Science.gov

Sample records for 16-inch shock tunnel

  1. Development update for the NASA Ames 16-Inch Shock Tunnel Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cornelison, Charles J.

    1992-01-01

    Results of ongoing developmental testing in the NASA Ames 16-Inch combustion-driven Shock Tunnel Facility are presented. Specifically, such factors as mixture composition, mixture uniformity, gas-loading methods, ignition energy, number of ignition wires, etc., are examined to determine their effect on combustion performance. A theoretically based hypothesis is introduced to help explain the cause of driver tube pressure oscillations that occur during combustion. In addition to combustion behavior, results from a recently instituted effort to develop self-breaking primary diaphragms, as well as several additional facility enhancements, are discussed.

  2. Reactivation and upgrade of the NASA Ames 16-Inch Shock Tunnel - Status report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bogdanoff, David W.; Zambrana, Horacio A.; Cavolowsky, John A.; Newfield, Mark E.; Cornelison, Charles J.; Miller, Robert J.

    1992-01-01

    The NASA Ames 16-Inch Shock Tunnel has been reactivated after seventeen years of inactivity. In the years before deactivating the facility, it was operated at enthalpies of 4,700 J/gm and pressures up to 260 atm or at enthalpies of 1900 J/gm over a wide pressure range. Since reactivating, the facility has been operated at enthalpies up to 12,000 J/gm and pressures up to 408 atm. The present paper describes the steps taken in upgrading the facility and summarizes the currently achievable conditions. The selection of the driver gas, the steps taken to improve the driver burn, and the diaphragm opening techniques are described. The pressure and heat flux instrumentation, the optical diagnostics and the data acquisition system are also described.

  3. Principles and application of shock-tubes and shock tunnels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ried, R. C.; Clauss, H. G., Jr.

    1963-01-01

    The principles, theoretical flow equations, calculation techniques, limitations and practical performance characteristics of basic and high performance shock tubes and shock tunnels are presented. Selected operating curves are included.

  4. Shock-tunnel combustor testing for hypersonic vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loomis, Mark P.

    1994-01-01

    Proposed configurations for the next generation of transatmospheric vehicles will rely on air breathing propulsion systems during all or part of their mission. At flight Mach numbers greater than about 7 these engines will operate in the supersonic combustion ramjet mode (scramjet). Ground testing of these engine concepts above Mach 8 requires high pressure, high enthalpy facilities such as shock tunnels and expansion tubes. These impulse, or short duration facilities have test times on the order of a millisecond, requiring high speed instrumentation and data systems. One such facility ideally suited for scramjet testing is the NASA-Ames 16-Inch shock tunnel, which over the last two years has completed a series of tests for the NASP (National Aero-Space Plane) program at simulated flight Mach numbers ranging from 12-16. The focus of the experimental programs consisted of a series of classified tests involving a near-full scale hydrogen fueled scramjet combustor model in the semi-free jet method of engine testing whereby the compressed forebody flow ahead of the cowl inlet is reproduced (see appendix A). The AIMHYE-1 (Ames Integrated Modular Hypersonic Engine) test entry for the NASP program was completed in April 1993, while AIMHYE-2 was completed in May 1994. The test entries were regarded as successful, resulting in some of the first data of its kind on the performance of a near full scale scramjet engine at Mach 12-16. The data was distributed to NASP team members for use in design system verification and development. Due to the classified nature of the hardware and data, the data reports resulting from this work are classified and have been published as part of the NASP literature. However, an unclassified AIAA paper resulted from the work and has been included as appendix A. It contains an overview of the test program and a description of some of the important issues.

  5. Dual Mode Shock-Expansion/Reflected-Shock Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erdos, John I.; Bakos, Robert J.; Castrogiovanni, Anthony; Rogers, R. Clayton

    1998-01-01

    NASA s HYPULSE facility at GASL has been reconfigured to permit free jet testing of the Hyper-X flowpath at flight Mach numbers of 7 and 10. Among the required changes are addition of a converging-diverging nozzle to permit operation in a reflected shock tunnel mode, a 7 ft. diameter test cabin and a 30 in. diameter contoured nozzle. However, none of these changes were allowed to interfere with rapid recovery of the prior shock-expansion tunnel mode of operation, and indeed certain changes should enhance facility usefulness and productivity in either mode. A previously-developed shock-induced detonation mode of driving the facility has been successfully applied to both reflected shock tunnel operation at Mach 10 flight conditions, with tailored interface operation, and shock-expansion tunnel operation at flight conditions corresponding to Mach numbers from 12 to 25. Tailored interface operation at Mach 7 has been achieved with an unheated helium driver. In the present paper, the rationale for a dual mode shock expansion/reflected shock tunnel is discussed, and the capabilities and limitations for each mode are outlined. The physical changes in the HYPULSE facility to achieve dual mode capability are also described. Limited calibration data obtained to date in the new reflected shock tunnel mode are presented and the anticipated flight simulation map with dual mode operation is also outlined.

  6. Reactivation of the Shock-Tunnel Facility at Fort Cronkhite. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-05-01

    This final report describes the results of work undertaken to reactivate the Shock Tunnel Facility at Battery Townsley, Fort Cronkhite, Marin County, California. The facility has been reactivated and can not be utilized for blast testing. The major emphasis will be testing of concepts pertaining to programs of interest to the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) and in particular to civil defense oriented research. However, a wide variety of testing requirements can be accommodated. For example, past programs at the facility have included: tests of debris from trees subjected to blast for Bell Telephone Laboratories; tests of the response of aluminum hull panels to blast loading and of the response of a model surface effects ship for the Naval Ship Research and Development center, and tests of the response of a radome prototype to blast loading conducted for ANCOM (the radome manufacturer). The Shock Tunnel Facility is located in a former coastal defense 16-inch gun emplacement constructed by the US Army beginning in 1938. It was converted in 1967 to serve as a facility for full-scale testing of the loading and response of structural elements and civil defense equipment. It remained in operation until November 1976 when Battery Townsley was turned over to the National Park Service. Work under the present purchase order consisted of the following major tasks: (I) cleanup and secure the facility, (II) reactivate the shock tunnel, and (III) design permanent facility improvements. (WHK)

  7. A combustion driven shock tunnel to complement the free piston shock tunnel T5 at GALCIT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Belanger, Jacques; Hornung, Hans G.

    1992-01-01

    A combustion driven shock tunnel was designed and built at GALCIT to supply the hypersonic facility T5 with 'hot' hydrogen for mixing and combustion experiments. This system was chosen over other options for better flexibility and for safety reasons. The shock tunnel is described and the overall efficiency of the system is discussed. The biggest challenge in the design was to synchronize the combustion driven shock tunnel with T5. To do so, the main diaphragm of the combustion driven shock tunnel is locally melted by an electrical discharge. This local melting is rapidly followed by the complete collapse of the diaphragm in a very repeatable way. A first set of experiments on supersonic hydrogen transverse jets over a flat plate have just been completed with the system and some of the preliminary results are presented.

  8. Analysis of a 16-inch globe valve with eroded walls

    SciTech Connect

    Nitzel, M.E.

    1992-01-01

    During the course of inspection activities at a commercial nuclear power plant varying degrees of wall tinning were observed in several 16-inch globe valves. The wall thinning was observed at several locations on the bridge and bonnet areas of the valves and was thought to be the result of erosion of the wall material. these valves were routinely subjected to leak rate tests as part of the normal inspection and maintenance activities. Erosion of the valve plug seat sufficient to allow leakage would normally be detected by the leak rate testing. However, the question was raised whether severe erosion in the bridge structure would create the potential for a structural failure that would prevent normal closing and seating of the valve. An analytical assessment or scoping analysis'' of one of the valves was undertaken to assess the potential for stresses exceeding yield and to indicate whether a more extensive analysis of the valve would be desirable. a linear-elastic finite element model including the valve body, bonnet region, seat ring, and inlet and outlet bridge structures was developed. The model was subjected to a combination of internal pressure, valve plug seat force, and piping end moments. The results of the analysis indicate that even with erosion more severe than that observed in the actual valves, stress values did not approach yield. From these results it was concluded that yielding of the valve would not be anticipated with the observed erosion levels and that operability of the valves would not be impaired.

  9. Analysis of a 16-inch globe valve with eroded walls

    SciTech Connect

    Nitzel, M.E.

    1992-08-01

    During the course of inspection activities at a commercial nuclear power plant varying degrees of wall tinning were observed in several 16-inch globe valves. The wall thinning was observed at several locations on the bridge and bonnet areas of the valves and was thought to be the result of erosion of the wall material. these valves were routinely subjected to leak rate tests as part of the normal inspection and maintenance activities. Erosion of the valve plug seat sufficient to allow leakage would normally be detected by the leak rate testing. However, the question was raised whether severe erosion in the bridge structure would create the potential for a structural failure that would prevent normal closing and seating of the valve. An analytical assessment or ``scoping analysis`` of one of the valves was undertaken to assess the potential for stresses exceeding yield and to indicate whether a more extensive analysis of the valve would be desirable. a linear-elastic finite element model including the valve body, bonnet region, seat ring, and inlet and outlet bridge structures was developed. The model was subjected to a combination of internal pressure, valve plug seat force, and piping end moments. The results of the analysis indicate that even with erosion more severe than that observed in the actual valves, stress values did not approach yield. From these results it was concluded that yielding of the valve would not be anticipated with the observed erosion levels and that operability of the valves would not be impaired.

  10. An analysis of combustion studies in shock expansion tunnels and reflected shock tunnels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jachimowski, Casimir J.

    1992-01-01

    The effect of initial nonequilibrium dissociated air constituents on the combustion of hydrogen in high-speed flows for a simulated Mach 17 flight condition was investigated by analyzing the results of comparative combustion experiments performed in a reflected shock tunnel test gas and in a shock expansion tunnel test gas. The results were analyzed and interpreted with a one-dimensional quasi-three-stream combustor code that includes finite rate combustion chemistry. The results of this study indicate that the combustion process is kinetically controlled in the experiments in both tunnels and the presence of the nonequilibrium partially dissociated oxygen in the reflected shock tunnel enhances the combustion. Methods of compensating for the effect of dissociated oxygen are discussed.

  11. Shock tunnel studies of scramjet phenomena

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgan, R. G.; Paull, A.; Stalker, R. J.; Jacobs, P.; Morris, N.; Stringer, I.; Brescianini, C.

    1988-01-01

    Commissioning of the new T4 shock tunnel at the University of Queensland implied that it was no longer necessary to focus the work of the research group about an annual test series conducted in the T3 shock tunnel in Canberra. Therefore, it has been possible to organize a group for work to proceed along lines such that particular personnel are associated with particular project areas. The format of this report consists of a series of reports on specific project areas, with a brief general introduction commenting on each report. The introduction is structured by project areas, with the title of the relevant report stated under the project area heading. The reports themselves follow in the order of the project area headings.

  12. Shock Tunnel Studies of Scramjet Phenomena 1994

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgan, R. G.; Paull, A.; Stalker, R. J.

    1997-01-01

    Reports by the research staff and graduate students of the Mechanical Engineering Department at the University of Queensland are collected and presented. These reports cover various studies related to the advancement of scramjet technology and the operation of advanced hypervelocity shock-expansion tubes. The report topics include the experimental studies of mixing and combustion in a scramjet flow path, the measurement of integrated thrust and skin friction, and the development of a free-piston-driven expansion tunnel capable of delivering a test gas at superorbital velocities.

  13. A coaxial thermocouple for shock tunnel applications.

    PubMed

    Menezes, Viren; Bhat, Sandeep

    2010-10-01

    A chromel-constantan coaxial surface junction thermocouple has been designed, fabricated, calibrated, and tested to measure the temperature-time history on the surface of a body in a hypersonic freestream of Mach 8 in a shock tunnel. The coaxial thermocouple with a diameter of 3.25 mm was flush mounted in the surface of a hemisphere of 25 mm diameter. The hypersonic freestream was of a very low temperature and density, and had a flow time of about a millisecond. Preliminary test results indicate that the thermocouple is quite sensitive to low temperature-rarefied freestreams, and also has a response time of a few microseconds (≈5 μs) to meet the requirements of short duration transient measurements. The sensor developed is accurate, robust, reproducible, and is highly inexpensive. PMID:21034112

  14. Shock Tunnel Studies of Scramjet Phenomena 1993

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stalker, R. J.; Bakos, R. J.; Morgan, R. G.; Porter, L.; Mee, D.; Paull, A.; Tuttle, S.; Simmons, J. M.; Wendt, M.; Skinner, K.

    1995-01-01

    Reports by the staff of the University of Queensland on various research studies related to the advancement of scramjet technology and hypervelocity pulse test facilities are presented. These reports document the tests conducted in the reflected shock tunnel T4 and supporting research facilities that have been used to study the injection, mixing, and combustion of hydrogen fuel in generic scramjets at flow conditions typical of hypersonic flight. In addition, topics include the development of instrumentation and measurement technology, such as combustor wall shear and stream composition in pulse facilities, and numerical studies and analyses of the scramjet combustor process and the test facility operation. This research activity is Supplement 10 under NASA Grant NAGw-674.

  15. Further shock tunnel studies of scramjet phenomena

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgan, R. G.; Paull, A.; Morris, N. A.; Stalker, R. J.

    1986-01-01

    Scramjet phenomena were studied using the shock tunnel T3 at the Australian National University. Simple two dimensional models were used with a combination of wall and central injectors. Silane as an additive to hydrogen fuel was studied over a range of temperatures and pressures to evaluate its effect as an ignition aid. The film cooling effect of surface injected hydrogen was measured over a wide range of equivalence. Heat transfer measurements without injection were repeated to confirm previous indications of heating rates lower than simple flat plate predictions for laminar boundary layers in equilibrium flow. The previous results were reproduced and the discrepancies are discussed in terms of the model geometry and departures of the flow from equilibrium. In the thrust producing mode, attempts were made to increase specific impulse with wall injection. Some preliminary tests were also performed on shock induced ignition, to investigate the possibility in flight of injecting fuel upstream of the combustion chamber, where it could mix but not burn.

  16. 6. July, 1947 Photocopy of photograph (11/4 x 27/16 inch ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. July, 1947 Photocopy of photograph (1-1/4 x 2-7/16 inch print, on file, Coronado N. F. Supervisor's Office, Tucson) COLUMBINE R. S. BARN-GARAGE. - Columbine Ranger Station, Garage, Milepost 1343, State Highway 366, Safford, Graham County, AZ

  17. Experiments in hand-operated, hypersonic shock tunnel facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sudhiesh Kumar, Chintoo; Reddy, K. P. J.

    2015-12-01

    Experiments were conducted using the newly developed table-top, hand-operated hypersonic shock tunnel, otherwise known as the Reddy hypersonic shock tunnel. This novel instrument uses only manual force to generate the shock wave in the shock tube, and is designed to generate a freestream flow of Mach 6.5 in the test section. The flow was characterized using stagnation point pressure measurements made using fast-acting piezoelectric transducers. Schlieren visualization was also carried out to capture the bow shock in front of a hemispherical body placed in the flow. Freestream Mach numbers estimated at various points in the test section showed that for a minimum diameter of 46 mm within the test section, the value did not vary by more than 3 % along any cross-sectional plane. The results of the experiments presented here indicate that the device may be successfully employed for basic hypersonic research activities at the university level.

  18. NO PLIF imaging in the CUBRC 48-inch shock tunnel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, N.; Bruzzese, J.; Patton, R.; Sutton, J.; Yentsch, R.; Gaitonde, D. V.; Lempert, W. R.; Miller, J. D.; Meyer, T. R.; Parker, R.; Wadham, T.; Holden, M.; Danehy, P. M.

    2012-12-01

    Nitric oxide planar laser-induced fluorescence (NO PLIF) imaging is demonstrated at a 10-kHz repetition rate in the Calspan University at Buffalo Research Center's (CUBRC) 48-inch Mach 9 hypervelocity shock tunnel using a pulse burst laser-based high frame rate imaging system. Sequences of up to ten images are obtained internal to a supersonic combustor model, located within the shock tunnel, during a single ~10-millisecond duration run of the ground test facility. Comparison with a CFD simulation shows good overall qualitative agreement in the jet penetration and spreading observed with an average of forty individual PLIF images obtained during several facility runs.

  19. Shock tunnel studies of scramjet phenomena, supplement 5

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Casey, R.; Stalker, R. J.; Brescianini, C. P.; Morgan, R. G.; Jacobs, P. A.; Wendt, M.; Ward, N. R.; Akman, N.; Allen, G. A.; Skinner, K.

    1990-01-01

    A series of reports are presented on SCRAMjet studies, shock tunnel studies, and expansion tube studies. The SCRAMjet studies include: (1) Investigation of a Supersonic Combustion Layer; (2) Wall Injected SCRAMjet Experiments; (3) Supersonic Combustion with Transvers, Circular, Wall Jets; (4) Dissociated Test Gas Effects on SCRAMjet Combustors; (5) Use of Silane as a Fuel Additive for Hypersonic Thrust Production, (6) Pressure-length Correlations in Supersonic Combustion; (7) Hot Hydrogen Injection Technique for Shock Tunnels; (8) Heat Release - Wave Interaction Phenomena in Hypersonic Flows; (9) A Study of the Wave Drag in Hypersonic SCRAMjets; (10) Parametric Study of Thrust Production in the Two Dimensional SCRAMjet; (11) The Design of a Mass Spectrometer for use in Hypersonic Impulse Facilities; and (12) Development of a Skin Friction Gauge for use in an Impulse Facility. The shock tunnel studies include: (1) Hypervelocity flow in Axisymmetric Nozzles; (2) Shock Tunnel Development; and (3) Real Gas Efects in Hypervelocity Flows over an Inclined Cone. The expansion tube studies include: (1) Investigation of Flow Characteristics in TQ Expansion Tube; and (2) Disturbances in the Driver Gas of a Shock Tube.

  20. Experimental study of moving throat plug in a shock tunnel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, J. K.; Park, C.; Kwon, O. J.

    2015-07-01

    An experimental study has been carried out to investigate the flow in the KAIST shock tunnel with two moving throat plugs at a primary shock velocity of 1.19 km/s. The nozzle reservoir pressure and the Pitot pressure at the exit of the nozzle were measured to examine the influence of the moving throat plugs on the shock tunnel flow. To assess the present experimental results, comparisons with previous work using a stationary throat plug were made. The mechanism for closing the moving throat plug was developed and verified. The source of the force to move the plug was the pressure generated when the primary shock was reflected at the bottom of the plug. It was observed that the two plugs terminated the shock tunnel flow after the steady flow. .The time for the plugs to terminate the flow showed good agreement with the calculation of the proposed simple analytic solution. There was a negligible difference in flow values such as the reflected pressure and the Pitot pressure between the moving and the stationary plugs.

  1. Spreading of Exhaust Jet from 16 Inch Ream Jet at Mach Number 2.0 / Fred Wilcox, Donald Pennington

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilcox, Fred; Pennington, Donald

    1952-01-01

    An investigation of the jet-spreading characteristics of a 16 inch ram-jet engine was conducted in the 8 by 6 foot supersonic tunnel at a Mach number of 2.0; both a converging nozzle having a contraction ratio of 0.71 and a cylindrical extension to the combustion chamber were used. The jet boundaries determined by means of pitot pressure surveys were compared with boundaries calculated from one-dimensional continuity and momentum relations. For the cylindrical nozzle, the jet reaches its maximum diameter, 4 percent greater than calculated, about 0.6 nozzle-exit diameter downstream of the nozzle exit. The maximum diameter for the converging nozzle was 7 percent greater than calculated from one dimensional relations and occurred from 1 to 1.5 nozzle-exit diameters downstream of the exit. Non dimensional maximum jet diameters agreed closely with results of an investigation by Rousso and Baughman; these data were obtained with low-temperature jets exhausting into a stream at a Mach number of 1.91 from nozzles having exit diameters of 0.75 inch.

  2. NO PLIF Imaging in the CUBRC 48 Inch Shock Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jiang, N.; Bruzzese, J.; Patton, R.; Sutton J.; Lempert W.; Miller, J. D.; Meyer, T. R.; Parker, R.; Wadham, T.; Holden, M.; Danehy, P. M.

    2011-01-01

    Nitric Oxide Planar Laser-Induced Fluorescence (NO PLIF) imaging is demonstrated at a 10 kHz repetition rate in the Calspan-University at Buffalo Research Center s (CUBRC) 48-inch Mach 9 hypervelocity shock tunnel using a pulse burst laser-based high frame rate imaging system. Sequences of up to ten images are obtained internal to a supersonic combustor model, located within the shock tunnel, during a single approx.10-millisecond duration run of the ground test facility. This represents over an order of magnitude improvement in data rate from previous PLIF-based diagnostic approaches. Comparison with a preliminary CFD simulation shows good overall qualitative agreement between the prediction of the mean NO density field and the observed PLIF image intensity, averaged over forty individual images obtained during several facility runs.

  3. Shock tunnel studies of scramjet phenomena 1994

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    A new expansion tube facility has been built, and is in the process of being commissioned. It has a bore of 90 mm, and has been designed for peak rupture pressures of 100 Mpa. It is configured with multiple sections and diaphragm location stations to give optimized performance over a range of sub and superorbital conditions. It has a compound piston arrangement for a two stage compression, designed to maximize the length of shock expansion tube which can be driven within a fixed total facility length. Experiments have been successfully performed with a dummy first stage piston, and a rubber energy absorbing brake. The results agree well with a one-dimensional stress wave model of the piston impacting on the rubber, and codes for piston motion. Strain of the rubber is restricted to approximately 20 percent at which level no damage is to be expected in the buffer material, and none has been observed, indicating that the mechanism will be fully reuseable.

  4. Aerothermodynamic Facilities And Measurement: Flow Characterization in Shock Tunnels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cavolowsky, John A.; Edwards, Thomas A. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    This presentation will examine the key performance aspects of shock tunnels as they relate to their use as aerothermodynamic flow simulation facilities. Assessment of shock tube reservoir conditions and flow contaminants generated in the shock tube will be presented along with their limiting impact on viable test envelopes, Facility nozzle performance as it pertains to test time assessment and nozzle exit flow quality (survey of pressure, temperature, and species) will be addressed. Also included will be a discussion of free stream flow diagnostics, both intrusive and nonintrusive, for measurement of critical flow properties not directly inferred from surface mounted transducers. The use of computational fluid dynamics for purposes of validating experimental measurements as well as predicting performance in regimes where measurements are not feasible or possible will be discussed. The use of CFD for facility research and design will also be presented.

  5. Shock tunnel studies of scramjet phenomena, supplement 6

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wendt, M.; Nettleton, M.; Morgan, R. G.; Skinner, K.; Casey, R.; Stalker, R.; Brescianini, C.; Paull, A.; Allen, G.; Smart, M.

    1993-01-01

    Reports by the staff of the University of Queensland on various research studies related to the advancement of scramjet technology are presented. These reports document the tests conducted in the reflected shock tunnel T4 and supporting research facilities that have been used to study the injection, mixing, and combustion of hydrogen fuel in generic scramjets at flow conditions typical of hypersonic flight. In addition, topics include the development of instrumentation and measurement technology, such as combustor wall shear and stream composition in pulse facilities, and numerical studies and analyses of the scramjet combustor process and the test facility operation.

  6. Shock tunnel studies of scramjet phenomena, supplement 8

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stalker, R. J.; Hollis, P.; Allen, G. A.; Roberts, G. T.; Tuttle, S.; Bakos, R. J.; Morgan, R. G.; Pulsonetti, M. V.; Brescianini, C.; Buttsworth, D. R.

    1993-01-01

    Reports by the staff of the University of Oueensland on various research studies related to the advancement of scramjet technology are presented. These reports document the tests conducted in the reflected shock tunnel T4 and supporting research facilities that have been used to study the injection, mixing, and combustion of hydrogen fuel in generic scramjets at flow conditions typical of hypersonic flight. In addition, topics include the development of instrumentation and measurement technology, such as combustor wall shear and stream composition in pulse facilities, and numerical studies and analyses of the scramjet combustor process and the test facility operation. This research activity is Supplement 8 under NASA Grant NAGW-674.

  7. Shock Tunnel Studies of Scramjet Phenomena 1995. Supplement 13

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgan, R. G.; Stalker, R. J.; Paull, A.

    1997-01-01

    Reports by the research staff and graduate students of the Mechanical Engineering Department at the University of Queensland are collected and presented. These reports cover various studies related to the advancement of scramjet technology and the operation of advanced hypervelocity shock-expansion tubes. The report topics include the experimental studies of mixing and combustion in a scramjet flow path, the measurement of integrated thrust and skin friction, and the development of a free-piston-driven expansion tunnel capable delivering a test gas at super orbital velocities.

  8. Shock tunnel studies of scramjet phenomena, supplement 7

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bakos, R. J.; Morgan, R. G.; Tuttle, S. L.; Kelly, G. M.; Paull, A.; Simmons, J. M.; Stalker, R. J.; Pulsonetti, M. V.; Buttsworth, D.; Allen, G. A., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    Reports by the staff of the University of Queensland on various research studies related to the advancement of scramjet technology are presented. These reports document the tests conducted in the reflected shock tunnel T4 and supporting research facilities that have been used to study the injection, mixing, and combustion of hydrogen fuel in generic scramjets at flow conditions typical of hypersonic flight. In addition, topics include the development of instrumentation and measurement technology, such as combustor wall shear and stream composition in pulse facilities, and numerical studies and analyses of the scramjet combustor process and the test facility operation. This research activity is Supplement 7 under NASA Grant NAGW-674.

  9. Hypersonic combustion of hydrogen in a shock tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgan, R. G.; Stalker, R. J.

    1989-01-01

    Results are reported on shock-tunnel experiments testing the feasibility of hypersonic combustion and thrust generation in a hydrogen scramjet model. Tests with a constant-area duct show that hypersonic combustion is possible with a central injection at static intake pressures of about 20 kPa. The results of a comparison made between model configurations with nominal combustion-chamber intake Mach numbers of 4 and 6 indicated that the hypersonic duct gives a better performance at flight enthalpies above 7 mJ/kg. It is argued that the lower temperatures associated with hypersonic flow produce more efficient combustion.

  10. Numerical study of transient flow phenomena in shock tunnels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tokarcik-Polsky, Susan; Cambier, Jean-Luc

    1994-01-01

    Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) was used to study some transient flow features that can occur during the startup process of a shoch tunnel. The investigation concentrated on two areas: (1) the flow near the endwall of the driven tube during shock reflection and (2) the transient flow in the nozzle. The driven tube calculations were inviscid and focused on the study of a vortex system that was seen to form at the driven tube's axis of symmetry. The nozzle flow calculations examined viscous and inviscid effects during nozzle startup. The CFD solutions of the nozzle flows were compared with experimental data to demonstrate the effectiveness of the numerical analysis.

  11. Shock tunnel measurements of surface pressures in shock induced separated flow field using MEMS sensor array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sriram, R.; Ram, S. N.; Hegde, G. M.; Nayak, M. M.; Jagadeesh, G.

    2015-09-01

    Characterized not just by high Mach numbers, but also high flow total enthalpies—often accompanied by dissociation and ionization of flowing gas itself—the experimental simulation of hypersonic flows requires impulse facilities like shock tunnels. However, shock tunnel simulation imposes challenges and restrictions on the flow diagnostics, not just because of the possible extreme flow conditions, but also the short run times—typically around 1 ms. The development, calibration and application of fast response MEMS sensors for surface pressure measurements in IISc hypersonic shock tunnel HST-2, with a typical test time of 600 μs, for the complex flow field of strong (impinging) shock boundary layer interaction with separation close to the leading edge, is delineated in this paper. For Mach numbers 5.96 (total enthalpy 1.3 MJ kg-1) and 8.67 (total enthalpy 1.6 MJ kg-1), surface pressures ranging from around 200 Pa to 50 000 Pa, in various regions of the flow field, are measured using the MEMS sensors. The measurements are found to compare well with the measurements using commercial sensors. It was possible to resolve important regions of the flow field involving significant spatial gradients of pressure, with a resolution of 5 data points within 12 mm in each MEMS array, which cannot be achieved with the other commercial sensors. In particular, MEMS sensors enabled the measurement of separation pressure (at Mach 8.67) near the leading edge and the sharply varying pressure in the reattachment zone.

  12. Supersonic combustion ramjet propulsion experiments in a shock tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paull, A.; Stalker, R. J.; Mee, D. J.

    1995-01-01

    Measurements have been made of the propulsive effect of supersonic combustion ramjets incorporated into a simple axisymmetric model in a free piston shock tunnel. The nominal Mach number was 6, and the stagnation enthalpy varied from 2.8 MJ kg(exp -1) to 8.5 MJ kg(exp -1). A mixture of 13 percent silane and 87 percent hydrogen was used as fuel, and experiments were conducted at equivalence ratios up to approximately 0.8. The measurements involved the axial force on the model, and were made using a stress wave force balance, which is a recently developed technique for measuring forces in shock tunnels. A net thrust was experienced up to a stagnation enthalpy of 3.7 MJ kg(exp -1), but as the stagnation enthalpy increased, an increasing net drag was recorded. pitot and static pressure measurements showed that the combustion was supersonic. The results were found to compare satisfactorily with predictions based on established theoretical models, used with some simplifying approximations. The rapid reduction of net thrust with increasing stagnation enthalpy was seen to arise from increasing precombustion temperature, showing the need to control this variable if thrust performance was to be maintained over a range of stagnation enthalpies. Both the inviscid and viscous drag were seen to be relatively insensitive to stagnation enthalpy, with the combustion chambers making a particularly significant contribution to drag. The maximum fuel specific impulse achieved in the experiments was only 175 sec., but the theory indicates that there is considerable scope for improvement on this through aerodynamic design.

  13. Numerical simulation of scramjet combustion in a shock tunnel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Star, Jason B.

    Three-dimensional computational simulations of reactive flowfields within a hydrogen-fueled scramjet-like geometry experimentally tested in a free piston shock tunnel are presented. The experimental configuration (Odam and Paull, AIAA Paper 2003-5244) involves injection of hydrogen fuel into the scramjet inlet, followed by mixing, shock-induced ignition, and combustion. The predictions for both fuel-off and fuel-on conditions were observed to be sensitive to the choice of the wall temperature boundary conditions. The best comparison with experimental data were achieved through the implementation of an approach that involves a simplified conjugate heat transfer model that couples the heat conduction through the wall with the heat conduction of the fluid within the boundary layer. This approach is able to predict thermal loads on the walls of the scramjet model due to shock wave interactions and due to heat release. As such, it is able to more accurately represent the physical temperature response of the engine model. Also shown to produce very good agreement with the statistically-steady experimental data was the isothermal ghost-cell boundary condition, which is based on a simplification of the time-dependent conjugate heat transfer boundary condition. This simplified boundary condition assumes a linear temperature distribution within the wall based on the effective depth that an applied heat load would penetrate, thus, it also allows the actual wall temperature to vary in response to the applied heat load. Results for fuel-off simulations showed that the solution generated by a steady-state simulation implementing the isothermal ghost-cell wall boundary condition was very comparable with the statistically-steady solution obtained from a fully transient simulation with coupled heat conduction within the walls. When integrated in a fully time-accurate manner, the fuel-on simulations showed a striking sensitivity to the modeled rate of air ingestion into the engine

  14. Increase of stagnation pressure and enthalpy in shock tunnels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bogdanoff, David W.; Cambier, Jean-Luc

    1992-01-01

    High stagnation pressures and enthalpies are required for the testing of aerospace vehicles such as aerospace planes, aeroassist vehicles, and reentry vehicles. Among the most useful ground test facilities for performing such tests are shock tunnels. With a given driver gas condition, the enthalpy and pressure in the driven tube nozzle reservoir condition can be varied by changing the driven tube geometry and initial gas fill pressure. Reducing the driven tube diameter yields only very modest increases in reservoir pressure and enthalpy. Reducing the driven tube initial gas fill pressure can increase the reservoir enthalpy significantly, but at the cost of reduced reservoir pressure and useful test time. A new technique, the insertion of a converging section in the driven tube is found to produce substantial increases in both reservoir pressure and enthalpy. Using a one-dimensional inviscid full kinetics code, a number of different locations and shapes for the converging driven tube section were studied and the best cases found. For these best cases, for driven tube diameter reductions of factors of 2 and 3, the reservoir pressure can be increased by factors of 2.1 and 3.2, respectively and the enthalpy can be increased by factors of 1.5 and 2.1, respectively.

  15. Shock-Dispersed-Fuel Charges: Combustion in Chambers and Tunnels

    SciTech Connect

    Neuwald, P; Reichenbach, H; Kuhl, A L

    2003-04-22

    In previous studies we have investigated after-burning effects of a fuel-rich explosive (TNT). In that case the detonation only releases about 30% of the available energy, but generates a hot cloud of fuel that can burn in the ambient air, thus evoking an additional energy release that is distributed in space and time. The current series of small-scale experiments can be looked upon as a natural generalization of this mechanism: a booster charge disperses a (non-explosive) fuel, provides mixing with air and, by means of the hot detonation products, the energy to ignite the fuel. The current version of our miniature Shock-Dispersed-Fuel (SDF) charges consists of a spherical booster charge of 0.5 g PETN, embedded in a paper cylinder of approximately 2.2 cm, which is filled with powdered fuel compositions. The main compositions studied up to now contain aluminum flakes, hydrocarbon powders like polyethylene or hexosen (sucrose) and/or carbon particles. These charges were studied in four different chambers: two cylindrical vessels of 6.6-1 and 40.5-1 volume with a height-to-diameter ratio of approximately 1, a rectangular chamber of 41 (10.5 x 10.5 x 38.6 cm) and a 299.6 cm long tunnel model with a cross section of 8 x 8 cm (volume 19.21) closed at both ends.

  16. Investigation of Combustion in 16-inch Ram Jet Under Simulated Conditions of High Altitude and High Mach Number

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nussdorfer, T J; Sederstrom, D C; Perchonok, E

    1957-01-01

    Results obtained with three different burner configurations in a connected-pipe investigation of a 16-inch ram jet are presented. The radial position of the fuel injector and the engine-outlet area both affected burner performance. For a given configuration, only slight changes in total-pressure ratio across the combustion chamber were obtained over the complete range of operation. With one burner, combustion efficiencies obtained at a combustion-chamber-inlet static pressure of 800 pounds per square foot absolute were greater than those obtained at 1920 pounds per square foot absolute.

  17. Analysis of the flow in a 1-MJ electric-arc shock tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reller, J. O., Jr.; Reddy, N. M.

    1972-01-01

    In the electric-arc-heated shock tunnel, the facility performance over a range of shock Mach numbers from 7 to 19 was evaluated. The efficiency of the arc-heated driver is deduced using an improved form of the shock tube equation. A theoretical and experimental analysis is made of the tailored-interface condition. The free stream properties in the test section, with nitrogen as the test gas, are evaluated using a method based on stagnation point, heat transfer measurements.

  18. New Hypersonic Shock Tunnel at the Laboratory of Aerothermodynamics and Hypersonics Prof. Henry T. Nagamatsu

    SciTech Connect

    Toro, P. G. P.; Minucci, M. A. S.; Chanes, J. B. Jr; Oliveira, A. C.; Gomes, F. A. A.; Myrabo, L. N.; Nagamatsu, Henry T.

    2008-04-28

    The new 0.60-m. nozzle exit diameter hypersonic shock tunnel was designed to study advanced air-breathing propulsion system such as supersonic combustion and/or laser technologies. In addition, it may be used for hypersonic flow studies and investigations of the electromagnetic (laser) energy addition for flow control. This new hypersonic shock tunnel was designed and installed at the Laboratory for of Aerothermodynamics and Hypersonics Prof. Henry T. Nagamatsu, IEAv-CTA, Brazil. The design of the tunnel enables relatively long test times, 2-10 milliseconds, suitable for the experiments performed at the laboratory. Free stream Mach numbers ranging from 6 to 25 can be produced and stagnation pressures and temperatures up to 360 atm. and up to 9,000 K, respectively, can be generated. Shadowgraph and schlieren optical techniques will be used for flow visualization.

  19. Wind Tunnel Model Design for Sonic Boom Studies of Nozzle Jet with Shock Interactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cliff, Susan E.; Denison, Marie; Sozer, Emre; Moini-Yekta, Shayan

    2016-01-01

    NASA and Industry are performing vehicle studies of configurations with low sonic boom pressure signatures. The computational analyses of modern configuration designs have matured to the point where there is confidence in the prediction of the pressure signature from the front of the vehicle, but uncertainty in the aft signatures with often greater boundary layer effects and nozzle jet pressures. Wind tunnel testing at significantly lower Reynolds numbers than in flight and without inlet and nozzle jet pressures make it difficult to accurately assess the computational solutions of flight vehicles. A wind tunnel test in the NASA Ames 9- by 7-Foot Supersonic Wind Tunnel from Mach 1.6 to 2.0 will be used to assess the effects of shocks from components passing through nozzle jet plumes on the sonic boom pressure signature and provide datasets for comparison with CFD codes. A large number of high-fidelity numerical simulations of wind tunnel test models with a variety of shock generators that simulate horizontal tails and aft decks have been studied to provide suitable models for sonic boom pressure measurements using a minimally intrusive pressure rail in the wind tunnel. The computational results are presented and the evolution of candidate wind tunnel models is summarized and discussed in this paper.

  20. Tests of Hypersonic Inlet Oscillatory Flows in a Shock Tunnel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhufei; Gao, Wenzhi; Jiang, Hongliang; Yang, Jiming

    For efficient operation, hypersonic air breathing engine requires the inlet to operate in a starting mode [1]. High backpressure induced by the combustion may cause the inlet to unstart in the engine actual operation [2].When unstarted, shock wave oscillations are typically observed in the inlet, a phenomenon known as buzz.

  1. Heat flux and shock shape measurements on an Aeroassist Flight Experiment model in a high enthalpy free piston shock tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gai, S. L.; Mudford, N. R.; Hackett, C.

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes measurements of heat flux and shock shapes made on a 2.08 percent scale model of the proposed Aeroassist Flight Experiment model in a high enthalpy free piston shock tunnel T3 at the Australian National University in Canberra, Australia. The enthalpy and Reynolds number range covered were 7.5 MJ/kg to 20 MJ/kg and 150,000 to 270,000 per meter respectively. The test Mach number varied between 7.5 and 8. Two test gases, air and nitrogen, were used and the model angle of attack varied from -10 deg to +10 deg to the free stream. The results are discussed and compared to the Mach 10 cold hypersonic air data as obtained in the Langley 31 inch Mach 10 Facility as well as the perfect gas CFD calculations of NASA LaRC.

  2. Performance data of the new free-piston shock tunnel T5 at GALCIT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hornung, H.; Sturtevant, B.; Belanger, J.; Sanderson, S.; Brouillette, M.; Jenkins, M.

    1992-01-01

    A new free piston shock tunnel has been constructed at the Graduate Aeronautical Laboratories at Caltec. Compression tube length is 30 m and diameter 300 mm. Shock tube length is 12 m and diameter 90 mm. Piston mass is 150 kg and maximum diaphragm burst pressure is 130 MPa. Special features of this facility are that the pressure in the driver gas is monitored throughout the compression process until well after diaphragm rupture, and that the diaphragm burst pressure can be measured dynamically. An analysis of initial performance data including transient behavior of the flow over models is presented.

  3. DEVELOPMENT AND APPLICATION OF A FAST-RUNNING TOOL TO CHARACTERIZE SHOCK DAMAGE WITHIN TUNNEL STRUCTURES

    SciTech Connect

    Glascoe, L; Morris, J; Glenn, L; Krnjajic, M

    2009-03-31

    Successful but time-intensive use of high-fidelity computational capabilities for shock loading events and resultant effects on and within enclosed structures, e.g., tunnels, has led to an interest in developing more expedient methods of analysis. While several tools are currently available for the general study of the failure of structures under dynamic shock loads at a distance, presented are a pair of statistics- and physics-based tools that can be used to differentiate different types of damage (e.g., breach versus yield) as well as quantify the amount of damage within tunnels for loads close-in and with standoff. Use of such faster running tools allows for scoping and planning of more detailed model and test analysis and provides a way to address parametric sensitivity over a large multivariate space.

  4. Wave system fitting: A new method for force measurements in shock tunnels with long test duration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Changtong; Wang, Yunpeng; Wang, Chun; Jiang, Zonglin

    2015-10-01

    Force measurements in shock tunnels are difficult due to the existence of vibrations excited by a sudden aerodynamic loading. Accelerometer inertia compensation could reduce its negative effect to some extent, but has inherent problems. A new signal decomposition method, wave system fitting (WSF), is proposed to remove vibration waves of low frequency. The WSF is accelerometer-free. It decomposes the balance signal and can separate vibration waves without the influence on the DC component, and it does work no matter the cycle of the sample signal is complete or not. As a standard signal post-processing tool in JF-12, the application results show that it works reliably with high accuracy, and it can also explain puzzling signals encountered in JF-12. WSF method is especially useful and irreplaceable whenever only a few cycles of a periodic signal could be obtained, as is usual for shock tunnels.

  5. Shock layer vacuum UV spectroscopy in an arc-jet wind tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palumbo, G.

    1990-01-01

    An experimental program is being developed to obtain measurements of the incident surface radiation in the 1000 A to 2000 A range from the shock stagnation region of a blunt model in the Ames 20 MW Arc-Jet Wind Tunnel. The setup consists of a water-cooled blunt model, with a magnesium fluoride forward-viewing window. Radiation incident on the window is optically imaged via an evacuated system and reflective optical elements onto the entrance slit of a spectrograph. The model will be exposed to the supersonic plasma stream from the exit nozzle of the arc-jet tunnel. The resulting bow shock radiation will be measured. It is expected that this experiment will help evaluate the importance of atomic N and O lines to the radiative heating of future Aeroassist Space Transfer Vehicles (ASTVs).

  6. Program and charts for determining shock tube, and expansion tunnel flow quantities for real air

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, C. G., III; Wilder, S. E.

    1975-01-01

    A computer program in FORTRAN 4 language was written to determine shock tube, expansion tube, and expansion tunnel flow quantities for real-air test gas. This program permits, as input data, a number of possible combinations of flow quantities generally measured during a test. The versatility of the program is enhanced by the inclusion of such effects as a standing or totally reflected shock at the secondary diaphragm, thermochemical-equilibrium flow expansion and frozen flow expansion for the expansion tube and expansion tunnel, attenuation of the flow in traversing the acceleration section of the expansion tube, real air as the acceleration gas, and the effect of wall boundary layer on the acceleration section air flow. Charts which provide a rapid estimation of expansion tube performance prior to a test are included.

  7. Force measurement using strain-gauge balance in a shock tunnel with long test duration.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yunpeng; Liu, Yunfeng; Luo, Changtong; Jiang, Zonglin

    2016-05-01

    Force tests were conducted at the long-duration-test shock tunnel JF12, which has been designed and built in the Institute of Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences. The performance tests demonstrated that this facility is capable of reproducing a flow of dry air at Mach numbers from 5 to 9 at more than 100 ms test duration. Therefore, the traditional internal strain-gauge balance was considered for the force tests use in this large impulse facility. However, when the force tests are conducted in a shock tunnel, the inertial forces lead to low-frequency vibrations of the test model and its motion cannot be addressed through digital filtering because a sufficient number of cycles cannot be found during a shock tunnel run. The post-processing of the balance signal thus becomes extremely difficult when an averaging method is employed. Therefore, the force measurement encounters many problems in an impulse facility, particularly for large and heavy models. The objective of the present study is to develop pulse-type sting balance by using a strain-gauge sensor that can be applied in the force measurement of 100 ms test time, especially for the force test of the large-scale model. Different structures of the S-series (i.e., sting shaped balances) strain-gauge balance are proposed and designed, and the measuring elements are further optimized to overcome the difficulties encountered during the measurement of aerodynamic force in a shock tunnel. In addition, the force tests were conducted using two large-scale test models in JF12 and the S-series strain-gauge balances show good performance in the force measurements during the 100 ms test time. PMID:27250471

  8. Scramjet Tests in a Shock Tunnel at Flight Mach 7, 10, and 15 Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, R. C.; Shih, A. T.; Tsai, C.-Y.; Foelsche, R. O.

    2001-01-01

    Tests of the Hyper-X scramjet engine flowpath have been conducted in the HYPULSE shock tunnel at conditions duplicating the stagnation enthalpy at flight Mach 7, 10, and 15. For the tests at Mach 7 and 10 HYPULSE was operated as a reflected-shock tunnel; at the Mach 15 condition, HYPULSE was operated as a shock-expansion tunnel. The test conditions matched the stagnation enthalpy of a scramjet engine on an aerospace vehicle accelerating through the atmosphere along a 1000 psf dynamic pressure trajectory. Test parameter variation included fuel equivalence ratios from lean (0.8) to rich (1.5+); fuel composition from pure hydrogen to mixtures of 2% and 5% silane in hydrogen by volume; and inflow pressure and Mach number made by changing the scramjet model mounting angle in the HYPULSE test chamber. Data sources were wall pressures and heat flux distributions and schlieren and fuel plume imaging in the combustor/nozzle sections. Data are presented for calibration of the facility nozzles and the scramjet engine model. Comparisons of pressure distributions and flowpath streamtube performance estimates are made for the three Mach numbers tested.

  9. Wind Tunnel Model Design for Sonic Boom Studies of Nozzle Jet Flows with Shock Interactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cliff, Susan E.; Denison, Marie; Moini-Yekta, Shayan; Morr, Donald E.; Durston, Donald A.

    2016-01-01

    NASA and the U.S. aerospace industry are performing studies of supersonic aircraft concepts with low sonic boom pressure signatures. The computational analyses of modern aircraft designs have matured to the point where there is confidence in the prediction of the pressure signature from the front of the vehicle, but uncertainty remains in the aft signatures due to boundary layer and nozzle exhaust jet effects. Wind tunnel testing without inlet and nozzle exhaust jet effects at lower Reynolds numbers than in-flight make it difficult to accurately assess the computational solutions of flight vehicles. A wind tunnel test in the NASA Ames 9- by 7-Foot Supersonic Wind Tunnel is planned for February 2016 to address the nozzle jet effects on sonic boom. The experiment will provide pressure signatures of test articles that replicate waveforms from aircraft wings, tails, and aft fuselage (deck) components after passing through cold nozzle jet plumes. The data will provide a variety of nozzle plume and shock interactions for comparison with computational results. A large number of high-fidelity numerical simulations of a variety of shock generators were evaluated to define a reduced collection of suitable test models. The computational results of the candidate wind tunnel test models as they evolved are summarized, and pre-test computations of the final designs are provided.

  10. Electron beam fluorescence measurements in the Boeing hypersonic shock tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Price, Linwood L.; Williams, W. Dan; Powell, H. M.

    1992-01-01

    The Calspan electron beam fluorescence (EBF) measurement system is described along with the results of measurements made in hypersonic flow. Numerous self-emitting metallic species were identified, many of which may be associated with an aging/erosion process within the B30HST. Because there were only 16 tunnel runs, it was only possible to obtain spectral measurements over a limited range of wavelengths and time sampling periods. Many spectral features of the flow remain uninvestigated. Because flow self-emission is important to all optical diagnostic techniques, it is recommended that additional spectral studies by performed. The three electron beam-excited species that were identified are nitrogen, helium, and nitric oxide. The high metallic radiation background interfered with attempts to obtain the time-wise variation of N2 density and He radiation with the optical fiber/PMT channels. In the case of the N2 density measurements the result of interference was increased uncertainty. Unfortunately, the interference caused the time-wise He measurements to fail completely. It is recommended that the electron beam be modulated to provide discrimination against the background radiation in future N2 density measurements. Careful data reduction produced useful measurements of N2 vibrational temperature, even though the high background from metallic species significantly increased measurement uncertainty. Perhaps the recommended additional spectral studies would reveal N2(+) First Negative System band-pair regions having less background. Detection of the He arrival was easily accomplished with the spectrometer/array detector system. Because of this, it is recommended that this means of detecting He arrival be used in the future. With proper calibrations of the system an He number density could be obtained. Although the flow conditions were out of limits for the run in which the NO spectrum was recorded, the usefulness of the NO spectrum for determination of free

  11. Wind Tunnel Testing of a One-Dimensional Laser Beam Scanning and Laser Sheet Approach to Shock Sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tokars, Roger; Adamovsky, Grigory; Anderson, Robert; Hirt, Stefanie; Huang, John; Floyd, Bertram

    2012-01-01

    A 15- by 15-cm supersonic wind tunnel application of a one-dimensional laser beam scanning approach to shock sensing is presented. The measurement system design allowed easy switching between a focused beam and a laser sheet mode for comparison purposes. The scanning results were compared to images from the tunnel Schlieren imaging system. The tests revealed detectable changes in the laser beam in the presence of shocks. The results lend support to the use of the one-dimensional scanning beam approach for detecting and locating shocks in a flow, but some issues must be addressed in regards to noise and other limitations of the system.

  12. Anomalous Shocks on the Measured Near-Field Pressure Signatures of Low-Boom Wind-Tunnel Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mack, Robert J.

    2006-01-01

    Unexpected shocks on wind-tunnel-measured pressure signatures prompted questions about design methods, pressure signature measurement techniques, and the quality of measurements in the flow fields near lifting models. Some of these unexpected shocks were the result of component integration methods. Others were attributed to the three-dimension nature of the flow around a lifting model, to inaccuracies in the prediction of the area-ruled lift, or to wing-tip stall effects. This report discusses the low-boom model wind-tunnel data where these unexpected shocks were initially observed, the physics of the lifting wing/body model's flow field, the wind-tunnel data used to evaluate the applicability of methods for calculating equivalent areas due to lift, the performance of lift prediction codes, and tip stall effects so that the cause of these shocks could be determined.

  13. New method of asymmetric flow field measurement in hypersonic shock tunnel.

    PubMed

    Yan, D P; He, A Z; Ni, X W

    1991-03-01

    In this paper a method of large aperture (?500 mm) high sensitivity moire deflectometry is used to obtain multidirectional deflectograms of the asymmetric flow field in hypersonic (M = 10.29) shock tunnel. At the same time, a 3-D reconstructive method of the asymmetric flow field is presented which is based on the integration of the moire deflective angle and the double-cubic many-knot interpolating splines; it is used to calculate the 3-D density distribution of the asymmetric flow field. PMID:20582058

  14. Design of a pulse-type strain gauge balance for a long-test-duration hypersonic shock tunnel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Y.; Liu, Y.; Jiang, Z.

    2016-01-01

    When the measurement of aerodynamic forces is conducted in a hypersonic shock tunnel, the inertial forces lead to low-frequency vibrations of the model, and its motion cannot be addressed through digital filtering because a sufficient number of cycles cannot be obtained during a tunnel run. This finding implies restrictions on the model size and mass as the natural frequencies are inversely proportional to the length scale of the model. Therefore, the force measurement still has many problems, particularly for large and heavy models. Different structures of a strain gauge balance (SGB) are proposed and designed, and the measurement element is further optimized to overcome the difficulties encountered during the measurement of aerodynamic forces in a shock tunnel. The motivation for this study is to assess the structural performance of the SGB used in a long-test-duration JF12 hypersonic shock tunnel, which has more than 100 ms of test time. Force tests were conducted for a large-scale cone with a 10° semivertex angle and a length of 0.75 m in the JF12 long-test-duration shock tunnel. The finite element method was used for the analysis of the vibrational characteristics of the Model-Balance-Sting System (MBSS) to ensure a sufficient number of cycles, particularly for the axial force signal during a shock tunnel run. The higher-stiffness SGB used in the test shows good performance, wherein the frequency of the MBSS increases because of the stiff construction of the balance. The experimental results are compared with the data obtained in another wind tunnel and exhibit good agreement at M = 7 and α =5°.

  15. An experimental study on aerodynamic characteristics of standard model HB-2 in high enthalpy shock tunnel HIEST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, K.; Komuro, T.; Tanno, H.; Ueda, S.; Itoh, K.; Kuchiishi, S.; Watanabe, S.

    Force measurement of a standard model HB-2 was performed in high enthalpy shock tunnel HIEST to study its aerodynamic characteristics. The force measurement results were compared with that obtained in conventional 1.27m hypersonic wind tunnel HWT1. The comparison showed that HIEST results agreed well with that of HWT1 in case of low enthalpy condition. The real gas effect on aerodynamic characteristics was also studied in case of high enthalpy condition.

  16. Numerical study of the transient flow in the driven tube and the nozzle section of a shock tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tokarcik-Polsky, Susan; Cambier, Jean-Luc

    1993-01-01

    The initial flow in a shock tunnel was examined numerically using computational fluid dynamics (CFD). A finite-volume total variation diminishing (TVD) scheme was used to calculate the transient flow in a shock tunnel. Both viscous and inviscid, chemically nonreacting flows were studied. The study consisted of two parts, the first dealt with the transient flow in the driven-tube/nozzle interface region (inviscid calculations). The effects of varying the geometry in this region was examined. The second part of the study examined the transient flow in the nozzle (viscous calculations). The results were compared to experimental data.

  17. Force Measurement Using Non-Restrained Models In A Shock Tunnel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanno, Hideyuki; Sato, Kazuo; Komuro, Tomoyuki; Takahashi, Massahiro; Itoh, Katsuhiro; Fujita, Kazuhisa; Laurence, Stuart; Hannemann, Klaus

    2011-05-01

    A novel force measurement technique has been developed at the impulsive facility HIEST, in which the test model is completely non-restrained for the duration of the test, so it experiences free-flight conditions for a period on the order of milliseconds. This technique was demonstrated with a three-component aerodynamic force measurement with a blunted cone of total length 318 mm and a total mass of 22 kg. At the beginning of the wind tunnel test, the blunted cone test model was suspended from electromagnets fixed on the test-section ceiling. The model was released when a triggering signal arrived from the tunnel start signal. The model then fell so that it met the hypersonic test flow just as it arrived in the test section, and made a soft landing on a model catcher with four hydraulic shock absorbers. A miniature model-onboard data-logger, which was a key technology for this technique, was also developed in order to store the measured data. The data-logger was designed to be small enough to be instrumented in test models, with an overall size of 50 mm x 70 mm x 50 mm, including batteries. Since the logger was designed to measure force and pressure, it includes six piezoelectric amplifiers and four piezoresistive amplifiers, as well as high-speed analog-digital converters, which digitize the measured data with 16-bit resolution. The logger’s sampling rate and sample size are 500 kHz and 200 ms, respectively. The logger waits for a trigger signal (accelerometer output) and then starts to take measurements. The trigger threshold and pre-trigger delay time can be adjusted arbitrarily. Measured data is stored to static memory for transfer to a PC via a USB interface after a wind tunnel test. To demonstrate the entire measurement system, wind tunnel experiments were conducted in HIEST. In the present wind tunnel test campaign, records of pressure and axial force were obtained under conditions of H0 = 4 MJ/kg, P0 = 14 MPa. This demonstrated that the system worked

  18. Diode-laser-based near-resonantly enhanced flow visualization in shock tunnels.

    PubMed

    Hruschka, Robert; O'Byrne, Sean; Kleine, Harald

    2008-08-20

    Two new near-resonantly enhanced flow visualization techniques suitable for hypersonic low-density flows in shock or arc tunnels have been developed using seeded lithium (Li) metal as the refractivity-enhancing species. Two semiconductor lasers, single-longitudinal-mode and multimode, are compared with respect to their suitability as light sources for the technique. Transient wake-flow structures around a cylinder and a model of a planetary entry vehicle are visualized to demonstrate the capabilities of this comparatively inexpensive and simple visualization system. The images show flow features which are undetectable with conventional schlieren, shadowgraph, or interferometry techniques. Furthermore, the effect of density inhomogeneities along the line-of-sight outside the region of interest can be reduced by enhancing the refractivity only in selected parts of the flowfield. PMID:18716640

  19. An investigation of a wall-injected scramjet using a shock tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brescianini, C. P.; Morgan, R. G.

