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Sample records for 16-week recreational football

  1. Performance enhancements and muscular adaptations of a 16-week recreational football intervention for untrained women.

    PubMed

    Bangsbo, J; Nielsen, J J; Mohr, M; Randers, M B; Krustrup, B R; Brito, J; Nybo, L; Krustrup, P

    2010-04-01

    The present study investigated the performance effects and physiological adaptations over 16 weeks of recreational football training and continuous running for healthy untrained premenopausal women in comparison with an inactive control group [Football group (FG): n=21; running group (RG): n=18; CO: n=14]. Two weekly 1-h training sessions were performed in FG and RG. After 4 and 16 weeks of training VO(2max) was elevated (P<0.05) by 7% and 15%, respectively, in FG, and by 6% and 10%, respectively, in RG. After 16 weeks, Yo-Yo intermittent endurance level 2 performance was 33% and 19% better (P<0.05) for FG and 29% and 21% better (P<0.05) for RG than after 4 and 0 weeks, respectively. Peak sprinting speed was 12% higher (21.0 +/- 0.6 vs 18.8 +/- 0.7 km/h; P<0.05) for FG after the training period, whereas no difference was observed for RG. After 4 weeks citrate synthase (CS) and 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase (HAD) activity was 9% and 8%, respectively, higher (P<0.05) than before training in FG with no further changes during the last 12 weeks. In RG, CS increased (P<0.05) by 12% after 4 weeks and no significant increase was observed for HAD. In FG, the number of capillaries per fiber was 18% higher (P<0.05) after 16 weeks (2.44 +/- 0.15 vs 2.07 +/- 0.05 cap/fiber), with no significant difference for RG. No differences were observed between 0 and 16 weeks for CO. In conclusion, recreational women's football leads to significant increases in VO(2max), performance and muscular adaptations throughout a 16-week training period. Thus, football can be used as an activity to elevate the physical capacity of untrained women.

  2. Musculoskeletal health profile for elite female footballers versus untrained young women before and after 16 weeks of football training.

    PubMed

    Jackman, Sarah R; Scott, Suzanne; Randers, Morten Bredsgaard; Orntoft, Christina; Blackwell, Jamie; Zar, Abdossaleh; Helge, Eva Wulff; Mohr, Magni; Krustrup, Peter

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the musculoskeletal health profile of elite female football players (ET) in comparison to untrained (UT) young women subjected to 16 weeks of football training (2 × 1 h per week). DXA scans, blood sampling, sprint testing and Flamingo postural balance testing were carried out for 27 Danish national team players and 28 untrained women, with eight women being tested after training. At baseline total BMD and BMC were 13% (1.305 ± 0.050 versus 1.159 ± 0.056 g · cm(-2)) and 23% (3047 ± 235 versus 2477 ± 526 g) higher (P <0.001) and leg BMD and BMC were 24 and 28% higher (P <0.01) in ET than in UT. Resting plasma osteocalcin was 45% higher in ET than in UT (28.8 ± 10.9 versus 19.9 ± 9.9 µg · L(-1), P <0.05). Total lean body mass was 14% higher (50.4 ± 3.3 versus 44.3 ± 4.0 kg) in ET compared with UT, with no difference in total body mass. The number of Flamingo test falls was 56-63% less (P <0.01) and 30 m sprinting speed was 31% faster (P <0.001) in ET than UT. After 16 weeks of football training for UT, lean body mass increased by 1.4 ± 0.5 kg and the number of left leg falls decreased by 29% (P <0.05). No significant changes occurred in BMD or BMC, but plasma osteocalcin increased (P <0.05) by 37%. In summary, elite women footballers have an impressive musculoskeletal health profile compared with untrained controls, but short-term football training seems to reduce the risk of falls and increase bone formation.

  3. Recreational football for disease prevention and treatment in untrained men: a narrative review examining cardiovascular health, lipid profile, body composition, muscle strength and functional capacity

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, Peter Riis; Dvorak, Jiri; Krustrup, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Over the past 10 years, researchers have studied the effects of recreational football training as a health-promoting activity for participants across the lifespan. This has important public health implications as over 400 million people play football annually. Results from the first randomised controlled trial, published in the BJSM in January 2009, showed that football increased maximal oxygen uptake and muscle and bone mass, and lowered fat percentage and blood pressure, in untrained men, and since then more than 70 articles about football for health have been published, including publications in two supplements of the Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports in 2010 and 2014, prior to the FIFA World Cup tournaments in South Africa and Brazil. While studies of football training effects have also been performed in women and children, this article reviews the current evidence linking recreational football training with favourable effects in the prevention and treatment of disease in adult men. PMID:25878072

  4. Recreational football for disease prevention and treatment in untrained men: a narrative review examining cardiovascular health, lipid profile, body composition, muscle strength and functional capacity.

    PubMed

    Bangsbo, Jens; Hansen, Peter Riis; Dvorak, Jiri; Krustrup, Peter

    2015-05-01

    Over the past 10 years, researchers have studied the effects of recreational football training as a health-promoting activity for participants across the lifespan. This has important public health implications as over 400 million people play football annually. Results from the first randomised controlled trial, published in the BJSM in January 2009, showed that football increased maximal oxygen uptake and muscle and bone mass, and lowered fat percentage and blood pressure, in untrained men, and since then more than 70 articles about football for health have been published, including publications in two supplements of the Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports in 2010 and 2014, prior to the FIFA World Cup tournaments in South Africa and Brazil. While studies of football training effects have also been performed in women and children, this article reviews the current evidence linking recreational football training with favourable effects in the prevention and treatment of disease in adult men.

  5. Angle-specific hamstring-to-quadriceps ratio: a comparison of football players and recreationally active males.

    PubMed

    Evangelidis, Pavlos Eleftherios; Pain, Matthew Thomas Gerard; Folland, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    It is currently unclear how football participation affects knee-joint muscle balance, which is widely considered a risk factor for hamstrings injury. This study compared the angle-specific functional hamstring-to-quadriceps (H:Q) ratio (hamstrings eccentric torque as a ratio of quadriceps concentric torque at the same knee-joint angle) of football players with recreationally active controls. Ten male footballers and 14 controls performed maximal voluntary isometric and isovelocity concentric and eccentric contractions (60, 240 and 400° s(-1)) of the knee extensors and flexors. Gaussian fitting to the raw torque values was used to interpolate torque values for knee-joint angles of 100-160° (60° s(-1)), 105-160° (240° s(-1)) and 115-145° (400° s(-1)). The angle-specific functional H:Q ratio was calculated from the knee flexors eccentric and knee extensors concentric torque at the same velocity and angle. No differences were found for the angle-specific functional H:Q ratio between groups, at any velocity. Quadriceps and hamstrings strength relative to body mass of footballers and controls was similar for all velocities, except concentric knee flexor strength at 400° s(-1) (footballers +40%; P < 0.01). In previously uninjured football players, there was no intrinsic muscle imbalance and therefore the high rate of hamstring injuries seen in this sport may be due to other risk factors and/or simply regular exposure to a high-risk activity.

  6. Evaluating a Nationwide Recreational Football Intervention: Recruitment, Attendance, Adherence, Exercise Intensity, and Health Effects

    PubMed Central

    Fløtum, Liljan av; Ottesen, Laila S.; Krustrup, Peter

    2016-01-01

    The present study evaluated a nationwide exercise intervention with Football Fitness in a small-scale society. In all, 741 adult participants (20–72 yrs) were successfully recruited for Football Fitness training in local football clubs, corresponding to 2.1% of the adult population. A preintervention test battery including resting heart rate (RHR), blood pressure, and body mass measurements along with performance tests (Yo-Yo Intermittent Endurance level 1 (Yo-Yo IE1), the Arrowhead Agility Test, and the Flamingo Balance Test) were performed (n = 502). Training attendance (n = 310) was 1.6 ± 0.2 sessions per week (range: 0.6–2.9), corresponding to 28.8 ± 1.0 sessions during the 18 wk intervention period. After 18 wks mean arterial pressure (MAP) was −2.7 ± 0.7 mmHg lower (P < 0.05; n = 151) with even greater (P < 0.05) reductions for those with baseline MAP values >99 mmHg (−5.6 ± 1.5 mmHg; n = 50). RHR was lowered (P < 0.05) by 6 bpm after intervention (77 ± 1 to 71 ± 1 bpm). Yo-Yo IE1 performance increased by 41% (540 ± 27 to 752 ± 45 m), while agility and postural balance were improved (P < 0.05) by ~6 and ~45%, respectively. In conclusion, Football Fitness was shown to be a successful health-promoting nationwide training intervention for adult participants with an extraordinary recruitment, a high attendance rate, moderate adherence, high exercise intensity, and marked benefits in cardiovascular health profile and fitness. PMID:27437401

  7. Evaluating a Nationwide Recreational Football Intervention: Recruitment, Attendance, Adherence, Exercise Intensity, and Health Effects.

    PubMed

    Fløtum, Liljan Av; Ottesen, Laila S; Krustrup, Peter; Mohr, Magni

    2016-01-01

    The present study evaluated a nationwide exercise intervention with Football Fitness in a small-scale society. In all, 741 adult participants (20-72 yrs) were successfully recruited for Football Fitness training in local football clubs, corresponding to 2.1% of the adult population. A preintervention test battery including resting heart rate (RHR), blood pressure, and body mass measurements along with performance tests (Yo-Yo Intermittent Endurance level 1 (Yo-Yo IE1), the Arrowhead Agility Test, and the Flamingo Balance Test) were performed (n = 502). Training attendance (n = 310) was 1.6 ± 0.2 sessions per week (range: 0.6-2.9), corresponding to 28.8 ± 1.0 sessions during the 18 wk intervention period. After 18 wks mean arterial pressure (MAP) was -2.7 ± 0.7 mmHg lower (P < 0.05; n = 151) with even greater (P < 0.05) reductions for those with baseline MAP values >99 mmHg (-5.6 ± 1.5 mmHg; n = 50). RHR was lowered (P < 0.05) by 6 bpm after intervention (77 ± 1 to 71 ± 1 bpm). Yo-Yo IE1 performance increased by 41% (540 ± 27 to 752 ± 45 m), while agility and postural balance were improved (P < 0.05) by ~6 and ~45%, respectively. In conclusion, Football Fitness was shown to be a successful health-promoting nationwide training intervention for adult participants with an extraordinary recruitment, a high attendance rate, moderate adherence, high exercise intensity, and marked benefits in cardiovascular health profile and fitness.

  8. Ivy League Football: Hard-Core Unemployment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iman, Raymond S.

    1971-01-01

    Decries the discrimination accorded to Ivy League football players by Pro Football owners and suggests corrective measures including a Head Start program involving preseason coaching for Ivy Leaguers, formation of a Department of Recreational Studies headed by Ara Parseghian or Darrell Royal, and a remedial course for punters during Christmas…

  9. Effect of a 16-Week Yoga Program on Blood Pressure in Healthy College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Debra; Reed, Justy; Buck, Sarah M.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of a 16-week yoga program on blood pressure (BP) in healthy college students. Twenty-five students (Mage = 28.24, SD = 10.64) participated in yoga class twice per week for 16 weeks. Thirty-one students (Mage = 28.77, SD = 7.23) attended a lecture (control condition) at approximately the same time…

  10. Drug use in English professional football

    PubMed Central

    Waddington, I; Malcolm, D; Roderick, M; Naik, R; Spitzer, G

    2005-01-01

    Objectives: To examine several issues related to drug use in English professional football. More particularly the project sought to gather data on: players' use of permitted supplements (mineral and vitamin pills and creatine); whether they sought advice, and if so from whom, about their use of supplements; their experience of and attitudes towards drug testing; their views on the extent of the use of banned performance enhancing and recreational drugs in football; and their personal knowledge of players who used such drugs. Methods: With the cooperation of the Professional Footballers Association (PFA), reply paid postal questionnaires were delivered to the home addresses of all 2863 members of the PFA. A total of 706 questionnaires were returned, a response rate of just under 25%. Results: Many players use supplements, although almost one in five players does so without seeking qualified professional advice from anyone within the club. Blood tests are rarely used to monitor the health of players. One third of players had not been tested for drugs within the preceding two years, and 60% felt that they were unlikely to be tested in the next year. The use of performance enhancing drugs appears to be rare, although recreational drugs are commonly used by professional footballers: 6% of respondents indicated that they personally knew players who used performance enhancing drugs, and 45% of players knew players who used recreational drugs. Conclusions: There is a need to ensure that footballers are given appropriate advice about the use of supplements in order to minimise the risk of using supplements that may be contaminated with banned substances. Footballers are tested for drugs less often than many other elite athletes. This needs to be addressed. The relatively high level of recreational drug use is not reflected in the number of positive tests. This suggests that many players who use recreational drugs avoid detection. It also raises doubts about the ability of

  11. Physical Fitness of Police Academy Cadets: Baseline Characteristics and Changes During a 16-Week Academy

    PubMed Central

    Sherman, Ross A.; Crawley, William R.; Cosio-Lima, Ludmila M.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Crawley, AA, Sherman, RA, Crawley, WR, and Cosio-Lima, LM. Physical fitness of police academy cadets: baseline characteristics and changes during a 16-week academy. J Strength Cond Res 30(5): 1416–1424, 2016—Police academies traditionally emphasize the importance of being physically fit. The purpose of this research was to determine cadet baseline physical fitness characteristics and assess effectiveness of a 16-week training program. Sixty-eight cadets (61 men, 7 women) volunteered to have baseline physical fitness characteristics assessed, and 55 cadets (49 men, 6 women) completed further testing at weeks 8 and 16. The testing comprised hand grip (strength), arm crank (upper-body power), 30 seconds Wingate (lower body power), sum of skinfolds and percentage body fat (body composition), 40-yard dash (sprint speed), 1 repetition maximum bench press (strength), T-test (agility), and sit-and-reach (flexibility). In addition, cadets completed standardized state testing (push-ups, sit-ups, vertical jump, and half-mile shuttle run). The training program consisted of 1 hour sessions, 3 d·wk−1, including aerobic, plyometrics, body weight, and resistance exercise. Significant changes were found in agility (p < 0.01), upper-body and lower-body peak power (p ≤ 0.05), sit-ups (p < 0.01), push-ups (p ≤ 0.05) across the first 8 weeks, and in agility (p ≤ 0.05), lower-body peak power (p ≤ 0.05), sit-ups (p < 0.01), push-ups (p ≤ 0.05), half-mile shuttle run (p < 0.01) across the full 16 weeks. However, none of the variables showed significant change across the second half of the program (weeks 8–16). A number of individual parameters of physical fitness showed evidence of improvement in the first 8 weeks, whereas none of the variables showed significant improvement in the second 8 weeks. This suggests modifications could be made to increase overall effectiveness of cadet physical training specifically after the 8-week mark. PMID:26466133

  12. Physical Fitness of Police Academy Cadets: Baseline Characteristics and Changes During a 16-Week Academy.

    PubMed

    Crawley, Amy A; Sherman, Ross A; Crawley, William R; Cosio-Lima, Ludmila M

    2016-05-01

    Police academies traditionally emphasize the importance of being physically fit. The purpose of this research was to determine cadet baseline physical fitness characteristics and assess effectiveness of a 16-week training program. Sixty-eight cadets (61 men, 7 women) volunteered to have baseline physical fitness characteristics assessed, and 55 cadets (49 men, 6 women) completed further testing at weeks 8 and 16. The testing comprised hand grip (strength), arm crank (upper-body power), 30 seconds Wingate (lower body power), sum of skinfolds and percentage body fat (body composition), 40-yard dash (sprint speed), 1 repetition maximum bench press (strength), T-test (agility), and sit-and-reach (flexibility). In addition, cadets completed standardized state testing (push-ups, sit-ups, vertical jump, and half-mile shuttle run). The training program consisted of 1 hour sessions, 3 d·wk, including aerobic, plyometrics, body weight, and resistance exercise. Significant changes were found in agility (p < 0.01), upper-body and lower-body peak power (p ≤ 0.05), sit-ups (p < 0.01), push-ups (p ≤ 0.05) across the first 8 weeks, and in agility (p ≤ 0.05), lower-body peak power (p ≤ 0.05), sit-ups (p < 0.01), push-ups (p ≤ 0.05), half-mile shuttle run (p < 0.01) across the full 16 weeks. However, none of the variables showed significant change across the second half of the program (weeks 8-16). A number of individual parameters of physical fitness showed evidence of improvement in the first 8 weeks, whereas none of the variables showed significant improvement in the second 8 weeks. This suggests modifications could be made to increase overall effectiveness of cadet physical training specifically after the 8-week mark.

  13. Rugby football.

    PubMed

    Dietzen, C J; Topping, B R

    1999-02-01

    Rugby union football continues to gain in popularity in the United States. Both men's and women's clubs have been established at several colleges and universities. There has been substantial growth in the number of high school rugby football clubs in recent years. With the increase in numbers of young participants in this sport, it is important that great efforts be mounted to attempt to control the injury rates and severity of injuries in rugby football. Players and coaches must be knowledgeable of the rules of the game, and referees must strictly enforce these rules. Physicians and dentists should be involved in educating parents, coaches, players, and school officials about the inherent risks of injury and the means for injury prevention. Medical personnel must also be instrumental in educating players about alcohol abuse/addiction. Rugby players should be encouraged to use the limited protective gear that is allowed: wraps, tape, joint sleeves, scrum caps, and facial grease to prevent lacerations. Mouthguards are strongly recommended at any level of play and should be mandated. The use of helmets, face masks, and shoulder pads has been suggested by some authors. Such rule changes could actually increase injury rates and severity, because this equipment could be used as weapons as they are in American football. It is recommended that rugby clubs purchase or build equipment to practice scrummage skills. Coaches should be experienced and attend clinics or complete video courses on medical emergencies and safe techniques of the game. Injury frequency and severity can be decreased by adequate preseason training and conditioning, proper tackling and falling techniques, strengthening of neck muscles, and allowing only experienced, fit athletes to play in the front row. Medical surveillance must be improved at matches and, ideally, at practice sessions. At present, it is common for no emergency medical personnel or physicians to be present at matches in the United

  14. Cardiovascular health profile of elite female football players compared to untrained controls before and after short-term football training.

    PubMed

    Randers, Morten Bredsgaard; Andersen, Lars Juel; Orntoft, Christina; Bendiksen, Mads; Johansen, Lars; Horton, Joshua; Hansen, Peter Riis; Krustrup, Peter

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the intermittent exercise performance and cardiovascular health profile in elite female football players in comparison to untrained young women, as well as a subgroup subjected to football training 2x1 h · week(-1) for 16 weeks. Twenty-seven Danish national team players (elite trained, ET) and 28 untrained women (UT) underwent dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry-scanning (DXA), comprehensive transthoracic echocardiography, treadmill and Yo-Yo Intermittent Endurance level 2 (IE2) testing. Eight women in UT were also tested after the football training period. Maximal oxygen uptake rate (VO2max), peak ventilation and peak lactate were 40, 18 and 51% higher (P< 0.01) in ET than UT, respectively. Cardiac dimensions and function were greater in ET than UT, with left ventricular diastolic diameter, right ventricular diastolic diameter, tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (TAPSE) and peak transmitral flow in early diastole divided by peak transmitral flow velocity in late diastole during atrial contraction (E/A-ratio) being 13, 19, 27 and 41%, respectively, greater in ET than UT (P< 0.001 to< 0.05). Yo-Yo IE2 performance was 7-fold higher in ET than UT (1772 ± 508 vs. 234 ± 66 m, P< 0.001), fat mass was 51% lower (P< 0.001) and high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol levels were 20% higher (P< 0.01). Sixteen weeks of football elevated VO2max and Yo-Yo IE2 performance by 16 and 40%, respectively, and lowered fat mass by 6%. Cardiac function was markedly improved by 16 weeks of football training with 26 and 46% increases in TAPSE and E/A ratio, respectively, reaching levels comparable to ET. In summary, elite female football players have a superior cardiovascular health profile and intermittent exercise performance compared to untrained controls, but short-term football training can markedly improve the cardiovascular health status.

  15. Improved WOMAC score following 16-week treatment with bromelain for knee osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Kasemsuk, Thitima; Saengpetch, Nadhaporn; Sibmooh, Nathawut; Unchern, Supeenun

    2016-10-01

    Treatment with bromelain-containing enzyme preparation for 3-4 weeks is effective for treatment of knee osteoarthritis (OA). Here, we aimed to assess 16-week treatment with bromelain in mild-to-moderate knee OA patients. We performed a randomized, single-blind, active-controlled pilot study. Forty knee OA patients were randomized to receive oral bromelain (500 mg/day) or diclofenac (100 mg/day). Primary outcome was the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) analyzed by Wilcoxon signed rank test. Secondary outcome was the short-form 36 (SF-36). Plasma malondialdehyde (MDA) and nitrite were measured as oxidative stress markers. There was no difference in WOMAC and SF-36 scores compared between bromelain and diclofenac groups after 4 weeks. At week 4, the improvement of total WOMAC and pain subscales from baseline was observed in both groups; however, two patients given diclofenac had adverse effects leading to discontinuation of diclofenac. However, observed treatment difference was inconclusive. At week 16 of bromelain treatment, the patients had improved total WOMAC scores (12.2 versus 25.5), pain subscales (2.4 versus 5.6), stiffness subscales (0.8 versus 2.0), and function subscales (9.1 versus 17.9), and physical component of SF-36 (73.3 versus 65.4) as compared with baseline values. OA patients had higher plasma MDA, nitrite, and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated whole blood but lower plasma α-tocopherol than control subjects. Plasma MDA and LPS-stimulated PGE2 production were decreased at week 16 of bromelain treatment. Bromelain has no difference in reducing symptoms of mild-to-moderate knee OA after 4 weeks when compared with diclofenac.

  16. Re-creating Recreation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Andrew

    1999-01-01

    Discusses the importance of the Architectural and Transportation Barriers Compliance Board guidelines for recreational and sports areas and their ancillary spaces. Examples of how the guidelines affect specific areas are highlighted, such as team seating areas, fitness centers, tennis courts, swimming pools, and locker rooms. (GR)

  17. Effect of a 16-week Pilates exercise program on the ego resiliency and depression in elderly women.

    PubMed

    Roh, Su Yeon

    2016-10-01

    This study aims to examine the effect of a 16-week Pilates exercise program on the ego resiliency and depression in elderly women. Before participating in Pilates exercise programs, researcher explained the purpose and the intention of the research to elderly women who were willing to participate in this research. A total of 148 elderly women agreed to participate in the program and they filled in ego resiliency and depression questionnaires. Then, the elderly participated in the 16-week Pilates exercise program and completed the same questionnaires afterwards. Collected data was analyzed by the SPSS ver. 20.0 program and results of paired t-test were as follows; there were statistically significant differences in all subvariables of the ego resiliency such as self-confidence (t=7.770, P<0.001), communication efficiency (t=2.690, P<0.01), optimistic trait (t=1.996, P<0.05), and anger management (t=4.525, P<0.001) after elderly women participated in the 16-week Pilates exercise program, there was a statistically significant difference in depression of elderly women who participated in the 16-week Pilates exercise program (t=-6.506, P<0.001) which was statistically lower than before their participation in the program. Consequently, participating in the Pilates exercise program can help improve the ego-resiliency and alleviate depression of the elderly women.

  18. Effect of a 16-week Pilates exercise program on the ego resiliency and depression in elderly women

    PubMed Central

    Roh, Su Yeon

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to examine the effect of a 16-week Pilates exercise program on the ego resiliency and depression in elderly women. Before participating in Pilates exercise programs, researcher explained the purpose and the intention of the research to elderly women who were willing to participate in this research. A total of 148 elderly women agreed to participate in the program and they filled in ego resiliency and depression questionnaires. Then, the elderly participated in the 16-week Pilates exercise program and completed the same questionnaires afterwards. Collected data was analyzed by the SPSS ver. 20.0 program and results of paired t-test were as follows; there were statistically significant differences in all subvariables of the ego resiliency such as self-confidence (t=7.770, P<0.001), communication efficiency (t=2.690, P<0.01), optimistic trait (t=1.996, P<0.05), and anger management (t=4.525, P<0.001) after elderly women participated in the 16-week Pilates exercise program, there was a statistically significant difference in depression of elderly women who participated in the 16-week Pilates exercise program (t=−6.506, P<0.001) which was statistically lower than before their participation in the program. Consequently, participating in the Pilates exercise program can help improve the ego-resiliency and alleviate depression of the elderly women. PMID:27807531

  19. The effect of 16-week plyometric training on explosive actions in early to mid-puberty elite soccer players.

    PubMed

    Söhnlein, Quirin; Müller, Erich; Stöggl, Thomas L

    2014-08-01

    Plyometric training (PT) programs are widely used to improve explosive actions in soccer players of various ages, although there is debate about optimal training duration and time course of improvement. Twenty-two early to mid-puberty elite soccer players were assigned to a control group (CG, n = 10, regular soccer training) or a plyometric training group (PTG, n = 12, regular soccer training substituted with 2 PT sessions each week). Both groups trained for 16 weeks during the in-season period. Control group performed only tests at baseline and after intervention, whereas PTG performed additional tests after 4, 8, and 12 weeks. During each test, subjects' performances in speed (10 and 30 m; 5 and 20 m), agility, shuttle run, multiple 5 bounds (MB5), and standing long jump (LJ) were recorded. The PTG showed improved performance in 20-m sprint time (-3.2%), agility time (-6.1%), MB5 distance (+11.8%), and LJ distance (+7.3%) (all, p ≤ 0.05) after 16 weeks. All these improvements were higher compared with CG (all, p ≤ 0.05). The time course of improvement in the PT group showed that 20-m sprint time improved after 16 weeks (p = 0.012); agility after 4 (p = 0.047) and 8 weeks (p = 0.004) but stopped after 12 weeks (p = 0.007); MB5 after 8 (p = 0.039), 12 (p = 0.028), and 16 weeks (p < 0.001); and LJ improved after 4 (p = 0.045), 12 (p = 0.008), and 16 weeks (p < 0.001). Plyometric training seems to be an appropriate training tool to enhance some but not all explosive actions. The results indicate that the duration of a PT program is highly dependent on what type of explosive actions should be improved, or whether several explosive actions should be improved at the same time.

  20. Tackling in Youth Football.

    PubMed

    2015-11-01

    American football remains one of the most popular sports for young athletes. The injuries sustained during football, especially those to the head and neck, have been a topic of intense interest recently in both the public media and medical literature. The recognition of these injuries and the potential for long-term sequelae have led some physicians to call for a reduction in the number of contact practices, a postponement of tackling until a certain age, and even a ban on high school football. This statement reviews the literature regarding injuries in football, particularly those of the head and neck, the relationship between tackling and football-related injuries, and the potential effects of limiting or delaying tackling on injury risk.

  1. Recreation monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    DiGennaro, B.; Merklein, G.H.

    1995-12-31

    Recreational use and recreational facilities are common features at hydropower projects. In fact, the hydropower industry is a major supplier of recreational opportunities contributing to tourism and rural economic growth in many communities across the country, As demands for public recreation have grown, pressure on the hydropower industry to provide more public access and more facilities has increased. This paper looks at recent developments in the FERC licensing and compliance arenas with regard to planning for and monitoring recreation at hydropower facilities. The paper highlights the increased occurrence of recreation monitoring requirements in license articles and discusses methods for complying with such requirements. The paper also looks at how monitoring data can be used to avoid unnecessary developments and to better plan for future recreation use.

  2. The effects of a 16-week aerobic exercise programme on cognitive function in people living with HIV.

    PubMed

    McDermott, Adam; Zaporojan, Lilia; McNamara, Patricia; Doherty, Colin P; Redmond, Janice; Forde, Cuisle; Gormley, John; Egaña, Mikel; Bergin, Colm

    2016-11-28

    High levels of cardiovascular fitness and physical activity are associated with higher levels of cognitive function in people with HIV, thus, they may reduce the risk of developing HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND). This study aimed to investigate the effects of a 16-week aerobic exercise intervention on cognitive function in people with HIV. Eleven participants living with HIV were recruited into the study. Participants were randomised into either an exercise group (n = 5), that completed a 16-week aerobic exercise programme training, 3 times per week (2 supervised sessions and one unsupervised session) or a control group (n = 6) that received no intervention. Outcomes measured included cognitive function (Montreal cognitive assessment (MOCA) and the Trail making tests A and B), aerobic fitness (modified Bruce protocol), sleep quality (Pittsburgh sleep quality index; PSQI) and physical activity levels (seven-day accelerometry). At baseline, higher levels of moderate physical activity were positively correlated with higher MOCA scores and levels of aerobic fitness were negatively associated with Trail A scores (P = 0.04 and P = 0.001 respectively). However, exercise training did not induce any significant improvements in cognitive function or aerobic fitness. The overall mean adherence rate to the exercise programme was 60%. In conclusion, in the present study a 16-week aerobic exercise intervention did not affect the cognitive function of participants with HIV. It is likely that longer intervention periods and/or higher adherence rates to exercise might be needed for an aerobic exercise programme to be effective in improving cognitive function in a cohort with no baseline cognitive impairments.

  3. 16 Weeks of Progressive Barefoot Running Training Changes Impact Force and Muscle Activation in Habitual Shod Runners.

    PubMed

    Azevedo, Ana Paula da Silva; Mezêncio, Bruno; Amadio, Alberto Carlos; Serrão, Julio Cerca

    2016-01-01

    Short-term effects of barefoot and simulated barefoot running have been widely discussed in recent years. Consequences of adopting barefoot running for a long period, including as a training approach, still remain unknown. The present study evaluated the influence of 16 weeks of progressive barefoot running training on impact force and muscle activation in habitual shod runners. Six habitual shod runners (3 men and 3 women, 29.5 ± 7.3 years) were tested barefoot (BF) and shod (SH), before and after 16 weeks of progressive barefoot running training. Tests consisted of running on instrumented treadmill at 9 km/h, for 10 minutes in each experimental condition. Nine data acquisitions (10 s) of vertical ground reaction force (VGRF) and electromyographic (EMG) signal were conducted in each experimental condition for each test. BF training was effective to alter VGRF and EMG parameters of running in habitual shod runners, regardless of footwear condition (SH or BF). The magnitude of first peak of VGRF (Fy1) and the impulse of the first 50 ms decreased after training for BF and SH (p<0.01). The activation reduced from PRE to POST training for four muscles in BF running (p<0.001), whereas only muscle gastrocnemius lateralis decreased significantly its activation (p<0.01) in SH running. A 16-week progressive barefoot running training seems to be an effective training strategy to reduce impact force, improve shock attenuation and to decrease muscle activation intensity, not only in BF running, but also in SH running, although BF condition seems to be more influenced by BF training.

  4. 16 Weeks of Progressive Barefoot Running Training Changes Impact Force and Muscle Activation in Habitual Shod Runners

    PubMed Central

    Mezêncio, Bruno; Amadio, Alberto Carlos; Serrão, Julio Cerca

    2016-01-01

    Short-term effects of barefoot and simulated barefoot running have been widely discussed in recent years. Consequences of adopting barefoot running for a long period, including as a training approach, still remain unknown. The present study evaluated the influence of 16 weeks of progressive barefoot running training on impact force and muscle activation in habitual shod runners. Six habitual shod runners (3 men and 3 women, 29.5 ± 7.3 years) were tested barefoot (BF) and shod (SH), before and after 16 weeks of progressive barefoot running training. Tests consisted of running on instrumented treadmill at 9 km/h, for 10 minutes in each experimental condition. Nine data acquisitions (10 s) of vertical ground reaction force (VGRF) and electromyographic (EMG) signal were conducted in each experimental condition for each test. BF training was effective to alter VGRF and EMG parameters of running in habitual shod runners, regardless of footwear condition (SH or BF). The magnitude of first peak of VGRF (Fy1) and the impulse of the first 50 ms decreased after training for BF and SH (p<0.01). The activation reduced from PRE to POST training for four muscles in BF running (p<0.001), whereas only muscle gastrocnemius lateralis decreased significantly its activation (p<0.01) in SH running. A 16-week progressive barefoot running training seems to be an effective training strategy to reduce impact force, improve shock attenuation and to decrease muscle activation intensity, not only in BF running, but also in SH running, although BF condition seems to be more influenced by BF training. PMID:27907069

  5. Vitamin D3 supplementation for 16 weeks improves flow-mediated dilation in overweight African American adults

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Ryan A; Pedersen-White, Jennifer; Guo, De-Huang; Stallmann-Jorgensen, Inger S.; Keeton, Daniel; Huang, Ying; Shah, Yashesh; Zhu, Haidong; Dong, Yanbin

    2013-01-01

    Background A growing body of evidence has linked vitamin D deficiency to increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Vitamin D deficiency is also more common in African Americans for whom an increased cardiovascular disease risk exists. This study sought to test the hypothesis that 16 weeks of 60,000 IU monthly supplementation of oral vitamin D3 would improve flow-mediated dilation (FMD) in African Americans, whereas no change would be observed in the placebo group. Methods A randomized, double blind, placebo controlled clinical trial was conducted. Fifty-seven African American adults were randomly assigned to either the placebo group or vitamin D group. Results Following 16 weeks of placebo (n=23; mean age 31±2 years) or 60,000 IU monthly oral vitamin D3 (n=22; mean age 29±2 years), serum concentrations of 25 hydroxyvitamin D increased from 38.2±3.0 nmol/L to 48.7±3.2 nmol/L and 34.3±2.2 nmol/L to 100.9±6.6 nmol/L, respectively. No changes in serum parathyroid hormone, serum calcium, or urine calcium/creatinine were observed following either treatment. Following 16 weeks of treatment, significant improvements in FMD were only observed in the vitamin D group (1.8±1.3%), whereas the placebo group had no change (-1.3±0.6%). Similarly, the vitamin D group exhibited an increase in absolute change in diameter (0.005±0.004 cm) and FMD/shear (0.08±0.04 %/s-1, AUC × 103) following treatment, whereas no change (-0.005±0.002 cm and -0.02±0.02 %/s-1, AUC, respectively) was observed following placebo. Conclusions Supplementation of 60,000 IU monthly oral vitamin D3 (~2000 IU per day) for 16 weeks is effective at improving vascular endothelial function in African American adults. PMID:21311504

  6. Improvement in metabolic parameters in obese subjects after 16 weeks on a Brazilian-staple calorie-restricted diet

    PubMed Central

    Reis, Caio E. G.; da Silva, Fábio V. P.; Casulari, Luiz A.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES The standard pattern of Brazilian food consumption is based on the combination of rice and beans served together in the main meals. This study assessed the effects of Brazilian-staple calorie-restricted (BS-diet) dietary advice, with brown rice and beans, on metabolic parameters, body composition, and food intake in overweight/obese subjects. SUBJECTS/METHODS Twentyseven subjects were randomly assigned to a conventional-type calorie-restricted diet (CT-diet) (n = 13) or a BS-diet (n = 14). Glucose metabolism, lipid profile, anthropometric and body composition parameters, and food intake were measured before and after 16 weeks. Paired t-tests/Wilcoxon tests were used for comparison of differences from baseline and unpaired t-tests/Mann-Whitney tests were used for comparison of differences between the groups. RESULTS After 16 weeks, both groups showed reductions in weight and waist circumference (P < 0.02), and the BS-diet group showed a decrease in body fat (P = 0.0001), and significant improvement in glucose metabolism (fasting plasma glucose, glucose and insulin areas under the curve, Cederholm index, and HOMA2-%β) (P ≤ 0.04) and lipid profile (cholesterol, triacylglycerol, LDL-c, VLDL-c, and cholesterol/HDL-c ratio) (P ≤ 0.05). In addition, the BS-diet group showed significant improvement in HOMA2-%β, compared to the CT-diet group (P = 0.03). The BS-diet group also showed a significant reduction in energy, lipids, carbohydrate, and cholesterol intake (P ≤ 0.04) and an increase in fiber intake (P ≤ 0.001), while the CT-diet group showed a significant reduction in intake of energy, macronutrients, PUFA, and cholesterol (P ≤ 0.002). CONCLUSIONS These results demonstrate the benefits of the BS-diet on metabolic parameters in obese subjects. PMID:25110561

  7. Predicting Potential in Football Players

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDavid, Robert F.

    1977-01-01

    Part 1 of this study demonstrated that a test battery using football skills and motor ability test items had discriminatory power and indicated that football potential may be predicted; part 2 evaluated three different football teams from three strata of competition using the battery tested in Part 1. (MM)

  8. Therapeutic Recreation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parks and Recreation, 1971

    1971-01-01

    Graphic profiles of (1) the professional membership of the National Therapeutic Recreation Society, (2) state-level employment opportunities in the field, and (3) educational opportunities at U.S. colleges and universities. (MB)

  9. Recreational Fisheries

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Agencies shall, to the extent permitted by law and where practicable, improve the quantity, function, sustainable productivity, and distribution of U.S. aquatic resources for increased recreational fishing opportunities

  10. Effects of 16-week functional movement screen training program on strength and flexibility of elite high school baseball players.

    PubMed

    Song, Hong-Sun; Woo, Seung-Seok; So, Wi-Young; Kim, Kwang-Jun; Lee, Joohyung; Kim, Joo-Young

    2014-04-01

    Functional Movement Screen (FMS) is a way to pretest functional movement. This study examined the effects of the FMS training program on the strength and flexibility of 62 elite male high school baseball players (31 in the training group, 31 in the control group). All players who received less than two points on each FMS test item had to join the 16-week, three times weekly FMS training program. To analyze results among the FMS participants, measures including intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and repeated measure ANOVA were utilized. The Kappa coefficient was 0.805 when the intraclass correlation coefficient of the three participants was inspected. Strength showed a significant interaction depending on time and group (hand grip strength: P=0.011, bench press and squat both for one-repetition maximum (1RM): P=0.001 and P=0.008, respectively). Back muscle strength did not show a significant difference (P=0.660). Trunk forward flexion showed no interaction depending on time and groups (P=0.983) but trunk extension backward showed significant differences depending on groups (P=0.004) and time (P=0.001). Splits showed a significant difference depending on time and groups (P=0.004). The FMS training program improved the strength and flexibility of elite high school baseball players.

  11. Improved Blood Biomarkers but No Cognitive Effects from 16 Weeks of Multivitamin Supplementation in Healthy Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Elizabeth; Macpherson, Helen; Pipingas, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Supplementation with vitamins, minerals and phytonutrients may be beneficial for cognition, especially in older adults. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of multivitamin supplementation in older adults on cognitive function and associated blood biomarkers. In a randomised, double blind, placebo-controlled trial, healthy women (n = 68) and men (n = 48) aged 55–65 years were supplemented daily for 16 weeks with women’s and men’s formula multivitamin supplements. Assessments at baseline and post-supplementation included computerised cognitive tasks and blood biomarkers relevant to cognitive aging. No cognitive improvements were observed after supplementation with either formula; however, several significant improvements were observed in blood biomarkers including increased levels of vitamins B6 and B12 in women and men; reduced C-reactive protein in women; reduced homocysteine and marginally reduced oxidative stress in men; as well as improvements to the lipid profile in men. In healthy older people, multivitamin supplementation improved a number of blood biomarkers that are relevant to cognition, but these biomarker changes were not accompanied by improved cognitive function. PMID:25996285

  12. Changing the Culture: Football

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santo, Ricky

    2015-01-01

    In this article college football coach Ricky Santo argues that in order to change the ways of the misunderstood world of racism, one needs to acknowledge the sociocultural consciousness in society today. The sociocultural consciousness is a way to understand how people think and behave which is influenced by their race/ethnicity, social class, and…

  13. Prevention of Football Injuries

    PubMed Central

    Kirkendall, Donald T; Junge, Astrid; Dvorak, Jiri

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Every sport has a unique profile of injury and risk of injury. In recent years, there have been numerous attempts at conducting injury prevention trials for specific injuries or for injuries within specific sports to provide evidence useful to the sports medicine and sport community. Football has been a focus of a number of randomized injury prevention trials. Methods MEDLINE was searched with the first order keywords of “injury prevention” and “sport”. This list was restricted to “clinical trial” or “randomized controlled trial” which had been conducted on children and adults whose goal was preventing common football injuries. Our objective was to find studies with an exercise-based training program, thus projects that used mechanical interventions were excluded. Results A structured, generalized warm-up has been shown to be effective at preventing common injuries in football, reducing injuries by about one-third. Conclusion The huge participation numbers in the worldwide family of football would suggest that any reduction in injury should have a public health impact. Professionals in sports medicine need to promote injury prevention programs that have been shown to be effective. PMID:22375195

  14. Recreation Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Dakota Farmers Union, Jamestown. Dept. of Youth Activities.

    Suggestions for recreational activities are outlined in this manual. Instructions are given for games to play in small places, home or party games, paper and pencil games, children's singing games, and dances. Ideas for crafts and special parties are also included. (SW)

  15. Social Services: Recreation Occupations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rones, Philip L.

    1976-01-01

    Description of recreation services for the elderly in two areas, community recreation and therapeutic recreation, includes employment information for the various levels: Recreation director, supervisor, leader, activity specialist, and aide. (JT)

  16. Effectiveness of a 16-Week Multimodal Exercise Program on Individuals With Dementia: Study Protocol for a Multicenter Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Scharpf, Andrea; Barisch-Fritz, Bettina; Niermann, Christina; Woll, Alexander

    2017-01-01

    Background The increasing prevalence of dementia in the next decades is accompanied by various societal and economic problems. Previous studies have suggested that physical activity positively affects motor and cognitive skills in individuals with dementia (IWD). However, there is insufficient evidence probably related to several methodological limitations. Moreover, to date adequate physical activity interventions specifically developed for IWD are lacking. Objective This study aims to investigate the effectiveness of a multimodal exercise program (MEP) on motor and cognitive skills in IWD in a high-quality multicenter trial. Methods A multicenter randomized controlled trial with baseline and postassessments will be performed. It is planned to enroll 405 participants with dementia of mild to moderate stage, aged 65 years and older. The intervention group will participate in a 16-week ritualized MEP especially developed for IWD. The effectiveness of the MEP on the primary outcomes balance, mobility, and gait will be examined using a comprehensive test battery. Secondary outcomes are strength and function of lower limbs, activities of daily living, and cognition (overall cognition, language, processing speed, learning and memory, and visual spatial cognition). Results Enrollment for the study started in May 2015. It is planned to complete postassessments by the beginning of 2017. Results are expected to be available in the first half of 2017. Conclusions This study will contribute to enhancing evidence for the effects of physical activity on motor and cognitive skills in IWD. Compared to previous studies, this study is characterized by a dementia-specific intervention based on scientific knowledge, a combination of motor and cognitive tasks in the intervention, and high standards regarding methodology. Findings are highly relevant to influence the multiple motor and cognitive impairments of IWD who are often participating in limited physical activity. Trial

  17. Can posterior hip fracture-dislocation occur in indoor football (futsal)? A report of two cases.

    PubMed

    Yasin, Faissal Nor; Singh, Vivek Ajit

    2009-01-01

    Hip fracture-dislocation is extremely rare in sports and is most frequently seen after road traffic accidents. This injury is associated with considerable long-term disability and rapidly progressive joint degeneration. This case report illustrates two cases of hip fracture dislocation that occurred while playing recreational indoor football (futsal). Futsal is a fast-emerging recreational sport in Malaysia and we are now beginning to see high-impact injuries rarely encountered in recreational sports. Therefore, futsal cannot be taken lightly and it is important to take adequate precautions to prevent serious injuries when participating in such sports.

  18. Football injuries: current concepts.

    PubMed

    Olson, David E; Sikka, Robby Singh; Hamilton, Abigail; Krohn, Austin

    2011-01-01

    Football is one of the most popular sports in the United States and is the leading cause of sports-related injury. A large focus in recent years has been on concussions, sudden cardiac death, and heat illness, all thought to be largely preventable health issues in the young athlete. Injury prevention through better understanding of injury mechanisms, education, proper equipment, and practice techniques and preseason screening may aid in reducing the number of injuries. Proper management of on-field injuries and health emergencies can reduce the morbidity associated with these injuries and may lead to faster return to play and reduced risk of future injury. This article reviews current concepts surrounding frequently seen football-related injuries.

