handling, and toxic materials; the laboratory and equipment used; and some of the different philosophies utilized on this flight. How to enhance scientific return at the same time as being safe was examined.

  7. Aircraft mission analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hauge, D. S.; Rosendaal, H. L.

    1979-01-01

    Aircraft missions, from low to hypersonic speeds, are analyzed rapidly using the FORTRAN IV program NSEG. Program employs approximate equations of motion that vary in form with type of flight segment. Takeoffs, accelerations, climbs, cruises, descents, decelerations, and landings are considered.

  8. The Phoenix Mars Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tamppari, Leslie K.; Smith, Peter H.

    2008-01-01

    This slide presentation details the Phoenix Mission which was designed to enhance our understanding of water and the potential for habitability on the north polar regions of Mars. The slides show the instruments and the robotics designed to scrape Martian surface material, and analyze it in hopes of identifying water in the form of ice, and other chemicals.

  9. Mission and Assets Database

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baldwin, John; Zendejas, Silvino; Gutheinz, Sandy; Borden, Chester; Wang, Yeou-Fang

    2009-01-01

    Mission and Assets Database (MADB) Version 1.0 is an SQL database system with a Web user interface to centralize information. The database stores flight project support resource requirements, view periods, antenna information, schedule, and forecast results for use in mid-range and long-term planning of Deep Space Network (DSN) assets.

  10. The Pioneer Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lasher, Larry E.; Hogan, Robert (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    This article describes the major achievements of the Pioneer Missions and gives information about mission objectives, spacecraft, and launches of the Pioneers. Pioneer was the United States' longest running space program. The Pioneer Missions began forty years ago. Pioneer 1 was launched shortly after Sputnik startled the world in 1957 as Earth's first artificial satellite at the start of the space age. The Pioneer Missions can be broken down into four distinct groups: Pioneer (PN's) 1 through 5, which comprise the first group - the "First Pioneers" - were launched from 1958 through 1960. These Pioneers made the first thrusts into space toward the Moon and into interplanetary orbit. The next group - the "Interplanetary Pioneers" - consists of PN's 6 through 9, with the initial launch being in 1965 (through 1968); this group explored inward and outward from Earth's orbit and travel in a heliocentric orbit around the Sun just as the Earth. The Pioneer group consisting of 10 and 11 - the "Outer Solar System Pioneers" - blazed a trail through the asteroid belt and was the first to explore Jupiter, Saturn and the outer Solar System and is seeking the borders of the heliosphere and will ultimately journey to the distant stars. The final group of Pioneer 12 and 13 the "Planetary Pioneers" - traveled to Earth's mysterious twin, Venus, to study this planet.

  11. The Lobster Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barthelmy, Scott

    2011-01-01

    I will give an overview of the Goddard Lobster mission: the science goals, the two instruments, the overall instruments designs, with particular attention to the wide-field x-ray instrument (WFI) using the lobster-eye-like micro-channel optics.

  12. Our School's Vital Mission.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vershlovskii, S. G.

    1999-01-01

    Provides information on night school, also called shift school. States that night school accommodates the rehabilitation of young people. Questions whether it has the capabilities that would make it a rehabilitative educational institution. Examines the activities of night school to determine its principal mission. (CMK)

  13. Mission Operations Assurance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Faris, Grant

    2012-01-01

    Integrate the mission operations assurance function into the flight team providing: (1) value added support in identifying, mitigating, and communicating the project's risks and, (2) being an essential member of the team during the test activities, training exercises and critical flight operations.

  14. Framing Your Mission

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jarrell, Andrea

    2009-01-01

    St. Paul's School in New Hampshire, the Orchard School in Indiana, Chestnut Hill Academy in Pennsylvania, and Dana Hall School in Massachusetts are like most independent schools--they have qualities that are distinctive and extraordinary. Line up their mission statements, however, and the schools sound almost interchangeable. They're all on a…

  15. Visual Navigation - SARE Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alonso, Roberto; Kuba, Jose; Caruso, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    The SARE Earth Observing and Technological Mission is part of the Argentinean Space Agency (CONAE - Comision Nacional de Actividades Espaciales) Small and Technological Payloads Program. The Argentinean National Space Program requires from the SARE program mission to test in a real environment of several units, assemblies and components to reduce the risk of using these equipments in more expensive Space Missions. The objective is to make use those components with an acceptable maturity in design or development, but without any heritage at space. From the application point of view, this mission offers new products in the Earth Observation data market which are listed in the present paper. One of the technological payload on board of the SARE satellite is the sensor Ground Tracker. It computes the satellite attitude and orbit in real time (goal) and/or by ground processing. For the first operating mode a dedicated computer and mass memory are necessary to be part of the mentioned sensor. For the second operational mode the hardware and software are much simpler.

  16. STS-51 Mission Insignia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Designed by the crewmembers, the STS-51 crew patch honors all who have contributed to mission success. It symbolizes NASA's continuing quest to increase mankind's knowledge and use of space through this multi-faceted mission. The gold star represents the U.S. Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS) boosted by the Transfer Orbit Stage (TOS). The rays below the ACTTOS represent the innovative communication technologies to be tested by this experiment. The stylized Shuttle Pallet Satellite (SPAS) represents the German-sponsored ASTROSPAS mission. The constellation Orion below SPAS is representative of the types of stellar objects to be studied by its experimenters. The stars in Orion also commemorate the astronauts who have sacrificed their lives for the space program. The ascending spiral, symbolizing America's continuing commitment to leadership in space exploration and development, originates with the thousands of persons who ensure the success of each Shuttle flight. The five large white stars, representing the five crewmembers, along with the single gold star, fomm the mission's numerical designation.

  17. The Double Star mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Z. X.; Escoubet, C. P.; Pu, Z.; Laakso, H.; Shi, J. K.; Shen, C.; Hapgood, M.

    2005-11-01

    The Double Star Programme (DSP) was first proposed by China in March, 1997 at the Fragrant Hill Workshop on Space Science, Beijing, organized by the Chinese Academy of Science. It is the first mission in collaboration between China and ESA. The mission is made of two spacecraft to investigate the magnetospheric global processes and their response to the interplanetary disturbances in conjunction with the Cluster mission. The first spacecraft, TC-1 (Tan Ce means "Explorer"), was launched on 29 December 2003, and the second one, TC-2, on 25 July 2004 on board two Chinese Long March 2C rockets. TC-1 was injected in an equatorial orbit of 570x79000 km altitude with a 28° inclination and TC-2 in a polar orbit of 560x38000 km altitude. The orbits have been designed to complement the Cluster mission by maximizing the time when both Cluster and Double Star are in the same scientific regions. The two missions allow simultaneous observations of the Earth magnetosphere from six points in space. To facilitate the comparison of data, half of the Double Star payload is made of spare or duplicates of the Cluster instruments; the other half is made of Chinese instruments. The science operations are coordinated by the Chinese DSP Scientific Operations Centre (DSOC) in Beijing and the European Payload Operations Service (EPOS) at RAL, UK. The spacecraft and ground segment operations are performed by the DSP Operations and Management Centre (DOMC) and DSOC in China, using three ground station, in Beijing, Shanghai and Villafranca.

  18. The Mothership Mission Architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ernst, S. M.; DiCorcia, J. D.; Bonin, G.; Gump, D.; Lewis, J. S.; Foulds, C.; Faber, D.

    2015-12-01

    The Mothership is considered to be a dedicated deep space carrier spacecraft. It is currently being developed by Deep Space Industries (DSI) as a mission concept that enables a broad participation in the scientific exploration of small bodies - the Mothership mission architecture. A Mothership shall deliver third-party nano-sats, experiments and instruments to Near Earth Asteroids (NEOs), comets or moons. The Mothership service includes delivery of nano-sats, communication to Earth and visuals of the asteroid surface and surrounding area. The Mothership is designed to carry about 10 nano-sats, based upon a variation of the Cubesat standard, with some flexibility on the specific geometry. The Deep Space Nano-Sat reference design is a 14.5 cm cube, which accommodates the same volume as a traditional 3U CubeSat. To reduce cost, Mothership is designed as a secondary payload aboard launches to GTO. DSI is offering slots for nano-sats to individual customers. This enables organizations with relatively low operating budgets to closely examine an asteroid with highly specialized sensors of their own choosing and carry out experiments in the proximity of or on the surface of an asteroid, while the nano-sats can be built or commissioned by a variety of smaller institutions, companies, or agencies. While the overall Mothership mission will have a financial volume somewhere between a European Space Agencies' (ESA) S- and M-class mission for instance, it can be funded through a number of small and individual funding sources and programs, hence avoiding the processes associated with traditional space exploration missions. DSI has been able to identify a significant interest in the planetary science and nano-satellite communities.

  19. Earth Observations Requirements for Global Agricultural Monitoring: Evaluating the Revisit Capabilities of Current & Planned Moderate Resolution Optical & Thermal Infrared Earth Observing Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitcraft, A. K.; Becker-Reshef, I.; Vermote, E.; Killough, B.; Justice, C. O.

    2014-12-01

    For several decades, Earth observations (EO) have been employed to monitor agriculture, including crop area, type, condition, and yield forecasting processes. However, the EO data required to consistently derive these informational products at multiple scales had not been well-defined. Responding to this dearth, we have articulated spatially explicit EO requirements with a focus on moderate resolution (10-70m) active and passive remote sensors, and evaluated current and near-term missions' capabilities to meet these EO requirements. These spatially explicit requirements incorporate cropland location, growing season timing, and cloud cover information, establishing the revisit frequency required to yield reasonably clear views within 8 or 16 days. A comparison of these requirements with hypothetical constellations formed from current/planned moderate resolution optical EO missions shows that to return a scene at least 70% clear within 8 or 16 days, 46-55% or 10-32% of cropped areas, respectively, require a revisit more frequent than 8 days, with is more frequent than Landsat 7 & 8 combined can deliver. Supplementing Landsat 7 & 8 with missions from different space agencies leads to an improved capacity to meet requirements, with Resourcesat-2 providing the largest incremental improvement in requirements met. Globally, no single mission/observatory can consistently meet all 8 or 16 day requirements throughout the year. Meanwhile, the only way to meet a majority of these requirements is through coordination of multiple missions. Gaps exist in persistently cloudy regions and periods, highlighting the need for data coordination and for consideration of active microwave EO for agricultural monitoring.

  20. Mars mission concepts and opportunities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, Archie C.

    1986-01-01

    Trajectory and mission requirement data are presented for Earth Mars opposition and conjunction class roundtrip flyby and stopover mission opportunities available between 1997 and 2045. The opposition class flyby mission uses direct transfer trajectories to and on return from Mars. The opposition class stopover mission employs the gravitational field of Venus to accelerate the space vehicle on either the outbound or inbound leg in order to reduce the propulsion requirement associated with the opposition class mission. The conjunction class mission minimizes propulsion requirements by optimizing the stopover time at Mars.

  1. Nuclear Electric Propulsion mission operations.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prickett, W. Z.; Spera, R. J.

    1972-01-01

    Mission operations are presented for comet rendezvous and outer planet exploration missions conducted by unmanned Nuclear Electric Propulsion (NEP) system employing in-core thermionic reactors for electric power generation. The selected reference mission are Comet Halley rendezvous and a Jupiter orbiter at 5.9 planet radii, the orbit of the moon Io. Mission operations and options are defined from spacecraft assembly through mission completion. Pre-launch operations and related GSE requirements are identified. Shuttle launch and subsequent injection to earth escape by the Centaur d-1T are discussed, as well as power plant startup and heliocentric mission phases.

  2. Sentinel-2 Mission status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoersch, Bianca; Colin, Olivier; Gascon, Ferran; Arino, Olivier; Spoto, Francois; Marchese, Franco; Krassenburg, Mike; Koetz, Benjamin

    2016-04-01

    Copernicus is a joint initiative of the European Commission (EC) and the European Space Agency (ESA), designed to establish a European capacity for the provision and use of operational monitoring information for environment and security applications. Within the Copernicus programme, ESA is responsible for the development of the Space Component, a fully operational space-based capability to supply earth-observation data to sustain environmental information Services in Europe. The Sentinel missions are Copernicus dedicated Earth Observation missions composing the essential elements of the Space Component. In the global Copernicus framework, they are complemented by other satellites made available by third-parties or by ESA and coordinated in the synergistic system through the Copernicus Data-Access system versus the Copernicus Services. The Copernicus Sentinel-2 mission provides continuity to services relying on multi-spectral high-resolution optical observations over global terrestrial surfaces. Sentinel-2 capitalizes on the technology and the vast experience acquired in Europe and the US to sustain the operational supply of data for services such as forest monitoring, land cover changes detection or natural disasters management. The Sentinel-2 mission offers an unprecedented combination of the following capabilities: ○ Systematic global coverage of land surfaces: from 56°South to 84°North, coastal waters and Mediterranean sea; ○ High revisit: every 5 days at equator under the same viewing conditions with 2 satellites; ○ High spatial resolution: 10m, 20m and 60m; ○ Multi-spectral information with 13 bands in the visible, near infra-red and short wave infra-red part of the spectrum; ○ Wide field of view: 290 km. The data from the Sentinel-2 mission are available openly and freely for all users with online easy access since December 2015. The presentation will give a status report on the Sentinel-2 mission, and outlook for the remaining ramp-up Phase, the

  3. Gaia Mission Status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prusti, Timo

    2015-08-01

    The commissioning phase of the Gaia satellite was completed in July 2014 and we are well into the first year of routine phase operations out of the nominal 5 year mission. All subsystems are working and the operational parameters have been tuned for optimum science performance. A final upgrade of the on-board detection software is under testing. The aim is to be operational in the final configuration by summer 2015. The magnitude limit of the survey has been set to G=20.7 mag for astrometry and photometry. The spectroscopy magnitude limit is currently G_RVS=16.2 mag, but may be adjusted pending the new on-board software testing. The Science Alerts stream based on photometry has been started while preparations are underway for the first intermediate catalogue release by summer 2016. Examples of Gaia observations will be shown to indicate the scientific power of this ESA cornerstone mission.

  4. MARS Mission research center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The Mars Mission Research Center (M2RC) is one of nine University Space Engineering Research Centers established by NASA in June 1988. It is a cooperative effort between NCSU and A&T in Greensboro. The goal of the Center is to focus on research and educational technologies for planetary exploration with particular emphasis on Mars. The research combines Mission Analysis and Design, Hypersonic Aerodynamics and Propulsion, Structures and Controls, Composite Materials, and Fabrication Methods in a cross-disciplined program directed towards the development of space transportation systems for lunar and planetary travel. The activities of the students and faculty in the M2RC for the period 1 Jul. 1990 to 30 Jun. 1991 are described.

  5. STS-31 Mission Insignia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    The mission insignia for NASA's STS-31 mission features the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) in its observing configuration against a background of the universe it will study. The cosmos includes a stylistic depiction of galaxies in recognition of the contribution made by Sir Edwin Hubble to our understanding of the nature of galaxies and the expansion of the universe. The STS-31 crew points out that is it in honor of Hubble's work that this great observatory in space bears his name. The depicted Space Shuttle trails a spectrum symbolic of both the red shift observations that were so important to Hubble's work and new information which will be obtained with the HST. Encircling the art work, designed by the crew, are the names of its members.

  6. Spacelab 3 mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dalton, Bonnie P.

    1990-01-01

    Spacelab-3 (SL-3) was the first microgravity mission of extended duration involving crew interaction with animal experiments. This interaction involved sharing the Spacelab environmental system, changing animal food, and changing animal waste trays by the crew. Extensive microbial testing was conducted on the animal specimens and crew and on their ground and flight facilities during all phases of the mission to determine the potential for cross contamination. Macroparticulate sampling was attempted but was unsuccessful due to the unforseen particulate contamination occurring during the flight. Particulate debris of varying size (250 micron to several inches) and composition was recovered post flight from the Spacelab floor, end cones, overhead areas, avionics fan filter, cabin fan filters, tunnel adaptor, and from the crew module. These data are discussed along with solutions, which were implemented, for particulate and microbial containment for future flight facilities.

  7. NEAR mission design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunham, David W.; McAdams, James V.; Farquhar, Robert W.

    2002-01-01

    The Near Earth Asteroid Rendezvous (NEAR) spacecraft took 4 years from launch until it became the first spacecraft to orbit an asteroid in February 2000. A month later, the spacecraft was re-christened NEAR Shoemaker to honor the late Eugene Shoemaker. To save launch costs, the mission used a special 2-year-period trajectory with an Earth gravity assist. On the way, the spacecraft imaged the asteroid 253 Mathilde. On 20 December 1998, NEAR's large engine misfired, failing to brake it for entry into orbit about 433 Eros. Another attempt 2 weeks later succeeded, but the spacecraft was almost a million kilometers away and took over a year to reach the asteroid. The mission was recovered thanks to a generous fuel supply and robust contingency planning. The implementation of the spacecraft's daring orbital maneuvers is described, including those used to land on Eros' surface in February 2001.

  8. STS-44 Mission Insignia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Designed by the participating crewmembers, the STS-44 patch shows the Space Shuttle Atlantis ascending to Earth orbit to expand mankind's knowledge. The patch illustrated by the symbolic red, white and blue of the American flag represents the American contribution and strength derived from this mission. The black background of space, indicative of the mysteries of the universe, is illuminated by six large stars, which depict the American crew of six and the hopes that travel with them. The smaller stars represent Americans who work in support of this mission. Within the Shuttle's payload bay is a Defense Support Program Satellite which will help insure peace. In the words of a crew spokesman, the stars of the flag symbolize our leadership in an exciting quest of space and the boundless dreams for humanity's future.

  9. All about the Mission

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Kendra

    2005-01-01

    It's all about the mission at Berea College. Founded on a Utopian dream, Berea has been doing diversity longer than any school in the South. Berea College isn't a product of the civil rights movement. Not even close. The school pre-dates Reconstruction. In fact, at 150 years old, the first integrated, co-educational school in the South pre-dates…

  10. Heat Capacity Mapping Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nilsson, C. S.; Andrews, J. C.; Scully-Power, P.; Ball, S.; Speechley, G.; Latham, A. R. (Principal Investigator)

    1980-01-01

    The Tasman Front was delineated by airborne expendable bathythermograph survey; and an Heat Capacity Mapping Mission (HCMM) IR image on the same day shows the same principal features as determined from ground-truth. It is clear that digital enhancement of HCMM images is necessary to map ocean surface temperatures and when done, the Tasman Front and other oceanographic features can be mapped by this method, even through considerable scattered cloud cover.

  11. Suborbital missions: The Joust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferguson, Bruce W.

    1991-01-01

    Joust 1 will carry a payload of 10 experiments. The experiments in the payload module will be mated with a service module containing accelerometers, avionics, a low gravity rate control system, and battery packs. This suborbital mission will last approximately 21 minutes, providing at least 13 minutes of microgravity time. The experiments are as follow: study into polymer membrane processes; polymer curing; plasma particle generation; automated generic bioprocessing apparatus; biomodule; thin films; materials dispersion apparatus; foam formation; electrodeposition process; and powdered materials processing.

  12. The Prospector mission

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, B. ); Pieters, C. ); Ulmer, M. . Dept. of Physics and Astronomy); Henrikson, C. )

    1992-09-07

    The Prospector mission combines high resolution visual/near-infrared(IR) imaging spectroscopy with moderately high resolution K- and L-line X-ray fluorescence mapping. These combined capabilities can be used to map the composition of virtually all solar-system objects, ranging from those that lack atmospheres (Mercury, the Earth's Moon, asteroids, and Martian satellites) to the upper atmosphere of Venus. For the purpose of mission definition and development, we have focused here on a mapping, mission to the moons of Mars-specifically Phobos, which is an easily accessible small body of the Solar System and has long been an object of intense speculation. Phobos is variously interpreted as a captured asteroid, a captured but disrupted basaltic achondrite body with anomalously low density, a comet nucleus, a body of reassembled Mars material ejected into orbit during a large impact event, a body of unknown origin but covered by an accumulation of cosmic dust and/or material ejected from Deimos, or none of the above. Multispectral observations of Phobos by instruments on the Phobos 2 spacecraft indicate that the surface of the moon is spectrally heterogeneous, with at least four units based on extended visible color. Distribution of color ratio units are most likely caused by compositional heterogeneity and surficial processes. The composition and structure of Phobos remains a stimulating scientific question, but Phobos is much more than a cipher among planetary phenomena. The low [Delta]V requirements for missions to Phobos make it readily accessible-much more so than the Martian surface. The low orbital height of Phobos make it an attractive platform for staging Mars observation and exploration. Furthermore, the possible chondritic nature of Phobos may provide a valuable reservoir of extractable H, C, N, 0, and S.

  13. The Prospector mission

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, B.; Pieters, C.; Ulmer, M.; Henrikson, C.

    1992-09-07

    The Prospector mission combines high resolution visual/near-infrared(IR) imaging spectroscopy with moderately high resolution K- and L-line X-ray fluorescence mapping. These combined capabilities can be used to map the composition of virtually all solar-system objects, ranging from those that lack atmospheres (Mercury, the Earth`s Moon, asteroids, and Martian satellites) to the upper atmosphere of Venus. For the purpose of mission definition and development, we have focused here on a mapping, mission to the moons of Mars-specifically Phobos, which is an easily accessible small body of the Solar System and has long been an object of intense speculation. Phobos is variously interpreted as a captured asteroid, a captured but disrupted basaltic achondrite body with anomalously low density, a comet nucleus, a body of reassembled Mars material ejected into orbit during a large impact event, a body of unknown origin but covered by an accumulation of cosmic dust and/or material ejected from Deimos, or none of the above. Multispectral observations of Phobos by instruments on the Phobos 2 spacecraft indicate that the surface of the moon is spectrally heterogeneous, with at least four units based on extended visible color. Distribution of color ratio units are most likely caused by compositional heterogeneity and surficial processes. The composition and structure of Phobos remains a stimulating scientific question, but Phobos is much more than a cipher among planetary phenomena. The low {Delta}V requirements for missions to Phobos make it readily accessible-much more so than the Martian surface. The low orbital height of Phobos make it an attractive platform for staging Mars observation and exploration. Furthermore, the possible chondritic nature of Phobos may provide a valuable reservoir of extractable H, C, N, 0, and S.

  14. Titan Saturn System Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reh, Kim R.

    2009-01-01

    Titan is a high priority for exploration, as recommended by NASA's 2006 Solar System Exploration (SSE) Roadmap. NASA's 2003 National Research Council (NRC) Decadal Survey and ESA's Cosmic Vision Program Themes. Recent revolutionary Cassini-Huygens discoveries have dramatically escalated interest in Titan as the next scientific target in the outer solar system. This study demonstrates that an exciting Titan Saturn System Mission (TSSM) that explores two worlds of intense astrobiological interest can be initiated now as a single NASA/ESA collaboration.

  15. A Somalia mission experience.

    PubMed

    Mahomed, Zeyn; Moolla, Muhammad; Motara, Feroza; Laher, Abdullah

    2012-08-01

    Reports about The Horn of Africa Famine Crisis in 2011 flooded our news bulletins and newspapers. Yet the nations of the world failed to respond and alleviate the unfolding disaster. In August 2011, the Gift of the Givers Foundation mobilised what was to become the largest humanitarian mission ever conducted by an African organisation. Almost a year later, the effort continues, changing the face of disaster medicine as we know it. PMID:22831938

  16. A Somalia mission experience.

    PubMed

    Mahomed, Zeyn; Moolla, Muhammad; Motara, Feroza; Laher, Abdullah

    2012-06-28

    Reports about The Horn of Africa Famine Crisis in 2011 flooded our news bulletins and newspapers. Yet the nations of the world failed to respond and alleviate the unfolding disaster. In August 2011, the Gift of the Givers Foundation mobilised what was to become the largest humanitarian mission ever conducted by an African organisation. Almost a year later, the effort continues, changing the face of disaster medicine as we know it.

  17. Bion 11 mission hardware.

    PubMed

    Golov, V K; Magedov, V S; Skidmore, M G; Hines, J W; Kozlovskaya, I B; Korolkov, V I

    2000-01-01

    The mission hardware provided for Bion 11 shared primate experiments included the launch vehicle, biosatellite, spaceflight operational systems, spacecraft recovery systems, life support systems, bioinstrumentation, and data collection systems. Under the unique Russia/US bilateral contract, the sides worked together to ensure the reliability and quality of hardware supporting the primate experiments. Parameters recorded inflight covered biophysical, biochemical, biopotential, environmental, and system operational status.

  18. A Mars 1984 mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Mission objectives are developed for the next logical step in the investigation of the local physical and chemical environments and the search for organic compounds on Mars. The necessity of three vehicular elements: orbiter, penetrator, and rover for in situ investigations of atmospheric-lithospheric interactions is emphasized. A summary report and committee recommendations are included with the full report of the Mars Science Working Group.

  19. Asteroid Kinetic Impactor Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chesley, Steven

    2015-08-01

    Asteroid impact missions can be carried out as a relatively low-cost add-ons to most asteroid rendezvous missions and such impact experiments have tremendous potential, both scientifically and in the arena of planetary defense.The science returns from an impactor demonstration begin with the documentation of the global effects of the impact, such as changes in orbit and rotation state, the creation and dissipation of an ejecta plume and debris disk, and morphological changes across the body due to the transmission of seismic waves, which might induce landslides and toppling of boulders, etc. At a local level, an inspection of the impact crater and ejecta blanket reveals critical material strength information, as well as spectral differences between the surface and subsurface material.From the planetary defense perspective, an impact demonstration will prove humankind’s capacity to alter the orbit of a potentially threatening asteroid. This technological leap comes in two parts. First, terminal guidance systems that can deliver an impactor with small errors relative to the ~100-200 meter size of a likely impactor have yet to be demonstrated in a deep space environment. Second, the response of an asteroid to such an impact is only understood theoretically due to the potentially significant dependence on the momentum carried by escaping ejecta, which would tend to enhance the deflection by tens of percent and perhaps as much as a factor of a few. A lack of validated understanding of momentum enhancement is a significant obstacle in properly sizing a real-world impactor deflection mission.This presentation will describe the drivers for asteroid impact demonstrations and cover the range of such concepts, starting with ESA’s pioneering Don Quijote mission concept and leading to a brief description of concepts under study at the present time, including the OSIRIS-REx/ISIS, BASiX/KIX and AIM/DART (AIDA) concepts.

  20. Human exploration mission studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cataldo, Robert L.

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes several case studies of human space exploration, considered by the NASA's Office of Exploration in 1988. Special attention is given to the mission scenarios, the critical technology required in these expeditions, and the extraterrestrial power requirements of significant system elements. The cases examined include a manned expedition to Phobos, the inner Martian moon; a human expedition to Mars; the Lunar Observatory; and a lunar outpost to early Mars evolution.

  1. SAMPEX Mission Overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mason, G. M.

    2012-12-01

    SAMPEX was the first of the small explorer (SMEX) series of missions begun by NASA in 1989 to perform heliosphysics and astrophysics investigations with small, rapidly developed satellites. Launched in July 1992 just 39 months after selection, SAMPEX used an 82° inclination low altitude orbit selected to allow studies of solar and interplanetary particles over the polar caps, charge state measurements when the satellite slipped under the geomagnetic cutoff, and a full sampling of magnetospheric L-shells. SAMPEX's three US and one German instrument were ion and electron detectors much more sensitive than previously flown, allowing novel new studies. SAMPEX showed that the anomalous cosmic ray (ACR) component consisted of singly and doubly ionized ions whose acceleration time in the heliosphere was approximately one year, and mapped the trapped radiation belt of ACRs around Earth. SAMPEX produced the first evidence of energy dependence in solar energetic particle ionization states, providing evidence of possible ion stripping in the solar corona. Comparing the low altitude SAMPEX measurements with higher altitude Earth orbiting satellites, SAMPEX discovered a remarkable coherence of the magnetosphere, with all L-shells sampled every ~45 minutes for its 20 year lifetime. These studies helped put the magnetospheric response into context with the changing solar activity cycle, and will provide a key baseline for the new RBSP mission. SAMPEX also traced the precipitation of relativistic electrons into the polar regions and helped illustrate the role of these particles in the production of nitrogen compounds that affect the atmospheric chemistry of ozone destruction. In addition to the science goals, the SMEX program featured development of new technologies and training, including many students at Bowie State University who received NASA Mission Control certification from flying SMEX satellites. This talk will give an overview of the mission and its scientific

  2. Geopotential Research Mission (GRM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    The Geopotential Research Mission (GRM) is a satellite system proposed to determine variations in the gravitational and magnetic fields to a resolution of about 100 kilometers. Knowledge and interpretations of the potential fields on scales of 100 kilometers and greater, to clarify the needs for better data in this range of wavelengths were reviewed. The potential contribution of these data to the determination, by satellite altimetry, of a more accurate geoidal reference was discussed.

  3. Orion Exploration Mission-1 Animation

    NASA Video Gallery

    Animation of the Orion spacecraft’s Exploration Mission-1 in 2017. Exploration Mission-1 will be the first integrated flight test with both the Orion spacecraft and NASA’s new Space Launch System.

  4. The Juno Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolton, S. J.

    2015-12-01

    The Juno mission is the second mission in NASA's New Frontiers program. Launched in August 2011, Juno arrives at Jupiter in July 2016. Juno science goals include the study of Jupiter's origin, interior structure, deep atmosphere, aurora and magnetosphere. Jupiter's formation is fundamental to the evolution of our solar system and to the distribution of volatiles early in the solar system's history. Juno's measurements of the abundance of Oxygen and Nitrogen in Jupiter's atmosphere, and the detailed maps of Jupiter's gravity and magnetic field structure will constrain theories of early planetary development. Juno's orbit around Jupiter is a polar elliptical orbit with perijove approximately 5000 km above the visible cloud tops. The payload consists of a set of microwave antennas for deep sounding, magnetometers, gravity radio science, low and high energy charged particle detectors, electric and magnetic field radio and plasma wave experiment, ultraviolet imaging spectrograph, infrared imager and a visible camera. The Juno design enables the first detailed investigation of Jupiter's interior structure, and deep atmosphere as well as the first in depth exploration of Jupiter's polar magnetosphere. The Juno mission design, science goals, and measurements related to the origin of Jupiter will be presented.

  5. Landsat Data Continuity Mission

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2007-01-01

    The Landsat Data Continuity Mission (LDCM) is a partnership between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to place the next Landsat satellite in orbit by late 2012. The Landsat era that began in 1972 will become a nearly 45-year global land record with the successful launch and operation of the LDCM. The LDCM will continue the acquisition, archival, and distribution of multispectral imagery affording global, synoptic, and repetitive coverage of the Earth's land surfaces at a scale where natural and human-induced changes can be detected, differentiated, characterized, and monitored over time. The mission objectives of the LDCM are to (1) collect and archive medium resolution (circa 30-m spatial resolution) multispectral image data affording seasonal coverage of the global landmasses for a period of no less than 5 years; (2) ensure that LDCM data are sufficiently consistent with data from the earlier Landsat missions, in terms of acquisition geometry, calibration, coverage characteristics, spectral characteristics, output product quality, and data availability to permit studies of land-cover and land-use change over time; and (3) distribute LDCM data products to the general public on a nondiscriminatory basis and at a price no greater than the incremental cost of fulfilling a user request. Distribution of LDCM data over the Internet at no cost to the user is currently planned.

  6. The LISA Pathfinder Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thorpe, james; McNamara, P. W.

    2011-01-01

    LISA Pathfinder is a dedicated technology demonstration space mission for the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA), a NASA/ESA collaboration to operate a space-based observatory for gravitational waves in the milli-Hertz band. Although the formal partnership between the agencies was dissolved in the Spring of 2011, both agencies are actively pursuing concepts for LISA-like gravitational wave observatories. These concepts take advantage of the significant technology development efforts that have already been made, especially those of the LISA Pathfinder mission. LISA Pathfinder, which is in the late stages of implementation, will place two test masses in drag-free flight and measure the relative acceleration between them. This measurement will validate a number of technologies that are critical to LISA-like gravitational wave instruments including sensing and control of the test masses, drag-free control laws, microNewton thrusters, and picometer-level laser metrology. We will present the current status of the LISA Pathfinder mission and associated activities.

  7. Bion-11 Spaceflight Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skidmore, M.

    1999-01-01

    The Sensors 2000! Program, in support of the Space Life Sciences Payloads Office at NASA Ames Research Center developed a suite of bioinstrumentation hardware for use on the Joint US/Russian Bion I I Biosatellite Mission (December 24, 1996 - January 7, 1997). This spaceflight included 20 separate experiments that were organized into a complimentary and interrelated whole, and performed by teams of US, Russian, and French investigators. Over 40 separate parameters were recorded in-flight on both analog and digital recording media for later analysis. These parameters included; Electromyogram (7 ch), Electrogastrogram, Electrooculogram (2 ch), ECG/EKG, Electroencephlogram (2 ch), single fiber firing of Neurovestibular afferent nerves (7 ch), Tendon Force, Head Motion Velocity (pitch & yaw), P02 (in vivo & ambient), temperature (deep body, skin, & ambient), and multiple animal and spacecraft performance parameters for a total of 45 channels of recorded data. Building on the close cooperation of previous missions, US and Russian engineers jointly developed, integrated, and tested the physiologic instrumentation and data recording system. For the first time US developed hardware replaced elements of the Russian systems resulting in a US/Russian hybrid instrumentation and data system that functioned flawlessly during the 14 day mission.

  8. The Spartan 1 mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cruddace, Raymond G.; Fritz, G. G.; Shrewsberry, D. J.; Brandenstein, D. J.; Creighton, D. C.; Gutschewski, G.; Lucid, S. W.; Nagel, J. M.; Fabian, J. M.; Zimmerman, D.

    1989-01-01

    The first Spartan mission is documented. The Spartan program, an outgrowth of a joint Naval Research Laboratory (NRL)/National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)-Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) development effort, was instituted by NASA for launching autonomous, recoverable payloads from the space shuttle. These payloads have a precise pointing system and are intended to support a wide range of space-science observations and experiments. The first Spartan, carrying an NRL X-ray astronomy instrument, was launched by the orbiter Discovery (STS51G) on June 20, 1985 and recovered successfully 45 h later, on June 22. During this period, Spartan 1 conducted a preprogrammed series of observations of two X-ray sources: the Perseus cluster of galaxies and the center of our galaxy. The mission was successful from both on engineering and a scientific viewpoint. Only one problem was encountered, the attitude control system (ACS) shut down earlier than planned because of high attitude control system gas consumption. A preplanned emergency mode then placed Spartan 1 into a stable, safe condition and allowed a safe recovery. The events are described of the mission and presents X-ray maps of the two observed sources, which were produced from the flight data.

  9. STS-79 Mission Insignia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    STS-79 was the fourth in a series of NASA docking missions to the Russian Mir Space Station, leading up to the construction and operation of the International Space Station (ISS). As the first flight of the Spacehab Double Module, STS-79 encompassed research, test and evaluation of ISS, as well as logistics resupply for the Mir Space Station. STS-79 was also the first NASA-Mir American crew member exchange mission, with John E. Blaha (NASA-Mir-3) replacing Shannon W. Lucid (NASA-Mir-2) aboard the Mir Space Station. The lettering of their names either up or down denotes transport up to the Mir Space Station or return to Earth on STS-79. The patch is in the shape of the Space Shuttle's airlock hatch, symbolizing the gateway to international cooperation in space. The patch illustrates the historic cooperation between the United States and Russia in space. With the flags of Russia and the United States as a backdrop, the handshake of Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) which are suited crew members symbolizes mission teamwork, not only of the crew members but also the teamwork between both countries space personnel in science, engineering, medicine and logistics.