    1992-01-01

    Experimental results are presented for several wall-injected, constant-area scramjet experiments, performed in the T4 free-piston-driven shock tunnel. Stagnation enthalpies range from 5.7 to 10.1 MJ/kg, corresponding to flight Mach numbers of Mach 9.7 to Mach 13. Hydrogen fuel is injected from the rear of a step into a supersonic air stream, with combustion-chamber Mach numbers of 3.6 and 4.4, and static pressures of 40 kPa. The experimental results are compared to numerical predictions obtained from a two-dimensional, parabolic Navier-Stokes code, which modeled turbulence with a compressibility modified k-epsilon model, and used multi-reaction, finite-rate chemistry. The numerical and experimental results show reasonable agreement and indicate that the scramjet flows studied are predominantly mixing limited.

  20. Performance data of the new free-piston shock tunnel at GALCIT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hornung, Hans G.

    1992-01-01

    The new free-piston shock tunnel has been partially calibrated, and a range of operating conditions has been found. A large number of difficulties were encountered during the shake-down period, of which the ablation of various parts was the most severe. Solutions to these problems were found. The general principles of high-enthalpy simulation are outlined, and the parameter space covered by T5 is given. Examples of the operating data show that, with care, excellent repeatability may be obtained. The temporal uniformity of the reservoir pressure is very good, even at high enthalpy, because it is possible to operate at tailored-interface and tuned-piston conditions over the whole enthalpy range. Examples of heat transfer and Pitot-pressure measurements are also presented.

  1. Hypervelocity Capability of the HYPULSE Shock-Expansion Tunnel for Scramjet Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foelsche, Robert O.; Rogers, R. Clayton; Tsai, Ching-Yi; Bakos, Robert J.; Shih, Ann T.

    2001-01-01

    New hypervelocity capabilities for scramjet testing have recently been demonstrated in the HYPULSE Shock-Expansion Tunnel (SET). With NASA's continuing interests in scramjet testing at hypervelocity conditions (Mach 12 and above), a SET nozzle was designed and added to the HYPULSE facility. Results of tests conducted to establish SET operational conditions and facility nozzle calibration are presented and discussed for a Mach 15 (M15) flight enthalpy. The measurements and detailed computational fluid dynamics calculations (CFD) show the nozzle delivers a test gas with sufficiently wide core size to be suitable for free-jet testing of scramjet engine models of similar scale as, those tested in conventional low Mach number blow-down test facilities.

  2. Fluorescence Imaging of Rotational and Vibrational Temperature in a Shock Tunnel Nozzle Flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palma, Philip C.; Danehy, Paul M.; Houwing, A. F. P.

    2003-01-01

    Two-dimensional rotational and vibrational temperature measurements were made at the nozzle exit of a free-piston shock tunnel using planar laser-induced fluorescence. The Mach 7 flow consisted predominantly of nitrogen with a trace quantity of nitric oxide. Nitric oxide was employed as the probe species and was excited at 225 nm. Nonuniformities in the distribution of nitric oxide in the test gas were observed and were concluded to be due to contamination of the test gas by driver gas or cold test gas.The nozzle-exit rotational temperature was measured and is in reasonable agreement with computational modeling. Nonlinearities in the detection system were responsible for systematic errors in the measurements. The vibrational temperature was measured to be constant with distance from the nozzle exit, indicating it had frozen during the nozzle expansion.

  3. Entry, Descent, and Landing with Propulsive Deceleration: Supersonic Retropropulsion Wind Tunnel Testing and Shock Phenomena

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palaszewski, Bryan

    2013-01-01

    The future exploration of the Solar System will require innovations in transportation and the use of entry, descent, and landing (EDL) systems at many planetary landing sites. The cost of space missions has always been prohibitive, and using the natural planetary and planet's moon atmospheres for entry, and descent can reduce the cost, mass, and complexity of these missions. This paper will describe some of the EDL ideas for planetary entry and survey the overall technologies for EDL that may be attractive for future Solar System missions. Future EDL systems may include an inflatable decelerator for the initial atmospheric entry and an additional supersonic retro-propulsion (SRP) rocket system for the final soft landing. A three engine retro-propulsion configuration with a 2.5 inch diameter sphere-cone aeroshell model was tested in the NASA Glenn 1x1 Supersonic Wind Tunnel (SWT). The testing was conducted to identify potential blockage issues in the tunnel, and visualize the rocket flow and shock interactions during supersonic and hypersonic entry conditions. Earlier experimental testing of a 70 degree Viking-like (sphere-cone) aeroshell was conducted as a baseline for testing of a supersonic retro-propulsion system. This baseline testing defined the flow field around the aeroshell and from this comparative baseline data, retro-propulsion options will be assessed. Images and analyses from the SWT testing with 300- and 500-psia rocket engine chamber pressures are presented here. In addition, special topics of electromagnetic interference with retro-propulsion induced shock waves and retro-propulsion for Earth launched booster recovery are also addressed.

  4. Entry, Descent, and Landing with Propulsive Deceleration: Supersonic Retropropulsion Wind Tunnel Testing and Shock Phenomena

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palaszewski, Bryan

    2014-01-01

    The future exploration of the Solar System will require innovations in transportation and the use of entry, descent, and landing (EDL) systems at many planetary landing sites. The cost of space missions has always been prohibitive, and using the natural planetary and planet's moon atmospheres for entry, and descent can reduce the cost, mass, and complexity of these missions. This paper will describe some of the EDL ideas for planetary entry and survey the overall technologies for EDL that may be attractive for future Solar System missions. Future EDL systems may include an inflatable decelerator for the initial atmospheric entry and an additional supersonic retropropulsion (SRP) rocket system for the final soft landing. A three engine retropropulsion configuration with a 2.5 in. diameter sphere-cone aeroshell model was tested in the NASA Glenn Research Center's 1- by 1-ft (1×1) Supersonic Wind Tunnel (SWT). The testing was conducted to identify potential blockage issues in the tunnel, and visualize the rocket flow and shock interactions during supersonic and hypersonic entry conditions. Earlier experimental testing of a 70deg Viking-like (sphere-cone) aeroshell was conducted as a baseline for testing of a SRP system. This baseline testing defined the flow field around the aeroshell and from this comparative baseline data, retropropulsion options will be assessed. Images and analyses from the SWT testing with 300- and 500-psia rocket engine chamber pressures are presented here. In addition, special topics of electromagnetic interference with retropropulsion induced shock waves and retropropulsion for Earth launched booster recovery are also addressed.

  5. Plume and Shock Interaction Effects on Sonic Boom in the 1-foot by 1-foot Supersonic Wind Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Castner, Raymond; Elmiligui, Alaa; Cliff, Susan; Winski, Courtney

    2015-01-01

    The desire to reduce or eliminate the operational restrictions of supersonic aircraft over populated areas has led to extensive research at NASA. Restrictions are due to the disturbance of the sonic boom, caused by the coalescence of shock waves formed by the aircraft. A study has been performed focused on reducing the magnitude of the sonic boom N-wave generated by airplane components with a focus on shock waves caused by the exhaust nozzle plume. Testing was completed in the 1-foot by 1-foot supersonic wind tunnel to study the effects of an exhaust nozzle plume and shock wave interaction. The plume and shock interaction study was developed to collect data for computational fluid dynamics (CFD) validation of a nozzle plume passing through the shock generated from the wing or tail of a supersonic vehicle. The wing or tail was simulated with a wedgeshaped shock generator. This test entry was the first of two phases to collect schlieren images and off-body static pressure profiles. Three wedge configurations were tested consisting of strut-mounted wedges of 2.5- degrees and 5-degrees. Three propulsion configurations were tested simulating the propulsion pod and aft deck from a low boom vehicle concept, which also provided a trailing edge shock and plume interaction. Findings include how the interaction of the jet plume caused a thickening of the shock generated by the wedge (or aft deck) and demonstrate how the shock location moved with increasing nozzle pressure ratio.

  6. Assessment of Aerothermal Heating Augmentation Attributed to Surface Catalysis in High Enthalpy Shock Tunnel Flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacLean, M.; Holden, M.

    2009-01-01

    The effect of gas/surface interaction in making CFD predictions of convective heating has been considered with application to ground tests performed in high enthalpy shock tunnels where additional heating augmentation attributable to surface recombination has been observed for nitrogen, air and carbon dioxide flows. For test articles constructed of stainless steel and aluminum, measurements have been made with several types of heat transfer instrumentation including thin- film, calorimeter, and coaxial thermocouple sensors. These experiments have been modeled by computations made with the high quality, chemically reacting, Navier- Stokes solver, DPLR and the heating results compared. Some typical cases considered include results on an axisymmetric sphere-cone, axisymmetric spherical capsule, spherical capsule at angle of attack, and two- dimensional cylinder. In nitrogen flows, cases considered show a recombination probability on the order of 10-3, which agrees with published data. In many cases in air and CO2, measurements exceeding the predicted level of convective heating have been observed which are consistent with approximately complete recombination (to O2/N2 or CO2) on the surface of the model (sometimes called a super-catalytic wall). It has been recognized that the conclusion that this behavior is tied to an excessively high degree of catalytic efficiency is dependent on the current understanding of the freestream and shock-layer state of the gas.

  7. Effect of extracorporeal shock wave therapy on the treatment of patients with carpal tunnel syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Vahdatpour, Babak; Kiyani, Abolghasem; Dehghan, Farnaz

    2016-01-01

    Background: The carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is the most common neuropathy. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of a new and noninvasive treatment including extracorporeal shock wave therapy (ESWT) in the treatment of CTS. Materials and Methods: This study is a clinical trial conducted on 60 patients with moderate CTS in selected health centers of Isfahan Medical University from November 2014 to April 2015. Patients with CTS were randomly divided into two groups. Conservative treatment including wrist splint at night for 3 months, consumption of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs for 2 weeks, and oral consumption of Vitamin B1 for a month was recommended for both groups. The first group was treated with ESWT, one session per week for 4 weeks. Focus probe with 0.05, 0.07, 0.1, and 0.15 energy and shock numbers 800, 900, 1000, and 1100 were used from the first session to the fourth, respectively. The evaluated parameters were assessed before treatment and after 3 and 6 months. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 19, Student’s t-test, and Chi-square test. Results: All parameters were significantly decreased in the ESWT group after 3 months. These results remained almost constant after 6 months compared with 3 months after treatment. However, only two parameters considerably improved after 3 months of treatment in the control group. The entire indexes in the control group implicated the regression of results in long-term period. Conclusion: It is recommended to use ESWT as a conservative treatment in patients with CTS. PMID:27563630

  8. Determining aerodynamic coefficients from high speed video of a free-flying model in a shock tunnel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neely, Andrew J.; West, Ivan; Hruschka, Robert; Park, Gisu; Mudford, Neil R.

    2008-11-01

    This paper describes the application of the free flight technique to determine the aerodynamic coefficients of a model for the flow conditions produced in a shock tunnel. Sting-based force measurement techniques either lack the required temporal response or are restricted to large complex models. Additionally the free flight technique removes the flow interference produced by the sting that is present for these other techniques. Shock tunnel test flows present two major challenges to the practical implementation of the free flight technique. These are the millisecond-order duration of the test flows and the spatial and temporal nonuniformity of these flows. These challenges are overcome by the combination of an ultra-high speed digital video camera to record the trajectory, with spatial and temporal mapping of the test flow conditions. Use of a lightweight model ensures sufficient motion during the test time. The technique is demonstrated using the simple case of drag measurement on a spherical model, free flown in a Mach 10 shock tunnel condition.

  9. Mass spectrometer measurements of test gas composition in a shock tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skinner, K. A.; Stalker, R. J.

    1995-01-01

    Shock tunnels afford a means of generating hypersonic flow at high stagnation enthalpies, but they have the disadvantage that thermochemical effects make the composition of the test flow different to that of ambient air. The composition can be predicted by numerical calculations of the nozzle flow expansion, using simplified thermochemical models and, in the absence of experimental measurements, it has been necessary to accept the results given by these calculations. This note reports measurements of test gas composition, at stagnation enthalpies up to 12.5 MJ.kg(exp -1), taken with a time-of-flight mass spectrometer. Limited results have been obtained in previous measurements. These were taken at higher stagnation enthalpies, and used a quadruple mass spectrometer. The time-of-flight method was preferred here because it enabled a number of complete mass spectra to be obtained in each test, and because it gives good mass resolution over the range of interest with air (up to 50 a.m.a.).

  10. Extracorporeal shock wave therapy in pillar pain after carpal tunnel release: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Romeo, Pietro; d'Agostino, M Cristina; Lazzerini, A; Sansone, Valerio C

    2011-10-01

    "Pillar pain" is a relatively frequent complication after surgical release of the median nerve at the wrist. Its etiology still remains unknown although several studies highlight a neurogenic inflammation as a possible cause. Pillar pain treatment usually includes rest, bracing and physiotherapy, although a significant number of patients still complain of painful symptoms two or even three years after surgery. The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy of low-energy, flux density-focused extracorporeal shock wave therapy (ESWT) in the treatment of pillar pain. We treated 40 consecutive patients with ESWT who had pillar pain for at least six months after carpal tunnel release surgery, and to our knowledge, this is the first study that describes the use of ESWT for treating this condition. Our results show that in all of the treated patients, there was a marked improvement: the mean visual analogue scale (VAS) score decreased from 6.18 (±1.02) to 0.44 (±0.63) 120 d after treatment, and redness and swelling of the surgical scar had also decreased significantly. PMID:21856074

  11. Wind tunnel test 0A113 of the 0.010-scale space shuttle orbiter model 51-0 in the calspan hypersonic shock tunnel (48-inch leg)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burrows, R. R.; Rogers, C. E.

    1975-01-01

    Results are presented of wind tunnel test conducted Hypersonic Shock Tunnel using a 0.010-scale 140A/B configuration orbiter model designated 51-0. The test objectives were: (1) to obtain force and moment data at various Mach numbers and Reynolds numbers from which viscous interaction effects on stability and control may be determined. (1) To provide flow visualization data from which the effects of control surface separation may be evaluated. and (3) To obtain pressure data in conjunction with force and moment data to assist in analyzing viscous interaction and flow separation effects. Data were obtained at angles-of-attack of 20 deg, 30 deg, 40 deg, and 50 deg. The Mach number range covered was from 10 to 16 and the viscous interaction parameter range was from 0.01 to 0.06.

  12. Shock

    MedlinePlus

    ... problems) Hypovolemic shock (caused by too little blood volume) Anaphylactic shock (caused by allergic reaction) Septic shock ( ... as heart attack or heart failure ) Low blood volume (as with heavy bleeding or dehydration ) Changes in ...

  13. Shock

    MedlinePlus

    ... Emergencies A-Z Share this! Home » Emergency 101 Shock Shock is a serious, often life-threatening medical condition ... of death for critically ill or injured people. Shock results when the body is not getting enough ...

  14. Experimental study of wall boundary layer growth in the 10 deg half angle conical nozzle of a reflected shock tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Menees, G. P.

    1972-01-01

    Calibration studies of shock-tunnel nozzle flow were made in both N2 and Ar for a reservoir temperature of 2000 deg K and reservoir pressures of 15, 85, and 130 atm. The results for both test gases showed that the boundary layer was turbulent and the growth nonlinear, with the thickness being greater in Ar than N2 at comparable reservoir conditions. The boundary-layer thickness decreased with increasing reservoir pressure, but only small differences occurred between the two largest reservoir pressures. Good correlations of the boundary layer and displacement thickness were obtained for both N2 and Ar in terms of Reynolds number based on a reference temperature.

  15. Evaluation of PNS-computed heating and hypersonic shock tunnel data on sharp and inclined blunt cones

    SciTech Connect

    Hudson, M.L.

    1988-01-01

    As part of the ongoing development and verification of the Parabolized Navier-Stokes (PNS) technique, computed heat transfer rates have been compared with recently acquired experimental data. The flow fields were computer for laminar and turbulent flow over sharp, blunt tripped sphere-cones at 0/degree/ to 20/degree/ angle of attack in a hypersonic shock tunnel flow at Mach numbers of 11, 13, and 16. Grid refinement studies were performed and minimum smoothing parameters were sought. The average percent difference between the measured mean heat transfer rate and the PNS-computed value was 12% for the sharp and blunt cones at 0/degree/ angle of attack. For the blunt cones at angle of attack, the average percent difference was 11% on the windward ray and 36% on the leeward ray. PNS-predicted flow physics such as boundary layer thickness, shock standoff distance, and crossflow separation were examined. 15 refs., 12 figs.

  16. Simulation of transient flow in a shock tunnel and a high Mach number nozzle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobs, P. A.

    1991-01-01

    A finite volume Navier-Stokes code was used to simulate the shock reflection and nozzle starting processes in an axisymmetric shock tube and a high Mach number nozzle. The simulated nozzle starting processes were found to match the classical quasi-1-D theory and some features of the experimental measurements. The shock reflection simulation illustrated a new mechanism for the driver gas contamination of the stagnated test gas.

  17. Internal Flow and Burning Characteristics of 16-inch Ram Jet Operating in a Free Jet at Mach Numbers of 1.35 and 1.73

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perchonok, Eugene; Farley, John M

    1951-01-01

    The effects of mass-flow ratio on the additive drag and normal-shock position of a single oblique-shock diffuser are presented. Also evaluated is the variation with operating condition of the velocity distribution at the combustion-chamber inlet. A comparison with connected-pipe data is included. Burner performance with a corrugated gutter-grid flame holder is discussed. It is shown that the total-pressure drop across the combustion chamber can be predicted with reasonable accuracy from the computed flame holder and combustion momentum pressure losses.

  18. Measured and calculated spectral radiation from a blunt body shock layer in an arc-jet wind tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Babikian, Dikran S.; Palumbo, Giuseppe; Craig, Roger A.; Park, Chul; Palmer, Grant; Sharma, Surendra P.

    1994-01-01

    Spectra of the shock layer radiation incident on the stagnation point of a blunt body placed in an arc-jet wind tunnel were measured over the wavelength range from 600 nm to 880 nm. The test gas was a mixture of 80 percent air and 20 percent argon by mass, and the run was made in a highly nonequilibrium environment. The observed spectra contained contributions from atomic lines of nitrogen, oxygen, and argon, of bound-free and free-free continua, and band systems of N2 and N2(+). The measured spectra were compared with the synthetic spectra, which were obtained through four steps: the calculation of the arc-heater characteristics, of the nozzle flow, of the blunt-body flow, and the nonequilibrium radiation processes. The results show that the atomic lines are predicted approximately correctly, but all other sources are underpredicted by orders of magnitude. A possible explanation for the discrepancy is presented.

  19. Transition on a sharp cone at high enthalpy - New measurements in the shock tunnel T5 at GALCIT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Germain, P.; Cummings, E.; Hornung, H.

    1993-01-01

    An exploratory study of the laminar, transitional and turbulent boundary layer on a slender cone in hypervelocity flow was conducted in the high-enthalpy shock tunnel T5. A novel flow visualization technique using sodium seeding to increase the sensitivity of conventional interferometric techniques by resonant enhancement of the refractivity of the medium was developed to study its structure. The experiments were designed to cover a large range of specific reservoir enthalpy, ranging from the perfect-gas region to the range where significant oxygen and some nitrogen dissociation and recombination effects may be expected in the boundary layer. Surface heat flux measurements indicate that the transition Reynolds number is approximately the same as that observed in cold hypersonic flow in conventional continuous flow facilities, but significantly lower than that observed in 'quiet' tunnels. No significant effect of reservoir specific enthalpy on transition was observed. The heat flux distribution showed differences between the air and the nitrogen experiments in the laminar regime. These are consistent with the presence of recombination of oxygen at the wall. This view is supported by the fact that this effect is absent in the low-enthalpy region, where the heat flux distribution agrees with the similarity theory.

  20. VUV shock layer radiation in an arc-jet wind tunnel experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Craig, Roger A.; Palumbo, Giuseppe; Carrasco, Armando

    1994-01-01

    Measurements were made of the radiating gas cap of a blunt body in a NASA-Ames 20 MW arc-jet wind tunnel. The test gas was air. Spectra of the flux incident on a small aperture centered at the stagnation region were obtained. A helium-cooled, magnesium fluoride window transmitted the flux into an evacuated collimating system that focused the aperture onto the entrance slit of a spectrometer. Data were obtained with films and by photomultipliers. The spectral ranges covered were the vacuum ultraviolet, VUV, (120 nm to 200 nm) and the ultraviolet to near infrared (200 nm to 900 nm) with resolutions from 0.05 nm to 0.5 nm. This paper presents the preliminary VUV results from the experiment. Results from the 200 nm to 900 nm spectral range have been presented elsewhere. Representative spectral records from 120 nm to 200 nm are shown. The intense atomic oxygen and nitrogen lines which are of concern to hypersonic flight are measured. Carbon lines are are also seen. These results will be used to help develop and validate aerothermodynamic computational models of arc-jet wind tunnel performance and help to assess the importance of VUV heating to entering spacecraft.

  1. Results of wind tunnel RCS interaction tests on a 0.010-scale space shuttle orbiter model (51-0) in the Calspan Corporation 48-inch hypersonic shock tunnel (test 0A93)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daileda, J. J.; Marroquin, J.; Rogers, C. E.

    1976-01-01

    A hypersonic shock tunnel test on a 0.010 scale SSV orbital configuration was performed to determine the effects of RCS jet/flow field interactions on SSV aerodynamic stability and control characteristics at various hypersonic Mach and Reynolds numbers. Flow field interaction data were obtained using pitch and roll jets. In addition, direct impingement data were obtained at a Mach number of zero with the test section pumped down to below 10 microns of mercury pressure.

  2. Effect of radial shock wave therapy for carpal tunnel syndrome: A prospective randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yung-Tsan; Ke, Ming-Jen; Chou, Yu-Ching; Chang, Chih-Ya; Lin, Ching-Yueh; Li, Tsung-Ying; Shih, Feng-Mei; Chen, Liang-Cheng

    2016-06-01

    Three recent studies demonstrated the positive effect of extracorporeal shock wave therapy (ESWT) for treating carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS). However, none have entirely proved the effects of ESWT on CTS because all studies had a small sample size and lacked a placebo-controlled design. Moreover, radial ESWT (rESWT) has not been used to treat CTS. We conducted a prospective randomized, controlled, double-blinded study to assess the effect of rESWT for treating CTS. Thirty-four enrolled patients (40 wrists) were randomized into intervention and control groups (20 wrists in each). Participants in the intervention group underwent three sessions of rESWT with nightly splinting, whereas those in the control group underwent sham rESWT with nightly splinting. The primary outcome was visual analog scale (VAS), whereas the secondary outcomes included the Boston Carpal Tunnel Syndrome Questionnaire (BCTQ), cross-sectional area (CSA) of the median nerve, sensory nerve conduction velocity of the median nerve, and finger pinch strength. Evaluations were performed before treatment and at 1, 4, 8, and 12 weeks after the third rESWT session. A significantly greater improvement in the VAS, BCTQ scores, and CSA of the median nerve was noted in the intervention group throughout the study as compared to the control group (except for BCTQ severity at week 12 and CSA at weeks 1 and 4) (p < 0.05). This is the first study to assess rESWT in a randomized placebo-controlled trial and demonstrate that rESWT is a safe and effective method for relieving pain and disability in patients with CTS. © 2015 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 34:977-984, 2016. PMID:26610183

  3. Successful Development of the Long-Test-Duration Hypervelocity Detonation-Driven Shock Tunnel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Z. L.; Yu, H. R.

    The hypersonic technology is one of the key issues for future aerospace industries, and hypersonic physics is a challenging topic in gas dynamics research area [1]. The hypersonic test facility being capable of duplicating hypersonic flight conditions is the most important tool not only for developing hypersonic vehicles, but also for promoting the fundamental study on high temperature gas flows. Advanced hypersonic test facilities have been developed for more than 50 years [2], but there is still a lack of the facility for generating high-enthalpy flows with a Mach number higher than 7 for hypersonic propulsion due to huge technological barriers in wind tunnel techniques, especially for facility damages due to severe heat transfer problems [3].

  4. Spectral measurements of shock layer radiation in an arc-jet wind tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palumbo, Giuseppe; Craig, Roger; Carrasco, Armando

    1993-01-01

    Measurements were made of the radiating gas cap of a blunt body in an NASA Ames 20 MW arcjet wind tunnel. The test gas was air. Spectra of the flux incident on a small aperture centered at the stagnation region were obtained. A helium-cooled MgF window transmitted flux into an evacuated collimating system that focused the aperture onto the entrance slit of a spectrometer. Data were obtained with films and by photomultipliers. The range covered was 120 nm to 1000 nm and the resolution was 0.05 nm to 0.5 nm. This paper presents preliminary results from the experiment. Representative spectral records from 200 nm to 1000 nm are shown. The spectra show the atomic lines from oxygen and nitrogen in the IR, as well as the molecular systems of NO, N2, N2(+), and CN. Copper, as a contaminant, and carbon are tentatively identified.

  5. Shock.

    PubMed

    Wacker, David A; Winters, Michael E

    2014-11-01

    Critically ill patients with undifferentiated shock are complex and challenging cases in the ED. A systematic approach to assessment and management is essential to prevent unnecessary morbidity and mortality. The simplified, systematic approach described in this article focuses on determining the presence of problems with cardiac function (the pump), intravascular volume (the tank), or systemic vascular resistance (the pipes). With this approach, the emergency physician can detect life-threatening conditions and implement time-sensitive therapy. PMID:25441032

  6. Heat transfer tests on a 0.01-scale Rockwell configuration 3 space shuttle orbiter and tank (37-OT) in the Calspan 48-inch hypersonic shock tunnel (OH12/IH21), volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kotch, M.

    1975-01-01

    Model information and data are presented from wind tunnel tests conducted on 0.01-scale models of the space shuttle orbiter and external tank. These tests were conducted in a hypersonic shock tunnel to determine heating rates on ascent and reentry configurations at various Reynolds numbers, Mach numbers, and angles of attack.

  7. Mach 4 and Mach 8 axisymmetric nozzles for a high-enthalpy shock tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobs, P. A.; Stalker, R. J.

    1991-01-01

    The performance of two axisymmetric nozzles which were designed to produce uniform, parallel flow with nominal Mach numbers of 4 and 8 is examined. A free-piston-driven shock tube was used to supply the nozzle with high-temperature, high-pressure test gas. The inviscid design procedure treated the nozzle expansion in two stages. Close to the nozzle throat, the nozzle wall was specified as conical and the gas flow was treated as a quasi-one-dimensional chemically-reacting flow. At the end of the conical expansion, the gas was assumed to be calorically perfect, and a contoured wall was designed (using method of characteristics) to convert the source flow into a uniform and parallel flow at the end of the nozzle. Performance was assessed by measuring Pitot pressures across the exit plane of the nozzles and, over the range of operating conditions examined, the nozzles produced satisfactory test flows. However, there were flow disturbances in the Mach 8 nozzle flow that persisted for significant times after flow initiation.

  8. Mach 4 and Mach 8 axisymmetric nozzles for a shock tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobs, P. A.; Stalker, R. J.

    1991-01-01

    The performance of two axisymmetric nozzles which were designed to produce uniform, parallel flow with nominal Mach numbers of 4 and 8 is examined. A free-piston-driven shock tube was used to supply the nozzle with high-temperature, high-pressure test gas. The inviscid design procedure treated the nozzle expansion in two stages. Close to the nozzle throat, the nozzle wall was specified as conical and the gas flow was treated as a quasi-one-dimensional chemically-reacting flow. At the end of the conical expansion, the gas was assumed to be calorically perfect, and a contoured wall was designed (using method of characteristics) to convert the source flow into a uniform and parallel flow at the end of the nozzle. Performance was assessed by measuring Pitot pressures across the exit plane of the nozzles and, over the range of operating conditions examined, the nozzles produced satisfactory test flows. However, there were flow disturbances in the Mach 8 nozzle flow that persisted for significant times after flow initiation.

  9. Shock Tunnel Studies of the Hypersonic Flowfield around the Hypervelocity Ballistic Models with Aerospikes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balakalyani, G.; Saravanan, S.; Jagadeesh, G.

    Reduced drag and aerodynamic heating are the two basic design requirements for any hypersonic vehicle [1]. The flowfield around an axisymmetric blunt body is characterized by a bow shockwave standing ahead of its nose. The pressure and temperature behind this shock wave are very high. This increased pressure and temperature are responsible for the high levels of drag and aerodynamic heating over the body. In the past, there have been many investigations on the use of aerospikes as a drag reduction tool. These studies on spiked bodies aim at reducing both the drag and aerodynamic heating by modifying the hypersonic flowfield ahead of the nose of the body [2]. However, most of them used very simple configurations to experimentally study the drag reduction using spikes at hypersonic speeds [3] and therefore very little experimental data is available for a realistic geometric configuration. In the present study, the standard AGARD Hypervelocity Ballistic model 1 is used as the test model. The addition of the spike to the blunt body significantly alters the flowfield ahead of the nose, leading to the formation of a low pressure conical recirculation region, thus causing a reduction in drag and wall heat flux [4]. In the present investigation, aerodynamic drag force is measured over the Hypervelocity Ballistic model-1, with and without spike, at a flow enthalpy of 1.7 MJ/kg. The experiments are carried out at a Mach number of 8 and at zero angle of attack. An internally mountable accelerometer based 3-component force balance system is used to measure the aerodynamic forces on the model. Also computational studies are carried out to complement the experiments.

  10. Aeroheating Measurement of Apollo Shaped Capsule with Boundary Layer Trip in the Free-piston Shock Tunnel HIEST

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hideyuki, TANNO; Tomoyuki, KOMURO; Kazuo, SATO; Katsuhiro, ITOH; Lillard, Randolph P.; Olejniczak, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    An aeroheating measurement test campaign of an Apollo capsule model with laminar and turbulent boundary layer was performed in the free-piston shock tunnel HIEST at JAXA Kakuda Space Center. A 250mm-diameter 6.4%-scaled Apollo CM capsule model made of SUS-304 stainless steel was applied in this study. To measure heat flux distribution, the model was equipped with 88 miniature co-axial Chromel-Constantan thermocouples on the heat shield surface of the model. In order to promote boundary layer transition, a boundary layer trip insert with 13 "pizza-box" isolated roughness elements, which have 1.27mm square, were placed at 17mm below of the model geometric center. Three boundary layer trip inserts with roughness height of k=0.3mm, 0.6mm and 0.8mm were used to identify the appropriate height to induce transition. Heat flux records with or without roughness elements were obtained for model angles of attack 28º under stagnation enthalpy between H(sub 0)=3.5MJ/kg to 21MJ/kg and stagnation pressure between P(sub 0)=14MPa to 60MPa. Under the condition above, Reynolds number based on the model diameter was varied from 0.2 to 1.3 million. With roughness elements, boundary layer became fully turbulent less than H(sub 0)=9MJ/kg condition. However, boundary layer was still laminar over H(sub 0)=13MJ/kg condition even with the highest roughness elements. An additional experiment was also performed to correct unexpected heat flux augmentation observed over H(sub 0)=9MJ/kg condition.

  11. Boundary Layer Transition and Trip Effectiveness on an Apollo Capsule in the JAXA High Enthalpy Shock Tunnel (HIEST) Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirk, Lindsay C.; Lillard, Randolph P.; Olejniczak, Joseph; Tanno, Hideyuki

    2015-01-01

    Computational assessments were performed to size boundary layer trips for a scaled Apollo capsule model in the High Enthalpy Shock Tunnel (HIEST) facility at the JAXA Kakuda Space Center in Japan. For stagnation conditions between 2 MJ/kg and 20 MJ/kg and between 10 MPa and 60 MPa, the appropriate trips were determined to be between 0.2 mm and 1.3 mm high, which provided kappa/delta values on the heatshield from 0.15 to 2.25. The tripped configuration consisted of an insert with a series of diamond shaped trips along the heatshield downstream of the stagnation point. Surface heat flux measurements were obtained on a capsule with a 250 mm diameter, 6.4% scale model, and pressure measurements were taken at axial stations along the nozzle walls. At low enthalpy conditions, the computational predictions agree favorably to the test data along the heatshield centerline. However, agreement becomes less favorable as the enthalpy increases conditions. The measured surface heat flux on the heatshield from the HIEST facility was under-predicted by the computations in these cases. Both smooth and tripped configurations were tested for comparison, and a post-test computational analysis showed that kappa/delta values based on the as-measured stagnation conditions ranged between 0.5 and 1.2. Tripped configurations for both 0.6 mm and 0.8 mm trip heights were able to effectively trip the flow to fully turbulent for a range of freestream conditions.

  12. Comparison of shock wave therapy and nutraceutical composed of Echinacea angustifolia, alpha lipoic acid, conjugated linoleic acid and quercetin (perinerv) in patients with carpal tunnel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Notarnicola, Angela; Maccagnano, Giuseppe; Tafuri, Silvio; Fiore, Alessandra; Pesce, Vito; Moretti, Biagio

    2015-06-01

    Even though the initial treatment of carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is conservative, knowledge of the clinical effects of supplements and of some methods of physiotherapy is still preliminary. Many biological mechanisms can support the administration of shock wave therapy (ESWT) or of alpha lipoic acid (ALA) based nutraceutical, conjugated linoleic acid (GLA), anti-oxidants and Echinacea angustifolia for CTS. The shock waves reduce the nerve compression, produce an anti-inflammatory action, and accelerate the regeneration of neuropathy. ALA and GLA induce antioxidant protective actions, reduce inflammation, promote neuroregeneration, and decrease pain. The Echinacea modulates the endogenous cannabinoid system.The aim of study is to verify the efficiency of shock wave therapy versus nutraceutical composed of ALA, GLA, and Echinacea in CTS. Sixty patients were enrolled in this study and they were randomly assigned to one of two treatments. Both groups showed significant improvements in pain, symptoms' severity and functional scores, and electrodiagnostic results until the sixth month. We verified a trend to a better pain regression in the nutraceutical group. The presence of the medicinal Echinacea represents an added value to the antioxidant effect in ALA and GLA, which can justify this result. ESWT or the association of ALA, GLA, and Echinacea proved to be two effective treatments for controlling symptoms and improving the evolution of CTS. PMID:25953494

  13. Shock wave/turbulent boundary layer interaction in the flow field of a tri-dimension wind tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benay, R.; Pot, T.

    1986-01-01

    The first results of a thorough experimental analysis of a strong three-dimensional shock-wave/turbulent boundary-layer interaction occurring in a three dimensional transonic channel are presented. The aim of this experiment is to help in the physical understanding of a complex field, including several separations, and to provide a well documented case to test computational methods. The flowfield has been probed in many points by means of a three-component laser Doppler velocimeter. The results presented relate only to the mean velocity field. They clearly show the formation in the flow of a strong vortical motion resulting from the shock wave interaction.

  14. Wall-temperature effects on the aerodynamics of a hydrogen-fueled transport concept in Mach 8 blowdown and shock tunnels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Penland, J. A.; Marcum, D. C., Jr.; Stack, S. H.

    1983-01-01

    Results are presented from two separate tests on the same blended wing-body hydrogen fueled transport model at a Mach number of about 8 and a range of Reynolds numbers (based on theoretical body length) of 0.597 x 10 to the 6th power to about 156.22 x 10 to the 6th power. Tests were made in conventional hypersonic blowdown tunnel and a hypersonic shock tunnel at angles of attack of -2 deg to about 8 deg, with an extensive study made at a constant angle of attack of 3 deg. The model boundary-layer flow varied from laminar at the lower Reynolds numbers to predominantly turbulent at the higher Reynolds numbers. Model wall temperatures and stream static temperatures varied widely between the two tests, particularly at the lower Reynolds numbers. These temperature differences resulted in marked variations of the axial-force coefficients between the two tests, due in part to the effects of induced pressure and viscous interaction variations. The normal-force coefficient was essentially independent of Reynolds number. Analysis of results utilized current theoretical computer programs and basic boundary-layer theory.

  15. Free-flight Performance of 16-inch-diameter Supersonic Ram-jet Units III : Four Units Designed for Combustion-chamber-inlet Mach Number of 0.245 at Free-stream Mach Number of 1.8 (units D-1, D-2, D-3, and D-4)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Disher, John H; Rabinowitz, Leonard

    1950-01-01

    Performance of four 16-inch-diameter ram-jet units was determined at free-stream Mach numbers of 0.49 to 1.78 over range of gas total-temperature ratios of 1.0 to 6.1. Time histories of each flight and data on thrust, drag, diffuser efficiency, and combustion are presented. A maximum thrust coefficient of 0.88 and a maximum net acceleration of 5.13 g's were observed for the four units.

  16. Exploratory wind tunnel tests of a shock-swallowing air data sensor at a Mach number of approximately 1.83

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nugent, J.; Couch, L. M.; Webb, L. D.

    1975-01-01

    The test probe was designed to measure free-stream Mach number and could be incorporated into a conventional airspeed nose boom installation. Tests were conducted in the Langley 4-by 4-foot supersonic pressure tunnel with an approximate angle of attack test range of -5 deg to 15 deg and an approximate angle of sideslip test range of + or - 4 deg. The probe incorporated a variable exit area which permitted internal flow. The internal flow caused the bow shock to be swallowed. Mach number was determined with a small axially movable internal total pressure tube and a series of fixed internal static pressure orifices. Mach number error was at a minimum when the total pressure tube was close to the probe tip. For four of the five tips tested, the Mach number error derived by averaging two static pressures measured at horizontally opposed positions near the probe entrance were least sensitive to angle of attack changes. The same orifices were also used to derive parameters that gave indications of flow direction.

  17. Effect of the mode composition disturbances in a high-enthalpy wind tunnel on wave processes in the hypersonic viscous shock layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirilovskiy, S. V.; Poplavskaya, T. V.; Tsyryulnikov, I. S.

    2016-06-01

    A numerical and experimental study of the spectral distribution of disturbances hotshot wind tunnel was performed. It was found that disturbances are the superposition of fast acoustic waves propagating along axial direction and oblique slow acoustic waves which have less amplitude. Numerical simulation of disturbances evolution in the nozzle of the wind tunnel was carried out by solving 2D Navier-Stokes equations using the ANSYS Fluent program package. Experiments were carried out in the IT-302M high-enthalpy hotshot wind tunnel ITAM SB RAS.

  18. Free-flight Performance of 16-inch-diameter Supersonic Ram-jet Units II : Five Units Designed for Combustion-chamber-inlet Mach Number of 0.16 at Free-stream Mach Number of 1.60 (units B-1, B-2, B-3, B-4, and B-5) /c Wesley E. Messing and Scott H. S

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Messing, Wesley E; Simpkinson, Scott H

    1950-01-01

    Free-flight performance of five 16-inch-diameter ram-jet units was determined over range of free-stream Mach numbers of 0.50 to 1.86 and gas total-temperature ratios between 1.0 and 6.1 Time histories of performance data are presented for each unit. Correlations illustrate effect of free-stream Mach number and gas total-temperature ratio on diffuser total-pressure recovery, net-thrust coefficient, and external drag coefficient. One unit had smooth steady burning throughout the entire flight and encountered a maximum free-stream Mach number of 1.86 with a net acceleration of approximately 4.2 g's.

  19. Experimental Demonstration of the Use of a N2O/N2 Mixture in the Driven Tube of a Reflected Shock Tunnel in Order to Increase Test Time

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bogdanoff, David W.; Wilson, Gregory J.; Sussman, Myles A.; Cavolowsky, John A. (Technical Monitor)

    1996-01-01

    An experimental investigation was carried out into the replacement of air in the driven tube of a reflected shock tunnel by an N2O/N2 mixture in order to increase the test time. The incident shock velocities were between 2 and 3 km/sec. Test times were estimated from light emission histories in the driven tube (at distance of L/D = 46.5 from the main diaphragm) and in the nozzle at an area ratio of 27.9 and from pressure histories just upstream of the nozzle entrance (at L/D = 54). The test times estimated from the light emission histories in the driven tube showed that consistent increases of 60-100% were obtained upon substituting N2O/N2 for air in the driven tube. These increases were in very good agreement with theoretical estimates. The test times estimated from the light emission histories in the nozzle or pressure histories at the nozzle inlet showed significant improvements with N2O/N2 only for cases where the facility was operated at substantially overtailored conditions. It is believed that this is due to the greater stability of the driver-driven interface at overtailored operating conditions. At overtailored operating conditions, test times increases of 60-100% with N2O/N2 were observed with all three diagnostic techniques. These increases were in reasonable agreement with theoretical estimates.

  20. Shock/shock interference on a transpiration cooled hemispherical model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nowak, Robert J.; Wieting, Allan R.; Holden, Michael S.

    1990-01-01

    Experimental results are presented which show the effectiveness of transpiration cooling in reducing the peak heat flux caused by an impinging shock on a bow shock of a hemispherical model. The 12-inch diameter hemispherical transpiration model with helium coolant was tested in the Calspan 48-inch Hypersonic Shock Tunnel at nominal Mach 12.1 and freestream unit Reynolds number of 0.33 x 10 to the 6th/ft. An incident shock wave, generated by a blunt flat-plate shock generator inclined at 10 deg to the freestream, intersected the bow shock of the model to produce shock/shock interference. The stagnation heat flux without coolant or shock/shock interference was about 1.6 times a smooth surface laminar prediction due to effective roughness of the coolant ejection slots. A coolant mass flux 31 percent of the freestream mass flux reduced the stagnation heat flux to zero without shock/shock interference. However, for the same coolant mass flux and with shock/shock interference the peak heat flux was only reduced 8.3 percent, even though the total integrated heat load was reduced.

  1. Terminal-shock and restart control of a Mach 2.5, axisymmetric, mixed compression inlet with 40 percent internal contraction. [wind tunnel tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baumbick, R. J.

    1974-01-01

    Results of experimental tests conducted on a supersonic, mixed-compression, axisymmetric inlet are presented. The inlet is designed for operation at Mach 2.5 with a turbofan engine (TF-30). The inlet was coupled to either a choked orifice plate or a long duct which had a variable-area choked exit plug. Closed-loop frequency responses of selected diffuser static pressures used in the terminal-shock control system are presented. Results are shown for Mach 2.5 conditions with the inlet coupled to either the choked orifice plate or the long duct. Inlet unstart-restart traces are also presented. High-response inlet bypass doors were used to generate an internal disturbance and also to achieve terminal-shock control.

  2. Laser Driven Radiative Shocks in High Energy Density

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manka, C.; Lunsford, R.; Nikitin, S.; Laming, M.; Zabatakis, D.; Grun, J.

    2008-03-01

    The long time over which oscillations associated with radiative shocks within the interstellar medium occur makes direct observation of these instabilities highly problematic. A velocity dependant cooling instability is thought to cause fluctuations in the propagation velocity of such shocks. An experiment at NRL investigates and perhaps validates the applicability of present analytic models to various multidimensional radiative shock instabilities. The PHAROS laser at NRL is used to create the relevant shock front by ablative acceleration of an aluminized Mylar foil that covers a small gas filled tunnel in a PMMA block. As this shock propagates along the tunnel, a secondary shock is launched into the walls of the tunnel and the progress of this shock into the PMMA block preserves a continuous record of the primary shock's velocity as it travels the length of the tunnel. The density gradient associated with the shock in the PMMA is recorded using dark field shadowgraphy on a SIM-8 multi-channel high speed framing camera. The tunnel shock velocity is determined from the shape of the shock launched into the PMMA block for any time prior to the instant at which the image frame was taken, providing documentation of any oscillations in the velocity of the shock.

  3. AOTV bow shock location

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Desautel, D.

    1985-01-01

    Hypersonic bow-shock location and geometry are of central importance to the aerodynamics and aerothermodynamics of aeroassisted orbital transfer vehicles (AOTVs), but they are difficult to predict for a given vehicle configuration. This paper reports experimental measurements of shock standoff distance for the 70 deg cone AOTV configuration in shock-tunnel-test flows at Mach numbers of 3.8 to 7.9 and for angles of attack from 0 deg to 20 deg. The controlling parameter for hypersonic bow-shock standoff distance (for a given forebody shape) is the mean normal-shock density ratio. Values for this parameter in the tests reported are in the same range as those of the drag-brake AOTV perigee regime. Results for standoff distance are compared with those previously reported in the literature for this AOTV configuration. It is concluded that the AOTV shock standoff distance for the conical configuration, based on frustrum (base) radius, is equivalent to that of a sphere with a radius about 35 percent greater than that of the cone; the distance is, therefore, much less than reported in previous studies. Some reasons for the discrepancies between the present and previous are advanced. The smaller standoff distance determined here implies there will be less radiative heat transfer than was previously expected.

  4. Wind tunnel measurements on a full-scale F/A-18 with a tangentially blowing slot. [conducted in the Ames 80 by 120 foot wind tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lanser, Wendy R.

    1994-01-01

    A full-scale F/A-18 was tested in the 80 by 120-Foot Wind Tunnel at NASA Ames Research Center to measure the effectiveness of a tangentially blowing slot in generating significant yawing moments while minimizing coupling in the pitch and roll axes. Various slot configurations were tested to determine the optimum configuration. The test was conducted for angles of attack from 25 to 50 deg, angles of sideslip from -15 to +15 deg, and freestream velocities from 67 ft/sec to 168 ft/sec. By altering the forebody vortex flow, yaw control was maintained for angles of attack up to 50 deg. Of particular interest was the result that blowing very close to the radome apex was not as effective as blowing slightly farther aft on the radome, that a 16-inch slot was more efficient, and that yawing moments were generated without inducing significant rolling or pitching moments.

  5. Water tunnels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bjarke, Lisa J.

    1991-01-01

    Some of the uses of water tunnels are demonstrated through the description of the NASA Ames-Dryden Flow Visualization Facility. It is concluded that water tunnels are capable of providing a quick and inexpensive means of flow visualization and can aid in the understanding of complex fluid mechanics phenomena.

  6. Tunneling machine

    SciTech Connect

    Snyder, L.L.

    1980-02-19

    A diametrically compact tunneling machine for boring tunnels is disclosed. The machine includes a tubular support frame having a hollow piston mounted therein which is movable from a retracted position in the support frame to an extended position. A drive shaft is rotatably mounted in the hollow piston and carries a cutter head at one end. The hollow piston is restrained against rotational movement relative to the support frame and the drive shaft is constrained against longitudinal movement relative to the hollow piston. A plurality of radially extendible feet project from the support frame to the tunnel wall to grip the tunnel wall during a tunneling operation wherein the hollow piston is driven forwardly so that the cutter head works on the tunnel face. When the hollow piston is fully extended, a plurality of extendible support feet, which are fixed to the rearward and forward ends of the hollow piston, are extended, the radially extendible feet are retracted and the support frame is shifted forwardly by the piston so that a further tunneling operation may be initiated.

  7. Cardiogenic shock

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000185.htm Cardiogenic shock To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Cardiogenic shock is when the heart has been damaged so ...

  8. Septic shock

    MedlinePlus

    Septic shock is a serious condition that occurs when a body-wide infection leads to dangerously low blood ... Septic shock occurs most often in the very old and the very young. It may also occur in ...

  9. Recognition Tunneling

    PubMed Central

    Lindsay, Stuart; He, Jin; Sankey, Otto; Hapala, Prokop; Jelinek, Pavel; Zhang, Peiming; Chang, Shuai; Huang, Shuo

    2010-01-01

    Single molecules in a tunnel junction can now be interrogated reliably using chemically-functionalized electrodes. Monitoring stochastic bonding fluctuations between a ligand bound to one electrode and its target bound to a second electrode (“tethered molecule-pair” configuration) gives insight into the nature of the intermolecular bonding at a single molecule-pair level, and defines the requirements for reproducible tunneling data. Simulations show that there is an instability in the tunnel gap at large currents, and this results in a multiplicity of contacts with a corresponding spread in the measured currents. At small currents (i.e. large gaps) the gap is stable, and functionalizing a pair of electrodes with recognition reagents (the “free analyte” configuration) can generate a distinct tunneling signal when an analyte molecule is trapped in the gap. This opens up a new interface between chemistry and electronics with immediate implications for rapid sequencing of single DNA molecules. PMID:20522930

  10. Tunneling Nanotubes

    PubMed Central

    Lou, Emil; Fujisawa, Sho; Barlas, Afsar; Romin, Yevgeniy; Manova-Todorova, Katia; Moore, Malcolm A.S.; Subramanian, Subbaya

    2012-01-01

    Tunneling nanotubes are actin-based cytoplasmic extensions that function as intercellular channels in a wide variety of cell types.There is a renewed and keen interest in the examination of modes of intercellular communication in cells of all types, especially in the field of cancer biology. Tunneling nanotubes –which in the literature have also been referred to as “membrane nanotubes,” “’intercellular’ or ‘epithelial’ bridges,” or “cytoplasmic extensions” – are under active investigation for their role in facilitating direct intercellular communication. These structures have not, until recently, been scrutinized as a unique and previously unrecognized form of direct cell-to-cell transmission of cellular cargo in the context of human cancer. Our recent study of tunneling nanotubes in human malignant pleural mesothelioma and lung adenocarcinomas demonstrated efficient transfer of cellular contents, including proteins, Golgi vesicles, and mitochondria, between cells derived from several well-established cancer cell lines. Further, we provided effective demonstration that such nanotubes can form between primary malignant cells from human patients. For the first time, we also demonstrated the in vivo relevance of these structures in humans, having effectively imaged nanotubes in intact solid tumors from patients. Here we provide further analysis and discussion on our findings, and offer a prospective ‘road map’ for studying tunneling nanotubes in the context of human cancer. We hope that further understanding of the mechanisms, methods of transfer, and particularly the role of nanotubes in tumor-stromal cross-talk will lead to identification of new selective targets for cancer therapeutics. PMID:23060969

  11. Hypovolemic shock

    MedlinePlus

    ... clammy skin Confusion Decreased or no urine output General weakness Pale skin color (pallor) Rapid breathing Sweating , moist skin Unconsciousness The greater and more rapid the blood loss, the more severe the symptoms of shock.

  12. Domino Tunneling.

    PubMed

    Schreiner, Peter R; Wagner, J Philipp; Reisenauer, Hans Peter; Gerbig, Dennis; Ley, David; Sarka, János; Császár, Attila G; Vaughn, Alexander; Allen, Wesley D

    2015-06-24

    Matrix-isolation experiments near 3 K and state-of-the-art quantum chemical computations demonstrate that oxalic acid [1, (COOH)2] exhibits a sequential quantum mechanical tunneling phenomenon not previously observed. Intensities of numerous infrared (IR) bands were used to monitor the temporal evolution of the lowest-energy O-H rotamers (1cTc, 1cTt, 1tTt) of oxalic acid for up to 19 days following near-infrared irradiation of the matrix. The relative energies of these rotamers are 0.0 (1cTc), 2.6 (1cTt), and 4.0 (1tTt) kcal mol(-1). A 1tTt → 1cTt → 1cTc isomerization cascade was observed with half-lives (t1/2) in different matrix sites ranging from 30 to 360 h, even though the sequential barriers of 9.7 and 10.4 kcal mol(-1) are much too high to be surmounted thermally under cryogenic conditions. A general mathematical model was developed for the complex kinetics of a reaction cascade with species in distinct matrix sites. With this model, a precise, global nonlinear least-squares fit was achieved simultaneously on the temporal profiles of nine IR bands of the 1cTc, 1cTt, and 1tTt rotamers. Classes of both fast (t(1/2) = 30-50 h) and slow (t(1/2) > 250 h) matrix sites were revealed, with the decay rate of the former in close agreement with first-principles computations for the conformational tunneling rates of the corresponding isolated molecules. Rigorous kinetic and theoretical analyses thus show that a "domino" tunneling mechanism is at work in these oxalic acid transformations. PMID:26027801

  13. Looking into Tunnel Books.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinshaw, Craig

    1999-01-01

    Describes how to make tunnel books, which are viewed by looking into a "tunnel" created by accordion-folded expanding sides. Suggests possible themes. Describes how to create a walk-through tunnel book for first grade students. (CMK)

  14. Carpal tunnel release

    MedlinePlus

    Median nerve decompression; Carpal tunnel decompression; Surgery - carpal tunnel ... The median nerve and the tendons that flex (or curl) your fingers go through a passage called the carpal tunnel in ...

  15. Carpal tunnel biopsy

    MedlinePlus

    Calandruccio JH. Carpal tunnel syndrome, ulnar tunnel syndrome, and stenosing tenosynovitis. In: Canale ST, Beaty JH, eds. Campbell's Operative Orthopaedics . 12th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Mosby; 2012: ...

  16. A Supersonic Tunnel for Laser and Flow-Seeding Techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bruckner, Robert J.; Lepicovsky, Jan

    1994-01-01

    A supersonic wind tunnel with flow conditions of 3 lbm/s (1.5 kg/s) at a free-stream Mach number of 2.5 was designed and tested to provide an arena for future development work on laser measurement and flow-seeding techniques. The hybrid supersonic nozzle design that was used incorporated the rapid expansion method of propulsive nozzles while it maintained the uniform, disturbance-free flow required in supersonic wind tunnels. A viscous analysis was performed on the tunnel to determine the boundary layer growth characteristics along the flowpath. Appropriate corrections were then made to the contour of the nozzle. Axial pressure distributions were measured and Mach number distributions were calculated based on three independent data reduction methods. A complete uncertainty analysis was performed on the precision error of each method. Complex shock-wave patterns were generated in the flow field by wedges mounted near the roof and floor of the tunnel. The most stable shock structure was determined experimentally by the use of a focusing schlieren system and a novel, laser based dynamic shock position sensor. Three potential measurement regions for future laser and flow-seeding studies were created in the shock structure: deceleration through an oblique shock wave of 50 degrees, strong deceleration through a normal shock wave, and acceleration through a supersonic expansion fan containing 25 degrees of flow turning.

  17. [Obstructive shock].

    PubMed

    Pich, H; Heller, A R

    2015-05-01

    An acute obstruction of blood flow in central vessels of the systemic or pulmonary circulation causes the clinical symptoms of shock accompanied by disturbances of consciousness, centralization, oliguria, hypotension and tachycardia. In the case of an acute pulmonary embolism an intravascular occlusion results in an acute increase of the right ventricular afterload. In the case of a tension pneumothorax, an obstruction of the blood vessels supplying the heart is caused by an increase in extravascular pressure. From a hemodynamic viewpoint circulatory shock caused by obstruction is closely followed by cardiac deterioration; however, etiological and therapeutic options necessitate demarcation of cardiac from non-cardiac obstructive causes. The high dynamics of this potentially life-threatening condition is a hallmark of all types of obstructive shock. This requires an expeditious and purposeful diagnosis and a rapid and well-aimed therapy. PMID:25994928

  18. [Neurogenic shock].

    PubMed

    Meister, Rafael; Pasquier, Mathieu; Clerc, David; Carron, Pierre-Nicolas

    2014-08-13

    The neurogenic shock is a common complication of spinal cord injury, especially when localized at the cervical level. Characterized by a vasoplegia (hypotension) and bradycardia, the neurogenic shock is secondary to the damage of the sympathetic nervous system. The clinical presentation often includes tetraplegia, with or without respiratory failure. Early treatment aims to minimize the occurrence of secondary spinal cord lesions resulting from systemic ischemic injuries. Medical management consists in a standardized ABCDE approach, in order to stabilize vital functions and immobilize the spine. The hospital care includes performing imaging, further measures of neuro-resuscitation, and coordinated surgical assessment and treatment of any other injury. PMID:25199226

  19. Interstellar shock waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mckee, C. F.; Hollenbach, D. J.

    1980-01-01

    The structure of interstellar shocks driven by supernova remnants and by expanding H II regions around early-type stars is discussed. Jump conditions are examined, along with shock fronts, post-shock relaxation layers, collisional shocks, collisionless shocks, nonradiative shocks, radiative atomic shocks, and shock models of observed nebulae. Effects of shock waves on interstellar molecules are examined, with reference to the chemistry behind shock fronts, infrared and vibrational-rotational cooling by molecules, and observations of shocked molecules. Some current problems and applications of the study of interstellar shocks are summarized, including the initiation of star formation by radiative shock waves, interstellar masers, the stability of shocks, particle acceleration in shocks, and shocks in galactic nuclei.