  19. Concussions in American Football.

    PubMed

    Womble, Melissa N; Collins, Michael W

    Major advancements in sport-related concussion (SRC) management have been made across time to improve the safety of contact sports, including football. Nevertheless, these advances are often overlooked due to concerns regarding the potential long-term effects of SRC. Although further research is needed, it is critical that current efforts are focused on better understanding SRC in order to recognize and change ongoing factors leading to prolonged recoveries, increased risk for injury, and potentially long-term effects. To reduce risk for these outcomes, future focus must be placed on increased education efforts, immediate reporting of injury, prevention techniques, targeted treatment, and the development of multidisciplinary treatment teams nationwide. Finally, with the progress in understanding concussion, it is important to remain vigilant of additional advances that will help to further improve the safety of contact sports, including football.

  20. A History of College Football.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rokosz, Francis M.

    The history of football is traced as it evolved from the English game of rugby. The game as it is known today was conceived only after a long series of changes. Three prominent reasons for the change were: to make football more interesting to the spectator; to balance the competition between offense and defense; and to modify the dangerous…

  1. Football: Action on the Gridiron

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McIntosh, Phyllis

    2010-01-01

    On any fall weekend across the United States, football reigns as the nation's favorite sport. Thousands of high school teams, the pride of communities from coast to coast, compete under the lights on Friday nights. Saturdays feature the tradition and pageantry of college football. Sundays belong to the 32 professional teams that play in the major…

  2. College Football Games and Crime

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rees, Daniel I.; Schnepel, Kevin T.

    2008-01-01

    There is a great deal of anecdotal evidence that college football games can lead to aggressive and destructive behavior by fans. However, to date, no empirical study has attempted to document the magnitude of this phenomenon. We match daily data on offenses from the NIBRS to 26 Division I-A college football programs in order to estimate the…

  3. REHABILITATION AFTER HIP ARTHROSCOPY AND LABRAL REPAIR IN A HIGH SCHOOL FOOTBALL ATHLETE

    PubMed Central

    Kolber, Morey J.

    2012-01-01

    Study Design: Case Report Background: Femoral acetabular impingement (FAI) has been implicated in the etiology of acetabular labral tears. The rehabilitation of younger athletes following arthroscopic surgery for FAI and labral tears is often complex and multifactorial. A paucity of evidence exists to describe the rehabilitation of younger athletes who have undergone arthroscopic hip surgery. Case Presentation: This case report describes a four-phase rehabilitation program for a high school football player who underwent hip arthroscopy with a labral repair and chondroplasty. Outcomes: The player returned to training for football 16 weeks later and at the 4 month follow-up was pain free with no signs of FAI. Discussion: There is little evidence regarding the rehabilitation of younger athletes who undergo arthroscopic hip surgery. This case study described a four phase rehabilitation program for a high school football player who underwent hip arthroscopy and labral repair. The patient achieved positive outcomes with a full return to athletic activity and football. The overall success of these patients depends on the appropriate surgical procedure and rehabilitation program. Key Words: Femoral acetabular impingement (FAI), hip, hip impingement Level of evidence: 4-Case report PMID:22530192

  4. The community network: an Aboriginal community football club bringing people together. Who or what is making the assists to score social goals?

    PubMed

    Parnell, Daniel; Hylton, Kevin

    2016-01-01

    Providing pragmatic interventions (through sport) to tackle social issues in hard-to-reach communities, including those in Aboriginal and black minority ethnic (BME) communities, this study highlights how a community football club was able to deliver positive outcomes for racism, discrimination and health. The article compares findings geographically originating from Australia with those in the UK. The program highlighted herein does not have the so-called 'power' and backing of a brand (of a professional football club) to rely on, and the appealing factor is football alone; football in its purest sense: the activity. We call upon those strategically placed in funding and commissioning roles to draw on the evidence base to support non-professional football (and sport and recreation) clubs to deliver on the health agenda. Adding further conclusions that this mechanism and context of delivery can support positive social and health changes, but requires further examination.

  5. How to Rescue American Football.

    PubMed

    Lundberg, George D; Metzner, David

    2016-04-28

    Blows to the head damage the brain. American football is a contact/collision sport that produces many injuries, including to the brain. Football has many supporters who cite important redeeming characteristics of the activity. Public attention to the hazards of children and adults playing football has heightend recently due to many new scientific discoveries, not least of which is the frequency with which players are seriously harmed and do not recover. It is now incumbent on all interested parties to invent and implement far better safety practices, equipment, rules, and processes or the sport must cease to exist in its current form. This paper presents several safety proposals for consideration and study.

  6. FAQ about Recreational Therapy/Therapeutic Recreation

    MedlinePlus

    ... disabling condition. What is the relationship between recreational therapy and therapeutic recreation? Therapeutic Recreation is the field ​​ ... How are RT/TR services different from other therapies? RT/TR embraces a definition of "health" which ...

  7. Football and doping: study of African amateur footballers

    PubMed Central

    Ama, P; Betnga, B; Ama, M; Kamga, J

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To investigate use and awareness of lawful and unlawful substances by amateur footballers in Yaounde, Cameroon. Methods: A total of 1116 amateur footballers (1037 male and 79 female) out of 1500 contacted participated in this study. They were divided into three groups: elite players (n = 314); local players (n = 723); female players (n = 79). They answered a questionnaire of 30 items grouped under six main topics: identification of players; use of lawful substances subject to certain restrictions on the International Olympic Committee (IOC) list; use of IOC banned substances; doping behaviour; awareness of doping; food supplements. The results of the questionnaire were scrutinised using Microstat software, and the level of significance was p<0.05. Results: (a) Use by our footballers of a banned substance (cocaine) and substances subject to certain restrictions (alcoholic drinks, methylated spirits, and banga (marijuana)). (b) Doping behaviour: use by our footballers of substances with similar effects to some IOC banned substances but not listed as such: tobacco, liboga, wie-wie (narcotic), bilibili (locally made alcohol drink). (c) A large intake of vitamin C (food supplements) in all three groups. In contrast, the footballers' knowledge of doping was vague. Conclusion: Preventive actions and an epidemiological study of doping among footballers are urgently required. PMID:12893714

  8. Football injury: a literature review *

    PubMed Central

    Kos, John J.

    1979-01-01

    A great deal of concern is recently being expressed relative to the playing of tackle football by adolescent Canadians. The purpose of this literature review is to try to summarize the important data from the available world literature. Very few Canadian statistics are available. Most of the data comes from United States experience. Tackle football injury is examined from various perspectives: 1. Equipment 2. Mechanisms of injury 3. Types of injury, with some emphasis on epiphyseal injury 4. Prevention 5. Comparison with other sports Although no “hard and fast” conclusion is drawn, the paper tends to show that: 1. Football is dangerous 2. Football is damaging to many body systems 3. Prevention of injury is difficult under present conditions 4. Alternate games, such as soccer and rugby seem to provide the same benefits with less catastrophic injuries

  9. 78 FR 53476 - Notice of Realty Action: Classification for Lease and Subsequent Conveyance for Recreation and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-29

    ... Recreation and Public Purposes of Public Land for an Elementary School and Middle School, Eddy County, NM... to use the land for a kindergarten to fifth grade elementary school and a sixth to eighth grade... include classrooms, gymnasiums, parking lots, etc. The middle school will also include a football...

  10. Long-term beneficial effect of a 16-week very low calorie diet on pericardial fat in obese type 2 diabetes mellitus patients.

    PubMed

    Snel, Marieke; Jonker, Jacqueline T; Hammer, Sebastian; Kerpershoek, Gijs; Lamb, Hildo J; Meinders, A Edo; Pijl, Hanno; de Roos, Albert; Romijn, Johannes A; Smit, Johannes W A; Jazet, Ingrid M

    2012-08-01

    Pericardial fat accumulation has been associated with an increased cardiovascular risk. A very low calorie diet (VLCD) improves the cardiovascular risk profile in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), by improving the metabolic profile, heart function, and triglyceride (TG) stores in (non)adipose tissues. However, long-term effects of a VLCD on pericardial fat volume and tissue-specific TG accumulation have not been documented. The aim of this study was therefore to assess the effects of a 16-week VLCD and of subsequent 14 months follow-up on a regular diet on pericardial fat in relation to other TG stores in obese T2DM patients. We included 14 obese patients with insulin-treated T2DM (mean ± s.e.m.: age 53 ± 2 years; BMI 35 ± 1 kg/m(2)). Pericardial fat and other (non)adipose TG stores were measured using magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and proton spectroscopy before and after a 16-week VLCD and after a 14-month follow-up without dietary interventions. A 16-week VLCD reduced body weight, pericardial fat, hepatic TG content, visceral and subcutaneous abdominal fat volumes to 78, 83, 16, 40, and 53% of baseline values respectively, (all P < 0.05). After an additional 14 months of follow-up on a regular diet, the reduction in pericardial fat volume sustained, despite a substantial regain in body weight, visceral abdominal fat, and hepatic TG content (respectively 90, 83 and 73% of baseline values). In conclusion, VLCD-induced weight loss in obese T2DM patients is accompanied by a substantial decrease in pericardial fat volume, which is sustained even after subsequent weight regain.

  11. Concussion and football: a review and editorial.

    PubMed

    Abdullah, Kalil G; Grady, M Sean; Levine, Joshua M

    2015-04-01

    The issue of concussion in football is of substantial interest to players, coaches, fans, and physicians. In this article, we review specific cultural hindrances to diagnosis and treatment of concussion in football. We review current trends in management and identify areas for improvement. We also discuss the obligations that physicians, particularly neurosurgeons and neurologists, have toward brain-injured football players and the larger societal role they may play in helping to minimize football-associated brain injury.

  12. What Research Tells the Coach About Football.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paige, Roderick R.

    This booklet is designed to make available research findings about football with interpretations for practical application. Chapter 1, "Physical Characteristics of Football Athletes," includes a table comparing the height and weight of National Football League players and All-Star players. Somatotyping and body composition are discussed. In…

  13. Kicking the Football?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, John W.

    1999-10-01

    Here it is, mid-August, and I don't have my syllabus (or all my plans) together for the fall semester that will begin in a couple of weeks. I leave for the ACS meeting in a day and a half. There are so many things to do. Entropy reigns! (Well, only figuratively. See the papers on pages 1382-1397.) Will I get it all together before that big first day of classes? At this time of year I always have great plans, but also I wonder whether I am Charlie Brownthe eternal optimist, ready to try to kick that football one more time. I know I could score a field goal if only the football weren't pulled away at the last millisecond. But it seems invariably to be pulled away. Or maybe I just don't connect with it properly. Why do I keep kicking that football? What is it about a new school year that gets me psyched up and excited? Teaching (that is, devising and implementing environments and experiences that help people learn) is a challenge, largely because we don't really know that much about how to do it effectively. It's so easy for that football to slither away, never having gotten off the ground. That's one of the things that make teaching interesting and exciting. There are so many ideas to try, and it's fun to see whether they will work. Both successes and failures suggest additional new approaches. Teaching science, like science itself, seems always to produce more questions than answers. For those of us who enjoy experiments, it is an ideal profession. Another reason to get fired up is that a new school year offers opportunities to work with such wonderful people. Whether courses are successful depends on teachers, students, and interactions among them. Every fall there are new groups of students, providing teachers with new opportunities, challenges, experiences, and even friendships. Every fall we teachers have new ideas about both content and pedagogy that spur us to greater efforts and thereby help to develop our students' intellects and abilities. Even more

  14. Treatment with α-Lipoic Acid over 16 Weeks in Type 2 Diabetic Patients with Symptomatic Polyneuropathy Who Responded to Initial 4-Week High-Dose Loading

    PubMed Central

    Garcia-Alcala, Hector; Santos Vichido, Celia Isabel; Islas Macedo, Silverio; Genestier-Tamborero, Christelle Nathalie; Minutti-Palacios, Marissa; Hirales Tamez, Omara; García, Carlos; Ziegler, Dan

    2015-01-01

    Effective treatment of diabetic sensorimotor polyneuropathy remains a challenge. To assess the efficacy and safety of α-lipoic acid (ALA) over 20 weeks, we conducted a multicenter randomized withdrawal open-label study, in which 45 patients with type 2 diabetes and symptomatic polyneuropathy were initially treated with ALA (600 mg tid) for 4 weeks (phase 1). Subsequently, responders were randomized to receive ALA (600 mg qd; n = 16) or to ALA withdrawal (n = 17) for 16 weeks (phase 2). During phase 1, the Total Symptom Score (TSS) decreased from 8.9 ± 1.8 points to 3.46 ± 2.0 points. During phase 2, TSS improved from 3.7 ± 1.9 points to 2.5 ± 2.5 points in the ALA treated group (p < 0.05) and remained unchanged in the ALA withdrawal group. The use of analgesic rescue medication was higher in the ALA withdrawal group than ALA treated group (p < 0.05). In conclusion, in type 2 diabetic patients with symptomatic polyneuropathy who responded to initial 4-week high-dose (600 mg tid) administration of ALA, subsequent treatment with ALA (600 mg qd) over 16 weeks improved neuropathic symptoms, whereas ALA withdrawal was associated with a higher use of rescue analgesic drugs. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02439879. PMID:26345602

  15. Treatment with α-Lipoic Acid over 16 Weeks in Type 2 Diabetic Patients with Symptomatic Polyneuropathy Who Responded to Initial 4-Week High-Dose Loading.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Alcala, Hector; Santos Vichido, Celia Isabel; Islas Macedo, Silverio; Genestier-Tamborero, Christelle Nathalie; Minutti-Palacios, Marissa; Hirales Tamez, Omara; García, Carlos; Ziegler, Dan

    2015-01-01

    Effective treatment of diabetic sensorimotor polyneuropathy remains a challenge. To assess the efficacy and safety of α-lipoic acid (ALA) over 20 weeks, we conducted a multicenter randomized withdrawal open-label study, in which 45 patients with type 2 diabetes and symptomatic polyneuropathy were initially treated with ALA (600 mg tid) for 4 weeks (phase 1). Subsequently, responders were randomized to receive ALA (600 mg qd; n = 16) or to ALA withdrawal (n = 17) for 16 weeks (phase 2). During phase 1, the Total Symptom Score (TSS) decreased from 8.9 ± 1.8 points to 3.46 ± 2.0 points. During phase 2, TSS improved from 3.7 ± 1.9 points to 2.5 ± 2.5 points in the ALA treated group (p < 0.05) and remained unchanged in the ALA withdrawal group. The use of analgesic rescue medication was higher in the ALA withdrawal group than ALA treated group (p < 0.05). In conclusion, in type 2 diabetic patients with symptomatic polyneuropathy who responded to initial 4-week high-dose (600 mg tid) administration of ALA, subsequent treatment with ALA (600 mg qd) over 16 weeks improved neuropathic symptoms, whereas ALA withdrawal was associated with a higher use of rescue analgesic drugs. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02439879.

  16. Safety and Efficacy of Rice Bran Supercritical CO2 Extract for Hair Growth in Androgenic Alopecia: A 16-Week Double-Blind Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jae-Suk; Park, Jae Beom; Moon, Woi-Sook; Moon, Jin-Nam; Son, Sang Wook; Kim, Mi-Ryung

    2015-01-01

    We conducted a 16-week double-blind randomized controlled single-center trial to evaluate the safety and efficacy of dermal rice bran supercritical CO2 extract (RB-SCE) in the treatment of androgenic alopecia. Fifty alopecia patients were randomly assigned to the experimental and placebo groups. The experimental group received a dermal application of 0.5% RB-SCE (8 mL/d) to the head skin for 16 weeks while the control group received a dermal application of placebo. Changes in hair count, diameter, and density were evaluated with a Folliscope(®). Patient satisfaction was evaluated via questionnaire and clinical photographs were rated by dermatologists. The results showed that RB-SCE significantly increased hair density and hair diameter in male subjects. Patient satisfaction and the evaluation of photographs by dermatologists also confirmed the effectiveness of RB-SCE in the treatment of alopecia. No adverse reactions related to RB-SCE were reported. Therefore, RB-SCE shows promise for use in functional cosmetics and pharmaceuticals.

  17. How to Rescue American Football

    PubMed Central

    Metzner, David

    2016-01-01

    Blows to the head damage the brain. American football is a contact/collision sport that produces many injuries, including to the brain. Football has many supporters who cite important redeeming characteristics of the activity. Public attention to the hazards of children and adults playing football has heightend recently due to many new scientific discoveries, not least of which is the frequency with which players are seriously harmed and do not recover. It is now incumbent on all interested parties to invent and implement far better safety practices, equipment, rules, and processes or the sport must cease to exist in its current form. This paper presents several safety proposals for consideration and study. PMID:27284499

  18. Cervical spine injuries in football.

    PubMed

    Breslow, M J; Rosen, J E

    2000-01-01

    The game of football, as it is played today, poses serious risk of injury for players of all ages. Injury may occur to any structure of the spinal column, including its bony, ligamentous and soft tissue components. The majority of cervical spine injuries occurring in football are self limited, and a full recovery can be expected. While these injuries are relatively uncommon, cervical spine injuries represent a significant proportion of athletic injuries that can produce permanent disability. The low incidence of cervical spine injuries has lead to a lack of emergency management experience of on-site medical staff. This paper will review the numerous injuries sustained by the cervical spine in football players and provide insights into prevention and guidelines for return to play.

  19. Thigh Injuries in American Football.

    PubMed

    Lamplot, Joseph D; Matava, Matthew J

    Quadriceps and hamstring injuries occur frequently in football and are generally treated conservatively. While return to competition following hamstring strains is relatively quick, a high rate of injury recurrence highlights the importance of targeted rehabilitation and conditioning. This review describes the clinical manifestations of thigh-related soft-tissue injuries seen in football players. Two of these-muscle strains and contusions-are relatively common, while a third condition-the Morel-Lavallée lesion-is a rare, yet relevant injury.

  20. Recreation Resource Manual

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Human Development Institute, 2008

    2008-01-01

    Recreation is any voluntary activity that is enjoyable and fun. Recreation refreshes, revitalizes and improves a person's quality of life. Consider some recreation activity you may have an interest in. Suppose you are interested in gardening but have never tried it. Let's take a look at how you can learn about it, do it, and in the process get…

  1. Adaptive Recreational Equipment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schilling, Mary Lou, Ed.

    1983-01-01

    Designed for teachers interested in therapeutic recreation, the document lists sources of adaptive recreational equipment and their homemade counterparts. Brief descriptions for ordering or constructing recreational equipment for the visually impaired, poorly coordinated, physically impaired, and mentally retarded are given. Specific adaptations…

  2. Education and Outdoor Recreation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Outdoor Recreation (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC.

    Responsibility for meeting the needs and demands of the public for outdoor recreation has led the Bureau of Outdoor Recreation to cooperate with educational institutions and others in order to assist in establishing education programs and activities and to encourage public use and benefits from outdoor recreation. To this end the Bureau conducts…

  3. Imaging of American football injuries in children.

    PubMed

    Podberesky, Daniel J; Unsell, Bryan J; Anton, Christopher G

    2009-12-01

    It is estimated that 3.2 million children ages 6 to 14 years participated in organized youth football in the United States in 2007. Approximately 240,000 children play football in the nation's largest youth football organization, with tackle divisions starting at age 5 years. The number of children playing unsupervised football is much higher, and the overall number of children participating in American football is increasing. Sports are the leading cause of injury-related emergency room visits for teenagers, and football is a leading precipitating athletic activity for these visits. Football is also the most hazardous organized sports in the United States. Though most pediatric football-related injuries are minor, such as abrasions, sprains, and strains of the extremities, football accounts for more major and catastrophic injuries than any other sport. Given football's popularity with children in the United States, combined with the high rate of injury associated with participation in this activity, radiologists should be familiar with the imaging features and injury patterns seen in this patient population.

  4. Efficacy and Safety of Weekly Alendronate Plus Vitamin D3 5600 IU versus Weekly Alendronate Alone in Korean Osteoporotic Women: 16-Week Randomized Trial

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kwang Joon; Min, Yong-Ki; Koh, Jung-Min; Chung, Yoon-Sok; Kim, Kyoung Min; Byun, Dong-Won; Kim, In Joo; Kim, Mikyung; Kim, Sung-Soo; Min, Kyung Wan; Han, Ki Ok; Park, Hyoung Moo; Shin, Chan Soo; Choi, Sung Hee; Park, Jong Suk; Chung, Dong Jin; Mok, Ji Oh; Baek, Hong Sun; Moon, Seong-Hwan; Kim, Yong Soo

    2014-01-01

    Vitamin D (vit-D) is essential for bone health, although many osteoporosis patients have low levels of 25-hydroxy-vit-D [25(OH)D]. This randomized, open-label study compared the effects of once weekly alendronate 70 mg containing 5600 IU vit-D3 (ALN/D5600) to alendronate 70 mg without additional vit-D (ALN) on the percent of patients with vit-D insufficiency [25(OH)D <15 ng/mL, primary endpoint] and serum parathyroid hormone (PTH, secondary endpoint) levels in postmenopausal, osteoporotic Korean women. Neuromuscular function was also measured. A total of 268 subjects were randomized. Overall, 35% of patients had vit-D insufficiency at baseline. After 16-weeks, there were fewer patients with vit-D insufficiency in the ALN/D5600 group (1.47%) than in the ALN group (41.67%) (p<0.001). Patients receiving ALN/D5600 compared with ALN were at a significantly decreased risk of vit-D insufficiency [odds ratio=0.02, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.00-0.08]. In the ALN/D5600 group, significant increases in serum 25(OH)D were observed at weeks 8 (9.60 ng/mL) and 16 (11.41 ng/mL), where as a significant decrease was recorded in the ALN group at week 16 (-1.61 ng/mL). By multiple regression analysis, major determinants of increases in serum 25(OH)D were ALN/D5600 administration, seasonal variation, and baseline 25(OH)D. The least squares mean percent change from baseline in serum PTH in the ALN/D5600 group (8.17%) was lower than that in the ALN group (29.98%) (p=0.0091). There was no significant difference between treatment groups in neuromuscular function. Overall safety was similar between groups. In conclusion, the administration of 5600 IU vit-D in the ALN/D5600 group improved vit-D status and reduced the magnitude of PTH increase without significant side-effects after 16 weeks in Korean osteoporotic patients. PMID:24719139

  5. Effects of expertise on football betting

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Football (soccer) is one of the most popular sports in the world, including Europe. It is associated with important betting activities. A common belief, widely spread among those who participate in gambling activities, is that knowledge and expertise on football lead to better prediction skills for match outcomes. If unfounded, however, this belief should be considered as a form of “illusion of control.” The aim of this study was to examine whether football experts are better than nonexperts at predicting football match scores. Methods Two hundred and fifty-eight persons took part in the study: 21.3% as football experts, 54.3% as laypersons (non-initiated to football), and 24.4% as football amateurs. They predicted the scores of the first 10 matches of the 2008 UEFA European Football Championship. Logistic regressions were carried out to assess the link between the accuracy of the forecasted scores and the expertise of the participants (expert, amateur, layperson), controlling for age and gender. Results The variables assessed did not predict the accuracy of scoring prognosis (R2 ranged from 1% to 6%). Conclusions Expertise, age, and gender did not appear to have an impact on the accuracy of the football match prognoses. Therefore, the belief that football expertise improves betting skills is no more than a cognitive distortion called the “illusion of control.” Gamblers may benefit from psychological interventions that target the illusion of control related to their believed links between betting skills and football expertise. Public health policies may need to consider the phenomenon in order to prevent problem gambling related to football betting. PMID:22578101

  6. Lymphocyte subpopulations in the liver, spleen, intestines, and mesenteric nodes: an immunohistochemical study using human fetuses at 15-16 weeks.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Si Eun; Kim, Ji Hyun; Yu, Hee Chul; Murakami, Gen; Cho, Baik Hwan

    2014-08-01

    The roles of the liver and intestines in lymphocyte differentiation in human fetuses were assessed by immunohistochemical analysis of the thymus, bone marrow, liver, spleen, intestines, and lymph nodes of 15-16 week human fetuses using primary antibodies against IgM, CD3, CD7, CD8, CD10, CD20, CD45RO, HLA-DR, and CD68. The density of immunoreactive lymphocytes was high in the thymus and lymph nodes, but much lower in the bones, liver, spleen, and intestines. The medulla of the thymus contained IgM-positive mature B lymphocytes as well as CD20-positve B lymphocytes. In contrast, CD10-positive immature B lymphocytes were restricted in the cortex. There were no site-dependent differences among axillary, mediastinal, mesenteric, and pelvic lymph nodes. CD68-positive cells were observed at all sites examined. Many HLA-DR-positive round cells were present in the thymus, with fewer in the liver and spleen. The absolute number of lymphocytes was estimated to be ≥10-fold higher in lymph nodes than in liver. Although limited by analysis of only one fetal stage, these findings suggest that mesenteric nodes are likely to be more important than the liver, spleen, and intestines for lymphocyte proliferation and differentiation in human mid-term fetuses.

  7. Olanzapine vs. risperidone in patients with first-episode schizophrenia and a lifetime history of cannabis use disorders: 16-week clinical and substance use outcomes.

    PubMed

    Sevy, Serge; Robinson, Delbert G; Sunday, Suzanne; Napolitano, Barbara; Miller, Rachel; McCormack, Joanne; Kane, John

    2011-08-15

    The purpose of this study is to compare the efficacy of olanzapine and risperidone for the acute treatment of first-episode schizophrenia patients with cannabis use disorders. This secondary analysis of a previously published study included 49 first-episode patients with a diagnosis of schizophrenia, schizophreniform disorder, or schizoaffective disorder and a co-occurring lifetime diagnosis of cannabis use disorders randomly assigned to treatment with either olanzapine (n=28) or risperidone (n=21) for 16weeks. The olanzapine group did not differ significantly from the risperidone group for initial response rates of positive symptoms, and rates of cannabis use or alcohol use during the study. Positive symptoms and the Scale for Assessment of Negative Symptoms (SANS) global asociality-anhedonia scores improved over time but did not differ between study medications. In both groups, cannabis use during the study was higher in patients who used cannabis within three months of the admission. Thus, our results suggest that olanzapine and risperidone had a similar initial efficacy on psychotic symptoms and substance use in first-episode patients with co-occurring cannabis use disorders. If clinicians are choosing between olanzapine versus risperidone treatment for this population, their decision should be based upon factors other than symptom response and short-term substance misuse.

  8. Olanzapine vs. Risperidone in Patients with First-Episode Schizophrenia and a Lifetime History of Cannabis Use Disorders: 16-Week Clinical and Substance Use outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Sevy, Serge; Robinson, Delbert G.; Sunday, Suzanne; Miller, Rachel; McCormack, Joanne; Kane, John M.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare the efficacy of olanzapine and risperidone for the acute treatment of first-episode schizophrenia patients with cannabis use disorders. This secondary analysis of a previously published study included forty-nine first-episode patients with a diagnosis of schizophrenia, schizophreniform disorder, or schizoaffective disorder and a co-occurring lifetime diagnosis of cannabis use disorders randomly assigned to treatment with either olanzapine (n=28) or risperidone (n=21) for 16 weeks. The olanzapine group did not differ significantly from the risperidone group for initial response rates of positive symptoms, and rates of cannabis use or alcohol use during the study. Positive symptoms and SANS global asociality-anhedonia improved over time but did not differ between study medications. In both groups, cannabis use during the study was higher in patients who used cannabis within 3 months of the admission. Thus, our results suggest that olanzapine and risperidone had a similar initial efficacy on psychotic symptoms and substance use in first-episode patients with co-occurring cannabis use disorders. If clinicians are choosing between olanzapine versus risperidone treatment for this population, their decision should be based upon factors other than symptom response and short-term substance misuse. PMID:21636134

  9. Changes in unilateral upper limb muscular strength and EMG activity following a 16 week strength training intervention survivors of breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Hagstrom, Amanda D; Shorter, Kathleen A; Marshall, Paul W M

    2017-03-08

    Upper limb strength deficits are frequently observed following breast cancer and its treatments. It is currently unknown whether these unilateral deficits can be corrected by a standard bilateral strength training intervention. Twenty three survivors of breast cancer were included in this analysis. Fourteen performed a 16 week resistance training (RT) intervention, 9 were assigned to a usual care waitlist control group. Electromyographic (EMG) analysis of the pectoralis major and triceps brachii were monitored during three maximal isometric contractions and a fatiguing endurance task. Muscular strength was significantly different between limbs at the start of the intervention (p = 0.02). EMG amplitude and median frequency did not differ between limbs at the start of the intervention. Muscular strength was significantly different between limbs in the RT group at the end of the intervention (p = 0.01). EMG amplitude did not differ between limbs or groups at the end of the intervention. Bilateral strength training did not correct the unilateral strength deficit observed in this group of survivors of breast cancer. Periods of unilateral strength training should be implemented into periodised RT programs in this cohort.

  10. A Comparison of Injuries between Flag and Touch Football.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Stephen L.

    This study was designed to determine whether fewer and less serious injuries result from participation in touch football as compared with flag football. A survey was taken of 30 flag football games and 30 touch football games and the incidence of injuries was recorded on a checklist. Results of the survey suggest the following: (a) intramural or…

  11. Effects of 16-week high-intensity interval training using upper and lower body ergometers on aerobic fitness and morphological changes in healthy men: a preliminary study

    PubMed Central

    Osawa, Yusuke; Azuma, Koichiro; Tabata, Shogo; Katsukawa, Fuminori; Ishida, Hiroyuki; Oguma, Yuko; Kawai, Toshihide; Itoh, Hiroshi; Okuda, Shigeo; Matsumoto, Hideo

    2014-01-01

    It is unclear whether combined leg and arm high-intensity interval training (HIIT) improves fitness and morphological characteristics equal to those of leg-based HIIT programs. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of HIIT using leg-cycling (LC) and arm-cranking (AC) ergometers with an HIIT program using only LC. Effects on aerobic capacity and skeletal muscle were analyzed. Twelve healthy male subjects were assigned into two groups. One performed LC-HIIT (n=7) and the other LC- and AC-HIIT (n=5) twice weekly for 16 weeks. The training programs consisted of eight to 12 sets of >90% VO2 (the oxygen uptake that can be utilized in one minute) peak for 60 seconds with a 60-second active rest period. VO2 peak, watt peak, and heart rate were measured during an LC incremental exercise test. The cross-sectional area (CSA) of trunk and thigh muscles as well as bone-free lean body mass were measured using magnetic resonance imaging and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. The watt peak increased from baseline in both the LC (23%±38%; P<0.05) and the LC–AC groups (11%±9%; P<0.05). The CSA of the quadriceps femoris muscles also increased from baseline in both the LC (11%±4%; P<0.05) and the LC–AC groups (5%±5%; P<0.05). In contrast, increases were observed in the CSA of musculus psoas major (9%±11%) and musculus anterolateral abdominal (7%±4%) only in the LC–AC group. These results suggest that a combined LC- and AC-HIIT program improves aerobic capacity and muscle hypertrophy in both leg and trunk muscles. PMID:25395872

  12. Personality and Performance in Intercollegiate Football.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garland, Daniel J.; Barry, John R.

    The present study, based on Chelladurai and Carron's (1978) multidimensional theory of leadership, sought to determine if selected personality traits and specific leader behaviors are predictive of performance in collegiate football. Prior to regular season competition, collegiate football players (N=272) from three southeastern United States…

  13. The Physics of Kicking a Football.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brancazio, Peter J.

    1985-01-01

    A physicist's view of the problems involved in kicking a football is described through the principles of projectile motion and aerodynamics. Sample equations, statistical summaries of kickoffs and punts, and calculation of launch parameters are presented along with discussion to clarify concepts of physics illustrated by kicking a football. (JN)

  14. Outdoor Recreation Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jubenville, Alan

    The complex problems facing the manager of an outdoor recreation area are outlined and discussed. Eighteen chapters cover the following primary concerns of the manager of such a facility: (1) an overview of the management process; (2) the basic outdoor recreation management model; (3) the problem-solving process; (4) involvement of the public in…

  15. Trends in Therapeutic Recreation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Ralph W.

    1995-01-01

    Discusses the implications of the rapid, dramatic changes taking place in therapeutic recreation for individuals with physical disabilities. The article notes the impact of changes in managed care, examines programming trends in therapeutic recreation (adventure/outdoor education, competitive sports, handcycling, health enhancement activities, and…

  16. Partners: Promoting Accessible Recreation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sable, Janet; Gravink, Jill

    1995-01-01

    The Promoting Accessible Recreation through Networking, Education, Resources and Services (PARTNERS) Project, a partnership between Northeast Passage, the University of New Hampshire, and Granite State Independent Living Foundation, helps create barrier-free recreation for individuals with physical disabilities. The paper describes PARTNERS and…

  17. Recreation Leadership. Third Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vannier, Maryhelen

    This text is intended for use in college recreation courses. It presents leadership techniques and teaching methods for conducting successful recreation programs in community centers, schools, churches, industry, hospitals, prisons, and on playgrounds. Over 1,000 program ideas and ways to teach are suggested that cover a wide range of activities…

  18. Integrated Leisure and Recreation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schleien, Stuart, Ed.; Rynders, John, Ed.

    1989-01-01

    This "feature issue" focuses on integrated leisure and recreation for developmentally disabled persons and includes descriptions of innovative leisure/recreation programs which allow the realization of the concepts of normalization and least restrictive environment. Brief articles include the following titles and authors: "Challenging the…

  19. Therapeutic Recreation Practicum Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneegas, Kay

    This manual provides information on the practicum program offered by Moraine Valley Community College (MVCC) for students in its therapeutic recreation program. Sections I and II outline the rationale and goals for providing practical, on-the-job work experiences for therapeutic recreation students. Section III specifies MVCC's responsibilities…

  20. Football Fitness - a new version of football? A concept for adult players in Danish football clubs.

    PubMed

    Bennike, S; Wikman, J M; Ottesen, L S

    2014-08-01

    This article explores a new Danish football-based activity for health called Football Fitness (FF). Data are from quantitative and qualitative methods, and the theoretical framework for the analysis of the organizational form of FF is the theory of path dependency (Mahoney) and first- and second-order change (Watzlawick et al.). Theories of Pestoff concerning differences between state, market, and the civil society and theories of voluntary associations in a Danish context (Kaspersen & Ottesen; Ibsen & Seippel) are applied. This article indicates how FF is a result of the changing landscape of sport and argues that it can be beneficial to target sports organizations and include the expertise of non-profit sports clubs if the goal is to raise the physical activity level of the local community and make these long lasting. But the organizations need to consider how this is to be done. FF, established by the Danish Football Association (FA) and managed by the voluntary clubs, is one example in a Danish context. Data indicate that FF is beneficial to the clubs involved in a number of ways. Among other things, it attracts new user groups and improves the club environment, including social activities and parental environment.

  1. Effectiveness of headgear in football

    PubMed Central

    Withnall, C; Shewchenko, N; Wonnacott, M; Dvorak, J; Scott, D

    2005-01-01

    Objectives: Commercial headgear is currently being used by football players of all ages and skill levels to provide protection from heading and direct impact. The clinical and biomechanical effectiveness of the headgear in attenuating these types of impact is not well defined or understood. This study was conducted to determine whether football headgear has an effect on head impact responses. Methods: Controlled laboratory tests were conducted with a human volunteer and surrogate head/neck system. The impact attenuation of three commercial headgears during ball impact speeds of 6–30 m/s and in head to head contact with a closing speed of 2–5 m/s was quantified. The human subject, instrumented to measure linear and angular head accelerations, was exposed to low severity impacts during heading in the unprotected and protected states. High severity heading contact and head to head impacts were studied with a biofidelic surrogate headform instrumented to measure linear and angular head responses. Subject and surrogate responses were compared with published injury assessment functions associated with mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI). Results: For ball impacts, none of the headgear provided attenuation over the full range of impact speeds. Head responses with or without headgear were not significantly different (p>0.05) and remained well below levels associated with MTBI. In head to head impact tests the headgear provided an overall 33% reduction in impact response. Conclusion: The football headgear models tested did not provide benefit during ball impact. This is probably because of the large amount of ball deformation relative to headband thickness. However, the headgear provided measurable benefit during head to head impacts. PMID:16046355

  2. 78 FR 73820 - Publicly Managed Recreation Opportunities, Recreation Fees

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-09

    ... Forest Service RIN 0596-AD09 Publicly Managed Recreation Opportunities, Recreation Fees AGENCY: Forest... final directive providing direction on recreation fees in chapter 30 of new Forest Service Handbook (FSH) 2309.13. This chapter enumerates the requirements for recreation fees charged by the Forest...

  3. [Almaty club "KAIRAT" young football players' health].

    PubMed

    Kausova, G K; Karabaeva, A I

    2013-10-01

    The aim of the investigation was to study young football players' health. The study was conducted on 161 football players (mean age 12.3) of six children football teams of Almaty club "KAIRAT" during the competition period. It was found that 55,5% of the football players are practically healthy; 18,6% of football players have iron deficiency anemia. 32,6% of football players have caries; 5% of football players have problems of cardiopulmonary system. Investigation reveal, that in a junior sportsman was body weigh surging with downtrend during contest, testify to portability of aerobic load and in childhood unconformable of metabolism' level. This tendency was retain also in the oldest sportsman, this testify to most emulative aerobic load in comparison with junior sportsman. According as the age increases it is emulative load's extension and free occurrence of body weigh subsequent reduction but in the oldest sportsman with prevalence macrosomia. Concurrently with improvement of the anthropometric profile as far as increase of age in soccer players it is forming of a high training level. In spite of lowering of energy resources and the physical load organism's adaptation there are these phenomena. According as the age increases in a soccer player's performance of cardiac and respiratory system are improved.

  4. Child Development and Pediatric Sport and Recreational Injuries by Age

    PubMed Central

    Schwebel, David C.; Brezausek, Carl M.

    2014-01-01

    Context: In 2010, 8.6 million children were treated for unintentional injuries in American emergency departments. Child engagement in sports and recreation offers many health benefits but also exposure to injury risks. In this analysis, we consider possible developmental risk factors in a review of age, sex, and incidence of 39 sport and recreational injuries. Objective: To assess (1) how the incidence of 39 sport and recreational injuries changed through each year of child and adolescent development, ages 1 to 18 years, and (2) sex differences. Design Descriptive epidemiology study. Setting: Emergency department visits across the United States, as reported in the 2001–2008 National Electronic Injury Surveillance System database. Patients or Other Participants: Data represent population-wide emergency department visits in the United States. Main Outcome Measure(s) Pediatric sport- and recreation-related injuries requiring treatment in hospital emergency departments. Results: Almost 37 pediatric sport or recreational injuries are treated hourly in the United States. The incidence of sport- and recreation-related injuries peaks at widely different ages. Team-sport injuries tend to peak in the middle teen years, playground injuries peak in the early elementary ages and then drop off slowly, and bicycling injuries peak in the preteen years but are a common cause of injury throughout childhood and adolescence. Bowling injuries peaked at the earliest age (4 years), and injuries linked to camping and personal watercraft peaked at the oldest age (18 years). The 5 most common causes of sport and recreational injuries across development, in order, were basketball, football, bicycling, playgrounds, and soccer. Sex disparities were common in the incidence of pediatric sport and recreational injuries. Conclusions: Both biological and sociocultural factors likely influence the developmental aspects of pediatric sport and recreational injury risk. Biologically, changes in

  5. Youth Football Injuries: A Prospective Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, Andrew R.; Kruse, Adam J.; Meester, Scott M.; Olson, Tyler S.; Riedle, Benjamin N.; Slayman, Tyler G.; Domeyer, Todd J.; Cavanaugh, Joseph E.; Smoot, M. Kyle

    2017-01-01

    Background: There are approximately 2.8 million youth football players between the ages of 7 and 14 years in the United States. Rates of injury in this population are poorly described. Recent studies have reported injury rates between 2.3% and 30.4% per season and between 8.5 and 43 per 1000 exposures. Hypothesis: Youth flag football has a lower injury rate than youth tackle football. The concussion rates in flag football are lower than in tackle football. Study Design: Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods: Three large youth (grades 2-7) football leagues with a total of 3794 players were enrolled. Research personnel partnered with the leagues to provide electronic attendance and injury reporting systems. Researchers had access to deidentified player data and injury information. Injury rates for both the tackle and flag leagues were calculated and compared using Poisson regression with a log link. The probability an injury was severe and an injury resulted in a concussion were modeled using logistic regression. For these 2 responses, best subset model selection was performed, and the model with the minimum Akaike information criterion value was chosen as best. Kaplan-Meier curves were examined to compare time loss due to injury for various subgroups of the population. Finally, time loss was modeled using Cox proportional hazards regression models. Results: A total of 46,416 exposures and 128 injuries were reported. The mean age at injury was 10.64 years. The hazard ratio for tackle football (compared with flag football) was 0.45 (95% CI, 0.25-0.80; P = .0065). The rate of severe injuries per exposure for tackle football was 1.1 (95% CI, 0.33-3.4; P = .93) times that of the flag league. The rate for concussions in tackle football per exposure was 0.51 (95% CI, 0.16-1.7; P = .27) times that of the flag league. Conclusion: Injury is more likely to occur in youth flag football than in youth tackle football. Severe injuries and concussions were not significantly

  6. Commercial Recreation Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howell, Richard L.

    1983-01-01

    The tourist industry is one of the healthiest and most promising career markets for graduates of recreation education programs. Considerations that should be weighed in selecting tourism education curricula are discussed. (PP)

  7. Hazard Analysis. Football: Activity and Related Equipment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1974

    Data on football injuries acquired from surveillance sources and in-depth investigations are presented. Results of the study are summarized by descriptions of the accident sequence, diagnosis of the injury, and specific equipment involved in the injury. (JD)

  8. Concussion Incidence in Professional Football

    PubMed Central

    Nathanson, John T.; Connolly, James G.; Yuk, Frank; Gometz, Alex; Rasouli, Jonathan; Lovell, Mark; Choudhri, Tanvir

    2016-01-01

    Background: In the United States alone, millions of athletes participate in sports with potential for head injury each year. Although poorly understood, possible long-term neurological consequences of repetitive sports-related concussions have received increased recognition and attention in recent years. A better understanding of the risk factors for concussion remains a public health priority. Despite the attention focused on mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) in football, gaps remain in the understanding of the optimal methodology to determine concussion incidence and position-specific risk factors. Purpose: To calculate the rates of concussion in professional football players using established and novel metrics on a group and position-specific basis. Study Design: Case-control study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods: Athletes from the 2012-2013 and 2013-2014 National Football League (NFL) seasons were included in this analysis of publicly available data. Concussion incidence rates were analyzed using established (athlete exposure [AE], game position [GP]) and novel (position play [PP]) metrics cumulatively, by game unit and position type (offensive skill players and linemen, defensive skill players and linemen), and by position. Results: In 480 games, there were 292 concussions, resulting in 0.61 concussions per game (95% CI, 0.54-0.68), 6.61 concussions per 1000 AEs (95% CI, 5.85-7.37), 1.38 concussions per 100 GPs (95% CI, 1.22-1.54), and 0.17 concussions per 1000 PPs (95% CI, 0.15-0.19). Depending on the method of calculation, the relative order of at-risk positions changed. In addition, using the PP metric, offensive skill players had a significantly greater rate of concussion than offensive linemen, defensive skill players, and defensive linemen (P < .05). Conclusion: For this study period, concussion incidence by position and unit varied depending on which metric was used. Compared with AE and GP, the PP metric found that the relative risk of concussion for

  9. Assessment of Cardiovascular Risk in Collegiate Football Players and Nonathletes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dobrosielski, Devon A.; Rosenbaum, Daryl; Wooster, Benjamin M.; Merrill, Michael; Swanson, John; Moore, J. Brian; Brubaker, Peter H.

