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Sample records for 16-week study period

  1. Effectiveness of a 16-Week Multimodal Exercise Program on Individuals With Dementia: Study Protocol for a Multicenter Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Scharpf, Andrea; Barisch-Fritz, Bettina; Niermann, Christina; Woll, Alexander

    2017-01-01

    Background The increasing prevalence of dementia in the next decades is accompanied by various societal and economic problems. Previous studies have suggested that physical activity positively affects motor and cognitive skills in individuals with dementia (IWD). However, there is insufficient evidence probably related to several methodological limitations. Moreover, to date adequate physical activity interventions specifically developed for IWD are lacking. Objective This study aims to investigate the effectiveness of a multimodal exercise program (MEP) on motor and cognitive skills in IWD in a high-quality multicenter trial. Methods A multicenter randomized controlled trial with baseline and postassessments will be performed. It is planned to enroll 405 participants with dementia of mild to moderate stage, aged 65 years and older. The intervention group will participate in a 16-week ritualized MEP especially developed for IWD. The effectiveness of the MEP on the primary outcomes balance, mobility, and gait will be examined using a comprehensive test battery. Secondary outcomes are strength and function of lower limbs, activities of daily living, and cognition (overall cognition, language, processing speed, learning and memory, and visual spatial cognition). Results Enrollment for the study started in May 2015. It is planned to complete postassessments by the beginning of 2017. Results are expected to be available in the first half of 2017. Conclusions This study will contribute to enhancing evidence for the effects of physical activity on motor and cognitive skills in IWD. Compared to previous studies, this study is characterized by a dementia-specific intervention based on scientific knowledge, a combination of motor and cognitive tasks in the intervention, and high standards regarding methodology. Findings are highly relevant to influence the multiple motor and cognitive impairments of IWD who are often participating in limited physical activity. Trial

  2. Effects of 16-week high-intensity interval training using upper and lower body ergometers on aerobic fitness and morphological changes in healthy men: a preliminary study

    PubMed Central

    Osawa, Yusuke; Azuma, Koichiro; Tabata, Shogo; Katsukawa, Fuminori; Ishida, Hiroyuki; Oguma, Yuko; Kawai, Toshihide; Itoh, Hiroshi; Okuda, Shigeo; Matsumoto, Hideo

    2014-01-01

    It is unclear whether combined leg and arm high-intensity interval training (HIIT) improves fitness and morphological characteristics equal to those of leg-based HIIT programs. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of HIIT using leg-cycling (LC) and arm-cranking (AC) ergometers with an HIIT program using only LC. Effects on aerobic capacity and skeletal muscle were analyzed. Twelve healthy male subjects were assigned into two groups. One performed LC-HIIT (n=7) and the other LC- and AC-HIIT (n=5) twice weekly for 16 weeks. The training programs consisted of eight to 12 sets of >90% VO2 (the oxygen uptake that can be utilized in one minute) peak for 60 seconds with a 60-second active rest period. VO2 peak, watt peak, and heart rate were measured during an LC incremental exercise test. The cross-sectional area (CSA) of trunk and thigh muscles as well as bone-free lean body mass were measured using magnetic resonance imaging and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. The watt peak increased from baseline in both the LC (23%±38%; P<0.05) and the LC–AC groups (11%±9%; P<0.05). The CSA of the quadriceps femoris muscles also increased from baseline in both the LC (11%±4%; P<0.05) and the LC–AC groups (5%±5%; P<0.05). In contrast, increases were observed in the CSA of musculus psoas major (9%±11%) and musculus anterolateral abdominal (7%±4%) only in the LC–AC group. These results suggest that a combined LC- and AC-HIIT program improves aerobic capacity and muscle hypertrophy in both leg and trunk muscles. PMID:25395872

  3. Lymphocyte subpopulations in the liver, spleen, intestines, and mesenteric nodes: an immunohistochemical study using human fetuses at 15-16 weeks.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Si Eun; Kim, Ji Hyun; Yu, Hee Chul; Murakami, Gen; Cho, Baik Hwan

    2014-08-01

    The roles of the liver and intestines in lymphocyte differentiation in human fetuses were assessed by immunohistochemical analysis of the thymus, bone marrow, liver, spleen, intestines, and lymph nodes of 15-16 week human fetuses using primary antibodies against IgM, CD3, CD7, CD8, CD10, CD20, CD45RO, HLA-DR, and CD68. The density of immunoreactive lymphocytes was high in the thymus and lymph nodes, but much lower in the bones, liver, spleen, and intestines. The medulla of the thymus contained IgM-positive mature B lymphocytes as well as CD20-positve B lymphocytes. In contrast, CD10-positive immature B lymphocytes were restricted in the cortex. There were no site-dependent differences among axillary, mediastinal, mesenteric, and pelvic lymph nodes. CD68-positive cells were observed at all sites examined. Many HLA-DR-positive round cells were present in the thymus, with fewer in the liver and spleen. The absolute number of lymphocytes was estimated to be ≥10-fold higher in lymph nodes than in liver. Although limited by analysis of only one fetal stage, these findings suggest that mesenteric nodes are likely to be more important than the liver, spleen, and intestines for lymphocyte proliferation and differentiation in human mid-term fetuses.

  4. Performance enhancements and muscular adaptations of a 16-week recreational football intervention for untrained women.

    PubMed

    Bangsbo, J; Nielsen, J J; Mohr, M; Randers, M B; Krustrup, B R; Brito, J; Nybo, L; Krustrup, P

    2010-04-01

    The present study investigated the performance effects and physiological adaptations over 16 weeks of recreational football training and continuous running for healthy untrained premenopausal women in comparison with an inactive control group [Football group (FG): n=21; running group (RG): n=18; CO: n=14]. Two weekly 1-h training sessions were performed in FG and RG. After 4 and 16 weeks of training VO(2max) was elevated (P<0.05) by 7% and 15%, respectively, in FG, and by 6% and 10%, respectively, in RG. After 16 weeks, Yo-Yo intermittent endurance level 2 performance was 33% and 19% better (P<0.05) for FG and 29% and 21% better (P<0.05) for RG than after 4 and 0 weeks, respectively. Peak sprinting speed was 12% higher (21.0 +/- 0.6 vs 18.8 +/- 0.7 km/h; P<0.05) for FG after the training period, whereas no difference was observed for RG. After 4 weeks citrate synthase (CS) and 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase (HAD) activity was 9% and 8%, respectively, higher (P<0.05) than before training in FG with no further changes during the last 12 weeks. In RG, CS increased (P<0.05) by 12% after 4 weeks and no significant increase was observed for HAD. In FG, the number of capillaries per fiber was 18% higher (P<0.05) after 16 weeks (2.44 +/- 0.15 vs 2.07 +/- 0.05 cap/fiber), with no significant difference for RG. No differences were observed between 0 and 16 weeks for CO. In conclusion, recreational women's football leads to significant increases in VO(2max), performance and muscular adaptations throughout a 16-week training period. Thus, football can be used as an activity to elevate the physical capacity of untrained women.

  5. Effect of a 16-Week Yoga Program on Blood Pressure in Healthy College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Debra; Reed, Justy; Buck, Sarah M.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of a 16-week yoga program on blood pressure (BP) in healthy college students. Twenty-five students (Mage = 28.24, SD = 10.64) participated in yoga class twice per week for 16 weeks. Thirty-one students (Mage = 28.77, SD = 7.23) attended a lecture (control condition) at approximately the same time…

  6. The effects of a 16-week aerobic exercise programme on cognitive function in people living with HIV.

    PubMed

    McDermott, Adam; Zaporojan, Lilia; McNamara, Patricia; Doherty, Colin P; Redmond, Janice; Forde, Cuisle; Gormley, John; Egaña, Mikel; Bergin, Colm

    2016-11-28

    High levels of cardiovascular fitness and physical activity are associated with higher levels of cognitive function in people with HIV, thus, they may reduce the risk of developing HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND). This study aimed to investigate the effects of a 16-week aerobic exercise intervention on cognitive function in people with HIV. Eleven participants living with HIV were recruited into the study. Participants were randomised into either an exercise group (n = 5), that completed a 16-week aerobic exercise programme training, 3 times per week (2 supervised sessions and one unsupervised session) or a control group (n = 6) that received no intervention. Outcomes measured included cognitive function (Montreal cognitive assessment (MOCA) and the Trail making tests A and B), aerobic fitness (modified Bruce protocol), sleep quality (Pittsburgh sleep quality index; PSQI) and physical activity levels (seven-day accelerometry). At baseline, higher levels of moderate physical activity were positively correlated with higher MOCA scores and levels of aerobic fitness were negatively associated with Trail A scores (P = 0.04 and P = 0.001 respectively). However, exercise training did not induce any significant improvements in cognitive function or aerobic fitness. The overall mean adherence rate to the exercise programme was 60%. In conclusion, in the present study a 16-week aerobic exercise intervention did not affect the cognitive function of participants with HIV. It is likely that longer intervention periods and/or higher adherence rates to exercise might be needed for an aerobic exercise programme to be effective in improving cognitive function in a cohort with no baseline cognitive impairments.

  7. 16 Weeks of Progressive Barefoot Running Training Changes Impact Force and Muscle Activation in Habitual Shod Runners.

    PubMed

    Azevedo, Ana Paula da Silva; Mezêncio, Bruno; Amadio, Alberto Carlos; Serrão, Julio Cerca

    2016-01-01

    Short-term effects of barefoot and simulated barefoot running have been widely discussed in recent years. Consequences of adopting barefoot running for a long period, including as a training approach, still remain unknown. The present study evaluated the influence of 16 weeks of progressive barefoot running training on impact force and muscle activation in habitual shod runners. Six habitual shod runners (3 men and 3 women, 29.5 ± 7.3 years) were tested barefoot (BF) and shod (SH), before and after 16 weeks of progressive barefoot running training. Tests consisted of running on instrumented treadmill at 9 km/h, for 10 minutes in each experimental condition. Nine data acquisitions (10 s) of vertical ground reaction force (VGRF) and electromyographic (EMG) signal were conducted in each experimental condition for each test. BF training was effective to alter VGRF and EMG parameters of running in habitual shod runners, regardless of footwear condition (SH or BF). The magnitude of first peak of VGRF (Fy1) and the impulse of the first 50 ms decreased after training for BF and SH (p<0.01). The activation reduced from PRE to POST training for four muscles in BF running (p<0.001), whereas only muscle gastrocnemius lateralis decreased significantly its activation (p<0.01) in SH running. A 16-week progressive barefoot running training seems to be an effective training strategy to reduce impact force, improve shock attenuation and to decrease muscle activation intensity, not only in BF running, but also in SH running, although BF condition seems to be more influenced by BF training.

  8. 16 Weeks of Progressive Barefoot Running Training Changes Impact Force and Muscle Activation in Habitual Shod Runners

    PubMed Central

    Mezêncio, Bruno; Amadio, Alberto Carlos; Serrão, Julio Cerca

    2016-01-01

    Short-term effects of barefoot and simulated barefoot running have been widely discussed in recent years. Consequences of adopting barefoot running for a long period, including as a training approach, still remain unknown. The present study evaluated the influence of 16 weeks of progressive barefoot running training on impact force and muscle activation in habitual shod runners. Six habitual shod runners (3 men and 3 women, 29.5 ± 7.3 years) were tested barefoot (BF) and shod (SH), before and after 16 weeks of progressive barefoot running training. Tests consisted of running on instrumented treadmill at 9 km/h, for 10 minutes in each experimental condition. Nine data acquisitions (10 s) of vertical ground reaction force (VGRF) and electromyographic (EMG) signal were conducted in each experimental condition for each test. BF training was effective to alter VGRF and EMG parameters of running in habitual shod runners, regardless of footwear condition (SH or BF). The magnitude of first peak of VGRF (Fy1) and the impulse of the first 50 ms decreased after training for BF and SH (p<0.01). The activation reduced from PRE to POST training for four muscles in BF running (p<0.001), whereas only muscle gastrocnemius lateralis decreased significantly its activation (p<0.01) in SH running. A 16-week progressive barefoot running training seems to be an effective training strategy to reduce impact force, improve shock attenuation and to decrease muscle activation intensity, not only in BF running, but also in SH running, although BF condition seems to be more influenced by BF training. PMID:27907069

  9. The effect of 16-week plyometric training on explosive actions in early to mid-puberty elite soccer players.

    PubMed

    Söhnlein, Quirin; Müller, Erich; Stöggl, Thomas L

    2014-08-01

    Plyometric training (PT) programs are widely used to improve explosive actions in soccer players of various ages, although there is debate about optimal training duration and time course of improvement. Twenty-two early to mid-puberty elite soccer players were assigned to a control group (CG, n = 10, regular soccer training) or a plyometric training group (PTG, n = 12, regular soccer training substituted with 2 PT sessions each week). Both groups trained for 16 weeks during the in-season period. Control group performed only tests at baseline and after intervention, whereas PTG performed additional tests after 4, 8, and 12 weeks. During each test, subjects' performances in speed (10 and 30 m; 5 and 20 m), agility, shuttle run, multiple 5 bounds (MB5), and standing long jump (LJ) were recorded. The PTG showed improved performance in 20-m sprint time (-3.2%), agility time (-6.1%), MB5 distance (+11.8%), and LJ distance (+7.3%) (all, p ≤ 0.05) after 16 weeks. All these improvements were higher compared with CG (all, p ≤ 0.05). The time course of improvement in the PT group showed that 20-m sprint time improved after 16 weeks (p = 0.012); agility after 4 (p = 0.047) and 8 weeks (p = 0.004) but stopped after 12 weeks (p = 0.007); MB5 after 8 (p = 0.039), 12 (p = 0.028), and 16 weeks (p < 0.001); and LJ improved after 4 (p = 0.045), 12 (p = 0.008), and 16 weeks (p < 0.001). Plyometric training seems to be an appropriate training tool to enhance some but not all explosive actions. The results indicate that the duration of a PT program is highly dependent on what type of explosive actions should be improved, or whether several explosive actions should be improved at the same time.

  10. Effect of a 16-week Pilates exercise program on the ego resiliency and depression in elderly women.

    PubMed

    Roh, Su Yeon

    2016-10-01

    This study aims to examine the effect of a 16-week Pilates exercise program on the ego resiliency and depression in elderly women. Before participating in Pilates exercise programs, researcher explained the purpose and the intention of the research to elderly women who were willing to participate in this research. A total of 148 elderly women agreed to participate in the program and they filled in ego resiliency and depression questionnaires. Then, the elderly participated in the 16-week Pilates exercise program and completed the same questionnaires afterwards. Collected data was analyzed by the SPSS ver. 20.0 program and results of paired t-test were as follows; there were statistically significant differences in all subvariables of the ego resiliency such as self-confidence (t=7.770, P<0.001), communication efficiency (t=2.690, P<0.01), optimistic trait (t=1.996, P<0.05), and anger management (t=4.525, P<0.001) after elderly women participated in the 16-week Pilates exercise program, there was a statistically significant difference in depression of elderly women who participated in the 16-week Pilates exercise program (t=-6.506, P<0.001) which was statistically lower than before their participation in the program. Consequently, participating in the Pilates exercise program can help improve the ego-resiliency and alleviate depression of the elderly women.

  11. Effect of a 16-week Pilates exercise program on the ego resiliency and depression in elderly women

    PubMed Central

    Roh, Su Yeon

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to examine the effect of a 16-week Pilates exercise program on the ego resiliency and depression in elderly women. Before participating in Pilates exercise programs, researcher explained the purpose and the intention of the research to elderly women who were willing to participate in this research. A total of 148 elderly women agreed to participate in the program and they filled in ego resiliency and depression questionnaires. Then, the elderly participated in the 16-week Pilates exercise program and completed the same questionnaires afterwards. Collected data was analyzed by the SPSS ver. 20.0 program and results of paired t-test were as follows; there were statistically significant differences in all subvariables of the ego resiliency such as self-confidence (t=7.770, P<0.001), communication efficiency (t=2.690, P<0.01), optimistic trait (t=1.996, P<0.05), and anger management (t=4.525, P<0.001) after elderly women participated in the 16-week Pilates exercise program, there was a statistically significant difference in depression of elderly women who participated in the 16-week Pilates exercise program (t=−6.506, P<0.001) which was statistically lower than before their participation in the program. Consequently, participating in the Pilates exercise program can help improve the ego-resiliency and alleviate depression of the elderly women. PMID:27807531

  12. Improved WOMAC score following 16-week treatment with bromelain for knee osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Kasemsuk, Thitima; Saengpetch, Nadhaporn; Sibmooh, Nathawut; Unchern, Supeenun

    2016-10-01

    Treatment with bromelain-containing enzyme preparation for 3-4 weeks is effective for treatment of knee osteoarthritis (OA). Here, we aimed to assess 16-week treatment with bromelain in mild-to-moderate knee OA patients. We performed a randomized, single-blind, active-controlled pilot study. Forty knee OA patients were randomized to receive oral bromelain (500 mg/day) or diclofenac (100 mg/day). Primary outcome was the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) analyzed by Wilcoxon signed rank test. Secondary outcome was the short-form 36 (SF-36). Plasma malondialdehyde (MDA) and nitrite were measured as oxidative stress markers. There was no difference in WOMAC and SF-36 scores compared between bromelain and diclofenac groups after 4 weeks. At week 4, the improvement of total WOMAC and pain subscales from baseline was observed in both groups; however, two patients given diclofenac had adverse effects leading to discontinuation of diclofenac. However, observed treatment difference was inconclusive. At week 16 of bromelain treatment, the patients had improved total WOMAC scores (12.2 versus 25.5), pain subscales (2.4 versus 5.6), stiffness subscales (0.8 versus 2.0), and function subscales (9.1 versus 17.9), and physical component of SF-36 (73.3 versus 65.4) as compared with baseline values. OA patients had higher plasma MDA, nitrite, and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated whole blood but lower plasma α-tocopherol than control subjects. Plasma MDA and LPS-stimulated PGE2 production were decreased at week 16 of bromelain treatment. Bromelain has no difference in reducing symptoms of mild-to-moderate knee OA after 4 weeks when compared with diclofenac.

  13. Vitamin D3 supplementation for 16 weeks improves flow-mediated dilation in overweight African American adults

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Ryan A; Pedersen-White, Jennifer; Guo, De-Huang; Stallmann-Jorgensen, Inger S.; Keeton, Daniel; Huang, Ying; Shah, Yashesh; Zhu, Haidong; Dong, Yanbin

    2013-01-01

    Background A growing body of evidence has linked vitamin D deficiency to increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Vitamin D deficiency is also more common in African Americans for whom an increased cardiovascular disease risk exists. This study sought to test the hypothesis that 16 weeks of 60,000 IU monthly supplementation of oral vitamin D3 would improve flow-mediated dilation (FMD) in African Americans, whereas no change would be observed in the placebo group. Methods A randomized, double blind, placebo controlled clinical trial was conducted. Fifty-seven African American adults were randomly assigned to either the placebo group or vitamin D group. Results Following 16 weeks of placebo (n=23; mean age 31±2 years) or 60,000 IU monthly oral vitamin D3 (n=22; mean age 29±2 years), serum concentrations of 25 hydroxyvitamin D increased from 38.2±3.0 nmol/L to 48.7±3.2 nmol/L and 34.3±2.2 nmol/L to 100.9±6.6 nmol/L, respectively. No changes in serum parathyroid hormone, serum calcium, or urine calcium/creatinine were observed following either treatment. Following 16 weeks of treatment, significant improvements in FMD were only observed in the vitamin D group (1.8±1.3%), whereas the placebo group had no change (-1.3±0.6%). Similarly, the vitamin D group exhibited an increase in absolute change in diameter (0.005±0.004 cm) and FMD/shear (0.08±0.04 %/s-1, AUC × 103) following treatment, whereas no change (-0.005±0.002 cm and -0.02±0.02 %/s-1, AUC, respectively) was observed following placebo. Conclusions Supplementation of 60,000 IU monthly oral vitamin D3 (~2000 IU per day) for 16 weeks is effective at improving vascular endothelial function in African American adults. PMID:21311504

  14. Physical Fitness of Police Academy Cadets: Baseline Characteristics and Changes During a 16-Week Academy

    PubMed Central

    Sherman, Ross A.; Crawley, William R.; Cosio-Lima, Ludmila M.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Crawley, AA, Sherman, RA, Crawley, WR, and Cosio-Lima, LM. Physical fitness of police academy cadets: baseline characteristics and changes during a 16-week academy. J Strength Cond Res 30(5): 1416–1424, 2016—Police academies traditionally emphasize the importance of being physically fit. The purpose of this research was to determine cadet baseline physical fitness characteristics and assess effectiveness of a 16-week training program. Sixty-eight cadets (61 men, 7 women) volunteered to have baseline physical fitness characteristics assessed, and 55 cadets (49 men, 6 women) completed further testing at weeks 8 and 16. The testing comprised hand grip (strength), arm crank (upper-body power), 30 seconds Wingate (lower body power), sum of skinfolds and percentage body fat (body composition), 40-yard dash (sprint speed), 1 repetition maximum bench press (strength), T-test (agility), and sit-and-reach (flexibility). In addition, cadets completed standardized state testing (push-ups, sit-ups, vertical jump, and half-mile shuttle run). The training program consisted of 1 hour sessions, 3 d·wk−1, including aerobic, plyometrics, body weight, and resistance exercise. Significant changes were found in agility (p < 0.01), upper-body and lower-body peak power (p ≤ 0.05), sit-ups (p < 0.01), push-ups (p ≤ 0.05) across the first 8 weeks, and in agility (p ≤ 0.05), lower-body peak power (p ≤ 0.05), sit-ups (p < 0.01), push-ups (p ≤ 0.05), half-mile shuttle run (p < 0.01) across the full 16 weeks. However, none of the variables showed significant change across the second half of the program (weeks 8–16). A number of individual parameters of physical fitness showed evidence of improvement in the first 8 weeks, whereas none of the variables showed significant improvement in the second 8 weeks. This suggests modifications could be made to increase overall effectiveness of cadet physical training specifically after the 8-week mark. PMID:26466133

  15. Physical Fitness of Police Academy Cadets: Baseline Characteristics and Changes During a 16-Week Academy.

    PubMed

    Crawley, Amy A; Sherman, Ross A; Crawley, William R; Cosio-Lima, Ludmila M

    2016-05-01

    Police academies traditionally emphasize the importance of being physically fit. The purpose of this research was to determine cadet baseline physical fitness characteristics and assess effectiveness of a 16-week training program. Sixty-eight cadets (61 men, 7 women) volunteered to have baseline physical fitness characteristics assessed, and 55 cadets (49 men, 6 women) completed further testing at weeks 8 and 16. The testing comprised hand grip (strength), arm crank (upper-body power), 30 seconds Wingate (lower body power), sum of skinfolds and percentage body fat (body composition), 40-yard dash (sprint speed), 1 repetition maximum bench press (strength), T-test (agility), and sit-and-reach (flexibility). In addition, cadets completed standardized state testing (push-ups, sit-ups, vertical jump, and half-mile shuttle run). The training program consisted of 1 hour sessions, 3 d·wk, including aerobic, plyometrics, body weight, and resistance exercise. Significant changes were found in agility (p < 0.01), upper-body and lower-body peak power (p ≤ 0.05), sit-ups (p < 0.01), push-ups (p ≤ 0.05) across the first 8 weeks, and in agility (p ≤ 0.05), lower-body peak power (p ≤ 0.05), sit-ups (p < 0.01), push-ups (p ≤ 0.05), half-mile shuttle run (p < 0.01) across the full 16 weeks. However, none of the variables showed significant change across the second half of the program (weeks 8-16). A number of individual parameters of physical fitness showed evidence of improvement in the first 8 weeks, whereas none of the variables showed significant improvement in the second 8 weeks. This suggests modifications could be made to increase overall effectiveness of cadet physical training specifically after the 8-week mark.

  16. Improvement in metabolic parameters in obese subjects after 16 weeks on a Brazilian-staple calorie-restricted diet

    PubMed Central

    Reis, Caio E. G.; da Silva, Fábio V. P.; Casulari, Luiz A.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES The standard pattern of Brazilian food consumption is based on the combination of rice and beans served together in the main meals. This study assessed the effects of Brazilian-staple calorie-restricted (BS-diet) dietary advice, with brown rice and beans, on metabolic parameters, body composition, and food intake in overweight/obese subjects. SUBJECTS/METHODS Twentyseven subjects were randomly assigned to a conventional-type calorie-restricted diet (CT-diet) (n = 13) or a BS-diet (n = 14). Glucose metabolism, lipid profile, anthropometric and body composition parameters, and food intake were measured before and after 16 weeks. Paired t-tests/Wilcoxon tests were used for comparison of differences from baseline and unpaired t-tests/Mann-Whitney tests were used for comparison of differences between the groups. RESULTS After 16 weeks, both groups showed reductions in weight and waist circumference (P < 0.02), and the BS-diet group showed a decrease in body fat (P = 0.0001), and significant improvement in glucose metabolism (fasting plasma glucose, glucose and insulin areas under the curve, Cederholm index, and HOMA2-%β) (P ≤ 0.04) and lipid profile (cholesterol, triacylglycerol, LDL-c, VLDL-c, and cholesterol/HDL-c ratio) (P ≤ 0.05). In addition, the BS-diet group showed significant improvement in HOMA2-%β, compared to the CT-diet group (P = 0.03). The BS-diet group also showed a significant reduction in energy, lipids, carbohydrate, and cholesterol intake (P ≤ 0.04) and an increase in fiber intake (P ≤ 0.001), while the CT-diet group showed a significant reduction in intake of energy, macronutrients, PUFA, and cholesterol (P ≤ 0.002). CONCLUSIONS These results demonstrate the benefits of the BS-diet on metabolic parameters in obese subjects. PMID:25110561

  17. Effects of 16-week functional movement screen training program on strength and flexibility of elite high school baseball players.

    PubMed

    Song, Hong-Sun; Woo, Seung-Seok; So, Wi-Young; Kim, Kwang-Jun; Lee, Joohyung; Kim, Joo-Young

    2014-04-01

    Functional Movement Screen (FMS) is a way to pretest functional movement. This study examined the effects of the FMS training program on the strength and flexibility of 62 elite male high school baseball players (31 in the training group, 31 in the control group). All players who received less than two points on each FMS test item had to join the 16-week, three times weekly FMS training program. To analyze results among the FMS participants, measures including intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and repeated measure ANOVA were utilized. The Kappa coefficient was 0.805 when the intraclass correlation coefficient of the three participants was inspected. Strength showed a significant interaction depending on time and group (hand grip strength: P=0.011, bench press and squat both for one-repetition maximum (1RM): P=0.001 and P=0.008, respectively). Back muscle strength did not show a significant difference (P=0.660). Trunk forward flexion showed no interaction depending on time and groups (P=0.983) but trunk extension backward showed significant differences depending on groups (P=0.004) and time (P=0.001). Splits showed a significant difference depending on time and groups (P=0.004). The FMS training program improved the strength and flexibility of elite high school baseball players.

  18. Improved Blood Biomarkers but No Cognitive Effects from 16 Weeks of Multivitamin Supplementation in Healthy Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Elizabeth; Macpherson, Helen; Pipingas, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Supplementation with vitamins, minerals and phytonutrients may be beneficial for cognition, especially in older adults. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of multivitamin supplementation in older adults on cognitive function and associated blood biomarkers. In a randomised, double blind, placebo-controlled trial, healthy women (n = 68) and men (n = 48) aged 55–65 years were supplemented daily for 16 weeks with women’s and men’s formula multivitamin supplements. Assessments at baseline and post-supplementation included computerised cognitive tasks and blood biomarkers relevant to cognitive aging. No cognitive improvements were observed after supplementation with either formula; however, several significant improvements were observed in blood biomarkers including increased levels of vitamins B6 and B12 in women and men; reduced C-reactive protein in women; reduced homocysteine and marginally reduced oxidative stress in men; as well as improvements to the lipid profile in men. In healthy older people, multivitamin supplementation improved a number of blood biomarkers that are relevant to cognition, but these biomarker changes were not accompanied by improved cognitive function. PMID:25996285

  19. Long-term beneficial effect of a 16-week very low calorie diet on pericardial fat in obese type 2 diabetes mellitus patients.

    PubMed

    Snel, Marieke; Jonker, Jacqueline T; Hammer, Sebastian; Kerpershoek, Gijs; Lamb, Hildo J; Meinders, A Edo; Pijl, Hanno; de Roos, Albert; Romijn, Johannes A; Smit, Johannes W A; Jazet, Ingrid M

    2012-08-01

    Pericardial fat accumulation has been associated with an increased cardiovascular risk. A very low calorie diet (VLCD) improves the cardiovascular risk profile in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), by improving the metabolic profile, heart function, and triglyceride (TG) stores in (non)adipose tissues. However, long-term effects of a VLCD on pericardial fat volume and tissue-specific TG accumulation have not been documented. The aim of this study was therefore to assess the effects of a 16-week VLCD and of subsequent 14 months follow-up on a regular diet on pericardial fat in relation to other TG stores in obese T2DM patients. We included 14 obese patients with insulin-treated T2DM (mean ± s.e.m.: age 53 ± 2 years; BMI 35 ± 1 kg/m(2)). Pericardial fat and other (non)adipose TG stores were measured using magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and proton spectroscopy before and after a 16-week VLCD and after a 14-month follow-up without dietary interventions. A 16-week VLCD reduced body weight, pericardial fat, hepatic TG content, visceral and subcutaneous abdominal fat volumes to 78, 83, 16, 40, and 53% of baseline values respectively, (all P < 0.05). After an additional 14 months of follow-up on a regular diet, the reduction in pericardial fat volume sustained, despite a substantial regain in body weight, visceral abdominal fat, and hepatic TG content (respectively 90, 83 and 73% of baseline values). In conclusion, VLCD-induced weight loss in obese T2DM patients is accompanied by a substantial decrease in pericardial fat volume, which is sustained even after subsequent weight regain.

  20. Treatment with α-Lipoic Acid over 16 Weeks in Type 2 Diabetic Patients with Symptomatic Polyneuropathy Who Responded to Initial 4-Week High-Dose Loading

    PubMed Central

    Garcia-Alcala, Hector; Santos Vichido, Celia Isabel; Islas Macedo, Silverio; Genestier-Tamborero, Christelle Nathalie; Minutti-Palacios, Marissa; Hirales Tamez, Omara; García, Carlos; Ziegler, Dan

    2015-01-01

    Effective treatment of diabetic sensorimotor polyneuropathy remains a challenge. To assess the efficacy and safety of α-lipoic acid (ALA) over 20 weeks, we conducted a multicenter randomized withdrawal open-label study, in which 45 patients with type 2 diabetes and symptomatic polyneuropathy were initially treated with ALA (600 mg tid) for 4 weeks (phase 1). Subsequently, responders were randomized to receive ALA (600 mg qd; n = 16) or to ALA withdrawal (n = 17) for 16 weeks (phase 2). During phase 1, the Total Symptom Score (TSS) decreased from 8.9 ± 1.8 points to 3.46 ± 2.0 points. During phase 2, TSS improved from 3.7 ± 1.9 points to 2.5 ± 2.5 points in the ALA treated group (p < 0.05) and remained unchanged in the ALA withdrawal group. The use of analgesic rescue medication was higher in the ALA withdrawal group than ALA treated group (p < 0.05). In conclusion, in type 2 diabetic patients with symptomatic polyneuropathy who responded to initial 4-week high-dose (600 mg tid) administration of ALA, subsequent treatment with ALA (600 mg qd) over 16 weeks improved neuropathic symptoms, whereas ALA withdrawal was associated with a higher use of rescue analgesic drugs. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02439879. PMID:26345602

  1. Treatment with α-Lipoic Acid over 16 Weeks in Type 2 Diabetic Patients with Symptomatic Polyneuropathy Who Responded to Initial 4-Week High-Dose Loading.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Alcala, Hector; Santos Vichido, Celia Isabel; Islas Macedo, Silverio; Genestier-Tamborero, Christelle Nathalie; Minutti-Palacios, Marissa; Hirales Tamez, Omara; García, Carlos; Ziegler, Dan

    2015-01-01

    Effective treatment of diabetic sensorimotor polyneuropathy remains a challenge. To assess the efficacy and safety of α-lipoic acid (ALA) over 20 weeks, we conducted a multicenter randomized withdrawal open-label study, in which 45 patients with type 2 diabetes and symptomatic polyneuropathy were initially treated with ALA (600 mg tid) for 4 weeks (phase 1). Subsequently, responders were randomized to receive ALA (600 mg qd; n = 16) or to ALA withdrawal (n = 17) for 16 weeks (phase 2). During phase 1, the Total Symptom Score (TSS) decreased from 8.9 ± 1.8 points to 3.46 ± 2.0 points. During phase 2, TSS improved from 3.7 ± 1.9 points to 2.5 ± 2.5 points in the ALA treated group (p < 0.05) and remained unchanged in the ALA withdrawal group. The use of analgesic rescue medication was higher in the ALA withdrawal group than ALA treated group (p < 0.05). In conclusion, in type 2 diabetic patients with symptomatic polyneuropathy who responded to initial 4-week high-dose (600 mg tid) administration of ALA, subsequent treatment with ALA (600 mg qd) over 16 weeks improved neuropathic symptoms, whereas ALA withdrawal was associated with a higher use of rescue analgesic drugs. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02439879.

  2. Changes in social physique anxiety during 16-week physical activity courses.

    PubMed

    Bowden, Rodney G; Rust, Dawnella M; Dunsmore, Sarah; Briggs, Jeffrey

    2005-06-01

    Social physique anxiety represents a discomfort or apprehension about body proportions, especially during social exercise. The purpose of this study was to describe the relationship for such anxiety with selection of differing types of physical activity courses, assess changes in social physique anxiety after a 16-wk. physical activity session, and examine sex differences in social physique anxiety. Data from 315 undergraduate students (217 women, 98 men) enrolled in either physical activity courses or an emergency care course showed those in a fitness course had higher anxiety scores. Such scores differed by sex, and showed improvement between 8 and 16 wk.

  3. Musculoskeletal health profile for elite female footballers versus untrained young women before and after 16 weeks of football training.

    PubMed

    Jackman, Sarah R; Scott, Suzanne; Randers, Morten Bredsgaard; Orntoft, Christina; Blackwell, Jamie; Zar, Abdossaleh; Helge, Eva Wulff; Mohr, Magni; Krustrup, Peter

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the musculoskeletal health profile of elite female football players (ET) in comparison to untrained (UT) young women subjected to 16 weeks of football training (2 × 1 h per week). DXA scans, blood sampling, sprint testing and Flamingo postural balance testing were carried out for 27 Danish national team players and 28 untrained women, with eight women being tested after training. At baseline total BMD and BMC were 13% (1.305 ± 0.050 versus 1.159 ± 0.056 g · cm(-2)) and 23% (3047 ± 235 versus 2477 ± 526 g) higher (P <0.001) and leg BMD and BMC were 24 and 28% higher (P <0.01) in ET than in UT. Resting plasma osteocalcin was 45% higher in ET than in UT (28.8 ± 10.9 versus 19.9 ± 9.9 µg · L(-1), P <0.05). Total lean body mass was 14% higher (50.4 ± 3.3 versus 44.3 ± 4.0 kg) in ET compared with UT, with no difference in total body mass. The number of Flamingo test falls was 56-63% less (P <0.01) and 30 m sprinting speed was 31% faster (P <0.001) in ET than UT. After 16 weeks of football training for UT, lean body mass increased by 1.4 ± 0.5 kg and the number of left leg falls decreased by 29% (P <0.05). No significant changes occurred in BMD or BMC, but plasma osteocalcin increased (P <0.05) by 37%. In summary, elite women footballers have an impressive musculoskeletal health profile compared with untrained controls, but short-term football training seems to reduce the risk of falls and increase bone formation.

  4. Changes in unilateral upper limb muscular strength and EMG activity following a 16 week strength training intervention survivors of breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Hagstrom, Amanda D; Shorter, Kathleen A; Marshall, Paul W M

    2017-03-08

    Upper limb strength deficits are frequently observed following breast cancer and its treatments. It is currently unknown whether these unilateral deficits can be corrected by a standard bilateral strength training intervention. Twenty three survivors of breast cancer were included in this analysis. Fourteen performed a 16 week resistance training (RT) intervention, 9 were assigned to a usual care waitlist control group. Electromyographic (EMG) analysis of the pectoralis major and triceps brachii were monitored during three maximal isometric contractions and a fatiguing endurance task. Muscular strength was significantly different between limbs at the start of the intervention (p = 0.02). EMG amplitude and median frequency did not differ between limbs at the start of the intervention. Muscular strength was significantly different between limbs in the RT group at the end of the intervention (p = 0.01). EMG amplitude did not differ between limbs or groups at the end of the intervention. Bilateral strength training did not correct the unilateral strength deficit observed in this group of survivors of breast cancer. Periods of unilateral strength training should be implemented into periodised RT programs in this cohort.

  5. 77 FR 73452 - Grace Period Study

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-10

    ... Patent and Trademark Office Grace Period Study ACTION: Proposed collection; comment request. SUMMARY: The...Collection@uspto.gov . Include ``0651- 00xx Grace Period Study comment'' in the subject line of the message... are not fully understood. Few studies in the past ten years have dealt with the grace period, and...

  6. Olanzapine vs. risperidone in patients with first-episode schizophrenia and a lifetime history of cannabis use disorders: 16-week clinical and substance use outcomes.

    PubMed

    Sevy, Serge; Robinson, Delbert G; Sunday, Suzanne; Napolitano, Barbara; Miller, Rachel; McCormack, Joanne; Kane, John

    2011-08-15

    The purpose of this study is to compare the efficacy of olanzapine and risperidone for the acute treatment of first-episode schizophrenia patients with cannabis use disorders. This secondary analysis of a previously published study included 49 first-episode patients with a diagnosis of schizophrenia, schizophreniform disorder, or schizoaffective disorder and a co-occurring lifetime diagnosis of cannabis use disorders randomly assigned to treatment with either olanzapine (n=28) or risperidone (n=21) for 16weeks. The olanzapine group did not differ significantly from the risperidone group for initial response rates of positive symptoms, and rates of cannabis use or alcohol use during the study. Positive symptoms and the Scale for Assessment of Negative Symptoms (SANS) global asociality-anhedonia scores improved over time but did not differ between study medications. In both groups, cannabis use during the study was higher in patients who used cannabis within three months of the admission. Thus, our results suggest that olanzapine and risperidone had a similar initial efficacy on psychotic symptoms and substance use in first-episode patients with co-occurring cannabis use disorders. If clinicians are choosing between olanzapine versus risperidone treatment for this population, their decision should be based upon factors other than symptom response and short-term substance misuse.

  7. Olanzapine vs. Risperidone in Patients with First-Episode Schizophrenia and a Lifetime History of Cannabis Use Disorders: 16-Week Clinical and Substance Use outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Sevy, Serge; Robinson, Delbert G.; Sunday, Suzanne; Miller, Rachel; McCormack, Joanne; Kane, John M.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare the efficacy of olanzapine and risperidone for the acute treatment of first-episode schizophrenia patients with cannabis use disorders. This secondary analysis of a previously published study included forty-nine first-episode patients with a diagnosis of schizophrenia, schizophreniform disorder, or schizoaffective disorder and a co-occurring lifetime diagnosis of cannabis use disorders randomly assigned to treatment with either olanzapine (n=28) or risperidone (n=21) for 16 weeks. The olanzapine group did not differ significantly from the risperidone group for initial response rates of positive symptoms, and rates of cannabis use or alcohol use during the study. Positive symptoms and SANS global asociality-anhedonia improved over time but did not differ between study medications. In both groups, cannabis use during the study was higher in patients who used cannabis within 3 months of the admission. Thus, our results suggest that olanzapine and risperidone had a similar initial efficacy on psychotic symptoms and substance use in first-episode patients with co-occurring cannabis use disorders. If clinicians are choosing between olanzapine versus risperidone treatment for this population, their decision should be based upon factors other than symptom response and short-term substance misuse. PMID:21636134

  8. Efficacy and Safety of Weekly Alendronate Plus Vitamin D3 5600 IU versus Weekly Alendronate Alone in Korean Osteoporotic Women: 16-Week Randomized Trial

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kwang Joon; Min, Yong-Ki; Koh, Jung-Min; Chung, Yoon-Sok; Kim, Kyoung Min; Byun, Dong-Won; Kim, In Joo; Kim, Mikyung; Kim, Sung-Soo; Min, Kyung Wan; Han, Ki Ok; Park, Hyoung Moo; Shin, Chan Soo; Choi, Sung Hee; Park, Jong Suk; Chung, Dong Jin; Mok, Ji Oh; Baek, Hong Sun; Moon, Seong-Hwan; Kim, Yong Soo

    2014-01-01

    Vitamin D (vit-D) is essential for bone health, although many osteoporosis patients have low levels of 25-hydroxy-vit-D [25(OH)D]. This randomized, open-label study compared the effects of once weekly alendronate 70 mg containing 5600 IU vit-D3 (ALN/D5600) to alendronate 70 mg without additional vit-D (ALN) on the percent of patients with vit-D insufficiency [25(OH)D <15 ng/mL, primary endpoint] and serum parathyroid hormone (PTH, secondary endpoint) levels in postmenopausal, osteoporotic Korean women. Neuromuscular function was also measured. A total of 268 subjects were randomized. Overall, 35% of patients had vit-D insufficiency at baseline. After 16-weeks, there were fewer patients with vit-D insufficiency in the ALN/D5600 group (1.47%) than in the ALN group (41.67%) (p<0.001). Patients receiving ALN/D5600 compared with ALN were at a significantly decreased risk of vit-D insufficiency [odds ratio=0.02, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.00-0.08]. In the ALN/D5600 group, significant increases in serum 25(OH)D were observed at weeks 8 (9.60 ng/mL) and 16 (11.41 ng/mL), where as a significant decrease was recorded in the ALN group at week 16 (-1.61 ng/mL). By multiple regression analysis, major determinants of increases in serum 25(OH)D were ALN/D5600 administration, seasonal variation, and baseline 25(OH)D. The least squares mean percent change from baseline in serum PTH in the ALN/D5600 group (8.17%) was lower than that in the ALN group (29.98%) (p=0.0091). There was no significant difference between treatment groups in neuromuscular function. Overall safety was similar between groups. In conclusion, the administration of 5600 IU vit-D in the ALN/D5600 group improved vit-D status and reduced the magnitude of PTH increase without significant side-effects after 16 weeks in Korean osteoporotic patients. PMID:24719139

  9. Non-Periodic Helix TWT Study.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-05-01

    IA-A087 413 LITTON SYSTEMS INC SAN CARLOS CA ELECTRON TUBE DIV F/6 9/1 NON-PERIODIC HELIX TWT STUDY.(U) MAY 80 N00173-76C-014 UNCLASSIFIED ML...IEEEEEEmhEEI U-80 - ’l////////,, 11111 128 25 L1. = *""L 1- 1.8 MICROCOPY RESOLUTION TEST CHART ’IT-, ( (NO-PERIODIC HELIX WTSTUDY0 I EXTENSION OF CONTRACT... Helix Circuit 4 - 2 Non-Periodic Helix Structure 7 3 Unwound Tape for Non-Periodic Helix 8 4 Typical Helix Assembly 10 5 Typical Ladder Assembly 11 6

  10. Periodization

    PubMed Central

    Lorenz, Daniel S.; Reiman, Michael P.; Walker, John C.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Clinicians are constantly faced with the challenge of designing training programs for injured and noninjured athletes that maximize healing and optimize performance. Periodization is a concept of systematic progression—that is, resistance training programs that follow predictable patterns of change in training variables. The strength training literature is abundant with studies comparing periodization schemes on uninjured, trained, and untrained athletes. The rehabilitation literature, however, is scarce with information about how to optimally design resistance training programs based on periodization principles for injured athletes. The purpose of this review is to discuss relevant training variables and methods of periodization, as well as periodization program outcomes. A secondary purpose is to provide an anecdotal framework regarding implementation of periodization principles into rehabilitation programs. Evidence Acquisition: A Medline search from 1979 to 2009 was implemented with the keywords periodization, strength training, rehabilitation, endurance, power, hypertrophy, and resistance training with the Boolean term AND in all possible combinations in the English language. Each author also undertook independent hand searching of article references used in this review. Results: Based on the studies researched, periodized strength training regimens demonstrate improved outcomes as compared to nonperiodized programs. Conclusions: Despite the evidence in the strength training literature supporting periodization programs, there is a considerable lack of data in the rehabilitation literature about program design and successful implementation of periodization into rehabilitation programs. PMID:23015982

  11. [The effects of 16-weeks pilates mat program on anthropometric variables and body composition in active adult women after a short detraining period].

    PubMed

    Vaquero-Cristóbal, Raquel; Alacid, Fernando; Esparza-Ros, Francisco; Muyor, José M; López-Miñarro, Pedro Ángel

    2015-04-01

    Introducción: Estudios previos han analizado los efectos de la práctica de Pilates mat sobre las variables antropométricas y la composición corporal en poblaciones sedentarias. No existen estudios sobre los beneficios del Pilates en estas varibles tras un corto periodo de desentrenamiento. Objetivo: Determinar el efecto un programa de 16 semanas de Pilates mat sobre las variables antropométricas, la composición coporal y el somatotipo, en mujeres adultas con experiencia previa tras 3 semanas de desentrenamiento. Metodología: A veintiuna mujeres se les realizó una valoración antropométrica completa siguiendo las indicaciones de la ISAK antes y después de un programa de Pilates mat de 16 semanas (2 días a la semana, una hora por día). Todas las mujeres tenían una experiencia previa en la práctica de Pilates mat de entre 1 y 3 años y venían de un proceso de desentrenamiento de 3 semanas (vacaciones de Navidad). Resultados y discusión: Las mujeres mostraron una reducción significativa del peso corporal, el IMC, los pliegues cutáneos individuales del miembro superior (bíceps y tríceps) y el tronco (subescapular, cresta iliaca, supraespinal y abdominal), el sumatorio de 6 y 8 pliegues, la endomorfia y la masa grasa; y un aumento significativo de la masa muscular. El somatotipo medio se clasificó en meso-endomorfo para el pre- (4,91, 4,01, 1,47) y el post-test (4,68, 4,16, 1,69). Ocho mujeres cambiaron su clasificación del somatotipo tras el programa de intervención. Conclusiones: La práctica de Pilates mat durante 16 semanas provocó cambios asociados a una mejora del estado de salud en las variables antropométricas, sobre todo en los pliegues cutáneos que disminuyeron significativamente, la composición corporal (masa grasa y muscular, que disminuyeron y aumentaron, respectivamente) y el somatotipo (una reducción significativa del componente endomórfico) en mujeres con experiencia previa en la práctica de Pilates después de tres semanas de desentrenamiento.

  12. Behavioral and Psychosocial Outcomes of a 16-Week Rebound Therapy-Based Exercise Program for People with Profound Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Martyn C.; Walley, Robert M.; Leech, Amanda; Paterson, Marion; Common, Stephanie; Metcalf, Charlotte

    2007-01-01

    People with profound intellectual disabilities rarely experience a physically active lifestyle, and their long-term physical inactivity likely contributes to poor health. The authors developed and implemented a pilot exercise program for persons with a profound intellectual disability and conducted a study to evaluate the effort. The development…

  13. Safety and Efficacy of Rice Bran Supercritical CO2 Extract for Hair Growth in Androgenic Alopecia: A 16-Week Double-Blind Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jae-Suk; Park, Jae Beom; Moon, Woi-Sook; Moon, Jin-Nam; Son, Sang Wook; Kim, Mi-Ryung

    2015-01-01

    We conducted a 16-week double-blind randomized controlled single-center trial to evaluate the safety and efficacy of dermal rice bran supercritical CO2 extract (RB-SCE) in the treatment of androgenic alopecia. Fifty alopecia patients were randomly assigned to the experimental and placebo groups. The experimental group received a dermal application of 0.5% RB-SCE (8 mL/d) to the head skin for 16 weeks while the control group received a dermal application of placebo. Changes in hair count, diameter, and density were evaluated with a Folliscope(®). Patient satisfaction was evaluated via questionnaire and clinical photographs were rated by dermatologists. The results showed that RB-SCE significantly increased hair density and hair diameter in male subjects. Patient satisfaction and the evaluation of photographs by dermatologists also confirmed the effectiveness of RB-SCE in the treatment of alopecia. No adverse reactions related to RB-SCE were reported. Therefore, RB-SCE shows promise for use in functional cosmetics and pharmaceuticals.

  14. MR LLRF VXI upgrade beam study period

    SciTech Connect

    Mesiner, K.; /Fermilab

    1995-01-01

    AD/RFI/LLRF group personnel performed several studies with the MR LLRF VXI upgrade system during the evening of 7/29/95. The study period lasted about 4 hours. The MR operating conditions were a mixture of $29 and $2B cycles, with beam injected only on the $29. The author believes the $2B cycles were present for reasons unrelated to the study. The basic study period goal was to test the initial VXI version of MR LLRF finite state machine (FSM) execution. This goal represents what has been called MR LLRF VXI Upgrade Implementation Stage No.2 throughout presentations and documentation on the upgrade project. The test includes control of MR LLRF NIM hardware, the MR RF cavities, and beam via XVI TTL FSM outputs. Numerous MR LLRF VXI system objects, or components, must work together correctly for a successful test. Very briefly, the required objects include VXI Front End hardware, the ACNET/Front End interface code, and the VXI/NIM Interface chassis (the chassis solves VXI-CAMAC-NIM RF and FSM output connectivity and development problems). Though this initial FSM does not yet fully support Upgrade Implementation Stage 2 functionality, all code and hardware for the following basic functionality is tested.

  15. Topological study of the periodic system.

    PubMed

    Restrepo, Guillermo; Mesa, Héber; Llanos, Eugenio J; Villaveces, José L

    2004-01-01

    We carried out a topological study of the Space of Chemical Elements, SCE, based on a clustering analysis of 72 elements, each one defined by a vector of 31 properties. We looked for neighborhoods, boundaries, and other topological properties of the SCE. Among the results one sees the well-known patterns of the Periodic Table and relationships such as the Singularity Principle and the Diagonal Relationship, but there appears also a robustness property of some of the better-known families of elements. Alkaline metals and Noble Gases are sets whose neighborhoods have no other elements besides themselves, whereas the topological boundary of the set of metals is formed by semimetallic elements.

  16. Studying the Nazi Period: Some Considerations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molnar, Alex; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Students should be taught how to make well-reasoned and analytic judgments about the Nazis. The process of arriving at judgments about the Nazi period should be characterized by a factual knowledge of the Nazi era within a general historical knowledge of the period, sympathy, and an open mind. (RM)

  17. Studies of Long Period Eclipsing Binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ratajczak, M.; Hełminiak, K. G.; Konacki, M.

    2015-07-01

    The survey of long period eclipsing binaries from the All Sky Automated Survey (ASAS) catalog aims at searching for and characterizing subgiants and red giants in double-lined detached binary systems. Absolute physical and orbital parameters are presented based on radial velocities from high-quality optical spectra obtained with the following telescope/instrument combinations: 8.2 m Subaru/HDS, ESO 3.6 m/HARPS, 1.9 m Radcliffe/GIRAFFE, CTIO 1.5 m/CHIRON, and 1.2 m Euler/CORALIE. Photometric data from ASAS, SuperWASP, and the Solaris Project were also used. We discuss the derived uncertainties for the individual masses and radii of the components (better than 3% for several systems), as well as results from the spectral analysis performed for components of systems whose spectra we disentangled.

  18. ULS Joint Committee to Study Library Periodical Services. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirshon, Arnold; And Others

    Developed in response to issues raised about the circulation of bound periodicals, the cost of photocopies, and the condition of the photocopiers, this report of the Joint Committee to Study Library Periodical Services at the Virginia Commonwealth University libraries recommends goals for periodicals services for both campuses of the university.…

  19. Efficacy and tolerance of an injectable medical device containing stable hybrid cooperative complexes of high- and low-molecular-weight hyaluronic acid: a monocentric 16 weeks open-label evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Sparavigna, Adele; Tenconi, Beatrice

    2016-01-01

    Background An injectable medical device containing stable hybrid cooperative complexes of high- and low-molecular-weight hyaluronic acid (HA) has been developed with characteristics suited for a global improvement of facial esthetics. Objective To evaluate the HA product performance in improving some key facial esthetic features. The study employed clinical scales, subjective evaluations, and facial skin objective measurements. Methods A single Italian site treated 64 female subjects aged 38–60 years, with injections at five predetermined points, on each side of the face, with a 4-week time lapse between the first and the second product administration. Subjects were evaluated after 4, 8, 12, and 16 weeks, using validated clinical scales, subjective evaluation, and objective quantitative outcome measures. Assessment of esthetic results included photographic documentation. Results Both the clinical and subjective assessments, and the majority of objective instrumental parameters indicated an improvement throughout the study and were already significant at week 4 or 8 and were still significant at week 16 (3 months after the second treatment). Minor and temporary local skin reactions were observed in 23% of subjects at the site of the injections, and the global judgment on tolerability was good or excellent, both in the investigators’ opinion and volunteers’ self-evaluation. Conclusion Both subjective and objective improvement of the facial parameters was consistent with the bio-remodeling purpose, and persistent and still statistically significant at the end of the study. The tolerability and safety profile of the product were judged good or excellent both by investigators and volunteers. This study supports the claim for bio-remodeling of these stable hybrid cooperative complexes of low- and high-molecular-weight HA. PMID:27713647

  20. MECAR operation during the 6/95 study period

    SciTech Connect

    Capista, Dave; /Fermilab

    1995-01-01

    The MECAR system was scheduled to be used 36 hours during the study period. In practice the system was used a bit more since there is increasing pressure to switch completely over to MECAR. During this period of MECAR operation there were power supply studies, tune calibration, general tune-up with this system, and identification and some repair of bugs found in both the applications program and the MECAR operating system.

  1. ACLCP Periodical Storage Center: Feasibility Study, September 1974-April 1975.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cieslicki, Dorothy

    A study of alternative models for establishing a cooperative storage center for little used library materials by the members of the Area College Libraries of Central Pennsylvania (ACLCP) focused on periodicals. Considerations discussed include advantages--lower cost; space for growth and better access to holdings retained in active collections;…

  2. 16 Weeks of Training with the International Space Station Advanced Resistive Exercise Device (aRED) Is not Different than Training with Free Weights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loehr, J. A.; Lee, S. M. C.; English, K. E.; Leach, M.; Bentley, J.; Nash, R.; Hagan, R. D.