  20. DSMC Simulation of Shock/Shock Interactions: Emphasis on Type IV Interactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moss, J. N.; Pot, T.; Chanetz, B.; Lefebvre, M.

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a numerical study of shock/shock interactions that include both the Edney type IV and type III interactions, with emphasis on the type IV interactions. Computations are made using the direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method of Bird for Mach 10 air flow, as produced in the ONERA R5Ch low-density wind tunnel. The simulations include the flow about a shock generator which creates a relatively weak oblique shock that impinges on a much stronger cylinder bow shock. The sensitivity and characteristics of the interactions are examined by varying the horizontal distance separating the shock generator leading edge and cylinder. Results of the simulation for one separation distance are compared with wind tunnel measurements. Comparisons are made for surface heating and pressure and for flow-field values of density and rotational temperatures, as obtained with the Dual-line Coherent Anti-Stokes Scattering (DL-CARS) technique. The comparisons between experiment and calculation yield a consistent description of the shock interaction features and a consistent description of the surface heating and pressure distributions, with the exception of the peak values-the computed values being greater than the measured values.

  1. Electron tunnel sensor technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waltman, S. B.; Kaiser, W. J.

    1989-01-01

    The recent development of Scanning Tunneling Microscopy technology allows the application of electron tunneling to position detectors for the first time. The vacuum tunnel junction is one of the most sensitive position detection mechanisms available. It is also compact, simple, and requires little power. A prototype accelerometer based on electron tunneling, and other sensor applications of this promising new technology are described.

  2. 15-Foot Spin Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1934-01-01

    Constructing the forms for the foundation of the 15-Foot Spin Tunnel. Charles Zimmerman was given the assignment to design and build a larger spin tunnel that would supplant the 5-foot Vertical Wind Tunnel. Authorization to build the tunnel using funds from the Federal Public Works Administration (PWA) came in June 1933. Construction started in late winter 1934 and the tunnel was operational in April 1935. The initial construction costs were $64,000. The first step was to pour the foundation for the tunnel and the housing which would encase the wind tunnel.

  3. DSMC Computations for Regions of Shock/Shock and Shock/Boundary Layer Interaction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moss, James N.

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a numerical study of hypersonic interacting flows at flow conditions that include those for which experiments have been conducted in the Calspan-University of Buffalo Research Center (CUBRC) Large Energy National Shock (LENS) tunnel and the ONERA R5Ch low-density wind tunnel. The computations are made with the direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method of Bird. The focus is on Mach 9.3 to 11.4 flows about flared axisymmetric configurations, both hollow cylinder flares and double cones. The results presented highlight the sensitivity of the calculations to grid resolution, provide results concerning the conditions for incipient separation, and provide information concerning the flow structure and surface results for the extent of separation, heating, pressure, and skin friction.

  4. Shock unsteadiness creation and propagation: experimental analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benay, R.; Alaphilippe, M.; Severac, N.

    2012-09-01

    The possibility of creating unsteady distortions of the tip shock by waves emitted from an aircraft is assessed experimentally. The model chosen is a cylindrical fore body equipped with a spike. This configuration is known for generating an important level of unsteadiness around the spike in supersonic regime. The wind tunnel Mach number is equal to 2. The experiments show that waves emitted from this source propagate along the tip shock and interact with it. It is then assessed that this interaction produces a periodic distortion of the shock that propagates to the external flow. Unsteady pressure sensors, high speed schlieren films, hot wire probing and laser Doppler velocimetry are used as complementary experimental means. The final result is a coherent representation of the complex mechanism of wave propagation that has been evidenced. The principle of creating unsteady shock deformation by onboard equipments could be examined as a possibly promising method of sonic boom control.

  5. Global Aeroheating Measurements of Shock-Shock Interactions on a Swept Cylinder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mason, Michelle L.; Berry, Scott A.

    2015-01-01

    The effects of fin leading-edge radius and sweep angle on peak heating rates due to shock-shock interactions were investigated in the NASA Langley Research Center 20-Inch Mach 6 Air Tunnel. The cylindrical leading-edge fin models, with radii varied from 0.25 to 0.75 inches, represent wings or struts on hypersonic vehicles. A 9deg wedge generated a planar oblique shock at 16.7deg. to the flow that intersected the fin bow shock, producing a shock-shock interaction that impinged on the fin leading edge. The fin sweep angle was varied from 0deg (normal to the free-stream) to 15deg and 25deg swept forward. These cases were chosen to explore three characterized shock-shock interaction types. Global temperature data were obtained from the surface of the fused silica fins using phosphor thermography. Metal oil flow models with the same geometries as the fused silica models were used to visualize the streamline patterns for each angle of attack. High-speed zoom-schlieren videos were recorded to show the features and any temporal unsteadiness of the shock-shock interactions. The temperature data were analyzed using a one-dimensional semi-infinite method, as well as one- and two-dimensional finite-volume methods. These results were compared to determine the proper heat transfer analysis approach to minimize errors from lateral heat conduction due to the presence of strong surface temperature gradients induced by the shock interactions. The general trends in the leading-edge heat transfer behavior were similar for each explored shock-shock interaction type regardless of the leading-edge radius. However, the dimensional peak heat transfer coefficient augmentation increased with decreasing leading-edge radius. The dimensional peak heat transfer output from the two-dimensional code was about 20% higher than the value from a standard, semi-infinite one-dimensional method.

  6. Effects of Fin Leading Edge Sweep on Shock-Shock Interaction at Mach 6

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berry, Scott A.; Nowak, Robert J.

    1996-01-01

    The effects of fin leading edge sweep on peak heating rates due to shock-shock interaction have been experimentally examined in the Langley 20-Inch Mach 6 Tunnel. The shock interaction was produced by the intersection of a planar incident shock (16.8 deg shock angle relative to the freestream, generated by a 9 deg wedge) with the bow shock formed around a O.5-inch diameter cylindrical leading edge fin. Heating distributions along the leading edge stagnation line have been obtained using densely spaced thin film resistive-type sensors. Schlieren images were obtained to illustrate the very complex shock-shock interactions. The fin leading edge sweep angle was varied from 15-degrees swept back to 45-degrees swept forward for a freestream unit Reynolds number of 2 x 10(exp 6)/ft. Two models were utilized during the study, one with 0.025-inch spacing between gage centers, and the other 0.015-inch spacing. Gage spatial resolution on the order of 0.015-in appeared to accurately capture the narrow spike in heating. Peak heating due to shock interaction was maximized when the fin was swept forward 15 deg and 25 deg, both promoting augmentations about 7 times the baseline value. The schlieren images for these cases revealed Type 4 and Type 3 interactions, respectively.

  7. Cryogenic wind tunnels. II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kilgore, Robert A.

    1987-01-01

    The application of the cryogenic concept to various types of tunnels including Ludwieg tube tunnel, Evans clean tunnel, blowdown, induced-flow, and continuous-flow fan-driven tunnels is discussed. Benefits related to construction and operating costs are covered, along with benefits related to new testing capabilities. It is noted that cooling the test gas to very low temperatures increases Reynolds number by more than a factor of seven. From the energy standpoint, ambient-temperature fan-driven closed-return tunnels are considered to be the most efficient type of tunnel, while a large reduction in the required tunnel stagnation pressure can be achieved through cryogenic operation. Operating envelopes for three modes of operation for a cryogenic transonic pressure tunnel with a 2.5 by 2.5 test section are outlined. A computer program for calculating flow parameters and power requirements for wind tunnels with operating temperatures from saturation to above ambient is highlighted.

  8. Cryogenic wind tunnels. III

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kilgore, Robert A.

    1987-01-01

    Specific problems pertaining to cryogenic wind tunnels, including LN(2) injection, GN(2) exhaust, thermal insulation, and automatic control are discussed. Thermal and other physical properties of materials employed in these tunnels, properties of cryogenic fluids, storage and transfer of liquid nitrogen, strength and toughness of metals and nonmetals at low temperatures, and material procurement and qualify control are considered. Safety concerns with cryogenic tunnels are covered, and models for cryogenic wind tunnels are presented, along with descriptions of major cryogenic wind-tunnel facilities the United States, Europe, and Japan. Problems common to wind tunnels, such as low Reynolds number, wall and support interference, and flow unsteadiness are outlined.

  9. Application of Oil Film Interferometry Skin-Friction to Large Wind Tunnels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Driver, David M.

    1998-01-01

    The oil film interferometry skin-friction technique is described and applied to flows in some of the NASA Ames large wind tunnel facilities. Various schemes for applying the technique are discussed. Results are shown for tests in several wind tunnels which illustrate the oil film's ability to measure a variety of flow features such as shock waves separation, and 3D flow.

  10. 4. 'Ring Stones & Tunnel Sections, Tunnel #33,' Southern Pacific ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. 'Ring Stones & Tunnel Sections, Tunnel #33,' Southern Pacific Standard Double-Track Tunnel, ca. 1913. Compare to photos in documentation sets for Tunnel 18 (HAER No. CA-197), Tunnel 34 (HAER No. CA-206), and Tunnel 1 (HAER No. CA-207). - Central Pacific Transcontinental Railroad, Sacramento to Nevada state line, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA

  11. DSMC Simulations of Shock Interactions About Sharp Double Cones

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moss, James N.

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a numerical study of shock interactions resulting from Mach 10 flow about sharp double cones. Computations are made by using the direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method of Bird. The sensitivity and characteristics of the interactions are examined by varying flow conditions, model size, and configuration. The range of conditions investigated includes those for which experiments have been or will be performed in the ONERA R5Ch low-density wind tunnel and the Calspan-University of Buffalo Research Center (CUBRC) Large Energy National Shock (LENS) tunnel.

  12. Measured and predicted aerodynamic coefficients and shock shapes for Aeroassist Flight Experiment (AFE) configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wells, William L.

    1989-01-01

    Two scaled models of the Aeroassist Flight Experiment (AFE) vehicle were tested in two air wind tunnels and one CF4 tunnel. The tests were to determine the static longitudinal aerodynamic characteristics, and shock shapes for the configuration in hypersonic continuum flow. The tests were conducted with a range of angle of attack to evaluate the effects of Mach number, Reynolds numbers, and normal shock density ratio.

  13. Evaluation of a 16-inch minimum length limit for smallmouth bass in Pallette Lake, Wisconsin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Newman, S.P.; Hoff, M.H.

    2000-01-01

    We evaluated a 16-in minimum length limit and two-fish daily bag limit for smallmouth bass Micropterus dolomieu in Pallette Lake, Wisconsin, from 1989 to 1996. Fish abundance, biomass, growth, survival, and angler harvest were compared with data from years when no length or bag limits were in force. Angler harvest and fishing effort were monitored by a complete mandatory creel census. Following the regulation changes, fishing effort increased by 62% despite a 95% decline in smallmouth bass harvest. The number and biomass of smallmouth bass 12.0-15.9 in and 16.0 in and greater increased, whereas the number of fish 6.0-11.9 in declined. Annual survival rates of fish age 3 and older increased from 0.21 during the no-limit years to 0.60 during the length-limit years. Annual exploitation rates for fish 8 in and greater averaged 0.53 during the no-limit years and 0.10 during the length-limit years. Smallmouth bass growth rates did not change. During the no-limit years, 27% of the anglers harvested smallmouth bass compared with only 3% of anglers during the length-limit years. The bag limit reduced harvest during only 3 years by an average of 11% (3 fish/year). Anglers accepted the restrictive regulations well and were primarily concerned about catch rates of fish 16.0 in and greater. For managers wishing to increase angler interest and numbers of fish 16.0 in and greater, we recommend considering similar or even more restrictive regulations. However, a sharp reduction in the number of smallmouth bass above the minimum length limit should be expected.

  14. Shock Prevention

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The electrician pictured is installing a General Electric Ground Fault Interrupter (GFI), a device which provides protection against electrical shock in the home or in industrial facilities. Shocks due to defective wiring in home appliances or other electrical equipment can cause severe burns, even death. As a result, the National Electrical Code now requires GFIs in all new homes constructed. This particular type of GFI employs a sensing element which derives from technology acquired in space projects by SCI Systems, Inc., Huntsville, Alabama, producer of sensors for GE and other manufacturers of GFI equipment. The sensor is based on the company's experience in developing miniaturized circuitry for space telemetry and other spacecraft electrical systems; this experience enabled SCI to package interruptor circuitry in the extremely limited space available and to produce sensory devices at practicable cost. The tiny sensor measures the strength of the electrical current and detects current differentials that indicate a fault in the functioning of an electrical system. The sensing element then triggers a signal to a disconnect mechanism in the GFI, which cuts off the current in the faulty circuit.

  15. Major SSC tunneling begins

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-01-11

    In Texas, work has been completed on the first on the Superconducting Supercollider's major shafts. Now a boring machine has started driving the fifty-four mile elliptical accelerator tunnel. To date, contracts let for the tunnel have come in far below preliminary estimates. Five of the main fourteen foot diameter tunnel contracts have been awarded for a total of 107.4 million dollars, about forty million dollars below estimates. These contracts represent %60 percent of the total tunneling project.

  16. The Tunnels of Samos

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Apostol, Tom M. (Editor)

    1995-01-01

    This 'Project Mathematics' series video from CalTech presents the tunnel of Samos, a famous underground aquaduct tunnel located near the capital of Pithagorion (named after the famed Greek mathematician, Pythagoras, who lived there), on one of the Greek islands. This tunnel was constructed around 600 BC by King Samos and was built under a nearby mountain. Through film footage and computer animation, the mathematical principles and concepts of why and how this aquaduct tunnel was built are explained.

  17. What Is Cardiogenic Shock?

    MedlinePlus

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is Cardiogenic Shock? Cardiogenic (kar-dee-oh-JE-nik) shock is ... treated right away. The most common cause of cardiogenic shock is damage to the heart muscle from a ...

  18. Variable Density Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1931-01-01

    Variable Density Tunnel in operation. Man at far right is probably Harold J. 'Cannonball' Tuner, longtime safety officer, who started with Curtiss in the teens. This view of the Variable Density Tunnel clearly shows the layout of the Tunnel's surroundings, as well as the plumbing and power needs of the this innovative research tool.

  19. Squeezable electron tunneling junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreland, J.; Alexander, S.; Cox, M.; Sonnenfeld, R.; Hansma, P. K.

    1983-09-01

    We report a versatile new technique for constructing electron tunneling junctions with mechanically-adjusted artificial barriers. I-V curves are presented for tunneling between Ag electrodes with vacuum, gas, liquid or solid in the barrier. An energy gap is apparent in the measured I-V curve when tunneling occurs between superconducting Pb electrodes.

  20. Shock interference heat transfer to tank configurations mated to a straight-wing space shuttle orbiter at Mach number 10.3. [investigated in a Langley hypersonic wind tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crawford, D. H.

    1976-01-01

    Heat transfer was measured on a space shuttle-tank configuration with no mated orbiter in place and with the orbiter in 10 different mated positions. The orbiter-tank combination was tested at angles of attack of 0 deg and 5 deg, at a Mach number of 10.3, and at a free-stream Reynolds number of one million based on the length of the tank. Comparison of interference heat transfer with no-interference heat transfer shows that shock interference can increase the heat transfer to the tank by two orders of magnitude along the ray adjacent to the orbiter and can cause high temperature gradients along the tank skin. The relative axial location of the two mated vehicles determined the location of the sharp peaks of extreme heating as well as their magnitude. The other control variables (the angle of attack, the gap, and the cross-section shape) had significant effects that were not as consistent or as extreme.

  1. Thermographic Phosphor Measurements of Shock-Shock Interactions on a Swept Cylinder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Michelle L.; Berry, Scott A.

    2013-01-01

    The effects of fin leading-edge radius and sweep angle on peak heating rates due to shock-shock interactions were investigated in the NASA Langley Research Center 20-inch Mach 6 Air Tunnel. The fin model leading edges, which represent cylindrical leading edges or struts on hypersonic vehicles, were varied from 0.25 inches to 0.75 inches in radius. A 9deg wedge generated a planar oblique shock at 16.7deg to the flow that intersected the fin bow shock, producing a shock-shock interaction that impinged on the fin leading edge. The fin angle of attack was varied from 0deg (normal to the free-stream) to 15deg and 25deg swept forward. Global temperature data was obtained from the surface of the fused silica fins using phosphor thermography. Metal oil flow models with the same geometries as the fused silica models were used to visualize the streamline patterns for each angle of attack. High-speed zoom-schlieren videos were recorded to show the features and temporal unsteadiness of the shock-shock interactions. The temperature data were analyzed using one-dimensional semi-infinite as well as one- and two-dimensional finite-volume methods to determine the proper heat transfer analysis approach to minimize errors from lateral heat conduction due to the presence of strong surface temperature gradients induced by the shock interactions. The general trends in the leading-edge heat transfer behavior were similar for the three shock-shock interactions, respectively, between the test articles with varying leading-edge radius. The dimensional peak heat transfer coefficient augmentation increased with decreasing leading-edge radius. The dimensional peak heat transfer output from the two-dimensional code was about 20% higher than the value from a standard, semi-infinite onedimensional method.

  2. Experimental Investigation of Shock-Shock Interactions Over a 2-D Wedge at M=6

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Michelle L.

    2013-01-01

    The effects of fin-leading-edge radius and sweep angle on peak heating rates due to shock-shock interactions were investigated in the NASA Langley Research Center 20-inch Mach 6 Air Tunnel. The fin model leading edges, which represent cylindrical leading edges or struts on hypersonic vehicles, were varied from 0.25 inches to 0.75 inches in radius. A 9deg wedge generated a planar oblique shock at 16.7deg to the flow that intersected the fin bow shock, producing a shock-shock interaction that impinged on the fin leading edge. The fin angle of attack was varied from 0deg (normal to the free-stream) to 15deg and 25deg swept forward. Global temperature data was obtained from the surface of the fused silica fins through phosphor thermography. Metal oil flow models with the same geometries as the fused silica models were used to visualize the streamline patterns for each angle of attack. High-speed zoom-schlieren videos were recorded to show the features and temporal unsteadiness of the shock-shock interactions. The temperature data were analyzed using one-dimensional semi-infinite as well as one- and two-dimensional finite-volume methods to determine the proper heat transfer analysis approach to minimize errors from lateral heat conduction due to the presence of strong surface temperature gradients induced by the shock interactions. The general trends in the leading-edge heat transfer behavior were similar for the three shock-shock interactions, respectively, between the test articles with varying leading-edge radius. The dimensional peak heat transfer coefficient augmentation increased with decreasing leading-edge radius. The dimensional peak heat transfer output from the two-dimensional code was about 20% higher than the value from a standard, semi-infinite one-dimensional method.

  3. Wind-Tunnel Tests of Several Model Tractor-Propeller and Pusher-Propeller Wing Extension-Shaft Arrangements, Special Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harmon, Hubert N.

    1941-01-01

    Tests were made in the 20-foot propeller-research tunnel to investigate the possibility of obtaining increased net efficiencies of propeller-nacelle units by enclosing the engines in the wings and by using extension shafts. A wing of 5-foot chord was fitted with a propeller drive assembly providing for several axial locations of tractor propellers and pusher propellers. A three-blade 4-foot propeller and a three-blade 3 1/2-foot propeller of special design were tested in this wing with spinners and fairings ranging in diameter from 6 to 16 inches. A 16-inch NACA cowling was tested for comparative purposes. Two types of cuffs were also employed. It was found that the net efficiency of a conventional round-shank propeller mounted on an extension shaft in front of or behind a wing increased with an increase in the diameter of the spinner and the shaft housing within the scope of the tests. The largest spinner used had a diameter that might favorably compare with that of a radial engine cowling. The efficiencies for the pusher position appeared to be more critically affected by spinner size than those for the tractor position. The spinners with large diameters for the pusher position resulted in a higher efficiency than those for the corresponding tractor arrangements; the reverse was true for the small spinners. The use of propeller cuffs in combination with a spinner of small diameter generally resulted in net efficiencies that were comparable with those found for the large-spinner combinations.

  4. Particle Acceleration in Shock-Shock Interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakanotani, Masaru; Matsukiyo, Shuichi; Hada, Tohru

    2015-04-01

    Collisionless shock waves play a crucial role in producing high energy particles. One of the most plausible acceleration mechanisms is the first order Fermi acceleration in which non-thermal particles statistically gain energy while scattered by MHD turbulence both upstream and downstream of a shock. Indeed, X-ray emission from energetic particles accelerated at supernova remnant shocks is often observed [e.g., Uchiyama et al., 2007]. Most of the previous studies on shock acceleration assume the presence of a single shock. In space, however, two shocks frequently come close to or even collide with each other. For instance, it is observed that a CME (coronal mass ejection) driven shock collides with the earth's bow shock [Hietala et al., 2011], or interplanetary shocks pass through the heliospheric termination shock [Lu et al., 1999]. Colliding shocks are observed also in high power laser experiments [Morita et al., 2013]. It is expected that shock-shock interactions efficiently produce high energy particles. A previous work using hybrid simulation [Cargill et al., 1986] reports efficient ion acceleration when supercritical two shocks collide. In the hybrid simulation, however, the electron dynamics cannot be resolved so that electron acceleration cannot be discussed in principle. Here, we perform one-dimensional full Particle-in-Cell (PIC) simulations to examine colliding two symmetric oblique shocks and the associated electron acceleration. In particular, the following three points are discussed in detail. 1. Energetic electrons are observed upstream of the two shocks before their collision. These energetic electrons are efficiently accelerated through multiple reflections at the two shocks (Fermi acceleration). 2. The reflected electrons excite large amplitude upstream waves. Electron beam cyclotron instability [Hasegawa, 1975] and electron fire hose instability [Li et al., 2000] appear to occur. 3. The large amplitude waves can scatters energetic electrons in

  5. Modification of Shock Train Induced Turbulence by a Variable Nozzle Opening Angle and Circumferential Suction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grzona, A.; Weiss, Alexander; Olivier, Herbert

    In a continuous cold gas wind tunnel, with a convergent-divergent nozzle geometry similar to a pilot facility for the gas-phase synthesis of nanoparticles [3] the recompression from supersonic to subsonic flow conditions is conducted by a shock train. A principle sketch of a typical shock train is depicted in Fig. 1 while a detailed description of the shock train phenomenon and a comprehensive review of its timeaveraged behaviour can be found in [6].

  6. The cryogenic wind tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kilgore, R. A.

    1976-01-01

    Based on theoretical studies and experience with a low speed cryogenic tunnel and with a 1/3-meter transonic cryogenic tunnel, the cryogenic wind tunnel concept was shown to offer many advantages with respect to the attainment of full scale Reynolds number at reasonable levels of dynamic pressure in a ground based facility. The unique modes of operation available in a pressurized cryogenic tunnel make possible for the first time the separation of Mach number, Reynolds number, and aeroelastic effects. By reducing the drive-power requirements to a level where a conventional fan drive system may be used, the cryogenic concept makes possible a tunnel with high productivity and run times sufficiently long to allow for all types of tests at reduced capital costs and, for equal amounts of testing, reduced total energy consumption in comparison with other tunnel concepts.

  7. Simulator of Road Tunnel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danišovič, Peter; Schlosser, František; Šrámek, Juraj; Rázga, Martin

    2015-05-01

    A Tunnel Traffic & Operation Simulator is a device of the Centre of Transport Research at the University of Žilina. The Simulator allows managing technological equipment of virtual two-tube highway tunnel, which is interconnected with simulation of vehicle traffic in tunnel. Changes of the traffic-operation states and other equipment are reflecting at the simulated traffic, as well as simulations of various emergency events in traffic initiate changes in tunnel detecting and measuring devices. It is thus possible to simulate emergency states, which can be affected by various faults of technology as well as by climatic conditions. The solutions can be found in irreplaceable experiences of Slovak road tunnel operators, changes of trafficoperation states, visualizations of operator technological display screens, technological devices labelling in order to increase operational safety of road tunnels.

  8. Inelastic tunnel diodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, L. M. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    Power is extracted from plasmons, photons, or other guided electromagnetic waves at infrared to midultraviolet frequencies by inelastic tunneling in metal-insulator-semiconductor-metal diodes. Inelastic tunneling produces power by absorbing plasmons to pump electrons to higher potential. Specifically, an electron from a semiconductor layer absorbs a plasmon and simultaneously tunnels across an insulator into metal layer which is at higher potential. The diode voltage determines the fraction of energy extracted from the plasmons; any excess is lost to heat.

  9. Charge Islands Through Tunneling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, Daryl C.

    2002-01-01

    It has been recently reported that the electrical charge in a semiconductive carbon nanotube is not evenly distributed, but rather it is divided into charge "islands." This paper links the aforementioned phenomenon to tunneling and provides further insight into the higher rate of tunneling processes, which makes tunneling devices attractive. This paper also provides a basis for calculating the charge profile over the length of the tube so that nanoscale devices' conductive properties may be fully exploited.

  10. The Design of Wind Tunnels and Wind Tunnel Propellers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warner, Edward P; Norton, F H; Hebbert, C M

    1919-01-01

    Report discusses the theory of energy losses in wind tunnels, the application of the Drzewiecki theory of propeller design to wind tunnel propellers, and the efficiency and steadiness of flow in model tunnels of various types.

  11. Atom Tunneling in Chemistry.

    PubMed

    Meisner, Jan; Kästner, Johannes

    2016-04-25

    Quantum mechanical tunneling of atoms is increasingly found to play an important role in many chemical transformations. Experimentally, atom tunneling can be indirectly detected by temperature-independent rate constants at low temperature or by enhanced kinetic isotope effects. In contrast, the influence of tunneling on the reaction rates can be monitored directly through computational investigations. The tunnel effect, for example, changes reaction paths and branching ratios, enables chemical reactions in an astrochemical environment that would be impossible by thermal transition, and influences biochemical processes. PMID:26990917

  12. Tunnel closure calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Moran, B.; Attia, A.

    1995-07-01

    When a deeply penetrating munition explodes above the roof of a tunnel, the amount of rubble that falls inside the tunnel is primarily a function of three parameters: first the cube-root scaled distance from the center of the explosive to the roof of the tunnel. Second the material properties of the rock around the tunnel, and in particular the shear strength of that rock, its RQD (Rock Quality Designator), and the extent and orientation of joints. And third the ratio of the tunnel diameter to the standoff distance (distance between the center of explosive and the tunnel roof). The authors have used CALE, a well-established 2-D hydrodynamic computer code, to calculate the amount of rubble that falls inside a tunnel as a function of standoff distance for two different tunnel diameters. In particular they calculated three of the tunnel collapse experiments conducted in an iron ore mine near Kirkeness, Norway in the summer of 1994. The failure model that they used in their calculations combines an equivalent plastic strain criterion with a maximum tensile strength criterion and can be calibrated for different rocks using cratering data as well as laboratory experiments. These calculations are intended to test and improve the understanding of both the Norway Experiments and the ACE (Array of conventional Explosive) phenomenology.

  13. Radiative Shock Waves In Emerging Shocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drake, R. Paul; Doss, F.; Visco, A.

    2011-05-01

    In laboratory experiments we produce radiative shock waves having dense, thin shells. These shocks are similar to shocks emerging from optically thick environments in astrophysics in that they are strongly radiative with optically thick shocked layers and optically thin or intermediate downstream layers through which radiation readily escapes. Examples include shocks breaking out of a Type II supernova (SN) and the radiative reverse shock during the early phases of the SN remnant produced by a red supergiant star. We produce these shocks by driving a low-Z plasma piston (Be) at > 100 km/s into Xe gas at 1.1 atm. pressure. The shocked Xe collapses to > 20 times its initial density. Measurements of structure by radiography and temperature by several methods confirm that the shock wave is strongly radiative. We observe small-scale perturbations in the post-shock layer, modulating the shock and material interfaces. We describe a variation of the Vishniac instability theory of decelerating shocks and an analysis of associated scaling relations to account for the growth of these perturbations, identify how they scale to astrophysical systems such as SN 1993J, and consider possible future experiments. Collaborators in this work have included H.F. Robey, J.P. Hughes, C.C. Kuranz, C.M. Huntington, S.H. Glenzer, T. Doeppner, D.H. Froula, M.J. Grosskopf, and D.C. Marion ________________________________ * Supported by the US DOE NNSA under the Predictive Sci. Academic Alliance Program by grant DE-FC52-08NA28616, the Stewardship Sci. Academic Alliances program by grant DE-FG52-04NA00064, and the Nat. Laser User Facility by grant DE-FG03-00SF22021.

  14. Tunneling Magnetothermopower in Magnetic Tunnel Junction Nanopillars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liebing, N.; Serrano-Guisan, S.; Rott, K.; Reiss, G.; Langer, J.; Ocker, B.; Schumacher, H. W.

    2011-10-01

    We study tunneling magnetothermopower (TMTP) in CoFeB/MgO/CoFeB magnetic tunnel junction nanopillars. Thermal gradients across the junctions are generated by an electric heater line. Thermopower voltages up to a few tens of μV between the top and bottom contact of the nanopillars are measured which scale linearly with the applied heating power and hence the thermal gradient. The thermopower signal varies by up to 10μV upon reversal of the relative magnetic configuration of the two CoFeB layers from parallel to antiparallel. This signal change corresponds to a large spin-dependent Seebeck coefficient of the order of 100μV/K and a large TMTP change of the tunnel junction of up to 90%.

  15. Tunneling magnetothermopower in magnetic tunnel junction nanopillars.

    PubMed

    Liebing, N; Serrano-Guisan, S; Rott, K; Reiss, G; Langer, J; Ocker, B; Schumacher, H W

    2011-10-21

    We study tunneling magnetothermopower (TMTP) in CoFeB/MgO/CoFeB magnetic tunnel junction nanopillars. Thermal gradients across the junctions are generated by an electric heater line. Thermopower voltages up to a few tens of μV between the top and bottom contact of the nanopillars are measured which scale linearly with the applied heating power and hence the thermal gradient. The thermopower signal varies by up to 10  μV upon reversal of the relative magnetic configuration of the two CoFeB layers from parallel to antiparallel. This signal change corresponds to a large spin-dependent Seebeck coefficient of the order of 100  μV/K and a large TMTP change of the tunnel junction of up to 90%. PMID:22107572

  16. Shotcrete in tunnel design

    SciTech Connect

    Golser, J.; Galler, R.; Schubert, P.; Rabensteiner, K.

    1995-12-31

    Shotcrete is an important structural element for tunnel support. Green shotcrete is exposed to compression strain rates and tunnel design requires a realistic material law for shotcrete. A modified rate of flow method simulates shotcrete behavior very well and can be incorporated in Finite Element calculations.

  17. Electron-Tunneling Magnetometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaiser, William J.; Kenny, Thomas W.; Waltman, Steven B.

    1993-01-01

    Electron-tunneling magnetometer is conceptual solid-state device operating at room temperature, yet offers sensitivity comparable to state-of-art magnetometers such as flux gates, search coils, and optically pumped magnetometers, with greatly reduced volume, power consumption, electronics requirements, and manufacturing cost. Micromachined from silicon wafer, and uses tunneling displacement transducer to detect magnetic forces on cantilever-supported current loop.

  18. Micromachined Tunneling Accelerometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kenny, Thomas W.; Waltman, Stephen B.; Kaiser, William J.; Reynolds, Joseph K.

    1993-01-01

    Separation of tunneling electrodes adjusted by varying electrostatic force. Major components of tunneling transducer formed on two silicon chips by microfabrication techniques. Use of electrostatic deflection reduces sensitivity of transducer to thermal drift and simplifies design. Sensitivity suitable for applications in which larger acceleration-sensing instruments required.

  19. Coherent revival of tunneling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Liang-Yan; Rabitz, Herschel

    2015-07-01

    We introduce a tunneling effect by a driving field, referred to as coherent revival of tunneling (CRT), corresponding to complete tunneling (transmission coefficient =1 ) that is revived from the circumstance of total reflection (transmission coefficient ≈0 ) through application of an appropriate perpendicular high-frequency ac field. To illustrate CRT, we simulate electron transport through fish-bone-like quantum-dot arrays by using single-particle Green's functions along with Floquet theory, and we explore the corresponding current-field amplitude characteristics as well as current-polarization characteristics. In regard to the two characteristics, we show that CRT exhibits entirely different features than coherent destruction of tunneling and photon-assisted tunneling. We also discuss two practical conditions for experimental realization of CRT.

  20. Neptune inbound bow shock

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Szabo, Adam; Lepping, Ronald P.

    1995-01-01

    Voyager 2 crossed the inbound or upstream Neptunian bow shock at 1430 spacecraft event time on August 24 in 1989 (Belcher et al., 1989). The plasma and magnetic field measurements allow us to study the solar wind interaction with the outermost gas giant. To fully utilize all of the spacecraft observations, an improved nonlinear least squares, 'Rankine-Hugoniot' magnetohydrodynamic shock-fitting technique has been developed (Szabo, 1994). This technique is applied to the Neptunian data set. We find that the upstream bow shock normal points nearly exactly toward the Sun consistent with any reasonable large-scale model of the bow shock for a near subsolar crossing. The shock was moving outward with a speed of 14 +/- 12 km/s. The shock can be characterized as a low beta, high Mach number, strong quasi-perpendicular shock. Finally, the shock microstructure features are resolved and found to scale well with theoretical expectations.

  1. Biomass shock pretreatment

    DOEpatents

    Holtzapple, Mark T.; Madison, Maxine Jones; Ramirez, Rocio Sierra; Deimund, Mark A.; Falls, Matthew; Dunkelman, John J.

    2014-07-01

    Methods and apparatus for treating biomass that may include introducing a biomass to a chamber; exposing the biomass in the chamber to a shock event to produce a shocked biomass; and transferring the shocked biomass from the chamber. In some aspects, the method may include pretreating the biomass with a chemical before introducing the biomass to the chamber and/or after transferring shocked biomass from the chamber.

  2. What Causes Cardiogenic Shock?

    MedlinePlus

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Causes Cardiogenic Shock? Immediate Causes Cardiogenic shock occurs if the heart suddenly can't pump ... to the body. The most common cause of cardiogenic shock is damage to the heart muscle from a ...

  3. Conical Shock-Strength Determination on a Low-Sonic-Boom Aircraft Model by Doppler Global Velocimetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herring, Gregory C.; Meyers, James F.

    2011-01-01

    A nonintrusive technique Doppler global velocimetry (DGV) was used to determine conical shock strengths on a supersonic-cruise low-boom aircraft model. The work was performed at approximately Mach 2 in the Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel. Water is added to the wind tunnel flow circuit, generating small ice particles used as seed particles for the laser-based velocimetry. DGV generates two-dimensional (2-D) maps of three components of velocity that span the oblique shock. Shock strength (i.e. fractional pressure increase) is determined from observation of the flow deflection angle across the shock in combination with the standard shock relations. Although DGV had conveniently and accurately determined shock strengths from the homogenous velocity fields behind 2-D planar shocks, the inhomogeneous 3-D velocity fields behind the conical shocks presented additional challenges. Shock strength measurements for the near-field conical nose shock were demonstrated and compared with previously-published static pressure probe data for the same model in the same wind tunnel. Fair agreement was found between the two sets of results.

  4. The aeolian wind tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iversen, J. D.

    1991-01-01

    The aeolian wind tunnel is a special case of a larger subset of the wind tunnel family which is designed to simulate the atmospheric surface layer winds to small scale (a member of this larger subset is usually called an atmospheric boundary layer wind tunnel or environmental wind tunnel). The atmospheric boundary layer wind tunnel is designed to simulate, as closely as possible, the mean velocity and turbulence that occur naturally in the atmospheric boundary layer (defined as the lowest portion of the atmosphere, of the order of 500 m, in which the winds are most greatly affected by surface roughness and topography). The aeolian wind tunnel is used for two purposes: to simulate the physics of the saltation process and to model at small scale the erosional and depositional processes associated with topographic surface features. For purposes of studying aeolian effects on the surface of Mars and Venus as well as on Earth, the aeolian wind tunnel continues to prove to be a useful tool for estimating wind speeds necessary to move small particles on the three planets as well as to determine the effects of topography on the evolution of aeolian features such as wind streaks and dune patterns.

  5. Ultrafast scanning tunneling microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Botkin, D.A. |

    1995-09-01

    I have developed an ultrafast scanning tunneling microscope (USTM) based on uniting stroboscopic methods of ultrafast optics and scanned probe microscopy to obtain nanometer spatial resolution and sub-picosecond temporal resolution. USTM increases the achievable time resolution of a STM by more than 6 orders of magnitude; this should enable exploration of mesoscopic and nanometer size systems on time scales corresponding to the period or decay of fundamental excitations. USTM consists of a photoconductive switch with subpicosecond response time in series with the tip of a STM. An optical pulse from a modelocked laser activates the switch to create a gate for the tunneling current, while a second laser pulse on the sample initiates a dynamic process which affects the tunneling current. By sending a large sequence of identical pulse pairs and measuring the average tunnel current as a function of the relative time delay between the pulses in each pair, one can map the time evolution of the surface process. USTM was used to measure the broadband response of the STM`s atomic size tunnel barrier in frequencies from tens to hundreds of GHz. The USTM signal amplitude decays linearly with the tunnel junction conductance, so the spatial resolution of the time-resolved signal is comparable to that of a conventional STM. Geometrical capacitance of the junction does not appear to play an important role in the measurement, but a capacitive effect intimately related to tunneling contributes to the measured signals and may limit the ultimate resolution of the USTM.

  6. Simulating radiative shocks in nozzle shock tubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Holst, B.; Tóth, G.; Sokolov, I. V.; Daldorff, L. K. S.; Powell, K. G.; Drake, R. P.

    2012-06-01

    We use the recently developed Center for Radiative Shock Hydrodynamics (CRASH) code to numerically simulate laser-driven radiative shock experiments. These shocks are launched by an ablated beryllium disk and are driven down xenon-filled plastic tubes. The simulations are initialized by the two-dimensional version of the Lagrangian Hyades code which is used to evaluate the laser energy deposition during the first 1.1 ns. Later times are calculated with the CRASH code. CRASH solves for the multi-material hydrodynamics with separate electron and ion temperatures on an Eulerian block-adaptive-mesh and includes a multi-group flux-limited radiation diffusion and electron thermal heat conduction. The goal of the present paper is to demonstrate the capability to simulate radiative shocks of essentially three-dimensional experimental configurations, such as circular and elliptical nozzles. We show that the compound shock structure of the primary and wall shock is captured and verify that the shock properties are consistent with order-of-magnitude estimates. The synthetic radiographs produced can be used for comparison with future nozzle experiments at high-energy-density laser facilities.

  7. Increase in stagnation pressure and enthalpy in shock tunnels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bogdanoff, David W.; Cambier, Jean-Luc

    1993-01-01

    A new technique based on the insertion of a converging section in the driven tube is described which is capable of producing substantial increases in both reservoir pressure and enthalpy. A 1D inviscid full kinetics code is used to study a number of different locations and shapes for the converging driven tube section. For driven tube diameter reductions of factors of 2 and 3, the reservoir pressure is found to increase by factors of 2.1 and 3.2, respectively, and the enthalpy is found to simultaneously increase by factors of 1.5 and 2.1, respectively.

  8. Carpal Tunnel Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... at the base of your hand. It contains nerve and tendons. Sometimes, thickening from irritated tendons or other swelling narrows the tunnel and causes the nerve to be compressed. Symptoms usually start gradually. As ...

  9. Tarsal Tunnel Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... and nerves. One of these structures is the posterior tibial nerve, which is the focus of tarsal tunnel ... syndrome is a compression, or squeezing, on the posterior tibial nerve that produces symptoms anywhere along the path ...

  10. Carpal Tunnel Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... through NIH's National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine are investigating the effects of acupuncture on pain, loss of median nerve function, and changes in the brain associated with carpal tunnel syndrome. In addition, a ...

  11. Carpal Tunnel Surgery

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... is the incriminating structure in carpal tunnel syndrome. As it increases in size, the pressures within the ... you can visualize the movement of the tendons as I move the fingers, the tendons are gliding ...

  12. Carpal tunnel biopsy

    MedlinePlus

    ... syndrome, ulnar tunnel syndrome, and stenosing tenosynovitis. In: Canale ST, Beaty JH, eds. Campbell's Operative ... Service, UCSF Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, San Francisco, CA. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, ...

  13. Inelastic electron tunneling spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khanna, S. K.; Lambe, J.

    1983-01-01

    Inelastic electron tunneling spectroscopy is a useful technique for the study of vibrational modes of molecules adsorbed on the surface of oxide layers in a metal-insulator-metal tunnel junction. The technique involves studying the effects of adsorbed molecules on the tunneling spectrum of such junctions. The data give useful information about the structure, bonding, and orientation of adsorbed molecules. One of the major advantages of inelastic electron tunneling spectroscopy is its sensitivity. It is capable of detecting on the order of 10 to the 10th molecules (a fraction of a monolayer) on a 1 sq mm junction. It has been successfully used in studies of catalysis, biology, trace impurity detection, and electronic excitations. Because of its high sensitivity, this technique shows great promise in the area of solid-state electronic chemical sensing.

  14. Carpal tunnel syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... also need to make changes in your work duties or home and sports activities. Some of the ... Call for an appointment with your provider if: You have symptoms of carpal tunnel syndrome Your symptoms ...

  15. Applications of the tunneling method to particle decay and radiation from naked singularities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    di Criscienzo, Roberto; Vanzo, Luciano; Zerbini, Sergio

    2010-05-01

    Following recent literature on dS instability in presence of interactions, we study the decay of massive particles in general FRW models and the emission from naked singularities either associated with 4 D charged black holes or 2 D shock waves, by means of the Hamilton-Jacobi tunneling method. It is shown that the two-dimensional semiclassical tunneling amplitude from a naked singularity computed in that way is the same as the one-loop result of quantum field theory.

  16. Tunnelling in carbonic acid.

    PubMed

    Wagner, J Philipp; Reisenauer, Hans Peter; Hirvonen, Viivi; Wu, Chia-Hua; Tyberg, Joseph L; Allen, Wesley D; Schreiner, Peter R

    2016-06-14

    The cis,trans-conformer of carbonic acid (H2CO3), generated by near-infrared radiation, undergoes an unreported quantum mechanical tunnelling rotamerization with half-lives in cryogenic matrices of 4-20 h, depending on temperature and host material. First-principles quantum chemistry at high levels of theory gives a tunnelling half-life of about 1 h, quite near those measured for the fastest rotamerizations. PMID:27248671

  17. Electron tunnel sensor technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kenny, T. W.; Waltman, S. B.; Reynolds, J. K.; Kaiser, W. J.

    1991-01-01

    Researchers designed and constructed a novel electron tunnel sensor which takes advantage of the mechanical properties of micro-machined silicon. For the first time, electrostatic forces are used to control the tunnel electrode separation, thereby avoiding the thermal drift and noise problems associated with piezoelectric actuators. The entire structure is composed of micro-machined silicon single crystals, including a folded cantilever spring and a tip. The application of this sensor to the development of a sensitive accelerometer is described.

  18. The Beginner's Guide to Wind Tunnels with TunnelSim and TunnelSys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benson, Thomas J.; Galica, Carol A.; Vila, Anthony J.

    2010-01-01

    The Beginner's Guide to Wind Tunnels is a Web-based, on-line textbook that explains and demonstrates the history, physics, and mathematics involved with wind tunnels and wind tunnel testing. The Web site contains several interactive computer programs to demonstrate scientific principles. TunnelSim is an interactive, educational computer program that demonstrates basic wind tunnel design and operation. TunnelSim is a Java (Sun Microsystems Inc.) applet that solves the continuity and Bernoulli equations to determine the velocity and pressure throughout a tunnel design. TunnelSys is a group of Java applications that mimic wind tunnel testing techniques. Using TunnelSys, a team of students designs, tests, and post-processes the data for a virtual, low speed, and aircraft wing.

  19. Flow visualization in a cryogenic wind tunnel using holography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burner, A. W.; Goad, W. K.

    1982-01-01

    Results of holographic flow visualization from tests made in the Langley 0.3 meter transonic cryogenic tunnel are presented. The tunnel was operated over a temperature range from 100 to 300 K and a pressure range from 1.1 to 4 atm. Interferometry at the facility may be of limited use at the low temperature high pressure conditions because of the jumbled nature of the reference fringes. The shadowgraph technique appears to be the best means of visualizing shocks at these high density conditions. The spot size at the focus of the reconstructed beams was measured and used as an indicator of density fluctuations in the flow field. These density fluctuations appear to be caused by temperature fluctuations of the test gas which are relatively independent of tunnel conditions.

  20. Flow visualization in a cryogenic wind tunnel using holography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burner, A. W.; Goad, W. K.

    1985-01-01

    Results of holographic flow visualization from tests made in the Langley 0.3 meter transonic cryogenic tunnel are presented. The tunnel was operated over a temperature range from 100 to 300 K and a pressure range from 1.1 to 4 atm. Interferometry at the facility may be of limited use at the low temperature high pressure conditions because of the jumbled nature of the reference fringes. The shadowgraph technique appears to be the best means of visualizing shocks at these high density conditions. The spot size at the focus of the reconstructed beams was measured and used as an indicator of density fluctuations in the flow field. These density fluctuations appear to be caused by temperature fluctuations of the test gas which are relatively independent of tunnel conditions.

  1. New radiative shocks experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leygnac, S.; Bouquet, S.; Stehlé, C.; Benuzzi, A.; Boireau, J.-P.; Chièze, J.-P.; Grandjouan, N.; Huser, G.; Koenig, M.; Malka, V.; Merdji, H.; Michaut, C.; Thais, F.; Vinci, T.

    2002-06-01

    An experimental study of shocks with astrophysical relevance is performed with the high energy density laser of the LULI, at the Ecole Polytechnique. The peculiarity of these shocks is the strong coupling between radiation and hydrodynamics which leads to a structure governed by a radiative precursor. A new experiment has been performed this year where we have observed shocks identified as radiative shocks. We study them in various experimental configurations (several speeds and geometries of the medium where the shock propagates, allowing a quasi-planar or a quasi-spherical expansion). From the measurements it is possible to infer several features of the shock such as the speed, the electronic density, the geometrical shape and spectroscopic informations. The results will be studied with numerical simulations.

  2. When shock waves collide

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Martinez, D.; Hartigan, P.; Frank, A.; Hansen, E.; Yirak, K.; Liao, A. S.; Graham, P.; Foster, J.; Wilde, B.; Blue, B.; et al

    2016-06-01

    Supersonic outflows from objects as varied as stellar jets, massive stars, and novae often exhibit multiple shock waves that overlap one another. When the intersection angle between two shock waves exceeds a critical value, the system reconfigures its geometry to create a normal shock known as a Mach stem where the shocks meet. Mach stems are important for interpreting emission-line images of shocked gas because a normal shock produces higher postshock temperatures, and therefore a higher-excitation spectrum than does an oblique shock. In this paper, we summarize the results of a series of numerical simulations and laboratory experiments designed tomore » quantify how Mach stems behave in supersonic plasmas that are the norm in astrophysical flows. The experiments test analytical predictions for critical angles where Mach stems should form, and quantify how Mach stems grow and decay as intersection angles between the incident shock and a surface change. While small Mach stems are destroyed by surface irregularities and subcritical angles, larger ones persist in these situations and can regrow if the intersection angle changes to become more favorable. Furthermore, the experimental and numerical results show that although Mach stems occur only over a limited range of intersection angles and size scales, within these ranges they are relatively robust, and hence are a viable explanation for variable bright knots observed in Hubble Space Telescope images at the intersections of some bow shocks in stellar jets.« less

  3. Anti-Shock Garment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Ames Research Center developed a prototype pressure suit for hemophiliac children, based on research of astronauts' physiological responses in microgravity. Zoex Corporation picked up the design and patents and developed an anti-shock garment for paramedic use. Marketed by Dyna Med, the suit reverses the effect of shock on the body's blood distribution by applying counterpressure to the legs and abdomen, returning blood to vital organs and stabilizing body pressure until the patient reaches a hospital. The DMAST (Dyna Med Anti-Shock Trousers) employ lower pressure than other shock garments, and are non-inflatable.

  4. When Shock Waves Collide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartigan, P.; Foster, J.; Frank, A.; Hansen, E.; Yirak, K.; Liao, A. S.; Graham, P.; Wilde, B.; Blue, B.; Martinez, D.; Rosen, P.; Farley, D.; Paguio, R.

    2016-06-01

    Supersonic outflows from objects as varied as stellar jets, massive stars, and novae often exhibit multiple shock waves that overlap one another. When the intersection angle between two shock waves exceeds a critical value, the system reconfigures its geometry to create a normal shock known as a Mach stem where the shocks meet. Mach stems are important for interpreting emission-line images of shocked gas because a normal shock produces higher postshock temperatures, and therefore a higher-excitation spectrum than does an oblique shock. In this paper, we summarize the results of a series of numerical simulations and laboratory experiments designed to quantify how Mach stems behave in supersonic plasmas that are the norm in astrophysical flows. The experiments test analytical predictions for critical angles where Mach stems should form, and quantify how Mach stems grow and decay as intersection angles between the incident shock and a surface change. While small Mach stems are destroyed by surface irregularities and subcritical angles, larger ones persist in these situations and can regrow if the intersection angle changes to become more favorable. The experimental and numerical results show that although Mach stems occur only over a limited range of intersection angles and size scales, within these ranges they are relatively robust, and hence are a viable explanation for variable bright knots observed in Hubble Space Telescope images at the intersections of some bow shocks in stellar jets.

  5. Weak shock reflection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunter, John K.; Brio, Moysey

    2000-05-01

    We present numerical solutions of a two-dimensional inviscid Burgers equation which provides an asymptotic description of the Mach reflection of weak shocks. In our numerical solutions, the incident, reflected, and Mach shocks meet at a triple point, and there is a supersonic patch behind the triple point, as proposed by Guderley for steady weak-shock reflection. A theoretical analysis indicates that there is an expansion fan at the triple point, in addition to the three shocks. The supersonic patch is extremely small, and this work is the first time it has been resolved.

  6. Single Electron Tunneling

    SciTech Connect

    Ruggiero, Steven T.

    2005-07-25

    Financial support for this project has led to advances in the science of single-electron phenomena. Our group reported the first observation of the so-called ''Coulomb Staircase'', which was produced by tunneling into ultra-small metal particles. This work showed well-defined tunneling voltage steps of width e/C and height e/RC, demonstrating tunneling quantized on the single-electron level. This work was published in a now well-cited Physical Review Letter. Single-electron physics is now a major sub-field of condensed-matter physics, and fundamental work in the area continues to be conducted by tunneling in ultra-small metal particles. In addition, there are now single-electron transistors that add a controlling gate to modulate the charge on ultra-small photolithographically defined capacitive elements. Single-electron transistors are now at the heart of at least one experimental quantum-computer element, and single-electron transistor pumps may soon be used to define fundamental quantities such as the farad (capacitance) and the ampere (current). Novel computer technology based on single-electron quantum dots is also being developed. In related work, our group played the leading role in the explanation of experimental results observed during the initial phases of tunneling experiments with the high-temperature superconductors. When so-called ''multiple-gap'' tunneling was reported, the phenomenon was correctly identified by our group as single-electron tunneling in small grains in the material. The main focus throughout this project has been to explore single electron phenomena both in traditional tunneling formats of the type metal/insulator/particles/insulator/metal and using scanning tunneling microscopy to probe few-particle systems. This has been done under varying conditions of temperature, applied magnetic field, and with different materials systems. These have included metals, semi-metals, and superconductors. Amongst a number of results, we have

  7. Carpal Tunnel Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Zimmerman, Gregory R.

    1994-01-01

    Carpal tunnel syndrome is a neuropathy resulting from compression of the median nerve as it passes through a narrow tunnel in the wrist on its way to the hand. The lack of precise objective and clinical tests, along with symptoms that are synonymous with other syndromes in the upper extremity, cause carpal tunnel syndrome to appear to be a rare entity in athletics. However, it should not be ruled out as a possible etiology of upper extremity paralysis in the athlete. More typically, carpal tunnel syndrome is the most common peripheral entrapment neuropathy encountered in industry. Treatment may include rest and/or splinting of the involved wrist, ice application, galvanic stimulation, or iontophoresis to reduce inflammation, and then transition to heat modalities and therapeutic exercises for developing flexibility, strength, and endurance. In addition, an ergonomic assessment should be conducted, resulting in modifications to accommodate the carpal tunnel syndrome patient. ImagesFig 3.Fig 4.Fig 5.Fig 6.Fig 7. PMID:16558255

  8. 20-Foot Spin Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1947-01-01

    Construction of a typical model used in the 20-Foot Spin Tunnel. >From 'Characteristics of Nine Research Wind Tunnels of the Langley Aeronautical Laboratory': 'Dynamic models are used for free-spinning tunnel tests. A dynamic model is one for which geometric similarity between model and airplane is extended to obtain geometric similarity of the paths of motion of corresponding points by maintaining constant, in addition to the scale ratio of linear dimensions, three other ratios, that of force, mass, and time. In model testing, however, complete similarity can generally not be duplicated and some compromise is necessary. For free-spinning-model tests in the NACA 20-foot tunnel, the ratio of inertia to frictional or viscous forces (Reynolds number) is not maintained constant, but the ratio of inertia to gravity forces (Froude number) is maintained constant.' 'Models used in the spin tunnel until recently [this report was written in 1957] were made primarily of balsa and reinforced with hardwood. Now, plastic models are being used almost entirely, because they are more durable and when properly constructed are no heavier than balsa models. The models are constructed accurately to scale by pressing plastic material and class cloth into a previously constructed mold. A typical mod is shown in [this picture]. The model is swung as a torsional pendulum and is ballasted to obtain dynamic similarity by placing lead weights in suitable locations within the model wings and fuselage. Corrections are made for the effect of ambient and entrapped air.'

  9. Condensate Mixtures and Tunneling

    SciTech Connect

    Timmermans, E.

    1998-09-14

    The experimental study of condensate mixtures is a particularly exciting application of the recently developed atomic-trap Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) technology: such multiple condensates represent the first laboratory systems of distinguishable boson superfluid mixtures. In addition, as the authors point out in this paper, the possibility of inter-condensate tunneling greatly enhances the richness of the condensate mixture physics. Not only does tunneling give rise to the oscillating particle currents between condensates of different chemical potentials, such as those studied extensively in the condensed matter Josephson junction experiments, it also affects the near-equilibrium dynamics and stability of the condensate mixtures. In particular, the stabilizing influence of tunneling with respect to spatial separation (phase separation) could be of considerable practical importance to the atomic trap systems. Furthermore, the creation of mixtures of atomic and molecular condensates could introduce a novel type of tunneling process, involving the conversion of a pair of atomic condensate bosons into a single molecular condensate boson. The static description of condensate mixtures with such type of pair tunneling suggests the possibility of observing dilute condensates with the liquid-like property of a self-determined density.