    2010-01-01

    Collegiate American football players may be at risk for cardiovascular disease. Objective: To compare cardiovascular disease risk factors and cardiovascular structure and function parameters of football players, stratified by position, to a group of sedentary, nonathletes. Participants: Twenty-six collegiate football players and 13 nonathletes…

  10. Tips to Increase Girls' Participation in Flag Football Units

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hannon, James C.; Ratliffe, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    Despite the apparent popularity of flag football as an activity in physical education class and football as an after-school offering for girls, studies related to gender stereotyping of sports have found overwhelming evidence indicating that football is perceived as a masculine activity among males and females in primary school, secondary school,…

  11. A Demonstration of Ideal Gas Principles Using a Football.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bare, William D.; Andrews, Lester

    1999-01-01

    Uses a true-to-life story of accusations made against a college football team to illustrate ideal gas laws. Students are asked to decide whether helium-filled footballs would increase punt distances and how to determine whether a football contained air or helium. (WRM)

  12. Alcohol-Related Fan Behavior on College Football Game Day

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glassman, Tavis; Werch, Chudley E.; Jobli, Edessa; Bian, Hui

    2007-01-01

    High-risk drinking on game day represents a unique public health challenge. Objective: The authors examined the drinking behavior of college football fans and assessed the support for related interventions. Participants: The authors randomly selected 762 football fans, including college students, alumni, and other college football fans, to…

  13. Recreation Handbook for State and Local Unit Recreation Committees.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association for Retarded Citizens, Arlington, TX.

    The recreation handbook provides broad guidelines and lists sources of information for state and local units of the National Association for Retarded Citizens (NARC) to develop recreational programs throughout the nation. Described are the importance of recreation for reasons such as developing good habits of physical fitness, survey results…

  14. What Recreation Research Says to the Recreation Practitioner.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pelegrino, Donald A., Ed.

    In the preface, the editor states that this publication was generated to identify, synthesize, publish, and disseminate specific research finding. It contains a collection of six essays, entitled Recreation Research: An Overview; What Research Tells the Recreation Practitioner About Administrative Behavior; Recreation and Behavior Modification;…

  15. Directory of National Recreation Organizations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Exceptional Parent, 1991

    1991-01-01

    Thirty national recreation organizations serving individuals with disabilities are listed, along with addresses and telephone numbers. Sample recreational activities covered include Boy Scouts and Girls Scouts, various wheelchair sports, skiing, golfing, and horticultural therapy. (JDD)

  16. Recreational Vehicle Trades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Felice, Michael

    This curriculum guide provides materials for a competency-based course in recreational vehicle trades at the secondary level. The curriculum design uses the curriculum infused model for the teaching of basic skills as part of vocational education and demonstrates the relationship of vocationally related skills to communication, mathematics, and…

  17. Recreative Arts Outdoor Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, Ray

    Emphasizing an interdisciplinary, experiential learning approach, this curriculum guide is designed for a one year recreative arts-outdoor education course for high school students in the Dallas (Texas) Independent School District. The course objective is to develop the skills and knowledge necessary for fostering responsible behavior in an…

  18. Mental Recreation in Wonderland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pendlebury, Kate

    2016-01-01

    The author argues that children's books are not, as commonly held, either didactic or entertaining and that successful juvenile literature teaches what Lewis Carroll, who wrote "Alice in Wonderland," termed "mental recreation." Pendlebury contends that learning and play, far from being opposites, can closely resemble one…

  19. Computer Perspectives in Recreation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haderlie, Brian M., Ed.

    This publication describes applications and/or research involved with computer use for professionals in leisure, parks, and recreation. Papers presented are: (1) "Software in the Eighties: Information Exchange and Clearinghouse Applications" (Jeff A. Stuyt); (2) "Microcomputer Applications for the Manager of the Future" (Christine Z. Howe); (3)…

  20. Outdoor Recreation Space Standards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Outdoor Recreation (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC.

    With increased concern in recent years for the quality of our cultural and physical environment, there has been a corresponding increase in the need for information on standards used for planning playgrounds and parks, sports facilities, and outdoor areas for camping and hiking. Standards for various types of outdoor recreational facilities as…

  1. Recreation for All.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winston, Alan G., Ed.; Seekins, Nancy, Ed.

    The manual is intended to provide guidelines for the planning and development of parks and recreation facilities which are accessbile to everyone. Separate chapters present guidelines for the following topics (sample subtopics in parentheses): general information (space relationships and wheelchair functions); general site conditions (soil…

  2. High-intensity training in football.

    PubMed

    Iaia, F Marcello; Rampinini, Ermanno; Bangsbo, Jens

    2009-09-01

    This article reviews the major physiological and performance effects of aerobic high-intensity and speed-endurance training in football, and provides insight on implementation of individual game-related physical training. Analysis and physiological measurements have revealed that modern football is highly energetically demanding, and the ability to perform repeated high-intensity work is of importance for the players. Furthermore, the most successful teams perform more high-intensity activities during a game when in possession of the ball. Hence, footballers need a high fitness level to cope with the physical demands of the game. Studies on football players have shown that 8 to 12 wk of aerobic high-intensity running training (> 85% HR(max)) leads to VO2(max) enhancement (5% to 11%), increased running economy (3% to 7%), and lower blood lactate accumulation during submaximal exercise, as well as improvements in the yo-yo intermittent recovery (YYIR) test performance (13%). Similar adaptations are observed when performing aerobic high-intensity training with small-sided games. Speed-endurance training has a positive effect on football-specific endurance, as shown by the marked improvements in the YYIR test (22% to 28%) and the ability to perform repeated sprints (approximately 2%). In conclusion, both aerobic and speed-endurance training can be used during the season to improve high-intensity intermittent exercise performance. The type and amount of training should be game related and specific to the technical, tactical, and physical demands imposed on each player.

  3. The Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the Central District of the American Alliance for Health, Physical Education, Recreation, and Dance (Des Moines, IA, April 29-May 3, 1992). [Abstracts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, James A., Ed.; Hoadley, Michael, Ed.

    This publication is designed to communicate the history and research activities of members of the Central District of the American Alliance for Health, Physical Education, Recreation, and Dance. It presents summaries of 30 papers and conference presentations on such topics as pioneering physical educators; cholesterol in college football players;…

  4. Common Shoulder Injuries in American Football Athletes.

    PubMed

    Gibbs, Daniel B; Lynch, T Sean; Nuber, Erika D; Nuber, Gordon W

    2015-01-01

    American football is a collision sport played by athletes at high speeds. Despite the padding and conditioning in these athletes, the shoulder is a vulnerable joint, and injuries to the shoulder girdle are common at all levels of competitive football. Some of the most common injuries in these athletes include anterior and posterior glenohumeral instability, acromioclavicular pathology (including separation, osteolysis, and osteoarthritis), rotator cuff pathology (including contusions, partial thickness, and full thickness tears), and pectoralis major and minor tears. In this article, we will review the epidemiology and clinical and radiographic workup of these injuries. We also will evaluate the effectiveness of surgical and nonsurgical management specifically related to high school, collegiate, and professional football athletes.

  5. Practice effects on intra-team synergies in football teams.

    PubMed

    Silva, Pedro; Chung, Dante; Carvalho, Thiago; Cardoso, Tiago; Davids, Keith; Araújo, Duarte; Garganta, Júlio

    2016-04-01

    Developing synchronised player movements for fluent competitive match play is a common goal for coaches of team games. An ecological dynamics approach advocates that intra-team synchronization is governed by locally created information, which specifies shared affordances responsible for synergy formation. To verify this claim we evaluated coordination tendencies in two newly-formed teams of recreational players during association football practice games, weekly, for fifteen weeks (thirteen matches). We investigated practice effects on two central features of synergies in sports teams - dimensional compression and reciprocal compensation here captured through near in-phase modes of coordination and time delays between coupled players during forward and backwards movements on field while attacking and defending. Results verified that synergies were formed and dissolved rapidly as a result of the dynamic creation of informational properties, perceived as shared affordances among performers. Practising once a week led to small improvements in the readjustment delays between co-positioning team members, enabling faster regulation of coordinated team actions. Mean values of the number of player and team synergies displayed only limited improvements, possibly due to the timescales of practice. No relationship between improvements in dimensional compression and reciprocal compensation were found for number of shots, amount of ball possession and number of ball recoveries made. Findings open up new perspectives for monitoring team coordination processes in sport.

  6. Home advantage in Greek football.

    PubMed

    Armatas, Vasilis; Pollard, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Home advantage as it relates to team performance at football was examined in Superleague Greece using nine seasons of game-by-game performance data, a total of 2160 matches. After adjusting for team ability and annual fluctuations in home advantage, there were significant differences between teams. Previous findings regarding the role of territorial protection were strengthened by the fact that home advantage was above average for the team from Xanthi (P =0.015), while lower for teams from the capital city Athens (P =0.008). There were differences between home and away teams in the incidence of most of the 13 within-game match variables, but associated effect sizes were only moderate. In contrast, outcome ratios derived from these variables, and measuring shot success, had negligible effect sizes. This supported a previous finding that home and away teams differed in the incidence of on-the-ball behaviours, but not in their outcomes. By far the most important predictor of home advantage, as measured by goal difference, was the difference between home and away teams in terms of kicked shots from inside the penalty area. Other types of shots had little effect on the final score. The absence of a running track between spectators and the playing field was also a significant predictor of goal difference, worth an average of 0.102 goals per game to the home team. Travel distance did not affect home advantage.

  7. Recreational drugs of abuse.

    PubMed

    Albertson, Timothy E

    2014-02-01

    The use of recreational drugs of abuse continues to expand without limitations to national boundaries, social status, race, or education. Beyond the prevalence of illicit drug use and dependence, their contribution to the global burden of disease and death are large and troubling. All medical providers should be aware of the evolving drugs of abuse and their medical and social consequences. In addition to heroin and stimulants such as cocaine and methamphetamine, new designer stimulants called "bath salts" and cannabinoids called "spice," along with the abuse of prescription drugs and volatile substances, are now widely recognized problems in many societies. The wide variety and continuingly expanding clinical manifestations of toxicity of recreational drugs of abuse is not widely appreciated by clinicians. This edition attempts to summarize six major classes of drugs of abuse and their clinical effects with special emphasis on their immunological and respiratory effects.

  8. Would You Let Your Child Play Football? Attitudes Toward Football Safety.

    PubMed

    Fedor, Andrew; Gunstad, John

    2016-01-01

    An estimated 1.6 million to 3.8 million sports-related concussions occur each year in the United States, and many are related to football. This has generated much discussion in the media on the perceived safety of the sport. In the current study, researchers asked 230 individuals various questions about attitudes toward safety in football. Approximately 92.6% of participants indicated they would allow their child to play football; these participants were more likely to be female (χ(2) = 5.23, p > .05), were slightly younger (t= -2.52, p < .05), and believed an athlete could suffer a higher number of concussions before becoming excessive (t = 2.06, p < .05). Findings suggest most individuals are comfortable with their children playing football, and future studies are needed to clarify factors that inform this opinion.

  9. Mechanical properties of the triceps surae: differences between football and non-football players.

    PubMed

    Faria, Aurélio; Gabriel, Ronaldo; Abrantes, João; Wood, Paola; Moreira, Helena

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the mechanical properties of the triceps surae between professional, junior, and non-football players. Fifty-nine men participated in this study. The mechanical properties of the right legs' triceps surae were measured in vivo using a free oscillation technique; no significant differences existed between the groups. The mean results for musculo-articular stiffness, damping coefficient, and damping ratio were as follows: professional football players (21523 N· m⁻¹, 330.8 N · s · m⁻¹, and 0.201); junior football players (21063 N · m⁻¹, 274.4 N · s · m⁻¹, and 0.173); and non-players (19457 N · m⁻¹, 281.5 N · s · m⁻¹, and 0.184). When analysed according to position, the results were as follows: defender (21447 N · m⁻¹, 308.6 N · s · m⁻¹, and 0.189); midfielder (20762 N · m⁻¹, 250.7 N · s · m⁻¹, and 0.157); winger (21322 N · m⁻¹, 335.1 N · s · m⁻¹, and 0.212); forward (22085 N · m⁻¹, 416.2 N · s · m⁻¹, and 0.254); and non-players (19457 N · m⁻¹, 281.5 N · s · m⁻¹, and 0.184). Thus, football training, football games, and the position played had no effect on triceps surae mechanical properties. These results may be attributed to opposing adaptations between different types of training that are usually implemented in football. Alternatively, the minimum strain amplitude and/or frequency threshold of the triceps surae required to trigger adaptations of mechanical properties might not be achieved by football players with football training and matches.

  10. Evaluation of team-doctor actions during football games in Japanese professional football.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Masaaki; Fukuoka, Shigeo; Nagano, Akira

    2009-11-01

    There have been many studies on football (soccer) match injuries both in national leagues and international tournaments, including the World Cup. However, no previous study on the number and types of actions taken by a team-doctor during a football season has been investigated. The aim of this study is to investigate what actions and how much a team doctor acts during professional football matches in a typical season of the Japanese professional football league (J-League). Injuries were prospectively recorded by team doctors with a Japanese professional league club during the 2004 season. Data recorded by the attending doctor after each match included information relating to the injury, time of occurrence and actions taken by the doctor in response to the injuries. The activity of the doctor was graded into 6 categories (grade A to F). During the 42 official matches held throughout the 2004 season, a total of 67 doctor-actions were taken. The overall doctor-action frequency rate (DAFR) was 1.6 actions per match. This study demonstrated how the team doctor acts during an average football match, and provides some useful information for team-doctors who attend football matches.

  11. High Prevalence of Hypertension Among Collegiate Football Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Karpinos, Ashley Rowatt; Roumie, Christianne L.; Nian, Hui; Diamond, Alex B.; Rothman, Russell L.

    2014-01-01

    Background The prevalence of hypertension among collegiate football athletes is not well described. Methods and Results A retrospective cohort of all male athletes who participated in varsity athletics at a National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I university between 1999–2012 was examined through chart review. Mandatory annual preparticipation physical examinations included blood pressure, body mass index, medication use, and supplement use. Prevalence of hypertension was compared between football and non-football athletes. A mixed-effects linear regression model examined change in blood pressure over time. 636 collegiate athletes, including 323 football players, were identified. In the initial year of athletic participation, 19.2% of football athletes had hypertension and 61.9% had prehypertension. The prevalence of hypertension was higher among football athletes than non-football athletes in their initial (19.2% vs. 7.0%, P< 0.001) and final (19.2% vs. 10.2%, P=0.001) years of athletic participation. In adjusted analyses, the odds of hypertension was higher among football athletes in the initial year (AOR 2.28, 95% CI 1.21 to 4.30) but not the final year (AOR 1.25, 95% CI 0.69 to 2.28). Over the course of their collegiate career, football athletes had an annual decrease in systolic blood pressure (−0.82 mmHg, P=0.002), while non-football athletes did not (0.18 mmHg, P=0.58). Conclusions Hypertension and prehypertension were common among collegiate football athletes, and football athletes were more likely to have hypertension than male non-football athletes. This presents a potential cardiovascular risk in a young population of athletes. Strategies for increasing awareness, prevention and treatment are needed. PMID:24221829

  12. High School Football Injury Surveillance Studies, 1987.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Athletic Trainers' Association, Inc., Greenville, NC.

    This series of newsletters and fact sheets provides information on the incidence of sport-related injuries in scholastic sports. The following topics are addressed: (1) how the National Athletic Trainers' Association (NATA) measures the number and severity of injuries; (2) facts about NATA; (3) injuries to high school football players; (4)…

  13. Coed Football: Hazards, Implications, and Alternatives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falls, Harold B.

    1986-01-01

    Football, it is argued, is too dangerous for most girls and for many boys. Data on male-female differences in size, speed, and strength are reviewed. A preparticipation screening program with equal requirements for both sexes is proposed. (Author/MT)

  14. Football--A Motivator for Mathematics?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cogill, Julie; Parr, Alan

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the authors visited with the Arsenal Double Club Coordinator, Scott an amateur footballer, and a career teacher who is able to bring his considerable experience and administrative skill to the project. The authors were delighted to realise that they were talking to a teacher committed to what is first and foremost an educational…

  15. Creating a winning team: lessons from football.

    PubMed

    Simons, Sherri Lee

    2005-01-01

    There are tasks best done on an individual basis when caring for a neonate, but the ultimate outcome for infants and their families results from a team effort. Incorporating ten strategies drawn from football can help the NICU manager create and foster effective teamwork.

  16. Exploring Discrete Mathematics with American Football

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muldoon Brown, Tricia; Kahn, Eric B.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an extended project that offers, through American football, an application of concepts from enumerative combinatorics and an introduction to proofs course. The questions in this paper and subsequent details concerning equivalence relations and counting techniques can be used to reinforce these new topics to students in such a…

  17. Knee Braces to Prevent Injuries in Football.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Physician and Sportsmedicine, 1986

    1986-01-01

    Five physicians discuss the use of knee braces to prevent injuries in football players. Questions are raised regarding the strength and design of the braces, whether they prestress the knee in some cases, and whether they actually reduce injuries. More clinical and biomechanical research is called for. (MT)

  18. Music as Narrative in American College Football

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCluskey, John Michael

    2016-01-01

    American college football features an enormous amount of music woven into the fabric of the event, with selections accompanying approximately two-thirds of a game's plays. Musical selections are controlled by a number of forces, including audio and video technicians, university marketing departments, financial sponsors, and wind bands. These blend…

  19. Rugby football injuries, 1980-1983.

    PubMed

    Sparks, J P

    1985-06-01

    The injuries sustained by the boys at one English public school have been recorded and analysed by age, experience, position, phase, duration of the game and of the season. Few injuries have been serious. Detailed reference is made to concussion, injuries from collapsed scrums and injuries of the cervical spine. The paper emphasises that the tackle leads to most injuries. This paper presents the Rugby football injuries sustained by the boarders of Rugby School in the four seasons 1980-1983. The injury rate was 194 per 10,000 player hours, compared with the rate of 198 per 10,000 player hours for the thirty seasons 1950-1979 (Sparks, 1981). Tables I-VI list the injuries by different criteria. Table VII lists the sites of injury; Table VIII the time off Rugby football after injury; Table IX lists some of the more important injuries; Table XI summarises the playing results of the various school teams; Table XIII compares some of the Rugby School figures with those recorded in the Accident and Emergency Department of Christchurch Hospital during the 1979 New Zealand Rugby football season (Inglis and Stewart, 1981); Table XIV records information on three aspects of Rugby football that have occasioned much recent concern, viz:--Time off playing after concussion, injuries caused by collapsed scrums and neck injuries.

  20. The Metamorphosis of a Football Stadium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Have, Pieter J.

    1999-01-01

    Examines the planning, renovation and enlargement, and funding of a new University of Utah football stadium that would also be used in the 2002 Winter Olympics. Contractor selection, solutions to construction challenges, and the steps taken to minimize risk and guarantee success of the projects are discussed, including the fact that the stadium is…

  1. 'Footballs', conical singularities, and the Liouville equation

    SciTech Connect

    Redi, Michele

    2005-02-15

    We generalize the football shaped extra dimensions scenario to an arbitrary number of branes. The problem is related to the solution of the Liouville equation with singularities, and explicit solutions are presented for the case of three branes. The tensions of the branes do not need to be tuned with each other but only satisfy mild global constraints.

  2. Nowcasting recreational water quality

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boehm, Alexandria B.; Whitman, Richard L.; Nevers, Meredith; Hou, Deyi; Weisberg, Stephen B.

    2007-01-01

    Advances in molecular techniques may soon provide new opportunities to provide more timely information on whether recreational beaches are free from fecal contamination. However, an alternative approach is the use of predictive models. This chapter presents a summary of these developing efforts. First, we describe documented physical, chemical, and biological factors that have been demonstrated by researchers to affect bacterial concentrations at beaches and thus represent logical parameters for inclusion in a model. Then, we illustrate how various types of models can be applied to predict water quality at freshwater and marine beaches.

  3. 36 CFR 2.23 - Recreation fees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Recreation fees. 2.23 Section... PROTECTION, PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION § 2.23 Recreation fees. (a) Recreation fees shall be established as... sites, facilities, equipment or services, or participating in group activities, recreation events,...

  4. 36 CFR 1002.23 - Recreation fees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Recreation fees. 1002.23... RECREATION § 1002.23 Recreation fees. (a) Recreation fees shall be charged in the area administered by the Presidio Trust to the same extent that recreation fees have been established for the Golden Gate...

  5. 36 CFR 1002.23 - Recreation fees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Recreation fees. 1002.23... RECREATION § 1002.23 Recreation fees. (a) Recreation fees shall be charged in the area administered by the Presidio Trust to the same extent that recreation fees have been established for the Golden Gate...

  6. 36 CFR 2.23 - Recreation fees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Recreation fees. 2.23 Section... PROTECTION, PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION § 2.23 Recreation fees. (a) Recreation fees shall be established as... sites, facilities, equipment or services, or participating in group activities, recreation events,...

  7. Football with three ‘halves’: A qualitative exploratory study of the football3 model at the Football for Hope Festival 2010

    PubMed Central

    ZA, Kaufman; MA, Clark; ST, McGarvey

    2015-01-01

    The “football3” model refers to a restructuring of traditional football/soccer rules to bring social and developmental benefits to participating youth and their communities. The model incorporates three “halves”: pre-game discussion, football match, and post-game discussion. This study was carried out to shed light on the experiences of youth and adults with the football3 model at the Football for Hope Festival 2010. As an official 2010 FIFA World Cup event, the festival assembled 32 mixed-sex delegations of youth for cultural activities and a football tournament. The study's aim was to inform the model's future design and implementation. Twenty interviews, two focus group discussions, and participant observation were conducted. Findings highlight positive experiences with the model regarding cultural exchange and relationship building, Fair Play and social values, and gender integration. Challenges pertain to misunderstanding of the football3 model, tournament atmosphere, and skill level differences. Recommendations centre on systematically formulating desired outcomes, formalizing a curriculum and training plan, piloting football3 in a range of settings over an extended period of time, and emphasizing monitoring and evaluation to assess the model's effectiveness and impact. Future piloting and research should inform the potential scale-up of the model. PMID:27064214

  8. From Recreational Mathematics to Recreational Programming, and Back

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruiz Jimenez, B. C.; Ruiz Munoz, M.

    2011-01-01

    Recreational Programming (RecPro) is the discipline that encourages the study of computer programming through ludic problems. Problems that are typically studied within this discipline are similar to those of Recreational Mathematics (RecMat), which sometimes leads to the confusion of these two disciplines. The objective for RecPro is to write…

  9. Knee Injuries in American Football: An Epidemiological Review.

    PubMed

    Rothenberg, Paul; Grau, Luis; Kaplan, Lee; Baraga, Michael G

    Football has the highest injury rate amongst popular American sports. Of those injuries that end seasons or careers, the knee is the most common culprit. This is of particular concern because knee injuries are most common in football. This article reviews 4 of the most common knee injuries in American football, with emphasis on epidemiology, risk factors, and treatment outcomes. The injuries reviewed are tears of the anterior cruciate ligament, medial collateral ligament, medial patellofemoral ligament, and posterior cruciate ligament.

  10. Expertise and decision-making in American football.

    PubMed

    Woods, Adam J; Kranjec, Alexander; Lehet, Matt; Chatterjee, Anjan

    2015-01-01

    In American football, pass interference calls can be difficult to make, especially when the timing of contact between players is ambiguous. American football history contains many examples of controversial pass interference decisions, often with fans, players, and officials interpreting the same event differently. The current study sought to evaluate the influence of experience with concepts important for officiating decisions in American football on the probability (i.e., response criteria) of pass interference calls. We further investigated the extent to which such experience modulates perceptual biases that might influence the interpretation of such events. We hypothesized that observers with less experience with the American football concepts important for pass interference would make progressively more pass interference calls than more experienced observers, even when given an explicit description of the necessary criteria for a pass interference call. In a go/no-go experiment using photographs from American football games, three groups of participants with different levels of experience with American football (Football Naïve, Football Player, and Football Official) made pass interference calls for pictures depicting left-moving and right-moving events. More experience was associated with progressively and significantly fewer pass interference calls [F (2,48) = 10.4, p < 0.001], with Football Naïve participants making the most pass interference calls, and Football Officials the least. In addition, our data replicated a prior finding of spatial biases for interpreting left-moving images more harshly than identical right-moving images, but only in Football Players. These data suggest that experience with the concepts important for making a decision may influence the rate of decision-making, and may also play a role in susceptibility to spatial biases.

  11. Travelling Fellowship Program for Football Medicine; Report on an Experience

    PubMed Central

    Seifbarghi, Tohid; Hashemi, Akram; Halabchi, Farzin

    2012-01-01

    Football medicine has developed in the world in recent years. AFC Medical Committee, established the idea of football medicine travelling fellowship two years ago and provided high-level healthcare services to football players in Asian countries. This is a report on my one month experience in a travelling fellowship program for football medicine which is attempting to tell the reader about the interesting event that I experienced. This course has been held between Jan 15 to Feb 10, 2012 in 3 Asian countries: Qatar, Thailand and Malysia. The experience provided me with the valuable suggestions for future travelling fellowship periods. PMID:23012644

  12. The Evolution of Therapeutic Recreation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riley, Bob; Skalko, Thomas K.

    1998-01-01

    Reviews elements that impact the delivery of therapeutic recreation services, emphasizing elements that are external to the discipline and influence practice and elements that are internal to the discipline and must be addressed if therapeutic recreation is to continue its evolution as a competitive health and human service discipline.…

  13. Financing of Private Outdoor Recreation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Outdoor Recreation (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC.

    A survey of financial institutions was undertaken by the Bureau of Outdoor Recreation to evaluate the demand and availability of private credit for enterprises that provide outdoor recreation. The survey provided basic information for (1) evaluating legislative proposals for loan guarantee programs, (2) nationwide planning, and (3) assessing the…

  14. Pioneers in Leisure and Recreation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ibrahim, Hilmi; And Others

    This book consists of brief biographies of people who have contributed to the field of leisure and recreation. The 26 pioneers chronicled span over two thousand years and cross many cultures. Some are theorists, others are practitioners, but all of them left their imprint on the leisure and recreation field. Arranged sequentially by dates, the…

  15. Leisure and Recreation Behavior Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haller, Otto; And Others

    The Leisure and Recreation Behavior Evaluation (LRBE) measure is intended for use by direct care staff of mentally handicapped adults. The LRBE evaluates an individual's level of independence for a leisure or recreation behavior on a 4-point rating scale for 30 aspects divided into six major categories: (1) the activity, (2) preparation and…

  16. Recreational Services for the Handicapped.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iowa Univ., Iowa City. Recreation Education Program.

    Presented are duplications of the responses given by Recreational Services for the Handicapped (Baltimore, Maryland) as part of a project to collect, share, and compile information about, and techniques in the operation of 18 community action models for recreation services to the disabled. Model programs are categorized as consumer, client…

  17. Perceived Dangerousness of Recreational Drugs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luce, Terrence S.; Merrel, Judy C.

    1995-01-01

    In this study both college students and degreed nurses were asked to estimate the abuse potential and lethality of recreational drugs, both licit and illicit. Findings indicate that the illicit drugs under consideration were perceived as presenting the greatest danger to the user. Dangers attributed to the use of licit recreational drugs were…

  18. Football versus football: effect of topic on /r/ realization in American and English sports fans.

    PubMed

    Love, Jessica; Walker, Abby

    2013-12-01

    Can the topic of a conversation, when heavily associated with a particular dialect region, influence how a speaker realizes a linguistic variable? We interviewed fans of English Premier League soccer at a pub in Columbus, Ohio. Nine speakers of British English and eleven speakers of American English were interviewed about their favorite American football and English soccer teams. We present evidence that the soccer fans in this speech community produce variants more consistent with Standard American English when talking about American football than English soccer. Specifically, speakers were overall more /r/-ful (F3 values were lower in rhotic environments) when talking about their favorite American football team. Numeric trends in the data also suggest that exposure to both American and British English, being a fan of both sports, and task may mediate these effects.

  19. Reliability of a Field Test of Defending and Attacking Agility in Australian Football and Relationships to Reactive Strength.

    PubMed

    Young, Warren B; Murray, Mitch P

    2017-02-01

    Young, WB and Murray, MP. Reliability of a field test of defending and attacking agility in Australian football and relationships to reactive strength. J Strength Cond Res 31(2): 509-516, 2017-Defending and attacking agility tests for Australian football do not exist, and it is unknown whether any physical qualities correlate with these types of agility. The purposes of this study were to develop new field tests of defending and attacking agility for Australian Rules football, to determine whether they were reliable, and to describe the relationship between the agility tests to determine their specificity. Because the reactive strength (RS) of the lower limb muscles has been previously correlated with change-of-direction speed, we also investigated the relationship between this quality and the agility tests. Nineteen male competitive recreational-level Australian Rules football players were assessed on the agility tests and a drop jump test to assess RS. Interday and interrater reliability was also assessed. The agility tests involved performing 10 trials of one-on-one agility tasks against 2 testers (opponents), in which the objective was to be in a position to tackle (defending) or to evade (attacking) the opponent. Both agility tests had good reliability (intraclass correlation > 0.8, %CV < 3, and no significant differences between test occasions [p > 0.05], and interrater reliability was very high [r = 0.997, p < 0.001]). The common variance between the agility tests was 45%, indicating that they represented relatively independent skills. There was a large correlation between RS and defending agility (r = 0.625, p = 0.004), and a very large correlation with attacking agility (r = 0.731, p < 0.001). Defending and attacking agility have different characteristics, possibly related to the footwork, physical, and cognitive demands of each. Nonetheless, RS seems to be important for agility, especially for attacking agility.

  20. Injuries in professional football: current concepts.

    PubMed

    Olson, David; Sikka, Robby S; Labounty, Abby; Christensen, Trent

    2013-01-01

    Professional football is one of the most popular sports in the United States. There is a common constellation of injuries that are seen frequently. Much attention has been focused on concussions and their long-term outcomes in this population. Other common causes of morbidity include cervical spine injuries, knee injuries including anterior cruciate ligament and other ligamentous injuries, ankle sprains, and medical issues including cardiac and sickle trait. Several recent studies have focused on hip impingement and hamstring injuries, among others, as sources of missed playing time as well. This review describes some of the frequently seen injuries and medical issues in professional football players. Proper management of both medical disease and on-field injuries can reduce morbidity and may lead to faster return to play and reduced risk of future injury.

  1. 'Bataille's boys': postmodernity, Fascists and football fans.

    PubMed

    Smith, T

    2000-09-01

    In his analysis of football hooliganism, Anthony King claims to reveal the historical, conceptual scheme young, male supporters draw upon. This 'masculine vision', he states, is similar to that held by the Freikorps. Both groups are said to adhere to modernist notions of masculinity, sexuality and nationhood, reinforced by rituals which maintain boundaries between these 'proper' males and deviant 'others'. Occasionally, football hooligans breach these boundaries in acts of postmodern transgression. King also claims that fans link sex and violence in their imaginations. In this response I examine King's critique of his fellow theorists; challenge his 'Freikorps-Fans' analogy; demonstrate the problem he has in establishing the sex-violence link and question the relevance of his concept of postmodernity.

  2. Sprint vs. interval training in football.

    PubMed

    Ferrari Bravo, D; Impellizzeri, F M; Rampinini, E; Castagna, C; Bishop, D; Wisloff, U

    2008-08-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effects of high-intensity aerobic interval and repeated-sprint ability (RSA) training on aerobic and anaerobic physiological variables in male football players. Forty-two participants were randomly assigned to either the interval training group (ITG, 4 x 4 min running at 90 - 95 % of HRmax; n = 21) or repeated-sprint training group (RSG, 3 x 6 maximal shuttle sprints of 40 m; n = 21). The following outcomes were measured at baseline and after 7 weeks of training: maximum oxygen uptake, respiratory compensation point, football-specific endurance (Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Test, YYIRT), 10-m sprint time, jump height and power, and RSA. Significant group x time interaction was found for YYIRT (p = 0.003) with RSG showing greater improvement (from 1917 +/- 439 to 2455 +/- 488 m) than ITG (from 1846 +/- 329 to 2077 +/- 300 m). Similarly, a significant interaction was found in RSA mean time (p = 0.006) with only the RSG group showing an improvement after training (from 7.53 +/- 0.21 to 7.37 +/- 0.17 s). No other group x time interactions were found. Significant pre-post changes were found for absolute and relative maximum oxygen uptake and respiratory compensation point (p < 0.05). These findings suggest that the RSA training protocol used in this study can be an effective training strategy for inducing aerobic and football-specific training adaptations.

  3. Impact energy attenuation performance of football headgear

    PubMed Central

    McIntosh, A.; McCrory, P.

    2000-01-01

    Objectives—Commercially available football head protectors were tested to determine their impact energy attenuation performance and ability to reduce the likelihood of concussion. Methods—Prospective study using standardised impact test methods with both rigid (magnesium) and Hybrid III headforms. Results—Eight commercially available head protectors from six manufacturers were tested. The magnitude of the headform accelerations increased as the drop height was increased, ranging from a minimum of 64 g from a height of 0.2 m to a maximum of 1132 g from a height of 0.6 m. The head injury criterion and maximum headform acceleration values followed a similar trend. A steep increase was noted in the magnitude of maximum headform acceleration and head injury criterion when the drop height was increased from 0.4 to 0.5 m. This indicates that the foam material was completely compressed at an impact energy above about 20 J and therefore offers little protection against impacts of greater severity. Repeated tests using a drop height of 0.3 m showed that some helmets exhibit a "memory" effect, whereby impact performance is reduced by up to 50% with repeated impacts. Conclusions—Laboratory tests indicate that current commercially available football headgear performance will not reduce the likelihood of concussion. The absence of internationally recognised standards for soft headgear designed to ameliorate concussion is a major deficiency in sports injury prevention. Key Words: football; headgear; helmet; head; concussion PMID:11049142

  4. Sport or School? Dreams and Dilemmas for Talented Young Danish Football Players

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christensen, Mette Krogh; Sorensen, Jan Kahr

    2009-01-01

    Today's young semi-professional football players are expected to continue their education while honing their talents as footballers. This means they must balance the contradictory demands that come from their education establishments and their football clubs. The present study explores how young Danish male football talents experience and describe…

  5. Annotated Football Bibliography. An Applied Project in Physical Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clemence, William J., Jr.; Pitts, James Walter

    This annotated bibliography was compiled to assist physical education majors, especially those having a major interest in football and football coaching. The bibliography is limited to the areas of coaching techniques and philosophy, fundamentals, offense, defense, injuries, and conditioning at the high school and college level. These broader…

  6. Cerebrovascular reactivity alterations in asymptomatic high school football players.

    PubMed

    Svaldi, Diana O; Joshi, Chetas; Robinson, Meghan E; Shenk, Trey E; Abbas, Kausar; Nauman, Eric A; Leverenz, Larry J; Talavage, Thomas M

    2015-01-01

    Cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR) is impaired following brain injury, increasing susceptibility to subsequent injury. CVR was tracked in football and non-collision athletes throughout one season. CVR transiently decreased in football athletes during the first half of the season. Results indicate the brain adapts slowly to increases in loading, increasing risk for injury.

  7. A Personality Profile of Southeastern Conference Football Officials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ittenbach, Richard F.; Eller, Ben F.

    Despite the importance of officiating, there is little information available on how major college football officials view their sport, themselves, and their role as officials. Southeastern Conference (SEC) football officials (N=39) responded to a survey packet consisting of the California Psychological Inventory (CPI) and a four-page profile of…

  8. Annual Survey of Catastrophic Football Injuries, 1977-1983.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mueller, Frederick O.; Blyth, Carl S.

    Football injuries which resulted in permanent spinal cord injury are reported in this survey, part of a concerted effort by individuals and research organizations to reduce the steady increase of football head and neck injuries since the late 1950s. In addition to the reporting of injuries, this document describes steps taken to eliminate the…

  9. Playoffs & Payoffs: The College Football-Coaching Carousel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Jennifer Lee

    2015-01-01

    The circulation of head football coaches is a well-established practice, and with it, salary costs are significantly outpacing other spending as institutions compete in the pursuit of prestige. This movement of college football coaches is known in the popular press as the "coaching carousel." The carousel is a fitting metaphor for a…

  10. Division IAA Football Players and Risk Factors for Metabolic Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Repovich, Wendy E. S.; Babcock, Garth J.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if body composition and blood pressure (BP), two markers for Metabolic Syndrome (MetS), were correlated in college football players. Height, weight, BMI, systolic (SBP) and Diastolic (DBP) blood pressure and body composition (three measures) were assessed in a Division IAA football team (N = 55). Data…

  11. Metaphorical Conceptualizations of Football Coach through Social Cognitive Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dervent, Fatih; Inan, Mehmet

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the metaphors which were used to describe the concept "football coach" by some stakeholders in football, such as players, club officials and referees. Each individual (N = 389) within the study group was asked to reveal the single metaphor s/he has in mind in respect of the concept of football…

  12. Football and exchange rates: empirical support for behavioral economics.

    PubMed

    Eker, Gulin; Berument, Hakan; Dogan, Burak

    2007-10-01

    Recently, economic theory has been expanded to incorporate emotions, which have been assumed to play an important role in financial decisions. The present study illustrates this by showing a connection between the sports performance of popular national football teams (Besiktas, Fenerbahce, and Galatasaray) and performance of the Turkish economy. Specifically, a significant positive association was found between the success of three major professional Turkish football teams and the exchange rate of the Turkish lira against the U.S. dollar. The effect of the football success of several Turkish football teams on the exchange rate of the Turkish lira was examined using the simultaneous multiple regression model with predictor measures of wins, losses, and ties for different combinations of teams to predict the depreciation rate of the Turkish lira between the years 1987 and 2003. Wins by Turkish football teams against foreign (non-Turkish) rivals increased with exchange rate depreciation of the Turkish lira against the U.S. dollar.

  13. Science and football: evaluating the influence of science on performance.

    PubMed

    Drust, B; Green, M

    2013-01-01

    The scientific study of football has its origins in the early research completed in the 1970's. Since these early efforts the available scientific knowledge base related to football has developed substantially. The ability of this scientific information to influence practice in the day-to-day activity of football organisations, especially elite teams, has been largely taken for granted. The close examination of this impact can lead to more uncertainty regarding the usefulness of the scientific data to the sport. Few articles are available that have attempted to critique the link between science and football practice. As such, the aims of this article are 2-fold; (i) to examine the historical background to "science and football" and to analyse the influence of sports science research on the current practice of coaches and practitioners within the sport and (ii) to identify potential ways to increase the influence of scientific research on practice in the "real world".

  14. Upper extremity sensorimotor control among collegiate football players.

    PubMed

    Laudner, Kevin G

    2012-03-01

    Injuries stemming from shoulder instability are very common among athletes participating in contact sports, such as football. Previous research has shown that increased laxity negatively affects the function of the sensorimotor system potentially leading to a pathological cycle of shoulder dysfunction. Currently, there are no data detailing such effects among football players. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine the differences in upper extremity sensorimotor control among football players compared with that of a control group. Forty-five collegiate football players and 70 male control subjects with no previous experience in contact sports participated. All the subjects had no recent history of upper extremity injury. Each subject performed three 30-second upper extremity balance trials on each arm. The balance trials were conducted in a single-arm push-up position with the test arm in the center of a force platform and the subjects' feet on a labile device. The trials were averaged, and the differences in radial area deviation between groups were analyzed using separate 1-way analyses of variance (p < 0.05). The football players showed significantly more radial area deviation of the dominant (0.41 ± 1.23 cm2, p = 0.02) and nondominant arms (0.47 ± 1.63 cm2, p = 0.03) when compared with the control group. These results suggest that football players may have decreased sensorimotor control of the upper extremity compared with individuals with no contact sport experience. The decreased upper extremity sensorimotor control among the football players may be because of the frequent impacts accumulated during football participation. Football players may benefit from exercises that target the sensorimotor system. These findings may also be beneficial in the evaluation and treatment of various upper extremity injuries among football players.

  15. Therapeutic Recreation and Adult Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, David

    1993-01-01

    Therapeutic recreation is a means of empowering individuals with disabilities through arts or sports. The field has developed differently in the United States and the United Kingdom; the former emphasizes professionalization and the latter the right to adult education. (SK)

  16. Recreational Reading for Gifted Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mangieri, John N.; Isaacs, Carolyn W.

    1983-01-01

    A bibliography lists approximately 100 works (1974-82) of fiction, biography, poetry, fantasy/science fiction, picture books, and mystery/adventure for gifted elementary children's recreational reading. Citations include information on author, approximate grade level, and publisher. (CL)

  17. 18 CFR 801.10 - Recreation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Recreation. 801.10... POLICIES § 801.10 Recreation. (a) The use of surface water resources of the basin for recreation purposes... private agencies in the planning and development of water-related recreation and fish and...

  18. 78 FR 4120 - Recreation Resource Advisory Committees

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-18

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Office of the Secretary Recreation Resource Advisory Committees AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of intent to re-establish the Recreation Resource Advisory Committees... Recreation Resource Advisory Committees (Recreation RACs) pursuant to Section 4 of the Federal...

  19. 18 CFR 801.10 - Recreation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Recreation. 801.10... POLICIES § 801.10 Recreation. (a) The use of surface water resources of the basin for recreation purposes... private agencies in the planning and development of water-related recreation and fish and...

  20. A Youth Perspective on Outdoor Recreation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cardin, R. J.

    1994-01-01

    The Arizona Outdoor Recreation Coordinating Commission and Arizona State Parks Board conducted a survey of students in grades 4-12 to gather information on their recreation needs and desires. Results provided recreation planners and providers with a profile of the young outdoor recreation customer to help them develop the most appropriate…

  1. Dehydration of football referees during a match

    PubMed Central

    Da Silva, A I; Fernandez, R

    2003-01-01

    Objectives: To study hydration status in referees (main) and assistant referees (linesmen) during official football matches. Methods: Twelve male football referees were evaluated; all were volunteers. Before and after each match, the referee and one of the assistants were weighed without clothes and a blood sample was taken. Total water loss was determined for each subject from the change in body weight. The main haematological variables were analysed in the blood samples. Total plasma protein concentration and osmolarity were also determined. Variation in plasma volume was determined from changes in packed cell volume and a combination of changes in packed cell volume and haemoglobin concentrations. Results: During a match, total body water loss was 1.60 (0.13) litres, equivalent to 2.05 (0.18)% of body weight. Body weight was reduced by 1.55 (0.12)%, showing that water ingestion during the interval replaces only 24.4% of the body fluids lost during the match. The assistants lost 0.79 (0.19) litre of water, equivalent to 1.05 (0.25)% of body weight. The referees showed a significant decrease in plasma volume of 4.99 (1.33)%. The assistants showed a non-significant increase in plasma volume. The reduction in plasma volume observed in the referees correlated significantly with total body water loss (r = 0.9623). From these data, it is possible to predict that a dehydration of 1% reflects a reduction in plasma volume of nearly 2.5%. Conclusions: Referees are moderately dehydrated after a football match (2%), whereas assistants show a non-significant dehydration of 1% of their body weight. PMID:14665588

  2. University Football Players, Postural Stability, and Concussions.

    PubMed

    Graves, Barbara Sue

    2016-02-01

    Concussion in football athletes is certainly more prevalent and has potentially serious outcomes. With current concerns and increasing return-to-play issues, additional assessment focus is needed. Division 1 college football athletes, from 18 to 20.9 years (n = 177; age, 19.7 ± 1.2 years; height, 182.3 ± 4.5 cm; weight, 97.3 ± 10.6 kg), before fall practice, over a period of 3 years, underwent baseline postural stability testing (sensory organization test [SOT], NeuroCom). Individuals, who were diagnosed with a concussion (headache, dizziness, fatigue, confusion, or loss of consciousness) during practice or actual competition (n = 15; age, 18.9 ± 0.9 years; height, 181.8 ± 2.5 cm; weight, 86.6 ± 3.6 kg), underwent serial evaluation after injury and 24 hours after concussion. As soon as the player was considered asymptomatic, the test was completed on the first and 14th day. A control group of noninjured male athletes (n = 15; age, 19.1 ± 0.4 years; height, 178.2 ± 3.2 cm; weight, 78.6 ± 2.1 kg) were tested for the same time frame. This particular study was only one part of the total evaluation conducted for the concussed athlete's return to play. Results indicated that the concussion group had a statistically significant (p = 0.037) change from their baseline SOT score and the control group (p = 0.025). This change remained significant until day 14 of posttesting. These data indicate that the SOT, when available, may be a positive additional assessment of concussed college-aged football players. Professionals, when dealing with concussion in competitive sports, do need to continue to work together, but awareness of SOT assessments may also contribute to the return-to-play decisions.