    2008-01-01

    The advanced Resistive Exercise Device (aRED) is a resistive exercise system designed to maintain muscle mass and strength in microgravity by simulating free weight (FW) exercise. aRED utilizes vacuum cylinders and inertial flywheels to replicate the constant mass and inertial components, respectively, of FW exercise in normal gravity. PURPOSE: To compare the effectiveness of aRED and FW resistive exercise training in ambulatory subjects. METHODS: Untrained subjects were assigned to two groups, FW (6 males, 3 females) and aRED (8 males, 3 females), and performed squat (SQ), heel raise (HR), and deadlift (DL) exercises 3 d wk-1 for 16 wks. SQ, HR and DL strength (1RM) were measured using FW hardware pre-, mid- and post-training. Subjects participated in a periodized training protocol with the exercise prescription based on a percentage of 1RM. Thigh and lower leg muscle volume were assessed using Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), and leg (LLM) and total body lean mass (BLM) were measured using Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DXA) pre- and post-training. RESULTS: SQ 1RM increased in both FW (48.9+/-6.1%) and aRED (31.2+/-3.8%) groups, and there was a greater training response in FW compared with aRED (p=0.01). HR and DL 1RM increased in FW (HR: 12.3+/-2.4%, DL: 23.3+/-4.4%) and aRED (HR: 18.0+/-1.6%, DL: 23.2+'-2.8%), but there were no differences between groups. Thigh muscle volume was greater following training in both groups (FW: 9.8+/-0.9%, aRED: 7.1+/-1.2%) but lower leg muscle volume increased only in the FW group (3.0+/-1.1%). Lean tissue mass increased in both FW (LLM: 3.9+/-1.1%, BLM: 2.5+/-0.7%) and aRED (LLM: 4.8+/-0.7%, BLM: 2.6 0.7%). There were no between group differences in muscle volume or lean mass in response to training. CONCLUSIONS: In general, the increase in muscle strength, muscle volume, and lean tissue mass when training with aRED was not different than when using the same training protocol with FW. The smaller increase in SQ 1RM in the a

  3. Studies of the Long Secondary Periods in Pulsating Red Giants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Percy, J. R.; Deibert, E.

    2016-12-01

    We have used systematic, sustained visual observations from the AAVSO International Database and the AAVSO time-series analysis package VSTAR to study the unexplained "long secondary periods" (LSPs) in 27 pulsating red giants. In our sample, the LSPs range from 479 to 2967 days, and are on average 8.1 +/- 1.3 times the excited pulsation period. There is no evidence for more than one LSP in each star. In stars with both the fundamental and first overtone radial period present, the LSP is more often about 10 times the latter. The visual amplitudes of the LSPs are typically 0.1 magnitude and do not correlate with the LSP. The phase curves tend to be sinusoidal, but at least two are sawtooth. The LSPs are stable, within their errors, over the timespan of our data, which is typically 25,000 days. The amplitudes, however, vary by up to a factor of two or more on a time scale of roughly 20-30 LSPs. There is no obvious difference between the carbon (C) stars and the normal oxygen (M) stars. Previous multicolor observations showed that the LSP color variations are similar to those of the pulsation period, and of the LSPs in the Magellanic Clouds, and not like those of eclipsing stars. We note that the LSPs are similar to the estimated rotation periods of the stars, though the latter have large uncertainties. This suggests that the LSP phenomenon may be a form of modulated rotational variability.

  4. Thirteen Week Oral Toxicity Study of WR238605 with a Thirteen Week Recovery Period in Rats. Volume 3 of 3

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-06-18

    STUDY ID: 098 SEX: FEMALE ABBR: HCV UNITS: fl. ANIMAL ID Week 2 Week 4 Week 8 Week 13 Week 16 Week 21 Week 27 GROUP: 0:0 821 822 mg...was usually focal and subpleural. It consisted of interstitial fibrosis , mononuclear cell infiltration, and sometimes hyperplasia of alveolar and...0 2 (20) 0 TRACHEA I Ex 10 10 THYROID GLAND * Ex 10 10 10 10 10 PARATHYROID GLAND Fibrosis # Ex 9 0 1 (11) 0 10 0 0 0 (0) 0 0

  5. A novel periodic boundary condition for computational hemodynamics studies.

    PubMed

    Bahramian, Fereshteh; Mohammadi, Hadi

    2014-07-01

    In computational fluid dynamics models for hemodynamics applications, boundary conditions remain one of the major issues in obtaining accurate fluid flow predictions. For major cardiovascular models, the realistic boundary conditions are not available. In order to address this issue, the whole computational domain needs to be modeled, which is practically impossible. For simulating fully developed turbulent flows using the large eddy simulation and dynamic numerical solution methods, which are very popular in hemodynamics studies, periodic boundary conditions are suitable. This is mainly because the computational domain can be reduced considerably. In this study, a novel periodic boundary condition is proposed, which is based on mass flow condition. The proposed boundary condition is applied on a square duct for the sake of validation. The mass-based condition was shown to obtain the solution in 15% less time. As such, the mass-based condition has two decisive advantages: first, the solution for a given Reynolds number can be obtained in a single simulation because of the direct specification of the mass flow, and second, simulations can be made more quickly.

  6. Hypokalaemic Periodic Paralysis– A Prospective Study of the Underlying Etiologies

    PubMed Central

    Jandhyala, Surya Narayana; Belle, Jayaprakash; Rau, N.R; Shetty, Ranjan

    2015-01-01

    Background Hypokalaemic periodic paralysis (HPP) is a rare muscular disorder characterised by episodic weakness associated with hypokalaemia. The disease can either be inherited or acquired and misdiagnosis of the disease is quite common. Most of the data available on the disease is from the western world. Studies reporting aetiological, clinical and metabolic profiles of Indian population are sparse. Hence we tried to provide insights of the disease among the Indian population. Aim To study the aetiological, clinical and metabolic profile of patients diagnosed with Hypokalaemic Periodic Paralysis (HPP). Materials and Methods This is an observational and analytical study on HPP diagnosed patients, during September 2011 to September 2014 in Kasturba Hospital, Manipal. A total of 23 patients were studied. Detailed history, clinical evaluation and metabolic workup for secondary causes of HPP were analysed. Results Of the 23 patients, 57% had primary HPP while 43% had secondary HPP. The group of patients with primary HPP comprised of 92% males and 8% females with mean age of 28 years and the mean duration of symptoms of 18 hours. The group with secondary HPP comprised of 70% males and 30% females with mean age of 38.7 years and the mean duration of symptoms of 60 hours. The secondary causes of HPP were thyrotoxicosis (50%), infective diarrhea (20%), Crohn’s disease (10%), renal tubular acidosis (RTA) Type I (10%) and Conn’s syndrome (10%). Conclusion In our study primary HPP was found to be more common than secondary HPP. Males were predominantly affected in both groups. HPP should be ruled out before starting therapy for Guillain-Barré Syndrome (GBS). PMID:26500936

  7. Experimental study of periodic flow effects on spanwise vortex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia Molina, Cruz Daniel; Lopez Sanchez, Erick Javier; Ruiz Chavarria, Gerardo; Medina Ovando, Abraham

    2014-11-01

    We present an experimental study about the spanwise vortex produced in a flow going out of a channel in shallow waters. This vortex travels in front of the dipole. The velocity field measurement was done using the PIV technique, and DPIVsoft (https://www.irphe.fr/ ~meunier/) was used for data processing. In this case the flow has a periodic forcing to simulate ocean tides. The experiment was conducted in a channel with variable width and the measurements were made using three different values of the aspect ratio width-depth. We present results of the position, circulation of this spanwise vortex and the flow inversion effect. The change of flow direction modify the intensity of the vortex, but it does not destroy it. The vertical components of the velocity field contributes particle transport. G. Ruiz Chavarria, E. J. Lopez Sanchez and C. D. Garcia Molina acknowledge DGAPA-UNAM by support under project IN 116312 (Vorticidad y ondas no lineales en fluidos).

  8. A Period Study of the Close Binary V508 Ophiuchi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albayrak, Berahitdin

    The short-period (0d.34) close binary V508 Oph was observed in 2005 and four new times of minima were derived. All of the available times of minima, including the new ones, covering 69 years were analyzed. It was shown that the period change of the system is very complex. Two possible period oscillations with periods of 24.73 and 9.91 years and amplitudes of about 0.011 and 0.002 day, respectively, were found to superimpose on upward parabolic change, indicating a secular period increase at a rate of dp/dt = 4.24 × 10-9 days yr-1. The mechanisms that could explain the period changes of the system are discussed.

  9. A study of periodic and aperiodic ferromagnetic antidot lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhat, Vinayak S.

    This thesis reports our study of the effect of domain wall pinning by ferromagnetic (FM) metamaterials [1] in the form of periodic antidot lattices (ADL) on spin wave spectra in the reversible regime. This study was then extended to artificial quasicrystals in the form of Penrose P2 tilings (P2T). Our DC magnetization study of these metamaterials showed reproducible and temperature dependent knee anomalies in the hysteretic regime that are due to the isolated switching of the FM segments. Our dumbbell model analysis [2] of simulated magnetization maps indicates that FM switching in P2T is nonstochastic . We have also acquired the first direct, two-dimensional images of the magnetization of Permalloy films patterned into P2T using scanning electron microscopy with polarization analysis (SEMPA). Our SEMPA images demonstrate P2T behave as geometrically frustrated networks of narrow ferromagnetic film segments having near-uniform, bipolar (Ising-like) magnetization, similar to artificial spin ices (ASI). We find the unique aperiodic translational symmetry and diverse vertex coordination of multiply-connected P2T induce a more complex spin-ice behavior driven by exchange interactions in vertex domain walls, which differs markedly from the behavior of disconnected ASI governed only by dipolar interactions. Keywords: Ferromagnetic Antidot Lattices, Metamaterials, Ferromagnetic Resonance, Artificial Quasicrystal, Artificial Spin Ice. [1] VV Kruglyak et al. "Magnonic metamaterials". In: Metamaterial, edited by X.-Y. Jiang (InTech, 2012) (2012). [2] Claudio Castelnovo, Roderich Moessner, and Shivaji L Sondhi. "Magnetic monopoles in spin ice". In: Nature 451.7174 (2008), pp. 42--45.

  10. Periodic quantum chemical studies on anhydrous and hydrated acid clinoptilolite.

    PubMed

    Valdiviés Cruz, Karell; Lam, Anabel; Zicovich-Wilson, Claudio M

    2014-08-07

    Periodic quantum chemistry methods as implemented in the crystal09 code were considered to study acid clinoptilolite (HEU framework type), both anhydrous and hydrated. The most probable location of acid sites and water molecules together with other structural details has been the object of particular attention. Calculations were performed at hybrid and pristine DFT levels of theory with a VDZP quality basis set in order to compare performances. It arises that PBE0 provides the best agreement with experimental data as concerns structural features and the most stable Al distribution in the framework. The role of the water molecule distribution in the stability of the systems, the most probable structure that they induce in the material, and their eventual influence on further chemical modification processes, such as dealumination, are discussed in detail. Results show that, apart from the usually considered interactions of water molecules with the zeolite framework, that is, a H-bond with Brönsted acid sites and coordination with framework Al as Lewis ones, it is necessary to consider cooperation of other weaker effects so as to fully understand the hydration effect in this kind of materials.

  11. Quasi-periodic VLF emissions with short-period modulation and their relationship to whistlers: a case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Titova, Elena; Demekhov, Andrei; Kozlovsky, Alexander; Manninen, Jyrki; Pasmanik, Dmitry

    We study properties of quasiperiodic (QP) VLF emissions recorded on December 24, 2011 during the VLF campaign in Northern Finland. The main attention is paid to interrelationships between different characteristic periods in the QP spectra. In particular, we analyze regular variations in the QP repetition intervals (1 - 10 min) during the event from 15:30 to 22 UT, their changes during substorms, and short periodic (several-second) modulation observed within separate QP elements. We explained the variations of periods of QP emissions in terms of the model of auto-oscillation regime of the cyclotron instability in the magnetosphere. During the considered event lasting about 7 hours we observed a regular increase in the time intervals between the QP elements. We relate this increase with weakening of the magnetospheric source of energetic electrons. Significant variations in the QP period occurred during substorms. These variations can be due to a substorm-related increase in the energetic-electron flux and/or due to the precipitation of these electrons into the ionosphere which changes the reflection coefficient of VLF waves. We analyze the fine structure of QP element spectra and reveal the periods related to the time scales of guided propagation of whistler-mode waves along the magnetic field line, which suggests that ducted propagation regime took place for the QP emissions. The periods were about 6--9 s for frequencies 3.5--1.2 kHz respectively, which was similar to the period of almost simultaneously observed two-hop whistlers In the low-frequency part of QP spectra periodic emissions with меньшими periods of about 3 s were observed. Analysis of fine structure of QP elements shows that their formation is affected by both linear effects (i.e., group-velocity dispersion) and nonlinear effects related

  12. [Study on optimal harvest period of Lonicera Flos (Lonicera macranthoides)].

    PubMed

    Li, Long-Yun; Zhang, Ying; Ma, Peng; Wu, Ye-Kuan

    2014-08-01

    To ascertain the optimal harvest period of Lonicera Flos (Lonicera macranthoides) the configuration yield and quality of L. macranthiodes bloom verity and bud verity flower at different develop periods were Observed. The quality of L. macranthiodes which harvested at different times of the day was Compared. The configuration was significant difference between different develop period of L. macranthiodes flower. As bud growth, yield increased. Bloom verity of L. macranthoides chlorogenic acid content was significantly lower after opening (silver flower stage, golden flower stage), before opening (young bud stage, green-white stage) have no significant difference of the quality. Bud verity of L. macranthoides macranthoidin B is significant lower at yellow-white stage, young bud stage and green-white stage have no significant difference of the quality. The chlorogenic acid and isochlorogenic acid A content is significant difference between L. macranthoides harvested at different time of the day. The optimal harvest period of bloom verity is the white stage, picking time for 10:00 before and after 18:00. The optimal harvest period is the green-white stage, picking time is 8:00 before and after 18:00.

  13. A Fundamental Study of Heat Transfer Phenomenon in Periodic Structures

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-11-09

    household radiators or electric heaters, furnaces, combustion chambers, fires, rocket nozzles , power plants, engines etc. The importance of radiation...can be applied to any other problem related to the wave propagation through periodic structures such as acoustic wave and ultrasonic wave propagation

  14. Periodic trends in bond dissociation energies. A theoretical study.

    PubMed

    Mó, Otilia; Yáñez, Manuel; Eckert-Maksić, Mirjana; Maksić, Zvonimir B; Alkorta, Ibón; Elguero, José

    2005-05-19

    Bond dissociation energies (BDEs) of all possible A-X single bonds involving the first- and second-row atoms, from Li to Cl, where the free valences are saturated by hydrogens, have been estimated through the use of the G3-theory and at the B3LYP/6-311+G(3df,2pd)//B3LYP/6-31G(2df,p) DFT level of theory. BDEs exhibit a periodical behavior. The A-X (A = Li, Be, B, Na, Mg, Al, and Si) BDEs show a steady increase along the first and the second row of the periodic table as a function of the atomic number Z(X). For A-X bonds involving electronegative atoms (A = C, N, O, F, P, S, and Cl) the bond energies achieve a maximum around Z(X) = 5. The same behavior is observed when BDEs are plotted against the electronegativity chi(X) of the atom X. Thus, for A-X bonds (A = Li, Be, B, Na, Mg, Al, Si), the BDEs for a fixed A increases, grosso modo, as the electronegativity differences between X and A increase, with some exceptions, which reflect the differences in the relaxation energies of the radicals produced upon the bond cleavage. A similar trend, albeit less pronounced, is found for single A-X bonds, where A = C, N, O, F, P, S, and Cl. However, there is an additional feature embodied in the enhancement of the strength of the A-boron bonds due to the ability of boron to act as a strong electron acceptor. The trends in bond lengths and charge densities at the bond critical points are in line with the aforementioned behavior.

  15. A study of lightning flashes attending periods of banded snowfall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Market, Patrick S.; Becker, Amy E.

    2009-01-01

    Lightning flashes (N = 1088) associated with 24 thundersnow events in the central United States were analyzed to document flash polarity, signal strength, and multiplicity. Negative lightning flashes (N = 872; 80%) dominated positive flashes (N = 216; 20%) with wintry precipitation in this study, which stands in contrast to the majority of the research done on winter thunderstorms (primarily in Japan). Otherwise, limited work has been done, although thundersnow has been documented in the mid-latitudes of North America, Europe and Asia. Statistics on peak amplitude were determined for negative (positive) flashes, yielding mean and standard deviation values of -24 kA +/- 22 kA (+38 kA +/- 34 kA). A subset of winter lightning events (N = 16) were then sought that occurred with banded (single or multiple) snowfall, as banding often denotes greater organization in the atmosphere (e.g., a jet streak aloft to aid in ascent, or a low level jet streak to aid with moisture and thermal transport) and thus the potential for deeper snow totals. Radar reflectivity values were recorded at the location of each lightning flash, as well as the maximum radar reflectivity within the associated snow band. The location of the lightning activity within the snow band was also noted as being either leading edge (LE), trailing edge (TE), core (C), or not correlated (NC), with respect to the motion of the parent band. The majority of lightning flashes were found downstream of areas of highest radar reflectivity with respect to the motion of the snow bands, and not with the highest reflectivity values. If one uses the highest reflectivity values in a snowband as a proxy for the greatest surface snowfall intensity, then the ground terminus of a cloud-to-ground lightning (CG) flash is often not co-located with the heaviest snowfall rates. However, the work completed here does place the location of the typical CG flash ~15 km downstream of the snowband location, so one could use the occurrence

  16. Rationalization of Periodical Holdings: A Case Study at Chalmers University Library.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fjallbrant, Nancy

    1984-01-01

    Describes study of periodical use in medium-sized university of technology which examined use of individual periodicals in relation to language of publication; patterns of use for interlibrary lending and for multiple copy journals; methods and costs for acquiring infrequently used periodicals. Thirty-three references and most frequently used…

  17. Utilization of critical periods during development to study the effects of low levels of environmental agents

    SciTech Connect

    Russell, L. B.

    1980-01-01

    Careful definition of critical periods in the development of selected characters can result in experimental systems that may be highly useful in studying risk at low levels of exposure. Three examples are presented. Epidemiological investigations can lose much of their value unless critical periods are known for the end points being studied.

  18. A use study of speech pathology and audiology periodicals at Illinois State University.

    PubMed

    Duran, N; Buckley, C E; Ng, M L

    1997-10-01

    No core list of periodicals exists for speech pathology and audiology. Faced with the prospect of having to cancer periodicals for all subjects, the science librarians at Illinois State University decided to determine which science periodicals were used most heavily. A one-year study of science periodical reshelving and interlibrary loan requests yielded ranked lists of periodicals important to speech pathology and audiology faculty and students at Illinois State University. The three most heavily used journals were the Journal of Speech and Hearing Research, ASHA, and Topics in Language Disorders. Most of the periodicals on the lists were indexed by either MEDLINE or UnCover, or by both. While the lists of journals developed in the study are not sufficient to serve as true core lists, they should be useful to libraries supporting comparable programs in speech pathology and audiology.

  19. Periodic variation in the geomagnetic activity - A study based on the Ap index

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    De Gonzalez, Alicia L. C.; Gonzalez, Walter D.; Dutra, Severino L. G.; Tsurutani, Bruce T.

    1993-01-01

    The monthly and daily samples of the Ap index for the interval from 1932 through 1982 were studied using the power spectrum technique. Results obtained for Bartel's period (about 27 days), the semiannual period, the dual-peak solar cycle distribution of geomagnetic storms, and certain other medium-scale periodicities are examined in detail. In addition, results on the cumulative occurrence number of storms per decade as a function of the Ap and Dst indices for the storm are presented.

  20. A Study of the Orbital Periods of Deeply Eclipsing SW Sextantis Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyd, D.

    2012-06-01

    Results are presented of a five-year project to study the orbital periods of eighteen deeply eclipsing novalike cataclysmic variables, collectively known as SW Sextantis stars, by combining new measurements of eclipse times with published measurements stretching back in some cases over fifty years. While the behavior of many of these binary systems is consistent with a constant orbital period, it is evident that in several cases this is not true. Although the time span of these observations is relatively short, evidence is emerging that the orbital periods of some of these stars show cyclical variation with periods in the range 10-40 years. The two stars with the longest orbital periods, V363 Aur and BT Mon, also show secular period reduction with rates of -6.6 x 10-8 days/year and -3.3 x 10-8 days/year. New ephemerides are provided for all eighteen stars to facilitate observation of future eclipses.

  1. Are Seminar Periods Supportive of the Professional Development of Social Studies Teachers?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demir, Selçuk Besir; Dogan, Soner; Atasoy, Turgay

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the efficiency of the seminar periods intended for contributing to the professional development of social studies teachers based on their own perspectives. This study adopts a qualitative approach and is carried out in the form of a case study. Among the purposeful sampling methods, the criteria sample…

  2. Emotional anticipation after delivery - a longitudinal neuroimaging study of the postpartum period.

    PubMed

    Gingnell, Malin; Toffoletto, Simone; Wikström, Johan; Engman, Jonas; Bannbers, Elin; Comasco, Erika; Sundström-Poromaa, Inger

    2017-12-01

    Neuroimaging research has begun to unveil the mechanisms behind emotion processing during the postpartum period, which, in turn, may be of relevance for the development of postpartum depression. The present study sought to longitudinally investigate the neural correlates of emotion anticipation during the postpartum period in healthy women. Functional magnetic resonance imaging was employed to measure the blood oxygen level-dependent signal in the brain in response to anticipation of negative emotional stimuli and during processing of images with positive or negative valence. The participating women were scanned twice: the first scan occurred during the first 48 hours after delivery, and the second was performed 4-6 weeks after delivery. The early postpartum period was characterized by higher anterior cingulate cortex reactivity during anticipation of negative emotional stimuli than the late postpartum period. This was accompanied by a negative relationship with insular reactivity during the early postpartum period and a trend towards an increase in insular reactivity in the late postpartum period. Thus, during the first four weeks of the postpartum period, a diminished top-down regulatory feedback on emotion-related areas of the brain was noted. This finding suggests a physiologically important adaptation during the healthy postpartum period.

  3. Optimal recall period for caregiver-reported illness in risk factor and intervention studies: a multicountry study.

    PubMed

    Arnold, Benjamin F; Galiani, Sebastian; Ram, Pavani K; Hubbard, Alan E; Briceño, Bertha; Gertler, Paul J; Colford, John M

    2013-02-15

    Many community-based studies of acute child illness rely on cases reported by caregivers. In prior investigations, researchers noted a reporting bias when longer illness recall periods were used. The use of recall periods longer than 2-3 days has been discouraged to minimize this reporting bias. In the present study, we sought to determine the optimal recall period for illness measurement when accounting for both bias and variance. Using data from 12,191 children less than 24 months of age collected in 2008-2009 from Himachal Pradesh in India, Madhya Pradesh in India, Indonesia, Peru, and Senegal, we calculated bias, variance, and mean squared error for estimates of the prevalence ratio between groups defined by anemia, stunting, and underweight status to identify optimal recall periods for caregiver-reported diarrhea, cough, and fever. There was little bias in the prevalence ratio when a 7-day recall period was used (<10% in 35 of 45 scenarios), and the mean squared error was usually minimized with recall periods of 6 or more days. Shortening the recall period from 7 days to 2 days required sample-size increases of 52%-92% for diarrhea, 47%-61% for cough, and 102%-206% for fever. In contrast to the current practice of using 2-day recall periods, this work suggests that studies should measure caregiver-reported illness with a 7-day recall period.

  4. Study of periodic motions of a satellite with a magnetic damper

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sadov, Y. A.; Teterin, A. D.

    1979-01-01

    The motion of a satellite with a magnetic damper in the plane of a circular polar orbit is studied. The asymptotics of periodic solutions are constructed for a satellite close to axisymmetric and the radius of convergence is evaluated for the power series obtained. In a broad range of values of parameters, a periodic solution is obtained by numerical integration of equations of motion of the satellite. The asymptotics of a bifurcated curve obtained (the curve on which origin of a pair of periodic solutions occurs) in the space of the parameters agrees well with the results of numerical computation with all physical values of these parameters. A breakdown is made of the space of the initial data of phase variables in the field of effect of different types of periodic motion.

  5. Incubation period and immune function: a comparative field study among coexisting birds.

    PubMed

    Palacios, Maria G; Martin, Thomas E

    2006-01-01

    Developmental periods are integral components of life history strategies that can have important fitness consequences and vary enormously among organisms. However, the selection pressures and mechanisms causing variation in length of developmental periods are poorly understood. Particularly puzzling are prolonged developmental periods, because their selective advantage is unclear. Here we tested the hypotheses that immune function is stronger in species that are attacked at a higher rate by parasites and that prolonged embryonic development allows the development of this stronger immune system. Through a comparative field study among 12 coexisting passerine bird species, we show that species with higher blood parasite prevalence mounted stronger cellular immune responses than species with lower prevalence. These results provide support for the hypothesis that species facing greater selection pressure from parasites invest more in immune function. However, species with longer incubation periods mounted weaker cellular immune responses than species with shorter periods. Therefore, cellular immune responses do not support the hypothesis that longer development time enhances immunocompentence. Future studies should assess other components of the immune system and test alternative causes of variation in incubation periods among bird species.

  6. Incubation period and immune function: A comparative field study among coexisting birds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Palacios, M.G.; Martin, T.E.

    2006-01-01

    Developmental periods are integral components of life history strategies that can have important fitness consequences and vary enormously among organisms. However, the selection pressures and mechanisms causing variation in length of developmental periods are poorly understood. Particularly puzzling are prolonged developmental periods, because their selective advantage is unclear. Here we tested the hypotheses that immune function is stronger in species that are attacked at a higher rate by parasites and that prolonged embryonic development allows the development of this stronger immune system. Through a comparative field study among 12 coexisting passerine bird species, we show that species with higher blood parasite prevalence mounted stronger cellular immune responses than species with lower prevalence. These results provide support for the hypothesis that species facing greater selection pressure from parasites invest more in immune function. However, species with longer incubation periods mounted weaker cellular immune responses than species with shorter periods. Therefore, cellular immune responses do not support the hypothesis that longer development time enhances immunocompentence. Future studies should assess other components of the immune system and test alternative causes of variation in incubation periods among bird species. ?? Springer-Verlag 2005.

  7. Utility of ten-second uptake periods for kinetic studies of serotonin uptake by intact platelets

    SciTech Connect

    Costa, J.L.; Kirk, K.L.; Stark, H.

    1981-09-01

    When washed human platelets accumulate serotonin (5HT), it is possible with the use of formaldehyde fixative to measure uptake over periods as short as 10 seconds. To evaluate the utility of these short times for kinetic studies of 5HT uptake, we have examined the accuracy with which the 10 second uptake rate reflects changes in the extracellular 5HT concentration. The amount of 5HT taken up over a 10 second period appears to be determined by the concentration of 5HT present in the extracellular medium during that time period, and the uptake rate can change rapidly following sudden changes in the extracellular 5HT concentration. However, the extent of inhibition of 5HT uptake in the presence of imipramine of extracellular 5HT concentrations greater than 10-5M is somewhat different depending on whether the 5HT is allowed to accumulate for a 10-second or a 5- or 10-minute uptake period. A 10-second uptake period thus appears to be useful for kinetic studies of initial 5HT uptake velocities under normal conditions, but under inhibitory conditions may give results differing from those obtained with minute-long periods.

  8. Electroencephalography Spectral Power Density in First-Episode Mania: A Comparative Study with Subsequent Remission Period

    PubMed Central

    GÜVEN, Sertaç; KESEBİR, Sermin; DEMİRER, R. Murat; BİLİCİ, Mustafa

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Our aim in this study was to investigate spectral power density (PSD) in first-episode mania and subsequent remission period and to evaluate their difference. Methods Sixty-nine consecutive cases referring to our hospital within the previous 1 year, who were evaluated as bipolar disorder manic episode according to The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-IV (DSM-IV) at the first episode and had the informed consent form signed by first degree relatives, were included in this study. Exclusion criteria included having previous depressive episode, using drugs which could influence electroencephalographic activity before electroencephalography (EEG), and having previous neurological disease, particularly epilepsy, head trauma, and/or loss of consciousness. EEG records were obtained using a digital device in 16 channels; 23 surface electrodes were placed according to the International 10–20 system. Spectral power density (dbμV/Hz) of EEG signal provided information on the power carried out by EEG waves in defined frequancy range per unit frequency in the present study. Results A peak power value detected on the right with FP2P4 and on the left with F7T3 electrodes were found to be higher in the manic episode than in the remission period (p=0.018 and 0.025). In the remission period, in cases with psychotic symptoms during the manic period, F4C4 peak power value was found to be lower than that in cases with no psychotic findings during the manic period (p=0.027). There was no relation was found between YMRS scores and peak power scores. Conclusion Electrophysiological corollary of mood episode is present from the onset of the disease, and it differs between the manic and remission periods of bipolar disorder. In the remission period, peak power values of PSD distinguish cases with psychotic findings from cases without psychotic findings when they were manic.

  9. New Light Curves and Period Studies of V502 OPH W UMA System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Awadalla, Nabil S.

    NEW LIGHT CURVES AND PERIOD STUDIES OF V502 OPH W UMa SYSTEM N.S.Awadalla National Research Institute of Astronomy and Geophysics( NRIAG ) Helwan Cairo EGYPT New BVR photoelectric observations of the W UMa eclipsing binary system V502 Oph have been presented and analyzed. The geometric and physical elements of the system have been obtained and compared to the previous results. The classification of the system concerning the sub-type of the W UMa binary has been studied as well as its evolution stage. Its period variation in a view of the light time effect has been examin

  10. Split-field FDTD method for oblique incidence study of periodic dispersive metallic structures.

    PubMed

    Baida, F I; Belkhir, A

    2009-08-15

    The study of periodic structures illuminated by a normally incident plane wave is a simple task that can be numerically simulated by the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method. On the contrary, for off-normal incidence, a widely modified algorithm must be developed in order to bypass the frequency dependence appearing in the periodic boundary conditions. After recently implementing this FDTD algorithm for pure dielectric materials, we here extend it to the study of metallic structures where dispersion can be described by analytical models. The accuracy of our code is demonstrated through comparisons with already-published results in the case of 1D and 3D structures.

  11. Environmental input and cognitive growth: a study using time-period comparisons.

    PubMed

    Huttenlocher, J; Levine, S; Vevea, J

    1998-08-01

    In this study, we examined the relation of input to cognitive growth in a single population of children. We studied 4 domains: Language, Spatial Operations, Concepts, and Associative Memory. Four groups of children drawn from the same population were tested in October of kindergarten, April of kindergarten, October of first grade, and April of first grade. These time points are 6 months apart, but they span periods that differ in amount of school input children receive. Much greater growth was found over time periods with greater amounts of school input (October to April) than over time periods with less school input (April to October) for Language, Spatial Operations, and Concepts, but not for Associative Memory. These findings suggest that amount of input is causally related to cognitive growth in particular domains.

  12. A New Method for Studying the Periodic System Based on a Kohonen Neural Network

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, David Zhekai

    2010-01-01

    A new method for studying the periodic system is described based on the combination of a Kohonen neural network and a set of chemical and physical properties. The classification results are directly shown in a two-dimensional map and easy to interpret. This is one of the major advantages of this approach over other methods reported in the…

  13. Extended AB period study of the electron pairing transition in t-J ladders

    SciTech Connect

    Kusakabe, Koichi; Aoki, Hideo

    1996-11-01

    The extended Aharonov-Bohm period test, recently proposed by the present authors, is used to study the electron pairing transition in the t-J ladders. The critical point is detected as a gap opening in the extended spectral flow. The result suggests a pairing prior to the onset of a phase separation, which is consistent with a recent Tomonaga-Luttinger analysis.

  14. Doubly periodic structure for the study of inhomogeneous bulk fermion matter with spatial localizations

    SciTech Connect

    Vantournhout, Klaas; Jachowicz, Natalie; Ryckebusch, Jan

    2011-09-15

    We present a method that offers perspectives to perform fully antisymmetrized simulations for inhomogeneous bulk fermion matter. The technique bears resemblance to classical periodic boundary conditions, using localized single-particle states. Such localized states are an ideal tool to discuss phenomena where spatial localization plays an important role. The antisymmetrization is obtained introducing a doubly periodic structure in the many-body fermion wave functions. This results in circulant matrices for the evaluation of expectation values, leading to a computationally tractable formalism to study fully antisymmetrized bulk fermion matter. We show that the proposed technique is able to reproduce essential fermion features in an elegant and computationally advantageous manner.

  15. Study on the Geomagnetic Short Period Variations of the Northwestern Yunnan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Y.; Li, Q.; Cai, J.

    2015-12-01

    The Northwestern Yunnan is located in the interaction area between the Eurasian plate and the India plate. This area has been the ideal place for the research of continental dynamics and the prediction for risk region of strong earthquake for its complex tectonic environment and frequent seismic activity. Therefore the study on the geomagnetic short period variations is of great significance in the exploration of deep electrical structure, analysis of the seismic origin and deep geodynamics in the Northwestern Yunnan of China . This paper is based on the geomagnetic data from the magnetometer array with 8 sites built in the northwestern Yunnan to explore the deep electrical structure by the method of geomagnetic depth sounding. Firstly, we selected a total of 183 geomagnetic short period events at the range of 6min to 120min period. And we found a north northwest dividing line, of which two sides has the opposite value in the vertical component variation amplitude, which indicates the obvious conductivity anomaly underground. Secondly, the contour maps of the ratio of vertical component and horizontal component variation amplitude ΔZ/ΔH in different periods reflects the changes of a high conductivity belt's direction and position. In addition, the induction arrows maps within the period of 2 - 256min also shows that on the two sides of the dividing line the induction vectors deviate from each other, and the amplitude and direction of vectors varies with periods regularly. In the light of this, we infer that a high conductivity belt probably exists, which stretches from the deep crust to uppermost mantle and changes with depth constantly with the reference of magnetotelluric sounding. In the end of this paper, the staggered grid finite difference method is used to model the simplified three-dimensional high conductivity anomaly, and the result shows magnetic field distributions are consistent with the observed geomagnetic short period variations characteristics in

  16. Study of the period changes in SW Dor, an RR Lyrae type star with Blazhko effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berdnikov, L. N.; Kniazev, A. Y.; Dambis, A. K.; Kravtsov, V. V.; Sefako, R.

    2016-09-01

    In 2012-2014 we acquired 1569 CCD BVIc frames for the RR Lyrae type variable SW Dor with the 76-cm telescope of the South African Astronomical Observatory (SAAO) and 1-m telescopes of Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope network (LCOGT). Our observations showed a large scatter in the resulting phased light curve, especially near maximum brightness, which allowed us to reveal the Blazhko effect with a period of ˜80.9d. To study the pulsation period changes, we used all the available observations including the 1299 magnitude estimates from the digitized plate library of Harvard University (the DASCH project), which allowed us to construct the O-C diagram spanning a 125-year long time interval and discover for the first time at least three abrupt changes of the pulsation period.

  17. Ionic adsorption on the brucite (0001) surface: A periodic electrostatic embedded cluster method study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makkos, Eszter; Kerridge, Andrew; Austin, Jonathan; Kaltsoyannis, Nikolas

    2016-11-01

    Density functional theory (DFT) at the generalised gradient approximation level is employed within the periodic electrostatic embedded cluster method (PEECM) to model the brucite (0001) surface. Three representative studies are then used to demonstrate the reliability of the PEECM for the description of the interactions of various ionic species with the layered Mg(OH)2 structure, and its performance is compared with periodic DFT, an approach known to be challenging for the adsorption of charged species. The adsorption energies of a series of s block cations, including Sr2+ and Cs+ which are known to coexist with brucite in nuclear waste storage ponds, are well described by the embedded cluster model, provided that basis sets of triple-zeta quality are employed for the adsorbates. The substitution energies of Ca2+ and Sr2+ into brucite obtained with the PEECM are very similar to periodic DFT results, and comparison of the approaches indicates that two brucite layers in the quantum mechanical part of the PEECM are sufficient to describe the substitution. Finally, a detailed comparison of the periodic and PEECM DFT approaches to the energetic and geometric properties of differently coordinated Sr[(OH)2(H2O)4] complexes on brucite shows an excellent agreement in adsorption energies, Sr-O distances, and bond critical point electron densities (obtained via the quantum theory of atoms-in-molecules), demonstrating that the PEECM can be a useful alternative to periodic DFT in these situations.

  18. Multiperiodicity in quasi-periodic pulsations of flare hard X-rays: a case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomczak, M.; Szaforz, Ż.

    We present a case study of the solar flare (SOL2001-10-02T17:31) that showed quasi-periodic pulsations (QPPs) in hard X-rays with two simultaneously excited periods, P_1 = 26-31 s and P_2 = 110 s. Complete evolution of the flare recorded by the Yohkoh telescopes, together with the patrol SOHO/EIT images, allowed us to identify magnetic structures responsible for particular periods and to propose an overall scenario which is consistent with the available observations. Namely, we suggest that emerging magnetic flux initiated the reconnection with legs of a large arcade of coronal loops that had been present in an active region for several days. The reconnection excited MHD oscillations in both magnetic structures simultaneously: period P_1 was generated in the emerging loop and in a loop being a result of the reconnection; period P_2 occurred in the arcade. Both resonators produced photons of different spectra. We anticipate that multiperiodicity in hard X-rays can be a common feature of flare hybrids, i.e. the events, in which magnetic structures of different sizes interact.

  19. Measuring rotation periods of solar-like stars using TIGRE. A study of periodic CaII H+K S-index variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hempelmann, A.; Mittag, M.; Gonzalez-Perez, J. N.; Schmitt, J. H. M. M.; Schröder, K. P.; Rauw, G.

    2016-02-01

    Context. The rotation period of a star is a key parameter both for the stellar dynamo that generates magnetic fields as well as for stellar differential rotation. Aims: We present the results from the first year of monitoring a sample of solar-like stars by the TIGRE facility in Guanajuato (Mexico), which will study rotation in solar analogs. Methods: TIGRE is an automatically operating 1.2 m telescope equipped with an Échelle spectrograph with a spectral resolution of 20 000, which covers a spectral range of between 3800 and 8800 Å. A main task is the monitoring the stellar activity of cool stars, mainly in the emission cores of the CaII H and K lines. We observed a number of stars with a sampling between 1-3 days over one year. Results: A total number of 95 stars were observed between August 1 2013 and July 31 2014, the total number of spectra taken for this program was appoximately 2700. For almost a third of the sample stars the number of observations was rather low (less than 20), mainly because of bad weather. Fifty-four stars show a periodic signal but often with low significance. Only 24 stars exhibit a significant period. We interpret these signals as stellar rotation. For about half of them the rotation periods were already previously known, in which case our period measurements are usually in good agreement with the literature values. Besides the periodic signals, trends are frequently observed in the time series. Conclusions: TIGRE is obviously able to detect stellar rotation periods in the CaII H+K emission cores when the time series contains a sufficient number of data points. However, this is frequently not achievable during the wet summer season in Guanajuato. Hence, future estimates of rotation periods will concentrate on stars that are observable during the winter season from October until April.

  20. Retrospective study of recession of four horizontal rectus muscle in periodic alternating nystagmus

    PubMed Central

    Mimura, Osamu; Ishikawa, Hiroto; Kimura, Naoki; Kimura, Akiko; Borlongan, Cesar V

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Periodic alternating nystagmus (PAN) is a spontaneous horizontal nystagmus observed in disorders of the central nervous system. Patients with congenital PAN complain of oscillating vision at high rates. Medication is the first-choice treatment for PAN; however, clinicians still seek better therapy. The aim of this study was to evaluate outcomes of recession of four horizontal rectus muscle (R-FHR) in patients with congenital PAN. Patients and methods This study reports a retrospective case series of ten patients (seven males and three females; mean age 24.4±10.9) with congenital PAN who underwent R-FHR between 2007 and 2012, which was performed by the same surgeon at the Hyogo College of Medicine. Patients were evaluated for complications, recession amount, deviation angle, eye movements including a nystagmus amplitude, and visual acuity during pre- and post-operative periods. Results Pre-operatively, patients complained of oscillating vision, abnormal head posture, esotropia, and congenital superior oblique palsy. Post-operatively, changes from the previous observations of nystagmus amplitudes and abnormal head posture demonstrated a complete reversal in all patients. In addition, visual acuity determined with a Snellen chart improved in two patients. However, esotropia occurred in three patients who underwent additional strabismus surgery 2 days after R-FHR. R-FHR was particularly effective in eight patients who pre-operatively had periodic oscillating vision with a regular pattern of periodic nystagmus. Conclusion We demonstrated that ten patients with congenital PAN had improved vision following R-FHR, indicating that R-FHR was an effective procedure, especially in patients suffering PAN with periodic oscillating vision. PMID:25525330

  1. A study of the shortest-period planets found with Kepler

    SciTech Connect

    Sanchis-Ojeda, Roberto; Rappaport, Saul; Winn, Joshua N.; Kotson, Michael C.; Levine, Alan; Mellah, Ileyk El E-mail: sar@mit.edu E-mail: ileyk@apc.univ-paris7.fr

    2014-05-20

    We present the results of a survey aimed at discovering and studying transiting planets with orbital periods shorter than one day (ultra-short-period, or USP, planets), using data from the Kepler spacecraft. We computed Fourier transforms of the photometric time series for all 200,000 target stars, and detected transit signals based on the presence of regularly spaced sharp peaks in the Fourier spectrum. We present a list of 106 USP candidates, of which 18 have not previously been described in the literature. This list of candidates increases the number of planet candidates with orbital periods shorter than about six hours from two to seven. In addition, among the objects we studied, there are 26 USP candidates that had been previously reported in the literature which do not pass our various tests. All 106 of our candidates have passed several standard tests to rule out false positives due to eclipsing stellar systems. A low false positive rate is also implied by the relatively high fraction of candidates for which more than one transiting planet signal was detected. By assuming these multi-transit candidates represent coplanar multi-planet systems, we are able to infer that the USP planets are typically accompanied by other planets with periods in the range 1-50 days, in contrast with hot Jupiters which very rarely have companions in that same period range. Another clear pattern is that almost all USP planets are smaller than 2 R {sub ⊕}, possibly because gas giants in very tight orbits would lose their atmospheres by photoevaporation when subject to extremely strong stellar irradiation. Based on our survey statistics, USP planets exist around approximately (0.51 ± 0.07)% of G-dwarf stars, and (0.83 ± 0.18)% of K-dwarf stars.

  2. Study of the resonances of periodic plane media immersed in water: theory and experiment.

    PubMed

    Khaled, Aissam; Maréchal, Pierre; Lenoir, Olivier; Ech-Cherif El-Kettani, Mounsif; Chenouni, Driss

    2013-03-01

    The paper deals with the study of the resonances of 1D periodic media composed of N elementary cells formed with two perfectly bonded layers which exhibit a high acoustic impedance contrast. In the case of a periodic bilayer structure constituted of a fluid layer and an elastic plate, it was shown in previous theoretical works that additional modes appear compared to those of a single plate. These are called structure modes. At low frequency, the so-called vertical modes are found. Approximate expressions of their cut-off frequencies are given and their numerical values match with the exact ones. At high frequency, the Lamb type modes are degenerated and modes in the fluid layers are also observed. Preliminary experimental results have already proved the existence of such phenomena for one and two periods. In our work, an experimental validation has been performed in the case of N periods made with a glass isotropic elastic plate and a water fluid layer, where the number N ranges from two to five. A good agreement is shown compared to theoretical works.

  3. Mössbauer studies on ancient chinese pottery of Yangshao Culture Period

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Zhengfang; Zheng, Qi; Zheng, Yufang

    1988-12-01

    Eleven pieces of ancient Chinese pottery (4770 B.C. 2960 B.C.) of Yangshao Culture Period collected from the Xi'an area have been studied by means of Mössbauer spectroscopy. The samples were refired up to 1100°C in steps of 100°C for 2h in air. The highest temperature up to which the Mössbauer pattern remains basically unchanged can be identified with the original firing temperature. The result indicates that the firing temperatures for most of the sherds were between 900 1000°C. The function of the grit contained in the pottery has been discussed. The crimson and reddish painted materials on the surface of sherds have been studied, respectively. The first appearance of pottery can probably be traced back to an even earlier period.

  4. Study of biological rhythms of small intestinal cryptic epithelial mitosis of different periodicity by fourier analysis.

    PubMed

    Romanov, Yu A; Zharkova, N A; Antochin, A I; Zakharchenko, A V

    2009-05-01

    Rhythms of cell division with different periods in the mouse small intestinal cryptic epithelium were studied using Fourier analysis. It was found that the proliferative system of the crypt is characterized by an intricate spatial and temporal organization. The amplitude of low-frequency rhythms increases, while the amplitude of high-frequency rhythms decreased in the direction from the crypt bottom to the neck.

  5. On Flowfield Periodicity in the NASA Transonic Flutter Cascade. Part 1; Experimental Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lepicovsky, J.; McFarland, E. R.; Chima, R. V.; Wood, J. R.

    2000-01-01

    An extensive study to improve flow uniformity and periodicity in the NASA Transonic Flutter Cascade is presented here. The results are reported in two independent parts dealing with the experimental approach and the analytical approach. The first part, the Experimental Study, focuses first on the data sets acquired in this facility in the past and explains several discrepancies, particularly the questions of actual flow incidence and cascade back pressure levels. Next, available means for control and modifications of the cascade flowfield, boundary layer bleed and tailboard settings are presented in detail. This is followed by experimental data sets acquired in modified test facility configurations that were based on analytical predictions of the cascade flowfield. Finally, several important conclusions about improving the cascade flowfield uniformity and blade load periodicity are summarized. The important conclusions are: (1) boundary layer bleed does not improve the cascade flow periodicity; (2) tunnel wall contours must be carefully matched to the expected shape of cascade streamlines; (3) actual flow incidence for each cascade configuration rather must be measured instead of relying on the tunnel geometry; and (4) the current cascade configuration exhibits a very high blade load uniformity over six blades from blade #2 to blade #7, and the facility is now ready for unsteady pressure data acquisition.

  6. Studies of phase return map and symbolic dynamics in a periodically driven Hodgkin—Huxley neuron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Jiong; Zhang, Hong; Tong, Qin-Ye; Chen, Zhuo

    2014-02-01

    How neuronal spike trains encode external information is a hot topic in neurodynamics studies. In this paper, we investigate the dynamical states of the Hodgkin—Huxley neuron under periodic forcing. Depending on the parameters of the stimulus, the neuron exhibits periodic, quasiperiodic and chaotic spike trains. In order to analyze these spike trains quantitatively, we use the phase return map to describe the dynamical behavior on a one-dimensional (1D) map. According to the monotonicity or discontinuous point of the 1D map, the spike trains are transformed into symbolic sequences by implementing a coarse-grained algorithm — symbolic dynamics. Based on the ordering rules of symbolic dynamics, the parameters of the external stimulus can be measured in high resolution with finite length symbolic sequences. A reasonable explanation for why the nervous system can discriminate or cognize the small change of the external signals in a short time is also presented.

  7. Spectroscopic studies of wood fossils from the Crato Formation, Cretaceous Period.

    PubMed

    da Silva, J H; Freire, P T C; Abagaro, B T O; Silva, J A F; Saraiva, G D; de Lima, F J; Barros, O A; Bantim, R A; Saraiva, A A F; Viana, B C

    2013-11-01

    In this work we study two types of wood fossils (Gymnosperms, Araucariaceae) from the Crato Formation of Araripe Basin in Brazil, from the Cretaceous Period. The samples were characterized by Raman and infrared spectroscopies, X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. The results obtained by different techniques showed that although the rocks surrounding the fossils have predominantly the same constitution - calcite - however, the formation processes of these types of wood fossils are quite different. One of the fossils, denominated as light wood, is predominantly composed of gypsum, while the other fossil, the dark wood, is rich in amorphous carbon, possibly the kerogen type. Implications relative to the environment where the plants lived millions years ago are also given. Finally, the results highlight the constitution of one of the most important paleontological sites of the Cretaceous Period in the South America.

  8. A Case Study of Behaviour and Performance of Confined or Pastured Cows During the Dry Period

    PubMed Central

    Black, Randi A.; Krawczel, Peter D.

    2016-01-01

    Simple Summary Pasture and freestall systems offer benefits and consequences during lactation but have not been investigated during the dry period. The effect of pasture or confined systems during the dry period on behaviour and milk quality was investigated. Freestall housing resulted in more resting behaviour and less locomotor activity during the dry period compared to pastured cows. At calving, freestall housed cows performed fewer lying bouts and less locomotor activity compared to pastured cows. Pasture resulted in less aggression around feeding but high respiration rates during peak heat times. Pasture during the dry period altered lying behavior, reduced feed bunk aggression and increased heat stress behaviors. Abstract The objectives of this study were to determine the effect of the dry cow management system (pasture or confined) on: (1) lying behaviour and activity; (2) feeding and heat stress behaviours; (3) intramammary infections, postpartum. Non-lactating Holstein cows were assigned to either deep-bedded, sand freestalls (n = 14) or pasture (n = 14) using rolling enrollment. At dry-off, cows were equipped with an accelerometer to determine daily lying time (h/d), lying bouts (bouts/d), steps (steps/d) and divided into periods: far-off (60 to 15 d prepartum), close-up (14 to 1 d prepartum), calving (calving date) and postpartum (1 to 14 d postpartum). Respiration rates were recorded once weekly from dry off to calving from 1300 to 1500 h. Feeding displacements were defined as one cow successfully displacing another from the feed bunk and were recorded once per week during the 2 h period, immediately after feeding at 800 h. Pastured cows were fed a commercial dry cow pellet during far-off and total mixed ration during close-up, with free access to hay and grazing. Freestall housed cows were fed a total mixed ration at far-off and close-up. Cows housed in freestalls were moved to a maternity pen with a mattress at commencement of labour. Pastured cows

  9. Numerical study of deformation-induced fluid flows in periodic osteonal matrix under harmonic axial loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Vu-Hieu; Lemaire, Thibault; Naili, Salah

    2009-05-01

    Living bone is a tissue that is constantly renewed. It has been demonstrated that bone fluid flow and induced shear effects on the bone cells are important players in triggering and signaling bone formation and remodelling. This Note presents a model studying interstitial fluid flow in cortical bone under axial harmonic loads. These living tissues are considered as saturated anisotropic poroelastic material characterized by three-dimensional periodic groups of osteons. Using a frequency-domain analysis, the fluid shear stress variations are studied for various loading conditions and geometrical or physical bone matrix parameters. To cite this article: V.-H. Nguyen et al., C. R. Mecanique 337 (2009).

  10. Critical periods after stroke study: translating animal stroke recovery experiments into a clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Dromerick, Alexander W.; Edwardson, Matthew A.; Edwards, Dorothy F.; Giannetti, Margot L.; Barth, Jessica; Brady, Kathaleen P.; Chan, Evan; Tan, Ming T.; Tamboli, Irfan; Chia, Ruth; Orquiza, Michael; Padilla, Robert M.; Cheema, Amrita K.; Mapstone, Mark E.; Fiandaca, Massimo S.; Federoff, Howard J.; Newport, Elissa L.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Seven hundred ninety-five thousand Americans will have a stroke this year, and half will have a chronic hemiparesis. Substantial animal literature suggests that the mammalian brain has much potential to recover from acute injury using mechanisms of neuroplasticity, and that these mechanisms can be accessed using training paradigms and neurotransmitter manipulation. However, most of these findings have not been tested or confirmed in the rehabilitation setting, in large part because of the challenges in translating a conceptually straightforward laboratory experiment into a meaningful and rigorous clinical trial in humans. Through presentation of methods for a Phase II trial, we discuss these issues and describe our approach. Methods: In rodents there is compelling evidence for timing effects in rehabilitation; motor training delivered at certain times after stroke may be more effective than the same training delivered earlier or later, suggesting that there is a critical or sensitive period for strongest rehabilitation training effects. If analogous critical/sensitive periods can be identified after human stroke, then existing clinical resources can be better utilized to promote recovery. The Critical Periods after Stroke Study (CPASS) is a phase II randomized, controlled trial designed to explore whether such a sensitive period exists. We will randomize 64 persons to receive an additional 20 h of upper extremity therapy either immediately upon rehab admission, 2–3 months after stroke onset, 6 months after onset, or to an observation-only control group. The primary outcome measure will be the Action Research Arm Test (ARAT) at 1 year. Blood will be drawn at up to 3 time points for later biomarker studies. Conclusion: CPASS is an example of the translation of rodent motor recovery experiments into the clinical setting; data obtained from this single site randomized controlled trial will be used to finalize the design of a Phase III trial. PMID

  11. Joint HVDC Agricultural Study : Annual Progress Report for the 1985 Study Period.

    SciTech Connect

    Raleigh, Robert J.

    1986-02-01

    This report describes the first year of a 3-year study designed to assess the possible environmental effects of a +-500-kV dc transmission line. This first annual report documents site development, initiation of the livestock and crop studies, and the integration and interfacing of the agricultural and BPA's electrical monitoring study. The overall objective is to assess whether operation of a +-500-kV dc transmission line results in any detectable effects (beneficial or adverse) on plants or livestock, under controlled, simulated farming and ranching conditions. These two biological systems were selected because they can be expected to experience long-term exposure to maximum field and ion concentrations on the transmission right-of-way. This study is designed to provide data on end points and parameters of primary interest in commercial farming and ranching operations.