  10. East portal of Tunnel No. 1292, Indigo Tunnel, showing interior ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    East portal of Tunnel No. 1292, Indigo Tunnel, showing interior timber framing, looking southwest. - Western Maryland Railway, Cumberland Extension, Pearre to North Branch, from WM milepost 125 to 160, Pearre, Washington County, MD

  11. West portal of Tunnel No. 1292, Indigo Tunnel at milepost ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    West portal of Tunnel No. 1292, Indigo Tunnel at milepost 129.95, largely obscured by overgrowth. - Western Maryland Railway, Cumberland Extension, Pearre to North Branch, from WM milepost 125 to 160, Pearre, Washington County, MD

  12. View of entrance tunnel. Tunnel right to Control Center, left ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of entrance tunnel. Tunnel right to Control Center, left to Antenna Silos - Titan One Missile Complex 2A, .3 miles west of 129 Road and 1.5 miles north of County Line Road, Aurora, Adams County, CO

  13. Effect of shock interactions on the attitude stability of a toroidal ballute for reentry vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otsu, Hirotaka; Abe, Takashi

    2016-03-01

    The effect of shock interactions on the attitude stability of a reentry vehicle system with a toroidal ballute was investigated. The hypersonic wind tunnel experimental results showed that when the shock interaction occurred near or outside the ballute, an unstable oscillation of the ballute was observed. This was caused by the local high-pressure region on the ballute surface created by the shock interaction between the shock from the reentry capsule and the shock from the ballute. To avoid this unstable oscillation, the radius of the ballute should be designed to be large enough so that the shock from the capsule will be located inside the ballute, which can avoid the local high-pressure region on the ballute surface.

  14. Studies of shock/shock interaction on smooth and transpiration-cooled hemispherical nosetips in hypersonic flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holden, Michael S.; Rodriguez, Kathleen M.

    1992-01-01

    A program of experimental research and analysis was conducted to examine the heat transfer and pressure distributions in regions of shock/shock interaction over smooth and transpiration-cooled hemispherical noseshapes. The objective of this investigation was to determine whether the large heat transfer generated in regions of shock/shock interaction can be reduced by transpiration cooling. The experimental program was conducted at Mach numbers of 12 to 16 in the Calspan 48-Inch Shock Tunnel. Type 3 and type 4 interaction regions were generated for a range of freestream unit Reynolds numbers to provide shear layer Reynolds numbers from 10 exp 4 to 10 exp 6 to enable laminar and turbulent interaction regions to be studied. Shock/shock interactions were investigated on a smooth hemispherical nosetip and a similar transpiration-cooled nosetip, with the latter configuration being examined for a range of surface blowing rates up to one-third of the freestream mass flux. While the heat transfer measurements on the smooth hemisphere without shock/shock interaction were in good agreement with Fay-Riddell predictions, those on the transpiration-cooled nosetip indicated that its intrinsic roughness caused heating-enhancement factors of over 1.5. In the shock/shock interaction studies on the smooth nosetip, detailed heat transfer and pressure measurements were obtained to map the variation of the distributions with shock-impingement position for a range of type 3 and type 4 interactions. Such sets of measurements were obtained for a range of unit Reynolds numbers and Mach numbers to obtain both laminar and turbulent interactions. The measurements indicated that shear layer transition has a significant influence on the heating rates for the type 4 interaction as well as the anticipated large effects on type 3 interaction heating. In the absence of blowing, the peak heating in the type 3 and type 4 interaction regions, over the transpiration-cooled model, did not appear to be

  15. Control of Wind Tunnel Operations Using Neural Net Interpretation of Flow Visualization Records

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buggele, Alvin E.; Decker, Arthur J.

    1994-01-01

    Neural net control of operations in a small subsonic/transonic/supersonic wind tunnel at Lewis Research Center is discussed. The tunnel and the layout for neural net control or control by other parallel processing techniques are described. The tunnel is an affordable, multiuser platform for testing instrumentation and components, as well as parallel processing and control strategies. Neural nets have already been tested on archival schlieren and holographic visualizations from this tunnel as well as recent supersonic and transonic shadowgraph. This paper discusses the performance of neural nets for interpreting shadowgraph images in connection with a recent exercise for tuning the tunnel in a subsonic/transonic cascade mode of operation. That mode was operated for performing wake surveys in connection with NASA's Advanced Subsonic Technology (AST) noise reduction program. The shadowgraph was presented to the neural nets as 60 by 60 pixel arrays. The outputs were tunnel parameters such as valve settings or tunnel state identifiers for selected tunnel operating points, conditions, or states. The neural nets were very sensitive, perhaps too sensitive, to shadowgraph pattern detail. However, the nets exhibited good immunity to variations in brightness, to noise, and to changes in contrast. The nets are fast enough so that ten or more can be combined per control operation to interpret flow visualization data, point sensor data, and model calculations. The pattern sensitivity of the nets will be utilized and tested to control wind tunnel operations at Mach 2.0 based on shock wave patterns.

  16. Increased Mach Number Capability for the NASA Glenn 10x10 Supersonic Wind Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slater, John; Saunders, John

    2014-01-01

    Computational simulations and wind tunnel testing were conducted to explore the operation of the Abe Silverstein Supersonic Wind Tunnel at the NASA Glenn Research Center at test section Mach numbers above the current limit of Mach 3.5. An increased Mach number would enhance the capability for testing of supersonic and hypersonic propulsion systems. The focus of the explorations was on understanding the flow within the second throat of the tunnel, which is downstream of the test section and is where the supersonic flow decelerates to subsonic flow. Methods of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) were applied to provide details of the shock boundary layer structure and to estimate losses in total pressure. The CFD simulations indicated that the tunnel could be operated up to Mach 4.0 if the minimum width of the second throat was made smaller than that used for previous operation of the tunnel. Wind tunnel testing was able to confirm such operation of the tunnel at Mach 3.6 and 3.7 before a hydraulic failure caused a stop to the testing. CFD simulations performed after the wind tunnel testing showed good agreement with test data consisting of static pressures along the ceiling of the second throat. The CFD analyses showed increased shockwave boundary layer interactions, which was also observed as increased unsteadiness of dynamic pressures collected in the wind tunnel testing.

  17. Increased Mach Number Capability for the NASA Glenn 10x10 Supersonic Wind Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slater, J. W.; Saunders, J. D.

    2015-01-01

    Computational simulations and wind tunnel testing were conducted to explore the operation of the Abe Silverstein Supersonic Wind Tunnel at the NASA Glenn Research Center at test section Mach numbers above the current limit of Mach 3.5. An increased Mach number would enhance the capability for testing of supersonic and hypersonic propulsion systems. The focus of the explorations was on understanding the flow within the second throat of the tunnel, which is downstream of the test section and is where the supersonic flow decelerates to subsonic flow. Methods of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) were applied to provide details of the shock boundary layer structure and to estimate losses in total pressure. The CFD simulations indicated that the tunnel could be operated up to Mach 4.0 if the minimum width of the second throat was made smaller than that used for previous operation of the tunnel. Wind tunnel testing was able to confirm such operation of the tunnel at Mach 3.6 and 3.7 before a hydraulic failure caused a stop to the testing. CFD simulations performed after the wind tunnel testing showed good agreement with test data consisting of static pressures along the ceiling of the second throat. The CFD analyses showed increased shockwave boundary layer interactions, which was also observed as increased unsteadiness of dynamic pressures collected in the wind tunnel testing.

  18. Magnetic flux tube tunneling

    SciTech Connect

    Dahlburg, R.B.; Antiochos, S.K.; Norton, D.

    1997-08-01

    We present numerical simulations of the collision and subsequent interaction of {ital orthogonal} magnetic flux tubes. The simulations were carried out using a parallelized spectral algorithm for compressible magnetohydrodynamics. It is found that, under a wide range of conditions, the flux tubes can {open_quotes}tunnel{close_quotes} through each other, a behavior not previously seen in studies of either vortex tube or magnetic flux tube interactions. Two conditions must be satisfied for tunneling to occur: the magnetic field must be highly twisted with a field line pitch {gt}1, and the Lundquist number must be somewhat large, {ge}2880. An examination of magnetic field lines suggests that tunneling is due to a double-reconnection mechanism. Initially orthogonal field lines reconnect at two specific locations, exchange interacting sections, and {open_quotes}pass{close_quotes} through each other. The implications of these results for solar and space plasmas are discussed. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  19. Femtosecond scanning tunneling microscope

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, A.J.; Donati, G.P.; Rodriguez, G.; Gosnell, T.R.; Trugman, S.A.; Some, D.I.

    1998-11-01

    This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). By combining scanning tunneling microscopy with ultrafast optical techniques we have developed a novel tool to probe phenomena on atomic time and length scales. We have built and characterized an ultrafast scanning tunneling microscope in terms of temporal resolution, sensitivity and dynamic range. Using a novel photoconductive low-temperature-grown GaAs tip, we have achieved a temporal resolution of 1.5 picoseconds and a spatial resolution of 10 nanometers. This scanning tunneling microscope has both cryogenic and ultra-high vacuum capabilities, enabling the study of a wide range of important scientific problems.

  20. Uncooled tunneling infrared sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kenny, Thomas W. (Inventor); Kaiser, William J. (Inventor); Podosek, Judith A. (Inventor); Vote, Erika C. (Inventor); Muller, Richard E. (Inventor); Maker, Paul D. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    An uncooled infrared tunneling sensor in which the only moving part is a diaphragm which is deflected into contact with a micromachined silicon tip electrode prepared by a novel lithographic process. Similarly prepared deflection electrodes employ electrostatic force to control the deflection of a silicon nitride, flat diaphragm membrane. The diaphragm exhibits a high resonant frequency which reduces the sensor's sensitivity to vibration. A high bandwidth feedback circuit controls the tunneling current by adjusting the deflection voltage to maintain a constant deflection of the membrane. The resulting infrared sensor can be miniaturized to pixel dimensions smaller than 100 .mu.m. An alternative embodiment is implemented using a corrugated membrane to permit large deflection without complicated clamping and high deflection voltages. The alternative embodiment also employs a pinhole aperture in a membrane to accommodate environmental temperature variation and a sealed chamber to eliminate environmental contamination of the tunneling electrodes and undesireable accoustic coupling to the sensor.

  1. Magnetic flux tube tunneling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dahlburg, R. B.; Antiochos, S. K.; Norton, D.

    1997-08-01

    We present numerical simulations of the collision and subsequent interaction of orthogonal magnetic flux tubes. The simulations were carried out using a parallelized spectral algorithm for compressible magnetohydrodynamics. It is found that, under a wide range of conditions, the flux tubes can ``tunnel'' through each other, a behavior not previously seen in studies of either vortex tube or magnetic flux tube interactions. Two conditions must be satisfied for tunneling to occur: the magnetic field must be highly twisted with a field line pitch >>1, and the Lundquist number must be somewhat large, >=2880. An examination of magnetic field lines suggests that tunneling is due to a double-reconnection mechanism. Initially orthogonal field lines reconnect at two specific locations, exchange interacting sections, and ``pass'' through each other. The implications of these results for solar and space plasmas are discussed.

  2. Convection of a pattern of vorticity through a shock wave

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ribner, H S

    1954-01-01

    An arbitrary weak spatial distribution of vorticity can be represented in terms of plane sinusoidal shear waves of all orientations and wave lengths (Fourier integral). The analysis treats the passage of a single representative weak shear wave through a plane shock and shows refraction and modification of the shear wave with simultaneous generation of an acoustically intense sound wave. Applications to turbulence and to noise in supersonic wind tunnels are indicated.

  3. View down tank tunnel (tunnel no. 2) showing pipes and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View down tank tunnel (tunnel no. 2) showing pipes and walkway of metal grating, side tunnel to tank 3 is on the left - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Diesel Purification Plant, North Road near Pierce Street, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  4. High-speed Wind Tunnels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ackeret, J

    1936-01-01

    Wind tunnel construction and design is discussed especially in relation to subsonic and supersonic speeds. Reynolds Numbers and the theory of compressible flows are also taken into consideration in designing new tunnels.

  5. Two-dimensional wind tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Information on the Japanese National Aerospace Laboratory two dimensional transonic wind tunnel, completed at the end of 1979 is presented. Its construction is discussed in detail, and the wind tunnel structure, operation, test results, and future plans are presented.

  6. Wind tunnel wall interference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newman, Perry A.; Mineck, Raymond E.; Barnwell, Richard W.; Kemp, William B., Jr.

    1986-01-01

    About a decade ago, interest in alleviating wind tunnel wall interference was renewed by advances in computational aerodynamics, concepts of adaptive test section walls, and plans for high Reynolds number transonic test facilities. Selection of NASA Langley cryogenic concept for the National Transonic Facility (NTF) tended to focus the renewed wall interference efforts. A brief overview and current status of some Langley sponsored transonic wind tunnel wall interference research are presented. Included are continuing efforts in basic wall flow studies, wall interference assessment/correction procedures, and adaptive wall technology.

  7. Instrumentation in wind tunnels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Takashima, K.

    1986-01-01

    Requirements in designing instrumentation systems and measurements of various physical quantities in wind tunnels are surveyed. Emphasis is given to sensors used for measuring pressure, temperature, and angle, and the measurements of air turbulence and boundary layers. Instrumentation in wind tunnels require accuracy, fast response, diversity and operational simplicity. Measurements of force, pressure, attitude angle, free flow, pressure distribution, and temperature are illustrated by a table, and a block diagram. The LDV (laser Doppler velocimeter) method for measuring air turbulence and flow velocity and measurement of skin friction and flow fields using laser holograms are discussed. The future potential of these techniques is studied.

  8. How Is Cardiogenic Shock Treated?

    MedlinePlus

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. How Is Cardiogenic Shock Treated? Cardiogenic shock is life threatening and requires emergency medical treatment. ... arrive. The first goal of emergency treatment for cardiogenic shock is to improve the flow of blood and ...

  9. [Historical vision of shock].

    PubMed

    Dosne Pasqualini, C

    1998-01-01

    The concept of shock and its close relationship with that of stress dates back to the experiments of Hans Selye initiated in 1936 at McGill University in Montreal, with whom I collaborated between 1939 and 1942. It was demonstrated that the General Adaptation Syndrome begins with an Alarm Reaction, which consists of a Stage of Shock and one of Counter-Shock, followed by a Stage of Adaptation and finally a Stage of Exhaustion. My Ph.D. thesis concluded that shock was due to an adrenal insufficiency postulating that active metabolic processes drain the body of certain essential compounds the lack of which causes shock. My interest in the role of the glucose metabolism in shock led me to work with Bernardo Houssay in 1942 at the Institute of Physiology of the University of Buenos Aires and in 1944 with C.N.H. Long at Yale University. There I developed a method for the induction of hemorrhagic shock in the guinea pig with 94% lethality; curiously, the administration of 200 mg of ascorbic acid prevented death. Upon my return to Buenos Aires, these results were confirmed and moreover, it was demonstrated that the administration of cortisone led to 40% survival of the animals while desoxycorticosterone had no effect. At the time, no explanation was available but to-day, half a century later, this Symposium should be able to explain the mechanisms leading to death by hemorrhagic shock. PMID:9816693

  10. Entropy considerations applied to shock unsteadiness in hypersonic inlets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bussey, Gillian Mary Harding

    The stability of curved or rectangular shocks in hypersonic inlets in response to flow perturbations can be determined analytically from the principle of minimum entropy. Unsteady shock wave motion can have a significant effect on the flow in a hypersonic inlet or combustor. According to the principle of minimum entropy, a stable thermodynamic state is one with the lowest entropy gain. A model based on piston theory and its limits has been developed for applying the principle of minimum entropy to quasi-steady flow. Relations are derived for analyzing the time-averaged entropy gain flux across a shock for quasi-steady perturbations in atmospheric conditions and angle as a perturbation in entropy gain flux from the steady state. Initial results from sweeping a wedge at Mach 10 through several degrees in AEDC's Tunnel 9 indicates the bow shock becomes unsteady near the predicted normal Mach number. Several curved shocks of varying curvature are compared to a straight shock with the same mean normal Mach number, pressure ratio, or temperature ratio. The present work provides analysis and guidelines for designing an inlet robust to off- design flight or perturbations in flow conditions an inlet is likely to face. It also suggests that inlets with curved shocks are less robust to off-design flight than those with straight shocks such as rectangular inlets. Relations for evaluating entropy perturbations for highly unsteady flow across a shock and limits on their use were also developed. The normal Mach number at which a shock could be stable to high frequency upstream perturbations increases as the speed of the shock motion increases and slightly decreases as the perturbation size increases. The present work advances the principle of minimum entropy theory by providing additional validity for using the theory for time-varying flows and applying it to shocks, specifically those in inlets. While this analytic tool is applied in the present work for evaluating the stability

  11. Shock Demagnetization of Pyrrhotite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Louzada, K. L.; Stewart, S. T.; Weiss, b. P.

    2005-01-01

    Maps of the remanent magnetic field of Mars show demagnetized zones within and around giant impact basins. It is likely that vast regions of the Martian crust were demagnetized due to a shock-induced phase change or magnetic transition of magnetic minerals in the crust. This hypothesis is supported by the fact that around the Hellas and Argyre basins, the edges of the unmagnetized zones roughly correspond with peak shock pressure contour lines of a few GPa. Although pyrrhotite is not a major carrier of magnetization in the Earth s crust, it is a common phase in Martian meteorites and may be an important carrier in the Martian crust. Understanding the effects of shock waves on magnetic minerals is critical for determining the origin of the demagnetized zones in impact basins and possibly for identifying the major magnetic carrier phases. Here we present the results of the first controlled shock demagnetization measurements on pyrrhotite. Previous experiments: Shock demagnetization

  12. A comparison of measured and predicted sphere shock shapes in hypersonic flows with density ratios from 4 to 19

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, C. G., III

    1975-01-01

    Measured shock shapes are presented for sphere and hemisphere models in helium, air, CF4, C2F6, and CO2 test gases, corresponding to normal-shock density ratios (primary factor governing shock detachment distance of blunt bodies at hypersonic speeds) from 4 to 19. These shock shapes were obtained in three facilities capable of generating the high density ratios experienced during planetary entry at hypersonic conditions; namely, the 6-inch expansion tube, with hypersonic CF4 tunnel, and pilot CF4 Mach 6 tunnel (with CF4 replaced by C2F6). Measured results are compared with several inviscid perfect-gas shock shape predictions, in which an effective ratio of specific heats is used as input, and with real-gas predictions which include effects of a laminar viscous layer and thermochemical nonequilibrium.

  13. Scanning tunneling microscope nanoetching method

    DOEpatents

    Li, Yun-Zhong; Reifenberger, Ronald G.; Andres, Ronald P.

    1990-01-01

    A method is described for forming uniform nanometer sized depressions on the surface of a conducting substrate. A tunneling tip is used to apply tunneling current density sufficient to vaporize a localized area of the substrate surface. The resulting depressions or craters in the substrate surface can be formed in information encoding patterns readable with a scanning tunneling microscope.

  14. MSL Parachute Shock Oscillation

    NASA Video Gallery

    Ames engineers conducted tests of a two-percent scale model of the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) entry vehicle in the NASA Ames 9-foot-by-7-foot Supersonic Wind Tunnel with a rigid representation o...

  15. Magnetic Fluxtube Tunneling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dahlburg, Russell B.; Antiochos,, Spiro K.; Norton, D.

    1996-01-01

    We present numerical simulations of the collision and subsequent interaction of two initially orthogonal, twisted, force free field magnetic fluxtubes. The simulations were carried out using a new three dimensional explicit parallelized Fourier collocation algorithm for solving the viscoresistive equations of compressible magnetohydrodynamics. It is found that, under a wide range of conditions, the fluxtubes can 'tunnel' through each other. Two key conditions must be satisfied for tunneling to occur: the magnetic field must be highly twisted with a field line pitch much greater than 1, and the magnetic Lundquist number must be somewhat large, greater than or equal to 2880. This tunneling behavior has not been seen previously in studies of either vortex tube or magnetic fluxtube interactions. An examination of magnetic field lines shows that tunneling is due to a double reconnection mechanism. Initially orthogonal field lines reconnect at two specific locations, exchange interacting sections and 'pass' through each other. The implications of these results for solar and space plasmas are discussed.

  16. Tunnelling with wormhole creation

    SciTech Connect

    Ansoldi, S.; Tanaka, T.

    2015-03-15

    The description of quantum tunnelling in the presence of gravity shows subtleties in some cases. We discuss wormhole production in the context of the spherically symmetric thin-shell approximation. By presenting a fully consistent treatment based on canonical quantization, we solve a controversy present in the literature.

  17. Dry wind tunnel system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Ping-Chih (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    This invention is a ground flutter testing system without a wind tunnel, called Dry Wind Tunnel (DWT) System. The DWT system consists of a Ground Vibration Test (GVT) hardware system, a multiple input multiple output (MIMO) force controller software, and a real-time unsteady aerodynamic force generation software, that is developed from an aerodynamic reduced order model (ROM). The ground flutter test using the DWT System operates on a real structural model, therefore no scaled-down structural model, which is required by the conventional wind tunnel flutter test, is involved. Furthermore, the impact of the structural nonlinearities on the aeroelastic stability can be included automatically. Moreover, the aeroservoelastic characteristics of the aircraft can be easily measured by simply including the flight control system in-the-loop. In addition, the unsteady aerodynamics generated computationally is interference-free from the wind tunnel walls. Finally, the DWT System can be conveniently and inexpensively carried out as a post GVT test with the same hardware, only with some possible rearrangement of the shakers and the inclusion of additional sensors.

  18. Wind Tunnel Balances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warner, Edward P; Norton, F H

    1920-01-01

    Report embodies a description of the balance designed and constructed for the use of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics at Langley Field, and also deals with the theory of sensitivity of balances and with the errors to which wind tunnel balances of various types are subject.

  19. Carpal tunnel syndrome

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Carpal tunnel syndrome is a collection of clinical symptoms and signs caused by compression of the median nerve within the carpal tunnel. However, the severity of symptoms and signs does not often correlate well with the extent of nerve compression. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of drug treatments, non-drug treatments, and surgical treatments for carpal tunnel syndrome? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to October 2013 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 33 studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: carpal tunnel release surgery (open and endoscopic), diuretics, local corticosteroids injection, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), therapeutic ultrasound, and wrist splints.

  20. Full Scale Tunnel model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1929-01-01

    Interior view of Full-Scale Tunnel (FST) model. (Small human figures have been added for scale.) On June 26, 1929, Elton W. Miller wrote to George W. Lewis proposing the construction of a model of the full-scale tunnel . 'The excellent energy ratio obtained in the new wind tunnel of the California Institute of Technology suggests that before proceeding with our full scale tunnel design, we ought to investigate the effect on energy ratio of such factors as: 1. small included angle for the exit cone; 2. carefully designed return passages of circular section as far as possible, without sudden changes in cross sections; 3. tightness of walls. It is believed that much useful information can be obtained by building a model of about 1/16 scale, that is, having a closed throat of 2 ft. by 4 ft. The outside dimensions would be about 12 ft. by 25 ft. in plan and the height 4 ft. Two propellers will be required about 28 in. in diameter, each to be driven by direct current motor at a maximum speed of 4500 R.P.M. Provision can be made for altering the length of certain portions, particularly the exit cone, and possibly for the application of boundary layer control in order to effect satisfactory air flow.

  1. The Channel Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    The Channel Tunnel is a 50.5 km-long rail tunnel beneath the English Channel at the Straits of Dover. It connects Dover, Kent in England with Calais, northern France. The undersea section of the tunnel is unsurpassed in length in the world. A proposal for a Channel tunnel was first put forward by a French engineer in 1802. In 1881, a first attempt was made at boring a tunnel from the English side; the work was halted after 800 m. Again in 1922, English workers started boring a tunnel, and advanced 120 m before it too was halted for political reasons. The most recent attempt was begun in 1987, and the tunnel was officially opened in 1994. At completion it was estimated that the project cost around $18 billion. It has been operating at a significant loss since its opening, despite trips by over 7 million passengers per year on the Eurostar train, and over 3 million vehicles per year.

    With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER images Earth to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.

    ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products.

    The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER provides scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils and geology; and measuring

  2. Comparison of shock severity measures

    SciTech Connect

    Baca, T.J.

    1989-01-01

    In an effort to clarify the issues associated with quantifying shock severity, this paper compares the merits of two measures of shock severity. The first measure is the widely used absolute acceleration shock response spectrum (SAA). The second measure of shock severity is relatively new and is known as the shock intensity spectrum (SIS). Overall information content of SAA and SIS spectra are compared and discussed in the context of two shock excitations having known amplitude, duration, and frequency content. The first is a burst of band-limited white noise and the second is a classical haversine pulse. After describing both the SAA and SIS shock measures, numerous examples are described which emphasize the strengths and limitations of each shock characterization method. This discussion reveals how the use of different shock measures may alter an engineer's conclusions about relative shock severity between two shock environments. 8 refs., 15 figs.

  3. Termination Shock Surfing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burrows, R. H.; Zank, G. P.; Webb, G. M.

    2009-11-01

    The recent Voyager 2 (V2) observations of the termination shock (TS) indicate that it is a plasma shock like no other in the heliosphere with dynamics and structure heavily influenced by the presence of an energized population of pickup ions (PUIs). The `unexpected' finding of a cold plasma in the heliosheath with very little heating of the solar wind suggests that the energy dissipated by the shock could be dominated by the acceleration of PUIs at the TS. We examine the 'shock surfing' mechanism at the test particle level, where multiply reflected ions (MRIs) gain energy from the motional electric field as a consequence of reflection from the cross-shockpotential, for a specific model of the TS3 (the third TS crossing measured by V2). The energization of PUI shell distributions at a stationary, perpendicular model of the TS3 indicate that shock surfing can provide substantial PUI acceleration and a dissipation mechanism at the TS. For a strong enough cross-shock potential and sufficiently narrow shock ramp MRI acceleration can account for the `missing' energy of the downstream solar wind plasma.

  4. Experimental Investigation on Airfoil Shock Control by Plasma Aerodynamic Actuation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Quan; Cheng, Bangqin; Li, Yinghong; Cui, Wei; Jin, Di; Li, Jun

    2013-11-01

    An experimental investigation on airfoil (NACA64—215) shock control is performed by plasma aerodynamic actuation in a supersonic tunnel (Ma = 2). The results of schlieren and pressure measurement show that when plasma aerodynamic actuation is applied, the position moves forward and the intensity of shock at the head of the airfoil weakens. With the increase in actuating voltage, the total pressure measured at the head of the airfoil increases, which means that the shock intensity decreases and the control effect increases. The best actuation effect is caused by upwind-direction actuation with a magnetic field, and then downwind-direction actuation with a magnetic field, while the control effect of aerodynamic actuation without a magnetic field is the most inconspicuous. The mean intensity of the normal shock at the head of the airfoil is relatively decreased by 16.33%, and the normal shock intensity is relatively reduced by 27.5% when 1000 V actuating voltage and upwind-direction actuation are applied with a magnetic field. This paper theoretically analyzes the Joule heating effect generated by DC discharge and the Lorentz force effect caused by the magnetic field. The discharge characteristics are compared for all kinds of actuation conditions to reveal the mechanism of shock control by plasma aerodynamic actuation.

  5. Echocardiography in shock management.

    PubMed

    McLean, Anthony S

    2016-01-01

    Echocardiography is pivotal in the diagnosis and management of the shocked patient. Important characteristics in the setting of shock are that it is non-invasive and can be rapidly applied.In the acute situation a basic study often yields immediate results allowing for the initiation of therapy, while a follow-up advanced study brings the advantage of further refining the diagnosis and providing an in-depth hemodynamic assessment. Competency in basic critical care echocardiography is now regarded as a mandatory part of critical care training with clear guidelines available. The majority of pathologies found in shocked patients are readily identified using basic level 2D and M-mode echocardiography. A more comprehensive diagnosis can be achieved with advanced levels of competency, for which practice guidelines are also now available. Hemodynamic evaluation and ongoing monitoring are possible with advanced levels of competency, which includes the use of colour Doppler, spectral Doppler, and tissue Doppler imaging and occasionally the use of more recent technological advances such as 3D or speckled tracking.The four core types of shock-cardiogenic, hypovolemic, obstructive, and vasoplegic-can readily be identified by echocardiography. Even within each of the main headings contained in the shock classification, a variety of pathologies may be the cause and echocardiography will differentiate which of these is responsible. Increasingly, as a result of more complex and elderly patients, the shock may be multifactorial, such as a combination of cardiogenic and septic shock or hypovolemia and ventricular outflow obstruction.The diagnostic benefit of echocardiography in the shocked patient is obvious. The increasing prevalence of critical care physicians experienced in advanced techniques means echocardiography often supplants the need for more invasive hemodynamic assessment and monitoring in shock. PMID:27543137

  6. Low-disturbance wind tunnels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beckwith, I. E.; Applin, Z. T.; Stainback, P. C.; Maestrello, L.

    1986-01-01

    During the past years, there was an extensive program under way at the Langley Research Center to upgrade the flow quality in several of the large wind tunnels. This effort has resulted in significant improvements in flow quality in these tunnels and has also increased the understanding of how and where changes in existing and new wind tunnels are most likely to yield the desired improvements. As part of this ongoing program, flow disturbance levels and spectra were measured in several Langley tunnels before and after modifications were made to reduce acoustic and vorticity fluctuations. A brief description of these disturbance control features is given for the Low-Turbulence Pressure Tunnel, the 4 x 7 Meter Tunnel, and the 8 Foot Transonic Pressure Tunnel. To illustrate typical reductions in disturbance levels obtained in these tunnels, data from hot-wire or acoustic sensors are presented. A concept for a subsonic quiet tunnel designed to study boundary layer stability and transition is also presented. Techniques developed at Langley in recent years to eliminate the high intensity and high-frequency acoustic disturbances present in all previous supersonic wind tunnels are described. In conclusion, the low-disturbance levels present in atmospheric flight can now be simulated in wind tunnels over the speed range from low subsonic through high supersonic.

  7. Introduction to cryogenic wind tunnels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodyer, M. J.

    1985-01-01

    The background to the evolution of the cryogenic wind tunnel is outlined, with particular reference to the late 60's/early 70's when efforts were begun to re-equip with larger wind tunnels. The problems of providing full scale Reynolds numbers in transonic testing were proving particularly intractible, when the notion of satisfying the needs with the cryogenic tunnel was proposed, and then adopted. The principles and advantages of the cryogenic tunnel are outlined, along with guidance on the coolant needs when this is liquid nitrogen, and with a note on energy recovery. Operational features of the tunnels are introduced with reference to a small low speed tunnel. Finally the outstanding contributions are highlighted of the 0.3-Meter Transonic Cryogenic Tunnel (TCT) at NASA Langley Research Center, and its personnel, to the furtherance of knowledge and confidence in the concept.

  8. Anthrax-associated shock.

    PubMed

    Goldman, David L; Casadevall, Arturo

    2008-01-01

    Recent events have brought attention to the potential of Bacillus anthracis as an agent of bioterrorism. The shock like state of anthrax is invariably associated with high mortality, despite anti-microbial and supportive therapy. Multi-system dysfunction is typical, including: enhanced vascular permeability, hemorrhage and inflammation. Important questions concerning the pathophysiology of anthrax-associated shock remain unanswered, including the effects of B. anthracis infection on cardiac function. This review discusses the current state of knowledge regarding the pathophysiology of anthrax-associated shock. PMID:18508494

  9. Shock effects in meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoeffler, D.; Bischoff, A.; Buchwald, V.; Rubin, A. E.

    1988-01-01

    The impacts that can occur between objects on intersecting solar system orbits can generate shock-induced deformations and transformations, creating new mineral phases or melting old ones. These shock-metamorphic effects affect not only the petrography but the chemical and isotopic properties and the ages of primordial meteoritic materials. A fuller understanding of shock metamorphism and breccia formation in meteorites will be essential not only in the study of early accretion, differentiation, and regolith-evolution processes, but in the characterization of the primordial composition of the accreted material itself.

  10. Shocks near Jamming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gómez, Leopoldo R.; Turner, Ari M.; van Hecke, Martin; Vitelli, Vincenzo

    2012-02-01

    Nonlinear sound is an extreme phenomenon typically observed in solids after violent explosions. But granular media are different. Right when they jam, these fragile and disordered solids exhibit a vanishing rigidity and sound speed, so that even tiny mechanical perturbations form supersonic shocks. Here, we perform simulations in which two-dimensional jammed granular packings are dynamically compressed and demonstrate that the elementary excitations are strongly nonlinear shocks, rather than ordinary phonons. We capture the full dependence of the shock speed on pressure and impact intensity by a surprisingly simple analytical model.

  11. Simulations of Relativistic Collisionless Shocks: Shock Structure and Particle Acceleration

    SciTech Connect

    Spitkovsky, Anatoly; /KIPAC, Menlo Park

    2006-04-10

    We discuss 3D simulations of relativistic collisionless shocks in electron-positron pair plasmas using the particle-in-cell (PIC) method. The shock structure is mainly controlled by the shock's magnetization (''sigma'' parameter). We demonstrate how the structure of the shock varies as a function of sigma for perpendicular shocks. At low magnetizations the shock is mediated mainly by the Weibel instability which generates transient magnetic fields that can exceed the initial field. At larger magnetizations the shock is dominated by magnetic reflections. We demonstrate where the transition occurs and argue that it is impossible to have very low magnetization collisionless shocks in nature (in more than one spatial dimension). We further discuss the acceleration properties of these shocks, and show that higher magnetization perpendicular shocks do not efficiently accelerate nonthermal particles in 3D. Among other astrophysical applications, this may pose a restriction on the structure and composition of gamma-ray bursts and pulsar wind outflows.

  12. An Evaluation of Measured Pressure Signatures From Wind-Tunnel Models of Three Low-Boom Concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mack, Robert J.

    2005-01-01

    Revised 1990-1991 sonic-boom design and analysis methodology was assessed by applying it to the design of three low-boom concepts. Models of these concepts were built and used to measure pressure signatures in the wind tunnel. An analysis of wind-tunnel data showed unexpected nacelle-inlet and the nacelle-wing interference-lift shocks in the pressure signatures from the two engine-under-the-wing models, but not in the measured pressure signatures from the wind-tunnel model with the engine nacelles mounted on the aft fuselage. However, additional lift-induced shocks were found in the pressure signature data from all three wind-tunnel models indicating that other flow-field disturbance effects were present.

  13. Techniques For Mass Production Of Tunneling Electrodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kenny, Thomas W.; Podosek, Judith A.; Reynolds, Joseph K.; Rockstad, Howard K.; Vote, Erika C.; Kaiser, William J.

    1993-01-01

    Techniques for mass production of tunneling electrodes developed from silicon-micromachining, lithographic patterning, and related microfabrication processes. Tunneling electrodes named because electrons travel between them by quantum-mechanical tunneling; tunneling electrodes integral parts of tunneling transducer/sensors, which act in conjunction with feedback circuitry to stabilize tunneling currents by maintaining electrode separations of order of 10 Angstrom. Essential parts of scanning tunneling microscopes and related instruments, and used as force and position transducers in novel microscopic accelerometers and infrared detectors.

  14. Life shocks and homelessness.

    PubMed

    Curtis, Marah A; Corman, Hope; Noonan, Kelly; Reichman, Nancy E

    2013-12-01

    We exploited an exogenous health shock-namely, the birth of a child with a severe health condition-to investigate the effect of a life shock on homelessness in large cities in the United States as well as the interactive effects of the shock with housing market characteristics. We considered a traditional measure of homelessness, two measures of housing instability thought to be precursors to homelessness, and a combined measure that approximates the broadened conceptualization of homelessness under the 2009 Homeless Emergency Assistance and Rapid Transition to Housing Act (2010). We found that the shock substantially increases the likelihood of family homelessness, particularly in cities with high housing costs. The findings are consistent with the economic theory of homelessness, which posits that homelessness results from a conjunction of adverse circumstances in which housing markets and individual characteristics collide. PMID:23868747

  15. Toxic shock syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... by a toxin produced by some types of Staphylococcus bacteria. A similar problem, called toxic shock-like ... men. Risk factors include: Recent childbirth Infection with Staphylococcus aureus ( S. aureus ), commonly called a Staph infection Foreign ...

  16. Acute Biliary Septic Shock

    PubMed Central

    1990-01-01

    Forty-seven cases of biliary tract infection with septic shock are presented. The sepsis was caused by empyema of the gallbladder in 23 cases and by cholangitis in the remainder. Gallstones were most frequently the cause of the sepsis. An appropriate diagnostic description of the syndrome of biliary tract infection and septic shock should therefore include a description of the underlying biliary disease as well as the term acute biliary shock. In this series, emergency surgical management by removal of gallstones and drainage of suppuration was felt to be the most appropriate treatment. There was a high incidence of gallbladder rupture (10.6%) and intrahepatic stones (53.2%). Of the 13 patients who died, 8 might have survived if early operation had been performed after the diagnosis of acute biliary septic shock was established. PMID:2278914

  17. Testing bow shock models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alrefay, Thamer; Meziane, Karim; Hamza, A. M.

    2016-07-01

    Space plasmas studies of bow shock dynamics, given the fundamental transport role and impact natural transition boundaries, have continued to attract much interest. With the overwhelming availability of data collected by various space science missions, several empirical models have been put forward to account for the location of the Earth's bow shock. Various solar wind and IMF measured parameters are used to constrain the proposed models published in the literature. For each of these empirical models, the bow shock nose velocity, at the standoff distance, is computed; each of these velocities is then compared with the observed shock speed as determined from a multipoint measurement provided by the Cluster quartet. The present study reveals to what extent the model parameters used are significant and determinant, and suggests that some empirical models are more accurate than others are.

  18. "Smart" Electromechanical Shock Absorber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stokes, Lebarian; Glenn, Dean C.; Carroll, Monty B.

    1989-01-01

    Shock-absorbing apparatus includes electromechanical actuator and digital feedback control circuitry rather than springs and hydraulic damping as in conventional shock absorbers. Device not subject to leakage and requires little or no maintenance. Attenuator parameters adjusted in response to sensory feedback and predictive algorithms to obtain desired damping characteristic. Device programmed to decelerate slowly approaching vehicle or other large object according to prescribed damping characteristic.

  19. Attosecond shock waves.

    PubMed

    Zhokhov, P A; Zheltikov, A M

    2013-05-01

    Shock-wave formation is a generic scenario of wave dynamics known in nonlinear acoustics, fluid dynamics, astrophysics, seismology, and detonation physics. Here, we show that, in nonlinear optics, remarkably short, attosecond shock transients can be generated through a strongly coupled spatial and temporal dynamics of ultrashort light pulses, suggesting a pulse self-compression scenario whereby multigigawatt attosecond optical waveforms can be synthesized. PMID:23683197

  20. Experimental investigation of nozzle/plume aerodynamics at hypersonic speeds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bogdanoff, David W.; Cambier, Jean-Luc

    1993-01-01

    Work continued on the improvement of 16-Inch Shock Tunnel. This comprised studies of ways of improving driver gas ignition, an improved driver gas mixing system, an axial translation system for the driver tube, improved diaphragm materials (carbon steel vs. stainless steel), a copper liner for the part of the driven tube near the nozzle, the use of a buffer gas between the driver and driven gases, the use of N2O in the driven tube, the use of a converging driven tube, operation of the facility as a non-reflected shock tunnel and expansion tube, operation with heated hydrogen or helium driver gas, the use of detonations in the driver and the construction of an enlarged test section. Maintenance and developmental work continued on the scramjet combustor continued. New software which greatly speeds up data analysis has been written and brought on line. In particular, software which provides very rapid generation of model surface heat flux profiles has been brought on line. A considerable amount of theoretical work was performed in connection with upgrading the 16 Inch Shock Tunnel Facility. A one-dimensional Godunov code for very high velocities and any equation of state is intended to add viscous effects in studying the operation of the Shock Tunnel and also of two-stage light gas guns.

  1. 20-Foot Wind Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1941-01-01

    The large structure on the left of the photograph is the Free-Spinning Wind Tunnel in which dynamic scale models of modern airplanes are tested to determine their spinning characteristics and ability to recover from spins from movement of the control surfaces. From the information obtained in this manner, the spin recovery characteristics of the full-scale airplane may be predicted. The large sphere on the right is 60 feet in diameter and houses the NACA 12-Foot Free-Flight Wind Tunnel in which dynamic scale models of airplanes are flown in actual controlled flight to provide information from which the stability characteristics of the full-scale airplane may be predicted.

  2. Possibility of hyperbolic tunneling

    SciTech Connect

    Lobo, Francisco S. N.; Mimoso, Jose P.

    2010-08-15

    Traversable wormholes are primarily useful as 'gedanken experiments' and as a theoretician's probe of the foundations of general relativity. In this work, we analyze the possibility of having tunnels in a hyperbolic spacetime. We obtain exact solutions of static and pseudo-spherically symmetric spacetime tunnels by adding exotic matter to a vacuum solution referred to as a degenerate solution of class A. The physical properties and characteristics of these intriguing solutions are explored, and through the mathematics of embedding it is shown that particular constraints are placed on the shape function, that differ significantly from the Morris-Thorne wormhole. In particular, it is shown that the energy density is always negative, and the radial pressure is positive, at the throat, contrary to the Morris-Thorne counterpart. Specific solutions are also presented by considering several equations of state, and by imposing restricted choices for the shape function or the redshift function.

  3. Uncooled tunneling infrared sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kenny, Thomas W. (Inventor); Kaiser, William J. (Inventor); Podosek, Judith A. (Inventor); Vote, Erika C. (Inventor); Rockstad, Howard K. (Inventor); Reynolds, Joseph K. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    An uncooled infrared tunneling sensor in which the only moving part is a diaphragm which is deflected into contact with a micromachined silicon tip electrode prepared by a novel lithographic process. Similarly prepared deflection electrodes employ electrostatic force to control the deflection of a silicon nitride, flat diaphragm membrane. The diaphragm exhibits a high resonant frequency which reduces the sensor's sensitivity to vibration. A high bandwidth feedback circuit controls the tunneling current by adjusting the deflection voltage to maintain a constant deflection of the membrane which would otherwise change deflection depending upon incident infrared radiation. The resulting infrared sensor will meet or exceed the performance of all other broadband, uncooled, infrared sensors and can be miniaturized to pixel dimensions smaller than 100 .mu.m. The technology is readily implemented as a small-format linear array suitable for commercial and spacecraft applications.

  4. Tunnel boring machine

    SciTech Connect

    Snyder, L. L.

    1985-07-09

    A tunnel boring machine for controlled boring of a curvilinear tunnel including a rotating cutter wheel mounted on the forward end of a thrust cylinder assembly having a central longitudinal axis aligned with the cutter wheel axis of rotation; the thrust cylinder assembly comprising a cylinder barrel and an extendable and retractable thrust arm received therein. An anchoring assembly is pivotally attached to the rear end of the cylinder barrel for anchoring the machine during a cutting stroke and providing a rear end pivot axis during curved cutting strokes. A pair of laterally extending, extendable and retractable arms are fixedly mounted at a forward portion of the cylinder barrel for providing lateral displacement in a laterally curved cutting mode and for anchoring the machine between cutting strokes and during straight line boring. Forward and rear transverse displacement and support assemblies are provided to facilitate cutting in a transversely curved cutting mode and to facilitate machine movement between cutting strokes.

  5. Tunneling in Molecular Magnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vijayaraghavan, Avinash

    This thesis is about the tunneling dynamics of the Fe8 molecule in the presence of an environment. Although a lot of progress has been made experimentally to determine among many things the extremely small tunnel splitting energies of this macromolecule, the question of how the environment affects the molecule has still not been properly understood. It is the purpose of this thesis to put forward a coherent model for the decoherence processes that affect the Fe8 molecule. The decoherence allows us to treat the Fe8 molecules as classical objects and we can write down rate equations that determine the relaxation dynamics of the entire Fe8 solid. The theoretical predictions are in very good agreement with Monte-Carlo simulations of spherical samples. We believe that the model developed can be generalized to different geometries and also improvised to tackle the different experimental protocols that have been undertaken on these macroscopic molecules.

  6. On tunneling across horizons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanzo, L.

    2011-07-01

    The tunneling method for stationary black holes in the Hamilton-Jacobi variant is reconsidered in the light of some critiques that have been moved against. It is shown that once the tunneling trajectories have been correctly identified the method is free from internal inconsistencies, it is manifestly covariant, it allows for the extension to spinning particles and it can even be used without solving the Hamilton-Jacobi equation. These conclusions borrow support on a simple analytic continuation of the classical action of a pointlike particle, made possible by the unique assumption that it should be analytic in the complexified Schwarzschild or Kerr-Newman space-time. A more general version of the Parikh-Wilczek method will also be proposed along these lines.

  7. Unitary Plan Supersonic Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1953-01-01

    Unitary Plan Supersonic Tunnel: In this aerial photograph of construction in the early 1950s, the return air passages are shown in the rear, center. This area was later covered with walls and a roof so that upon completion of the facility, it was not visible from the exterior. Three air storage spheres and the cooling tower are at the extreme right of the building. The spheres store dry air at 150 pounds per square inch. The cooling tower dissipates heat from coolers that control the test air temperature. One of many research facilities at NASA Langley Research Center in Hampton, Virginia, the Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel is used for experimental investigations at supersonic speeds.

  8. Application of sound-absorbent plastic to weak-shock-wave attenuators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ootsuta, Katsuhisa; Matsuoka, Kei; Sasoh, Akihiro; Takayama, Kazuyoshi

    1998-04-01

    A device for attenuating weak shock waves propagating in a duct has been developed utilizing sound-absorbent plastic which is usually used for attenuating sound waves. The device has a tube made of the sound-absorbent plastic installed coaxially to a surrounding metal tube with a clearance between them. The clearance acts as an air layer to enhance the performance of the shock wave attenuation. When a weak shock wave propagates through this device, the pressure gradient of the shock wave is gradually smeared and hence its overpressure is decreased. The performance of the device was examined using a 1/250-scaled train tunnel simulator which simulated the discharge of weak shock waves created by high-speed entry of trains to tunnels. The overpressure of the shock waves ranged up to 5 kPa. The shock wave overpressure was decreased by 90% with the present attenuator attached. This device can be applied to various industrial noise suppressions which are associated with unsteady compressible flows.

  9. New considerations on scale extrapolation of wing pressure distributions affected by transonic shock-induced separations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kahn, M. M. S.; Cahill, J. F.

    1983-01-01

    Use of this analytical parameter, it is shown, highlights the distinction between cases which are dominated by trailing-edge separation, and those for which separation at the shock foot is dominant. Use of the analytical parameter and the distinction noted above greatly improves the correlation of separation data and the extrapolation of wind tunnel data to flight conditions.

  10. 5-Foot Vertical Wind Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1930-01-01

    Construction of 5-Foot Vertical Wind Tunnel. The 5-Foot Vertical Wind Tunnel was built to study spinning characteristics of aircraft. It was an open throat tunnel capable of a maximum speed of 80 mph. NACA engineer Charles H. Zimmerman designed the tunnel starting in 1928. Construction was completed in December 1929. It was one of two tunnels which replaced the original Atmospheric Wind Tunnel (The other was the 7x10-Foot Wind Tunnel.). In NACA TR 387 (p. 499), Carl Wenzinger and Thomas Harris report that 'the tunnel passages are constructed of 1/8-inch sheet iron, stiffened with angle iron and bolted together at the corners. The over-all dimensions are: Height 31 feet 2 inches; length, 20 feet 3 inches; width, 10 feet 3 inches.' The tunnel was partially constructed in the Langley hanger as indicated by the aircraft in the background. Published in NACA TR 387, 'The Vertical Wind Tunnel of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics,' by Carl J. Wenzinger and Thomas A. Harris, 1931.

  11. Tunnel boring machine

    SciTech Connect

    Dillingham, R.G.; Hamburger, H.

    1982-09-14

    A tunneling machine is disclosed which includes a hollow shield, a nonrotatable outer housing mounted in the shield for longitudinal movement, and inner housing rotatably mounted within the outer housing, an excavator including a boom and bucket pivotally mounted on the forward end of the inner housing, and a boom cylinder having a forward portion pivotally engaged with the boom and a rear portion mounted at the rearward portion of the inner housing.

  12. Full Scale Tunnel (FST)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1930-01-01

    Installation of Full Scale Tunnel (FST) power plant. Virginia Public Service Company could not supply adequate electricity to run the wind tunnels being built at Langley. (The Propeller Research Tunnel was powered by two submarine diesel engines.) This led to the consideration of a number of different ideas for generating electric power to drive the fan motors in the FST. The main proposition involved two 3000 hp and two 1000 hp diesel engines with directly connected generators. Another, proposition suggested 30 Liberty motors driving 600 hp DC generators in pairs. For a month, engineers at Langley were hopeful they could secure additional diesel engines from decommissioned Navy T-boats but the Navy could not offer a firm commitment regarding the future status of the submarines. By mid-December 1929, Virginia Public Service Company had agreed to supply service to the field at the north end of the King Street Bridge connecting Hampton and Langley Field. Thus, new plans for FST powerplant and motors were made. Smith DeFrance described the motors in NACA TR No. 459: 'The most commonly used power plant for operating a wind tunnel is a direct-current motor and motor-generator set with Ward Leonard control system. For the FST it was found that alternating current slip-ring induction motors, together with satisfactory control equipment, could be purchased for approximately 30 percent less than the direct-current equipment. Two 4000-horsepower slip-ring induction motors with 24 steps of speed between 75 and 300 r.p.m. were therefore installed.'

  13. 5-Foot Vertical Wind Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1931-01-01

    Schematic drawing of 5-Foot Vertical Wind Tunnel. Carl Wenzinger and Thomas Harris describe the tunnel in NACA TR No. 387: 'The tunnel has an open jet, an open test chamber, and a closed return passage. ... The air passes through the test section in a downward direction then enters the exit cone and passes through the first set of guide vanes to a propeller. From here it passes, by way of the return passage, through the successive sets of guide vanes at the corners, then through the honeycomb, and finally through the entrance cone.' In an earlier report, NACA TR 387, Carl Wenzinger and Thomas Harris supply this description of the tunnel: 'The vertical open-throat wind tunnel of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics ... was built mainly for studying the spinning characteristics of airplane models, but may be used as well for the usual types of wind-tunnel tests. A special spinning balance is being developed to measure the desired forces and moments with the model simulating the actual spin of an airplane. Satisfactory air flow has been attained with a velocity that is uniform over the jet to within 0.5%. The turbulence present in the tunnel has been compared with that of several other tunnels by means of the results of sphere drag tests and was found to average well with the values of those tunnels. Included also in the report are comparisons of results of stable autorotation and of rolling-moment tests obtained both in the vertical tunnel and in the old horizontal 5-foot atmospheric tunnel.' The design of a vertical tunnel having a 5-foot diameter jet was accordingly started by the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics in 1928. Actual construction of the new tunnel was completed in 1930, and the calibration tests were then made.'

  14. Resonant Tunneling Spin Pump

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ting, David Z.

    2007-01-01

    The resonant tunneling spin pump is a proposed semiconductor device that would generate spin-polarized electron currents. The resonant tunneling spin pump would be a purely electrical device in the sense that it would not contain any magnetic material and would not rely on an applied magnetic field. Also, unlike prior sources of spin-polarized electron currents, the proposed device would not depend on a source of circularly polarized light. The proposed semiconductor electron-spin filters would exploit the Rashba effect, which can induce energy splitting in what would otherwise be degenerate quantum states, caused by a spin-orbit interaction in conjunction with a structural-inversion asymmetry in the presence of interfacial electric fields in a semiconductor heterostructure. The magnitude of the energy split is proportional to the electron wave number. Theoretical studies have suggested the possibility of devices in which electron energy states would be split by the Rashba effect and spin-polarized currents would be extracted by resonant quantum-mechanical tunneling.

  15. Smart tunnel: Docking mechanism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schliesing, John A. (Inventor); Edenborough, Kevin L. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    A docking mechanism is presented for the docking of a space vehicle to a space station comprising a flexible tunnel frame structure which is deployable from the space station. The tunnel structure comprises a plurality of series connected frame sections, one end section of which is attached to the space station and the other end attached to a docking module of a configuration adapted for docking in the payload bay of the space vehicle. The docking module is provided with trunnions, adapted for latching engagement with latches installed in the vehicle payload bay and with hatch means connectable to a hatch of the crew cabin of the space vehicle. Each frame section comprises a pair of spaced ring members, interconnected by actuator-attenuator devices which are individually controllable by an automatic control means to impart relative movement of one ring member to the other in six degrees of freedom of motion. The control means includes computer logic responsive to sensor signals of range and attitude information, capture latch condition, structural loads, and actuator stroke for generating commands to the onboard flight control system and the individual actuator-attenuators to deploy the tunnel to effect a coupling with the space vehicle and space station after coupling. A tubular fluid-impervious liner, preferably fabric, is disposed through the frame sections of a size sufficient to accommodate the passage of personnel and cargo.

  16. Analysis of shield tunnel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, W. Q.; Yue, Z. Q.; Tham, L. G.; Zhu, H. H.; Lee, C. F.; Hashimoto, T.

    2004-01-01

    This paper proposes a two-dimensional finite element model for the analysis of shield tunnels by taking into account the construction process which is divided into four stages. The soil is assumed to behave as an elasto-plastic medium whereas the shield is simulated by beam-joint discontinuous model in which curved beam elements and joint elements are used to model the segments and joints, respectively. As grout is usually injected to fill the gap between the lining and the soil, the property parameters of the grout are chosen in such a way that they can reflect the state of the grout at each stage. Furthermore, the contact condition between the soil and lining will change with the construction stage, and therefore, different stress-releasing coefficients are used to account for the changes. To assess the accuracy that can be attained by the method in solving practical problems, the shield tunnelling in the No. 7 Subway Line Project in Osaka, Japan, is used as a case history for our study. The numerical results are compared with those measured in the field. The results presented in the paper show that the proposed numerical procedure can be used to effectively estimate the deformation, stresses and moments experienced by the surrounding soils and the concrete lining segments. The analysis and method presented in this paper can be considered to be useful for other subway construction projects involving shield tunnelling in soft soils. Copyright

  17. Evaluating tunnel kiln performance

    SciTech Connect

    O`Connor, K.R.; Carty, W.M.; Ninos, N.J.

    1997-08-01

    Process improvements in the production of whitewares provide the potential for substantial savings for manufacturers. A typical whiteware manufacturer incurs an annual defective product loss of {approximately}$20 million when accounting for raw materials, energy, labor and waste disposal. Reduction in defective product loss of 1% could result in a savings in excess of $1 million annually. This study was designed to establish benchmarks for two conventional tunnel kilns used to bisque-fire dinnerware at Buffalo China Inc. (Buffalo, NY). The benchmark was established by assessing the current conditions and variability of the two tunnel kilns as a function of the fracture strength of sample bars that were made from production body. Sample bars were fired in multiple locations in both kilns to assess the conditions and variability of firing within each kiln. Comparison of strength results between the two kilns also was assessed. These comparisons were accomplished through applied statistical analysis, wherein significant statistical variations were identified and isolated for both tunnel kilns. The statistical methods and tools used in this analysis are readily accessible to manufacturers, thus allowing implementation of similar analysis, or benchmarking, in-house.

  18. Tunnelling from black holes and tunnelling into white holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chatterjee, Bhramar; Ghosh, A.; Mitra, P.

    2008-03-01

    Hawking radiation is nowadays being understood as tunnelling through black hole horizons. Here, the extension of the Hamilton-Jacobi approach to tunnelling for non-rotating and rotating black holes in different non-singular coordinate systems not only confirms this quantum emission from black holes but also reveals the new phenomenon of absorption into white holes by quantum mechanical tunnelling. The rôle of a boundary condition of total absorption or emission is also clarified.

  19. A study of a plume induced separation shock wave, including effects of periodic plume unsteadiness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doughty, J. O.

    1976-01-01

    A wind tunnel investigation was conducted to study the flow field in which separation is caused by an expanding plume, with emphasis on effects associated with periodic unsteadiness in the plume. The separation shock was photographed with high speed motion pictures, from which mean shock position and excursion data were reported. Pressure fluctuations were measured beneath the separation shock. A response of the separation shock to plume periodic unsteadiness was identified, and the magnitude of a corresponding transfer function was defined. Small harmonic effects in plume response to periodic unsteadiness were noted. The stabilizing effect of a lateral surface protuberance near the separation shock wave was investigated. The protuberance configuration was a lateral circular cylinder, and various diameters, all less than the boundary layer thickness, were employed.