  10. Landsat Data Continuity Mission

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2012-01-01

    The Landsat Data Continuity Mission (LDCM) is a partnership formed between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to place the next Landsat satellite in orbit in January 2013. The Landsat era that began in 1972 will become a nearly 41-year global land record with the successful launch and operation of the LDCM. The LDCM will continue the acquisition, archiving, and distribution of multispectral imagery affording global, synoptic, and repetitive coverage of the Earth's land surfaces at a scale where natural and human-induced changes can be detected, differentiated, characterized, and monitored over time. The mission objectives of the LDCM are to (1) collect and archive medium resolution (30-meter spatial resolution) multispectral image data affording seasonal coverage of the global landmasses for a period of no less than 5 years; (2) ensure that LDCM data are sufficiently consistent with data from the earlier Landsat missions in terms of acquisition geometry, calibration, coverage characteristics, spectral characteristics, output product quality, and data availability to permit studies of landcover and land-use change over time; and (3) distribute LDCM data products to the general public on a nondiscriminatory basis at no cost to the user.

  11. Mars Exploration Rover mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crisp, Joy A.; Adler, Mark; Matijevic, Jacob R.; Squyres, Steven W.; Arvidson, Raymond E.; Kass, David M.

    2003-10-01

    In January 2004 the Mars Exploration Rover mission will land two rovers at two different landing sites that show possible evidence for past liquid-water activity. The spacecraft design is based on the Mars Pathfinder configuration for cruise and entry, descent, and landing. Each of the identical rovers is equipped with a science payload of two remote-sensing instruments that will view the surrounding terrain from the top of a mast, a robotic arm that can place three instruments and a rock abrasion tool on selected rock and soil samples, and several onboard magnets and calibration targets. Engineering sensors and components useful for science investigations include stereo navigation cameras, stereo hazard cameras in front and rear, wheel motors, wheel motor current and voltage, the wheels themselves for digging, gyros, accelerometers, and reference solar cell readings. Mission operations will allow commanding of the rover each Martian day, or sol, on the basis of the previous sol's data. Over a 90-sol mission lifetime, the rovers are expected to drive hundreds of meters while carrying out field geology investigations, exploration, and atmospheric characterization. The data products will be delivered to the Planetary Data System as integrated batch archives.

  12. STS-103 Mission Insignia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Designed by the crew members, the STS-103 emblem depicts the Space Shuttle Discovery approaching the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) prior to its capture and berthing. The purpose of the mission was to remove and replace some of the Telescope's older and out-of-date systems with newer, more reliable and more capable ones, and to make repairs to HST's exterior thermal insulation that had been damaged by more than nine years of exposure to the space environment. The horizontal and vertical lines centered on the Telescope symbolize the ability to reach and maintain a desired attitude in space, essential to the instrument's scientific operation. The preservation of this ability was one of the primary objectives of the mission. After the flight, the Telescope resumed its successful exploration of deep space and will continue to be used to study solar system objects, stars in the making, late phases of stellar evolution, galaxies and the early history of the universe. HST, as represented on this emblem was inspired by views from previous servicing missions, with its solar arrays illuminated by the Sun, providing a striking contrast with the blackness of space and the night side of Earth.

  13. Power systems for future missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gill, S. P.; Frye, P. E.; Littman, Franklin D.; Meisl, C. J.

    1994-01-01

    A comprehensive scenario of future missions was developed and applicability of different power technologies to these missions was assessed. Detailed technology development roadmaps for selected power technologies were generated. A simple methodology to evaluate economic benefits of current and future power system technologies by comparing Life Cycle Costs of potential missions was developed. The methodology was demonstrated by comparing Life Cycle Costs for different implementation strategies of DIPS/CBC technology to a selected set of missions.

  14. Nuclear electric propulsion mission performance for fast piloted Mars missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hack, K. J.; George, J. A.; Dudzinski, L. A.

    1991-01-01

    A mission study aimed at minimizing the time humans would spend in the space environment is presented. The use of nuclear electric propulsion (NEP), when combined with a suitable mission profile, can reduce the trip time to durations competitive with other propulsion systems. Specifically, a split mission profile utilizing an earth crew capture vehicle accounts for a significant portion of the trip time reduction compared to previous studies. NEP is shown to be capable of performing fast piloted missions to Mars at low power levels using near-term technology and is considered to be a viable candidate for these missions.

  15. GPM Mission Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hou, Arthur Y.; Skofronick-Jackson, Gail

    2011-01-01

    The Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Mission is an international satellite mission to unify and advance precipitation measurements from a constellation of research and operational sensors to provide "next-generation" precipitation products. Relative to current global rainfall products, GPM data products will be characterized by: (1) more accurate instantaneous precipitation measurements (especially for light rain and cold-season solid/snow precipitation), (2) more frequent sampling by an expanded constellation of microwave radiometers that include operational humidity sounders over land, (3) inter-calibrated microwave brightness temperatures from constellation radiometers within a unified framework, and (4) physical-based precipitation retrievals from constellation radiometers using a common a priori cloud hydrometeor database derived from GPM Core sensor measurements. The cornerstone of the GPM mission is the deployment of a Core Observatory in a unique 65 degree non-Sun-synchronous orbit to serve as a physics observatory and a calibration reference to improve precipitation measurements by a constellation of dedicated and operational passive microwave sensors. The Core Observatory will carry a KulKa-band Dual-frequency Precipitation Radar (DPR) and a multi-channel (10-183 GHz) GPM Microwave Radiometer (GMI). The combined use ofDPR and GMI measurements will place greater constraints on possible solutions to radiometer retrievals to improve the accuracy and consistency of precipitation retrievals from all constellation radiometers. As a science mission with integrated application goals, GPM is designed to (1) advance precipitation measurement capability from space through combined use of active and passive microwave sensors, (2) advance the knowledge of the global water/energy cycle and freshwater availability through better description of the space-time variability of global precipitation, and (3) improve weather, climate, and hydrological prediction

  16. 75 FR 6178 - Mission Statement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-08

    .... Mission Statement Secretarial Indonesia Clean Energy Business Development Mission May 23-25, 2010. Mission... in a broad range of clean energy technologies, including the geothermal, biomass, hydropower, wind... comprised of approximately 10-15 U.S. firms representing a cross-section of U.S. clean energy...

  17. Mission and vehicle sizing sensitivities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, Archie C.

    1986-01-01

    Representative interplanetary space vehicle systems are sized to compare and show sensitivity of the initial mass required in low Earth orbit to one mission mode and mission opportunity. Data are presented to show the requirements for Earth-Mars opposition and conjunction class roundtrip flyby and stopover mission opportunities available during the time period from year 1997 to year 2045. The interplanetary space vehicle consists of a spacecraft and a space vehicle acceleration system. Propellant boil-off for the various mission phases is given for the Lox/LH (Liquid Oxygen/Liquid Hydrogen) propulsion systems. Mission abort information is presented for the 1999 Venus outbound swingby trajectory, transfer profile.

  18. Science and Deep Space Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon-Miller, Amy

    2011-01-01

    Have you ever wondered about the science goals of various deep space missions? Or why scientists want such seemingly complicated spacecraft and operations scenarios? With a focus on outer planets) this talk will cover the scientific goals and results of several recent and future missions) how scientists approach a requirements flow down) and how the disparate needs of mission engineers and scientists can come together for mission success. It will also touch on several up and coming technologies and how they will change mission architectures in the future.

  19. The Mars Pathfinder Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golombek, M. P.

    1996-09-01

    The Mars Pathfinder mission is a Discovery class mission that will place a small lander and rover on the surface of Mars on July 4, 1997. The Pathfinder flight system is a single small lander, packaged within an aeroshell and back cover with a back-pack-style cruise stage. The vehicle will be launched, fly independently to Mars, and enter the atmosphere directly on approach behind the aeroshell. The vehicle is slowed by a parachute and 3 small solid rockets before landing on inflated airbags. Petals of a small tetrahedron shaped lander open up, to right the vehicle. The lander is solar powered with batteries and will operate on the surface for up to a year, downlinking data on a high-gain antenna. Pathfinder will be the first mission to use a rover, with 3 imagers and an alpha proton X-ray spectrometer, to characterize the rocks and soils in a landing area over hundreds of square meters on Mars, which will provide a calibration point or "ground truth" for orbital remote sensing observations. The rover (includes a series of technology experiments), the instruments (including a stereo multispectral surface imager on a pop up mast and an atmospheric structure instrument-surface meteorology package) and the telemetry system will allow investigations of: the surface morphology and geology at meter scale, the petrology and geochemistry of rocks and soils, the magnetic properties of dust, soil mechanics and properties, a variety of atmospheric investigations and the rotational and orbital dynamics of Mars. Landing downstream from the mouth of a giant catastrophic outflow channel, Ares Vallis, offers the potential of identifying and analyzing a wide variety of crustal materials, from the ancient heavily cratered terrain, intermediate-aged ridged plains and reworked channel deposits, thus allowing first-order scientific investigations of the early differentiation and evolution of the crust, the development of weathering products and early environments and conditions on Mars.

  20. NEO Sample Return mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barucci, M. A.; Neo-Sr Team

    The NEOs are representative of the population of asteroids and dead comets thought to be the remnants of the ancient planetesimals that accreted to form the planets. The chemical investigation of NEOs having primitive characteristics is thus essential in the understanding the planet formation and evolution. They carry records of the solar system's birth/early phases and the geological evolution of small bodies in the interplanetary regions. Moreover, collisions of NEOs with Earth represent a serious hazard to life. For all these reasons the exploration and characterization of these objects are particularly interesting and urgent. NEOs are interesting and highly accessible targets for scientific research and robotic exploration. Within this framework, the mission LEONARD including an orbiter and a lander to the primitive double object (1996 FG3) has been studied by CNES, in collaboration with a number of European planetologists (France, Italy, Germany and United Kingdom) and related Space Agencies. A new Sample Return mission is under study within a large European community and possible collaboration with the Japanese Space Agency JAXA to reply to the ESA Cosmic Vision AO. The principal objectives are to investigate on 1) the properties of the building blocks of the terrestrial planets; 2) the major events (e.g. agglomeration, heating, ... . . ) which ruled the history of planetesimals; 3) the primitive asteroids which could contain presolar material unknown in meteoritic samples; 4) the organics in primitive materials; 5) the initial conditions and evolution history of the solar nebula; and 6) how they can shed light on the origin of molecules necessary for life. This type of mission appears clearly to have the potential to revolutionize our understanding of primitive materials.

  1. Solar Electric Propulsion Mission Architectures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerslake, Thomas W.

    2003-01-01

    This presentation reviews Solar Electric Propulsion (SEP) Mission Architectures with a slant towards power system technologies and challenges. The low-mass, high-performance attributes of SEP systems have attracted spacecraft designers and mission planners alike and have led to a myriad of proposed Earth orbiting and planetary exploration missions. These SEP missions are discussed from the earliest missions in the 1960's, to first demonstrate electric thrusters, to the multi-megawatt missions envisioned many decades hence. The technical challenges and benefits of applying high-voltage arrays, thin film and low-intensity, low-temperature (LILT) photovoltaics, gossamer structure solar arrays, thruster articulating systems and microsat systems to SEP spacecraft power system designs are addressed. The overarching conclusion from this review is that SEP systems enhance, and many times enable, a wide class of space missions.

  2. The EOS Aura Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schoebert, Mark R.; Douglass, A. R.; Hilsenrath, E.; Bhartia, P. K.; Barnett, J.; Gille, J.; Beer, R.; Gunson, M.; Waters, J.; Levelt, P. F.

    2004-01-01

    The Earth Observing System (EOS) Aura satellite is scheduled to launch in the second quarter of 2004. The Aura mission is designed to attack three science questions: (1) Is the ozone layer recovering as expected? (2) What are the sources and processes that control tropospheric pollutants? (3) What is the quantitative impact of constituents on climate change? Aura will answer these questions by globally measuring a comprehensive set of trace gases and aerosols at high vertical and horizontal resolution. Fig. 1 shows the Aura spacecraft and its four instruments.

  3. Space Shuttle Missions Summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bennett, Floyd V.; Legler, Robert D.

    2011-01-01

    This document has been produced and updated over a 21-year period. It is intended to be a handy reference document, basically one page per flight, and care has been exercised to make it as error-free as possible. This document is basically "as flown" data and has been compiled from many sources including flight logs, flight rules, flight anomaly logs, mod flight descent summary, post flight analysis of mps propellants, FDRD, FRD, SODB, and the MER shuttle flight data and inflight anomaly list. Orbit distance traveled is taken from the PAO mission statistics.

  4. Mars mission research center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    The Mars Mission Research Center is one of nine University Space Engineering Research Centers established by NASA to broaden the nation's engineering capability to meet the critical needs of the civilian space program. It has the goal of focusing on research and training technologies for planetary exploration with particular emphasis on Mars. The research combines: (1) composite materials and fabrication, (2) light weight structures and controls, and (3) hypersonic aerodynamics and propulsion in a cross disciplined program directed towards the development of the space transportation system for planetary travel.

  5. The CHEOPS Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Broeg, Christopher; benz, willy; fortier, andrea; Ehrenreich, David; beck, Thomas; cessa, Virginie; Alibert, Yann; Heng, Kevin

    2015-12-01

    The CHaracterising ExOPlanet Satellite (CHEOPS) is a joint ESA-Switzerland space mission dedicated to search for exoplanet transits by means of ultra-high precision photometry. It is expected to be launch-ready at the end of 2017.CHEOPS will be the first space observatory dedicated to search for transits on bright stars already known to host planets. It will have access to more than 70% of the sky. This will provide the unique capability of determining accurate radii for planets for which the mass has already been estimated from ground-based radial velocity surveys and for new planets discovered by the next generation ground-based transits surveys (Neptune-size and smaller). The measurement of the radius of a planet from its transit combined with the determination of its mass through radial velocity techniques gives the bulk density of the planet, which provides direct insights into the structure and/or composition of the body. In order to meet the scientific objectives, a number of requirements have been derived that drive the design of CHEOPS. For the detection of Earth and super-Earth planets orbiting G5 dwarf stars with V-band magnitudes in the range 6 ≤ V ≤ 9 mag, a photometric precision of 20 ppm in 6 hours of integration time must be reached. This time corresponds to the transit duration of a planet with a revolution period of 50 days. In the case of Neptune-size planets orbiting K-type dwarf with magnitudes as faint as V=12 mag, a photometric precision of 85 ppm in 3 hours of integration time must be reached. To achieve this performance, the CHEOPS mission payload consists of only one instrument, a space telescope of 30 cm clear aperture, which has a single CCD focal plane detector. CHEOPS will be inserted in a low Earth orbit and the total duration of the CHEOPS mission is 3.5 years (goal: 5 years).The presentation will describe the current payload and mission design of CHEOPS, give the development status, and show the expected performances.

  6. The Apollo missions.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scherer, L. R.

    1971-01-01

    The Apollo 11 and 12 lunar landings are briefly reviewed together with the problems experienced with Apollo 13. As a result of the first two landing missions it became known that parts of the moon are at least four and one-half billion years old. If the moon was once part of the earth, it must have split off very early in its history. Starting with Apollo 16, changes in hardware will result in very significant improvements and capabilities. The landed payload will be increased by over 100%.

  7. Climate Benchmark Missions: CLARREO

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wielicki, Bruce A.; Young, David F.

    2010-01-01

    CLARREO (Climate Absolute Radiance and Refractivity Observatory) is one of the four Tier 1 missions recommended by the recent NRC decadal survey report on Earth Science and Applications from Space (NRC, 2007). The CLARREO mission addresses the need to rigorously observe climate change on decade time scales and to use decadal change observations as the most critical method to determine the accuracy of climate change projections such as those used in the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC AR4). A rigorously known accuracy of both decadal change observations as well as climate projections is critical in order to enable sound policy decisions. The CLARREO mission accomplishes this critical objective through highly accurate and SI traceable decadal change observations sensitive to many of the key uncertainties in climate radiative forcings, responses, and feedbacks that in turn drive uncertainty in current climate model projections. The same uncertainties also lead to uncertainty in attribution of climate change to anthropogenic forcing. The CLARREO breakthrough in decadal climate change observations is to achieve the required levels of accuracy and traceability to SI standards for a set of observations sensitive to a wide range of key decadal change variables. These accuracy levels are determined both by the projected decadal changes as well as by the background natural variability that such signals must be detected against. The accuracy for decadal change traceability to SI standards includes uncertainties of calibration, sampling, and analysis methods. Unlike most other missions, all of the CLARREO requirements are judged not by instantaneous accuracy, but instead by accuracy in large time/space scale average decadal changes. Given the focus on decadal climate change, the NRC Decadal Survey concluded that the single most critical issue for decadal change observations was their lack of accuracy and low confidence in

  8. Mission to Planet Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tilford, Shelby G.; Asrar, Ghassem; Backlund, Peter W.

    1994-01-01

    Mission to Planet Earth (MTPE) is NASA's concept for an international science program to produce the understanding needed to predict changes in the Earth's environment. NASA and its interagency and international partners will place satellites carrying advanced sensors in strategic Earth orbits to gather multidisciplinary data. A sophisticated data system will process and archive an unprecedented amount of information about the Earth and how it works as a system. Increased understanding of the Earth system is a basic human responsibility, a prerequisite to informed management of the planet's resources and to the preservation of the global environment.

  9. Mission to Planet Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Gregory S.; Backlund, Peter W.

    1992-01-01

    Mission to Planet Earth (MTPE) is NASA's concept for an international science program to produce the understanding needed to predict changes in the earth's environment. NASA and its interagency and international partners will place satellites carrying advanced sensors in strategic earth orbits to gather multidisciplinary data. A sophisticated data system will process and archive an unprecedented amount of information about the earth and how it works as a system. Increased understanding of the earth system is a basic human responsibility, a prerequisite to informed management of the planet's resources and to the preservation of the global environment.

  10. Mars exploration mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuda, Seiji

    1991-07-01

    Mars exploration scenarios are reviewed. An emphasis is placed on scientific exploration. The review and evaluation results are reported for the following items: (1) orbit plans for Mars surface exploration missions that begin in Low Earth Orbit (LEO); (2) powered and aerodynamic capturing payloads from the transfer orbit to a Mars revolving orbit; and (3) a penetrator system as a Mars landing vehicle. Proposed Mars transfer orbits have the following advantages over Hohmann orbits: (1) transfer time and angle are less; (2) the inclination between the orbital planes of Earth and Mars is considered; and (3) velocity variations are not required to change orbit plane.

  11. STS-61 mission director's post-mission report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newman, Ronald L.

    1995-01-01

    To ensure the success of the complex Hubble Space Telescope servicing mission, STS-61, NASA established a number of independent review groups to assess management, design, planning, and preparation for the mission. One of the resulting recommendations for mission success was that an overall Mission Director be appointed to coordinate management activities of the Space Shuttle and Hubble programs and to consolidate results of the team reviews and expedite responses to recommendations. This report presents pre-mission events important to the experience base of mission management, with related Mission Director's recommendations following the event(s) to which they apply. All Mission Director's recommendations are presented collectively in an appendix. Other appendixes contain recommendations from the various review groups, including Payload Officers, the JSC Extravehicular Activity (EVA) Section, JSC EVA Management Office, JSC Crew and Thermal Systems Division, and the STS-61 crew itself. This report also lists mission events in chronological order and includes as an appendix a post-mission summary by the lead Payload Deployment and Retrieval System Officer. Recommendations range from those pertaining to specific component use or operating techniques to those for improved management, review, planning, and safety procedures.

  12. The Global Precipitation Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Braun, Scott; Kummerow, Christian

    2000-01-01

    The Global Precipitation Mission (GPM), expected to begin around 2006, is a follow-up to the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM). Unlike TRMM, which primarily samples the tropics, GPM will sample both the tropics and mid-latitudes. The primary, or core, satellite will be a single, enhanced TRMM satellite that can quantify the 3-D spatial distributions of precipitation and its associated latent heat release. The core satellite will be complemented by a constellation of very small and inexpensive drones with passive microwave instruments that will sample the rainfall with sufficient frequency to be not only of climate interest, but also have local, short-term impacts by providing global rainfall coverage at approx. 3 h intervals. The data is expected to have substantial impact upon quantitative precipitation estimation/forecasting and data assimilation into global and mesoscale numerical models. Based upon previous studies of rainfall data assimilation, GPM is expected to lead to significant improvements in forecasts of extratropical and tropical cyclones. For example, GPM rainfall data can provide improved initialization of frontal systems over the Pacific and Atlantic Oceans. The purpose of this talk is to provide information about GPM to the USWRP (U.S. Weather Research Program) community and to discuss impacts on quantitative precipitation estimation/forecasting and data assimilation.

  13. Mission to Planet Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tilford, Shelby G.; Koczor, Ron; Lee, Jonathan; Grady, Kevin J.; Hudson, Wayne R.; Johnston, Gordon I.; Njoku, Eni G.

    1990-01-01

    To preserve the earth, it is necessary to understand the tremendously complex interactions of the atmosphere, oceans, land, and man's activities deeply enough to construct models that can predict the consequences of our actions and help us make sound environmental, energy, agriculture, and economic decisions. Mission to Planet Earth is NASA's suggested share and the centerpiece of the U.S. contribution to understanding the environment, the Global Change Research Program. The first major element of the mission would be the Earth Observing System, which would give the simultaneous, comprehensive, long-term earth coverage lacking previously. NASA's Geosynchronous Earth Observatory with two additional similar spacecraft would be orbited by the U.S., plus one each by Japan and the European Space Agency. These would be the first geostationary satellites to span all the disciplines of the earth sciences. A number of diverse data gathering payloads are also planned to be carried aboard the Polar Orbiting Platform. Making possible the long, continuous observations planned and coping with the torrent of data acquired will require technical gains across a wide front. Finally, how all this data is consolidated and disseminated by the EOS Data and Information System is discussed.

  14. The Euclid mission design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Racca, Giuseppe D.; Laureijs, René; Stagnaro, Luca; Salvignol, Jean-Christophe; Lorenzo Alvarez, José; Saavedra Criado, Gonzalo; Gaspar Venancio, Luis; Short, Alex; Strada, Paolo; Bönke, Tobias; Colombo, Cyril; Calvi, Adriano; Maiorano, Elena; Piersanti, Osvaldo; Prezelus, Sylvain; Rosato, Pierluigi; Pinel, Jacques; Rozemeijer, Hans; Lesna, Valentina; Musi, Paolo; Sias, Marco; Anselmi, Alberto; Cazaubiel, Vincent; Vaillon, Ludovic; Mellier, Yannick; Amiaux, Jérôme; Berthé, Michel; Sauvage, Marc; Azzollini, Ruyman; Cropper, Mark; Pottinger, Sabrina; Jahnke, Knud; Ealet, Anne; Maciaszek, Thierry; Pasian, Fabio; Zacchei, Andrea; Scaramella, Roberto; Hoar, John; Kohley, Ralf; Vavrek, Roland; Rudolph, Andreas; Schmidt, Micha

    2016-07-01

    Euclid is a space-based optical/near-infrared survey mission of the European Space Agency (ESA) to investigate the nature of dark energy, dark matter and gravity by observing the geometry of the Universe and on the formation of structures over cosmological timescales. Euclid will use two probes of the signature of dark matter and energy: Weak gravitational Lensing, which requires the measurement of the shape and photometric redshifts of distant galaxies, and Galaxy Clustering, based on the measurement of the 3-dimensional distribution of galaxies through their spectroscopic redshifts. The mission is scheduled for launch in 2020 and is designed for 6 years of nominal survey operations. The Euclid Spacecraft is composed of a Service Module and a Payload Module. The Service Module comprises all the conventional spacecraft subsystems, the instruments warm electronics units, the sun shield and the solar arrays. In particular the Service Module provides the extremely challenging pointing accuracy required by the scientific objectives. The Payload Module consists of a 1.2 m three-mirror Korsch type telescope and of two instruments, the visible imager and the near-infrared spectro-photometer, both covering a large common field-of-view enabling to survey more than 35% of the entire sky. All sensor data are downlinked using K-band transmission and processed by a dedicated ground segment for science data processing. The Euclid data and catalogues will be made available to the public at the ESA Science Data Centre.

  15. The SPICA mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sibthorpe, B.; Helmich, F.; Roelfsema, P.; Kaneda, H.; Shibai, H.

    2016-05-01

    SPICA is a mid and far-infrared space mission to be submitted as a candidate to ESA's fifth medium class mission call, due in early 2016. This will be a joint project between ESA and JAXA, with ESA taking the lead role. If selected, SPICA will launch in ˜2029 and operate for a goal lifetime of 5 years. The spacecraft will house a 2.5 m telescope actively cooled to 8 K, providing unprecedented sensitivity at mid-far infrared wavelengths. The low background environment and wavelength coverage provided by SPICA will make it possible to conduct detailed spectroscopic surveys of sources in both the local and distant Universe, deep into the most obscured regions. Using these data the evolution of galaxies over a broad and continuous range of cosmic time can be studied, spanning the era of peak star forming activity. SPICA will also provide unique access to, among others, the deep-lying water-ice spectral features and HD lines within planet forming discs. SPICA will conduct an extensive survey of both planet forming discs and evolved planetary systems, with the aim of providing the missing link between planet formation models and the large number of extrasolar planetary systems now being discovered.

  16. STS-54 Mission Insignia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    Designed by the crewmembers, the STS-54 crew patch depicts the Amefican bald eagle soaring above Earth and is emblematic of the Space Shuttle Endeavour in service to the United States and the world. The eagle is clutching an eightpointed star in its talons and is placing this larger star among a constellation of four others, representing the placement of the fifth Tracking and Data Relay Satellite (TDRS) into orbit to join the four already in service. The blackness of space -- with stars conspicuously absent -- represents the crew's other primary mission in carrying the Diffuse X-ray Spectrometer to orbit to conduct astronomical observations of invisible x-ray sources within the Milky Way Galaxy. The depiction of Earth showing North America is an expression of the crewmembers and NASA's intention that the medical and scientific experiments conducted onboard be for the benefit of mankind. The clouds and blue of Earth represent the crew's part in NASA's Mission to Planet Earth in conducting Earthobseation photography.

  17. AXTAR: Mission Design Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, Paul S.; Chakrabarty, Deepto; Wilson-Hodge, Colleen A.; Philips, Bernard F.; Remillard, Ronald A.; Levine, Alan M.; Wood, Kent S.; Wolff, Michael T.; Gwon, Chul S.; Strohmayer, Tod E.; Briggs, Michael S.; Capizzo, Peter; Fabisinski, Leo; Hopkins, Randall C.; Hornsby, Linda S.; Johnson, Les; Maples, C. Dauphne; Miernik, Janie H.; Thomas, Dan; DeGeronimo, Gianluigi

    2010-01-01

    The Advanced X-ray Timing Array (AXTAR) is a mission concept for X-ray timing of compact objects that combines very large collecting area, broadband spectral coverage, high time resolution, highly flexible scheduling, and an ability to respond promptly to time-critical targets of opportunity. It is optimized for sub-millisecond timing of bright Galactic X-ray sources in order to study phenomena at the natural time scales of neutron star surfaces and black hole event horizons, thus probing the physics of ultra-dense matter, strongly curved spacetimes, and intense magnetic fields. AXTAR s main instrument, the Large Area Timing Array (LATA) is a collimated instrument with 2 50 keV coverage and over 3 square meters effective area. The LATA is made up of an array of super-modules that house 2-mm thick silicon pixel detectors. AXTAR will provide a significant improvement in effective area (a factor of 7 at 4 keV and a factor of 36 at 30 keV) over the RXTE PCA. AXTAR will also carry a sensitive Sky Monitor (SM) that acts as a trigger for pointed observations of X-ray transients in addition to providing high duty cycle monitoring of the X-ray sky. We review the science goals and technical concept for AXTAR and present results from a preliminary mission design study

  18. The OHMIC Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ergun, R.; Burch, J. L.; Lotko, W.; Frey, H. U.; Chaston, C. C.

    2013-12-01

    The Observatory for Heteroscale Magnetosphere-Ionosphere Coupling (OHMIC) investigates the coupling of Earth's magnetosphere and ionosphere (MI) focusing on the conversion of electromagnetic energy into particle energy in auroral acceleration regions. Energy conversion and acceleration are universal processes that are a critical part of MI coupling and govern the energy deposition into Earth's upper atmosphere. These same processes are known to occur in planetary magnetospheres and in the magnetized plasmas of stars. Energy conversion and acceleration in the auroral regions are known to occur on small spatial scales through dispersive Alfvén waves and nonlinear plasma structures such as double layers. OHMIC advances our understanding of MI coupling over previous missions using two spacecraft equipped with high-time resolution measurements of electron distributions, ion distributions, and vector electric and magnetic fields. One of the spacecraft will carry two high-time and high-spatial resolution imagers and a wide-angle imager in the far ultraviolet. The mission has two phases. The first phase investigates meridional phenomena by using the combination of two-point measurements and high-resolution to distinguishing spatial and temporal phenomena. The second phase investigates field-aligned phenomena with spacecraft separations between 10 and 1100 km. Primary science objectives include (1) determining how energy conversion and transport vary along the magnetic field, (2) determining how ionospheric outflow is mediated by ion heating, convection and field-aligned transport, and (3) determining how charged-particle acceleration and injection vary in time and space.

  19. Apollo 11 Mission Commemorated

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2009-07-01

    On 24 July 1969, 4 days after Apollo 11 Mission Commander Neil Armstrong and Lunar Module Eagle Pilot Eugene “Buzz” Aldrin had become the first people to walk on the Moon, they and Apollo 11 Command Module Pilot Michael Collins peered through a window of the Mobile Quarantine Facility on board the U.S.S. Hornet following splashdown of the command module in the central Pacific as U.S. President Richard Nixon told them, “This is the greatest week in the history of the world since the creation.” Forty years later, the Apollo 11 crew and other Apollo-era astronauts gathered at several events in Washington, D. C., to commemorate and reflect on the Apollo program, that mission, and the future of manned spaceflight. “I don’t know what the greatest week in history is,” Aldrin told Eos. “But it was certainly a pioneering opening the door. With the door open when we touched down on the Moon, that was what enabled humans to put many more footprints on the surface of the Moon.”

  20. Asteroid Redirect Mission: EVA and Sample Collection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abell, Paul; Stich, Steve

    2015-01-01

    Asteroid Redirect Mission (ARM) Overview (1) Notional Development Schedule, (2) ARV Crewed Mission Accommodations; Asteroid Redirect Crewed Mission (ARCM) Mission Summary; ARCM Accomplishments; Sample collection/curation plan (1) CAPTEM Requirements; SBAG Engagement Plan

  1. STS-78 Mission Insignia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The STS-78 patch links past with present to tell the story of its mission and science through a design imbued with the strength and vitality of the 2-dimensional art of North America's northwest coast Indians. Central to the design is the space Shuttle whose bold lines and curves evoke the Indian image for the eagle, a native American symbol of power and prestige as well as the national symbol of the United States. The wings of the Shuttle suggest the wings of the eagle whose feathers, indicative of peace and friendship in Indian tradition, are captured by the U forms, a characteristic feature of Northwest coast Indian art. The nose of the Shuttle is the strong downward curve of the eagle's beak, and the Shuttle's forward windows, the eagle's eyes, represented through the tapered S forms again typical of this Indian art form. The basic black and red atoms orbiting the mission number recall the original NASA emblem while beneath, utilizing Indian ovoid forms, the major mission scientific experiment package LMS (Life and Materials Sciences) housed in the Shuttle's cargo bay is depicted in a manner reminiscent of totem-pole art. This image of a bird poised for flight, so common to Indian art, is counterpointed by an equally familiar Tsimshian Indian symbol, a pulsating sun with long hyperbolic rays, the symbol of life. Within each of these rays are now encased crystals, the products of this mission's 3 major, high-temperature materials processing furnaces. And as the sky in Indian lore is a lovely open country, home of the Sun Chief and accessible to travelers through a hole in the western horizon, so too, space is a vast and beckoning landscape for explorers launched beyond the horizon. Beneath the Tsimshian sun, the colors of the earth limb are appropriately enclosed by a red border representing life to the Northwest coast Indians. The Indian colors of red, navy blue, white, and black pervade the STS-78 path. To the right of the Shuttle-eagle, the constellation

  2. General Mission Analysis Tool (GMAT): Mission, Vision, and Business Case

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughes, Steven P.

    2007-01-01

    The Goal of the GMAT project is to develop new space trajectory optimization and mission design technology by working inclusively with ordinary people, universities businesses and other government organizations; and to share that technology in an open and unhindered way. GMAT's a free and open source software system; free for anyone to use in development of new mission concepts or to improve current missions, freely available in source code form for enhancement or future technology development.

  3. Mission requirements: Skylab rescue mission SL-R

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The Skylab Program includes three low earth orbit missions. These missions are designated SL-1/SL-2,SL-3 and SL-4. In addition to the three nominal Skylab missions, the program includes the Skylab Rescue Mission (SL-R). The SL-R mission is designed to provide a safe return of the Skylab crew in the event the Command Service Module (CSM) becomes disabled while docked to the Saturn Workshop (SWS). Mission requirements for the SL-R mission only are presented. SL-R mission configuration will be a CSM (modified with a field installed kit) manned by two crewmen launched on a Saturn IB Launch Vechicle. The SL-R CSM will rendezvous and dock with the SWS (or Orbital Assembly (OA), consisting of the SWS and disabled CSM, if the disabled CSM has not previously been jettisoned). The SWS configuration includes a Multiple Docking Adapter (MDA), Apollo Telescope Mount (ATM), Airlock Module (AM), and an S-IVB stage (modified as an Orbital Workshop (OWS), previously launched and inserted into orbit on a two-stage Saturn V Launch Vehicle for the SL-1/SL-2 mission.

  4. The Space Interferometry Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Unwin, Stephen C.

    1998-01-01

    The Space Interferometry Mission (SIM) is the next major space mission in NASA's Origins program after SIRTF. The SIM architecture uses three Michelson interferometers in low-earth orbit to provide 4 microarcsecond precision absolute astrometric measurements on approx. 40,000 stars. SIM will also provide synthesis imaging in the visible waveband to a resolution of 10 milliarcsecond, and interferometric nulling to a depth of 10(exp -4). A near-IR (1-2 micron) capability is being considered. Many key technologies will be demonstrated by SIM that will be carried over directly or can be readily scaled to future Origins missions such as TPF. The SIM spacecraft will carry a triple Michelson interferometer with baselines in the 10 meter range. Two interferometers act as high precision trackers, providing attitude information at all time, while the third one conducts the science observations. Ultra-accurate laser metrology and active systems monitor the systematic errors and to control the instrument vibrations in order to reach the 4 microarcsecond level on wide-angle measurements. SIM will produce a wealth of new astronomical data. With an absolute positional precision of 4 microarcsecond, SIM will improve on the best currently available measures (the Hipparcos catalog) by 2 or 3 orders of magnitude, providing parallaxes accurate to 10% and transverse velocities to 0.2 km/s anywhere in the Galaxy, to stars as faint as 20th magnitude. With the addition of radial velocities, knowledge of the 6-dimension phase space for objects of interest will allow us to attack a wide array of previously inaccessible problems such as: search for planets down to few earth masses; calibration of stellar luminosities and by means of standard candles, calibration of the cosmic distance scale; detecting perturbations due to spiral arms, disk warps and central bar in our galaxy; probe of the gravitational potential of the Galaxy, several kiloparsecs out of the galactic plane; synthesis imaging

  5. XEUS mission and instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bavdaz, Marcos; Peacock, Anthony J.; Parmar, Arvind N.; Beijersbergen, Marco W.