  3. FIFA's approach to doping in football

    PubMed Central

    Dvorak, J; Graf‐Baumann, T; D'Hooghe, M; Kirkendall, D; Taennler, H; Saugy, M

    2006-01-01

    Background and objectives FIFA's anti‐doping strategy relies on education and prevention. A worldwide network of physicians guarantees doping control procedures that are straightforward and leave no place for cheating. FIFA actively acknowledges its responsibility to protect players from harm and ensure equal chances for all competitors by stringent doping control regulations, data collection of positive samples, support of research, and collaboration with other organisations. This article aims to outline FIFA's approach to doping in football. Method Description of FIFA's doping control regulations and procedures, statistical analysis of FIFA database on doping control, and comparison with data obtained by WADA accredited laboratories as for 2004. Results Data on positive doping samples per substance and confederation/nation documented at the FIFA medical office from 1994 to 2005 are provided. According to the FIFA database, the incidence of positive cases over the past 11 years was 0.12%, with about 0.42% in 2004 (based on the assumption of 20 750 samples per year) and 0.37% in 2005. Especially important in this regard is the extremely low incidence of the true performance enhancing drugs such as anabolic steroids and stimulants. However, there is a need for more consistent data collection and cross checks among international anti‐doping agencies as well as for further studies on specific substances, methods, and procedures. With regard to general health impairments in players, FIFA suggests that principles of occupational medicine should be considered and treatment with banned substances for purely medical reasons should be permitted to enable players to carry out their profession. At the same time, a firm stand has to be taken against suppression of symptoms by medication with the aim of meeting the ever increasing demands on football players. Conclusion Incidence of doping in football seems to be low, but much closer collaboration and further

  4. Facility Focus: Sports and Recreation Facilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    College Planning & Management, 2000

    2000-01-01

    Examines projects that demonstrate three different commitments administrators make to their athletic facilities: convenience; excellence; and comfort. Projects discussed involve a fitness center, a football stadium, and a multi-sport indoor practice facility. (GR)

  5. Suitability of FIFA’s “The 11” Training Programme for Young Football Players – Impact on Physical Performance

    PubMed Central

    Kilding, Andrew E; Tunstall, Helen; Kuzmic, Dejan

    2008-01-01

    There is a paucity of evidence regarding the use of injury prevention programmes for preadolescents participating in sport. “The 11 ”injury prevention programme was developed by FIFA’s medical research centre (F-MARC) to help reduce the risk of injury in football players aged 14 years and over. The aim of this study was to determine the suitability and effectiveness of “The 11 ”for younger football players. Twenty-four [12 experimental (EXP), 12 control (CON)] young football players (age 10.4 ± 1.4 yr) participated. The EXP group followed “The 11 ”training programme 5 days per week, for 6 weeks, completing all but one of the 10 exercises. Prior to, and after the intervention, both EXP and CON groups performed a battery of football-specific physical tests. Changes in performance scores within each group were compared using independent t-tests (p ≤ 0.05). Feedback was also gathered on the young players’ perceptions of “The 11”. No injuries occurred during the study in either group. Compliance to the intervention was 72%. Measures of leg power (3 step jump and counter-movement jump) increased significantly (3.4 and 6.0% respectively, p < 0.05). Speed over 20 m improved by 2% (p < 0.05). Most players considered “The 11 ”beneficial but not enjoyable in the prescribed format. Given the observed improvements in the physical abilities and the perceived benefits of “The 11”, it would appear that a modified version of the programme is appropriate and should be included in the training of young football players, for both physical development and potential injury prevention purposes, as well as to promote fair play. To further engage young football players in such a programme, some modification to “The 11 ”should be considered. Key pointsChildren who participate in recreational and competitive sports, especially football, are susceptible to injury.There is a need for the design and assessment of injury prevention programmes for children

  6. Foot and Ankle Injuries in American Football.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Andrew R; Anderson, Robert B

    Physicians need to be aware of a variety of foot and ankle injuries that commonly occur in American football, including turf toe, Jones fractures, Lisfranc injuries, syndesmotic and deltoid disruption, and Achilles ruptures. These injuries are often complex and require early individual tailoring of treatment and rehabilitation protocols. Successful management and return to play requires early diagnosis, a thorough work-up, and prompt surgical intervention when warranted with meticulous attention to restoration of normal foot and ankle anatomy. Physicians should have a high suspicion for subtle injuries and variants that can occur via both contact and noncontact mechanisms.

  7. Lesotho's footballers join the fight against AIDS.

    PubMed

    1995-12-01

    Under Lesotho's traditional HIV/AIDS program, church organizations did outreach work with high risk groups and medical personnel were trained in the care of AIDS patients. Then in 1994 an innovative strategy was introduced: the Footballers Against AIDS campaign. CARE Lesotho enlisted footballers to speak to youth, fans, and the general community about AIDS. An educational football theme comic has also been developed. League matches are designated as HIV/AIDS awareness matches and the players use the opportunity to reach a large audience with information, education, and communication materials. The players have significantly changed their sexual behavior as a result of participating in the program. The first reported case of AIDS in Lesotho occurred in 1986. In June 1993 there were 294 reported cases and by May 1995 there were 580 reported cases. Recent HIV sentinel surveys show that teenage pregnancy is increasing at dramatic rates from 6.9% of antenatal clinic attenders in 1992 to 20.1% in 1993 and that many of the young girls have HIV. Among clinic patients under 24 years of age who were part of the survey, 12% were HIV positive. This age group constituted 58.2% of all HIV-positive people reported in the survey. Because of Lesotho's proximity to South Africa's gold, diamond, and coal mines, Lesotho's work force is very mobile. Between 60% and 70% of men work in the mines most of the year, which is another factor that facilitates the spread of HIV. The National AIDS Prevention and Control Program has recently initiated a peer education program working with secondary school youth for the prevention and control of sexually transmitted diseases, especially HIV/AIDS. CARE will soon begin expanding its sports program. Athletes from many other sports will work with secondary school youth. In addition, educational videos will be produced in the local language. Football-health camps and interschool sporting competitions for secondary school youth will be organized by HIV

  8. How the Iranian Football Coaches and Players Know About Doping?

    PubMed Central

    Seif Barghi, Tohid; Halabchi, Farzin; Dvorak, Jiri; Hosseinnejad, Heydar

    2015-01-01

    Background: Nowadays, doping is an intricate dilemma. Football is the nationally popular sport in Iran. On the other hand, doping is a serious health hazard sport faces today. Studies dealing with athletes’ knowledge, attitudes and behavior concerning doping in football are scarce. Objectives: Therefore, we aimed to investigate the knowledge and attitudes toward doping among the football coaches and players. Patients and Methods: In a cross sectional study, 375 participants (239 football players and 136 coaches) were studied. A specially made questionnaire was applied. In this study, football teams of different provinces of the country were selected by randomized clustered sampling and questionnaires were distributed among coaches and players. Results: Knowledge of football coaches and players in three categories of doping definitions, recognition of prohibited drugs and side effects of anabolic steroids was poor or moderate in 45.3%, 88.5% and 96.5%, respectively. Conclusions: Football players and coaches have poor knowledge about doping in Iran. Moreover, they believe in some inappropriate myths without any scientific or rational basis.It seems necessary to design a comprehensive educational program for all of the athletes and coaches in Iran. PMID:26448840

  9. Nutrition and Gaelic football: review, recommendations, and future considerations.

    PubMed

    Beasley, Kevin J

    2015-02-01

    Gaelic football is the second most popular team sport in Ireland in terms of participation. However, very little research exists on the nutritional considerations for elite male Gaelic footballers. Gaelic football is an intermittent type field game played by two teams of fifteen players. Although amateurs, elite players may train and compete 4-5 times per week and may play for several teams. Research suggests that elite footballers are similar anthropometrically and in fitness to professional soccer players. Work-rate analysis shows that footballers experience longer durations of high-intensity (HI) activity (5-7s) and shorter rest durations than soccer players. Recent data suggests that half-forward/backs perform a greater amount of HI work during games than players in other positions. Fatigue is apparent between the first and second halves and the first and fourth quarters. The limited amount of nutritional studies conducted implies that footballers may be deficient in energy intake and may be at the lower end of recommended carbohydrate intakes to support training. A wide variety of sweat rates have been measured during training, demonstrating the importance of individual hydration strategies. Ergogenic aids such as creatine and caffeine may prove beneficial to performance, although data are extrapolated from other sports. Due to the lack of research in Gaelic football, further population specific studies are required. Future areas of research on the impact of nutrition on Gaelic football performance are examined. In particular, the creation of a test protocol mimicking the activity patterns and intensity of a Gaelic football game is warranted.

  10. Management of concussion in the professional football player.

    PubMed

    Pieroth, Elizabeth M; Hanks, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    There is no other sport that has come under greater scrutiny surrounding the incidence and treatment of concussion than football, and there is no other professional sports league that has experienced more intense focus of its handling of concussions than the National Football League (NFL). The NFL has received significant criticism of their management of concussion in players from both the popular press and the medical community. However, those working with active NFL players have changed their assessment and treatment of these injuries as the knowledge of concussions has evolved over time. We review the current approach to the management of concussions in the professional football player.

  11. Epidemiology of neurodegeneration in American-style professional football players

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to review the history of head injuries in relation to American-style football play, summarize recent research that has linked football head injuries to neurodegeneration, and provide a discussion of the next steps for refining the examination of neurodegeneration in football players. For most of the history of football, the focus of media reports and scientific studies on football-related head injuries was on the acute or short-term effects of serious, traumatic head injuries. Beginning about 10 years ago, a growing concern developed among neurologists and researchers about the long-term effects that playing professional football has on the neurologic health of the players. Autopsy-based studies identified a pathologically distinct neurodegenerative disorder, chronic traumatic encephalopathy, among athletes who were known to have experienced concussive and subconcussive blows to the head during their playing careers. Football players have been well represented in these autopsy findings. A mortality study of a large cohort of retired professional football players found a significantly increased risk of death from neurodegeneration. Further analysis found that non-line players were at higher risk than line players, possibly because of an increased risk of concussion. Although the results of the studies reviewed do not establish a cause effect relationship between football-related head injury and neurodegenerative disorders, a growing body of research supports the hypothesis that professional football players are at an increased risk of neurodegeneration. Significant progress has been made in the last few years on detecting and defining the pathology of neurodegenerative diseases. However, less progress has been made on other factors related to the progression of those diseases in football players. This review identifies three areas for further research: (a) quantification of exposure - a consensus is needed on the use of clinically

  12. Recreational water–related illness

    PubMed Central

    Sanborn, Margaret; Takaro, Tim

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Objective To review the risk factors, management, and prevention of recreational water–related illness in family practice. Sources of information Original and review articles from January 1998 to February 2012 were identified using PubMed and the search terms water-related illness, recreational water illness, and swimmer illness. Main message There is a 3% to 8% risk of acute gastrointestinal illness (AGI) after swimming. The high-risk groups for AGI are children younger than 5 years, especially if they have not been vaccinated for rotavirus, and elderly and immunocompromised patients. Children are at higher risk because they swallow more water when swimming, stay in the water longer, and play in the shallow water and sand, which are more contaminated. Participants in sports with a lot of water contact like triathlon and kite surfing are also at high risk, and even activities involving partial water contact like boating and fishing carry a 40% to 50% increase in risk of AGI compared with nonwater recreational activities. Stool cultures should be done when a recreational water illness is suspected, and the clinical dehydration scale is a useful clinical tool for assessing the treatment needs of affected children. Conclusion Recreational water illness is the main attributable cause of AGI during swimming season. Recognition that swimming is a substantial source of illness can help prevent recurrent and secondary cases. Rotavirus vaccine is highly recommended for children who will swim frequently. PMID:23673583

  13. The influence of periodized resistance training on recreationally active males with chronic nonspecific low back pain.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Joel K; Shepherd, Tyrell R; Kell, Robert T

    2011-01-01

    The most common musculoskeletal health issue is chronic nonspecific low back pain (CLBP). CLBP increases pain and disability, which reduces quality of life (QoL). Generally, pain, disability, and QoL are improved with a moderate volume and intensity of physical activity. Recently, periodized resistance training (PRT) was shown to be effective at improving CLBP in sedentary young, middle-age, and older adults. The purpose of this study was to determine if PRT would increase strength, reduce pain and disability, and improve QoL in recreationally active, moderately trained middle- and older-age males. Forty-five male subjects were divided according to age into 1 of 3 groups: (a) middle-age exercise (ME), (b) old-age exercise (OE), or (c) control (C). All subjects suffered from CLBP and were considered to be moderately trained, participating in recreational ice hockey for 60 minutes, 2 times per wk(-1) for ∼5 months/year along with other recreational activities. The study ran for 16 weeks (3-week familiarization and 13 weeks of testing and PRT) with 5 repetition maximum testing at baseline and weeks 8 and 12. The PRT program systematically and progressively overloaded all major muscle groups (whole-body workout). The results indicate that middle- and old-age recreationally active males with CLBP respond similarly in magnitude to PRT, with improvements in all outcome measures (strength, pain, disability, QoL) across all time points of the study. Clinical significance (≥ 25%) in outcome measures was reached on most variables for the ME and OE groups. The results suggest that PRT may be effectively applied as rehabilitation for moderately trained recreational athletes with CLBP.

  14. Severe Brachial Plexus Injuries in American Football.

    PubMed

    Daly, Charles A; Payne, S Houston; Seiler, John G

    2016-11-01

    This article reports a series of severe permanent brachial plexus injuries in American football players. The authors describe the mechanisms of injury and outcomes from a more contemporary treatment approach in the form of nerve transfer tailored to the specific injuries sustained. Three cases of nerve transfer for brachial plexus injury in American football players are discussed in detail. Two of these patients regained functional use of the extremity, but 1 patient with a particularly severe injury did not regain significant function. Brachial plexus injuries are found along a spectrum of brachial plexus stretch or contusion that includes the injuries known as "stingers." Early identification of these severe brachial plexus injuries allows for optimal outcomes with timely treatment. Diagnosis of the place of a given injury along this spectrum is difficult and requires a combination of imaging studies, nerve conduction studies, and close monitoring of physical examination findings over time. Although certain patients may be at higher risk for stingers, there is no evidence to suggest that this correlates with a higher risk of severe brachial plexus injury. Unfortunately, no equipment or strengthening program has been shown to provide a protective effect against these severe injuries. Patients with more severe injuries likely have less likelihood of functional recovery. In these patients, nerve transfer for brachial plexus injury offers the best possibility of meaningful recovery without significant morbidity. [ Orthopedics. 2016; 39(6):e1188-e1192.].

  15. Site recycling: From Brownfield to football field

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, C.; Haas, W.L.

    1995-07-01

    The Carolina Panther`s new home, Carolinas Stadium, will be impressive. It will include a 75,000-seat stadium, about 2,000 parking spaces, and a practice facility equipped with three full-sized football fields, all located on 30 acres bordering the central business district of Charlotte, NC. Fans of the NFL expansion team may never know that, until recently, 13 of those 30 acres were a former state Superfund site contaminated by a commercial scrapyard that had operated from the early 1930s to 1983. The salvage of nonferrous metals from lead-acid batteries, copper from transformers and other electrical equipment, and ferrous metal scrap from junk automobiles at the Smith Metal and Iron (SMI) site had left a complex contamination legacy. The soil contained lead, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), lesser amounts of semivolatiles (polyaromatic hydrocarbons, or PAHs), and volatile organic compounds and petroleum hydrocarbons. The site had remained dormant, like many former industrial sites that have come be called {open_quotes}brownfields,{close_quotes} for nearly a decade when in 1993, Charlotte was selected as the future home of the Carolina Panthers, a National Football League expansion team. The city was able to attract the team in part by offering to redevelop the site, a prime location adjacent to the downtown area. An eight-month-long site remediation effort by HDR Engineering Inc. was completed March 31, on schedule for a June 1996 unveiling of the team`s new facility.

  16. Efficacy and tolerance of an injectable medical device containing stable hybrid cooperative complexes of high- and low-molecular-weight hyaluronic acid: a monocentric 16 weeks open-label evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Sparavigna, Adele; Tenconi, Beatrice

    2016-01-01

    Background An injectable medical device containing stable hybrid cooperative complexes of high- and low-molecular-weight hyaluronic acid (HA) has been developed with characteristics suited for a global improvement of facial esthetics. Objective To evaluate the HA product performance in improving some key facial esthetic features. The study employed clinical scales, subjective evaluations, and facial skin objective measurements. Methods A single Italian site treated 64 female subjects aged 38–60 years, with injections at five predetermined points, on each side of the face, with a 4-week time lapse between the first and the second product administration. Subjects were evaluated after 4, 8, 12, and 16 weeks, using validated clinical scales, subjective evaluation, and objective quantitative outcome measures. Assessment of esthetic results included photographic documentation. Results Both the clinical and subjective assessments, and the majority of objective instrumental parameters indicated an improvement throughout the study and were already significant at week 4 or 8 and were still significant at week 16 (3 months after the second treatment). Minor and temporary local skin reactions were observed in 23% of subjects at the site of the injections, and the global judgment on tolerability was good or excellent, both in the investigators’ opinion and volunteers’ self-evaluation. Conclusion Both subjective and objective improvement of the facial parameters was consistent with the bio-remodeling purpose, and persistent and still statistically significant at the end of the study. The tolerability and safety profile of the product were judged good or excellent both by investigators and volunteers. This study supports the claim for bio-remodeling of these stable hybrid cooperative complexes of low- and high-molecular-weight HA. PMID:27713647

  17. Therapeutic Recreation: Recreation with Purpose for Exceptional Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fine, Aubrey H.

    The paper examines the role of therapeutic recreation with disabled children. The underlying philosophy of the field is interpreted and its development from beginnings in World War II is reviewed. Three specific levels of services within a comprehensive model are delineated: therapy (to improve functional behavior through assessment, planning,…

  18. The association football medical research programme: an audit of injuries in professional football

    PubMed Central

    Hawkins, R; Hulse, M; Wilkinson, C; Hodson, A; Gibson, M

    2001-01-01

    Objectives—To undertake a prospective epidemiological study of the injuries sustained in English professional football over two competitive seasons. Methods—Player injuries were annotated by club medical staff at 91 professional football clubs. A specific injury audit questionnaire was used together with a weekly form that documented each club's current injury status. Results—A total of 6030 injuries were reported over the two seasons with an average of 1.3 injuries per player per season. The mean (SD) number of days absent for each injury was 24.2 (40.2), with 78% of the injuries leading to a minimum of one competitive match being missed. The injury incidence varied throughout the season, with training injuries peaking during July (p<0.05) and match injuries peaking during August (p<0.05). Competition injuries represented 63% of those reported, significantly (p<0.01) more of these injuries occurring towards the end of both halves. Strains (37%) and sprains (19%) were the major injury types, the lower extremity being the site of 87% of the injuries reported. Most injury mechanisms were classified as being non-contact (58%). Re-injuries accounted for 7% of all injuries, 66% of these being classified as either a strain or a sprain. The severity of re-injuries was greater than the initial injury (p<0.01). Conclusions—Professional football players are exposed to a high risk of injury and there is a need to investigate ways of reducing this risk. Areas that warrant attention include the training programmes implemented by clubs during various stages of the season, the factors contributing to the pattern of injuries during matches with respect to time, and the rehabilitation protocols employed by clubs. Key Words: football; injuries; prevention PMID:11157461

  19. An Update on Football Deaths and Catastrophic Injuries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mueller, Frederick O.; Blyth, Carl S.

    1986-01-01

    The latest figures (1985) indicate a continued decline in football deaths and catastrophic injuries, which is credited to a ban on spearing and to a helmet standard. Guidelines for prevention of fatalities and injuries are listed. (Author/MT)

  20. How Many Blades of Grass Are on a Football Field?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nugent, Christina M.

    2006-01-01

    This article discusses the use of a problem-based instructional task in an elementary classroom. After estimating the number of blades of grass on a football field, students write letters to explain the results of their research.

  1. Many College Football Players Lack Vitamin D: Study

    MedlinePlus

    ... fullstory_164139.html Many College Football Players Lack Vitamin D: Study Deficiency could put them at risk for muscle injuries ... vitamin D. Supplements are usually prescribed for a vitamin D deficiency, the researchers said. The study was to be ...

  2. Tactical expertise assessment in youth football using representative tasks.

    PubMed

    Serra-Olivares, Jaime; Clemente, Filipe Manuel; González-Víllora, Sixto

    2016-01-01

    Specific football drills improve the development of technical/tactical and physical variables in players. Based on this principle, in recent years it has been possible to observe in daily training a growing volume of small-sided and conditioned games. These games are smaller and modified forms of formal games that augment players' perception of specific tactics. Despite this approach, the assessment of players' knowledge and tactical execution has not been well documented, due mainly to the difficulty in measuring tactical behavior. For that reason, this study aims to provide a narrative review about the tactical assessment of football training by using representative tasks to measure the tactical expertise of youth football players during small-sided and conditioned games. This study gives an overview of the ecological approach to training and the principles used for representative task design, providing relevant contribution and direction for future research into the assessment of tactical expertise in youth football.

  3. "Deflategate": Time, Temperature, and Moisture Effects on Football Pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blumenthal, Jack; Beljak, Lauren; Macatangay, Dahlia-Marie; Helmuth-Malone, Lilly; McWilliams, Catharina; Raptis, Sofia

    2016-09-01

    In a recent paper in TPT, DiLisi and Rarick used the National Football League "Deflategate" controversy to introduce to physics students the physics of a bouncing ball. In this paper, we measure and analyze the environmental effects of time, ambient temperature, and moisture on the internal pressure of an NFL football. We focus on the rate of pressure recovery that occurs when a cold football (either wet or dry) is returned to the warm locker room environment where the pressure was initially measured. Both studies stem from the so-called NFL "Deflategate" controversy in which footballs that initially met a minimum internal pressure requirement were rechecked at halftime of the AFC Championship game, and in some cases were reported to have fallen below the minimum pressure requirement. The question is whether the pressure changes were due to environmental exposure or rather to some air being released from the balls, or both.

  4. EPA Applauds College Football Playoff National ChampionshipGreen Endeavors

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    DALLAS - (Jan. 12, 2015) The first College Football Playoff (CFP) National Championship is leading the way in environmental stewardship by incorporating sustainability as a key part of its operations. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency is reco

  5. Linear and angular head acceleration measurements in collegiate football.

    PubMed

    Rowson, Steven; Brolinson, Gunnar; Goforth, Mike; Dietter, Dave; Duma, Stefan

    2009-06-01

    Each year, between 1.6x10(6) and 3.8x10(6) concussions are sustained by athletes playing sports, with football having the highest incidence. The high number of concussions in football provides a unique opportunity to collect biomechanical data to characterize mild traumatic brain injury. Human head acceleration data for a range of impact severities were collected by instrumenting the helmets of collegiate football players with accelerometers. The helmets of ten Virginia Tech football players were instrumented with measurement devices for every game and practice for the 2007 football season. The measurement devices recorded linear and angular accelerations about each of the three axes of the head. Data for each impact were downloaded wirelessly to a sideline data collection system shortly after each impact occurred. Data were collected for 1712 impacts, creating a large and unbiased data set. While a majority of the impacts were of relatively low severity (<30 g and <2000 rad/s2), 172 impacts were greater than 40 g and 143 impacts were greater than 3000 rad/s2. No instrumented player sustained a clinically diagnosed concussion during the 2007 season. A large and unbiased data set was compiled by instrumenting the helmets of collegiate football players. Football provides a unique opportunity to collect head acceleration data of varying severity from human volunteers. The addition of concurrent concussive data may advance the understanding of the mechanics of mild traumatic brain injury. With an increased understanding of the biomechanics of head impacts in collegiate football and human tolerance to head acceleration, better equipment can be designed to prevent head injuries.

  6. Hidden power law patterns in the top European football leagues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Da Silva, Sergio; Matsushita, Raul; Silveira, Eliza

    2013-11-01

    Because sports are stylized combat, sports may follow power laws similar to those found for wars, individual clashes, and acts of terrorism. We show this fact for football (soccer) by adjusting power laws that show a close relationship between rank and points won by the clubs participating in the latest seasons of the top fifteen European football leagues. In addition, we use Shannon entropy for gauging league competitive balance. As a result, we are able to rank the leagues according to competitiveness.

  7. Corporate Benefits of Employee Recreation Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finney, Craig

    1984-01-01

    Employee recreation programs have been shown to reduce absenteeism, increase performance and productivity, reduce stress levels, and increase job satisfaction. Studies that present positive results of employee recreation are discussed. (DF)

  8. Recreation Services for Students with Handicapping Conditions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nesbitt, John A.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Several collegiate recreational programs reflect the rights that handicapped students have for recreational activities suitable for their needs and abilities. Substantial efforts are being made to provide these disabled students with full access and equal opportunity on the campus. (CJ)

  9. 76 FR 55079 - Recreational Vessel Accident Reporting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-06

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard Recreational Vessel Accident Reporting AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of... received recommendations from the National Boating Safety Advisory Council (NBSAC) regarding potential ways to improve the recreational boating accident reporting process. NBSAC recommended that the...

  10. Connecting Collegiate Recreation and Athletics to Leadership.

    PubMed

    McFadden, Cara W; Stenta, Donald A

    2015-01-01

    Collegiate recreation and intercollegiate athletics have an impact on individual, group, and community development of students who are participants, employees, and athletes and learn leadership within these environments. This chapter explores and applies leadership frameworks in recreation and athletics.

  11. Walking football as sustainable exercise for older adults - A pilot investigation.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Peter; Dias, Irundika; Holland, Carol; Campbell, Niyah; Nagar, Iaysha; Connolly, Luke; Krustrup, Peter; Hubball, Harry

    2017-06-01

    The health benefits of playing football and the importance of exercise and social contact for healthy ageing are well established, but few older adults in the UK take enough exercise. Football is popular, flexible in format and draws players into engrossing, effortful and social exercise, but the physical demands of play at full speed may make it unsustainable for some older adults. Restricted to walking pace, will play still be engaging? Will health benefits be retained? Will physical demands remain manageable? This pilot study aims to investigate: (1) the experience of older adults playing walking football every week, is it sustainable and rewarding, (2) the intensity and locomotor pattern of walking football, (3) the scale and nature of walking football health benefits and (4) possible cognitive benefits of playing walking football through measures of processing speed, selective and divided attention and updating and inhibition components of executive function.
 'Walking football' and 'waiting list' groups were compared before and after 12 weeks of one-hour per week football. Walking football was found to be engaging, sustainable for older adults and moderately intensive; however, selective health and cognitive benefits were not found from this brief intervention. Highlights Walking football is a lower impact but authentic form of football that enables older players to extend their active participation. Walking football is enjoyable and moderately demanding and may be a sustainable form of exercise for older adults. Health and cognitive benefits to playing walking football were not found.

  12. Motor and cognitive growth following a Football Training Program

    PubMed Central

    Alesi, Marianna; Bianco, Antonino; Padulo, Johnny; Luppina, Giorgio; Petrucci, Marco; Paoli, Antonio; Palma, Antonio; Pepi, Annamaria

    2015-01-01

    Motor and cognitive growth in children may be influenced by football practice. Therefore the aim of this study was to assess whether a Football Training Program taken over 6 months would improve motor and cognitive performances in children. Motor skills concerned coordinative skills, running, and explosive legs strength. Cognitive abilities involved visual discrimination times and visual selective attention times. Forty-six children with chronological age of ∼9.10 years, were divided into two groups: Group 1 (n = 24) attended a Football Exercise Program and Group 2 (n = 22) was composed of sedentary children. Their abilities were measured by a battery of tests including motor and cognitive tasks. Football Exercise Program resulted in improved running, coordination, and explosive leg strength performances as well as shorter visual discrimination times in children regularly attending football courses compared with their sedentary peers. On the whole these results support the thesis that the improvement of motor and cognitive abilities is related not only to general physical activity but also to specific ability related to the ball. Football Exercise Programs is assumed to be a “natural and enjoyable tool” to enhance cognitive resources as well as promoting and encouraging the participation in sport activities from early development. PMID:26579014

  13. Cervical spine injuries in American football.

    PubMed

    Rihn, Jeffrey A; Anderson, David T; Lamb, Kathleen; Deluca, Peter F; Bata, Ahmed; Marchetto, Paul A; Neves, Nuno; Vaccaro, Alexander R

    2009-01-01

    American football is a high-energy contact sport that places players at risk for cervical spine injuries with potential neurological deficits. Advances in tackling and blocking techniques, rules of the game and medical care of the athlete have been made throughout the past few decades to minimize the risk of cervical injury and improve the management of injuries that do occur. Nonetheless, cervical spine injuries remain a serious concern in the game of American football. Injuries have a wide spectrum of severity. The relatively common 'stinger' is a neuropraxia of a cervical nerve root(s) or brachial plexus and represents a reversible peripheral nerve injury. Less common and more serious an injury, cervical cord neuropraxia is the clinical manifestation of neuropraxia of the cervical spinal cord due to hyperextension, hyperflexion or axial loading. Recent data on American football suggest that approximately 0.2 per 100,000 participants at the high school level and 2 per 100,000 participants at the collegiate level are diagnosed with cervical cord neuropraxia. Characterized by temporary pain, paraesthesias and/or motor weakness in more than one extremity, there is a rapid and complete resolution of symptoms and a normal physical examination within 10 minutes to 48 hours after the initial injury. Stenosis of the spinal canal, whether congenital or acquired, is thought to predispose the athlete to cervical cord neuropraxia. Although quite rare, catastrophic neurological injury is a devastating entity referring to permanent neurological injury or death. The mechanism is most often a forced hyperflexion injury, as occurs when 'spear tackling'. The mean incidence of catastrophic neurological injury over the past 30 years has been approximately 0.5 per 100,000 participants at high school level and 1.5 per 100,000 at the collegiate level. This incidence has decreased significantly when compared with the incidence in the early 1970s. This decrease in the incidence of

  14. Recreational Games for Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hume, Donald

    2005-01-01

    Recreational games can be incorporated into physical education programs to encourage play and activity among students during their leisure time. Students can play their own games during recess, before or after school, during intramural programs, or in their neighborhood with family and friends. This article describes five such games namely:…

  15. Aquatic Recreation for the Blind.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cordellos, Harry C.

    The sixth in a series of booklets on physical education and recreation for the handicapped describes aquatic activities for blind persons. Written by a partially sighted athlete, the document discusses swimming pool characteristics and special pools for the visually impaired. Qualities of swimming instructors are reviewed, and suggestions for…

  16. Therapeutic Recreation Education: 1999 Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Stephen C.; Ashton-Shaeffer, Candace; Autry, Cari E.

    2000-01-01

    Examines the current status of therapeutic recreation education, documenting changes have that occurred over 30 years. Using data from surveys conducted every 10 years beginning in 1969, the study provides information on trends in programs, faculty, students, curriculum accreditation, and professional certification in programs in the United States…

  17. Therapeutic Recreation Majors' Work Preference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barber, Elizabeth H.; Magafas, Anita

    1992-01-01

    Investigates the client age/disability work preference of 76 therapeutic recreation undergraduate students at 3 universities. Results indicate a preference to work with younger clients, disability groups, and physically impaired clients. Chronically ill clients were last in work preference. Students need exposure to the benefits of working with…

  18. Parks, Recreation and Public Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ho, Ching-Hua; Payne, Laura; Orsega-Smith, Elizabeth; Godbey, Geoffrey

    2003-01-01

    Reviews what current research says about the holistic health benefits of park and recreation services, focusing on: health benefits according to park users; physical activities in parks; stress reduction benefits of park use; social support, self-determination, and stress reduction; observing nature in parks and associated benefits; and the…

  19. Recreational Reading: 20 Years Later.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Block, Cathy Collins; Mangieri, John N.

    2002-01-01

    Determines elementary teachers' knowledge of: current children's literature; children's books in six literary genres; and activities to promote students' recreational reading. Replicates a 1981 study to determine the level of knowledge possessed by today's teachers concerning children's literature and methods of increasing students' reading for…

  20. Water Recreation and Illness Severity

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract Background: The health endpoint of prior studies of water recreation has been the occurrence gastrointestinal (GI) of illness. The use of this dichotomous health outcome fails to take into account the range of symptom severity among those with GI illness, as well as thos...

  1. Haptic Recreation of Elbow Spasticity

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jonghyun; Damiano, Diane L.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to develop a haptic device capable of presenting standardized recreation of elbow spasticity. Using the haptic device, clinicians will be able to repeatedly practice the assessment of spasticity without requiring patient involvement, and these practice opportunities will help improve accuracy and reliability of the assessment itself. Haptic elbow spasticity simulator (HESS) was designed and prototyped according to mechanical requirements to recreate the feel of elbow spasticity. Based on the data collected from subjects with elbow spasticity, a mathematical model representing elbow spasticity is proposed. As an attempt to differentiate the feel of each score in Modified Ashworth Scale (MAS), parameters of the model were obtained respectively for three different MAS scores 1, 1+, and 2. The implemented haptic recreation was evaluated by experienced clinicians who were asked to give MAS scores by manipulating the haptic device. The clinicians who participated in the study were blinded to each other’s scores and to the given models. They distinguished the three models and the MAS scores given to the recreated models matched 100% with the original MAS scores from the patients. PMID:22275660

  2. Heel Pain in Recreational Runners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bazzoli, Allan S.; Pollina, Frank S.

    1989-01-01

    Provides physicians with the signs, symptoms, and management of heel/sole pain in recreational runners (usually due to plantar fasciitis, Achilles tendinitis, and calcaneal stress fractures). Remedies involve palliative treatment of symptoms, correction of underlying biomechanical problems, and flexibility exercises. (SM)

  3. 43 CFR 17.270 - Recreation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... operation of programs or activities involving recreation. (a) Accessibility in existing recreation facilities. In the case of existing recreation facilities, accessibility of programs or activities shall mean accessibility of programs or activities when viewed in their entirety as provided at § 17.217. When it is...

  4. Recreation for Autistic and Emotionally Disturbed Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dewey, Margaret A.

    Over 200 questionnaire responses from parents of autistic children describing recreational activities that appealed to their children are reported. Recreation is defined as a means of skill development, an outlet for emotions, and an inspiration for living. Parents are encouraged to stimulate recreational interests by taking children along on…

  5. Recreation Vehicle Mechanic. Occupational Analyses Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dean, Ann; Embree, Rick

    This analysis covers tasks performed by a recreation vehicle mechanic, an occupational title some provinces and territories of Canada have also identified as recreation vehicle technician and recreation vehicle service technician. A guide to analysis discusses development, structure, and validation method; scope of the occupation; trends; and…

  6. 24 CFR 1710.214 - Recreational facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Recreational facilities. 1710.214... § 1710.214 Recreational facilities. (a) Submit a synopsis of the proposed plans and estimated cost of any proposed or partially constructed recreational facility disclosed in § 1710.114. This item should...

  7. 43 CFR 17.270 - Recreation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Recreation. 17.270 Section 17.270 Public... OF THE DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Nondiscrimination on the Basis of Handicap § 17.270 Recreation... operation of programs or activities involving recreation. (a) Accessibility in existing...

  8. 36 CFR 261.17 - Recreation fees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Recreation fees. 261.17 Section 261.17 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PROHIBITIONS General Prohibitions § 261.17 Recreation fees. Failure to pay any recreation fee is...

  9. 36 CFR 294.1 - Recreation areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Recreation areas. 294.1... Miscellaneous Provisions § 294.1 Recreation areas. Suitable areas of national forest land, other than wilderness or wild areas, which should be managed principally for recreation use may be given...

  10. 36 CFR 261.17 - Recreation fees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Recreation fees. 261.17 Section 261.17 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PROHIBITIONS General Prohibitions § 261.17 Recreation fees. Failure to pay any recreation fee is...

  11. 28 CFR 551.115 - Recreation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Recreation. 551.115 Section 551.115... Pretrial Inmates § 551.115 Recreation. (a) When consistent with institution security and good order... opportunities: (1) One hour daily of outside recreation, weather permitting; or (2) Two hours daily of...

  12. 28 CFR 551.115 - Recreation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Recreation. 551.115 Section 551.115... Pretrial Inmates § 551.115 Recreation. (a) When consistent with institution security and good order... opportunities: (1) One hour daily of outside recreation, weather permitting; or (2) Two hours daily of...

  13. 43 CFR 17.270 - Recreation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Recreation. 17.270 Section 17.270 Public... OF THE DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Nondiscrimination on the Basis of Handicap § 17.270 Recreation... operation of programs or activities involving recreation. (a) Accessibility in existing...

  14. Keep Mental Health by Art Recreation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Gongbin

    A distinct characteristic of the technology age is that people have more leisure time while the ways of recreation are getting more material and unified. Each step-up of technology has been fully used to produce more sensory attractive and lower unit-cost recreation products. In contrast, art recreation always means being highly devoted, creative,…

  15. 36 CFR 12.11 - Recreational activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Recreational activities. 12.11 Section 12.11 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATIONAL CEMETERY REGULATIONS § 12.11 Recreational activities. Engaging in a recreational...

  16. [Recreation for Youth with Deaf Blindness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carr, Theresa, Ed.

    1992-01-01

    This newsletter special issue focuses on recreational programming for people with deaf blindness. The following individual articles are presented: "Strategies To Promote Community Integrated Recreation: Guidelines for Leisure Coaches" by Joann Enos (which lists seven such strategies); "Assessing Recreation and Leisure…

  17. Large Indoor Sports and Recreation Facilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seidler, Todd

    This paper presents an overview and analysis of field houses, stadiums, arenas, and campus recreation centers. All are large indoor sports or recreation facilities. In general, stadiums and arenas are spectator facilities while field houses and campus recreation centers are primarily designed for activity. A college field house is a structure that…

  18. The major traumas in youth football.

    PubMed

    Volpi, P; Pozzoni, R; Galli, M

    2003-11-01

    For 4 years we followed a group of football players in the youth division of a professional club, ranging in age from 9 to 19 years, and analyzed the major injuries, i.e., those which required them to be sidelined for at least 4 weeks. We observed 23 sprains, 16 fractures, 16 cases of osteochondrosis, 7 muscle lesions, 6 cases of groin pain (athletic pubalgia), and 4 tendonopathies. The most frequent sites were the knee (n=30) and the ankle (n=11); the trauma factor was predominant (65.2%) with respect to overuse; noncontact traumas were more numerous (63.8%) than those resulting from contrast. Of a total 72 cases 8 regarded goalkeepers, and the remaining 64 cases were distributed among the other positions. As regards the age categories we detected a prevalence of osteochondrosis, traumatic detachments, and some fractures in the younger players, while in the older athletes we observed more sprains, muscle lesions, and tendonopathies.

  19. Cervical spine injuries in football players.

    PubMed

    Thomas, B E; McCullen, G M; Yuan, H A

    1999-01-01

    Cervical spine injuries have been estimated to occur in 10% to 15% of football players, most commonly in linemen, defensive ends, and linebackers. The overwhelming majority of such injuries are self-limited, and full recovery can be expected. However, the presenting symptoms of serious cervical spine injuries may closely resemble those of minor injuries. The orthopaedic surgeon frequently must make a judgment, on the field or later in the office, about the advisability of returning the athlete to the game. These decisions can have an enormous impact on the player and his family. Most severe cervical spine injuries share the common mechanism of application of an axial load to the straightened spine. Avoiding techniques that employ head-down "spear" tackling and wearing properly fitted equipment markedly reduce the risk of serious injury.

  20. Brain Harm May Last Long After College Football Players' Final Game

    MedlinePlus

    ... html Brain Harm May Last Long After College Football Players' Final Game Small study found evidence of ... tissue thinning is still evident in former college football players several years after they stop playing, a ...

  1. Biomechanical investigation of head impacts in football

    PubMed Central

    Withnall, C; Shewchenko, N; Gittens, R; Dvorak, J

    2005-01-01

    Objectives: This study sought to measure the head accelerations induced from upper extremity to head and head to head impact during the game of football and relate this to the risk of mild traumatic brain injury using the Head Impact Power (HIP) index. Furthermore, measurement of upper neck forces and torques will indicate the potential for serious neck injury. More stringent rules or punitive sanctions may be warranted for intentional impact by the upper extremity or head during game play. Methods: Game video of 62 cases of head impact (38% caused by the upper extremity and 30% by the head of the opposing player) was provided by F-MARC. Video analysis revealed the typical impact configurations and representative impact speeds. Upper extremity impacts of elbow strike and lateral hand strike were re-enacted in the laboratory by five volunteer football players striking an instrumented Hybrid III pedestrian model crash test manikin. Head to head impacts were re-enacted using two instrumented test manikins. Results: Elbow to head impacts (1.7–4.6 m/s) and lateral hand strikes (5.2–9.3 m/s) resulted in low risk of concussion (<5%) and severe neck injury (<5%). Head to head impacts (1.5–3.0 m/s) resulted in high concussion risk (up to 67%) but low risk of severe neck injury (<5%). Conclusion: The laboratory simulations suggest little risk of concussion based on head accelerations and maximum HIP. There is no biomechanical justification for harsher penalties in this regard. However, deliberate use of the head to impact another player's head poses a high risk of concussion, and justifies a harsher position by regulatory bodies. In either case the risk of serious neck injury is very low. PMID:16046356

  2. 50 CFR 660.360 - Recreational fishery-management measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... recreational fishing vessels to take and retain, possess, or land groundfish taken with recreational gear... land groundfish taken with recreational gear within the South Coast Recreational YRCA. A vessel fishing... recreational fishing vessels to take and retain, possess, or land groundfish taken with recreational...

  3. 50 CFR 660.360 - Recreational fishery-management measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... recreational fishing vessels to take and retain, possess, or land groundfish taken with recreational gear... land groundfish taken with recreational gear within the South Coast Recreational YRCA. A vessel fishing... recreational fishing vessels to take and retain, possess, or land groundfish taken with recreational...

  4. A Review of Self-Esteem of the Hearing Impaired Football Players

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Açak, Mahmut; Kaya, Oktay

    2016-01-01

    The current study aimed at reviewing the level of self-esteem of the hearing impaired football players. The sample of the study was composed of 95 football players who played in the 1st hearing impaired football league. To gather the study-data; a Personal Information Form and Self-esteem Scale were used. The data obtained were analyzed through…

  5. Reclassification to the NCAA Division I Football Bowl Subdivision: A Case Study at Western Kentucky University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Upright, Paula A.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the reclassification process of Western Kentucky University's football program from the Football Championship Subdivision (FCS) to the Football Bowl Subdivision (FBS), the highest and most visible level of NCAA competition. Three research questions guided the study: (a) Why did Western Kentucky University…

  6. Nephrotoxicity of recreational party drugs.

    PubMed

    Berney-Meyer, Linda; Putt, Tracey; Schollum, John; Walker, Robert

    2012-02-01

    N-benzylpiperazine (BZP) is the active ingredient in recreational 'party' pills with a stimulant, euphoric mechanism of action akin to that of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA or ecstasy). Many people (ab)use BZP-based party pills usually without any significant toxic effects. However, nephrotoxicity secondary to hyperthermia and rhabdomyolysis has been reported. Another serious renal-related side-effect is hyponatraemia with acute cerebral oedema. There is also evidence that these agents may have a specific toxic effect producing acute kidney injury. Thus, acute kidney injury either direct or secondary to the effects of BZP or MDMA need to be considered when any individual presents with symptoms of a recreational party drug overdose.