  12. Short communication: study of immune parameters in three Greek dairy sheep breeds during the periparturient period.

    PubMed

    Theodorou, G; Fragou, S; Chronopoulou, R; Kominakis, A; Rogdakis, E; Politis, I

    2007-12-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate whether immunosuppression occurs in 3 different Greek dairy sheep breeds during the periparturient period. A total of 33 ewes from 3 breeds [i.e., the low-producing Boutsiko breed (n = 11), which is highly adaptable to harsh environments; the high-producing but environmentally fragile Chios breed (n = 11); and an intermediate synthetic breed (50% Boutsiko, 25% Arta, and 25% Chios, n = 11)] were used. Blood samples were collected at 18 and 2 d before parturition and at 15 d after parturition. Total cell-associated and membrane-bound urokinase plasminogen activator (U-PA) activity, free U-PA binding sites on cellular membranes, and superoxide anion (SA) production by activated phagocytes were determined. Results indicated that all immune parameters measured remained constant during the periparturient period for the Boutsiko breed. In contrast, there were reductions in total cell-associated and membrane-bound U-PA activity by both monocytes-macrophages and neutrophils and in SA production by monocytes-macrophages at d 2 before parturition for the Chios breed. In the synthetic breed, there were reductions in total cell-associated and membrane-bound U-PA activity by monocytes-macrophages and in SA production by both monocytes-macrophages and neutrophils at d 15 after parturition. Thus, mild immunosuppression during the periparturient period was observed in the 2 breeds with the highest milk production.

  13. On Flowfield Periodicity in the NASA Transonic Flutter Cascade. Part 2; Numerical Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chima, Rodrick V.; McFarland, Eric R.; Wood, Jerry R.; Lepicovsky, Jan

    2000-01-01

    The transonic flutter cascade facility at NASA Glenn Research Center was redesigned based on a combined program of experimental measurements and numerical analyses. The objectives of the redesign were to improve the periodicity of the cascade in steady operation, and to better quantify the inlet and exit flow conditions needed for CFD predictions. Part I of this paper describes the experimental measurements, which included static pressure measurements on the blade and endwalls made using both static taps and pressure sensitive paints, cobra probe measurements of the endwall boundary layers and blade wakes, and shadowgraphs of the wave structure. Part II of this paper describes three CFD codes used to analyze the facility, including a multibody panel code, a quasi-three-dimensional viscous code, and a fully three-dimensional viscous code. The measurements and analyses both showed that the operation of the cascade was heavily dependent on the configuration of the sidewalls. Four configurations of the sidewalls were studied and the results are described. For the final configuration, the quasi-three-dimensional viscous code was used to predict the location of mid-passage streamlines for a perfectly periodic cascade. By arranging the tunnel sidewalls to approximate these streamlines, sidewall interference was minimized and excellent periodicity was obtained.

  14. A comparative study of stress episode prevalence and duration among Jomon period foragers from Hokkaido.

    PubMed

    Temple, Daniel H; McGroarty, Jennifer N; Guatelli-Steinberg, Debbie; Nakatsukasa, Masato; Matsumura, Hirofumi

    2013-10-01

    This study reconstructs linear enamel hypoplasia (LEH) prevalence and stress episode duration among Jomon period foragers from Hokkaido, Japan (HKJ). Results are compared to Jomon period samples from coastal Honshu, Japan (HSJ) and Tigara Inupiat from Point Hope, Alaska (PHT) to provide a more comprehensive perspective on the manifestation of stress among circum-Pacific foragers. LEH were identified macro- and microscopically by enamel surface depressions and increased perikymata spacing within defects. Individuals with more than one anterior tooth affected by LEH were labeled as LEH positive. Stress episode durations were estimated by counting the number of perikymata within the occlusal wall of each LEH and multiplying that number by constants reflecting modal periodicities for modern human teeth. LEH prevalence and stress episode duration did not differ significantly between the two Jomon samples. Significantly greater frequencies of LEH were found in HKJ as compared to PHT foragers. However, HKJ foragers had significantly shorter stress episode durations as compared to PHT. This suggests that a greater proportion of HKJ individuals experienced stress episodes than did PHT individuals, but these stress events ended sooner. Similarity in stress experiences between the two Jomon samples and differences between the HKJ and PHT are found. These findings are important for two reasons. First, stress experiences of foraging populations differ markedly and cannot be generalized by subsistence strategy alone. Second, due to significant differences in episode duration, stress experiences cannot be understood using prevalence comparisons alone.

  15. Should Age-Period-Cohort Studies Return to the Methodologies of the 1970s?

    PubMed Central

    Masters, Ryan K.; Yang, Y. Claire; Powers, Daniel A.; Zheng, Hui; Land, Kenneth C.

    2015-01-01

    Social scientists have recognized the importance of age-period-cohort (APC) models for half a century, but have spent much of this time mired in debates about the feasibility of APC methods. Recently, a new class of APC methods based on modern statistical knowledge has emerged, offering potential solutions. In 2009, Reither, Hauser and Yang used one of these new methods – hierarchical APC (HAPC) modeling – to study how birth cohorts may have contributed to the U.S. obesity epidemic. They found that recent birth cohorts experience higher odds of obesity than their predecessors, but that ubiquitous period-based changes are primarily responsible for the rising prevalence of obesity. Although these findings have been replicated elsewhere, recent commentaries by Bell and Jones call them into question – along with the new class of APC methods. Specifically, Bell and Jones claim that new APC methods do not adequately address model identification and suggest that “solid theory” is often sufficient to remove one of the three temporal dimensions from empirical consideration. They also present a series of simulation models that purportedly show how the HAPC models estimated by Reither et al. (2009) could have produced misleading results. However, these simulation models rest on assumptions that there were no period effects, and associations between period and cohort variables and the outcome were perfectly linear. Those are conditions under which APC models should never be used. Under more tenable assumptions, our own simulations show that HAPC methods perform well, both in recovering the main findings presented by Reither et al. (2009) and the results reported by Bell and Jones. We also respond to critiques about model identification and theoretically-imposed constraints, finding little pragmatic support for such arguments. We conclude by encouraging social scientists to move beyond the debates of the 1970s and toward a deeper appreciation for modern APC

  16. DMFT Study for Valence Fluctuations in the Extended Periodic Anderson Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shinzaki, Ryu; Nasu, Joji; Koga, Akihisa

    2016-02-01

    We study valence fluctuations at finite temperatures in the extended periodic Anderson model, where the Coulomb interaction between conduction and localized f-electrons is taken into account, using dynamical mean-field theory combined with the continuous-time quantum Monte Carlo (CT-QMC) method. The valence transition with the hysteresis is clearly found, indicating the first-order phase transition between the Kondo and mixed-valence states. We demonstrate that spin correlation rapidly develops when the system approaches the valence transition point. The comparison of the impurity solvers, the CT-QMC, non-crossing approximation, and one-crossing approximation, is also addressed.

  17. Analytical Study of Periodic Solutions on Perturbed Equatorial Two-Body Problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abouelmagd, Elbaz I.; Mortari, Daniele; Selim, Hadia H.

    2015-12-01

    This paper presents analytical derivations to study periodic solutions for the two-body problem perturbed by the first zonal harmonic parameter. In particular, three different semianalytical approaches to solve this problem have been studied: (1) the classic perturbation theory, (2) the Lindstedt-Poincaré technique, and (3) the Krylov-Bogoliubov-Mitropolsky method. In addition, the numerical integration by Runge-Kutta algorithm is established. However, the numerical comparison tests show that by increasing the value of angular momentum the solutions provided by Lindstedt-Poincaré and Krylov-Bogoliubov-Mitropolsky methods become similar, and they provide almost identical results using a smaller value for the perturbed parameter which quantify the dynamical flattening of the main body, the Krylov-Bogoliubov-Mitropolsky provides more accurate results to design elliptical periodic solutions than Lindstedt-Poincaré technique when the perturbed parameter has a relatively large value, regardless of the value of angular momentum. This study can be applied to equatorial orbits to obtain closed-form analytical solutions.

  18. Studies of FCAPT uvby Photometry of mCP Stars with Period04

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adelman, Saul Joseph; Jones Dukes, Robert

    2015-08-01

    We present differential Stromgren uvby observations of a few magnetic Chemically Peculiar (mCP) Stars from the Four College Automated Photometric Telescope to illustrate some interesting results found using Period04. Without an observer monitoring the weather, quality control depends on a several part process of closely inspecting the data. For each star we found a preliminary rotation period from the periodograms of the 4 filters and then used the accompanying non-linear least square tool to refine it. Next we repeated the analysis on the residuals from the fit to determine other periods. Usually we found the higher harmonics for those stars with non-sinusoidal light curves. In at least two cases there were low frequency terms.These high quality datasets usually have a greater number of yearly values obtained over more observing seasons than published studies. Stromgren intermediate bandwidth filters have mean wavelengths of λ3500 for u, λ4410 for v, λ4650 for b, and λ5470 for y with halfwidths of 300, 190, 180, and 230 Angstroms, respectively. The v and y values are often affected by broad, continuum features centered near λ4200 and λ5200.The mCP stars have non-aligned rotation and magnetic axes with emergent energy distributions, abundances, and magnetic field strengths being functions of photospheric position. Most have dipolar magnetic fields. Hydrodynamical processes, including radiative diffusion and gravitational settling, act in the radiative envelope to modify the elemental abundances relative to solar values. When such a star rotates, a distant observer often can see photometric, spectrum, and/or magnetic variability. Detecting one of these types of variability for a star with a mCP spectral classification means that it also varies in the other two ways which may not be easy to detect.Some particularly interesting results includeHD 5797 whose v variation is unique in having both the smallest amplitude and an apparent period one-half the period

  19. Experimental Study of the Effects of Periodic Unsteady Wakes on Flow Separation in Low Pressure Turbines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ozturk, Burak; Schobeiri, Meinhard T.

    2009-01-01

    The present study, which is the first of a series of investigations of low pressure turbine (LPT) boundary layer aerodynamics, is aimed at providing detailed unsteady boundary layer flow information to understand the underlying physics of the inception, onset, and extent of the separation zone. A detailed experimental study on the behavior of the separation zone on the suction surface of a highly loaded LPT-blade under periodic unsteady wake flow is presented. Experimental investigations were performed on a large-scale, high-subsonic unsteady turbine cascade research facility with an integrated wake generator and test section unit. Blade Pak B geometry was used in the cascade. The wakes were generated by continuously moving cylindrical bars device. Boundary layer investigations were performed using hot wire anemometry at Reynolds number of 110,000, based on the blade suction surface length and the exit velocity, for one steady and two unsteady inlet flow conditions, with the corresponding passing frequencies, wake velocities, and turbulence intensities. The reduced frequencies cover the entire operation range of LP-turbines. In addition to the unsteady boundary layer measurements, blade surface pressure measurements were performed at Re = 50,000, 75,000, 100,000, 110,000, and 125,000. For each Reynolds number, surface pressure measurements are carried out at one steady and two periodic unsteady inlet flow conditions. Detailed unsteady boundary layer measurement identifies the onset and extension of the separation zone as well as its behavior under unsteady wake flow. The results, presented in ensemble-averaged and contour plot forms, help to understand the physics of the separation phenomenon under periodic unsteady wake flow.

  20. Case study: Nutrition and training periodization in three elite marathon runners.

    PubMed

    Stellingwerf, Trent

    2012-10-01

    Laboratory-based studies demonstrate that fueling (carbohydrate; CHO) and fluid strategies can enhance training adaptations and race-day performance in endurance athletes. Thus, the aim of this case study was to characterize several periodized training and nutrition approaches leading to individualized race-day fluid and fueling plans for 3 elite male marathoners. The athletes kept detailed training logs on training volume, pace, and subjective ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) for each training session over 16 wk before race day. Training impulse/load calculations (TRIMP; min × RPE = load [arbitrary units; AU]) and 2 central nutritional techniques were implemented: periodic low-CHO-availability training and individualized CHO- and fluid-intake assessments. Athletes averaged ~13 training sessions per week for a total average training volume of 182 km/wk and peak volume of 231 km/wk. Weekly TRIMP peaked at 4,437 AU (Wk 9), with a low of 1,887 AU (Wk 16) and an average of 3,082 ± 646 AU. Of the 606 total training sessions, ~74%, 11%, and 15% were completed at an intensity in Zone 1 (very easy to somewhat hard), Zone 2 (at lactate threshold) and Zone 3 (very hard to maximal), respectively. There were 2.5 ± 2.3 low-CHO-availability training bouts per week. On race day athletes consumed 61 ± 15 g CHO in 604 ± 156 ml/hr (10.1% ± 0.3% CHO solution) in the following format: ~15 g CHO in ~150 ml every ~15 min of racing. Their resultant marathon times were 2:11:23, 2:12:39 (both personal bests), and 2:16:17 (a marathon debut). Taken together, these periodized training and nutrition approaches were successfully applied to elite marathoners in training and competition.

  1. "Radiative Closure Studies for Clear Skies During the ARM 2003 Aerosol Intensive Observation Period"

    SciTech Connect

    J. J. Michalsky, G. P. Anderson, J. Barnard, J. Delamere, C. Gueymard, S. Kato, P. Kiedron, A. McComiskey, and P. Ricchiazzi

    2006-04-01

    The Department of Energy's Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program sponsored a large intensive observation period (IOP) to study aerosol during the month of May 2003 around the Southern Great Plains (SGP) Climate Research Facility (CRF) in north central Oklahoma. Redundant measurements of aerosol optical properties were made using different techniques at the surface as well as in vertical profile with sensors aboard two aircraft. One of the principal motivations for this experiment was to resolve the disagreement between models and measurements of diffuse horizontal broadband shortwave irradiance at the surface, especially for modest aerosol loading. This paper focuses on using the redundant aerosol and radiation measurements during this IOP to compare direct beam and diffuse horizontal broadband shortwave irradiance measurements and models at the surface for a wide range of aerosol cases that occurred during 30 clear-sky periods on 13 days of May 2003. Models and measurements are compared over a large range of solar-zenith angles. Six different models are used to assess the relative agreement among them and the measurements. Better agreement than previously achieved appears to be the result of better specification of input parameters and better measurements of irradiances than in prior studies. Biases between modeled and measured direct irradiances are less than 1%, and biases between modeled and measured diffuse irradiances are less than 2%.

  2. Study on the Period of the Use of Datong-li in Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Ki-Won; Ahn, Young-Sook; Mihn, Byeong-Hee; Lim, Young-Ryan

    2010-03-01

    It has been generally known that Datong-li (a Chinese calendar in the Ming dynasty)was first introduced into Korea in the nineteenth reign of King Gongmin (1370) of the Goryeo dynasty and lasted to the third reign of King Hyeojong (1652) of the Joseon dynasty. This understanding is based on the records of Goryeo-sa (History of the Goryeo dynasty) and of Seoungwan-ji (Official book of Seoungwan)/ Jeungbomunheon bigo (Explanatory Notes of Library ocument). To verify the period of the use of Datong-li in Korea, we develop a Fortran code to calculate the calendar day by Datong-li and also investigate historical literatures and extant almanacs. As a result, we find the possibility that Datong-li had been in use since 1389 at least. However,we cannot confirm whether Datong-li was first enforced in 1370 or not. On the other hand, we confirm that Datong-li was used until 1653 and reintroduced during the period from 1667 to 1669. Also, we find that previous studies had some errors in the sexagenary cycle of the real first day of a month. We think that this study will contribute to understanding the calendrical history of the Joseon dynasty.

  3. Emergence periodicity of Phlebotomus argentipes annandale and brunetti (Diptera: psychodidae): A laboratory study.

    PubMed

    Dinesh, D S; Singh, A; Kumar, V; Kesari, S; Kumar, A J; Kishore, K; Roy, S P; Bhattacharya, S K; Das, P

    2009-12-01

    Phlebotomus argentipes Annandale and Brunetti (Diptera: Psychodidae) is the vector for visceral leishmaniasis in India. The aspects of its biology such as feeding and man vector contact are associated with emergence periodicity of the adult. Hence, the present study was made to find out the actual emergence period of P. argentipes. Wild caught P. argentipes were confined in the rearing pots inside laboratory. The newly emerged adults were collected at hourly intervals and released in to separate polythene bags and were held at 4°C till death. Sand flies were segregated sex-wise after the death under a microscope. The emergence of adult was observed throughout the day. However, the male preferred dawn emergence and the female the dusk. Two peaks of emergence were found in a day; first one in the morning (0900h) and the second one in the evening (1800h). The ratio of both sexes was found to be about equal. The emergence of adult was found to be 77% out of total eggs laid, which was completed within 7-10 days from the 1st day of emergence under laboratory conditions (25°C to 31°C and 70% to 75% relative humidity). This study has important bearings to find out the actual time for personal protection against biting of sand flies to prevent the transmission of Kala-azar.

  4. A Study on Effects of Waiting Period in Software Operation on the Operator's Psychophysiological State

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayasaka, Yoshiaki; Kimura, Tatsuhiro; Segawa, Norihisa; Miyazaki, Masatoshi; Yamazaki, Kiyoyuki; Murayama, Yuko

    The authors have been studying psychophysiological workload of human interface (HI) with physiological measurements and analysis. In this study, we investigated a kind of mental workload produced by user's unexpected waiting period from the request input to the termination of data processing during personal computer (PC) operation. As the experimental setting of HI, we used interactive software containing easy questions with unexpected time interval between each question. The effects of progress indicator (PI) indicating during waiting period on psychophysiological status of users were analyzed by using respiration, finger plethysmogram (PTG), heart rate (HR) and electroencephalogram (EEG) measurements. Results showed that the theta wave component of the EEG increased in the non-PI condition, even though autonomic nervous system parameters showed no significant change. Negative correlation between preference score for HI and integrated theta component percentage was observed only in non-PI condition. It is supposed that the PI was controlling theta activity coused by waiting stress in experimental condition. Utilizing physiological indices for HI assessment, this experimental method could be available to waiting stress estimation.

  5. Study of deformed quasi-periodic Fibonacci two dimensional photonic crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben Abdelaziz, K.; Bouazzi, Y.; Kanzari, M.

    2015-09-01

    Quasi-periodic photonic crystals are not periodic structures. These structures are generally obtained by the arrangement of layers according to a recursive rule. Properties of these structures make more attention the researchers especially in the case when applying defects. So, photonic crystals with defects present localized modes in the band gap leading to many potential applications such light localization. The objective of this work is to study by simulation the effect of the global deformation introduced in 2D quasiperiodic photonic crystals. Deformation was introduced by applying a power law, so that the coordinates y of the deformed object were determined through the coordinates x of the non-deformed structure in accordance with the following rule: y = x1+k. Here k is the coefficient defining the deformation. Therefore, the objective is to study the effect of this deformation on the optical properties of 2D quasiperiodic photonic crystals, constructed by Fibonacci generation. An omnidirectional mirror was obtained for optimization Fibonacci iteration in a part of visible spectra.

  6. Musculoskeletal symptoms and job strain among nursing personnel: a study over a three year period.

    PubMed Central

    Josephson, M; Lagerström, M; Hagberg, M; Wigaeus Hjelm, E

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To examine the variation of symptoms from the neck, shoulders, and back over a three year period among female nursing personnel and the relation between job strain and musculoskeletal symptoms. METHODS: At a county hospital the female nursing personnel answered a questionnaire at baseline and then once a year over a period of three years. There were 565, 553, 562, and 419 subjects who answered the questionnaire at the first, second, third, and fourth survey, respectively. Of the study group, 285 nursing personnel answered the questionnaire on four occasions. Ongoing symptoms of the neck, shoulders, and back were assessed by means of a 10 point (0-9) scale with the verbal end points "no symptoms" and "very intense symptoms." Cases were defined as nursing personnel reporting ongoing symptoms, score > 6, from at least one of the body regions. For assessments of job strain, a Swedish version of Karasek and Theorell's model was used. RESULTS: Of the 285 subjects, 13% were defined as cases at all four assessments, and 46% varied between cases and not cases during the study period. In the repeated cross sectional surveys the estimated rate ratio (RR) for being a case was between 1.1 and 1.5 when comparing the group with job strain and the group without job strain. For the combination of job strain and perceived high physical exertion the estimated RR was between 1.5 and 2.1. When the potential risk factors were assessed one, two, or three years before the assessment of symptoms the estimated RR for becoming a case was between 1.4 and 2.2 when comparing the group with job strain and the group without job strain. CONCLUSION: Almost half of the healthcare workers varied between being a case and not, over a three year period. The analysis indicated that job strain is a risk factor for musculoskeletal symptoms and that the risk is higher when it is combined with perceived high physical exertion. PMID:9423583

  7. Ultrafast time dynamics studies of periodic lattices with free electron laser radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Quevedo, W.; Busse, G.; Hallmann, J.; More, R.; Petri, M.; Rajkovic, I.; Krasniqi, F.; Rudenko, A.; Tschentscher, T.; Stojanovic, N.; Duesterer, S.; Treusch, R.; Tolkiehn, M.; Techert, S.

    2012-11-01

    It has been proposed that radiation from free electron laser (FEL) at Hamburg (FLASH) can be used for ultrafast time-resolved x-ray diffraction experiments based on the near-infrared (NIR) pump/FEL probe scheme. Here, investigation probing the ultrafast structural dynamics of periodic nano-crystalline organic matter (silver behenate) with such a scheme is reported. Excitation with a femtosecond NIR laser leads to an ultrafast lattice modification which time evolution has been studied through the scattering of vacuum ultraviolet FEL pulses. The found effect last for 6 ps and underpins the possibility for studying nanoperiodic dynamics down to the FEL source time resolution. Furthermore, the possibility of extending the use of silver behenate (AgBh) as a wavelength and temporal calibration tool for experiments with soft x-ray/FEL sources is suggested.

  8. A comprehensive study for the plasmonic thin-film solar cell with periodic structure.

    PubMed

    Sha, Wei E I; Choy, Wallace C H; Chew, Weng Cho

    2010-03-15

    A comprehensive study of the plasmonic thin-film solar cell with the periodic strip structure is presented in this paper. The finite-difference frequency-domain method is employed to discretize the inhomogeneous wave function for modeling the solar cell. In particular, the hybrid absorbing boundary condition and the one-sided difference scheme are adopted. The parameter extraction methods for the zeroth-order reflectance and the absorbed power density are also discussed, which is important for testing and optimizing the solar cell design. For the numerical results, the physics of the absorption peaks of the amorphous silicon thin-film solar cell are explained by electromagnetic theory; these peaks correspond to the waveguide mode, Floquet mode, surface plasmon resonance, and the constructively interference between adjacent metal strips. The work is therefore important for the theoretical study and optimized design of the plasmonic thin-film solar cell.

  9. An ab initio periodic study of acidic chabazite as a candidate for dihydrogen storage.

    PubMed

    Torres, F J; Civalleri, B; Pisani, C; Ugliengo, P

    2006-06-01

    A theoretical B3LYP study, adopting a polarized double-zeta quality Gaussian basis set, was performed to characterize acidic chabazite by using the periodic CRYSTAL03 program. Different Si/Al loadings (1/1, 3/1, 5/1, and 11/1) were considered, and for each of them the most stable aluminum distribution and location of the acidic proton, needed as charge balancer, were identified. With the optimal structures, the energy of formation and the anharmonic O-H stretching frequency were calculated with the latter being in good agreement with the experimental data. The B3LYP optimal position of H2 physisorbed at the acidic Brönsted sites of chabazite (Si/Al = 11/1 and 5/1) brings about an interaction energy definitely smaller than that derived from infrared spectroscopy, because of the known deficiencies of this functional to cope with dispersive interactions. The latter was included by means of an ONIOM-like procedure that combines periodic B3LYP energy with results at the MP2 level on selected clusters cut out of the chabazite framework. Adsorption of two H2 molecules for Si/Al = 5/1 chabazite showed a complete independence of each Brönsted site, and neither through-space nor intrastructure polarization effects are present. Within the periodic B3LYP approach shifts in both O-H and H-H anharmonic frequencies were also computed and compared with unperturbed values and with the available experimental results.

  10. Epidemiology of injuries in elite taekwondo athletes: two Olympic periods cross-sectional retrospective study

    PubMed Central

    Altarriba-Bartes, Albert; Drobnic, Franchek; Til, Lluís; Malliaropoulos, Nikolaos; Montoro, José Bruno; Irurtia, Alfredo

    2014-01-01

    Objective Taekwondo injuries differ according to the characteristics of the athletes and the competition. This analytical cross-sectional retrospective cohort study aimed to describe reported taekwondo injuries and to determine the prevalence, characteristics and possible risk factors for injuries sustained by athletes of the Spanish national team. In addition, we compared each identified risk factor—age, weight category, annual quarter, injury timing and competition difficulty level—with its relation to injury location and type. Settings Injury occurrences in taekwondo athletes of the Spanish national team during two Olympic periods at the High Performance Centre in Barcelona were analysed. Participants 48 taekwondo athletes (22 male, 26 female; age range 15–31 years) were studied; 1678 injury episodes occurred. Inclusion criteria were: (1) having trained with the national taekwondo group for a minimum of one sports season; (2) being a member of the Spanish national team. Results Independently of sex or Olympic period, the anatomical sites with most injury episodes were knee (21.3%), foot (17.0%), ankle (12.2%), thigh (11.4%) and lower leg (8.8%). Contusions (29.3%) and cartilage (17.6%) and joint (15.7%) injuries were the prevalent types of injury. Chronological age, weight category and annual quarter can be considered risk factors for sustaining injuries in male and female elite taekwondists according to their location and type (p≤0.001). Conclusions This study provides epidemiological information that will help to inform future injury surveillance studies and the development of prevention strategies and recommendations to reduce the number of injuries in taekwondo competition. PMID:24531455

  11. Sample size determination for alternate periods of use study designs with binary responses.

    PubMed

    Morel, Jorge G; Neerchal, Nagaraj K

    2012-01-01

    In this article, we consider several study designs that arise in practice, which are variations of standard crossover designs. Often, they may result from modifications made to a standard crossover design due to practical considerations. Characteristic features of the studies we are concerned with are (a) treatments consist of external use of products with little or no possibility of carry over effects, and (b) the periods of use are dictated by the subjects or by some specific event, such as diaper leakage or menstrual flow. We consider a number of such study designs for estimating the difference in the efficacy of two treatments or test products. We provide brief descriptions of studies to motivate the study design, the underlying data structure, and computations of the variances of the usual unbiased estimators of the difference in efficacy, and the sample size formulas. The situations considered here cover a number of popular crossover designs. The objective of our work is to provide guidance to members of a wide audience on how to answer the sample size question for their own nonstandard situations. We conclude the article with a brief report on a simulation study we conducted to investigate the impact of estimation on the sample size determination and consequently on the actual power realized in an effort to promote the "best practice" of checking whether the recommended sample sizes indeed achieve the desired level of power.

  12. Detection of (in)activity periods in human body motion using inertial sensors: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Olivares, Alberto; Ramírez, Javier; Górriz, Juan M; Olivares, Gonzalo; Damas, Miguel

    2012-01-01

    Determination of (in)activity periods when monitoring human body motion is a mandatory preprocessing step in all human inertial navigation and position analysis applications. Distinction of (in)activity needs to be established in order to allow the system to recompute the calibration parameters of the inertial sensors as well as the Zero Velocity Updates (ZUPT) of inertial navigation. The periodical recomputation of these parameters allows the application to maintain a constant degree of precision. This work presents a comparative study among different well known inertial magnitude-based detectors and proposes a new approach by applying spectrum-based detectors and memory-based detectors. A robust statistical comparison is carried out by the use of an accelerometer and angular rate signal synthesizer that mimics the output of accelerometers and gyroscopes when subjects are performing basic activities of daily life. Theoretical results are verified by testing the algorithms over signals gathered using an Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU). Detection accuracy rates of up to 97% are achieved.

  13. Study of electromagnetic wave scattering by periodic density irregularities in plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Lyle, R.; Kuo, S.P.; Huang, J.

    1995-12-31

    A quasi-particle approach is used to formulate wave propagation and scattering in a periodically structured plasma. The theory is then applied to study the effect of bottomside sinusoidal (BSS) irregularities on the propagation of beacon satellites signals through the ionosphere. In this approach, the radio wave is treated as a distribution of quasi-particles described by a Wigner distribution function governed by a transport equation. The irregularities providing the collisional effect are modeled as a two dimensional density modulation on a uniform background plasma. The present work generalizes the previous work by including the spectral bandwidth ({Delta}k/k) effect of the spatially periodic irregularities on the transionospheric signal propagation. The collision of quasi-particles with the irregularities modifies the quasi-particle distribution and give rise to the wave scattering phenomenon. The multiple scattering process is generally considered in this deterministic analysis of radio wave scattering off the ionospheric density irregularities. The analysis shows that this two dimensional density grating effectively modulates the intensity of the beacon satellite signals. This spatial modulation of the wave intensity is converted into time modulation due to the drift of the ionospheric irregularities, which then results in the scintillation of the beacon satellite signals.

  14. Detection of (In)activity Periods in Human Body Motion Using Inertial Sensors: A Comparative Study

    PubMed Central

    Olivares, Alberto; Ramírez, Javier; Górriz, Juan M.; Olivares, Gonzalo; Damas, Miguel

    2012-01-01

    Determination of (in)activity periods when monitoring human body motion is a mandatory preprocessing step in all human inertial navigation and position analysis applications. Distinction of (in)activity needs to be established in order to allow the system to recompute the calibration parameters of the inertial sensors as well as the Zero Velocity Updates (ZUPT) of inertial navigation. The periodical recomputation of these parameters allows the application to maintain a constant degree of precision. This work presents a comparative study among different well known inertial magnitude-based detectors and proposes a new approach by applying spectrum-based detectors and memory-based detectors. A robust statistical comparison is carried out by the use of an accelerometer and angular rate signal synthesizer that mimics the output of accelerometers and gyroscopes when subjects are performing basic activities of daily life. Theoretical results are verified by testing the algorithms over signals gathered using an Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU). Detection accuracy rates of up to 97% are achieved. PMID:22778613

  15. A critical period of brain development: studies of cerebral glucose utilization with PET.

    PubMed

    Chugani, H T

    1998-01-01

    Studies with positron emission tomography indicate that the human brain undergoes a period of postnatal maturation that is much more protracted than previously suspected. In the newborn, the highest degree of glucose metabolism (representative of functional activity) is in primary sensory and motor cortex, cingulate cortex, thalamus, brain stem, cerebellar vermis, and hippocampal region. At 2 to 3 months of age, glucose utilization increases in the parietal, temporal, and primary visual cortex; basal ganglia; and cerebellar hemispheres. Between 6 and 12 months, glucose utilization increases in frontal cortex. These metabolic changes correspond to the emergence of various behaviors during the first year of life. The measurement of absolute rates of glucose utilization during development indicates that the cerebral cortex undergoes a dynamic course of metabolic maturation that persists until ages 16-18 years. Initially, there is a rise in the rates of glucose utilization from birth until about age 4 years, at which time the child's cerebral cortex uses over twice as much glucose as that of adults. From age 4 to 10 years, these very high rates of glucose consumption are maintained, and only after then is there a gradual decline of glucose metabolic rates to reach adult values by age 16-18 years. Correlations between glucose utilization rates and synaptogenesis are discussed, and the argument is made that these findings have important implications with respect to human brain plasticity following injury as well as to "critical periods" of maximal learning capacity.

  16. Nationwide study of childhood celiac disease incidence over a 35-year period in Estonia.

    PubMed

    Ress, Krista; Luts, Katrin; Rägo, Tiina; Pisarev, Heti; Uibo, Oivi

    2012-12-01

    The aims of the study were to analyze the trends and characteristics of the incidence and clinical presentation of childhood celiac disease (CD) from 1976 to 2010 in Estonia. The study included all children up to 19 years of age diagnosed with small bowel biopsy proven CD. During a 35-year period, CD was diagnosed in 152 children in Estonia (68 boys, median age 2.3 years). From 1976 to 1980, the age-standardized incidence rate of CD was 0.10 per 100,000 person-years. After the introduction of gliadin and endomysium antibody screening (in conjunction with activities directed to increase the physicians awareness), the incidence rate increased from 0.48 in 1986-1990 to 1.55 per 100,000 person-years in 1991-1995. After initiating screening with anti-tissue transglutaminase antibodies in 2003 and routine screening for CD among all children with newly diagnosed type 1 diabetes in 2005, the incidence rate increased from 1.59 in 2001-2005 to 3.14 per 100,000 person-years in 2006-2010 (median age 6.8 years). Our nationwide study demonstrates a more than 30-fold increase in the incidence of childhood CD over a 35-year period in Estonia, along with changing patterns in the presentation of pediatric CD. In addition to the impact of use of novel CD screening methods, active search and rising of the awareness among doctors may have strongest effect. Both environmental and social factors could be also involved in the increase in CD incidence.

  17. Primary prevention in health care employees: a prospective intervention study with a 3-year training period.

    PubMed

    Löffler, Harald; Bruckner, Thomas; Diepgen, Thomas; Effendy, Isaak

    2006-04-01

    Irritant contact dermatitis is a mayor problem in health care employees. Because educational programs have shown convincing success in certain occupations (e.g. in hairdressers), this study investigates the effect of a special training program in health care trainees. 521 trainees from 14 nursing schools in Central Germany were randomly divided in 2 groups, (i) an intervention group with a regular teaching protocol regarding all aspects of primary prevention and (ii) a control group without any further teaching. Morphological changes of the hands, use of hand care creams and knowledge regarding skin care were evaluated regularly during their 3 years lasting training period (1999-2002). In the intervention group, we found at the end of the 3-year training period a significant better skin condition of the hands than in the control group: a 3-year prevalence of morphological skin changes of 66.7% versus 89.3%. The unteached trainees (control group) had an odds ratio (OR) of 4.8 [95% confidential interval (CI): 2.9-7.8] for developing any skin changes on the hands after 3 years. Besides the effect of the teaching, the history of hand dermatitis before the study start was an independent risk factor for development of further hand dermatitis [OR 1.9, 95% CI: 1.0-3.6). Age and sex showed no influence on the skin condition. Atopic constitution had an influence on the development of skin changes only at the evaluation after 18 month. The observed effect in the intervention group may best be explained by different behaviour of the trainees, e.g. the amount of hand washing was reduced, while procedure of hand disinfection remained unchanged compared with the control group. However, the amount of used skin care cream did not differ between the both groups. This study shows that primary prevention of skin disease by regularly teaching during the training period of medical employees can effectively reduce the risk of development of irritant skin changes of the hands. Therefore

  18. A Study of the Utilization Patterns of an Elementary School-Based Health Clinic over a 5-Year Period

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Veda; Hutcherson, Valerie

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the utilization pattern of an elementary school-based clinic over a 5-year period. It involved a retrospective analysis of computer-based data for all patient visits during this study period. Results revealed high clinic utilization with an average of over 5 encounters for all users each year. The most…

  19. Detection specificity studies of bacteriophage adhesin-coated long-period grating-based biosensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koba, Marcin; Śmietana, Mateusz; Brzozowska, Ewa; Górska, Sabina; Mikulic, Predrag; Cusano, Andrea; Bock, Wojtek J.

    2015-09-01

    In this work, we present a label-free detection specificity study of an optical fiber long-period grating (LPG) biosensor working near the dispersion turning point of higher order cladding modes. The LPG sensor functionalized with bacteriophage adhesin is tested with specific and non-specific bacteria dry weight. We show that such biosensor is able to selectively bind, thus recognize different bacteria. We use bacteria dry weights of E. coli B as positive test and E. coli K12 and Salmonella enterica as negative tests. The resonance wavelength shift induced by E. coli B reaches over 90 nm, while for E. coli K12 and Salmonella enterica approximately 40 and 20 nm, respectively.

  20. A periodic density functional theory study of cumene formation catalyzed by H-mordenite.

    PubMed

    Rozanska, X; Barbosa, L A M M; van Santen, R A

    2005-02-17

    A periodic density functional theory study of the alkylation of benzene with propene in proton-exchanged mordenite has been achieved. The two different reaction routes that are usually proposed for this reaction, namely the direct and the step-by-step reaction pathways, have been investigated. The explicit consideration of the zeolite catalyst framework allows a better level of description of the interactions between the catalyst framework and the reaction than what is obtained with the cluster approach method. The direct reaction route is found to be the preferred one. It is observed that the cluster approach method, which does not describe the zeolite framework, is unable to qualitatively described the trend in activation energies. This is owing to the greater stabilization of larger transition state by the mordenite zeolite framework compared with smaller ones.

  1. Feasibility study of a periodic arc compressor in the presence of coherent synchrotron radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Mitri, S.

    2016-01-01

    The advent of short electron bunches in high brightness linear accelerators has raised the awareness of the accelerator community to the degradation of the beam transverse emittance by coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) emitted in magnetic bunch length compressors, transfer lines and turnaround arcs. Beam optics control has been proposed to mitigate that CSR effect. In this article, we enlarge on the existing literature by reviewing the validity of the linear optics approach in a periodic, achromatic arc compressor. We then study the dependence of the CSR-perturbed emittance to beam optics, mean energy, and bunch charge. The analytical findings are compared with particle tracking results. Practical considerations on CSR-induced energy loss and nonlinear particle dynamics are included. As a result, we identify the range of parameters that allows feasibility of an arc compressor for driving, for example, a free electron laser or a linear collider.

  2. Reference datasets for 2-treatment, 2-sequence, 2-period bioequivalence studies.

    PubMed

    Schütz, Helmut; Labes, Detlew; Fuglsang, Anders

    2014-11-01

    It is difficult to validate statistical software used to assess bioequivalence since very few datasets with known results are in the public domain, and the few that are published are of moderate size and balanced. The purpose of this paper is therefore to introduce reference datasets of varying complexity in terms of dataset size and characteristics (balance, range, outlier presence, residual error distribution) for 2-treatment, 2-period, 2-sequence bioequivalence studies and to report their point estimates and 90% confidence intervals which companies can use to validate their installations. The results for these datasets were calculated using the commercial packages EquivTest, Kinetica, SAS and WinNonlin, and the non-commercial package R. The results of three of these packages mostly agree, but imbalance between sequences seems to provoke questionable results with one package, which illustrates well the need for proper software validation.

  3. Ecological periodic tables for benthic macrofaunal usage of estuarine habitats : Insights from a case study in Tillamook bay, Oregon, USA

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study validates the ecological relevance of estuarine habitat types to the benthic macrofaunal community and, together with previous similar studies, suggests they can serve as elements in ecological periodic tables of benthic macrofaunal usage in the bioregion. We compared...

  4. Advanced Concept Studies for Supersonic Commercial Transports Entering Service in the 2018 to 2020 Period

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgenstern, John; Norstrud, Nicole; Sokhey, Jack; Martens, Steve; Alonso, Juan J.

    2013-01-01

    Lockheed Martin Aeronautics Company (LM), working in conjunction with General Electric Global Research (GE GR), Rolls-Royce Liberty Works (RRLW), and Stanford University, herein presents results from the "N+2 Supersonic Validations" contract s initial 22 month phase, addressing the NASA solicitation "Advanced Concept Studies for Supersonic Commercial Transports Entering Service in the 2018 to 2020 Period." This report version adds documentation of an additional three month low boom test task. The key technical objective of this effort was to validate integrated airframe and propulsion technologies and design methodologies. These capabilities aspired to produce a viable supersonic vehicle design with environmental and performance characteristics. Supersonic testing of both airframe and propulsion technologies (including LM3: 97-023 low boom testing and April-June nozzle acoustic testing) verified LM s supersonic low-boom design methodologies and both GE and RRLW's nozzle technologies for future implementation. The N+2 program is aligned with NASA s Supersonic Project and is focused on providing system-level solutions capable of overcoming the environmental and performance/efficiency barriers to practical supersonic flight. NASA proposed "Initial Environmental Targets and Performance Goals for Future Supersonic Civil Aircraft". The LM N+2 studies are built upon LM s prior N+3 100 passenger design studies. The LM N+2 program addresses low boom design and methodology validations with wind tunnel testing, performance and efficiency goals with system level analysis, and low noise validations with two nozzle (GE and RRLW) acoustic tests.

  5. Case-control study of the PERIOD3 clock gene length polymorphism and colorectal adenoma formation

    PubMed Central

    ALEXANDER, MELANNIE; BURCH, JAMES B.; STECK, SUSAN E.; CHEN, CHIN-FU; HURLEY, THOMAS G.; CAVICCHIA, PHILIP; RAY, MEREDITH; SHIVAPPA, NITIN; GUESS, JACLYN; ZHANG, HONGMEI; YOUNGSTEDT, SHAWN D.; CREEK, KIM E.; LLOYD, STEPHEN; YANG, XIAOMING; HÉBERT, JAMES R.

    2015-01-01

    Clock genes are expressed in a self-perpetuating, circadian pattern in virtually every tissue including the human gastrointestinal tract. They coordinate cellular processes critical for tumor development, including cell proliferation, DNA damage response and apoptosis. Circadian rhythm disturbances have been associated with an increased risk for colon cancer and other cancers. This mechanism has not been elucidated, yet may involve dysregulation of the ‘period’ (PER) clock genes, which have tumor suppressor properties. A variable number tandem repeat (VNTR) in the PERIOD3 (PER3) gene has been associated with sleep disorders, differences in diurnal hormone secretion, and increased premenopausal breast cancer risk. Susceptibility related to PER3 has not been examined in conjunction with adenomatous polyps. This exploratory case-control study was the first to test the hypothesis that the 5-repeat PER3 VNTR sequence is associated with increased odds of adenoma formation. Information on demographics, medical history, occupation and lifestyle was collected prior to colonoscopy. Cases (n=49) were individuals with at least one histopathologically confirmed adenoma. Controls (n=97) included patients with normal findings or hyperplastic polyps not requiring enhanced surveillance. Unconditional multiple logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs), after adjusting for potential confounding. Adenomas were detected in 34% of participants. Cases were more likely to possess the 5-repeat PER3 genotype relative to controls (4/5 OR, 2.1; 95% CI, 0.9–4.8; 5/5 OR, 5.1; 95% CI, 1.4–18.1; 4/5+5/5 OR, 2.5; 95% CI, 1.7–5.4). Examination of the Oncomine microarray database indicated lower PERIOD gene expression in adenomas relative to adjacent normal tissue. Results suggest a need for follow-up in a larger sample. PMID:25501848

  6. Does an in-season detraining period affect the shoulder rotator cuff strength and balance of young swimmers?

    PubMed

    Batalha, Nuno M; Raimundo, Armando M; Tomas-Carus, Pablo; Marques, Mário A C; Silva, António J

    2014-07-01

    Imbalance in shoulder rotator muscles is a well-documented problem in swimmers, and it is important to implement land-based strength training programs. Meanwhile, the effects of a detraining period on swimmers' shoulder rotator muscles are unknown. The purpose of this study was to analyze the effects of a strength training program and detraining on the strength and balance of shoulder rotator cuff muscles in young swimmers, despite the continuity of usual water training. An experimental group (n = 20) and a control group (n = 20) of young male swimmers with the same characteristics (age, body mass, height, training volume, and maturational state) were evaluated. In both groups, the peak torques of shoulder internal (IR) and external (ER) rotators were assessed during preseason, midseason (16 weeks), and postseason (32 weeks). The experimental group underwent a strength training regimen from baseline to 16 weeks and a detraining period from 16 to 32 weeks. Concentric action at 60°·s-1 and 180°·s-1 was measured using an isokinetic dynamometer. The ER/IR strength ratios were obtained. At 60°·s-1, there were significant increments in IR strength and the ER/IR ratio in both shoulders. This trend was the same throughout the competitive season. The tendency was the same at 180°·s-1 because training effects were noted primarily in IR and ER/IR ratios. Moreover, the absence of land-based strength training, from 16 to 32 weeks, revealed a reduction in the ER/IR ratio values in both shoulders. Our findings suggest that young swimmers' coaches should use dry-land strength training protocols, and that it is recommended that these should be conducted on a regular basis (during the whole season).

  7. The Effect of Tofogliflozin Treatment on Postprandial Glucose and Lipid Metabolism in Japanese Men With Type 2 Diabetes: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Kakuda, Hirokazu; Kobayashi, Junji; Sakurai, Masaru; Kakuda, Masahiro; Takekoshi, Noboru

    2017-01-01

    Background Postprandial hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia are highly related to the development of atherosclerosis. Sodium/glucose cotransporter-2 (SGLT2) inhibitors have attracted attention as a new class of anti-diabetic agents for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. We investigated the effect of tofogliflozin on postprandial glucose and lipid metabolism in Japanese male patients with type 2 diabetes. Methods Ten Japanese men with type 2 diabetes (average age 66.3 years) were orally administered tofogliflozin (20 mg per day) for 8 weeks followed by a subsequent 8 weeks of washout of the agent. At 0, 8 and 16 weeks, postprandial metabolic parameters were measured at 0, 60 and 120 min after cookie ingestion. Results There were significant reductions in body weight and body mass index at 8 weeks. There was a reduction in HbA1c at 8 weeks, which returned to pretreatment levels at 16 weeks. Serum insulin levels did not change during the entire study period under either fasting or postprandial state. The area under the curve of plasma glucagon significantly increased at 8 weeks. There were no changes in lipid and lipoprotein levels either in fasting or postprandial state except for tendency toward reduction in postprandial triglycerides at 8 weeks and increase in HDL-C at 16 weeks. Conclusions Tofogliflozin treatment causes an improvement of postprandial glucose metabolism but not considerable postprandial lipid metabolism. PMID:28392860

  8. [Effectiveness of semax in acute period of hemispheric ischemic stroke (a clinical and electrophysiological study)].

    PubMed

    Gusev, E I; Skvortsova, V I; Miasoedov, N F; Nezavibat'ko, V N; Zhuravleva, E Iu; Vanichkin, A V

    1997-01-01

    Efficiency of Semax (synthetic derivative of ACTH-4-10) was studied in 30 patients in acute period of hemispherical ischemic stroke. Control group consisted of 80 patients with the strokes analogous in severity and location of the damages and which were treated by conventional therapy. Different clinical rating scales were used for both objectivization of the severity of the patients' state and estimation of the degree of neurological defect. The control of Semax influence on the functional state of the brain included monitoring of EEG with mapping, repeated analysis of somatosensory evoked potentials and their mapping. It was established that including of Semax in combined intensive therapy of acute ischemic stroke had some influence on the rate of restoration of the damaged neurological functions in terms of increasing the regress of general cerebral and focal, especially motor disorders. The most effective daily doses were 12 mg for patients with strokes of moderate severity and 18 mg for patients with severe strokes (treatment course--5 and 10 days).

  9. Unsaturated hydrocarbons adsorbed on low coordinated Pd surface: A periodic DFT study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belelli, Patricia G.; Ferullo, Ricardo M.; Castellani, Norberto J.

    2010-02-01

    In this work, the adsorption of several unsaturated hydrocarbon molecules on a stepped Pd(4 2 2) surface was studied. Using a periodic method based on the Density Functional Theory (DFT) formalism, different adsorption geometries for ethylene, three butene isomers ( cis/ trans-2-butene and 1-butene), acetylene and 2-butyne were investigated. The results were compared with those obtained for a free defect surface as Pd(1 1 1). The 1-butene is more stable on the free defect surface than on Pd(4 2 2). On the stepped surface, the olefins adsorb tilted towards the step and increases, in almost all the cases, the magnitude of the adsorption energy. Conversely, the 3-fold site is the most stable for the alkynes adsorption on the stepped surface, as it was found on Pd(1 1 1). The analysis of the dipole moment change indicate a charge transfer from the double bond of the olefin to the metallic surface, being higher for the Pd(1 1 1) surface. In case of the alkynes, an important back-donation is produced. Except the alkynes and the 1-butene molecule, the results show the preference of ethylene and cis/ trans-2-butene to be adsorbed on the stepped surface. These observations are related with experimental catalytic results.

  10. Butanethiol adsorption and dissociation on Ag (111): A periodic DFT study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Aixiao; Piquemal, Jean-Philip; Richardi, Johannes; Calatayud, Monica

    2016-04-01

    The molecular and dissociative adsorption of butanethiol (C4H9SH) on regular Ag (111) surfaces has been studied by means of periodic ab initio density functional techniques. In molecular form, butanethiol is bound to the surface only by weak polarization-induced forces with the C-S axis tilted by 38° relative to the normal surface. The S atom occupies a position between a hollow fcc and a bridge site. In the dissociative adsorption process, the S-H bond breaks leading to butanethiolate. The S atom of the thiolate also occupies a threefold position, slightly displaced to a hollow fcc site compared to the thiol adsorption case. The C-S axis of the thiolate is tilted by about 37°. The calculated adsorption energies show that the butanethiol and butanethiolate have similar adsorption ability. The computed reaction pathway for the S-H dissociation gives an activation energy of 0.98 eV indicating that the thiolate formation from thiol, although not spontaneous at room temperature, might be feasible on silver surfaces. The dissociation process induces both adsorbate and surface polarization with a significant charge transfer from the substrate to the adsorbate.

  11. Experimental study of flow in a channel with a periodically heated wall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inasawa, Ayumu; Taneda, Keinosuke; Floryan, Jerzy M.

    2015-11-01

    Flows in a channel with spatially periodic wall heating are examined experimentally at the Reynolds numbers below Re = 20 and at the Rayleigh number based on the amplitude of the periodic heating and the channel half width Rap = 3500, to realize the super-thermohydrophobic effect leading to a significant drag reduction (Floryan, 2012). The periodic heating is applied at the lower wall while the temperature of the upper wall is uniform and controlled. The results show that steady separation bubbles are created by periodic heating, which separate the main stream from the wall and, thus, the net friction drag is reduced. It is also found that the separation bubbles are strengthened when the average temperature of the lower wall exceeds that of the upper wall. Comparisons between the experiments and the theoretical results are presented.

  12. Neonatal Infection with Neisseria meningitidis: Analysis of a 97-Year Period Plus Case Study

    PubMed Central

    Bülbül, Ali; Cömert, Serdar; Uslu, Sinan; Arslan, Selda; Nuhoglu, Asiye

    2014-01-01

    Neisseria meningitidis is one of the major causes of meningitis in children and adolescents, but it is rarely found during the neonatal period. Here, we describe a neonate with meningococcal sepsis who was admitted to the hospital on postnatal day 10, and we discuss the clinical features of neonatal infection with N. meningitidis in relation to the literature (analysis of a 97-year period). PMID:25031437

  13. An Orbital Period Study of the W UMa-Type Binary RZ Comae Berenicis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, Sheng-Bang; He, Jia-Jia

    2005-12-01

    New photoelectric and CCD photometry observations of a short-period W UMa-type binary system, RZ Com, are presented. The light curves of Broglia (1960, Contr. Milano-Merate, 165) were symmetric in V band, while the present light curve shows a typical O'Connell effect, with Maximum I brighter than Maximum II by 0.015mag. It is found that the light curve of the binary star has changed from W-subtype to A-subtype according to Binnendijk's classification. This variation may be caused by the activity of dark spot on the primary component. Combining four newly determined times of the light minimum with others published in the literature, the orbital period change of the system was investigated. A small-amplitude oscillation (A = 0.0058 d), with a period of 44.8yr has been discovered to be superimposed on a long-term period increase with a rate of dP/dt = +4.12 × 10-8 d yr-1. The period oscillation can be explained either by the light-time effect via the presence of an unseen third body or by magnetic-activity cycles of the components. The mass ratio of RZ Com is q = 0.43. The secular period variation is in agreement with the conclusions of Qian (2001, MNRAS, 328, 914; 2003, MNRAS, 342, 1260). This indicates that it is on the TRO-controlled stage of the evolutionary scheme proposed by Qian.

  14. Migraine and periodic limb movement disorders in sleep in children: a preliminary case–control study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The relationships between sleep and headaches are complex and manifold. About the variety of phenomena that can disrupt the sleep macrostructure and can impact its restorative function, the periodic limb movements disorder (PLMd) can be considered as the most powerful. No studies are known about the role of PLMd in the pathophysiology of migraine in children. Aim of study is to assess the prevalence of PLMd and migraine and their relationship with disability and pain intensity in a pediatric sample, referred for migraine without aura by pediatricians. Methods After a preliminary sleep habits screening with the Sleep Disturbances Scale for Children, 34 migraine subjects affected by migraine without aura (20 M, 14 F) (mean age 9.08; SD ± 2.28) and 51 volunteers healthy children (28 M, 23 F) (mean age 9.37; SD ± 1.81) accepted to underwent overnight PSG recordings in the Sleep Laboratory of the Clinic of Child and Adolescent Neuropsychiatry, in order to define the macrostructural sleep characteristics and the prevalence of PLMd. Subsequently, the migraineurs sample was studied in order to define the relationship between disability, pain intensity, therapeutical responsiveness and the presence of PLMd. Results In the migraineurs children group, the individuals with PLM pathological index (PLMI ≥ 5) represent the 26.47% of sample and present higher frequency (p < 0.001), intensity (p < 0.001), duration (p = 0.006) and life impairment as scored in the PedMIDAS (p < 0.001) of headache and lower efficacy of prophylactic (p = 0.001) and acute (p = 0.006) pharmacological treatment than MoA children without PLM pathological index. Conclusions This preliminary study indicates the potential value of the determination of the PLMd signs, and the importance of the PSG evaluation in children affected by migraine, particularly when the clinical and pharmacological management tend to fail in the attacks control. PMID:23815623

  15. Trends in scientific activity addressing transmissible spongiform encephalopathies: a bibliometric study covering the period 1973–2002

    PubMed Central

    Sanz-Casado, Elías; Ramírez-de Santa Pau, Margarita; Suárez-Balseiro, Carlos A; Iribarren-Maestro, Isabel; de Pedro-Cuesta, Jesús

    2006-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study is to analyse the trends in scientific research on transmissible spongiform encephalopathies by applying bibliometric tools to the scientific literature published between 1973 and 2002. Methods The data for the study were obtained from Medline database, in order to determine the volume of scientific output in the above period, the countries involved, the type of document and the trends in the subject matters addressed. The period 1973–2002 was divided in three sub-periods. Results We observed a significant growth in scientific production. The percentage of increase is 871.7 from 1973 to 2002. This is more evident since 1991 and particularly in the 1996–2001 period. The countries found to have the highest output were the United States, the United Kingdom, Japan, France and Germany. The evolution in the subject matters was almost constant in the three sub-periods in which the study was divided. In the first and second sub-periods, the subject matters of greatest interest were more general, i.e Nervous system or Nervous system diseases, Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, Scrapie, and Chemicals and Drugs, but in the last sub-period, some changes were observed because the Prion-related matters had the greatest presence. Collaboration among authors is small from 1973 to 1992, but increases notably in the third sub-period, and also the number of authors and clusters formed. Some of the authors, like Gajdusek or Prusiner, appear in the whole period. Conclusion The study reveals a very high increase in scientific production. It is related also with the beginnings of research on bovine spongiform encephalopathy and variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, with the establishment of progressive collaboration relationships and a reflection of public health concerns about this problem. PMID:17026743

  16. Orbital period studies of the two contact binaries TZ Bootis and Y Sextantis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, S.; Liu, Q.