    2002-01-01

    The X-ray Evolving Universe Spectroscopy mission (XEUS) is an ambitious project under study by the European Space Agency (ESA), which aims to probe the distant hot universe with comparable sensitivity to NGST and ALMA. The effective optical area and angular resolution required to perform this task is 30 m2 effective area and <5 inch angular resolution respectively at 1 keV. The single Wolter-I X-ray telescope having these characteristics will be equipped with large area semiconductor detectors and high-resolution cryogenic imaging spectrometers with 2 eV resolution at 1 keV. A novel approach to mission design has been developed, placing the detector instruments on one dedicated spacecraft and the optics on another. The International Space Station (ISS) with the best ever-available infrastructure in space will be used to expand the mirror diameter from 4.5 m to 10 m, by using the European Robotic Arm on the ISS. The detector spacecraft (DSC) uses solar-electric propulsion to maintain its position while flying in formation with the mirror spacecraft. The detector instruments are protected from straylight and contamination by sophisticated baffles and filters, and employing the Earth as a shield to make the most sensitive low energy X-ray observations of the heavily red-shifted universe. After completion of an initial observation phase lasting 5 years, the mirror spacecraft will be upgraded (basically expanded to a full 10 m diameter mirror) at the ISS, while the DSC is replaced by a new spacecraft with a new suite of detector instruments optimised to the full area XEUS mirror. An industrial feasibility study was successfully completed and identified no major problem area. Current activities focus on a full system level study and the necessary technology developments. XEUS is likely to become a truly global mission, involving many of the partners that have teamed up to build the ISS. Japan is already a major partner int the study of XEUS, with ISAS having its main

  6. EDL Pathfinder Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drake, Bret G.

    2016-01-01

    NASA is developing a long-term strategy for achieving extended human missions to Mars in support of the policies outlined in the 2010 NASA Authorization Act and National Space Policy. The Authorization Act states that "A long term objective for human exploration of space should be the eventual international exploration of Mars." Echoing this is the National Space Policy, which directs that NASA should, "By 2025, begin crewed missions beyond the moon, including sending humans to an asteroid. By the mid-2030s, send humans to orbit Mars and return them safely to Earth." Further defining this goal, NASA's 2014 Strategic Plan identifies that "Our long-term goal is to send humans to Mars. Over the next two decades, we will develop and demonstrate the technologies and capabilities needed to send humans to explore the red planet and safely return them to Earth." Over the past several decades numerous assessments regarding human exploration of Mars have indicated that landing humans on the surface of Mars remains one of the key critical challenges. In 2015 NASA initiated an Agency-wide assessment of the challenges associated with Entry, Descent, and Landing (EDL) of large payloads necessary for supporting human exploration of Mars. Due to the criticality and long-lead nature of advancing EDL techniques, it is necessary to determine an appropriate strategy to improve the capability to land large payloads. This paper provides an overview of NASA's 2015 EDL assessment on understanding the key EDL risks with a focus on determining what "must" be tested at Mars. This process identified the various risks and potential risk mitigation strategies, that is, benefits of flight demonstration at Mars relative to terrestrial test, modeling, and analysis. The goal of the activity was to determine if a subscale demonstrator is necessary, or if NASA should take a direct path to a human-scale lander. This assessment also provided insight into how EDL advancements align with other Agency

  7. Phobos Sample Return mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zelenyi, Lev; Zakharov, A.; Martynov, M.; Polischuk, G.

    Very mysterious objects of the Solar system are the Martian satellites, Phobos and Deimos. Attempt to study Phobos in situ from an orbiter and from landers have been done by the Russian mission FOBOS in 1988. However, due to a malfunction of the onboard control system the landers have not been delivered to the Phobos surface. A new robotics mission to Phobos is under development now in Russia. Its main goal is the delivery of samples of the Phobos surface material to the Earth for laboratory studies of its chemical, isotopic, mineral composition, age etc. Other goals are in situ studies of Phobos (regolith, internal structure, peculiarities in orbital and proper rotation), studies of Martian environment (dust, plasma, fields). The payload includes a number of scientific instruments: gamma and neutron spectrometers, gaschromatograph, mass spectrometers, IR spectrometer, seismometer, panoramic camera, dust sensor, plasma package. To implement the tasks of this mission a cruise-transfer spacecraft after the launch and the Earth-Mars interplanetary flight will be inserted into the first elliptical orbit around Mars, then after several corrections the spacecraft orbit will be formed very close to the Phobos orbit to keep the synchronous orbiting with Phobos. Then the spacecraft will encounter with Phobos and will land at the surface. After the landing the sampling device of the spacecraft will collect several samples of the Phobos regolith and will load these samples into the return capsule mounted at the returned vehicle. This returned vehicle will be launched from the mother spacecraft and after the Mars-Earth interplanetary flight after 11 monthes with reach the terrestrial atmosphere. Before entering into the atmosphere the returned capsule will be separated from the returned vehicle and will hopefully land at the Earth surface. The mother spacecraft at the Phobos surface carrying onboard scientific instruments will implement the "in situ" experiments during an year

  8. IMP - INTEGRATED MISSION PROGRAM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dauro, V. A.

    1994-01-01

    IMP is a simulation language that is used to model missions around the Earth, Moon, Mars, or other planets. It has been used to model missions for the Saturn Program, Apollo Program, Space Transportation System, Space Exploration Initiative, and Space Station Freedom. IMP allows a user to control the mission being simulated through a large event/maneuver menu. Up to three spacecraft may be used: a main, a target and an observer. The simulation may begin at liftoff, suborbital, or orbital. IMP incorporates a Fehlberg seventh order, thirteen evaluation Runge-Kutta integrator with error and step-size control to numerically integrate the equations of motion. The user may choose oblate or spherical gravity for the central body (Earth, Mars, Moon or other) while a spherical model is used for the gravity of an additional perturbing body. Sun gravity and pressure and Moon gravity effects are user-selectable. Earth/Mars atmospheric effects can be included. The optimum thrust guidance parameters are calculated automatically. Events/maneuvers may involve many velocity changes, and these velocity changes may be impulsive or of finite duration. Aerobraking to orbit is also an option. Other simulation options include line-of-sight communication guidelines, a choice of propulsion systems, a soft landing on the Earth or Mars, and rendezvous with a target vehicle. The input/output is in metric units, with the exception of thrust and weight which are in English units. Input is read from the user's input file to minimize real-time keyboard input. Output includes vehicle state, orbital and guide parameters, event and total velocity changes, and propellant usage. The main output is to the user defined print file, but during execution, part of the input/output is also displayed on the screen. An included FORTRAN program, TEKPLOT, will display plots on the VDT as well as generating a graphic file suitable for output on most laser printers. The code is double precision. IMP is written in

  9. Manned Mars mission cost estimate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamaker, Joseph; Smith, Keith

    1986-01-01

    The potential costs of several options of a manned Mars mission are examined. A cost estimating methodology based primarily on existing Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) parametric cost models is summarized. These models include the MSFC Space Station Cost Model and the MSFC Launch Vehicle Cost Model as well as other modes and techniques. The ground rules and assumptions of the cost estimating methodology are discussed and cost estimates presented for six potential mission options which were studied. The estimated manned Mars mission costs are compared to the cost of the somewhat analogous Apollo Program cost after normalizing the Apollo cost to the environment and ground rules of the manned Mars missions. It is concluded that a manned Mars mission, as currently defined, could be accomplished for under $30 billion in 1985 dollars excluding launch vehicle development and mission operations.

  10. General Mission Analysis Tool (GMAT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughes, Steven P.

    2007-01-01

    The General Mission Analysis Tool (GMAT) is a space trajectory optimization and mission analysis system developed by NASA and private industry in the spirit of the NASA Mission. GMAT contains new technology and is a testbed for future technology development. The goal of the GMAT project is to develop new space trajectory optimization and mission design technology by working inclusively with ordinary people, universities, businesses, and other government organizations, and to share that technology in an open and unhindered way. GMAT is a free and open source software system licensed under the NASA Open Source Agreement: free for anyone to use in development of new mission concepts or to improve current missions, freely available in source code form for enhancement or further technology development.

  11. Ulysses mission operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beech, P.

    1992-01-01

    The Ulysses mission is described in terms of in-Shuttle operations, initial in-orbit operations, routine operations, operational organization, and data gathering and production. The configuration of the Ulysses payload is illustrated, and the flight to orbit is described including a three-hour on-orbit checkout. The first contact was reported at the Deep Space Network station followed by an adjustment of the spacecraft solar-aspect angle and the acquisition of ranging and Doppler data. In-orbit operations include the earth acquisition maneuver, a trajectory correction maneuver, and a payload switch. Continuous data gathering is discussed with reference to the Jupiter encounter and the first and second oppositions and conjunctions. The data-gathering components comprise ground stations, a data-processing computer, and a data-records system. Data production is performed in an off-line mode that does not interfere with the real-time operations.

  12. Mission Operations Insights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Littman, Dave; Parksinson, Lou

    2006-01-01

    The mission description Polar Operational Environmental Satellites (POES): I) Collect and disseminate worldwide meteorological and environmental data: a) Provide day and night information (AVHRR): 1) cloud cover distribution and type; 2) cloud top temperature; 3) Moisture patterns and ice/snow melt. b) Provide vertical temperature and moisture profiles of atmospheres (HIRS, AMSU, MHS. c) Measure global ozone distribution and solar UV radiation (SBUV). d) Measure proton, electro, and charged particle density to provide solar storm warnings (SEM). d) Collect environmental data (DCS): 1) Stationary platforms in remote locations; 2) Free floating platforms on buoys, balloons, migratory animals. II) Provide Search and Rescue capabilities (SARR, SARP): a) Detection and relay of distress signals. b) Has saved thousands of lives around the world.

  13. Venus Aerobot Multisonde Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cutts, James A.; Kerzhanovich, Viktor; Balaram, J. Bob; Campbell, Bruce; Gershaman, Robert; Greeley, Ronald; Hall, Jeffery L.; Cameron, Jonathan; Klaasen, Kenneth; Hansen, David M.

    1999-01-01

    Robotic exploration of Venus presents many challenges because of the thick atmosphere and the high surface temperatures. The Venus Aerobot Multisonde mission concept addresses these challenges by using a robotic balloon or aerobot to deploy a number of short lifetime probes or sondes to acquire images of the surface. A Venus aerobot is not only a good platform for precision deployment of sondes but is very effective at recovering high rate data. This paper describes the Venus Aerobot Multisonde concept and discusses a proposal to NASA's Discovery program using the concept for a Venus Exploration of Volcanoes and Atmosphere (VEVA). The status of the balloon deployment and inflation, balloon envelope, communications, thermal control and sonde deployment technologies are also reviewed.

  14. STS-73 Mission Insignia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    The crew patch of STS-73, the second flight of the United States Microgravity Laboratory (USML-2), depicts the Space Shuttle Columbia in the vastness of space. In the foreground are the classic regular polyhedrons that were investigated by Plato and later Euclid. The Pythagoreans were also fascinated by the symmetrical three-dimensional objects whose sides are the same regular polygon. The tetrahedron, the cube, the octahedron, and the icosahedron were each associated with the Natural Elements of that time: fire (on this mission represented as combustion science); Earth (crystallography), air and water (fluid physics). An additional icon shown as the infinity symbol was added to further convey the discipline of fluid mechanics. The shape of the emblem represents a fifth polyhedron, a dodecahedron, which the Pythagoreans thought corresponded to a fifth element that represented the cosmos.

  15. Mission to Planet Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Gregory S.; Backlund, Peter W.

    1992-01-01

    Mission to Planet Earth (MTPE) is NASA's concept for an international science program to produce the understanding needed to predict changes in the Earth's environment. NASA and its interagency and international partners will place satellites carrying advanced sensors in strategic Earth orbits to gather multidisciplinary data. A sophisticated data system will process and archive an unprecedented amount of information about the Earth and how it works as a system. Increased understanding of the Earth system is a basic human responsibility, a prerequisite to informed management of the planet's resources and to the preservation of the global environment. An overview of the MTPE, flight programs, data and information systems, interdisciplinary research efforts, and international coordination, is presented.

  16. Hipparcos: mission accomplished

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1993-08-01

    During the last few months of its life, as the high radiation environment to which the satellite was exposed took its toll on the on-board system, Hipparcos was operated with only two of the three gyroscopes normally required for such a satellite, following an ambitious redesign of the on-board and on-ground systems. Plans were in hand to operate the satellite without gyroscopes at all, and the first such "gyro- less" data had been acquired, when communication failure with the on-board computers on 24 June 1993 put an end to the relentless flow of 24000 bits of data that have been sent down from the satellite each second, since launch. Further attempts to continue operations proved unsuccessful, and after a short series of sub-systems tests, operations were terminated four years and a week after launch. An enormous wealth of scientific data was gathered by Hipparcos. Even though data analysis by the scientific teams involved in the programme is not yet completed, it is clear that the mission has been an overwhelming success. "The ESA advisory bodies took a calculated risk in selecting this complex but fundamental programme" said Dr. Roger Bonnet, ESA's Director of Science, "and we are delighted to have been able to bring it to a highly successful conclusion, and to have contributed unique information that will take a prominent place in the history and development of astrophysics". Extremely accurate positions of more than one hundred thousand stars, precise distance measurements (in most cases for the first time), and accurate determinations of the stars' velocity through space have been derived. The resulting HIPPARCOS Star Catalogue, expected to be completed in 1996, will be of unprecedented accuracy, achieving results some 10-100 times more accurate than those routinely determined from ground-based astronomical observatories. A further star catalogue, the Thyco Star Catalogue of more than a million stars, is being compiled from additional data accumulated by the

  17. The Mars Pathfinder Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golombek, Matthew P.

    1997-01-01

    Mars Pathfinder, one of the first Discovery-class missions (quick, low-cost projects with focused science objectives), will land a single spacecraft with a microrover and several instruments on the surface of Mars in 1997. Pathfinder will be the first mission to use a rover, carrying a chemical analysis instrument, to characterize the rocks and soils in a landing area over hundreds of square meters on Mars, which will provide a calibration point or "ground truth" for orbital remote sensing observations. In addition to the rover, which also performs a number of technology experiments, Pathfinder carries three science instruments: a stereoscopic imager with spectral filters on an extendable mast, an alpha proton X ray spectrometer, and an atmospheric structure instrument/meteorology package. The instruments, the rover technology experiments, and the telemetry system will allow investigations of the surface morphology and geology at submeter to a hundred meters scale, the petrology and geochemistry of rocks and soils, the magnetic properties of dust, soil mechanics and properties, a variety of atmospheric investigations, and the rotational and orbital dynamics of Mars. Landing downstream from the mouth of a giant catastrophic outflow channel, Ares Vallis at 19.5 deg N, 32.8 deg W, offers the potential of identifying and analyzing a wide variety of crustal materials, from the ancient heavily cratered terrain, intermediate-aged ridged plains, and reworked channel deposits, thus allowing first-order scientific investigations of the early differentiation and evolution of the crust, the development of weathering products, and tile early environments and conditions on Mars.

  18. Biosatellite II mission.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, O E

    1969-01-01

    Biosatellite B was launched from Cape Kennedy, Florida, on a two-stage DELTA launch vehicle at 6:04 p.m. on 7 September, 1967. Approximately nine minutes later the 435 kg spacecraft biological laboratory was placed into a satisfactory 315 km near-circular earth orbit, successfully separated from the launch vehicle's second stage and was designated Biosatellite II. The scientific payload consisting of thirteen selected general biology and radiation experiments were subjected to planned, carefully controlled environmental conditions during 45 hours of earth-orbital flight. The decision was made to abbreviate the scheduled 3-day mission by approximately one day because of a threatening tropical storm in the recovery area, and a problem of communication with the spacecraft from the tracking stations. Highest priority was placed on recovery which was essential to obtain the scientific results on all the experiments. The operational phase of the mission came to a successful conclusion with the deorbit of the recovery capsule, deployment of the parachute system and air recovery by the United States Air Force. The 127 kg recovery capsule was returned to biology laboratories at Hickam Air Force Base, Hawaii, for disassembly and immediate inspection and analysis of the biological materials by the experimenters. It was evident immediately that the quality of the biology was excellent and this fact gave promise of a high return of scientific data. The environmental conditions provided to the experimental material in the spacecraft, provisions for experimental controls, and operational considerations are presented as they relate to interpretation of the experimental results. PMID:11949687

  19. Biosatellite II mission.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, O E

    1969-01-01

    Biosatellite B was launched from Cape Kennedy, Florida, on a two-stage DELTA launch vehicle at 6:04 p.m. on 7 September, 1967. Approximately nine minutes later the 435 kg spacecraft biological laboratory was placed into a satisfactory 315 km near-circular earth orbit, successfully separated from the launch vehicle's second stage and was designated Biosatellite II. The scientific payload consisting of thirteen selected general biology and radiation experiments were subjected to planned, carefully controlled environmental conditions during 45 hours of earth-orbital flight. The decision was made to abbreviate the scheduled 3-day mission by approximately one day because of a threatening tropical storm in the recovery area, and a problem of communication with the spacecraft from the tracking stations. Highest priority was placed on recovery which was essential to obtain the scientific results on all the experiments. The operational phase of the mission came to a successful conclusion with the deorbit of the recovery capsule, deployment of the parachute system and air recovery by the United States Air Force. The 127 kg recovery capsule was returned to biology laboratories at Hickam Air Force Base, Hawaii, for disassembly and immediate inspection and analysis of the biological materials by the experimenters. It was evident immediately that the quality of the biology was excellent and this fact gave promise of a high return of scientific data. The environmental conditions provided to the experimental material in the spacecraft, provisions for experimental controls, and operational considerations are presented as they relate to interpretation of the experimental results.

  20. STS-40 Mission Insignia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    The STS-40 patch makes a contemporary statement focusing on human beings living and working in space. Against a background of the universe, seven silver stars, interspersed about the orbital path of Columbia, represent the seven crew members. The orbiter's flight path forms a double-helix, designed to represent the DNA molecule common to all living creatures. In the words of a crew spokesman, ...(the helix) affirms the ceaseless expansion of human life and American involvement in space while simultaneously emphasizing the medical and biological studies to which this flight is dedicated. Above Columbia, the phrase Spacelab Life Sciences 1 defines both the Shuttle mission and its payload. Leonardo Da Vinci's Vitruvian man, silhouetted against the blue darkness of the heavens, is in the upper center portion of the patch. With one foot on Earth and arms extended to touch Shuttle's orbit, the crew feels, he serves as a powerful embodiment of the extension of human inquiry from the boundaries of Earth to the limitless laboratory of space. Sturdily poised amid the stars, he serves to link scentists on Earth to the scientists in space asserting the harmony of efforts which produce meaningful scientific spaceflight missions. A brilliant red and yellow Earth limb (center) links Earth to space as it radiates from a native American symbol for the sun. At the frontier of space, the traditional symbol for the sun vividly links America's past to America's future, the crew states. Beneath the orbiting Shuttle, darkness of night rests peacefully over the United States. Drawn by artist Sean Collins, the STS 40 Space Shuttle patch was designed by the crewmembers for the flight.

  1. Combining multiple altimeter missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobs, G. A.; Mitchell, J. L.

    1997-10-01

    Viewing altimeter data only at the points where separate altimeter missions' ground tracks cross provides a method to observe long time period sea surface height (SSH) variations and avoids many of the problems inherent in combining separate altimeter data sets through an independently determined geoid. TOPEX/POSEIDON (T/P) data over the time period from January 1, 1993, to December 31, 1995, form a mean SSH that is used as a reference by other altimeter data sets. A least squares analysis of the mean T/P SSH determines the portion of the Geographically Correlated Orbit Error (GCOE) that may be observed through crossover differences and removes this portion of the GCOE. The analysis removes errors of 0.86 cm RMS at 1 cycle per orbit revolution (cpr) and indicates negligible errors at higher frequencies. After the GCOE removal, the accuracy of the T/P reference mean is better than 1 cm RMS as measured by crossover differences. The GCOE contained in the Geosat-Exact Repeat Mission (ERM) and ERS 1 data with orbit solutions using the Joint Gravity Model (JGM) 3 is evaluated through an adjustment to the T/P reference mean surface. The Geosat-ERM data indicate a bias of about 28 cm averaged over the globe, and the ERS 1 bias is 44 cm. The T/P data used here is not corrected for the oscillator drift correction error so that the actual bias is less by about 13 cm. Both the Geosat-ERM and ERS 1 GCOE are mainly 1 cpr. GCOE estimates at frequencies above 1 cpr indicate little actual orbit error but are more correlated to instrument correction errors (particularly water vapor). Simultaneous T/P and ERS 1 SSH anomalies to the T/P mean indicate good correlation.

  2. SEPAC: Spacelab Mission 1 report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    The SEPAC Spacelab Mission 1 activities relevant to software operations are reported. Spacelab events and problems that did not directly affect SEPAC but are of interest to experimenters are included. Spacelab Mission 1 was launched from KSC on 28 November 1983 at 10:10 Huntsville time. The Spacelab Mission met its objectives. There were two major problems associated with SEPAC: the loss of the EBA gun and the RAU 21.

  3. Spacelab Mission 3 experiment descriptions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, C. K. (Editor)

    1982-01-01

    The Spacelab 3 mission is the first operational flight of Spacelab aboard the shuttle transportation system. The primary objectives of this mission are to conduct application, science, and technology experimentation that requires the low gravity environment of Earth orbit and an extended duration, stable vehicle attitude with emphasis on materials processing. This document provides descriptions of the experiments to be performed during the Spacelab 3 mission.

  4. Mission planning for autonomous systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pearson, G.

    1987-01-01

    Planning is a necessary task for intelligent, adaptive systems operating independently of human controllers. A mission planning system that performs task planning by decomposing a high-level mission objective into subtasks and synthesizing a plan for those tasks at varying levels of abstraction is discussed. Researchers use a blackboard architecture to partition the search space and direct the focus of attention of the planner. Using advanced planning techniques, they can control plan synthesis for the complex planning tasks involved in mission planning.

  5. NASA's Asteroid Redirect Mission (ARM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abell, Paul; Mazanek, Dan; Reeves, David; Naasz, Bo; Cichy, Benjamin

    2015-11-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is developing a robotic mission to visit a large near-Earth asteroid (NEA), collect a multi-ton boulder from its surface, and redirect it into a stable orbit around the Moon. Once returned to cislunar space in the mid-2020s, astronauts will explore the boulder and return to Earth with samples. This Asteroid Redirect Mission (ARM) is part of NASA’s plan to advance the technologies, capabilities, and spaceflight experience needed for a human mission to the Martian system in the 2030s. Subsequent human and robotic missions to the asteroidal material would also be facilitated by its return to cislunar space. Although ARM is primarily a capability demonstration mission (i.e., technologies and associated operations), there exist significant opportunities to advance our knowledge of small bodies in the synergistic areas of science, planetary defense, asteroidal resources and in-situ resource utilization (ISRU), and capability and technology demonstrations. In order to maximize the knowledge return from the mission, NASA is organizing an ARM Investigation Team, which is being preceded by the Formulation Assessment and Support Team. These teams will be comprised of scientists, technologists, and other qualified and interested individuals to help plan the implementation and execution of ARM. An overview of robotic and crewed segments of ARM, including the mission requirements, NEA targets, and mission operations, will be provided along with a discussion of the potential opportunities associated with the mission.

  6. The Asteroid Redirect Mission (ARM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abell, Paul

    2015-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is developing a robotic mission to visit a large near-Earth asteroid (NEA), collect a multi-ton boulder from its surface, and redirect it into a stable orbit around the Moon. Once returned to cislunar space in the mid-2020s, astronauts will explore the boulder and return to Earth with samples. This Asteroid Redirect Mission (ARM) is part of NASA's plan to advance the technologies, capabilities, and spaceflight experience needed for a human mission to the Martian system in the 2030s. Subsequent human and robotic missions to the asteroidal material would also be facilitated by its return to cislunar space. Although ARM is primarily a capability demonstration mission (i.e., technologies and associated operations), there exist significant opportunities to advance our knowledge of small bodies in the synergistic areas of science, planetary defense, asteroidal resources and in-situ resource utilization (ISRU), and capability and technology demonstrations. In order to maximize the knowledge return from the mission, NASA is organizing an ARM Investigation Team, which is being preceded by the Formulation Assessment and Support Team. These teams will be comprised of scientists, technologists, and other qualified and interested individuals to help plan the implementation and execution of ARM. An overview of robotic and crewed segments of ARM, including the mission requirements, NEA targets, and mission operations, will be provided along with a discussion of the potential opportunities associated with the mission.

  7. Earth Science Missions Engineering Challenges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marius, Julio L.

    2009-01-01

    This presentation gives a general overlook of the engineering efforts that are necessary to meet science mission requirement especially for Earth Science missions. It provides brief overlook of NASA's current missions and future Earth Science missions and the engineering challenges to meet some of the specific science objectives. It also provides, if time permits, a brief summary of two significant weather and climate phenomena in the Southern Hemisphere: El Nino and La Nina, as well as the Ozone depletion over Antarctica that will be of interest to IEEE intercom 2009 conference audience.

  8. 1998 Mars Missions Science Briefing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    NASA executives gathered together for an interview to discuss the 1998 Mars Mission. A simulated overview of the Lander Mission is presented. Also presented are views of pre-launch activities, countdown, and launch of the spacecraft, burnouts of the first, second, and third engines, and the probe separating from the spacecraft. During this mission the Lander performs in situ investigations that address the science theme "Volatiles and Climate History" on Mars. The purpose of this mission is to study the following: climate; life; water; carbon dioxide; and dust particles.

  9. EVAL mission requirements, phase 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The aspects of NASA's applications mission were enhanced by utilization of shuttle/spacelab, and payload groupings which optimize the cost of achieving the mission goals were defined. Preliminary Earth Viewing Application Laboratory (EVAL) missions, experiments, sensors, and sensor groupings were developed. The major technological EVAL themes and objectives which NASA will be addressing during the 1980 to 2,000 time period were investigated. Missions/experiments which addressed technique development, sensor development, application development, and/or operational data collection were considered as valid roles for EVAL flights.

  10. Future NASA Earth Science Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schoeberl, Mark R.

    2005-01-01

    With the launch of the last Earth Observation System (EOS) Missions, Aura, NASA now has a new fleet of 13+ highly capable remote sensing spacecraft orbiting the earth. Results from these missions are showing us the earth system as never seen before. But, what are the new challenges in understanding the Earth in an era of rapid change? In this talk I will outline some of the exciting results from the EOS missions and pull back the curtain on NASA's future earth science missions.

  11. Asteroid Redirect Mission: Robotic Segment

    NASA Video Gallery

    This concept animation illustrates the robotic segment of NASA's Asteroid Redirect Mission. The Asteroid Redirect Vehicle, powered by solar electric propulsion, travels to a large asteroid to robot...

  12. Mission and surface infrastructure concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butler, J.; Mcdaniel, S. G.

    1986-01-01

    Several types of manned Mars surface missions, including sorties, fixed-base, and hybrid missions, which can be envisioned as potentially desirable approaches to the exploration and utilization of Mars are identified and discussed. Some of the advantages and disadvantages of each type are discussed briefly. Also, some of the implications of the types of missions on the surface elements' design are discussed briefly. Typical sets of surface elements are identified for each type of mission, and weights are provided for each element and set.

  13. IRIS Mission Operations Director's Colloquium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carvalho, Robert; Mazmanian, Edward A.

    2014-01-01

    Pursuing the Mysteries of the Sun: The Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS) Mission. Flight controllers from the IRIS mission will present their individual experiences on IRIS from development through the first year of flight. This will begin with a discussion of the unique nature of IRISs mission and science, and how it fits into NASA's fleet of solar observatories. Next will be a discussion of the critical roles Ames contributed in the mission including spacecraft and flight software development, ground system development, and training for launch. This will be followed by experiences from launch, early operations, ongoing operations, and unusual operations experiences. The presentation will close with IRIS science imagery and questions.

  14. MSFC Flight Mission Directive Apollo-Saturn 205 Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1966-01-01

    The purpose of this directive is to provide, under one cover, coordinated direction for the AS-205 Space Vehicle Flight. Within this document, mission objectives are specified, vehicle configuration is described and referenced, flight trajectories, data acquisition requirements, instrumentation requirements, and detailed documentation requirements necessary to meet launch vehicle mission objectives are defined and/or referenced.

  15. Generic mission planning concepts for space astronomy missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guffin, O. T.; Onken, J. F.

    1993-01-01

    The past two decades have seen the rapid development of space astronomy, both manned and unmanned, and the concurrent proliferation of the operational concepts and software that have been produced to support each individual project. Having been involved in four of these missions since the '70's and three yet to fly in the present decade, the authors believe it is time to step back and evaluate this body of experience from a macro-systems point of view to determine the potential for generic mission planning concepts that could be applied to future missions. This paper presents an organized evaluation of astronomy mission planning functions, functional flows, iteration cycles, replanning activities, and the requirements that drive individual concepts to specific solutions. The conclusions drawn from this exercise are then used to propose a generic concept that could support multiple missions.

  16. Business analysis: The commercial mission of the International Asteroid Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The mission of the International Asteroid Mission (IAM) is providing asteroidal resources to support activities in space. The short term goal is to initiate IAM by mining a near-Earth, hydrous carbonaceous chondrite asteroid to service the nearer-term market of providing cryogenic rocket fuel in low lunar orbit (LLO). The IAM will develop and contract for the building of the transportation vehicles and equipment necessary for this undertaking. The long-term goal is to expand operations by exploiting asteroids in other manners, as these options become commercially viable. The primary business issues are what revenue can be generated from the baseline mission, how much will the mission cost, and how funding for this mission can be raised. These issues are addressed.

  17. Experiment 3: Zeolite Crystal Growth in Microgravity- The USML-2 Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bac, Nurcan; Warzywoda, Juliusz; Sacco, Albert, Jr.

    1998-01-01

    The extensive use of zeolites and their impact on the world's economy leads to many efforts to characterize their structure, and to improve the knowledge base for nucleation and growth of these crystals. The Zeolite Crystal Growth (ZCG) experiment on USML-2 aims to enhance the understanding of nucleation and growth of zeolite crystals while attempting to provide a means of controlling the defect concentration in microgravity. Zeolites A, X, Beta, and Silicalite were grown during the 16-day USML-2 mission. The solutions where the nucleation event was controlled yielded larger and more uniform crystals of better morphology and purity than their terrestrial/control counterparts. Space-grown Beta crystals were free of line defects while terrestrial/controls had substantial defects.

  18. Low Cost Missions Operations on NASA Deep Space Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnes, R. J.; Kusnierkiewicz, D. J.; Bowman, A.; Harvey, R.; Ossing, D.; Eichstedt, J.

    2014-12-01

    The ability to lower mission operations costs on any long duration mission depends on a number of factors; the opportunities for science, the flight trajectory, and the cruise phase environment, among others. Many deep space missions employ long cruises to their final destination with minimal science activities along the way; others may perform science observations on a near-continuous basis. This paper discusses approaches employed by two NASA missions implemented by the Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory (JHU/APL) to minimize mission operations costs without compromising mission success: the New Horizons mission to Pluto, and the Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatories (STEREO). The New Horizons spacecraft launched in January 2006 for an encounter with the Pluto system.The spacecraft trajectory required no deterministic on-board delta-V, and so the mission ops team then settled in for the rest of its 9.5-year cruise. The spacecraft has spent much of its cruise phase in a "hibernation" mode, which has enabled the spacecraft to be maintained with a small operations team, and minimized the contact time required from the NASA Deep Space Network. The STEREO mission is comprised of two three-axis stabilized sun-staring spacecraft in heliocentric orbit at a distance of 1 AU from the sun. The spacecraft were launched in October 2006. The STEREO instruments operate in a "decoupled" mode from the spacecraft, and from each other. Since STEREO operations are largely routine, unattended ground station contact operations were implemented early in the mission. Commands flow from the MOC to be uplinked, and the data recorded on-board is downlinked and relayed back to the MOC. Tools run in the MOC to assess the health and performance of ground system components. Alerts are generated and personnel are notified of any problems. Spacecraft telemetry is similarly monitored and alarmed, thus ensuring safe, reliable, low cost operations.

  19. Simulation of Mission Phases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carlstrom, Nicholas Mercury

    2016-01-01

    This position with the Simulation and Graphics Branch (ER7) at Johnson Space Center (JSC) provided an introduction to vehicle hardware, mission planning, and simulation design. ER7 supports engineering analysis and flight crew training by providing high-fidelity, real-time graphical simulations in the Systems Engineering Simulator (SES) lab. The primary project assigned by NASA mentor and SES lab manager, Meghan Daley, was to develop a graphical simulation of the rendezvous, proximity operations, and docking (RPOD) phases of flight. The simulation is to include a generic crew/cargo transportation vehicle and a target object in low-Earth orbit (LEO). Various capsule, winged, and lifting body vehicles as well as historical RPOD methods were evaluated during the project analysis phase. JSC core mission to support the International Space Station (ISS), Commercial Crew Program (CCP), and Human Space Flight (HSF) influenced the project specifications. The simulation is characterized as a 30 meter +V Bar and/or -R Bar approach to the target object's docking station. The ISS was selected as the target object and the international Low Impact Docking System (iLIDS) was selected as the docking mechanism. The location of the target object's docking station corresponds with the RPOD methods identified. The simulation design focuses on Guidance, Navigation, and Control (GNC) system architecture models with station keeping and telemetry data processing capabilities. The optical and inertial sensors, reaction control system thrusters, and the docking mechanism selected were based on CCP vehicle manufacturer's current and proposed technologies. A significant amount of independent study and tutorial completion was required for this project. Multiple primary source materials were accessed using the NASA Technical Report Server (NTRS) and reference textbooks were borrowed from the JSC Main Library and International Space Station Library. The Trick Simulation Environment and User

  20. Hipparcos: mission accomplished

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1993-08-01

    During the last few months of its life, as the high radiation environment to which the satellite was exposed took its toll on the on-board system, Hipparcos was operated with only two of the three gyroscopes normally required for such a satellite, following an ambitious redesign of the on-board and on-ground systems. Plans were in hand to operate the satellite without gyroscopes at all, and the first such "gyro- less" data had been acquired, when communication failure with the on-board computers on 24 June 1993 put an end to the relentless flow of 24000 bits of data that have been sent down from the satellite each second, since launch. Further attempts to continue operations proved unsuccessful, and after a short series of sub-systems tests, operations were terminated four years and a week after launch. An enormous wealth of scientific data was gathered by Hipparcos. Even though data analysis by the scientific teams involved in the programme is not yet completed, it is clear that the mission has been an overwhelming success. "The ESA advisory bodies took a calculated risk in selecting this complex but fundamental programme" said Dr. Roger Bonnet, ESA's Director of Science, "and we are delighted to have been able to bring it to a highly successful conclusion, and to have contributed unique information that will take a prominent place in the history and development of astrophysics". Extremely accurate positions of more than one hundred thousand stars, precise distance measurements (in most cases for the first time), and accurate determinations of the stars' velocity through space have been derived. The resulting HIPPARCOS Star Catalogue, expected to be completed in 1996, will be of unprecedented accuracy, achieving results some 10-100 times more accurate than those routinely determined from ground-based astronomical observatories. A further star catalogue, the Thyco Star Catalogue of more than a million stars, is being compiled from additional data accumulated by the

  1. Life at Mission Creep U

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dubrow, Greg; Moseley, Bryan; Dustin, Daniel

    2006-01-01

    The term "mission creep" was originally coined nearly a hundred years ago to describe the gradual process by which a military mission's stated methods and goals change, and recently the term has been applied to incremental organizational changes. In this article, the term is used to describe what happens when a teaching-oriented college or…

  2. NASA SSA for Robotic Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newman, Lauri K.

    2009-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews NASA's Space Situational Awareness (SSA) activities as preparation for robotic missions and Goddard's role in this work. The presentation includes the preparations that Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) has made to provide consolidated space systems protection indluding consolidating GSFC support for Orbit Debris analysis, conjunction assessment and collision avoidance, commercial and foreign support, and protection of GSFC managed missions.