  20. Shock Generation and Control Using DBD Plasma Actuators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patel, Mehul P.; Cain, Alan B.; Nelson, Christopher C.; Corke, Thomas C.; Matlis, Eric H.

    2012-01-01

    This report is the final report of a NASA Phase I SBIR contract, with some revisions to remove company proprietary data. The Shock Boundary Layer Interaction (SBLI) phenomena in a supersonic inlet involve mutual interaction of oblique shocks with boundary layers, forcing the boundary layer to separate from the inlet wall. To improve the inlet efficiency, it is desired to prevent or delay shock-induced boundary layer separation. In this effort, Innovative Technology Applications Company (ITAC), LLC and the University of Notre Dame (UND) jointly investigated the use of dielectric-barrier-discharge (DBD) plasma actuators for control of SBLI in a supersonic inlet. The research investigated the potential for DBD plasma actuators to suppress flow separation caused by a shock in a turbulent boundary layer. The research involved both numerical and experimental investigations of plasma flow control for a few different SBLI configurations: (a) a 12 wedge flow test case at Mach 1.5 (numerical and experimental), (b) an impinging shock test case at Mach 1.5 using an airfoil as a shock generator (numerical and experimental), and (c) a Mach 2.0 nozzle flow case in a simulated 15 X 15 cm wind tunnel with a shock generator (numerical). Numerical studies were performed for all three test cases to examine the feasibility of plasma flow control concepts. These results were used to guide the wind tunnel experiments conducted on the Mach 1.5 12 degree wedge flow (case a) and the Mach 1.5 impinging shock test case (case b) which were at similar flow conditions as the corresponding numerical studies to obtain experimental evidence of plasma control effects for SBLI control. The experiments also generated data that were used in validating the numerical studies for the baseline cases (without plasma actuators). The experiments were conducted in a Mach 1.5 test section in the University of Notre Dame Hessert Laboratory. The simulation results from cases a and b indicated that multiple

  1. Wind tunnel tests of Space Shuttle external tank insulation material in the aerothermal tunnel at elevated (1440 deg F) total temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartman, A. S.; Nutt, K. W.

    1982-01-01

    Tests of the space shuttle external tank foam insulation were conducted in the von Karman Gas Dynamics Facility Tunnel C. For these tests, Tunnel C was run at Mach 4 with a total temperature of 1440 F and a total pressure which varied from 30-100 psia. Cold wall heating rates were changed by varying the test article support wedge angle and by adding and removing a shock generator or a cylindrical protuberance. Selected results are presented to illustrate the test techniques and typical data obtained.

  2. Submucosal tunneling techniques: current perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Kobara, Hideki; Mori, Hirohito; Rafiq, Kazi; Fujihara, Shintaro; Nishiyama, Noriko; Ayaki, Maki; Yachida, Tatsuo; Matsunaga, Tae; Tani, Johji; Miyoshi, Hisaaki; Yoneyama, Hirohito; Morishita, Asahiro; Oryu, Makoto; Iwama, Hisakazu; Masaki, Tsutomu

    2014-01-01

    Advances in endoscopic submucosal dissection include a submucosal tunneling technique, involving the introduction of tunnels into the submucosa. These tunnels permit safer offset entry into the peritoneal cavity for natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery. Technical advantages include the visual identification of the layers of the gut, blood vessels, and subepithelial tumors. The creation of a mucosal flap that minimizes air and fluid leakage into the extraluminal cavity can enhance the safety and efficacy of surgery. This submucosal tunneling technique was adapted for esophageal myotomy, culminating in its application to patients with achalasia. This method, known as per oral endoscopic myotomy, has opened up the new discipline of submucosal endoscopic surgery. Other clinical applications of the submucosal tunneling technique include its use in the removal of gastrointestinal subepithelial tumors and endomicroscopy for the diagnosis of functional and motility disorders. This review suggests that the submucosal tunneling technique, involving a mucosal safety flap, can have potential values for future endoscopic developments. PMID:24741323

  3. Shock structures of astrospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scherer, K.; Fichtner, H.; Kleimann, J.; Wiengarten, T.; Bomans, D. J.; Weis, K.

    2016-02-01

    Context. The interaction between a supersonic stellar wind and a (super-)sonic interstellar wind has recently been viewed with new interest. We here first give an overview of the modeling, which includes the heliosphere as an example of a special astrosphere. Then we concentrate on the shock structures of fluid models, especially of hydrodynamic (HD) models. More involved models taking into account radiation transfer and magnetic fields are briefly sketched. Even the relatively simple HD models show a rich shock structure, which might be observable in some objects. Aims: We employ a single-fluid model to study these complex shock structures, and compare the results obtained including heating and cooling with results obtained without these effects. Furthermore, we show that in the hypersonic case valuable information of the shock structure can be obtained from the Rankine-Hugoniot equations. Methods: We solved the Euler equations for the single-fluid case and also for a case including cooling and heating. We also discuss the analytical Rankine-Hugoniot relations and their relevance to observations. Results: We show that the only obtainable length scale is the termination shock distance. Moreover, the so-called thin shell approximation is usually not valid. We present the shock structure in the model that includes heating and cooling, which differs remarkably from that of a single-fluid scenario in the region of the shocked interstellar medium. We find that the heating and cooling is mainly important in this region and is negligible in the regions dominated by the stellar wind beyond an inner boundary.

  4. A Numerical Comparison of Symmetric and Asymmetric Supersonic Wind Tunnels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, Kylen D.

    Supersonic wind tunnels are a vital aspect to the aerospace industry. Both the design and testing processes of different aerospace components often include and depend upon utilization of supersonic test facilities. Engine inlets, wing shapes, and body aerodynamics, to name a few, are aspects of aircraft that are frequently subjected to supersonic conditions in use, and thus often require supersonic wind tunnel testing. There is a need for reliable and repeatable supersonic test facilities in order to help create these vital components. The option of building and using asymmetric supersonic converging-diverging nozzles may be appealing due in part to lower construction costs. There is a need, however, to investigate the differences, if any, in the flow characteristics and performance of asymmetric type supersonic wind tunnels in comparison to symmetric due to the fact that asymmetric configurations of CD nozzle are not as common. A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) study has been conducted on an existing University of Michigan (UM) asymmetric supersonic wind tunnel geometry in order to study the effects of asymmetry on supersonic wind tunnel performance. Simulations were made on both the existing asymmetrical tunnel geometry and two axisymmetric reflections (of differing aspect ratio) of that original tunnel geometry. The Reynolds Averaged Navier Stokes equations are solved via NASAs OVERFLOW code to model flow through these configurations. In this way, information has been gleaned on the effects of asymmetry on supersonic wind tunnel performance. Shock boundary layer interactions are paid particular attention since the test section integrity is greatly dependent upon these interactions. Boundary layer and overall flow characteristics are studied. The RANS study presented in this document shows that the UM asymmetric wind tunnel/nozzle configuration is not as well suited to producing uniform test section flow as that of a symmetric configuration, specifically one

  5. Unstable semiclassical trajectories in tunneling.

    PubMed

    Levkov, D G; Panin, A G; Sibiryakov, S M

    2007-10-26

    Some tunneling phenomena are described, in the semiclassical approximation, by unstable complex trajectories. We develop a systematic procedure to stabilize the trajectories and to calculate the tunneling probability, including both the suppression exponent and prefactor. We find that the instability of tunneling solutions modifies the power-law dependence of the prefactor on Planck's variant as compared to the case of stable solutions. PMID:17995308

  6. Exposure scheme separates effects of electric shock and electric field for honey bees, Apis mellifera L

    SciTech Connect

    Bindokas, V.P.; Gauger, J.R.; Greenberg, B.

    1988-01-01

    Mechanisms to explain disturbance of honey bee colonies under a 765-kV, 60-Hz transmission line (electric (E) field = 7 kV/m) fall into two categories: direct bee perception of enhanced in-hive E fields, and perception of shock from induced currents. The same adverse biological effects previously observed in honey bee colonies exposed under a 765-kV transmission line can be reproduced by exposing worker bees to shock or E field within elongated hive entranceways (= tunnels). Exposure to intense E field caused disturbance only if bees were in contact with a conductive substrate. E-field and shock exposure can be separated and precisely defined within tunnels, eliminating dosimetric vagaries that occur when entire hives are exposed to E field.

  7. A study of test section configuration for shock tube testing of transonic airfoils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, W. J.

    1978-01-01

    Two methods are investigated for alleviating wall interference effects in a shock tube test section intended for testing two-dimensional transonic airfoils. The first method involves contouring the test section walls to match approximate streamlines in the flow. Contours are matched to each airfoil tested to produce results close to those obtained in a conventional wind tunnel. Data from a previous study and the present study for two different airfoils demonstrate that useful results are obtained in a shock tube using a test section with contoured walls. The second method involves use of a fixed-geometry slotted-wall test section to provide automatic flow compensation for various airfoils. The slotted-wall test section developed exhibited the desired performance characteristics in the approximate Mach number range 0.82 to 0.89, as evidenced by good agreement obtained between shock tube and wind tunnel results for several airfoil flows.

  8. Heliospheric shocks and catastrophe theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burlaga, L. F.

    1990-01-01

    Various configurations of forward and reverse shocks that occur in the outer heliosphere can be classified using catastrophe theory. The existence of a forward shock is associated with a local maximum of a polynomial, and the existence of a reverse shock is associated with a local minimum of a polynomial. A configuration with N forward shocks and N reverse shocks corresponds to a polynomial with N maxima and N minima. The formation of forward and reverse shocks corresponds to the creation of maxima and minima of a polynomial, which is described by the separatrices of the catastrophes. The coalescence of two forward (reverse) shocks corresponds to the situation when two maxima (minima) of a polynomial have equal values, and the interaction of a forward shock with a reverse shock corresponds to a polynomial with a local maximum equal to a local minimum; these situations are described by the Maxwell sets of the appropriate catastrophes.

  9. Investigation on oblique shock wave control by arc discharge plasma in supersonic airflow

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Jian; Li Yinghong; Xing Fei

    2009-10-01

    Wedge oblique shock wave control by arc discharge plasma in supersonic airflow was investigated theoretically, experimentally, and numerically in this paper. Using thermal choking model, the change in oblique shock wave was deduced, which refer that the start point of shock wave shifts upstream, the shock wave angle decreases, and its intensity weakens. Then the theoretical results were validated experimentally in a Mach 2.2 wind tunnel. On the test conditions of arc discharge power of approx1 kW and arc plasma temperature of approx3000 K, schlieren photography and gas pressure measurements indicated that the start point of shock wave shifted upstream of approx4 mm, the shock wave angle decreased 8.6%, and its intensity weakened 8.8%. The deduced theoretical results match the test results qualitatively, so thermal mechanism and thermal choking model are rational to explain the problem of oblique shock wave control by arc discharge plasma. Finally, numerical simulation was developed. Based on thermal mechanism, the arc discharge plasma was simplified as a thermal source term that added to the Navier-Stokes equations. The simulation results of the change in oblique shock wave were consistent with the test results, so the thermal mechanism indeed dominates the oblique shock wave control process.

  10. An isentropic compression-heated Ludweig tube transient wind tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Magari, Patrick J.; Lagraff, John E.

    1991-01-01

    Theoretical development and experimental results show that the Ludweig tube with isentropic heating (LICH) transient wind tunnel described is a viable means of producing flow conditions that are suitable for a variety of experimental investigations. A complete analysis of the wave dynamics of the pump tube compression process is presented. The LICH tube operating conditions are very steady and run times are greater than those of other types of transient facilities such as shock tubes and gas tunnels. This facility is well suited for producing flow conditions that are dynamically similar to those found in a gas turbine, i.e., transonic Mach number, gas-to-wall temperature ratios of about 1.5, and Reynolds numbers greater than 10 to the 6th.

  11. An isentropic compression-heated Ludweig tube transient wind tunnel

    SciTech Connect

    Magari, P.J.; Lagraff, J.E. )

    1991-05-01

    Theoretical development and experimental results show that the Ludweig tube with isentropic heating (LICH) transient wind tunnel described is a viable means of producing flow conditions that are suitable for a variety of experimental investigations. A complete analysis of the wave dynamics of the pump tube compression process is presented. The LICH tube operating conditions are very steady and run times are greater than those of other types of transient facilities such as shock tubes and gas tunnels. This facility is well suited for producing flow conditions that are dynamically similar to those found in a gas turbine, i.e., transonic Mach number, gas-to-wall temperature ratios of about 1.5, and Reynolds numbers greater than 10 to the 6th. 15 refs.

  12. Shocks in fragile matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vitelli, Vincenzo

    2012-02-01

    Non-linear sound is an extreme phenomenon typically observed in solids after violent explosions. But granular media are different. Right when they unjam, these fragile and disordered solids exhibit vanishing elastic moduli and sound speed, so that even tiny mechanical perturbations form supersonic shocks. Here, we perform simulations in which two-dimensional jammed granular packings are continuously compressed, and demonstrate that the resulting excitations are strongly nonlinear shocks, rather than linear waves. We capture the full dependence of the shock speed on pressure and compression speed by a surprisingly simple analytical model. We also treat shear shocks within a simplified viscoelastic model of nearly-isostatic random networks comprised of harmonic springs. In this case, anharmonicity does not originate locally from nonlinear interactions between particles, as in granular media; instead, it emerges from the global architecture of the network. As a result, the diverging width of the shear shocks bears a nonlinear signature of the diverging isostatic length associated with the loss of rigidity in these floppy networks.

  13. View of entrance tunnel outside Portal elevator. Tunnel ahead to ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of entrance tunnel outside Portal elevator. Tunnel ahead to Control Center, right to Launchers, left to Antenna Silos - Titan One Missile Complex 2A, .3 miles west of 129 Road and 1.5 miles north of County Line Road, Aurora, Adams County, CO

  14. View of Water Storage Tank off entrance tunnel. Tunnel at ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of Water Storage Tank off entrance tunnel. Tunnel at left of image to Launch Silos - Titan One Missile Complex 2A, .3 miles west of 129 Road and 1.5 miles north of County Line Road, Aurora, Adams County, CO

  15. Carpal tunnel syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Aroori, Somaiah; Spence, Roy AJ

    2008-01-01

    Carpal tunnel syndrome is one of the most common peripheral neuropathies. It affects mainly middle aged women. In the majority of patients the exact cause and pathogenesis of CTS is unclear. Although several occupations have been linked to increased incidence and prevalence of CTS the evidence is not clear. Occupational CTS is uncommon and it is essential to exclude all other causes particularly the intrinsic factors such as obesity before attributing it to occupation. The risk of CTS is high in occupations involving exposure to high pressure, high force, repetitive work, and vibrating tools. The classic symptoms of CTS include nocturnal pain associated with tingling and numbness in the distribution of median nerve in the hand. There are several physical examination tests that will help in the diagnosis of CTS but none of these tests are diagnostic on their own. The gold standard test is nerve conduction studies. However, they are also associated with false positive and false negative results. The diagnosis of CTS should be based on history, physical examination and results of electrophysiological studies. The patient with mild symptoms of CTS can be managed with conservative treatment, particularly local injection of steroids. However, in moderate to severe cases, surgery is the only treatment that provides cure. The basic principle of surgery is to increase the volume of the carpal tunnel by dividing transverse carpal ligament to release the pressure on the median nerve. Apart from early recovery and return to work there is no significant difference in terms of early and late complications and long-term pain relief between endoscopic and open carpal tunnel surgery. PMID:18269111

  16. Full Scale Tunnel (FST)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1930-01-01

    Construction of Full Scale Tunnel (FST). In November 1929, Smith DeFrance submitted his recommendations for the general design of the Full Scale Wind Tunnel. The last on his list concerned the division of labor required to build this unusual facility. He believed the job had five parts and described them as follows: 'It is proposed that invitations be sent out for bids on five groups of items. The first would be for one contract on the complete structure; second the same as first, including the erection of the cones but not the fabrication, since this would be more of a shipyard job; third would cover structural steel, cover, sash and doors, but not cones or foundation; fourth, foundations; an fifth, fabrication of cones.' DeFrance's memorandum prompted the NACA to solicit estimates from a large number of companies. Preliminary designs and estimates were prepared and submitted to the Bureau of the Budget and Congress appropriated funds on February 20, 1929. The main construction contract with the J.A. Jones Company of Charlotte, North Carolina was signed one year later on February 12, 1930. It was a peculiar structure as the building's steel framework is visible on the outside of the building. DeFrance described this in NACA TR No. 459: 'The entire equipment is housed in a structure, the outside walls of which serve as the outer walls of the return passages. The over-all length of the tunnel is 434 feet 6 inches, the width 222 feet, and the maximum height 97 feet. The framework is of structural steel....' (pp. 292-293)

  17. Full Scale Tunnel (FST)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1930-01-01

    Construction of Full-Scale Tunnel (FST). In November 1929, Smith DeFrance submitted his recommendations for the general design of the Full Scale Wind Tunnel. The last on his list concerned the division of labor required to build this unusual facility. He believed the job had five parts and described them as follows: 'It is proposed that invitations be sent out for bids on five groups of items. The first would be for one contract on the complete structure; second the same as first, including the erection of the cones but not the fabrication, since this would be more of a shipyard job; third would cover structural steel, cover, sash and doors, but not cones or foundation; fourth, foundations; and fifth, fabrication of cones.' DeFrance's memorandum prompted the NACA to solicit estimates from a large number of companies. Preliminary designs and estimates were prepared and submitted to the Bureau of the Budget and Congress appropriated funds on February 20, 1929. The main construction contract with the J.A. Jones Company of Charlotte, North Carolina was signed one year later on February 12, 1930. It was a peculiar structure as the building's steel framework is visible on the outside of the building. DeFrance described this in NACA TR No. 459: 'The entire equipment is housed in a structure, the outside walls of which serve as the outer walls of the return passages. The over-all length of the tunnel is 434 feet 6 inches, the width 222 feet, and the maximum height 97 feet. The framework is of structural steel....' (pp. 292-293).

  18. Electroacupuncture Helped Ease Carpal Tunnel in Study

    MedlinePlus

    ... 159240.html Electroacupuncture Helped Ease Carpal Tunnel in Study But experts say finding is preliminary, didn't ... condition known as carpal tunnel syndrome. In the study, electroacupuncture helped carpal tunnel patients with long-lasting ...

  19. Icing Research Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chennault, Jonathan

    2004-01-01

    The Icing Research Tunnel in Building 11 at the NASA Glenn Research Center is committed to researching the effects of in flight icing on aircraft and testing ways to stop the formation of hazardous icing conditions on planes. During this summer, I worked here with Richard DelRosa, the lead engineer for this area. address one of the major concerns of aviation: icing conditions. During the war, many planes crashed (especially supply planes going over the.Himalayas) because ice built up in their wings and clogged the engines. To this day, it remains the largest ice tunnel in the world, with a test section that measures 6 feet high, 9 feet long, and 20 feet wide. It can simulate airspeeds from 50 to 300 miles per hour at temperatures as low as -50 Fahrenheit. Using these capabilities, IRT can simulate actual conditions at high altitudes. The first thing I did was creating a cross reference in Microsoft Excel. It lists commands for the DPU units that control the pressure and temperature variations in the tunnel, as well as the type of command (keyboard, multiplier, divide, etc). The cross reference also contains the algorithm for every command, and which page it is listed in on the control sheet (visual Auto-CAD graphs, which I helped to make). I actually spent most of the time on the computer using Auto-CAD. I drew a diagram of the entire icing tunnel and then drew diagrams of its various parts. Between my mentor and me, we have drawings of every part of it, from the spray bars to the thermocouples, power cabinets, input-output connectors for power systems, and layouts of various other machines. I was also responsible for drawing schematics for the Escort system (which controls the spray bars), the power system, DPUs, and other electrical systems. In my spare time, I am attempting to build and program the "toddler". Toddler is a walking robot that I have to program in PBASIC language. When complete, it should be able to walk on level terrain while avoiding obstacles in

  20. TIMING OF SHOCK WAVES

    DOEpatents

    Tuck, J.L.

    1955-03-01

    This patent relates to means for ascertaining the instant of arrival of a shock wave in an exploslve charge and apparatus utilizing this means to coordinate the timing of two operations involving a short lnterval of time. A pair of spaced electrodes are inserted along the line of an explosive train with a voltage applied there-across which is insufficient to cause discharge. When it is desired to initiate operation of a device at the time the explosive shock wave reaches a particular point on the explosive line, the device having an inherent time delay, the electrodes are located ahead of the point such that the ionization of the area between the electrodes caused by the traveling explosive shock wave sends a signal to initiate operation of the device to cause it to operate at the proper time. The operated device may be photographic equipment consisting of an x-ray illuminating tube.

  1. Life Shocks and Homelessness

    PubMed Central

    Corman, Hope; Noonan, Kelly; Reichman, Nancy E.

    2014-01-01

    We exploited an exogenous health shock—namely, the birth of a child with a severe health condition—to investigate the effect of a life shock on homelessness in large cities in the United States as well as the interactive effects of the shock with housing market characteristics. We considered a traditional measure of homelessness, two measures of housing instability thought to be precursors to homelessness, and a combined measure that approximates the broadened conceptualization of homelessness under the 2009 Homeless Emergency Assistance and Rapid Transition to Housing Act (2010). We found that the shock substantially increases the likelihood of family homelessness, particularly in cities with high housing costs. The findings are consistent with the economic theory of homelessness, which posits that homelessness results from a conjunction of adverse circumstances in which housing markets and individual characteristics collide. PMID:23868747

  2. Dusty Termination Shocks

    SciTech Connect

    Ip, W.H.

    2004-09-15

    In astrophysical settings, termination shocks where strong stellar wind outflows interact with the surrounding environments tend to take place in dusty regions. Just to name a few, star formation regions, planetary nebulae, supernova remnants and active galactic nuclei are all good examples. Dynamics and evolution of the associated dust clouds could have important influences on the acceleration and composition of energetic particles resulting from the diffusive shock acceleration at the termination shocks. In this note we provide a brief review of previous work predating the recent detection of ACR Mg, Na, Si and S ions which might have originated from the Kuiper belt dust. Their compositional abundance might be diagnostic of the collisional history of the Kupier belt objects.

  3. Dynamics of macroscopic tunneling in elongated Bose-Einstein condensates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dekel, G.; Farberovich, V.; Fleurov, V.; Soffer, A.

    2010-06-01

    We investigate macroscopic tunneling from an elongated quasi-one-dimensional trap, forming a “cigar-shaped” Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC). Using a recently developed formalism we get the leading analytical approximation for the right-hand side of the potential wall, i.e., outside the trap, and a formalism based on Wigner functions, for the left side of the potential wall, i.e., inside the BEC. We then present accomplished results of numerical calculations, which show a “blip” in the particle density traveling with an asymptotic shock velocity, as resulted from previous works on a dotlike trap but with significant differences from the latter. Inside the BEC a pattern of a traveling dispersive shock wave is revealed. In the attractive case, we find trains of bright solitons frozen near the boundary.

  4. Dynamics of macroscopic tunneling in elongated Bose-Einstein condensates

    SciTech Connect

    Dekel, G.; Farberovich, V.; Fleurov, V.; Soffer, A.

    2010-06-15

    We investigate macroscopic tunneling from an elongated quasi-one-dimensional trap, forming a 'cigar-shaped' Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC). Using a recently developed formalism we get the leading analytical approximation for the right-hand side of the potential wall, i.e., outside the trap, and a formalism based on Wigner functions, for the left side of the potential wall, i.e., inside the BEC. We then present accomplished results of numerical calculations, which show a 'blip' in the particle density traveling with an asymptotic shock velocity, as resulted from previous works on a dotlike trap but with significant differences from the latter. Inside the BEC a pattern of a traveling dispersive shock wave is revealed. In the attractive case, we find trains of bright solitons frozen near the boundary.

  5. Virtual-detector approach to tunnel ionization and tunneling times

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teeny, Nicolas; Keitel, Christoph H.; Bauke, Heiko

    2016-08-01

    Tunneling times in atomic ionization are studied theoretically by a virtual detector approach. A virtual detector is a hypothetical device that allows one to monitor the wave function's density with spatial and temporal resolution during the ionization process. With this theoretical approach, it becomes possible to define unique moments when the electron enters and leaves with highest probability the classically forbidden region from first principles and a tunneling time can be specified unambiguously. It is shown that neither the moment when the electron enters the tunneling barrier nor when it leaves the tunneling barrier coincides with the moment when the external electric field reaches its maximum. Under the tunneling barrier as well as at the exit the electron has a nonzero velocity in the electric field direction. This nonzero exit velocity has to be incorporated when the free motion of the electron is modeled by classical equations of motion.

  6. Blunt-Body Aerothermodynamic Database from High-Enthalpy CO2 Testing in an Expansion Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hollis, Brian R.; Prabhu, Dinesh K.; Maclean, Matthew; Dufrene, Aaron

    2016-01-01

    An extensive database of heating, pressure, and flow field measurements on a 70-deg sphere-cone blunt body geometry in high-enthalpy, CO2 flow has been generated through testing in an expansion tunnel. This database is intended to support development and validation of computational tools and methods to be employed in the design of future Mars missions. The test was conducted in an expansion tunnel in order to avoid uncertainties in the definition of free stream conditions noted in previous studies performed in reflected shock tunnels. Data were obtained across a wide range of test velocity/density conditions that produced various physical phenomena of interest, including laminar and transitional/turbulent boundary layers, non-reacting to completely dissociated post-shock gas composition and shock-layer radiation. Flow field computations were performed at the test conditions and comparisons were made with the experimental data. Based on these comparisons, it is recommended that computational uncertainties on surface heating and pressure, for laminar, reacting-gas environments can be reduced to +/-10% and +/-5%, respectively. However, for flows with turbulence and shock-layer radiation, there were not sufficient validation-quality data obtained in this study to make any conclusions with respect to uncertainties, which highlights the need for further research in these areas.

  7. [Traumatic neurogenic shock].

    PubMed

    Maurin, O; de Régloix, S; Caballé, D; Arvis, A-M; Perrochon, J-C; Tourtier, J-P

    2013-05-01

    Traumatic neurogenic shock is a rare but serious complication of spinal cord injury. It associates bradycardia and hypotension caused by a medullary trauma. It is life-threatening for the patient and it aggravates the neurological deficit. Strict immobilization and a quick assessment of the gravity of cord injury are necessary as soon as prehospital care has begun. Initial treatment requires vasopressors associated with fluid resuscitation. Steroids are not recommended. Early decompression is recommended for incomplete deficit seen in the first 6 hours. We relate the case of secondary spinal shock to a luxation C6/C7 treated in prehospital care. PMID:23566590

  8. Methods of Monitoring Shock

    PubMed Central

    Bajwa, Ednan K.; Malhotra, Atul; Thompson, B. Taylor

    2012-01-01

    Intensive monitoring is a crucial component of the management of shock. However, there is little consensus about optimal strategies for monitoring. Although the pulmonary artery catheter has been widely used, conflicting data exist about the utility of this device. A variety of other techniques have been developed in hopes of providing clinically useful information about myocardial function, intravascular volume, and indices of organ function. In addition, there is evolving evidence that targeting and monitoring certain physiological goals may be most important early in the course of shock. In this chapter, we examine many of the available monitoring techniques and the evidence supporting their use. PMID:16088506

  9. Shock destruction armor system

    DOEpatents

    Froeschner, Kenneth E.

    1993-01-01

    A shock destruction armor system is constructed and arranged to destroy the force of impact of a projectile by shock hydrodynamics. The armor system is designed to comprise a plurality of superimposed armor plates each preferably having a thickness less than five times the projectile's diameter and are preferably separated one-from-another by a distance at least equal to one-half of the projectile's diameter. The armor plates are effective to hydrodynamically and sequentially destroy the projectile. The armor system is particularly adapted for use on various military vehicles, such as tanks, aircraft and ships.

  10. Test section configuration for aerodynamic testing in shock tubes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, W. J.; Presley, L. L.; Chapman, G. T.

    1980-01-01

    This paper presents results of a study of the test section configuration required to minimize or alleviate interference effects on model flow produced by the presence of test section walls in the aerodynamic testing of two dimensional transonic airfoils in a shock tube. Tests at a nominal Mach number of 0.85 and a chord Reynolds number of 2,000,000 were carried out by means of schlieren photography and pressure measurements for several symmetric airfoil profiles using shock tube test sections with unmodified straight walls, contoured walls, and slotted walls with adjacent chambers. Results were compared with corresponding results from conventional wind tunnel tests of the airfoils. Results for the straight wall tests show major airfoil flow distortions. Results from contoured wall tests and those performed using a slotted wall test section developed in this study exhibit essential agreement with wind tunnel results. The collective results show that test sections for aerodynamic testing can be designed for shock tubes that will alleviate wall interference effects.

  11. Calibration of PCB-132 Sensors in a Shock Tube

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berridge, Dennis C.; Schneider, Steven P.

    2012-01-01

    While PCB-132 sensors have proven useful for measuring second-mode instability waves in many hypersonic wind tunnels, they are currently limited by their calibration. Until now, the factory calibration has been all that was available, which is a single-point calibration at an amplitude three orders of magnitude higher than a second-mode wave. In addition, little information has been available about the frequency response or spatial resolution of the sensors, which is important for measuring high-frequency instability waves. These shortcomings make it difficult to compare measurements at different conditions and between different sensors. If accurate quantitative measurements could be performed, comparisons of the growth and breakdown of instability waves could be made in different facilities, possibly leading to a method of predicting the amplitude at which the waves break down into turbulence, improving transition prediction. A method for calibrating the sensors is proposed using a newly-built shock tube at Purdue University. This shock tube, essentially a half-scale version of the 6-Inch shock tube at the Graduate Aerospace Laboratories at Caltech, has been designed to attain a moderate vacuum in the driven section. Low driven pressures should allow the creation of very weak, yet still relatively thin shock waves. It is expected that static pressure rises within the range of second-mode amplitudes should be possible. The shock tube has been designed to create clean, planar shock waves with a laminar boundary layer to allow for accurate calibrations. Stronger shock waves can be used to identify the frequency response of the sensors out to hundreds of kilohertz.

  12. Shock wave structure using nonlinear model Boltzmann equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Segal, Ben Maurice

    1971-01-01

    The structure of a strong plane shock wave in a monatomic rarefied perfect gas is one of the simplest problems able to be posed in kinetic theory, and one of the hardest to solve. Its simplicity lies in the absence of solid boundaries, geometrical complications, or internal molecular energy. Its difficulty arises from the great departure of the gas from equilibrium within the shock, which invalidates many of the techniques used successfully elsewhere in kinetic theory. In addition to this theoretical challenge, the modern development of ballistics and hypersonic flight has helped to stimulate extensive theoretical and experimental interest in the shock problem. The experimenters in turn have encountered great difficulties on account of the very small physical dimensions of shocks. In fact, until very recently indeed, any close comparisons of theoretical and experimental shock structure results have been rather unprofitable due to the inadequacies of both theory and experiment. During the last few years this situation has been appreciably improved by development of the Monte Carlo method. This allows idealized 'experiments' to be performed on large computers instead of in wind tunnels, using a known intermolecular force law. The most developed of these methods has been shown to be equivalent theoretically to the Boltzmann equation and to give results which agree extremely closely with measurements of high accuracy. Thus Monte Carlo results not only form the soundest basis for our present theoretical knowledge of shock wave structure, but, for purposes of developing other theories, can also be considered a very valuable experimental resource. However, such results remain very expensive to obtain. In this thesis we develop more economical kinetic theory methods for the approximate prediction of shock structure, and compare our results with those of the Monte Carlo method.

  13. Characteristics of Weak Interplanetary Shocks and Shock-like Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balogh, A.; Gloag, J. M.

    The variation of magnetic and plasma parameters across the discontinuity of a colli- sionless shock wave are clearly understood and presented in MHD theory. The anal- ysis of 116 shock waves appearing on the Ulysses shock list in the period mid 1996 to the end of 1999 show that in the cases of the stronger shock waves, measured by the ratio of downstream to upstream magnetic field magnitudes, this MHD descrip- tion is adequate. However in the case of many of the weaker shocks there are events which are not clearly characterised in MHD terms and in these cases plasma param- eters are particularly difficult to interpret. To explore the issues associated with these very weak shocks further, a set of shock-like events is considered which have shock characteristics in the high frequency wave data measured by the plasma wave inves- tigation(URAP) but are not considered to be clearly shock waves purely considering magnetic and plasma data. These shock-like events are thought to extend the spectrum of interplanetary shocks at the very weakest end and possibly beyond what should be considered a collisionless shock wave.

  14. Impact-shocked zircons: Discovery of shock-induced textures reflecting increasing degrees of shock metamorphism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bohor, B. F.; Betterton, W. J.; Krogh, T. E.

    1993-01-01

    Textural effects specifically characteristic of shock metamorphism in zircons from impact environments have not been reported previously. However, planar deformation features (PDF) due to shock metamorphism are well documented in quartz and other mineral grains from these same environments. An etching technique was developed that allows scanning electron microscope (SEM) visualization of PDF and other probable shock-induced textural features, such as granular (polycrystalline) texture, in zircons from a variety of impact shock environments. These textural features in shocked zircons from K/T boundary distal ejecta form a series related to increasing degrees of shock that should correlate with proportionate resetting of the U-Pb isotopic system.

  15. Impact-shocked zircons: discovery of shock-induced textures reflecting increasing degrees of shock metamorphism

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bohor, B.F.; Betterton, W.J.; Krogh, T.E.

    1993-01-01

    Textural effects specifically characteristic of shock metamorphism in zircons from impact environments have not been reported previously. However, planar deformation features (PDF) due to shock metamorphism are well documented in quartz and other mineral grains from these same environments. An etching technique was developed that allows SEM visualization of PDF and other probable shock-induced textural features, such as granular (polycrystalline) texture, in zircons from a variety of impact shock environments. These textural features in shocked zircons from K/T boundary distal ejecta form a series related to increasing degrees of shock that should correlate with proportionate resetting of the UPb isotopic system. ?? 1993.

  16. The Langley Wind Tunnel Enterprise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paulson, John W., Jr.; Kumar, Ajay; Kegelman, Jerome T.

    1998-01-01

    After 4 years of existence, the Langley WTE is alive and growing. Significant improvements in the operation of wind tunnels have been demonstrated and substantial further improvements are expected when we are able to truly address and integrate all the processes affecting the wind tunnel testing cycle.

  17. Modeling Indirect Tunneling in Silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Edward

    Indirect tunneling in silicon p-n junctions catches people's attention again in recent years. First, the phenomenon induces a serious leakage problem, so called gate-induced drain leakage (GIDL) effect, in modern metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs). Second, it is utilized to develop a novel tunneling transistor with the sharp turn-on ability for continuing ITRS roadmap. Although the indirect tunneling is important for the state-of-the-art transistor-technology, the accuracy of the present tunneling models in technology computer-aided design (TCAD) tools is still vague. In the research work, the theory of indirect tunneling in silicon has been thoroughly studied. The phonon-assisted tunneling model has been developed and compared with the existing ones in the Sentaurus-Synopsys, Medici-Synopsys, and Atlas-Silvaco TCAD tools. Beyond these existing models, ours successfully predicts the indirect tunneling current under the different field direction in silicon. In addition, bandgap narrowing in heavily-doped p-n junctions under the reverse-biased condition is also studied during the model development. At the end of the research work, the application to low standby power (LSTP) transistors is demonstrated to show the capability of our tunneling model in the device level.

  18. Two tunnels to inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Aguirre, Anthony; Johnson, Matthew C.

    2006-06-15

    We investigate the formation via tunneling of inflating (false-vacuum) bubbles in a true-vacuum background, and the reverse process. Using effective potentials from the junction condition formalism, all true- and false-vacuum bubble solutions with positive interior and exterior cosmological constant, and arbitrary mass are catalogued. We find that tunneling through the same effective potential appears to describe two distinct processes: one in which the initial and final states are separated by a wormhole (the Farhi-Guth-Guven mechanism), and one in which they are either in the same hubble volume or separated by a cosmological horizon. In the zero-mass limit, the first process corresponds to the creation of an inhomogenous universe from nothing, while the second mechanism is equivalent to the nucleation of true- or false-vacuum Coleman-De Luccia bubbles. We compute the probabilities of both mechanisms in the WKB approximation using semiclassical Hamiltonian methods, and find that--assuming both process are allowed--neither mechanism dominates in all regimes.

  19. Tunneling magnetic force microscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burke, Edward R.; Gomez, Romel D.; Adly, Amr A.; Mayergoyz, Isaak D.

    1993-01-01

    We have developed a powerful new tool for studying the magnetic patterns on magnetic recording media. This was accomplished by modifying a conventional scanning tunneling microscope. The fine-wire probe that is used to image surface topography was replaced with a flexible magnetic probe. Images obtained with these probes reveal both the surface topography and the magnetic structure. We have made a thorough theoretical analysis of the interaction between the probe and the magnetic fields emanating from a typical recorded surface. Quantitative data about the constituent magnetic fields can then be obtained. We have employed these techniques in studies of two of the most important issues of magnetic record: data overwrite and maximizing data-density. These studies have shown: (1) overwritten data can be retrieved under certain conditions; and (2) improvements in data-density will require new magnetic materials. In the course of these studies we have developed new techniques to analyze magnetic fields of recorded media. These studies are both theoretical and experimental and combined with the use of our magnetic force scanning tunneling microscope should lead to further breakthroughs in the field of magnetic recording.

  20. Shock waves data for minerals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahrens, Thomas J.; Johnson, Mary L.

    1994-01-01

    Shock compression of the materials of planetary interiors yields data which upon comparison with density-pressure and density-sound velocity profiles constrain internal composition and temperature. Other important applications of shock wave data and related properties are found in the impact mechanics of terrestrial planets and solid satellites. Shock wave equation of state, shock-induced dynamic yielding and phase transitions, and shock temperature are discussed. In regions where a substantial phase change in the material does not occur, the relationship between the particle velocity, U(sub p), and the shock velocity, U(sub s), is given by U(sub s) = C(sub 0) + S U(sub p), where C(sub 0) is the shock velocity at infinitesimally small particle velocity, or the ambient pressure bulk sound velocity. Numerical values for the shock wave equation of state for minerals and related materials of the solar system are provided.

  1. Experimental studies of hypersonic shock-wave boundary-layer interactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lu, Frank K.

    1992-01-01

    Two classes of shock-wave boundary-layer interactions were studied experimentally in a shock tunnel in which a low Reynolds number, turbulent flow at Mach 8 was developed on a cold, flat test surface. The two classes of interactions were: (1) a swept interaction generated by a wedge ('fin') mounted perpendicularly on the flat plate; and (2) a two-dimensional, unseparated interaction induced by a shock impinging near an expansion corner. The swept interaction, with wedge angles of 5-20 degrees, was separated and there was also indication that the strongest interactions prossessed secondary separation zones. The interaction spread out extensively from the inviscid shock location although no indication of quasi-conical symmetry was evident. The surface pressure from the upstream influence to the inviscid shock was relatively low compared to the inviscid downstream value but it rose rapidly past the inviscid shock location. However, the surface pressure did not reach the downstream inviscid value and reasons were proposed for this anomalous behavior compared to strongly separated, supersonic interactions. The second class of interactions involved weak shocks impinging near small expansion corners. As a prelude to studying this interaction, a hypersonic similarity parameter was identified for the pure, expansion corner flow. The expansion corner severely damped out surface pressure fluctuations. When a shock impinged upstream of the corner, no significant changes to the surface pressure were found as compared to the case when the shock impinged on a flat plate. But, when the shock impinged downstream of the corner, a close coupling existed between the two wave systems, unlike the supersonic case. This close coupling modified the upstream influence. Regardless of whether the shock impinged ahead or behind the corner, the downstream region was affected by the close coupling between the shock and the expansion. Not only was the mean pressure distribution modified but the

  2. Tunnel electroresistance through organic ferroelectrics

    PubMed Central

    Tian, B. B.; Wang, J. L.; Fusil, S.; Liu, Y.; Zhao, X. L.; Sun, S.; Shen, H.; Lin, T.; Sun, J. L.; Duan, C. G.; Bibes, M.; Barthélémy, A.; Dkhil, B.; Garcia, V.; Meng, X. J.; Chu, J. H.

    2016-01-01

    Organic electronics is emerging for large-area applications such as photovoltaic cells, rollable displays or electronic paper. Its future development and integration will require a simple, low-power organic memory, that can be written, erased and readout electrically. Here we demonstrate a non-volatile memory in which the ferroelectric polarisation state of an organic tunnel barrier encodes the stored information and sets the readout tunnel current. We use high-sensitivity piezoresponse force microscopy to show that films as thin as one or two layers of ferroelectric poly(vinylidene fluoride) remain switchable with low voltages. Submicron junctions based on these films display tunnel electroresistance reaching 1,000% at room temperature that is driven by ferroelectric switching and explained by electrostatic effects in a direct tunnelling regime. Our findings provide a path to develop low-cost, large-scale arrays of organic ferroelectric tunnel junctions on silicon or flexible substrates. PMID:27143121

  3. Tunnel electroresistance through organic ferroelectrics.

    PubMed

    Tian, B B; Wang, J L; Fusil, S; Liu, Y; Zhao, X L; Sun, S; Shen, H; Lin, T; Sun, J L; Duan, C G; Bibes, M; Barthélémy, A; Dkhil, B; Garcia, V; Meng, X J; Chu, J H

    2016-01-01

    Organic electronics is emerging for large-area applications such as photovoltaic cells, rollable displays or electronic paper. Its future development and integration will require a simple, low-power organic memory, that can be written, erased and readout electrically. Here we demonstrate a non-volatile memory in which the ferroelectric polarisation state of an organic tunnel barrier encodes the stored information and sets the readout tunnel current. We use high-sensitivity piezoresponse force microscopy to show that films as thin as one or two layers of ferroelectric poly(vinylidene fluoride) remain switchable with low voltages. Submicron junctions based on these films display tunnel electroresistance reaching 1,000% at room temperature that is driven by ferroelectric switching and explained by electrostatic effects in a direct tunnelling regime. Our findings provide a path to develop low-cost, large-scale arrays of organic ferroelectric tunnel junctions on silicon or flexible substrates. PMID:27143121

  4. Tunnel electroresistance through organic ferroelectrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, B. B.; Wang, J. L.; Fusil, S.; Liu, Y.; Zhao, X. L.; Sun, S.; Shen, H.; Lin, T.; Sun, J. L.; Duan, C. G.; Bibes, M.; Barthélémy, A.; Dkhil, B.; Garcia, V.; Meng, X. J.; Chu, J. H.

    2016-05-01

    Organic electronics is emerging for large-area applications such as photovoltaic cells, rollable displays or electronic paper. Its future development and integration will require a simple, low-power organic memory, that can be written, erased and readout electrically. Here we demonstrate a non-volatile memory in which the ferroelectric polarisation state of an organic tunnel barrier encodes the stored information and sets the readout tunnel current. We use high-sensitivity piezoresponse force microscopy to show that films as thin as one or two layers of ferroelectric poly(vinylidene fluoride) remain switchable with low voltages. Submicron junctions based on these films display tunnel electroresistance reaching 1,000% at room temperature that is driven by ferroelectric switching and explained by electrostatic effects in a direct tunnelling regime. Our findings provide a path to develop low-cost, large-scale arrays of organic ferroelectric tunnel junctions on silicon or flexible substrates.

  5. Supersonic shock wave/vortex interaction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Settles, G. S.; Cattafesta, L.

    1993-01-01

    Although shock wave/vortex interaction is a basic and important fluid dynamics problem, very little research has been conducted on this topic. Therefore, a detailed experimental study of the interaction between a supersonic streamwise turbulent vortex and a shock wave was carried out at the Penn State Gas Dynamics Laboratory. A vortex is produced by replaceable swirl vanes located upstream of the throat of various converging-diverging nozzles. The supersonic vortex is then injected into either a coflowing supersonic stream or ambient air. The structure of the isolated vortex is investigated in a supersonic wind tunnel using miniature, fast-response, five-hole and total temperature probes and in a free jet using laser Doppler velocimetry. The cases tested have unit Reynolds numbers in excess of 25 million per meter, axial Mach numbers ranging from 2.5 to 4.0, and peak tangential Mach numbers from 0 (i.e., a pure jet) to about 0.7. The results show that the typical supersonic wake-like vortex consists of a non-isentropic, rotational core, where the reduced circulation distribution is self similar, and an outer isentropic, irrotational region. The vortex core is also a region of significant turbulent fluctuations. Radial profiles of turbulent kinetic energy and axial-tangential Reynolds stress are presented. The interactions between the vortex and both oblique and normal shock waves are investigated using nonintrusive optical diagnostics (i.e. schlieren, planar laser scattering, and laser Doppler velocimetry). Of the various types, two Mach 2.5 overexpanded-nozzle Mach disc interactions are examined in detail. Below a certain vortex strength, a 'weak' interaction exists in which the normal shock is perturbed locally into an unsteady 'bubble' shock near the vortex axis, but vortex breakdown (i.e., a stagnation point) does not occur. For stronger vortices, a random unsteady 'strong' interaction results that causes vortex breakdown. The vortex core reforms downstream of

  6. Maskelynite: Formation by explosive shock

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Milton, D.J.; De Carli, P. S.

    1963-01-01

    When high pressure (250 to 300 kilobars) was applied suddenly (shock-loading) to gabbro, the plagioclase was transformed to a noncrystalline phase (maskelynite) by a solid-state reaction at a low temperature, while the proxene remained crystalline. The shock-loaded gabbro resembles meteorites of the shergottite class; this suggests that the latter formed as a result of shock. The shock-loading of gabbro at 600 to 800 kilobars raised the temperature above the melting range of the plagioclase.

  7. Shock compression of polyvinyl chloride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neogi, Anupam; Mitra, Nilanjan

    2016-04-01

    This study presents shock compression simulation of atactic polyvinyl chloride (PVC) using ab-initio and classical molecular dynamics. The manuscript also identifies the limits of applicability of classical molecular dynamics based shock compression simulation for PVC. The mechanism of bond dissociation under shock loading and its progression is demonstrated in this manuscript using the density functional theory based molecular dynamics simulations. The rate of dissociation of different bonds at different shock velocities is also presented in this manuscript.

  8. A Shocking New Pump

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Hydro Dynamics, Inc. received a technical helping hand from NASA that made their Hydrosonic Pump (HPump) a reality. Marshall engineers resolved a bearing problem in the rotor of the pump and recommended new bearings, housings and mounting hardware as a solution. The resulting HPump is able to heat liquids with greater energy efficiency using shock waves to generate heat.

  9. Teleconnected food supply shocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bren d'Amour, Christopher; Wenz, Leonie; Kalkuhl, Matthias; Steckel, Jan Christoph; Creutzig, Felix

    2016-03-01

    The 2008-2010 food crisis might have been a harbinger of fundamental climate-induced food crises with geopolitical implications. Heat-wave-induced yield losses in Russia and resulting export restrictions led to increases in market prices for wheat across the Middle East, likely contributing to the Arab Spring. With ongoing climate change, temperatures and temperature variability will rise, leading to higher uncertainty in yields for major nutritional crops. Here we investigate which countries are most vulnerable to teleconnected supply-shocks, i.e. where diets strongly rely on the import of wheat, maize, or rice, and where a large share of the population is living in poverty. We find that the Middle East is most sensitive to teleconnected supply shocks in wheat, Central America to supply shocks in maize, and Western Africa to supply shocks in rice. Weighing with poverty levels, Sub-Saharan Africa is most affected. Altogether, a simultaneous 10% reduction in exports of wheat, rice, and maize would reduce caloric intake of 55 million people living in poverty by about 5%. Export bans in major producing regions would put up to 200 million people below the poverty line at risk, 90% of which live in Sub-Saharan Africa. Our results suggest that a region-specific combination of national increases in agricultural productivity and diversification of trade partners and diets can effectively decrease future food security risks.

  10. Teleconnected food supply shocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bren d’Amour, Christopher; Wenz, Leonie; Kalkuhl, Matthias; Steckel, Jan Christoph; Creutzig, Felix

    2016-03-01

    The 2008–2010 food crisis might have been a harbinger of fundamental climate-induced food crises with geopolitical implications. Heat-wave-induced yield losses in Russia and resulting export restrictions led to increases in market prices for wheat across the Middle East, likely contributing to the Arab Spring. With ongoing climate change, temperatures and temperature variability will rise, leading to higher uncertainty in yields for major nutritional crops. Here we investigate which countries are most vulnerable to teleconnected supply-shocks, i.e. where diets strongly rely on the import of wheat, maize, or rice, and where a large share of the population is living in poverty. We find that the Middle East is most sensitive to teleconnected supply shocks in wheat, Central America to supply shocks in maize, and Western Africa to supply shocks in rice. Weighing with poverty levels, Sub-Saharan Africa is most affected. Altogether, a simultaneous 10% reduction in exports of wheat, rice, and maize would reduce caloric intake of 55 million people living in poverty by about 5%. Export bans in major producing regions would put up to 200 million people below the poverty line at risk, 90% of which live in Sub-Saharan Africa. Our results suggest that a region-specific combination of national increases in agricultural productivity and diversification of trade partners and diets can effectively decrease future food security risks.

  11. Bow Shocks at Comets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coates, Andrew J.

    2009-11-01

    Comets provide a wonderful laboratory to study the interaction of a fast flowing plasma, the solar wind, with neutral gas from the comet. On ionization, the more massive newly-born cometary ions are assimilated into the solar wind flow, eventually causing its deceleration via this `mass loading'. One of the effects of this is the cometary bow shock. The exploration of comet Halley by an armada of spacecraft in 1986, as well as the in-situ exploration of comets Giacobini-Zinner (1985), Grigg-Skjellerup (1992) and Borrelly (2001), has revealed important results on the behavior of these weak shocks and showed that mass loading plays a key role. In 2014, the Rosetta mission will provide the first observations of the formation of the cometary bow shock as a comet, Churyumov-Gerasimenko, nears the Sun. Rosetta will also provide the first measurements of the collision-dominated near-nucleus region. Here, we briefly review what we know about cometary bow shocks, and we examine the prospects for Rosetta.

  12. Characteristics of the Langley 8-foot Transonic Tunnel with Slotted Test Section

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, Ray H; Ritchie, Virgil S; Pearson, Albin O

    1958-01-01

    A large wind tunnel, approximately 8 feet in diameter, has been converted to transonic operation by means of slots in the boundary extending in the direction of flow. The usefulness of such a slotted wind tunnel, already known with respect to the reduction of the subsonic blockage interference and the production of continuously variable supersonic flows, has been augmented by devising a slot shape with which a supersonic test region with excellent flow quality could be produced. Experimental locations of detached shock waves ahead of axially symmetric bodies at low supersonic speeds in the slotted test section agreed satisfactorily with predictions obtained by use of existing approximate methods.

  13. Interference-free wind-tunnel flows by adaptive-wall technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sears, W. R.; Vidal, R. J.; Erickson, J. C., Jr.; Ritter, A.

    1976-01-01

    The adaptive-wall or self-correcting wind tunnel has been proposed for such regimes as transonic and V/STOL where wall effects are large and cannot be corrected for. The power and generality of the concept are pointed out. In a two-dimensional transonic embodiment in the Calspan One-Foot Tunnel, the scheme has been shown to work at lower transonic Mach numbers. Several practical problems are cited, including instrumentation, the nature of the wall modification, and convergence of the iterative procedure. Moreover, questions of shock-wave neutralization at the wall and probable configuration of three-dimensional embodiments are discussed.

  14. Interaction between perpendicular magnetohydrodynamic shocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hu, Y. Q.; Habbal, S. R.

    1993-01-01

    A general analysis is made of the collision and merging of perpendicular shocks as well as the interaction between a shock and a tangential discontinuity. It is found that two head-on shocks diminish both in strength after collisions and a tangential discontinuity forms between them. The property of the discontinuity depends on the relative strength of the two shocks. No discontinuity occurs if the shocks are equal in strength. The emerging of two shocks propagating in the same direction results in a strong shock followed by a tangential discontinuity and a reverse wave. The reverse wave is a rarefaction wave if one or both of the shocks are strong. If the shocks are both weak, a critical adiabatic index (CAI) exists. The reverse wave is a rarefaction wave if the wavelength is less than the CAI and a shock exists if the wavelength is greater than the CAI. As a wake shock enters from a medium of higher wave impedance into that of lower wave impedance, the reflected wave is a rarefaction wave and the total pressure ratio decreases and the velocity jump increases after the shock passes through the border.

  15. STEREO interplanetary shocks and foreshocks

    SciTech Connect

    Blanco-Cano, X.; Kajdic, P.; Aguilar-Rodriguez, E.; Russell, C. T.; Jian, L. K.; Luhmann, J. G.

    2013-06-13

    We use STEREO data to study shocks driven by stream interactions and the waves associated with them. During the years of the extended solar minimum 2007-2010, stream interaction shocks have Mach numbers between 1.1-3.8 and {theta}{sub Bn}{approx}20-86 Degree-Sign . We find a variety of waves, including whistlers and low frequency fluctuations. Upstream whistler waves may be generated at the shock and upstream ultra low frequency (ULF) waves can be driven locally by ion instabilities. The downstream wave spectra can be formed by both, locally generated perturbations, and shock transmitted waves. We find that many quasiperpendicular shocks can be accompanied by ULF wave and ion foreshocks, which is in contrast to Earth's bow shock. Fluctuations downstream of quasi-parallel shocks tend to have larger amplitudes than waves downstream of quasi-perpendicular shocks. Proton foreshocks of shocks driven by stream interactions have extensions dr {<=}0.05 AU. This is smaller than foreshock extensions for ICME driven shocks. The difference in foreshock extensions is related to the fact that ICME driven shocks are formed closer to the Sun and therefore begin to accelerate particles very early in their existence, while stream interaction shocks form at {approx}1 AU and have been producing suprathermal particles for a shorter time.

  16. Compression Shocks of Detached Flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eggink

    1947-01-01

    It is known that compression shocks which lead from supersonic to subsonic velocity cause the flow to separate on impact on a rigid wall. Such shocks appear at bodies with circular symmetry or wing profiles on locally exceeding sonic velocity, and in Laval nozzles with too high a back pressure. The form of the compression shocks observed therein is investigated.

  17. Diffusive Shock Acceleration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baring, Matthew

    2003-04-01

    The process of diffusive acceleration of charged particles in shocked plasmas is widely invoked in astrophysics to account for the ubiquitous presence of signatures of non-thermal relativistic electrons and ions in the universe. This statistical energization mechanism, manifested in turbulent media, was first posited by Enrico Fermi in 1949 to explain the observed cosmic ray population, which exhibits an almost power-law distribution in rigidity. The absence of a momentum scale is a key characteristic of diffusive shock acceleration, and astrophysical systems generally only impose scales at the injection (low energy) and loss (high energy) ends of the particle spectrum. The existence of structure in the cosmic ray spectrum (the "knee") at around 3000 TeV has promoted contentions that there are at least two origins for cosmic rays, a galactic one supplying those up to the knee, and perhaps an extragalactic one that can explain even the ultra-high energy cosmic rays (UHECRs) seen at 1-300 EeV. Accounting for the UHECRs with familiar astrophysical sites of acceleration has historically proven difficult due to the need to assume high magnetic fields in order to reduce the shortest diffusive acceleration timescale, the ion gyroperiod, to meaningful values. Yet active galaxies and gamma-ray bursts remain strong and interesting candidate sources for UHECRs, turning the theoretical focus to relativistic shocks. This review summarizes properties of diffusive shock acceleration that are salient to the issue of UHECR generation. These include spectral indices, anisotropies, acceleration efficencies and timescales, as functions of the shock speed and mean field orientation, and also the degree of field turbulence. Astrophysical sites for UHECR production are also critiqued.