    2000-03-01

    The physical properties of the two A-type contact binaries TZ Boo and Y Sex are nearly the same. In the present paper, many of their published times of light minima are collected and the changes in their orbital periods are analyzed. It is indicated that the orbital period of TZ Boo shows several alternating jumps while it undergoes a secular decrease of -11.8x10-8 days/year. Several random jumps superposed on a secular decrease (-5.5x10-8 days/year) are also found in the period of Y Sex. The secular decrease is usually interpreted as mass transfer from the more to the less massive components, or mass and angular momentum loss (AML) from the systems. According to the AML theory, on the contact stage, the orbital AML is mainly caused by the mass transfer from the less to the more massive component and the mass ratio decreasing and orbital period gradually increasing are the corresponding results. The extremely low mass ratio and orbital angular momentum of the two systems show that they are evolved via AML and the present secular decrease in the periods may suggest that the magnetic activity in the two systems are very strong. The relation between the changes of the orbital periods and the magnetic activity in the two systems are discussed. We think that the interplay between the variable AML and variable magnetic coupling can explain both the jumps and secular decrease in the orbital periods of the two systems. Table~2 and Table~4 are only available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strabg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html

  17. A study of coronal X-ray emission from short-period Algol binaries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, K. P.; Drake, S. A.; White, N. E.

    1995-01-01

    A study of X-ray emission from five short-period Algol-type binaries based on observations with Advanced Satellite for Cosmology and Astrophysics (ASCA) and ROSAT is presented. We have observed RZ Cas with both satellites, and beta Per, U Cep, delta Lib, and TW Dra with ROSAT. Significant intensity variations are seen in the X-ray emission from RZ Cas, U Cep, TW Dra, and delta Lib. These variations seem unrelated to the eclipsing behavior of these systems and are probably due to either rotational modulation of compact active regions on the surfaces of the chromospherically active secondary components or to flaring activity in the systems. The spectra of all but one of the systems require the presence of at least two discrete plasma components with different temperatures (0.6 - 0.7 keV, and approximately 2 keV) and the abundances of the medium-Z elements 20% - 50% of the solar photospheric values. The high resolving power and signal-to-noise ratio of the ASCA spectra allow us to individually constrain the coronal abundances of O, Ne, Mg, Si, S, and Fe in RZ Cas. We demonstrate that, if we use the elemental abundances and temperatures obtained from the analysis of their ASCA spectra as (fixed) inputs, to fit the ROSAT PSPC spectra well requires the presence of a third component (kT approximately 0.2 - 0.3 keV) in RZ Cas and beta Per. A continuous emission measure model of the power-law type (EM(T) variesas (T/T(sub max)(sup alpha)) generally gives a poor fit to the ASCA and ROSAT data on most sources. Circumstellar or circumbinary absorbing matter seems to be present in some of these systems, as indicated by the variable total column density needed to fit their X-ray spectra.

  18. Study of multi-periodic coronal pulsations during an X-class solar flare

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chowdhury, Partha; Srivastava, A. K.; Dwivedi, B. N.; Sych, Robert; Moon, Y.-J.

    2015-12-01

    We investigate quasi-periodic coronal pulsations during the decay phase of an X 3.2 class flare on 14 May 2013, using soft X-ray data from the RHESSI satellite. Periodogram analyses of soft X-ray light curves show that ∼ 53 s and ∼ 72 s periods co-exist in the 3-6 keV, 6-12 keV and 12-25 keV energy bands. Considering the typical length of the flaring loop system and observed periodicities, we find that they are associated with multiple (first two harmonics) of fast magnetoacoustic sausage waves. The phase relationship of soft X-ray emissions in different energy bands using cross-correlation technique show that these modes are standing in nature as we do not find the phase lag. Considering the period ratio, we diagnose the local plasma conditions of the flaring region by invoking MHD seismology. The period ratio P1/2P2 is found to be ∼ 0.65, which indicates that such oscillations are most likely excited in longitudinal density stratified loops.

  19. A study on periodic solutions for the circular restricted three-body problem

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, F. B.; Zhang, W. E-mail: gaofabao@gmail.com

    2014-12-01

    For the circular restricted three-body problem (CR3BP) in the inertial frame, we interpret the fact that there is no non-trivial 2π-periodic solution of the problem's homogeneous system. Furthermore, based on Reissig's theory, the existence of periodic solutions for the CR3BP is proved rigorously by using the above fact in conjunction with an a priori estimate. It is significant that the existence of periodic solutions of the CR3BP is mainly influenced by factors such as initial values, primary masses, and selection of the problem's control function. In addition, it is notable that the analytic proof of Poincaré's first class solutions is addressed for all values of the mass parameter in the interval (0, 1), the value of which must be sufficiently small according to previously published literature.

  20. [Study on ammonia-N degradation monitoring by analyzing long-period fiber grating spectrum character].

    PubMed

    Liu, Hong-yue; Liang, Da-kai; Zeng, Jie; Cao, Zhi-bin; Zeng, Jian-min

    2010-09-01

    In the present paper, the principle of a long-period fiber grating (LPFG) ammonia-nitrogen degradation monitoring sensor was discussed in detail firstly based on a sensitive characteristic that the resonance spectrum of long-period fiber grating changes with refractive index in external environment. The relationship between the resonance peaking wavelength of long-period fiber grating and the concentration of ammonia-nitrogen solutions was also analyzed detailedly. Then, the long-period fiber grating spectrum measurement technology was selected to obtain long-period fiber grating spectrum curves corresponding to seven different kinds of concentration of ammonia-nitrogen solutions, and the resonance wavelengths increased with the increase in the concentration of ammonia-nitrogen solutions. The variations of the resonance wavelength decreased from 2.707 to 0.068 nm and had a relatively good corresponding relationship with the concentration values of ammonia-nitrogen solutions. The responsivity of this correlation is 52.78 pm x mg(-1) x L. The concentration of ammonia-nitrogen solutions was acquired exactly through the way of monitoring the changes of the spectrum attribute, at the same time, the process and the extent of ammonia-nitrogen wastewater degradation were estimated. This method, which can directly monitor the concentration of ammonia-nitrogen solutions, is simple and easy to operate. The measurement and transmission section of the system are completely composed of optical fiber, which can avoid the electronic interference. There is no necessary to use chemic reagent to sign the solutions, which are going to be degraded. In conclusion, the late-model long-period fiber grating ammonia-nitrogen degradation monitoring system could achieve a real time, rapid, accurate and long distance measurement.

  1. It's T time: A study on the return period of multivariate problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michailidi, Eleni Maria; Balistrocchi, Matteo; Bacchi, Baldassare

    2016-04-01

    One of the most important tasks a hydrologist must face is the proper estimation of the 'design values' of a natural variable corresponding to a given Return Period, T, of failures of the hydraulic 'structure' to be designed or verified. Sometimes the 'structure' is simply the embankments, the failure of which corresponds to the outflows of flood runoff on the surrounding land. The widely adopted definition of T, in a problem regarding the maxima of hydrological variables, is "the average time elapsing between two successive occurrences of an event exceeding a certain magnitude of the natural variables". If T is referred to the minima, the symmetric definition pertains to the "average time between two periods during which the variable ranges below a given magnitude". Conventional (and the only accepted) approaches for estimation of T involve a single natural variable (i.e. flood-peak of a river at a given cross section, the daily maximum discharge, the maximum daily rainfall depth observed at a given rain-gauge). The method of estimation of T entails a frequency analysis of the variable of interest, where the design value of a given T is needed to design the structure of interest (e.g. dams, sewers). In other words, T is used as the index value to set the assigned risk level for the hydraulic works. However, a univariate approach in complex problems ignores the effect of significant variables interrelation leading to different risk levels for each quantity of interest and resulting in a completely wrong estimate of the risk. For example, if one considers the flood inflow in a lake around which cities and villages are positioned, the variable to be investigated in relation to the risk assessment is the lake water level. It is obvious that the same water level may occur from very different flood hydrographs, even when the same initial water level and the same rate curve of outflows are considered. This is a consequence of the interaction of at least three joint

  2. Experimental Study of Tip Vortex Flow from a Periodically Pitched Airfoil Section

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zaman, Khairul; Fagan, Amy; Mankbadi, Mina

    2016-01-01

    An experimental investigation of tip vortex flow from a NACA0012 airfoil, pitched periodically at various frequencies, is conducted in a low-speed wind tunnel. Initially, data for stationary airfoil held fixed at various angles-of-attack are gathered. Flow visualization pictures as well as detailed cross-sectional properties areobtained at various streamwise locations using hot-wire anemometry. Data include mean velocity, streamwise vorticity as well as various turbulent stresses. Preliminary data are also acquired for periodically pitched airfoil. These results are briefly presented in this extended abstract.

  3. Behavioral study of ultradian activity periods of mice enclosed in experimental cages of different dimensions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guillot, A.

    1982-01-01

    Male mice are enclosed in cages of different dimensions (cage A - 23x8x8 cm., cage B - 36x27x17 cm.), in an alternating light/dark regimen, at an ambient temperature of 22 to 23 C. The successions of the behavioral sequences of ultradian activity periods are noticed by direct observation during 11 consecutive hours in light. The experimental situation modifies the mean duration time and the behavioral organization of each activity period. However, the comparison of the overall activity time lengths and the comparison of the overall behavioral frequencies suggest that the energy spent per mouse is constant.

  4. 39 CFR 3050.12 - Obsolescence of special studies relied on to produce the Postal Service's annual periodic reports...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Obsolescence of special studies relied on to... studies relied on to produce the Postal Service's annual periodic reports to the Commission. The Postal Service shall provide a list of special studies whose results are used to produce the estimates in...

  5. The relation between prepregnancy sexuality and sexual function during pregnancy and the postpartum period: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Yıldız, Hatice

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the relation between sexual functions of women in prepregnancy (before conception) and during pregnancy and the postpartum period. This study was conducted on 59 healthy pregnant women. Participants were followed from the eighth week of gestation to 6 months after delivery. Sexual function during pregnancy and the postpartum period was shown to have a significant linear correlation with prepregnancy sexuality. There was no relation between pregnancy and postpartum sexuality. All of the participants who had prepregnancy sexual dysfunction continued to experience it during pregnancy, and the majority of them had a significant level of sexual dysfunction in the postpartum period. Our results showed that prepregnancy sexuality plays an important role in maintaining sexuality during pregnancy and the postpartum period.

  6. Orbital Period Variation Study of the Algol Eclipsing Binary DI Pegasi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanna, M. A.; Amin, S. M.

    2013-08-01

    We discuss the orbital period changes of the Algol semi-detached eclipsing binary DI Peg by constructing the (O-C) residual diagram via using all the available precise minima times. We conclude that the period variation can be explained by a sine-like variation due to the presence of a third body orbiting the binary, together with a long-term orbital period increase ( dP/dt=0.17 sec/century) that can be interpreted to be due to mass transfer from the evolved secondary component (of rate 1.52×10^{-8} M_{⊙}/ yr) to the primary one. The detected low-mass third body (M_{3 min.}=0.22±0.0006 M_{⊙}) is responsible for a periodic variation of about 55 years light time effect. We have determined the orbital parameters of the third component which show a considerable eccentricity e_{3}= 0.77±0.07 together with a longitude of periastron ω_{3}=300° ± 10°.

  7. Comparative Study of Periodical Literature Indexing: Print versus Electronic Access. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowry, Charles B.

    This 2-year project at the University of Texas at Arlington (UTA) was conducted to determine the feasibility of providing online periodical indexing to the journal holdings of the UTA libraries by demonstrating an extended use of the libraries' NOTIS Online Public Access Catalog (OPAC) to provide better access to local resources. Three approaches…

  8. Period studies and photometric models for two EB-type binaries EU Hya and AW Vul

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yuan-Gui; Li, Qun; Li, Hua-Li; Dai, Hai-Feng

    2016-02-01

    New photometry for two Algol-type binaries, EU Hya (P = 0.7782 d) and AW Vul (P = 0.8065 d), was carried out using the 60-cm telescope at Xinglong station of National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences. With the updated Wilson-Devinney code, photometric elements were derived from the multi-color light curves. The modeled results indicate that the two systems are near-contact binaries, whose secondary components fill their Roche lobes. The fill-out factors of the primaries are fp = 81.2 (±0.2)% for EU Hya and fp = 82.4 (±0.3)% for AW Vul. Period analysis implies that there exists a downward parabola with a light-time orbit from the (O - C) curve. This kind of periodic oscillation may be attributed to the light-time orbit effect of a third companion. The long-term period decrease may be caused by mass and angular momentum loss. When the orbital period decreases, the fill-out factor of fp will increase. Our results indicate that the primaries will also eventually fill their Roche lobes. EU Hya and AW Vul may possibly evolve from semi-detached binaries into contact ones.

  9. A Case Study of Periodical Use by Library and Information Science Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ivins, Tammy

    2013-01-01

    There is a lack of information in the literature about the sources used for research by modern Master of Library and Information Science students in the United States, and so the objective of this project is to understand the use of periodical articles by these students. Specifically: do articles play a major role in student research, how current…

  10. Period04 FCAPT uvby Photometric Studies of Eight Magnetic CP Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adelman, Saul J.; Dukes, Robert J.

    2014-06-01

    We present Four College Automated Photometric Telescope (FCAPT) differential Stromgren uvby photometry of 8 magnetic CP (mCP) stars: HD 5797 (V551 Cas), HD 26792 (DH Cam), HD 27309 (56 Tau, V724 Tau), HD 49713 (V740 Mon), HD 74521 (49 Cnc, BI Cnc), HD 120198 (84 UMa, CR UMa), HD 171263 (QU Ser), and HD 215441 (GL Lac, Babcock's star). Our data sets are larger than those of most mCP stars in the literature. These are the first FCAPT observations of HD 5797, HD 26792, HD 49713, and HD 171263. Those for the remaining four stars substantially extend published FCAPT data. The FCAPT observed some stars for a longer time range and with greater accuracy than other optical region automated photometric telescopes.Our goals were to determine very accurate periods, the u, v, b, and y amplitudes, and if there were any long period periods. In addition we wanted to compare our results with those of magnetic field measurements to help interpret the light curves.We used the Period04 computer program to analyze the light curves. This program provides errors for the derived quantities as it fits the light curve. Our derived periods of 68.046 +/- 0.008 days for HD 5797, 3.80205 +/- 0.00006 days for HD 26792, 1.56889 +/- 0.000002 days for HD 27309, 2.13536 +/- 0.00002 days for HD 49713, 7.0505 +/- 0.0001 days for HD 74521, 1.38577 +/- 0.000004 days for HD 120198, 3.9974 +/- 0.0001days for HD 171263, and 9.487792 +/- 0.00005 days for HD 215441 are refinements of the best determinations in the literature.

  11. Human comfort studies in Debrecen regarding the 2006-2008 period

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gyarmati, R.; Toth, T.; Szegedi, S.; Kapocska, L.

    2010-09-01

    Human comfort studies in Debrecen regarding the 2006-2008 period Renata Gyarmati, Tamas Toth, Sandor Szegedi and Laszlo Kapocska University of Debrecen Department of Meteorology, 4032 Debrecen Egyetem tér 1. The significance of human meteorological studies, primarily the importance of observing the sensitivity to fronts has been verified by several foreign and native authors. However, this field of research has shown few exact scientific achievements so far, but the understanding of the connection between weather and human comfort could be promotive factor of human health preservation. This project is quite current since a great part of so called ‘healthy people', who are not suffered from constant diseases are sorely tried by the changing weather. Frequent occurrence of extreme meteorological events will increase the number of meteoropathies in the near future. The whole living world is sensitive to changes in temperature, pressure, humidity and wind speed caused by meteorological events. Frequent fluctuations cause a great trial to pregnant women. The presence of the contact between weather and obstetrical events, formerly proved by Raics (1972), Nowinszky-Nowinszky (1996-1997), Puskás (2008) is supported by our examined data from the University of Debrecen Medical School and Health Science Centre Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology. During our observation we scrutinized the relation between frontal passage macrosynoptic types and birth number. It's evident that higher data of birth number can be observed during on-coming weather fronts. In case of resident warm fronts, contrast with free-from-front days increasing values can't be experienced although an increase can be observed at the other front types. In the mentioned term over the change of pressure a significant change in temperature probably produced an effect on start of labours. This is in harmony with macrosynoptic types applied to the Carpathian basin. According to this, higher birth number was

  12. Damaging events along roads during bad weather periods: a case study in Calabria (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrucci, O.; Pasqua, A. A.

    2012-02-01

    The study focuses on circumstances that affect people during periods of bad weather conditions characterised by winds, rainfall, landslides, flooding, and storm surges. A methodological approach and its application to a study area in southern Italy are presented here. A 10-yr database was generated by mining data from a newspaper. Damaging agents were sorted into five types: flood, urban flooding, landslide, wind, and storm surge. Damage to people occurred in 126 cases, causing 13 victims, 129 injured and about 782 people involved but not injured. For cases of floods, urban flooding and landslides, the analysis does not highlight straightforward relationships between rainfall and damage to people, even if the events showed different features according to the months of occurrence. The events occurring between May and October were characterised by concentrated and intense rainfall, and between May and July, the highest values of hourly (103 mm on the average) and monthly rainfall (114 mm on the average) were recorded. Urban flooding and flash floods were the most common damaging agents: injured, involved people and more rarely, cases with victims were reported. Between November and April, the highest number of events was recorded. Rainfall presented longer durations and hourly and sub-hourly rainfall were lower than those recorded between May and October. Landslides were the most frequent damaging agents but the highest number of cases with victims, which occurred between November and January, were mainly related to floods and urban flooding. Motorists represent the totality of the victims; 84% of the people were injured and the whole of people involved. All victims were men, and the average age was 43 yr. The primary cause of death was drowning caused by floods, and the second was trauma suffered in car accidents caused by urban flooding. The high number of motorists rescued in submerged cars reveals an underestimation of danger in the case of floods, often

  13. Indoor radon periodicities and their physical constraints: a study in the Coimbra region (Central Portugal).

    PubMed

    Neves, L J P F; Barbosa, S M; Pereira, A J S C

    2009-10-01

    Indoor radon activities were measured during a period of 6 months, as well as several physical environmental variables (temperature, pressure, humidity and rainfall). The location was a small room at an administrative building of the University of Coimbra, usually undisturbed by human activities and situated over bedrock of low-uranium Triassic red sandstones. A low average activity of radon was observed (36 Bq m(-3)), however showing a very well marked daily periodicity (10+/-5 Bq m(-3)), with maximum values occurring more frequently between 9 and 10 a.m. Daily variations are shown to have no relation with earth tides, and their amplitudes exhibit a significant correlation with outdoor temperature; no dependence on barometric pressure was found. Rainfall disturbs the observed daily radon cycles through a strong reduction of their amplitude, but has no effect on the long-term variability of the gas concentration.

  14. Evolution of illustrations in anatomy: a study from the classical period in Europe to modern times.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Sanjib Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Illustrations constitute an essential element of learning anatomy in modern times. However it required a significant evolutionary process spread over centuries, for illustrations to achieve the present status in the subject of anatomy. This review article attempts to outline the evolutionary process by highlighting on the works of esteemed anatomists in a chronological manner. Available literature suggests that illustrations were not used in anatomy during the classical period when the subject was dominated by the descriptive text of Galen. Guido da Vigevano was first to use illustrations in anatomy during the Late Middle Ages and this concept developed further during the Renaissance period when Andreas Vesalius pioneered in illustrations becoming an indispensable tool in conveying anatomical details. Toward later stages of the Renaissance period, Fabricius ab Aquapendente endeavored to restrict dramatization of anatomical illustrations which was a prevalent trend in early Renaissance. During the 18th century, anatomical artwork was characterized by the individual styles of prominent anatomists leading to suppression of anatomical details. In the 19th century, Henry Gray used illustrations in his anatomical masterpiece that focused on depicting anatomical structures and were free from any artistic style. From early part of the 20th century medical images and photographs started to complement traditional handmade anatomical illustrations. Computer technology and advanced software systems played a key role in the evolution of anatomical illustrations during the late 20th century resulting in new generation 3D image datasets that are being used in the 21st century in innovative formats for teaching and learning anatomy.

  15. Influence of harvest method and period on olive oil composition: an NMR and statistical study.

    PubMed

    D'Imperio, Marco; Gobbino, Marco; Picanza, Antonio; Costanzo, Simona; Della Corte, Anna; Mannina, Luisa

    2010-10-27

    The influence of harvest period and harvest method on olive oil composition was investigated by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and by some quality parameters such as free acidity, peroxide value, and UV spectrophotometric indices. This work focuses on two secondary factors (harvest period and harvest method) and investigated their interactions with primary (genetic and pedoclimatic) and secondary (agronomic practices and technological procedures) factors. To avoid misinterpretation, the general linear model analysis (GLM) was used to adjust the result obtained from the analysis of variance (ANOVA). In this way, the effect of the factor of interest was corrected for the effects of the other factors that might influence the variable under investigation. The weight of each factor was evaluated by the variance component analysis (VCA). Finally, multivariate statistical analyses, namely, principal component analysis (PCA) and linear discriminant analysis (LDA), were applied. Samples were grouped according to the harvest period and harvest method. Volatile compounds, that is, hexanal and trans-2-hexenal, as well as the sn-1,3-diglycerides and squalene, significantly decreased during the ripening. The relative value of the ΔK parameter and the hexanal amount were higher in the olive oils obtained from olives harvested by one type of hand-held machine (shaker), whereas the unsaturated fatty chains in the olive oils were higher when another type (comb) was used.

  16. A Comparison of Two CD-ROM Periodical Indexes for Use in the Middle School. A Scholarly Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thrash, Beverly M.

    This purpose of this study was to determine which periodical index--InfoTrac or EBSCO Magazine Article Summaries--is the most appropriate for use by middle school students preparing required research projects. The study population consisted of randomly selected sixth, seventh, and eighth grade students (N=50) in a Cobb County (Georgia) middle…

  17. Bioengineering studies of periodic external compression as prophylaxis against deep vein thrombosis-part I: numerical studies.

    PubMed

    Kamm, R D

    1982-05-01

    This paper presents the results of a numerical study of the technique of periodic external compression for the prevention of deep vein thrombosis. In the model the veins of the lower leg are portrayed as a continuous system rather than as discrete elements as in previous models. Consequently, we are able to explore the detailed effects of different modes of compression including (i) uniform compression, the simultaneous application of uniform pressure over the entire lower leg, (ii) graded compression, the application of nonuniform pressure, maximum at the ankle and minimum at the knee, and (iii) wavelike compression, a wave of compression proceeding from the ankle toward the knee. These numerical results indicate that the effectiveness of uniform compression is severely compromised by the formation of a flow-limiting throat at the proximal end of the compression cuff that reduces both the rate at which blood is discharged from the lower leg and the total blood volume removed. Both of these detrimental effects can be avoided by the use of either wavelike of graded compression. Both alternated methods are shown to produce more uniform augmentation of volume flow rate, flow velocity and shear stress, throughout the entire lower leg. In the companion paper, Part II [18] (see following article), these same compression modes are tested using a simple hydraulic model consisting of a single latex tube inside a foam cylinder as a highly simplified representation of a human leg.

  18. A numerical study of transition control by periodic suction-blowing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biringen, Sedat

    1987-01-01

    The applicability of active control of transition by periodic suction-blowing is investigated via direct numerical simulations of the Navier-Stokes equations. The time-evolution of finite-amplitude disturbances in plane channel flow is compared in detail with and without control. The analysis indicates that, for relatively small three dimensional amplitudes, a two dimensional control effectively reduces disturbance growth rates even for linearly unstable Reynolds numbers. After the flow goes through secondary instability, three dimensional control seems necessary to stabilize the flow. An investigation of the temperature field suggests that passive temperature contamination is operative to reflect the flow dynamics during transition.

  19. Breaking inertia: increasing access to journals during a period of declining budgets: a case study

    PubMed Central

    Fought, Rick L.

    2014-01-01

    Beginning in January 2012, a 1-year pilot pay-per-view (PPV) service was implemented. Twenty-four journal subscriptions were canceled to fund the service, and through the PPV service, the library was able to offer patrons access to over 700 previously unavailable biomedical journals. At the end of the pilot period, the total PPV cost for each journal accessed was compared to the subscription cost to determine if PPV was an effective use of library money. While remaining essentially budget neutral, the number of full-text articles accessed increased over 400%. PPV can be a cost-effective method for expanding access to journals. PMID:25031560

  20. Preliminary TES design optimization study for a simple periodic brick plant

    SciTech Connect

    Drake, J.B.; Olszewski, M.; Solomon, A.D.

    1989-03-01

    A general optimization method has been developed for maximizing the return on investment for a brick plant re-using waste heat with the capability of storing energy over periods when a kiln is not operating. The duct connections between devices and storage along with the operating schedule of flow rates in these ducts are the independent variables available for control. A combination of combinatorial search algorithms along with a dynamic programming model and the simplex method are layered to provide the optimization technique.

  1. Breaking inertia: increasing access to journals during a period of declining budgets: a case study.

    PubMed

    Fought, Rick L

    2014-07-01

    Beginning in January 2012, a 1-year pilot pay-per-view (PPV) service was implemented. Twenty-four journal subscriptions were canceled to fund the service, and through the PPV service, the library was able to offer patrons access to over 700 previously unavailable biomedical journals. At the end of the pilot period, the total PPV cost for each journal accessed was compared to the subscription cost to determine if PPV was an effective use of library money. While remaining essentially budget neutral, the number of full-text articles accessed increased over 400%. PPV can be a cost-effective method for expanding access to journals.

  2. Photometric study and absolute parameters of the short-period eclipsing binary HH Bootis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gürol, B.; Bradstreet, D. H.; Demircan, Y.; Gürsoytrak, S. H.

    2015-11-01

    We present the results of our investigation on the geometrical and physical parameters of the W UMa type binary system HH Bootis from new CCD (BVRI) light curves and published radial velocity data. The photometric data were obtained in 2011 and 2012 at Ankara University Observatory (AUO). Light and radial velocity observations were analyzed simultaneously using the Wilson-Devinney (2013 revision) code to obtain absolute and geometrical parameters. The system was determined to be a W-type W UMa system of a type different from that suggested by Dal and Sipahi (2013). An interesting cyclic period variation in the time intervals between primary and secondary eclipses ("half-period variation") was discovered and analyzed and its possible cause is discussed. Combining our photometric solution with the spectroscopic data we derived masses and radii of the eclipsing system to be M1 = 0.627M⊙ , M2 = 1.068M⊙ , R1 = 0.782R⊙ and R2 = 0.997R⊙ . New light elements were derived and finally the evolutionary status of the system is discussed.

  3. The First Photometric Study of the Short-period Shallow Contact System LO Comae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Y.; Han, Q. W.; Liu, J. Z.

    2016-12-01

    In this paper, the first complete photometric light curves in the B, V, and R passbands for an eclipsing binary LO Com are presented, and the photometric solution for the LO Com is derived by analyzing these light curves by using the Wilson and Devinney code. From the photometric solution, it is found that the LO Com is a W-type W UMa binary with a mass ratio of q={m}2/{m}1=2.478 and a contact degree of f=(3.2+/- 0.25) % . By combining the two new minimum times with those published earlier in the literature, we have found that the (O - C) curve shows a downward parabolic variation corresponding to a long-term decrease in the orbital period with a rate of {{d}}P/{{d}}t=-1.18× {10}-7 days yr-1. This long-term decrease in its orbital period may be caused by mass transfer from the more massive component to the less massive one.

  4. A study of the equatorial signatures of long period transient events (600 - 7200 s)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, J.; Dutra, S.; Trivedi, N.; Vieira, L.; Echer, E.; Schuch, N.

    Transient variations in the H magnetic field component of magnetograms at high latitude are a common feature. They are associated with energy transference from solar wind to the magnetosphere. Abrupt changes in the solar wind generate Alfvén and fast mode waves through the magnetosphere. The Alfvén wave doesn't propagate in the direction perpendicular to the geomagnetic field, so equatorial signatures are probably caused by fast mode waves. On the other hand, complicated signatures observed at high latitudes represent a composition of Alfvén and fast mode waves. A second suggested propagation mechanism to low latitudes is the Earth-ionosphere wave-guide. In this work, geomagnetic data from the Brazilian magnetic stations at Belém (BLM), Eusébio (EUS), Ji-Paraná (JIP), São luis (SLZ) and São Martinho da Serra (SMS), all located near the geomagnetic equator, are used to look for equatorial signatures of transient events with periods of 600 - 7200s. This period range includes two special types of transient variations named Traveling convection vortices (TCV) and DP2 fluctuations. We try to identify their morphological characteristics and compare with the high latitude phenomena's characteristics. Satellite data (WIND, ACE and GOES) are used to see magnetosphere signatures and solar wind and interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) conditions during the events. The main objective is try to find the contribution of each propagation mechanism of these transient events arriving at the equatorial latitudes.

  5. Coding Properties of Three Intrinsically Distinct Retinal Ganglion Cells under Periodic Stimuli: A Computational Study

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lei; Qiu, Yi-Hong; Zeng, Yanjun

    2016-01-01

    As the sole output neurons in the retina, ganglion cells play significant roles in transforming visual information into spike trains, and then transmitting them to the higher visual centers. However, coding strategies that retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) adopt to accomplish these processes are not completely clear yet. To clarify these issues, we investigate the coding properties of three types of RGCs (repetitive spiking, tonic firing, and phasic firing) by two different measures (spike-rate and spike-latency). Model results show that for periodic stimuli, repetitive spiking RGC and tonic RGC exhibit similar spike-rate patterns. Their spike- rates decrease gradually with increased stimulus frequency, moreover, variation of stimulus amplitude would change the two RGCs' spike-rate patterns. For phasic RGC, it activates strongly at medium levels of frequency when the stimulus amplitude is low. While if high stimulus amplitude is applied, phasic RGC switches to respond strongly at low frequencies. These results suggest that stimulus amplitude is a prominent factor in regulating RGCs in encoding periodic signals. Similar conclusions can be drawn when analyzes spike-latency patterns of the three RGCs. More importantly, the above phenomena can be accurately reproduced by Hodgkin's three classes of neurons, indicating that RGCs can perform the typical three classes of firing dynamics, depending on the distinctions of ion channel densities. Consequently, model results from the three RGCs may be not specific, but can also applicable to neurons in other brain regions which exhibit part(s) or all of the Hodgkin's three excitabilities. PMID:27721751

  6. Irregular Periods

    MedlinePlus

    ... number of days after the last one. The Menstrual Cycle Most girls get their first period between the ... to skip periods or to have an irregular menstrual cycle. Illness, rapid weight change, or stress can also ...

  7. Study of periodic surface profile on improving the window capacity at single and repetitive pulses

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Y. S.; Zhang, X. W.; Zhang, Z. Q.; Shao, H.; Wang, Y.; Liu, W. Y.; Ke, C. F.; Chen, C. H.; Liang, Y. Q.; Wu, X. L.; Guo, L. T.; Chang, C.

    2015-09-15

    The surface breakdown of dielectric windows seriously limits the transmission of high power microwaves (HPM), and has blocked the development of microwave technology in recent decades. In this paper, X-band HPM experiments of window breakdown at the vacuum/dielectric interface and the atmosphere/dielectric interface at single and repetitive pulses were conducted. The cross-linked polystyrene (CLPS) dielectric window with a periodic surface profile can significantly improve the breakdown threshold at single and repetitive pulses. Furthermore, the flat surface layer of CLPS was discovered to be carbonized to a depth of several millimeters and filled with electrical trees at repetitive pulses. Theoretical models were built to understand the underlying physics behind the phenomena in experiments. With the analysis of the electron resonance process breaking the molecular bond and the temperature rise caused by the traversing current in the dielectric material, a microscopic explanation for the carbonization of the dielectric window was introduced.

  8. Experimental study and theoretical modeling of the long period variations of Galactic Cosmic Rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alania, Michael; Siluszyk, Marek; Wawrzynczak-Szaban, Anna

    2012-07-01

    We analyze experimental data of neutron monitors and solar wind parameters during #21 solar cycle (1976-1987). In galactic cosmic ray (GCR) intensity is well established a step like changes in both ascending and descending periods of solar activity. We compose two-dimensional (2-D) time dependent model of GCR modulation based on Parker's transport equation to explain a general 11-year wave of the GCR intensity with the step-like changes, and each step-like changes individually, i.e. time scale of investigations is carried out by means of daily and monthly data. An innovation in proposed model is that besides the well known fundamental processes responsible for modulation of the GCR intensity, we implement in the model the parameters characterizing temporal changes of the exponent n of the Power Spectral Density (PSD) of the Interplanetary Magnetic Field (IMF) turbulence, module B of the IMF, tilt angle δ of the Heliospheric Neutral Sheet, and changes of drift effect of the GCR particles upon solar activity assuming that drift effect of the GCR particles is maximal in the minimum epoch, when drift dominates, and is neglected in the maximum epoch, when diffusion dominates. We show that an acceptable compatibility is kept for the investigated period of 1976-1987 (solar cycle #21), when the expected temporal changes of the GCR particles density (11-year wave) is shifted for 18 months with respect to the temporal changes of the smoothed experimental data of the GCR intensity. We consider, that a delay time ˜18 months can be considered as an effective delay time caused by the combined influence of all parameters implemented in the 2-D model.

  9. The study of atmospheric CO pollution over the center of Moscow in autumn period

    SciTech Connect

    Fokeeva, E.V.; Pekour, M.S.

    1996-12-31

    The results of CO near-ground concentration measurements are presented which were taken by virtue of electrochemical method at the center of Moscow during one autumn month in 1993. Simultaneous measurements were performed of the total column content of CO over Moscow making use of sun radiation absorption detection in the infrared (in the wavelength range of 4.6 mcm). To determine an urban increment of CO content over regional background the data of analogous measurements were used which were collected in the rural suburb 45 km west from Moscow center One-hour averaged near-ground CO concentration were in the limits 0.4 to 5.8 mg/m{sup 3}, and an average total column CO content vary from 0.09 to 0.167 atm*cm. The measurements were accompanied by acoustic sounding of the atmosphere boundary layer with the use of three component Doppler SODAR. The peculiarities of average and concrete diurnal variation of near-ground CO concentrations can well be interpreted by virtue of SODAR data indicating the type of stratification, the mixing height and the wind velocity during a whole day. Comparison and analysis are performed of the average diurnal variations of near-ground CO concentration in autumn and summer periods in account to the occurrence frequency of surface inversion within selected periods. Almost complete coincidence has been found of the shape of CO concentration diurnal variations with those of NO and soot. An estimate of specific CO source power in the city is performed in account to the data on the mixing height and wind velocity mean within a layer of 250 m.

  10. Thirteen Week Oral Toxicity Study of WR238605 with a Thirteen Week Recovery Period in Dogs. Volume 3

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-06-11

    INDIVIDUAL ANIMAL REPORT BY GROUP TEST: Mean Corpuscular Volume STUDY 10: 097 STUDY NO: 097 ABBR: HCV ANIMAL 10 ~eek ·3 ~eek ·1 GROUP: 7557 7541...097 ABBR: HCV ANIMAL 10 ~eek ·3 INDIVIDUAL ANIMAL REPORT BY GROUP TEST: Mean Corpuscular Volume IJeek ·1 IJeek 2 IJeek 4 IJeelc 8 IJeek 13...animals sacrificed after the recovery period. It was usually focal and subcapsular. It consisted of interstitial fibrosis , mononuclear cell

  11. Timing Studies of X Persei and the Discovery of Its Transient Quasi-periodic Oscillation Feature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Acuner, Z.; Inam,S. C.; Sahiner, S.; Serim, M. M.; Baykal, A.; Swank, J.

    2014-01-01

    We present a timing analysis of X Persei (X Per) using observations made between 1998 and 2010 with the Proportional Counter Array (PCA) onboard the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) and with the INTEGRAL Soft Gamma-Ray Imager (ISGRI). All pulse arrival times obtained from the RXTE-PCA observations are phase-connected and a timing solution is obtained using these arrival times. We update the long-term pulse frequency history of the source by measuring its pulse frequencies using RXTE-PCA and ISGRI data. From the RXTEPCA data, the relation between the frequency derivative and X-ray flux suggests accretion via the companion's stellar wind. However, the detection of a transient quasi-periodic oscillation feature, peaking at approximately 0.2 Hz, suggests the existence of an accretion disc. We find that doublebreak models fit the average power spectra well, which suggests that the source has at least two different accretion flow components dominating the overall flow. From the power spectrum of frequency derivatives, we measure a power-law index of approximately - 1, which implies that, on short time-scales, disc accretion dominates over noise, while on time-scales longer than the viscous time-scales, the noise dominates. From pulse profiles, we find a correlation between the pulse fraction and the count rate of the source.

  12. A numerical study of periodic slug flow at zero gravity and normal gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mack, K.; Bugg, J. D.; Gabriel, K. S.

    2005-12-01

    This paper reports numerical simulations of slug flow at zero and normal gravity. The particular experimental results chosen for validation were obtained at microgravity under conditions which resulted in evenly-spaced and evenly-sized Taylor bubbles facilitating a simulation with periodic boundary conditions. The numerical technique was a free-surface method which explicitly tracked the motion of the gas-liquid interface using a volume-of-fluid specification and a finite volume discretisation of the solution domain. The large scale features of the bubble such as the classic bullet-shaped nose were well predicted by the model. Unsteady features of the bubble shape such as waves in the film and fluctuations of the bottom surface were also predicted but are harder to compare quantitatively to the experiments. The velocity field predictions reveal several interesting features of the flow. When viewed by an observer moving with the bubbles, the liquid slug is dominated by a large recirculating region with the flow travelling from the leading to the trailing bubble along the tube centreline. In this frame of reference, the near-wall region features a jet of fluid issuing from the film of the leading bubble which entrains fluid in the slug. As the film of the trailing bubble begins to form, the entrained fluid must be ejected since the flowrate in the film of each bubble must be the same. It appears to be this process that drives the main recirculation.

  13. ''Inelastic Neutron Scattering and Periodic Density Functional Studies of Hydrogen Bonded Structures''

    SciTech Connect

    Bruce S. Hudson

    2004-10-27

    This project is directed at a fundamental understanding of hydrogen bonding, the primary reversible interaction leading to defined geometries, networks and supramolecular aggregates formed by organic molecules. Hydrogen bonding is still not sufficiently well understood that the geometry of such supramolecular aggregates can be predicted. In the approach taken existing quantum chemical methods capable of treating periodic solids have been applied to hydrogen bonded systems of known structure. The equilibrium geometry for the given space group and packing arrangement were computed and compared to that observed. The second derivatives and normal modes of vibration will then be computed and from this inelastic neutron scattering (INS) spectra were computed using the normal mode eigenvectors to compute spectral intensities. Appropriate inclusion of spectrometer line width and shape was made in the simulation and overtones, combinations and phonon wings were be included. These computed spectra were then compared with experimental results obtained for low-temperature polycrystalline samples at INS spectrometers at several facilities. This procedure validates the computational methodology for describing these systems including both static and dynamic aspects of the material. The resulting description can be used to evaluate the relative free energies of two or more proposed structures and so ultimately to be able to predict which structure will be most stable for a given building block.

  14. The study of structural color filter based on periodic nanohole arrays for bio-detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Seunguk; Shin, Jeonghee; Yoo, Seungjun; Kim, Samhwan; Jeon, Byoungok; Moon, Cheil; Jang, Jae-Eun

    2015-07-01

    A nanostructure which induces localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) can be utilized in visible light and near infrared (NIR) regions and it shows promising features as a bio-detector because LSPR state is changed easily by different bio-related materials. Owing to transparent property of many biomolecules as well as diluted states in base solutions, it is hard to distinguish each other by eye or microscope analysis. However, difference in molecular structure and composition makes difference in optical characteristics such as a refractive index or a dielectric constant. Therefore, our LSPR-based nanohole array structure which has high sensitivity to detect small changes in optical characteristics can be a great candidate for a bio detector. Here, we fabricated structural color filters (SCFs) to detect wavelength shifts for several biomolecules and optimized the nanohole array structures for high sensitivity. Periodic nanohole arrays were designed to present resonance peaks in visible light region for optical analysis and fabricated in Au or Al thin film layer. The spectral shifts were detected caused by biomolecules.

  15. Evanescent-wave amplification studied using a bilayer periodic circuit structure and its effective medium model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Ruopeng; Zhao, Bo; Lin, Xian Qi; Cheng, Qiang; Cui, Tie Jun

    2007-03-01

    In this paper, we present both theoretical analysis and experimental verification of evanescent-wave amplification by using a bilayer periodic circuit structure and its effective medium model. We propose a series-shunt capacitor (C-C) structure to simulate a magnetic plasma, whose permittivity is positive and permeability is negative, and a series-shunt inductor (L-L) structure to simulate an electric plasma, whose permittivity is negative and permeability is positive, in which the structure cells are not required to be electrically small. In addition, we derive and define an effective permittivity and permeability for the C-C and L-L structures in closed forms, which are completely different from the published ones. When the two structures are cascaded together to form a bilayer structure, we show that evanescent waves which exist in two single layers independently can be amplified exponentially if a certain resonant condition is satisfied. Such a resonant condition is equivalent to the antimatching condition for the permittivity and permeability of the effectively electric and magnetic plasmas. To show the accuracy of this equivalent medium model, we compare both circuit-simulation results for the C-C and L-L structures and theoretical-prediction results for the effective magnetic and electric plasmas, which have excellent agreement. Finally, we design an experiment using lumped capacitors and inductors mounted on a printed circuit board to verify the amplification of evanescent waves sufficiently. The measurement results have good agreement with the simulation results.

  16. Periodic limb movements during sleep and prevalent hypertension in the multi-ethnic study of atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Koo, Brian B; Sillau, Stefan; Dean, Dennis A; Lutsey, Pamela L; Redline, Susan

    2015-01-01

    Periodic limb movements during sleep (PLMS) are associated with immediate increases in blood pressure. Both PLMS and hypertension have different distributions across racial/ethnic groups. We sought to determine whether PLMS is associated with hypertension among various racial/ethnic groups. A total of 1740 men and women underwent measurement of blood pressure and polysomnography with quantification of PLMS. Hypertension was defined as systolic blood pressure (SBP) ≥140, diastolic BP ≥90, or taking antihypertensive medication. For those taking antihypertensives, an estimated pretreatment SBP value was derived based on observed SBP and medication type/dose. Measures of PLMS, PLMS index, and PLMS arousal index were the main explanatory variables. Hypertension and SBP were modeled with logistic and multivariable regression adjusted for age, sex, body mass index, cardiovascular risk factors, lifestyle/habitual factors, apnea-hypopnea index, and race/ethnicity. In the overall cohort, prevalent hypertension was modestly associated with PLMS index (10 U; odds ratio, 1.05; 95% confidence interval, 1.00-1.10) and PLMS arousal index (1 U; 1.05; 1.01-1.09) after adjusting for confounders. Association in the overall cohort was influenced by large effect sizes in blacks, in whom the odds of prevalent hypertension increased by 21% (1%-45%) for 10 U PLMS index increase and 20% (2%-42%) for 1-U PLMS arousal index increase. In blacks, every 1-U PLMS arousal index increase was associated with SBP 1.01 mm Hg higher (1.01; 0.04-1.98). Associations between PLMS and blood pressure outcomes were also suggested among Chinese-Americans but not in whites or Hispanics. In a multiethnic cohort of community-dwelling men and women, prevalent hypertension and SBP are associated with PLMS frequency in blacks.

  17. Experimental study of outdoor propagation of spherically speading periodic acoustic waves of finite amplitude

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Theobald, M. A.

    1977-01-01

    The outdoor propagation of spherically spreading sound waves of finite amplitude was investigated. The main purpose of the experiments was to determine the extent to which the outdoor environment, mainly random inhomogeneity of the medium, affects finite amplitude propagation. Periodic sources with fundamental frequencies in the range 6 to 8 kHz and source levels SPLlm from 140 to 149 dB were used. The sources were an array of 7 to 10 horn drivers and a siren. The propagation path was vertical and parallel to an 85 m tower, whose elevator carried the traveling microphone. The general conclusions drawn from the experimental results were as follows. The inhomogeneities caused significant fluctuations in the instantaneous acoustic signal, but with sufficient time averaging of the measured harmonic levels, the results were comparable to results expected for propagation in a quiet medium. Propagation data for the fundamental of the siren approached within 1 dB of the weak shock saturation levels. Extra attenuation on the order of 8 dB was observed. The measurements generally confirmed the predictions of several theoretical models. The maximum propagation distance was 36 m. The narrowbeam arrays were much weaker sources. Nonlinear propagation distortion was produced, but the maximum value of extra attenuation measured was 1.5 dB. The maximum propagation distance was 76 m. The behavior of the asymetric waveforms received in one experiment qualitatively suggested that beam type diffraction effects were present. The role of diffraction of high intensity sound waves in radiation from a single horn was briefly investigated.

  18. Undergraduate Pilot Training Task Frequency Study. Final Report for Period October 1972-October 1974.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, James E.; Rust, Steven K.

    The objectives of the study were: (1) to determine the number of training task repetitions required for an Undergraduate Pilot Training (UPT) student to become proficient, and (2) to determine the total number of task repetitions that UPT students receive for each maneuver in T-37 and T-38 training. The project was conducted in two parts. Study 1…

  19. Work Sampling Study of an Engineering Professor during a Regular Contract Period

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brink, Jan; McDonald, Dale B.

    2015-01-01

    Work sampling is a technique that has been employed in industry and fields such as healthcare for some time. It is a powerful technique, and an alternative to conventional stop watch time studies, used by industrial engineers to focus upon random work sampling observations. This study applies work sampling to the duties performed by an individual…

  20. Using the Fourier-series approach to study interactions between moving wheels and a periodically supported rail

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheng, X.; Li, M.; Jones, C. J. C.; Thompson, D. J.

    2007-06-01

    In this paper, the Fourier-series approach is employed to study wheel-rail interactions generated by a single, or multiple wheels moving at a constant speed along a railway track. This approach has been previously explored by other researchers and what is presented here is an improved version. In this approach, the track is represented by an infinitely long periodic structure with the period equal to the sleeper spacing and the vertical irregular profile (roughness) of the railhead is assumed to be periodic in the track direction with the period equal to the length of a number (integer), N, of sleeper bays. By assuming linear dynamics for the wheel/track system and for steady state, each wheel/rail force is a periodic function of time and can be expressed as a Fourier series. Fourier coefficients are then shown to be determined by solving, separately, N sets of linear algebraic equations. The coefficient matrix of each set of equations is independent of rail roughness and therefore this approach is particularly useful in modelling the generation and growth of rail roughness of short wavelengths. Excitation purely from the axle loads moving over the periodic track structure is realised by assuming a smooth railhead surface, and subsequently roughness equivalent to such an excitation is defined and evaluated. This equivalent roughness may, in addition to the actual rail roughness, be input into models in which the effect of moving axle loads has been excluded, so that the predictions from those models can be improved. Results are produced using the improved Fourier-series approach to investigate the effects of wheel speeds, roughness wavelengths and interactions between multiple wheels on wheel/rail contact forces.

  1. Thirteen Week Oral Toxicity Study of WR242511 with a Thirteen Week Recovery Period in Dogs. Volume 2 of 2

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-03-07

    HISTORICAL DATABASE REPORT HCV PLT PT RBC RETICS WBC DBA IF IF DOG BEAGLE Male CONTROL DATA MEAN 69.6 286 7.8 6.37 0.4 8.2...PERIOD IN DOGS EMI?? INDIVIDUAL ANIMAL HEMATOLOGY REPORT BY GROUP TEST: Mean Corpuscular Volume STUDY ID: UIC-18 - SEX: HALE STUDY NO: 193 ABBR: HCV ...Corpuscular Volume STUDY ID: UIC-18 STUDY NO: 193 ABBR: HCV - SEX: FEMALE UNITS: fL Animal ID WEEK -3 WEEK -1 WEEK 4

  2. Complete dataset for 2-treatment, 2-sequence, 2-period efavirenz bioequivalence study conducted with nightly dosing.

    PubMed

    Ibarra, Manuel; Magallanes, Laura; Lorier, Marianela; Vázquez, Marta; Fagiolino, Pietro

    2016-06-01

    The efavirenz pharmacokinetic raw data presented in this article was obtained in an average bioequivalence study between a local brand and Stocrin (Merck Sharp & Dohme, purchased from Australia, batch H009175, expiration date November 2013). Dose was administered at night (9:00 p.m.) two hours after food intake. Fourteen healthy subjects, 8 women and 6 men, completed the study. For each subject, 15 data points until 96 h post-administration are included. Subject demographic characteristics and sequences of administration are provided along with individual pharmacokinetic profiles of efavirenz obtained for both formulations after a single oral dose of 600 mg. This data provides information in support of the research article "Sex-by-formulation interaction assessed through a bioequivalence study of efavirenz tablets" [1].

  3. Complete dataset for 2-treatment, 2-sequence, 2-period efavirenz bioequivalence study conducted with nightly dosing

    PubMed Central

    Ibarra, Manuel; Magallanes, Laura; Lorier, Marianela; Vázquez, Marta; Fagiolino, Pietro

    2016-01-01

    The efavirenz pharmacokinetic raw data presented in this article was obtained in an average bioequivalence study between a local brand and Stocrin (Merck Sharp & Dohme, purchased from Australia, batch H009175, expiration date November 2013). Dose was administered at night (9:00 p.m.) two hours after food intake. Fourteen healthy subjects, 8 women and 6 men, completed the study. For each subject, 15 data points until 96 h post-administration are included. Subject demographic characteristics and sequences of administration are provided along with individual pharmacokinetic profiles of efavirenz obtained for both formulations after a single oral dose of 600 mg. This data provides information in support of the research article “Sex-by-formulation interaction assessed through a bioequivalence study of efavirenz tablets” [1]. PMID:27054190

  4. A prospective study of atopic dermatitis managed without topical corticosteroids for a 6-month period

    PubMed Central

    Fukaya, Mototsugu; Sato, Kenji; Yamada, Takahiro; Sato, Mitsuko; Fujisawa, Shigeki; Minaguchi, Satoko; Kimata, Hajime; Dozono, Haruhiko

    2016-01-01

    Topical corticosteroids (TCS) are regarded as the mainstay treatment for atopic dermatitis (AD). As AD has a tendency to heal naturally, the long-term efficacy of TCS in AD management should be compared with the outcomes seen in patients with AD not using TCS. However, there are few long-term studies that consider patients with AD not using TCS. We designed a prospective multicenter cohort study to assess the clinical outcomes in patients with AD who did not use TCS for 6 months and then compared our results with an earlier study by Furue et al which considered AD patients using TCS over 6 months. Our patients’ clinical improvement was comparable with the patients described in Furue’s research. In light of this, it is reasonable for physicians to manage AD patients who decline TCS, as the expected long-term prognosis is similar whether they use TCS or not. PMID:27445501

  5. Single cell contractility studies based on compact moiré system over periodic gratings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Xiaoyu; Surks, Howard; Zhang, Xin

    2010-05-01

    Abnormal vascular cell contractile performance is a hallmark of cardiovascular diseases. Conventional cell force measurement technique requires individually tracking the sensing units and complex computation efforts for further studying cell contractility. We developed instead a robust and simple compact optical moiré system that measures phase changes encoded in carrier moiré patterns generated from two layers of gratings. Cell mechanics study including cell contractile forces and stress and strain distributions during normal and abnormal cell contractions can thus be conveniently analyzed. The distinct signals from moiré patterns in longitudinal and transverse directions revealed abnormal cell mechanical contractility linked to cardiovascular disease.

  6. 13-week drinking water toxicity study of hydrogen peroxide with 6-week recovery period in catalase-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Weiner, M L; Freeman, C; Trochimowicz, H; de Gerlache, J; Jacobi, S; Malinverno, G; Mayr, W; Regnier, J F

    2000-07-01

    A GLP OECD guideline study was conducted to evaluate the subchronic toxicity of hydrogen peroxide (HP) when administered continuously in the drinking water of catalase-deficient (C57BL/6N) mice and reversibility of toxic effects. Groups of mice (15/sex/group) received solutions of 0, 100, 300, 1000 or 3000 ppm HP in distilled water for 13 weeks; five/sex/group continued on untreated distilled water for an additional 6 weeks. Animals drinking 3000 ppm HP exhibited depressed water and food consumption and body weight. Females drinking 1000 ppm HP had reduced water consumption with intermittent effects on food consumption, but no body weight effects. HP administration did not produce any mortality, clinical signs, hematological effects or organ weight effects on brain, liver, kidneys, adrenals, testes, heart or spleen. Total protein and globulin were depressed among high dose males. Mild to minimal duodenal mucosal hyperplasia was noted in animals receiving 1000 and 3000 ppm HP and one male receiving 300 ppm for 13 weeks. There were no other histopathological findings. All effects noted during the treatment period, including the duodenal hyperplasia, were reversible during the 6-week recovery period. Females dosed with 300-3000 ppm HP during the treatment period showed increased water consumption during the recovery period. The no-observed-effect level (NOEL), based on duodenal mucosal hyperplasia, is 100 ppm in drinking water or 26 and 37 mg/kg/day HP, respectively, for males and females.

  7. An Analytical Study on Periodically Changing Flow Cells in Groundwater Basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, X.; Zhao, K. Y.; Wang, J. Z.; Wan, L.; Wang, H.

    2014-12-01

    Current understanding on basin-scale groundwater flow is mainly based on Tóth's (1962, 1963) pioneering study, which assumed that water table is a subdued replica of topography and the annual mean water table controls the pattern of groundwater flow. In fact, water table is driven by dynamic forcing and changes with time. This study modifies the conceptual model of basin-scale groundwater flow by taking the fluctuating water-table into account. For both unit basin and complex basin, water table fluctuates throughout the basin cross-section except for at basin valleys. By the method of separation of variables, we derive the analytical solution of hydraulics head and stream function in the unit basin and the complex basin, and discuss the characteristics of the time-dependent flow cells. For the unit basin, the change in amplitude of hydraulic head fluctuation with depth is studied. For the complex basin, the time-dependent distribution of internal stagnation points is discussed. In addition, the relationship between flowing artesian zone and the fluctuating water-table is discussed. The results of the current study enhance our understanding on the transient nature of basin-scale groundwater flow.