  3. ESA CHEOPS mission: development status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rando, N.; Asquier, J.; Corral Van Damme, C.; Isaak, K.; Ratti, F.; Safa, F.; Southworth, R.; Broeg, C.; Benz, W.

    2016-07-01

    The European Space Agency (ESA) Science Programme Committee (SPC) selected CHEOPS (Characterizing Exoplanets Satellite) in October 2012 as the first S-class mission (S1) within the Agency's Scientific Programme, targeting launch readiness by the end of 2017. The CHEOPS mission is devoted to the first-step characterization of known exoplanets orbiting bright stars, to be achieved through the precise measurement of exo-planet radii using the technique of transit photometry. It is implemented as a partnership between ESA and a consortium of Member States led by Switzerland. CHEOPS is considered as a pilot case for implementing "small science missions" in ESA with the following requirements: science driven missions selected through an open Call for missions (bottom-up process); spacecraft development schedule much shorter than for M and L missions, in the range of 4 years; and cost-capped missions to ESA with possibly higher Member States involvement than for M or L missions. The paper describes the CHEOPS development status, focusing on the performed hardware manufacturing and test activities.

  4. Life Cycle of a Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bothwell, Mary

    2004-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation describing the the six phases of a space mission is shown. The contents include: 1) What Does Planning Involve?; 2) Designing the Flight System; 3) Building the Flight System; 4) Testing the Flight System; 5) Flying the Mission; and 6) Analyzing the Data.

  5. Mission Dolores and Jim Corbin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heaton, Moss, Ed.

    1985-01-01

    Written by history students at Gary High School, Gary, Texas, this issue includes two articles relevant to East Texas history. "Mission Dolores and Jim Corbin," (Moss Heaton and others) is a summary of material presented by Professor James Corbin about the early Spanish presence in East Texas. The first attempt at setting up a mission was in 1690…

  6. Pioneer Mars 1979 mission options

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friedlander, A. L.; Hartmann, W. K.; Niehoff, J. C.

    1974-01-01

    A preliminary investigation of lower cost Mars missions which perform useful exploration objectives after the Viking/75 mission was conducted. As a study guideline, it was assumed that significant cost savings would be realized by utilizing Pioneer hardware currently being developed for a pair of 1978 Venus missions. This in turn led to the additional constraint of a 1979 launch with the Atlas/Centaur launch vehicle which has been designated for the Pioneer Venus missions. Two concepts, using an orbiter bus platform, were identified which have both good science potential and mission simplicity indicative of lower cost. These are: (1) an aeronomy/geology orbiter, and (2) a remote sensing orbiter with a number of deployable surface penetrometers.

  7. The Asteroid Redirect Mission (ARM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abell, P. A.; Mazanek, D. D.; Reeves, D. M.; Chodas, P. W.; Gates, M. M.; Johnson, L. N.; Ticker, R. L.

    2016-01-01

    To achieve its long-term goal of sending humans to Mars, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) plans to proceed in a series of incrementally more complex human spaceflight missions. Today, human flight experience extends only to Low-Earth Orbit (LEO), and should problems arise during a mission, the crew can return to Earth in a matter of minutes to hours. The next logical step for human spaceflight is to gain flight experience in the vicinity of the Moon. These cis-lunar missions provide a "proving ground" for the testing of systems and operations while still accommodating an emergency return path to the Earth that would last only several days. Cis-lunar mission experience will be essential for more ambitious human missions beyond the Earth- Moon system, which will require weeks, months, or even years of transit time.

  8. Mission management aircraft operations manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    This manual prescribes the NASA mission management aircraft program and provides policies and criteria for the safe and economical operation, maintenance, and inspection of NASA mission management aircraft. The operation of NASA mission management aircraft is based on the concept that safety has the highest priority. Operations involving unwarranted risks will not be tolerated. NASA mission management aircraft will be designated by the Associate Administrator for Management Systems and Facilities. NASA mission management aircraft are public aircraft as defined by the Federal Aviation Act of 1958. Maintenance standards, as a minimum, will meet those required for retention of Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) airworthiness certification. Federal Aviation Regulation Part 91, Subparts A and B, will apply except when requirements of this manual are more restrictive.

  9. COSMOS 2044 Mission: Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grindeland, R. E.; Ballard, R. W.; Connol, J. P.; Vasques, M. F.

    1992-01-01

    The COSMOS 2044 spaceflight was the ninth Soviet-International joint mission dedicated to space biomedicine and the seventh in which the United States has participated. The unmanned Vostok vehicle carried 10 rats and two rhesus monkeys on its 14-day voyage. This spaceflight yielded an unprecedented bounty of data on physiological responses to the microgravity environment. The tissues studied and the numbers and types of studies performed by members of the international science community constituted a new record. Many of the results obtained by the approximately 80 American scientists who participated are reported in the series of COSMOS 2044 papers in this issue. Descriptions of the spaceflight and animal procedures are detailed elsewhere. The broad goals of the space biomedical program are threefold. The first is to characterize qualitatively and quantitatively the biological responses to the microgravity environment, be they adaptive or pathological. The second goal is to clarify the physiological-biochemical mechanisms mediating the responses to microgravity. The third goal of this program is to use the space environment as a tool to better understand adaptive and disease processes in terrestrial organisms.

  10. Giotto Extended Mission (GEM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilkins, D. E. B.; Grensemann, M.

    1991-01-01

    The primary objectives of the Giotto Extended Mission (GEM), are to determine the composition and physical state of the Grigg Skjellerup Comet's nucleus; to determine the processes that govern the composition and distribution of neutral and ionized species in the cometary atmosphere. Giotto consists of a single European Space Agency (ESA) spacecraft that was launched in 1985 from Center Spatial Guyanis in French Guiana on an Ariane launch vehicle. After a successful launch into geostationary orbit and a heliocentric transfer trajectory, the spacecraft successfully encountered Halley's Comet in 1986. One month after encountering Halley's Comet, Mar. 1986, the spacecraft was placed in hibernation in a heliocentric orbit slightly less than 1 AU. Between Feb. and Jul. 1990 the spacecraft was successfully reactivated, checked out, and placed on a trajectory course to intercept comet Grigg Skjellerup. The spacecraft has been in hibernation since Jul. 1990. Information is presented in tabular form in the following areas: coverage goals, Deep Space Network Support, frequency assignments, telemetry, command, and tracking support responsibility.

  11. The Sunrise Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barthol, P.; Gandorfer, A.; Solanki, S. K.; Schüssler, M.; Chares, B.; Curdt, W.; Deutsch, W.; Feller, A.; Germerott, D.; Grauf, B.; Heerlein, K.; Hirzberger, J.; Kolleck, M.; Meller, R.; Müller, R.; Riethmüller, T. L.; Tomasch, G.; Knölker, M.; Lites, B. W.; Card, G.; Elmore, D.; Fox, J.; Lecinski, A.; Nelson, P.; Summers, R.; Watt, A.; Martínez Pillet, V.; Bonet, J. A.; Schmidt, W.; Berkefeld, T.; Title, A. M.; Domingo, V.; Gasent Blesa, J. L.; Del Toro Iniesta, J. C.; López Jiménez, A.; Álvarez-Herrero, A.; Sabau-Graziati, L.; Widani, C.; Haberler, P.; Härtel, K.; Kampf, D.; Levin, T.; Pérez Grande, I.; Sanz-Andrés, A.; Schmidt, E.

    2011-01-01

    The first science flight of the balloon-borne Sunrise telescope took place in June 2009 from ESRANGE (near Kiruna/Sweden) to Somerset Island in northern Canada. We describe the scientific aims and mission concept of the project and give an overview and a description of the various hardware components: the 1-m main telescope with its postfocus science instruments (the UV filter imager SuFI and the imaging vector magnetograph IMaX) and support instruments (image stabilizing and light distribution system ISLiD and correlating wavefront sensor CWS), the optomechanical support structure and the instrument mounting concept, the gondola structure and the power, pointing, and telemetry systems, and the general electronics architecture. We also explain the optimization of the structural and thermal design of the complete payload. The preparations for the science flight are described, including AIV and ground calibration of the instruments. The course of events during the science flight is outlined, up to the recovery activities. Finally, the in-flight performance of the instrumentation is discussed.

  12. Draft Mission Plan Amendment

    SciTech Connect

    1991-09-01

    The Department of Energy`s Office Civilian Radioactive Waste Management has prepared this document to report plans for the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program, whose mission is to manage and dispose of the nation`s spent fuel and high-level radioactive waste in a manner that protects the health and safety of the public and of workers and the quality of the environment. The Congress established this program through the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982. Specifically, the Congress directed us to isolate these wastes in geologic repositories constructed in suitable rock formations deep beneath the surface of the earth. In the Nuclear Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1987, the Congress mandated that only one repository was to be developed at present and that only the Yucca Mountain candidate site in Nevada was to be characterized at this time. The Amendments Act also authorized the construction of a facility for monitored retrievable storage (MRS) and established the Office of the Nuclear Waste Negotiator and the Nuclear Waste Technical Review Board. After a reassessment in 1989, the Secretary of Energy restructured the program, focusing the repository effort scientific evaluations of the Yucca Mountain candidate site, deciding to proceed with the development of an MRS facility, and strengthening the management of the program. 48 refs., 32 figs.

  13. UNAIDS: mission and roles.

    PubMed

    1995-01-01

    The UN has responded to the ongoing AIDS crisis by creating a new Joint UN Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS). UNAIDS is the AIDS program of six UN agencies (UNICEF; the Development Programme; the Population Fund; the Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization; the World Health Organization, and the World Bank). The mission of UNAIDS is to lead a multisectoral effort to prevent HIV transmission, provide care and support, alleviate the impact of the epidemic, and reduce vulnerability to HIV/AIDS. Thus, UNAIDS will operate in the areas of policy development and research, technical support, and advocacy. UNAIDS has had an executive director since January 1995, and a formal review of its strategic plan was scheduled for November 1995. At the country level, country representatives of the various agencies that make up UNAIDS will meet regularly to plan, program, and evaluate their HIV/AIDS activities. UNAIDS staff will be available to aid the country efforts. While UNAIDS will assume most of the global-level activities of its six cosponsor agencies, each agency will integrate HIV/AIDS considerations into their ongoing efforts.

  14. STS-68 Mission Insignia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This STS-68 patch was designed by artist Sean Collins. Exploration of Earth from space is the focus of the design of the insignia, the second flight of the Space Radar Laboratory (SRL-2). SRL-2 was part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth (MTPE) project. The world's land masses and oceans dominate the center field, with the Space Shuttle Endeavour circling the globe. The SRL-2 letters span the width and breadth of planet Earth, symbolizing worldwide coverage of the two prime experiments of STS-68: The Shuttle Imaging Radar-C and X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) instruments; and the Measurement of Air Pollution from Satellites (MAPS) sensor. The red, blue, and black colors of the insignia represent the three operating wavelengths of SIR-C/X-SAR, and the gold band surrounding the globe symbolizes the atmospheric envelope examined by MAPS. The flags of international partners Germany and Italy are shown opposite Endeavour. The relationship of the Orbiter to Earth highlights the usefulness of human space flights in understanding Earth's environment, and the monitoring of its changing surface and atmosphere. In the words of the crew members, the soaring Orbiter also typifies the excellence of the NASA team in exploring our own world, using the tools which the Space Program developed to explore the other planets in the solar system.

  15. Mission Planning and Scheduling System for NASA's Lunar Reconnaissance Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garcia, Gonzalo; Barnoy, Assaf; Beech, Theresa; Saylor, Rick; Cosgrove, Sager; Ritter, Sheila

    2009-01-01

    In the framework of NASA's return to the Moon efforts, the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) is the first step. It is an unmanned mission to create a comprehensive atlas of the Moon's features and resources necessary to design and build a lunar outpost. LRO is scheduled for launch in April, 2009. LRO carries a payload comprised of six instruments and one technology demonstration. In addition to its scientific mission LRO will use new technologies, systems and flight operations concepts to reduce risk and increase productivity of future missions. As part of the effort to achieve robust and efficient operations, the LRO Mission Operations Team (MOT) will use its Mission Planning System (MPS) to manage the operational activities of the mission during the Lunar Orbit Insertion (LOI) and operational phases of the mission. The MPS, based on GMV's flexplan tool and developed for NASA with Honeywell Technology Solutions (prime contractor), will receive activity and slew maneuver requests from multiple science operations centers (SOC), as well as from the spacecraft engineers. flexplan will apply scheduling rules to all the requests received and will generate conflict free command schedules in the form of daily stored command loads for the orbiter and a set of daily pass scripts that help automate nominal real-time operations.

  16. Multi-mission Satellite Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jamilkowski, M. L.; Teter, M. A.; Grant, K. D.; Dougherty, B.; Cochran, S.

    2015-12-01

    NOAA's next-generation environmental satellite, the Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS) replaces the current Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellites (POES). JPSS satellites carry sensors which collect meteorological, oceanographic, climatological, and solar-geophysical observations of the earth, atmosphere, and space. The first JPSS satellite was launched in 2011 and is currently NOAA's primary operational polar satellite. The JPSS ground system is the Common Ground System (CGS), and provides command, control, and communications (C3) and data processing (DP). A multi-mission system, CGS provides combinations of C3/DP for numerous NASA, NOAA, DoD, and international missions. In preparation for the next JPSS satellite, CGS improved its multi-mission capabilities to enhance mission operations for larger constellations of earth observing satellites with the added benefit of streamlining mission operations for other NOAA missions. CGS's multi-mission capabilities allows management all of assets as a single enterprise, more efficiently using ground resources and personnel and consolidating multiple ground systems into one. Sophisticated scheduling algorithms compare mission priorities and constraints across all ground stations, creating an enterprise schedule optimized to mission needs, which CGS executes to acquire the satellite link, uplink commands, downlink and route data to the operations and data processing facilities, and generate the final products for delivery to downstream users. This paper will illustrate the CGS's ability to manage multiple, enterprise-wide polar orbiting missions by demonstrating resource modeling and tasking, production of enterprise contact schedules for NOAA's Fairbanks ground station (using both standing and ad hoc requests), deconflicting resources due to ground outages, and updating resource allocations through dynamic priority definitions.

  17. Comparison of mission design options for manned Mars missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Babb, Gus R.; Stump, William R.

    1986-01-01

    A number of manned Mars mission types, propulsion systems, and operational techniques are compared. Conjunction and opposition class missions for cryogenic, hybrid (cryo/storable), and NERVA propulsion concepts are addressed. In addition, both Earth and Mars orbit aerobraking, direct entry of landers, hyperbolic rendezvous, and electric propulsion cases are examined. A common payload to Mars was used for all cases. The basic figure of merit used was weight in low Earth orbit (LEO) at mission initiation. This is roughly proportional to launch costs.

  18. The Magnetospheric Multiscale Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burch, James

    Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS), a NASA four-spacecraft mission scheduled for launch in November 2014, will investigate magnetic reconnection in the boundary regions of the Earth’s magnetosphere, particularly along its dayside boundary with the solar wind and the neutral sheet in the magnetic tail. Among the important questions about reconnection that will be addressed are the following: Under what conditions can magnetic-field energy be converted to plasma energy by the annihilation of magnetic field through reconnection? How does reconnection vary with time, and what factors influence its temporal behavior? What microscale processes are responsible for reconnection? What determines the rate of reconnection?
In order to accomplish its goals the MMS spacecraft must probe both those regions in which the magnetic fields are very nearly antiparallel and regions where a significant guide field exists. From previous missions we know the approximate speeds with which reconnection layers move through space to be from tens to hundreds of km/s. For electron skin depths of 5 to 10 km, the full 3D electron population (10 eV to above 20 keV) has to be sampled at rates greater than 10/s. The MMS Fast-Plasma Instrument (FPI) will sample electrons at greater than 30/s. Because the ion skin depth is larger, FPI will make full ion measurements at rates of greater than 6/s. 3D E-field measurements will be made by MMS once every ms. MMS will use an Active Spacecraft Potential Control device (ASPOC), which emits indium ions to neutralize the photoelectron current and keep the spacecraft from charging to more than +4 V. Because ion dynamics in Hall reconnection depend sensitively on ion mass, MMS includes a new-generation Hot Plasma Composition Analyzer (HPCA) that corrects problems with high proton fluxes that have prevented accurate ion-composition measurements near the dayside magnetospheric boundary. Finally, Energetic Particle Detector (EPD) measurements of electrons and

  19. Mission operations for Astronomy Spacelab Payloads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Osler, S. J.

    1975-01-01

    An overview is provided of mission operations for Astronomy Spacelab Payloads. Missions considered are related to solar physics, high energy astrophysics, and stellar ultraviolet/optical astronomy. Operational aspects are examined. Mission operations include the flight activities and associated ground support work for implementing the mission. The prelaunch activity will begin about a year before launch with the assignment of a mission operations manager.

  20. Human Mars Mission Performance Crew Taxi Profile

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duaro, Vince A.

    1999-01-01

    Using the results from Integrated Mission Program (IMP), a simulation language and code used to model present and future Earth Moon, or Mars missions, this report presents six different case studies of a manned Mars mission. The mission profiles, timelines, propellant requirements, feasibility and perturbation analysis is presented for two aborted, two delayed rendezvous, and two normal rendezvous cases for a future Mars mission.

  1. The SCOPE Mission

    SciTech Connect

    Fujimoto, M.; Tsuda, Y.; Saito, Y.; Shinohara, I.; Takashima, T.; Matsuoka, A.; Kojima, H.; Kasaba, Y.

    2009-06-16

    In order to reach the new horizon of the space physics research, the Plasma Universe, via in-situ measurements in the Earth's magnetosphere, SCOPE will perform formation flying observations combined with high-time resolution electron measurements. The simultaneous multi-scale observations by SCOPE of various plasma dynamical phenomena will enable data-based study of the key space plasma processes from the cross-scale coupling point of view. Key physical processes to be studied are magnetic reconnection under various boundary conditions, shocks in space plasma, collisionless plasma mixing at the boundaries, and physics of current sheets embedded in complex magnetic geometries. The SCOPE formation is made up of 5 spacecraft and is put into the equatorial orbit with the apogee at 30 Re (Re: earth radius). One of the spacecraft is a large mother ship which is equipped with a full suite of particle detectors including ultra-high time resolution electron detector. Among other 4 small spacecraft, one remains near ({approx}10 km) the mother ship and the spacecraft-pair will focus on the electron-scale physics. Others at the distance of 100{approx}3000 km(electron{approx}ion spatial scales) from the mother ship will monitor plasma dynamics surrounding the mother-daughter pair. There is lively on-going discussion on Japan-Europe international collaboration (ESA's Cross-Scale), which would certainly make better the coverage over the scales of interest and thus make the success of the mission, i.e., clarifying the multi-scale nature of the Plasma Universe, to be attained at an even higher level.

  2. Landsat Data Continuity Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markham, Brian; Irons, James; Dabney, Philip

    2011-01-01

    The Landsat Data Continuity Mission (LDCM) is currently under development and is on schedule to launch the 8th satellite in the Landsat series in December of 2012. LDCM is a joint project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the United States Geological Survey (USGS). NASA is responsible for developing and launching the flight hardware and on-orbit commissioning and USGS is responsible for developing the ground system and operating the system onorbit after commissioning. Key components of the flight hardware are the Operational Land Imager (OLI), nearing completion by Ball Aerospace & Technologies Corp in Boulder, CO, the Thermal Infrared Sensor (TIRS), being built by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center and the spacecraft, undergoing integration at Orbital Sciences Corp in Gilbert, Arizona. The launch vehicle will be an Atlas-5 with launch services provided by NASA's Kennedy Space Center. Key ground systems elements are the Mission Operations Element, being developed by the Hammers Corporation, and the Collection Activity Planning Element, Ground Network Element, and Data Processing and Archive System, being developed internally by the USGS Earth Resources Observations and Science (EROS) Center. The primary measurement goal of LDCM is to continue the global coverage of moderate spatial resolution imagery providing continuity with the existing Landsat record. The science goal for this imagery is to monitor land use and land cover, particularly as it relates to global climate change. Together the OLI and TIRS instruments on LDCM replace the ETM+ instrument on Landsat-7 with significant enhancements. The OLI is a pushbroom design instrument where the scanning mechanism of the ETM+ is effectively replaced by a long line of detectors. The OLI has 9 spectral bands with similar spatial resolution to ETM+: 7 of them similar to the reflective spectral bands on ETM+ and two new bands. The two new bands cover (1) the shorter wavelength blue part

  3. Priority Planetary Science Missions Identified

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2011-03-01

    The U.S. National Research Council's (NRC) planetary science decadal survey report, released on 7 March, lays out a grand vision for priority planetary science missions for 2013-2022 within a tightly constrained fiscal environment. The cost-conscious report, issued by NRC's Committee on the Planetary Science Decadal Survey, identifies high-priority flagship missions, recommends a number of potential midsized missions, and indicates support for some smaller missions. The report states that the highest-priority flagship mission for the decade is the Mars Astrobiology Explorer-Cacher (MAX-C)—the first of three components of a NASA/European Space Agency Mars sample return campaign—provided that the mission scope can be reduced so that MAX-C costs no more than $2.5 billion. The currently estimated mission cost of $3.5 billion “would take up a disproportionate near-term share of the overall budget for NASA's Planetary Science Division,” the report notes.

  4. STS-99 / Endeavour Mission Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The primary objective of the STS-99 mission was to complete high resolution mapping of large sections of the Earth's surface using the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). This radar system will produce unrivaled 3-D images of the Earth's Surface. This videotape presents a mission overview press briefing. The panel members are Dr. Ghassem Asrar, NASA Associate Administrator Earth Sciences; General James C. King, Director National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA); Professor Achim Bachem, Member of the Executive Board, Deutschen Zentrum fur Luft- und Raumfahrt (DLR), the German National Aerospace Research Center; and Professor Sergio Deiulio, President of the Italian Space Agency. Dr. Asrar opened with a summary of the history of Earth Observations from space, relating the SRTM to this history. This mission, due to cost and complexity, required partnership with other agencies and nations, and the active participation of the astronauts. General King spoke to the expectations of NIMA, and the use of the Synthetic Aperture Radar to produce the high resolution topographic images. Dr. Achim Bachem spoke about the international cooperation that this mission required, and some of the commercial applications and companies that will use this data. Dr Deiulio spoke of future plans to improve knowledge of the Earth using satellites. Questions from the press concerned use of the information for military actions, the reason for the restriction on access to the higher resolution data, the mechanism to acquire that data for scientific research, and the cost sharing from the mission's partners. There was also discussion about the mission's length.

  5. Autonomous collaborative mission systems (ACMS) for multi-UAV missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Y.-L.; Peot, M.; Lee, J.; Sundareswaran, V.; Altshuler, T.

    2005-05-01

    UAVs are a key element of the Army"s vision for Force Transformation, and are expected to be employed in large numbers per FCS Unit of Action (UoA). This necessitates a multi-UAV level of autonomous collaboration behavior capability that meets RSTA and other mission needs of FCS UoAs. Autonomous Collaborative Mission Systems (ACMS) is a scalable architecture and behavior planning / collaborative approach to achieve this level of capability. The architecture is modular and the modules may be run in different locations/platforms to accommodate the constraints of available hardware, processing resources and mission needs. The Mission Management Module determines the role of member autonomous entities by employing collaboration mechanisms (e.g., market-based, etc.), the individual Entity Management Modules work with the Mission Manager in determining the role and task of the entity, the individual Entity Execution Modules monitor task execution and platform navigation and sensor control, and the World Model Module hosts local and global versions of the environment and the Common Operating Picture (COP). The modules and uniform interfaces provide a consistent and platform-independent baseline mission collaboration mechanism and signaling protocol across different platforms. Further, the modular design allows flexible and convenient addition of new autonomous collaborative behaviors to the ACMS through: adding new behavioral templates in the Mission Planner component, adding new components in appropriate ACMS modules to provide new mission specific functionality, adding or modifying constraints or parameters to the existing components, or any combination of these. We describe the ACMS architecture, its main features, current development status and future plans for simulations in this report.

  6. Advanced automation for space missions

    SciTech Connect

    Freitas, R.A., Jr.; Healy, T.J.; Long, J.E.

    1982-01-01

    A NASA/ASEE summer study conducted at the University of Santa Clara in 1980 examined the feasibility of using advanced artificial intelligence and automation technologies in future NASA space missions. Four candidate applications missions were considered: an intelligent earth-sensing information system; an autonomous space exploration system; an automated space manufacturing facility; and a self-replicating, growing lunar factory. The study assessed the various artificial intelligence and machine technologies which must be developed if such sophisticated missions are to become feasible by the century's end. 18 references.

  7. Manned Mars mission psychological issues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Santy, Patricia A.

    1986-01-01

    The research on isolated environments over the last thirty years suggests that psychological factors associated with such environments will lead to negative changes in individual and group performance. A mission to Mars will be the greatest undertaking ever devised by the human species. The members of such a mission will be in an environment whose potential dangers are not even completely known at this time. The psychological factors generated by such an environment, and which might adversely affect accomplishment of mission goals, can be minimized or planned for in advance. It is hoped that these issues will not be ignored in planning for this great adventure.

  8. Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Tropical rainfall affects the lives and economics of a majority of the Earth's population. Tropical rain systems, such as hurricanes, typhoons, and monsoons, are crucial to sustaining the livelihoods of those living in the tropics. Excess rainfall can cause floods and great property and crop damage, whereas too little rainfall can cause drought and crop failure. The latent heat release during the process of precipitation is a major source of energy that drives the atmospheric circulation. This latent heat can intensify weather systems, affecting weather thousands of kilometers away, thus making tropical rainfall an important indicator of atmospheric circulation and short-term climate change. Tropical forests and the underlying soils are major sources of many of the atmosphere's trace constituents. Together, the forests and the atmosphere act as a water-energy regulating system. Most of the rainfall is returned to the atmosphere through evaporation and transpiration, and the atmospheric trace constituents take part in the recycling process. Hence, the hydrological cycle provides a direct link between tropical rainfall and the global cycles of carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur, all important trace materials for the Earth's system. Because rainfall is such an important component in the interactions between the ocean, atmosphere, land, and the biosphere, accurate measurements of rainfall are crucial to understanding the workings of the Earth-atmosphere system. The large spatial and temporal variability of rainfall systems, however, poses a major challenge to estimating global rainfall. So far, there has been a lack of rain gauge networks, especially over the oceans, which points to satellite measurement as the only means by which global observation of rainfall can be made. The Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM), jointly sponsored by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) of the United States and the National Space Development Agency (NASDA) of

  9. Technology Development for NASA Mars Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayati, Samad

    2005-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation on technology development for NASA Mars Missions is shown. The topics include: 1) Mars mission roadmaps; 2) Focus and Base Technology programs; 3) Technology Infusion; and 4) Feed Forward to Future Missions.

  10. EOS Terra: Mission Status Constellation MOWG

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mantziaras, Dimitrios

    2016-01-01

    This EOS Terra Mission Status Constellation MOWG will discuss mission summary; spacecraft subsystems summary, recent and planned activities; inclination adjust maneuvers, conjunction history, propellant usage and lifetime estimate; and end of mission plan.

  11. General Mission Analysis Tool (GMAT) Mathematical Specifications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughes, Steve

    2007-01-01

    The General Mission Analysis Tool (GMAT) is a space trajectory optimization and mission analysis system developed by NASA and private industry in the spirit of the NASA Mission. GMAT contains new technology and is a testbed for future technology development.

  12. ISS Update: Robotic Refueling Mission

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA Public Affairs Office Dan Huot interviews Jill McGuire, the Robotic Refueling Mission (RRM) Project Manager at Goddard Space Flight Center, about the current RRM operation taking place outside...

  13. Gravitational models for mission planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mueller, A. C.

    1982-01-01

    A fitted truncated model is developed and any differences between this fitted model and one derived by simply truncating are analyzed. Based on the study, recommendations are made for an appropriate model for use in a mission planning environment.

  14. General Mission Analysis Tool (GMAT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughes, Steven P. (Compiler)

    2016-01-01

    This is a software tutorial and presentation demonstrating the application of the General Mission Analysis Tool (GMAT) to the critical design phase of NASA missions. The demonstration discusses GMAT basics, then presents a detailed example of GMAT application to the Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS) mission. Other examples include OSIRIS-Rex. This talk is a combination of existing presentations; a GMAT basics and overview, and technical presentations from the TESS and OSIRIS-REx projects on their application of GMAT to critical mission design. The GMAT basics slides are taken from the open source training material. The OSIRIS-REx slides are from a previous conference presentation. The TESS slides are a streamlined version of the CDR package provided by the project with SBU and ITAR data removed by the TESS project.

  15. Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Mission Highlights

    NASA Video Gallery

    Since launch on June 18, 2009 as a precursor mission, the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) has remained in orbit around the moon, collecting vast amounts of science data in support of NASA's expl...

  16. Catalog of lunar mission data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mantel, E. J. (Editor); Miller, E. R. (Editor)

    1977-01-01

    Several series of spacecraft were developed, designed, built and launched to determine different characteristics of the lunar surface and environment for a manned landing. Both unmanned and manned spacecrafts, spacecraft equipment and lunar missions are documented.

  17. Mission Level Autonomy for USSV

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huntsberger, Terry; Stirb, Robert C.; Brizzolara, Robert

    2011-01-01

    On-water demonstration of a wide range of mission-proven, advanced technologies at TRL 5+ that provide a total integrated, modular approach to effectively address the majority of the key needs for full mission-level autonomous, cross-platform control of USV s. Wide baseline stereo system mounted on the ONR USSV was shown to be an effective sensing modality for tracking of dynamic contacts as a first step to automated retrieval operations. CASPER onboard planner/replanner successfully demonstrated realtime, on-water resource-based analysis for mission-level goal achievement and on-the-fly opportunistic replanning. Full mixed mode autonomy was demonstrated on-water with a seamless transition between operator over-ride and return to current mission plan. Autonomous cooperative operations for fixed asset protection and High Value Unit escort using 2 USVs (AMN1 & 14m RHIB) were demonstrated during Trident Warrior 2010 in JUN 2010

  18. Asteroid Redirect Mission: Crew Segment

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA announced the next step in the plan to retrieve an asteroid boulder from a near-Earth asteroid and redirect it into a stable orbit around the moon to carry out human exploration missions, all ...

  19. Progress on the Cluster Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kivelson, Margaret; Khurana, Krishan; Acuna, Mario (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Prof M. G. Kivelson and Dr. K. K. Khurana (UCLA (University of California, Los Angeles)) are co-investigators on the Cluster Magnetometer Consortium (CMC) that provided the fluxgate magnetometers and associated mission support for the Cluster Mission. The CMC designated UCLA as the site with primary responsibility for the inter-calibration of data from the four spacecraft and the production of fully corrected data critical to achieving the mission objectives. UCLA will also participate in the analysis and interpretation of the data. The UCLA group here reports its excellent progress in developing fully intra-calibrated data for large portions of the mission and an excellent start in developing inter-calibrated data for selected time intervals, especially extended intervals in August, 2001 on which a workshop held at ESTEC in March, 2002 focused. In addition, some scientific investigations were initiated and results were reported at meetings.

  20. ISS Update: Robotic Refueling Mission

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA Public Affairs Officer Dan Huot interviews Alex Janas, robotics operator from the Goddard Space Flight Center, about the Robotic Refueling Mission that has been taking place on the space stati...

  1. ISS Update: Autonomous Mission Operations

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA Public Affairs Officer Brandi Dean interviews Jeff Mauldin, Simulation Supervisor for Autonomous Mission Operations at Johnson Space Center in Houston, Texas. Ask us on Twitter @NASA_Johnson a...

  2. Virtual Mission First Results Supporting the WATER HM Satellite Concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alsdorf, D.; Andreadis, K.; Lettenmaier, D.; Moller, D.; Rodriguez, E.; Bates, P.; Mognard, N.; Participants, W.

    2007-12-01

    Surface fresh water is essential for life, yet we have surprisingly poor knowledge of its variability in space and time. Similarly, ocean circulation and ocean-atmosphere interactions fundamentally drive weather and climate variability, yet the global ocean current and eddy field (e.g., the Gulf Stream) that affects ocean circulation is poorly known. The Water And Terrestrial Elevation Recovery Hydrosphere Mapper satellite mission concept (WATER HM or SWOT per the NRC Decadal Survey) is a swath-based interferometric-altimeter designed to acquire elevations of ocean and terrestrial water surfaces at unprecedented spatial and temporal resolutions. WATER HM will have tremendous implications for estimation of the global water cycle, water management, ocean and coastal circulation, and assessment of many water-related impacts from climate change (e.g., sea level rise, carbon evasion, etc.). We describe a hydrological "virtual mission" (VM) for WATER HM which consists of: (a) A hydrodynamic-instrument simulation model that maps variations in water levels along river channels and across floodplains. These are then assimilated to estimate discharge and to determine trade-offs between resolutions and mission costs. (b) Measurements from satellites to determine feasibility of existing platforms for measuring storage changes and estimating discharge. First results demonstrate that: (1) Ensemble Kalman filtering of VM simulations recover water depth and discharge, reducing the discharge RMSE from 23.2% to 10.0% over an 84- day simulation period, relative to a simulation without assimilation. The filter also shows that an 8-day overpass frequency produces discharge relative errors of 10.0%, while 16-day and 32-day frequencies result in errors of 12.1% and 16.9%, respectively. (2) SRTM measurements of water surfaces along the Mississippi, Missouri, Ohio, and Amazon rivers, as well as smaller tributaries, show height standard deviations of 5 meters or greater (SRTM is the

  3. STS-41D Mission Insignia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    The official mission insignia for the 41-D Space Shuttle flight features the Discovery - NASA's third orbital vehicle - as it makes its maiden voyage. The ghost ship represents the orbiter's namesakes which have figured prominently in the history of exploration. The Space Shuttle Discovery heads for new horizons to extend that proud tradition. Surnames for the crewmembers of NASA's eleventh Space Shuttle mission encircle the red, white, and blue scene.