  18. Frequency driven inversion of tunnel magnetoimpedance and observation of positive tunnel magnetocapacitance in magnetic tunnel junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parui, Subir; Ribeiro, Mário; Atxabal, Ainhoa; Bedoya-Pinto, Amilcar; Sun, Xiangnan; Llopis, Roger; Casanova, Fèlix; Hueso, Luis E.

    2016-08-01

    The relevance for modern computation of non-volatile high-frequency memories makes ac-transport measurements of magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJs) crucial for exploring this regime. Here, we demonstrate a frequency-mediated effect in which the tunnel magnetoimpedance reverses its sign in a classical Co/Al2O3/NiFe MTJ, whereas we only observe a gradual decrease in the tunnel magnetophase. Such effects are explained by the capacitive coupling of a parallel resistor and capacitor in the equivalent circuit model of the MTJ. Furthermore, we report a positive tunnel magnetocapacitance effect, suggesting the presence of a spin-capacitance at the two ferromagnet/tunnel-barrier interfaces. Our results are important for understanding spin transport phenomena at the high frequency regime in which the spin-polarized charge accumulation due to spin-dependent penetration depth at the two interfaces plays a crucial role.

  19. Time-resolved stereo PIV measurements of shock-boundary layer interaction on a supercritical airfoil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartmann, Axel; Klaas, Michael; Schröder, Wolfgang

    2012-03-01

    Time-resolved stereo particle-image velocimetry (TR-SPIV) and unsteady pressure measurements are used to analyze the unsteady flow over a supercritical DRA-2303 airfoil in transonic flow. The dynamic shock wave-boundary layer interaction is one of the most essential features of this unsteady flow causing a distinct oscillation of the flow field. Results from wind-tunnel experiments with a variation of the freestream Mach number at Reynolds numbers ranging from 2.55 to 2.79 × 106 are analyzed regarding the origin and nature of the unsteady shock-boundary layer interaction. Therefore, the TR-SPIV results are analyzed for three buffet flows. One flow exhibits a sinusoidal streamwise oscillation of the shock wave only due to an acoustic feedback loop formed by the shock wave and the trailing-edge noise. The other two buffet flows have been intentionally influenced by an artificial acoustic source installed downstream of the test section to investigate the behavior of the interaction to upstream-propagating disturbances generated by a defined source of noise. The results show that such upstream-propagating disturbances could be identified to be responsible for the upstream displacement of the shock wave and that the feedback loop is formed by a pulsating separation of the boundary layer dependent on the shock position and the sound pressure level at the shock position. Thereby, the pulsation of the separation could be determined to be a reaction to the shock motion and not vice versa.

  20. Tunnelling microscopy of DNA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selci, Stefano; Cricenti, Antonio

    1991-01-01

    Uncoated DNA molecules marked with an activated tris (1-aziridinyl) phosphine oxide (TAPO) solution were deposited on gold substrates and imaged in air with a high resolution Scanning Tunnelling Microscope (STM). The STM operated simultaneously in the constant-current and gap-modulated mode. Highly reproducible STM images have been obtained and interpreted in terms of expected DNA structure. The main periodicity, regularly presented in molecules several hundred Ångstrom long, ranges from 25 Å to 35 Å with an average diameter of 22 Å. Higher resolution images of the minor groove have revealed the phosphate groups along the DNA backbones. Constant-current images of TAPO deposited on gold show a crystalline structure of rows of molecules with a side-by-side spacing of 3 Å.

  1. The virtual wind tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bryson, Steve; Levit, Creon

    1992-01-01

    Consideration is given to the design and implementaion of a virtual environment linked to a graphics workstation for the visualization of complex fluid flows. The user wears a stereo head-tracked display which displays 3D information and an instrumented glove to intuitively position flow-visualization tools. The idea is to create for the user an illusion that he or she is actually in the flow manipulating visualization tools. The user's presence does not disturb the flow so that sensitive flow areas can be easily investigated. The flow is precomputed and can be investigated at any length scale and with control over time. Particular attention is given to the visualization structures and their interfaces in the virtual environment, hardware and software, and the performance of the virtual wind tunnel using flow past a tapered cylinder as an example.

  2. Mars Surface Tunnel Element Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rucker, Michelle A.; Jefferies, Sharon; Howe, A. Scott; Howard, Robert; Mary, Natalie; Watson, Judith; Lewis, Ruthan

    2016-01-01

    When the first human visitors on Mars prepare to return to Earth, they will have to comply with stringent planetary protection requirements. Apollo Program experience warns that opening an EVA hatch directly to the surface will bring dust into the ascent vehicle. To prevent inadvertent return of potential Martian contaminants to Earth, careful consideration must be given to the way in which crew ingress their Mars Ascent Vehicle (MAV). For architectures involving more than one surface element-such as an ascent vehicle and a pressurized rover or surface habitat-a retractable tunnel that eliminates extravehicular activity (EVA) ingress is an attractive solution. Beyond addressing the immediate MAV access issue, a reusable tunnel may be useful for other surface applications, such as rover to habitat transfer, once its primary mission is complete. A National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) team is studying the optimal balance between surface tunnel functionality, mass, and stowed volume as part of the Evolvable Mars Campaign (EMC). The study team began by identifying the minimum set of functional requirements needed for the tunnel to perform its primary mission, as this would presumably be the simplest design, with the lowest mass and volume. This Minimum Functional Tunnel then becomes a baseline against which various tunnel design concepts and potential alternatives can be traded, and aids in assessing the mass penalty of increased functionality. Preliminary analysis indicates that the mass of a single-mission tunnel is about 237 kg, not including mass growth allowance.

  3. Weak-shock reflection factors

    SciTech Connect

    Reichenbach, H.; Kuhl, A.L.

    1993-09-07

    The purpose of this paper is to compare reflection factors for weak shocks from various surfaces, and to focus attention on some unsolved questions. Three different cases are considered: square-wave planar shock reflection from wedges; square-wave planar shock reflection from cylinders; and spherical blast wave reflection from a planar surface. We restrict ourselves to weak shocks. Shocks with a Mach number of M{sub O} < 1.56 in air or with an overpressure of {Delta}{sub PI} < 25 psi (1.66 bar) under normal ambient conditions are called weak.

  4. Spin tunneling in conducting oxides

    SciTech Connect

    Bratkovsky, A.

    1998-12-31

    Different tunneling mechanisms in conventional and half-metallic ferromagnetic tunnel junctions are analyzed within the same general method. Direct tunneling is compared with impurity-assisted, surface state assisted, and inelastic contributions to a tunneling magnetoresistance (TMR). Theoretically calculated direct tunneling in iron group systems leads to about a 30% change in resistance, which is close to experimentally observed values. It is shown that the larger observed values of the TMR might be a result of tunneling involving surface polarized states. The authors find that tunneling via resonant defect states in the barrier radically decreases the TMR (down to 4% with Fe-based electrodes), and a resonant tunnel diode structure would give a TMR of about 8%. With regards to inelastic tunneling, magnons and phonons exhibit opposite effects: one-magnon emission generally results in spin mixing and, consequently, reduces the TMR, whereas phonons are shown to enhance the TMR. The inclusion of both magnons and phonons reasonably explains an unusually bias dependence of the TMR. The model presented here is applied qualitatively to half-metallics with 100% spin polarization, where one-magnon processes are suppressed and the change in resistance in the absence of spin-mixing on impurities may be arbitrarily large. Even in the case of imperfect magnetic configurations, the resistance change can be a few 1,000%. Examples of half-metallic systems are CrO{sub 2}/TiO{sub 2} and CrO{sub 2}/RuO{sub 2}, and an account of their peculiar band structures is presented. The implications and relation of these systems to CMR materials, which are nearly half-metallic, are discussed.

  5. Multipoint study of interplanetary shocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanco-Cano, Xochitl; Kajdic, Primoz; Russell, Christopher T.; Aguilar-Rodriguez, Ernesto; Jian, Lan K.; Luhmann, Janet G.

    2016-04-01

    Interplanetary (IP) shocks are driven in the heliosphere by Interplanetary Coronal Mass Ejections (ICMEs) and Stream Interaction Regions (SIRs). These shocks perturb the solar wind plasma, and play an active role in the acceleration of ions to suprathermal energies. Shock fronts evolve as they move from the Sun. Their surfaces can be far from uniform and be modulated by changes in the ambient solar wind (magnetic field orientation, flow velocity), shocks rippling, and perturbations upstream and downstream from the shocks, i.e., electromagnetic waves. In this work we use multipoint observations from STEREO, WIND, and MESSENGER missions to study shock characteristics at different helio-longitudes and determine the properties of the waves near them. We also determine shock longitudinal extensions and foreshock sizes. The variations of geometry along the shock surface can result in different extensions of the wave and ion foreshocks ahead of the shocks, and in different wave modes upstream and downtream of the shocks. We find that the ion foreshock can extend up to 0.2 AU ahead of the shock, and that the upstream region with modified solar wind/waves can be very asymmetric.

  6. Validation of Shock Layer Radiation: Perspectives for Test Cases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brandis, Aaron

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a review of the analysis and measurement of radiation data obtained in the NASA Ames Research Center's Electric Arc Shock Tube (EAST) facility. The goal of these experiments was to measure the level of radiation encountered during atmospheric entry. The data obtained from these experiments is highlighted by providing the first spectrally and spatially resolved data for high speed Earth entry and measurements of the CO 4th positive band for conditions relevant to Mars entry. Comparisons of the EAST data with experimental results obtained from shock tunnels at JAXA and the University of Queensland are presented. Furthermore, the paper will detail initial analyses in to the influence and characterization of the measure non-equilibrium radiation.

  7. Dual-Element Tunneling Accelerometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaiser, William J.; Kenny, Thomas W.; Rockstad, Howard K.; Reynolds, Joseph K.

    1994-01-01

    Improved micromachined tunneling accelerometer contains two deflecting transducer elements: One an elastically supported proof mass having relatively low resonant frequency; other cantilever tunneling transducer that tracks displacement of proof mass and has relatively high resonant frequency ({sup a} 10 kHz). Deflection voltage generated by circuit like described in "Wideband Feedback Circuit for Tunneling Sensor" (NPO-18866). Accelerometers of this type suited for underwater acoustic measurements, detecting vibrations associated with malfunctions in vehicles, detecting seismic signals, monitoring and controlling vibrations in structures, and other applications.

  8. Pathophysiology of carpal tunnel syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Aboonq, Moutasem S.

    2015-01-01

    Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is the most common median nerve neuropathy, accounting for 90% of all neuropathies. Carpal tunnel syndrome presents in 3.8% of the general population, with a higher prevalence among women. There are several risk factors associated with CTS, including both medical and non medical factors. The pathophysiologic mechanisms involved in the median nerve compression and traction are thought to be complex, and as yet are not fully understood. The present review aimed to provide an overview of the pathophysiology of median nerve neuropathy in the carpal tunnel, and subsequent development of CTS. PMID:25630774

  9. Resonant torus-assisted tunneling.

    PubMed

    Yi, Chang-Hwan; Yu, Hyeon-Hye; Kim, Chil-Min

    2016-01-01

    We report a new type of dynamical tunneling, which is mediated by a resonant torus, i.e., a nonisolated periodic orbit. To elucidate the phenomenon, we take an open elliptic cavity and show that a pair of resonances localized on two classically disconnected tori tunnel through a resonant torus when they interact with each other. This so-called resonant torus-assisted tunneling is verified by using Husimi functions, corresponding actions, Husimi function distributions, and the standard deviations of the actions. PMID:26871067

  10. Optical Detection of Tunneling Ionization

    SciTech Connect

    Verhoef, Aart J.; Mitrofanov, Alexander V.; Kartashov, Daniil V.; Baltuska, Andrius

    2010-04-23

    We have experimentally detected optical harmonics that are generated due to a tunneling-ionization-induced modulation of the electron density. The optical signature of electron tunneling can be isolated from concomitant optical responses by using a noncollinear pump-probe setup. Whereas previously demonstrated tools for attosecond metrology of gases, plasmas, and surfaces rely on direct detection of charged particles, detection of the background-free time-resolved optical signal, which uniquely originates from electron tunneling, offers an interesting alternative that is especially suited for systems in which free electrons cannot be directly measured.

  11. Shock metamorphism of deformed quartz

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gratz, Andrew J.; Christie, John; Tyburczy, James; Ahrens, Thomas; Pongratz, Peter

    1988-01-01

    The effect produced by shock loading (to peak pressures of 12 and 24) on deformed synthetic quartz containing a dislocation and abundant bubbles and small inclusions was investigated, and the relationships between preexisting dislocation density shock lamellae in the target material were examined. The resultant material was found to be inhomogeneously deformed and extremely fractured. Results of TEM examinations indicate that no change in dislocation density was caused by shock loading except in regions containing shock lamellae, where the dislocation density was lowered. The shock-induced defects tend to nucleate on and be controlled by preexisting stress concentrators; shock lamellae, glassy veins, and most curviplanar defects form in tension, presumably during release. An extremely mobile silica fluid is formed and injected into fractures during release, which forcibly removes crystalline fragments from vein walls. It is concluded that shock deformation in quartz is dominated by fracture and melting.

  12. Wideband Feedback Circuit For Tunneling Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaiser, William J.; Kenny, Thomas W.; Rockstad, Howard K.; Reynolds, Joseph K.

    1994-01-01

    Improved feedback circuit designed for use in controlling tunneling displacement transducer. Features include stability and nearly flat frequency response up to 50 kHz. Transducer could be that in scanning tunneling microscope, or any of micromachined electromechanical transducers described in "Micromachined Electron-Tunneling Infrared Detectors" (NPO-18413), "Micromachined Tunneling Accelerometer" (NPO-18513), and "Improved Electromechanical Infrared Sensor" (NPO-18560).

  13. Experiments with a Model Water Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobs, Eastman N; Abbott, Ira H

    1930-01-01

    This report describes a model water tunnel built in 1928 by the NACA to investigate the possibility of using water tunnels for aerodynamic investigations at large scales. The model tunnel is similar to an open-throat wind tunnel, but uses water for the working fluid.

  14. Transonic shock-induced dynamics of a flexible wing with a thick circular-arc airfoil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bennett, Robert M.; Dansberry, Bryan E.; Farmer, Moses G.; Eckstrom, Clinton V.; Seidel, David A.; Rivera, Jose A., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    Transonic shock boundary layer oscillations occur on rigid models over a small range of Mach numbers on thick circular-arc airfoils. Extensive tests and analyses of this phenomena have been made in the past but essentially all of them were for rigid models. A simple flexible wing model with an 18 pct. circular arc airfoil was constructed and tested in the Langley Transonic Dynamics Tunnel to study the dynamic characteristics that a wing might have under these circumstances. In the region of shock boundary layer oscillations, buffeting of the first bending mode was obtained. This mode was well separated in frequency from the shock boundary layer oscillations. A limit cycle oscillation was also measured in a third bending like mode, involving wind vertical bending and splitter plate motion, which was in the frequency range of the shock boundary layer oscillations. Several model configurations were tested, and a few potential fixes were investigated.

  15. Control of shock wave-boundary layer interactions by bleed in supersonic mixed compression inlets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fukuda, M. K.; Hingst, W. G.; Reshotko, E.

    1975-01-01

    An experimental investigation was conducted to determine the effect of bleed on a shock wave-boundary layer interaction in an axisymmetric mixed-compression supersonic inlet. The inlet was designed for a free-stream Mach number of 2.50 with 60-percent supersonic internal area contraction. The experiment was conducted in the NASA Lewis Research Center 10-Foot Supersonic Wind Tunnel. The effects of bleed amount and bleed geometry on the boundary layer after a shock wave-boundary layer interaction were studied. The effect of bleed on the transformed form factor is such that the full realizable reduction is obtained by bleeding of a mass flow equal to about one-half of the incident boundary layer mass flow. More bleeding does not yield further reduction. Bleeding upstream or downstream of the shock-induced pressure rise is preferable to bleeding across the shock-induced pressure rise.

  16. Investigations of shock wave boundary layer interaction on suction side of compressor profile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piotrowicz, M.; Flaszyński, P.; Doerffer, P.

    2014-08-01

    The shock wave boundary layer interaction on the suction side of transonic compressor blade is one of main objectives of TFAST project (Transition Location Effect on Shock Wave Boundary Layer Interaction). In order to look more closely into the flow structure on the suction side of a blade, a design of a generic test section in linear transonic wind tunnel was proposed. The test section which could reproduce flow structure, shock wave location, pressure distribution and boundary layer development similar to the obtained on a cascade profile is the main objective of the presented here design. The design of the proposed test section is very challenging, because of shock wave existence, its interaction with boundary layer and its influence on the 3-D flow structure in the test section.

  17. Shock structure and noise of supersonic jets in simulated flight to Mach 0.4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norum, Thomas D.; Shearin, John G.

    1988-01-01

    Measured jet plume static pressure distributions and far-field acoustic spectra are presented for underexpanded jets in simulated flight up to a Mach number of 0.4. A gradual stretching of the downstream shock cells is found as the Mach number increases, with no perceptible change in the shock strength. There appears to be little effect of flight on the broadband shock noise amplitudes, and the small changes in its peak frequency for the same emission angle are correlated with the slightly longer shock cells in flight. The larger changes in the broadband peak frequency found at the same angle in wind tunnel coordinates are attributable to convection. Jet mixing noise production decreases significantly with increasing flight speed.

  18. Micro-Ramp Flow Control for Oblique Shock Interactions: Comparisons of Computational and Experimental Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hirt, Stephanie M.; Reich, David B.; O'Connor, Michael B.

    2012-01-01

    Computational fluid dynamics was used to study the effectiveness of micro-ramp vortex generators to control oblique shock boundary layer interactions. Simulations were based on experiments previously conducted in the 15- by 15-cm supersonic wind tunnel at the NASA Glenn Research Center. Four micro-ramp geometries were tested at Mach 2.0 varying the height, chord length, and spanwise spacing between micro-ramps. The overall flow field was examined. Additionally, key parameters such as boundary-layer displacement thickness, momentum thickness and incompressible shape factor were also examined. The computational results predicted the effects of the microramps well, including the trends for the impact that the devices had on the shock boundary layer interaction. However, computing the shock boundary layer interaction itself proved to be problematic since the calculations predicted more pronounced adverse effects on the boundary layer due to the shock than were seen in the experiment.

  19. Micro-Ramp Flow Control for Oblique Shock Interactions: Comparisons of Computational and Experimental Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hirt, Stefanie M.; Reich, David B.; O'Connor, Michael B.

    2010-01-01

    Computational fluid dynamics was used to study the effectiveness of micro-ramp vortex generators to control oblique shock boundary layer interactions. Simulations were based on experiments previously conducted in the 15 x 15 cm supersonic wind tunnel at NASA Glenn Research Center. Four micro-ramp geometries were tested at Mach 2.0 varying the height, chord length, and spanwise spacing between micro-ramps. The overall flow field was examined. Additionally, key parameters such as boundary-layer displacement thickness, momentum thickness and incompressible shape factor were also examined. The computational results predicted the effects of the micro-ramps well, including the trends for the impact that the devices had on the shock boundary layer interaction. However, computing the shock boundary layer interaction itself proved to be problematic since the calculations predicted more pronounced adverse effects on the boundary layer due to the shock than were seen in the experiment.

  20. Role of shock-timing in two-shock platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krasheninnikova, Natalia; Bradley, Paul; Olson, Rick; Kyrala, George; Peterson, Bob; Devolder, Barbara; Shah, Rahul

    2015-11-01

    In present work we discuss the role of shock-timing and location of shock coalescence in newly developed two-shock platform on NIF. It is generally believed that single-shell capsules perform better when the shocks coalesce in the gas due to lower shell entropy, larger convergence ratio, better hot-spot assembly, and mix. Using HYDRA and RAGE with BHR we investigated this hypothesis for the case of separated reactants capsule and found when shocks coalesced in the gas yield improved by ~ 50% while acceptance energy only increased by ~ 3%. This suggests that improving shock timing can increase the neutron yield without a significant increase in the drive. The picture of how the mix changes with variation in shock timing is not as crisp as the overall performance. In particular, according RAGE with BHR, the mix mass can be higher or lower depending on the strength of the first shock, even when the location of coalescence is the same. However, DT yield, which is a measure of mix, noticeably increases when the shock coalesce in the gas due to prevalence of higher temperatures in the mixed region. So perhaps the mix mass is more sensitive to the strength of the shocks rather than the location of their coalescence.

  1. Superdiffusive shock acceleration and short acceleration times at interplanetary shocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perri, Silvia; Zimbardo, Gaetano

    2016-04-01

    The analysis of time profiles of particles accelerated at interplanetary shock waves has shown evidence for superdiffusive transport in the upstream region. Superdiffusive transport is characterized by a mean square displacement that grows faster than linearly in time and by non Gaussian statistics for the distribution of the particle jump lengths. In the superdiffusive framework it has been shown that particle time profiles upstream of a planar shock decay as power laws, at variance with exponential particle time profiles predicted in the case of diffusive transport. A large number of interplanetary shocks, including coronal mass ejection driven shocks, exhibit energetic particle time profiles that decay as power laws far upstream. In order to take this evidence into account, we have extended the standard theory of diffusive shock acceleration to the case of particle superdiffusive transport (superdiffusive shock acceleration). This has allowed us to derive both hard energy spectral indices and short acceleration times. This new theory has been tested for a number of interplanetary shock waves, observed by the Ulysses and the ACE spacecraft, and for the termination shock. The superdiffusive shock acceleration leads to a strong reduction of the acceleration times (even of about one order of magnitude) with respect to the diffusive shock acceleration. Thus, this new framework provides a substantial advancement in the understanding of the processes of particle acceleration and particle transport, which are among the main objectives of the new Solar Probe and Solar Orbiter space missions.

  2. Tunneling progress on the Yucca Mountain Project

    SciTech Connect

    Hansmire, W.H.; Munzer, R.J.

    1996-06-01

    The current status of tunneling progress on the Yucca Mountain Project (YMP) is presented in this paper. The Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF), a key part of the YMP, has been long in development and construction is ongoing. This is a progress report on the tunneling aspects of the ESF as of January 1, 1996. For purposes of discussion in this summary, the tunneling has progressed in four general phases. The paper describes: tunneling in jointed rock under low stress; tunneling through the Bow Ridge Fault and soft rock; tunneling through the Imbricate Fault Zone; and Tunneling into the candidate repository formation.

  3. SUPERDIFFUSIVE SHOCK ACCELERATION

    SciTech Connect

    Perri, S.; Zimbardo, G.

    2012-05-10

    The theory of diffusive shock acceleration is extended to the case of superdiffusive transport, i.e., when the mean square deviation grows proportionally to t{sup {alpha}}, with {alpha} > 1. Superdiffusion can be described by a statistical process called Levy random walk, in which the propagator is not a Gaussian but it exhibits power-law tails. By using the propagator appropriate for Levy random walk, it is found that the indices of energy spectra of particles are harder than those obtained where a normal diffusion is envisaged, with the spectral index decreasing with the increase of {alpha}. A new scaling for the acceleration time is also found, allowing substantially shorter times than in the case of normal diffusion. Within this framework we can explain a number of observations of flat spectra in various astrophysical and heliospheric contexts, for instance, for the Crab Nebula and the termination shock of the solar wind.

  4. Landing-shock Recorder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brevoort, M J

    1934-01-01

    A description of a special type of seismograph, called a "landing-shock recorder," to be used for measuring the acceleration during impacts such as are experienced in airplane landings, is given . The theory, together with the assumptions made, is discussed in its relation to calculating the acceleration experienced in impact. Calculations are given from records obtained for two impacts of known acceleration. In one case the impact was very severe and in the other it was only moderately severe.

  5. Effect of Cavity Injection on Wall Drag in a Supersonic Flow with Reflecting Shocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Castiglone, L. A.; Northam, G. B.; Baker, N. R.; Roer, L. A.

    1996-01-01

    The wall drag test tunnel at NASA Langley Research Center was used to evaluate simulated scramjet fuel injection into a wall cavity. In this tunnel, one wall consists of interchangeable aluminum plates attached to an air bearing suspension system. The plates were equipped with load cells to measure drag forces and static taps to determine pressure distributions. The plates were exposed to a Mach 2 air stream at a total pressure of 115 psia (793 kPa). This flow field contained a train of weak unsteady, reflecting shock waves that were produced in the nozzle assembly located upstream of the test section.

  6. Flatback airfoil wind tunnel experiment.

    SciTech Connect

    Mayda, Edward A.; van Dam, C.P.; Chao, David D.; Berg, Dale E.

    2008-04-01

    A computational fluid dynamics study of thick wind turbine section shapes in the test section of the UC Davis wind tunnel at a chord Reynolds number of one million is presented. The goals of this study are to validate standard wind tunnel wall corrections for high solid blockage conditions and to reaffirm the favorable effect of a blunt trailing edge or flatback on the performance characteristics of a representative thick airfoil shape prior to building the wind tunnel models and conducting the experiment. The numerical simulations prove the standard wind tunnel corrections to be largely valid for the proposed test of 40% maximum thickness to chord ratio airfoils at a solid blockage ratio of 10%. Comparison of the computed lift characteristics of a sharp trailing edge baseline airfoil and derived flatback airfoils reaffirms the earlier observed trend of reduced sensitivity to surface contamination with increasing trailing edge thickness.

  7. Multisensor system for tunnel inspection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Idoux, Maurice

    2005-01-01

    The system is aimed at assisting inspection and monitoring of the degradation of tunnels in order to minimize maintenance and repair time. ATLAS 70 is a complete sensors/software package which enables thorough diagnosis of tunnel wall conditions. The data collected locally are stored on a computer hard disk for subsequent analysis in a remote location via elaborate dedicated software. The sensors and local computer are loaded onto a rail and/or road vehicle of specific design, i.e. with even travelling speed of 2 to 5 km/h. Originally, the system has been developed for the Paris Underground Company and has since been applied to rail and road tunnels, large town sewage systems, clean water underground aqueducts and electric cable tunnels.

  8. Tunneling Plasmonics in Bilayer Graphene.

    PubMed

    Fei, Z; Iwinski, E G; Ni, G X; Zhang, L M; Bao, W; Rodin, A S; Lee, Y; Wagner, M; Liu, M K; Dai, S; Goldflam, M D; Thiemens, M; Keilmann, F; Lau, C N; Castro-Neto, A H; Fogler, M M; Basov, D N

    2015-08-12

    We report experimental signatures of plasmonic effects due to electron tunneling between adjacent graphene layers. At subnanometer separation, such layers can form either a strongly coupled bilayer graphene with a Bernal stacking or a weakly coupled double-layer graphene with a random stacking order. Effects due to interlayer tunneling dominate in the former case but are negligible in the latter. We found through infrared nanoimaging that bilayer graphene supports plasmons with a higher degree of confinement compared to single- and double-layer graphene, a direct consequence of interlayer tunneling. Moreover, we were able to shut off plasmons in bilayer graphene through gating within a wide voltage range. Theoretical modeling indicates that such a plasmon-off region is directly linked to a gapped insulating state of bilayer graphene, yet another implication of interlayer tunneling. Our work uncovers essential plasmonic properties in bilayer graphene and suggests a possibility to achieve novel plasmonic functionalities in graphene few-layers. PMID:26222509

  9. The Unitary Plan Wind Tunnels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wedgworth, Kevin; Woo, Alex C.

    1994-01-01

    The Unitary Plan Facility is the most heavily used wind tunnel in all of NASA. Every major commercial transport and almost every fighter built in the United States over the last 30 years has been tested in this tunnel. Also tested in this tunnel complex were models of the Space Shuttle, as well as the Mercury, Gemini, and Apollo capsules. The wind tunnel represents a unique national asset of vital importance to the nation's defense and its competitive position in the world aerospace market. In 1985, the Unitary Plan Facility was named a National Historic Landmark by the National Park Service because of 'its significant associations with the development of the American Space Program.'

  10. Electron tunneling in proteins program.

    PubMed

    Hagras, Muhammad A; Stuchebrukhov, Alexei A

    2016-06-01

    We developed a unique integrated software package (called Electron Tunneling in Proteins Program or ETP) which provides an environment with different capabilities such as tunneling current calculation, semi-empirical quantum mechanical calculation, and molecular modeling simulation for calculation and analysis of electron transfer reactions in proteins. ETP program is developed as a cross-platform client-server program in which all the different calculations are conducted at the server side while only the client terminal displays the resulting calculation outputs in the different supported representations. ETP program is integrated with a set of well-known computational software packages including Gaussian, BALLVIEW, Dowser, pKip, and APBS. In addition, ETP program supports various visualization methods for the tunneling calculation results that assist in a more comprehensive understanding of the tunneling process. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26990540

  11. Tunnel construction for a desertron

    SciTech Connect

    Hinterberger, H.; Huson, F.R.

    1983-03-27

    The tunnel in this model of construction is 3-1/2 feet wide by 5 feet high. It is assumed that the tunnel contains a rail system and guidance system for: (1) An enclosed car used for transport of 2 people and some tools. (2) A magnet mover. This robot could pick up a magnet and transport it at about 10 miles per hour. (3) An alignment robot. The alignment robot would intercept E.M. waves (microwaves, lasers) to determine its position in the tunnel. Then workers could come along inside the tunnel hoop and nail it together and to the floor. The trench would then be back-filled with a 1 foot berm on top. A rail system would be installed and a support stand for the magnet.

  12. Quantum tunneling through graphene nanorings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Zhenhua; Zhang, Z. Z.; Chang, Kai; Peeters, F. M.

    2010-05-01

    We investigate theoretically quantum transport through graphene nanorings in the presence of a perpendicular magnetic field. Our theoretical results demonstrate that the graphene nanorings behave like a resonant tunneling device, contrary to the Aharonov-Bohm oscillations found in conventional semiconductor rings. The resonant tunneling can be tuned by the Fermi energy, the size of the central part of the graphene nanorings and the external magnetic field.

  13. Quantum tunneling through graphene nanorings.

    PubMed

    Wu, Zhenhua; Zhang, Z Z; Chang, Kai; Peeters, F M

    2010-05-01

    We investigate theoretically quantum transport through graphene nanorings in the presence of a perpendicular magnetic field. Our theoretical results demonstrate that the graphene nanorings behave like a resonant tunneling device, contrary to the Aharonov-Bohm oscillations found in conventional semiconductor rings. The resonant tunneling can be tuned by the Fermi energy, the size of the central part of the graphene nanorings and the external magnetic field. PMID:20388970

  14. Guidelines for tunneling in enzymes

    PubMed Central

    Moser, Christopher C.; Ross Anderson, J. L.; Dutton, P. Leslie

    2010-01-01

    Summary Here we extend the engineering descriptions of simple, single-electron-tunneling chains common in oxidoreductases to quantify sequential oxidation-reduction rates of two-or-more electron cofactors and substrates. We identify when nicotinamides may be vulnerable to radical mediated oxidation-reduction and merge electron-tunneling expressions with the chemical rate expressions of Eyring. The work provides guidelines for the construction of new artificial oxidoreductases inspired by Nature but adopting independent design and redox engineering. PMID:20460101

  15. Selfsimilar time dependent shock structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beck, R.; Drury, L. O.

    1985-01-01

    Diffusive shock acceleration as an astrophysical mechanism for accelerating charged particles has the advantage of being highly efficient. This means however that the theory is of necessity nonlinear; the reaction of the accelerated particles on the shock structure and the acceleration process must be self-consistently included in any attempt to develop a complete theory of diffusive shock acceleration. Considerable effort has been invested in attempting, at least partially, to do this and it has become clear that in general either the maximum particle energy must be restricted by introducing additional loss processes into the problem or the acceleration must be treated as a time dependent problem (Drury, 1984). It is concluded that stationary modified shock structures can only exist for strong shocks if additional loss processes limit the maximum energy a particle can attain. This is certainly possible and if it occurs the energy loss from the shock will lead to much greater shock compressions. It is however equally possible that no such processes exist and we must then ask what sort of nonstationary shock structure develops. The ame argument which excludes stationary structures also rules out periodic solutions and indeed any solution where the width of the shock remains bounded. It follows that the width of the shock must increase secularly with time and it is natural to examine the possibility of selfsimilar time dependent solutions.

  16. Selfsimilar time dependent shock structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beck, R.; Drury, L. O.

    1985-08-01

    Diffusive shock acceleration as an astrophysical mechanism for accelerating charged particles has the advantage of being highly efficient. This means however that the theory is of necessity nonlinear; the reaction of the accelerated particles on the shock structure and the acceleration process must be self-consistently included in any attempt to develop a complete theory of diffusive shock acceleration. Considerable effort has been invested in attempting, at least partially, to do this and it has become clear that in general either the maximum particle energy must be restricted by introducing additional loss processes into the problem or the acceleration must be treated as a time dependent problem (Drury, 1984). It is concluded that stationary modified shock structures can only exist for strong shocks if additional loss processes limit the maximum energy a particle can attain. This is certainly possible and if it occurs the energy loss from the shock will lead to much greater shock compressions. It is however equally possible that no such processes exist and we must then ask what sort of nonstationary shock structure develops. The ame argument which excludes stationary structures also rules out periodic solutions and indeed any solution where the width of the shock remains bounded. It follows that the width of the shock must increase secularly with time and it is natural to examine the possibility of selfsimilar time dependent solutions.

  17. Shock-wave surfing

    SciTech Connect

    Laurence, Stuart J; Deiterding, Ralf

    2011-01-01

    A phenomenon referred to as shock-wave surfing , in which a body moves in such a way as to follow the shock wave generated by another upstream body, is investigated numerically and theoretically. This process can lead to the downstream body accumulating a significantly higher lateral velocity than would otherwise be possible, and thus is of importance in situations such as meteoroid fragmentation, in which the fragment separation behaviour following disruption is determined to a large extent by aerodynamic effects. The surfing effect is first investigated in the context of interactions between a sphere and a planar oblique shock. Numerical simulations are performed and a simple theoretical model is developed to determine the forces acting on the sphere. A phase-plane description is employed to elucidate features of the system dynamics. The theoretical model is then generalised to the more complex situation of aerodynamic interactions between two spheres, and, through comparisons with further computations, is shown to adequately predict, in particular, the final separation velocity of the surfing sphere in initially touching configurations. Both numerical simulations and theory indicate a strong influence of the body radius ratio on the separation process and predict a critical radius ratio for initially touching fragments that delineates entrainment of the smaller fragment within the larger fragment s shock from expulsion; this critical ratio also results in the most extended surfing. Further, these results show that an earlier prediction for the separation velocity to scale with the square root of the radius ratio does not accurately describe the separation behaviour. The theoretical model is then employed to investigate initial configurations with varying relative sphere positions and initial velocities. A phase-space description is also shown to be useful in elucidating the dynamics of the sphere-sphere system. With regard to meteoroid fragmentation, it is shown

  18. A New Forced Oscillation Capability for the Transonic Dynamics Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Piatak, David J.; Cleckner, Craig S.

    2002-01-01

    A new forced oscillation system has been installed and tested at NASA Langley Research Center's Transonic Dynamics Tunnel (TDT). The system is known as the Oscillating Turntable (OTT) and has been designed for the purpose of oscillating, large semispan models in pitch at frequencies up to 40 Hz to acquire high-quality unsteady pressure and loads data. Precisely controlled motions of a wind-tunnel model on the OTT can yield unsteady aerodynamic phenomena associated with flutter, limit cycle oscillations, shock dynamics, and non-linear aerodynamic effects on many vehicle configurations. This paper will discuss general design and components of the OTT and will present test data from performance testing and from research tests on two rigid semispan wind-tunnel models. The research tests were designed to challenge the OTT over a wide range of operating conditions while acquiring unsteady pressure data on a small rectangular supercritical wing and a large supersonic transport wing. These results will be presented to illustrate the performance capabilities, consistency of oscillations, and usefulness of the OTT as a research tool.

  19. Hot-jet simulation in cryogenic wind tunnels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Asai, Keisuke

    1989-01-01

    In order to evaluate hot jet simulation capability in cryogenic wind tunnel testing, simple theoretical calculations were performed. The similarity parameters, isentropic flow properties, and normal shock relations were calculated for a variety of jet simulation techniques. The results were compared with those estimated for a full scale flight condition. It was shown that the cryogenic wind tunnel testing provides an opportunity for the most accurate hot jet simulation technique. By using a compressed nitrogen gas at ambient or moderately elevated temperatures as a jet gas, most all of the relevant similarity parameters including the jet temperature and velocity ratios and the Reynolds numbers, can be set to the full scale flight values. The only exception is the ratio of specific heats for jet flow. In an attempt to match the ratio of specific heats for the turbojet flow, gases other than pure nitrogen were considered. It was found that a nitrogen/methane mixture at moderately elevated temperature behaves like the real combustion gas. Using this mixture as a jet gas, complete simulation of the full scale turbojet exhaust becomes possible in cryogenic wind tunnels.

  20. Geophysical investigations in deep horizontal holes drilled ahead of tunnelling

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carroll, R.D.; Cunningham, M.J.

    1980-01-01

    Deep horizontal drill holes have been used since 1967 by the Defense Nuclear Agency as a primary exploration tool for siting nuclear events in tunnels at the Nevada Test Site. The U.S. Geological Survey had developed geophysical logging techniques for obtaining resistivity and velocity in these holes, and to date 33 horizontal drill holes in excess of 300 m in depth have been successfully logged. The deepest hole was drilled to a horizontal depth of 1125 m. The purposes of the logging measurements are to define clay zones, because of the unstable ground conditions such zones can present to tunnelling, and to define zones of partially saturated rock, because of the attenuating effects such zones have on the shock wave generated by the nuclear detonation. Excessive attenuation is undesirable because the shock wave is used as a tunnel closure mechanism to contain debris and other undesirable explosion products. Measurements are made by pumping resistivity, sonic and geophone probes down the drill string and out of the bit into the open hole. Clay zones are defined by the electrical resistivity technique based on empirical data relating the magnitude of the resistivity measurement to qualitative clay content. Rock exhibiting resistivity of less than 20 ??-m is considered potentially unstable, and resistivities less than 10 ??-m indicate appreciable amounts of clay are present in the rock. Partially saturated rock zones are defined by the measurement of the rock sound speed. Zones in the rock which exhibit velocities less than 2450 m/sec are considered of potential concern. ?? 1980.

  1. Hydrogen film cooling with incident and swept-shock interactions in a Mach 6.4 nitrogen free stream

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olsen, George C.; Nowak, Robert J.

    1995-01-01

    The effectiveness of slot film cooling of a flat plate in a Mach 6.4 flow with and without incident and swept oblique shock interactions was experimentally investigated. Hydrogen was the primary coolant gas, although some tests were conducted using helium as the coolant. Tests were conducted in the Calspan 48-Inch Shock Tunnel with a nitrogen flow field to preclude combustion of the hydrogen coolant gas. A two-dimensional highly instrumented model developed in a previous test series was used. Parameters investigated included coolant mass flow rate, coolant gas, local free-stream Reynolds number, incident oblique shock strength, and a swept oblique shock. Both gases were highly effective coolants in undisturbed flow; however, both incident and swept shocks degraded that effectiveness.

  2. Effect of Pulsed Plasma Jets on Reflected Shock-Turbulent Boundary Layer Interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greene, Benton R.; Clemens, Noel T.; Magari, Patrick; Micka, Daniel

    2013-11-01

    Shock-induced turbulent boundary layer separation can have many detrimental effects in supersonic inlets including flow instability, fatigue of structural panels, poor pressure recovery, and unstart. Pulsed plasma jets (or ``spark jets''), zero net mass flow jets characterized by high bandwidth and the ability to direct momentum into the flow, are one promising method of reducing shock-induced separation and boundary layer distortion. The current study is focused on investigating the efficacy of pulsed plasma jets to reduce the boundary layer distortion induced by a reflected shock interaction in a Mach 3 flow. A 7° shock generator placed outside the tunnel ceiling boundary layer produces an incident shock on the floor of the tunnel of sufficient strength to induce separation. An array of pulsed plasma jets are placed approximately 2 boundary layer thicknesses upstream of the interaction and pulsed at between 1 kHz and 4 kHz. PIV is used to investigate the effect of the jets on the nature of the separation as well as the boundary layer distortion and pressure recovery downstream of the interaction. Funded through AFRL in collaboration with Creare, Inc.

  3. 5-foot Vertical Wind Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1932-01-01

    The researcher is sitting above the exit cone of the 5-foot Vertical Wind Tunnel and is examining the new 6-component spinning balance. This balance was developed between 1930 and 1933. It was an important advance in the technology of rotating or rolling balances. As M.J. Bamber and C.H. Zimmerman wrote in NACA TR 456: 'Data upon the aerodynamic characteristics of a spinning airplane may be obtained in several ways; namely, flight tests with full-scale airplanes, flight tests with balanced models, strip-method analysis of wind-tunnel force and moment tests, and wind-tunnel tests of rotating models.' Further, they note: 'Rolling-balance data have been of limited value because it has not been possible to measure all six force and moment components or to reproduce a true spinning condition. The spinning balance used in this investigation is a 6-component rotating balance from which it is possible to obtain wind-tunnel data for any of a wide range of possible spinning conditions.' Bamber and Zimmerman described the balance as follows: 'The spinning balance consists of a balance head that supports the model and contains the force-measuring units, a horizontal turntable supported by streamline struts in the center of the jet and, outside the tunnel, a direct-current driving motor, a liquid tachometer, an air compressor, a mercury manometer, a pair of indicating lamps, and the necessary controls. The balance head is mounted on the turntable and it may be set to give any radius of spin between 0 and 8 inches.' In an earlier report, NACA TR 387, Carl Wenzinger and Thomas Harris supply this description of the tunnel: 'The vertical open-throat wind tunnel of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics ... was built mainly for studying the spinning characteristics of airplane models, but may be used as well for the usual types of wind-tunnel tests. A special spinning balance is being developed to measure the desired forces and moments with the model simulating the actual

  4. Spin-dependent tunneling effects in magnetic tunnel junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Li

    2009-03-01

    It has long been known that current extracted from magnetic electrodes through ultra thin oxide tunnel barriers is spin polarized. This current gives rise to two important properties: tunneling magnetoresistance (TMR) when the tunnel barrier is sandwiched between two thin magnetic electrodes and, spin momentum transfer, which can be used to manipulate the magnetic state of the magnetic electrodes. In the first part of my talk I show how the structure of thin CoFe layers can be made amorphous by simply sandwiching them between two amorphous layers, one of them the tunnel barrier. No glass forming elements are needed. By slightly changing the thickness of these layers or by heating them above their glass transition temperature they become crystalline. Surprisingly, the TMR of the amorphous structure is significantly higher than of its crystalline counterpart. The tunneling anisotropic magnetoresistance, which has complex voltage dependence, is also discussed. In the second part of my talk I discuss the microwave emission spectrum from magnetic tunnel junctions induced by spin torque from spin polarized dc current passed through the device. We show that the spectrum is very sensitive to small variations in device structures, even in those devices which exhibit similarly high TMR (˜120%) and which have similar resistance-area products (˜4-10 φμm^2). We speculate that these variations are due to non-uniform spatial magnetic excitation arising from inhomogeneous current flow through the tunnel barrier. [In collaboration with Xin Jiang, M. Hayashi, Rai Moriya, Brian Hughes, Teya Topuria, Phil Rice, and Stuart S.P. Parkin

  5. Tunnel boring machine

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, J.

    1985-10-22

    A tunnel boring machine including the following elements: a full face rotary cutterhead; a cutterhead support on which the cutterhead is mounted; a gripper system carried by a gripper support frame for reacting thrust, steering, roll correction, and torque forces; a conveyor system for transporting muck from behind the rotary cutterhead to a dump point rearwardly of the machine; primary propel cylinders for advancing the cutterhead which are mounted between the gripper support frame and the cutterhead support, the primary propel cylinders consisting of a series of at least three pairs of double acting hydraulic cylinders arranged annularly in equally spaced apart locations and in a series of V-shaped configurations between the gripper support frame and the cutterhead support, each such pair of primary propel cylinders having an included angle between the cylinders of about 15/sup 0/ and 60/sup 0/ and with a line bisecting the included angle between the cylinders extending generally parallel to the longitudinal centerline of the machine; and a hydraulic control system for controlling the pairs of primary propel cylinders to effect axial forward thrust on the cutterhead by simultaneous actuation of all the primary propel cylinders while transmitting the reaction torque exerted on the cutterhead support by rotation of the cutterhead, steering of the cutterhead support and the cutterhead by selective actuation of only a portion of the primary propel cylinders, and roll corrections of the cutterhead support and the cutterhead by selective actuation of alternate members of the primary propel cylinders.

  6. Majorana tunneling entropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smirnov, Sergey

    2015-11-01

    In thermodynamics a macroscopic state of a system results from a number of its microscopic states. This number is given by the exponent of the system's entropy exp(S ) . In noninteracting systems with discrete energy spectra, such as large scale quantum dots, S as a function of the temperature has usually a plateau shape with integer values of exp(S ) on these plateaus. Plateaus with noninteger values of exp(S ) are fundamentally forbidden and would be thermodynamically infeasible. Here we investigate the entropy of a noninteracting quantum dot coupled via tunneling to normal metals with continuum spectra as well as to topological superconductors. We show that the entropy may have noninteger plateaus if the topological superconductors support weakly overlapping Majorana bound states. This brings a fundamental change in the thermodynamics of the quantum dot whose specific heat cV acquires low-temperature Majorana peaks which should be absent according to the conventional thermodynamics. We also provide a fundamental thermodynamic understanding of the transport properties, such as the linear conductance. In general our results show that the thermodynamics of systems coupled to Majorana modes represents a fundamental physical interest with diverse applications depending on versatility of possible coupling mechanisms.

  7. Experimental Investigation of the Application of Microramp Flow Control to an Oblique Shock Interaction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hirt, Stefanie M.; Anderson, Bernhard H.

    2009-01-01

    The effectiveness of microramp flow control devices in controlling an oblique shock interaction was tested in the 15- by 15-Centimeter Supersonic Wind Tunnel at NASA Glenn Research Center. Fifteen microramp geometries were tested varying the height, chord length, and spacing between ramps. Measurements of the boundary layer properties downstream of the shock reflection were analyzed using design of experiments methods. Results from main effects, D-optimal, full factorial, and central composite designs were compared. The designs provided consistent results for a single variable optimization.

  8. Shock metamorphism of carbonaceous chondrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott, Edward R. D.; Keil, Klaus; Stoeffler, Dieter

    1992-01-01

    Shock effects were studied in 69 carbonaceous chondrites, including CM2, CO3, CV3, ungrouped C2-C4, and CK4-6 chondrites, using optical microscopy of thin sections. It is shown that the classification scheme of Stoeffler et al. (1991) for the progressive stages of shock metamorphism in ordinary chondrites is also applicable to carbonaceous chondrites. On the basis of shock effects in olivine, the 69 carbonaceous chondrites could be assigned to four shock stage, S1 to S4. The CM2 and CO3 groups were found to be the least shocked chondrite groups, whereas the CK4-6 and CV3 were the most strongly shocked groups.

  9. Real gas flow parameters for NASA Langley 22-inch Mach 20 helium tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hollis, Brian R.

    1992-01-01

    A computational procedure was developed which can be used to determine the flow properties in hypersonic helium wind tunnels in which real gas behavior is significant. In this procedure, a three-coefficient virial equation of state and the assumption of isentropic nozzle flow are employed to determine the tunnel reservoir, nozzle, throat, freestream, and post-normal shock conditions. This method was applied to a range of conditions which encompasses the operational capabilities of the LaRC 22-Inch Mach 20 Helium Tunnel. Results are presented graphically in the form of real gas correction factors which can be applied to perfect gas calculations. Important thermodynamic properties of helium are also plotted versus pressure and temperature. The computational scheme used to determine the real-helium flow parameters was incorporated into a FORTRAN code which is discussed.

  10. Description and preliminary calibration results for the Langley hypersonic CF4 tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Midden, R. E.; Miller, C. G.

    1978-01-01

    A detailed description of the hypersonic CF4 tunnel is presented along with discussion of the basic components, instrumentation, and operating procedure. Operational experience with the CF4 reclaimer and lead-bath heater is discussed. Comparison of measured and predicted shock detachment distance on a sphere and pressure distributions measured on a sharp leading-edge flat plate revealed the absence of significant flow nonuniformity and lent creditability to predicted free stream flow conditions. The economic operation of this facility centers about the CF4 reclaimer, which was designed to operate at an efficiency of 90 to 95 percent. A number of modifications were made to the reclaimer system to improve its performance, and presently, the system reclaims approximately 75 percent of the test gas. Even with current budgetary constraints, this efficiency permits the CF4 tunnel to be operated as a viable research wind tunnel.

  11. Scanning Tunneling Optical Resonance Microscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, Sheila; Wilt, Dave; Raffaelle, Ryne; Gennett, Tom; Tin, Padetha; Lau, Janice; Castro, Stephanie; Jenkins, Philip; Scheiman, Dave

    2003-01-01

    Scanning tunneling optical resonance microscopy (STORM) is a method, now undergoing development, for measuring optoelectronic properties of materials and devices on the nanoscale by means of a combination of (1) traditional scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) with (2) tunable laser spectroscopy. In STORM, an STM tip probing a semiconductor is illuminated with modulated light at a wavelength in the visible-to-near-infrared range and the resulting photoenhancement of the tunneling current is measured as a function of the illuminating wavelength. The photoenhancement of tunneling current occurs when the laser photon energy is sufficient to excite charge carriers into the conduction band of the semiconductor. Figure 1 schematically depicts a proposed STORM apparatus. The light for illuminating the semiconductor specimen at the STM would be generated by a ring laser that would be tunable across the wavelength range of interest. The laser beam would be chopped by an achromatic liquid-crystal modulator. A polarization-maintaining optical fiber would couple the light to the tip/sample junction of a commercial STM. An STM can be operated in one of two modes: constant height or constant current. A STORM apparatus would be operated in the constant-current mode, in which the height of the tip relative to the specimen would be varied in order to keep the tunneling current constant. In this mode, a feedback control circuit adjusts the voltage applied to a piezoelectric actuator in the STM that adjusts the height of the STM tip to keep the tunneling current constant. The exponential relationship between the tunneling current and tip-to-sample distance makes it relatively easy to implement this mode of operation. The choice of method by which the photoenhanced portion of the tunneling current would be measured depends on choice of the frequency at which the input illumination would be modulated (chopped). If the frequency of modulation were low enough (typically < 10 Hz) that the

  12. Investigation to optimize the passive shock wave/boundary layer control for supercritical airfoil drag reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nagamatsu, H. T.; Dyer, R.

    1984-01-01

    The passive shock wave/boundary layer control for reducing the drag of 14%-thick supercritical airfoil was investigated in the 3 in. x 15.4 in. RPI Transonic Wind Tunnel with and without the top wall insert at transonic Mach numbers. Top wall insert was installed to increase the flow Mach number to 0.90 with the model mounted on the test section bottom wall. Various porous surfaces with a cavity underneath were positioned on the area of the airfoil where the shock wave occurs. The higher pressure behind the shock wave circulates flow through the cavity to the lower pressure ahead of the shock wave. The effects from this circulation prevent boundary layer separation and enthropy increase hrough the shock wave. The static pressure distributions over the airfoil, the wake impact pressure survey for determining the profile drag and the Schlieren photographs for porous surfaces are presented and compared with the results for solid surface airfoil. With a 2.8% uniform porosity the normal shock wave for the solid surface was changed to a lambda shock wave, and the wake impact pressure data indicate a drag coefficient reduction as much as 45% lower than for the solid surface airfoil at high transonic Mach numbers.

  13. Flexible Multi-Shock Shield

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christiansen, Eric L. (Inventor); Crews, Jeanne L. (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    Flexible multi-shock shield system and method are disclosed for defending against hypervelocity particles. The flexible multi-shock shield system and method may include a number of flexible bumpers or shield layers spaced apart by one or more resilient support layers, all of which may be encapsulated in a protective cover. Fasteners associated with the protective cover allow the flexible multi-shock shield to be secured to the surface of a structure to be protected.

  14. The self streamlining wind tunnel. [wind tunnel walls

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodyer, M. J.

    1975-01-01

    A two dimensional test section in a low speed wind tunnel capable of producing flow conditions free from wall interference is presented. Flexible top and bottom walls, and rigid sidewalls from which models were mounted spanning the tunnel are shown. All walls were unperforated, and the flexible walls were positioned by screw jacks. To eliminate wall interference, the wind tunnel itself supplied the information required in the streamlining process, when run with the model present. Measurements taken at the flexible walls were used by the tunnels computer check wall contours. Suitable adjustments based on streamlining criteria were then suggested by the computer. The streamlining criterion adopted when generating infinite flowfield conditions was a matching of static pressures in the test section at a wall with pressures computed for an imaginary inviscid flowfield passing over the outside of the same wall. Aerodynamic data taken on a cylindrical model operating under high blockage conditions are presented to illustrate the operation of the tunnel in its various modes.

  15. Characteristics of Hydraulic Shock Waves in an Inclined Chute Contraction by Using Three Dimensional Numerical Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsiao, Kai-Wen; Hsu, Yu-Chao; Jan, Chyan-Deng; Su, Yu-Wen

    2016-04-01

    The inclined rectangular chute construction is a common structure used in hydraulic engineering for typical reasons such as the increase of bottom slope, the transition from side channel intakes to tunnel spillways, the drainage construction, and the reduction of chute width due to bridges, flood diversion structures or irrigation systems. The converging vertical sidewalls of a chute contraction deflect the supercritical flow to form hydraulic shock waves. Hydraulic shock waves have narrow and locally extreme wavy surfaces, which commonly results in the requirement of higher height of sidewalls. Therefore, predicting the possible height and position of maximum hydraulic shock wave are necessary to design the required height of sidewalls to prevent flow overtopping. In this study, we used a three-dimensional computation fluid dynamics model (i.e., FLOW-3D) to simulate the characteristics of hydraulic shock waves in an inclined chute contraction. For this purpose, the parameters of simulated hydraulic shock wave, such as the shock angle, maximum shock wave height and maximum shock wave position in various conditions are compared with those calculated by the empirical relations obtained from literatures. We showed that the simulated results are extremely close to the experimental results. The numerical results validated the applicability of these empirical relations and extend their applicability to higher approach Froude numbers from 3.51 to 7.27. Furthermore, we also applied the Yuan-Shan-Tsu flood diversion channel under 200-year peak flow condition to FLOW-3D model to simulate the hydraulic shock waves and validate the effect of the installation of a diversion pier in the channel on promoting the stability of flow fluid. The results revealed that a diversion pier installed in the Yuan-Shan-Tsu flood diversion channel is helpful for improving the stability of flow field. In summary, this study demonstrates that FLOW-3D model can be used to simulate the

  16. Quasiperpendicular High Mach Number Shocks.

    PubMed

    Sulaiman, A H; Masters, A; Dougherty, M K; Burgess, D; Fujimoto, M; Hospodarsky, G B

    2015-09-18

    Shock waves exist throughout the Universe and are fundamental to understanding the nature of collisionless plasmas. Reformation is a process, driven by microphysics, which typically occurs at high Mach number supercritical shocks. While ongoing studies have investigated this process extensively both theoretically and via simulations, their observations remain few and far between. In this Letter we present a study of very high Mach number shocks in a parameter space that has been poorly explored and we identify reformation using in situ magnetic field observations from the Cassini spacecraft at 10 AU. This has given us an insight into quasiperpendicular shocks across 2 orders of magnitude in Alfvén Mach number (M_{A}) which could potentially bridge the gap between modest terrestrial shocks and more exotic astrophysical shocks. For the first time, we show evidence for cyclic reformation controlled by specular ion reflection occurring at the predicted time scale of ~0.3τ_{c}, where τ_{c} is the ion gyroperiod. In addition, we experimentally reveal the relationship between reformation and M_{A} and focus on the magnetic structure of such shocks to further show that for the same M_{A}, a reforming shock exhibits stronger magnetic field amplification than a shock that is not reforming. PMID:26430997

  17. Raman spectroscopy of shocked water

    SciTech Connect

    Holmes, N.C.; Mitchell, A.C.; Nellis, W.J.; Graham, W.B.; Walrafen, G.E.