  8. A Study of the Structure of Piagetian Logical and Infralogical Grouping Within the Concrete Operational Period.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dettrick, Graham W.

    This study investigated a problem within the theoretical structure of cognitive development proposed by Jean Piaget, and used the concepts of classification and projective spatial relationships to investigate the nature of attainment and sequencing of three corresponding logical and infralogical groupings according to the models proposed by…

  9. Evaluation and developmental studies of possible active seismic experiments during the post-Apollo period

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kovach, R. L.

    1974-01-01

    Seismic velocity studies pertinent to the lunar crust and mantle are briefly summarized. The compressional and shear wave velocities in loose aggregates are discussed along with the effects of temperature on seismic velocity in compacted powders. Abstracts of papers concerning the lunar structure are included.

  10. CBVE: A Study to Measure Its Effectiveness in Kentucky. Final Report. Interim Period 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vincent, Roger D.; Cobb, Robert A.

    An interim study was conducted in Kentucky to determine the effectiveness of Competency Based Vocational Education (CBVE) and to compare its effectiveness to that of traditional teaching methodologies. Research surveys of those directly involved in the implementation of CBVE were used to ascertain if CBVE is meeting its self-stated goals.…

  11. From Consciousness to Technology: The Implications of Wave Periodicity Research for Communication Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Thomas W.

    Attempting to introduce a new viewpoint to communication studies, this speculative and philosophical paper posits technology as an "echo of consciousness." Section one examines technology as a manifestation of attitude, presenting the premise that technologies, consciousness, and systems are not separate components, but products of…

  12. [Neurophysiological and neuroimaging studies for restless legs syndrome and periodic leg movement disorder].

    PubMed

    Happe, S; Paulus, W

    2006-06-01

    The restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a clinical diagnosis based on the four essential criteria defined by the International Restless Legs Syndrome Study Group (IRLSSG). An idiopathic form can be separated from a symptomatic form. Neurophysiological studies have investigated the pathophysiology of the idiopathic RLS or have been used to exclude a symptomatic cause, in particular polyneuropathy. So far cortical excitability changes, corticomotor, somatosensory and auditory pathways, spinal cord excitability, B-wave rhythm and cycling alternating pattern, as well as reflex mechanisms have been investigated by electroencephalography, evoked potentials, Bereitschaftspotentials, nerve conduction and thermal threshold measurements, electromyography, transcranial Doppler sonography, measurements of the spinal flexor reflex as well as neuroimaging techniques. The etiology of the RLS cannot be revealed by these methods, neurophysiological studies in RLS are, however, useful for a better understanding of the pathophysiology and for exclusion of a polyneuropathy or other symptomatic causes. In addition to neurophysiological investigations, small fiber neuropathy, which seems to be a more common finding in RLS patients than expected to date, may need biopsy for confirmation. This review will focus on investigations of the different systems involved with diverse neurophysiological methods.

  13. PHOTOMETRIC STUDIES OF THREE NEGLECTED SHORT-PERIOD CONTACT BINARIES GN BOOTIS, BL LEONIS, AND V1918 CYGNI

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Y.-G.; Dai, H.-F.; Qian, S.-B.

    2013-03-15

    We present new photometry for three short-period contact binaries, GN Boo, BL Leo, and V1918 Cyg, observed from 2008 December to 2012 April using several small telescopes in China. Photometric models were deduced from new observations using the updated Wilson-Devinney Code. The results show that GN Boo and BL Leo are W-type contact binaries, while V1918 Cyg is an A-type one. The mass ratios and fill-out factors are q = 0.320({+-} 0.002) and f = 5.8({+-} 0.1)% for GN Boo, q = 0.476({+-} 0.005) and f = 21.3({+-} 1.1)% for BL Leo, q = 0.264({+-} 0.002), and f = 49.7({+-} 0.7)% for V1918 Cyg, respectively. From the (O - C) curves, it is discovered that the orbital periods of three binaries have varied in a complicated way, i.e., cyclic oscillation for GN Boo, long-term period decrease for BL Leo, and both for V1918 Cyg. The cyclic variations for GN Boo and V1918 Cyg may probably be attributed to the magnetic activity of the primary component or light-time effect due to the third body. Meanwhile, the secular period decreases for BL Leo and V1918 Cyg may result from mass transfer from the primary to the secondary, accompanying the mass and angular momentum loss from the central system. Finally, GN Boo, BL Leo, and V1918 Cyg will evolve into deep contact binaries. Additionally, a statistical study of 37 contact binaries with decreasing periods is given. We obtained the relations of q - f and q - dln P/dt, and preliminarily determined the mass loss rate of dln M/dt from the binary system.

  14. Energy and water balance studies of a snow cover during snowmelt period at a high arctic site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruland, O.; Maréchal, D.; Sand, K.; Killingtveit, Å.

    The predicted global warming is supposed to have an enhanced effect on the arctic regions. How this will influence the water, carbon dioxide and methane balances in the European arctic tundra is the objective of the EU-funded project ``Understanding Land Surface Physical Processes in the Arctic'' (LAPP), to which where SINTEF is one of several contributors. The snow cover is one of the limiting factors for these exchange processes and knowledge of how it behaves and will behave under a different climate is important. Data collected for water and energy balance studies in an area close to Ny-Ålesund at 79°N at Svalbard are the basis of this study. Measurements during the ablation periods since 1992 show an average air temperature for the periods of 2.1°C, an average incoming shorwave radiation of 230W/m2 and an average measured runoff intensity of 14mm/day with a maximum of 68mm/day. Three models of different complexity are tested in order to simulate the water and energy balance of a snow cover on the arctic tundra. The three models are: a complex numerical model (CROCUS), a simple energy balance model and a temperature index model. The simulations were carried out for the melt periods in 1992 and 1996 as these two periods represent very different meteorological conditions. The results of these simulations exposed weaknesses in all the models. The energy balance model lacks calculation of cold content in the snowpack. This influences both the outgoing longwave radiation and the timing of the melt. Due to the effect of compensating errors in the simulations, CROCUS performed better than the simple energy balance model but also this model has problems with the simulation of outgoing longwave radiation. The temperature index model does not perform well for snowmelt studies in regions were radiation is the main driving energy source for the melt.

  15. Sphenoid sinus fungall ball: a retrospective study over a 10- year period.

    PubMed

    Eloy, Ph; Grenier, J; Pirlet, A; Poirrier, A L; Stephens, J S; Rombaux, Ph

    2013-06-01

    A fungal ball consists of a dense conglomerate of fungal hyphae growing at the surface of the sinus mucosa without tissue infiltration. The maxillary sinus is by far the most commonly involved paranasal sinus cavity followed by the sphenoid sinus. The present study is a retrospective study of 25 consecutive cases treated during the last 10 years in the two hospitals be- longing to the Catholic University of Louvain (CHU Mont-Godinne and UCL Saint Luc). We report the symptomatology, the imaging and discuss the different surgical managements. We conclude that the clinician must have a high index of suspicion when dealing with a unilateral rhinosinusitis persisting despite a maximal and well conducted medical treatment. This is particularly so in elderly women when associated with facial pain and post nasal drip, particularly when the computed tomography shows an unilateral opacity of the sphenoid sinus with or without a sclerosis or an erosion of the bony walls, a polyp in the sphenoethmoidal recess or a hyperdensity mimicking a foreign body. An endonasal endoscopic sphenoidotomy is the treatment of choice in most cases, allowing good ventilation of the sinus and radical removal of all the fungal concretion. A biopsy of the sinus mucosa adjacent to fungal elements is of upmost important to confirm the non- invasiveness of the fungi within the tissue. Antifungal medication is not required in uncomplicated forms. All host factors producing some degree of immunosuppression must be corrected when present and must alert the clinician to rule out any forms of invasive disease.

  16. Spectroscopic studies of the fish fossils (Cladocyclus gardneri and Vinctifer comptoni) from the Ipubi Formation of the Cretaceous Period.

    PubMed

    Sousa Filho, F E; da Silva, J H; Saraiva, G D; Abagaro, B T O; Barros, O A; Saraiva, A A F; Viana, B C; Freire, P T C

    2016-03-15

    Fossils are mineralized remains or traces from animals, plants and other organisms aged to about 10(8)years. The chemical processes of fossilization are dated back from old geological periods on Earth. The understanding of these processes and the structure of the fossils are one of the goals of paleontology and geology in the sedimentary environments. Many researches have tried to unveil details about special kinds of biological samples; however, a lack of data is noticed for various other specimens. This study reports the investigations through infrared spectroscopy, X-ray fluorescence and X-ray diffraction measurements for two types of fish fossils from the Cretaceous Period. The sample of Cladocyclus gardneri and Vinctifer comptoni fossils were collected from the Ipubi Formation, being one of the less studied, among the formations that constitute the important Santana group in the Araripe Basin, Brazil. The results obtained through different techniques, showed that the C. gardneri fish fossil contains hydroxyapatite and calcite as constituents whereas its rock matrix was formed by calcite, quartz and pyrite. Regarding the V. comptoni, the measurements confirmed the presence of hydroxyapatite in the fossil and its rock matrix gypsum, pyrite, quartz and calcite. The above scientific data contributed to the understanding the fossil formation in the Ipubi Formation, an important environment of the Cretaceous Period, which is rich in well-preserved fossils from different species.

  17. Spectroscopic studies of the fish fossils (Cladocyclus gardneri and Vinctifer comptoni) from the Ipubi Formation of the Cretaceous Period

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sousa Filho, F. E.; da Silva, J. H.; Saraiva, G. D.; Abagaro, B. T. O.; Barros, O. A.; Saraiva, A. A. F.; Viana, B. C.; Freire, P. T. C.

    2016-03-01

    Fossils are mineralized remains or traces from animals, plants and other organisms aged to about 108 years. The chemical processes of fossilization are dated back from old geological periods on Earth. The understanding of these processes and the structure of the fossils are one of the goals of paleontology and geology in the sedimentary environments. Many researches have tried to unveil details about special kinds of biological samples; however, a lack of data is noticed for various other specimens. This study reports the investigations through infrared spectroscopy, X-ray fluorescence and X-ray diffraction measurements for two types of fish fossils from the Cretaceous Period. The sample of Cladocyclus gardneri and Vinctifer comptoni fossils were collected from the Ipubi Formation, being one of the less studied, among the formations that constitute the important Santana group in the Araripe Basin, Brazil. The results obtained through different techniques, showed that the C. gardneri fish fossil contains hydroxyapatite and calcite as constituents whereas its rock matrix was formed by calcite, quartz and pyrite. Regarding the V. comptoni, the measurements confirmed the presence of hydroxyapatite in the fossil and its rock matrix gypsum, pyrite, quartz and calcite. The above scientific data contributed to the understanding the fossil formation in the Ipubi Formation, an important environment of the Cretaceous Period, which is rich in well-preserved fossils from different species.

  18. Physically based distributed hydrological model calibration based on a short period of streamflow data: case studies in four Chinese basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Wenchao; Wang, Yuanyuan; Wang, Guoqiang; Cui, Xingqi; Yu, Jingshan; Zuo, Depeng; Xu, Zongxue

    2017-01-01

    Physically based distributed hydrological models are widely used for hydrological simulations in various environments. As with conceptual models, they are limited in data-sparse basins by the lack of streamflow data for calibration. Short periods of observational data (less than 1 year) may be obtained from fragmentary historical records of previously existing gauging stations or from temporary gauging during field surveys, which might be of value for model calibration. However, unlike lumped conceptual models, such an approach has not been explored sufficiently for physically based distributed models. This study explored how the use of limited continuous daily streamflow data might support the application of a physically based distributed model in data-sparse basins. The influence of the length of the observation period on the calibration of the widely applied soil and water assessment tool model was evaluated in four Chinese basins with differing climatic and geophysical characteristics. The evaluations were conducted by comparing calibrations based on short periods of data with calibrations based on data from a 3-year period, which were treated as benchmark calibrations of the four basins, respectively. To ensure the differences in the model simulations solely come from differences in the calibration data, the generalized likelihood uncertainty analysis scheme was employed for the automatic calibration and uncertainty analysis. In the four basins, contrary to the common understanding of the need for observations over a period of several years, data records with lengths of less than 1 year were shown to calibrate the model effectively, i.e., performances similar to the benchmark calibrations were achieved. The models of the wet Jinjiang and Donghe basins could be effectively calibrated using a shorter data record (1 month), compared with the dry Heihe and upstream Yalongjiang basins (6 months). Even though the four basins are very different, when using 1-year or

  19. Studying X-Ray Binaries with High Energy Frequency Quasi-Periodic Oscillations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaaret, P.; West, Donald K. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The goal of this investigation is to further our understanding of the dynamics of secreting neutron stars and black holes in the hope of using these systems as probes of the physics of strong gravitational fetus. The main focus of this work has been a multi-year program of simultaneous millisecond X-ray timing and spectral observations carried out with the Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) to perform the X-ray timing and one of the satellites Asca, BeppoSAX, or Chandra to perform X-ray spectral measurements. With the advent of Chandra, we have extended our work to incLude extragalactic X-ray binaries. We conducted a comprehensive study of the X-ray and radio behavior of the Black Hole Candidate (BHC) X-ray transient XTE J1550-564 using RXTE, Chandra, and the Australian Telescope Compact Array (ATCA). We showed that strong radio emission is associated with major X-ray outbursts involving an X-ray state transition, while a compact radio jet is seen in the low/hard X-ray state found in the outburst decay. Interesting, the total energy required to produce the compact jet may be a substantial fraction of the total accretion energy of the system in that state. We also performed a detailed study of the spectral and timing properties of the decay. In joint RXTE/BeppoSAX observations of the neutron-star X-ray binary Cyg X-2, we discovered a correlation between the timing properties (the frequency of the horizontal branch oscillations) and the properties of a soft, thermal component of the X-ray spectrum. d e showed that more det

  20. Visual search is postponed during the period of the AB: An event-related potential study.

    PubMed

    Lagroix, Hayley E P; Grubert, Anna; Spalek, Thomas M; Di Lollo, Vincent; Eimer, Martin

    2015-08-01

    In the phenomenon known as the attentional blink (AB), perception of the second of two rapidly sequential targets (T2) is impaired when presented shortly after the first (T1). Studies in which T2 consisted of a pop-out search array provided evidence suggesting that visual search is postponed during the AB. In the present work, we used behavioral and electrophysiological measures to test this postponement hypothesis. The behavioral measure was reaction time (RT) to T2; the electrophysiological measure was the onset latency of an ERP index of attentional selection, known as the N2pc. Consistent with the postponement hypothesis, both measures were delayed during the AB. The delay in N2pc was substantially shorter than that in RT, pointing to multiple sources of delay in the chain of processing events, as distinct from the single source postulated in current theories of the AB. Finally, the finding that the N2pc was delayed during the AB strongly suggests that attention is involved in the processing of pop-out search arrays.

  1. An Ultraviolet Study of Non-periodic Variability in Accreting Pre-Main Sequence Stars: UXors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eaton, N. L.; Herbst, W.

    1994-05-01

    Many earlier type (K0 or hotter) pre-main sequence stars are known to occasionally and irregularly fade by as much as 2-3 magnitudes in V. Such excursions occur on timescales of ten to forty days. They include both G-type T Tauri stars and Herbig Ae/Be stars. We propose UX Ori as a prototype for this class of variable stars and refer to them as UXors. We have used archival IUE spectra and a catalog of UBVRI photometry to study the variations of 5 such objects, namely: RY Lup, RY Tau, CO Ori, BF Ori, and UX Ori. The leading hypothesis for explaining their behavior is variable circumstellar obscuration. Relationships between UV spectral line fluxes and equivalent widths and V magnitude are found and displayed. Some shell features in UX Ori and BF Ori switch from absorption to emission during the minima. The equivalent width of these (emission) features [FeII(1,62,63) and MgII(1)] increases as the star fades. Spectral energy distributions (SEDs) covering the interval of 1200 to 8900 angstroms were constructed for several stars at different V magnitude light levels. A strong depression in the SED around 2200 angstroms, caused by iron lines is quite noticeable in UX Ori and BF Ori when the stars are bright. The source and location of the variable obscuring material is discussed.

  2. [Blood lead levels during pregnancy in th the newborn period. Study of the population of Bari].

    PubMed

    Carbone, R; Laforgia, N; Crollo, E; Mautone, A; Iolascon, A

    1998-01-01

    Blood lead levels during pregnancy and in neonates immediately after birth have been evaluated, showing higher values in mothers compared to neonates (5.81 +/- 3.05 vs 4.87 +/- 3.60 micrograms/100 ml) and a positive correlation between maternal and neonatal levels (r = 0.82). On the basis of the results derived from the population examined, it has been observed that 6% of newborns have blood lead levels higher than 10 micrograms/100 ml a value recently identified by the Centers for Disease Control (CDC, Atlanta, USA) as a limit for toxicity in children. Moreover, neonatal Pb levels were higher than those found in infants from 6 to 12 months (4.87 +/- 3.60 vs 2.24 +/- 0.54 micrograms/100 ml). During the first week of life there is a steady decrease of blood lead levels, together with increasing renal lead excretion. This study was carried out at the "Dipartimento di Biomedicina dell'Età Evolutiva" University of Bari, southern Italy.

  3. Periodic Density Functional Theory Study of Water Adsorption on the a-Quartz (101) Surface.

    SciTech Connect

    Bandura, Andrei V.; Kubicki, James D.; Sofo, Jorge O.

    2011-01-01

    Plane wave density functional theory (DFT) calculations have been performed to study the atomic structure, preferred H2O adsorption sites, adsorption energies, and vibrational frequencies for water adsorption on the R-quartz (101) surface. Surface energies and atomic displacements on the vacuum-reconstructed, hydrolyzed, and solvated surfaces have been calculated and compared with available experimental and theoretical data. By considering different initial positions of H2O molecules, the most stable structures of water adsorption at different coverages have been determined. Calculated H2O adsorption energies are in the range -55 to -65 kJ/mol, consistent with experimental data. The lowest and the highest O-H stretching vibrational bands may be attributed to different states of silanol groups on the watercovered surface. The dissociation energy of the silanol group on the surface covered by the adsorption monolayer is estimated to be 80 kJ/mol. The metastable states for the protonated surface bridging O atoms (Obr), which may lead to hydrolysis of siloxane bonds, have been investigated. The calculated formation energy of a Q2 center from a Q3 center on the (101) surface with 2/3 dense monolayer coverage is equal to 70 kJ/mol which is in the range of experimental activation energies for quartz dissolution.

  4. Period Pain

    MedlinePlus

    ... You may also have other symptoms, such as lower back pain, nausea, diarrhea, and headaches. Period pain is not ... Taking a hot bath Doing relaxation techniques, including yoga and meditation You might also try taking over- ...

  5. Six-month low level chlorine dioxide gas inhalation toxicity study with two-week recovery period in rats

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Chlorine dioxide (CD) gas has a potent antimicrobial activity at extremely low concentration and may serve as a new tool for infection control occupationally as well as publicly. However, it remains unknown whether the chronic exposure of CD gas concentration effective against microbes is safe. Therefore, long-term, low concentration CD gas inhalation toxicity was studied in rats as a six-month continuous whole-body exposure followed by a two-week recovery period, so as to prove that the CD gas exposed up to 0.1 ppm (volume ratio) is judged as safe on the basis of a battery of toxicological examinations. Methods CD gas at 0.05 ppm or 0.1 ppm for 24 hours/day and 7 days/week was exposed to rats for 6 months under an unrestrained condition with free access to chow and water in a chamber so as to simulate the ordinary lifestyle in human. The control animals were exposed to air only. During the study period, the body weight as well as the food and water consumptions were recorded. After the 6-month exposure and the 2-week recovery period, animals were sacrificed and a battery of toxicological examinations, including biochemistry, hematology, necropsy, organ weights and histopathology, were performed. Results Well regulated levels of CD gas were exposed throughout the chamber over the entire study period. No CD gas-related toxicity sign was observed during the whole study period. No significant difference was observed in body weight gain, food and water consumptions, and relative organ weight. In biochemistry and hematology examinations, changes did not appear to be related to CD gas toxicity. In necropsy and histopathology, no CD gas-related toxicity was observed even in expected target respiratory organs. Conclusions CD gas up to 0.1 ppm, exceeding the level effective against microbes, exposed to whole body in rats continuously for six months was not toxic, under a condition simulating the conventional lifestyle in human. PMID:22348507

  6. Periodized wavelets

    SciTech Connect

    Schlossnagle, G.; Restrepo, J.M.; Leaf, G.K.

    1993-12-01

    The properties of periodized Daubechies wavelets on [0,1] are detailed and contrasted against their counterparts which form a basis for L{sup 2}(R). Numerical examples illustrate the analytical estimates for convergence and demonstrate by comparison with Fourier spectral methods the superiority of wavelet projection methods for approximations. The analytical solution to inner products of periodized wavelets and their derivatives, which are known as connection coefficients, is presented, and several tabulated values are included.

  7. A Study of the X-ray Periodicities in the Remarkable Transient Source Swift J1644+57

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffith, Christopher; Falcone, Abraham

    2016-04-01

    Swift J1644+57 was discovered when it exhibited bright X-ray activity that was believed to be triggered from the infall of a tidally disrupted star near a massive black hole. The observation of a tidal disruption event (TDE) can provide clues to the geometry and physics near the black hole. If a jet forms, as we think happened with Swift J1644+57, it can provide data to study jet creation and the density of matter in a possible accretion disc. We have analyzed Swift X-ray Telescope (XRT) observations of Swift J1644+57 from initial onset to 502 days after TDE onset. We used a Z-transform Discrete Correlation Function (ZDCF) to search for periodicities in the Swift X-ray light curve. We analyzed the X-ray light curve in five time regions, including 0 to 4.5 days after TDE onset, 4.5 to 55 days after TDE onset, 55 to 104 days after TDE onset, 104 to 145 days after TDE onset, and 145 to 502 days after TDE onset. After implementing red and white noise reduction modeling to our ZDCF analysis, we found plausible detections of periodicities. We briefly discuss implications of these periods on the geometry and feeding of the tidal disruption event.

  8. BVRI Photometric Study of the Short Period Solar Type Near-Contact W UMa Binary, FF Vulpeculae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caton, Daniel B.; Samec, Ronald G.; Nyaude, Ropafadzo; Van Hamme, Walter V.

    2016-01-01

    High precision BVRcIc light curves of FF Vul were observed during the Fall, 2015 season at the Dark Sky Observatory 0.81-m reflector of Appalachian State University, and the SARA North 0.91-m reflector at KPNO. It is an eclipsing binary with a period of only 0.444983 (2) d. This is the shortest period of our recently studied Pre Contact W UMa Binary (PCWB's), V2421 Cyg, V1043 Cas, ZZ Eri, V500 Peg, and Mis V1287. Our Binary Maker fits and our Wilson-Devinney solution show that the binary is a near-contact, semidetached binary, i.e., a V1010 Oph type configuration (the more massive component has filled its critical lobe while the secondary component is under-filling). Five times of minimum light were calculated, 3 primary and 2 secondary eclipses from our present observations:HJD I = 2457285.7262 ±0.0002, 2457306.6425 ±0.0002, 2457310.6469 ±0.0002HJD II = 2457279.7222 ±0.0006, 2457280.6124 ±0.0017.The following quadratic ephemerides was determined from all available times of minimum light:JDHelMinI=2457310.6473±0.0007d + 0.4449758±0.0000002 X E -0.00000000006± 0.00000000001 X E2The continuous 20 year period study reveals a period decrease in the orbital period at about the 6 sigma level. Our modeling shows a near-equatorial hot spot on the following side of the secondary component. This is probably due to a matter transfer onto the secondary component. The light curve has a large difference in primary and secondary amplitudes and the light curve solution gives a component temperature difference of more than 1500 K. The solution shows a total secondary eclipse of 23 minutes duration. As expected in binaries of this type, it has a cool spot region on its primary component.

  9. The plasmapause period of magnetic recovery. Combined study of OGO 4, OGO 5 data and of grounded whistler reception

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corcuff, P.; Corcuff, Y.; Carpenter, D. L.; Chappell, C. R.; Vigneron, J.; Kleimenova, N.

    1972-01-01

    The equatorial structure and dynamics of the plasmasphere during the period of magnetic recovery, lasting from the 13 to 23 of September 1968, are studied. The H(+) ions density profiles measured in the night and afternoon sectors by the excentered orbital satellite OGO 5 and L sub p positions of the plasmapause deduced from the VLF records of the polar orbital satellite OGO 4, are included. Electron densities are calculated from the whistlers received at Kerguelen (L approximately 3, 7) and Byrd (L approximately 7), ground stations 150 degrees of longitude apart.

  10. A 35-month prospective study on onset of scabies in a psychiatric hospital: discussion on patient transfer and incubation period.

    PubMed

    Makigami, Kuniko; Ohtaki, Noriko; Yasumura, Seiji

    2012-02-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the risk factors of scabies introduction into a hospital. We addressed the following question: Do patients transferred from other institutions pose a higher risk than patients from the community? From July 2003 to May 2006, a trained physician surveyed the inpatients and staff of a psychiatric hospital (six wards, 300 beds) on a monthly basis. During the study period, specific infection control measures beyond standard precautions, such as prophylactic treatment, were not adopted. There were 333 newly-admitted patients during the study period and among them, 122 were transferred from other institutions. Seven patients were diagnosed with scabies. Two of these patients were infected while in the hospital (secondary infection), thus the number of introduced scabies cases (index cases) was five. Four of the index cases were transferred from other institutions (three from psychiatric hospitals and one from a nursing home). The source of infection for one index case was unexplained. The rate of scabies infection among transferred patients was 3.3% while the infection rate among patients from the community was 0.5%. Therefore, transferred patients pose a higher risk than those from the community. The average time from admission to diagnosis of scabies was 141 days (range 34-313 days). The hospital personnel checked the skin condition of all patients at admission and none of the four patients showed symptoms of scabies.

  11. The International Geophysical Month: Short periods of cooperative study can consolidate the gains of the International Geophysical Year.

    PubMed

    Helliwell, R A; Martin, L H

    1961-12-01

    For convenience, we summarize below some of the main advantages of the IGM concept. 1) Most organizations can mount and support intensive field operations for short periods. 2) High-quality data would be obtained, and the data could be processed more promptly than in long-term projects. 3) Laboratory equipment could in many instances be mnade available for field operations. 4) Top-caliber researchers would be available for field operations. 5) The participation of small research groups and of research workers from government and industry would be fostered. 6) Student participation would improve educational programs in, and attract needed talent to, the geophysical sciences. 7) Ship, satellite, and rocket observations could be scheduled for IGM's. 8) International scientific conferences scheduled to follow IGM's would attract working scientists. It is not suggested that these short-term exercises should replace the long synoptic programs characteristic of the IGY. Rather it is proposed that they supplement and guide any such future long-term program. If adopted, they would produce many data of value for the planning and timing of the International Year of the Quiet Sun. To bring emphasis on special observations during the IQSY, International Geophysical Months might well be scheduled to coincide with the June and December solstices, to be followed by an IGM at an equinoctial period. This would provide periods for concentrated sampling-periods in somewhat the same category as the Regular World Intervals adopted during the IGY. The more elaborate experiments could be confined to the International Geophysical Months, so that only those studies for which continuous observations are essential would be scheduled for the entire period. The duration of an International Geophysical Month would be sufficient for carrying out experiments requiring moving platforms such as ships, rockets, or satellites. It is recommended that every effort be made to schedule the first IGM

  12. Detecting non-uniform period spacings in the Kepler photometry of γ Doradus stars: methodology and case studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Reeth, T.; Tkachenko, A.; Aerts, C.; Pápics, P. I.; Degroote, P.; Debosscher, J.; Zwintz, K.; Bloemen, S.; De Smedt, K.; Hrudkova, M.; Raskin, G.; Van Winckel, H.

    2015-02-01

    Context. The analysis of stellar oscillations is one of the most reliable ways to probe stellar interiors. Recent space missions such as Kepler have provided us with an opportunity to study these oscillations with unprecedented detail. For many multi-periodic pulsators such as γ Doradus stars, this led to the detection of dozens to hundreds of oscillation frequencies that could not be found from ground-based observations. Aims: We aim to detect non-uniform period spacings in the Fourier spectra of a sample of γ Doradus stars observed by Kepler. Such detection is complicated by both the large number of significant frequencies in the space photometry and by overlapping non-equidistant rotationally split multiplets. Methods: Guided by theoretical properties of gravity-mode oscillation of γ Doradus stars, we developed a period-spacing detection method and applied it to Kepler observations of a few stars, after having tested the performance from simulations. Results: The application of the technique resulted in the clear detection of non-uniform period spacing series for three out of the five treated Kepler targets. Disadvantages of the technique are also discussed, and include the disability to distinguish between different values of the spherical degree and azimuthal order of the oscillation modes without additional theoretical modelling. Conclusions: Despite the shortcomings, the method is shown to allow solid detections of period spacings for γ Doradus stars, which will allow future asteroseismic analyses of these stars. Based on data gathered with the NASA Discovery mission Kepler and the HERMES spectrograph, which is installed at the Mercator Telescope, operated on the island of La Palma by the Flemish Community at the Spanish Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos of the Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, and supported by the Fund for Scientific Research of Flanders (FWO), Belgium, the Research Council of KU Leuven, Belgium, the Fonds National de la

  13. Patterns of nonfatal heroin overdose over a 3-year period: findings from the Australian treatment outcome study.

    PubMed

    Darke, Shane; Williamson, Anna; Ross, Joanne; Mills, Katherine L; Havard, Alys; Teesson, Maree

    2007-03-01

    To determine annual patterns and correlates of nonfatal heroin overdose across 3 years, data were analyzed on 387 heroin users recruited for the Australian Treatment Outcome Study (ATOS), interviewed at 12, 24, and 36 months. A heroin overdose across follow-up was reported by 18.6%, and naloxone had been administered to 11.9%. Annual rates of overdose declined between baseline and 12 months and then remained stable. Previous overdose experience was strongly related to subsequent overdose. Those with a history of overdose before ATOS were significantly more likely to overdose during the study period. In particular, there was a strong association between overdose experience in any 1 year and increased overdose risk in the subsequent year. This is the first study to examine long-term annual trends in nonfatal heroin overdose. While overdose rates declined after extensive treatment, substantial proportions continued to overdose in each year, and this was strongly associated with overdose history.

  14. Ecological periodic tables for benthic macrofaunal usage of estuarine habitats: Insights from a case study in Tillamook Bay, Oregon, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferraro, Steven P.; Cole, Faith A.

    2012-05-01

    This study validates the ecological relevance of estuarine habitat types to the benthic macrofaunal community and, together with previous similar studies, suggests they can serve as elements in ecological periodic tables of benthic macrofaunal usage in the bioregion. We compared benthic macrofaunal Bray-Curtis similarity and the means of eight benthic macrofaunal community measures across seven habitat types in Tillamook Bay, Oregon, USA: intertidal eelgrass (Zostera marina), dwarf eelgrass (Zostera japonica), oyster (Crassostrea gigas) ground culture, burrowing mud shrimp (Upogebia pugettensis), burrowing ghost shrimp (Neotrypaea californiensis), sand and subtidal. Benthic macrofaunal Bray-Curtis similarity differed among all the habitats except ghost shrimp and sand. The habitat rank order on mean benthic macrofaunal species richness, abundance and biomass was dwarf eelgrass ≈ oyster ≥ mud shrimp ≈ eelgrass > sand ≈ ghost shrimp ≈ subtidal. The benthic macrofaunal habitat usage pattern in Tillamook Bay was, with a few exceptions, similar to that in two other US Pacific Northwest estuaries. The exceptions indicate variants of eelgrass and ghost shrimp habitat that differ in benthic macrofaunal usage perhaps due to differences in the coarseness of the sand fraction of the sediments in which they live. The similarities indicate periodic benthic macrofaunal usage patterns across the other habitat types extend over a wider geographic scale and range of environmental conditions than previously known.

  15. Choice of fluid therapy in patients of craniopharyngioma in the perioperative period: A hospital-based preliminary study

    PubMed Central

    Mukherjee, K. K.; Dutta, Pinaki; Singh, Apinderpreet; Gupta, Prakamya; Srinivasan, Anand; Bhagat, Hemant; Mathuriya, S. N.; Shah, Viral N.; Bhansali, Anil

    2014-01-01

    Background: Electrolyte imbalance and acute diabetes insipidus (DI) are the most common complications in patients undergoing craniopharyngioma surgery. Improper management of water and electrolyte imbalance is common cause of morbidity and mortality. Data is sparse and controversial regarding the choice of fluid therapy in this population during perioperative period. Methods: In this retrospective-prospective study involving 73 patients (58 retrospective), the type of fluid therapy was correlated with occurrence of hypernatremia, hyponatremia, DI, morbidity, and mortality. In the retrospective study, 48 patients received normal saline and 10 received mixed fluids as per the prevailing practice. In the prospective group, five patients each received normal saline, half normal saline, and 5% dextrose randomly. Results: The sodium values were significantly higher in first 48 h in the group that received normal saline compared with other groups (P < 0.001). The use of normal saline was associated with higher incidence of hypernatremia, DI, and mortality (P = 0.05), while the group that received 5% dextrose was associated with hyponatremia, hypoglycemia, and seizures. There was no perioperative hypotension with use of any of the fluids. Conclusion: Our results indicate half normal saline was fluid of choice with diminished incidence of water and electrolyte abnormalities without increase in mortality during postoperative period. PMID:25101200

  16. Solubility of Two Root-End Filling Materials over Different Time Periods in Synthetic Tissue Fluid: a Comparative Study

    PubMed Central

    Shojaee, Nooshin Sadat; Sahebi, Safoora; Karami, Elahe; Sobhnamayan, Fereshte

    2015-01-01

    Statement of the Problem Insolubility is an important criterion for an ideal root-end filling material to both prevent any microleakage between the root canal and the periradicular space and provide sealing ability. Purpose Many recent studies have shown that mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) and calcium-enriched mixture (CEM) have acceptable sealing ability. The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the solubility of these root-end filling materials. Materials and Method Forty stainless steel ring moulds with an internal diameter of 10±1 mm and a height of 2±0.1 mm were selected. Samples of MTA and CEM were mixed according to the manufacturer’s instructions and inserted into the moulds. The specimens were divided into 4 experimental groups and kept in synthetic tissue fluid (STF) for 2 different time periods (7 and 28 days). The control group contained 8 empty rings. The moulds’ weights were recorded before and after immersion in STF. The changes in the weight of the samples were measured and compared using a two- way ANOVA test at a significance level of 5%. Specimens were evaluated with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) at a magnification of 500×. Results There was no significant difference in weight changes between MTA and CEM samples (p> 0.05). Conclusion MTA and CEM have similar solubility in STF in different time periods. PMID:26331148

  17. 13-week inhalation toxicity study (including 6- and 13-week recovery periods) with ammonium persulfate dust in albino rats.

    PubMed

    Signorin, J; Ulrich, C E; Butt, M T; D'Amato, E A

    2001-11-01

    The subchronic inhalation toxicity of ammonium persulfate was characterized using Sprague-Dawley rats (20/sex/group) at respirable dust concentrations of 0, 5.0, 10.3, and 25 mg/m(3). Whole-body exposures were conducted 6 h/day, 5 days/wk for 13 wk. Gravimetric airborne test material samples were taken daily and particle size samples were taken weekly from each exposure chamber for analysis. Ten animals/sex/group were necropsied after 13 wk of exposure, and 5 animals/sex/group were held for 6- and 13-wk recovery periods. Animals were observed for clinical signs. Effects on body weight, food consumption, clinical chemistry and hematology, ophthalmologic parameters, organ weights, gross lesions, and histopathology were evaluated. There were no exposure-related deaths during the study. Rales and increased respiration rate were noted in both males and females in the 25 mg/m(3) group, and in a few animals in the 10.3 mg/m(3) group. The incidence of these clinical signs decreased to zero during the first few weeks of the recovery period. Body weights for both males and females in the 25 mg/m(3) group were significantly depressed during most of the exposure period compared to the control group. By the end of the recovery period, body weights for the exposed animals were similar to the control group values. Lung weights were elevated in the 25 mg/m(3) group after 13 wk of exposure, but were similar to controls at 6 wk postexposure. Irritation of the trachea and bronchi/bronchiole was noted microscopically after 13 wk of exposure to 25 mg/m(3). These lesions had recovered by 6 wk postexposure. Based on the results of this study, the no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) was 10.3 mg/m(3), while the no-observed-effect level (NOEL) for exposure of rats to a dust aerosol of ammonium persulfate was 5.0 mg/m(3).

  18. Brownian dynamics studies on DNA gel electrophoresis. I. Numerical method and ``periodic'' behavior of elongation-contraction motions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azuma, Ryuzo; Takayama, Hajime

    2002-10-01

    The dynamics of a DNA molecule which is undergoing constant field gel electrophoresis (CFGE) is studied by a Brownian dynamics simulation method we have developed. In the method a DNA molecule is modeled as a chain of spherical electrolyte beads and the gel as a three-dimensional array of immobile beads. With the constraint for the separation of each pair of bonded beads to be less than a certain fixed value, as well as with the excluded volume effect, the simultaneous Langevin equations of motion for the beads are solved by means of the Lagrangian multiplier method. The resultant mobilities μ as a function of electric field coincide satisfactorily with the corresponding experimental results, once the time, the length, and the field of the simulation are properly scaled. In relatively strong fields "periodic" behavior is found in the chain dynamics and is examined through the time evolution of the radius of the longer principal axis, Rl(t). It is found that the mean width of a peak in Rl(t), or a period of one elongation-contraction process of the chain, is proportional to the number of beads in the chain, M, while the mean period between two such adjacent peaks is independent of M for large M. These results, combined with the observation that the chain moves to the field direction by the distance proportional to M in each elongation-contraction motion, yield the saturation of mobility for large M. This explains the reason that CFGE cannot separate DNA according to their size L(∝M) for large L.

  19. Long term study of the effect of sodium cromoglycate on non-specific bronchial hyperresponsiveness.

    PubMed Central

    Jenkins, C J; Breslin, A B

    1987-01-01

    A double blind, crossover study was undertaken to determine whether non-specific hyperresponsiveness in subjects with asthma was reduced by long term treatment with sodium cromoglycate and, if so, whether this was related to change in lung function. Forty four adult asthmatic subjects (41 atopic, three non-atopic) entered the one year study at intervals staggered over six months. After a baseline period to ensure that asthma control was stable subjects entered the treatment period, during which they inhaled sodium cromoglycate 20 mg four times daily or matching placebo four times daily for 16 weeks each, in random order. Response was assessed at four weekly intervals by measurement of lung function and histamine inhalation tests, from which the provocative concentration of histamine causing a 20% fall in FEV1 (PC20H) was calculated. The assessment included daily symptom score, morning and evening Airflow-meter readings and treatment; mean values for each treatment period and also for the final four weeks of each period were compared. There were no significant differences between placebo and sodium cromoglycate treatment for PC20H, FEV1, morning or evening flow meter readings, bronchodilator usage, or symptom scores for the group as a whole, for the 16 week period or for the final four weeks of each period. Thirteen subjects showed better morning and evening flow meter readings while taking sodium cromoglycate than while taking placebo and eight better readings with placebo than with sodium cromoglycate (p less than 0.05). Improvement in lung function did not correlate with baseline lung function or baseline PC20H, or with features of atopy. These results suggest that long term sodium cromoglycate treatment does not alter non-specific bronchial responsiveness in adult asthmatic subjects. PMID:3120345

  20. Changing picture of acute kidney injury in pregnancy: Study of 259 cases over a period of 33 years.

    PubMed

    Prakash, J; Pant, P; Prakash, S; Sivasankar, M; Vohra, R; Doley, P K; Pandey, L K; Singh, U

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of acute kidney injury (AKI) in pregnancy is declining in developing countries but still remains a major cause of maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. The aim of the study was to analyze the changing trends in pregnancy related AKI (PR-AKI) over a period of thirty-three years. Clinical characteristics of PR-AKI with respect to incidence, etiology and fetal and maternal outcomes were compared in three study periods, namely 1982-1991,1992-2002 and 2003-2014. The incidence of PR-AKI decreased to 10.4% in 1992-2002, from 15.2% in 1982-1991, with declining trend continuing in 2003-2014 (4.68%).Postabortal AKI decreased to 1.49% in 2003-2014 from 9.4% in 1982-1991of total AKI cases. The AKI related to puerperal sepsis increased to 1.56% of all AKI cases in 2003-2014 from 1.4% in 1982-1991. Preeclampsia/eclampsia associated AKI decreased from 3.5% of total AKI cases in 1982-1991 to 0.54% in 2003-2014. Pregnancy associated - thrombotic microangiopathy and acute fatty liver of pregnancy were uncommon causes of AKI. Hyperemesis gravidarum associated AKI was not observed in our study. Incidence of renal cortical necrosis (RCN) decreased to 1.4% in 2003-2014 from 17% in 1982-1991.Maternal mortality reduced to 5.79% from initial high value 20% in 1982-1991. The progression of PR-AKI to ESRD decreased to1.4% in 2003-2014 from 6.15% in 1982-1991. The incidence of PR-AKI has decreased over last three decades, mainly due to decrease in incidence of postabortal AKI. Puerperal sepsis and obstetric hemorrhage were the major causes of PR-AKI followed by preeclampsia in late pregnancy. Maternal mortality and incidence and severity of RCN have significantly decreased in PR-AKI. The progression to CKD and ESRD has decreased in women with AKI in pregnancy in recent decade. However, the perinatal mortality did not change throughout study period.

  1. Changing picture of acute kidney injury in pregnancy: Study of 259 cases over a period of 33 years

    PubMed Central

    Prakash, J.; Pant, P.; Prakash, S.; Sivasankar, M.; Vohra, R.; Doley, P. K.; Pandey, L. K.; Singh, U.

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of acute kidney injury (AKI) in pregnancy is declining in developing countries but still remains a major cause of maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. The aim of the study was to analyze the changing trends in pregnancy related AKI (PR-AKI) over a period of thirty-three years. Clinical characteristics of PR-AKI with respect to incidence, etiology and fetal and maternal outcomes were compared in three study periods, namely 1982-1991,1992-2002 and 2003-2014. The incidence of PR-AKI decreased to 10.4% in 1992-2002, from 15.2% in 1982-1991, with declining trend continuing in 2003-2014 (4.68%).Postabortal AKI decreased to 1.49% in 2003-2014 from 9.4% in 1982-1991of total AKI cases. The AKI related to puerperal sepsis increased to 1.56% of all AKI cases in 2003-2014 from 1.4% in 1982-1991. Preeclampsia/eclampsia associated AKI decreased from 3.5% of total AKI cases in 1982-1991 to 0.54% in 2003-2014. Pregnancy associated – thrombotic microangiopathy and acute fatty liver of pregnancy were uncommon causes of AKI. Hyperemesis gravidarum associated AKI was not observed in our study. Incidence of renal cortical necrosis (RCN) decreased to 1.4% in 2003-2014 from 17% in 1982-1991.Maternal mortality reduced to 5.79% from initial high value 20% in 1982-1991. The progression of PR-AKI to ESRD decreased to1.4% in 2003-2014 from 6.15% in 1982-1991. The incidence of PR-AKI has decreased over last three decades, mainly due to decrease in incidence of postabortal AKI. Puerperal sepsis and obstetric hemorrhage were the major causes of PR-AKI followed by preeclampsia in late pregnancy. Maternal mortality and incidence and severity of RCN have significantly decreased in PR-AKI. The progression to CKD and ESRD has decreased in women with AKI in pregnancy in recent decade. However, the perinatal mortality did not change throughout study period. PMID:27512298

  2. Periodic Polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Edwin

    2013-03-01

    Periodic polymers can be made by self assembly, directed self assembly and by photolithography. Such materials provide a versatile platform for 1, 2 and 3D periodic nano-micro scale composites with either dielectric or impedance contrast or both, and these can serve for example, as photonic and or phononic crystals for electromagnetic and elastic waves as well as mechanical frames/trusses. Compared to electromagnetic waves, elastic waves are both less complex (longitudinal modes in fluids) and more complex (longitudinal, transverse in-plane and transverse out-of-plane modes in solids). Engineering of the dispersion relation between wave frequency w and wave vector, k enables the opening of band gaps in the density of modes and detailed shaping of w(k). Band gaps can be opened by Bragg scattering, anti-crossing of bands and discrete shape resonances. Current interest is in our group focuses using design - modeling, fabrication and measurement of polymer-based periodic materials for applications as tunable optics and control of phonon flow. Several examples will be described including the design of structures for multispectral band gaps for elastic waves to alter the phonon density of states, the creation of block polymer and bicontinuous metal-carbon nanoframes for structures that are robust against ballistic projectiles and quasi-crystalline solid/fluid structures that can steer shock waves.

  3. Changes in background aerosol composition in Finland during polluted and clean periods studied by TEM/EDX individual particle analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niemi, J. V.; Saarikoski, S.; Tervahattu, H.; Mäkelä, T.; Hillamo, R.; Vehkamäki, H.; Sogacheva, L.; Kulmala, M.

    2006-11-01

    Aerosol samples were collected at a rural background site in southern Finland in May 2004 during pollution episode (PM1~16 µg m-3, backward air mass trajectories from south-east), intermediate period (PM1~5 µg m-3, backtrajectories from north-east) and clean period (PM1~2 µg m-3, backtrajectories from north-west/north). The elemental composition, morphology and mixing state of individual aerosol particles in three size fractions were studied using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) coupled with energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) microanalyses. The TEM/EDX results were complemented with the size-segregated bulk chemical measurements of selected ions and organic and elemental carbon. Many of the particles in PM0.2-1 and PM1-3.3 size fractions were strongly internally mixed with S, C and/or N. The major particle types in PM0.2-1 samples were 1) soot and 2) (ammonium)sulphates and their mixtures with variable amounts of C, K, soot and/or other inclusions. Number proportions of those two particle groups in PM0.2-1 samples were 0-12% and 83-97%, respectively. During the pollution episode, the proportion of Ca-rich particles was very high (26-48%) in the PM1-3.3 and PM3.3-11 samples, while the PM0.2-1 and PM1-3.3 samples contained elevated proportions of silicates (22-33%), metal oxides/hydroxides (1-9%) and tar balls (1-4%). These aerosols originated mainly from polluted areas of Eastern Europe, and some open biomass burning smoke was also brought by long-range transport. During the clean period, when air masses arrived from the Arctic Ocean, PM1-3.3 samples contained mainly sea salt particles (67-89%) with a variable rate of Cl substitution (mainly by NO3-). During the intermediate period, the PM1-3.3 sample contained porous (sponge-like) Na-rich particles (35%) with abundant S, K and O. They might originate from the burning of wood pulp wastes of paper industry. The proportion of biological particles and C-rich fragments (probably also biological origin) were highest

  4. The first multi-color photometric study of the short-period contact eclipsing binary DE Lyn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashimoto, Amanda; Zhang, Liyun; Han, Xianming L.; Lu, Hongpeng; Wang, Daimei

    2016-05-01

    We observed the contact eclipsing binary of DE Lyn using SARA 0.9 m telescope at Kitt Peak National Observatory on February 9, 11, and 27, 2015. In this study, we obtained the first full phase coverage BVRI CCD light curves, analyzed the orbital period variation, and extracted the orbital parameters. We calculated the linear and quadratic ephemeris, and thereby found that DE Lyn has a decreasing orbital period rate of - 5.1(± 0.4) × 10-7 days/year. We assume this decreasing trend is the result of the more massive component (secondary) transferring mass to the less massive component (primary), and we obtained a mass transfer rate of dm / dt = 7.06 ×10-7M⊙ /year . By using the updated Wilson & Devinney program, we found the orbital parameters of DE Lyn, which, in turn, enabled us to calculate the low degree of contact factor as f = 9.02(± 0.01)%. In the future, its degree of contact will continue to increase and will evolve into an over-contact system.

  5. The first multi-color photometric study of the short-period contact Eclipsing Binary DE Lyn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashimoto, Amanda; Zhang, Liyun; Han, Xianming L.; Hongpeng, Lu; Wang, Daimei

    2016-01-01

    We observed the contact eclipsing binary of DE Lyn using SARA 0.9 meter telescope at Kitt Peak National Observatory on February 9, 11, and 27, 2015. In this study, we obtained the first full phase coverage BVRI CCD light curves, analyzed the orbital period variation, and extracted the orbital parameters. We calculated the linear and quadratic ephemeris, and thereby found that DE Lyn has a decreasing orbital period rate of -5.1(±0.4)×10-7 days/year. We believe this decreasing trend is the result of the more massive component (secondary) transferring mass to the less massive component (primary), and we obtained a mass transfer rate of dm/dt = 7.06×10-7M⊙/year. By using the updated Wilson & Devinney program, we found the orbital parameters of DE Lyn, which, in turn, enabled us to calculate the low degree of contact factor as f = 9.02(± 0.01)%. Its degree of contact will continue to increase and will evolve into an over-contact system.

  6. Light trapping efficiency of periodic and quasiperiodic back-reflectors for thin film solar cells: A comparative study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Micco, A.; Ricciardi, A.; Pisco, M.; La Ferrara, V.; Mercaldo, L. V.; Delli Veneri, P.; Cutolo, A.; Cusano, A.

    2013-08-01

    Recently, great efforts have been carried out to design optimized metallic nano-grating back-reflectors to improve the light absorption in thin film solar cells. In this work, we compare the performances of deterministic aperiodic backreflectors in the form of 1-D nanogratings based on the generalized Fibonacci deterministic aperiodic sequence with a standard periodic one. The case of study here analyzed relies on a realistic solar cell model, where light absorption is evaluated only in the intrinsic region of an amorphous silicon P-I-N junction. We found that the results of comparison are strongly influenced by the amorphous silicon extinction coefficient within the near-infrared wavelength range, where most photonic-plasmonic modes (responsible for the light absorption enhancement typically observed when structured metal nanogratings are employed) are excited. In particular, with device-grade hydrogenated amorphous silicon, we demonstrate that Fibonacci-like backreflectors are able to provide an absorption enhancement of about 4% and 20% with respect to periodic and flat metallic backreflectors, respectively. We also found that aperiodic gratings guarantee better results in terms of robustness to the incident angle of the incoming radiation. Overall, our results confirm that aperiodic geometries are effectively able to offer some intriguing perspectives to enhance light trapping capability in thin film solar cells especially thanks to the large set of patterns employable to enable a proper design of resonant modes number and their spectral locations.

  7. Recurrence rates of bipolar disorder during the postpartum period: a study on 276 medication-free Italian women.

    PubMed

    Maina, Giuseppe; Rosso, Gianluca; Aguglia, Andrea; Bogetto, Filippo

    2014-10-01

    The postpartum period is considered a time of heightened vulnerability to bipolar disorder. The primary goal of this study was to examine the frequency and the polarity of postpartum episodes in a clinical sample of women with bipolar disorder who were medication-free during their pregnancies. In addition, we sought to examine whether there are differences in terms of clinical features of bipolar disorder between women with and without postpartum episodes. Lastly, we analyzed the potential relationship between polarity of the postpartum episodes and clinical features of bipolar disorder. The presence/absence of postpartum episodes and their characteristics were obtained from medical records of 276 women with bipolar disorder who were medication-free during their pregnancies. Two hundred seven women (75.0 %) had a history of one or more postpartum mood episodes: depressive (79.7 %), (hypo)manic (16.4 %), or mixed episodes (3.9 %). Psychotic symptoms during postpartum episodes were associated with depression in 37 (22.4 %) patients, with mania in 19 (67.8 %) patients, and with mixed episodes in 7 (87.5 %) patients. Postpartum manic and mixed episodes were significantly associated with type I disorder and with psychotic features. Our findings indicate high risk of clinically ascertained mood episodes during postpartum period in bipolar women who are not treated during pregnancy.