  4. KEPLER Mission: development and overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borucki, William J.

    2016-03-01

    The Kepler Mission is a space observatory launched in 2009 by NASA to monitor 170 000 stars over a period of four years to determine the frequency of Earth-size and larger planets in and near the habitable zone of Sun-like stars, the size and orbital distributions of these planets, and the types of stars they orbit. Kepler is the tenth in the series of NASA Discovery Program missions that are competitively-selected, PI-directed, medium-cost missions. The Mission concept and various instrument prototypes were developed at the Ames Research Center over a period of 18 years starting in 1983. The development of techniques to do the 10 ppm photometry required for Mission success took years of experimentation, several workshops, and the exploration of many ‘blind alleys’ before the construction of the flight instrument. Beginning in 1992 at the start of the NASA Discovery Program, the Kepler Mission concept was proposed five times before its acceptance for mission development in 2001. During that period, the concept evolved from a photometer in an L2 orbit that monitored 6000 stars in a 50 sq deg field-of-view (FOV) to one that was in a heliocentric orbit that simultaneously monitored 170 000 stars with a 105 sq deg FOV. Analysis of the data to date has detected over 4600 planetary candidates which include several hundred Earth-size planetary candidates, over a thousand confirmed planets, and Earth-size planets in the habitable zone (HZ). These discoveries provide the information required for estimates of the frequency of planets in our galaxy. The Mission results show that most stars have planets, many of these planets are similar in size to the Earth, and that systems with several planets are common. Although planets in the HZ are common, many are substantially larger than Earth.

  5. Rosetta mission operations for landing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Accomazzo, Andrea; Lodiot, Sylvain; Companys, Vicente

    2016-08-01

    The International Rosetta Mission of the European Space Agency (ESA) was launched on 2nd March 2004 on its 10 year journey to comet Churyumov-Gerasimenko and has reached it early August 2014. The main mission objectives were to perform close observations of the comet nucleus throughout its orbit around the Sun and deliver the lander Philae to its surface. This paper describers the activities at mission operations level that allowed the landing of Philae. The landing preparation phase was mainly characterised by the definition of the landing selection process, to which several parties contributed, and by the definition of the strategy for comet characterisation, the orbital strategy for lander delivery, and the definition and validation of the operations timeline. The definition of the landing site selection process involved almost all components of the mission team; Rosetta has been the first, and so far only mission, that could not rely on data collected by previous missions for the landing site selection. This forced the teams to include an intensive observation campaign as a mandatory part of the process; several science teams actively contributed to this campaign thus making results from science observations part of the mandatory operational products. The time allocated to the comet characterisation phase was in the order of a few weeks and all the processes, tools, and interfaces required an extensive planning an validation. Being the descent of Philae purely ballistic, the main driver for the orbital strategy was the capability to accurately control the position and velocity of Rosetta at Philae's separation. The resulting operations timeline had to merge this need of frequent orbit determination and control with the complexity of the ground segment and the inherent risk of problems when doing critical activities in short times. This paper describes the contribution of the Mission Control Centre (MOC) at the European Space Operations Centre (ESOC) to this

  6. Intravenous Solutions for Exploration Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Fletcher J.; Niederhaus, Charles; Barlow, Karen; Griffin, DeVon

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes the intravenous (IV) fluids requirements being developed for medical care during NASA s future exploration class missions. Previous research on IV solution generation and mixing in space is summarized. The current exploration baseline mission profiles are introduced, potential medical conditions described and evaluated for fluidic needs, and operational issues assessed. We briefly introduce potential methods for generating IV fluids in microgravity. Conclusions on the recommended fluid volume requirements are presented.

  7. KEPLER Mission: development and overview.

    PubMed

    Borucki, William J

    2016-03-01

    The Kepler Mission is a space observatory launched in 2009 by NASA to monitor 170,000 stars over a period of four years to determine the frequency of Earth-size and larger planets in and near the habitable zone of Sun-like stars, the size and orbital distributions of these planets, and the types of stars they orbit. Kepler is the tenth in the series of NASA Discovery Program missions that are competitively-selected, PI-directed, medium-cost missions. The Mission concept and various instrument prototypes were developed at the Ames Research Center over a period of 18 years starting in 1983. The development of techniques to do the 10 ppm photometry required for Mission success took years of experimentation, several workshops, and the exploration of many 'blind alleys' before the construction of the flight instrument. Beginning in 1992 at the start of the NASA Discovery Program, the Kepler Mission concept was proposed five times before its acceptance for mission development in 2001. During that period, the concept evolved from a photometer in an L2 orbit that monitored 6000 stars in a 50 sq deg field-of-view (FOV) to one that was in a heliocentric orbit that simultaneously monitored 170,000 stars with a 105 sq deg FOV. Analysis of the data to date has detected over 4600 planetary candidates which include several hundred Earth-size planetary candidates, over a thousand confirmed planets, and Earth-size planets in the habitable zone (HZ). These discoveries provide the information required for estimates of the frequency of planets in our galaxy. The Mission results show that most stars have planets, many of these planets are similar in size to the Earth, and that systems with several planets are common. Although planets in the HZ are common, many are substantially larger than Earth. PMID:26863223

  8. KEPLER Mission: development and overview.

    PubMed

    Borucki, William J

    2016-03-01

    The Kepler Mission is a space observatory launched in 2009 by NASA to monitor 170,000 stars over a period of four years to determine the frequency of Earth-size and larger planets in and near the habitable zone of Sun-like stars, the size and orbital distributions of these planets, and the types of stars they orbit. Kepler is the tenth in the series of NASA Discovery Program missions that are competitively-selected, PI-directed, medium-cost missions. The Mission concept and various instrument prototypes were developed at the Ames Research Center over a period of 18 years starting in 1983. The development of techniques to do the 10 ppm photometry required for Mission success took years of experimentation, several workshops, and the exploration of many 'blind alleys' before the construction of the flight instrument. Beginning in 1992 at the start of the NASA Discovery Program, the Kepler Mission concept was proposed five times before its acceptance for mission development in 2001. During that period, the concept evolved from a photometer in an L2 orbit that monitored 6000 stars in a 50 sq deg field-of-view (FOV) to one that was in a heliocentric orbit that simultaneously monitored 170,000 stars with a 105 sq deg FOV. Analysis of the data to date has detected over 4600 planetary candidates which include several hundred Earth-size planetary candidates, over a thousand confirmed planets, and Earth-size planets in the habitable zone (HZ). These discoveries provide the information required for estimates of the frequency of planets in our galaxy. The Mission results show that most stars have planets, many of these planets are similar in size to the Earth, and that systems with several planets are common. Although planets in the HZ are common, many are substantially larger than Earth.

  9. The Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Welsh, Barry Y.

    1991-01-01

    The Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer (EUVE) is a NASA astronomy mission which will operate in the 70-760A spectral band. The science payload consists of three grazing incidence scanning telescopes and an EUV spectrometer/deep survey instrument. An overview of the planned mission profile is given, and the instrumentation which comprises the science payload is discussed. The EUVE is scheduled for launch in late August 1991.

  10. Urinary albumin in space missions.

    PubMed

    Cirillo, Massimo; De Santo, Natale G; Heer, Martina; Norsk, Peter; Elmann-Larsen, Benny; Bellini, Luigi; Stellato, Davide; Drummer, Christian

    2002-07-01

    Proteinuria was hypothesized for space mission but research data are missing. Urinary albumin, as index of proteinuria, was analyzed in frozen urine samples collected by astronauts during space missions onboard MIR station and on ground (control). Urinary albumin was measured by a double antibody radioimmunoassay. On average, 24h urinary albumin was 27.4% lower in space than on ground; the difference was statistically significant. Low urinary albumin excretion could be another effect of exposure to weightlessness (microgravity).

  11. Descope of the ALIA mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Xuefei; Lau, Yun-Kau; Xu, Shengnian; Amaro-Seoane, Pau; Bai, Shan; Bian, Xing; Cao, Zhoujian; Chen, Gerui; Chen, Xian; Ding, Yanwei; Dong, Peng; Gao, Wei; Heinzel, Gerhard; Li, Ming; Li, Shuo; Liu, Fukun; Luo, Ziren; Shao, Mingxue; Spurzem, Rainer; Sun, Baosan; Tang, Wenlin; Wang, Yan; Xu, Peng; Yu, Pin; Yuan, Yefei; Zhang, Xiaomin; Zhou, Zebing

    2015-05-01

    The present work reports on a feasibility study commissioned by the Chinese Academy of Sciences of China to explore various possible mission options to detect gravitational waves in space alternative to that of the eLISA/LISA mission concept. Based on the relative merits assigned to science and technological viability, a few representative mission options descoped from the ALIA mission are considered. A semi-analytic Monte Carlo simulation is carried out to understand the cosmic black hole merger histories and the possible scientific merits of the mission options in probing the light seed black holes and their coevolution with galaxies in early Universe. The study indicates that, by choosing the armlength of the interferometer to be three million kilometers and shifting the sensitivity floor to around one-hundredth Hz, together with a very moderate improvement on the position noise budget, there are certain mission options capable of exploring light seed, intermediate mass black hole binaries at high redshift that are not readily accessible to eLISA/LISA, and yet the technological requirements seem to within reach in the next few decades for China.

  12. Social Tagging of Mission Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norris, Jeffrey S.; Wallick, Michael N.; Joswig, Joseph C.; Powell, Mark W.; Torres, Recaredo J.; Mittman, David S.; Abramyan, Lucy; Crockett, Thomas M.; Shams, Khawaja S.; Fox, Jason M.; Pyrzak, Guy; Vaughn, Michael B.

    2010-01-01

    Mars missions will generate a large amount of data in various forms, such as daily plans, images, and scientific information. Often, there is a semantic linkage between images that cannot be captured automatically. Software is needed that will provide a method for creating arbitrary tags for this mission data so that items with a similar tag can be related to each other. The tags should be visible and searchable for all users. A new routine was written to offer a new and more flexible search option over previous applications. This software allows users of the MSLICE program to apply any number of arbitrary tags to a piece of mission data through a MSLICE search interface. The application of tags creates relationships between data that did not previously exist. These tags can be easily removed and changed, and contain enough flexibility to be specifically configured for any mission. This gives users the ability to quickly recall or draw attention to particular pieces of mission data, for example: Give a semantic and meaningful description to mission data; for example, tag all images with a rock in them with the tag "rock." Rapidly recall specific and useful pieces of data; for example, tag a plan as"driving template." Call specific data to a user s attention; for example, tag a plan as "for:User." This software is part of the MSLICE release, which was written in Java. It will run on any current Windows, Macintosh, or Linux system.

  13. A review of Spacelab mission management approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Craft, H. G., Jr.

    1979-01-01

    The Spacelab development program is a joint undertaking of the NASA and ESA. The paper addresses the initial concept of Spacelab payload mission management, the lessons learned, and modifications made as a result of the actual implementation of Spacelab Mission 1. The discussion covers mission management responsibilities, program control, science management, payload definition and interfaces, integrated payload mission planning, integration requirements, payload specialist training, payload and launch site integration, payload flight/mission operations, and postmission activities. After 3.5 years the outlined overall mission manager approach has proven to be most successful. The approach does allow the mission manager to maintain the lowest overall mission cost.

  14. The SOLAR-C mission: current status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimizu, Toshifumi; Tsuneta, Saku; Hara, Hirohisa; Ichimoto, Kiyoshi; Kusano, Kanya; Sakao, Taro; Sekii, Takashi; Suematsu, Yoshinori; Watanabe, Tetsuya

    2011-10-01

    Two mission concepts (plan A: out-of-ecliptic mission and plan B: high resolution spectroscopic mission) have been studied for the next Japanese-led solar mission Solar-C, which will follow the scientific success of the Hinode mission. The both mission concepts are concluded as equally important and attractive for the promotion of space solar physics. In the meantime we also had to make efforts for prioritizing the two options, in order to proceed to next stage of requesting the launch of Solar-C mission at the earliest opportunity. This paper briefly describes the two mission concepts and the current status on our efforts for prioritizing the two options. More details are also described for the plan B option as the first-priority Solar-C mission. The latest report from the Solar-C mission concept studies was documented as "Interim Report on the Solar-C Mission Concept."

  15. A review of mission planning systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, M.; Sorensen, E. M.; Wolff, T.; Haddow, C. R.

    1993-01-01

    A general definition of Mission Planning is given. The definition covers the full scope of an end-to-end mission planning system. Noting the mission-specific nature of most mission planning systems, a classification of autonomous spacecraft missions is made into Observatory, Survey, multi-instrument science, and Telecommunications missions. The mission planning approach for one mission in each category is examined critically. The following missions were chosen: ISO (Infrared Space Observatory); ERS-1 (European Remote Sensing Satellite); and Eureca (European Retrievable Carrier). The paper gives a summary of lessons learned from these missions suggesting improvements in areas such as requirements analysis, testing, user interfacing, rules, and constraints handling. The paper will also examine commonalities in functions, which could constitute a basis for identification of generic mission planning support tools.

  16. A mission planning concept and mission planning system for future manned space missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wickler, Martin

    1994-01-01

    The international character of future manned space missions will compel the involvement of several international space agencies in mission planning tasks. Additionally, the community of users requires a higher degree of freedom for experiment planning. Both of these problems can be solved by a decentralized mission planning concept using the so-called 'envelope method,' by which resources are allocated to users by distributing resource profiles ('envelopes') which define resource availabilities at specified times. The users are essentially free to plan their activities independently of each other, provided that they stay within their envelopes. The new developments were aimed at refining the existing vague envelope concept into a practical method for decentralized planning. Selected critical functions were exercised by planning an example, founded on experience acquired by the MSCC during the Spacelab missions D-1 and D-2. The main activity regarding future mission planning tasks was to improve the existing MSCC mission planning system, using new techniques. An electronic interface was developed to collect all formalized user inputs more effectively, along with an 'envelope generator' for generation and manipulation of the resource envelopes. The existing scheduler and its data base were successfully replaced by an artificial intelligence scheduler. This scheduler is not only capable of handling resource envelopes, but also uses a new technology based on neuronal networks. Therefore, it is very well suited to solve the future scheduling problems more efficiently. This prototype mission planning system was used to gain new practical experience with decentralized mission planning, using the envelope method. In future steps, software tools will be optimized, and all data management planning activities will be embedded into the scheduler.

  17. The Asteroid Redirect Mission (ARM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abell, Paul; Gates, Michele; Johnson, Lindley; Chodas, Paul; Mazanek, Dan; Reeves, David; Ticker, Ronald

    2016-07-01

    To achieve its long-term goal of sending humans to Mars, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) plans to proceed in a series of incrementally more complex human spaceflight missions. Today, human flight experience extends only to Low-Earth Orbit (LEO), and should problems arise during a mission, the crew can return to Earth in a matter of minutes to hours. The next logical step for human spaceflight is to gain flight experience in the vicinity of the Moon. These cis-lunar missions provide a "proving ground" for the testing of systems and operations while still accommodating an emergency return path to the Earth that would last only several days. Cis-lunar mission experience will be essential for more ambitious human missions beyond the Earth-Moon system, which will require weeks, months, or even years of transit time. In addition, NASA has been given a Grand Challenge to find all asteroid threats to human populations and know what to do about them. Obtaining knowledge of asteroid physical properties combined with performing technology demonstrations for planetary defense provide much needed information to address the issue of future asteroid impacts on Earth. Hence the combined objectives of human exploration and planetary defense give a rationale for the Asteroid Re-direct Mission (ARM). Mission Description: NASA's ARM consists of two mission segments: 1) the Asteroid Redirect Robotic Mission (ARRM), the first robotic mission to visit a large (greater than ~100 m diameter) near-Earth asteroid (NEA), collect a multi-ton boulder from its surface along with regolith samples, demonstrate a planetary defense technique, and return the asteroidal material to a stable orbit around the Moon; and 2) the Asteroid Redirect Crewed Mission (ARCM), in which astronauts will take the Orion capsule to rendezvous and dock with the robotic vehicle, conduct multiple extravehicular activities to explore the boulder, and return to Earth with samples. NASA's proposed

  18. Mission Design Overview for the Phoenix Mars Scout Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garcia, Mark D.; Fujii, Kenneth K.

    2007-01-01

    The Phoenix mission "follows the water" by landing in a region where NASA's Mars Odyssey orbiter has discovered evidence of ice-rich soil very near the Martian surface. For three months after landing, the fixed Lander will perform in-situ and remote sensing investigations that will characterize the chemistry of the materials at the local surface, sub-surface, and atmosphere, and will identify potential provenance of key indicator elements of significance to the biological potential of Mars, including potential organics and any accessible water ice. The Lander will employ a robotic arm to dig to the ice layer, and will analyze the acquired samples using a suite of deck-mounted, science instruments. The development of the baseline strategy to achieve the objectives of this mission involves the integration of a variety of elements into a coherent mission plan.

  19. How mission requirements affect observations: case of the PICARD mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irbah, A.; Meftah, M.; Hauchecorne, A.; Damé, L.; Djafer, D.

    2016-07-01

    The scientific objectives of a space mission result into instrumental developments and specific satellite operations to observe astronomical objects of interest. The payload in its space environment is however subject to important thermal variations that affect observations. This is well observed when images of the Sun are recorded with the constraint of keeping the solar rotational axis in a constant direction relatively to the camera reference frame. Consequences are clearly observed on image positions that follow the thermal variations induced by the satellite orbit. This is, in particular, the case for the space mission PICARD. This phenomenon is similar to defocus and motions of images recorded with ground-based telescopes. We first present some simulations showing these effects. We then compare our results with real data obtained from the space mission PICARD.

  20. Flora: A Proposed Hyperspectral Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ungar, Stephen; Asner, Gregory; Green, Robert; Knox, Robert

    2006-01-01

    In early 2004, one of the authors (Stephen Ungar, NASA GSFC) presented a mission concept called "Spectrasat" at the AVIRIS Workshop in Pasadena, CA. This mission concept grew out of the lessons learned from the Earth Observing-One (EO-1) Hyperion Imaging Spectrometer and was structured to more effectively accomplish the types of studies conducted with Hyperion. The Spectrasat concept represented an evolution of the technologies and operation strategies employed on EO-I. The Spectrasat concept had been preceded by two community-based missions proposed by Susan Ustin, UC Davis and Robert Green, NASA JPL. As a result of community participation, starting at this AVIRIS Workshop, the Spectrasat proposal evolved into the Flora concept which now represents the combined visions of Gregory Asner (Carnegie Institute), Stephen Ungar, Robert Green and Robert Knox, NASA GSFC. Flora is a proposed imaging spectrometer mission, designed to address global carbon cycle science issues. This mission centers on measuring ecological disturbance for purposes of ascertaining changes in global carbon stocks and draws heavily on experience gained through AVIRIS airborne flights and Hyperion space born flights. The observing strategy exploits the improved ability of imaging spectrometers, as compared with multi-spectral observing systems, to identify vegetation functional groups, detect ecosystem response to disturbance and assess the related discovery. Flora will be placed in a sun synchronous orbit, with a 45 meter pixel size, a 90 km swath width and a 31 day repeat cycle. It covers the spectral range from 0.4 to 2.5 micrometers with a spectral sampling interval of 10 nm. These specifications meet the needs of the Flora science team under the leadership of Gregory Asner. Robert Green, has introduced a spectrometer design for Flora which is expected to have a SNR of 600: 1 in the VNIR and 450: 1 in the SWIR. The mission team at NASA GSFC is designing an Intelligent Payload Module (IPM

  1. Global Precipitation Measurement Mission: Architecture and Mission Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bundas, David

    2005-01-01

    The Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Mission is a collaboration between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the Japanese Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA), and other partners, with the goal of monitoring the diurnal and seasonal variations in precipitation over the surface of the earth. These measurements will be used to improve current climate models and weather forecasting, and enable improved storm and flood warnings. This paper gives an overview of the mission architecture and addresses some of the key trades that have been completed, including the selection of the Core Observatory s orbit, orbit maintenance trades, and design issues related to meeting orbital debris requirements.

  2. Apollo Soyuz, mission evaluation report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The Apollo Soyuz mission was the first manned space flight to be conducted jointly by two nations - the United States and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. The primary purpose of the mission was to test systems for rendezvous and docking of manned spacecraft that would be suitable for use as a standard international system, and to demonstrate crew transfer between spacecraft. The secondary purpose was to conduct a program of scientific and applications experimentation. With minor modifications, the Apollo and Soyuz spacecraft were like those flown on previous missions. However, a new module was built specifically for this mission - the docking module. It served as an airlock for crew transfer and as a structural base for the docking mechanism that interfaced with a similar mechanism on the Soyuz orbital module. The postflight evaluation of the performance of the docking system and docking module, as well as the overall performance of the Apollo spacecraft and experiments is presented. In addition, the mission is evaluated from the viewpoints of the flight crew, ground support operations, and biomedical operations. Descriptions of the docking mechanism, docking module, crew equipment and experiment hardware are given.

  3. Austere Human Missions to Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Price, Hoppy; Hawkins, Alisa; Radcliffe, Torrey

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews a possible mission architecture for a more austere Mars mission, than the one developed by NASA outlined in the Design Reference Architecture 5 (DRA 5). "Austere" architecture is scaled back from DRA 5 and might offer lower development cost, lower flight cost, and lower development risk. This approach will not meet all the DRA 5 mission requirements. Included in the presentation are the elements of an Austere mission, diagrams of the trans-Mars injection (TMI), cruise, and Mars Orbital Insertion for various phases of the mission, the entry descent landing (EDL) concept. The key features of the Transit Habitat (TransHab), the Earth Departure Stage (EDS), the landers, are reviewed. A chart shows the Mass in tons, of the conceptual types of Mars Landers. The EDL concept, EDL Phase diagrams for the Mars Lander are reviewed. New technologies that would be required are also reviewed. Flight test programs for the various parts of the architecture and a flight schedule are reviewed.

  4. Multiple latent viruses reactivate in astronauts during Space Shuttle missions.

    PubMed

    Mehta, S K; Laudenslager, M L; Stowe, R P; Crucian, B E; Sams, C F; Pierson, D L

    2014-10-01

    Latent virus reactivation and diurnal salivary cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone were measured prospectively in 17 astronauts (16 male and 1 female) before, during, and after short-duration (12-16 days) Space Shuttle missions. Blood, urine, and saliva samples were collected during each of these phases. Antiviral antibodies and viral load (DNA) were measured for Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), varicella-zoster virus (VZV), and cytomegalovirus (CMV). Three astronauts did not shed any virus in any of their samples collected before, during, or after flight. EBV was shed in the saliva in all of the remaining 14 astronauts during all 3 phases of flight. Seven of the 14 EBV-shedding subjects also shed VZV during and after the flight in their saliva samples, and 8 of 14 EBV-shedders also shed CMV in their urine samples before, during, and after flight. In 6 of 14 crewmembers, all 3 target viruses were shed during one or more flight phases. Both EBV and VZV DNA copies were elevated during the flight phase relative to preflight or post-flight levels. EBV DNA in peripheral blood was increased preflight relative to post-flight. Eighteen healthy controls were also included in the study. Approximately 2-5% of controls shed EBV while none shed VZV or CMV. Salivary cortisol measured preflight and during flight were elevated relative to post-flight. In contrast DHEA decreased during the flight phase relative to both preflight and post-flight. As a consequence, the molar ratio of the area under the diurnal curve of cortisol to DHEA with respect to ground (AUCg) increased significantly during flight. This ratio was unrelated to viral shedding. In summary, three herpes viruses can reactivate individually or in combination during spaceflight.

  5. Multiple latent viruses reactivate in astronauts during Space Shuttle missions.

    PubMed

    Mehta, S K; Laudenslager, M L; Stowe, R P; Crucian, B E; Sams, C F; Pierson, D L

    2014-10-01

    Latent virus reactivation and diurnal salivary cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone were measured prospectively in 17 astronauts (16 male and 1 female) before, during, and after short-duration (12-16 days) Space Shuttle missions. Blood, urine, and saliva samples were collected during each of these phases. Antiviral antibodies and viral load (DNA) were measured for Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), varicella-zoster virus (VZV), and cytomegalovirus (CMV). Three astronauts did not shed any virus in any of their samples collected before, during, or after flight. EBV was shed in the saliva in all of the remaining 14 astronauts during all 3 phases of flight. Seven of the 14 EBV-shedding subjects also shed VZV during and after the flight in their saliva samples, and 8 of 14 EBV-shedders also shed CMV in their urine samples before, during, and after flight. In 6 of 14 crewmembers, all 3 target viruses were shed during one or more flight phases. Both EBV and VZV DNA copies were elevated during the flight phase relative to preflight or post-flight levels. EBV DNA in peripheral blood was increased preflight relative to post-flight. Eighteen healthy controls were also included in the study. Approximately 2-5% of controls shed EBV while none shed VZV or CMV. Salivary cortisol measured preflight and during flight were elevated relative to post-flight. In contrast DHEA decreased during the flight phase relative to both preflight and post-flight. As a consequence, the molar ratio of the area under the diurnal curve of cortisol to DHEA with respect to ground (AUCg) increased significantly during flight. This ratio was unrelated to viral shedding. In summary, three herpes viruses can reactivate individually or in combination during spaceflight. PMID:24886968

  6. Inserting new technology into small missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deutsch, L. J.

    2001-01-01

    Part of what makes small missions small is that they have less money. Executing missions at low cost implies extensive use of cost sharing with other missions or use of existing solutions. Luckily, there are methods for creating new technology and inserting it into faster-better-cheaper missions.

  7. Future Missions to Study Signposts of Planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Traub, Wesley A.

    2011-01-01

    This talk will focus on debris disks, will compare ground and space and will discuss 2 proposed missions, Exoplanetary Circumstellar Environments And Disk Explorer (EXCEDE) and Zodiac II. At least 2 missions have been proposed for disk imaging. The technology is largely in hand today. A small mission would do excellent disk science, and would test technology for a future large mission for planets.

  8. Lunar Surface Mission Operations Scenario and Considerations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnold, Larissa S.; Torney, Susan E.; Rask, John Doug; Bleisath, Scott A.

    2006-01-01

    Planetary surface operations have been studied since the last visit of humans to the Moon, including conducting analog missions. Mission Operations lessons from these activities are summarized. Characteristics of forecasted surface operations are compared to current human mission operations approaches. Considerations for future designs of mission operations are assessed.

  9. 48 CFR 702.170-11 - Mission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Mission. 702.170-11 Section 702.170-11 Federal Acquisition Regulations System AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT GENERAL DEFINITIONS OF WORDS AND TERMS Definitions 702.170-11 Mission. Mission means the USAID mission or...

  10. The EUSO-SPB Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiencke, Lawrence; Adams, Jim; Olinto, Angela; JEM-EUSO Collaboration

    2016-03-01

    The Extreme Universe Space Observatory on a super pressure balloon (EUSO-SPB) mission will make the first fluorescence observations of high energy cosmic ray extensive air showers by looking down on the atmosphere from near space. EUSO-SPB follows a successful overnight flight in August 2014 of the JEM-EUSO prototype mission named EUSO-Balloon. EUSO-Balloon recorded artificial tracks and pulses that were generated by a laser and optical flashers that were flown in a helicopter under the balloon. Preparations are underway for EUSO-SPB with the potential for a flight of 50 days duration. The planned launch site is Wanaka, New Zealand. We describe the mission, the updated instrument, and expected detection rates of extensive air showers events produced by cosmic primaries.

  11. MIDN: a spacecraft microdosimeter mission.

    PubMed

    Pisacane, V L; Ziegler, J F; Nelson, M E; Caylor, M; Flake, D; Heyen, L; Youngborg, E; Rosenfeld, A B; Cucinotta, F; Zaider, M; Dicello, J F

    2006-01-01

    MIDN (MIcroDosimetry iNstrument) is a payload on the MidSTAR-I spacecraft (Midshipman Space Technology Applications Research) under development at the United States Naval Academy. MIDN is a solid-state system being designed and constructed to measure microdosimetric spectra to determine radiation quality factors for space environments. Radiation is a critical threat to the health of astronauts and to the success of missions in low-Earth orbit and space exploration. The system will consist of three separate sensors, one external to the spacecraft, one internal and one embedded in polyethylene. Design goals are mass <3 kg and power <2 W. The MidSTAR-I mission in 2006 will provide an opportunity to evaluate a preliminary version of this system. Its low power and mass makes it useful for the International Space Station and manned and unmanned interplanetary missions as a real-time system to assess and alert astronauts to enhanced radiation environments. PMID:16785245

  12. Extended mission life support systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quattrone, P. D.

    1985-01-01

    Extended manned space missions which include interplanetary missions require regenerative life support systems. Manned mission life support considerations are placed in perspective and previous manned space life support system technology, activities and accomplishments in current supporting research and technology (SR&T) programs are reviewed. The life support subsystem/system technologies required for an enhanced duration orbiter (EDO) and a space operations center (SOC), regenerative life support functions and technology required for manned interplanetary flight vehicles, and future development requirements are outlined. The Space Shuttle Orbiters (space transportation system) is space cabin atmosphere is maintained at Earth ambient pressure of 14.7 psia (20% O2 and 80% N2). The early Shuttle flights will be seven-day flights, and the life support system flight hardware will still utilize expendables.

  13. Spacelab 3 Mission Science Review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fichtl, George H. (Editor); Theon, John S. (Editor); Hill, Charles K. (Editor); Vaughan, Otha H. (Editor)

    1987-01-01

    Papers and abstracts of the presentations made at the symposium are given as the scientific report for the Spacelab 3 mission. Spacelab 3, the second flight of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) orbital laboratory, signified a new era of research in space. The primary objective of the mission was to conduct applications, science, and technology experiments requiring the low-gravity environment of Earth orbit and stable vehicle attitude over an extended period (e.g., 6 days) with emphasis on materials processing. The mission was launched on April 29, 1985, aboard the Space Shuttle Challenger which landed a week later on May 6. The multidisciplinary payload included 15 investigations in five scientific fields: material science, fluid dynamics, life sciences, astrophysics, and atmospheric science.

  14. Resumes of the Bird mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorenz, E.; Borwald, W.; Briess, K.; Kayal, H.; Schneller, M.; Wuensten, Herbert

    2004-11-01

    The DLR micro satellite BIRD (Bi-spectral Infra Red Detection) was piggy- back launched with the Indian Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle PSLV-C3 into a 570 km circular sun-synchronous orbit on 22 October 2001. The BIRD mission, fully funded by the DLR, answers topical technological and scientific questions related to the operation of a compact infra- red push-broom sensor system on board of a micro satellite and demonstrates new spacecraft bus technologies. BIRD mission control is conducted by DLR / GSOC in Oberpfaffenhofen. Commanding, data reception and data processing is performed via ground stations in Weilheim and Neustrelitz (Germany). The BIRD mission is a demonstrator for small satellite projects dedicated to the hazard detection and monitoring. In the year 2003 BIRD has been used in the ESA project FUEGOSAT to demonstrate the utilisation of innovative space technologies for fire risk management.

  15. Intrepid: A Mission to Pluto

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Behling, Michael; Buchman, Donald; Marcus, Andres; Procopis, Stephanie; Wassgren, Carl; Ziemer, Sarah

    1990-01-01

    A proposal for an exploratory spacecraft mission to Pluto/Charon system was written in response to the request for proposal for an unmannned probe to pluto (RFP). The design requirements of the RFP are presented and under the guidance of these requirements, the spacecraft Intrepid was designed. The RPF requirement that was of primary importance is the minimization of cost. Also, the reduction of flight time was of extreme importance because the atmosphere of Pluto is expected to collapse close to the Year 2020. If intrepid should arrive after the collapse, the mission would be a failure; for Pluto would be only a solid rock of ice. The topics presented include: (1) scientific instrumentation; (2) mission management, planning, and costing; (3) power and propulsion subsystem; (4) structural subsystem; (5) command, control, and communications; and (6) attitude and articulation control.

  16. Deep Space 1 Mission Overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehman, D. H.

    1999-09-01

    Deep Space 1 (DS1), launched on October 24, 1998, is the first mission of NASA's New Millennium program. This program is chartered to flight validate high-risk, advanced technologies important for future space and Earth science programs. Twelve advanced technologies were chosen for validation on DS1. These include solar electric propulsion, high-power solar concentrator arrays, autonomous on-board optical navigation, two low-mass science instrument packages, and several telecommunications and microelectronics devices. The encounter of the DS1 spacecraft with the asteroid Braille on July 29,1999 represented the conclusion of the technology validation phase of the mission and the first encounter of the spacecraft with a deep space target. The validation of technologies has been completed. The presentation will describe the mission, science and technology objectives and results to date, and future plans for the project.

  17. Manned Mars mission crew factors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Santy, Patricia A.

    1986-01-01

    Crew factors include a wide range of concerns relating to the human system and its role in a Mars mission. There are two important areas which will play a large part in determining the crew for a Mars mission. The first relates to the goals and priorities determined for such a vast endeavor. The second is the design of the vehicle for the journey. The human system cannot be separated from the other systems in that vehicle. In fact it will be the human system which drives the development of many of the technical breakthroughs necessary to make a Mars mission successful. As much as possible, the engineering systems must adapt to the needs of the human system and its individual components.

  18. Swarm: ESA's Magnetic Field Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drinkwater, M. R.; Haagmans, R.; Floberghagen, R.; Plank, G.; Menard, Y.

    2011-12-01

    Swarm is the fifth Earth Explorer mission in ESA's Living Planet Programme, and is scheduled for launch in 2012. The objective of the Swarm mission is to provide the best-ever survey of the geomagnetic field and its temporal evolution using a constellation of 3 identical satellites. The Mission shall deliver data that allow access to new insights into the Earth system by improved scientific understanding of the Earth's interior and near-Earth electromagnetic environment. After launch and triple satellite release at an initial altitude of about 490 km, a pair of the satellites will fly side-by-side with slowly decaying altitude, while the third satellite will be lifted to 530 km to complete the Swarm constellation. High-precision and high-resolution measurements of the strength, direction and variation of the magnetic field, complemented by precise navigation, accelerometer and electric field measurements, will provide the observations required to separate and model various sources of the geomagnetic field and near-Earth current systems. The mission science goals are to provide a unique view into Earth core dynamics, mantle conductivity, crustal magnetisation, ionospheric and magnetospheric current systems and upper atmosphere dynamics - ranging from understanding the geodynamo to contributing to space weather. The scientific objectives and results from recent scientific studies will be presented. In addition the current status of the project, which is presently approaching the final stage of the development phase, will be addressed. A consortium of European scientific institutes is developing a distributed processing system to produce geophysical (Level 2) data products to the Swarm user community. The setup of Swarm ground segment and the contents of the data products will be addressed. More information on the Swarm mission can be found at the mission web site (see URL below).

  19. MIOSAT Mission Scenario and Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agostara, C.; Dionisio, C.; Sgroi, G.; di Salvo, A.