    1983-07-01

    Raman scattering has been used extensively to study the vibrational and rotational properties of molecules under a variety of conditions. Here, interest is in the behavior of water molecules shocked to high pressures and temperatures. Behind the shock front the water molecules undergo changes in bonding and the molecules may become ionized. Raman spectroscopy can be used to determine the molecular species behind the shock front. In addition, changes in Raman spectra can yield information regarding inter- and intramolecular potentials and the temperature behind the shock front.

  18. Shock metamorphism of ordinary chondrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoeffler, Dieter; Keil, Klaus; Scott, Edward R. D.

    1991-01-01

    This study proposes a revised petrographic classification of progressive stages of shock metamorphism of 26 ordinary chondrites. Six stages of shock (S1 to S6) are defined on the basis of shock effects in olivine and plagioclase as recognized by thin section microscopy, and the characteristic shock effects of each shock stage are described. It is concluded that shock effects and the sequence of progressively increasing degrees of shock metamorphosis are very similar in H, L, and LL groups. Differences in the frequency distribution of shock stages are relatively minor. It is suggested that the collisional histories of the H, L, and LL parent bodies were similar. Petrologic type-3 chondrites are deficient in stages S4 and S6 and, with increasing petrologic type, the frequency of stages S4 to S6 increases. It is suggested that the more porous and volatile-rich Type-3 chondrites are subject to melting at a lower shock pressure than the nonporous chondrites of higher petrologic type. Stage S3 is the most abundant in nearly all petrologic types.

  19. Quasiperpendicular High Mach Number Shocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sulaiman, A. H.; Masters, A.; Dougherty, M. K.; Burgess, D.; Fujimoto, M.; Hospodarsky, G. B.

    2015-09-01

    Shock waves exist throughout the Universe and are fundamental to understanding the nature of collisionless plasmas. Reformation is a process, driven by microphysics, which typically occurs at high Mach number supercritical shocks. While ongoing studies have investigated this process extensively both theoretically and via simulations, their observations remain few and far between. In this Letter we present a study of very high Mach number shocks in a parameter space that has been poorly explored and we identify reformation using in situ magnetic field observations from the Cassini spacecraft at 10 AU. This has given us an insight into quasiperpendicular shocks across 2 orders of magnitude in Alfvén Mach number (MA ) which could potentially bridge the gap between modest terrestrial shocks and more exotic astrophysical shocks. For the first time, we show evidence for cyclic reformation controlled by specular ion reflection occurring at the predicted time scale of ˜0.3 τc , where τc is the ion gyroperiod. In addition, we experimentally reveal the relationship between reformation and MA and focus on the magnetic structure of such shocks to further show that for the same MA , a reforming shock exhibits stronger magnetic field amplification than a shock that is not reforming.

  20. Raman spectroscopy of shocked water

    SciTech Connect

    Holmes, N.C.; Nellis, W.J.; Graham, W.B.; Walrafen, G.E.

    1985-08-01

    We describe a new technique for recording spontaneous Raman spectra from molecules during the passage of strong shock waves. We have used this technique to study the OH-stretch band of liquid H/sub 2/O shocked to pressure up to 26 GPa and 1700 K. The shape of the band changes over the range 7.5-26 GPa, and is described well by a two-component mixture model, implying changes in the intermolecular coupling of shock compressed water molecules. We discuss the implications of the spectra on the mechanism responsible for the electrical conductivity of shocked H/sub 2/O. 22 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  1. Maskelynite: Formation by Explosive Shock.

    PubMed

    Milton, D J; de Carli, P S

    1963-05-10

    When high pressure (250 to 300 kilobars) was applied suddenly (shock-loading) to gabbro, the plagioclase was transformed to a noncrystalline phase (maskelynite) by a solid-state reaction at a low temperature, while the proxene remained crystalline. The shock-loaded gabbro resembles meteorites of the shergottite class; this suggests that the latter formed as a result of shock. The shock-loading of gabbro at 600 to 800 kilobars raised the temperature above the melting range of the plagioclase. PMID:17737107

  2. Martian bow shock - PHOBOS observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwingenschuh, K.; Riedler, W.; Lichtenegger, H.; Yeroshenko, Ye.; Sauer, K.; Luhmann, J. G.; Ong, M.; Russell, C. T.

    1990-05-01

    Data obtained with the Magma magnetometer on the subsolar passes of the Phobos spacecraft during its 3 elliptic orbits reveals a turbulent bow shock with a strong foot consistent with the reflection of solar wind protons. The bow shock lies at a subsolar distance of 1.47 + or - .03 R(M). The circular orbit phase of the mission reveals a bow shock with a highly varying location. The median terminator crossing lies at 2.72 Mars radii. The location of the bow shock in the terminator plane is sensitive to neither the EUV flux nor to planetary longitude.

  3. Improved multidimensional semiclassical tunneling theory.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Albert F

    2013-12-12

    We show that the analytic multidimensional semiclassical tunneling formula of Miller et al. [Miller, W. H.; Hernandez, R.; Handy, N. C.; Jayatilaka, D.; Willets, A. Chem. Phys. Lett. 1990, 172, 62] is qualitatively incorrect for deep tunneling at energies well below the top of the barrier. The origin of this deficiency is that the formula uses an effective barrier weakly related to the true energetics but correctly adjusted to reproduce the harmonic description and anharmonic corrections of the reaction path at the saddle point as determined by second order vibrational perturbation theory. We present an analytic improved semiclassical formula that correctly includes energetic information and allows a qualitatively correct representation of deep tunneling. This is done by constructing a three segment composite Eckart potential that is continuous everywhere in both value and derivative. This composite potential has an analytic barrier penetration integral from which the semiclassical action can be derived and then used to define the semiclassical tunneling probability. The middle segment of the composite potential by itself is superior to the original formula of Miller et al. because it incorporates the asymmetry of the reaction barrier produced by the known reaction exoergicity. Comparison of the semiclassical and exact quantum tunneling probability for the pure Eckart potential suggests a simple threshold multiplicative factor to the improved formula to account for quantum effects very near threshold not represented by semiclassical theory. The deep tunneling limitations of the original formula are echoed in semiclassical high-energy descriptions of bound vibrational states perpendicular to the reaction path at the saddle point. However, typically ab initio energetic information is not available to correct it. The Supporting Information contains a Fortran code, test input, and test output that implements the improved semiclassical tunneling formula. PMID:24224758

  4. Characterization of Shocked Beryllium

    SciTech Connect

    Cady, Carl M; Adams, Chris D; Hull, Lawrence M; Gray III, George T; Prime, Michael B; Addessio, Francis L; Wynn, Thomas A; Brown, Eric N

    2012-08-24

    Beryllium metal has many excellent structural properties in addition to its unique radiation characteristics, including: high elastic modulus, low Poisson's ratio, low density, and high melting point. However, it suffers from several major mechanical drawbacks: 1) high anisotropy - due to its hexagonal lattice structure and its susceptibility to crystallographic texturing; 2) susceptibility to impurity-induced fracture - due to grain boundary segregation; and 3) low intrinsic ductility at ambient temperatures thereby limiting fabricability. While large ductility results from deformation under the conditions of compression, the material can exhibit a brittle behavior under tension. Furthermore, there is a brittle to ductile transition at approximately 200 C under tensile conditions. While numerous studies have investigated the low-strain-rate constitutive response of beryllium, the combined influence of high strain rate and temperature on the mechanical behavior and microstructure of beryllium has received limited attention over the last 40 years. Prior studies have focused on tensile loading behavior, or limited conditions of dynamic strain rate and/or temperature. The beryllium used in this study was Grade S200-F (Brush Wellman, Inc., Elmore, OH) material. The work focused on high strain rate deformation and examine the validity of constitutive models in deformation rate regimes, including shock, the experiments were modeled using a Lagrangian hydrocode. Two constitutive strength (plasticity) models, the Preston-Tonks-Wallace (PTW) and Mechanical Threshold Stress (MTS) models, were calibrated using the same set of quasi-static and Hopkinson bar data taken at temperatures from 77K to 873K and strain rates from 0.001/sec to 4300/sec. In spite of being calibrated on the same data, the two models give noticeably different results when compared with the measured wave profiles. These high strain rate tests were conducted using both explosive drive and a gas gun to

  5. SHOCK-EXCITED OSCILLATOR

    DOEpatents

    Creveling, R.

    1957-12-17

    S> A shock-excited quartz crystal oscillator is described. The circuit was specifically designed for application in micro-time measuring work to provide an oscillator which immediately goes into oscillation upon receipt of a trigger pulse and abruptly ceases oscillation when a second pulse is received. To achieve the instant action, the crystal has a prestressing voltage applied across it. A monostable multivibrator receives the on and off trigger pulses and discharges a pulse through the crystal to initiate or terminate oscillation instantly.

  6. Shocks in supersonic sand.

    PubMed

    Rericha, Erin C; Bizon, Chris; Shattuck, Mark D; Swinney, Harry L

    2002-01-01

    We measure time-averaged velocity, density, and temperature fields for steady granular flow past a wedge. We find the flow to be supersonic with a speed of granular pressure disturbances (sound speed) equal to about 10% of the flow speed, and we observe shocks nearly identical to those in a supersonic gas. Molecular dynamics simulations of Newton's laws yield fields in quantitative agreement with experiment. A numerical solution of Navier-Stokes-like equations agrees with a molecular dynamics simulation for experimental conditions excluding wall friction. PMID:11800951

  7. Experimental studies on two dimensional shock boundary layer interactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skebe, S. A.; Greber, I.; Hingst, W. R.

    1984-01-01

    Experiments have been performed on the interaction of oblique shock waves with flat plate boundary layers in the 30.48 cm x 30.48 cm (1 ft. x 1 ft.) supersonic wind tunnel at NASA Lewis Research Center. High accuracy measurements of the plate surface static pressure and shear stress distributions as well as boundary layer velocity profiles were obtained through the interaction region. Documentation was also performed of the tunnel test section flow field and of the two-dimensionality of the interaction regions. The findings provide detailed description of two-dimensional interaction with initially laminar boundary layers over the Mach number range 2.0 to 4.0. Additional information with regard to interactions involving initially transitional boundary layers is presented over the Mach number range 2.0 to 3.0 and those for initially turbulent boundary layers at Mach 2.0. These experiments were directed toward providing well documented information of high accuracy useful as test cases for analytic and numerical calculations. Flow conditions encompassed a Reynolds number range of 4.72E6 to 2.95E7 per meter. The shock boundary layer interaction results were found to be generally in good agreement with the experimental work of previous authors both in terms of direct numerical comparison and in support of correlations establishing laminar separation characteristics.

  8. Survey of Aerothermodynamics Facilities Useful for the Design of Hypersonic Vehicles Using Air-Breathing Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnold, James O.; Deiwert, George S.

    1997-01-01

    This paper surveys the use of aerothermodynamic facilities which have been useful in the study of external flows and propulsion aspects of hypersonic, air-breathing vehicles. While the paper is not a survey of all facilities, it covers the utility of shock tunnels and conventional hypersonic blow-down facilities which have been used for hypersonic air-breather studies. The problems confronting researchers in the field of aerothermodynamics are outlined. Results from the T5 GALCIT tunnel for the shock-on lip problem are outlined. Experiments on combustors and short expansion nozzles using the semi-free jet method have been conducted in large shock tunnels. An example which employed the NASA Ames 16-Inch shock tunnel is outlined, and the philosophy of the test technique is described. Conventional blow-down hypersonic wind tunnels are quite useful in hypersonic air-breathing studies. Results from an expansion ramp experiment, simulating the nozzle on a hypersonic air-breather from the NASA Ames 3.5 Foot Hypersonic wind tunnel are summarized. Similar work on expansion nozzles conducted in the NASA Langley hypersonic wind tunnel complex is cited. Free-jet air-frame propulsion integration and configuration stability experiments conducted at Langley in the hypersonic wind tunnel complex on a small generic model are also summarized.

  9. Interface-modification-enhanced tunnel electroresistance in multiferroic tunnel junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, H. J.; Miao, P. X.; Cong, J. Z.; Song, C.; Cui, B.; Peng, J. J.; Li, F.; Wang, G. Y.; Zhao, Y. G.; Sun, Y.; Xiao, L. R.; Pan, F.

    2014-08-01

    We report a large tunnel electroresistance (TER) effect up to ˜104% in La0.67Sr0.33MnO3/BaTiO3/Co (LSMO/BTO/Co) multiferroic tunnel junctions (MFTJs), which couples with well-defined tunnel magnetoresistance. The large TER is related to (LaAlO3)0.3(LaSrTaO6)0.7 substrates which guarantee a high-quality LSMO/BTO interface and robust ferroelectricity in BTO. The insert of 0.5 nm-thick Pt between the Co electrode and BTO barrier further enhances the TER value to 105% and improves the endurance of the MFTJs, ascribed to the shortened screening length and reduced oxidation of BTO/Co interface. Their use would advance the process towards practical MFTJs with four resistance states.

  10. Shock-fitted Euler solutions to shock-vortex interactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salas, M. E.; Zang, T. A.; Hussaini, M. Y.

    1982-01-01

    The interaction of a shock wave with a hot spot, a single vortex and a vortex street is studied within the framework of the two dimensional compressible Euler equations. The numerical results obtained by the pseudospectral method and the finite difference MacCormack method are compared. In both the methods the shock wave is fitted as a boundary of the computational domain.

  11. Finite Mach number spherical shock wave, application to shock ignition

    SciTech Connect

    Vallet, A.; Ribeyre, X.; Tikhonchuk, V.

    2013-08-15

    A converging and diverging spherical shock wave with a finite initial Mach number M{sub s0} is described by using a perturbative approach over a small parameter M{sub s}{sup −2}. The zeroth order solution is the Guderley's self-similar solution. The first order correction to this solution accounts for the effects of the shock strength. Whereas it was constant in the Guderley's asymptotic solution, the amplification factor of the finite amplitude shock Λ(t)∝dU{sub s}/dR{sub s} now varies in time. The coefficients present in its series form are iteratively calculated so that the solution does not undergo any singular behavior apart from the position of the shock. The analytical form of the corrected solution in the vicinity of singular points provides a better physical understanding of the finite shock Mach number effects. The correction affects mainly the flow density and the pressure after the shock rebound. In application to the shock ignition scheme, it is shown that the ignition criterion is modified by more than 20% if the fuel pressure prior to the final shock is taken into account. A good agreement is obtained with hydrodynamic simulations using a Lagrangian code.

  12. Finite Mach number spherical shock wave, application to shock ignition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vallet, A.; Ribeyre, X.; Tikhonchuk, V.

    2013-08-01

    A converging and diverging spherical shock wave with a finite initial Mach number Ms0 is described by using a perturbative approach over a small parameter Ms-2. The zeroth order solution is the Guderley's self-similar solution. The first order correction to this solution accounts for the effects of the shock strength. Whereas it was constant in the Guderley's asymptotic solution, the amplification factor of the finite amplitude shock Λ(t)∝dUs/dRs now varies in time. The coefficients present in its series form are iteratively calculated so that the solution does not undergo any singular behavior apart from the position of the shock. The analytical form of the corrected solution in the vicinity of singular points provides a better physical understanding of the finite shock Mach number effects. The correction affects mainly the flow density and the pressure after the shock rebound. In application to the shock ignition scheme, it is shown that the ignition criterion is modified by more than 20% if the fuel pressure prior to the final shock is taken into account. A good agreement is obtained with hydrodynamic simulations using a Lagrangian code.

  13. Conversion of Non-Tunneled to Tunneled Hemodialysis Catheters

    SciTech Connect

    Ha, Thuong G. Van Fimmen, Derek; Han, Laura; Funaki, Brian S.; Santeler, Scott; Lorenz, Jonathan

    2007-04-15

    Purpose. To determine the safety and efficacy of conversion of non-tunneled (temporary) catheters to tunneled catheters in hemodialysis patients. Methods. A retrospective review of 112 consecutive conversions in 111 patients was performed over a period of 4 years. Fourteen patients were lost to follow-up. The remaining 97 patients had clinical follow-up. Temporary catheters were converted to tunneled catheters utilizing the same internal jugular venotomy sites and a modified over-the-wire technique with use of a peel-away sheath . Follow-up clinical data were reviewed. Results. Technical success was achieved in all 112 procedures. None of the 97 patients with follow-up suffered early infection within 30 days. The total number of follow-up catheter days was 13,659 (range 2-790). Cases of confirmed and suspected bacteremia requiring catheter removal occurred at a frequency of 0.10 per 100 catheter days. Suspected catheter infection treated with antibiotics but not requiring catheter intervention occurred at a frequency of 0.04 per 100 catheter days. Frequency of all suspected or confirmed infections was 0.14 per 100 catheter days. Catheter interventions as a result of poor blood flow, inadvertent removal, catheter fracture, or kinking occurred at a rate of 0.18 per 100 catheter days. Life table analysis revealed primary patency rates of 86%, 64%, and 39% at 30 days, 90 days, and 180 days, respectively. Conclusion. Conversion of temporary catheters to tunneled catheters using the pre-existing venotomy sites is safe and has low rates of infection and malfunction. These rates are comparable to previously published rates for tunneled catheters placed de novo and tunneled catheter exchanges.

  14. National Wind Tunnel Complex (NWTC)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The National Wind Tunnel Complex (NWTC) Final Report summarizes the work carried out by a unique Government/Industry partnership during the period of June 1994 through May 1996. The objective of this partnership was to plan, design, build and activate 'world class' wind tunnel facilities for the development of future-generation commercial and military aircraft. The basis of this effort was a set of performance goals defined by the National Facilities Study (NFS) Task Group on Aeronautical Research and Development Facilities which established two critical measures of improved wind tunnel performance; namely, higher Reynolds number capability and greater productivity. Initial activities focused upon two high-performance tunnels (low-speed and transonic). This effort was later descoped to a single multipurpose tunnel. Beginning in June 1994, the NWTC Project Office defined specific performance requirements, planned site evaluation activities, performed a series of technical/cost trade studies, and completed preliminary engineering to support a proposed conceptual design. Due to budget uncertainties within the Federal government, the NWTC project office was directed to conduct an orderly closure following the Systems Design Review in March 1996. This report provides a top-level status of the project at that time. Additional details of all work performed have been archived and are available for future reference.

  15. Time-dependent quasi-one-dimensional simulations of high enthalpy pulse facilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Gregory J.

    1992-01-01

    A numerical methodology is presented for simulating the time-dependent reacting flow inside the entire length of high enthalpy pulse facilities. The methodology is based on a finite-volume TVD scheme for the quasi-1D Euler equations coupled with finite-rate chemistry. A moving mesh and tracking of gas interfaces are used to overcome certain numerical difficulties associated with these types of flows. Simulation results of a helium driven shock tube show that computations can be used to predict the off-tailored behavior of shock tubes and tunnels. Particular attention is given to computations of the flow through the NASA Ames 16-inch combustion driven shock tunnel which show the influence of nonuniformities in the driver section on the reservoir conditions; and the effect of finite secondary diaphragm opening times on the chemical composition of the test flow in the HYPULSE expansion tube.

  16. Advanced ballistic range technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yates, Leslie A.

    1994-01-01

    The research conducted supported two facilities at NASA Ames Research Center: the Hypervelocity Free-Flight Aerodynamic Facility and the 16-Inch Shock Tunnel. During the grant period, a computerized film-reading system was developed, and five- and six-degree-of-freedom parameter-identification routines were written and successfully implemented. Studies of flow separation were conducted, and methods to extract phase shift information from finite-fringe interferograms were developed. Methods for constructing optical images from Computational Fluid Dynamics solutions were also developed, and these methods were used for one-to-one comparisons of experiment and computations.

  17. IPShocks: Database of Interplanetary Shock Waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isavnin, Alexey; Lumme, Erkka; Kilpua, Emilia; Lotti, Mikko; Andreeova, Katerina; Koskinen, Hannu; Nikbakhsh, Shabnam

    2016-04-01

    Fast collisionless shocks are one of the key interplanetary structures, which have also paramount role for solar-terrestrial physics. In particular, coronal mass ejection driven shocks accelerate particles to high energies and turbulent post-shock flows may drive intense geomagnetic storms. We present comprehensive Heliospheric Shock Database (ipshocks.fi) developed and hosted at University of Helsinki. The database contains currently over 2000 fast forward and fast reverse shocks observed by Wind, ACE, STEREO, Helios, Ulysses and Cluster spacecraft. In addition, the database has search and sort tools based on the spacecraft, time range, and several key shock parameters (e.g., shock type, shock strength, shock angle), data plots for each shock and data download options. These features allow easy access to shocks and quick statistical analyses. All current shocks are identified visually and analysed using the same procedure.

  18. Carpal tunnel syndrome and work.

    PubMed

    Newington, Lisa; Harris, E Clare; Walker-Bone, Karen

    2015-06-01

    Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is the most common peripheral nerve entrapment syndrome, and it frequently presents in working-aged adults. Its mild form causes 'nuisance' symptoms including dysaesthesia and nocturnal waking. At its most severe, CTS can significantly impair motor function and weaken pinch grip. This review discusses the anatomy of the carpal tunnel and the clinical presentation of the syndrome as well as the classification and diagnosis of the condition. CTS has a profile of well-established risk factors including individual factors and predisposing co-morbidities, which are briefly discussed. There is a growing body of evidence for an association between CTS and various occupational factors, which is also explored. Management of CTS, conservative and surgical, is described. Finally, the issue of safe return to work post carpal tunnel release surgery and the lack of evidence-based guidelines are discussed. PMID:26612240

  19. Other cryogenic wind tunnel projects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kilgore, Robert A.

    1989-01-01

    The first cryogenic tunnel was built in 1972. Since then, many cryogenic wind-tunnel projects were started at aeronautical research centers around the world. Some of the more significant of these projects are described which are not covered by other lecturers at this Special Course. Described are cryogenic wind-tunnel projects in five countries: China (Chinese Aeronautical Research and Development Center); England (College of Aeronautics at Cranfield, and Royal Aerospace Establishment-Bedford); Japan (National Aerospace Laboratory, University of Tsukuba, and National Defense Academy); United States (Douglas Aircraft Co., University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign and NASA Langley); and U.S.S.R. (Central Aero-Hydronamics Institute (TsAGI), Institute of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics (ITAM), and Physical-Mechanical Institute at Kharkov (PMI-K).

  20. How Culture Shock Affects Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barna, LaRay M.

    The paper defines the term "culture shock" and discusses the changes that this state can make in a person's behavior. Culture shock refers to the emotional and physiological reaction of high activation that is brought about by sudden immersion in a new culture. Because one's own culture shields one from the unknown and reduces the need to make…

  1. Reading, Writing, and Culture Shock.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Damen, Louise

    Considerations for identifying the stages of cultural learning of individual students of English as a second language (ESL) are discussed. It is suggested that culture shock, or the shock of the new, is a common experience for those learning a second language in a second culture, and that anger, unhappiness, frustration, and even illness may…

  2. Dynamic shock studies of vanadium

    SciTech Connect

    Chhabildas, L.C.; Hills, C.R.

    1985-01-01

    Using gas-gun loading techniques and velocity interferometric techniques, time-resolved wave profiles have been obtained in vanadium over the stress range of 2.9 to 9.7 GPa. The risetime data indicate steepened shock structures with increasing shock amplitude. However, unlike aluminum, finite risetimes are determined even at 9.7 GPa, indicating a large effective viscosity for the material. The dynamic yield strength measured at the Hugoniot elastic limit is 0.8 GPa and is approximately twice the static yield strength. Material softening is evidenced through measurements of shock velocity and yield strength determinations in the shocked state. The yield strength of the material upon release from the shocked state is estimated to be approx.0.43 GPa and is comparable to the static yield strength. Strain-rate dependent processes may be responsible for a higher elastic shear stress sustained before relaxation to an equilibrium value. The primary mode of deformation in shocked vanadium appears to be cross slip, resulting in dislocation tangles. Deformation twins are also observed in shock-recovered specimens with an increasing number with increased shock stress. The thermal diffusivity for vanadium is low, and the shear-strength loss observed in this material is consistent with the strength loss observed for other materials which also have low thermal diffusivities. It is conceivable that the loss of shear strength may be due to long thermal recovery times resulting from inhomogeneous deformation process.

  3. Turbulence in argon shock waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, J. A., III; Santiago, J. P.; I, L.

    1981-01-01

    Irregular density fluctuations with turbulent-like behaviors are found in ionizing shock fronts produced by an arc-driven shock tube. Electric probes are used as the primary diagnostic. Spectral analyses show statistical patterns which seem frozen-in and characterizable by a dominant mode and its harmonics.

  4. Pin puller impact shock attenuation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Auclair, G. F.; Leonard, B. S.; Robbins, R. E.; Proffitt, W. L.

    1976-01-01

    Design of a pin arresting mechanism for a pyrotechnically actuated pin puller is reviewed. The investigative approach is discussed and the impact shock test results for various candidate designs are presented. The selected pin arresting design reduced the peak value of the shock response spectrum by five to one.

  5. Floating shock fitting via Lagrangian adaptive meshes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanrosendale, John

    1995-01-01

    In recent work we have formulated a new approach to compressible flow simulation, combining the advantages of shock-fitting and shock-capturing. Using a cell-centered on Roe scheme discretization on unstructured meshes, we warp the mesh while marching to steady state, so that mesh edges align with shocks and other discontinuities. This new algorithm, the Shock-fitting Lagrangian Adaptive Method (SLAM), is, in effect, a reliable shock-capturing algorithm which yields shock-fitted accuracy at convergence.

  6. Shock transmissibility of threaded joints

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, N.R.; Bateman, V.I.; Brown, F.A.

    1996-12-31

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) designs mechanical systems with threaded joints that must survive high shock environments. These mechanical systems include penetrators that must survive soil and rock penetration; drilling pipe strings that must survive rock-cutting, shock environments; and laydown weapons that must survive delivery impact shock. This paper summarizes an analytical study and an experimental evaluation of compressive, one-dimensional, shock transmission through a threaded joint in a split Hopkinson bar configuration. Thread geometries were scaled to simulate large diameter threaded joints with loadings parallel to the axis of the threads. Both strain and acceleration were evaluated with experimental measurements and analysis. Analytical results confirm the experimental conclusions that in this split Hopkinson bar configuration, the change in the one-dimensional shock wave by the threaded joint is localized to a length equal to a few diameters` length beyond the threaded joint.

  7. Computational multiqubit tunnelling in programmable quantum annealers.

    PubMed

    Boixo, Sergio; Smelyanskiy, Vadim N; Shabani, Alireza; Isakov, Sergei V; Dykman, Mark; Denchev, Vasil S; Amin, Mohammad H; Smirnov, Anatoly Yu; Mohseni, Masoud; Neven, Hartmut

    2016-01-01

    Quantum tunnelling is a phenomenon in which a quantum state traverses energy barriers higher than the energy of the state itself. Quantum tunnelling has been hypothesized as an advantageous physical resource for optimization in quantum annealing. However, computational multiqubit tunnelling has not yet been observed, and a theory of co-tunnelling under high- and low-frequency noises is lacking. Here we show that 8-qubit tunnelling plays a computational role in a currently available programmable quantum annealer. We devise a probe for tunnelling, a computational primitive where classical paths are trapped in a false minimum. In support of the design of quantum annealers we develop a nonperturbative theory of open quantum dynamics under realistic noise characteristics. This theory accurately predicts the rate of many-body dissipative quantum tunnelling subject to the polaron effect. Furthermore, we experimentally demonstrate that quantum tunnelling outperforms thermal hopping along classical paths for problems with up to 200 qubits containing the computational primitive. PMID:26739797

  8. Tunnelling in van der Waals heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishchenko, Artem; Novoselov, Kostya; Geim, Andre; Eaves, Laurence; Falko, Vladimir

    When graphene and other conductive two-dimensional (2D) materials are separated by an atomically thin insulating 2D crystal, quantum mechanical tunnelling leads to appreciable current between two 2D conductors due to the overlap of their wavefunctions. These tunnel devices demonstrate interesting physics and potential for applications: such effects as resonant tunnelling, negative differential conductance, light emission and detection have already been demonstrated. In this presentation we will outline the current status and perspectives of tunnelling transistors based on 2D materials assembled into van der Waals heterostructures. Particularly, we will present results on mono- and bilayer graphene tunnelling, tunnelling in 2D crystal-based quantum wells, and tunnelling in superconducting 2D materials. Such effects as momentum and chirality conservation, phonon- and impurity-assisted tunnelling will also be discussed. Finally, we will ponder the implications of discovered effects for practical applications.

  9. Computational multiqubit tunnelling in programmable quantum annealers

    PubMed Central

    Boixo, Sergio; Smelyanskiy, Vadim N.; Shabani, Alireza; Isakov, Sergei V.; Dykman, Mark; Denchev, Vasil S.; Amin, Mohammad H.; Smirnov, Anatoly Yu; Mohseni, Masoud; Neven, Hartmut

    2016-01-01

    Quantum tunnelling is a phenomenon in which a quantum state traverses energy barriers higher than the energy of the state itself. Quantum tunnelling has been hypothesized as an advantageous physical resource for optimization in quantum annealing. However, computational multiqubit tunnelling has not yet been observed, and a theory of co-tunnelling under high- and low-frequency noises is lacking. Here we show that 8-qubit tunnelling plays a computational role in a currently available programmable quantum annealer. We devise a probe for tunnelling, a computational primitive where classical paths are trapped in a false minimum. In support of the design of quantum annealers we develop a nonperturbative theory of open quantum dynamics under realistic noise characteristics. This theory accurately predicts the rate of many-body dissipative quantum tunnelling subject to the polaron effect. Furthermore, we experimentally demonstrate that quantum tunnelling outperforms thermal hopping along classical paths for problems with up to 200 qubits containing the computational primitive. PMID:26739797

  10. Molecular series-tunneling junctions.

    PubMed

    Liao, Kung-Ching; Hsu, Liang-Yan; Bowers, Carleen M; Rabitz, Herschel; Whitesides, George M

    2015-05-13

    Charge transport through junctions consisting of insulating molecular units is a quantum phenomenon that cannot be described adequately by classical circuit laws. This paper explores tunneling current densities in self-assembled monolayer (SAM)-based junctions with the structure Ag(TS)/O2C-R1-R2-H//Ga2O3/EGaIn, where Ag(TS) is template-stripped silver and EGaIn is the eutectic alloy of gallium and indium; R1 and R2 refer to two classes of insulating molecular units-(CH2)n and (C6H4)m-that are connected in series and have different tunneling decay constants in the Simmons equation. These junctions can be analyzed as a form of series-tunneling junctions based on the observation that permuting the order of R1 and R2 in the junction does not alter the overall rate of charge transport. By using the Ag/O2C interface, this system decouples the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO, which is localized on the carboxylate group) from strong interactions with the R1 and R2 units. The differences in rates of tunneling are thus determined by the electronic structure of the groups R1 and R2; these differences are not influenced by the order of R1 and R2 in the SAM. In an electrical potential model that rationalizes this observation, R1 and R2 contribute independently to the height of the barrier. This model explicitly assumes that contributions to rates of tunneling from the Ag(TS)/O2C and H//Ga2O3 interfaces are constant across the series examined. The current density of these series-tunneling junctions can be described by J(V) = J0(V) exp(-β1d1 - β2d2), where J(V) is the current density (A/cm(2)) at applied voltage V and βi and di are the parameters describing the attenuation of the tunneling current through a rectangular tunneling barrier, with width d and a height related to the attenuation factor β. PMID:25871745

  11. Superresolution via enhanced evanescent tunneling.

    PubMed

    Salandrino, Alessandro; Christodoulides, Demetrios N

    2011-02-15

    We here propose the concept of enhanced evanescent tunneling (EET). Our analysis indicates that by means of a suitable control field, the transmission of evanescent waves across a forbidden gap can be enhanced by several orders of magnitude-well beyond the ordinary frustrated total internal reflection case. We show how such a phenomenon can be used to probe both the amplitude and phase of the evanescent portion of the angular spectrum, thereby allowing target superresolution. In principle EET can be manifested in other areas of physics where wave tunneling is involved. PMID:21326431

  12. Resonance tunneling spectroscopy of heteropoly compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Dalidchik, F. I. Budanov, B. A.; Kolchenko, N. N.; Balashov, E. M.; Kovalevskii, S. A.

    2012-12-15

    The electron tunneling spectra of phosphomolybdic and phosphomolybdovanadic acids have been measured using a scanning tunneling microscope. A new mechanism of negative differential resistance (NDR) formation in tunneling nanocontacts is established, which is general for all systems featuring the Wannier-Stark localization effect. A two-center inelastic resonance tunneling model is constructed, which allows the values of both electron and vibrational energy parameters to be determined from the measured spectra.

  13. [Vasopressin use in shock].

    PubMed

    Carrillo-Esper, Raúl; González-Salazar, Jorge A; Calvo-Carrillo, Benjamín

    2004-01-01

    Arginine-vasopressin (VP), also known as the antidiuretic hormone, is essential for water homeostasis. Its synthesis and liberation depends on regulation of osmotic, hypovolemic, hormonal, and nonosmotic stimuli. It has been demonstrated that it is key for maintenance of cardiovascular homeostasis through vasomotor regulation, the determinant of systemic vascular resistance and mean arterial pressure, a process acting through V1 receptors. Shock state with refractory vasodilation seen in sepsis, systemic inflammatory response, hypovolemia, cardiac arrest, polytrauma, etc., is characterized by an initial phase of liberation and increased levels of VP followed by a second phase characterized by inappropriately low levels of this hormone that are associated with refractoriness to management with volume, inotropics, and vasopressors. It has been demonstrated in clinical and experimental studies that exogenous VP treatment under this condition increases systemic vascular resistance, perfusion pressure, and oxygen supply to peripheral tissues, which makes it possible to decrease and to suspend vasopressors and also to increase survival. PMID:15022889

  14. 7 CFR 58.621 - Freezing tunnels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Freezing tunnels. 58.621 Section 58.621 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards....621 Freezing tunnels. Freezing tunnels for quick freezing at extremely low temperatures shall...

  15. 49 CFR 177.810 - Vehicular tunnels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Vehicular tunnels. 177.810 Section 177.810... Information and Regulations § 177.810 Vehicular tunnels. Except as regards Class 7 (radioactive) materials... through any urban vehicular tunnel used for mass transportation....

  16. 7 CFR 58.621 - Freezing tunnels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Freezing tunnels. 58.621 Section 58.621 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards....621 Freezing tunnels. Freezing tunnels for quick freezing at extremely low temperatures shall...

  17. 43 CFR 3832.40 - Tunnel sites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Tunnel sites. 3832.40 Section 3832.40..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) LOCATING MINING CLAIMS OR SITES Tunnel Sites § 3832.40 Tunnel sites....

  18. 49 CFR 177.810 - Vehicular tunnels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Vehicular tunnels. 177.810 Section 177.810... Information and Regulations § 177.810 Vehicular tunnels. Except as regards Class 7 (radioactive) materials... through any urban vehicular tunnel used for mass transportation....

  19. Cosmic-ray shock acceleration in oblique MHD shocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Webb, G. M.; Drury, L. OC.; Volk, H. J.

    1986-01-01

    A one-dimensional, steady-state hydrodynamical model of cosmic-ray acceleration at oblique MHD shocks is presented. Upstream of the shock the incoming thermal plasma is subject to the adverse pressure gradient of the accelerated particles, the J x B force, as well as the thermal gas pressure gradient. The efficiency of the acceleration of cosmic-rays at the shock as a function of the upstream magnetic field obliquity and upstream plasma beta is investigated. Astrophysical applications of the results are briefly discussed.

  20. The cosmic-ray shock structure problem for relativistic shocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Webb, G. M.

    1985-01-01

    The time asymptotic behaviour of a relativistic (parallel) shock wave significantly modified by the diffusive acceleration of cosmic-rays is investigated by means of relativistic hydrodynamical equations for both the cosmic-rays and thermal gas. The form of the shock structure equation and the dispersion relation for both long and short wavelength waves in the system are obtained. The dependence of the shock acceleration efficiency on the upstream fluid spped, long wavelength Mach number and the ratio N = P sub co/cP sub co+P sub go)(Psub co and P sub go are the upstream cosmic-ray and thermal gas pressures respectively) are studied.

  1. Macroscopic quantum tunneling in Josephson tunnel junctions and Coulomb blockade in single small tunnel junctions

    SciTech Connect

    Cleland, A.N.

    1991-04-01

    Experiments investigating the process of macroscopic quantum tunneling in a moderately-damped, resistively shunted, Josephson junction are described, followed by a discussion of experiments performed on very small capacitance normal-metal tunnel junctions. The experiments on the resistively-shunted Josephson junction were designed to investigate a quantum process, that of the tunneling of the Josephson phase variable under a potential barrier, in a system in which dissipation plays a major role in the dynamics of motion. All the parameters of the junction were measured using the classical phenomena of thermal activation and resonant activation. Theoretical predictions are compared with the experimental results, showing good agreement with no adjustable parameters; the tunneling rate in the moderately damped (Q {approx} 1) junction is seen to be reduced by a factor of 300 from that predicted for an undamped junction. The phase is seen to be a good quantum-mechanical variable. The experiments on small capacitance tunnel junctions extend the measurements on the larger-area Josephson junctions from the region in which the phase variable has a fairly well-defined value, i.e. its wavefunction has a narrow width, to the region where its value is almost completely unknown. The charge on the junction becomes well-defined and is predicted to quantize the current through the junction, giving rise to the Coulomb blockade at low bias. I present the first clear observation of the Coulomb blockade in single junctions. The electrical environment of the tunnel junction, however, strongly affects the behavior of the junction: higher resistance leads are observed to greatly sharpen the Coulomb blockade over that seen with lower resistance leads. I present theoretical descriptions of how the environment influences the junctions; comparisons with the experimental results are in reasonable agreement.

  2. Oblique shock reflection from an axis of symmetry: shock dynamics and relation to the Guderley singularity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hornung, H. G.; Schwendeman, D. W.

    2001-07-01

    Oblique shock reflection from an axis of symmetry is studied using Whitham's theory of geometrical shock dynamics, and the results are compared with previous numerical simulations of the phenomenon by Hornung (2000). The shock shapes (for strong and weak shocks), and the location of the shock-shock (for strong shocks), are in good agreement with the numerical results, though the detail of the shock reflection structure is, of course, not resolved by shock dynamics. A guess at a mathematical form of the shock shape based on an analogy with the Guderley singularity in cylindrical shock implosion, in the form of a generalized hyperbola, fits the shock shape very well. The smooth variation of the exponent in this equation with initial shock angle from the Guderley value at zero to 0.5 at 90° supports the analogy. Finally, steady-flow shock reflection from a symmetry axis is related to the self-similar flow.

  3. Mechanism of biological effects observed in honey bees (Apis mellifera, L. ) hived under extra-high-voltage transmission lines: implications derived from bee exposure to simulated intense electric fields and shocks

    SciTech Connect

    Bindokas, V.P.; Gauger, J.R.; Greenberg, B.

    1988-01-01

    This work explores mechanisms for disturbance of honey bee colonies under a 765 kV, 60-Hz transmission line (electric (E) field = 7 kV/m) observed in previous studies. Proposed mechanisms fell into two categories: direct bee perception of enhanced in-hive E fields and perception of shock from induced currents. The adverse biological effects could be reproduced in simulations where only the worker bees were exposed to shock or to E field in elongated hive entranceways (= tunnels). We now report the results of full-scale experiments using the tunnel exposure scheme, which assesses the contribution of shock and intense E field to colony disturbance. Exposure of worker bees (1400 h) to 60-Hz E fields including 100 kV/m under moisture-free conditions within a nonconductive tunnel causes no deleterious affect on colony behavior. Exposure of bees in conductive (e.g., wet) tunnels produces bee disturbance, increased mortality, abnormal propolization, and possible impairment of colony growth. We propose that this substrate dependence of bee disturbance is the result of perception of shock from coupled body currents and enhanced current densities postulated to exist in the legs and thorax of bees on conductors. Similarly, disturbance occurs when bees are exposed to step-potential-induced currents. At 275-350 nA single bees are disturbed; at 600 nA bees begin abnormal propolization behavior; and stinging occurs at 900 nA. We conclude that biological effects seen in bee colonies under a transmission line are primarily the result of electric shock from induced hive currents. This evaluation is based on the limited effects of E-field exposure in tunnels, the observed disturbance thresholds caused by shocks in tunnels, and the ability of hives exposed under a transmission line to source currents 100-1,000 times the shock thresholds.

  4. Wind-US Code Contributions to the First AIAA Shock Boundary Layer Interaction Prediction Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Georgiadis, Nicholas J.; Vyas, Manan A.; Yoder, Dennis A.

    2013-01-01

    This report discusses the computations of a set of shock wave/turbulent boundary layer interaction (SWTBLI) test cases using the Wind-US code, as part of the 2010 American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA) shock/boundary layer interaction workshop. The experiments involve supersonic flows in wind tunnels with a shock generator that directs an oblique shock wave toward the boundary layer along one of the walls of the wind tunnel. The Wind-US calculations utilized structured grid computations performed in Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes mode. Four turbulence models were investigated: the Spalart-Allmaras one-equation model, the Menter Baseline and Shear Stress Transport k-omega two-equation models, and an explicit algebraic stress k-omega formulation. Effects of grid resolution and upwinding scheme were also considered. The results from the CFD calculations are compared to particle image velocimetry (PIV) data from the experiments. As expected, turbulence model effects dominated the accuracy of the solutions with upwinding scheme selection indicating minimal effects.

  5. Spinoff from Wind Tunnel Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    Douglas Juanarena, a former NASA Langley instrument design engineer, found a solution to the problem of long, repetitive tunnel runs needed to measure airflow pressures. Electronically scanned pressure (ESP) replaced mechanical systems with electronic sensors. Juanarena licensed the NASA-patented technology and now manufactures ESP modules for research centers, aerospace companies, etc.

  6. [Modified Class II tunnel preparation].

    PubMed

    Rimondini, L; Baroni, C

    1991-05-15

    Tunnel preparations for restoration of Class II carious lesions in primary molars preserve the marginal ridge and minimize sacrifice of healthy tooth substructure. Materials with improved bonding to tooth structure and increase potential for fluoride release allow Class II restorations without "extension for prevention". PMID:1864420

  7. A seamless ubiquitous telehealthcare tunnel.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Po-Hsun; Lin, Bor-Shing; Yu, Chu; Hu, Shun-Hsiang; Chen, Sao-Jie

    2013-08-01

    Mobile handheld devices are rapidly using to implement healthcare services around the World. Fundamentally, these services utilize telemedicine technologies. A disconnection of a mobile telemedicine system usually results in an interruption, which is embarrassing, and reconnection is necessary during the communication session. In this study, the Stream Control Transmission Protocol (SCTP) is adopted to build a stable session tunnel to guarantee seamless switching among heterogeneous wireless communication standards, such as Wi-Fi and 3G. This arrangement means that the telemedicine devices will not be limited by a fixed wireless connection and can switch to a better wireless channel if necessary. The tunnel can transmit plain text, binary data, and video streams. According to the evaluation of the proposed software-based SCTP-Tunnel middleware shown, the performance is lower than anticipated and is slightly slower than a fixed connection. However, the transmission throughput is still acceptable for healthcare professionals in a healthcare enterprise or home care site. It is necessary to build more heterogeneous wireless protocols into the proposed tunnel-switching scheme to support all possible communication protocols. In addition, SCTP is another good choice for promoting communication in telemedicine and healthcare fields. PMID:23917812

  8. Micromachined electron tunneling infrared sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kenny, T. W.; Kaiser, W. J.; Podosek, J. A.; Rockstad, H. K.; Reynolds, J. K.

    1993-01-01

    The development of an improved Golay cell is reported. This new sensor is constructed entirely from micromachined silicon components. A silicon oxynitride (SiO(x)N(y)) membrane is deflected by the thermal expansion of a small volume of trapped gas. To detect the motion of the membrane, an electron tunneling transducer is used. This sensor detects electrons which tunnel through the classically forbidden barrier between a tip and a surface; the electron current is exponentially dependent on the separation between the tip and the surface. The sensitivity of tunneling transducers constructed was typically better than 10(exp -3) A/square root of Hz. Through use of the electron tunneling transducer, the scaling laws which have prevented the miniaturization of the Golay cell are avoided. This detector potentially offers low cost fabrication, compatibility with silicon readout electronics, and operation without cooling. Most importantly, this detector may offer better sensitivity than any other uncooled infrared sensor, with the exception of the original Golay cell.

  9. [Ultrasonography for carpal tunnel syndrome].

    PubMed

    Nakamichi, Kenichi

    2014-03-01

    Ultrasonography in cases of carpal tunnel syndrome is described with respect to the following aspects: (1) imaging technique; (2) image characteristics; (3) detection of pathophysiology; (4) diagnosis of idiopathic cases; (5) screening of local pathologies (space-occupying lesions, tenosynovitis, and bone and joint abnormalities), incomplete release, and anatomic variations; and (6) role in facilitating minimally-invasive surgery. PMID:24607945

  10. Videometric Applications in Wind Tunnels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burner, A. W.; Radeztsky, R. H.; Liu, Tian-Shu

    1997-01-01

    Videometric measurements in wind tunnels can be very challenging due to the limited optical access, model dynamics, optical path variability during testing, large range of temperature and pressure, hostile environment, and the requirements for high productivity and large amounts of data on a daily basis. Other complications for wind tunnel testing include the model support mechanism and stringent surface finish requirements for the models in order to maintain aerodynamic fidelity. For these reasons nontraditional photogrammetric techniques and procedures sometimes must be employed. In this paper several such applications are discussed for wind tunnels which include test conditions with Mach number from low speed to hypersonic, pressures from less than an atmosphere to nearly seven atmospheres, and temperatures from cryogenic to above room temperature. Several of the wind tunnel facilities are continuous flow while one is a short duration blowdown facility. Videometric techniques and calibration procedures developed to measure angle of attack, the change in wing twist and bending induced by aerodynamic load, and the effects of varying model injection rates are described. Some advantages and disadvantages of these techniques are given and comparisons are made with non-optical and more traditional video photogrammetric techniques.

  11. SCALING: Wind Tunnel to Flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bushnell, Dennis M.

    2006-01-01

    Wind tunnels have wide-ranging functionality, including many applications beyond aeronautics, and historically have been the major source of information for technological aerodynamics/aeronautical applications. There are a myriad of scaling issues/differences from flight to wind tunnel, and their study and impacts are uneven and a function of the particular type of extant flow phenomena. Typically, the most serious discrepancies are associated with flow separation. The tremendous ongoing increases in numerical simulation capability are changing and in many aspects have changed the function of the wind tunnel from a (scaled) "predictor" to a source of computational calibration/validation information with the computation then utilized as the flight prediction/scaling tool. Numerical simulations can increasingly include the influences of the various scaling issues. This wind tunnel role change has been occurring for decades as computational capability improves in all aspects. Additional issues driving this trend are the increasing cost (and time) disparity between physical experiments and computations, and increasingly stringent accuracy requirements.

  12. Mars Surface Tunnel Element Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rucker, Michelle A.; Mary, Natalie; Howe, A. Scott; Jeffries, Sharon

    2016-01-01

    How Mars surface crews get into their ascent vehicle has profound implications for Mars surface architecture. To meet planetary protection protocols, the architecture has get Intravehicular Activity (IVA)-suited crew into a Mars Ascent Vehicle (MAV) without having to step outside into the Mars environment. Pushing EVA suit don/doff and EVA operations to an element that remains on the surface also helps to minimize MAV cabin volume, which in turn can reduce MAV cabin mass. Because the MAV will require at least seven kilograms of propellant to ascend each kilogram of cabin mass, minimal MAV mass is desired. For architectures involving more than one surface element-such as an ascent vehicle and a pressurized rover or surface habitat-a retractable tunnel is an attractive solution. Beyond addressing the immediate MAV access issue, a reusable tunnel may be useful for other surface applications once its primary mission is complete. A National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) team is studying the optimal balance between surface tunnel functionality, mass, and stowed volume as part of the Evolvable Mars Campaign (EMC). The "Minimum Functional Tunnel" is a conceptual design that performs a single function. Having established this baseline configuration, the next step is to trade design options, evaluate other applications, and explore alternative solutions.

  13. A Seamless Ubiquitous Telehealthcare Tunnel

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Po-Hsun; Lin, Bor-Shing; Yu, Chu; Hu, Shun-Hsiang; Chen, Sao-Jie

    2013-01-01

    Mobile handheld devices are rapidly using to implement healthcare services around the World. Fundamentally, these services utilize telemedicine technologies. A disconnection of a mobile telemedicine system usually results in an interruption, which is embarrassing, and reconnection is necessary during the communication session. In this study, the Stream Control Transmission Protocol (SCTP) is adopted to build a stable session tunnel to guarantee seamless switching among heterogeneous wireless communication standards, such as Wi-Fi and 3G. This arrangement means that the telemedicine devices will not be limited by a fixed wireless connection and can switch to a better wireless channel if necessary. The tunnel can transmit plain text, binary data, and video streams. According to the evaluation of the proposed software-based SCTP-Tunnel middleware shown, the performance is lower than anticipated and is slightly slower than a fixed connection. However, the transmission throughput is still acceptable for healthcare professionals in a healthcare enterprise or home care site. It is necessary to build more heterogeneous wireless protocols into the proposed tunnel-switching scheme to support all possible communication protocols. In addition, SCTP is another good choice for promoting communication in telemedicine and healthcare fields. PMID:23917812

  14. Micas in experimentally shocked gneiss

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lambert, P.; Mackinnon, I. D. R.

    1984-01-01

    Powder-propellant guns are used to shock biotites and muscovites from a gneiss at pressures between 18 and 70 GPa. It is shown that shock in biotite and muscovite can produce homogeneous and devolatilized glasses within microseconds. Shock-deformed micas are found to exhibit fracturing, kinking, and complex extinction patterns over the entire pressure range investigated. Localized melting of micas commences at 33 GPa and reaches completion at 70 GPa. Even though melted biotite and muscovite are opaque optically, they exhibit extensive microvesiculation and flow when observed with the SEM. It is confirmed through electron diffraction that biotite and muscovite have transformed to a glass. The distribution of vesicles in shock-vitrified mica reveals escape of volatiles within the short duration of the shock experiment. It is noted that experimentally shocked biotite and muscovite undergo congruent melting. It is noted that the compositions of the glasses are similar to the unshocked micas except for volatiles (H2O loss and and K loss). These unusual glasses produced from mica can be quenched by rapid cooling conditions during the shock experiment. On the basis of the results, it is pointed out that the extremely low H2O content of tektites can be reconciled with a terrestrial origin by impact.

  15. Cardiogenic shock and nutrition: safe?

    PubMed

    Thibault, Ronan; Pichard, Claude; Wernerman, Jan; Bendjelid, Karim

    2011-01-01

    Cardiogenic shock is a common diagnosis in patients in the intensive care unit (ICU), and is characterized by a decreased cardiac output in the presence of adequate intravascular volume associated with an inadequate tissue perfusion including a physiological reduction in the splanchnic territory. It may occur in isolation as a reflection of cardiac pathology, or it may be part of a shock syndrome involving other pathogenic mechanisms. As the use of enteral nutrition (EN) is associated with an increase in mesenteric arterial output, EN could be deleterious by overwhelming the mechanisms of mesenteric adaptation. Accordingly, EN has been suspected to increase the risk of mesenteric ischaemia, bacterial translocation and sepsis in ICU patients with cardiogenic shock. International guidelines recommend a cautious use of EN within 72 h following cardiogenic shock. Recent evidence indicates that mesenteric arterial output may decrease during parenteral nutrition administration, suggesting that parenteral nutrition could have a protective effect on splanchnic organs in ICU patients with cardiogenic shock. Contrary to former beliefs, several meta-analyses have shown that parenteral nutrition is not associated with increased mortality. Exclusive EN is associated with negative energy balance and the combination of EN with supplemental parenteral nutrition during the first days following ICU admission has been proposed to prevent negative energy balance. Such a nutritional strategy could also be beneficial for the mesenteric circulation in cardiogenic shock, and consequently may improve the clinical outcome of patients with cardiogenic shock. Clinical trials are warranted to verify these hypotheses. PMID:21086113

  16. Chondrule destruction in nebular shocks

    SciTech Connect

    Jacquet, Emmanuel; Thompson, Christopher

    2014-12-10

    Chondrules are millimeter-sized silicate spherules ubiquitous in primitive meteorites, but whose origin remains mysterious. One of the main proposed mechanisms for producing them is melting of solids in shock waves in the gaseous protoplanetary disk. However, evidence is mounting that chondrule-forming regions were enriched in solids well above solar abundances. Given the high velocities involved in shock models, destructive collisions would be expected between differently sized grains after passage of the shock front as a result of differential drag. We investigate the probability and outcome of collisions of particles behind a one-dimensional shock using analytic methods as well as a full integration of the coupled mass, momentum, energy, and radiation equations. Destruction of protochondrules seems unavoidable for solid/gas ratios ε ≳ 0.1, and possibly even for solar abundances because of 'sandblasting' by finer dust. A flow with ε ≳ 10 requires much smaller shock velocities (∼2 versus 8 km s{sup –1}) in order to achieve chondrule-melting temperatures, and radiation trapping allows slow cooling of the shocked fragments. Initial destruction would still be extensive; although re-assembly of millimeter-sized particles would naturally occur by grain sticking afterward, the compositional heterogeneity of chondrules may be difficult to reproduce. We finally note that solids passing through small-scale bow shocks around few kilometer-sized planetesimals might experience partial melting and yet escape fragmentation.

  17. Chondrule Destruction in Nebular Shocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacquet, Emmanuel; Thompson, Christopher

    2014-12-01

    Chondrules are millimeter-sized silicate spherules ubiquitous in primitive meteorites, but whose origin remains mysterious. One of the main proposed mechanisms for producing them is melting of solids in shock waves in the gaseous protoplanetary disk. However, evidence is mounting that chondrule-forming regions were enriched in solids well above solar abundances. Given the high velocities involved in shock models, destructive collisions would be expected between differently sized grains after passage of the shock front as a result of differential drag. We investigate the probability and outcome of collisions of particles behind a one-dimensional shock using analytic methods as well as a full integration of the coupled mass, momentum, energy, and radiation equations. Destruction of protochondrules seems unavoidable for solid/gas ratios epsilon >~ 0.1, and possibly even for solar abundances because of "sandblasting" by finer dust. A flow with epsilon >~ 10 requires much smaller shock velocities (~2 versus 8 km s-1) in order to achieve chondrule-melting temperatures, and radiation trapping allows slow cooling of the shocked fragments. Initial destruction would still be extensive; although re-assembly of millimeter-sized particles would naturally occur by grain sticking afterward, the compositional heterogeneity of chondrules may be difficult to reproduce. We finally note that solids passing through small-scale bow shocks around few kilometer-sized planetesimals might experience partial melting and yet escape fragmentation.