  7. Therapeutic and recreational methadone cardiotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Lusetti, Monia; Licata, Manuela; Silingardi, Enrico; Reggiani Bonetti, Luca; Palmiere, Cristian

    2016-04-01

    Several classes of drugs have been associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease and occurrence of arrhythmias potentially involved in sudden deaths in chronic users even at therapeutic doses. The study presented herein focuses on pathological changes involving the heart possibly due to methadone use. 60 cases were included in the study in total and were divided into three groups (therapeutic methadone users: 20 cases, recreational methadone users: 20 cases, and sudden death group in subjects who had never taken methadone: 20 cases). Autopsies, histology, biochemistry and toxicology were performed in all cases. Macroscopic and microscopic investigation results in therapeutic methadone users were similar to those observed in sudden, unexpected deaths in non-methadone users. In recreational methadone consumers, macroscopic and microscopic examination of the heart failed to provide results consistent with acute or chronic myocardial or coronary damage, thereby corroborating the hypothesis of death most likely following respiratory depression.

  8. Regional recreation demand and benefits model

    SciTech Connect

    Sutherland, R.J.

    1983-03-01

    This report describes a regional recreation demand and benefits model that is used to estimate recreation demand and value (consumers' surplus) of four activities at each of 195 sites in Washington, Oregon, Idaho, and western Montana. The recreation activities considered are camping, fishing, swimming, and boating. The model is a generalization of the single-site travel-cost method of estimating a recreation demand curve to virtually an unlimited number of sites. The major components of the analysis include the theory of recreation benefits, a travel-cost recreation demand curve, and a gravity model of regional recreation travel flows. Existing recreation benefits are estimated for each site in the region and for each activity. Recreation benefits of improved water quality in degraded rivers and streams in the Pacific Northwest are estimated on a county basis for Washington, Oregon, and Idaho. Although water quality is emphasized, the model has the capability of estimating demand and value for new or improved recreation sites at lakes, streams, or reservoirs.

  9. The globalization of football: a study in the glocalization of the 'serious life'.

    PubMed

    Giulianotti, Richard; Robertson, Roland

    2004-12-01

    Sport, in particular football, constitutes one of the most dynamic, sociologically illuminating domains of globalization. This paper examines the globalization of football with particular reference to Robertson's theorizations of global processes. We examine football's cultural globalization through the concept of 'glocalization', which highlights the interdependence of local and global processes within the game's identities and institutions. We address economic globalization in football by considering the world's leading clubs as 'glocal' transnational corporations. We assess the political globalization of football with reference to the possible enhancement of democracy within the game's international governance. We conclude by affirming the utility of sport in advancing our empirical and theoretical understanding of globalization processes.

  10. Longitudinal changes in linguistic complexity among professional football players.

    PubMed

    Berisha, Visar; Wang, Shuai; LaCross, Amy; Liss, Julie; Garcia-Filion, Pamela

    2017-03-16

    Reductions in spoken language complexity have been associated with the onset of various neurological disorders. The objective of this study is to analyze whether similar trends are found in professional football players who are at risk for chronic traumatic encephalopathy. We compare changes in linguistic complexity (as indexed by the type-to-token ratio and lexical density) measured from the interview transcripts of players in the National Football League (NFL) to those measured from interview transcripts of coaches and/or front-office NFL executives who have never played professional football. A multilevel mixed model analysis reveals that exposure to the high-impact sport (vs no exposure) was associated with an overall decline in language complexity scores over time. This trend persists even after controlling for age as a potential confound. The results set the stage for a prospective study to test the hypothesis that language complexity decline is a harbinger of chronic traumatic encephalopathy.

  11. Stretching and injury prevention in football: current perspectives.

    PubMed

    Stojanovic, Marko D; Ostojic, Sergej M

    2011-04-01

    Stretching exercises are regularly recommended as a part of football-training sessions and in preparation for competition. There is little sound empirical evidence, however, to substantiate the role of stretching exercises and consequently increased flexibility on injury prevention in football. Furthermore, in the last decade or so, fundamental research has shed some light on the biomechanical adaptation of the muscle-tendon unit following different stretching protocols, improving knowledge about the topic and enabling better understanding of the stretching-injury relationship. The purpose of this review is to examine the literature on the role of stretching and/or increased flexibility on injury prevention in football, with presented results analyzed in the context of the up-to-date basic science research evidence.

  12. Glucocorticosteroids in football: use and misuse

    PubMed Central

    Dvorak, J; Feddermann, N; Grimm, K

    2006-01-01

    Background and objectives Glucocorticosteroids are widely used in medicine and have shown unchallenged therapeutic potential in several chronic inflammatory and other diseases. They are also widely used in sports medicine for the treatment of conditions such as asthma and acute injuries. In fact, as banned substances, most requests for therapeutic use exemption concern glucocorticosteroids. Nevertheless, their beneficial effect in certain conditions in sports, where inflammation is only a secondary reaction, remains to be validated. This paper aimed to provide a comprehensive review of the literature covering the therapeutic use of glucocorticosteroids since 1977 in conditions ranging from chronic rheumatic illness to peritendinous or intra‐articular injection in acute injuries. Methods Search of the medical literature published between 1977 and 2006 using PubMed. Articles relevant to the question “When and if at all is the use of glucocorticosteroids justified in football?” were selected and analysed. Results and conclusions The findings clearly point out that, despite the common use of glucocorticosteroids in acute injuries in sports, there is actually limited evidence of the true benefits of such a practice. Physicians must take the possible adverse effects into consideration. In an athlete with clinically verified asthma, inhalational glucocorticosteroids remain first line therapy. Finally, for the purposes of education and prevention of misuse, it should be stressed that a measurable performance enhancing effect of glucocorticoids could not be proved on the basis of the results of the scientific studies to date. PMID:16799104

  13. Does Zoning Winter Recreationists Reduce Recreation Conflict?

    PubMed

    Miller, Aubrey D; Vaske, Jerry J; Squires, John R; Olson, Lucretia E; Roberts, Elizabeth K

    2017-01-01

    Parks and protected area managers use zoning to decrease interpersonal conflict between recreationists. Zoning, or segregation, of recreation-often by non-motorized and motorized activity-is designed to limit physical interaction while providing recreation opportunities to both groups. This article investigated the effectiveness of zoning to reduce recreation conflict in the Vail Pass Winter Recreation Area in Colorado, USA. Despite a zoning management system, established groomed travel routes were used by both non-motorized recreationists (backcountry skiers, snowboarders, snowshoers) and motorized recreationists (snowmobilers). We hypothesized that persistent recreation conflict reported by non-motorized recreationists was the result of recreation occurring in areas of mixed non-motorized and motorized use, mostly along groomed routes. We performed a geospatial analysis of recreation [from Global Positioning System (GPS) points, n = 1,233,449] in the Vail Pass Winter Recreation Area to identify areas of mixed non-motorized and motorized use. We then surveyed non-motorized recreationists (n = 199) to test whether reported conflict is higher for respondents who traveled in areas of mixed-use, compared with respondents traveling outside areas of mixed-use. Results from the geospatial analysis showed that only 0.7 % of the Vail Pass Winter Recreation Area contained recreation from both groups, however that area contained 14.8 % of all non-motorized recreation and 49.1 % of all motorized recreation. Survey analysis results showed higher interpersonal conflict for all five standard conflict variables among non-motorized respondents who traveled in areas of mixed-use, compared with those traveling outside mixed-use areas. Management implications and recommendations for increasing the effectiveness of zoning are provided.

  14. Enhanced bone mass and physical fitness in prepubescent footballers.

    PubMed

    Vicente-Rodriguez, G; Jimenez-Ramirez, J; Ara, I; Serrano-Sanchez, J A; Dorado, C; Calbet, J A L

    2003-11-01

    Not much is known about the osteogenic effects of sport activities before puberty. We tested the hypothesis that football (soccer) participation is associated with enhanced bone mineral content (BMC) and areal density (BMD) in prepubertal boys. One hundred four healthy white boys (9.3 +/- 0.2 years, Tanner stages I-II) participated in this study: 53 footballers and 51 controls. The footballers devoted at least 3 h per week to participation in football, while the controls did not perform in any kind of regular physical activity other than that programmed during the compulsory physical education courses. Bone variables were measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. The maximal leg extension isometric force in the squat position with knees bent at 90 degrees and the peak force, mean power, and height jumped during vertical jumps were assed with a force plate. Additionally, 30-m running speed, 300-m run (anaerobic capacity), and 20-m shuttle-run tests (maximal aerobic power) were also performed. Compared to the controls, the footballers attained better results in the physical fitness test and had lower body mass (-10%, P < 0.05) due to a reduced percentage of body fat (4% less, P < 0.05). The footballers exhibit enhanced trochanteric BMC (+17%, P < 0.001). Likewise, femoral and lumbar spine BMD were also greater in the football players (P football participation is associated with improved physical fitness, reduced fat mass, increased lean

  15. Value of neuropsychological testing after head injuries in football

    PubMed Central

    McCrory, P; Makdissi, M; Davis, G; Collie, A

    2005-01-01

    This paper reviews the pros and cons of the traditional paper and pencil and the newer computerised neuropsychological tests in the management of sports concussion. The differences between diagnosing concussion on the field and neuropsychological assessment at follow up and decision making with regard to return to play are described. The authors also discuss the issues involved in interpreting the results of neuropsychological testing (comparison with population norms versus player's own baseline test results) and potential problems of such testing in football. Finally, suggested recommendations for neuropsychological testing in football are given. PMID:16046357

  16. Fuel used for off-highway recreation

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, P.S.; Trumble, D.; Lu, A.

    1994-07-01

    The Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act of 1991 (ISTEA) established a National Recreational Trails Funding Program and the National Recreational Trails Trust Fund. ISTEA requires that tax revenue generated from the sales of motor fuel used for off-highway recreation by transferred from the Highway Trust Fund to the Trails Trust Fund for recreational trail and facility improvements. In order to apportion the Trails Trust Fund of individual states equitably, the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) asked the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to estimate the amount of motor fuel used for off-highway recreation at the state level by different vehicle types. This report documents this estimation procedure. For this estimation procedure, off-highway recreational fuel use was defined as Federally taxed gasoline, gasohol, diesel fuel, or special fuel used in recreational motorized vehicles on recreational trails or back country terrain. Fuel used in outdoor non-engine recreational equipment, such as camp stoves, heaters, and lanterns, was excluded from the analysis. Vehicle types included in this study were: pickup truck, light utility vehicle, motorcycle, all terrain vehicle (ATV), and snowmobile.

  17. Therapeutic recreation treats depression in the elderly.

    PubMed

    Johnson, C D

    1999-01-01

    Therapeutic recreation can be an effective method to treat depression in elderly home care patients. Home care is the fastest growing component in the Medicare budget. The co-occurrence of physically limiting conditions and depression in the elderly is well documented. Untreated depression carries an enormous risk and cost. Therapeutic recreation is an ideal psychosocial treatment for use in the home care setting because of its effectiveness and versatility. Certified therapeutic recreation specialists use various interventions such as poetry, music, and exercise as part of a treatment team. In addition to effectively managing depression, therapeutic recreation can be beneficial in reducing the effects of many concurrent physical conditions.

  18. Performance appraisal system for therapeutic recreation.

    PubMed

    Conway, M

    1985-01-01

    Therapeutic Recreation professionals continually strive for effective performance standards for their clients. In addition to standards for clients, Therapeutic Recreation Specialists must also develop performance standards for themselves to meet the continual challenge of accountability in the 80's. This paper identifies the need to develop a performance appraisal system as well as the benefits. The elements of the standards include: specificity, observability, measurability, attainment and mutual determination. The paper also reviews the process of assignment of relative weights, categories of review and detailed standards for the Director of Therapeutic Recreation and Therapeutic Recreation Specialist at the Rehabilitation Institute of Detroit.

  19. The Multi-Faceted World of Military Recreation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bumgardner, Walter H.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    A collection of articles on recreation for military personnel discusses: (1) cooperation of military and civilian recreational programs; (2) recreation for personnel on sea duty; (3) recreation at Camp Casey (Korea); (4) Information, Tickets, and Tours (ITT) programs; (5) intramural programs; (6) careers in military recreation; and (7) Air Force…

  20. 43 CFR 2932.50 - Administration of Special Recreation Permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Administration of Special Recreation... RECREATION ON PUBLIC LANDS Special Recreation Permits for Commercial Use, Competitive Events, Organized Groups, and Recreation Use in Special Areas § 2932.50 Administration of Special Recreation Permits....

  1. 78 FR 78810 - Pacific Southwest Recreation Resource Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-27

    ...The Pacific Southwest Recreation Resource Advisory Committee (Recreation RAC) will meet in San Bernardino, California. The Recreation RAC is authorized under the Federal Lands Recreation Enhancement Act (REA) (Pub. L. 108-447) and operates in compliance with the Federal Advisory Committee Act (FACA) (Pub. L. 92-463). Additional information concerning the Recreation RAC can be found by visiting......

  2. 76 FR 10915 - Notice of Use Authorizations; Special Recreation Permits, Other Than on Developed Recreation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-28

    ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Use Authorizations; Special Recreation Permits, Other Than on Developed Recreation Sites; Adjustment in Fees AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Bureau of Land Management (BLM) is adjusting certain special recreation permit fees...

  3. The History of Commercial Recreation and Its Role in the Provision of Family Recreation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, E. Taylor

    Commercial recreation is the provision of facilities, equipment, and programs that satisfy public demand for activities during unobligated time and are profitable to the supplier. The term "commercial recreation" has been given a negative connotation in the field of recreation and leisure. This negative concept of commercial recreation…

  4. Does Zoning Winter Recreationists Reduce Recreation Conflict?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Aubrey D.; Vaske, Jerry J.; Squires, John R.; Olson, Lucretia E.; Roberts, Elizabeth K.

    2017-01-01

    Parks and protected area managers use zoning to decrease interpersonal conflict between recreationists. Zoning, or segregation, of recreation—often by non-motorized and motorized activity—is designed to limit physical interaction while providing recreation opportunities to both groups. This article investigated the effectiveness of zoning to reduce recreation conflict in the Vail Pass Winter Recreation Area in Colorado, USA. Despite a zoning management system, established groomed travel routes were used by both non-motorized recreationists (backcountry skiers, snowboarders, snowshoers) and motorized recreationists (snowmobilers). We hypothesized that persistent recreation conflict reported by non-motorized recreationists was the result of recreation occurring in areas of mixed non-motorized and motorized use, mostly along groomed routes. We performed a geospatial analysis of recreation [from Global Positioning System (GPS) points, n = 1,233,449] in the Vail Pass Winter Recreation Area to identify areas of mixed non-motorized and motorized use. We then surveyed non-motorized recreationists ( n = 199) to test whether reported conflict is higher for respondents who traveled in areas of mixed-use, compared with respondents traveling outside areas of mixed-use. Results from the geospatial analysis showed that only 0.7 % of the Vail Pass Winter Recreation Area contained recreation from both groups, however that area contained 14.8 % of all non-motorized recreation and 49.1 % of all motorized recreation. Survey analysis results showed higher interpersonal conflict for all five standard conflict variables among non-motorized respondents who traveled in areas of mixed-use, compared with those traveling outside mixed-use areas. Management implications and recommendations for increasing the effectiveness of zoning are provided.

  5. What’s in a game? A systems approach to enhancing performance analysis in football

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Performance analysis (PA) in football is considered to be an integral component of understanding the requirements for optimal performance. Despite vast amounts of research in this area key gaps remain, including what comprises PA in football, and methods to minimise research-practitioner gaps. The aim of this study was to develop a model of the football match system in order to better describe and understand the components of football performance. Such a model could inform the design of new PA methods. Method Eight elite level football Subject Method Experts (SME’s) participated in two workshops to develop a systems model of the football match system. The model was developed using a first-of-its-kind application of Cognitive Work Analysis (CWA) in football. CWA has been used in many other non-sporting domains to analyse and understand complex systems. Result Using CWA, a model of the football match ‘system’ was developed. The model enabled identification of several PA measures not currently utilised, including communication between team members, adaptability of teams, playing at the appropriate tempo, as well as attacking and defending related measures. Conclusion The results indicate that football is characteristic of a complex sociotechnical system, and revealed potential new and unique PA measures regarded as important by SME’s, yet not currently measured. Importantly, these results have identified a gap between the current PA research and the information that is meaningful to football coaches and practitioners. PMID:28212392

  6. The Comparison of Some Physical and Physiological Parameters of Footballers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ekinci, Ezgi Samar; Beyleroglu, Malik; Ulukan, Hasan; Konuklar, Ercan; Gürkan, Alper Cenk; Erbay, Adem

    2016-01-01

    In this study, it's to aim for comparison of some physical and physiological parameters of footballers at "The Erenler Sport Team" and "Didim Municipality Sport Team". Thirty volunteers sportsman from each two teams joined to this research. It measured the values of age, weight, length, flexibility, balance, power of left-right…

  7. Nutrition and culture in professional football. A mixed method approach.

    PubMed

    Ono, Mutsumi; Kennedy, Eileen; Reeves, Sue; Cronin, Linda

    2012-02-01

    An adequate diet is essential for the optimal performance of professional football (soccer) players. Existing studies have shown that players fail to consume such a diet, without interrogating the reasons for this. The aim of this study was to explore the difficulties professional football players experience in consuming a diet for optimal performance. It utilized a mixed method approach, combining nutritional intake assessment with qualitative interviews, to ascertain both what was consumed and the wider cultural factors that affect consumption. The study found a high variability in individual intake which ranged widely from 2648 to 4606 kcal/day. In addition, the intake of carbohydrate was significantly lower than that recommended. The study revealed that the main food choices for carbohydrate and protein intake were pasta and chicken respectively. Interview results showed the importance of tradition within the world of professional football in structuring the players' approach to nutrition. In addition, the players' personal eating habits that derived from their class and national habitus restricted their food choice by conflicting with the dietary choices promoted within the professional football clubs.

  8. External foam layers to football helmets reduce head impact severity.

    PubMed

    Nakatsuka, Austin S; Yamamoto, Loren G

    2014-08-01

    Current American football helmet design has a rigid exterior with a padded interior. Softening the hard external layer of the helmet may reduce the impact potential of the helmet, providing extra head protection and reducing its use as an offensive device. The objective of this study is to measure the impact reduction potential provided by external foam. We obtained a football helmet with built-in accelerometer-based sensors, placed it on a boxing mannequin and struck it with a weighted swinging pendulum helmet to mimic the forces sustained during a helmet-to-helmet strike. We then applied layers of 1.3 cm thick polyolefin foam to the exterior surface of the helmets and repeated the process. All impact severity measures were significantly reduced with the application of the external foam. These results support the hypothesis that adding a soft exterior layer reduces the force of impact which may be applicable to the football field. Redesigning football helmets could reduce the injury potential of the sport.

  9. Teaching Australian Football in Physical Education: Constraints Theory in Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pill, Shane

    2013-01-01

    This article outlines a constraints-led process of exploring, modifying, experimenting, adapting, and developing game appreciation known as Game Sense (Australian Sports Commission, 1997; den Duyn, 1996, 1997) for the teaching of Australian football. The game acts as teacher in this constraints-led process. Rather than a linear system that…

  10. Stitching Footballs: Voices of Children in Sailkot, Pakistan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marcus, Rachel; Husselbee, David; Shah, Faiz; Harper, Annie; Ali, Bahar

    This report details a situation analysis of children working in football stitching around Sialkot, Pakistan. The analysis (1) examined the reasons that children work and the probable impact of eradicating children's involvement and phasing out home-based production and (2) determined a baseline for monitoring changes in children's and families'…

  11. In a Tough Economy, Charlotte Makes a Play for Football

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sander, Libby

    2008-01-01

    Despite tough economic times, the University of North Carolina at Charlotte hopes to win trustees' approval to raise funds to field a Division I-AA football team. Athletics officials and supporters at Charlotte are hopeful that they will raise the more than $45-million in capital expenses necessary to get the program up and running. However, the…

  12. Concussion Education for High School Football Players: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manasse-Cohick, Nancy J.; Shapley, Kathy L.

    2014-01-01

    This survey study compared high school football players' knowledge and attitudes about concussion before and after receiving concussion education. There were no significant changes in the Concussion Attitude Index. Results revealed a statistically significant difference in the athletes' scores for the Concussion Knowledge Index, "t"(244)…

  13. Concussion Incidences and Severity in Secondary School Varsity Football Players.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerberich, Susan Goodwin; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Study of Minnesota high school football players found an injury rate of 78 per 100 players; 19/100 players reported a concussion experience characterized by loss of consciousness/awareness. Of these, 69 percent returned to play the same day. Illegal blocking and tackling contributed to increased concussion. Lasting effects were prevalent. (GC)

  14. The Body Composition of a College Football Team.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wickkiser, John D.; Kelly, John M.

    This study focuses on the body composition and anthropometric measurements of 65 college football players. Body composition was determined by underwater weighing with an accurate assessment of residual volume. The anthropometric measurements included height, weight, seven skinfolds, waist circumference, and wrist diameter. A step-wise multiple…

  15. How the Football Coach Can Help Principals and Teachers Score

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cross, Neal

    2012-01-01

    Classroom teachers could learn a lesson from football coaches. Evidence suggests they know more about how their coaching affects their athletes' performance than classroom teachers do regarding student achievement. It is equally possible that the athletes are learning more quickly and in a deeper way than students in the classroom. Why? One reason…

  16. "Deflategate": Time, Temperature, and Moisture Effects on Football Pressure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blumenthal, Jack; Beljak, Lauren; Macatangay, Dahlia-Marie; Helmuth-Malone, Lilly; McWilliams, Catharina; Raptis, Sofia

    2016-01-01

    In a recent paper in "The Physics Teacher (TPT)", DiLisi and Rarick used the National Football League "Deflategate" controversy to introduce to physics students the physics of a bouncing ball. In this paper, we measure and analyze the environmental effects of time, ambient temperature, and moisture on the internal pressure of…

  17. Huddle: At DeMatha High, Football Is Family.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asayesh, Gelareh

    1993-01-01

    The football program at DeMatha High School in Hyattsville (Maryland), illustrates ways in which a sports program can build unity and racial tolerance among students. The shared team effort carries over into schoolwork and life outside of school. (SLD)

  18. Preparticipation Screening of Athletic Officials: SEC Football Referees at Risk.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, John L., Jr.; Walters, Rod; Leski, Mark J.; Saywell, Robert M., Jr.; Wooldridge, J. Scott

    2003-01-01

    Reviewed prevalence data on health parameters for football officials, noting outcomes when screening criteria were applied in preseason exams. Referees had a lower risk than the national 10-year coronary heart disease risk but a higher risk compared with that of the low-risk population. Results suggested that more graded exercise testing was…

  19. New Fantasy Football League Tests NCAA's Rules on Amateur Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moser, Kate

    2008-01-01

    The long-simmering debate over the commercialization of college sports reached a boiling point recently when CBS, the NCAA's key corporate partner, announced that it was creating a fantasy football league that uses college athletes' names. Not everyone however, is quite so enthusiastic. Some observers see it as part of a continuing assault on the…

  20. A Critical Analysis of Football Bowl Subdivision Coaching Contract Components

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nichols, Justin Keith

    2012-01-01

    This exploratory study is designed to inventory and analyze contract components used by Football Bowl Subdivision (FBS) institutions in the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) to further contribute to the body research. The FBS is comprised of 120 institutions and 94 of those institutions submitted contracts to "USA Today"…

  1. Antitrust Challenge to Football Group Dismissed by Judge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lederman, Douglas

    1991-01-01

    An administrative-law judge dismissed the Federal Trade Commission's antitrust complaint against the College Football Association (CFA), saying it had no jurisdiction over the association. CFA's five-year television contract with the American Broadcasting Company was found to have a nonprofit purpose. (MSE)

  2. Injuries of veteran football (soccer) players in Germany.

    PubMed

    Hammes, Daniel; Aus Der Fünten, Karen; Kaiser, Stephanie; Frisen, Eugen; Dvorák, Jirí; Meyer, Tim

    2015-01-01

    There is a lack of injury data for the population of veteran football players. Therefore, a prospective study was conducted to investigate injury incidences and characteristics. Over one season, injuries and exposure of 18 teams (n = 265 players, age: 44.2±7.3 years, BMI: 26.6±3.2 kg/m(2)) were documented. Sixty-three players sustained a total of 88 injuries during the season. The incidence of training injuries (4.5 per 1000 hours) was significantly lower than of match injuries (24.7 per 1000 hours). The majority of injuries (n = 73; 83%) were located at the lower extremities, 52 (47%) were muscle injuries. The injury incidence of veteran football players is similar to other male football players of different skill levels and age groups, indicating a need for the implementation of preventive measures. Prevention programmes should consider the specific injury characteristics, with more muscle injuries in this population compared with younger football players.

  3. Football Pools and the Reactivity Series of Metals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heselden, Russ

    2001-01-01

    Describes an activity which presents the reactivity of metals series as a football pool with more reactive metals at the top of the table and unreactive metals at the bottom. Describes how the activity can be applied in different ways for different ability groups. (Author/MM)

  4. Soccer-Speedball-Flag Football Guide. June 1974-June 1976.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faber, Dolores, Ed.; And Others

    This guide, produced by the National Association for Girls and Women in Sport (NAGWS), is a collection of essays by various authors on soccer, speedball, and flag football. There is a separate section for each sport. In the section, the following topics are covered: goalkeeping, the use of tires as a teaching aid, skill testing, problem-solving…

  5. If Football Referees Made Accreditation Calls: A Modest Proposal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Appleson, Robert R.

    2004-01-01

    Barely a week passes without the "Chronicle of Higher Education" or another periodical decrying the perverse influence of college football on academic quality. Faculty keep saying (justifiably) that sports advocates care more about athletic prowess than about student learning, that even assistant coaches make more money than tenured faculty, and…

  6. Modifying Flag Football for Gender Equitable Engagement in Secondary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahan, David

    2008-01-01

    Flag or touch football is a popular activity unit in American secondary physical education curricula. However, unlike other sports its stigmatization as a masculine-typed activity and frequent inequitable distribution of game play opportunities at the skill positions (e.g., receiver, quarterback) results in the marginalization of female…

  7. Dynamic Social Networks in High Performance Football Coaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Occhino, Joseph; Mallett, Cliff; Rynne, Steven

    2013-01-01

    Background: Sports coaching is largely a social activity where engagement with athletes and support staff can enhance the experiences for all involved. This paper examines how high performance football coaches develop knowledge through their interactions with others within a social learning theory framework. Purpose: The key purpose of this study…

  8. Physical Education and Recreation in Europe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howell, M. L.; Van Vliet, M. L.

    Physical education and research programs, and recreational and athletic facilities, in Yugoslavia, Sweden, Denmark, Germany, England, and the U.S.S.R. are examined by two faculty members from the University of Alberta. This publication is an abridgement of their report on European approaches to physical education and recreation, giving their…

  9. Adventure Recreation: Coming Soon to Your Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moorman, Marta; Schlatter, Barbara E.; Hurd, Amy R.

    2007-01-01

    Adventure recreation activities like mountain biking, bouldering, and kayaking used to require considerable travel to unique locations. This is changing, however, as the new trend emerges in the United State of providing adventure recreation experiences in cities and towns, such as New York City and Golden, Colorado. This article highlights…

  10. The Therapeutic Recreation Professional: Microcomputer Applications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beland, Robert M.

    1984-01-01

    Therapeutic recreation professionals can work with computer specialists to develop uses for microcomputers with special populations. Computers can help sensory-impaired individuals, physically disabled, the aged, and special education students. Computer professionals benefit from receiving feedback from therapeutic recreation professionals on…

  11. Designing Therapeutic Recreation Programs in the Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Marcia Jean; And Others

    This publication is designed to assist in the development of therapeutic recreation services in the community and may also be used in the preparation of procedural manuals or risk management plans. Therapeutic recreation is defined as the process of assessment, planning, implementation, and evaluation, applied through a helping relationship to…

  12. EXETRA Perspectives: Concepts in Therapeutic Recreation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neal, Larry L.; Edginton, Christopher R.

    Fifteen papers address issues in therapeutic recreation for disabled persons from the perspectives of practitioners, educators, and students. The following papers are presented. "Therapeutic Recreation Service: The Past and Challenging Present" (H. Sessoms); "Therapeutic Recreatiion in an Era of Limits: A Crisis...A Challenge... An Opportunity"…

  13. Therapeutic Recreation and the Right to Leisure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sylvester, Charles

    1992-01-01

    Right to leisure is considered an appropriate moral mission for therapeutic recreation. The paper explores the right to leisure for individuals with disabilities, discussing a variety of documents and discourses. It notes the relevance and several implications of the right to leisure for therapeutic recreation in health care. (SM)

  14. Ethics Audit of a Therapeutic Recreation Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nisbett, Nancy; Hinton, Jennifer

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to enhance awareness of the presence of ethics education within the allied health discipline of therapeutic recreation. To achieve this end, a curriculum audit was conducted in a therapeutic recreation course to determine the existence of ethics education within the course. Included topics, methods of delivery, and…

  15. 32 CFR 552.166 - Recreational use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Recreational use. 552.166 Section 552.166 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY MILITARY RESERVATIONS AND... Training Center, and Camp Bonneville § 552.166 Recreational use. (a) Fort Lewis: (1) Individuals...

  16. 32 CFR 552.166 - Recreational use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2012-07-01 2009-07-01 true Recreational use. 552.166 Section 552.166 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY MILITARY RESERVATIONS AND... Training Center, and Camp Bonneville § 552.166 Recreational use. (a) Fort Lewis: (1) Individuals...

  17. 32 CFR 552.166 - Recreational use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Recreational use. 552.166 Section 552.166 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY MILITARY RESERVATIONS AND... Training Center, and Camp Bonneville § 552.166 Recreational use. (a) Fort Lewis: (1) Individuals...

  18. Nassau County Department of Recreation and Parks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iowa Univ., Iowa City. Recreation Education Program.

    Presented are duplications of the responses given by the Nassau County Department of Recreation and Parks (East Meadow, New York) as part of a project to collect, share, and compile information about, and techniques in the operation of 18 community action models for recreation services to the disabled. Model programs are categorized as consumer,…

  19. UNBC: Outdoor Recreation and Tourism Management Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maher, Pat

    2007-01-01

    This article describes the University of Northern British Columbia's (UNBC's) Outdoor Recreation and Tourism Management (ORTM) Program, which focuses squarely on the management of outdoor recreation as it relates to conservation (i.e., in and around parks and protected areas), tourism that is both based in and concerned with the natural/cultural…

  20. Private Outdoor Recreation Enterprises in Rural Appalachia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Hugh A.; And Others

    A study was undertaken to determine to what extent recreation enterprises in rural Appalachia can help meet the growing urban demands for outdoor recreation and provide profitable use of rural resources and employment for rural people. The analysis, drawn from a 1966 nationwide survey, included 35 campgrounds, 18 fishing areas, 14 vacation farms,…

  1. Rugged Practices: Embodying Authenticity in Outdoor Recreation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Senda-Cook, Samantha

    2012-01-01

    When people recreate outdoors, they value the quality of the experience. This study examines rhetorical practices that sustain or undermine perceived authentic outdoor recreation experiences. I conducted a rhetorical analysis of my fieldnotes gathered through participant observation and interview transcripts of online and in-person interviews. I…

  2. Annual in Therapeutic Recreation. Volume One, 1990.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crawford, Michael E., Ed.; Card, Jaclyn A., Ed.

    This publication contains the following articles: (1) "A Pilot Study of the Relationship between Co-Dependency and Recreation Using Women with Histories of Domestic Violence" (Pamela E. Foti and Lori S. Gelvin); (2) "Discretionary Time Use and the Chronically Mentally Ill" (Thomas K. Skalko); (3) "Therapeutic Recreation and Family Therapy: A Needs…

  3. 36 CFR 294.1 - Recreation areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Recreation areas. 294.1 Section 294.1 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SPECIAL AREAS Miscellaneous Provisions § 294.1 Recreation areas. Suitable areas of national forest land, other than...

  4. 36 CFR 294.1 - Recreation areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Recreation areas. 294.1 Section 294.1 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SPECIAL AREAS Miscellaneous Provisions § 294.1 Recreation areas. Suitable areas of national forest land, other than...

  5. Los Angeles County Parks and Recreation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iowa Univ., Iowa City. Recreation Education Program.

    Presented are duplications of the responses given by the Los Angeles County Parks and Recreation Rehabilitation Unit (California) as part of a project to collect, share, and compile information about, and techniques in the operation of 18 community action models for recreation services to the disabled. Model programs are categorized as consumer,…

  6. Intelligence and Past Use of Recreational Drugs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilmoth, Daniel R.

    2012-01-01

    One motivation for trying recreational drugs is the desire for novel experiences. More intelligent people tend to value novelty more highly and may therefore be more likely to have tried recreational drugs. Using data from a national survey, it is shown that intelligence tends to be positively related to the probabilities of having tried alcohol,…

  7. Toward Effective Science Delivery among Recreation Personnel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Courtney, Arielle; Schneider, Ingrid E.

    2016-01-01

    Effective science delivery to practitioners can improve recreation experiences and environmental educational outcomes. This project explored U.S. Department of Agriculture-Forest Service recreation personnel's research-based information sources, constraints to access and use of research, and opinions about how to improve science delivery to…

  8. Guidelines for Recreation and Park Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bannon, Joseph J.; Storey, Edward H.

    In this publication, written for use in guiding community recreation and park systems, the following topics are discussed: why parks and recreational facilities should be developed, the need for governmental participation, and park-system development. Additionally, neighborhood parks, playlots, community parks, city-wide parks, regional parks and…

  9. Solid Waste Management in Recreational Forest Areas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spooner, Charles S.

    The Forest Service, U. S. Department of Agriculture, requested the Bureau of Solid Waste Management to conduct a study of National Forest recreation areas to establish waste generation rates for major recreation activities and to determine the cost of solid waste handling for selected Forest Service Districts. This report describes the 1968 solid…

  10. King County Division of Parks and Recreation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iowa Univ., Iowa City. Recreation Education Program.

    Presented are duplications of the responses given by the King County Division of Parks and Recreation (Seattle, Washington) as part of a project to collect, share, and compile information about, and techniques in the operation of 18 community action models for recreation services to the disabled. Model programs are categorized as consumer, client…

  11. 50 CFR 36.31 - Recreational activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... (CONTINUED) THE NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM ALASKA NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGES Other Refuge Uses § 36.31 Recreational activities. (a) Public recreational activities within the Alaska National Wildlife Refuges are... to apply to the applicable refuge lands in Alaska National Wildlife Refuges. (b) Surface...

  12. 50 CFR 36.31 - Recreational activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... (CONTINUED) THE NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM ALASKA NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGES Other Refuge Uses § 36.31 Recreational activities. (a) Public recreational activities within the Alaska National Wildlife Refuges are... to apply to the applicable refuge lands in Alaska National Wildlife Refuges. (b) Surface...

  13. 50 CFR 36.31 - Recreational activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... (CONTINUED) THE NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM ALASKA NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGES Other Refuge Uses § 36.31 Recreational activities. (a) Public recreational activities within the Alaska National Wildlife Refuges are... to apply to the applicable refuge lands in Alaska National Wildlife Refuges. (b) Surface...

  14. 50 CFR 36.31 - Recreational activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... (CONTINUED) THE NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM ALASKA NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGES Other Refuge Uses § 36.31 Recreational activities. (a) Public recreational activities within the Alaska National Wildlife Refuges are... to apply to the applicable refuge lands in Alaska National Wildlife Refuges. (b) Surface...

  15. 50 CFR 36.31 - Recreational activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... (CONTINUED) THE NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM ALASKA NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGES Other Refuge Uses § 36.31 Recreational activities. (a) Public recreational activities within the Alaska National Wildlife Refuges are... to apply to the applicable refuge lands in Alaska National Wildlife Refuges. (b) Surface...

  16. 78 FR 49253 - Pacific Southwest Recreation Resource Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-13

    ... Forest Service Pacific Southwest Recreation Resource Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Pacific Southwest Recreation Resource Advisory Committe will meet in Sacramento, California. The Committee is authorized under the Federal Lands Recreation...

  17. 76 FR 4281 - Recreation Resource Advisory Committees Charter Reestablishment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-25

    ... Forest Service Recreation Resource Advisory Committees Charter Reestablishment AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of intent to reestablish the Recreation Resource Advisory Committees. SUMMARY: The Secretary of Agriculture intends to reestablish the charter for 5 Forest Service Recreation...

  18. 78 FR 29321 - Colorado Recreation Resource Advisory Committee Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-20

    ... Forest Service Colorado Recreation Resource Advisory Committee Meeting AGENCY: Rocky Mountain Region, Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Colorado Recreation Resource Advisory... National Forest. Proposals, updates, and other information can be found on the Colorado Recreation...

  19. 76 FR 27002 - Information Collection; National Recreation Program Administration

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-10

    ... Forest Service Information Collection; National Recreation Program Administration AGENCY: Forest Service... new information collection, National Recreation Program Administration. DATES: Comments must be... INFORMATION: Title: National Recreation Program Administration. OMB Number: 0596-New. Expiration Date...

  20. Quantifying the Chasm: Exploring the Impact of the BCS on Total Football Revenues for Division One Football Programs from 2002-2012

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caro, Cary A.

    2014-01-01

    The Bowl Championship Series served as a collection of bowl games that were designed to crown the national champion in Division One football. The BCS created two classifications of institutions in Division football, those that were granted automatic access (AQ) to the post-season games, and those that were not (non-AQ). The BCS also generated…

  1. Can helmet design reduce the risk of concussion in football?

    PubMed

    Rowson, Steven; Duma, Stefan M; Greenwald, Richard M; Beckwith, Jonathan G; Chu, Jeffrey J; Guskiewicz, Kevin M; Mihalik, Jason P; Crisco, Joseph J; Wilcox, Bethany J; McAllister, Thomas W; Maerlender, Arthur C; Broglio, Steven P; Schnebel, Brock; Anderson, Scott; Brolinson, P Gunnar

    2014-04-01

    Of all sports, football accounts for the highest incidence of concussion in the US due to the large number of athletes participating and the nature of the sport. While there is general agreement that concussion incidence can be reduced through rule changes and teaching proper tackling technique, there remains debate as to whether helmet design may also reduce the incidence of concussion. A retrospective analysis was performed of head impact data collected from 1833 collegiate football players who were instrumented with helmet-mounted accelerometer arrays for games and practices. Data were collected between 2005 and 2010 from 8 collegiate football teams: Virginia Tech, University of North Carolina, University of Oklahoma, Dartmouth College, Brown University, University of Minnesota, Indiana University, and University of Illinois. Concussion rates were compared between players wearing Riddell VSR4 and Riddell Revolution helmets while controlling for the head impact exposure of each player. A total of 1,281,444 head impacts were recorded, from which 64 concussions were diagnosed. The relative risk of sustaining a concussion in a Revolution helmet compared with a VSR4 helmet was 46.1% (95% CI 28.1%-75.8%). When controlling for each player's exposure to head impact, a significant difference was found between concussion rates for players in VSR4 and Revolution helmets (χ(2) = 4.68, p = 0.0305). This study illustrates that differences in the ability to reduce concussion risk exist between helmet models in football. Although helmet design may never prevent all concussions from occurring in football, evidence illustrates that it can reduce the incidence of this injury.

  2. Head Impacts During High School Football: A Biomechanical Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Broglio, Steven P; Sosnoff, Jacob J; Shin, SungHoon; He, Xuming; Alcaraz, Christopher; Zimmerman, Jerrad

    2009-01-01

    Context: Little is known about the impact biomechanics sustained by players during interscholastic football. Objective: To characterize the location and magnitude of impacts sustained by players during an interscholastic football season. Design: Observational design. Setting: On the field. Patients or Other Participants: High school varsity football team (n  =  35; age  =  16.85 ± 0.75 years, height  =  183.49 ± 5.31 cm, mass  =  89.42 ± 12.88 kg). Main Outcome Measure(s): Biomechanical variables (linear acceleration, rotational acceleration, jerk, force, impulse, and impact duration) related to head impacts were categorized by session type, player position, and helmet impact location. Results: Differences in grouping variables were found for each impact descriptor. Impacts occurred more frequently and with greater intensity during games. Linear acceleration was greatest in defensive linemen and offensive skill players and when the impact occurred at the top of the helmet. The largest rotational acceleration occurred in defensive linemen and with impacts to the front of the helmet. Impacts with the highest-magnitude jerk, force, and impulse and shortest duration occurred in the offensive skill, defensive line, offensive line, and defensive skill players, respectively. Top-of-the-helmet impacts yielded the greatest magnitude for the same variables. Conclusions: We are the first to provide a biomechanical characterization of head impacts in an interscholastic football team across a season of play. The intensity of game play manifested with more frequent and intense impacts. The highest-magnitude variables were distributed across all player groups, but impacts to the top of the helmet yielded the highest values. These high school football athletes appeared to sustain greater accelerations after impact than their older counterparts did. How this finding relates to concussion occurrence has yet to be elucidated. PMID:19593415

  3. Cavum Septum Pellucidum in Retired American Pro-Football Players

    PubMed Central

    Hess, Christopher P.; Brus-Ramer, Marcel; Possin, Katherine L.; Cohn-Sheehy, Brendan I.; Kramer, Joel H.; Berger, Mitchel S.; Yaffe, Kristine; Miller, Bruce; Rabinovici, Gil D.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Previous studies report that cavum septum pellucidum (CSP) is frequent among athletes with a history of repeated traumatic brain injury (TBI), such as boxers. Few studies of CSP in athletes, however, have assessed detailed features of the septum pellucidum in a case-control fashion. This is important because prevalence of CSP in the general population varies widely (2% to 85%) between studies. Further, rates of CSP among American pro-football players have not been described previously. We sought to characterize MRI features of the septum pellucidum in a series of retired pro-football players with a history of repeated concussive/subconcussive head traumas compared with controls. We retrospectively assessed retired American pro-football players presenting to our memory clinic with cognitive/behavioral symptoms in whom structural MRI was available with slice thickness ≤2 mm (n=17). Each player was matched to a memory clinic control patient with no history of TBI. Scans were interpreted by raters blinded to clinical information and TBI/football history, who measured CSP grade (0–absent, 1–equivocal, 2–mild, 3–moderate, 4–severe) and length according to a standard protocol. Sixteen of 17 (94%) players had a CSP graded ≥2 compared with 3 of 17 (18%) controls. CSP was significantly higher grade (p<0.001) and longer in players than controls (mean length±standard deviation: 10.6 mm±5.4 vs. 1.1 mm±1.3, p<0.001). Among patients presenting to a memory clinic, long high-grade CSP was more frequent in retired pro-football players compared with patients without a history of TBI. PMID:25970145

  4. Impact attenuation capabilities of football and lacrosse helmets.

    PubMed

    Breedlove, Katherine M; Breedlove, Evan L; Bowman, Thomas G; Nauman, Eric A

    2016-09-06

    Although the National Operating Committee on Standards for Athletic Equipment (NOCSAE) standards are similar for football and lacrosse helmets, it remains unknown how helmets for each sport compare on drop tests. Due to the increased concern over head injury in sport and the rapid growth in lacrosse participation, it is useful to compare the performance of various football and lacrosse helmets. Therefore, the goal of this study was to document the impact attenuation properties of football and lacrosse helmets and to identify the relative performance between helmets for the two sports. Six models of football and six models of lacrosse helmets were tested using a drop tower at three prescribed velocities and six locations on the helmets. A repeated measures ANOVA was conducted to determine the effect of sport on Gadd Severity Index (GSI) scores and linear accelerations. The interaction between location and sport was significant at the low (F2.64,89.71=7.68, P<.001, η(2)=.025), medium (F2.85,96.85=16.78, P<.001, η(2)=.085), and high (F2.96,100.69=16.67, P<.001, η(2)=.093) velocities for GSI scores. When comparing peak acceleration results, we found a significant interaction between location and sport for the medium (F3.40,115.616=5.57, P=.001, ω(2)=.031) and high (F3.46,117.50=6.4(2), P<.001, ω(2)=.047) velocities. Features of football helmet design provide superior protection compared to lacrosse helmets. Further investigation of helmet design features across sports will yield insight into how design features influence helmet performance during laboratory testing.