    2008-08-01

    MIOSAT ("Mssione Ottica su microSATellite") is a low-cost technological / scientific microsatellite mission for Earth Observation, funded by Italian Space Agency (ASI) and managed by a Group Agreement between Rheinmetall Italia - B.U. Spazio - Contraves as leader and Carlo Gavazzi Space as satellite manufacturer. Several others Italians Companies, SME and Universities are involved in the development team with crucial roles. MIOSAT is a microsatellite weighting around 120 kg and placed in a 525 km altitude sun-synchronuos circular LEO orbit. The microsatellite embarks three innovative optical payloads: Sagnac multi spectral radiometer (IFAC-CNR), Mach Zehender spectrometer (IMM-CNR), high resolution pancromatic camera (Selex Galileo). In addition three technological experiments will be tested in-flight. The first one is an heat pipe based on Marangoni effect with high efficiency. The second is a high accuracy Sun Sensor using COTS components and the last is a GNSS SW receiver that utilizes a Leon2 processor. Finally a new generation of 28% efficiency solar cells will be adopted for the power generation. The platform is highly agile and can tilt along and cross flight direction. The pointing accuracy is in the order of 0,1° for each axe. The pointing determination during images acquisition is <0,02° for the axis normal to the boresight and 0,04° for the boresight. This paper deals with MIOSAT mission scenario and definition, highlighting trade-offs for mission implementation. MIOSAT mission design has been constrained from challenging requirements in terms of satellite mass, mission lifetime, instrument performance, that have implied the utilization of satellite agility capability to improve instruments performance in terms of S/N and resolution. The instruments provide complementary measurements that can be combined in effective ways to exploit new applications in the fields of atmosphere composition analysis, Earth emissions, antropic phenomena, etc. The Mission

  20. The extreme ultraviolet explorer mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowyer, S.; Malina, R. F.

    The Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer (EUVE) mission, currently scheduled for launch in September 1991, is described. The primary purpose of the mission is to survey the celestial sphere for astronomical sources of extreme ultraviolet (EUV) radiation. The survey will be accomplished with the use of three EUV telescopes, each sensitive to a different segment of the EUV band. A fourth telescope will perform a high sensitivity search of a limited sample of the sky in the shortest wavelength bands. The all-sky survey will be carried out in the first six months of the mission and will be made in four bands, or colors, λλ70-180 Å, 170-250 Å, 400-600 Å, and 500-700 Å. The second phase of the mission, conducted entirely by Guest Observers selected by NASA, will be devoted to spectroscopic observations of EUV sources. The performance of the instrument components is described. The mirrors meet the requirements of the mission, with the best mirror having a full width half energy spread of 4'' and a surface finish of 20 Å. Prototype thin film bandpass filters have been flown on the Space Shuttle and their performance optimized. Prototype detectors have been developed which have 1680 × 1680 pixel imaging capability (RMS) and up to 80% quantum efficiency. A newly invented, high efficiency grazing incidence spectrometer using variable line-space gratings will provide spectral data with ~1 Å resolution. An end-to-end model of the mission, from a stellar source to the resulting scientific data, has been constructed. Hypothetical data from astronomical sources have been processed through this model and are shown.

  1. Small Explorer for Advanced Missions - cubesat for scientific mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pronenko, Vira; Ivchenko, Nickolay

    2015-04-01

    A class of nanosatellites is defined by the cubesat standard, primarily setting the interface to the launcher, which allows standardizing cubesat preparation and launch, thus making the projects more affordable. The majority of cubesats have been launched are demonstration or educational missions. For scientific and other advanced missions to fully realize the potential offered by the low cost nanosatellites, there are challenges related to limitations of the existing cubesat platforms and to the availability of small yet sufficiently sensitive sensors. The new project SEAM (Small Explorer for Advanced Missions) was selected for realization in frames of FP-7 European program to develop a set of improved critical subsystems and to construct a prototype nanosatellite in the 3U cubesat envelope for electromagnetic measurements in low Earth orbit. The SEAM consortium will develop and demonstrate in flight for the first time the concept of an electromagnetically clean nanosatellite with precision attitude determination, flexible autonomous data acquisition system, high-bandwidth telemetry and an integrated solution for ground control and data handling. As the first demonstration, the satellite is planned to perform the Space Weather (SW) mission using novel miniature electric and magnetic sensors, able to provide science-grade measurements. To enable sensitive magnetic measurements onboard, the sensors must be deployed on booms to bring them away from the spacecraft body. Also other thorough yet efficient procedures will be developed to provide electromagnetic cleanliness (EMC) of the spacecraft. This work is supported by EC Framework 7 funded project 607197.

  2. No Mission, No Money: No Money, No Mission

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Durel, John W.

    2010-01-01

    Museum leaders around the country are in the midst of examining and changing their business models in response to new economic realities. Museum educators have an opportunity to play a leading role in this endeavor. To do so educators must understand the relationship between money and mission. For too long there has been a belief that the…

  3. Single-stage Mars mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    President Bush established a three phase Space Exploration Initiative for the future of space exploration. The first phase is the design and construction of Space Station Freedom. The second phase is permanent lunar base. The last phase of the Initiative is the construction of a Mars outpost. The design presented is the concept of a single-stage Mars mission developed by the University of Minnesota Aerospace Design Course. The mission will last approximately 500 days including a 30-60 day stay on Mars.

  4. Cyberinfrastructure for Aircraft Mission Support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freudinger, Lawrence C.

    2010-01-01

    Forth last several years NASA's Airborne Science Program has been developing and using infrastructure and applications that enable researchers to interact with each other and with airborne instruments via network communications. Use of these tools has increased near realtime situational awareness during field operations, resulting it productivity improvements, improved decision making, and the collection of better data. Advances in pre-mission planning and post-mission access have also emerged. Integrating these capabilities with other tools to evolve coherent service-oriented enterprise architecture for aircraft flight and test operations is the subject of ongoing efforts.

  5. Technology for Future Exoplanet Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawson, Peter; Devirian, Michael; van Zyl, Jakob

    2011-01-01

    A central theme in NASA's and ESA's vision for future missions is the search for habitable worlds and life beyond our Solar System. This presentation will review the current state of the art in planet-finding technology, with an emphasis on methods of starlight suppression. At optical wavelengths, Earth-like planets are about 10 billion times fainter than their host stars. Starlight suppression is therefore necessary to enable measurements of biosignatures in the atmospheres of faint Earth-like planets. Mission concepts based on coronagraph, starshade, and interferometers will be described along with their science objectives and technology requirements.

  6. Asteroid selection for mission opportunities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chapman, C. R.; Stone, C. A.

    1972-01-01

    A study to assess the present state of knowledge of asteroids as well as the rate of change of that knowledge to better identify the mission and target priorities for advanced planning of asteroidal flights in the 1980's is presented. Topics discussed include; the present state of asteroid knowledge, the scientific goals and priorities attached to asteroid exploration, the anticipated advances in knowledge over the current decade, asteroid mission consideration, and asteroid selection. Data sheets for 118 asteroids are contained. These are asteroids for which some data is available over and above orbital parameters and magnitude.

  7. Inserting new technology into small missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deutsch, L. J.

    2001-01-01

    Part of what makes small missions small is that they have less money. Executing missions at low cost implies extensive use of cost sharing with other missions or use of existing solutions. However, in order to create many small missions, new technology must be developed, applied, and assimilated. Luckily, there are methods for creating new technology and inserting it into faster-better-cheaper (FBC) missions.

  8. The virtual mission approach: Empowering earth and space science missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, Elaine

    1993-08-01

    Future Earth and Space Science missions will address increasingly broad and complex scientific issues. To accomplish this task, we will need to acquire and coordinate data sets from a number of different instrumetns, to make coordinated observations of a given phenomenon, and to coordinate the operation of the many individual instruments making these observations. These instruments will need to be used together as a single ``Virtual Mission.'' This coordinated approach is complicated in that these scientific instruments will generally be on different platforms, in different orbits, from different control centers, at different institutions, and report to different user groups. Before this Virtual Mission approach can be implemented, techniques need to be developed to enable separate instruments to work together harmoniously, to execute observing sequences in a synchronized manner, and to be managed by the Virtual Mission authority during times of these coordinated activities. Enabling technologies include object-oriented designed approaches, extended operations management concepts and distributed computing techniques. Once these technologies are developed and the Virtual Mission concept is available, we believe the concept will provide NASA's Science Program with a new, ``go-as-you-pay,'' flexible, and resilient way of accomplishing its science observing program. The concept will foster the use of smaller and lower cost satellites. It will enable the fleet of scientific satellites to evolve in directions that best meet prevailing science needs. It will empower scientists by enabling them to mix and match various combinations of in-space, ground, and suborbital instruments - combinations which can be called up quickly in response to new events or discoveries. And, it will enable small groups such as universities, Space Grant colleges, and small businesses to participate significantly in the program by developing small components of this evolving scientific fleet.

  9. Evaluation of crew skin flora under conditions of a full quarantine lunar-exploration mission.

    PubMed

    Carmichael, C; Taylor, G R

    1977-08-01

    Crew-members of the Apollo 14 lunar exploration mission underwent a pre-flight seclusion designed to stabilize their health by freeing them from exposure to potentially infectious agents. After the flight, the crew-members were quarantined to protect the biosphere from possible lunar contamination. These isolations, along with the complete isolation of the spaceflight itself, provided the opportunity for a skin flora survey which included the sampling of seven sites at five different times. Quantification and identification of all aerobic and anaerobic bacteria from each site were performed. The results indicated that the pre-flight quarantine measures resulted in a decrease in total numbers of isolates as well as a decrease in the anaerobes. This was followed by a continued decrease throughout the flight with a return to the pre-flight norm within 16 days after the flight. The quantitative load of aerobic bacteria increased during the flight, due largely to an increase in coryneforms and micrococcaceae. The quantitative load of anaerobic bacteria decreased before and during the flight. No instance of microbial shock or intercrew transfer of micro-organisms was demonstrated. These findings indicate that alterations in the skin flora do not pose any unusual problem during short duration space flights. Further, there are no indications that problems will arise on longer missions.

  10. NASA Facts, The Viking Mission.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC. Educational Programs Div.

    Presented is one of a series of publications of National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) facts about the exploration of Mars. The Viking mission to Mars, consisting of two unmanned NASA spacecraft launched in August and September, 1975, is described. A description of the spacecraft and their paths is given. A diagram identifying the…

  11. The EOS-Aura Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schoeberl, Mark R.

    2004-01-01

    The EOS-Aura atmospheric chemistry mission is scheduled for launch in June 2004. Aura is the third of the large EOS observatories. The spacecraft carries an international instrument payload that has a planned six year lifetime. The Aura mission will collect data to help answer stratospheric and tropospheric atmospheric chemistry questions. The mission has the following four major objectives: 1) Track the ozone layer to determine if it is recovering as predicted. The four Aura instruments, HIRDLS, OMI, MLS, and TES will measure ozone, key source, radical, reservoir, tracer gases, and aerosols. Aura's unique design allows for major ozone controlling gases to be measured within the same air mass within a few minutes. The OMI instrument will continue the trends fiom NASA's TOMS series. 2) Track tropospheric pollutant sources and measure tropospheric ozone precursors. Major pollution sources include urban, industrial and biomass burning regions. Tropospheric trace gases will be measured, using TES and OMI, at an average spatial resolution of about approximately 15 km with near global coverage. 3) Measure key upper tropospheric atmospheric constituents that influence climate. The Aura instruments will monitor O3, H2O, CO, cirrus ice, and aerosols. EOS-Aura will fly in a sun-synchronous polar orbit about 15 minutes behind Aqua and make near coincident and synergistic measurements with the EOS- Aqua, Cloudsat, OCO, PARASOL and Calipso missions. Aura launched July 15,2004.

  12. The EOS-Aura Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schoeberl, Mark R.

    2005-01-01

    The EOS-Aura atmospheric chemistry mission is scheduled for launch in June 2004. Aura is the third of the large EOS observatories. The spacecraft carries an international instrument payload that has a planned six year lifetime. The Aura mission will collect data to help answer stratospheric and tropospheric atmospheric chemistry questions. The mission has the following four major objectives: 1) Track the ozone layer to determine if it is recovering as predicted. The four Aura instruments, HIRDLS, OMI, MLS, and TES will measure ozone, key source, radical, reservoir, tracer gases, and aerosols. Aura's unique design allows for major ozone controlling gases to be measured within the same air mass within a few minutes. The OMI instrument will continue the trends from NASA's TOMS series. 2) Track tropospheric pollutant sources and measure tropospheric ozone precursors. Major pollution sources include urban, industrial and biomass burning regions. Tropospheric trace gases will be measured, using TES and OMI, at an average spatial resolution of about approx. 15 km with near global coverage. 3) Measure key upper tropospheric atmospheric constituents that influence climate. The Aura instruments will monitor O3, H2O, CO, cirrus ice, and aerosols. EOS-Aura will fly in a sun-synchronous polar orbit about 15 minutes behind Aqua and make near coincident and synergistic measurements with the EOS-Aqua, Cloudsat, OCO, PARASOL and Calipso missions. Aura launched July 15,2004.

  13. Human factors for Mars missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nicogossian, Arnauld E.

    1988-01-01

    The implications of human participation in Mars missions are reviewed. The psychological effects of long-term confinement, tension, and boredom are examined. The medical implications of travel to Mars, including the effects of low gravity and exposure to radiation, are discussed. The difficulty of providing sufficient consumables, such as air, food, and water, is considered.

  14. Sustaining Institutional Mission through "Pilgrimage"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiss, Charles S.

    2009-01-01

    Among the distinguishing characteristics of higher education in the United States is the stunning range of founding belief systems and missions. Many of the nation's colleges and universities were created out of passion to educate women, ministers, African Americans, immigrants, the rural poor; to advance causes, to educate within a particular…

  15. Gravitational-wave Mission Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcnamara, Paul; Jennrich, Oliver; Stebbins, Robin T.

    2014-01-01

    In November 2013, ESA selected the science theme, the "Gravitational Universe," for its third large mission opportunity, known as L3, under its Cosmic Vision Programme. The planned launch date is 2034. ESA is considering a 20% participation by an international partner, and NASA's Astrophysics Division has indicated an interest in participating. We have studied the design consequences of a NASA contribution, evaluated the science benefits and identified the technology requirements for hardware that could be delivered by NASA. The European community proposed a strawman mission concept, called eLISA, having two measurement arms, derived from the well studied LISA (Laser Interferometer Space Antenna) concept. The US community is promoting a mission concept known as SGO Mid (Space-based Gravitational-wave Observatory Mid-sized), a three arm LISA-like concept. If NASA were to partner with ESA, the eLISA concept could be transformed to SGO Mid by the addition of a third arm, augmenting science, reducing risk and reducing non-recurring engineering costs. The characteristics of the mission concepts and the relative science performance of eLISA, SGO Mid and LISA are described. Note that all results are based on models, methods and assumptions used in NASA studies

  16. The CloudSat Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vane, D.; Stephens, G.

    2000-01-01

    CloudSat is an international mission, made possible by partnerships and contributions from the Canadian Space Agency, the U.S. Air Force, the Communications Research Laboratory of Japan, the U.S. Department of Energy, and research institutions in the USA, Japan, Canada and Europe.

  17. Comet nucleus sample return mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    A comet nucleus sample return mission in terms of its relevant science objectives, candidate mission concepts, key design/technology requirements, and programmatic issues is discussed. The primary objective was to collect a sample of undisturbed comet material from beneath the surface of an active comet and to preserve its chemical and, if possible, its physical integrity and return it to Earth in a minimally altered state. The secondary objectives are to: (1) characterize the comet to a level consistent with a rendezvous mission; (2) monitor the comet dynamics through perihelion and aphelion with a long lived lander; and (3) determine the subsurface properties of the nucleus in an area local to the sampled core. A set of candidate comets is discussed. The hazards which the spacecraft would encounter in the vicinity of the comet are also discussed. The encounter strategy, the sampling hardware, the thermal control of the pristine comet material during the return to Earth, and the flight performance of various spacecraft systems and the cost estimates of such a mission are presented.

  18. New Horizons Mission to Pluto

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delgado, Luis G.

    2011-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the trajectory that will take the New Horizons Mission to Pluto. Included are photographs of the spacecraft, the launch vehicle, the assembled vehicle as it is being moved to the launch pad and the launch. Also shown are diagrams of the assembled parts with identifying part names.

  19. Pluto Express: Mission to Pluto

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giuliano, J. A.

    1996-01-01

    Pluto is the smallest, outermost and last-discovered planet in the Solar System and the only one that has never been visited by a spacecraft from Earth. Pluto and its relatively large satellite Charon are the destinations of a proposed spacecraft mission for the next decade, being developed for NASA by scientists and engineers at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory.

  20. History of the Spitzer Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rieke, George

    2006-12-01

    The Spitzer Telescope was launched more than 20 years after the original announcement of opportunity was released. During this long gestation period, the mission took a wide variety of forms and had to survive many political and managerial environments within NASA and in the US Government generally. Finally, approval to build the telescope was won at the height of the faster-better-cheaper era, but completing it extended beyond this phase. This poster shows the key steps in preserving the mission and why decision makers viewed it positively at critical points when it might have been killed. In the end, the scope of the mission was reduced by a factor of about five while still preserving much of its science capabilities. This reduction required a new way to streamline the science objectives by adopting a limited number of key programs and requiring that all features be justified in terms of those programs. This philosophy provided decision rules to carry out necessary descopes while preserving a coherent set of capabilities. In addition, the faster-better-cheaper guidelines requires use of a small launch vehicle, which was only possible by the invention of a new “warm launch” telescope concept, in which the telescope would cool primarily by radiation into space after launch. Both of these concepts are critical to the approach to future missions such as JWST. This work is partially supported by contract 1255094 from JPL/Caltech to the University of Arizona.

  1. Voyager - a mission for life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williamson, Mark

    2012-12-01

    There may be no such thing as a "job for life" these days, but NASA's Voyager mission to Jupiter, Saturn and beyond has kept hundreds of scientists busy for as much as 35 years. Mark Williamson reveals how researchers stay motivated and scientifically productive during such a long-term project.

  2. LISA Pathfinder: mission and status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antonucci, F.; Armano, M.; Audley, H.; Auger, G.; Benedetti, M.; Binetruy, P.; Boatella, C.; Bogenstahl, J.; Bortoluzzi, D.; Bosetti, P.; Caleno, M.; Cavalleri, A.; Cesa, M.; Chmeissani, M.; Ciani, G.; Conchillo, A.; Congedo, G.; Cristofolini, I.; Cruise, M.; Danzmann, K.; De Marchi, F.; Diaz-Aguilo, M.; Diepholz, I.; Dixon, G.; Dolesi, R.; Dunbar, N.; Fauste, J.; Ferraioli, L.; Fertin, D.; Fichter, W.; Fitzsimons, E.; Freschi, M.; García Marin, A.; García Marirrodriga, C.; Gerndt, R.; Gesa, L.; Gilbert, F.; Giardini, D.; Grimani, C.; Grynagier, A.; Guillaume, B.; Guzmán, F.; Harrison, I.; Heinzel, G.; Hewitson, M.; Hollington, D.; Hough, J.; Hoyland, D.; Hueller, M.; Huesler, J.; Jeannin, O.; Jennrich, O.; Jetzer, P.; Johlander, B.; Killow, C.; Llamas, X.; Lloro, I.; Lobo, A.; Maarschalkerweerd, R.; Madden, S.; Mance, D.; Mateos, I.; McNamara, P. W.; Mendes, J.; Mitchell, E.; Monsky, A.; Nicolini, D.; Nicolodi, D.; Nofrarias, M.; Pedersen, F.; Perreur-Lloyd, M.; Perreca, A.; Plagnol, E.; Prat, P.; Racca, G. D.; Rais, B.; Ramos-Castro, J.; Reiche, J.; Romera Perez, J. A.; Robertson, D.; Rozemeijer, H.; Sanjuan, J.; Schleicher, A.; Schulte, M.; Shaul, D.; Stagnaro, L.; Strandmoe, S.; Steier, F.; Sumner, T. J.; Taylor, A.; Texier, D.; Trenkel, C.; Tombolato, D.; Vitale, S.; Wanner, G.; Ward, H.; Waschke, S.; Wass, P.; Weber, W. J.; Zweifel, P.

    2011-05-01

    LISA Pathfinder, the second of the European Space Agency's Small Missions for Advanced Research in Technology (SMART), is a dedicated technology demonstrator for the joint ESA/NASA Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) mission. The technologies required for LISA are many and extremely challenging. This coupled with the fact that some flight hardware cannot be fully tested on ground due to Earth-induced noise led to the implementation of the LISA Pathfinder mission to test the critical LISA technologies in a flight environment. LISA Pathfinder essentially mimics one arm of the LISA constellation by shrinking the 5 million kilometre armlength down to a few tens of centimetres, giving up the sensitivity to gravitational waves, but keeping the measurement technology: the distance between the two test masses is measured using a laser interferometric technique similar to one aspect of the LISA interferometry system. The scientific objective of the LISA Pathfinder mission consists then of the first in-flight test of low frequency gravitational wave detection metrology. LISA Pathfinder is due to be launched in 2013 on-board a dedicated small launch vehicle (VEGA). After a series of apogee raising manoeuvres using an expendable propulsion module, LISA Pathfinder will enter a transfer orbit towards the first Sun-Earth Lagrange point (L1). After separation from the propulsion module, the LPF spacecraft will be stabilized using the micro-Newton thrusters, entering a 500 000 km by 800 000 km Lissajous orbit around L1. Science results will be available approximately 2 months after launch.

  3. Catalog of Viking mission data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vostreys, R. W. (Editor)

    1978-01-01

    This catalog announces the present/expected availability of scientific data acquired by the Viking missions and contains descriptions of the Viking spacecraft, experiments, and data sets. An index is included listing the team leaders and team members for the experiments. Information on NSSDC facilities and ordering procedures, and a list of acronyms and abbreviations are included in the appendices.

  4. The Europa Ocean Discovery mission

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, B.C.; Chyba, C.F.; Abshire, J.B.

    1997-06-01

    Since it was first proposed that tidal heating of Europa by Jupiter might lead to liquid water oceans below Europa`s ice cover, there has been speculation over the possible exobiological implications of such an ocean. Liquid water is the essential ingredient for life as it is known, and the existence of a second water ocean in the Solar System would be of paramount importance for seeking the origin and existence of life beyond Earth. The authors present here a Discovery-class mission concept (Europa Ocean Discovery) to determine the existence of a liquid water ocean on Europa and to characterize Europa`s surface structure. The technical goal of the Europa Ocean Discovery mission is to study Europa with an orbiting spacecraft. This goal is challenging but entirely feasible within the Discovery envelope. There are four key challenges: entering Europan orbit, generating power, surviving long enough in the radiation environment to return valuable science, and complete the mission within the Discovery program`s launch vehicle and budget constraints. The authors will present here a viable mission that meets these challenges.

  5. The Europa Clipper Mission Concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pappalardo, Robert; Goldstein, Barry; Magner, Thomas; Prockter, Louise; Senske, David; Paczkowski, Brian; Cooke, Brian; Vance, Steve; Wes Patterson, G.; Craft, Kate

    2014-05-01

    A NASA-appointed Science Definition Team (SDT), working closely with a technical team from the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) and the Applied Physics Laboratory (APL), recently considered options for a future strategic mission to Europa, with the stated science goal: Explore Europa to investigate its habitability. The group considered several mission options, which were fully technically developed, then costed and reviewed by technical review boards and planetary science community groups. There was strong convergence on a favored architecture consisting of a spacecraft in Jupiter orbit making many close flybys of Europa, concentrating on remote sensing to explore the moon. Innovative mission design would use gravitational perturbations of the spacecraft trajectory to permit flybys at a wide variety of latitudes and longitudes, enabling globally distributed regional coverage of the moon's surface, with nominally 45 close flybys at altitudes from 25 to 100 km. We will present the science and reconnaissance goals and objectives, a mission design overview, and the notional spacecraft for this concept, which has become known as the Europa Clipper. The Europa Clipper concept provides a cost-efficient means to explore Europa and investigate its habitability, through understanding the satellite's ice and ocean, composition, and geology. The set of investigations derived from the Europa Clipper science objectives traces to a notional payload for science, consisting of: Ice Penetrating Radar (for sounding of ice-water interfaces within and beneath the ice shell), Topographical Imager (for stereo imaging of the surface), ShortWave Infrared Spectrometer (for surface composition), Neutral Mass Spectrometer (for atmospheric composition), Magnetometer and Langmuir Probes (for inferring the satellite's induction field to characterize an ocean), and Gravity Science (to confirm an ocean).The mission would also include the capability to perform reconnaissance for a future lander

  6. Titan and Enceladus mission (TANDEM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coustenis, A.

    2007-08-01

    Our understanding of Titan's atmosphere and surface has recently been enhanced by the data returned by the Cassini-Huygens mission. The Cassini orbiter will continue to be operational for about 3 more years during its extended mission. After this mission, any unanswered questions will forever remain unknown, unless we go back with an optimized orbital tour and advanced instrumentation. Considering the complementary nature of the geological, chemical and evolutionary history of Titan and Enceladus, we propose to carry out studies for a mission to perform an in situ exploration of these two objects in tandem. In our proposal we determine key science measurements, the types of samples that would be needed and the instrument suites for achieving the science goals. In particular, we develop conceptual designs for delivering the science payload, including orbiters, aerial platforms and probes, and define a launch/delivery/communication management architecture. This mission will require new technologies and capabilities so that the science goals can be achieved within the cost cap and acceptable risks. International participation will play a key role in achieving all the science goals of this mission. We will build this mission concept around a central core of single orbiter, a single Titan aerial probe and a core group of category 1 instruments. Aerobraking with Titan's atmosphere will be given serious consideration to minimize resource requirements and risk. This approach will allow a single orbiter to be used for both Enceladus science and Titan science with final orbit around Titan and later release of aerial probe(s) into Titan's atmosphere. The Titan aerial probe may be a Montgolfière balloon concept that will use the waster heat ~ 1000 watts from a single RTG power system. There will be a release of penetrator(s) on Enceladus also. This proposal addresses directly several of the scientific questions highlighted in the ESA Cosmic Vision 2015-2025 call, particularly

  7. Swarm: ESA's Magnetic Field Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plank, G.; Floberghagen, R.; Menard, Y.; Haagmans, R.

    2013-12-01

    Swarm is the fifth Earth Explorer mission in ESA's Living Planet Programme, and is scheduled for launch in fall 2013. The objective of the Swarm mission is to provide the best-ever survey of the geomagnetic field and its temporal evolution using a constellation of three identical satellites. The mission shall deliver data that allow access to new insights into the Earth system by improved scientific understanding of the Earth's interior and near-Earth electromagnetic environment. After launch and triple satellite release at an initial altitude of about 490 km, a pair of the satellites will fly side-by-side with slowly decaying altitude, while the third satellite will be lifted to 530 km to complete the Swarm constellation. High-precision and high-resolution measurements of the strength, direction and variation of the magnetic field, complemented by precise navigation, accelerometer and electric field measurements, will provide the observations required to separate and model various sources of the geomagnetic field and near-Earth current systems. The mission science goals are to provide a unique view into Earth's core dynamics, mantle conductivity, crustal magnetisation, ionospheric and magnetospheric current systems and upper atmosphere dynamics - ranging from understanding the geodynamo to contributing to space weather. The scientific objectives and results from recent scientific studies will be presented. In addition the current status of the project, which is presently in the final stage of the development phase, will be addressed. A consortium of European scientific institutes is developing a distributed processing system to produce geophysical (Level 2) data products for the Swarm user community. The setup of the Swarm ground segment and the contents of the data products will be addressed. In case the Swarm satellites are already in orbit, a summary of the on-going mission operations activities will be given. More information on Swarm can be found at www.esa.int/esaLP/LPswarm.html.

  8. Swarm: ESA's Magnetic Field Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plank, G.; Floberghagen, R.; Menard, Y.; Haagmans, R.

    2012-12-01

    Swarm is the fifth Earth Explorer mission in ESA's Living Planet Programme, and is scheduled for launch in fall 2012. The objective of the Swarm mission is to provide the best-ever survey of the geomagnetic field and its temporal evolution using a constellation of three identical satellites. The mission shall deliver data that allow access to new insights into the Earth system by improved scientific understanding of the Earth's interior and near-Earth electromagnetic environment. After launch and triple satellite release at an initial altitude of about 490 km, a pair of the satellites will fly side-by-side with slowly decaying altitude, while the third satellite will be lifted to 530 km to complete the Swarm constellation. High-precision and high-resolution measurements of the strength, direction and variation of the magnetic field, complemented by precise navigation, accelerometer and electric field measurements, will provide the observations required to separate and model various sources of the geomagnetic field and near-Earth current systems. The mission science goals are to provide a unique view into Earth's core dynamics, mantle conductivity, crustal magnetisation, ionospheric and magnetospheric current systems and upper atmosphere dynamics - ranging from understanding the geodynamo to contributing to space weather. The scientific objectives and results from recent scientific studies will be presented. In addition the current status of the project, which is presently in the final stage of the development phase, will be addressed. A consortium of European scientific institutes is developing a distributed processing system to produce geophysical (Level 2) data products for the Swarm user community. The setup of the Swarm ground segment and the contents of the data products will be addressed. In case the Swarm satellites are already in orbit, a summary of the on-going mission operations activities will be given.

  9. XEUS: approaches to mission design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bavdaz, Marcos; Peacock, Anthony J.; van der Laan, Thijs; Parmar, Arvind N.

    2003-03-01

    The x-ray Evolving Universe Spectroscopy mission (XEUS) is an ambitious project under study by the European Space Agency (ESA), which aims to probe the distant hot universe with comparable sensitivity to NGST and ALMA. The effective optical area and angular resolution required to perform this task is 30m2 and <5" respectively at 1 keV. The single Wolter-I x-ray telescope having these characteristics will be equipped with large area semiconductor detectors and high-resolution cryogenic imaging spectrometers with 2 eV resolution at 1 keV. A novel approach to mission design has been developed, placing the detector instruments on one dedicated spacecraft and the optics on another. The International Space Station (ISS) with the best ever available infrastructure in space will be used to expand the mirror diameter from 4.5 m to 10 m, using robotics and extravehicular activities. The detector spacecraft (DSC) uses solar-electric propulsion to maintain its position while flying in formation with the mirror spacecraft. The detector instruments are protected from straylight and contamination by sophisticated baffles and filters, and employ the earth as a sun shield to make the most sensitive low energy x-ray observations of the heavily red-shifted universe. Detailed approaches, including alternatives to the baseline mission design of XEUS, have been and continue to be addressed, ensuring an efficient concept to be available for the eventual mission implementation. Both the development of the XEUS baseline scenario and complementary work conducted on some alternative mission designs are discussed.

  10. Compaction of Space Mission Wastes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, John; Pisharody, Suresh; Wignarajah, K.

    2004-01-01

    The current solid waste management system employed on the International Space Station (ISS) consists of compaction, storage, and disposal. Wastes such plastic food packaging and trash are compacted manually and wrapped in duct tape footballs by the astronauts. Much of the waste is simply loaded either into the empty Russian Progress vehicle for destruction on reentry or into Shuttle for return to Earth. This manual method is wasteful of crew time and does not transition well to far term missions. Different wastes onboard spacecraft vary considerably in their characteristics and in the appropriate method of management. In advanced life support systems for far term missions, recovery of resources such as water from the wastes becomes important. However waste such as plastic food packaging, which constitutes a large fraction of solid waste (roughly 21% on ISS, more on long duration missions), contains minimal recoverable resource. The appropriate management of plastic waste is waste stabilization and volume minimization rather than resource recovery. This paper describes work that has begun at Ames Research Center on development of a heat melt compactor that can be used on near term and future missions, that can minimize crew interaction, and that can handle wastes with a significant plastic composition. The heat melt compactor takes advantage of the low melting point of plastics to compact plastic materials using a combination of heat and pressure. The US Navy has demonstrated successful development of a similar unit for shipboard application. Ames is building upon the basic approach demonstrated by the Navy to develop an advanced heat melt type compactor for space mission type wastes.

  11. The Asteroid Redirect Mission (ARM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abell, Paul; Gates, Michele; Johnson, Lindley; Chodas, Paul; Mazanek, Dan; Reeves, David; Ticker, Ronald

    2016-07-01

    To achieve its long-term goal of sending humans to Mars, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) plans to proceed in a series of incrementally more complex human spaceflight missions. Today, human flight experience extends only to Low-Earth Orbit (LEO), and should problems arise during a mission, the crew can return to Earth in a matter of minutes to hours. The next logical step for human spaceflight is to gain flight experience in the vicinity of the Moon. These cis-lunar missions provide a "proving ground" for the testing of systems and operations while still accommodating an emergency return path to the Earth that would last only several days. Cis-lunar mission experience will be essential for more ambitious human missions beyond the Earth-Moon system, which will require weeks, months, or even years of transit time. In addition, NASA has been given a Grand Challenge to find all asteroid threats to human populations and know what to do about them. Obtaining knowledge of asteroid physical properties combined with performing technology demonstrations for planetary defense provide much needed information to address the issue of future asteroid impacts on Earth. Hence the combined objectives of human exploration and planetary defense give a rationale for the Asteroid Re-direct Mission (ARM). Mission Description: NASA's ARM consists of two mission segments: 1) the Asteroid Redirect Robotic Mission (ARRM), the first robotic mission to visit a large (greater than ~100 m diameter) near-Earth asteroid (NEA), collect a multi-ton boulder from its surface along with regolith samples, demonstrate a planetary defense technique, and return the asteroidal material to a stable orbit around the Moon; and 2) the Asteroid Redirect Crewed Mission (ARCM), in which astronauts will take the Orion capsule to rendezvous and dock with the robotic vehicle, conduct multiple extravehicular activities to explore the boulder, and return to Earth with samples. NASA's proposed

  12. Spacelab mission 4 - The first dedicated life sciences mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perry, T. W.; Reid, D. H.

    1983-01-01

    Plans for the first Spacelab-4 mission dedicated entirely to the life sciences, are reviewed. The thrust of the scientific mission scheduled for late 1985 will be to study the acute effects of weightlessness on living systems, particularly humans. The payload of the Spacelab compartment will contain 24 experiments of which approximately half will involve humans. Among the major areas of interest are cardiovascular and pulmonary function, vestibular function, renal and endocrine physiology, hematology, nitrogen balance, immunological function, the gravitational biology of plants, inflight fertilization of frogs' eggs and the effects of zero gravity on monkeys and rats. In selecting the array of experiments an effort was made to combine investigations with complementary scientific objectives to develop animal models of human biological problems.

  13. The MESSENGER mission to Mercury: spacecraft and mission design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santo, Andrew G.; Gold, Robert E.; McNutt, Ralph L.; Solomon, Sean C.; Ercol, Carl J.; Farquhar, Robert W.; Hartka, Theodore J.; Jenkins, Jason E.; McAdams, James V.; Mosher, Larry E.; Persons, David F.; Artis, David A.; Bokulic, Robert S.; Conde, Richard F.; Dakermanji, George; Goss, Milton E.; Haley, David R.; Heeres, Kenneth J.; Maurer, Richard H.; Moore, Robert C.; Rodberg, Elliot H.; Stern, Theodore G.; Wiley, Samuel R.; Williams, Bobby G.; Yen, Chen-wan L.; Peterson, Max R.

    2001-12-01

    A Mercury orbiter mission is challenging from thermal and mass perspectives. The Mercury Surface, Space Environment, Geochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) mission overcomes these challenges while avoiding esoteric technologies by using an innovative approach with commonly available materials, minimal moving parts, and maximum heritage. This approach yields a spacecraft with good margins in all categories and low technical risk. The key concepts are a ceramic-cloth sunshade, an integrated lightweight structure and high- performance propulsion system, and a solar array incorporating optical solar reflectors (OSRs). The sunshade maintains the spacecraft at room temperature. The integrated structure and propulsion system provides ample mass margin. The solar array with OSRs, which has already undergone significant testing, provides thermal margin even if the panels are inadvertently pointed directly at the Sun at 0.3 AU. 0.3 AU.