  18. Cart3D Analysis of Plume and Shock Interaction Effects on Sonic Boom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Castner, Raymond

    2015-01-01

    A plume and shock interaction study was developed to collect data and perform CFD on a configuration where a nozzle plume passed through the shock generated from the wing or tail of a supersonic vehicle. The wing or tail was simulated with a wedge-shaped shock generator. Three configurations were analyzed consisting of two strut mounted wedges and one propulsion pod with an aft deck from a low boom vehicle concept. Research efforts at NASA were intended to enable future supersonic flight over land in the United States. Two of these efforts provided data for regulatory change and enabled design of low boom aircraft. Research has determined that sonic boom is a function of aircraft lift and volume distribution. Through careful tailoring of these variables, the sonic boom of concept vehicles has been reduced. One aspect of vehicle tailoring involved how the aircraft engine exhaust interacted with aft surfaces on a supersonic aircraft, such as the tail and wing trailing edges. In this work, results from Euler CFD simulations are compared to experimental data collected on sub-scale components in a wind tunnel. Three configurations are studied to simulate the nozzle plume interaction with representative wing and tail surfaces. Results demonstrate how the plume and tail shock structure moves with increasing nozzle pressure ratio. The CFD captures the main features of the plume and shock interaction. Differences are observed in the plume and deck shock structure that warrant further research and investigation.

  19. Scale Model Icing Research Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Canacci, Victor A.

    1997-01-01

    NASA Lewis Research Center's Icing Research Tunnel (IRT) is the world's largest refrigerated wind tunnel and one of only three icing wind tunnel facilities in the United States. The IRT was constructed in the 1940's and has been operated continually since it was built. In this facility, natural icing conditions are duplicated to test the effects of inflight icing on actual aircraft components as well as on models of airplanes and helicopters. IRT tests have been used successfully to reduce flight test hours for the certification of ice-detection instrumentation and ice protection systems. To ensure that the IRT will remain the world's premier icing facility well into the next century, Lewis is making some renovations and is planning others. These improvements include modernizing the control room, replacing the fan blades with new ones to increase the test section maximum velocity to 430 mph, installing new spray bars to increase the size and uniformity of the artificial icing cloud, and replacing the facility heat exchanger. Most of the improvements will have a first-order effect on the IRT's airflow quality. To help us understand these effects and evaluate potential improvements to the flow characteristics of the IRT, we built a modular 1/10th-scale aerodynamic model of the facility. This closed-loop scale-model pilot tunnel was fabricated onsite in the various shops of Lewis' Fabrication Support Division. The tunnel's rectangular sections are composed of acrylic walls supported by an aluminum angle framework. Its turning vanes are made of tubing machined to the contour of the IRT turning vanes. The fan leg of the tunnel, which transitions from rectangular to circular and back to rectangular cross sections, is fabricated of fiberglass sections. The contraction section of the tunnel is constructed from sheet aluminum. A 12-bladed aluminum fan is coupled to a turbine powered by high-pressure air capable of driving the maximum test section velocity to 550 ft

  20. Investigation of passive shock wave-boundary layer control for transonic airfoil drag reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nagamatsu, H. T.; Brower, W. B., Jr.; Bahi, L.; Ross, J.

    1982-01-01

    The passive drag control concept, consisting of a porous surface with a cavity beneath it, was investigated with a 12-percent-thick circular arc and a 14-percent-thick supercritical airfoil mounted on the test section bottom wall. The porous surface was positioned in the shock wave/boundary layer interaction region. The flow circulating through the porous surface, from the downstream to the upstream of the terminating shock wave location, produced a lambda shock wave system and a pressure decrease in the downstream region minimizing the flow separation. The wake impact pressure data show an appreciably drag reduction with the porous surface at transonic speeds. To determine the optimum size of porosity and cavity, tunnel tests were conducted with different airfoil porosities, cavities and flow Mach numbers. A higher drag reduction was obtained by the 2.5 percent porosity and the 1/4-inch deep cavity.

  1. Computational and Experimental Study of Supersonic Nozzle Flow and Shock Interactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter, Melissa B.; Elmiligui, Alaa A.; Nayani, Sudheer N.; Castner, Ray; Bruce, Walter E., IV; Inskeep, Jacob

    2015-01-01

    This study focused on the capability of NASA Tetrahedral Unstructured Software System's CFD code USM3D capability to predict the interaction between a shock and supersonic plume flow. Previous studies, published in 2004, 2009 and 2013, investigated USM3D's supersonic plume flow results versus historical experimental data. This current study builds on that research by utilizing the best practices from the early papers for properly capturing the plume flow and then adding a wedge acting as a shock generator. This computational study is in conjunction with experimental tests conducted at the Glenn Research Center 1'x1' Supersonic Wind Tunnel. The comparison of the computational and experimental data shows good agreement for location and strength of the shocks although there are vertical shifts between the data sets that may be do to the measurement technique.

  2. Experimental Investigation of Normal Shock Boundary-Layer Interaction with Hybrid Flow Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vyas, Manan A.; Hirt, Stefanie M.; Anderson, Bernhard H.

    2012-01-01

    Hybrid flow control, a combination of micro-ramps and micro-jets, was experimentally investigated in the 15x15 cm Supersonic Wind Tunnel (SWT) at the NASA Glenn Research Center. Full factorial, a design of experiments (DOE) method, was used to develop a test matrix with variables such as inter-ramp spacing, ramp height and chord length, and micro-jet injection flow ratio. A total of 17 configurations were tested with various parameters to meet the DOE criteria. In addition to boundary-layer measurements, oil flow visualization was used to qualitatively understand shock induced flow separation characteristics. The flow visualization showed the normal shock location, size of the separation, path of the downstream moving counter-rotating vortices, and corner flow effects. The results show that hybrid flow control demonstrates promise in reducing the size of shock boundary-layer interactions and resulting flow separation by means of energizing the boundary layer.

  3. Schlieren photograph of T-38 shock waves at Mach 1.1, 13,000 feet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    This is Dr. Leonard Weinstein's Schlieren photograph of a T-38 at Mach 1.1, altitude 13,700 feet, taken at NASA Wallops in 1993. Schlieren photography (from the German word for 'streaks') allows the visualization of density changes, and therefore shock waves, in fluid flow. Schlieren techniques have been used for decades in laboratory wind tunnels to visualize supersonic flow about model aircraft, but not full scale aircraft until recently. Dr. Leonard Weinstein of NASA Langley Research Center developed the first Schlieren camera, which he calls SAF (Schlieren for Aircraft in Flight), that can photograph the shock waves of a full sized aircraft in flight. He successfully took a picture which clearly shows the shock waves about a T-38 aircraft on December 13, 1993 at Wallops Island, MD. The camera was then brought to the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center because of the high number of supersonic flights there.

  4. Preliminary investigation of interplanetary shock structure: Quasi-parallel shocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenstadt, E. W.

    1974-01-01

    Pioneer 9's magnetic field and plasma data were studied to develop arguments for or against the observation of oblique interplanetary shocks. Structural classifications are defined, and the justification for seeking these classifications in the solar wind are presented.

  5. Shock temperature measurements in ammonia

    SciTech Connect

    Radousky, H.B.; Mitchell, A.C.; Nellis, W.J.; Ross, M.

    1985-07-01

    Our first shock temperature measurements on a cryogenic target are reported for NH/sub 3/. A new fast optical pyrometer and a cryogenic specimen holder for liquid NH/sub 3/ were developed to measure shock temperatures of 4400 and 3600 K at pressures of 61 and 48 GPa. These conditions correspond to those in the ice layers in Uranus and Neptune. The shock temperature data are in reasonable agreement with an equation of state based on an intermolecular potential derived from NH/sub 3/ Hugoniot data.

  6. Double layers and electrostatic shocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hershkowitz, N.

    1981-01-01

    It is shown that it is useful to define double layers and shocks so that the ion phase spaces of double layers are the mirror image (about zero ion velocity) of the ion phase spaces for laminar electrostatic shocks. The distinguishing feature is the direction of the free ion velocity. It is also shown that double layers can exist without the presence of trapped ions. The Bohm condition for double layers, that the ion drift velocity on the high potential side must be greater than the ion sound velocity, is shown to be related to a requirement of a lower limit on the Mach number of laminar electrostatic shocks

  7. Stishovite: Synthesis by shock wave

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    De Carli, P. S.; Milton, D.J.

    1965-01-01

    Small amounts of stishovite were separated from specimens of explosively shocked sandstones, novaculite, and single-crystal quartz. Estimated peak pressures for the syntheses ranged from 150 to 280 kilobars, and shock temperatures were from 150?? to 900??C. No coesite was detected in any sample. It is suggested that quartz can invert during shock to a short-range-order phase, with sixfold coordination. A small portion of this phase may develop the long-range order of stishovite, and, during the more protracted decrease of the pressure pulse through the stability field of coesite accompanying meteorite crater formation, a portion may invert to coesite.

  8. Slow shocks around the sun

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whang, Y. C.

    1982-01-01

    It is inferred from this study that magnetohydrodynamic slow shocks can exist in the vicinity of the sun. The study uses a two-hole corona model, the sub-Alfvenic streams originating from the edge of the polar open-field regions are forced to turn towards equator in coronal space following the curved boundary of the closed field region. When the streamlines from the opposite poles merge at a neutral point, their directions become parallel to the neutral sheet. An oblique slow shock can develop near or at the neutral point, the shock extends polewards to form a surface of discontinuity around the sun.

  9. Aeroelastic instability stoppers for wind tunnel models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doggett, R. V., Jr.; Ricketts, R. H. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    A mechanism for diverting the flow in a wind tunnel from the wing of a tested model is described. The wing is mounted on the wall of a tunnel. A diverter plate is pivotally mounted on the tunnel wall ahead of the model. An actuator fixed to the tunnel is pivotably connected to the diverter plate, by plunger. When the model is about to become unstable during the test the actuator moves the diverter plate from the tunnel wall to divert maintaining stable model conditions. The diverter plate is then retracted to enable normal flow.

  10. Tunneling time, what is its meaning?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDonald, C. R.; Orlando, G.; Vampa, G.; Brabec, T.

    2015-03-01

    The tunnel time ionization dynamics for bound systems in laser fields are investigated. Numerical analysis for a step function switch-on of the field allows for the tunnel time to be defined as the time it takes the ground state to develop the under-barrier wavefunction components necessary to achieve the static field ionization rate. A relation between the tunnel time and the Keldysh time is established. The definition of the tunnel time is extended to time varying fields and experimental possibilities for measuring the tunnel time are discussed.

  11. Shock-fitted Euler solutions to shock vortex interactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salas, M. D.; Zang, T. A.; Mussaini, M. Y.

    1982-01-01

    The interaction of a planar shock wave with one or more vortexes is computed using a pseudospectral method and a finite difference method. The development of the spectral method is emphasized. In both methods the shock wave is fitted as a boundary of the computational domain. The results show good agreement between both computational methods. The spectral method is, however, restricted to smaller time steps and requires use of filtering techniques.

  12. Shock compaction of magnet powder using underwater shock wave

    SciTech Connect

    Kubota, Shiro; Fujita, Masahiro; Itoh, Shigeru

    1996-12-31

    In order to get a high plug density (over 90%), the authors tried a direct consolidation of the magnet powder using the converging underwater shock wave created by the underwater explosion of explosives. The processes of the consolidation of the magnet powder were investigated by numerical calculation. They obtained the parameters of the EOS (Petrie-Page model) for Magnet powder using quasi-static loading experiments. Moreover, the characteristics of the shock compaction assembly were also verified.

  13. 2. 'Tunnel No 6 West End, Front Elevation, Sectional Elevation ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. 'Tunnel No 6 West End, Front Elevation, Sectional Elevation on Centerline of Portal,' Southern Pacific Standard Single-Track Tunnel, 1910. Tunnel 6, which today would be Tunnel 20, was daylighted and no longer exists. Compare to photos in documentation sets for Tunnel 23 (HAER No. CA-198), Tunnel 24 (HAER No. CA-200), Tunnel 25 (HAER No. CA-201), Tunnel 27 (HAER No. CA-203), Tunnel 28 (HAER No. CA-204), and Tunnel 29 (HAER No. CA-205). - Central Pacific Transcontinental Railroad, Sacramento to Nevada state line, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA

  14. Quasilinear simulations of interplanetary shocks and Earth's bow shock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afanasiev, Alexandr; Battarbee, Markus; Ganse, Urs; Vainio, Rami; Palmroth, Minna; Pfau-Kempf, Yann; Hoilijoki, Sanni; von Alfthan, Sebastian

    2016-04-01

    We have developed a new self-consistent Monte Carlo simulation model for particle acceleration in shocks. The model includes a prescribed large-scale magnetic field and plasma density, temperature and velocity profiles and a self-consistently computed incompressible ULF foreshock under the quasilinear approximation. Unlike previous analytical treatments, our model is time dependent and takes full account of the anisotropic particle distributions and scattering in the wave-particle interaction process. We apply the model to the problem of particle acceleration at traveling interplanetary (IP) shocks and Earth's bow shock and compare the results with hybrid-Vlasov simulations and spacecraft observations. A qualitative agreement in terms of spectral shape of the magnetic fluctuations and the polarization of the unstable mode is found between the models and the observations. We will quantify the differences of the models and explore the region of validity of the quasilinear approach in terms of shock parameters. We will also compare the modeled IP shocks and the bow shock, identifying the similarities and differences in the spectrum of accelerated particles and waves in these scenarios. The work has received funding from the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under grant agreement No 637324 (HESPERIA). The Academy of Finland is thanked for financial support. We acknowledge the computational resources provided by CSC - IT Centre for Science Ltd., Espoo.

  15. An LDA (Laser-Doppler Anemometry) investigation of three-dimensional normal shock wave boundary-layer interactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chriss, R. M.; Hingst, W. R.; Strazisar, A. J.; Keith, T. G., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    Nonintrusive measurements were made of a normal shock wave/boundary layer interaction. Two dimensional measurements were made throughout the interaction region while 3-D measurements were made in the vicinity of the shock wave. The measurements were made in the corner of the test section of a continuous supersonic wind tunnel in which a normal shock wave had been stabilized. Laser Doppler Anemometry, surface pressure measurement and flow visualization techniques were employed for two freestream Mach number test cases: 1.6 and 1.3. The former contained separated flow regions and a system of shock waves. The latter was found to be far less complicated. The results define the flow field structure in detail for each case.

  16. Remark on massive particle's de Sitter tunneling

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, Qing-Quan; Chen, De-You; Wen, Dan E-mail: deyouchen@126.com

    2013-11-01

    In the work [J. Y. Zhang and Z. Zhao, Massive particles's black hole tunneling and de Sitter tunneling, Nucl. Phys. B 725 (2005) 173.], the Hawking radiation of the massive particle via tunneling from the de Sitter cosmological horizon has been first described in the tunneling framework. However, the geodesic equation of the massive particle was unnaturally and awkwardly defined there by investigating the relation between the group and phase velocity. In this paper, we start from the Lagrangian analysis on the action to naturally produce the geodesic equation of the tunneling massive particle. Then, based on the new definition for the geodesic equation, we revisit the Hawking radiation of the massive particle via tunneling from the de Sitter cosmological horizon. It is noteworthy that, the highlight of our work is a new and important development of the Parikh-Wilczek's tunneling method, which can make it more physical.

  17. Optimal triple configurations of stationary shocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, G.; Uskov, V. N.; Chernyshov, M. V.

    Shock-wave systems consisted of three stationary shocks with common (triple) point T (Fig. 1,a-e) are called triple configurations. The slipstream (τ) emanates from the triple point and divides the streams that have gone through the sequence of shocks 1-2 and through the alone (main) shock 3 at another side of the triple point.

  18. Ferroelectricity and tunneling electroresistance effect in asymmetric ferroelectric tunnel junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, L. L.; Wang, J.

    2016-06-01

    We report the investigation on the ferroelectricity and tunneling electroresistance (TER) effect in PbTiO3 (PTO)-based ferroelectric tunnel junctions (FTJs) using first-principles calculations. For symmetric FTJs, we have calculated the average polarizations of PTO film and effective screening lengths of different metal electrodes for a number of FTJs, which is useful for experimental research. For asymmetric FTJs, significant asymmetric ferroelectric displacements in PTO film are observed, which is attributed to the intrinsic field generated by the two dissimilar electrodes. Moreover, by performing quantum transport calculations on those asymmetric FTJs, a sizable TER effect is observed. It is found that the asymmetry of ferroelectric displacements in PTO barrier, which is determined by the difference of work functions of the electrodes, controls the observed TER effect. Our results will help unravel the TER mechanism of asymmetric FTJs in most experiments and will be useful for the designing of FTJ-based devices.

  19. Dehydration kinetics of shocked serpentine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tyburczy, James A.; Ahrens, Thomas J.

    1988-01-01

    Experimental rates of dehydration of shocked and unshocked serpentine were determined using a differential scanning calorimetric technique. Dehydration rates in shocked serpentine are enhanced by orders of magnitude over corresponding rates in unshocked material, even though the impact experiments were carried out under conditions that inhibited direct impact-induced devolatilization. Extrapolation to temperatures of the Martian surface indicates that dehydration of shocked material would occur 20 to 30 orders of magnitude more rapidly than for unshocked serpentine. The results indicate that impacted planetary surfaces and associated atmospheres would reach chemical equilibrium much more quickly than calculations based on unshocked material would indicate, even during the earliest, coldest stages of accretion. Furthermore, it is suggested that chemical weathering of shocked planetary surfaces by solid-gas reactions would be sufficiently rapid that true equilibrium mineral assemblages should form.

  20. Low-Shock Pyrotechnic Actuator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lucy, M. H.

    1984-01-01

    Miniature 1-ampere, 1-watt pyrotechnic actuator enclosed in flexible metal bellows. Bellows confines outgassing products, and pyrotechnic shock reduction achieved by action of bellows, gas cushion within device, and minimum use of pyrotechnic material. Actuator inexpensive, compact, and lightweight.

  1. Shock compression of liquid hydrazine

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia, B.O.; Chavez, D.J.

    1996-05-01

    Liquid hydrazine (N{sub 2}H{sub 4}) is a propellant used for aerospace propulsion and power systems. Because the propellant modules can be subject to debris impacts during their use, the shock states that can occur in the hydrazine need to be characterized to safely predict its response. Several shock compression experiments have been conducted to investigate the shock detonability of liquid hydrazine; however, the experiments{close_quote} results disagree. Therefore, in this study, we reproduced each experiment numerically to evaluate in detail the shock wave profiles generated in the liquid hydrazine. This paper presents the results of each numerical simulation and compares the results to those obtained in experiment. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  2. Undercuts by Laser Shock Forming

    SciTech Connect

    Wielage, Hanna; Vollertsen, Frank

    2011-05-04

    In laser shock forming TEA-CO{sub 2}-laser induced shock waves are used to form metal foils, such as aluminum or copper. The process utilizes an initiated plasma shock wave on the target surface, which leads to a forming of the foil. A challenge in forming technologies is the manufacturing of undercuts. By conventional forming methods these special forms are not feasible. In this article, it is presented that undercuts in the micro range can be produced by laser shock deep drawing. Different drawing die diameters, drawing die depths and the material aluminum in the thicknesses 20 and 50 {mu}m were investigated. It will be presented that smaller die diameters facilitate undercuts compared to bigger die diameters. The phenomena can be explained by Barlow's formula. Furthermore, it is shown which maximum undercut depth at different die diameters can be reached. To this end, cross-sections of the different parameter combinations are displayed.

  3. Annular arc accelerator shock tube

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leibowitz, L. P. (Inventor)

    1976-01-01

    An annular arc accelerator shock tube employs a cold gas driver to flow a stream of gas from an expansion section through a high voltage electrode section to a test section, thus driving a shock wave in front of it. A glow discharge detects the shock wave and actuates a trigger generator which in turn fires spark-gap switches to discharge a bank of capacitors across a centered cathode and an annular anode in tandem electrode sections. The initial shock wave passes through the anode section from the cathode section thereby depositing energy into the flow gas without the necessity of any diaphragm opening in the gas flow from the expansion section through the electrode sections.

  4. Rayleigh-Taylor Shock Waves

    SciTech Connect

    Olson, B J; Cook, A W

    2007-08-30

    Beginning from a state of hydrostatic equilibrium, in which a heavy gas rests atop a light gas in a constant gravitational field, Rayleigh-Taylor instability at the interface will launch a shock wave into the upper fluid. The rising bubbles of lighter fluid act like pistons, compressing the heavier fluid ahead of the fronts and generating shocklets. These shocklets coalesce in multidimensional fashion into a strong normal shock, which increases in strength as it propagates upwards. Large-eddy simulations demonstrate that the shock Mach number increases faster in three dimensions than it does in two dimensions. The generation of shocks via Rayleigh-Taylor instability could have profound implications for astrophysical flows.

  5. Toxic Shock Syndrome (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Problems Talking to Your Child About Menstruation Cellulitis MRSA Staph Infections What Are Germs? Why Is Hand ... in? Feeling Fresh All About Menstruation Staph Infections MRSA Toxic Shock Syndrome Contact Us Print Resources Send ...

  6. 'Shocking' Obedience Found in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science News, 1977

    1977-01-01

    Describes a Stanley Milgram type obedience experiment conducted with 192 Jordanian children ages 6-16. Seventy-three percent of the children responded via administering supposed dangerous electrical shocks to test subjects. (SL)

  7. Shock wave interaction with turbulence: Pseudospectral simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Buckingham, A.C.

    1986-12-30

    Shock waves amplify pre-existing turbulence. Shock tube and shock wave boundary layer interaction experiments provide qualitative confirmation. However, shock pressure, temperature, and rapid transit complicate direct measurement. Computational simulations supplement the experimental data base and help isolate the mechanisms responsible. Simulations and experiments, particularly under reflected shock wave conditions, significantly influence material mixing. In these pseudospectral Navier-Stokes simulations the shock wave is treated as either a moving (tracked or fitted) domain boundary. The simulations assist development of code mix models. Shock Mach number and pre-existing turbulence intensity initially emerge as key parameters. 20 refs., 8 figs.

  8. Implications of pressure diffusion for shock waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ram, Ram Bachan

    1989-01-01

    The report deals with the possible implications of pressure diffusion for shocks in one dimensional traveling waves in an ideal gas. From this new hypothesis all aspects of such shocks can be calculated except shock thickness. Unlike conventional shock theory, the concept of entropy is not needed or used. Our analysis shows that temperature rises near a shock, which is of course an experimental fact; however, it also predicts that very close to a shock, density increases faster than pressure. In other words, a shock itself is cold.

  9. Boundary-Layer Instability Measurements in a Mach-6 Quiet Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berridge, Dennis C.; Ward, Christopher, A. C.; Luersen, Ryan P. K.; Chou, Amanda; Abney, Andrew D.; Schneider, Steven P.

    2012-01-01

    Several experiments have been performed in the Boeing/AFOSR Mach-6 Quiet Tunnel at Purdue University. A 7 degree half angle cone at 6 degree angle of attack with temperature-sensitive paint (TSP) and PCB pressure transducers was tested under quiet flow. The stationary crossflow vortices appear to break down to turbulence near the lee ray for sufficiently high Reynolds numbers. Attempts to use roughness elements to control the spacing of hot streaks on a flared cone in quiet flow did not succeed. Roughness was observed to damp the second-mode waves in areas influenced by the roughness, and wide roughness spacing allowed hot streaks to form between the roughness elements. A forward-facing cavity was used for proof-of-concept studies for a laser perturber. The lowest density at which the freestream laser perturbations could be detected was 1.07 x 10(exp -2) kilograms per cubic meter. Experiments were conducted to determine the transition characteristics of a streamwise corner flow at hypersonic velocities. Quiet flow resulted in a delayed onset of hot streak spreading. Under low Reynolds number flow hot streak spreading did not occur along the model. A new shock tube has been built at Purdue. The shock tube is designed to create weak shocks suitable for calibrating sensors, particularly PCB-132 sensors. PCB-132 measurements in another shock tube show the shock response and a linear calibration over a moderate pressure range.

  10. The Diffusive Shock Acceleration Myth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gloeckler, G.; Fisk, L. A.

    2012-12-01

    It is generally accepted that diffusive shock acceleration (DSA) is the dominant mechanism for particle acceleration at shocks. This is despite the overwhelming observational evidence that is contrary to predictions of DSA models. For example, our most recent survey of hourly-averaged, spin-averaged proton distribution functions around 61 locally observed shocks in 2001 at 1 AU found that in 21 cases no particles were accelerated. Spectral indices (γ ) of suprathermal tails on the velocity distributions around the 40 shocks that did accelerate particles, showed none of the DSA-predicted correlations of γ with the shock compression ratio and the shock normal to magnetic field angle. Here we will present ACE/SWICS observations of three sets of 72 consecutive one-hour averaged velocity distributions (in each of 8 SWICS spin sectors). Each set includes passage of one or more shocks or strong compression regions. All spectra were properly transformed to the solar wind frame using the detailed, updated SWICS forward model, taking into account the hourly-averaged directions of the solar wind flow, the magnetic field and the ACE spin axis (http://www.srl.caltech.edu/ACE/ASC/). The suprathermal tails are observed to be a combination of locally accelerated and remote tails. The local tails are power laws. The remote tails are also power laws with rollovers at higher energies. When local tails are weak (as is the case especially upstream of strong shocks or compression regions) the remote tails also have a rollover at low energies due to modulation (transport effects). Among our main findings are that (1) the spectral indices of both the local and remote tails are -5 within the uncertainties of the measurements, as predicted by our pump acceleration mechanism, and (2) the velocity distributions are anisotropic with the perpendicular (to the magnetic field) pressure greater than the parallel pressure.

  11. Shock compression of precompressed deuterium

    SciTech Connect

    Armstrong, M R; Crowhurst, J C; Zaug, J M; Bastea, S; Goncharov, A F; Militzer, B

    2011-07-31

    Here we report quasi-isentropic dynamic compression and thermodynamic characterization of solid, precompressed deuterium over an ultrafast time scale (< 100 ps) and a microscopic length scale (< 1 {micro}m). We further report a fast transition in shock wave compressed solid deuterium that is consistent with the ramp to shock transition, with a time scale of less than 10 ps. These results suggest that high-density dynamic compression of hydrogen may be possible on microscopic length scales.

  12. Interaction of two glancing, crossing shock waves with a turbulent boundary-layer at various Mach numbers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hingst, Warren R.; Williams, Kevin E.

    1991-01-01

    A preliminary experimental investigation was conducted to study two crossing, glancing shock waves of equal strengths, interacting with the boundary-layer developed on a supersonic wind tunnel wall. This study was performed at several Mach numbers between 2.5 and 4.0. The shock waves were created by fins (shock generators), spanning the tunnel test section, that were set at angles varying from 4 to 12 degrees. The data acquired are wall static pressure measurements, and qualitative information in the form of oil flow and schlieren visualizations. The principle aim is two-fold. First, a fundamental understanding of the physics underlying this flow phenomena is desired. Also, a comprehensive data set is needed for computational fluid dynamic code validation. Results indicate that for small shock generator angles, the boundary-layer remains attached throughout the flow field. However, with increasing shock strengths (increasing generator angles), boundary layer separation does occur and becomes progressively more severe as the generator angles are increased further. The location of the separation, which starts well downstream of the shock crossing point, moves upstream as shock strengths are increased. At the highest generator angles, the separation appears to begin coincident with the generator leading edges and engulfs most of the area between the generators. This phenomena occurs very near the 'unstart' limit for the generators. The wall pressures at the lower generator angles are nominally consistent with the flow geometries (i.e. shock patterns) although significantly affected by the boundary-layer upstream influence. As separation occurs, the wall pressures exhibit a gradient that is mainly axial in direction in the vicinity of the separation. At the limiting conditions the wall pressure gradients are primarily in the axial direction throughout.

  13. Simulation of ideal-gas flow by nitrogen and other selected gases at cryogenic temperatures. [transonic flow in cryogenic wind tunnels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, R. M.; Adcock, J. B.

    1981-01-01

    The real gas behavior of nitrogen, the gas normally used in transonic cryogenic tunnels, is reported for the following flow processes: isentropic expansion, normal shocks, boundary layers, and interactions between shock waves and boundary layers. The only difference in predicted pressure ratio between nitrogen and an ideal gas which may limit the minimum operating temperature of transonic cryogenic wind tunnels occur at total pressures approaching 9 atm and total temperatures 10 K below the corresponding saturation temperature. These pressure differences approach 1 percent for both isentropic expansions and normal shocks. Alternative cryogenic test gases were also analyzed. Differences between air and an ideal diatomic gas are similar in magnitude to those for nitrogen and should present no difficulty. However, differences for helium and hydrogen are over an order of magnitude greater than those for nitrogen or air. It is concluded that helium and cryogenic hydrogen would not approximate the compressible flow of an ideal diatomic gas.

  14. Shock metamorphism of granulated lunar basalt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaal, R. B.; Thompson, T. D.; Hoerz, F.; Bauer, J. F.

    1979-01-01

    The paper deals with an extensive series of shock-recovery experiments performed on both nonporous crystalline basalt and its granulated and sieved counterpart to study the role of porosity and grain size in shock motomorphic effects under otherwise identical conditions. Shocked samples are compared with unshocked starting material in terms of textural and mineralogical modifications attributable to shock. A comparative petrographic and chemical characterization is presented of pulverized and sieved lunar basalt 75035 shocked between 6 and 75 GPa in comparison with holocrystalline disks of the same basalts shocked in 10 earlier experiments. Specifically, a petrographic classification of shock features is given, along with an estimation of relative amounts of shock glasses and a chemical characterization of shock glasses in each shocked granular basalt.

  15. Turbulence in electrostatic ion acoustic shocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Means, R. W.; Coroniti, F. V.; Wong, A. Y.; White, R. B.

    1973-01-01

    Three types of collisionless electrostatic ion acoustic shocks are investigated using a double plasma (DP) device: (1) laminar shocks; (2) small amplitude turbulent shocks in which the turbulence is confined to be upstream of the shock potential jump; and (3) large amplitude turbulent shocks in which the wave turbulence occurs throughout the shock transition. The wave turbulence is generated by ions which are reflected from the shock potential; linear theory spatial growth increments agree with experimental values. The experimental relationship between the shock Mach number and the shock potential is shown to be inconsistent with theoretical shock models which assume that the electrons are isothermal. Theoretical calculations which assume a trapped electron equation of a state and a turbulently flattened velocity distrubution function for the reflected ions yields a Mach number vs potential relationship in agreement with experiment.

  16. Application of laser anemometry to cryogenic wind tunnels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunter, W. W., Jr.; Honaker, W. C.; Gartrell, L. R.

    1983-01-01

    The installation and tests conducted with the laser Doppler and transit anemometer in the 0.3-Meter Transonic Cryogenic Tunnel are described. Using residual particulates in the flow field, a series of free stream velocity measurements were conducted which agreed to within 1-percent of predicted values for a range of Mach numbers, 0.2 to 0.85, and temperatures, 100 to 250 K. Measurements about a shock wave provided an estimate of scattering particulate size of 4 microns or less. The particle concentration is approximately 3 x 10 to the 5th to 1.6 x 10 to the 6th/cu m. Necessary isolation of the plenum wall windows from ambient air with slightly positive pressure of dry nitrogen gas to prevent condensation on the window surface was achieved. This was accomplished through the use of large enclosures fixed to the tunnel wall. A second method used an additional sheet of thin plate glass to create the dry gas pocket next to the plenum window. The installation of a laser anemometer in the National Transonic Facility is examined. The laser transit anemometer has been tentatively selected for the initial entry because of its compact laser-optics package.

  17. Interferometric data for a shock-wave/boundary-layer interaction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunagan, Stephen E.; Brown, James L.; Miles, John B.

    1986-01-01

    An experimental study of the axisymmetric shock-wave / boundary-layer strong interaction flow generated in the vicinity of a cylinder-cone intersection was conducted. The study data are useful in the documentation and understanding of compressible turbulent strong interaction flows, and are part of a more general effort to improve turbulence modeling for compressible two- and three-dimensional strong viscous/inviscid interactions. The nominal free stream Mach number was 2.85. Tunnel total pressures of 1.7 and 3.4 atm provided Reynolds number values of 18 x 10(6) and 36 x 10(6) based on model length. Three cone angles were studied giving negligible, incipient, and large scale flow separation. The initial cylinder boundary layer upstream of the interaction had a thickness of 1.0 cm. The subsonic layer of the cylinder boundary layer was quite thin, and in all cases, the shock wave penetrated a significant portion of the boundary layer. Owing to the thickness of the cylinder boundary layer, considerable structural detail was resolved for the three shock-wave / boundary-layer interaction cases considered. The primary emphasis was on the application of the holographic interferometry technique. The density field was deduced from an interferometric analysis based on the Able transform. Supporting data were obtained using a 2-D laser velocimeter, as well as mean wall pressure and oil flow measurements. The attached flow case was observed to be steady, while the separated cases exhibited shock unsteadiness. Comparisons with Navier-Stokes computations using a two-equation turbulence model are presented.

  18. Heat transfer phase change paint tests of 0.0175-scale models (nos. 21-0 and 46-0) of the Rockwell International space shuttle orbiter in the AEDC tunnel B hypersonic wind tunnel (test OH25A)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dye, W. H.

    1975-01-01

    Tests were conducted in a hypersonic wind tunnel using various truncated space shuttle orbiter configurations in an attempt to establish the optimum model size for other tests examining body shock-wing leading edge interference effects. The tests were conducted at Mach number 8 using the phase change paint technique. A test description, tabulated data, and tracings of isotherms made from photographs taken during the test are presented.

  19. Harmonic multiplication using resonant tunneling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sollner, T. C. L. G.; Brown, E. R.; Goodhue, W. D.; Correa, C. A.

    1988-01-01

    This paper demonstrates the use of resonant-tunneling diodes as varistors for harmonic multiplication. It is shown that efficient odd-harmonic conversion is possible and that even harmonics do not appear because of the antisymmetry of the current-voltage (I-V) curve. It is also shown that, with the proper choice of resonant-tunneling structure and pump amplitude, most of the harmonic output power can be confined to a single odd-harmonic frequency. Fifth-harmonic multiplication was demonstrated with an output at 21.75 GHz and a power conversion efficiency of 0.5 percent, and a fifth-harmonic efficiency of 2.7 percent was achieved in a circuit simulation using an improved I-V curve.

  20. Tunneling decay of false kinks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dupuis, Éric; Gobeil, Yan; MacKenzie, Richard; Marleau, Luc; Paranjape, M. B.; Ung, Yvan

    2015-07-01

    We consider the decay of "false kinks," that is, kinks formed in a scalar field theory with a pair of degenerate symmetry-breaking false vacua in 1 +1 dimensions. The true vacuum is symmetric. A second scalar field and a peculiar potential are added in order for the kink to be classically stable. We find an expression for the decay rate of a false kink. As with any tunneling event, the rate is proportional to exp (-SE) where SE is the Euclidean action of the bounce describing the tunneling event. This factor varies wildly depending on the parameters of the model. Of interest is the fact that for certain parameters SE can get arbitrarily small, implying that the kink is only barely stable. Thus, while the false vacuum itself may be very long-lived, the presence of kinks can give rise to rapid vacuum decay.

  1. Wind tunnel flow generation section

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sorensen, N. E. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    A flow generation section for a wind tunnel test facility is described which provides a uniform flow for the wind tunnel test section over a range of different flow velocities. The throat of the flow generation section includes a pair of opposed boundary walls which are porous to the flowing medium in order to provide an increase of velocity by expansion. A plenum chamber is associated with the exterior side of each of such porous walls to separate the same from ambient pressure. A suction manifold is connected by suction lines with each one of the chambers. Valves are positioned in each of the lines to enable the suction manifold to be independently varied.

  2. Spin tunneling in magnetic molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kececioglu, Ersin

    In this thesis, we will focus on spin tunneling in a family of systems called magnetic molecules such as Fe8 and Mn12. This is comparatively new, in relation to other tunneling problems. Many issues are not completely solved and/or understood yet. The magnetic molecule Fe 8 has been observed to have a rich pattern of degeneracies in its magnetic spectrum. We focus on these degeneracies from several points of view. We start with the simplest anisotropy Hamiltonian to describe the Fe 8 molecule and extend our discussion to include higher order anisotropy terms. We give analytical expressions as much as we can, for the degeneracies in the semi-classical limit in both cases. We reintroduce jump instantons to the instanton formalism. Finally, we discuss the effect of the environment on the molecule. Our results, for all different models and techniques, agree well with both experimental and numerical results.

  3. Fermion tunneling from dynamical horizons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Criscienzo, R.; Vanzo, L.

    2008-06-01

    The instability against emission of fermionic particles by the trapping horizon of an evolving black hole is analyzed and confirmed using the Hamilton-Jacobi tunneling method. This method automatically selects one special expression for the surface gravity of a changing horizon. The results also apply to point masses embedded in an expanding universe. As a bonus of the tunneling method, we gain the insight that the surface gravity still defines a temperature parameter as long as the evolution is sufficiently slow that the black-hole pass through a sequence of quasi-equilibrium states, and that black holes should be semi-classically unstable even in a hypothetical world without bosonic fields.

  4. Single-contact tunneling thermometry

    DOEpatents

    Maksymovych, Petro

    2016-02-23

    A single-contact tunneling thermometry circuit includes a tunnel junction formed between two objects. Junction temperature gradient information is determined based on a mathematical relationship between a target alternating voltage applied across the junction and the junction temperature gradient. Total voltage measured across the junction indicates the magnitude of the target alternating voltage. A thermal gradient is induced across the junction. A reference thermovoltage is measured when zero alternating voltage is applied across the junction. An increasing alternating voltage is applied while measuring a thermovoltage component and a DC rectification voltage component created by the applied alternating voltage. The target alternating voltage is reached when the thermovoltage is nullified or doubled by the DC rectification voltage depending on the sign of the reference thermovoltage. Thermoelectric current and current measurements may be utilized in place of the thermovoltage and voltage measurements. The system may be automated with a feedback loop.

  5. PHYSICAL MODEL FOR RECOGNITION TUNNELING

    PubMed Central

    Krstić, Predrag; Ashcroft, Brian; Lindsay, Stuart

    2015-01-01

    Recognition tunneling (RT) identifies target molecules trapped between tunneling electrodes functionalized with recognition molecules that serve as specific chemical linkages between the metal electrodes and the trapped target molecule. Possible applications include single molecule DNA and protein sequencing. This paper addresses several fundamental aspects of RT by multiscale theory, applying both all-atom and coarse-grained DNA models: (1) We show that the magnitude of the observed currents are consistent with the results of non-equilibrium Green's function calculations carried out on a solvated all-atom model. (2) Brownian fluctuations in hydrogen bond-lengths lead to current spikes that are similar to what is observed experimentally. (3) The frequency characteristics of these fluctuations can be used to identify the trapped molecules with a machine-learning algorithm, giving a theoretical underpinning to this new method of identifying single molecule signals. PMID:25650375

  6. Measured and predicted shock shapes for AFE configuration at Mach 6 in air and in CF4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wells, William L.; Franks, Alan M.

    1988-01-01

    Shock shapes and stand-off distances were obtained for the Aeroassist Flight Experiment configuration from Mach 6 tests in air and in CF4. Results were plotted for an angle-of attack range from -10 to 10 degrees and comparisons were made at selected angles with inviscid-flow predictions. Tests were performed in the Langley Research Center (LaRC) 20 inch Mach 6 Tunnel (air) at unit free-stream Reynolds numbers (N sub Re, infinity) of 2 million/ft and 0.6 million/ft and in the LaRC Hypersonic CF4 Tunnel at N sub Re, infinity = 0.5 million/ft and 0.3 million/ft. Within the range of these tests, N sub Re, infinity did not affect the shock shape or stand off distance, and the predictions were in good agreement with the measurements. The shock stand-off distance in CF4 was approximately half of that in air. This effect resulted from the differences in density ratio across the normal shock, which was approximately 12 in CF4 and 5 in air. In both test gases, the shock lay progressively closer to the body as angle of attack decreased.

  7. Model of 5-Foot Vertical Wind Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1930-01-01

    Model of 5-Foot Vertical Wind Tunnel. Carl Wenzinger and Thomas Harris wrote in NACA TR 387: 'The vertical open-throat wind tunnel of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics ... was built mainly for studying the spinning characteristics of airplane models, but may be used as well for the usual types of wind-tunnel tests. A special spinning balance is being developed to measure the desired forces and moments with the model simulating the actual spin of an airplane. Satisfactory air flow has been attained with a velocity that is uniform over the jet to within 0.5 per cent. The turbulence present in the tunnel has been compared with that of several other tunnels by means of the results of sphere drag tests and was found to average well with the values of those tunnels. Included also in the report are comparisons of results of stable autorotation and of rolling-moment tests obtained both in the vertical tunnel and in the old horizontal 5-foot atmospheric tunnel.' The design of a vertical tunnel having a 5-foot diameter jet was accordingly started by the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics in 1928. Actual construction of the new tunnel was completed in 1930, and the calibration tests were then made.'

  8. Variable density turbulence tunnel facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bodenschatz, E.; Bewley, G. P.; Nobach, H.; Sinhuber, M.; Xu, H.

    2014-09-01

    The Variable Density Turbulence Tunnel at the Max Planck Institute for Dynamics and Self-Organization in Göttingen, Germany, produces very high turbulence levels at moderate flow velocities, low power consumption, and adjustable kinematic viscosity between 10-4 m2/s and 10-7 m2/s. The Reynolds number can be varied by changing the pressure or flow rate of the gas or by using different non-flammable gases including air. The highest kinematic viscosities, and hence lowest Reynolds numbers, are reached with air or nitrogen at 0.1 bar. To reach the highest Reynolds numbers the tunnel is pressurized to 15 bars with the dense gas sulfur hexafluoride (SF6). Turbulence is generated at the upstream ends of two measurement sections with grids, and the evolution of this turbulence is observed as it moves down the length of the sections. We describe the instrumentation presently in operation, which consists of the tunnel itself, classical grid turbulence generators, and state-of-the-art nano-fabricated hot-wire anemometers provided by Princeton University [M. Vallikivi, M. Hultmark, S. C. C. Bailey, and A. J. Smits, Exp. Fluids 51, 1521 (2011)]. We report measurements of the characteristic scales of the flow and of turbulent spectra up to Taylor Reynolds number Rλ ≈ 1600, higher than any other grid-turbulence experiment. We also describe instrumentation under development, which includes an active grid and a Lagrangian particle tracking system that moves down the length of the tunnel with the mean flow. In this configuration, the properties of the turbulence are adjustable and its structure is resolvable up to Rλ ≈ 8000.

  9. Observing remnants by fermions' tunneling

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, D.Y.; Wu, H.W.; Yang, H. E-mail: iverwu@uestc.edu.cn

    2014-03-01

    The standard Hawking formula predicts the complete evaporation of black holes. In this paper, we introduce effects of quantum gravity into fermions' tunneling from Reissner-Nordstrom and Kerr black holes. The quantum gravity effects slow down the increase of Hawking temperatures. This property naturally leads to a residue mass in black hole evaporation. The corrected temperatures are affected by the quantum numbers of emitted fermions. Meanwhile, the temperature of the Kerr black hole is a function of θ due to the rotation.

  10. Seismic prediction ahead of tunnel constructions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jetschny, S.; Bohlen, T.; Nil, D. D.; Giese, R.

    2007-12-01

    To increase safety and efficiency of tunnel constructions, online seismic exploration ahead of a tunnel can become a valuable tool. Within the \\it OnSite project founded by the BMBF (German Ministry of Education and Research) within \\it GeoTechnologien a new forward looking seismic imaging technique is developed to e.g. determine weak and water bearing zones ahead of the constructions. Our approach is based on the excitation and registration of \\it tunnel surface waves. These waves are excited at the tunnel face behind the cutter head of a tunnel boring machine and travel into drilling direction. Arriving at the front face they generate body waves (mainly S-waves) propagating further ahead. Reflected S-waves are back- converted into tunnel surface waves. For a theoretical description of the conversion process and for finding optimal acquisition geometries it is of importance to study the propagation characteristics of tunnel surface waves. 3D seismic finite difference modeling and analytic solutions of the wave equation in cylindric coordinates revealed that at higher frequencies, i.e. if the tunnel diameter is significantly larger than the wavelength of S-waves, these surface waves can be regarded as Rayleigh-waves circulating the tunnel. For smaller frequencies, i.e. when the S-wavelength approaches the tunnel diameter, the propagation characteristics of these surface waves are then similar to S- waves. Field measurements performed by the GeoForschungsZentrum Potsdam, Germany at the Gotthard Base Tunnel (Switzerland) show both effects, i.e. the propagation of Rayleigh- and body-wave like waves along the tunnel. To enhance our understanding of the excitation and propagation characteristics of tunnel surface waves the transition of Rayleigh to tube-waves waves is investigated both analytically and by numerical simulations.

  11. Tunneling decay of false vortices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Bum-Hoon; Lee, Wonwoo; MacKenzie, Richard; Paranjape, M. B.; Yajnik, U. A.; Yeom, Dong-han

    2013-10-01

    We consider the decay of vortices trapped in the false vacuum of a theory of scalar electrodynamics in 2+1 dimensions. The potential is inspired by models with intermediate symmetry breaking to a metastable vacuum that completely breaks a U(1) symmetry, while in the true vacuum, the symmetry is unbroken. The false vacuum is unstable through the formation of true vacuum bubbles; however, the rate of decay can be extremely long. On the other hand, the false vacuum can contain metastable vortex solutions. These vortices contain the true vacuum inside in addition to a unit of magnetic flux and the appropriate topologically nontrivial false vacuum outside. We numerically establish the existence of vortex solutions which are classically stable; however, they can decay via tunneling. In general terms, they tunnel to a configuration which is a large, thin-walled vortex configuration that is now classically unstable to the expansion of its radius. We compute an estimate for the tunneling amplitude in the semiclassical approximation. We believe our analysis would be relevant to superconducting thin films or superfluids.

  12. Quiet Supersonic Wind Tunnel Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, Lyndell S.; Kutler, Paul (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    The ability to control the extent of laminar flow on swept wings at supersonic speeds may be a critical element in developing the enabling technology for a High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT). Laminar boundary layers are less resistive to forward flight than their turbulent counterparts, thus the farther downstream that transition from laminar to turbulent flow in the wing boundary layer is extended can be of significant economic impact. Due to the complex processes involved experimental studies of boundary layer stability and transition are needed, and these are performed in "quiet" wind tunnels capable of simulating the low-disturbance environment of free flight. At Ames, a wind tunnel has been built to operate at flow conditions which match those of the HSCT laminar flow flight demonstration 'aircraft, the F-16XL, i.e. at a Mach number of 1.6 and a Reynolds number range of 1 to 3 million per foot. This will allow detailed studies of the attachment line and crossflow on the leading edge area of the highly swept wing. Also, use of suction as a means of control of transition due to crossflow and attachment line instabilities can be studied. Topics covered include: test operating conditions required; design requirements to efficiently make use of the existing infrastructure; development of an injector drive system using a small pilot facility; plenum chamber design; use of computational tools for tunnel and model design; and early operational results.

  13. Water jet assisted tunnel boring

    SciTech Connect

    Ozdemir, L.

    1984-06-21

    Mechanical tunnel boring has experienced significant growth over the last two decades. Improved machine design and performance coupled with a better understanding of factors affecting boreability have contributed to a dramatic increase in the number of machine bored tunnels. Today, tunnel boring machines (TBMs) are finding widespread application in various sectors of underground construction industry, both civil and mining. Most of the hard rock formations considered unsuited to mechanical boring only a few years ago are now excavated with TBMs with favorable economics compared to conventional drill and blast methods. Despite the advancements accomplished, TBMs need further improvements in design and operation to exend their capabilities and to reduce excavation costs, particularly in hard, abrasive rocks. The design of TBMs has presently reached a state where no additional major breakthroughs are anticipated in the near future. The cutter material appears to be the major obstacle to achieving further performance improvements. The amount of load which the cutters can sustain with acceptable levels of wear is the limiting factor determining the magnitude of the power that can be placed on a TBM. In fact, most present day TBMs can generate more thrust and torque than the individual cutters are capable of supporting.

  14. The optimum hypersonic wind tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trimmer, L. L.; Cary, A., Jr.; Voisinet, R. L. P.

    1986-01-01

    The capabilities of existing hypersonic wind tunnels in the U.S. are assessed to form a basis for recommendations for a new, costly facility which would provide data for modeling the hypervelocity aerodynamics envisioned for the new generation of aerospace vehicles now undergoing early studies. Attention is given to the regimes, both entry and aerodynamic, which the new vehicles will encounter, and the shortcomings of data generated for the Orbiter before flight are discussed. The features of foreign-gas, impulse, aeroballistic range, arc-heated and combustion-heated facilities are examined, noting that in any hypersonic wind tunnel the flow must be preheated to prevent liquefaction upon expansion in the test channel. The limitations of the existing facilities and the identification of the regimes which must be studied lead to a description of the characteristics of an optimum hypersonic wind tunnel, including the operations and productivity, the instrumentation, the nozzle design and the flow quality. Three different design approaches are described, each costing at least $100 million to achieve workability.

  15. Models for cryogenic wind tunnels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawing, Pierce L.

    1989-01-01

    Model requirements, types of model construction methods, and research in new ways to build models are discussed. The 0.3-m Transonic Cryogenic Tunnel was in operation for 16 years and many 2-D airfoil pressure models were tested. In addition there were airfoil models dedicated to transition detection techniques and other specialized research. There were also a number of small 3-D models tested. A chronological development in model building technique is described which led to the construction of many successful models. The difficulties of construction are illustrated by discussing several unsuccessful model fabrication attempts. The National Transonic Facility, a newer and much larger tunnel, was used to test a variety of models including a submarine, transport and fighter configurations, and the Shuttle Orbiter. A new method of building pressure models was developed and is described. The method is centered on the concept of bonding together plates with pressure channels etched into the bond planes, which provides high density pressure instrumentation with minimum demand on parent model material. With care in the choice of materials and technique, vacuum brazing can be used to produce strong bonds without blocking pressure channels and with no bonding voids between channels. Using multiple plates, a 5 percent wing with 96 orifices was constructed and tested in a transonic cryogenic wind tunnel. Samples of test data are presented and future applications of the technology are suggested.

  16. Confocal Annular Josephson Tunnel Junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monaco, Roberto

    2016-04-01

    The physics of Josephson tunnel junctions drastically depends on their geometrical configurations and here we show that also tiny geometrical details play a determinant role. More specifically, we develop the theory of short and long annular Josephson tunnel junctions delimited by two confocal ellipses. The behavior of a circular annular Josephson tunnel junction is then seen to be simply a special case of the above result. For junctions having a normalized perimeter less than one, the threshold curves in the presence of an in-plane magnetic field of arbitrary orientations are derived and computed even in the case with trapped Josephson vortices. For longer junctions, a numerical analysis is carried out after the derivation of the appropriate motion equation for the Josephson phase. We found that the system is modeled by a modified and perturbed sine-Gordon equation with a space-dependent effective Josephson penetration length inversely proportional to the local junction width. Both the fluxon statics and dynamics are deeply affected by the non-uniform annulus width. Static zero-field multiple-fluxon solutions exist even in the presence of a large bias current. The tangential velocity of a traveling fluxon is not determined by the balance between the driving and drag forces due to the dissipative losses. Furthermore, the fluxon motion is characterized by a strong radial inward acceleration which causes electromagnetic radiation concentrated at the ellipse equatorial points.

  17. Thermal radiation scanning tunnelling microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Wilde, Yannick; Formanek, Florian; Carminati, Rémi; Gralak, Boris; Lemoine, Paul-Arthur; Joulain, Karl; Mulet, Jean-Philippe; Chen, Yong; Greffet, Jean-Jacques

    2006-12-01

    In standard near-field scanning optical microscopy (NSOM), a subwavelength probe acts as an optical `stethoscope' to map the near field produced at the sample surface by external illumination. This technique has been applied using visible, infrared, terahertz and gigahertz radiation to illuminate the sample, providing a resolution well beyond the diffraction limit. NSOM is well suited to study surface waves such as surface plasmons or surface-phonon polaritons. Using an aperture NSOM with visible laser illumination, a near-field interference pattern around a corral structure has been observed, whose features were similar to the scanning tunnelling microscope image of the electronic waves in a quantum corral. Here we describe an infrared NSOM that operates without any external illumination: it is a near-field analogue of a night-vision camera, making use of the thermal infrared evanescent fields emitted by the surface, and behaves as an optical scanning tunnelling microscope. We therefore term this instrument a `thermal radiation scanning tunnelling microscope' (TRSTM). We show the first TRSTM images of thermally excited surface plasmons, and demonstrate spatial coherence effects in near-field thermal emission.

  18. Confocal Annular Josephson Tunnel Junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monaco, Roberto

    2016-09-01

    The physics of Josephson tunnel junctions drastically depends on their geometrical configurations and here we show that also tiny geometrical details play a determinant role. More specifically, we develop the theory of short and long annular Josephson tunnel junctions delimited by two confocal ellipses. The behavior of a circular annular Josephson tunnel junction is then seen to be simply a special case of the above result. For junctions having a normalized perimeter less than one, the threshold curves in the presence of an in-plane magnetic field of arbitrary orientations are derived and computed even in the case with trapped Josephson vortices. For longer junctions, a numerical analysis is carried out after the derivation of the appropriate motion equation for the Josephson phase. We found that the system is modeled by a modified and perturbed sine-Gordon equation with a space-dependent effective Josephson penetration length inversely proportional to the local junction width. Both the fluxon statics and dynamics are deeply affected by the non-uniform annulus width. Static zero-field multiple-fluxon solutions exist even in the presence of a large bias current. The tangential velocity of a traveling fluxon is not determined by the balance between the driving and drag forces due to the dissipative losses. Furthermore, the fluxon motion is characterized by a strong radial inward acceleration which causes electromagnetic radiation concentrated at the ellipse equatorial points.

  19. Quantum Tunneling Affects Engine Performance.

    PubMed

    Som, Sibendu; Liu, Wei; Zhou, Dingyu D Y; Magnotti, Gina M; Sivaramakrishnan, Raghu; Longman, Douglas E; Skodje, Rex T; Davis, Michael J

    2013-06-20

    We study the role of individual reaction rates on engine performance, with an emphasis on the contribution of quantum tunneling. It is demonstrated that the effect of quantum tunneling corrections for the reaction HO2 + HO2 = H2O2 + O2 can have a noticeable impact on the performance of a high-fidelity model of a compression-ignition (e.g., diesel) engine, and that an accurate prediction of ignition delay time for the engine model requires an accurate estimation of the tunneling correction for this reaction. The three-dimensional model includes detailed descriptions of the chemistry of a surrogate for a biodiesel fuel, as well as all the features of the engine, such as the liquid fuel spray and turbulence. This study is part of a larger investigation of how the features of the dynamics and potential energy surfaces of key reactions, as well as their reaction rate uncertainties, affect engine performance, and results in these directions are also presented here. PMID:26283246

  20. Autonomous Robotic Inspection in Tunnels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Protopapadakis, E.; Stentoumis, C.; Doulamis, N.; Doulamis, A.; Loupos, K.; Makantasis, K.; Kopsiaftis, G.; Amditis, A.

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, an automatic robotic inspector for tunnel assessment is presented. The proposed platform is able to autonomously navigate within the civil infrastructures, grab stereo images and process/analyse them, in order to identify defect types. At first, there is the crack detection via deep learning approaches. Then, a detailed 3D model of the cracked area is created, utilizing photogrammetric methods. Finally, a laser profiling of the tunnel's lining, for a narrow region close to detected crack is performed; allowing for the deduction of potential deformations. The robotic platform consists of an autonomous mobile vehicle; a crane arm, guided by the computer vision-based crack detector, carrying ultrasound sensors, the stereo cameras and the laser scanner. Visual inspection is based on convolutional neural networks, which support the creation of high-level discriminative features for complex non-linear pattern classification. Then, real-time 3D information is accurately calculated and the crack position and orientation is passed to the robotic platform. The entire system has been evaluated in railway and road tunnels, i.e. in Egnatia Highway and London underground infrastructure.