  5. Cavum Septum Pellucidum in Retired American Pro-Football Players.

    PubMed

    Gardner, Raquel C; Hess, Christopher P; Brus-Ramer, Marcel; Possin, Katherine L; Cohn-Sheehy, Brendan I; Kramer, Joel H; Berger, Mitchel S; Yaffe, Kristine; Miller, Bruce; Rabinovici, Gil D

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies report that cavum septum pellucidum (CSP) is frequent among athletes with a history of repeated traumatic brain injury (TBI), such as boxers. Few studies of CSP in athletes, however, have assessed detailed features of the septum pellucidum in a case-control fashion. This is important because prevalence of CSP in the general population varies widely (2% to 85%) between studies. Further, rates of CSP among American pro-football players have not been described previously. We sought to characterize MRI features of the septum pellucidum in a series of retired pro-football players with a history of repeated concussive/subconcussive head traumas compared with controls. We retrospectively assessed retired American pro-football players presenting to our memory clinic with cognitive/behavioral symptoms in whom structural MRI was available with slice thickness ≤2 mm (n=17). Each player was matched to a memory clinic control patient with no history of TBI. Scans were interpreted by raters blinded to clinical information and TBI/football history, who measured CSP grade (0-absent, 1-equivocal, 2-mild, 3-moderate, 4-severe) and length according to a standard protocol. Sixteen of 17 (94%) players had a CSP graded ≥2 compared with 3 of 17 (18%) controls. CSP was significantly higher grade (p<0.001) and longer in players than controls (mean length±standard deviation: 10.6 mm±5.4 vs. 1.1 mm±1.3, p<0.001). Among patients presenting to a memory clinic, long high-grade CSP was more frequent in retired pro-football players compared with patients without a history of TBI.

  6. Fuel Used for Off-Highway Recreation

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, P.S.

    1994-01-01

    The Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act of 1991 (ISTEA) established a National Recreational Trails Funding Program and the National Recreational Trails Trust Fund. ISTEA requires that tax revenue generated from the sales of motor fuel used for off-highway recreation be transferred from the Highway Trust Fund to the Trails Trust Fund for recreational trail and facility improvements. In order to apportion the Trails Trust Fund to individual states equitably, the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) asked the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to estimate the amount of motor fuel used for off-highway recreation at the state level by different vehicle types. This report documents this estimation procedure. For this estimation procedure, off-highway recreational fuel use was defined as Federally taxed gasoline, gasohol, diesel fuel, or special fuel used in recreational motorized vehicles on recreational trails or back country terrain. Fuel used in outdoor non-engine recreational equipment, such as camp stoves, heaters, and lanterns, was excluded from the analysis. Vehicle types included in this study were: pickup truck, light utility vehicle, motorcycle, all terrain vehicle (ATV), and snowmobile. Two factors governed the development of this estimation procedure. First, individual state shares of the total Trust Funds need to be developed using a uniform approach. Second, data needed for the estimation procedure should be publicly available and easily obtainable so that estimates for all subsequent years can be generated easily. Estimates were developed based on existing data sources. Adjustment factors were developed to take into account different vehicular off-highway recreational usage among states.

  7. Age at First Exposure to Football Is Associated with Altered Corpus Callosum White Matter Microstructure in Former Professional Football Players

    PubMed Central

    Stamm, Julie M.; Koerte, Inga K.; Muehlmann, Marc; Pasternak, Ofer; Bourlas, Alexandra P.; Baugh, Christine M.; Giwerc, Michelle Y.; Zhu, Anni; Coleman, Michael J.; Bouix, Sylvain; Fritts, Nathan G.; Martin, Brett M.; Chaisson, Christine; McClean, Michael D.; Lin, Alexander P.; Cantu, Robert C.; Tripodis, Yorghos; Shenton, Martha E.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Youth football players may incur hundreds of repetitive head impacts (RHI) in one season. Our recent research suggests that exposure to RHI during a critical neurodevelopmental period prior to age 12 may lead to greater later-life mood, behavioral, and cognitive impairments. Here, we examine the relationship between age of first exposure (AFE) to RHI through tackle football and later-life corpus callosum (CC) microstructure using magnetic resonance diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). Forty retired National Football League (NFL) players, ages 40–65, were matched by age and divided into two groups based on their AFE to tackle football: before age 12 or at age 12 or older. Participants underwent DTI on a 3 Tesla Siemens (TIM-Verio) magnet. The whole CC and five subregions were defined and seeded using deterministic tractography. Dependent measures were fractional anisotropy (FA), trace, axial diffusivity, and radial diffusivity. Results showed that former NFL players in the AFE <12 group had significantly lower FA in anterior three CC regions and higher radial diffusivity in the most anterior CC region than those in the AFE ≥12 group. This is the first study to find a relationship between AFE to RHI and later-life CC microstructure. These results suggest that incurring RHI during critical periods of CC development may disrupt neurodevelopmental processes, including myelination, resulting in altered CC microstructure. PMID:26200068

  8. A Study about Problem Solving Skill Variable in Terms of Some Variables of Footballers Who Play Football Professionally

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akpinar, Selahattin

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study is to present the problem solving skill levels of sportsmen who play football professionally, and to determine whether problem solving skill levels differ according to sportsmen's, sports club, age, marital status, parents' educational status, father's occupation, occupation in the game, year of playing football…

  9. Age at First Exposure to Football Is Associated with Altered Corpus Callosum White Matter Microstructure in Former Professional Football Players.

    PubMed

    Stamm, Julie M; Koerte, Inga K; Muehlmann, Marc; Pasternak, Ofer; Bourlas, Alexandra P; Baugh, Christine M; Giwerc, Michelle Y; Zhu, Anni; Coleman, Michael J; Bouix, Sylvain; Fritts, Nathan G; Martin, Brett M; Chaisson, Christine; McClean, Michael D; Lin, Alexander P; Cantu, Robert C; Tripodis, Yorghos; Stern, Robert A; Shenton, Martha E

    2015-11-15

    Youth football players may incur hundreds of repetitive head impacts (RHI) in one season. Our recent research suggests that exposure to RHI during a critical neurodevelopmental period prior to age 12 may lead to greater later-life mood, behavioral, and cognitive impairments. Here, we examine the relationship between age of first exposure (AFE) to RHI through tackle football and later-life corpus callosum (CC) microstructure using magnetic resonance diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). Forty retired National Football League (NFL) players, ages 40-65, were matched by age and divided into two groups based on their AFE to tackle football: before age 12 or at age 12 or older. Participants underwent DTI on a 3 Tesla Siemens (TIM-Verio) magnet. The whole CC and five subregions were defined and seeded using deterministic tractography. Dependent measures were fractional anisotropy (FA), trace, axial diffusivity, and radial diffusivity. Results showed that former NFL players in the AFE <12 group had significantly lower FA in anterior three CC regions and higher radial diffusivity in the most anterior CC region than those in the AFE ≥12 group. This is the first study to find a relationship between AFE to RHI and later-life CC microstructure. These results suggest that incurring RHI during critical periods of CC development may disrupt neurodevelopmental processes, including myelination, resulting in altered CC microstructure.

  10. Creating a Supportive Environment among Youth Football Players: A Qualitative Study of French and Norwegian Youth Grassroots Football Coaches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larsen, Torill; Van Hoye, Aurelie; Tjomsland, Hege Eikeland; Holsen, Ingrid; Wold, Bente; Heuzé, Jean-Philippe; Samdal, Oddrun; Sarrazin, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The health promoting benefits of sport participation are under-utilized and should be further developed, particularly at the grassroots level. The purpose of this paper is to examine how grassroots coaches in youth football perceive their coaching practices after participating in a community-based coach education program aimed at…

  11. 43 CFR 2932.20 - Special Recreation Permit applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) PERMITS FOR RECREATION ON PUBLIC LANDS Special Recreation Permits for Commercial Use, Competitive Events, Organized...

  12. 43 CFR 2932.30 - Fees for Special Recreation Permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) PERMITS FOR RECREATION ON PUBLIC LANDS Special Recreation Permits for Commercial Use, Competitive Events, Organized Groups,...

  13. Emerging data on the incidence of concussion in football practice at all levels of amateur play.

    PubMed

    Guthrie, Robert M

    2015-11-01

    There has been increasing concern, particularly in the US, about potential long-term neurological deterioration syndromes seen in the US football players. Recurrent concussions are a potential area of concern. The authors of this paper have used data bases from three levels of amateur US football to identify the rate and risk of concussion injury in both football games and practice at the youth, high school, and college levels. This information is very important initial data around concussion rates at these levels.

  14. Recreational injuries among older Americans, 2001

    PubMed Central

    Gerson, L; Stevens, J

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To describe the epidemiology of non-fatal recreational injuries among older adults treated in United States emergency departments including national estimates of the number of injuries, types of recreational activities, and diagnoses. Methods: Injury data were provided by the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System-All Injury Program (NEISS-AIP), a nationally representative subsample of 66 out of 100 NEISS hospitals. Potential cases were identified using the NEISS-AIP definition of a sport and recreation injury. The authors then reviewed the two line narrative to identify injuries related to participation in a sport or recreational activity among men and women more than 64 years old. Results: In 2001, an estimated 62 164 (95% confidence interval 35 570 to 88 758) persons ≥65 years old were treated in emergency departments for injuries sustained while participating in sport or recreational activities. The overall injury rate was 177.3/100 000 population with higher rates for men (242.5/100 000) than for women (151.3/100 000). Exercising caused 30% of injuries among women and bicycling caused 17% of injuries among men. Twenty seven percent of all treated injuries were fractures and women (34%) were more likely than men (21%) to suffer fractures. Conclusions: Recreational activities were a frequent cause of injuries among older adults. Fractures were common. Many of these injuries are potentially preventable. As more persons engage in recreational activities, applying known injury prevention strategies will help to reduce the incidence of these injuries. PMID:15178667

  15. The neuropsychology of heading and head trauma in Association Football (soccer): a review.

    PubMed

    Rutherford, Andrew; Stephens, Richard; Potter, Douglas

    2003-09-01

    Association Football (soccer) is the most popular and widespread sport in the world. A significant proportion of the injuries suffered in football are head injuries involving trauma to the brain. In normal play, head trauma frequently arises from collisions, but some researchers have claimed that it also may arise as a consequence of heading the ball. Although assessments based on biomechanical analyses are equivocal on the potential for brain injury due to football heading, a growing literature seems to support the claim that neuropsychological impairment results from general football play and football heading in particular. However, this review suggests a distinction is required between the neuropsychological effects of concussive and subconcussive head trauma and that all of the neuropsychological studies conducted so far suffer from methodological problems. At best, a few of these studies may be regarded as exploratory. The review concludes that presently, although there is exploratory evidence of subclinical neuropsychological impairment as a consequence of football-related concussions, there is no reliable and certainly no definitive evidence that such impairment occurs as a result of general football play or normal football heading. The neuropsychological consequences of football-related subconcussive effects await confirmatory investigation.

  16. Estimating Contact Exposure in Football Using the Head Impact Exposure Estimate

    PubMed Central

    Littleton, Ashley C.; Cox, Leah M.; DeFreese, J.D.; Varangis, Eleanna; Lynall, Robert C.; Schmidt, Julianne D.; Marshall, Stephen W.; Guskiewicz, Kevin M.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Over the past decade, there has been significant debate regarding the effect of cumulative subconcussive head impacts on short and long-term neurological impairment. This debate remains unresolved, because valid epidemiological estimates of athletes' total contact exposure are lacking. We present a measure to estimate the total hours of contact exposure in football over the majority of an athlete's lifespan. Through a structured oral interview, former football players provided information related to primary position played and participation in games and practice contacts during the pre-season, regular season, and post-season of each year of their high school, college, and professional football careers. Spring football for college was also included. We calculated contact exposure estimates for 64 former football players (n=32 college football only, n=32 professional and college football). The head impact exposure estimate (HIEE) discriminated between individuals who stopped after college football, and individuals who played professional football (p<0.001). The HIEE measure was independent of concussion history (p=0.82). Estimating total hours of contact exposure may allow for the detection of differences between individuals with variation in subconcussive impacts, regardless of concussion history. This measure is valuable for the surveillance of subconcussive impacts and their associated potential negative effects. PMID:25603189

  17. Estimating Contact Exposure in Football Using the Head Impact Exposure Estimate.

    PubMed

    Kerr, Zachary Y; Littleton, Ashley C; Cox, Leah M; DeFreese, J D; Varangis, Eleanna; Lynall, Robert C; Schmidt, Julianne D; Marshall, Stephen W; Guskiewicz, Kevin M

    2015-07-15

    Over the past decade, there has been significant debate regarding the effect of cumulative subconcussive head impacts on short and long-term neurological impairment. This debate remains unresolved, because valid epidemiological estimates of athletes' total contact exposure are lacking. We present a measure to estimate the total hours of contact exposure in football over the majority of an athlete's lifespan. Through a structured oral interview, former football players provided information related to primary position played and participation in games and practice contacts during the pre-season, regular season, and post-season of each year of their high school, college, and professional football careers. Spring football for college was also included. We calculated contact exposure estimates for 64 former football players (n = 32 college football only, n = 32 professional and college football). The head impact exposure estimate (HIEE) discriminated between individuals who stopped after college football, and individuals who played professional football (p < 0.001). The HIEE measure was independent of concussion history (p = 0.82). Estimating total hours of contact exposure may allow for the detection of differences between individuals with variation in subconcussive impacts, regardless of concussion history. This measure is valuable for the surveillance of subconcussive impacts and their associated potential negative effects.

  18. A virtue analysis of recreational marijuana use.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Ezra; Austriaco, Nicanor

    2016-05-01

    Several empirical studies suggest that recreational marijuana is popularly perceived as an essentially harmless rite of passage that ends as young people settle into their careers and their adult intimate relationships. Is this perception accurate? To answer this question, we evaluate the morality of recreational marijuana use from a virtue perspective guided by the theological synthesis of St. Thomas Aquinas. Since the medical data reveals that recreational marijuana use is detrimental to the well-being of the user, we conclude that it is a vicious activity, an instance of the vice of intoxication, and as such would be morally illicit.

  19. National Economic Development Procedures Manual - Recreation. Volume 1. Recreation Use and Benefit Estimation Techniques,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-03-01

    payments made for other goods and services (e.g., food , lodging, transportation or equipment) associated with the recreational activity. These... consumption of goods and services that provide them with utility or satisfaction. It is assumed that consumers make purchases in markets based on...recreational values. Econ. Rpt. 53. Institute for Food and Agricultural Science. University of Florida. Gibson, J.G. 1975. Problems of measuring recreation

  20. Effect of game format on heart rate, activity profile, and player involvement in elite and recreational youth players.

    PubMed

    Randers, M B; Andersen, T B; Rasmussen, L S; Larsen, M N; Krustrup, P

    2014-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate activity profile, aerobic load, and player involvement in two game formats of recreational and elite youth football for two age groups. A total of 152 youth players participated, with 45 U10 players playing 5v5 and 8v8 games, and 41 U13 players playing 8v8 and 11v11 (20 min) games. Activity profile, heart rate (HR), and technical actions were measured during all games using 10 Hz GPS, video filming, and HR monitors. For U10, no difference was found in total distance covered (1754 ± 237 vs 1771 ± 314 m, P = 0.650, d = 0.06), whereas mean HR (174 ± 10 vs 168 ± 12 bpm, P = 0.001, d = 0.59) and number of technical actions (65.1 ± 24.0 vs 36.9 ± 20.4, P    0.001, d = 1.27) were higher in 5v5 than in 8v8. For U13, lower total distance covered (1821 ± 325 vs 2038 ± 328 m, P < 0.001, d = 0.66) and higher number of technical actions (36.2 ± 14.9 vs 26.9 ± 14.1, P < 0.001, d = 0.64) were observed in 8v8 than in 11v11, with no difference in mean HR (170 ± 10 vs 171 ± 10 bpm, P = 0.679, d = 0.10). In conclusion, HR is high in youth football matches irrespective of the level of play and the game format. Playing with fewer players on smaller pitches results in minor changes to the physical loading but elevates the technical involvement of youth players both at elite level and recreational level.

  1. Outdoors America: recreational opportunites on public lands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1992-01-01

    What comes to your mind when you think of outdoor recreation? Boating? Camping? Hiking or backpacking? Horse-back riding? Hunting or fishing? Chances are, if you can name an outdoor activity, you can do it on public lands.

  2. Quality analysis in therapeutic recreation curricula.

    PubMed

    Mobily, K E

    1983-01-01

    Within the last several years therapeutic recreation has witnessed an increasing concern over the quality of professional preparation programs. Unfortunately, few efforts have really focused on improving the depth of preparation although the scope of preparation is fairly well documented by accreditation criteria. Quality analysis elucidates curricula by considering: (1) the depth of competence desired, (2) the barriers to acquiring said knowledge and (3) who is responsible for disseminating the knowledge to students. Furthermore, quality analysis relative to therapeutic recreation curricula currently requires consideration of material from other disciplines and therapeutic recreation's unique perspective on traditional areas of learning. A competency cluster including knowledge related to anatomy, physiology, disabilities and limitations imposed by the disabling conditions and medical terminology was used as an example of quality analysis. Quality analysis revealed that the aforesaid competency cluster is not presently being transmitted adequately to students and that therapeutic recreation educators' need to assume more responsibility for disseminating knowledge related to the competencies discussed.

  3. Wheelchair Design Changes: New Opportunities for Recreation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Exceptional Parent, 1984

    1984-01-01

    Changes in wheelchair design (such as larger tires and lighter overall weight) make it possible for disabled persons to exercise more mobility and control and participate in a greater variety of recreational activities. (CL)

  4. Greening the Golden Gate National Recreation Area

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Golden Gate National Recreation Area was recognized a 2016 Federal Green Challenge Award for making significant strides to reduce its carbon footprint with the goal of becoming a carbon neutral park.

  5. 77 FR 36250 - Recreation Resource Advisory Committees

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-18

    ... Recreation, Local Environmental, State Tourism, Local Government, and Tribal. The public is invited to submit...: a. A State tourism official to represent the State; b. A person who represents affected...

  6. Supporting Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder in Recreation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coyne, Phyllis; Fullerton, Ann

    2004-01-01

    This book was developed to assist recreation service providers, as well as families, to understand strategies for supporting individuals with ASD in community and school recreation programs. The ideas have many practical uses in generic and specialized recreation programs. A variety of audiences, including teachers, recreation service providers,…

  7. Expanding Horizons in Commercial Recreation for Disabled People.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nesbitt, John A.

    Based on a presentation given at the 1974 National Conference on Commercial Recreation for Disabled People, the paper examines the role of commercial recreation in the lives of the handicapped. Examples of commercial recreation enterprises are listed for equipment, goods and products; recreation centers, services, and schools; entertainment;…

  8. 36 CFR 71.11 - Collection of Federal recreation fees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... recreation fees. 71.11 Section 71.11 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RECREATION FEES § 71.11 Collection of Federal recreation fees. The bureaus of the Department of the Interior administering outdoor recreation programs shall provide for the collection...

  9. 36 CFR 71.11 - Collection of Federal recreation fees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... recreation fees. 71.11 Section 71.11 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RECREATION FEES § 71.11 Collection of Federal recreation fees. The bureaus of the Department of the Interior administering outdoor recreation programs shall provide for the collection...

  10. 36 CFR 71.2 - Types of Federal recreation fees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Types of Federal recreation... INTERIOR RECREATION FEES § 71.2 Types of Federal recreation fees. There shall be three types of Federal recreation fees: (a) Entrance fees, charged either on an annual or single-visit basis, for admission to...

  11. 43 CFR 2933.10 - Obtaining Recreation Use Permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Obtaining Recreation Use Permits. 2933.10... MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) PERMITS FOR RECREATION ON PUBLIC LANDS Recreation Use Permits for Fee Areas § 2933.10 Obtaining Recreation Use Permits....

  12. 43 CFR 3101.6 - Recreation and public purposes lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Recreation and public purposes lands. 3101... Leases § 3101.6 Recreation and public purposes lands. Under the Recreation and Public Purposes Act, as amended (43 U.S.C. 869 et seq.), all lands within Recreation and Public Purposes leases and patents...

  13. 36 CFR 71.2 - Types of Federal recreation fees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Types of Federal recreation... INTERIOR RECREATION FEES § 71.2 Types of Federal recreation fees. There shall be three types of Federal recreation fees: (a) Entrance fees, charged either on an annual or single-visit basis, for admission to...

  14. 43 CFR 2933.20 - Fees for Recreation Use Permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Fees for Recreation Use Permits. 2933.20... MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) PERMITS FOR RECREATION ON PUBLIC LANDS Recreation Use Permits for Fee Areas § 2933.20 Fees for Recreation Use Permits....

  15. Recreation and Sport Planning and Design. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daly, Jim

    This book offers guidelines for planning and designing cost-effective community recreation and sports facilities and open spaces in Australia. Seven chapters include: (1) "Benefits of Recreation and Sport" (e.g., quality of life, and diversity of recreation and sport); (2) "Provision of Recreation and Sport Open Spaces" (e.g.,…

  16. 40 CFR 230.52 - Water-related recreation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Water-related recreation. 230.52... Effects on Human Use Characteristics § 230.52 Water-related recreation. (a) Water-related recreation... disposal of dredged or fill material may adversely modify or destroy water use for recreation by...

  17. 40 CFR 230.52 - Water-related recreation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Water-related recreation. 230.52... Effects on Human Use Characteristics § 230.52 Water-related recreation. (a) Water-related recreation... disposal of dredged or fill material may adversely modify or destroy water use for recreation by...

  18. 40 CFR 230.52 - Water-related recreation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Water-related recreation. 230.52... Effects on Human Use Characteristics § 230.52 Water-related recreation. (a) Water-related recreation... disposal of dredged or fill material may adversely modify or destroy water use for recreation by...

  19. 40 CFR 230.52 - Water-related recreation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Water-related recreation. 230.52... Effects on Human Use Characteristics § 230.52 Water-related recreation. (a) Water-related recreation... disposal of dredged or fill material may adversely modify or destroy water use for recreation by...

  20. Prevalence of Cryptosporidium species in recreational versus non-recreational water sources.

    PubMed

    Loganthan, Sasdekumar; Yang, Rongchang; Bath, Andrew; Gordon, Cameron; Ryan, Una

    2012-08-01

    Cryptosporidiosis, caused by the protozoan parasite Cryptosporidium, represents the major public health concern of water utilities in developed nations due to its small size, resistance to disinfection and ability to be shed in large numbers in faeces. In Australia, recreational access is not allowed on direct supply sources, however, in Western Australia, limited recreational access to drinking water catchments has been allowed, although only in the outer catchment. Recreational activities within 2 km of the drinking water body is prohibited. The present study compared the amount, prevalence and species of Cryptosporidium in recreational versus non-recreational water catchments in the south west of Western Australia (WA). Recreational water catchments, which allowed swimming and camping had a higher prevalence of Cryptosporidium and the majority of samples were the human-associated C. hominis. Non-recreational catchments had a lower prevalence and all the samples genotyped were C. parvum. Risk analysis identified increasing population as strongly correlated with an increase in the prevalence of Cryptosporidium in recreational catchments. This suggests that recreational access to drinking water catchments is a serious public health risk and government policy limiting activities to the outer catchment should be supported.

  1. Hypoconnectivity and hyperfrontality in retired American football players.

    PubMed

    Hampshire, Adam; MacDonald, Alex; Owen, Adrian M

    2013-10-17

    Recent research has raised concerns about the long-term neurological consequences of repetitive concussive and sub-concussive injuries in professional players of American Football. Despite this interest, the neural and psychological status of retired players remains unknown. Here, we evaluated the performances and brain activation patterns of retired National Football League players (NFL alumni) relative to controls using an fMRI-optimised neuropsychological test of executive function. Behaviourally, the NFL alumni showed only modest performance deficits on the executive task. By contrast, they showed pronounced hyperactivation and hypoconnectivity of the dorsolateral frontal and frontopolar cortices. Critically, abnormal frontal-lobe function was correlated with the number of times that NFL alumni reported having been removed from play after head injury and was evident in individual players. These results support the hypothesis that NFL alumni have a heightened probability of developing executive dysfunction and suggest that fMRI provides the most sensitive biomarker of the underlying neural abnormality.

  2. A network-based ranking system for US college football

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Juyong; Newman, M. E. J.

    2005-10-01

    American college football faces a conflict created by the desire to stage national championship games between the best teams of a season when there is no conventional play-off system for deciding which those teams are. Instead, ranking of teams is based on their records of wins and losses during the season, but each team plays only a small fraction of eligible opponents, making the system underdetermined or contradictory or both. It is an interesting challenge to create a ranking system that at once is mathematically well founded, gives results in general accord with received wisdom concerning the relative strengths of the teams, and is based upon intuitive principles, allowing it to be accepted readily by fans and experts alike. Here we introduce a one-parameter ranking method that satisfies all of these requirements and is based on a network representation of college football schedules.

  3. Concussion in the national football league: an overview for neurologists.

    PubMed

    Casson, Ira R; Pellman, Elliot J; Viano, David C

    2008-02-01

    The authors' studies have yielded a great deal of data regarding the biomechanics of head injury and the clinical picture of mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI) in the National Football League (NFL). The research has demonstrated the link between the effects of biomechanical forces on the brain and the clinical symptomatology of the concussed players. New insights into the mechanisms of injury are leading to new ways of protecting football players from the effects of MTBI. The clinical data validate the effectiveness of the current NFL physician approach to the evaluation and treatment of the player who sustains MTBI. There are still many more questions to answer and much more knowledge to be gained from continuing research in this area.

  4. Concussion management in US college football: progress and pitfalls

    PubMed Central

    Kroshus, Emily

    2015-01-01

    Reducing the frequency and severity of concussions from sport is an important issue in public health currently addressed by a multifaceted approach. Given the large number of participants and the comparatively high risk of injury, American football is an important sport to consider when examining concussion management practices. Focusing on American football at the collegiate level, this manuscript describes current research regarding concussion epidemiology, policy, implementation of clinical diagnosis, management and return-to-play standards and athlete concussion education. Although American collegiate sports leagues have put forth concussion-related policies in recent years, the implementation of these policies and related effects on athlete concussion education, clinical management of concussion and ultimately athlete health outcomes are not well understood. Additional research is needed. PMID:27064258

  5. Concussion in the National Football League: an overview for neurologists.

    PubMed

    Casson, Ira R; Pellman, Elliot J; Viano, David C

    2009-02-01

    The authors' studies have yielded a great deal of data regarding the biomechanics of head injury and the clinical picture of mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI) in the National Football League (NFL). The research has demonstrated the link between the effects of biomechanical forces on the brain and the clinical symptomatology of the concussed players. New insights into the mechanisms of injury are leading to new ways of protecting football players from the effects of MTBI. The clinical data validate the effectiveness of the current NFL physician approach to the evaluation and treatment of the player who sustains MTBI. There are still many more questions to answer and much more knowledge to be gained from continuing research in this area.

  6. [Prevalence of genital anomalies in young football players].

    PubMed

    Mónaco, M; Verdugo, F; Bodell, M; Avendaño, E; Til, L; Drobnic, F

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of genital examination (GE) during the Pre-participation Physical Examination (PPE) is to identify the state of maturity, and rule out any genital pathology. To describe genital anomalies (GA) and estimate the awareness of GE in young football players. A descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted in 280 elite football players from the results of PPE over two seasons. There was a detection rate of 5.4% GA, with varicocele being 3.2%, and of which only 13% were aware of their condition. Although this study shows a low incidence of genital abnormality in the study population, only 13% were aware of the GE prior to assessment. These findings demonstrate a low incidence of GA in this population. While GE is recommended during PPE, it is not a routine practice performed by family doctors or sports medicine specialists. This article attempts to raise awareness of the importance of GE in PPE as a preventive health strategy.

  7. Racial athletic stereotype confirmation in college football recruiting.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Grant; Good, Jessica J; Gross, Alexi R

    2015-01-01

    The present study tested real-world racial stereotype use in the context of college athletic recruiting. Stereotype confirmation suggests that observers use stereotypes as hypotheses and interpret relevant evidence in a biased way that confirms their stereotypes. Shifting standards suggest that the evaluative standard to which we hold a target changes as a function of their group membership. We examined whether stereotype confirmation and shifting standards effects would be seen in college football coaches during recruiting. College football coaches evaluated a Black or White player on several attributes and made both zero- and non-zero-sum allocations. Results suggested that coaches used the evidence presented to develop biased subjective evaluations of the players based on race while still maintaining equivalent objective evaluations. Coaches also allocated greater overall resources to the Black recruit than the White recruit.

  8. Hypoconnectivity and Hyperfrontality in Retired American Football Players

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hampshire, Adam; MacDonald, Alex; Owen, Adrian M.

    2013-10-01

    Recent research has raised concerns about the long-term neurological consequences of repetitive concussive and sub-concussive injuries in professional players of American Football. Despite this interest, the neural and psychological status of retired players remains unknown. Here, we evaluated the performances and brain activation patterns of retired National Football League players (NFL alumni) relative to controls using an fMRI-optimised neuropsychological test of executive function. Behaviourally, the NFL alumni showed only modest performance deficits on the executive task. By contrast, they showed pronounced hyperactivation and hypoconnectivity of the dorsolateral frontal and frontopolar cortices. Critically, abnormal frontal-lobe function was correlated with the number of times that NFL alumni reported having been removed from play after head injury and was evident in individual players. These results support the hypothesis that NFL alumni have a heightened probability of developing executive dysfunction and suggest that fMRI provides the most sensitive biomarker of the underlying neural abnormality.

  9. High school and collegiate football athlete concussions: a biomechanical review.

    PubMed

    Broglio, Steven P; Surma, Tyler; Ashton-Miller, James A

    2012-01-01

    Researchers are striving to understand the biomechanics of concussive injury that occur in the context of sport by using a number of methodologies. Animal models, video reconstruction, and helmet-based accelerometers have all been used, but have their limitations. The Head Impact Telemetry (HIT) System permits the real-time in vivo tracking of all impacts that occur on the football field and has been used in both the high school and collegiate setting. This review provides a theoretical discussion of concussion mechanics and examines the current literature on the effects of the number of impacts, impact magnitude, impact distribution, and concussion threshold in high school and collegiate football athletes recorded by the HIT System.

  10. Visual status of Nepalese national football and cricket players.

    PubMed

    Sapkota, Kishor; Koirala, Shashank; Shakya, Suraj; Chaudhary, Meenu; Paudel, Prakash

    2006-12-01

    This study was undertaken to assess the visual acuity, refractive status, stereopsis, colour vision and ocular morbidity of Nepalese national footballers and cricketers. Ninety-five national football and cricket players of different age group, who had at least played one international tournament representing Nepal, were included in the study. A thorough ocular examination of the players was done in the study period of six months, which revealed that higher-level professional players have significant visual problems. Among the players 70.0% had never had complete ocular examination, 8.0% were found with refractive error, 60.0% with stereo acuity equal or less than 40" of arc and 65.0% with ocular complaints.

  11. Turf-toe: a shoe-surface related football injury.

    PubMed

    Bowers, K D; Martin, R B

    1976-01-01

    Plantar capsule-ligament sprain of the great toe metatarsophalangeal joint, herein referred to as "turf-toe," is discussed with emphasis on two apparantly predisposing factors, playing surface hardness and shoe stiffness. Surface hardness studies have previously been performed by the authors on natural grass and AstroTurf. A study of football shoe flexibility is presented and the results correlated with the occurrence of turftoe. We have not encountered this entity in players wearing relatively stiff conventional seven posted football shoes or the more flexible soccer style shoe on natural grass fields. We have found it to be a not uncommon injury among players wearning the soccer style shoe on AstroTurf.

  12. Facility Focus: Athletic and Recreation Centers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    College Planning & Management, 1999

    1999-01-01

    Presents three examples showing how bigger is better in the design of athletic and recreation buildings. The benefits of a new 225,000 square foot university recreation and athletic center or explored as are the expansion of a 25-year-old, 3,500-seat gymnasium to a 10,000-seat, multipurpose arena; and the features of a multi-level 153,000 square…

  13. The colour of a football outfit affects visibility and team success.

    PubMed

    Olde Rikkert, Joris; Haes, Vincent De; Barsingerhorn, Annemiek D; Theelen, Thomas; Olde Rikkert, Marcel G M

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the impact of the colour of football outfits on localising football players and on the results of football matches. Two studies were conducted: an experimental study examining the effects of outfit colour on the assessment of the positions of computer-animated football players in a video set-up (study 1) and a retrospective study on professional football clubs' performances dependent on their outfit colours (study 2). The studies were conducted with 18 human volunteers aged 15-18 years (study 1) and league results from 10 professional European football teams over 17 years (1995-2013) (study 2). We analysed the number of correct assessments of the positions of virtual football players with different outfit colours (study 1) and analysed the relationship between match results and outfits' colours (study 2). Study 1 showed that the position of players wearing white outfits was better assessed in 5.2% of the trials compared to players wearing green outfits (P = 0.007). Study 2 showed that Manchester City conceded less goals against in away games in highly visible kits (r = 0.62; P = 0.024), while Newcastle United conceded less goals and won more points while playing in kits associated with low visibility (r = 0.63; P = 0.007; r = 0.50; P = 0.040, respectively). We conclude that the colour of football outfits affects evaluations of football players' positions on the field, with white tricots resulting in the best location assessment. The outfit colour may indirectly influence football match results, warranting more attention to the home and away shirts by team managers and football scientists.

  14. Football injuries during European Championships 2004-2005.

    PubMed

    Waldén, Markus; Hägglund, Martin; Ekstrand, Jan

    2007-09-01

    The risk of injury in football is high, but few studies have compared men's and women's football injuries. The purpose of this prospective study was to analyse the exposure and injury characteristics of European Championships in football and to compare data for men, women and male youth players. The national teams of all 32 countries (672 players) that qualified to the men's European Championship 2004, the women's European Championship 2005 and the men's Under-19 European Championship 2005 were studied. Individual training and match exposure was documented during the tournaments as well as time loss injuries. The overall injury incidence was 14 times higher during match play than during training (34.6 vs. 2.4 injuries per 1000 h, P < 0.0001). There were no differences in match and training injury incidences between the championships. Teams eliminated in the women's championship had a significantly higher match injury incidence compared to teams going to the semi-finals (65.4 vs. 5.0 injuries per 1000 h, P = 0.02). Non-contact mechanisms were ascribed for 41% of the match injuries. One-fifth of all injuries were severe with absence from play longer than 4 weeks. In conclusion, injury incidences during the European Championships studied were very similar and it seems thus that the risk of injury in international football is at least not higher in women than in men. The teams eliminated in the women's championship had a significantly higher match injury incidence than the teams going to the final stage. Finally, the high frequency of non-contact injury is worrying from a prevention perspective and should be addressed in future studies.

  15. Cumulative head impact burden in high school football.

    PubMed

    Broglio, Steven P; Eckner, James T; Martini, Douglas; Sosnoff, Jacob J; Kutcher, Jeffrey S; Randolph, Christopher

    2011-10-01

    Impacts to the head are common in collision sports such as football. Emerging research has begun to elucidate concussion tolerance levels, but sub-concussive impacts that do not result in clinical signs or symptoms of concussion are much more common, and are speculated to lead to alterations in cerebral structure and function later in life. We investigated the cumulative number of head impacts and their associated acceleration burden in 95 high school football players across four seasons of play using the Head Impact Telemetry System (HITS). The 4-year investigation resulted in 101,994 impacts collected across 190 practice sessions and 50 games. The number of impacts per 14-week season varied by playing position and starting status, with the average player sustaining 652 impacts. Linemen sustained the highest number of impacts per season (868); followed by tight ends, running backs, and linebackers (619); then quarterbacks (467); and receivers, cornerbacks, and safeties (372). Post-impact accelerations of the head also varied by playing position and starting status, with a seasonal linear acceleration burden of 16,746.1g, while the rotational acceleration and HIT severity profile burdens were 1,090,697.7 rad/sec(2) and 10,021, respectively. The adolescent athletes in this study clearly sustained a large number of impacts to the head, with an impressive associated acceleration burden as a direct result of football participation. These findings raise concern about the relationship between sub-concussive head impacts incurred during football participation and late-life cerebral pathogenesis, and justify consideration of ways to best minimize impacts and mitigate cognitive declines.

  16. Cumulative Head Impact Burden in High School Football

    PubMed Central

    Eckner, James T.; Martini, Douglas; Sosnoff, Jacob J.; Kutcher, Jeffrey S.; Randolph, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Impacts to the head are common in collision sports such as football. Emerging research has begun to elucidate concussion tolerance levels, but sub-concussive impacts that do not result in clinical signs or symptoms of concussion are much more common, and are speculated to lead to alterations in cerebral structure and function later in life. We investigated the cumulative number of head impacts and their associated acceleration burden in 95 high school football players across four seasons of play using the Head Impact Telemetry System (HITS). The 4-year investigation resulted in 101,994 impacts collected across 190 practice sessions and 50 games. The number of impacts per 14-week season varied by playing position and starting status, with the average player sustaining 652 impacts. Linemen sustained the highest number of impacts per season (868); followed by tight ends, running backs, and linebackers (619); then quarterbacks (467); and receivers, cornerbacks, and safeties (372). Post-impact accelerations of the head also varied by playing position and starting status, with a seasonal linear acceleration burden of 16,746.1g, while the rotational acceleration and HIT severity profile burdens were 1,090,697.7 rad/sec2 and 10,021, respectively. The adolescent athletes in this study clearly sustained a large number of impacts to the head, with an impressive associated acceleration burden as a direct result of football participation. These findings raise concern about the relationship between sub-concussive head impacts incurred during football participation and late-life cerebral pathogenesis, and justify consideration of ways to best minimize impacts and mitigate cognitive declines. PMID:21787201

  17. Multiple Past Concussions in High School Football Players

    PubMed Central

    Brooks, Brian L.; Mannix, Rebekah; Maxwell, Bruce; Zafonte, Ross; Berkner, Paul D.; Iverson, Grant L.

    2017-01-01

    Background There is increasing concern about the possible long-term effects of multiple concussions, particularly on the developing adolescent brain. Whether the effect of multiple concussions is detectable in high school football players has not been well studied, although the public health implications are great in this population. Purpose To determine if there are measureable differences in cognitive functioning or symptom reporting in high school football players with a history of multiple concussions. Study Design Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods Participants included 5232 male adolescent football players (mean [±SD] age, 15.5 ± 1.2 years) who completed baseline testing between 2009 and 2014. On the basis of injury history, athletes were grouped into 0 (n = 4183), 1 (n = 733), 2 (n = 216), 3 (n = 67), or ≥4 (n = 33) prior concussions. Cognitive functioning was measured by the Immediate Post-Concussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing (ImPACT) battery, and symptom ratings were obtained from the Post-Concussion Symptom Scale. Results There were no statistically significant differences between groups (based on the number of reported concussions) regarding cognitive functioning. Athletes with ≥3 prior concussions reported more symptoms than did athletes with 0 or 1 prior injury. In multivariate analyses, concussion history was independently related to symptom reporting but less so than developmental problems (eg, attention or learning problems) or other health problems (eg, past treatment for psychiatric problems, headaches, or migraines). Conclusion In the largest study to date, high school football players with multiple past concussions performed the same on cognitive testing as those with no prior concussions. Concussion history was one of several factors that were independently related to symptom reporting. PMID:27474382

  18. Evidence for the aetiology of injuries in Australian football

    PubMed Central

    Norton, K; Schwerdt, S; Lange, K

    2001-01-01

    Objectives—To determine in Australian football (a) the influence of ground hardness and playing grade (level) on game speed and structure, and (b) player movement patterns throughout the game and across levels. Methods—The design consisted of several studies. Seventeen games played on grounds of different hardness in 2000 were used to determine game speed and structure. Four first grade and four second grade grand final games (1994, 1996, 1997, 1999) were used to determine the game speed and structure on the same ground but at different levels. Fifty one players (44 first grade and seven second grade) were used to measure movement patterns within games and across levels during the 2000 season. Results—There was a significant relation between ground hardness and game speed, which could lead to higher injury rates when the ground is harder. There was a 6.7% difference in game speed between the first and second grade levels reflecting differences in injury incidence. The first grade games were also characterised by a greater number of shorter, high intensity play periods and longer stop periods than the second grade games. Midfield players in the first grade games covered about 24% greater distance than their second grade counterparts, and there was a significant difference in their playing speeds. Conclusions—Over the past 40 years, the game speed in the top level of Australian football has approximately doubled. Over the same time, the number of collisions and the estimated injury incidence have also doubled. This study provides additional support to the suggestion that these variables are strongly linked. Factors such as ground hardness, playing level, and time during the game influence game speed and are therefore important in injury development in Australian football. Key Words: aetiology; injuries; Australian football PMID:11726478

  19. Prevention of Football Injuries: A Review of the Literature

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-01-01

    prophylactic double upright knee orthosis by Division I collegiate football players from the Iowa State University during the period of 1979 to...Jt Dis 59(4):201-210. 36. Brodersen, M.P., Symanowski, J.T. 1993. “Use of a double upright knee orthosis prophylactically to decrease...Prophylactic double upright knee orthosis Brace=503 Non brace=273 - Overall knee injury: nonbraced: 44% braced: 26% - Knee injury severity (time

  20. Quantifying movement demands of AFL football using GPS tracking.

    PubMed

    Wisbey, Ben; Montgomery, Paul G; Pyne, David B; Rattray, Ben

    2010-09-01

    Global positioning system (GPS) monitoring of movement patterns is widespread in elite football including the Australian Football League (AFL). However documented analysis of this activity is lacking. We quantified the movement patterns of AFL football and differences between nomadic (midfield), forward and defender playing positions, and determined whether the physical demands have increased over a four season period. Selected premiership games were monitored during the 2005 (n=80 game files), 2006 (n=244), 2007 (n=632) and 2008 (n=793) AFL seasons. Players were fitted with a shoulder harness containing a GPS unit. GPS data were downloaded after games and the following measures extracted: total distance (km), time in various speed zones, maximum speed, number of surges, accelerations, longest continuous efforts and a derived exertion index representing playing intensity. In 2008 nomadic players covered per game 3.4% more total distance (km), had 4.8% less playing time (min), a 17% higher exertion index (per min), and 23% more time running >18kmh(-1) than forwards and defenders (all p<0.05). Physical demands were substantially higher in the 2008 season compared with 2005: an 8.4% increase in mean speed, a 14% increase in intensity (exertion index) and a 9.0% decrease in playing time (all p<0.05). Nomadic players in AFL work substantially harder than forwards and defenders in covering more ground and at higher running intensities. Increases in the physical demands of AFL football were evident between 2005 and 2008. The increasing speed of the game has implications for game authorities, players and coaching staff.

  1. Football fever: goal distributions and non-Gaussian statistics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bittner, E.; Nußbaumer, A.; Janke, W.; Weigel, M.