  8. A Study on The Incidence of Neural Tube Defects in A Tertiary Care Hospital Over A Period of Five Years

    PubMed Central

    Subramanian, Manickam; Rajilarajendran, Hannahsugirthabai; Ramanujam, Sailatha; Saktivel, Sathiya; Sivaanandam, Renuka

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Several congenital malformations affect developing fetuses, among which Neural tube defect (NTD) is most common. Folic acid supplementation brought decline in the incidence of NTDs. The present study aims at finding the incidence of NTDs in a tertiary care hospital and compares the results with the similar Indian studies published earlier. Materials and Methods The study was done at Chettinad Hospital & Research Institute (CHRI), Kelambakkam. The total number of deliveries was recorded for a period of five years from 2009 to 2013. Fetuses which were still born with neural defect were collected and observed in detail externally for the sex, type of NTD and other associated anomalies. Indian studies published between 1987 and 2014 reporting the incidence of NTDs among the births occurred were retrieved from the Internet and their various observations were used for comparison. Results The number of deliveries conducted between 2009 and 2013 at CHRI was 3220. Of these, babies born with NTDs were nine (5 males and 4 females). The incidence of fetuses with meroanencephaly, holoanencephaly, craniorachischisis, encephalocele and myelocele were 0.62, 0.62, 0.93, 0.31 and 0.31 per 1000 births respectively. Overall incidence of NTDs in the present study was 2.79/1000 births. Fetuses with NTDs also had the following anomalies – Club foot, cleft lip and palate and exomphalos. Conclusion Comparing the results with the previous studies it is clearly evident that the incidence of NTDs have significantly reduced from 11.42/1000 births to 2.79/1000 births. In most of the previous studies NTDs had a female preponderance whereas present study has a male preponderance.In older studies, spina bifida was the most common NTDs followed by anencephaly. But in the present study anencephaly was the common NTD than spina bifida. Incidence of NTDs has reduced due to various reasons like prenatal screening for fetal anomalies and folic acid supplementation. PMID:26393168

  9. Determination of Normal Ranges of Shock Index and Other Haemodynamic Variables in the Immediate Postpartum Period: A Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Nathan, Hannah L.; Cottam, Kate; Hezelgrave, Natasha L.; Seed, Paul T.; Briley, Annette; Bewley, Susan; Chappell, Lucy C.; Shennan, Andrew H.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To determine the normal ranges of vital signs, including blood pressure (BP), mean arterial pressure (MAP), heart rate (HR) and shock index (SI) (HR/systolic BP), in the immediate postpartum period to inform the development of robust obstetric early warning scores. Study Design We conducted a secondary analysis of a prospective observational cohort study evaluating vital signs collected within one hour following delivery in women with estimated blood loss (EBL) <500ml (316 women) delivering at a UK tertiary centre over a one-year period. Simple and multiple linear regression were used to explore associations of demographic and obstetric factors with SI. Results Median (90% reference range) was 120 (100–145) for systolic BP, 75 (58–90) for diastolic BP, 90 (73–108) for MAP, 81 (61–102) for HR, and 0.66 (0.52–0.89) for SI. Third stage Syntometrine® administration was associated with a 0.03 decrease in SI (p = 0.035) and epidural use with a 0.05 increase (p = 0.003). No other demographic or obstetric factors were associated with a change in shock index in this cohort. Conclusion This is the first study to determine normal ranges of maternal BP, MAP, HR and SI within one hour of birth, a time of considerable haemodynamic adjustment, with minimal effect of demographic and obstetric factors demonstrated. The lower 90% reference point for systolic BP and upper 90% reference point for HR correspond to triggers used to recognise shock in obstetric practice, as do the upper 90% reference points for systolic and diastolic BP for obstetric hypertensive triggers. The SI upper limit of 0.89 in well postpartum women supports current literature suggesting a threshold of 0.9 as indicating increased risk of adverse outcomes. PMID:27997586

  10. Age, time period, and birth cohort differences in self-esteem: Reexamining a cohort-sequential longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Twenge, Jean M; Carter, Nathan T; Campbell, W Keith

    2016-12-08

    Orth, Trzesniewski, and Robins (2010) concluded that the nationally representative Americans' Changing Lives (ACL) cohort-sequential study demonstrated moderate to large age differences in self-esteem, and no birth cohort (generational) differences in the age trajectory. In a reanalysis of these data using 2 different statistical techniques, we find significant increases in self-esteem that could be attributed to birth cohort or time period. First, hierarchical linear modeling analyses with birth cohort as a continuous variable (vs. the multiple group formulation used by Orth et al.) find that birth cohort has a measurable influence on self-esteem through its interaction with age. Participants born in later years (e.g., 1960) were higher in self-esteem and were more likely to increase in self-esteem as they aged than participants born in earlier years (e.g., 1920). However, the estimated age trajectory up to age 60 is similar in Orth et al.'s results and in the results from our analyses including cohort. Second, comparing ACL respondents of the same age in 1986 versus 2002 (a time-lag design) yields significant birth cohort differences in self-esteem, with 2002 participants of the same age higher in self-esteem than those in 1986. Combined with some previous studies finding significant increases in self-esteem and positive self-views over time, these results suggest that cultural change in the form of cohort and time period cannot be ignored as influences in cross-sectional and longitudinal studies. (PsycINFO Database Record

  11. Periodic density functional theory investigation of the uranyl ion sorption on three mineral surfaces: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Roques, Jérôme; Veilly, Edouard; Simoni, Eric

    2009-06-04

    Canister integrity and radionuclides retention is of prime importance for assessing the long term safety of nuclear waste stored in engineered geologic depositories. A comparative investigation of the interaction of uranyl ion with three different mineral surfaces has thus been undertaken in order to point out the influence of surface composition on the adsorption mechanism(s). Periodic DFT calculations using plane waves basis sets with the GGA formalism were performed on the TiO(2)(110), Al(OH)(3)(001) and Ni(111) surfaces. This study has clearly shown that three parameters play an important role in the uranyl adsorption mechanism: the solvent (H(2)O) distribution at the interface, the nature of the adsorption site and finally, the surface atoms' protonation state.

  12. Numerical study of the tight-binding approach to overdamped Brownian motion on a tilted periodic potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Challis, K. J.

    2016-12-01

    We present a numerical study of the tight-binding approach to overdamped Brownian motion on a tilted periodic potential. In the tight-binding method the probability density is expanded on a basis of Wannier states to transform the Smoluchowski equation to a discrete master equation that can be interpreted in terms of thermal hopping between potential minima. We calculate the Wannier states and hopping rates for a variety of potentials, including tilted cosine and ratchet potentials. For deep potential minima the Wannier states are well localized and the hopping rates between nearest-neighbor states are qualitatively well described by Kramers' escape rate. The next-nearest-neighbor hopping rates are negative and must be negligible compared to the nearest-neighbor rates for the discrete master equation treatment to be valid. We find that the validity of the master equation extends beyond the quantitative applicability of Kramers' escape rate.

  13. Deep Long-period Seismicity Beneath the Executive Committee Range, Marie Byrd Land, Antarctica, Studied Using Subspace Detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aster, R. C.; McMahon, N. D.; Myers, E. K.; Lough, A. C.

    2015-12-01

    Lough et al. (2014) first detected deep sub-icecap magmatic events beneath the Executive Committee Range volcanoes of Marie Byrd Land. Here, we extend the identification and analysis of these events in space and time utilizing subspace detection. Subspace detectors provide a highly effective methodology for studying events within seismic swarms that have similar moment tensor and Green's function characteristics and are particularly effective for identifying low signal-to-noise events. Marie Byrd Land (MBL) is an extremely remote continental region that is nearly completely covered by the West Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS). The southern extent of Marie Byrd Land lies within the West Antarctic Rift System (WARS), which includes the volcanic Executive Committee Range (ECR). The ECR shows north-to-south progression of volcanism across the WARS during the Holocene. In 2013, the POLENET/ANET seismic data identified two swarms of seismic activity in 2010 and 2011. These events have been interpreted as deep, long-period (DLP) earthquakes based on depth (25-40 km) and low frequency content. The DLP events in MBL lie beneath an inferred sub-WAIS volcanic edifice imaged with ice penetrating radar and have been interpreted as a present location of magmatic intrusion. The magmatic swarm activity in MBL provides a promising target for advanced subspace detection and temporal, spatial, and event size analysis of an extensive deep long period earthquake swarm using a remote seismographic network. We utilized a catalog of 1,370 traditionally identified DLP events to construct subspace detectors for the six nearest stations and analyzed two years of data spanning 2010-2011. Association of these detections into events resulted in an approximate ten-fold increase in number of locatable earthquakes. In addition to the two previously identified swarms during early 2010 and early 2011, we find sustained activity throughout the two years of study that includes several previously

  14. Effect of red chili consumption on postoperative symptoms during the post-hemorrhoidectomy period: randomized, double-blind, controlled study.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Pravin J

    2007-09-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether there was any relation between consumption of chilies and postoperative symptoms after hemorrhoidectomy in patients with grade III or IV hemorrhoidal disease. A total of 60 patients were randomly assigned to receive antibiotics and analgesics alone (control patients) or daily consumption of 3 g of chili powder along with identical antibiotics and analgesics (chili group). The evaluation of symptoms-pain, anal burning, pruritus, bleeding-during the postoperative period was assessed by means of patients' self-questionnaires. A global score for evaluating each postoperative symptom was compared between the two groups at the 1-week follow-up. No significant difference in age, sex distribution, or grade of disease was noted between the two groups at baseline. The incidence of post-hemorrhoidectomy symptoms was higher in the group consuming chilies during the first postoperative week. The global score for postoperative pain (14.60 for the chili group vs. 7.97 for the control group, p < 0.001) and for anal burning (12.90 for the chili group vs. 7.82 for the control group, p < 0.0001) were significant. Although bleeding (6.95 in the control group and 7.57 in the chili group, p < 0.81) and pruritus (8.06 in the control group and 8.75 in the chili group, p < 0.69) were more common in the chili group, the difference did not achieve statistical significance. This study shows that consumption of 3 g of red chilies per day during the postoperative period after hemorrhoidectomy increases the intensity of typical postoperative symptoms, stool frequency, and the consumption of analgesics.

  15. Geographic variability of fatal road traffic injuries in Spain during the period 2002–2004: an ecological study

    PubMed Central

    Rivas-Ruiz, Francisco; Perea-Milla, Emilio; Jimenez-Puente, Alberto

    2007-01-01

    Background The aim of the present study is to describe the inter-province variability of Road Traffic Injury (RTI) mortality on Spanish roads, adjusted for vehicle-kilometres travelled, and to assess the possible role played by the following explicative variables: sociodemographic, structural, climatic and risk conducts. Methods An ecological study design was employed. The mean annual rate of RTI deaths was calculated for the period 2002–2004, adjusted for vehicle-kilometres travelled, in the 50 provinces of Spain. The RTI death rate was related with the independent variables described above, using simple and multiple linear regression analysis with backward step-wise elimination. The level of statistical significance was taken as p < 0.05. Results In the period 2002–2004 there were 12,756 RTI deaths in Spain (an average of 4,242 per year, SD = 356.6). The mean number of deaths due to RTI per 100 million vehicle-kilometres (mvk) travelled was 1.76 (SD = 0.51), with a minimum value of 0.66 (in Santa Cruz de Tenerife) and a maximum of 3.31 (in the province of Lugo). All other variables being equal, a higher proportion of kilometres available on high capacity roads, and a higher cultural and education level were associated with lower death rates due to RTI, while the opposite was true for the rate of alcohol consumers and the road traffic volume of heavy vehicles. The variables included in the model accounted for 55.4% of the variability in RTI mortality. Conclusion Adjusting RTI mortality rates for the number of vehicle-kilometres travelled enables us to identify the high variability of this cause of death, and its relation with risk factors other than those inherent to human behaviour, such as the type of roads and the type of vehicles using them. PMID:17897449

  16. A clinical study of kuru patients with long incubation periods at the end of the epidemic in Papua New Guinea

    PubMed Central

    Collinge, John; Whitfield, Jerome; McKintosh, Edward; Frosh, Adam; Mead, Simon; Hill, Andrew F.; Brandner, Sebastian; Thomas, Dafydd; Alpers, Michael P.

    2008-01-01

    Kuru is so far the principal human epidemic prion disease. While its incidence has steadily declined since the cessation of its route of transmission, endocannibalism, in Papua New Guinea in the 1950s, the arrival of variant Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease (vCJD), also thought to be transmitted by dietary prion exposure, has given kuru a new global relevance. We investigated all suspected cases of kuru from July 1996 to June 2004 and identified 11 kuru patients. There were four females and seven males, with an age range of 46–63 years at the onset of disease, in marked contrast to the age and sex distribution when kuru was first investigated 50 years ago. We obtained detailed histories of residence and exposure to mortuary feasts and performed serial neurological examination and genetic studies where possible. All patients were born a significant period before the mortuary practice of transumption ceased and their estimated incubation periods in some cases exceeded 50 years. The principal clinical features of kuru in the studied patients showed the same progressive cerebellar syndrome that had been previously described. Two patients showed marked cognitive impairment well before preterminal stages, in contrast to earlier clinical descriptions. In these patients, the mean clinical duration of 17 months was longer than the overall average in kuru but similar to that previously reported for the same age group, and this may relate to the effects of both patient age and PRNP codon 129 genotype. Importantly, no evidence for lymphoreticular colonization with prions, seen uniformly in vCJD, was observed in a patient with kuru at tonsil biopsy. PMID:18849289

  17. Study of cosmic ray intensity and geomagnetic storms with solar wind parameters during the period 1998-2005

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kharayat, Hema; Prasad, Lalan

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to study the effect of solar wind parameters (solar wind speed V, plasma flow pressure, and plasma density) on cosmic ray intensity and on geomagnetic storms for the period 1998-2005 (solar cycle 23). A Chree analysis by the superposed epoch method has been done for the study. From the present study we have found that the solar wind speed is a highly effective parameter in producing cosmic ray intensity decreases and geomagnetic storms. No time lag is found between cosmic ray intensity decreases, geomagnetic storms, and peak value of solar wind speed. Further, we have found that the plasma flow pressure is effectively correlated with geomagnetic storms but it is weakly correlated with cosmic ray intensity. The cosmic ray intensity and geomagnetic storms are found to be weakly correlated with plasma density. The decrease in cosmic ray intensity and geomagnetic storms takes place one day after the peak values of plasma flow pressure and plasma density. There is a time lag of one day between solar wind parameters (plasma flow pressure and plasma density) and cosmic ray intensity decrease, geomagnetic storms. Also, we have found a high correlation of cosmic ray intensity and geomagnetic storms with the product of interplanetary magnetic field B and solar wind speed V i.e. B\\cdot V. This study may be useful in predicting the space-weather phenomena.

  18. Eating Disorders, Pregnancy, and the Postpartum Period: Findings from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa).

    PubMed

    Watson, Hunna J; Torgersen, Leila; Zerwas, Stephanie; Reichborn-Kjennerud, Ted; Knoph, Cecilie; Stoltenberg, Camilla; Siega-Riz, Anna Maria; Von Holle, Ann; Hamer, Robert M; Meltzer, Helle; Ferguson, Elizabeth H; Haugen, Margaretha; Magnus, Per; Kuhns, Rebecca; Bulik, Cynthia M

    2014-01-01

    This review summarizes studies on eating disorders in pregnancy and the postpartum period that have been conducted as part of the broader Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa). Prior to the 2000s, empirical literature on eating disorders in pregnancy was sparse and consisted mostly of studies in small clinical samples. MoBa has contributed to a new era of research by making population-based and large-sample research possible. To date, MoBa has led to 19 studies on diverse questions including the prevalence, course, and risk correlates of eating disorders during pregnancy and the postpartum. The associations between eating disorder exposure and pregnancy, birth and obstetric outcomes, and maternal and offspring health and well-being, have also been areas of focus. The findings indicate that eating disorders in pregnancy are relatively common and appear to confer health risks to mother and her child related to sleep, birth outcomes, maternal nutrition, and child feeding and eating.

  19. Eating Disorders, Pregnancy, and the Postpartum Period: Findings from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa)

    PubMed Central

    Watson, Hunna J.; Torgersen, Leila; Zerwas, Stephanie; Reichborn-Kjennerud, Ted; Knoph, Cecilie; Stoltenberg, Camilla; Siega-Riz, Anna Maria; Von Holle, Ann; Hamer, Robert M.; Meltzer, Helle; Ferguson, Elizabeth H.; Haugen, Margaretha; Magnus, Per; Kuhns, Rebecca; Bulik, Cynthia M.

    2016-01-01

    This review summarizes studies on eating disorders in pregnancy and the postpartum period that have been conducted as part of the broader Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa). Prior to the 2000s, empirical literature on eating disorders in pregnancy was sparse and consisted mostly of studies in small clinical samples. MoBa has contributed to a new era of research by making population-based and large-sample research possible. To date, MoBa has led to 19 studies on diverse questions including the prevalence, course, and risk correlates of eating disorders during pregnancy and the postpartum. The associations between eating disorder exposure and pregnancy, birth and obstetric outcomes, and maternal and offspring health and well-being, have also been areas of focus. The findings indicate that eating disorders in pregnancy are relatively common and appear to confer health risks to mother and her child related to sleep, birth outcomes, maternal nutrition, and child feeding and eating. PMID:27110061

  20. Clinical learning environments for student nurses: key indices from two studies compared over a 25 year period.

    PubMed

    Lewin, David

    2007-07-01

    In 1978, a longitudinal study commenced in England to illuminate criteria for the evaluation of hospital wards as clinical learning environments for student nurses. It derived measures to quantify the clinical learning experienced by 71 students in three cohorts in three training hospitals over their entire programme. In 2003, a second study, based in one English School of Health Studies, using clinical placements in three NHS trusts, employed a retrospective, cross-sectional, analytic survey design with anonymised, self-completion questionnaires, to map the clinical learning of 272 students as part of a quality assurance and enhancement initiative. This paper explores changes over time by comparing data based on five key indices, devised in the first study and revisited in the second. Concepts of clinical learning and supervision are reviewed as part of this changing context and background together with limitations implicit in the comparison. The findings suggest an average 20% improvement in the quality of hospital based clinical learning environments over a 25 year period, based mainly on trained staff personally supervising students more extensively, testing their theoretical knowledge more frequently and spending more time performing practical procedures with them. However, unacceptable variations in clinical learning opportunities persist for some students.

  1. Aggression Management Training for Youth in Behaviour Schools: A Quasi-Experimental Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wheatley, Anna; Murrihy, Rachael; van Kessel, Jacobine; Wuthrich, Viviana; Remond, Louise; Tuqiri, Rebekka; Dadds, Mark; Kidman, Antony

    2009-01-01

    A 16-week, bi-weekly, cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT)-based aggression management training course was conducted with a limited sample of behavioural school students in New South Wales. Attendance, withdrawal and suspension rates over the training period were compared to those of a control period. Parent and teacher feedback, assessed at pre-…

  2. Psychological Distress in Healthy Low-Risk First-Time Mothers during the Postpartum Period: An Exploratory Study

    PubMed Central

    Carter, Patricia; Price, Larry R.; Champion, Jane Dimmitt; Nichols, Francine

    2017-01-01

    Psychological distress, defined as depression, anxiety, and insomnia in this study, can occur following the birth of a baby as new mothers, in addition to marked physiological changes, are faced with adapting to new roles and responsibilities. We investigated the cooccurrence of stress, depression, anxiety, and insomnia in mothers during the postpartum period; tested the feasibility of study methods and procedures for use in this population; and identified new mothers interest in using cranial electrotherapy stimulation (CES) as an intervention for reducing psychological distress. We recruited healthy, low-risk, English speaking first-time mothers, ages 18–32 years, with healthy babies (N = 33), within 12 months of an uncomplicated birth. Participants completed the PSS, HAM-D14, HAM-A17, and PSQI19. No problems were encountered with study procedures. Mothers reported a high interest (4.9) in the potential use of CES to treat or prevent the occurrence of psychological distress. All participants (N = 33) reported moderate levels of depression and anxiety, while 75.8% (n = 25) reported insomnia. PSS scores were within the norms for healthy women. Further research is recommended to investigate if our findings can be replicated or if different patterns of associations emerge. Implications for clinical practice are addressed. PMID:28191350

  3. Epidemiological Study of Mammary Tumors in Female Dogs Diagnosed during the Period 2002-2012: A Growing Animal Health Problem.

    PubMed

    Salas, Yaritza; Márquez, Adelys; Diaz, Daniel; Romero, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Epidemiological studies enable us to analyze disease behavior, define risk factors and establish fundamental prognostic criteria, with the purpose of studying different types of diseases. The aim of this study was to determine the epidemiological characteristics of canine mammary tumors diagnosed during the period 2002-2012. The study was based on a retrospective study consisting of 1,917 biopsies of intact dogs that presented mammary gland lesions. Biopsies were sent to the Department of Pathology FMVZ-UNAM diagnostic service. The annual incidence of mammary tumors was 16.8%: 47.7% (benign) and 47.5% (malignant). The highest number of cases was epithelial, followed by mixed tumors. The most commonly diagnosed tumors were tubular adenoma, papillary adenoma, tubular carcinoma, papillary carcinoma, solid carcinoma, complex carcinoma and carcinosarcoma. Pure breeds accounted for 80% of submissions, and the Poodle, Cocker Spaniel and German Shepherd were consistently affected. Adult female dogs (9 to 12 years old) were most frequently involved, followed by 5- to 8-year-old females. Some association between breeds with histological types of malignant tumors was observed, but no association was found between breeds and BN. Mammary tumors in intact dogs had a high incidence. Benign and malignant tumors had similar frequencies, with an increase in malignant tumors in the past four years of the study. Epithelial tumors were more common, and the most affected were old adult females, purebreds and small-sized dogs. Mammary tumors in dogs are an important animal health problem that needs to be solved by improving veterinary oncology services in Mexico.

  4. Groundwater-quality data in 12 GAMA study units: Results from the 2006–10 initial sampling period and the 2008–13 trend sampling period, California GAMA Priority Basin Project

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mathany, Timothy M.

    2017-03-09

    The Priority Basin Project (PBP) of the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) program was developed in response to the Groundwater Quality Monitoring Act of 2001 and is being conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the California State Water Resources Control Board. From 2004 through 2012, the GAMA-PBP collected samples and assessed the quality of groundwater resources that supply public drinking water in 35 study units across the State. Selected sites in each study unit were sampled again approximately 3 years after initial sampling as part of an assessment of temporal trends in water quality by the GAMA-PBP. Twelve of the study units, initially sampled during 2006–11 (initial sampling period) and sampled a second time during 2008–13 (trend sampling period) to assess temporal trends, are the subject of this report.The initial sampling was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of the quality of untreated groundwater used for public water supplies in the 12 study units. In these study units, 550 sampling sites were selected by using a spatially distributed, randomized, grid-based method to provide spatially unbiased representation of the areas assessed (grid sites, also called “status sites”). After the initial sampling period, 76 of the previously sampled status sites (approximately 10 percent in each study unit) were randomly selected for trend sampling (“trend sites”). The 12 study units sampled both during the initial sampling and during the trend sampling period were distributed among 6 hydrogeologic provinces: Coastal (Northern and Southern), Transverse Ranges and Selected Peninsular Ranges, Klamath, Modoc Plateau and Cascades, and Sierra Nevada Hydrogeologic Provinces. For the purposes of this trend report, the six hydrogeologic provinces were grouped into two hydrogeologic regions based on location: Coastal and Mountain.The groundwater samples were analyzed for a number of synthetic organic

  5. Western Africa to c/1860 A.D.: A Provisional Historical Schema Based on Climate Periods. Indiana University African Studies Program Working Papers Series, No. 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, George E.

    An examination of historical developments in western Africa during six climate periods extending over two millennia, this study demonstrates that numerous historical developments correlate with climate periods and/or were influenced by changes in rainfall patterns and ecological conditions. These include such diverse topics as the diffusion of…

  6. Superintendent Communication Strategies and Experiences That Promote Trust and Positive Relationships with the School Board during the Entry Period: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jimenez, Alfonso

    2012-01-01

    Superintendents have vast demands placed upon them by their school boards and via the political pipeline. The purpose of the study was to identify strategies/behaviors that successful superintendents used to build strong relationships and trust with their school boards within their entry period. It is during the entry period that determines…

  7. Gingival proliferative lesions in children and adolescents in Brazil: A 15-year-period cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    daSilva, Fabiana Caroline; Piazzetta, Cleto Mariosvaldo; Torres-Pereira, Cassius Carvalho; Schussel, Juliana Lucena; Amenábar, José Miguel

    2016-01-01

    Background: Studies assessing the prevalence of oral lesions in children and adolescents, particularly in gingiva are scarce in the literature. The aim of the study was to describe the distribution of gingival proliferative lesions based on clinical and histopathological diagnoses in children and adolescents. Materials and Methods: A review of clinical charts of children and adolescents aged between 0 and 18 years old, admitted to the Oral Medicine Outpatient Unit, of Universidade Federal do Paraná, for 15 years (1994–2009) was performed. Results: Six hundred and sixty-nine out of 5,129 patients treated during this period were aged between 0 and 18 years old, and 45 of these had gingival lesions. The largest number of lesions was observed between 11 and 16 years old. The majority of the patients were referred by Curitiba's public health system. Pyogenic granuloma was the most frequent lesion (19 = 42.2%), followed by peripheral giant cell lesion (11 = 24.4%), gingival fibromatosis (10 = 22.2%), and peripheral ossifying fibroma (5 = 11.1%). Conclusion: Gingival proliferative lesions can show similar clinical characteristics. Appropriate clinical and histopathological diagnoses are necessary to guide the healthcare professional to establish the adequate treatment and to estimate the risk of recurrence. PMID:27041840

  8. Psychological Analysis of Oral Cancer Patients during Pre-operative Period in South Indian Population: A Prospective, Quantitative, Multicentre Study

    PubMed Central

    Kamatchinathan, Prabhusankar; Muthuraman, Varun; Antharaju, Yuvaraj; Kumar, Mahendra; Varadharajan, Usha

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Oral cancer is prevalent worldwide with high incidence of mortality and morbidity. It is associated with poor prognosis and low survival rate. Moreover, patients affected are more likely to develop psychological issues and thus, addressing psychological needs of such patients is crucial. Aim The aim of our study was to assess the quality of life of oral cancer patients in the pre-operative period, thereby providing them with the necessary psychological support. Materials and Methods A total of 206 patients, scheduled to undergo treatment for oral cancer were selected from various cancer centres in South India. After informed consent, 171 patients were finally analysed for their quality of life using Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-General (FACT-G) version 4; and Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy Head and Neck (FACT-H&N), as a Quality of Life (QOL) survey. Result Most of the patients had poor quality of life and were found to be emotionally distressed pre-operatively as they did not have proper emotional support from society. Conclusion From the study it was observed that catering to the psychological needs of oral cancer patients is important and psychological counselling should be a part of a comprehensive treatment plan for such patients. PMID:27891463

  9. N plus 3 Advanced Concept Studies for Supersonic Commercial Transport Aircraft Entering Service in the 2030-2035 Period

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Welge, H. Robert; Bonet, John; Magee, Todd; Tompkins, Daniel; Britt, Terry R.; Nelson, Chet; Miller, Gregory; Stenson, Douglas; Staubach, J. Brent; Bala, Naushir; Duge, Robert; OBrien, Mark; Cedoz, Robert; Barlow, Andrew; Martins, Steve; Viars, Phil; Rasheed, Adam; Kirby, Michelle; Raczynski, Chris; Roughen, Kevin; Doyle, Steven; Alston, Katherine; Page, Juliet; Plotkin, Kenneth J.

    2011-01-01

    Boeing, with Pratt & Whitney, General Electric, Rolls-Royce, M4 Engineering, Wyle Laboratories and Georgia Institute of Technology, conducted a study of supersonic commercial aircraft concepts and enabling technologies for the year 2030-2035 timeframe. The work defined the market and environmental/regulatory conditions that could evolve by the 2030/35 time period, from which vehicle performance goals were derived. Relevant vehicle concepts and technologies are identified that are anticipated to meet these performance and environmental goals. A series of multidisciplinary analyses trade studies considering vehicle sizing, mission performance and environmental conformity determined the appropriate concepts. Combinations of enabling technologies and the required technology performance levels needed to meet the desired goals were identified. Several high priority technologies are described in detail, including roadmaps with risk assessments that outline objectives, key technology challenges, detailed tasks and schedules and demonstrations that need to be performed. A representative configuration is provided for reference purposes, along with associated performance estimates based on these key technologies.

  10. Label-free IgG/anti-IgG biosensing based on long period fiber gratings: a comprehensive feasibility study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiavaioli, F.; Trono, C.; Giannetti, A.; Tombelli, S.; Biswas, P.; Bandyopadhyay, S.; Jana, S.; Bera, S.; Mallick, A.; Baldini, F.

    2015-03-01

    Long period fiber gratings (LPGs) have recently been proposed as label-free biosensors. A biochemical interaction occurring along the grating region can be evaluated as a refractive index (RI) change, which modifies the transmission spectrum of the fiber. This is an emergent, alternative choice with respect to other label-free optical systems, such as surface plasmon resonance, interferometric and in-fiber configurations, and resonating structures. In this work, various types of not-coated LPGs, in which the coupling occurs with increasing cladding mode orders, were manufactured for increasing the RI sensitivity of these sensors. After the functionalization of the fiber surface using Eudragit L100 copolymer, a label-free IgG/anti-IgG bioassay was realized for analyzing the antigen/antibody interaction following the same model assay. A comprehensive feasibility study was carried out among the different LPGs in order to assess and compare the biosensor performance, highlighting the advantages and the disadvantages of each type. Experimental results proved an improvement in the RI sensitivity and in the biosensor performance in the case of high-order cladding mode LPGs, with values of detection limit lower than 50 ng mL-1 (330 pM). The performance enhancement can be explained with the increase in the penetration depth of the evanescent field due to the increase of the cladding mode order. The sensor response was also studied using complex matrices made up of human serum.

  11. The Sequential Binge, a New Therapeutic Approach for Binge Eating: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Neveu, Rémi; Neveu, Dorine; Barbalat, Guillaume; Schmidt, Ulrike

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives A sizeable proportion of patients experiencing binge eating do not respond to cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT). We present the sequential binge (SB), a new behavioral intervention that complements CBT, and preliminary results of its effects. SB breaks up the binge into repeated identical sequences of eating separated by incremental pauses. This pattern of ingestion aims at facilitating boredom toward the ingested foods and at turning cognitive control away from binge food restriction. SB is hypothesized to reduce food intake during the binge and the number of daily binges. Methods Prospective pilot study. Fifteen binging patients with previous unsuccessful intensive CBT were given SB as an adjunct to their treatment and were followed up for 16 weeks from admission. All patients were reassessed 47 weeks on average after discharge. Results SB was associated with a 44% relative reduction in the planned food intake (p<0.001), a longer consecutive binge refractory period compared to regular binges (median: 48 hours versus 4 hours, p = 0.002) and an average relative reduction by 26% of binge number the day after each SB (p = 0.004). 47% of patients reached binge abstinence for four consecutive weeks 16 weeks after the first SB. Conclusion This case series shows promising evidence for the use of SB in patients with refractory binge eating. Further evaluation in a prospective randomized controlled trial would be justified. PMID:27832121

  12. Study of Fe/Cr Magnetic Multilayers and Periodic Arrays of Submicron Magnetic Dots by Vector Network Analyzer Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aliev, Farkhad; Francisco Sierra, Juan; Awad, Ahmad; Pryadun, Vladimir; Kakazei, Gleb

    2008-03-01

    Vector network analyzer (VNA) technique up to 8.5 GHz was applied to measure in-plane dynamic response in Fe/Cr magnetic multilayers and for the in-plane magnetized periodic arrays of Permalloy circular magnetic dots. In the antiferromagnetically coupled [Fe/Cr]n multilayers (n=10,20,40) we have investigated field dependence of the acoustic resonance in a wide range of temperatures between 300K down to 2K both for the low magnetic fields and close to the saturation field. FMR studies of the array of FeNi dots with diameter of 1 micron, the aspect ratio L/R=0.1 and with centre to centre distance varying between 1.2 to 2.5 micron allowed to resolve multiple FMR resonances as a function of magnetic field. We have found the main FMR linewidth to be dependent on the magnetic history. For the magnetic fields below 300 Oe, where magnetic vortex state forms, we have observed the field dependence of the radial modes (fr > 6GHz) to show minima close to the zero magnetic field.

  13. [Tenth anniversary of smallpox eradication: Results of epidemiological and virological surveillance and studies in the post-eradication period].

    PubMed

    Marennikova, S S

    1989-06-01

    In accordance with recommendations of the Global Commission on the certification of smallpox eradication for the 10-year period after the eradication of this infection, all suspected cases of smallpox have been thoroughly checked up, and in none of them the diagnosis of smallpox has been confirmed. The study of monkeypox in humans has revealed that this zoonosis is spread over a wider area than supposed earlier and covers 7 countries of Equatorial Africa, occurring most frequently in Zaire. In about 70% of cases of monkeypox in human the disease is contracted from animals serving as natural virus carriers and in about one-third of such cases, from humans having monkeypox. The infectivity of humans with monkeypox for persons having close contacts with them is somewhat lower (12.3%) than in smallpox when this characteristic varies from 37% to 88%. Monkeypox in humans may take an asymptomatic course. Some species of tropical squirrels serve as natural virus carriers. These investigations have also resulted in essential corrections being made in understanding the ecology of cowpox virus, another orthopoxvirus pathogenic for man. At least 5 species of rodents have proved to be of interest as natural carriers of cowpox virus.

  14. Kinetics studies of the reactions of main fourth-period monocations (Ga+, Ge+, As+, and Se+) with methyl fluoride.

    PubMed

    Barrientos, Carmen; Rayón, Víctor Manuel; Largo, Antonio; Sordo, José Ángel; Redondo, Pilar

    2013-08-22

    Thermodynamics and kinetics theoretical studies on the gas-phase reactions of fluoromethane with main fourth-period monocations (Ga(+), Ge(+), As(+), and Se(+)) have been carried out. Density functional theory (in particular mPW1K functional) was employed in the description of the potential energy surfaces, and refinement of the energies were done at the CCSD(T) level. The reaction rate constants were estimated using variational/conventional microcanonical transition state theory. From a thermodynamic viewpoint, the fluorine abstraction product is predicted for Ga(+) and Ge(+), whereas for As(+) and Se(+) the elimination product, MCH2(+) (M = As, Se) + HF, is the preferred one. Nevertheless, the most favorable channel for the reactions of CH3F with Ga(+) and Se(+) cations present a net activation barrier. In the case of Ga(+), the reaction proceeds via an addition channel forming the adduct complex, CH3FGa(+), whereas for Se(+) no reaction is found, in agreement with the experiments. The predicted reaction rate constants are in reasonable good agreement with the experimental values available. Apart from the harpoon-like mechanism, our results suggest that an oxidative addition mechanism seems to play a relevant role.

  15. A periodic DFT study of adsorption of water on sodium-montmorillonite (001) basal and (010) edge surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Chenliang; Min, Fanfei; Liu, Lingyun; Chen, Jun

    2016-11-01

    Water molecules can be easily adsorbed on the surface or in the interlayer space of clay minerals. This process is named hydration which plays an important role in various application fields. In order to find how water interacted with surface through minimizing the interaction among multiple waters, the adsorptions of single water molecule on external surfaces of sodium-montmorillonite (Na-MMT), including (001) basal and (010) edge surface, were theoretically investigated based on periodic density functional theory (DFT) method. The adsorption energies and geometries as well as electronic properties were studied in the work. It was found that water molecule was adsorbed on Na-MMT (001) basal surface mainly through electrostatic interaction between water molecule and Na+ cation, and was adsorbed on (010) edge surface through hydrogen bonding between water and surface sbnd OH or sbnd OH2 groups. The adsorption energy Eads value of water molecule on (010) edge surface was larger than that on (001) basal surface. After adsorption, a part of electron density was transferred from both Na-MMT (001) and (010) surfaces to water molecule. Based on the PDOS, there was the bonding between Na 3s and Ow 2p orbitals on (001) basal surface and between H 1s and O 2p orbitals for hydrogen bonds on (010) edge surface.

  16. Household Costs of Healthcare during Pregnancy, Delivery, and the Postpartum Period: A Case Study from Matlab, Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Sabina, Nazme; Blum, Lauren S.; Hoque, Mohammad Enamul; Ronsmans, Carine

    2006-01-01

    A household survey was undertaken in Matlab, a rural area of Bangladesh, to estimate the costs incurred during pregnancy, delivery, and the postpartum period for women delivering at home and in a health facility. Those interviewed included 121 women who delivered at home, 120 who delivered in an ICDDR,B basic obstetric care (BEOC) facility, 27 who delivered in a public comprehensive obstetric care (CEOC) hospital, and 58 who delivered in private hospitals. There was no significant difference in total costs incurred by those delivering at home and those delivering in a BEOC facility. Costs for those delivering in CEOC facilities were over nine times greater than for those delivering in BEOC facilities. Costs of care during delivery were predominant. Antenatal and postnatal care added between 7% and 30% to the total cost. Services were more equitable at home and in a BEOC facility compared to services provided at CEOC facilities. The study highlights the regressive nature of the financing of CEOC services and the need for a financing strategy that covers both the costs of referral and BEOC care for those in need. PMID:17591341

  17. Effects of a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor escitalopram on the cutaneous silent period: a randomized controlled study in healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Pujia, Francesco; Serrao, Mariano; Brienza, Marianna; Vestrini, Elisa; Valente, Gabriele Oreste; Coppola, Gianluca; Pierelli, Francesco

    2014-04-30

    The cutaneous silent period (CSP) involves a transient inhibition of the electromyographic (EMG) activity in the hand muscles induced by a painful electrical stimulation of the digital nerves. The neurotransmitters potentially involved in mediating the CSP have not been completely elucidated thus far. However, few studies suggest that the monoaminergic system may play a role in the CSP. We elicited CSPs in the first dorsal interosseous muscle of the right hand before and 3h after administration of a single oral dose of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor escitalopram (20mg) or placebo. The two experimental sessions (drug and placebo) were performed in a random order at ≥1-week intervals. All recordings were numbered anonymously and analysed offline in a blind manner by one investigator. A significant increase in the CSP duration was observed 3h after escitalopram administration (p=0.01), and no changes were observed in the reflex latency and subjective pain sensation (p>0.05). No significant changes were observed in the CSP duration in subjects who received the placebo (all, p>0.05). Our results indicate that escitalopram increases the central disposition of serotonin and increases the activity of the spinal inhibitory interneurons on the α-motoneurons of the hand muscles. Thus, our results indicate the involvement of the monoaminergic system in controlling the spinal pain mechanisms by supraspinal descending pathways originating from the brainstem neural structures.

  18. Combining the Fluctuating Charge Method, Non-Periodic Boundary Conditions and Meta-Dynamics: Aqua Ions as case studies

    PubMed Central

    Mancini, Giordano; Brancato, Giuseppe; Barone, Vincenzo

    2015-01-01

    We present the current status of development of our code for performing Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulations exploiting a polarizable force field based on the Fluctuating Charge (FQ) method and non-Periodic Boundary Conditions (NPBC). Continuing on the path set in a previous work, we increased the capabilities of the code by implementing a number of new features, including: a non-iterative algorithm for rigid trigonal molecule simulations; two additional temperature coupling schemes; a meta-dynamics based approach for effective free energy evaluations. Although these are well known algorithms, each present in one or more widely used MD packages, they have now been tested, for the first time, in the context of the FQ model coupled with NPBC. As case studies, we considered three aqueous ions of increasing charge, namely Na+, Ca2+ and La3+, at infinite dilution. In particular, by exploiting a computational approach recently proposed by our group and based on the metadynamics technique, we focused on the important role played by solvent polarization on ionic hydration structures, also investigating the free energy landscapes of ion coordination and the water exchange rates. Such an approach, previously tested with standard non-polarizable models, was applied here to evaluate the effects of explicit polarization on water exchange barriers between different solvent coordination structures. Moreover, we have analyzed and discussed in some detail non-linear electrostatic effects arising from solvent polarization while going from a mono- to a di- and trivalent ion. PMID:26543440

  19. The study of nonlinear almost periodic differential equations without recourse to the H-classes of these equations

    SciTech Connect

    Slyusarchuk, V. E. E-mail: V.Ye.Slyusarchuk@NUWM.rv.ua

    2014-06-01

    The well-known theorems of Favard and Amerio on the existence of almost periodic solutions to linear and nonlinear almost periodic differential equations depend to a large extent on the H-classes and the requirement that the bounded solutions of these equations be separated. The present paper provides different conditions for the existence of almost periodic solutions. These conditions, which do not depend on the H-classes of the equations, are formulated in terms of a special functional on the set of bounded solutions of the equations under consideration. This functional is used, in particular, to test whether solutions are separated. Bibliography: 24 titles. (paper)

  20. Clinical management of unruptured intracranial aneurysm in Germany: a nationwide observational study over a 5-year period (2005–2009)

    PubMed Central

    Walendy, Victor; Stang, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Our aim was to provide nationwide age-standardised rates (ASR) on the usage of endovascular coiling and neurosurgical clipping for unruptured intracranial aneurysm (UIA) treatment in Germany. Setting Nationwide observational study using the Diagnosis-Related-Groups (DRG) statistics for the years 2005–2009 (overall 83 million hospitalisations). Participants From 2005 to 2009, overall 39 155 hospitalisations with a diagnosis of UIA occurred in Germany. Primary outcome measures Age-specific and age-standardised hospitalisation rates for UIA with the midyear population of Germany in 2007 as the standard. Results Of the 10 221 hospitalisations with UIA during the observation period, 6098 (59.7%) and 4123 (40.3%) included coiling and clipping, respectively. Overall hospitalisation rates for UIA increased by 39.5% (95% CI 24.7% to 56.0%) and 50.4% (95% CI 39.6% to 62.1%) among men and women, respectively. In 2005, the ASR per 100 000 person years for coiling was 0.7 (95% CI 0.62 to 0.78) for men and 1.7 (95% CI 1.58 to 1.82) for women. In 2009, the ASR was 1.0 (95% CI 0.90 to 1.10) and 2.4 (95% CI 2.24 to 2.56), respectively. Similarly, the ASR for clipping in 2005 amounted to 0.6 (95% CI 0.52 to 0.68) for men and 1.1 (95% CI 1.00 to 1.20) for women. These rates increased in 2009 to 0.8 (95% CI 0.72 to 0.88) and 1.7 (95% CI 1.58 to 1.82), respectively. We observed a marked geographical variation of ASR for coiling and less pronounced for clipping. For the federal state of Saarland, the ASR for coiling was 5.64 (95% CI 4.76 to 6.52) compared with 0.68 (95% CI 0.48 to 0.88; per 100 000 person years) in Saxony-Anhalt, whereas, ASR for clipping were highest in Rhineland-Palatinate (2.48, 95% CI 2.17 to 4.75) and lowest in Saxony-Anhalt (0.52, 95% CI 0.34 to 0.70). Conclusions To the best of our knowledge, we presented the first representative, nationwide analysis of the clinical management of UIA in Germany. The ASR increased markedly and showed

  1. Changes in background aerosol composition in Finland during polluted and clean periods studied by TEM/EDX individual particle analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niemi, J. V.; Saarikoski, S.; Tervahattu, H.; Mäkelä, T.; Hillamo, R.; Vehkamäki, H.; Sogacheva, L.; Kulmala, M.

    2006-07-01

    Aerosol samples were collected at a rural background site in southern Finland in May 2004. The elemental composition, morphology and mixing state of individual aerosol particles in three size fractions were studied using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) coupled with energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) microanalyses. The TEM/EDX results were complemented with the size-segregated bulk chemical measurements of selected ions and organic and elemental carbon. Many of the particles in PM0.2-1 and PM1-3.3 size fractions were strongly internally mixed with S, C and/or N. The major particle types in all PM0.2-1 samples were ammonium sulphates with/without carbon and dark inclusion(s) (number proportion of particles 54-86%), carbon/sulphate mixture with dark inclusions(s) (4-10%), internally mixed soot/sulphate particles (2-22%), soot (0-12%) and K-rich particles with S and/or C (0-9%). During the pollution episode (PM1.6~18 μg m-3, the proportion of Ca-rich particles was very high (26-48%) in the PM1-3.3 and PM3.3-11 samples, while the PM0.2-1 and PM1-3.3 samples contained elevated proportions of silicates (22-33%, also fly ash particles), metal oxides/hydroxides (1-9%) and tar balls (1-4%). These aerosols originated mainly from polluted areas of Eastern Europe, and some open biomass burning smoke was also brought by long-range transport. During the clean period (PM1.6~2 μg m-3, when air masses arrived from the Arctic Ocean, PM1-3.3 samples contained mainly sea salt particles (67-89%) with a variable rate of Cl substitution (mainly by NO3-. During the intermediate period (PM1.6~5 μg m-3, the PM1-3.3 sample contained porous (sponge-like) Na-rich particles (35%) with abundant S, K and O. They might originate from the burning of wood pulp wastes of paper industry. The proportion of biological particles and C-rich fragments (probably also biological origin) were highest in the PM3.3-11 samples (0-81% and 0-22%, respectively). The origin of different particle types and the

  2. Non-perturbative study of impurity effects on the Kubo conductivity in macroscopic periodic and quasiperiodic lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez, Vicenta; Ramírez, Carlos; Sánchez, Fernando; Wang, Chumin

    2014-09-01

    In this paper, we analyze the effects of site and bond impurities on the electrical conductance of periodic and quasiperiodic systems with macroscopic length by means of a real-space renormalization plus a convolution method developed for the Kubo-Greenwood formula. All analyzed systems are connected to semi-infinite periodic leads. Analytical and numerical conductivity spectra are obtained for one and two site impurities in a periodic chain, where the separation between impurities determines the number of maximums in the spectra. We also found transparent states at the zero chemical potential in Fibonacci chains of every three generations with bond impurities, whose existence was confirmed by an analytical analysis within the Landauer formalism. For many impurities, the spectral average of the conductivity versus the system length reveals a power-law behavior, when the distance between impurities follows the Fibonacci sequence. Finally, we present an analysis of the conductance spectra of segmented periodic and Fibonacci chains and nanowires.

  3. A time period study on the efficiency of luminol in the detection of bloodstains concealed by paint on different surfaces.

    PubMed

    Nagesh, Deepthi; Ghosh, Shayani

    2017-02-11

    Forensic Science is the application of science to the criminal and civil laws that are enforced by police agencies in a criminal justice system. It is a science which relies on physical evidence; one of the important physical evidences being blood. The purpose of this research was to determine the efficacy of luminol reagent in detecting bloodstains on different surfaces, concealed by multiple layers of paint, over a period of time and also to compare the intensities of chemiluminescence exhibited by them. In this study, dry wall, wooden planks and metal surfaces were identified as commonly encountered surfaces at crime scenes and hence 25 of each surface were simulated and blood was spattered, which were then concealed by progressive layers of paint specific to each surface. Thereafter, each surface was critically observed for the intensity of chemiluminescence, following the application of luminol and the results were documented as photographs. The research was conducted for duration of 50 days, in order to study the effect of ageing of concealment upon detection of bloodstains using luminol. Varying intensities of chemiluminescence were displayed by all the three simulated surfaces deposited with paint over bloodstains up to three layers of concealment, depending on the nature of the surface which were captured using photography. The highest intensity of chemiluminescence was shown by concealed bloodstains on dry wall and metal surfaces, despite the number of layers of concealment. However, an increase in the number of layers of concealment produced a significant decrease in the intensity of chemiluminescenece displayed by the bloodstains concealed by paint upon reacting with luminol on metal sheets, which was not found to be uniform and consistent on the other surfaces. These findings highlight the fact that bloodstains concealed by paint could be effectively detected by luminol reagent, despite the nature and ageing of concealment and thereby provide a lead to

  4. Periodic variation of stress field in the Koyna-Warna reservoir triggered seismic zone inferred from focal mechanism studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, N. Purnachandra; Shashidhar, D.

    2016-06-01

    The Koyna-Warna region in western India is globally recognized as the premier site of reservoir triggered seismicity (RTS) associated with the Koyna and Warna reservoirs. The region is characterized by continuous seismic activity observed since several decades, including the world's largest triggered earthquake of M6.3 which occurred in Koyna in 1967. While the role of reservoirs in triggering earthquakes has been widely discussed, the actual tectonic mechanism controlling earthquake genesis in this region is hardly understood. The Koyna-Warna region is exclusively governed by earthquakes of strike-slip and normal fault mechanism distinct from the thrust faulting seen in other active zones in the Indian region. In the present study, a comprehensive catalog of 50 focal mechanism solutions of earthquakes that occurred during the last 45 years in the Koyna-Warna region is developed, both from previous literature and from moment tensor inversion studies by the authors using broadband data from a local seismic network operating since 2005. The seismicity and fault plane data have enabled precise delineation of trends of the major causative faults, which are further accentuated using the double-difference technique. Stress inversion of the focal mechanism data has provided the best fitting principal compressive and tensile stress field of the region, which in conjunction with the deciphered fault zones provides a feasible model of seismogenesis in this region. Based on the observed temporal variation of faulting mechanism a model of alternating cycles of predominantly strike-slip and normal faulting is proposed, which is attributed to a periodic peaking and relaxation respectively of the horizontal compressive stress field in this region due to the Indian plate collision with Eurasia.

  5. Trajectories of CKD-MBD biochemical parameters over a 2-year period following diagnosis of secondary hyperparathyroidism: a pharmacoepidemiological study

    PubMed Central

    Filipozzi, Pierre; Ayav, Carole; Ngueyon Sime, Willy; Laurain, Emmanuelle; Kessler, Michèle; Brunaud, Laurent; Frimat, Luc

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To define groups of patients according to the changes of biochemical parameters, that is, serum calcium, phosphate and parathyroid hormone (PTH), over a 2-year follow-up period using group-based multi-trajectory modeling (GBMM) among a cohort of dialysis patients with newly diagnosed secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT) (ie, PTH≥500 ng/L for the first time) and to compare their patient characteristics and treatments. Design Pharmacoepidemiological study. Setting In the 12 dialysis units located in the French region of Lorraine. Participants A total of 269 dialysis patients with newly diagnosed SHPT were prospectively included from December 2009 to May 2012 and followed-up for 2 years. Results We identified four distinct trajectory groups: ‘rapid PTH drop’ experiencing a rapid and sharp decrease (over weeks) in PTH level associated with decreasing phosphate level within normal range (n=34; 12.7%), ‘gradual PTH decrease’ experiencing a gradual and continuous decrease (over months) in PTH level and maintaining phosphate at a middle level throughout the study (n=98; 36.4%), ‘slow PTH decrease with high phosphate’ experiencing a slow decrease in PTH level associated with a relatively high phosphate level (n=105; 39.0%) and ‘uncontrolled SHPT’ with high levels of PTH and phosphate throughout the study (n=32; 11.9%). Patients in the ‘uncontrolled SHPT’ group were significantly (p<0.00001) younger than patients in other groups. Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) targets for PTH, phosphate and calcium were reached simultaneously for 14.9% of patients at baseline and 16.7% at the end of the study. Patients were given cinacalcet more frequently at months 3 and 6 in the ‘rapid PTH drop’ and at month 24 in the ‘uncontrolled SHPT’ groups. Conclusions Over 2 years following a new SHPT diagnosis, a younger age and a higher rate of alkaline phosphatase were associated to a continuous uncontrolled SHPT. Patients with the

  6. The influence of the rearing period on intramammary infections in Swiss dairy heifers: A cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Bludau, M J; Maeschli, A; Leiber, F; Klocke, P; Berezowski, J A; Bodmer, M; Vidondo, B

    2016-07-01

    Healthy replacement heifers are one of the foundations of a healthy dairy herd. Farm management and rearing systems in Switzerland provide a wide variety of factors that could potentially be associated with intramammary infections (IMI) in early lactating dairy heifers. In this study, IMI with minor mastitis pathogens such as coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS), contagious pathogens, and environmental major pathogens were identified. Fifty-four dairy farms were enrolled in the study. A questionnaire was used to collect herd level data on housing, management and welfare of young stock during farm visits and interviews with the farmers. Cow-level data such as breed, age at first calving, udder condition and swelling, and calving ease were also recorded. Data was also collected about young stock that spent a period of at least 3 months on an external rearing farm or on a seasonal alpine farm. At the quarter level, teat conditions such as teat lesions, teat dysfunction, presence of a papilloma and teat length were recorded. Within 24h after parturition, samples of colostral milk from 1564 quarters (391 heifers) were collected aseptically for bacterial culture. Positive bacteriological culture results were found in 49% of quarter samples. Potential risk factors for IMI were identified at the quarter, animal and herd level using multivariable and multilevel logistic regression analysis. At the herd level tie-stalls, and at cow-level the breed category "Brown cattle" were risk factors for IMI caused by contagious major pathogens such as Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus). At the quarter-level, teat swelling and teat lesions were highly associated with IMI caused by environmental major pathogens. At the herd level heifer rearing at external farms was associated with less IMI caused by major environmental pathogens. Keeping pregnant heifers in a separate group was negatively associated with IMI caused by CNS. The odds of IMI with coagulase-negative staphylococci increased

  7. Hymenolepis diminuta: experimental studies on the antioxidant system with short and long term infection periods in the rats.

    PubMed

    Skrzycki, Michał; Majewska, Monika; Podsiad, Małgorzata; Czeczot, Hanna; Salamatin, Rusłan; Twarowska, Joanna; Grytner-Zięcina, Barbara

    2011-10-01

    Many helminths cause long-lasting infections, living for several years in mammalian hosts reflecting a well balanced coexistence between host and parasite. There are many possible explanations as to how they can survive for lengthy periods. One possibility is their antioxidant systems, which can serve as defence mechanisms against host-generated oxygen radicals. Therefore, the aim of this experimental study was to examine the antioxidant system in Hymenolepisdiminuta during short (1.5 months young tapeworms) and long (1.5 years old tapeworms) term infection in the rat small intestine. The strobilae of H. diminuta tapeworms (14 young and three old) were divided into three pieces: the anterior part, containing the genital primordiae in the immature segments; the medial part, containing the early uterus in the mature, hermaphroditic proglottids and the terminal part with the mature gravid uterus in the gravid segments. Supernatants of these fragments were used for determination of markers of oxidative stress: concentration of thiobarbiturate reactive substances (TBARS) and of reduced glutathione (GSH), and the activity of antioxidant enzymes: superoxide dismutase (SOD1 and SOD2), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidases (GSHPxs), glutathione transferase (GST) and glutathione reductase (GSHR). The results indicated changes in levels of oxidative stress markers and antioxidant enzyme activity in both the young and old forms of H. diminuta. Relatively high activity of SOD (particularly in the anterior part of young tapeworms) was observed, as was increased activity of total GSHPx and a relatively high concentration of GSH in all parts of the tapeworms. These are caused by exposure to increased amount of ROS, which are produced during the inflammatory state. Due to the high activity of antioxidant enzymes, the anterior section of young and old tapeworms is equipped with a very effective antioxidant system. Old organisms also effectively resist oxidative stress due to

  8. Numerical study and topology optimization of 1D periodic bimaterial phononic crystal plates for bandgaps of low order Lamb waves.

    PubMed

    Hedayatrasa, Saeid; Abhary, Kazem; Uddin, Mohammad

    2015-03-01

    The optimum topology of bimaterial phononic crystal (PhCr) plates with one-dimensional (1D) periodicity to attain maximum relative bandgap width of low order Lamb waves is computationally investigated. The evolution of optimized topology with respect to filling fraction of constituents, alternatively stiff scattering inclusion, is explored. The underlying idea is to develop PhCr plate structures with high specific bandgap efficiency at particular filling fraction, or further with multiscale functionality through gradient of optimized PhCr unitcell all over the lattice array. Multiobjective genetic algorithm (GA) is employed in this research in conjunction with finite element method (FEM) for topology optimization of silicon-tungsten PhCr plate unitcells. A specialized FEM model is developed and verified for dispersion analysis of plate waves and calculation of modal response. Modal band structure of regular PhCr plate unitcells with centric scattering layer is studied as a function of aspect ratio and filling fraction. Topology optimization is then carried out for a few aspect ratios, with and without prescribed symmetry, over various filling fractions. The efficiency of obtained solutions is verified as compared to corresponding regular centric PhCr plate unitcells. Moreover, being inspired by the obtained optimum topologies, definite and easy to produce topologies are proposed with enhanced bandgap efficiency as compared to centric unitcells. Finally a few cases are introduced to evaluate the frequency response of finite PhCr plate structures produced by achieved topologies and also to confirm the reliability of calculated modal band structures. Cases made by consecutive unitcells of different filling fraction are examined in order to attest the bandgap efficiency and multiscale functionality of such graded PhCr plate structures.