  14. Mission Design for the Innovative Interstellar Explorer Vision Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fiehler, Douglas I.; McNutt, Ralph L.

    2005-01-01

    The Innovative Interstellar Explorer, studied under a NASA Vision Mission grant, examined sending a probe to a heliospheric distance of 200 Astronomical Units (AU) in a "reasonable" amount of time. Previous studies looked at the use of a near-Sun propulsive maneuver, solar sails, and fission reactor powered electric propulsion systems for propulsion. The Innovative Interstellar Explorer's mission design used a combination of a high-energy launch using current launch technology, a Jupiter gravity assist, and electric propulsion powered by advanced radioisotope power systems to reach 200 AU. Many direct and gravity assist trajectories at several power levels were considered in the development of the baseline trajectory, including single and double gravity assists utilizing the outer planets (Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune). A detailed spacecraft design study was completed followed by trajectory analyses to examine the performance of the spacecraft design options.

  15. The Lunar Prospector Discovery mission: Mission and measurement description

    SciTech Connect

    Hubbard, G.S.; Binder, A.B.; Feldman, W.

    1998-06-01

    Lunar Prospector, the first competitively selected planetary mission in NASA`s Discovery Program, is described with emphasis on the radiation spectrometer instrumentation and anticipated scientific data return. Scheduled to be launched in January 1998, the mission will conduct a one year orbital survey of the Moon`s composition and structure. The suite of five instruments are outlined: neutron spectrometer, alpha particle spectrometer, gamma-ray spectrometer, electron reflectometer and magnetometer. Scientific requirements and measurement approach to detect water/ice to a sensitivity of 50 ppm (hydrogen), measure key elemental constituents, detect radioactive gas release events and accurately map the Moon`s gravitational and magnetic fields are given. A brief overview of the programmatic accomplishments in meeting a tightly constrained schedule and budget is also provided.

  16. NASA mission planning for space nuclear power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bennett, Gary L.; Schnyer, A. D.

    1991-01-01

    An evaluation is conducted of those aspects of the Space Exploration Initiative which stand to gain from the use of nuclear powerplants. Low-power, less than 10 kW(e) missions in question encompass the Comet Rendezvous Asteroid Flyby, the Cassini mission to Saturn, the Mars Network mission, a solar probe, the Mars Rover Sample Return mission, the Rosetta comet nucleus sample return mission, and an outer planets orbiter/probe. Reactor power yielding 10-100 kW(e) can be used by advanced rovers and initial lunar and Martian outposts, as well as Jovian and Saturnian grand tours and sample-return missions.

  17. Spacelab life sciences 2 post mission report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buckey, Jay C.

    1994-01-01

    Jay C. Buckey, M.D., Assistant Professor of Medicine at The University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas served as an alternate payload specialist astronaut for the Spacelab Life Sciences 2 Space Shuttle Mission from January 1992 through December 1993. This report summarizes his opinions on the mission and offers suggestions in the areas of selection, training, simulations, baseline data collection and mission operations. The report recognizes the contributions of the commander, payload commander and mission management team to the success of the mission. Dr. Buckey's main accomplishments during the mission are listed.

  18. Trajectory Design Considerations for Exploration Mission 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dawn, Timothy F.; Gutkowski, Jeffrey P.; Batcha, Amelia L.

    2017-01-01

    Exploration Mission 1 (EM-1) will be the first mission to send an uncrewed Orion vehicle to cislunar space in 2018, targeted to a Distant Retrograde Orbit (DRO). Analysis of EM-1 DRO mission opportunities in 2018 help characterize mission parameters that are of interest to other subsystems (e.g., power, thermal, communications, flight operations, etc). Subsystems request mission design trades which include: landing lighting, addition of an Orion main engine checkout burn, and use of auxiliary thruster only cases. This paper examines the evolving trade studies that incorporate subsystem feedback and demonstrate the feasibility of these constrained mission trajectory designs and contingencies.

  19. The C.E.B.A. Mini Module on the STS-107 Mission: Data of Ground Experiments and Preliminary Results of the third Spaceflight of an Artificial Aquatic Ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bluem, V.; Paris, F.; Bungart, S.

    The C.E.B.A.S MINI MODULE is the miniaturized version of an artificial aquatic ecosystem consisting of four subcomponents: a ZOOLOGICAL COMPONENT (aquarium for animals), a BOTANICAL COMPONENT (higher water plant bioreactor), a MICROBIAL COMPONENT (bacteria filter) and an ELECTRONICAL COMPONENT (data acquisition, control unit). It has a total volume of 8.6 liters and contains the ovoviviparous teleost Xiphophorus helleri (swordtail), larvae of the ovuliparous cichlid fish Oreochromis mossambicus, the pulmonate water snail Biomphalaria glabrata, the rootless (non-graivitropic) higher water plant Ceratophyllum demersum (hornweed) and special strains of ammonia oxidizing bacteria. This device was already flown twice successfully in space with the space shuttle missions STS- 89 and STS-90 (NEUROLAB) in 1998. It will fly a third time with the STS-107-mission the launch of which has been repeatedly shifted December 222, April 2001, October 2001) and is now finally scheduled for June 2002. The main focus of scientific interest in the past missions were system performance, reproductive biology (reproductive function of adult females including endocrine system, fertilization, gonadal development in juveniles), vestibular and immunological research in X. helleri, embryology and shell formation in B. glabrata, general morphology and physiology of C. demersum and groth rates of the bacteria. The standard load of the system were 4 adult and 200 neonate X. helleri, 30 adult B. glabrata and 30 g of C. demersum. The evaluation of these experiments showed that all reproductive functions and the immune system of the fishes snails remained undisturbed in space, that the snails developed normally and exhibited no disturbance of shell formation and that the plants showed growth and photosynthesis rates comparable to those on Earth. So, as a logical continuation, the main topics for the STS-107 mission are the remaining important questions in X. helleri biology: puberty, male sexual

  20. Alaska SAR Facility Mission planning software - An interactive mission planning system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lo, Martin W.

    1989-01-01

    The Alaska Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) Facility Mission Planning Subsystem is an interactive mission planning software system on the VAXStation 2000. This system has the capability to generate satellite ephemerides and mission parameters related to synthetic aperture radar missions. The mission data can be viewed as overlays on the world map in various projections and zooms. The system also provides schedule planning capabilities, using the INGRES DBMS to keep track of the various plans and schedules generated by the mission planner.

  1. Science Planning for the TROPIX Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, C. T.

    1998-01-01

    The objective of the study grant was to undertake the planning needed to execute meaningful solar electric propulsion missions in the magnetosphere and beyond. The first mission examined was the Transfer Orbit Plasma Investigation Experiment (TROPIX) mission to spiral outward through the magnetosphere. The next mission examined was to the moon and an asteroid. Entitled Diana, it was proposed to NASA in October 1994. Two similar missions were conceived in 1996 entitled CNR for Comet Nucleus Rendezvous and MBAR for Main Belt Asteroid Rendezvous. The latter mission was again proposed in 1998. All four of these missions were unsuccessfully proposed to the NASA Discovery program. Nevertheless we were partially successful in that the Deep Space 1 (DS1) mission was eventually carried out nearly duplicating our CNR mission. Returning to the magnetosphere we studied and proposed to the Medium Class Explorer (MIDEX) program a MidEx mission called TEMPEST, in 1995. This mission included two solar electric spacecraft that spiraled outward in the magnetosphere: one at near 900 inclination and one in the equatorial plane. This mission was not selected for flight. Next we proposed a single SEP vehicle to carry Energetic Neutral Atom (ENA) imagers and inside observations to complement the IMAGE mission providing needed data to properly interpret the IMAGE data. This mission called SESAME was submitted unsuccessfully in 1997. One proposal was successful. A study grant was awarded to examine a four spacecraft solar electric mission, named Global Magnetospheric Dynamics. This study was completed and a report on this mission is attached but events overtook this design and a separate study team was selected to design a classical chemical mission as a Solar Terrestrial Probe. Competing proposals such as through the MIDEX opportunity were expressly forbidden. A bibliography is attached.

  2. Asteroid Crewed Segment Mission Lean Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gard, Joe; McDonald, Mark; Jermstad, Wayne

    2014-01-01

    The next generation of human spaceflight missions presents numerous challenges to designers that must be addressed to produce a feasible concept. The specific challenges of designing an exploration mission utilizing the Space Launch System and the Orion spacecraft to carry astronauts beyond earth orbit to explore an asteroid stored in a distant retrograde orbit around the moon will be addressed. Mission designers must carefully balance competing constraints including cost, schedule, risk, and numerous spacecraft performance metrics including launch mass, nominal landed mass, abort landed mass, mission duration, consumable limits and many others. The Asteroid Redirect Crewed Mission will be described along with results from the concurrent mission design trades that led to its formulation. While the trades presented are specific to this mission, the integrated process is applicable to any potential future mission. The following trades were critical in the mission formulation and will be described in detail: 1) crew size, 2) mission duration, 3) trajectory design, 4) docking vs grapple, 5) extravehicular activity tasks, 6) launch mass and integrated vehicle performance, 7) contingency performance, 8) crew consumables including food, clothing, oxygen, nitrogen and water, and 9) mission risk. The additional Orion functionality required to perform the Asteroid Redirect Crewed Mission and how it is incorporated while minimizing cost, schedule and mass impacts will be identified. Existing investments in the NASA technology portfolio were leveraged to provide the added functionality that will be beneficial to future exploration missions. Mission kits are utilized to augment Orion with the necessary functionality without introducing costly new requirements to the mature Orion spacecraft design effort. The Asteroid Redirect Crewed Mission provides an exciting early mission for the Orion and SLS while providing a stepping stone to even more ambitious missions in the future.

  3. The Pascal Discovery Mission: A Mars Climate Network Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haberle, R. M.; Catling, D. C.; Chassefiere, E.; Forget, F.; Hourdin, F.; Leovy, C. B.; Magalhaes, J.; Mihalov, J.; Pommereau, J. P.; Murphy, J. R.

    2000-07-01

    The climate of Mars is a major focus of Mars exploration. With the loss of MCO, however, it remains uncertain how it will be achieved. We argue that a truly dedicated climate mission to Mars should have both orbital and landed components, and that these should operate simultaneously for at least 1 Mars year if not longer. Pascal is a Discovery mission that emphasizes the landed component. Its principal goal is to establish a network of 24 small weather stations on the surface of Mars that will operate for 2 Mars years, with an extended mission option for an additional 8 Mars years bringing the total mission lifetime up to 10 Mars years. The stations will collect hourly measurements of pressure, temperature, and optical depth. After delivering the probes to Mars, Pascal's carrier spacecraft will go into an elliptical orbit which will serve as a relay for the landers, and a platform for synoptic imaging. These simultaneous measurements from the surface and from orbit will allow us to characterize the planet's general circulation and its interaction with the dust, water, and CO2 cycles. During entry, descent, and landing, each of Pascal's 24 probes will also measure the temperature structure of the atmosphere and acquire images of the surface. These data will allow us to determine the global structure of the atmosphere between 15 and 130 km, and characterize the local terrain to help interpret the landed data. The descent images are part of Pascal's outreach program, as the probe camera system will be developed by faculty-supervised student project. The intent is to generate enthusiasm for the Pascal mission by directly involving students. Pascal will be launched on a Delta II-7925 in August of 2005. A type I trajectory will deliver Pascal to Mars in January of 2006. On approach, the three-axis stabilized carrier spacecraft will spring deploy the Pascal probes in 4 separate salvo's of 6 each. Global coverage is achieved with small time-of-arrival adjustments in

  4. The Pascal Discovery Mission: A Mars Climate Network Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haberle, Robert M.; Catling, D. C.; Chassefiere, E.; Forget, F.; Hourdin, F.; Leovy, C. B.; Magalhaes, J.; Mihalov, J.; Pommereau, J. P.; Murphy, J. R.; DeVincenzi, Donald L. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The climate of Mars is a major focus of Mars exploration. With the loss of MCO, however, it remains uncertain how it will be achieved. We argue that a truly dedicated climate mission to Mars should have both orbital and landed components, and that these should operate simultaneously for at least I Mars year if not longer. Pascal is Discovery mission that emphasizes the landed component. Its principal goal is to establish a network of 24 small weather stations on the surface of Mars that will operate for 2 Mars years, with an extended mission option for an additional 8 Mars years bringing the total mission lifetime up to 10 Mars years. The stations will collect hourly measurements of pressure, temperature, and optical depth. After delivering the probes to Mars, Pascal's carrier spacecraft will go into an elliptical orbit which will serve as a relay for the landers, and a platform for synoptic imaging. These simultaneous measurements from the surface and from orbit will allow us to characterize the planet's general circulation and its interaction with the dust, water, and CO2 cycles. During entry, descent, and landing, each of Pascal's 24 probes will also measure the temperature structure of the atmosphere and acquire images of the surface. These data will allow us to determine the global structure of the atmosphere between 15 and 130 km, and characterize the local terrain to help interpret the landed data. The descent images are part of Pascal's outreach program, as the probe camera system will be developed by faculty-supervised student project. The intent is to generate enthusiasm for the Pascal mission by directly involving students. Pascal will be launched on a Delta 11-7925 in August of 2005. A type I trajectory will deliver Pascal to Mars in January of 2006. On approach, the three-axis stabilized carrier spacecraft will spring deploy the Pascal probes in 4 separate salvo's of 6 each. Global coverage is achieved with small time-of-arrival adjustments in between

  5. The Pascal Discovery Mission: A Mars Climate Network Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haberle, R. M.; Catling, D. C.; Chassefiere, E.; Forget, F.; Hourdin, F.; Leovy, C. B.; Magalhaes, J.; Mihalov, J.; Pommereau, J. P.; Murphy, J. R.

    2000-01-01

    The climate of Mars is a major focus of Mars exploration. With the loss of MCO, however, it remains uncertain how it will be achieved. We argue that a truly dedicated climate mission to Mars should have both orbital and landed components, and that these should operate simultaneously for at least 1 Mars year if not longer. Pascal is a Discovery mission that emphasizes the landed component. Its principal goal is to establish a network of 24 small weather stations on the surface of Mars that will operate for 2 Mars years, with an extended mission option for an additional 8 Mars years bringing the total mission lifetime up to 10 Mars years. The stations will collect hourly measurements of pressure, temperature, and optical depth. After delivering the probes to Mars, Pascal's carrier spacecraft will go into an elliptical orbit which will serve as a relay for the landers, and a platform for synoptic imaging. These simultaneous measurements from the surface and from orbit will allow us to characterize the planet's general circulation and its interaction with the dust, water, and CO2 cycles. During entry, descent, and landing, each of Pascal's 24 probes will also measure the temperature structure of the atmosphere and acquire images of the surface. These data will allow us to determine the global structure of the atmosphere between 15 and 130 km, and characterize the local terrain to help interpret the landed data. The descent images are part of Pascal's outreach program, as the probe camera system will be developed by faculty-supervised student project. The intent is to generate enthusiasm for the Pascal mission by directly involving students. Pascal will be launched on a Delta II-7925 in August of 2005. A type I trajectory will deliver Pascal to Mars in January of 2006. On approach, the three-axis stabilized carrier spacecraft will spring deploy the Pascal probes in 4 separate salvo's of 6 each. Global coverage is achieved with small time-of-arrival adjustments in

  6. Cooperative mission execution and planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flann, Nicholas S.; Saunders, Kevin S.; Pells, Larry

    1998-08-01

    Utilizing multiple cooperating autonomous vehicles to perform tasks enhances robustness and efficiency over the use of a single vehicle. Furthermore, because autonomous vehicles can be controlled precisely and their status known accurately in real time, new types of cooperative behaviors are possible. This paper presents a working system called MEPS that plans and executes missions for multiple autonomous vehicles in large structured environments. Two generic spatial tasks are supported, to sweep an area and to visit a location while activating on-board equipment. Tasks can be entered both initially by the user and dynamically during mission execution by both users and vehicles. Sensor data and task achievement data is shared among the vehicles enabling them to cooperatively adapt to changing environmental, vehicle and tasks conditions. The system has been successfully applied to control ATV and micro-robotic vehicles in precision agriculture and waste-site characterization environments.

  7. Space Shuttle mission: STS-67

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Endeavor, scheduled to launch March 2, 1995 from NASA's Kennedy Space Center, will conduct NASA's longest Shuttle flight prior to date. The mission, designated STS-67, has a number of experiments and payloads, which the crew, commanded by Stephen S. Oswald, will have to oversee. This NASA press kit for the mission contains a general background (general press release, media services information, quick-look facts page, shuttle abort modes, summary timeline, payload and vehicle weights, orbital summary, and crew responsibilities); cargo bay payloads and activities (Astro 2, Get Away Special Experiments); in-cabin payloads (Commercial Minimum Descent Altitude Instrumentation Technology Associates Experiments, protein crystal growth experiments, Middeck Active Control Experiment, and Shuttle Amateur Radio Experiment); and the STS-67 crew biographies. The payloads and experiments are described and summarized to give an overview of the goals, objectives, apparatuses, procedures, sponsoring parties, and the assigned crew members to carry out the tasks.

  8. Skylab mission report, third visit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    An evaluation is presented of the operational and engineering aspects of the third Skylab visit, including information on the performance of the command and service module and the experiment hardware, the crew's evaluation of the visit, and other visit-related areas of interest such as biomedical observations. The specific areas discussed are contained in the following: (1) solar physics and astrophysics investigations; (2) Comet Kohoutek experiments; (3) medical experiments; (4) earth observations, including data for the multispectral photographic facility, the earth terrain camera, and the microwave radiometer/scattermometer and altimeter; (5) engineering and technology experiments; (6) food and medical operational equipment; (7) hardware and experiment anomalies; and (8) mission support, mission objectives, flight planning, and launch phase summary. Conclusions discussed as a result of the third visit to Skylab involve the advancement of the sciences, practical applications, the durability of man and systems in space, and spaceflight effectiveness and economy.

  9. Mission Success for Combustion Science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weiland, Karen J.

    2004-01-01

    This presentation describes how mission success for combustion experiments has been obtained in previous spaceflight experiments and how it will be obtained for future International Space Station (ISS) experiments. The fluids and combustion facility is a payload planned for the ISS. It is composed of two racks: the fluids Integrated rack and the Combustion INtegrated Rack (CIR). Requirements for the CIR were obtained from a set of combustion basis experiments that served as surrogates for later experiments. The process for experiments that fly on the ISS includes proposal selection, requirements and success criteria definition, science and engineering reviews, mission operations, and postflight operations. By following this process, the microgravity combustion science program has attained success in 41 out of 42 experiments.

  10. Xenia Mission: Spacecraft Design Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hopkins, R. C.; Johnson, C. L.; Kouveliotou, C.; Jones, D.; Baysinger, M.; Bedsole, T.; Maples, C. C.; Benfield, P. J.; Turner, M.; Capizzo, P.; Fabinski, L.; Hornsby, L.; Thompson, K.; Miernik, J. H.; Percy, T.

    2009-01-01

    The proposed Xenia mission will, for the first time, chart the chemical and dynamical state of the majority of baryonic matter in the universe. using high-resolution spectroscopy, Xenia will collect essential information from major traces of the formation and evolution of structures from the early universe to the present time. The mission is based on innovative instrumental and observational approaches: observing with fast reaction gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) with a high spectral resolution. This enables the study of their (star-forming) environment from the dark to the local universe and the use of GRBs as backlight of large-scale cosmological structures, observing and surveying extended sources with high sensitivity using two wide field-of-view x-ray telescopes - one with a high angular resolution and the other with a high spectral resolution.

  11. New ESA Earth Explorer Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herland, E.

    2006-12-01

    The European Space Agency has recently selected a set of six mission candidates for its next Earth Explorer Core mission. This mission will be launched in the beginning of the next decade, and will contribute significantly to Earth science in addition to the already approved six missions in the programme. The scientific priorities for the call for proposals were the global water cycle, the global carbon cycle, atmospheric chemistry and the human element in the Earth system. The presentation will outline the scientific objectives of each of the six mission proposals, and in particular address the potential contribution to the water and energy cycle research and CEOP. The six mission proposals are: BIOMASS global measurements of forest biomass. The measurement is accomplished by a space-borne P-band synthetic aperture polarimetric radar. The technique is mainly based on the measurement of the cross- polar backscattering coefficient, from which forest biomass is directly retrieved. Also uses multipolarization measurements and interferometry. The studies for this mission will include comparative studies to measure terrestrial biomass using P- or L-band and consideration of alternative implementations using L-band. TRAQ TRopospheric composition and Air Quality: Monitoring of air quality and long-range transport of air pollutants. A new synergistic sensor concept for process studies, particularly with respect to aerosol-cloud interactions. Focus on the rate of air quality change on regional and global scales, the strength and distribution of sources and sinks of tropospheric trace gases and aerosols influencing air quality, and the role of tropospheric composition in global change. Carries imaging spectrometers in the range from ultraviolet to short-wave infrared. PREMIER PRocess Exploration through Measurements of Infrared and millimetre-wave Emitted Radiation: Aims at understanding processes that link trace gases, radiation, chemistry and climate in the atmosphere

  12. Java Mission Evaluation Workstation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pettinger, Ross; Watlington, Tim; Ryley, Richard; Harbour, Jeff

    2006-01-01

    The Java Mission Evaluation Workstation System (JMEWS) is a collection of applications designed to retrieve, display, and analyze both real-time and recorded telemetry data. This software is currently being used by both the Space Shuttle Program (SSP) and the International Space Station (ISS) program. JMEWS was written in the Java programming language to satisfy the requirement of platform independence. An object-oriented design was used to satisfy additional requirements and to make the software easily extendable. By virtue of its platform independence, JMEWS can be used on the UNIX workstations in the Mission Control Center (MCC) and on office computers. JMEWS includes an interactive editor that allows users to easily develop displays that meet their specific needs. The displays can be developed and modified while viewing data. By simply selecting a data source, the user can view real-time, recorded, or test data.

  13. Viking orbiter system primary mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goudy, J. R.

    1977-01-01

    An overview of Viking Orbiter (VO) system and subsystem performances during the primary mission (the time period from VO-1 launch on August 20, 1975, through November 15, 1976) is presented. Brief descriptions, key design requirements, pertinent historical information, unique applications or situations, and predicted versus actual performances are included for all VO-1 and VO-2 subsystems, both individually and as an integrated system.

  14. Swarm: ESA's Magnetic Field Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plank, Gernot; Haagmans, Roger; Floberghagen, Rune; Menard, Yvon

    2013-04-01

    Swarm is the fifth Earth Explorer mission in ESA's Living Planet Programme, and is scheduled for launch in 2013. The objective of the Swarm mission is to provide the best-ever survey of the geomagnetic field and its temporal evolution using a constellation of 3 identical satellites. The Mission shall deliver data that allow access to new insights into the Earth system by improved scientific understanding of the Earth's interior and near-Earth electromagnetic environment. After launch and triple satellite release at an initial altitude of about 490 km, a pair of the satellites will fly side-by-side with slowly decaying altitude, while the third satellite will be lifted to 530 km to complete the Swarm constellation. High-precision and high-resolution measurements of the strength, direction and variation of the magnetic field, complemented by precise navigation, accelerometer and electric field measurements, will provide the observations required to separate and model various sources of the geomagnetic field and near-Earth current systems. The mission science goals are to provide a unique view into Earth's core dynamics, mantle conductivity, crustal magnetisation, ionospheric and magnetospheric current systems and upper atmosphere dynamics - ranging from understanding the geodynamo to contributing to space weather. The scientific objectives and results from recent scientific studies will be presented. In addition the current status of the project, which is presently in the final stage of the development phase, will be addressed. A consortium of European scientific institutes is developing a distributed processing system to produce geophysical (Level 2) data products for the Swarm user community. The setup of the Swarm ground segment and the contents of the data products will be addressed. More information on Swarm can be found at www.esa.int/esaLP/LPswarm.html.

  15. The ASTRO-H Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dotani, Tadayasu; Takahashi, Tadayuki

    2012-07-01

    ASTRO-H, the new Japanese X-ray Astronomy Satellite following Suzaku, is an international X-ray mission, planed for launch in 2014. ASTRO-H is a combination of wide band X-ray spectroscopy (3 - 80 keV) provided by focusing hard X-ray mirrors and hard X-ray imaging detectors, and high energy-resolution soft X-ray spectroscopy (0.3 - 10 keV) provided by thin-foil X-ray optics and a micro-calorimeter array. The mission will also carry an X-ray CCD camera as a focal plane detector for a soft X-ray telescope and a non-focusing soft gamma-ray detector based on a narrow-FOV semiconductor Compton Camera. With these instruments, ASTRO-H covers very wide energy range from 0.3 keV to 600 keV. The simultaneous broad band pass, coupled with high spectral resolution of <7 eV by the micro-calorimeter will enable a wide variety of important science themes to be pursued. The ASTRO-H mission objectives are to study the evolution of yet-unknown obscured super massive Black Holes in Active Galactic Nuclei; trace the growth history of the largest structures in the Universe; provide insights into the behavior of material in extreme gravitational fields; trace particle acceleration structures in clusters of galaxies and SNRs; and investigate the detailed physics of jets. In this presentation, we will describe the mission, scientific goal and the recent progress of the project.

  16. Mission Driven Science at Argonne

    SciTech Connect

    Thackery, Michael; Wang, Michael; Young, Linda

    2012-01-01

    Mission driven science at Argonne means applying science and scientific knowledge to a physical and "real world" environment. Examples include testing a theoretical model through the use of formal science or solving a practical problem through the use of natural science. At the laboratory, our materials scientists are leading the way in producing energy solutions today that could help reduce and remove the energy crisis of tomorrow.

  17. STS-34: Mission Overview Briefing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    Live footage shows Milt Heflin, the Lead Flight Director participating in the STS-34 Mission Briefing. He addresses the primary objective, and answered questions from the audience and other NASA Centers. Heflin also mentions the Shuttle Solar Backscatter Ultraviolet secondary payload, and several experiments. These experiments include Growth Hormone Crystal Distribution (Plants), Polymer Morphology, Sensor Technology Experiment, Mesoscale Lightning Experiment, Shuttle Student Involvement Program "Ice Crystals", and the Air Force Maui Optical Site.

  18. Advanced planetary analyses. [for planetary mission planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    The results are summarized of research accomplished during this period concerning planetary mission planning are summarized. The tasks reported include the cost estimations research, planetary missions handbook, and advanced planning activities.

  19. Adaptive planning of emergency aerial photogrammetric mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Fuqiang; Zhu, Qing; Zhang, Junxiao; Miao, Shuangxi; Zhou, Xingxia; Cao, Zhenyu

    2015-12-01

    Aiming at the diversity of emergency aerial photogrammetric mission requirements, complex ground and air environmental constraints make the planning mission time-consuming. This paper presents a fast adaptation for the UAV aerial photogrammetric mission planning. First, Building emergency aerial UAVs mission the unified expression of UAVs model and mechanical model of performance parameters in the semantic space make the integrated expression of mission requirements and low altitude environment. Proposed match assessment method which based on resource and mission efficiency. Made the Adaptive match of UAV aerial resources and mission. According to the emergency aerial resource properties, considering complex air-ground environment and mission requirements constraints. Made accurate design of UAV route. Experimental results show, the method scientific and efficient, greatly enhanced the emergency response rate.

  20. Mission analyses for manned flight experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orth, J. E.

    1973-01-01

    The investigations to develop a high altitude aircraft program plan are reported along with an analysis of manned comet and asteroid missions, the development of shuttle sortie mission objectives, and an analysis of major management issues facing the shuttle sortie.

  1. Asteroid Redirect Mission: Boulder Collection Concept

    NASA Video Gallery

    This animation illustrates one of two robotic mission concepts under consideration for NASA's Asteroid Redirect Mission. In this concept, the Asteroid Redirect Vehicle descends to the surface of a ...

  2. NASA Now: Exploring Asteroids: An Analog Mission

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA’s Extreme Environment Mission Operations, or NEEMO, project lead Bill Todd describes this analog mission and how aquanauts living and working in an undersea habitat are helping NASA prepare ...

  3. ASTER: A Brazilian Mission to an Asteroid.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winter, O. C.; Macau, E. E. N.; de Campos Velho, H.; Carruba, V.

    2012-05-01

    The first Brazilian mission to an asteroid is being planned. The target is the asteroid 2001 SN263, which has a NEA orbit of class AMOR. The mission is scheduled to be launched in 2015, reaching the asteroid in 2019.

  4. Toward lowering the cost of mission operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wall, S. D.; Ledbetter, K. W.

    1993-01-01

    The mission operations system is one of the more significant drivers of the cost of the mission operations and data analysis segment of missions. In large or long-lived projects, the MOS can also be a driver in total mission cost. Larger numbers of missions, together with an increasingly cost-conscious environment, dictate that future missions must more strictly control costs as they perform to their requirements. It is therefore prudent to examine the conduct of past missions for ways to conserve resources. In this paper we review inputs made to past projects' 'lessons-learned' activities, in which personnel from past projects (among other things) identified major cost drivers of MOS's and considered how economies were or might have been realized in both design and performance of their MOS. Common themes among four such reviews are summarized in an attempt to provide suggestions for cost reduction in future missions.

  5. The Juno New Frontiers mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matousek, Steve

    2007-11-01

    Peering down through the clouds and deep into Jupiter's atmosphere, Juno reveals fundamental processes of the formation and early evolution of our solar system. Using a simple, solar powered, spinning spacecraft in an innovative, highly elliptical polar orbit, Juno avoids Jupiter's highest radiation regions. The mission combines high heritage instruments and spacecraft with an experienced science and engineering team. The designs of the individual instruments are straightforward and have excellent heritage from previous space missions. Juno's scientific payload includes a dual frequency gravity/radio science system, a six wavelength Microwave Radiometer (MWR) for atmospheric sounding and composition, a dual-technique magnetometer, plasma detectors, energetic particle detectors (EPDs), a radio/plasma wave experiment, and an Ultraviolet Imager/Spectrometer. Juno's payload also includes a color camera to provide the public with their first glimpse of Jupiter's poles. Juno will launch in July, 2010 or August, 2011 and arrive at Jupiter 5.2 years later. The nominal mission ends one year after Jupiter arrival with a deorbit into Jupiter's atmosphere.

  6. Earth Observing-1 Extended Mission

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2005-01-01

    Since November 2000, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Earth Observing-1 (EO-1) mission has demonstrated the capabilities of a dozen spacecraft sensor and communication innovations. Onboard the EO-1 spacecraft are two land remote sensing instruments. The Advanced Land Imager (ALI) acquires data in spectral bands and at resolutions similar to Landsat. The Hyperion instrument, which is the first civilian spaceborne hyperspectral imager, acquires data in 220 10-nanometer bands covering the visible, near, and shortwave-infrared bands. The initial one-year technology demonstration phase of the mission included a detailed comparison of ALI with the Landsat Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) instrument. Specifications for the Operational Land Imager (OLI), the planned successor to ETM+, were formulated in part from performance characteristics of ALI. Recognizing the remarkable performance of the satellite's instruments and the exceptional value of the data, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and NASA agreed in December 2001 to share responsibility for operating EO-1. The extended mission continues, on a cost-reimbursable basis, as long as customer sales fully recover flight and ground operations costs. As of May 2005, more than 17,800 scenes from each instrument have been acquired, indexed, archived, and made available to the public.

  7. STS-79 Mission Highlight Presentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The flight crew of STS-79, Cmdr. William F. Readdy, Pilot Terrence W. Wilcutt, Mission Specialists, Thomas D. Akers, Shannon Lucid, Jay Apt, and Carl E. Walz can be seen performing pre-launch activities such as eating the traditional breakfast, crew suit-up, and the ride out to the launch pad. Also, included are various panoramic views of the shuttle on the pad. The crew can be seen being readied in the 'white room' for their mission. After the closing of the hatch and arm retraction, launch activities are shown including countdown, engine ignition, launch, and the separation of the Solid Rocket Boosters. STS-79 is the second Shuttle-Mir mission to carry a SPACEHAB module on board, and the first to carry a double module. The forward portion of the double module will house experiments conducted by the crew before, during and after Atlantis is docked to the Russian space station. The aft portion of the double module primarily houses the logistics equipment to be transferred to the Russian space station. Logistics include food, clothing, experiment supplies, and spare equipment for Mir.

  8. Manned NEO Mission EVA Challenges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2011-01-01

    The President has proposed to land astronauts on an asteroid by 2025. However, Manned NEO (Near Earth Objects) Missions will present a host of new and exciting problems that will need to be better defined and solved before such a mission is launched. Here I will focus on the challenges for conducting asteroidal EVAs. Specfically, crew locomotion, sampling, drilling, documentation, and instrument deployment issues arising from the micro gravity environments associated with NEOs. Therefore, novel methods and techniques will need to be developed and tested in order to achieve specific mission science objectives. Walking or driving on the surface will not be a realistic option due to the small sizes (10 s to 100 s of meters in diameter) and hence extremely low gravity of the present day known candidate NEOs. EVAs will have to be carried out with crew members either using a self propelled device (akin to the MMU and SAFER units used on Shuttle/ISS) and or tethers. When using tethers a grid system could be deployed which is anchored to the asteroid. These anchor points could be inserted by firing penetrators into the surface from the spacecraft while it is still at a safe standoff distance. These penetrators would pull double duty by being laden with scientific instrumentation to probe the subsurface. Dust and debris generated by sample collection and locomotion in a microgravity environment could also pose some problems that will require forethought.

  9. [Issues of biomedical support of explorations missions].

    PubMed

    Potapov, A N; Sinyak, Yu E; Petrov, V M

    2013-01-01

    Sine qua non for piloted exploration missions is a system of biomedical support. The future system will be considerably different from the analogous systems applied in current orbital missions. The reason is the challenging conditions in expeditions to remote space. In a mission to Mars, specifically, these are high levels of radiation, hypomagnetic environment, alternation of micro- and hypogravity, very long mission duration and autonomy. The paper scrutinizes the major issues of medical support to future explorers of space. PMID:23700618

  10. [Issues of biomedical support of explorations missions].

    PubMed

    Potapov, A N; Sinyak, Yu E; Petrov, V M

    2013-01-01

    Sine qua non for piloted exploration missions is a system of biomedical support. The future system will be considerably different from the analogous systems applied in current orbital missions. The reason is the challenging conditions in expeditions to remote space. In a mission to Mars, specifically, these are high levels of radiation, hypomagnetic environment, alternation of micro- and hypogravity, very long mission duration and autonomy. The paper scrutinizes the major issues of medical support to future explorers of space.

  11. Science Mission Definition Studies for TROPIX

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fennell, J. F.

    1997-01-01

    This document summarizes the results of mission definition studies for solar electric propulsion missions that have been carried out over the last approximately three years. The major output from the studies has been two proposals which were submitted to NASA in response to Announcements of Opportunity for missions and an ongoing Global Magnetospheric Dynamics mission study. The bulk of this report consists of copies of the proposals and preliminary materials from the GMD study that will be completed in the coming months.