    2009-02-01

    Analyzing football score data with statistical techniques, we investigate how the not purely random, but highly co-operative nature of the game is reflected in averaged properties such as the probability distributions of scored goals for the home and away teams. As it turns out, especially the tails of the distributions are not well described by the Poissonian or binomial model resulting from the assumption of uncorrelated random events. Instead, a good effective description of the data is provided by less basic distributions such as the negative binomial one or the probability densities of extreme value statistics. To understand this behavior from a microscopical point of view, however, no waiting time problem or extremal process need be invoked. Instead, modifying the Bernoulli random process underlying the Poissonian model to include a simple component of self-affirmation seems to describe the data surprisingly well and allows to understand the observed deviation from Gaussian statistics. The phenomenological distributions used before can be understood as special cases within this framework. We analyzed historical football score data from many leagues in Europe as well as from international tournaments, including data from all past tournaments of the “FIFA World Cup” series, and found the proposed models to be applicable rather universally. In particular, here we analyze the results of the German women’s premier football league and consider the two separate German men’s premier leagues in the East and West during the cold war times as well as the unified league after 1990 to see how scoring in football and the component of self-affirmation depend on cultural and political circumstances.

  2. Movement Profiles, Match Events, and Performance in Australian Football.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Richard J; Watsford, Mark L; Austin, Damien J; Pine, Matthew J; Spurrs, Robert W

    2016-08-01

    Johnston, RJ, Watsford, ML, Austin, D, Pine, MJ, and Spurrs, RW. Movement profiles, match events, and performance in Australian football. J Strength Cond Res 30(8): 2129-2137, 2016-This study examined the relationship between movement demands, match events, and match performance in professional Australian football. Data were collected from 19 players using global positioning system units during 2 Australian Football League seasons. A range of movement demands and instantaneous power measures were collected. The players were divided into high-caliber (HC, ≥17/20) and low-caliber (LC, ≤8/20) groups based on the rating score by their coaches. A Mann-Whitney U-test, independent samples t-test, and effect sizes were used to determine whether any differences existed between the 2 groups. The HC group had a significantly higher match duration (7.2%), higher total distance (9.6%), and covered more distance and spent more time high-speed running per minute (12.7 and 11.9%). Although not significant, the effect sizes revealed that the HC group tended to have a higher mean metabolic power output (2.6%) and spent more time at the high power zone (7.9%). For the match event data, the HC group had significantly more involvements with the football. The results demonstrated the higher physical demands placed on the HC group. The findings suggest that analyzing instantaneous power measures can provide valuable information about the physical demands placed on team sport athletes to coaches and conditioning staff.

  3. Big-Time Teams Will Fight Cuts in Football; Income Must Pay for Other Sports, They Say.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farrell, Charles S.

    1987-01-01

    The members of the College Football Association are determined that college football not be "held hostage" to correct the economic imbalance of college sports. Self-determination for Division I-A football, academic standards, and TV coverage are discussed. (MLW)

  4. Exploring the Relationship between Violent Behavior and Participation in Football during Adolescence: Findings From a Sample of Sibling Pairs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beaver, Kevin M.; Barnes, J. C.; Boutwell, Brian B.

    2016-01-01

    The current study examined the association between playing high school football and involvement in violent behaviors in sibling pairs drawn from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health). The analysis revealed that youth who played high school football self-reported more violence than those youth who did not play football.…

  5. 76 FR 41691 - Safety Zone; BGSU Football Gridiron Classic Golf and Dinner Fireworks, Catawba Island Club, Port...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-15

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; BGSU Football Gridiron Classic Golf and... Lake Erie during the BGSU Football Gridiron Classic Golf and Dinner Fireworks. This temporary safety..., Bowling Green State University will hold its BGSU Football Gridiron Classic Golf and Dinner Fireworks,...

  6. BCS or Just BS: How College Football Could Crown the Wrong National Champion? Just Do the Math--Correctly!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teasley, C.E. Wynn; Hornyak, Martin

    2010-01-01

    The 2009 college football season is here, but there has been a continuing controversy swirling over how the Football Bowl Subdivision (FBS) selects its national champion. College football uses a multi-criterion decision matrix (MCDM) evaluation technique to determine which two teams will play for the national championship. We analyzed the BCS…

  7. Etiology and Biomechanics of Tarsometatarsal Injuries in Professional Football Players

    PubMed Central

    Kent, Richard W.; Lievers, W. Brent; Riley, Patrick O.; Frimenko, Rebecca E.; Crandall, Jeff R.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Tarsometatarsal (TMT) dislocations are uncommon yet debilitating athletic injuries, particularly in American football. To date, the mechanisms of athletic TMT dislocation have been described only anecdotally. This lack of information confounds the development of preventative countermeasures. Purpose: To use video analysis to provide direct, independent identification of the etiologic and mechanistic variables responsible for TMT dislocations in professional football players. Study Design: Case series; Level of evidence, 4. Methods: Sixteen professional National Football League players who sustained publicly reported TMT dislocations were identified. Publicly broadcast game footage of the plays in which injury occurred was reviewed by a panel of 5 biomechanists. Consensus was reached regarding the details surrounding injury, and a weighting was assigned to each detail based on the panel’s confidence. Results: Roughly 90% of injuries occurred while the injured player was engaged with or by another player, a detail that has heretofore been undocumented. Few injuries resulted from direct loading of either the foot or the ipsilateral limb; however, the injured foot was frequently subjected to axial loading from ground engagement with the foot in plantar flexion and the toes dorsiflexed. Injurious loading was often due to external rotation of the midfoot (86%). Fifteen of 16 injuries were season ending. Conclusion: TMT dislocations are frequently associated with engagement by or with a second player but infrequently caused by a direct blow to the foot. Axial loading of the foot, external rotation, and pronation/supination are the most common conditions during injurious loading. PMID:26535306

  8. Compression and texture in socks enhance football kicking performance.

    PubMed

    Hasan, Hosni; Davids, Keith; Chow, Jia Yi; Kerr, Graham

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to observe effects of wearing textured insoles and clinical compression socks on organisation of lower limb interceptive actions in developing athletes of different skill levels in association football. Six advanced learners and six completely novice football players (15.4±0.9years) performed 20 instep kicks with maximum velocity, in four randomly organised insoles and socks conditions, (a) Smooth Socks with Smooth Insoles (SSSI); (b) Smooth Socks with Textured Insoles (SSTI); (c) Compression Socks with Smooth Insoles (CSSI) and (d), Compression Socks with Textured Insoles (CSTI). Reflective markers were placed on key anatomical locations and the ball to facilitate three-dimensional (3D) movement recording and analysis. Data on 3D kinematic variables and initial ball velocity were analysed using one-way mixed model ANOVAs. Results revealed that wearing textured and compression materials enhanced performance in key variables, such as the maximum velocity of the instep kick and increased initial ball velocity, among advanced learners compared to the use of non-textured and compression materials. Adding texture to football boot insoles appeared to interact with compression materials to improve kicking performance, captured by these important measures. This improvement in kicking performance is likely to have occurred through enhanced somatosensory system feedback utilised for foot placement and movement organisation of the lower limbs. Data suggested that advanced learners were better at harnessing the augmented feedback information from compression and texture to regulate emerging movement patterns compared to novices.

  9. Wireless nanosensors for monitoring concussion of football players

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramasamy, Mouli; Harbaugh, Robert E.; Varadan, Vijay K.

    2015-04-01

    Football players are more to violent impacts and injuries more than any athlete in any other sport. Concussion or mild traumatic brain injuries were one of the lesser known sports injuries until the last decade. With the advent of modern technologies in medical and engineering disciplines, people are now more aware of concussion detection and prevention. These concussions are often overlooked by football players themselves. The cumulative effect of these mild traumatic brain injuries can cause long-term residual brain dysfunctions. The principle of concussion is based the movement of the brain in the neurocranium and viscerocranium. The brain is encapsulated by the cerebrospinal fluid which acts as a protective layer for the brain. This fluid can protect the brain against minor movements, however, any rapid movements of the brain may mitigate the protective capability of the cerebrospinal fluid. In this paper, we propose a wireless health monitoring helmet that addresses the concerns of the current monitoring methods - it is non-invasive for a football player as helmet is not an additional gear, it is efficient in performance as it is equipped with EEG nanosensors and 3D accelerometer, it does not restrict the movement of the user as it wirelessly communicates to the remote monitoring station, requirement of individual monitoring stations are not required for each player as the ZigBee protocol can couple multiple transmitters with one receiver. A helmet was developed and validated according to the above mentioned parameters.

  10. Physical and performance characteristics of successful high school football players.

    PubMed

    Williford, H N; Kirkpatrick, J; Scharff-Olson, M; Blessing, D L; Wang, N Z

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to determine the performance and physiologic characteristics of a "successful" American high school football team, and to compare the present values with values reported for other groups of high school, college, and professional players. For descriptive purposes, players were divided into two groups: backs (N = 8) and linemen (N = 10). Maximal aerobic power (VO2max) was determined from a maximal treadmill test, and body composition was evaluated by hydrostatic weighing. Maximal strength values were evaluated by one-repetition maximum bench press and squat test; the sit-and-reach test was used to measure flexibility. Speed and power were evaluated by a vertical jump and a 36.6-meter sprint. Results indicate that compared with other groups of college and professional players, as the level of competition increases so do height, weight, and fat-free weight of the players. Similar maximum oxygen consumption values were found for the present group when compared with other groups of these players. From the strength and power standpoint, football players at all levels are becoming stronger. Incorporation of strength training programs has greatly improved strength and performance profiles of football players at all levels of competition.

  11. Risk factors for hamstring injuries in community level Australian football

    PubMed Central

    Gabbe, B; Finch, C; Bennell, K; Wajswelner, H

    2005-01-01

    Objectives: To identify risk factors for hamstring injury at the community level of Australian football. Methods: A total of 126 community level Australian football players participated in this prospective cohort study. To provide baseline measurements, they completed a questionnaire and had a musculoskeletal screen during the 2000 preseason. All were monitored over the season. Injury surveillance and exposure data were collected for the full season. Survival analysis was used to identify independent predictors of hamstring injury. Results: A hamstring injury was the first injury of the season in 20 players (16%). After adjustment for exposure, increasing age and decreased quadriceps flexibility were identified as significant independent predictors of the time to sustaining a hamstring injury. Older age (⩾23 years) was associated with an increased risk of hamstring injury (RR 3.8; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.1 to 14.0; p = 0.044). Players with increased quadriceps flexibility (as measured by the modified Thomas test) were less likely to sustain a hamstring injury (RR 0.3; 95% CI 0.1 to 0.8; p = 0.022). Conclusions: The findings of this study can be used in the development of hamstring injury prevention strategies and to identify Australian football players at increased risk of hamstring injury. PMID:15665208

  12. 75 FR 5759 - Notice of New Recreation Fee Site; Federal Lands Recreation Enhancement Act, (Title VIII, Pub. L...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-04

    ... Forest Service Notice of New Recreation Fee Site; Federal Lands Recreation Enhancement Act, (Title VIII... Recreation Fee Sites. SUMMARY: The Soda Springs Ranger District of the Caribou-Targhee National Forest is... appreciate and enjoy the availability of developed recreation campground and picnicking facilities....

  13. Forty-Eighth Annual Survey of Football Fatalities 1931-1979.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blyth, Carl S.; Schindler, Richard D.

    Statistics on football fatalities from 1931 to 1979 are presented. The report shows that the number of direct fatalities has progressively decreased. This decrease is attributed to changes in the rules of football, improvement of equipment, and more careful monitoring of the activity by coaches and others in positions of responsibility. A…

  14. Concussion in the National Football League: viewpoint of an elite player.

    PubMed

    DeLamielleure, Joe

    2014-01-01

    Chronic traumatic encephalopathy resulting from head hits and concussions is an unfortunate illness that has affected numerous football players, especially in the National Football League. Many of my fellow players suffer from this problem, and many have died prematurely because of it. I make some suggestions for improving the situation for retired and current players.

  15. The Effects of Personality and Perceived Leader Behaviors on Performance in Collegiate Football.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garland, Daniel J.; Barry, John R.

    The present study utilized a multidimensional model of leadership (Chelladurai & Carron, 1978) to examine the influence of personality traits and perceived leader behaviors on performance in collegiate football. Collegiate football players (n=272) from three southeastern United States universities were administered Cattell's Sixteen Personality…

  16. The Economic Efficiency of European Football Clubs--Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pyatunin, Aleksey V.; Vishnyakova, Angelina B.; Sherstneva, Natalia L.; Mironova, Svetlana P.; Dneprov, Sergey A.; Grabozdin, Yuriy P.

    2016-01-01

    The relevance of this paper lies in the fact that football business has grown significantly in the past 20 years and football clubs have become large companies, which in an effort to be profitable and successful on the field need to improve the efficiency of their business. The aim of this article is to measure economic efficiency of 48 big…

  17. Comparison of Speed, Agility, Anaerobic Strength and Anthropometric Characteristics in Male Football and Futsal Players

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kartal, Resat

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare speed, agility, anaerobic strength and some anthropometric characteristics in male football and futsal players. The sample of the study is composed of male futsal team players of Aydin Adnan Menderes University (19-24 aged) (n = 12) and Aydin Merkez Yeniköy Football Club players (19-24 aged) (n = 12). Within…

  18. Return to Play Guidelines Cannot Solve the Football-Related Concussion Problem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, L. Syd M.

    2012-01-01

    Background: High school football players are the single largest cohort of athletes playing tackle football, and account for the majority of sport-related concussions. Return to play guidelines (RTPs) have emerged as the preferred approach for addressing the problem of sport-related concussion in youth athletes. Methods: This article reviews…

  19. Does Becoming a Member of the Football Bowl Subdivision Increase Institutional Attractiveness to Potential Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Willis A.

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, a number of colleges and universities have made the decision to pursue membership in the NCAA's Football Bowl Subdivision (FBS) with the idea that participating in higher profile intercollegiate football can help attract students to their institution. This belief, however, has not been empirically examined. Using…

  20. Prevalence of Overweight and Obesity in Collegiate American Football Players, by Position

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathews, Emily Millard; Wagner, Dale R.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The authors' purpose in this study was to determine overweight and obesity prevalence in a collegiate football team. Participants: Eighty-five National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division I football players volunteered to participate. Methods: The authors measured height, weight, and waist circumference (WC), and estimated…

  1. Alcohol-Related Emergency Department Visits Associated with Collegiate Football Games

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shook, Janice; Hiestand, Brian C.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: In 2003, after several post-college football game riots, multiple strategies including strict enforcement of open container laws were instituted by the authors' city and university. The authors compared alcohol-related visits to the on-campus emergency department (ED) associated with home football games in 2002 and 2006, hypothesizing…

  2. Australian Football League clinics promoting health, hygiene and trachoma elimination: the Northern Territory experience.

    PubMed

    Atkinson, Josie R; Boudville, Andrea I; Stanford, Emma E; Lange, Fiona D; Anjou, Mitchell D

    2014-01-01

    Australia is the only developed country to suffer trachoma and it is only found in remote Indigenous communities. In 2009, trachoma prevalence was 14%, but through screening, treatment and health promotion, rates had fallen to 4% in 2012. More work needs to be done to sustain these declining rates. In 2012, 25% of screened communities still had endemic trachoma and 8% had hyperendemic trachoma. In addition, only 58% of communities had reached clean face targets in children aged 5-9 years. Australian Football League (AFL) players are highly influential role models and the community love of football provides a platform to engage and strengthen community participation in health promotion. The University of Melbourne has partnered with Melbourne Football Club since 2010 to run trachoma football hygiene clinics in the Northern Territory (NT) to raise awareness of the importance of clean faces in order to reduce the spread of trachoma. This activity supports Federal and state government trachoma screening and treatment programs. Between 2010 and 2013, 12 football clinics were held in major towns and remote communities in the NT. Almost 2000 children and adults attended football clinics run by 16 partner organisations. Awareness of the football clinics has grown and has become a media feature in the NT trachoma elimination campaign. The hygiene station featured within the football clinic could be adapted for other events hosted in remote NT community events to add value to the experience and reinforce good holistic health and hygiene messages, as well as encourage interagency collaboration.

  3. Self-Esteem Profile among the Female Futsal-Football Players at Jordanian Clubs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khasawneh, Aman

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed at identifying the level of physical and body self-esteem among the female futsal - football players at Jordanian clubs. The sample of the study was composed of (38) female players among the Jordanian clubs' players of futsal-football who were chosen randomly out of the study community, and the self-esteem scale was used,…

  4. Alumni Perceptions of a Move to NCAA Division IA Football Membership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roy, Donald P.; Harmon, Susan K.; Graeff, Timothy R.

    2003-01-01

    Because of its prominent role, football has the potential to positively impact a university in several ways. Previous research on college athletics has focused on the financial impact of athletic success on institutions (e.g., donations). This research examines the marketing capabilities of college football by measuring alumni perceptions of a…

  5. Project NFFL: The Niagara Fantasy Football League and Sport Marketing Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Dexter J.

    2012-01-01

    Estimates are that 32 million people currently play fantasy football every year. Project Based Learning (PBL) is one method of engaging students in the educational process. This paper outlines a semester long project undertaken by undergraduate sport management students that uses fantasy football as a vehicle to enhance student knowledge of basic…

  6. The Use of Cattell's Profile Similarity Coefficient in the Classification of Football Athletes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Virden; Johnson, DeWayne

    Using Cattell's Profile Similarity Coefficient, 154 high school football players from 21 different public high schools were classified as being successful or unsuccessful. Seventeen physical and motor ability variables relating to athletic ability were administered to the football players. The variables included: (1) standard height; (2) body…

  7. The Heritage Fallacy: Race, Loyalty, and the First Grambling-Southern Football Game

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aiello, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    On Armistice Day 1932, the Southern University Bushmen football team left Baton Rouge and traveled to Monroe, Louisiana to play the Tigers of Louisiana Negro Normal and Industrial Institute for the first time. Normal was far younger than Southern. It was a two-year junior college in the northeast cotton town of Grambling, and its football team was…

  8. High School Football Players and Their Coaches: A Qualitative Study of Their Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skaza, Robert J.

    2014-01-01

    This basic qualitative study of high school football coach-player relationships explores the players' perceptions of these relationships, specifically the perceptions the players have of how these relationships influenced their lives. This study allowed the researcher to examine the characteristics of high school football coaches as they relate to…

  9. Heat Balance Limits in Football Uniforms: How Different Uniform Ensembles Alter the Equation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kulka, Hasha J.; Kenney, W. Larry

    2002-01-01

    Because football season becomes dangerous when warm weather collides with the need for protective gear, researchers investigated critical heat balance limits in non-heat- acclimatized men who wore various football uniform ensembles and exercised at 35 percent VO2 max in a programmable environmental chamber. The air temperature and humidity limits…

  10. Behavioral Intervention for Teaching Tackling Skills to High School Football Athletes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stokes, John V.; Luiselli, James K.; Reed, Derek D.

    2010-01-01

    Between 2001 and 2005, football-related injuries accounted for 1,060,823 emergency room visits to U.S. hospitals (Mello, Myers, Christian, Palmisciano, & Linakis, 2009). Among high school football athletes, statistics reveal that for the period of 1984 to 1999, there were 63 injuries resulting in permanent disability (Mueller, 2001). Additional…

  11. Athletics, Applications, & Yields: The Relationship between Successful College Football and Institutional Attractiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Willis A.

    2009-01-01

    This study examines the impact of fielding a successful college football team on institutional popularity using a dependent variable (admissions yield) and an independent variable (bowl game television rating) which have been unexamined in previous research on this topic. The findings suggest that college football success is correlated with a…

  12. Reading the Defense: Conceptualizations of Literacy by Male Football Student-Athletes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Segal, Pamela H.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated how college football student-athletes conceptualize the academic and athletic literacies they experience inside and outside the classroom. Participants included sophomore, junior, and senior football student-athletes who all attended a large public university in the Mid-Atlantic area. Three distinct research tools…

  13. The Dilemma: Career Transition of African American Male Football Players at Division I Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Northcutt, Kellen Jamil

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative phenomenological study was to explore and understand perceptions of African American male football athletes at Division I institutions that also played professional football, regarding their collegiate experiences and transition from athletics to post-playing careers. The study examined issues of race and social…

  14. Isolated tears of pectoralis minor muscle in professional football players: a case series.

    PubMed

    Zvijac, John E; Zikria, Bashir; Botto-van Bemden, Angie

    2009-03-01

    Our objective is to include pectoralis minor injuries in the comprehensive assessment of differential diagnoses for anterior chest wall pain or medial anterior shoulder pain sustained during blocking activities, which may present in football players. In this article, we report 2 cases of isolated pectoralis minor tears in professional football players and present mechanisms of injury, clinical presentations, appropriate diagnostic studies, and treatments.

  15. Drill-specific head impact exposure in youth football practice

    PubMed Central

    Campolettano, Eamon T.; Rowson, Steven; Duma, Stefan M.

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Although 70% of football players in the United States are youth players (6–14 years old), most research on head impacts in football has focused on high school, collegiate, or professional populations. The objective of this study was to identify the specific activities associated with high-magnitude (acceleration > 40g) head impacts in youth football practices. METHODS A total of 34 players (mean age 9.9 ± 0.6 years) on 2 youth teams were equipped with helmet-mounted accelerometer arrays that recorded head accelerations associated with impacts in practices and games. Videos of practices and games were used to verify all head impacts and identify specific drills associated with each head impact. RESULTS A total of 6813 impacts were recorded, of which 408 had accelerations exceeding 40g (6.0%). For each type of practice drill, impact rates were computed that accounted for the length of time that teams spent on each drill. The tackling drill King of the Circle had the highest impact rate (95% CI 25.6–68.3 impacts/hr). Impact rates for tackling drills (those conducted without a blocker [95% CI 14.7–21.9 impacts/hr] and those with a blocker [95% CI 10.5–23.1 impacts/hr]) did not differ from game impact rates (95% CI 14.2–21.6 impacts/hr). Tackling drills were observed to have a greater proportion (between 40% and 50%) of impacts exceeding 60g than games (25%). The teams in this study participated in tackling or blocking drills for only 22% of their overall practice times, but these drills were responsible for 86% of all practice impacts exceeding 40g. CONCLUSIONS In youth football, high-magnitude impacts occur more often in practices than games, and some practice drills are associated with higher impact rates and accelerations than others. To mitigate high-magnitude head impact exposure in youth football, practices should be modified to decrease the time spent in drills with high impact rates, potentially eliminating a drill such as King of the

  16. Noise exposure, characterization, and comparison of three football stadiums.

    PubMed

    Engard, Derek J; Sandfort, Delvin R; Gotshall, Robert W; Brazile, William J

    2010-11-01

    Personal noise exposure samples were collected from five workers at a large-sized college football stadium and five workers at a medium-sized college football stadium in northern Colorado during three home football games, for a total of 30 personal noise exposures. In addition, personal noise exposure samples were collected from five fans at a National Football League (NFL) stadium, and from two fans at each of the college stadiums during three home football games, for a total of 27 personal noise exposure samples. None of the workers' noise doses were above the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) permissible exposure limit of 90 dBA. However, 11 of 28 (39%) workers' noise doses exceeded the OSHA action level of 85 dBA that would require enrollment in a hearing conservation program. Following ACGIH® recommendations for noise exposure limits, 27 of 28 (96%) workers would be considered overexposed. In addition, 24 of 25 fans (96%) were also overexposed according to ACGIH and World Health Organization recommendations. At the 95% confidence level, workers' and fans' noise exposures were not significantly different between the three stadiums. However, there was significant noise level variability between the games in each individual stadium (e.g., 82 dbA vs. 87 dbA mean worker OSHA noise exposure for two games at the large-sized college stadium, p=0.001). Given the personal sampling results for the stadium workers, the investigators believe that stadium management at these two universities should implement a hearing conservation program and provide hearing protection. Management should include a warning of possible loud-noise exposure during any sporting events held at the stadiums in fan guides, pamphlets, websites, or other appropriate communication tools. This information should include the health effects of loud noise exposure, namely, noise-induced hearing loss, the information should also be specifically targeted to parents of young children

  17. Drill-specific head impact exposure in youth football practice.

    PubMed

    Campolettano, Eamon T; Rowson, Steven; Duma, Stefan M

    2016-11-01

    OBJECTIVE Although 70% of football players in the United States are youth players (6-14 years old), most research on head impacts in football has focused on high school, collegiate, or professional populations. The objective of this study was to identify the specific activities associated with high-magnitude (acceleration > 40g) head impacts in youth football practices. METHODS A total of 34 players (mean age 9.9 ± 0.6 years) on 2 youth teams were equipped with helmet-mounted accelerometer arrays that recorded head accelerations associated with impacts in practices and games. Videos of practices and games were used to verify all head impacts and identify specific drills associated with each head impact. RESULTS A total of 6813 impacts were recorded, of which 408 had accelerations exceeding 40g (6.0%). For each type of practice drill, impact rates were computed that accounted for the length of time that teams spent on each drill. The tackling drill King of the Circle had the highest impact rate (95% CI 25.6-68.3 impacts/hr). Impact rates for tackling drills (those conducted without a blocker [95% CI 14.7-21.9 impacts/hr] and those with a blocker [95% CI 10.5-23.1 impacts/hr]) did not differ from game impact rates (95% CI 14.2-21.6 impacts/hr). Tackling drills were observed to have a greater proportion (between 40% and 50%) of impacts exceeding 60g than games (25%). The teams in this study participated in tackling or blocking drills for only 22% of their overall practice times, but these drills were responsible for 86% of all practice impacts exceeding 40g. CONCLUSIONS In youth football, high-magnitude impacts occur more often in practices than games, and some practice drills are associated with higher impact rates and accelerations than others. To mitigate high-magnitude head impact exposure in youth football, practices should be modified to decrease the time spent in drills with high impact rates, potentially eliminating a drill such as King of the Circle

  18. Positional Match Running Performance in Elite Gaelic Football.

    PubMed

    Malone, Shane; Solan, Barry; Collins, Kieran D; Doran, Dominic A

    2016-08-01

    Malone, S, Solan, B, Collins, KD, and Doran, DA. Positional match running performance in elite Gaelic football. J Strength Cond Res 30(8): 2292-2298, 2016-There is currently limited information available on match running performance in Gaelic football. The objective of the current study was to report on the match running profile of elite male Gaelic football and assess positional running performance. In this observational study, 50 elite male Gaelic football players wore 4-Hz global positioning systems units (VX Sports) across 30 competitive games with a total of 215 full game data sets collected. Activity was classed according to total distance, high-speed distance (≥17 km·h), sprint distance (≥22 km·h), mean velocity (km·h), peak velocity (km·h), and number of accelerations. The average match distance was 8,160 ± 1,482 m, reflective of a relative distance of 116 ± 21 m·min, with 1,731 ± 659 m covered at high speed, which is reflective of a relative high-speed distance of 25 ± 9 m·min. The observed sprint distance was 445 ± 169 m distributed across 44 sprint actions. The peak velocity was 30.3 ± 1.8 km·h with a mean velocity of 6.5 ± 1.2 km·h. Players completed 184 ± 40 accelerations, which represent 2.6 ± 0.5 accelerations per minute. There were significant differences between positional groups for both total running distance, high-speed running distance, and sprint distance, with midfielders covering more total and high-speed running distance, compared with other positions (p < 0.001). There was a reduction in high-speed and sprint distance between the first and second half (p < 0.001). Reductions in running performance were position dependent with the middle 3 positions experiencing the highest decrement in performance. The current study is the first to communicate a detailed description of match running performance during competitive elite Gaelic football match play.

  19. Football in inter-war Northern Ireland: Ballymena Football and Athletic Club Limited - religious and political exclusivity or civic inclusivity?

    PubMed

    Laverty, David; Garnham, Neal

    2010-01-01

    Historians have almost universally seen association football in the north of Ireland as a divisive influence. The impacts of sectarian and political tensions on the game have been stressed, alongside the extent to which this sport supposedly feeds into existing divisions. Much of the work carried out has concentrated on the last four decades, though even studies outside this period of widespread civil disorder have highlighted these problems. This paper uses the surviving records of the Ballymena Football and Athletic Club, the local press, census returns and other records to consider aspects of one particular Northern Irish club in the 1920s and 1930s. This short consideration of the players, supporters and shareholders suggests that at least in this case football was successful in bringing together and developing cooperation between men of widely differing political and religious views. While the club was a not a financial success, it was a social and sporting one. The evidence available suggests there was little exhibition of sectarian tension at any level.

  20. Delhi Recreation-Education Project Report. Volume Three, Curriculum: Educational Program in Outdoor Recreation Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Henry G., Jr.; And Others

    A survey of colleges offering 2-year programs in some phase of recreation was undertaken to determine what should be the major thrust of the recreation-education program for SUNY Agricultural and Technical College in Delhi, New York. In planning the curriculum, it was recommended that there be a flexible educational program which would allow a…

  1. Social-Psychological Factors Influencing Recreation Demand: Evidence from Two Recreational Rivers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Jordan W.; Moore, Roger L.

    2013-01-01

    Traditional methods of estimating demand for recreation areas involve making inferences about individuals' preferences. Frequently, the assumption is made that recreationists' cost of traveling to a site is a reliable measure of the value they place on that resource and the recreation opportunities it provides. This assumption may ignore other…

  2. 36 CFR 71.10 - Special recreation permits and special recreation permit fees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... activities, recreation events, and the use of motorized recreation vehicles. In any instance where such a... existing resource management programs and objectives; (3) The necessary clean-up and restoration is made... the service area of the management unit at which the fee is charged; (5) The economic...

  3. A matter of life and death: population mortality and football results

    PubMed Central

    Kirkup, W; Merrick, D

    2003-01-01

    Objectives: To determine whether football results are associated with mortality from circulatory disease. Design: Retrospective study, comparing mortality on days of football matches between 18 August 1994 and 28 December 1999 with the results of the football matches. Setting: Newcastle and North Tyneside, Sunderland, Tees, and Leeds Health Authority areas of England. Subjects: All persons resident in Newcastle and North Tyneside, Sunderland, Tees, and Leeds Health Authority areas of England. Main outcome measures: Mortality attributable to acute myocardial infarction and stroke. Results: On days when the local professional football team lost at home, mortality attributable to acute myocardial infarction and stroke increased significantly in men (relative risk 1.28, 95% confidence intervals 1.11 to 1.47). No increase was observed in women. Conclusions: Results achieved by the local professional football team are associated systematically with circulatory disease death rates over a five year period in men, but not women. PMID:12775788

  4. Foul or dive? Motor contributions to judging ambiguous foul situations in football.

    PubMed

    Renden, Peter G; Kerstens, Sander; Oudejans, Raôul R D; Cañal-Bruland, Rouwen

    2014-01-01

    Football (soccer) referees frequently face situations in which they have to distinguish dives and fouls. Yet, little is known about the contributing factors that characterise the ability to judge these ambiguous situations correctly. To this end, in the current article we tested the hypothesis that motor experience of observers contributes to the visual identification of deceptive actions. Thereto, we asked skilled football referees, skilled football players, wheelchair bounded football fans (thus with limited motor experience) and novices to judge whether potential tackle situations in football were either fouls or dives. Results revealed that the referees (accuracy 72.2%, s=6.2) and players (accuracy 72.0%, s=6.4) were better at discriminating fouls and dives than the fans (accuracy 61.1%, s=7.2) and the novices (accuracy 57.4%, s=7.0) (P < 0.001). The results seem to point to an added value of motor experience in detecting deceptive movements.

  5. Fans, homophobia and masculinities in association football: evidence of a more inclusive environment.

    PubMed

    Cashmore, Ellis; Cleland, Jamie

    2012-06-01

    This article draws on 3,500 responses from fans and professionals involved in association football (soccer) to an anonymous online survey posted from June 2010 to October 2010 regarding their views towards gay footballers. The overall findings are that, contrary to assumptions of homophobia, there is evidence of rapidly decreasing homophobia within the culture of football fandom. The results advance inclusive masculinity theory with 93 per cent of fans of all ages stating that there is no place for homophobia within football. Fans blame agents and clubs for the lack of openness and challenge football's governing organizations to oppose the culture of secrecy surrounding gay players and to provide a more inclusive environment to support players who want to come out.

  6. Historical Patterns and Variation in Treatment of Injuries in NFL (National Football League) Players and NCAA (National Collegiate Athletic Association) Division I Football Players.

    PubMed

    McCarty, Eric C; Kraeutler, Matthew J; Langner, Paula; Cook, Shane; Ellis, Byron; Godfrey, Jenna M

    We conducted a study to identify and contrast patterns in the treatment of common injuries that occur in National Football League (NFL) players and National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division I football players. Orthopedic team physicians for all 32 NFL and 119 NCAA Division I football teams were asked to complete a survey regarding demographics and preferred treatment of a variety of injuries encountered in football players. Responses were received from 31 (97%) of the 32 NFL and 111 (93%) of the 119 NCAA team physicians. Although patellar tendon autograft was the preferred graft choice for both groups of team physicians, the percentage of NCAA physicians who allowed return to football 6 months or less after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction was significantly (P = .03) higher than that of NFL physicians. Prophylactic knee bracing, which may prevent medial collateral ligament injuries, was used at a significantly (P < .0001) higher rate by NCAA teams (89%) than by NFL teams (28%). Ketorolac injections were given by a significantly (P < .01) higher percentage of NFL teams (93%) than of NCAA teams (62%). Understanding the current trends in the management of these injuries is beneficial in designing studies that may help improve the treatment and prevention of injuries in football players.

  7. Hydration for recreational sport and physical activity.

    PubMed

    Kenefick, Robert W; Cheuvront, Samuel N

    2012-11-01

    This review presents recommendations for fluid needs and hydration assessment for recreational activity. Fluid needs are based on sweat losses, dependent on intensity and duration of the activity, and will vary among individuals. Prolonged aerobic activity is adversely influenced by dehydration, and heat exposure will magnify this effect. Fluid needs predicted for running 5-42 km at recreational paces show that fluid losses are <2% body mass; thus, aggressive fluid replacement may not be necessary. Competitive paces result in greater fluid losses and greater fluid needs. Fluid needs for recreational activity may be low; however, carbohydrate consumption (sport drinks, gels, bars) can benefit high-intensity (≤ 1 h) and less-intense, long-duration activity (≥ 1 h). Spot measures of urine color or urine-specific gravity to assess hydration status have limitations. First morning urine concentration and body mass with gross thirst perception can be simple ways to assess hydration status.

  8. Solar energy for a community recreation center

    SciTech Connect

    Libman, D.E.

    1980-01-01

    A 58,000 ft/sup 2/ recreation center in Shenandoah, Georgia is described. Rooftop solar collectors and reflectors serve as a basis for the active solar heating and cooling systems. The recreation center clearly demonstrates the technical feasibility of solar application in a recreation setting; economically, however, results are shown to be mixed. Although effective in the heating mode, solar cooling is considered as questionable in terms of a reasonable payoff period. A computer model predicts a payoff period of 11 years based on 1977 energy prices. The design and construction costs of the solar heating and cooling system ($726,000) was 90% financed by ERDA. A hockey-size ice rink and a gymnasium plus locker rooms and meeting rooms comprised the major part of the floor space. Problems encountered and operation of the facility are described. (MJJ)

  9. Can visitor regulations enhance recreational experiences?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frost, Jeffrey E.; McCool, Stephen F.

    1988-01-01

    Regulations at recreation sites have been described as anathema to recreation itself. Many recent authors have suggested that managers use more “light-handed” techniques, such as information and education, before attempting regulatory and intrusive actions. This study of visitors to Glacier National Park in Montana, USA, during the fall bald eagle migration season demonstrates that, under certain conditions, recreationists will view regulations as a way to enhance the opportunity rather than detract from it. The results reinforce previous suggestions in the literature that managers carefully examine the objectives and consequences of regulations prior to their use.

  10. The National Football League and chronic traumatic encephalopathy: legal implications.

    PubMed

    Korngold, Caleb; Farrell, Helen M; Fozdar, Manish

    2013-01-01

    The growing awareness of chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) has the potential to change the public perception and on-field rules of the National Football League (NFL). More than 3,000 ex-NFL players or their relatives are engaged in litigation alleging that the NFL failed to acknowledge and address the neuropsychiatric risks associated with brain injuries that result from playing in the NFL. This article explores the intersection between the medical and legal aspects of CTE in the NFL from a forensic psychiatry perspective.

  11. Cavum Septi Pellucidi in Symptomatic Former Professional Football Players.

    PubMed

    Koerte, Inga K; Hufschmidt, Jakob; Muehlmann, Marc; Tripodis, Yorghos; Stamm, Julie M; Pasternak, Ofer; Giwerc, Michelle Y; Coleman, Michael J; Baugh, Christine M; Fritts, Nathan G; Heinen, Florian; Lin, Alexander; Stern, Robert A; Shenton, Martha E

    2016-02-15

    Post-mortem studies reveal a high rate of cavum septi pellucidi (CSP) in chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE). It remains, however, to be determined whether or not the presence of CSP may be a potential in vivo imaging marker in populations at high risk to develop CTE. The aim of this study was to evaluate CSP in former professional American football players presenting with cognitive and behavioral symptoms compared with noncontact sports athletes. Seventy-two symptomatic former professional football players (mean age 54.53 years, standard deviation [SD] 7.97) as well as 14 former professional noncontact sports athletes (mean age 57.14 years, SD 7.35) underwent high-resolution structural 3T magnetic resonance imaging. Two raters independently evaluated the CSP, and interrater reliability was calculated. Within National Football League players, an association of CSP measures with cognitive and behavioral functioning was evaluated using a multivariate mixed effects model. The measurements of the two raters were highly correlated (CSP length: rho = 0.98; Intraclass Correlation Coefficient [ICC] 0.99; p < 0.0001; septum length: rho = 0.93; ICC 0.96; p < 0.0001). For presence versus absence of CSP, there was high agreement (Cohen kappa = 0.83, p < 0.0001). A higher rate of CSP, a greater length of CSP, as well as a greater ratio of CSP length to septum length was found in symptomatic former professional football players compared with athlete controls. In addition, a greater length of CSP was associated with decreased performance on a list learning task (Neuropsychological Assessment Battery List A Immediate Recall, p = 0.04) and decreased test scores on a measure of estimate verbal intelligence (Wide Range Achievement Test Fourth Edition Reading Test, p = 0.02). Given the high prevalence of CSP in neuropathologically confirmed CTE in addition to the results of this study, CSP may serve as a potential early in vivo imaging marker to identify those at high risk for CTE

  12. Duodenal rupture secondary to blunt trauma from a football.

    PubMed

    Luther, Alison; Mann, Christopher; Hart, Colin; Khalil, Khalil

    2013-01-04

    Duodenal rupture secondary to blunt trauma is a relatively uncommon event and is usually a result of a road traffic accident. As the duodenum is a retroperitoneal organ, delays in diagnosis can occur, as the patient may present with vague abdominal symptoms and other non-specific signs. Computed tomographic scanning is therefore a useful tool in the diagnosis of this condition. We present a 19-year-old girl who was hit in the abdomen with a football and subsequently had a duodenal rupture.

  13. Cavum Septi Pellucidi in Symptomatic Former Professional Football Players

    PubMed Central

    Hufschmidt, Jakob; Muehlmann, Marc; Tripodis, Yorghos; Stamm, Julie M.; Pasternak, Ofer; Giwerc, Michelle Y.; Coleman, Michael J.; Baugh, Christine M.; Fritts, Nathan G.; Heinen, Florian; Lin, Alexander; Stern, Robert A.; Shenton, Martha E.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Post-mortem studies reveal a high rate of cavum septi pellucidi (CSP) in chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE). It remains, however, to be determined whether or not the presence of CSP may be a potential in vivo imaging marker in populations at high risk to develop CTE. The aim of this study was to evaluate CSP in former professional American football players presenting with cognitive and behavioral symptoms compared with noncontact sports athletes. Seventy-two symptomatic former professional football players (mean age 54.53 years, standard deviation [SD] 7.97) as well as 14 former professional noncontact sports athletes (mean age 57.14 years, SD 7.35) underwent high-resolution structural 3T magnetic resonance imaging. Two raters independently evaluated the CSP, and interrater reliability was calculated. Within National Football League players, an association of CSP measures with cognitive and behavioral functioning was evaluated using a multivariate mixed effects model. The measurements of the two raters were highly correlated (CSP length: rho = 0.98; Intraclass Correlation Coefficient [ICC] 0.99; p < 0.0001; septum length: rho = 0.93; ICC 0.96; p < 0.0001). For presence versus absence of CSP, there was high agreement (Cohen kappa = 0.83, p < 0.0001). A higher rate of CSP, a greater length of CSP, as well as a greater ratio of CSP length to septum length was found in symptomatic former professional football players compared with athlete controls. In addition, a greater length of CSP was associated with decreased performance on a list learning task (Neuropsychological Assessment Battery List A Immediate Recall, p = 0.04) and decreased test scores on a measure of estimate verbal intelligence (Wide Range Achievement Test Fourth Edition Reading Test, p = 0.02). Given the high prevalence of CSP in neuropathologically confirmed CTE in addition to the results of this study, CSP may serve as a potential early in vivo imaging

  14. F-MARC: promoting the prevention and management of sudden cardiac arrest in football

    PubMed Central

    Kramer, Efraim Benjamin; Dvorak, J; Schmied, C; Meyer, T

    2015-01-01

    Sudden cardiac death is the most common cause of unnatural death in football. To prevent and urgently manage sudden cardiac arrest on the football field-of-play, F-MARC (FIFA Medical and Research Centre) has been fully committed to a programme of research, education, standardisation and practical implementation. This strategy has detected football players at medical risk during mandatory precompetition medical assessments. Additionally, FIFA has (1) sponsored internationally accepted guidelines for the interpretation of an athlete's ECG, (2) developed field-of-play-specific protocols for the recognition, response, resuscitation and removal of a football player having sudden cardiac arrest and (3) introduced and distributed the FIFA medical emergency bag which has already resulted in the successful resuscitation of a football player who had a sudden cardiac arrest on the field-of-play. Recently FIFA, in association with the Institute of Sports and Preventive Medicine in Saarbrücken, Germany, established a worldwide Sudden Death Registry with a view to documenting fatal events on the football field-of-play. These activities by F-MARC are testimony to FIFA's continued commitment to minimising sudden cardiac arrest while playing football. PMID:25878076

  15. Equipment and running surface alter sprint performance of college football players.

    PubMed

    Brechue, William F; Mayhew, Jerry L; Piper, Fontaine C

    2005-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of football equipment and running surface on sprint performance in NCAA Division II football players (n = 68). Players were timed in the 40-yd sprint on an indoor rubberized track (Day 1) and on an outdoor, natural-grass football field (Day 2) wearing either regulation football equipment or shorts and a T-shirt. Each player was assigned randomly to perform 2 trials under each condition on each surface, and the average of the 2 trials was used for analysis. Offensive backs, defensive backs, and linebackers were significantly faster than were offensive and defensive linemen in all trials, and subjects were collapsed into 2 groups, backs and linemen. Football equipment significantly impaired performance on the track (-2.8% +/- 1.7%) and the field (-2.9% +/- 1.8%). The increase in body mass due to the football equipment was significantly greater for backs (7.2% +/- 0.7%) than for linemen (6.5% +/- 1.0%), but produced a significantly greater impairment in sprint performance in linemen (-3.3% +/- 1.1%) as compared with backs (-2.5% +/- 1.5%). Sprint performance was significantly and equivalently impaired when running on grass (backs: -2.5 +/- 1.1%; linemen: -2.8 +/- 1.4%) as compared with the track. Thus, running a 40-yd sprint in football equipment on a natural grass field impairs performance by an average of 5.5% (+/- 2.3%) compared with running indoors with minimal apparel. Football equipment and running surface significantly impair sprint performance in college football players, the effect being greater in linemen than in backs, and is likely related to differences in muscle strength/power and body fat.