  9. Transcriptomic analysis of the myometrium during peri-implantation period and luteolysis--the study on the pig model.

    PubMed

    Franczak, Anita; Wojciechowicz, Bartosz; Kolakowska, Justyna; Zglejc, Kamila; Kotwica, Genowefa

    2014-12-01

    In pigs, implantation begins with the attachment of embryos to the endometrium. As the process is regulated by the expression of numerous genes, endometrial transcriptomic profiles have been extensively studied in early gravid pigs. However, the myometrium, a secretory tissue, should not be neglected, as it can also participate in the regulation of implantation in early pregnant pigs. To clarify this issue, the transcriptomic profile of the porcine myometrium during the peri-implantation period (i.e. on days 15 to 16 of pregnancy) was compared with the profile observed during luteolysis (i.e. on days 15 to 16 of the oestrous cycle) with an Agilent's Porcine (V2) Two-Colour Gene Expression Microarray 4 × 44 (Agilent, USA). Analysis of the microarray data revealed that of 526 unique, accurately annotated genes, the expression of 271 unique genes was upregulated, while the expression of 255 genes was downregulated in pregnant versus cyclic myometrium. The in-depth data analysis revealed differential expression of genes encoding for factors involved in immunomodulation, tissue growth and differentiation, and prostaglandin and steroid biosynthesis and action. Moreover, the comparison of the obtained data on the myometrial transcriptome with our previously published results on the endometrial transcriptome allowed us to determine substantial differences in the regulatory function of both tissues. The new insights into the function of the myometrium of early pregnant pigs obtained here are in agreement with our previous results that suggest that this tissue plays an important role in providing optimal conditions for developing embryos. Therefore, the importance of the myometrium as an active embryo signal-responsive tissue during early pregnancy cannot be underestimated.

  10. A global study of type B quasi-periodic oscillation in black hole X-ray binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, H. Q.; Zhang, Liang; Chen, Yupeng; Zhang, Zhen; Chen, Li; Zhang, Shuang-Nan; Zhang, Shu; Ma, Xiang; Li, Zi-Jian; Bu, Qing-Cui; Qu, JinLu

    2017-04-01

    We performed a global study on the timing and spectral properties of type-B quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs) in the outbursts of black hole X-ray binaries. The sample is built based on the observations of Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE), via searching in the literature in RXTE era for all the identified type-B QPOs. To enlarge the sample, we also investigated some type-B QPOs that are reported but not yet fully identified. Regarding to the time lag and hard/soft flux ratio, we found that the sources with type-B QPOs behave in two subgroups. In one subgroup, type-B QPO shows a hard time lag that first decreases and then reverse into a soft time lag along with softening of the energy spectrum. In the other subgroup, type-B QPOs distribute only in a small region with hard time lag and relatively soft hardness. These findings may be understood with a diversity of the homogeneity showing up for the hot inner flow of different sources. We confirm the universality of a positive relation between the type-B QPO frequency and the hard component luminosity in different sources. We explain the results by considering that the type-B QPO photons are produced in the inner accretion flow around the central black hole, under a local Eddington limit. Using this relationship, we derived a mass estimation of 9.3-27.1 M⊙ for the black hole in H 1743-322.

  11. Origin of short-period signals following P-diffracted waves: A case study of the 1994 Bolivian deep earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tono, Yoko; Yomogida, Kiyoshi

    1997-10-01

    Seismograms of the June 9, 1994, Bolivian deep earthquake recorded at epicentral distances from 100° to 122° show a train of signals with predominant frequencies between 1 and 2 Hz after the arrivals of short-period diffracted P-waves (P diff). We investigate the origin of these signals following P diff by analyzing a total of 20 records from the IRIS broad-band network and the short-period network of New Zealand. The arrivals of late signals continue for over 100 s, that is two times longer than the estimated source duration of this event. Subsequent aftershocks, which cause the following signals, are not expected from the long-period records. These results indicate that the long continuation of short-period signals is not due to the source complexities. The signals following P diff have small incident angles, and their spectra show peaks at about the same frequencies. These characteristics of the following signals exclude the possibility that their origin is shallow structure such as the heterogeneities beneath the stations or upper mantle. P diff propagates a long distance within the heterogeneous region near the core-mantle boundary. We conclude that the short-period signals following the main P diff are scattered waves caused by small-scale heterogeneities near the core-mantle boundary.

  12. Control of oscillating glycolysis of yeast by stochastic, periodic, and steady source of substrate: a model and experimental study.

    PubMed Central

    Boiteux, A; Goldbeter, A; Hess, B

    1975-01-01

    Type and range of entrainment of glycolytic oscillations by a periodic source of substrate are determined experimentally in yeast extracts. Subharmonic entrainment proves the nonlinear nature of the glycolytic oscillator Random variation of the substrate input yields sustained oscillations of irregular waveform and stable period. The results agree with the predictions of an allosteric model for phosphofructokinase (EC 2.7.1.11; ATP:D-fructose-6-phosphate 1-phosphotransferase), which is the enzyme responsible for periodic operation of glycolysis. A comparison between model and experiment in the case of a constant source of substrate further indicates that the oscillatory dynamics of the glycolytic system can satisfactorily be described by the phosphofructokinase model. PMID:172886

  13. Multiwavelength study of RX J2015.6+3711: a magnetic cataclysmic variable with a 2-h spin period

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coti Zelati, F.; Rea, N.; Campana, S.; de Martino, D.; Papitto, A.; Safi-Harb, S.; Torres, D. F.

    2016-02-01

    The X-ray source RX J2015.6+3711 was discovered by ROSAT in 1996 and recently proposed to be a cataclysmic variable (CV). Here, we report on an XMM-Newton observation of RX J2015.6+3711 performed in 2014, where we detected a coherent X-ray modulation at a period of 7196 ± 11 s and discovered other significant (>6σ) small-amplitude periodicities which we interpret as the CV spin period and the sidebands of a possible ˜12-h periodicity, respectively. The 0.3-10 keV spectrum can be described by a power law (Γ = 1.15 ± 0.04) with a complex absorption pattern, a broad emission feature at 6.60 ± 0.01 keV, and an unabsorbed flux of (3.16 ± 0.05) × 10-12 erg cm-2 s-1. We observed a significant spectral variability along the spin phase, which can be ascribed mainly to changes in the density of a partial absorber and the power law normalization. Archival X-ray observations carried out by the Chandra satellite, and two simultaneous X-ray and UV/optical pointings with Swift, revealed a gradual fading of the source in the soft X-rays over the last 13 yr, and a rather stable X-ray-to-optical flux ratio (FX/FV ≈ 1.4-1.7). Based on all these properties, we identify this source with a magnetic CV, most probably of the intermediate polar type. The 2-h spin period makes RX J2015.6+3711, the second slowest rotator of the class, after RX J0524+4244 (`Paloma'; Pspin ˜ 2.3 h). Although we cannot unambiguously establish the true orbital period with these observations, RX J2015.6+3711 appears to be a key system in the evolution of magnetic CVs.

  14. Is the Predictability of New-Onset Postpartum Depression Better During Pregnancy or in the Early Postpartum Period? A Prospective Study in Croatian Women.

    PubMed

    Nakić Radoš, Sandra; Herman, Radoslav; Tadinac, Meri

    2016-01-01

    The researchers' aim was to examine whether it was better to predict new-onset postpartum depression (PPD) during pregnancy or immediately after childbirth. A prospective study conducted in Croatia followed women (N = 272) from the third trimester of pregnancy through the early postpartum period (within the first 3 postpartum days), to 6 weeks postpartum. Questionnaires on depression, anxiety, stress, coping, self-esteem, and social support were administered. Through regression analyses we showed that PPD symptoms could be equally predicted by variables from pregnancy (30.3%) and the early postpartum period (34.0%), with a small advantage of PPD prediction in the early postpartum period.

  15. Random-effects linear modeling and sample size tables for two special crossover designs of average bioequivalence studies: the four-period, two-sequence, two-formulation and six-period, three-sequence, three-formulation designs.

    PubMed

    Diaz, Francisco J; Berg, Michel J; Krebill, Ron; Welty, Timothy; Gidal, Barry E; Alloway, Rita; Privitera, Michael

    2013-12-01

    Due to concern and debate in the epilepsy medical community and to the current interest of the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in revising approaches to the approval of generic drugs, the FDA is currently supporting ongoing bioequivalence studies of antiepileptic drugs, the EQUIGEN studies. During the design of these crossover studies, the researchers could not find commercial or non-commercial statistical software that quickly allowed computation of sample sizes for their designs, particularly software implementing the FDA requirement of using random-effects linear models for the analyses of bioequivalence studies. This article presents tables for sample-size evaluations of average bioequivalence studies based on the two crossover designs used in the EQUIGEN studies: the four-period, two-sequence, two-formulation design, and the six-period, three-sequence, three-formulation design. Sample-size computations assume that random-effects linear models are used in bioequivalence analyses with crossover designs. Random-effects linear models have been traditionally viewed by many pharmacologists and clinical researchers as just mathematical devices to analyze repeated-measures data. In contrast, a modern view of these models attributes an important mathematical role in theoretical formulations in personalized medicine to them, because these models not only have parameters that represent average patients, but also have parameters that represent individual patients. Moreover, the notation and language of random-effects linear models have evolved over the years. Thus, another goal of this article is to provide a presentation of the statistical modeling of data from bioequivalence studies that highlights the modern view of these models, with special emphasis on power analyses and sample-size computations.

  16. Cultural Identities of Adolescent Immigrants: A Three-Year Longitudinal Study Including the Pre-Migration Period

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tartakovsky, Eugene

    2009-01-01

    This article investigates the cultural identities of adolescent immigrants in the pre-migration period and during the first 3 years after immigration. The target population consists of high-school Jewish adolescents from Russia and Ukraine participating in an Israeli immigration program. In this program, Jewish adolescents immigrate to Israel…

  17. Experimental study of angular and frequency spectra of laser pulse diffraction on a planar periodic nanostructure of gold V antennas

    SciTech Connect

    Balabas, M V; Efremova, E A; Ivanov, A Yu; Kantserov, A I; Krylov, I R; Pelyukhova, E B; Petrov, Yu V; Prokhorova, U V; Silaev, R V; Tretiak, O Yu; Shimko, A A

    2015-10-31

    Irradiation of a planar structure made of periodically spaced gold V antennas by a femtosecond pulsed laser has revealed several anomalously reflected and refracted waves, interpreted as diffraction maxima. Compression of the pulse spectrum in scattered light is observed. The degree of compression and wave polarisation are found to be determined by the scattering direction. (nanophotonics)

  18. SmartBAN with Periodic Monitoring Traffic: A Performance Study on Low-Delay and High Energy-Efficiency.

    PubMed

    Ruan, Lihua; Dias, M Pubuduni Imali; Wong, Elaine

    2016-12-20

    The Smart Body Area Network (SmartBAN) is a recently proposed system for wireless body area networks (WBANs). Compared to conventional WBANs, it is designed to support lower system complexity and ultra-low power consumption. In a SmartBAN, the sensors' access is scheduled upon receiving a beacon on the data channel at the beginning of each working cycle, termed inter-beacon interval (IBI). As network performance including delay and energy consumption is highly dependent on the length of IBI, we present, in this paper, an Optimal IBI frame for SmartBAN. Our focus is on the delivery of uplink periodically-generated sensor data with low delay and high energy-efficiency. As periodic traffic is a common traffic pattern widely generated in e-health applications, for which most previously proposed Markov models for WBANs are inapplicable, a closed-form analytical delay model for periodic SmartBAN transmission is derived. Exploiting this model, a time-optimized framework that minimizes average uplink delay is formulated. An adaptive inter-beacon interval (A-IBI) algorithm is then proposed to determine the Optimal IBI during the network connection between hub and sensors. Finally, sleep mode in sensors and doze mode in the hub are introduced to reduce energy consumption under the proposed framework. With Optimal IBI, the percentage of energy-savings and channel efficiency are evaluated. Simulation and theoretical results show that by using the proposed time-optimized framework, both delay and energy consumption of periodic traffic are significantly reduced. Comparisons with the IEEE 802.15.6 WBAN show performance improvements in periodic uplink delay and energy consumption with our proposed time-optimized framework for SmartBANs.

  19. The influence of periodized resistance training on recreationally active males with chronic nonspecific low back pain.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Joel K; Shepherd, Tyrell R; Kell, Robert T

    2011-01-01

    The most common musculoskeletal health issue is chronic nonspecific low back pain (CLBP). CLBP increases pain and disability, which reduces quality of life (QoL). Generally, pain, disability, and QoL are improved with a moderate volume and intensity of physical activity. Recently, periodized resistance training (PRT) was shown to be effective at improving CLBP in sedentary young, middle-age, and older adults. The purpose of this study was to determine if PRT would increase strength, reduce pain and disability, and improve QoL in recreationally active, moderately trained middle- and older-age males. Forty-five male subjects were divided according to age into 1 of 3 groups: (a) middle-age exercise (ME), (b) old-age exercise (OE), or (c) control (C). All subjects suffered from CLBP and were considered to be moderately trained, participating in recreational ice hockey for 60 minutes, 2 times per wk(-1) for ∼5 months/year along with other recreational activities. The study ran for 16 weeks (3-week familiarization and 13 weeks of testing and PRT) with 5 repetition maximum testing at baseline and weeks 8 and 12. The PRT program systematically and progressively overloaded all major muscle groups (whole-body workout). The results indicate that middle- and old-age recreationally active males with CLBP respond similarly in magnitude to PRT, with improvements in all outcome measures (strength, pain, disability, QoL) across all time points of the study. Clinical significance (≥ 25%) in outcome measures was reached on most variables for the ME and OE groups. The results suggest that PRT may be effectively applied as rehabilitation for moderately trained recreational athletes with CLBP.

  20. A VLT-ULTRACAM study of the fast optical quasi-periodic oscillations in the polar V834 Centauri

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mouchet, M.; Bonnet-Bidaud, J.-M.; Van Box Som, L.; Falize, E.; Buckley, D. A. H.; Breytenbach, H.; Ashley, R. P.; Marsh, T. R.; Dhillon, V. S.

    2017-03-01

    Quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs) of a few seconds have been detected in some polars, the synchronised subclass of cataclysmic systems containing a strongly magnetised white dwarf which accretes matter from a red dwarf companion. The QPOs are thought to be related to instabilities of a shock formed in the accretion column, close to the white dwarf photosphere above the impact region. We present optical observations of the polar V834 Centauri performed with the fast ULTRACAM camera mounted on the ESO-VLT simultaneously in three filters (u', He ii λ4686, r') to study these oscillations and characterise their properties along the orbit when the column is seen at different viewing angles. Fast Fourier transforms and wavelet analysis have been performed and the mean frequency, rms amplitude, and coherence of the QPOs are derived; a detailed inspection of individual pulses has also been performed. The observations confirm the probable ubiquity of the QPOs for this source at all epochs when the source is in a high state, with observed mean amplitude of 2.1% (r'), 1.5% (He ii), and 0.6% (u'). The QPOs are present in the r' filter at all phases of the orbital cycle, with a higher relative amplitude around the maximum of the light curve. They are also detected in the He ii and u' filters but at a lower level. Trains of oscillations are clearly observed in the r' light curve and can be mimicked by a superposition of damped sinusoids with various parameters. The QPO energy distribution is comparable to that of the cyclotron flux, consistent for the r' and He ii filters but requiring a significant dilution in the u' filter. New 1D hydrodynamical simulations of shock instabilities, adapted to the physical parameters of V834 Cen, can account for the optical QPO amplitude and X-ray upper limit assuming a cross section of the accretion column in the range (4 - 5) × 1014 cm2. However, the predicted frequency is larger than the observed one by an order of magnitude. This

  1. The PRCI study: design of a randomized clinical trial to evaluate a coping intervention for medical waiting periods used by women undergoing a fertility treatment

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Many medical situations necessitate a stressful period of waiting for potentially threatening test results. The medical waiting period is often associated with negative anticipatory anxiety and rumination about the outcome of treatment. Few evidence-based self-help coping interventions are available to assist individuals manage these periods. Theory and research suggest that positive reappraisal coping strategies may be particularly useful for this type of unpredictable and uncontrollable stressful context. The objective of this study is to investigate the effects of a Positive Reappraisal Coping Intervention (PRCI) on psychological well-being of women waiting for the outcome of their fertility treatment cycle. Methods/Design In a three-armed randomized controlled trial, the effectiveness of the PRCI will be tested. Consecutive patients undergoing in vitro fertilisation in a Dutch university hospital and meeting selection criteria will be invited to participate. Those who agree will be randomized to one of three experimental groups (N=372). The PRCI Intervention group will receive the intervention that comprises an explanatory leaflet and the 10 statements designed to promote positive reappraisal coping, to be read at least once in the morning, once in the evening. To capture the general impact of PRCI on psychological wellbeing patients will complete questionnaires before the waiting period (pre-intervention), on day ten of the 14-day waiting period (intervention) and six weeks after the start of the waiting period (post-intervention). To capture the specific effects of the PRCI during the waiting period, patients will also be asked to monitor daily their emotions and reactions during the 14-day waiting period. The primary outcome is general anxiety, measured by the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Secondary outcomes are positive and negative emotions during the waiting period, depression, quality of life, coping and treatment outcome. During

  2. Full-wave model and numerical study of electromagnetic plane wave scattering by multilayered, fiber-based periodic composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, C. Y.; Lesselier, D.; Zhong, Y.

    2015-07-01

    The present work aims at building up a full-wave computational model of electromagnetic nondestructive testing of composite materials produced by stacking up dielectric slabs one over the other. In each such dielectric slab, a periodic array of infinite cylindrical fibers is embedded. Electromagnetic scattering of such a multilayered, fiber-based periodic composite is investigated here for an obliquely incident plane wave, the plane of incidence of which differs from the plane orthogonal to the fibers' axes. Full-wave field representations are given first by multipole and plane wave expansions. Mode matching at boundaries between layers then yields the propagating matrices, which are applied to connect reflection and transmission coefficients of the longitudinal field components. Power reflection and transmission coefficients are obtained from time-averaged Poynting vectors. Numerical experiments with comparisons with known results illustrate the accuracy of the model proposed.

  3. The period effect in the prevalence of proliferative diabetic retinopathy, gross proteinuria, and peripheral neuropathy in type 1 diabetes: A longitudinal cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Horak, Kayla; Lee, Kristine E.; Klein, Barbara E. K.; Klein, Ronald

    2017-01-01

    Aims To investigate whether, for a specific duration of type 1 diabetes, there is a significant change in the prevalence of proliferative diabetic retinopathy, gross proteinuria and peripheral neuropathy in those more recently diagnosed with diabetes (a period effect), in the Wisconsin Epidemiologic Study of Diabetic Retinopathy. Where present, to determine how common risk factors for diabetic complications might be associated with it, and what might be driving it. Materials and methods Longitudinal cohort study with seven examination phases between 1980 and 2014. Multivariate logistic regression models and ordinal parameterization were used to test for and evaluate any period effect. Results There is a period effect in the prevalence of gross proteinuria and peripheral neuropathy (decreasing), as seen with proliferative diabetic retinopathy (p < 0.001). Adjusting for changing levels of common risk factors attenuates the period effect, particularly for proliferative diabetic retinopathy. For gross proteinuria and peripheral neuropathy, however there is a persistent period effect in spite of adjusting for the major risk factors. Conclusions There are period effects in the prevalence of proliferative diabetic retinopathy, gross proteinuria and peripheral neuropathy that cannot be fully explained by changes in common risk factors for complications of type 1 diabetes in this cohort. The role of other potential confounders warrants further exploration. PMID:28362881

  4. A Numerical Study of the Effect of Periodic Nutrient Supply on Pathways of Carbon in a Coastal Upwelling Regime

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carr, Mary-Elena

    1998-01-01

    A size-based ecosystem model was modified to include periodic upwelling events and used to evaluate the effect of episodic nutrient supply on the standing stock, carbon uptake, and carbon flow into mesozooplankton grazing and sinking flux in a coastal upwelling regime. Two ecosystem configurations were compared: a single food chain made up of net phytoplankton and mesozooplankton (one autotroph and one heterotroph, A1H1), and three interconnected food chains plus bacteria (three autotrophs and four heterotrophs, A3H4). The carbon pathways in the A1H1 simulations were under stronger physical control than those of the A3H4 runs, where the small size classes are not affected by frequent upwelling events. In the more complex food web simulations, the microbial pathway determines the total carbon uptake and grazing rates, and regenerated nitrogen accounts for more than half of the total primary production for periods of 20 days or longer between events. By contrast, new production, export of carbon through sinking and mesozooplankton grazing are more important in the A1H1 simulations. In the A3H4 simulations, the turnover time scale of the autotroph biomass increases as the period between upwelling events increases, because of the larger contribution of slow-growing net phytoplankton. The upwelling period was characterized for three upwelling sites from the alongshore wind speed measured by the NASA Scatterometer (NSCAT) and the corresponding model output compared with literature data. This validation exercise for three upwelling sites and a downstream embayment suggests that standing stock, carbon uptake and size fractionation were best supported by the A3H4 simulations, while the simulated sinking fluxes are not distinguishable in the two configurations.

  5. Weak interactions in Graphane/BN systems under static electric fields—A periodic ab-initio study

    SciTech Connect

    Steinkasserer, Lukas Eugen Marsoner; Gaston, Nicola; Paulus, Beate

    2015-04-21

    Ab-initio calculations via periodic Hartree-Fock (HF) and local second-order Møller-Plesset perturbation theory (LMP2) are used to investigate the adsorption properties of combined Graphane/boron nitride systems and their response to static electric fields. It is shown how the latter can be used to alter both structural as well as electronic properties of these systems.

  6. The First 90 Days of the New Middle School Principal in a Turnaround School: In-Depth Case Study of the Transition Period (First 90 Days)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baeza, Marco A.

    2010-01-01

    This study analyzed skills, strategies, and theories that new middle school principals used to be successful during their transition period (the first 90 days) in turnaround schools. Based on research on transitions, three research questions guided the study: 1. Do middle school principals in a turnaround school situation find the transition…

  7. A Study of Eighth Grade Students from a South Texas Middle School Who Participated in 30-Minute Required Reading Periods of Self-Selected Books.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez, Cecilia; Lira, Juan R.

    A study focused on 41 eighth-grade students from a south Texas middle school who read self-selected books for 30-minute periods 5 times weekly from October 1996 to May 1997 to determine if increased reading time and book self-selection would improve their reading achievement. The study also sought to determine the students' attitudes towards…

  8. Study of Periodic Forcing with a Dielectric Barrier Discharge Device for the Control of Flow Separation on a NACA 0012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dygert, Joseph P.

    The continued high global demand for passenger and freight air traffic as well as increased use of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), in spite of rising fuel costs and several tragic cases involving loss-of-control events, has resulted in researchers examining alternative technologies, which would result in safer, more reliable, and superior performing aircraft. Aerodynamic flow control may be the most promising approach to this problem having already proven its ability to enable higher flow efficiency while also simultaneously improving overall flow control. Recent research in the area of aerodynamic control is transitioning from traditional mechanical flow control devices such as slats and flaps to plasma actuators. Plasma actuators offer an inexpensive and energy efficient method of flow control. In addition, plasma actuator technology has the potential of application to a host of other aircraft performance parameters including applications in radar mitigation and in situ wing deicing. Dielectric Barrier Discharge (DBD), one of the most widely studied forms of plasma actuation, employs an electrohydrodynamic (EHD) device, which uses dominant electric fields and the respective electrically related body forces for actuation. Unlike momentum jets or other traditional flow control methods used on wings and tail surfaces, a DBD device operates without moving components or injecting any mass into the flow stream. Work performed focuses on qualitatively investigating experimentally the use of DBD devices for flow separation control on a NACA 0012-based 2D wing model. Flow visualization techniques illuminated flow seed particles around the model to determine the state of the flow (i.e., attached or separated) for various actuator cases. The DBD was operated in a steady-on mode as well as for three different pulsing frequencies (only for low power testing) based on the Strouhal frequency for each flight condition and compared to the clean (i.e., plasma off) case. Some of

  9. Soviet Assessments of the Theater Balance of Forces: A Case Study of the Beginning Period of War

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-12-01

    the thr•ee time pe-iods stucip.,. P - tnp becirrirr of the 195?- 16 196E tigme period. it was a- ouet tPat it is both ’oossible aria ces-reain-. t7...3.2 Preliminary Preoaratior, s,- the Be rr Pe-’i,, of . ih ect P -e arear ions for the Becir, rirc Peri-, : -c .. . . . .. t. 3.4 Irnte.I igence...Distriout ,- o.-: Scurce t’aý;er. .. T~ A , R: Th)ree Sovyet lma- p . c:f ’ trwcl ver *-’f Beg.rfnirn Perlccs o 1

  10. Molecular recognition and processing of periodic signals in cells: study of activation of membrane ATPases by alternating electric fields.

    PubMed

    Tsong, T Y

    1992-03-26

    A molecule which is immobilized, oriented or tumbling more slowly than the frequency of a periodic field, may interact with the field to produce chemical effects that are uncommon in a homogeneous solution. Among these effects are the alteration of the rate of a chemical reaction and the exchange of energy between the oscillating field and the conformation of the molecule. When certain conditions are satisfied, this exchange allows the molecule to absorb and couple the energy of the field to drive an endergonic reaction. The efficiency of energy coupling depends on field strength and frequency and on the ligand concentration. There are windows of these parameters to achieve efficient coupling. These windows can be expressed in terms of the rate constants and equilibrium constants of the catalytic reactions, and the amplitude and frequency of the periodic field. This mechanism allows cells to receive, process and transmit energy of high and medium level periodic potentials by means of membrane enzymes or receptors. A theory for the transduction of electric energy, electroconformational coupling (ECC) will be discussed. The electric field induced cation pumping activities of Na,K-ATPase and Ca-ATPase of human erythrocytes and the ATP synthetic activity of beef heart mitochondrial ATPase will then be used to test an ECC membrane transport model. For the processing of low level periodic signals, a theory of an oscillatory activation barrier (OAB), which considers resonance transduction between an oscillating field and the activation barrier of the rate limiting step in an enzymic reaction, will be discussed. The OAB mechanism successfully interprets the AC stimulated ATP hydrolysis activity of Ecto-ATPase from chicken oviduct and F0F1-ATPase from beef heart. We propose that mechanisms similar to an OAB model are adopted by cells to sense weak electric, acoustic, mechanical, concentration (i.e., chemical potential) and other types of signals, and to communicate with

  11. Dynamical Study of the Galactic Influence on the A(orig) Distribution of the Long Period Comets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brunini, A.

    1990-11-01

    RESUMEN. Analizamos el efecto de la Galaxia como un todo, en la fronte- ra exterior de la nube de Oort de cometas, asi como la influencia de las estrellas vecinas en la distribucion observada de semi ejes mayores originales de los cometas de largo periodo. ABSTRACT. By means of a very simple formulation, in a Sun-centered reference frame, we analyze the effect of the Galaxy as a whole, on the exterior bound of the Oort cloud of comets, as well as the influence of the neighbour stars in the observed distribution of original semimajor axis of long period comets. Kaq wo : COMETS

  12. A comparative study of cloud condensation nuclei measured between non-heating and heating periods at a suburb site of Qingdao in the North China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Kai; Zhu, Yujiao; Gao, Huiwang; Yao, Xiaohong

    2015-07-01

    In this paper, we studied concentrations of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) and CCN activity measured at a suburb site of Qingdao in the North China during a non-heating period from 19 May to 3 June 2013 and a heating period from 6 November to 6 December 2013. Concentrations of CCN during the non-heating period were 3.1 ± 1.9 (mean ± standard deviation), 4.9 ± 3.4, 5.6 ± 3.9, 6.1 ± 4.3 and 6.5 ± 4.6 in unit of ×103 cm-3 at supersaturation (SS) of 0.2%, 0.4%, 0.6%, 0.8% and 1.0%, respectively. The corresponding CCN activities of atmospheric particles were 0.28 ± 0.17, 0.43 ± 0.24, 0.48 ± 0.26, 0.52 ± 0.27 and 0.54 ± 0.28, respectively. Concentrations of CCN during the heating period were 3.1 ± 1.3, 6.4 ± 2.3, 8.5 ± 2.9, 9.6 ± 3.5 and 10 ± 3.9 in unit of ×103 cm-3 at SS of 0.2%, 0.4%, 0.6%, 0.8% and 1.0%, respectively. The corresponding CCN activities were 0.11 ± 0.06, 0.24 ± 0.11, 0.31 ± 0.14, 0.35 ± 0.15 and 0.37 ± 0.15, respectively. At SS ≥ 0.4%, concentrations of CCN were significantly larger during the heating period than during the non-heating period with 95% confidence because of larger particle number concentrations associated. However, CCN activities were significantly lower during the heating period than during the non-heating period at each SS. The lower CCN activities during the heating period were analyzed in terms of origins, median mobility diameter and possible chemical composition of atmospheric particles. However, when new particle formation events during the heating and the non-heating periods were considered alone, CCN activities of grown new particles at the same size range sometimes appeared to be constant regardless of the heating or non-heating periods.

  13. A system for generating long streamflow records for study of floods of long return period: Phase 2

    SciTech Connect

    Franz, D.D.; Kraeger, B.A.; Linsley, R.K.

    1989-02-01

    Knowledge of the return periods of large floods is required to make risk analyses for nuclear power plants subject to flooding from rivers. The system reported here combined the stochastic simulation of hourly rainfall data and daily pan evaporation data with the deterministic simulation of streamflow by using the synthetic rainfall and evaporation data as input to a calibrated rainfall runoff model. The sequence of annual maximum flood peaks from a synthetic record of 10,000 years or more was then analyzed to obtain estimates of flood frequency. The reasonableness of the flood frequency results must be evaluated on the degree of mimicry of the key characteristics of the observed rainfall data and the ability of the rainfall-runoff model to mimic the observed flood frequency during the calibration period. On this basis, the flood frequency results appeared to be a reasonable extrapolation of the data used in defining the model parameters. There is a need to develop regional parameters for the stochastic models and to conduct research on the relationship between the stochastic structure of rainfall and stochastic structure of flood frequency. The methodology is applicable, assuming a highly skilled analyst, to watersheds similar to those already tested.

  14. Ozone interaction with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and soot in atmospheric processes: theoretical density functional study by molecular and periodic methodologies.

    PubMed

    Maranzana, Andrea; Serra, Giovanni; Giordana, Anna; Tonachini, Glauco; Barco, Gianluca; Causà, Mauro

    2005-12-08

    The ozonization mechanism for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and soot is investigated by quantum mechanical calculations carried out on molecular and periodic systems. PAHs, interesting per se, serve also to model the local features of the graphenic soot platelets, for which another model is provided by a periodic representation of one graphenic layer. A concerted addition leads to a primary ozonide, while a nonconcerted attack produces a trioxyl diradical (in which one of the two unpaired electrons is pi-delocalized). Easy loss of (i) (1)O(2) or (ii) (3)O(2) from either intermediate, with spin conservation, would yield stable (i) singlet or (ii) triplet pi-delocalized species which carry an epoxide group. The trioxyl diradical pathway is estimated to be preferred, in these systems. An intersystem crossing, taking place in the trioxyl diradicals, can be invoked to allow the even easier loss of a ground-state oxygen molecule with the formation of a ground-state epoxide in a more exoergic and less demanding step. We propose that soot ozonization can take place by such a process, with ultimate functionalization of the graphenic platelets by epoxide groups.

  15. Advanced Concept Studies for Supersonic Commercial Transports Entering Service in the 2018-2020 Period Phase 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgenstern, John; Buonanno, Michael; Yao, Jixian; Murugappan, Mugam; Paliath, Umesh; Cheung, Lawrence; Malcevic, Ivan; Ramakrishnan, Kishore; Pastouchenko, Nikolai; Wood, Trevor; Martens, Steve; Viars, Phil; Tersmette, Trevor; Lee, Jason; Simmons, Ron; Plybon, David; Alonso, Juan; Palacios, Francisco; Lukaczyk, Trent; Carrier, Gerald

    2015-01-01

    Lockheed Martin Aeronautics Company (LM), working in conjunction with General Electric Global Research (GE GR) and Stanford University, executed a 19 month program responsive to the NASA sponsored "N+2 Supersonic Validation: Advanced Concept Studies for Supersonic Commercial Transports Entering Service in the 2018-2020 Period" contract. The key technical objective of this effort was to validate integrated airframe and propulsion technologies and design methodologies necessary to realize a supersonic vehicle capable of meeting the N+2 environmental and performance goals. The N+2 program is aligned with NASA's Supersonic Project and is focused on providing system level solutions capable of overcoming the efficiency, environmental, and performance barriers to practical supersonic flight. The N+2 environmental and performance goals are outlined in the technical paper, AIAA-2014-2138 (Ref. 1) along with the validated N+2 Phase 2 results. Our Phase 2 efforts built upon our Phase 1 studies (Ref. 2) and successfully demonstrated the ability to design and test realistic configurations capable of shaped sonic booms over the width of the sonic boom carpet. Developing a shaped boom configuration capable of meeting the N+2 shaped boom targets is a key goal for the N+2 program. During the LM Phase 1 effort, LM successfully designed and tested a shaped boom trijet configuration (1021) capable of achieving 85 PLdB under track (forward and aft shock) and up to 28 deg off-track at Mach 1.6. In Phase 2 we developed a refined configuration (1044-2) that extended the under 85 PLdB sonic boom level over the entire carpet of 52 deg off-track at a cruise Mach number of 1.7. Further, the loudness level of the configuration throughout operational conditions calculates to an average of 79 PLdB. These calculations rely on propagation employing Burger's (sBOOM) rounding methodology, and there are indications that the configuration average loudness would actually be 75 PLdB. We also added

  16. Do changes in subjective sleep and biological rhythms predict worsening in postpartum depressive symptoms? A prospective study across the perinatal period.

    PubMed

    Krawczak, Elizabeth M; Minuzzi, Luciano; Hidalgo, Maria Paz; Frey, Benicio N

    2016-08-01

    Abnormalities of sleep and biological rhythms have been widely implicated in the pathophysiology of major depressive disorder (MDD) and bipolar disorder (BD). However, less is known about the influence of biological rhythm disruptions across the perinatal period on postpartum depression (PPD). The objective of this study was to prospectively evaluate the relationship between subjective changes in both sleep and biological rhythms and worsening of depressive symptoms from pregnancy to the postpartum period in women with and without mood disorders. Eighty-three participants (38 euthymic women with a history of a mood disorder and 45 healthy controls) were studied. Participants completed subjective assessments of sleep (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index), biological rhythm disturbances (Biological Rhythms Interview of Assessment in Neuropsychiatry), and depressive symptoms (Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale) prospectively at two time points: third trimester of pregnancy and at 6-12 weeks postpartum. Multivariate regression analyses showed that changes in biological rhythms across the perinatal period predicted worsening of depressive symptoms in both groups. Moreover, women with a history of a mood disorder showed higher levels of sleep and biological rhythm disruption during both pregnancy and the postpartum period. These findings suggest that disruptions in biological rhythms during the perinatal period increase the risk for postpartum mood worsening in healthy pregnant as well as in pregnant women with a history of mood disorders.

  17. Experimental study of a compact P-band coaxial relativistic backward wave oscillator with three periods slow wave structure

    SciTech Connect

    Gao Liang; Qian Baoliang; Ge Xingjun; Zhang Xiaoping; Jin Zhenxing

    2012-08-15

    A compact P-band coaxial relativistic backward wave oscillator with three periods slow wave structure was investigated experimentally. The experimental results show that the frequency of the P-band coaxial relativistic backward wave oscillator is 897 MHz and the microwave power is 1.47 GW with an efficiency of about 32% in the case in which the diode voltage is 572 kV, the beam current is 8.0 kA, and the guide magnetic field is about 0.86 T. In addition, the device can generate a 3.14 GW microwave radiation as the guide magnetic field increases to 1.2 T at the diode voltage of 997 kV and the beam current of 15.3 kA. The experimental results are in good agreement with those obtained earlier by numerical simulations.

  18. [Scanning electron microscopic study of so-called carvable composite filling materials after over one-year functional period].

    PubMed

    Triadan, H

    1979-03-01

    28 class-5 and 16 class-1 fillings were made from the composite material "Epoxydent" on a macaca speciosa monkey and examined with the electron microscope after a 15 months functional period. Statistically significant differences in the size of the marginal space were found to be larger than in comparable composites Adaptic, Concise, Compo-Cap and Cosmic. The spaces were frequently not located on the filling margin but inside, within the filling material. This is attributed to the "carving" technique during the gel phase of setting. The surface shows abrasions and porosities with loss of particles, sometimes fractures and discolored margins with secondary caries. It is not recommended to replace metal fillings by so-called carvable composits.

  19. [The significance of drawing on experience of experimental study on Chinese materia medica during the Republican period].

    PubMed

    Li, Nan; Wan, Fang

    2015-05-01

    During the period of the Republic of China, researches of experiments on Chinese materia medica developed extensively with the scientific process of Chinese medicine. Although the technology standard was relatively low and the reference value, limited. The experiences, positive or negative, obtained at that time still has reference significance to today's Chinese medicine scientific research. The notion that traditional Chinese medical and scientific research be conducted under the guidance of TCM theory; valuable experience contained in the ancient literature of traditional Chinese medicine be collected; and the transformation capacity of scientific research be elevated, has been accepted by modern TCM professionals. If you go back to the history, it can be seen that this notion was summarized through repeated practice during the critical moment of traditional Chinese medicine, which should be emphasized and its understanding deepened at any time.

  20. The interannual variability of trace gases in the stratosphere: A comparative study of the LIMS and UARS measurement periods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gray, L. J.; Ruth, S.

    1992-04-01

    The inter-annual variability of trace gases in the equatorial lower stratosphere is examined in order to explore the usefulness of comparisons between measurements from LIMS and the UARS satellite instruments. The quasi biennial oscillation (QBO) is simulated in a two dimensional model by relaxing the modelled equatorial winds towards observed values. It is shown that during the LIMS data period the QBO was in the opposite phase to that expected during the first winter of the UARS measurements. The model predicts that LIMS measurements of ozone, NO2, and HNO3 may have been up to 30% less than the long-term average in the equatorial lower stratosphere while the first few months of UARS measurements may observe abundances up to 30% more than the long-term average. The importance of taking this variability into account and the desirability of several complete cycles of the QBO in the derivation of climatological values is noted.

  1. Analytical study of seismic effects of a solar receiver mounted on concrete towers with different fundamental periods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Lin

    2016-05-01

    This paper examines the seismic effects experienced by a solar receiver mounted on concrete towers with different fundamental periods. Ten concrete towers are modeled with the empty solar receiver structure and loaded solar receiver structure to examine the tower seismic effects on the solar receiver. The fundamental periods of the towers range from 0.22 seconds to 4.58 seconds, with heights ranging from 40.5 meters to 200 meters. Thirty earthquake ground motion records are used to investigate the responses of each of the combined receiver-on-tower models as well as the receiver-on-ground models by the STAAD Pro software using time history analyses. The earthquake ground motion records are chosen based on the ratio of the peak ground acceleration to the peak ground velocity, ranging from 0.29 g/m/s to 4.88 g/m/s. For each of the combined models, the base shear at the interface between the receiver and the concrete tower is compared with the base shear of the receiver-on-ground model, and the ratio of the two base shears represents the structure amplification factor. It is found that the peak mean plus one standard deviation value of the structure amplification factor matches well with equation 13.3-1 in ASCE 7-10 for the empty solar receiver structure. However, when the solar receiver structure is loaded with dead loads, the peak value is greatly suppressed, and using equation 13.3-1 in ASCE 7-10 will be overly conservative.

  2. Chemical interaction of water molecules with framework Al in acid zeolites: a periodic ab initio study on H-clinoptilolite.

    PubMed

    Valdiviés-Cruz, Karell; Lam, Anabel; Zicovich-Wilson, Claudio M

    2015-09-28

    Periodic quantum-chemistry methods as implemented in the CRYSTAL14 code were considered to analyse the interaction of acid clinoptilolite with water. Initially adsorbed molecules hydrolyse the Al-O bonds, giving rise to defective dealuminated materials. A suitable and representative periodic model of the partially disordered hydrated H-zeolite is the primitive cell (18 T sites) of a decahydrated trialuminated structure of HEU topology. The water distribution inside the material cavities was initially investigated. The model considered for further dealumination was the most stable one from those generated through a combined force field Monte Carlo and ab initio optimization strategy. Optimizations and energy estimations were made at the hybrid DFT level of theory (PBE0 functional) with an atomic basis set of VDZP quality. The energetics of the different pathways involved in the dealumination process was addressed by considering the Gibbs free energy with thermal and zero-point corrections through phonon analysis. It arises that hydrated models exhibit protonated water clusters stabilized by different kinds of H-bonds. The first Al extraction is slightly more energetically favourable from T3 than T2 sites, but at the same time the latter is more probable owing to its larger Al population. However, concerning the second dealumination step, it is more favourable removing the Al atom from both remaining sites after a starting abstraction from T2 rather than T3. These facts determine that the most probable overall pathways go through a first Al removal from T2. The agreement with experimental results is discussed.

  3. The Business Education Index 1996. Index of Business Education Articles and Research Studies Compiled from a Selected List of Periodicals Published during the Year 1996. Volume 57.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noll, Cheryl L., Ed.; Graves, Pat R., Ed.

    This index, which was compiled from a selected list of 45 periodicals published in 1996, lists more than 2,000 business education articles and research studies. Articles are listed under the following subject categories and subcategories: basic business (accounting, consumer awareness, economics, entrepreneurship/small business, finance…

  4. Business Education Index, 2000: Index of Business Education Articles and Research Studies Compiled from a Selected List of Periodicals Published during the Year 2000. Volume 61.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noll, Cheryl L., Ed.; Graves, Pat R., Ed.

    This document (which is to be the last in its series) indexes business education articles and research studies compiled from a selected list of 38 periodicals published in 2000. Priority is given to journals essential to research and teaching across the broad business education spectrum. Articles are indexed by subject and author. The following…

  5. Business Education Index 1995. Index of Business Education Articles and Research Studies Compiled from a Selected List of Periodicals Published during the Year 1995.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noll, Cheryl L., Ed.; And Others

    This index lists more than 2,000 business education articles and research studies that were published during 1995 in a selected list of periodicals that have been deemed essential to research and teaching in the broad business education spectrum. Among the subject categories under which articles are indexed are the following: administration and…

  6. Business Education Index 1992. Volume 53. Index of Business Education Articles and Research Studies Compiled from a Selected List of Periodicals and Yearbooks Published during the Year 1992.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graves, Pat R., Ed.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    This index provides entries for business education articles and research studies compiled from a selected list of periodicals and yearbooks published during 1992. Priority is given to journals essential to research and teaching in the broad business education spectrum with emphasis on information systems (including business communications),…

  7. Periodic Solutions of Spatially Periodic Hamiltonian Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-07-10

    Theorem 0.2 generalizes Theorem 1.5 of Rabinowitz in [201. 3 Equation (0.1), under spatially periodic assumptions has been studied by several au...n x n symmetric matrix, H satisfying (HO), (H1) and (H2), and f = (0, fq) satisfying (fM), (fl) and (f2), Rabinowitz in [201 showed the existence of... Rabinowitz [17]. We consider a functional I : E x M ) R of class C’, where E is a Hilbert space and M is a compact manifold. Assuming that I satisfies a

  8. Bioengineering studies of periodic external compression as prophylaxis against deep vein thrombosis-part II: experimental studies on a stimulated leg.

    PubMed

    Olson, D A; Kamm, R D; Shapiro, A H

    1982-05-01

    In this companion paper to "Part I: Numerical Simulations, " we report in vitro experimental studies performed on a simple model leg consisting of a "vein" of thin-walled latex tubing surrounded by "tissue" of open-pore foam rubber. Three modes of periodic external compression, were investigated: i) uniform compression; (ii) graded compression, decreasing from ankle to knee; and (iii) sequential compression, progressing from ankle to knee. The modes are compared on the basis of three hemodynamic criteria: degree of vessel collapse, level of fluid velocity, and level of shear stress. In uniform compression these measures of merit are distributed very nonuniformly along the length of the leg: they are high near the proximal end of the cuff but low elsewhere, a result due to the formation proximally of a partially occlusive throat. The latter does not form in either graded or sequential compression, with the consequence that favorable values of the three measures of merit occur more uniformly along the length of the pressurized region. It is concluded that either the graded or sequential mode of compression, or perhaps a combination of the two, would be more effective than uniform compression as a prophylaxis against deep vein thrombosis.

  9. A study of short-period RS Canum Venaticorum and W Ursae Majoris binary systems - The global nature of H-alpha

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barden, S. C.

    1985-08-01

    The author presents the rotation versus emission characteristics of the Hα line for several short-period (P ⪉ 1d) RS CVn and W UMa binary systems. Estimates for the chromospheric emission arising from each component star were obtained by subtraction of "nonactive" model spectra constructed from comparison stars. Enhanced Hα emission compared to the nonactive comparison stars is seen on all components of the short-period RS CVn systems studied, while a similar enhancement is only typically seen on the primary components of the W-type W UMa systems. A possible correlation between LHα/Lbol and the Rossby number (the ratio between the rotational period and the convective time scale) is seen for those components showing emission.

  10. Long-term studies with the Ariel-5 asm. 1: Her X-1, Vela X-1 and Cen X-3. [periodic variations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holt, S. S.; Kaluzienski, L. J.; Boldt, E. A.; Serlemitsos, P. J.

    1978-01-01

    Twelve hundred days of 3-6 keV X-ray data from Her X-1, Vela X-1 and Cen X-3 accumulated with the Ariel-5 all-sky monitor are interrogated. The binary periodicities of all three can be clearly observed, as can the approximately 35-d variation of Her X-1, for which we can refine the period to 34.875 plus or minus .030-d. No such longer-term periodicity less than 200-d is observed from Vela X-1. The 26.6-d low-state recurrence period for Cen X-3 previously suggested is not observed, but a 43.0-d candidate periodicity is found which may be consistent with the precession of an accretion disk in that system. The present results are illustrative of the long-term studies which can be performed on approximately 50 sources over a temporal base which will ultimately extend to at least 1800 days.

  11. Spectroscopic studies of three Cepheids with high positive pulsation period increments: SZ Cas, BY Cas, and RU Sct

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Usenko, I. A.; Klochkova, V. G.

    2015-07-01

    Three high-resolution spectra have been taken at different times with the 6-m SAO RAS telescope (LYNX and PFES spectrographs) for three Cepheids exhibiting high positive period increments: the small-amplitude (DCEPS) SZ Cas and BY Cas and the classical (DCEP) RU Sct. SZ Cas and RU Sct are members of the Galactic open clusters χ and h Per and Trump 35, respectively. Analysis of the spectra has shown that the interstellar Na I D1 and D2 lines in all objects are considerably stronger than the atmospheric ones and are redshifted in SZ Cas and BY Cas and blushifted in RU Sct. The core of the H α absorption line in BY Cas has an asymmetric knifelike shape, while RU Sct exhibits an intense emission in the blue wing of this line. Such phenomena are observed in long-period Cepheids and bright hypergiants with an extended envelope. In this case, the strong Mg Ib 5183.62 Å and Ba II 5853.67, 6141.713, and 6496.90 Å lines with low χlow in SZ Cas and RU Sct also show characteristic knifelike profiles with an asymmetry in the red region, while the Ba II 4934.095 Å line shows similar profiles in the blue one. The absorption lines of neutral atoms and singly ionized metals with different lowerlevel excitation potentials exhibit different degrees of asymmetry: from a pronounced one with secondary components in BY Cas (similar to those in the small-amplitude Cepheid BG Cru pulsating in the first overtone and having an envelope) to its insignificance or virtual absence in SZ Cas and RU Sct. Analysis of the secular changes in mean T eff determined from photometric color indices and spectra over the last 55 years for these stars has revealed periodic fluctuations of 200 K for SZ Cas and BY Cas and 500 K for RU Sct. For SZ Cas and RU Sct, T eff determined in some years from some color indices show much lower values, which together with the temperature fluctuations can be associated with mass loss and dust formation. Based on these facts, we hypothesize the existence of

  12. Ground-based spectropolarimetric studies of the outer planets and Titan. High resolutiom spectral imagery for periodic and new comets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, William Hayden

    1988-01-01

    Using novel spectropolarimeteric imaging techniques, researchers have studied the outer planets, Titan, and various comets. In the previous year, researchers submitted and have now in press or published fourteen papers on studies of comets and planets, as well as instrumentation developments to enhance observational studies.

  13. Professional Competence Development of the Social Work Specialists in the Period of Study in the System of Additional Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davletkaliev, Denis Kuanyshevich; Zueva, Natalia Konstantinovna; Lebedeva, Natalya Vasilevna; Mkrtumova, Irina Vladimirovna; Timofeeva, Olga

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this work is the study of psychological-pedagogical approaches to the understanding of the idea of professional competence of social work specialists as well as the role of study in the system of additional educations in professional-personal development of the listeners. In the process of study of this problem we define main…

  14. Lessons learned from the ATLAS performance studies of the Iberian Cloud for the first LHC running period

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez-Martínez, V.; Borges, G.; Borrego, C.; del Peso, J.; Delfino, M.; Gomes, J.; González de la Hoz, S.; Pacheco Pages, A.; Salt, J.; Sedov, A.; Villaplana, M.; Wolters, H.

    2014-06-01

    In this contribution we describe the performance of the Iberian (Spain and Portugal) ATLAS cloud during the first LHC running period (March 2010-January 2013) in the context of the GRID Computing and Data Distribution Model. The evolution of the resources for CPU, disk and tape in the Iberian Tier-1 and Tier-2s is summarized. The data distribution over all ATLAS destinations is shown, focusing on the number of files transferred and the size of the data. The status and distribution of simulation and analysis jobs within the cloud are discussed. The Distributed Analysis tools used to perform physics analysis are explained as well. Cloud performance in terms of the availability and reliability of its sites is discussed. The effect of the changes in the ATLAS Computing Model on the cloud is analyzed. Finally, the readiness of the Iberian Cloud towards the first Long Shutdown (LS1) is evaluated and an outline of the foreseen actions to take in the coming years is given. The shutdown will be a good opportunity to improve and evolve the ATLAS Distributed Computing system to prepare for the future challenges of the LHC operation.

  15. Periodic density functional theory study of structural and electronic properties of single-walled zinc oxide and carbon nanotubes

    SciTech Connect

    Marana, Naiara L.; Albuquerque, Anderson R.; La Porta, Felipe A.; Longo, Elson; Sambrano, Julio R.

    2016-05-15

    Periodic density functional theory calculations with the B3LYP hybrid functional and all-electron Gaussian basis set were performed to simulate the structural and electronic properties as well as the strain and formation energies of single-walled ZnO nanotubes (SWZnONTs) and Carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) with different chiralities as functions of their diameters. For all SWZnONTs, the band gap, strain energy, and formation energy converge to ~4.5 eV, 0.0 eV/atom, and 0.40 eV/atom, respectively. This result suggests that the nanotubes are formed more easily from the surface than from the bulk. For SWCNTs, the strain energy is always positive, while the formation energy is negative for armchair and zigzag nanotubes, therefore suggesting that these types of nanotubes can be preferentially formed from the bulk. The electronic properties of SWCNTs depend on the chirality; all armchair nanotubes are metallic, while zigzag and chiral nanotubes can be metallic or semiconducting, depending on the n and m vectors. - Graphical abstract: DFT/B3LYP were performed to simulate the structural and electronic properties as well as the strain and formation energies of SWZnONTs and SWCNTs with different chiralities as functions of their diameters. - Highlights: • The energies of SWZnONTs converge for chirality with diameters up 20 Å. • SWCNTs electronic properties depend on the chirality. • The properties of SWZnONTs are very similar to those of monolayer surface.