  12. Kepler Mission: A Search for Habitable Planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koch, David; Fonda, Mark (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The Kepler Mission was selected by NASA as one of the next two Discovery Missions. The mission design is based on the search for Earth-size planets in the habitable zone of solar-like stars, but does not preclude the discovery of larger or smaller planets in other orbits of non-solar-like stars. An overview of the mission, the scientific goals and the anticipated results will be presented.

  13. Exploration Missions to Host Small Payloads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cirtain, Jonathan; Pelfrey, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    The next-generation heavy launch vehicle, the Space Launch System (SLS), will provide the capability to deploy small satellites during the trans-lunar phase of the exploration mission trajectory. We will describe the payload mission concept of operations, the payload capacity for the SLS, and the payload requirements. Exploration Mission 1, currently planned for launch in December 2017, will be the first mission to carry such payloads on the SLS.

  14. Management by missions in the healthcare sector.

    PubMed

    Fonseca Pires, J; Rey, C; Más-Machuca, M; Bastons, M

    2016-01-01

    This article discusses the importance of the mission statement in the healthcare sector. It's also argued that only formal declaration of the mission it's insufficient to the appropriate professional coordination of doctors, nurses and managers. It's proposed a systematic approach to facilitate the introduction of the mission within the systems of the organization, what is called "Management by missions." It promotes horizontal and vertical integration between doctors, nurses and managers. Criteria that ensure this integration are specified. PMID:27068141

  15. Management by missions in the healthcare sector.

    PubMed

    Fonseca Pires, J; Rey, C; Más-Machuca, M; Bastons, M

    2016-01-01

    This article discusses the importance of the mission statement in the healthcare sector. It's also argued that only formal declaration of the mission it's insufficient to the appropriate professional coordination of doctors, nurses and managers. It's proposed a systematic approach to facilitate the introduction of the mission within the systems of the organization, what is called "Management by missions." It promotes horizontal and vertical integration between doctors, nurses and managers. Criteria that ensure this integration are specified.

  16. Mission Operations and Navigation Toolkit Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sunseri, Richard F.; Wu, Hsi-Cheng; Hanna, Robert A.; Mossey, Michael P.; Duncan, Courtney B.; Evans, Scott E.; Evans, James R.; Drain, Theodore R.; Guevara, Michelle M.; Martin Mur, Tomas J.; Attiyah, Ahlam A.

    2009-01-01

    MONTE (Mission Operations and Navigation Toolkit Environment) Release 7.3 is an extensible software system designed to support trajectory and navigation analysis/design for space missions. MONTE is intended to replace the current navigation and trajectory analysis software systems, which, at the time of this reporting, are used by JPL's Navigation and Mission Design section. The software provides an integrated, simplified, and flexible system that can be easily maintained to serve the needs of future missions in need of navigation services.

  17. Interplanetary round trip mission design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wertz, James R.

    2004-08-01

    This paper defines the basic constraints for interplanetary round trip travel or, equivalently, for round trip travel from and to a natural or artificial satellite, such as round trips from the International Space Station to another satellite and back. While the constraints are straightforward, they do not seem to have been discussed previously in the literature, perhaps because round trip travel has not been a realistic option for most missions. We call the location that we are leaving and returning to the home planet or satellite and the spacecraft which makes the round trip the traveler. In round trip space travel, the traveler and the home planet must begin and end at the same true anomaly. Consequently, the fundamental constraint for mission design is as follows: Over the duration of the mission the difference in the change in true anomaly for the home planet and the change in true anomaly for the traveler must be an integral number of revolutions. This fundamental constraint implies a number of interesting properties for round trip travel to other locations in the solar system. For example: For Hohmann minimum energy transfers, going to nearby objects takes longer than going to some which are further. The shortest Hohmann round trip to a destination further from the Sun is a 2-yr trip to a heliocentric distance of 2.2 AU, i.e., 1.2 AU outward from the Earth. Increasing the transfer velocity has only a very small effect on total trip time, except at discrete "jumps" where the total trip time can change by a year or more. One way to reduce the round trip time is to go beyond the target planet and visit the target "on the way back". Some scenarios that go above a Δ V threshold can dramatically reduce the total round trip time, i.e., a reduction in round trip time for a Mars mission from the traditional 2.5 yr to less than 6 months. This paper discusses the general constraint equations and the resulting implications for round trip mission design. These equations

  18. Mission payloads subsystem description, revision 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, J. M.

    1976-01-01

    The Mission Payloads Subsystem (MPLS) which utilizes a simplified trajectory model to generate a list of missions for the Scheduling Algorithm for Mission Planning and Logistics Evaluation (SAMPLE) program is described. The MPLS is the mechanism that forms the basis of input for the other subsystems of SAMPLE and various post processors.

  19. Technologies for the Asteroid Redirect Robotic Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cichy, B.

    2015-10-01

    The Robotic segment of NASA's Asteroid Redirect Mission (ARM) will demonstrate key capabilities that will enable new frontiers of future human and robotic spaceflight. We introduce the current robotic mission concept, and detail the technologies and capabilities that will be demonstrated by the mission.

  20. 28 CFR 800.2 - Mission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Mission. 800.2 Section 800.2 Judicial Administration COURT SERVICES AND OFFENDER SUPERVISION AGENCY FOR THE DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA ORGANIZATION AND FUNCTIONS § 800.2 Mission. CSOSA's mission is to increase public safety, prevent crime, reduce...

  1. Kepler's Third Law and NASA's "Kepler Mission"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gould, Alan; Komatsu, Toshi; DeVore, Edna; Harman, Pamela; Koch, David

    2015-01-01

    NASA's "Kepler Mission" has been wildly successful in discovering exoplanets. This paper summarizes the mission goals, briefly explains the transit method of finding exoplanets and design of the mission, provides some key findings, and describes useful education materials available at the "Kepler" website.

  2. The Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lehman, David H.; Hoffman, Tom L.; Havens, Glen G.

    2013-01-01

    The Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory (GRAIL) mission, launched in September 2011, successfully completed its Primary Science Mission in June 2012 and is currently in Extended Mission operations. Competitively selected under a NASA Announcement of Opportunity in December 2007, GRAIL is a Discovery Program mission subject to a mandatory project cost cap. The purpose of the mission is to precisely map the gravitational field of the Moon to reveal its internal structure from crust to core, determine its thermal evolution, and extend this knowledge to other planets. The mission uses twin spacecraft flying in tandem to provide the gravity map. The GRAIL Flight System, consisting of the spacecraft and payload, was developed based on significant heritage from previous missions such an experimental U.S. Air Force satellite, the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) mission, and the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) mission. The Mission Operations System (MOS) was based on high-heritage multimission operations developed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory and Lockheed Martin. Both the Flight System and MOS were adapted to meet the unique challenges posed by the GRAIL mission design. This paper summarizes the implementation challenges and accomplishments of getting GRAIL ready for launch. It also discusses the in-flight challenges and experiences of operating two spacecraft, and mission results.

  3. COMS normal operation for Earth Observation mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Young-Min

    2012-09-01

    Communication Ocean Meteorological Satellite (COMS) for the hybrid mission of meteorological observation, ocean monitoring, and telecommunication service was launched onto Geostationary Earth Orbit on June 27, 2010 and it is currently under normal operation service since April 2011. The COMS is located on 128.2° East of the geostationary orbit. In order to perform the three missions, the COMS has 3 separate payloads, the meteorological imager (MI), the Geostationary Ocean Color Imager (GOCI), and the Ka-band antenna. Each payload is dedicated to one of the three missions, respectively. The MI and GOCI perform the Earth observation mission of meteorological observation and ocean monitoring, respectively. For this Earth observation mission the COMS requires daily mission commands from the satellite control ground station and daily mission is affected by the satellite control activities. For this reason daily mission planning is required. The Earth observation mission operation of COMS is described in aspects of mission operation characteristics and mission planning for the normal operation services of meteorological observation and ocean monitoring. And the first year normal operation results after the In-Orbit-Test (IOT) are investigated through statistical approach to provide the achieved COMS normal operation status for the Earth observation mission.

  4. RESEARCH DESIGN FOR EVALUATING PROJECT MISSION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    FURNO, ORLANDO F.; AND OTHERS

    THIS REPORT OUTLINES DESIGNS FOR 8 POSSIBLE RESEARCH STUDIES WHICH COULD BE UNDERTAKEN WITH REGARD TO PROJECT MISSION, A PROGRAM TO PREPARE TEACHERS FOR ASSIGNMENT TO INNER CITY SCHOOLS. THEY ARE (1) A STUDY OF ATTRITION RATES OF STUDENT-INTERN-TEACHER ENROLLEES IN TRAINING IN PROJECT MISSION, (2) TEACHER CHARACTERISTICS OF PROJECT MISSION INTERNS…

  5. 32 CFR 383a.3 - Mission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... DEFENSE COMMISSARY AGENCY (DeCA) § 383a.3 Mission. (a) The mission of the DeCA is to: (1) Provide an... Assistant Secretary of Defense (Production and Logistics) (ASD(P&L)). ... 32 National Defense 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Mission. 383a.3 Section 383a.3 National...

  6. 32 CFR 383a.3 - Mission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... DEFENSE COMMISSARY AGENCY (DeCA) § 383a.3 Mission. (a) The mission of the DeCA is to: (1) Provide an... Assistant Secretary of Defense (Production and Logistics) (ASD(P&L)). ... 32 National Defense 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Mission. 383a.3 Section 383a.3 National...

  7. 32 CFR 383a.3 - Mission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... DEFENSE COMMISSARY AGENCY (DeCA) § 383a.3 Mission. (a) The mission of the DeCA is to: (1) Provide an... Assistant Secretary of Defense (Production and Logistics) (ASD(P&L)). ... 32 National Defense 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Mission. 383a.3 Section 383a.3 National...

  8. Mission analysis of solar powered aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, D. W.; Watson, D. A.; Tuttle, R. P.; Hall, S. A.

    1985-01-01

    The effect of a real mission scenario on a solar powered airplane configuration which had been developed in previous work were assessed. The mission used was surveillance of crop conditions over a route from Phoenix to Tucson to Tombstone, Arizona. Appendices are attached which address the applicability of existing platforms and payloads to do this mission.

  9. 28 CFR 800.2 - Mission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Mission. 800.2 Section 800.2 Judicial Administration COURT SERVICES AND OFFENDER SUPERVISION AGENCY FOR THE DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA ORGANIZATION AND FUNCTIONS § 800.2 Mission. CSOSA's mission is to increase public safety, prevent crime, reduce...

  10. 28 CFR 800.2 - Mission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Mission. 800.2 Section 800.2 Judicial Administration COURT SERVICES AND OFFENDER SUPERVISION AGENCY FOR THE DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA ORGANIZATION AND FUNCTIONS § 800.2 Mission. CSOSA's mission is to increase public safety, prevent crime, reduce...

  11. 28 CFR 800.2 - Mission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Mission. 800.2 Section 800.2 Judicial Administration COURT SERVICES AND OFFENDER SUPERVISION AGENCY FOR THE DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA ORGANIZATION AND FUNCTIONS § 800.2 Mission. CSOSA's mission is to increase public safety, prevent crime, reduce...

  12. 28 CFR 800.2 - Mission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mission. 800.2 Section 800.2 Judicial Administration COURT SERVICES AND OFFENDER SUPERVISION AGENCY FOR THE DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA ORGANIZATION AND FUNCTIONS § 800.2 Mission. CSOSA's mission is to increase public safety, prevent crime, reduce...

  13. Prime crew photographed during Apollo 7 mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1968-01-01

    Astronaut Walter M. Schirra Jr., Apollo 7 commander, is photographed during the Apollo 7 mission (1582); Astronaut Donn F. Eisele, Apollo 7 command module pilot, is photographed during the mission (1583); Astronaut Walter Cunningham, Apollo 7 lunar module pilot, is photographed during mission (1584).

  14. Prime crew photographed during Apollo 7 mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1968-01-01

    Astronaut Walter M. Schirra Jr., Apollo 7 commander, is photographed during the Apollo 7 mission (1582); Astronaut Donn F. Eisele, Apollo 7 command module pilot, is phtographed during the mission (1583); Astronaut Walter Cunningham, Apollo 7 lunar module pilot, is photographed during mission (1584).

  15. Kepler's Third Law and NASA's Kepler Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gould, Alan; Komatsu, Toshi; DeVore, Edna; Harman, Pamela; Koch, David

    2015-04-01

    NASA's Kepler Mission (Fig. 1) has been wildly successful in discovering exoplanets. This paper summarizes the mission goals, briefly explains the transit method of finding exoplanets and design of the mission, provides some key findings, and describes useful education materials available at the Kepler website.

  16. 43 CFR 10000.5 - Mission statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... their importance to the quality of life, as well as the fundamental and intrinsic right to coexistence... CONSERVATION COMMISSION ORGANIZATION AND FUNCTIONS § 10000.5 Mission statement. (a) The mission of the Utah... general public. (b) In fulfillment of this mission, the Commission acknowledges and adopts the...

  17. 43 CFR 10000.5 - Mission statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... their importance to the quality of life, as well as the fundamental and intrinsic right to coexistence... CONSERVATION COMMISSION ORGANIZATION AND FUNCTIONS § 10000.5 Mission statement. (a) The mission of the Utah... general public. (b) In fulfillment of this mission, the Commission acknowledges and adopts the...

  18. 43 CFR 10000.5 - Mission statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... their importance to the quality of life, as well as the fundamental and intrinsic right to coexistence... CONSERVATION COMMISSION ORGANIZATION AND FUNCTIONS § 10000.5 Mission statement. (a) The mission of the Utah... general public. (b) In fulfillment of this mission, the Commission acknowledges and adopts the...

  19. 43 CFR 10000.5 - Mission statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... their importance to the quality of life, as well as the fundamental and intrinsic right to coexistence... CONSERVATION COMMISSION ORGANIZATION AND FUNCTIONS § 10000.5 Mission statement. (a) The mission of the Utah... general public. (b) In fulfillment of this mission, the Commission acknowledges and adopts the...

  20. Interplanetary mission design techniques for flagship-class missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kloster, Kevin W.

    Trajectory design, given the current level of propulsive technology, requires knowledge of orbital mechanics, computational resources, extensive use of tools such as gravity-assist and V infinity leveraging, as well as insight and finesse. Designing missions that deliver a capable science package to a celestial body of interest that are robust and affordable is a difficult task. Techniques are presented here that assist the mission designer in constructing trajectories for flagship-class missions in the outer Solar System. These techniques are applied in this work to spacecraft that are currently in flight or in the planning stages. By escaping the Saturnian system, the Cassini spacecraft can reach other destinations in the Solar System while satisfying planetary quarantine. The patched-conic method was used to search for trajectories that depart Saturn via gravity assist at Titan. Trajectories were found that fly by Jupiter to reach Uranus or Neptune, capture at Jupiter or Neptune, escape the Solar System, fly by Uranus during its 2049 equinox, or encounter Centaurs. A "grand tour," which visits Jupiter, Uranus, and Neptune, departs Saturn in 2014. New tools were built to search for encounters with Centaurs, small Solar System bodies between the orbits of Jupiter and Neptune, and to minimize the DeltaV to target these encounters. Cassini could reach Chiron, the first-discovered Centaur, in 10.5 years after a 2022 Saturn departure. For a Europa Orbiter mission, the strategy for designing Jovian System tours that include Io flybys differs significantly from schemes developed for previous versions of the mission. Assuming that the closest approach distance of the incoming hyperbola at Jupiter is below the orbit of Io, then an Io gravity assist gives the greatest energy pump-down for the least decrease in perijove radius. Using Io to help capture the spacecraft can increase the savings in Jupiter orbit insertion DeltaV over a Ganymede-aided capture. The tour design is

  1. The Europa Clipper mission concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pappalardo, Robert; Lopes, Rosaly

    Jupiter's moon Europa may be a habitable world. Galileo spacecraft data suggest that an ocean most likely exists beneath Europa’s icy surface and that the “ingredients” necessary for life (liquid water, chemistry, and energy) could be present within this ocean today. Because of the potential for revolutionizing our understanding of life in the solar system, future exploration of Europa has been deemed an extremely high priority for planetary science. A NASA-appointed Science Definition Team (SDT), working closely with a technical team from the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) and the Applied Physics Laboratory (APL), recently considered options for a future strategic mission to Europa, with the stated science goal: Explore Europa to investigate its habitability. The group considered several mission options, which were fully technically developed, then costed and reviewed by technical review boards and planetary science community groups. There was strong convergence on a favored architecture consisting of a spacecraft in Jupiter orbit making many close flybys of Europa, concentrating on remote sensing to explore the moon. Innovative mission design would use gravitational perturbations of the spacecraft trajectory to permit flybys at a wide variety of latitudes and longitudes, enabling globally distributed regional coverage of the moon’s surface, with nominally 45 close flybys at altitudes from 25 to 100 km. We will present the science and reconnaissance goals and objectives, a mission design overview, and the notional spacecraft for this concept, which has become known as the Europa Clipper. The Europa Clipper concept provides a cost-efficient means to explore Europa and investigate its habitability, through understanding the satellite’s ice and ocean, composition, and geology. The set of investigations derived from these science objectives traces to a notional payload for science, consisting of: Ice Penetrating Radar (for sounding of ice-water interfaces

  2. Pre-Mission, Mission and Post Mission Data Management for NASA Field Campaigns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, M.; Goodman, M.; Drewry, M.; Graves, S. J.; Hardin, D. M.

    2011-12-01

    Field research campaigns are essential for observing and measuring actual Earth system phenomena and validating computer models that simulate Earth systems. Ultimately, field data have a wide variety of application in basic and applied research. Due to the nature of data collection during a field campaign the resulting data sets are discontinuous over the designated geographic region as well as in time. The management of aircraft based data must take these factors into consideration. The Global Hydrology and Resource Center (GHRC) and IT researchers at the University of Alabama in Huntsville have participated in a number of NASA field campaigns since 1998. For example The Genesis and Rapid Intensification Processes (GRIP) experiment was a recent NASA Earth science field experiment conducted in summer 2010 to better understand how tropical storms form and develop into major hurricanes. NASA used the DC-8 aircraft, the WB-57 aircraft, and the Global Hawk Unmanned Airborne System (UAS) configured with a suite of remote sensing instruments used to observe and characterize the lifecycle of hurricanes. This campaign capitalized on a number of ground networks, airborne science platforms (both manned and unmanned), and space-based assets. Due to this history and expected participation in future campaigns; the GHRC is recognized as one of the main NASA data centers for this category of data. At the GHRC data from successive field campaigns are tied together through common procedures, consistent metadata, and archival systems making it easy to access data from instruments that have been employed across several missions. These data are also valuable when preparing for new field campaigns. This paper will focus on data management strategies employed prior to the mission, during the mission and after mission timeframes.

  3. The four candidate Earth Explorer core missions. Report for mission selection. 3. Earth Radiation Mission.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ingmann, P.; Poiares Baptista, J. P.

    1999-07-01

    The primary aim of the ERM is to determine world-wide the vertical profiles of aerosol and cloud field characteristics to provide basic input data for numerical modelling and atmospheric studies. The mission supports the goals of the World Climate Research Programme (WCRP) and, in particular, of its sub-programme Global Energy and Water Experiment (GEWEX), which is intended to develop an improved understanding of energy and water fluxes within the climate system, to secure reliable forecasts of weather and climate.

  4. Project Prometheus and Future Entry Probe Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spilker, Thomas R.

    2005-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation on project Prometheus and future entry probe missions is shown. The topics include: 1) What Is Project Prometheus?; 2) What Capabilities Can Project Prometheus Offer? What Mission Types Are Being Considered?; 3) Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter (JIMO); 4) How Are Mission Opportunities Changing?; 5) Missions Of Interest a Year Ago; 6) Missions Now Being Considered For Further Study; 7) Galileo-Style (Conventional) Probe Delivery; 8) Galileo-Style Probe Support; 9) Conventional Delivery and Support of Multiple Probes; 10) How Entry Probe Delivery From an NEP Vehicle Is Different; and 11) Concluding Remarks.

  5. Mars integrated transportation system multistage Mars mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    In accordance with the objective of the Mars Integrated Transport System (MITS) program, the Multistage Mars Mission (MSMM) design team developed a profile for a manned mission to Mars. The purpose of the multistage mission is to send a crew of five astronauts to the martian surface by the year 2019. The mission continues man's eternal quest for exploration of new frontiers. This mission has a scheduled duration of 426 days that includes experimentation en route as well as surface exploration and experimentation. The MSMM is also designed as a foundation for a continuing program leading to the colonization of the planet Mars.

  6. The MAVEN Mission to Mars: Results from the nominal mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brain, David; Jakosky, Bruce; Luhmann, Janet; Grebowsky, Joe

    2016-04-01

    The MAVEN (Mars Atmosphere and Volatile EvolutioN) spacecraft has been making measurements relevant to the loss of Martian atmospheric particles to space since September 2014. Now in its first extended mission, MAVEN observations are teaching us about the chain of events that lead to atmospheric escape - including the drivers of escape from the Sun and solar wind, the atmospheric particle reservoirs for escape, and the escape processes and rates. These measurements are made using nine science instruments on a spacecraft with an elliptical precessing orbit that dips below the Martian exobase every 4.5 hours. During certain 'Deep Dip' periods the spacecraft periapsis is lowered further to near the top of the homopause, and the main peak of the ionosphere. Here we summarize the key results from MAVEN through the nominal mission and beyond. We emphasize new discoveries (e.g. diffuse aurora, a dusty upper atmosphere, metallic atmospheric ions) as well as coordinated measurements that allow us to evaluate atmospheric escape and climate evolution in unprecedented ways. We then highlight plans for continued observations of the Martian upper atmosphere and escape.

  7. Human Mars Missions: Cost Driven Architecture Assessments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Donahue, Benjamin

    1998-01-01

    This report investigates various methods of reducing the cost in space transportation systems for human Mars missions. The reference mission for this task is a mission currently under study at NASA. called the Mars Design Reference Mission, characterized by In-Situ propellant production at Mars. This study mainly consists of comparative evaluations to the reference mission with a view to selecting strategies that would reduce the cost of the Mars program as a whole. One of the objectives is to understand the implications of certain Mars architectures, mission modes, vehicle configurations, and potentials for vehicle reusability. The evaluations start with year 2011-2014 conjunction missions which were characterized by their abort-to-the-surface mission abort philosophy. Variations within this mission architecture, as well as outside the set to other architectures (not predicated on an abort to surface philosophy) were evaluated. Specific emphasis has been placed on identifying and assessing overall mission risk. Impacts that Mars mission vehicles might place upon the Space Station, if it were to be used as an assembly or operations base, were also discussed. Because of the short duration of this study only on a few propulsion elements were addressed (nuclear thermal, cryogenic oxygen-hydrogen, cryogenic oxygen-methane, and aerocapture). Primary ground rules and assumptions were taken from NASA material used in Marshall Space Flight Center's own assessment done in 1997.

  8. Mission of the month: Uganda.

    PubMed

    Snead, B

    1988-04-01

    US Agency for International Development (USAID) assistance to Uganda has been interrupted several times due to Uganda's turbulent history since independence. Mission Director Richard Podol explains that because USAID is not a major donor to Uganda, an effort is made to maximize effectiveness by being cautious about how agency money is spent. USAID looks for critical gaps that are not being filled by other donor programs yet are essential to the development of Uganda at present and in the future. 1 such area is export promotion. Another area is macroeconomic reform. Agricultural rehabilitation is a major factor in the mission's strategy to restore Uganda prosperity. USAID has a package of interrelated projects that work to increase agricultural production and improve processing and marketing, all supported by appropriate economic policies. In 1983, USAID began to fund the Manpower for Agriculture Development (MFAD) Project to assist the MInistry of Agriculture and Makerere University in strengthening their agricultural research and training capabilities. Also designed to increase food production is USAID's 6-year and $20 million Cooperative Agriculture and Agribusiness Support project. IN the health sector, USAID's Family Health Initiatives project works cooperatively with US and international organizations in supporting the MInistry of Health and Ugandan private organizations in their efforts to implement family planning policies and programs. The missions' oral rehydration project is being implemented throughout Uganda to reduce child mortality and severe cases of childhood illness caused by diarrheal diseases. The US in 1986 made pledges toward the budget for UGanda's Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) program. Podol maintains that while there has been significant economic and political progress, the primary issue continues to be political, i.e,, can full peace be restored to Uganda.

  9. Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) Mission Status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, T. E.; Black, R.; Burch, J. L.; Hesse, M.; Robertson, B. P.; Spidaliere, P. D.; Pope, S.; Tooley, C. R.; Torbert, R. B.

    2014-12-01

    The MMS mission, with its four fully instrumented reconnection probes, is manifested for launch in March 2015 from Kennedy Space Center (KSC). The initial orbits will be 12 RE geocentric radius by 1200 km altitude at 28˚ inclination, maneuvered into a resizable tetrahedral formation that will pass through the persistent sites of magnetic reconnection nearest to Earth. The Observatories, each with suite of instruments, underwent thermal vacuum testing serially beginning in late Nov 2013, with the final testing completed in July 2014. Pre-Shipment Review was held in late October 2014 prior to shipment of stacked pairs of Observatories to the launch processing site at KSC (Astrotech). They are now being processed in stacked pairs, pending full stacking as a constellation and installation on the Atlas V - Series 421 launch vehicle that will carry them into orbit. Final propulsion functional testing and launch rehearsal operations will be conducted this month. The Science and Engineering Team is preparing for commissioning and early operations immediately after launch by executing Mission Readiness Tests (MRTs) to exercise all systems including the "Scientist In The Loop" or SITL system that will provide human oversight of the prioritization of high resolution data segments for downloading to the ground. The Theory and Modeling team and three Interdisciplinary Science teams continue to develop virtual spacecraft data sets and displays as an aid to identification of features of interest during operations. Phase 1 operations will probe the dayside low latitude reconnection features, beginning in August 2015, as the constellation moves into the afternoon local time sector. More information is available at http://science.nasa.gov/missions/mms/, http://mms.gsfc.nasa.gov, and other linked sites.

  10. Low Cost Mission to Deimos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quantius, Dominik; Püsler, H.; Braukhane, A.; Gülzow, P.; Bauer, W.; Vollhardt, A.; Romberg, O.; Scheibe, K.; Hoffmann, H.; Bürner, A.

    The German non-profit amateur satellite organisation AMSAT-Deutschland successfully de-signed, built and launched four HEO satellites in the last three decades. Now they are going to build a satellite to leave the Earth orbit based on their flight-proven P3-D satellite design. Due to energetic constraints the most suitable launch date for the planned P5-A satellite to Mars will be in 2018. To efficiently use the relatively long time gap until launch a possible prior Moon mission came into mind. In co-operation with the DLR-Institute of Space Systems in Bremen, Germany, two studies on systems level for a first P5 satellite towards Moon and a following one towards Mars have been performed. By using the DLR's Concurrent Engineering Facility (CEF) two consistent satellite concepts were designed including mission analysis, configuration, propulsion, subsystem dimensioning, payload selection, budgeting and cost. The present paper gives an insight in the accomplished design process and the results of the performed study towards Mars. The developed Mars orbiter is designed to carry the following four main instruments besides flexible communication abilities: • multispectral line scanner for Martian cloud investigations and Deimos (and Phobos) stereo pictures during close flybys • Deimos framing camera for high resolution pictures of Deimos (and Phobos) including video mode • sensor imaging infrared spectrometer for mineralogy of Martian (also Deimos and Phobos) silicates and surface temperature measurements • radio science for research of Deimos ( Phobos) gravity, profiling of Mars ionosphere, occurrence of third meteoritic ionosphere layer; sounding of neutral atmosphere; solar corona activity This study presents a non-industrial satellite concept that could be launched as piggyback load on Ariane 5 into GTO. It promises a low cost mission into a Mars orbit that allows close approaches to Deimos and Phobos.

  11. Phoenix--the first Mars Scout mission.

    PubMed

    Shotwell, Robert

    2005-01-01

    NASA has initiated the first of a new series of missions to augment the current Mars Program. In addition to the systematic series of planned, directed missions currently comprising the Mars Program plan, NASA has started a series of Mars Scout missions that are low cost, price fixed, Principal [correction of Principle] Investigator-led projects. These missions are intended to provide an avenue for rapid response to discoveries made as a result of the primary Mars missions, as well as allow more risky technologies and approaches to be applied in the investigation of Mars. The first in this new series is the Phoenix mission which was selected as part of a highly competitive process. Phoenix will use the Mars 2001 Lander that was discontinued in 2000 and apply a new set of science objectives and mission objectives and will validate this soft lander architecture for future applications. This paper will provide an overview of both the Program and the Project.

  12. Small power plant reverse trade mission

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-09-06

    This draft report was prepared as required by Task No. 2 of the US Department of Energy, Grant No. FG07-89ID12850 Reverse Trade Mission to Acquaint International Representatives with US Power Plant and Drilling Technology'' (mission). As described in the grant proposal, this report covers the reactions of attendees toward US technology, its possible use in their countries, and an evaluation of the mission by the staff leaders. Note this is the draft report of one of two missions carried out under the same contract number. Because of the diversity of the mission subjects and the different attendees at each, a separate report for each mission has been prepared. This draft report has been sent to all mission attendees, specific persons in the US Department of Energy and Los Alamos National Lab., the California Energy Commission (CEC), and various other governmental agencies.

  13. Hitchhiker mission operations: Past, present, and future

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Kathryn

    1995-01-01

    What is mission operations? Mission operations is an iterative process aimed at achieving the greatest possible mission success with the resources available. The process involves understanding of the science objectives, investigation of which system capabilities can best meet these objectives, integration of the objectives and resources into a cohesive mission operations plan, evaluation of the plan through simulations, and implementation of the plan in real-time. In this paper, the authors present a comprehensive description of what the Hitchhiker mission operations approach is and why it is crucial to mission success. The authors describe the significance of operational considerations from the beginning and throughout the experiment ground and flight systems development. The authors also address the necessity of training and simulations. Finally, the authors cite several examples illustrating the benefits of understanding and utilizing the mission operations process.

  14. Crew Transportation System Design Reference Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mango, Edward J.

    2015-01-01

    Contains summaries of potential design reference mission goals for systems to transport humans to andfrom low Earth orbit (LEO) for the Commercial Crew Program. The purpose of this document is to describe Design Reference Missions (DRMs) representative of the end-to-end Crew Transportation System (CTS) framework envisioned to successfully execute commercial crew transportation to orbital destinations. The initial CTS architecture will likely be optimized to support NASA crew and NASA-sponsored crew rotation missions to the ISS, but consideration may be given in this design phase to allow for modifications in order to accomplish other commercial missions in the future. With the exception of NASA’s mission to the ISS, the remaining commercial DRMs are notional. Any decision to design or scar the CTS for these additional non-NASA missions is completely up to the Commercial Provider. As NASA’s mission needs evolve over time, this document will be periodically updated to reflect those needs.

  15. Mission design of a Pioneer Jupiter Orbiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friedman, L. D.; Nunamaker, R. R.

    1975-01-01

    The Mission analysis and design work performed in order to define a Pioneer mission to orbit Jupiter is described. This work arose from the interaction with a science advisory 'Mission Definition' team and led to the present mission concept. Building on the previous Jupiter Orbiter-Satellite Tour development at JPL a magnetospheric survey mission concept is developed. The geometric control of orbits which then provide extensive local time coverage of the Jovian system is analyzed and merged with the various science and program objectives. The result is a 'flower-orbit' mission design, yielding three large apoapse excursions at various local times and many interior orbits whose shape and orientation is under continual modification. This orbit design, together with a first orbit defined by delivery of an atmospheric probe, yields a mission of high scientific interest.

  16. Life support approaches for Mars missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drysdale, A. E.; Ewert, M. K.; Hanford, A. J.

    Life support approaches for Mars missions are evaluated using an equivalent system mass (ESM) approach, in which all significant costs are converted into mass units. The best approach, as defined by the lowest mission ESM, depends on several mission parameters, notably duration, environment and consequent infrastructure costs, and crew size, as well as the characteristics of the technologies which are available. Generally, for the missions under consideration, physicochemical regeneration is most cost effective. However, bioregeneration is likely to be of use for producing salad crops for any mission, for producing staple crops for medium duration missions, and for most food, air and water regeneration for long missions (durations of a decade). Potential applications of in situ resource utilization need to be considered further.

  17. Life support approaches for Mars missions.

    PubMed

    Drysdale, A E; Ewert, M K; Hanford, A J

    2003-01-01

    Life support approaches for Mars missions are evaluated using an equivalent system mass (ESM) approach, in which all significant costs are converted into mass units. The best approach, as defined by the lowest mission ESM, depends on several mission parameters, notably duration, environment and consequent infrastructure costs, and crew size, as well as the characteristics of the technologies which are available. Generally, for the missions under consideration, physicochemical regeneration is most cost effective. However, bioregeneration is likely to be of use for producing salad crops for any mission, for producing staple crops for medium duration missions, and for most food, air and water regeneration for long missions (durations of a decade). Potential applications of in situ resource utilization need to be considered further.

  18. Life support approaches for Mars missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drysdale, A. E.; Ewert, M. K.; Hanford, A. J.

    2003-01-01

    Life support approaches for Mars missions are evaluated using an equivalent system mass (ESM) approach, in which all significant costs are converted into mass units. The best approach, as defined by the lowest mission ESM, depends on several mission parameters, notably duration, environment and consequent infrastructure costs, and crew size, as well as the characteristics of the technologies which are available. Generally, for the missions under consideration, physicochemical regeneration is most cost effective. However, bioregeneration is likely to be of use for producing salad crops for any mission, for producing staple crops for medium duration missions, and for most food, air and water regeneration for long missions (durations of a decade). Potential applications of in situ resource utilization need to be considered further. c2002 Published by Elsevier Science Ltd on behalf of COSPAR.

  19. Life support approaches for Mars missions.

    PubMed

    Drysdale, A E; Ewert, M K; Hanford, A J

    2003-01-01

    Life support approaches for Mars missions are evaluated using an equivalent system mass (ESM) approach, in which all significant costs are converted into mass units. The best approach, as defined by the lowest mission ESM, depends on several mission parameters, notably duration, environment and consequent infrastructure costs, and crew size, as well as the characteristics of the technologies which are available. Generally, for the missions under consideration, physicochemical regeneration is most cost effective. However, bioregeneration is likely to be of use for producing salad crops for any mission, for producing staple crops for medium duration missions, and for most food, air and water regeneration for long missions (durations of a decade). Potential applications of in situ resource utilization need to be considered further. PMID:12577926

  20. Phoenix--the first Mars Scout mission.

    PubMed

    Shotwell, Robert

    2005-01-01

    NASA has initiated the first of a new series of missions to augment the current Mars Program. In addition to the systematic series of planned, directed missions currently comprising the Mars Program plan, NASA has started a series of Mars Scout missions that are low cost, price fixed, Principal [correction of Principle] Investigator-led projects. These missions are intended to provide an avenue for rapid response to discoveries made as a result of the primary Mars missions, as well as allow more risky technologies and approaches to be applied in the investigation of Mars. The first in this new series is the Phoenix mission which was selected as part of a highly competitive process. Phoenix will use the Mars 2001 Lander that was discontinued in 2000 and apply a new set of science objectives and mission objectives and will validate this soft lander architecture for future applications. This paper will provide an overview of both the Program and the Project. PMID:16010756