  16. Multiculturalism in Therapeutic Recreation: Terminology Clarification and Practical Suggestions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheldon, Kathleen; Dattilo, John

    1997-01-01

    Provides information to therapeutic recreation professionals on multicultural issues and provides guidelines on language usage. Suggests that professionals follow American Psychological Association guidelines in writing and indicates ways to implement more culturally sensitive therapeutic recreation practices. (SM)

  17. 1. EAGLE CREEK RECREATION AREA, VIEW OF EAGLE CREEK TRAIL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. EAGLE CREEK RECREATION AREA, VIEW OF EAGLE CREEK TRAIL REGISTRY BOOTH. - Historic Columbia River Highway, Eagle Creek Recreation Area, Historic Columbia River Highway at Eagle Creek, Troutdale, Multnomah County, OR

  18. Entrepreneurship and Innovation in Recreation and Leisure Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheffield, Emilyn

    1988-01-01

    This article outlines the process of systematic entrepreneurial innovation as a tool for recreation industry managers seeking increased productivity. Eight sources of innovation, with recreation related examples, are described. A guide to implementing the process is included. (IAH)

  19. 24 CFR 1710.114 - Recreational facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Recreational facilities. 1710.114 Section 1710.114 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development... URBAN DEVELOPMENT (INTERSTATE LAND SALES REGISTRATION PROGRAM) LAND REGISTRATION Reporting...

  20. 24 CFR 1710.214 - Recreational facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Recreational facilities. 1710.214 Section 1710.214 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development... URBAN DEVELOPMENT (INTERSTATE LAND SALES REGISTRATION PROGRAM) LAND REGISTRATION Reporting...

  1. Star Trek as Recreational Reading for Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Espeland, Mecedes

    A study investigated the appropriateness of the "Star Trek" book series for use as recreational reading material for elementary school children. The 12 books were adapted from the television series by James Blish. Appropriateness was determined by evaluating the quality and the readability levels of the books. Quality was ascertained by examining…

  2. RURAL RECREATION, NEW OPPORTUNITIES ON PRIVATE LAND.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC.

    ABOUT 90 PERCENT OF ALL AMERICANS PARTICIPATED IN SOME FORM OF OUTDOOR RECREATION IN THE SUMMER OF 1960, AND THE TOTAL NUMBER IS EXPECTED TO INCREASE THREEFOLD BY THE TURN OF THE CENTURY. A LIST OF THE MOST POPULAR OUTDOOR ACTIVITIES INCLUDES DRIVING, WALKING, GAMES, SWIMMING, SIGHTSEEING, BICYCLING, FISHING, HIKING, BOATING, AND PICNICING.…

  3. Grassroots Involvement in Recreation for Native Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carleton, Nancy L.; And Others

    Through efforts of concerned, knowledgeable, and culturally aware individuals, recreational programs which may help the special needs of Native Americans can be designed and implemented. Knowledge of tribal similarities and differences, cultural values, diverse life-styles, tribal beliefs, socioeconomic status, and leisure pursuits is paramount in…

  4. Arts, Recreation & Children in Arkansas, 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shobo, Yetunde A.

    This special Kids Count report examines the well-being of Arkansas' children, focusing on opportunities for children for arts education, physical education, and recreation; the report also links statistics on education and aesthetics with students' reading scores. The statistical portrait is based on 23 indicators of child well-being in six…

  5. Rescuing Reality: Viewer interpretation of Television Recreations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, David B.; Dobkin, Bethami A.

    While contemporary communication perspectives often make a distinction between reality and the televised presentation of reality, viewers may find this distinction difficult to maintain. Television is imbued with perceived objectivity. The use of recreations in popular television programming requires a reconceptualization of how viewers perceive…

  6. Recreation for the Incarcerated: Treatment or Privilege?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schleien, Stuart J.; O'Morrow, Gerald

    1981-01-01

    With the shift in correctional philosophy from punishment to rehabilitation, juvenile correction facilities are aimed toward providing a specialized program for confined youth. The primary goal is to reintegrate the youthful offender with society through a rehabilitation program involving therapeutic recreation. (JN)

  7. Aquatic Therapy. Making Waves in Therapeutic Recreation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broach, Ellen; Dattilo, John

    1996-01-01

    Therapeutic recreation professionals often use aquatic therapy to improve physiological and psychological functioning, and they have reported improvements for people with many different types of disabilities. The paper discusses aquatic therapy methods, water as a therapeutic environment, professional training and development, and lifestyle…

  8. Annual in Therapeutic Recreation. Volume 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crawford, Michael E., Ed.; Card, Jaclyn A., Ed.

    This volume focuses on therapeutic recreation, as a subject of inquiry and as a treatment tool. The 11 articles include original field based research, program development initiatives, issue and theory of practice papers, and original tutorials in assessment and research. The article titles are: "The Role of Leisure Education with Family…

  9. Case Study Research in Therapeutic Recreation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCormick, Bryan P.

    2000-01-01

    Reviews the rationale for and implications of case study research in therapeutic recreation, examining: what can be learned from studying a single case; issues of validity and reliability; ethical conduct of research; and the practice of case study research (case protocol, case selection, collecting data, analyzing and interpreting data, and…

  10. Outdoor Recreation in Two European Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubenstein, James M.

    1987-01-01

    Questionnaires completed by older adults in Luxembourg (N=138) and in France (N=100) revealed a high extent of participation in outdoor recreation (a demonstrated predictor of successful aging) in the two countries. Identified similarities and differences in socioeconomic characteristics, attitudes, and environmental factors associated with…

  11. Guidelines for Recreation and Athletic Field Lighting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crookham, Joe P.

    1982-01-01

    Guidelines for planning the lighting facilities for recreational and other athletic fields are presented (a softball field is used for an example). Guidelines are given for determining (1) lighting needs and levels of uniformity; (2) lamp choice; (3) structural requirements; (4) operating and maintenance costs; and (5) financing options. (PP)

  12. 32 CFR 552.166 - Recreational use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... NATIONAL CEMETERIES REGULATIONS AFFECTING MILITARY RESERVATIONS Land Use Policy for Fort Lewis, Yakima Training Center, and Camp Bonneville § 552.166 Recreational use. (a) Fort Lewis: (1) Individuals or... directly to the I Corps Public Affairs Office (PAO). (b) Yakima Training Center: Access to the...

  13. 32 CFR 552.166 - Recreational use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... NATIONAL CEMETERIES REGULATIONS AFFECTING MILITARY RESERVATIONS Land Use Policy for Fort Lewis, Yakima Training Center, and Camp Bonneville § 552.166 Recreational use. (a) Fort Lewis: (1) Individuals or... directly to the I Corps Public Affairs Office (PAO). (b) Yakima Training Center: Access to the...

  14. Effects of Recreational Drugs on Physical Activity

    PubMed Central

    Millis, Richard M.

    1987-01-01

    The literature relating to the effects of recreational drugs on physical work and endurance is reviewed. Interactions between muscular coordination and cognitive function make it difficult to formulate overall conclusions about the effect of these drugs on physical performance. PMID:3546707

  15. Special Recreation--Bridge to Mainstreaming.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nesbitt, John A.

    The document points out the merits of scouting as a recreational program for the handicapped, and considers the YMCA's (Young Men's Christian Association's) Project MAY (Mainstreaming Activities for Youth) and the Boy Scouts of America's (BSA) Scouting for the Handicapped program. Dimensions of scouting seen as beneficial for the handicapped…

  16. Re-Creating Pablo Picasso's "Guernica"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daseler, Jack C.

    2010-01-01

    Recently, the teachers at the author's school completed a group project with their eighth-graders in which they recreated a mural version of the famous painting by Pablo Picasso, "Guernica." This activity was aimed at: (1) studying the rise of Fascism in Spain and Germany during the Spanish Civil War prior to World War II; (2) learning…

  17. Recreational Gun Use by California Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vittes, Katherine A.; Sorenson, Susan B.

    2005-01-01

    Most research on adolescents and firearms focuses on urban populations, handguns, and homicide. This study examines the prevalence and correlates of recreational gun use (RGU)--for hunting or target shooting--among 5,801 community-residing 12- to 17-year-old Californians. Data are from the first statewide California Health Interview Survey (CHIS),…

  18. Improving Recreational Reading Habits of Elementary Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krug, Marline; Fordonski, Patricia

    A study investigated the effectiveness of a program for improving the recreational reading habits of elementary students through the use of cross-age tutoring in critical reading strategies. The targeted population consisted of a kindergarten and a fourth-grade class in the growing upper-middle-class community of Geneva, Illinois, located…

  19. Women's Recreational Surfing: A Patronising Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olive, Rebecca; McCuaig, Louise; Phillips, Murray G.

    2015-01-01

    Research analysing the operation of power within sport and physical activity has exposed the marginalisation and exclusion of women's sport in explicit and institutionalised ways. However, for women in recreational and alternative physical activities like surfing, sporting experiences lie outside institutionalised structures, thus requiring…

  20. Infusing JUST Design in Campus Recreation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staeger-Wilson, Katheryne; Sampson, Douglas H.

    2012-01-01

    This practice brief highlights the collaborative work among a disability resource professional, a university architect, and students with disabilities to create a campus recreation center with universal design features. This partnership serves to illustrate that building to minimum compliance standards does not necessarily remove barriers to…

  1. Androgyny and Recreation Participation for Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Karla A.; And Others

    This study analyzed the personality traits (masculine, feminine, androgynous, and undifferentiated sex role characteristics) of female students, staff, and faculty at a medium-sized university to determine how personality traits were associated with participation in recreational activities. A questionnaire consisting of items related to the Bem…

  2. Outdoor Recreation. Curriculum Materials for Agricultural Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McElwee, Robert; And Others

    This curriculum guide for agricultural education contains nine chapters on outdoor recreation. Each is written by a different author (professors at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University) and follows a similar format: Objectives, list of references, list of teaching materials, notes on teacher preparation, content for presentation,…

  3. Research on Texas Water and Recreation Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas A and M Univ., College Station. Texas Agricultural Experiment Station.

    The need for research pertaining to the best use of water and recreation resources in Texas is emphasized in these four papers presented at the 1968 Experiment Station Conference, College Station, Texas. "Parameters of Water Resources in Texas" identifies and elaborates upon the important elements presently constituting the water…

  4. 36 CFR 1002.23 - Recreation fees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Section 1002.23 Parks, Forests, and Public Property PRESIDIO TRUST RESOURCE PROTECTION, PUBLIC USE AND... Presidio Trust to the same extent that recreation fees have been established for the Golden Gate National... conditions of a permit issued in accordance with this section is prohibited and may result in the...

  5. Recreation Research Publications. Bibliography 1961-1982.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Echelberger, Herbert E., Comp.; And Others

    This bibliography identifies, by author and subject matter, recreational research publications, by Forest Service scientists, that have been published from 1961 through 1982. Publications are classified under six major topic areas: (1) management of areas and facilities (including such topics as wilderness/backcountry resources and use of…

  6. Guides to Outdoor Recreation Areas and Facilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Outdoor Recreation (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC.

    Listed are guides, maps, and directories to recreation areas and facilities in the United States. The guides are categorized as national, regional, or state. Relevant guides are cross-referenced for camping, canoeing, fishing, hiking, and hunting. Prices and sources of supply are indicated. (EB)

  7. Realia in the Recreation Education Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Marcia K.

    1983-01-01

    Students of recreation education at the State University College (Cortland, New York) attend a two-week outdoor education practicum held in the Adirondacks. Students study canoeing, crafts, and ecology; practice leadership and teamwork; and take part in a five-day canoeing/hiking trip. (PP)

  8. Dopaminergic System Dysfunction in Recreational Dexamphetamine Users

    PubMed Central

    Schrantee, Anouk; Václavů, Lena; Heijtel, Dennis F R; Caan, Matthan W A; Gsell, Willy; Lucassen, Paul J; Nederveen, Aart J; Booij, Jan; Reneman, Liesbeth

    2015-01-01

    Dexamphetamine (dAMPH) is a stimulant drug that is widely used recreationally as well as for the treatment of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Although animal studies have shown neurotoxic effects of dAMPH on the dopaminergic system, little is known about such effects on the human brain. Here, we studied the dopaminergic system at multiple physiological levels in recreational dAMPH users and age, gender, and IQ-matched dAMPH-naïve healthy controls. We assessed baseline D2/3 receptor availability, in addition to changes in dopamine (DA) release using single-photon emission computed tomography and DA functionality using pharmacological magnetic resonance imaging, following a dAMPH challenge. Also, the subjective responses to the challenge were determined. dAMPH users displayed significantly lower striatal DA D2/3 receptor binding compared with healthy controls. In dAMPH users, we further observed a blunted DA release and DA functionality to an acute dAMPH challenge, as well as a blunted subjective response. Finally, the lower D2/3 availability, the more pleasant the dAMPH administration was experienced by control subjects, but not by dAMPH users. Thus, in agreement with preclinical studies, we show that the recreational use of dAMPH in human subjects is associated with dopaminergic system dysfunction. These findings warrant further (longitudinal) investigations and call for caution when using this drug recreationally and for ADHD. PMID:25394786

  9. 50 CFR 600.513 - Recreational fishing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Recreational fishing. 600.513 Section 600.513 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MAGNUSON-STEVENS ACT PROVISIONS Foreign Fishing § 600.513...

  10. 50 CFR 600.513 - Recreational fishing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Recreational fishing. 600.513 Section 600.513 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MAGNUSON-STEVENS ACT PROVISIONS Foreign Fishing § 600.513...

  11. Third party reimbursement: is therapeutic recreation too late?

    PubMed

    Reitter, M S

    1984-01-01

    The Social Security Amendments of 1983 have brought added concerns about the feasibility of securing third-party reimbursement for therapeutic recreation services. Retrospective, cost-based reimbursement is compared with prospective payment systems, and potential impacts on therapeutic recreation services are explored. Present status of third-party reimbursement for therapeutic recreation is outlined, and suggestions are offered for therapeutic recreation managers to utilize in responding to the changing health care industry.

  12. 76 FR 63600 - Notice of Meeting of the Colorado Recreation Resource Advisory Committee; Federal Lands...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-13

    ... Recreation Resource Advisory Committee; Federal Lands Recreation Enhancement Act AGENCY: Rocky Mountain Region, Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Meeting of the Colorado Recreation Resource Advisory Committee. SUMMARY: The Colorado Recreation Resource Advisory Committee (RRAC) will meet by telephone conference...

  13. Football's coming home?: Digital reterritorialization, contradictions in the transnational coverage of sport and the sociology of alternative football broadcasts.

    PubMed

    David, Matthew; Millward, Peter

    2012-06-01

    This article critically utilizes the work of Manuel Castells to discuss the issue of parallel imported broadcasts (specifically including live-streams) in football. This is of crucial importance to sport because the English Premier League is premised upon the sale of television rights broadcasts to domestic and overseas markets, and yet cheaper alternative broadcasts endanger the price of such rights. Evidence is drawn from qualitative fieldwork and library/Internet sources to explore the practices of supporters and the politics involved in the generation of alternative broadcasts. This enables us to clarify the core sociological themes of 'milieu of innovation' and 'locale' within today's digitally networked global society.

  14. 36 CFR 327.23 - Recreation use fees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... specialized sites, facilities, equipment or services related to outdoor recreation furnished at Federal... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Recreation use fees. 327.23... § 327.23 Recreation use fees. (a) In accordance with the Land and Water Conservation Fund Act of...

  15. 36 CFR 327.23 - Recreation use fees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... specialized sites, facilities, equipment or services related to outdoor recreation furnished at Federal... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Recreation use fees. 327.23... § 327.23 Recreation use fees. (a) In accordance with the Land and Water Conservation Fund Act of...

  16. 36 CFR 327.23 - Recreation use fees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... specialized sites, facilities, equipment or services related to outdoor recreation furnished at Federal... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Recreation use fees. 327.23... § 327.23 Recreation use fees. (a) In accordance with the Land and Water Conservation Fund Act of...

  17. 36 CFR 327.23 - Recreation use fees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... specialized sites, facilities, equipment or services related to outdoor recreation furnished at Federal... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Recreation use fees. 327.23... § 327.23 Recreation use fees. (a) In accordance with the Land and Water Conservation Fund Act of...

  18. 36 CFR 327.23 - Recreation use fees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... specialized sites, facilities, equipment or services related to outdoor recreation furnished at Federal... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Recreation use fees. 327.23... § 327.23 Recreation use fees. (a) In accordance with the Land and Water Conservation Fund Act of...

  19. Rights of the Disabled to Participate in Recreational Sports.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson-Freeman, Gina; Gambino, Stephen

    1989-01-01

    The article discusses federal legislation and legal information on rights of physically disabled people to participate in recreational sports. The impact of recreational sports participation for these individuals is discussed, recommending college campuses act as arenas for integrative and adapted sport programing. Goals for recreational sports…

  20. RECREATION PROBLEMS OF RURAL YOUTH IN A CHANGING ENVIRONMENT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    PRENDERGAST, JOSEPH

    RURAL YOUTH WHO ARE MOVING TO URBAN AREAS ARE NOT PREPARED TO PARTICIPATE IN URBAN TYPES OF RECREATION PROGRAMS. THE RECREATION SKILLS OF THOSE WHO HAVE LEFT THE FARM BUT ARE STILL IN RURAL SETTINGS DO NOT MATCH THE URBAN OPPORTUNITIES REACHING OUT TO THEM. THOSE STILL ON THE FARMS ARE GETTING RECREATION IDEAS THROUGH MASS MEDIA WITHOUT FINDING…

  1. Medical and recreational marijuana: commentary and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, Samuel T

    2013-01-01

    Recent years have seen substantial shifts in cultural attitudes towards marijuana for medical and recreational use. Potential problems with the approval, production, dispensation, route of administration, and negative health effects of medical and recreational marijuana are reviewed. Medical marijuana should be subject to the same rigorous approval process as other medications prescribed by physicians. Legalizing recreational marijuana may have negative public health effects.

  2. 20 CFR 638.515 - Recreation/avocational program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Recreation/avocational program. 638.515... PROGRAM UNDER TITLE IV-B OF THE JOB TRAINING PARTNERSHIP ACT Center Operations § 638.515 Recreation/avocational program. The center operator shall develop a recreation/avocational program in accordance...

  3. 43 CFR 8365.2 - Developed recreation sites and areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Developed recreation sites and areas. 8365... LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RECREATION PROGRAMS VISITOR SERVICES Rules of Conduct § 8365.2 Developed recreation sites and areas. The rules governing conduct and use of a...

  4. Diffusion of Innovation: A Roadmap for Inclusive Community Recreation Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schleien, Stuart J.; Miller, Kimberly D.

    2010-01-01

    Inclusive community recreation is an optimal environment for the development of recreation and sports skills and social relationships between people with and without disabilities. Although we know much about best practices for inclusion, little systemic change in recreation agencies has transpired. Diffusion of Innovation Theory is proposed as a…

  5. 36 CFR 261.16 - Developed recreation sites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Developed recreation sites... PROHIBITIONS General Prohibitions § 261.16 Developed recreation sites. The following are prohibited: (a) Occupying any portion of the site for other than recreation purposes. (b) Building, attending,...

  6. 20 CFR 638.515 - Recreation/avocational program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Recreation/avocational program. 638.515... PROGRAM UNDER TITLE IV-B OF THE JOB TRAINING PARTNERSHIP ACT Center Operations § 638.515 Recreation/avocational program. The center operator shall develop a recreation/avocational program in accordance...

  7. 50 CFR 648.127 - Scup recreational fishing season.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Scup recreational fishing season. 648.127... Measures for the Scup Fishery § 648.127 Scup recreational fishing season. Fishermen and vessels that are... possession limit specified in § 648.128(a). The recreational fishing season may be adjusted pursuant to...

  8. 50 CFR 648.127 - Scup recreational fishing season.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Scup recreational fishing season. 648.127... Measures for the Scup Fishery § 648.127 Scup recreational fishing season. Fishermen and vessels that are... possession limit specified in § 648.128(a). The recreational fishing season may be adjusted pursuant to...

  9. 50 CFR 648.127 - Scup recreational fishing season.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Scup recreational fishing season. 648.127... Measures for the Scup Fishery § 648.127 Scup recreational fishing season. Fishermen and vessels that are... possession limit specified in § 648.128(a). The recreational fishing season may be adjusted pursuant to...

  10. Organisation of Recreation for the Blind in the USSR.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kulicheva, N.

    The booklet contains a brief description of recreation under the auspices of the All-Russia Society for the Blind in the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics and a number of photographs illustrating recreational activities. It is noted that approximately 24,000 blind persons participate in recreational activities located in club rooms near their…

  11. Therapeutic Recreation in the Community: An Inclusive Approach. Second Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Marcia Jean; LeConey, Stephen P.

    2004-01-01

    The second edition of Therapeutic Recreation in the Community: An Inclusive Approach reflects the changing and evolving nature of recreation and health care services. A number of social, economic, and political directives and technological advancements have fostered recreation in the community for all individuals. Due in part to a rising awareness…

  12. The Future of Outdoor Recreation. What the Trends Tell Us.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLellan, Gina

    1986-01-01

    The author looked at trend data presented at the 1985 National Outdoor Recreation Trends Symposium and synthesized the results to offer insights into the future of outdoor recreation. Discussed are social, activity, private sector recreational, economic, tourism, and policy trends. (MT)

  13. Serving the Homeless through Recreation Programs. Research Update.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kunstler, Robin

    1993-01-01

    Literature review examines problems faced by homeless adults and children and discusses how recreation programs can serve them. The recreation and leisure profession can offer to the healthy child development through play and recreation, physical fitness, stress management, socialization, opportunities to learn goal-setting, self-esteem building,…

  14. The Citizen Survey Process in Parks and Recreation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelsey, Craig; Gray, Howard

    This document describes the citizen survey process as it relates to study of the parks and recreation field. A community parks and recreation survey consists of identifying the interests, desires, priorities and awareness factors of citizens regarding parks and recreation programs, resources, and facilities as well as the nature and frequency of…

  15. Recreational Participation of Children with High Functioning Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potvin, Marie-Christine; Snider, Laurie; Prelock, Patricia; Kehayia, Eva; Wood-Dauphinee, Sharon

    2013-01-01

    The recreation of children with High Functioning Autism (HFA) is not well understood. The objective of this cross-sectional study was to compare the recreational engagement of children with HFA and their typically developing peers. Children with HFA (n = 30) and peers (n = 31) were similar on key characteristics that may impact recreation except…

  16. 40 CFR 230.51 - Recreational and commercial fisheries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Potential Effects on Human Use Characteristics § 230.51 Recreational and commercial fisheries. (a) Recreational and commercial fisheries consist of harvestable fish, crustaceans, shellfish, and other aquatic... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Recreational and commercial...

  17. Identifying the Computer Competency Levels of Recreation Department Undergraduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zorba, Erdal

    2011-01-01

    Computer-based and web-based applications are as major instructional tools to increase undergraduates' motivation at school. In the recreation field usage of, computer and the internet based recreational applications has become more prevalent in order to present visual and interactive entertainment activities. Recreation department undergraduates…

  18. Application of the Recreation Opportunity Spectrum for Outdoor Recreation Planning on Army Installations.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-03-01

    CHART NATIONAL BUREAU OF STANDARDS 1963-A construction eUie 1tteAm engineering th amTechnical ReportN12 research Management of Training Area Evrnet...and its current use in outdoor recreation planning and management . The ROS provides a framework for resources inventory, specification of...recreational opportuni- ties, resource capability and suitability analysis, selection of managment objectives and practices, and impact assessment. The ROS

  19. Body density differences between negro and caucasian professional football players

    PubMed Central

    Adams, J.; Bagnall, K. M.; McFadden, K. D.; Mottola, M.

    1981-01-01

    Other workers have shown that the bone density for the average negro is greater than for the average caucasian. This would lead to greater values of body density for the average negro but it is confused because the average negro has a different body form (and consequently different proportions of body components) compared with the average caucasian. This study of body density of a group of professional Canadian football players investigates whether or not to separate negroes from caucasians when considering the formation of regression equations for prediction of body density. Accordingly, a group of 7 negroes and 7 caucasians were matched somatotypically and a comparison was made of their body density values obtained using a hydrostatic weighing technique and a closed-circuit helium dilution technique for measuring lung volumes. The results show that if somatotype is taken into account then no significant difference in body density values is found between negro and caucasian professional football players. The players do not have to be placed in separate groups but it remains to be seen whether or not these results apply to general members of the population. ImagesFigure 1 PMID:7317724

  20. Spinal-cord injuries in Australian footballers, 1960-1985.

    PubMed

    Taylor, T K; Coolican, M R

    1987-08-03

    A review of 107 footballers who suffered a spinal-cord injury between 1960 and 1985 has been undertaken. Since 1977, the number of such injuries in Rugby Union, Rugby League and Australian Rules has increased, from an average of about two injuries a year before 1977 to over eight injuries a year since then. Rugby Union is clearly the most dangerous game, particularly for schoolboys; all of the injuries in schoolboy games for this code have occurred since 1977. This study has shown that collision at scrum engagement, and not at scrum collapse, is the way in which the majority of scrum injuries are sustained. These injuries are largely preventable, and suggestions for rule changes are made. Half the injured players recovered to Frankel grades D or E. The financial entitlements of those injured were grossly inadequate; this warrants action. A national register for spinal-cord injuries from football should be established to monitor the effects of desirable rule changes in Rugby Union and Rugby League.

  1. Nutrition and hydration concerns of the female football player.

    PubMed

    Maughan, Ronald J; Shirreffs, Susan M

    2007-08-01

    There is little information on the nutritional habits of female football players at any level of the game. There is also a shortage of information on the nutrition and hydration strategies that players should adopt. In general, differences in nutritional needs between males and females are smaller than differences between individuals, so that principles developed for male players also apply to women. There is a need to address energy balance and body composition: prolonged energy deficits cannot be sustained without harm to health and performance. Published reports show mean carbohydrate intakes for female players of about 5 g/kg/day, and this seems to be too low to sustain consistent intensive training. The timing of protein intake may be as important as the amounts consumed, provided that the total intake is adequate. Dehydration adversely affects skill and stamina in women as it does in men, so an individualised hydration strategy should be developed. The prevalence of iron deficiency in women generally is high, but it seems to be alarmingly high in female players. All players should adopt dietary habits that ensure adequate iron intake. Football training seems to increase bone mass in the weight-bearing limbs, with positive implications for bone health in later life, but some players may be at risk from inadequate calcium dietary intake.

  2. Player acceleration and deceleration profiles in professional Australian football.

    PubMed

    Johnston, R J; Watsford, M L; Austin, D; Pine, M J; Spurrs, R W

    2015-09-01

    This study aimed to determine the validity and reliability of global positioning system (GPS) units for measuring a standardized set of acceleration and deceleration zones and whether these standardized zones were capable of identifying differences between playing positions in professional Australian football. Eight well trained male participants were recruited to wear two 5 Hz or 10 Hz GPS units whilst completing a team sport simulation circuit to measure acceleration and deceleration movements. For the second part of this article 30 professional players were monitored between 1-29 times using 5 Hz and 10 Hz GPS units for the collection of acceleration and deceleration movements during the 2011 and 2012 Australian Football League seasons. Players were separated into four distinct positional groups - nomadic players, fixed defenders, fixed forwards and ruckman. The GPS units analysed had good to poor levels of error for measuring the distance covered (<19.7%), time spent (<17.2%) and number of efforts performed (<48.0%) at low, moderate and high acceleration and deceleration zones. The results demonstrated that nomadic players and fixed defenders perform more acceleration and deceleration efforts during a match than fixed forwards and ruckman. These studies established that these GPS units can be used for analysing the distance covered and time spent at the acceleration and deceleration zones used. Further, these standardized zones were proven to be capable of distinguishing between player positions, with nomadic players and fixed defenders required to complete more high acceleration and deceleration efforts during a match.

  3. Football supporters' perceptions of their role in the home advantage.

    PubMed

    Wolfson, Sandy; Wakelin, Delia; Lewis, Matthew

    2005-04-01

    Football fans' views on their role in the home advantage were obtained by placing links to an internet questionnaire on supporters' websites. Altogether, 461 fans from clubs which had been promoted, relegated or unchanged in the past season of the English football leagues rated crowd support as significantly more influential than familiarity, travel, territoriality and referee bias in contributing to the home advantage. Fans felt responsible for inspiring their team to victory, took credit for distracting opponents, and believed that they could influence officials into making decisions in their team's favour. However, they did not accept personal blame for poor results. No effects for gender, age or the team's outcome in the promotion/relegation battle emerged, though season ticket holders were more extreme in their feelings of responsibility overall. Furthermore, it was suggested that mechanisms such as the perception of being superior to rivals can encourage fans to retain their allegiance to their teams, even when outcomes are disappointing. Indeed, affiliation may become so incorporated into self-identity that supporters may not have the option of abandoning their team, but instead perceive a reciprocal relationship in which both they and the team are expected to do their best to achieve success.

  4. Hamstrings strength imbalance in professional football (soccer) players in Australia.

    PubMed

    Ardern, Clare L; Pizzari, Tania; Wollin, Martin R; Webster, Kate E

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the isokinetic thigh muscle strength profile of professional male football players in Australia. Concentric (60° and 240°·s(-1)) and eccentric (30° and 120°·s(-1)) hamstrings and quadriceps isokinetic strength was measured with a HUMAC NORM dynamometer. The primary variables were bilateral concentric and eccentric hamstring and quadriceps peak torque ratios, concentric hamstring-quadriceps peak torque ratios, and mixed ratios (eccentric hamstring 30°·s(-1) ÷ concentric quadriceps 240°·s(-1)). Hamstring strength imbalance was defined as deficits in any 2 of: bilateral concentric hamstring peak torque ratio <0.86, bilateral eccentric hamstring peak torque ratio <0.86, concentric hamstring-quadriceps ratio <0.47, and mixed ratio <0.80. Fifty-five strength tests involving 42 players were conducted. Ten players (24%) were identified as having hamstring strength imbalance. Athletes with strength imbalance had significantly reduced concentric and eccentric bilateral hamstring peak torque ratios at all angular velocities tested; and reduced eccentric quadriceps peak torque (30°·s(-1)) in their stance leg, compared with those without strength imbalance. Approximately, 1 in 4 players had preseason hamstring strength imbalance; and all strength deficits were observed in the stance leg. Concentric and eccentric hamstrings strength imbalance may impact in-season football performance and could have implications for the future risk of injury.

  5. 75 FR 26711 - Notice of New Recreation Fee Site; Federal Lands Recreation Enhancement Act, (Title VIII, Pub. L...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-12

    ... No: 2010-11040] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Notice of New Recreation Fee Site; Federal Lands Recreation Enhancement Act, (Title VIII, Pub. L. 108-447) AGENCY: National Forests in Mississippi, USDA Forest Service. ACTION: Notice of New Recreation Fee Site. SUMMARY: Bethel Motorcycle and...

  6. 75 FR 26714 - Notice of Proposed New Recreation Fee Site; Federal Lands Recreation Enhancement Act, (Title VIII...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-12

    ... No: 2010-11042] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Notice of Proposed New Recreation Fee Site; Federal Lands Recreation Enhancement Act, (Title VIII, Pub. L. 108-447) AGENCY: National Forests in Mississippi, USDA Forest Service. ACTION: Notice of Proposed New Recreation Fee Site. SUMMARY: Rattlesnake...

  7. Implementation of the FIFA 11+ football warm up program: How to approach and convince the Football associations to invest in prevention

    PubMed Central

    Bizzini, Mario; Junge, Astrid; Dvorak, Jiri

    2013-01-01

    In the last decade, injury prevention has received a lot of attention in sports medicine, and recently international sports-governing bodies, such as the International Olympic Committee, declared the protection of the athletes’ health as one of their major objectives. In 1994, the Fédération Internationale de Football Association (FIFA) established its Medical Assessment and Research Centre (F-MARC) with the aim ‘to prevent football injuries and to promote football as a health-enhancing leisure activity, improving social behaviour’. Since then, FIFA has developed and evaluated its injury-prevention programmes ‘The 11’ and ‘FIFA 11+’ have demonstrated in several scientific studies how simple exercise-based programmes can decrease the incidence of injuries in amateur football players. This paper summarises 18 years of scientific and on-field work in injury prevention by an international sports federation (FIFA), from formulating the aim to make its sport safer to the worldwide dissemination of its injury-prevention programme in amateur football. PMID:23813485

  8. Comparison of somatotype values of football players in two professional league football teams according to the positions.

    PubMed

    Orhan, Ozlem; Sagir, Mehmet; Zorba, Erdal

    2013-06-01

    This study compared the somatotype values of football players according to their playing positions. The study aimed to determine the physical profiles of players and to analyze the relationships between somatotypes and playing positions. Study participants were members of two teams in the Turkey Professional Football League, Gençlerbirligi Sports Team (GB) (N = 24) and Gençlerbirligi Oftas Sports Team (GBO) (N = 24). Anthropometric measurements of the players were performed according to techniques suggested by the Anthropometric Standardization Reference Manual (ASRM) and International Biological Program (IBP). In somatotype calculations, triceps, subscapular, supraspinale and calf skinfold thickness, humerus bicondylar, femur bicondylar, biceps circumference, calf circumference and body weight and height were used. Statistical analysis of the data was performed using the Graph Pad prism Version 5.00 for Windows (Graph Pad Software, San Diego California USA); somatotype calculations and analyses used the Somatotype 1.1 program and graphical representations of the results were produced. Analysis of non-parametric (two independent samples) Mann-Whitney U Test of the player data showed that there were no statistically significant differences between the two teams. The measurements indicated that, when all of the GB and GBO players were evaluated collectively, their average somatotypes were balanced mesomorph. The somatotypes of GBO goalkeepers were generally ectomorphic mesomorph; GB goalkeepers were balanced mesomorphic, although they were slightly endomorphic.

  9. The Anatomy of the Global Football Player Transfer Network: Club Functionalities versus Network Properties

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Professional association football is a game of talent. The success of a professional club hinges largely on its ability of assembling the best team. Building on a dataset of player transfer records among more than 400 clubs in 24 world-wide top class leagues from 2011 to 2015, this study aims to relate a club’s success to its activities in the player transfer market from a network perspective. We confirm that modern professional football is indeed a money game, in which larger investment spent on the acquisition of talented players generally yields better team performance. However, further investigation shows that professional football clubs can actually play different strategies in surviving or even excelling this game, and the success of strategies is strongly associated to their network properties in the football player transfer network. PMID:27253198

  10. The first concussion crisis: head injury and evidence in early American football.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Emily A

    2014-05-01

    In the early 21st century, sports concussion has become a prominent public health problem, popularly labeled "The Concussion Crisis." Football-related concussion contributes much of the epidemiological burden and inspires much of the public awareness. Though often cast as a recent phenomenon, the crisis in fact began more than a century ago, as concussions were identified among footballers in the game's first decades. This early concussion crisis subsided-allowing the problem to proliferate-because work was done by football's supporters to reshape public acceptance of risk. They appealed to an American culture that permitted violence, shifted attention to reforms addressing more visible injuries, and legitimized football within morally reputable institutions. Meanwhile, changing demands on the medical profession made practitioners reluctant to take a definitive stance. Drawing on scientific journals, public newspapers, and personal letters of players and coaches, this history of the early crisis raises critical questions about solutions being negotiated at present.

  11. In Wake of Football Scandal, Southern Methodist Confronts Tough Questions About Its Reputation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lederman, Douglas

    1987-01-01

    The trustees at Southern Methodist University are expected to approve a plan that will cut the board's size in half and revamp a much-maligned governance system. This transformation was impelled by a devastating football scandal. (MLW)

  12. The Anatomy of the Global Football Player Transfer Network: Club Functionalities versus Network Properties.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiao Fan; Liu, Yu-Liang; Lu, Xin-Hang; Wang, Qi-Xuan; Wang, Tong-Xing

    2016-01-01

    Professional association football is a game of talent. The success of a professional club hinges largely on its ability of assembling the best team. Building on a dataset of player transfer records among more than 400 clubs in 24 world-wide top class leagues from 2011 to 2015, this study aims to relate a club's success to its activities in the player transfer market from a network perspective. We confirm that modern professional football is indeed a money game, in which larger investment spent on the acquisition of talented players generally yields better team performance. However, further investigation shows that professional football clubs can actually play different strategies in surviving or even excelling this game, and the success of strategies is strongly associated to their network properties in the football player transfer network.

  13. Foot kinematics and loading of professional athletes in American football-specific tasks.

    PubMed

    Riley, Patrick O; Kent, Richard W; Dierks, Tracy A; Lievers, W Brent; Frimenko, Rebecca E; Crandall, Jeff R

    2013-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe stance foot and ankle kinematics and the associated ground reaction forces at the upper end of human performance in professional football players during commonly performed football-specific tasks. Nine participants were recruited from the spring training squad of a professional football team. In a motion analysis laboratory setting, participants performed three activities used at the NFL Scouting Combine to assess player speed and agility: the 3-cone drill, the shuttle run, and the standing high jump. The talocrural and first metatarsophalangial joint dorsiflexion, subtalar joint inversion, and the ground reaction forces were determined for the load bearing portions of each activity. We documented load-bearing foot and ankle kinematics of elite football players performing competition-simulating activities, and confirmed our hypothesis that the talocrural, subtalar, and metatarsophalangeal joint ranges of motion for the activities studied approached or exceeded reported physiological limits.

  14. Detecting deficits in change of direction performance using the preplanned multidirectional Australian football league agility test.

    PubMed

    Hart, Nicolas H; Spiteri, Tania; Lockie, Robert G; Nimphius, Sophia; Newton, Robert U

    2014-12-01

    The Australian Football League (AFL) agility test is a preplanned multidirectional circuit involving 5 directional changes of various magnitudes that might differently assess athletes of particular leg dominance. This study served to establish whether the AFL agility test appropriately examines athletes of differing limb dominance, while also quantifying performance deficits prevalent between limbs of Australian Footballers. Fifty-eight Australian Footballers were recruited from the Western Australian Football League (age = 21.9 ± 2.8 years; height = 183.7 ± 5.9 cm; weight = 86.4 ± 4.7 kg). Two circuits of the AFL agility test were set up in accordance with official specifications. The finish line of the second circuit was relocated to the opposite side to modify the starting direction. Footballers were randomized and counterbalanced between versions, performing 3 trials in each direction. Paired t-tests (p ≤ 0.05) were used to examine differences between dominant and nondominant trials. Independent t-tests (p ≤ 0.05) were used to identify differences between left and right leg dominant groups. The current version of the AFL agility test appropriately examined ∼61% of footballers in this cohort. The remaining ∼39% produced significantly faster times during the alternate version (0.63-0.82 seconds; p ≤ 0.001). All footballers demonstrated a performance deficit of 5-10% between limbs (∼0.72 seconds; p ≤ 0.001). Limb dominance (directional preference) was evident for all footballers. Change of direction capabilities should therefore be examined bilaterally to eliminate bias toward athletes with particular leg dominance profiles and to provide a limb deficit measure for enhanced athletic profiling outcomes.

  15. The Season After: A Football Coach Moves on after 27 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerson, Gary D.

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author shares his experience of being a football coach for 27 years and describes how he moves on after these years. For the first time in 27 years, he is not on the field with boys for two-a-days and scrimmages. And he is not going to be there for the games. So, there is no more football. This is after four years of walk-on…

  16. Blood (Breath) Alcohol Concentration Rates of College Football Fans on Game Day

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glassman, Tavis; Braun, Robert; Reindl, Diana M.; Whewell, Aubrey

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the Blood (breath) Alcohol Concentration (BrAC) rates of college football fans on game day. Researchers employed a time-series study design, collecting data at home football games at a large university in the Midwest. Participants included 536 individuals (64.4% male) ages 18-83 (M = 28.44, SD = 12.32).…

  17. Exploring athletic identity in elite-level English youth football: a cross-sectional approach.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Tom O; Nesti, Mark; Richardson, David; Midgley, Adrian W; Eubank, Martin; Littlewood, Martin

    2014-01-01

    This study is the first empirical investigation that has explored levels of athletic identity in elite-level English professional football. The importance of understanding athletes' psychological well-being within professional sport has been well documented. This is especially important within the professional football industry, given the high attrition rate (Anderson, G., & Miller, R. M. (2011). The academy system in English professional football: Business value or following the herd? University of Liverpool, Management School Research Paper Series. Retrieved from http://www.liv.ac.uk/managementschool/research/working%20papers/wp201143.pdf ) and distinct occupational practices (Roderick, M. (2006). The work of professional football. A labour of love? London: Routledge). A total of 168 elite youth footballers from the English professional football leagues completed the Athletic Identity Measurement Scale (AIMS). Multilevel modelling was used to examine the effect of playing level, living arrangements and year of apprentice on the total AIMS score and its subscales (i.e., social identity, exclusivity and negative affectivity). Football club explained 30% of the variance in exclusivity among players (P = .022). Mean social identity was significantly higher for those players in the first year of their apprenticeship compared to the second year (P = .025). All other effects were not statistically significant (P > .05). The novel and unique findings have practical implications in the design and implementation of career support strategies with respect to social identity. This may facilitate the maintenance of motivation over a 2-year apprenticeship and positively impact on performance levels within the professional football environment.

  18. Lightning injuries in sports and recreation.

    PubMed

    Thomson, Eric M; Howard, Thomas M

    2013-01-01

    The powers of lightning have been worshiped and feared by all known human cultures. While the chance of being struck by lightning is statistically very low, that risk becomes much greater in those who frequently work or play outdoors. Over the past 2 yr, there have been nearly 50 lightning-related deaths reported within the United States, with a majority of them associated with outdoor recreational activities. Recent publications primarily have been case studies, review articles, and a discussion of a sixth method of injury. The challenge in reducing lightning-related injuries in organized sports has been addressed well by both the National Athletic Trainers' Association and the National Collegiate Athletic Association in their guidelines on lightning safety. Challenges remain in educating the general population involved in recreational outdoor activities that do not fall under the guidelines of organized sports.

  19. Do recreational activities affect coastal biodiversity?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riera, Rodrigo; Menci, Cristiano; Sanabria-Fernández, José Antonio; Becerro, Mikel A.

    2016-09-01

    Human activities are largely affecting coastal communities worldwide. Recreational perturbations have been overlooked in comparison to other perturbations, yet they are potential threats to marine biodiversity. They affect coastal communities in different ways, underpinning consistent shifts in fish and invertebrates assemblages. Several sites were sampled subjected to varying effects by recreational fishermen (low and high pressure) and scuba divers (low and high) in an overpopulated Atlantic island. Non-consistent differences in ecological, trophic and functional diversity were found in coastal communities, considering both factors ("diving" and "fishing"). Multivariate analyses only showed significant differences in benthic invertebrates between intensively-dived and non-dived sites. The lack of clear trends may be explained by the depletion of coastal resources in the study area, an extensively-affected island by overfishing.

  20. Reliability and validity of a novel intermittent peak running speed test for Australian football.

    PubMed

    Mooney, Mitchell G; Hunter, Jayden R; O'Brien, Brendan J; Berry, Jason T; Young, Warren B

    2011-04-01

    Australian football requires frequent intermittent sprinting close to peak running speed. However, tests assessing the capability to maintain intermittent peak running speed are not reported in scientific literature. Therefore, our objective is to report the reliability and validity of a novel intermittent peak running speed test. The intermittent peak running speed test required footballers to perform 10 repetitions on 25-second intervals. Each repetition required 15-m jogging, 20-m acceleration to peak speed, 10 m to sustain peak speed, 20-m deceleration, and finally a 15-m jog. Intermittent peak running speed was determined by portable global positioning system. To assess reliability, 26 footballers performed the intermittent peak running speed test on 2 occasions 3-5 days apart. Our results revealed that average peak speed had a coefficient of variation of 2.2% and an intraclass correlation of 0.91. To assess construct validity, average peak speed was compared between elite, sub-elite, and regional footballers. The average peak speed of the elite footballers (28.6 ± 1.7 km · h(-1)) was higher than that of the sub-elite (27.4 ± 1.7 km · h(-1)) and regional (27 ± 1.9 km · h(-1)) competitors (p < 0.05). Our study revealed that the intermittent peak running speed test possesses acceptable reliability and distinguishes between elite and sub-elite footballers.