  16. The influence of Greenland melt water on climate during past and future warm periods: a model study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blaschek, Michael; Bakker, Pepijn; Renssen, Hans

    2013-04-01

    "Can past climates teach us something about the future?" Under this general question of interest to most palaeoclimate-modeller we specified it more to "Can past changes in the strength of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) related to melt water from the Greenland Ice Sheet (GIS) teach us something about future changes in the AMOC forced by predicted partial melting of the GIS?" To address this question, we developed a series of sensitivity experiments with the global atmosphere-ocean-sea-ice model LOVECLIM to better understand the relationship between the strength of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) and Greenland Ice Sheet (GIS) melt over the last and present interglacials (the Eemian and the Holocene, respectively) and put these into perspective of future greenhouse gas emission scenarios. In terms of radiative forcing, future emission scenarios are different from past orbitally-forced warm periods, as past insolation varied per season and per latitude, whereas radiative forcing due to future greenhouse gas emissions has no seasonal component (i.e. it is an annual forcing) and shows little variation per latitude. However, the two can be compared when we consider the radiative forcing regimes of the different considered warm climates, by focusing on the energy that is potentially available from radiative forcing to melt the GIS. In a similar approach, Swingedouw et al. (2009) have shown in simulations with an AOGCM that the AMOC sensitivity relates non-linear to freshwater input and that under Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) conditions the climate is more sensitive compared to warmer climates. They conclude that different climatic conditions share similar patterns in response and that past climates are useful for models to evaluate their abilities in reproducing past events. The authors encourage further model sensitivity testing to gain a better understanding of this highly important question. In order to test this approach we

  17. Identifying Factors Associated With Dropout During Prerandomization Run-in Period From an mHealth Physical Activity Education Study: The mPED Trial

    PubMed Central

    Gay, Caryl; Haskell, William; Arai, Shoshana; Vittinghoff, Eric

    2015-01-01

    Background The mobile phone-based physical activity education (mPED) trial is a randomized controlled trial (RCT) evaluating a mobile phone-delivered physical activity intervention for women. The study includes a run-in period to maximize the internal validity of the intervention trial, but little is known about factors related to successful run-in completion, and thus about potential threats to external validity. Objective Objectives of this study are (1) to determine the timing of dropout during the run-in period, reasons for dropout, optimum run-in duration, and relevant run-in components, and (2) to identify predictors of failure to complete the run-in period. Methods A total of 318 physically inactive women met preliminary eligibility criteria and were enrolled in the study between May 2011 and April 2014. A 3-week run-in period was required prior to randomization and included using a mobile phone app and wearing a pedometer. Cross-sectional analysis identified predictors of dropout. Results Out of 318 participants, 108 (34.0%) dropped out prior to randomization, with poor adherence using the study equipment being the most common reason. Median failure time was 17 days into the run-in period. In univariate analyses, nonrandomized participants were younger, had lower income, were less likely to drive regularly, were less likely to have used a pedometer prior to the study, were generally less healthy, had less self-efficacy for physical activity, and reported more depressive symptoms than randomized participants. In multivariate competing risks models, not driving regularly in the past month and not having used a pedometer prior to the study were significantly associated with failure to be randomized (P=.04 and .006, respectively), controlling for age, race/ethnicity, education, shift work, and use of a study-provided mobile phone. Conclusions Regular driving and past pedometer use were associated with reduced dropout during the prerandomization run-in period

  18. OBSERVATIONAL STUDY OF THE QUASI-PERIODIC FAST-PROPAGATING MAGNETOSONIC WAVES AND THE ASSOCIATED FLARE ON 2011 MAY 30

    SciTech Connect

    Shen Yuandeng; Liu Yu

    2012-07-01

    On 2011 May 30, quasi-periodic fast-propagating (QFP) magnetosonic waves accompanied by a C2.8 flare were directly imaged by the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly instrument on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory. The QFP waves successively emanated from the flare kernel, they propagated along a cluster of open coronal loops with a phase speed of {approx}834 km s{sup -1} during the flare's rising phase, and the multiple arc-shaped wave trains can be fitted with a series of concentric circles. We generate the k - {omega} diagram of the Fourier power and find a straight ridge that represents the dispersion relation of the waves. Along the ridge, we find a lot of prominent nodes which represent the available frequencies of the QFP waves. On the other hand, the frequencies of the flare are also obtained by analyzing the flare light curves using the wavelet technique. The results indicate that almost all the main frequencies of the flare are consistent with those of the QFP waves. This suggests that the flare and the QFP waves were possibly excited by a common physical origin. On the other hand, a few low frequencies (e.g., 2.5 mHz (400 s) and 0.7 mHz (1428 s)) revealed by the k - {omega} diagram cannot be found in the accompanying flare. We propose that these low frequencies were possibly due to the leakage of the pressure-driven p-mode oscillations from the photosphere into the low corona, which should be a noticeable mechanism for driving the QFP waves observed in the corona.

  19. Numerical study for characteristic change of Asian summer monsoon circulation and its influence mechanism during the El Nino period

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ni, Yunqi; Lin, Yuanbi

    1990-05-01

    In this paper, the relation between Asian summer monsoon circulation and sea surface temperature anomalies over equatorial central-eastern Pacific is investigated by using a global spectral model. This model has nine layers in the vertical and the model variables are represented in the horizontal as truncated expansions of the surface spherical harmonics with rhomboidal truncation at wave number 15. The model involves comparatively complete physical processes and parameterizations with mountains. Using the above model, two experimental schemes are designed, namely control case and anomalous sea surface temperature case. The above two schemes are respectively integrated for forty days and the simulated results are obtained from the last 30-day averaged simulations. The simulations show that positive SST anomalies over equatorial central-eastern Pacific weakens Indian monsoon circulation, decreases precipitation in Indian sub-continent whereas it intensifies East Asian monsoon circulation and increases precipitation in East Asian area. All these results reflect the characteristics of Asian summer monsoon during the El Nino period. In this paper, SST anomalies over equatorial central-eastern Pacific have a direct influence on the intensity and position of subtropical high via the wave train over Northern Hemisphere, which is similar to that suggested by Nitta(1987) and the wave train over Southern Hemisphere has an influence on the intensity of Mascarene high and Australia high resulting in affecting cross equatorial flow. As a result, atmospheric interior heat sources and sinks are redistributed because of the change of cross equatorial flow. And the response of atmosphere to the new heat source and sink has a significant influence on Asian summer monsoon.

  20. Multiple adsorption of NO on cobalt-exchanged chabazite, mordenite, and ferrierite zeolites: a periodic density functional theory study.

    PubMed

    Georgieva, Ivelina; Benco, Lubomir; Tunega, Daniel; Trendafilova, Natasha; Hafner, Jürgen; Lischka, Hans

    2009-08-07

    The adsorption of NO on Co(II)-exchanged chabazite (CHA), mordenite (MOR), and ferrierite (FER) has been investigated by periodic density functional theory calculations. The most stable configurations of Co(II) in alpha and beta sites of the zeolites with two framework Al/Si substitutions at short distances and Al-(Si)(n>1)-Al ordering are used for calculating the adsorption energy of NO molecules on Co(II) cations and at Al framework sites. The less stable configurations of alpha-Co(II)-MOR/FER show larger adsorption energies for one and two NO molecules. The bonding of one, two (and three) NO molecules to alpha/beta-Co(II) sites in CHA/MOR/FER induces a shortening of the N-O bond lengths because electron density is withdrawn from the antibonding orbital of the adsorbed NO molecule. The calculated nu(NO) stretching frequencies of mono- and dinitrosyl complexes at alpha/beta-Co(II)-MOR/FER are in good agreement with the experimental data. NO molecules adsorbed on alpha-Co(II)-MOR and on alpha-Co(II)-FER show similar NO stretching frequencies as nitrosyl complexes in Co(II)-MOR/-FER/-ZSM-5. Mononitrosyl complexes of alpha/beta-Co(II)-MOR/FER display nu(NO) frequencies blueshifted relative to the free NO, while in dinitrosyl complexes both the symmetric and asymmetric components are redshifted compared to the mononitrosyl frequency. The analysis of the vibrational spectra suggests that mononitrosyls are formed by adsorption at cation in both alpha and beta sites in MOR, FER, and ZSM-5, while dinitrosyl complexes exist only at alpha-type Lewis sites. This is important for the understanding of the reduction mechanism of NO to N(2). A larger adsorption capacity of alpha-Co(II)-FER compared to alpha-Co(II)-MOR is predicted.

  1. Multiple adsorption of NO on cobalt-exchanged chabazite, mordenite, and ferrierite zeolites: A periodic density functional theory study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Georgieva, Ivelina; Benco, Lubomir; Tunega, Daniel; Trendafilova, Natasha; Hafner, Jürgen; Lischka, Hans

    2009-08-01

    The adsorption of NO on Co(II)-exchanged chabazite (CHA), mordenite (MOR), and ferrierite (FER) has been investigated by periodic density functional theory calculations. The most stable configurations of Co(II) in α and β sites of the zeolites with two framework Al/Si substitutions at short distances and Al-(Si)n>1-Al ordering are used for calculating the adsorption energy of NO molecules on Co(II) cations and at Al framework sites. The less stable configurations of α-Co(II)-MOR/FER show larger adsorption energies for one and two NO molecules. The bonding of one, two (and three) NO molecules to α /β-Co(II) sites in CHA/MOR/FER induces a shortening of the N-O bond lengths because electron density is withdrawn from the antibonding orbital of the adsorbed NO molecule. The calculated ν(NO) stretching frequencies of mono- and dinitrosyl complexes at α /β-Co(II)-MOR/FER are in good agreement with the experimental data. NO molecules adsorbed on α-Co(II)-MOR and on α-Co(II)-FER show similar NO stretching frequencies as nitrosyl complexes in Co(II)-MOR/-FER/-ZSM-5. Mononitrosyl complexes of α /β-Co(II)-MOR/FER display ν(NO) frequencies blueshifted relative to the free NO, while in dinitrosyl complexes both the symmetric and asymmetric components are redshifted compared to the mononitrosyl frequency. The analysis of the vibrational spectra suggests that mononitrosyls are formed by adsorption at cation in both α and β sites in MOR, FER, and ZSM-5, while dinitrosyl complexes exist only at α-type Lewis sites. This is important for the understanding of the reduction mechanism of NO to N2. A larger adsorption capacity of α-Co(II)-FER compared to α-Co(II)-MOR is predicted.

  2. The study of baseline shift error in strong-motion and ground tilting during co-seismic period with collocated GPS and strong-motion observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tu, Rui; Zhang, Pengfei; Zhang, Rui; Liu, Jinhai; Lu, Xiaochun

    2017-01-01

    Strong-motion's baseline shift error is very difficult to process precisely; it is mainly caused by the tilting, rotation of the ground and environment noises during the co-seismic period. In the study, we first studied how to effectively extract the strong-motion's baseline shift error with GPS observation; this also provides a new way of correcting the baseline shift errors. Then we studied how to retrieve the ground tilting information of the station point with the collocated GPS and strong-motion observations, the information is an important input parameter of rotational seismology. In addition, both experimental result and seismic data show that the baseline shift error is mainly caused by the ground tiling and rotation during the co-seismic period. Also, there is a strong directly proportional relationship between the baseline shift error and ground tilting, of which the proportionality constant is approximately equal to the value of gravitational acceleration of the station.

  3. Social Studies Instructional Factors Causing Change in High School Students' Socio-political Attitudes over a Two-Year Period.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ehman, Lee H.

    The paper reports findings of a three year longitudinal study of high school student social and political attitudes. The hypothesis was that openness of social studies classroom climate would be related to change in social and political attitudes toward school and, to a lesser extent, to change in general social and political attitudes. Attitude…

  4. Experimental study on occupant's thermal responses under the non-uniform conditions in vehicle cabin during the heating period

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Wencan; Chen, Jiqing; Lan, Fengchong

    2014-03-01

    The existing investigations on thermal comfort mostly focus on the thermal environment conditions, especially of the air-flow field and the temperature distributions in vehicle cabin. Less attention appears to direct to the thermal comfort or thermal sensation of occupants, even to the relationship between thermal conditions and thermal sensation. In this paper, a series of experiments were designed and conducted for understanding the non-uniform conditions and the occupant's thermal responses in vehicle cabin during the heating period. To accurately assess the transient temperature distribution in cabin in common daily condition, the air temperature at a number of positions is measured in a full size vehicle cabin under natural winter environment in South China by using a discrete thermocouples network. The occupant body is divided into nine segments, the skin temperature at each segment and the occupant's local thermal sensation at the head, body, upper limb and lower limb are monitored continuously. The skin temperature is observed by using a discrete thermocouples network, and the local thermal sensation is evaluated by using a seven-point thermal comfort survey questionnaire proposed by American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Inc(ASHRAE) Standard. The relationship between the skin temperature and the thermal sensation is discussed and regressed by statistics method. The results show that the interior air temperature is highly non-uniform over the vehicle cabin. The locations where the occupants sit have a significant effect on the occupant's thermal responses, including the skin temperature and the thermal sensation. The skin temperature and thermal sensation are quite different between body segments due to the effect of non-uniform conditions, clothing resistance, and the human thermal regulating system. A quantitative relationship between the thermal sensation and the skin temperature at each body segment of occupant in

  5. Laser-Fusion Studies at NRL. A Report to AEC for the Period July 1973 to June 1974,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    This report summarizes work done at NRL on laser fusion related problems during FY 1974. Included are sections related to laser development , and to experimental and theoretical studies of laser plasma interaction.

  6. Laser-Fusion Studies at NRL. A Report to ERDA for the Period July 1974 to June 1975.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    This report summarizes work done at NRL on laser fusion related to problems during FY 1975. Included are sections related to laser development and to experimental studies of laser plasma interaction. (Author)

  7. A study on the main periodicities in interplanetary magnetic field Bz component and geomagnetic AE index during HILDCAA events using wavelet analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Souza, A. M.; Echer, E.; Bolzan, M. J. A.; Hajra, R.

    2016-11-01

    The interplanetary and geomagnetic characteristics of High-Intensity Long-Duration Continuous AE Activity (HILDCAA) events are studied using wavelet analysis technique. The Morlet wavelet transform was applied to the 1 min interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) Bz component and the geomagnetic AE index during HILDCAA events. We have analyzed the AE data for the events occurring between 1975 and 2011, and the IMF Bz data (both in GSE and GSM) for the events between 1995 and 2011. We analyzed the scalograms and the global wavelet spectrum of the parameters. For 50% of all HILDCAA events, the main periodicities of the AE index are generally between 4 and 12 h. For the Bz component, the main periodicities were found to be less than 8 h for 56% of times in GSM system and for 54% of times in GSE system. It is conjectured that the periodicities might be associated with the Alfvén waves which have typical periods between 1 and 10 h. The results are discussed in the light of self organized criticality theory where the physical events have the capacity of releasing a considerable amount of energy in a short interval of time.

  8. Development of an on-line source-tagged model for sulfate, nitrate and ammonium: A modeling study for highly polluted periods in Shanghai, China.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jian-Bin; Wang, Zifa; Wang, Qian; Li, Jie; Xu, Jianming; Chen, HuanSheng; Ge, Baozhu; Zhou, Guangqiang; Chang, Luyu

    2017-02-01

    An on-line source-tagged model coupled with an air quality model (Nested Air Quality Prediction Model System, NAQPMS) was applied to estimate source contributions of primary and secondary sulfate, nitrate and ammonium (SNA) during a representative winter period in Shanghai. This source-tagged model system could simultaneously track spatial and temporal sources of SNA, which were apportioned to their respective primary precursors in a simulation run. The results indicate that in the study period, local emissions in Shanghai accounted for over 20% of SNA contributions and that Jiangsu and Shandong were the two major non-local sources. In particular, non-local emissions had higher contributions during recorded pollution periods. This suggests that the transportation of pollutants plays a key role in air pollution in Shanghai. The temporal contributions show that the emissions from the "current day" (emission contribution from the current day during which the model was simulating) contributed 60%-70% of the sulfate and ammonium concentrations but only 10%-20% of the nitrate concentration, while the previous days' contributions increased during the recorded pollution periods. Emissions that were released within three days contributed over 85% averagely for SNA in January 2013. To evaluate the source-tagged model system, the results were compared by sensitivity analysis (emission perturbation of -30%) and backward trajectory analysis. The consistency of the comparison results indicated that the source-tagged model system can track sources of SNA with reasonable accuracy.

  9. The secular trend in the incidence of hemorrhagic stroke in the region of Osijek, Eastern Croatia in the period 1988-2000--a hospital based study.

    PubMed

    Kadojić, D; Barac, B; Trkanjec, Z; Kadojić, M

    2002-12-01

    The purpose of the study was to establish the possible environmental influences in the observed peculiar rising and falling oscillations in the numbers of hemorrhagic stroke (HS) in Eastern Croatia (region of Osijek) during the last thirteen-years' period (1988-2000). In this period 1,222 HS were registered and treated. A constant increase in the incidence of HS was observed, from 60 (in 1988) to 139 (in 1998), with an average annual proportion of 16.5% of all stroke cases. A sharp increase in proportion of HS in total stroke incidence was recorded during the war in Croatia (1991-1995), with a peak incidence of 27.4% in 1993. Typical hypertensive intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) was the most common (57.1%), atypical ICH occurred in 26.4%, subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) in 16.5%. Analysis of the annual number of hypertensive-ICH and SAH disclosed peculiar rising and falling oscillations. These variations were in correlation with heavy living conditions. During the war-period the SAH incidence sharply rose. Immediately after the war it suddenly decreased. The authors named this phenomenon a "pool depletion", supposing the relatively stable proportion of the bearers of aneurysms in population. The observed variations seem to be the consequence of the war stress and other negative psychosocial and economic factors in post-war period, which increases the risk for SAH and typical hypertensive-ICH through complex pathophysiological mechanisms.

  10. Dysport and Botox at a ratio of 2.5:1 units in cervical dystonia: a double-blind, randomized study.

    PubMed

    Yun, Ji Young; Kim, Jae Woo; Kim, Hee-Tae; Chung, Sun Ju; Kim, Jong-Min; Cho, Jin Whan; Lee, Jee-Young; Lee, Ha Neul; You, Sooyeoun; Oh, Eungseok; Jeong, Heejeong; Kim, Young Eun; Kim, Han-Joon; Lee, Won Yong; Jeon, Beom S

    2015-02-01

    We aimed to compare Dysport (abobotulinumtoxinA, Ipsen Biopharm, Slough, UK) and Botox (onabotulinumtoxinA, Allergan, Irvine, CA, USA) at a 2.5:1 ratio in the treatment of cervical dystonia (CD). A Dysport/Botox ratio of lower than 3:1 was suggested as a more appropriate conversion ratio, considering its higher efficacy and more frequent incidence of adverse effects not only in the treatment of CD but also in other focal movement disorders. A randomized, double-blind, multicenter, non-inferiority, two-period crossover study was done in CD, with a duration of at least 18 months. Patients were randomly assigned to treatment for the first period with Dysport or Botox, and they were followed up for 16 weeks after the injection. After a 4-week washout period, they were switched to the other formulation and then followed up for 16 weeks. The primary outcome was the changes in the Tsui scale between the baseline value and that at 1 month after each injection. A total of 103 patients were enrolled, and 94 completed the study. Mean changes in the Tsui scale between baseline and 4 weeks after each injection tended to favor Botox; however, this was not statistically significant (4.0 ± 3.9 points for the Dysport treatment vs. 4.8 ± 4.1 points for Botox; 95% confidence interval, -0.1-1.7; P = 0.091). The mean change of the Toronto western spasmodic torticollis rating scale score, the proportion of improvement in clinical global impression and patient global impression, and the incidences of adverse events were not significantly different between the two treatments. With regard to safety and efficacy, Dysport was not inferior to Botox in patients with CD at a conversion factor of 2.5:1. [clinicaltrial.gov: NCT00950664

  11. Study to identify future cryogen payload elements/users for space shuttle launch during period 1990 to 2000

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elim, Frank M.

    1989-01-01

    This study provides a summary of future cryogenic space payload users, their currently projected needs and reported planning for space operations over the next decade. At present, few users with payloads consisting of reactive cryogens, or any cryogen in significant quantities, are contemplating the use of the Space Shuttle. Some members of the cryogenic payload community indicated an interest in flying their future planned payloads on the orbiter, versus an expendable launch vehicle (ELV), but are awaiting the outcome of a Rockwell study to define what orbiter mods and payloads requirements are needed to safely fly chemically reactive cryogen payloads, and the resultant cost, schedule, and operational impacts. Should NASA management decide in early 1990 to so modify orbiter(s), based on the Rockwell study and/or changes in national defense payloads launch requirements, then at least some cryo payload customers will reportedly plan on using the Shuttle orbiter vehicle in preference to an ELV. This study concludes that the most potential for possible future cryogenic space payloads for the Space Transportation System Orbiter fleet lies within the scientific research and defense communities.

  12. GT-MHR COMMERCIALIZATION STUDY TECHNICAL PROGRESS AND COST MANAGEMENT REPORT FOR THE PERIOD NOVEMBER 1 THROUGH NOVEMBER 30, 2003

    SciTech Connect

    SHENOY,AS

    2003-12-01

    OAK-B135 A copy of the original Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) between the US and the US for the HFR-EU2 (formally MHR-1) fuel irradiation test was sent to DOE-HQ. The startup of the HFR-EU2 test will likely be delayed until September 2004 depending on completion and check out of the fission gas sweep loop. The initial core nuclear design study using advanced fuel was completed for a Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR). This study assessed the nuclear effects of replacing the silicon carbide layer of the TRISO particle with a zirconium carbide layer (TRIZO particle). The study determined that zirconium behaves like a non-burnable poison and to achieve fuel cycle lengths equivalent to those with TRISO fuel, the fixed burnable poison would have to be adjusted. The core nuclear design study is documented in report General Atomics report number PC-000514. A test plan was completed that describes a series of screening tests to provide the technical basis for selecting and qualifying an advanced coated-particle fuel for the VHTR. The test plan is documented in General Atomics report number PC-000510.

  13. Evolution of periodicity in periodical cicadas.

    PubMed

    Ito, Hiromu; Kakishima, Satoshi; Uehara, Takashi; Morita, Satoru; Koyama, Takuya; Sota, Teiji; Cooley, John R; Yoshimura, Jin

    2015-09-14

    Periodical cicadas (Magicicada spp.) in the USA are famous for their unique prime-numbered life cycles of 13 and 17 years and their nearly perfectly synchronized mass emergences. Because almost all known species of cicada are non-periodical, periodicity is assumed to be a derived state. A leading hypothesis for the evolution of periodicity in Magicicada implicates the decline in average temperature during glacial periods. During the evolution of periodicity, the determinant of maturation in ancestral cicadas is hypothesized to have switched from size dependence to time (period) dependence. The selection for the prime-numbered cycles should have taken place only after the fixation of periodicity. Here, we build an individual-based model of cicadas under conditions of climatic cooling to explore the fixation of periodicity. In our model, under cold environments, extremely long juvenile stages lead to extremely low adult densities, limiting mating opportunities and favouring the evolution of synchronized emergence. Our results indicate that these changes, which were triggered by glacial cooling, could have led to the fixation of periodicity in the non-periodical ancestors.

  14. Evolution of periodicity in periodical cicadas

    PubMed Central

    Ito, Hiromu; Kakishima, Satoshi; Uehara, Takashi; Morita, Satoru; Koyama, Takuya; Sota, Teiji; Cooley, John R.; Yoshimura, Jin

    2015-01-01

    Periodical cicadas (Magicicada spp.) in the USA are famous for their unique prime-numbered life cycles of 13 and 17 years and their nearly perfectly synchronized mass emergences. Because almost all known species of cicada are non-periodical, periodicity is assumed to be a derived state. A leading hypothesis for the evolution of periodicity in Magicicada implicates the decline in average temperature during glacial periods. During the evolution of periodicity, the determinant of maturation in ancestral cicadas is hypothesized to have switched from size dependence to time (period) dependence. The selection for the prime-numbered cycles should have taken place only after the fixation of periodicity. Here, we build an individual-based model of cicadas under conditions of climatic cooling to explore the fixation of periodicity. In our model, under cold environments, extremely long juvenile stages lead to extremely low adult densities, limiting mating opportunities and favouring the evolution of synchronized emergence. Our results indicate that these changes, which were triggered by glacial cooling, could have led to the fixation of periodicity in the non-periodical ancestors. PMID:26365061

  15. Stability and change in retrospective reports of childhood experiences over a 5-year period: findings from the Davis Longitudinal Study.

    PubMed

    Yancura, Loriena A; Aldwin, Carolyn M

    2009-09-01

    The paths via which childhood experiences influence well-being in adulthood are not well defined because most research relies on retrospective reports. This study examined the influence of demographic characteristics and current mood states on the reliability of reports of childhood experiences. The Child Experiences Scale (CES) was administered in 1996 and 2001 to participants in the Davis Longitudinal Study (N = 571; age range 22-61 years). Responses showed moderate to high cross-time reliability. Males were slightly more likely to change their responses. The influence of mood states was weak and more evident for global ratings of childhood than for specific experiences. These findings support the use of retrospective reports of childhood.

  16. A study of backscattered spectra dynamics of agricultural crops during growth period on the territory of the Krasnoyarskii Krai (Russia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pugacheva, I. Yu.; Sid'ko, A. F.; Shevyrnogov, A. P.

    2010-05-01

    The work presents the results of the study aimed at determining the seasonal dynamics of the spectral brightness and reflectance of agricultural crops (wheat, barley and oats) in the Krasnoyarskii Krai (Russia). The analysis of spectral curves obtained through field ground measurements and from satellite data showed that fine spectral differences can be used to study the spatial distribution of various types of vegetation and their ecological state. Based on the created electronic spectral brightness data base, the possibilities are shown of using spectrophotometric information for determining morphophysiological changes occurring in the plants and their species composition. The determined contrasts can be effectively used to obtain necessary information while processing space images, which suffer from natural interferences (varying optical thickness of the atmosphere, cloudiness, alterations in the scanner's angle of view, varying solar height, and highly inhomogeneous underlying surface).

  17. Pattern of Female Sexual Assault in Qalyubia Governorate, Egypt, During the Period From 2009 to 2013: A Retrospective Study.

    PubMed

    Sharaf El-Din, Abeer A I; Elkholy, Shereen M S; Metwally, Eslam S; Farag, Hesham A

    2015-12-01

    Sexual assault is a serious social problem that affects women's life. In Egypt, there is no accurate epidemiological study on sexual assault, although it has undergone a dramatic surge in 2013. The goals of this study were to estimate the prevalence and the characteristics of sexual assault against female in Qalyubia Governorate, Egypt. It is a retrospective study evaluating sexual assault against females from 2009 to 2013. Total numbers of cases of female sexual assault was 130 over the studied years. The mean (SD) age of victims was 15.2 (6) years ranging from 4 to 40 years. Fifty-eight percent fall in the age group of 12 to 18 years. Most victims (61.5%) came from urban areas. Summer was relatively a vulnerable season for sexual assault (53.1%); 81.5% of victims was unmarried and 94.6% with normal mentality. The highest percentage of sexual assault crime was found in females with primary education (44.6%). Twenty-two (16.9%) of the assaulted cases were considered intrafamilial assault, whereas 83.1% were extrafamilial. The most common location for assaults was at the assailant's home (50.8%), and 80% of the victims were exposed to assault by 1 assailant. The shortest time between alleged assault and the examination was 1 day in 12 cases (9.2%). The most frequent type of assault was complete vaginal penetration (48.55%). The most common type of physical injury was abrasions (48.1%), whereas the least was burn or broken teeth (1.3% for each). The highest percentage of genital injury was lacerations (36.4%), and the most common location was the hymen (36.4%).

  18. FUNGEMIA CAUSED BY Candida SPECIES IN A CHILDREN'S PUBLIC HOSPITAL IN THE CITY OF SÃO PAULO, BRAZIL: STUDY IN THE PERIOD 2007-2010

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, Vanessa Kummer Perinazzo; Ruiz, Luciana da Silva; Oliveira, Nélio Alessandro Jesus; Moreira, Débora; Hahn, Rosane Christine; Melo, Analy Salles de Azevedo; Nishikaku, Angela Satie; Paula, Claudete Rodrigues

    2014-01-01

    Candidemia remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality in the health care environment. The epidemiology of Candida infection is changing, mainly in relation to the number of episodes caused by species C. non-albicans. The overall objective of this study was to evaluate the frequency of yeasts of the genus Candida, in a four-year period, isolated from blood of pediatric patients hospitalized in a public hospital of the city of São Paulo, Brazil. In this period, yeasts from blood of 104 patients were isolated and, the identified species of Candida by phenotypic and genotypic methods were: C. albicans (39/104), C. tropicalis (25/104), C. parapsilosis (23/104), Pichia anomala (6/104), C. guilliermondii (5/104), C. krusei (3/104), C. glabrata (2/104) and C. pararugosa (1/104). During the period of the study, a higher frequency of isolates of C. non-albicans (63.55%) (p = 0.0286) was verified. In this study we verified the increase of the non-albicans species throughout the years (mainly in 2009 and 2010). Thus, considering the peculiarities presented by Candida species, a correct identification of species is recommended to lead to a faster diagnosis and an efficient treatment. PMID:25076430

  19. Young male soccer players exhibit additional bone mineral acquisition during the peripubertal period: 1-year longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Zouch, Mohamed; Vico, Laurence; Frere, Delphine; Tabka, Zouhair; Alexandre, Christian

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether soccer could have different bone benefits in prepubescent and pubescent boys. We investigated 76 boys aged 10 to 13 years during a 1-year study. All boys were prepubescent at the beginning of the study (T0); pubescent status was determined by a complete 24-h urine hormonal assay of FSH-LH, with LH ≤ 0.31 IU/24 h and FSH ≤ 2.19 IU/24 h corresponding to prepubescent Tanner stage I and with 0.31 < LH < 0.95 IU/24 h and 1.57 < FSH < 3.77 IU/24 h corresponding to pubescent Tanner stage II. At the end of the study (T1), 35 boys remained prepubescent (22 soccer players (F1) and 13 controls (C1)), and 41 boys had entered puberty (26 soccer players (F2) and 15 controls (C2)). Soccer players completed 2 to 5 h of training plus one competition game per week during the school year, and controls only had physical education at school. Bone mineral content (BMC) was measured at T0 and T1 by DPX in the lumbar spine, total hip, and whole body (WB) for a comparison between soccer players and controls. At T0, no BMC difference was found between F1 and C1, but BMC was higher in F2 than C2 in WB and weight-bearing sites. At T1, BMC was higher in WB and weight-bearing sites in both F1 and F2 compared to their respective controls. Between T0 and T1, soccer induced a BMC gain at weight-bearing sites in both F1 and F2 compared to C1 and C2, respectively. The soccer-related bone gain was greater in WB and weight-bearing (the lumbar spine, total hip, and supporting leg) and non-weight-bearing bones (dominant arm and nondominant arm) in boys who became pubescent than in boys who remained prepubescent. In conclusion, 1-year study in young male soccer players demonstrates that the process of bone accretion at the very early phase of puberty is more intensely stimulated by the combination of physical exercise and sexual impregnation than by one of these factors alone.

  20. 3D printed polyurethane prosthesis for partial tracheal reconstruction: a pilot animal study.

    PubMed

    Jung, Soo Yeon; Lee, Sang Jin; Kim, Ha Yeong; Park, Hae Sang; Wang, Zhan; Kim, Hyun Jun; Yoo, James J; Chung, Sung Min; Kim, Han Su

    2016-10-27

    A ready-made, acellular patch-type prosthesis is desirable in repairing partial tracheal defects in the clinical setting. However, many of these prostheses may not show proper biological integration and biomechanical function when they are transplanted. In this study, we developed a novel 3D printed polyurethane (PU) tracheal scaffold with micro-scale architecture to allow host tissue infiltration and adequate biomechanical properties to withstand physiological tracheal condition. A half-pipe shaped PU scaffold (1.8 cm of height, 0.18 cm thickness, and 2 cm of diameter) was fabricated by 3D printing of PU 200 μm PU beam. The 3D printed tracheal scaffolds consisted of a porous inner microstructure with 200 × 200 × 200 μm(3) sized pores and a non-porous outer layer. The mechanical properties of the scaffolds were 3.21 ± 1.02 MPa of ultimate tensile strength, 2.81 ± 0.58 MPa of Young's modulus, and 725% ± 41% of elongation at break. To examine the function of the 3D printed tracheal scaffolds in vivo, the scaffolds were implanted into 1.0 × 0.7 cm(2) sized anterior tracheal defect of rabbits. After implantation, bronchoscopic examinations revealed that the implanted tracheal scaffolds were patent for a 16 week-period. Histologic findings showed that re-epithelialization after 4 weeks of implantation and ciliated respiratory epithelium with ciliary beating after 8 weeks of implantation were observed at the lumen of the implanted tracheal scaffolds. The ingrowth of the connective tissue into the scaffolds was observed at 4 weeks after implantation. The biomechanical properties of the implanted tracheal scaffolds were continually maintained for 16 week-period. The results demonstrated that 3D printed tracheal scaffold could provide an alternative solution as a therapeutic treatment for partial tracheal defects.

  1. Incidence of Mastitis in the Neonatal Period in a Traditional Breastfeeding Society: Results of a Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Scott, Jane A.; Lee, Andy H.; Binns, Colin W.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background: Mastitis is a painful problem experienced by breastfeeding women, especially in the first few weeks postpartum. There have been limited studies of the incidence of mastitis from traditionally breastfeeding societies in South Asia. This study investigated the incidence, determinants, and management of mastitis in the first month postpartum, as well as its association with breastfeeding outcomes at 4 and 6 months postpartum, in western Nepal. Subjects and Methods: Subjects were a subsample of 338 mothers participating in a larger prospective cohort study conducted in 2014 in western Nepal. Mothers were interviewed during the first month postpartum and again at 4 and 6 months to obtain information on breastfeeding practices. The association of mastitis and determinant variables was investigated using multivariable logistic regression, and the association with breastfeeding duration was examined using Kaplan–Meier estimation. Results: The incidence of mastitis was 8.0% (95% confidence interval, 5.1%, 10.8%) in the first month postpartum. Prelacteal feeding (adjusted odds ratio = 2.76; 95% confidence interval, 1.03, 7.40) and cesarean section (adjusted odds ratio = 3.52; 95% confidence interval, 1.09, 11.42) were associated with a higher likelihood of mastitis. Kaplan–Meier estimation showed no significant difference in the duration of exclusive breastfeeding among the mothers who experienced an episode of mastitis and those who did not. Conclusions: Roughly one in 10 (8.0%) women experienced mastitis in the first month postpartum, and there appeared to be little effect of mastitis on breastfeeding outcomes. Traditional breastfeeding practices should be encouraged, and the management of mastitis should be included as a part of lactation promotion. PMID:26488802

  2. Basic studies of microstructure of combusting turbulent flows. Final technical report for period ending 30 Jun 90

    SciTech Connect

    Hussain, F.

    1991-03-04

    The authors goal is to develop a state-of-the-art measurement technique--Holographic Particle Displacement Velocimetry (HPV)--which can provide instantaneous velocities everywhere in the flow field simultaneously. Another goal is to use the power of supercomputers to simulate 3D flows with heat release to study the physics of combusting turbulent flows. Computations suffer from limited flow times and Reynolds number but can provide flow properties in more detail than possible by any existing experimental techniques. Moreover, numerical simulations can provide quantities almost impossible to measure experimentally. This article discusses efforts to develop the holographic particle displacement velocimetry system and results of direct numerical simulations of combusting flows.

  3. Periodically structured plasmonic waveguides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saj, W. M.; Foteinopoulou, S.; Kafesaki, M.; Soukoulis, C. M.; Economou, E. N.

    2008-04-01

    We study surface plasmon polariton (SPP) guiding structures, which are a modification of the Metal-Insulator-Metal (MIM) waveguide. The designs are constructed by introducing a periodic modulation in a MIM waveguide, with a glass core and silver claddings. This periodic modulation is created either by causing periodic indentations in the silver slabs encompassing the glass core, or by increasing the glass spacer material in certain periodic locations. Our objective is to achieve long range sub-wavelength waveguiding with vast dispersion engineering capabilities. We employ the Finite Difference Time Domain Method (FDTD) with the Auxiliary Differential Equation method (ADE) for the calculation of the dispersion relation of the guided modes, as well as the real time propagation suggests that the guiding mechnism in the examined structures is based on the electromagnetic (EM) couping between the slit plasmon modes. These - depending on the design - exist in the grooves between the silver plates or in the larger areas of the glass core spacer. Put it different, the guiding mechanism in the examined SPP waveguide designs is analogous to the EM energy transfer along metallic nanoparticle chains.

  4. Homeopathic treatment of elderly patients - a prospective observational study with follow-up over a two year period

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Very little is known about the range of diagnoses, course of treatment and long-term outcome in elderly patients who choose to receive homeopathic medical treatment. We investigated homeopathic practice in an industrialised country under everyday conditions. The aim of the study was to determine the spectrum of diagnoses and treatments, as well as to describe the course of illness over time among older patients who chose to receive homeopathic treatment. Methods In this subgroup analysis of a prospective, multicentre cohort study totally including 3981 patients treated by homeopathic physicians in primary care practices in Germany and Switzerland, data was analysed from all patients > 70 years consulting the physician for the first time. The main outcome measures were: assessment by patient of the severity of complaints (numeric rating scales) and quality of life (SF-36) and by the physician of the severity of diagnoses (numeric rating scales) at baseline, and after 3, 12, and 24 months. Results A total of 83 patients were included in the subgroup analysis (41% men, mean age 73.2 ± (SD) 3.1 years; 59% women, 74.3 ± 3.8 years). 98.6 percent of all diagnoses were chronic with an average duration of 11.5 ± 11.5 years. 82 percent of the patients were taking medication at baseline. The most frequent diagnoses were hypertension (20.5%, 11.1 ± 7.5 years) and sleep disturbances (15.7%, 22.1 ± 25.8 years). The severity of complaints decreased significantly between baseline and 24 months in both patients (from 6.3 (95%CI: 5.7-6.8) to 4.6 (4.0-5.1), p < 0.001) and physicians' assessments (from 6.6 (6.0-7.1) to 3.7 (3.2-4.3), p < 0.001); quality of life (SF 36) and the number of medicines taken did not significantly change. Conclusion The severity of disease showed marked and sustained improvements under homeopathic treatment, but this did not lead to an improvement of quality of life. Our findings might indicate that homeopathic medical therapy may play a

  5. African Easterly Waves in 30-day High-Resolution Global Simulations: A Case Study During the 2006 NAMMA Period

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shen, Bo-Wen; Tao, Wei-Kuo; Wu, Man-Li C.

    2010-01-01

    In this study, extended -range (30 -day) high-resolution simulations with the NASA global mesoscale model are conducted to simulate the initiation and propagation of six consecutive African easterly waves (AEWs) from late August to September 2006 and their association with hurricane formation. It is shown that the statistical characteristics of individual AEWs are realistically simulated with larger errors in the 5th and 6th AEWs. Remarkable simulations of a mean African easterly jet (AEJ) are also obtained. Nine additional 30 -day experiments suggest that although land surface processes might contribute to the predictability of the AEJ and AEWs, the initiation and detailed evolution of AEWs still depend on the accurate representation of dynamic and land surface initial conditions and their time -varying nonlinear interactions. Of interest is the potential to extend the lead time for predicting hurricane formation (e.g., a lead time of up to 22 days) as the 4th AEW is realistically simulated.

  6. Kinetic study of the physicochemical and microbiological changes in "seasoned" olives during the shelf-life period.

    PubMed

    López, Francisco Noé Arroyo; Romero, Concepción; Del Carmen Durán Quintana, Maria; López, Antonio López; García, Pedro García; Fernández, Antonio Garrido

    2005-06-29

    The changes that take place during the shelf life of "seasoned" olives (packing conditions: 4% NaCl, 0.1%citric acid, and 0.0175% sorbate) using fresh (FF) and stored (SF) cracked fruits were studied. Texture, L, b, NaCl, and pH experienced slight changes. Values of a and titratable and combined acidity increased following a first-order kinetic with higher constants for FF. Glucose was completely exhausted, and mannitol showed only a slight decline. Hydroxytyrosol and tyrosol contents in brines increased rapidly from the acidic hydrolysis of oleuropein, hydroxytyrosol-4-beta -d-glucoside, and salidroside, the concentrations of which decreased. Sorbate content decreased with time and disappeared completely in SF. Yeasts grew rapidly in FF and were markedly inhibited in SF. There was a moderate growth of lactic acid bacteria in FF, whereas they grew markedly in SF during the first few days. Some of these changes limit the shelf life of the product.

  7. Miami's Tequesta Site: Could It Be a Native American Study Site For Natural Periodicities Associated With Tornados, Hurricanes, or Earthquakes?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mac Dougall, Jean S.; Mc Leod, David M.; Mc Leod, Roger D.

    2002-10-01

    Florida invested in preserving the Tequesta Indians' "Stonehenge-like" site along the Miami River. Direct observation, and telecast reports, show that a strong association exists between this area and Native American place names, hurricanes, tornados, a waterspout, and other nearby phenomena. Electromagnetic stimulation of human nervous systems in areas like these, discernable by appropriately sensitive individuals when these types of events occur, could plausibly account for some correct "predictions" of events like earthquakes. Various sensory modalities may be activated there. It may be important to understand other historic aspects associated with cultural artifacts like Miami's Tequesta remains. If it also generates instrumentally detectable signals that correlate with visual, "auditory," or nerve ending "tinglings" like those cited by the psychiatrist Arthur Guirdham in books like his Obsessions, applied physicists could partly vindicate the investment and also provide a net return. Society and comparative religious study may benefit.

  8. Preservation of bone collagen from the late Cretaceous period studied by immunological techniques and atomic force microscopy.

    PubMed

    Avci, R; Schweitzer, M H; Boyd, R D; Wittmeyer, J L; Terán Arce, F; Calvo, J O

    2005-04-12

    Late Cretaceous avian bone tissues from Argentina demonstrate exceptional preservation. Skeletal elements are preserved in partial articulation and suspended in three dimensions in a medium-grained sandstone matrix, indicating unusual perimortem taphonomic conditions. Preservation extends to the microstructural and molecular levels. Bone tissues respond to collagenase digestion and histochemical stains. In situ immunohistochemistry localizes binding sites for avian collagen antibodies in fossil tissues. Immunohistochemical studies do not, however, guarantee the preservation of molecular integrity. A protein may retain sufficient antigenicity for antibody binding even though degradation may render it incapable of original function. Therefore, we have applied atomic force microscopy to address the integrity and functionality of retained organic structures. Collagen pull-off measurements not only support immunochemical evidence for collagen preservation for antibody recognition but also imply preservation of the whole molecular integrity. No appreciable differences in collagen pull-off properties were measured between fossil and extant bone samples under physiological conditions.

  9. Medicolegal study of child sexual abuse in greater Cairo, Egypt, during a 7-year period: 2005-2011.

    PubMed

    Elgendy, Ibrahim Sadik; Hassan, Nermeen Adly

    2013-12-01

    Child sexual abuse has gained public attention and has become 1 of the most high-profile crimes. This study aimed to determine the demographic and medicolegal aspects of child sexual abuse in greater Cairo, Egypt. This is a retrospective study from January 1, 2005, to December 31, 2011. Data were collected from a Cairo medicolegal department and were statistically analyzed. The total number of cases was 1832 victims; 57.9% were males and 42.1% were females. Most assaults occurred in 2010 (16.2%) and 2011 (17.5%). The age group 6 to 12 years accounted for higher rate (49%), mostly in males (71.8%). A total of 83.3% of the victims belonged to low social class, and 72.3% of the victims were out of school. Only 1.9% of the victims had a mental disability. The crime scene was an unknown place in 78.1%. All offenders were males; most cases had 1 offender (82.5 %); and most offenders were extrafamilial (94.2%), of low social level, illiterate, unemployed, and between 18 and 30 years old. The unmarried offenders assaulted the females more than the males, whereas the married assaulted the males more than the females. A total of 5.8% were intrafamilial offenders; 62.7% of these cases were incest against girls and 37.3% were sodomy against boys. Clothes were normal in 48.8%. Anal assault (52.3%) and incomplete vaginal penetration (32%) were the commonest types. There was no significant relation between findings, investigations, and time. In conclusion, child sexual abuse in greater Cairo represents a problem. Therefore,forensic medicine should be a part of a multidisciplinary approach to prevent, investigate, and treat the problem.

  10. Impact of health beliefs, social support and self-efficacy on physical activity and dietary habits during the post-partum period after gestational diabetes mellitus: study protocol

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is defined as a glucose intolerance of variable severity occurring or diagnosed for the first time during pregnancy. Numerous epidemiological studies show that this disorder affects between 1 and 18% of pregnancies, depending on the ethnicity of the populations studied, the diagnostic criteria, or the body mass index (BMI). Its incidence is constantly rising worldwide. Patients with GDM have a high risk of developing type 2 diabetes in the months after delivery. For this reason, GDM patients are encouraged to practice specific health behaviors (dietary habits, physical activity) during the postpartum period. It is important to identify the factors that may impact adherence to these behaviors. Methods/Design A targeted sample size of 200 eligible pregnant women with a diagnosis of GDM will be enrolled in this prospective, cohort study. They will be recruited from 30-36 weeks of gestation as part of their diabetes consultation in Geneva University Hospital (GUH) maternity unit. Psychosocial variables that could impact adherence to health behaviors in the postpartum period (behavioral intentions, risk perceptions, general knowledge about diabetes, health beliefs, social support, self-efficacy) will be evaluated using specific tools at the end of pregnancy, at 6 weeks postpartum and at 6 months postpartum. Multiple regression analyses will be performed on SPSS. Discussion For the first time in Europe, the objective of this research is to study in women with very recent GDM the link between dietary habits, physical activity levels, and psychosocial and cognitive factors possibly involved in the adoption of health behaviors in the postpartum period. These factors have been identified in the literature, but to date have never been combined in a single study. The study will allow a predictive theoretical model of health behavior to be established and used as a basis for reflection to optimize interventions carried out on

  11. A comparative study on low-memory iterative solvers for FFT-based homogenization of periodic media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, Nachiketa; Vondřejc, Jaroslav; Zeman, Jan

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, we assess the performance of four iterative algorithms for solving non-symmetric rank-deficient linear systems arising in the FFT-based homogenization of heterogeneous materials defined by digital images. Our framework is based on the Fourier-Galerkin method with exact and approximate integrations that has recently been shown to generalize the Lippmann-Schwinger setting of the original work by Moulinec and Suquet from 1994. It follows from this variational format that the ensuing system of linear equations can be solved by general-purpose iterative algorithms for symmetric positive-definite systems, such as the Richardson, the Conjugate gradient, and the Chebyshev algorithms, that are compared here to the Eyre-Milton scheme - the most efficient specialized method currently available. Our numerical experiments, carried out for two-dimensional elliptic problems, reveal that the Conjugate gradient algorithm is the most efficient option, while the Eyre-Milton method performs comparably to the Chebyshev semi-iteration. The Richardson algorithm, equivalent to the still widely used original Moulinec-Suquet solver, exhibits the slowest convergence. Besides this, we hope that our study highlights the potential of the well-established techniques of numerical linear algebra to further increase the efficiency of FFT-based homogenization methods.

  12. Monitoring Radiofrequency Ablation Using Ultrasound Envelope Statistics and Shear Wave Elastography in the Periablation Period: An In Vitro Feasibility Study

    PubMed Central

    Tsui, Po-Hsiang; Wang, Chiao-Yin; Zhou, Zhuhuang; Wan, Yung-Liang

    2016-01-01

    Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) is a minimally invasive method for treating tumors. Shear wave elastography (SWE) has been widely applied in evaluating tissue stiffness and final ablation size after RFA. However, the usefulness of periablation SWE imaging in assessing RFA remains unclear. Therefore, this study investigated the correlation between periablation SWE imaging and final ablation size. An in vitro porcine liver model was used for experimental validation (n = 36). During RFA with a power of 50 W, SWE images were collected using a clinical ultrasound system. To evaluate the effects of tissue temperature and gas bubbles during RFA, changes in the ablation temperature were recorded, and image echo patterns were measured using B-mode and ultrasound statistical parametric images. After RFA, the gross pathology of each tissue sample was compared with the region of change in the corresponding periablation SWE image. The experimental results showed that the tissue temperature at the ablation site varied between 70°C and 100°C. Hyperechoic regions and changes were observed in the echo amplitude distribution induced by gas bubbles. Under this condition, the confounding effects (including the temperature increase, tissue stiffness increase, and presence of gas bubbles) resulted in artifacts in the periablation SWE images, and the corresponding region correlated with the estimated final ablation size obtained from the gross pathology (r = 0.8). The findings confirm the feasibility of using periablation SWE imaging in assessing RFA. PMID:27603012

  13. Physical activity, heart rate variability-based stress and recovery, and subjective stress during a 9-month study period.

    PubMed

    Föhr, T; Tolvanen, A; Myllymäki, T; Järvelä-Reijonen, E; Peuhkuri, K; Rantala, S; Kolehmainen, M; Korpela, R; Lappalainen, R; Ermes, M; Puttonen, S; Rusko, H; Kujala, U M

    2016-03-31

    The aim of this study was to investigate the association between physical activity (PA) and objective heart rate variability (HRV)-based stress and recovery with subjective stress in a longitudinal setting. Working-age participants (n = 221; 185 women, 36 men) were overweight (body mass index, 25.3-40.1 kg/m(2) ) and psychologically distressed (≥3/12 points on the General Health Questionnaire). Objective stress and recovery were based on HRV recordings over 1-3 work days. Subjective stress was assessed with the Perceived Stress Scale and PA level with a questionnaire. Data were collected at three time points: baseline, 10 weeks post intervention, and at the 36-week follow-up. We adopted a latent growth model to investigate the initial level and change in PA, objective stress and recovery, and subjective stress at the three measurement time points. The results showed that initial levels of PA (P < 0.001) and objective stress (P = 0.001) and recovery (P < 0.01) were associated with the change in subjective stress. The results persisted after adjustment for intervention group. The present results suggest that high PA and objectively assessed low stress and good recovery have positive effects on changes in subjective stress in the long-term.

  14. Review of injuries over a one year period among 87,134 adults studying at an open university in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Stephan, Karen; McClure, Rod; Seubsman, Sam-ang; Kelly, Matthew; Yiengprugsawan, Vasoontara; Bain, Christopher; Sleigh, Adrian

    2010-09-01

    Countries need epidemiological information about population injury statistics to devise preventive strategies. To generate such information we estimated the one-year incidence and distribution of injury in a group of 87,134 adult Sukhothai Thammathirat Open University distance-learning students residing throughout Thailand. Those who participated joined the study by filling out a baseline questionnaire in 2005 which included a one-year recall of injuries serious enough to interfere with daily activities and/or require medical treatment. The more serious injuries were categorised by location, mechanism and intentionality. We collected sociodemographic information about the participants. Nearly 22% of participants reported at least one injury during the previous 12 months. Males, those with lower income and the less educated, had higher injury rates. Home injuries were more common among females. Sports, road and workplace injuries were more common among males. Transport injuries decreased with age and falls increased with age. Most injuries were unintentional. Injury rates among Thai adults are high. We identified at risk groups by injury mechanism and setting. Before interventions can be devised more research is needed regarding exposure and vulnerability in at risk socio-demographic groups.

  15. Vibrational signatures of cation-anion hydrogen bonding in ionic liquids: a periodic density functional theory and molecular dynamics study.

    PubMed

    Mondal, Anirban; Balasubramanian, Sundaram

    2015-02-05

    Hydrogen bonding in alkylammonium based protic ionic liquids was studied using density functional theory (DFT) and ab initio molecular dynamics (AIMD) simulations. Normal-mode analysis within the harmonic approximation and power spectra of velocity autocorrelation functions were used as tools to obtain the vibrational spectra in both the gas phase and the crystalline phases of these protic ionic liquids. The hydrogen bond vibrational modes were identified in the 150-240 cm(-1) region of the far-infrared (far-IR) spectra. A blue shift in the far-IR mode was observed with an increasing number of hydrogen-bonding sites on the cation; the exact peak position is modulated by the cation-anion hydrogen bond strength. Sub-100 cm(-1) bands in the far-IR spectrum are assigned to the rattling motion of the anions. Calculated NMR chemical shifts of the acidic protons in the crystalline phase of these salts also exhibit the signature of cation-anion hydrogen bonding.

  16. Experimental study of complex mixed-mode oscillations generated in a Bonhoeffer-van der Pol oscillator under weak periodic perturbation

    SciTech Connect

    Shimizu, Kuniyasu; Sekikawa, Munehisa; Inaba, Naohiko

    2015-02-15

    Bifurcations of complex mixed-mode oscillations denoted as mixed-mode oscillation-incrementing bifurcations (MMOIBs) have frequently been observed in chemical experiments. In a previous study [K. Shimizu et al., Physica D 241, 1518 (2012)], we discovered an extremely simple dynamical circuit that exhibits MMOIBs. Our model was represented by a slow/fast Bonhoeffer-van der Pol circuit under weak periodic perturbation near a subcritical Andronov-Hopf bifurcation point. In this study, we experimentally and numerically verify that our dynamical circuit captures the essence of the underlying mechanism causing MMOIBs, and we observe MMOIBs and chaos with distinctive waveforms in real circuit experiments.

  17. Efficacy of low-dose cinacalcet on alternate days for the treatment of secondary hyperparathyroidism in hemodialysis patients: a single-center study

    PubMed Central

    Gojaseni, Pongsathorn; Pattarathitinan, Dolnapa; Chittinandana, Anutra

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Cinacalcet is effective in reducing serum parathyroid hormone (PTH) in patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism (HPT). This study focused on testing whether a prescription of low-dose cinacalcet on alternate days could be an option for treatment of secondary HPT. Materials and methods A retrospective clinical study was conducted on chronic maintenance hemodialysis patients. Patients with secondary HPT who received cinacalcet at a starting dose of 25 mg on alternate days were reviewed (low-dose group). Patients who were being treated with a standard dose of cinacalcet in the same period of time were selected as the control group. The primary outcome was difference in the percentage of patients achieving >30% reduction of intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH) levels at 16 weeks. The changes of serum iPTH and other biochemical data were also tested. Results A total of 30 patients (16 low doses and 14 controls) took part in the study. Baseline iPTH levels in the low-dose and control group were 1,065.9±477.7 and 1,214.1±497.6 pg/mL, respectively (p=0.413). The analysis showed that the percentage of patients who achieved the primary outcome showed little or no difference (33.3% in the low-dose group compared with 38.5% in the control group, p=1.0). Serum iPTH reduction during 16 weeks of study period in the low-dose and control group was 253.5±316.1 and 243.4±561.3 pg/mL, respectively (p=0.957). There was no difference in the adverse events between both groups. Conclusion Among patients with secondary HPT, initial treatment with cinacalcet 25 mg on alternate days can decrease serum PTH levels. The role of low-dose cinacalcet in secondary HPT should be further determined in large-scale, randomized controlled trials. PMID:28223837

  18. Effects of different strength training frequencies during reduced training period on strength and muscle cross-sectional area.

    PubMed

    Tavares, Lucas Duarte; de Souza, Eduardo Oliveira; Ugrinowitsch, Carlos; Laurentino, Gilberto Candido; Roschel, Hamilton; Aihara, André Yui; Cardoso, Fabiano Nassar; Tricoli, Valmor

    2017-03-19

    This study investigated the effects of different reduced strength training (RST) frequencies on half-squat 1 RM and quadriceps cross-sectional area (QCSA). Thirty-three untrained males (24.7 ± 3.9 years; 1.73 ± 0.08 m; 74.6 ± 8.4 kg) underwent a 16-week experimental period (i.e. eight weeks of strength training [ST] followed by additional eight weeks of RST). During the ST period, the participants performed 3-4 sets of 6-12 RM, three sessions/week in half-squat and knee extension exercises. Following ST, the participants were randomly allocated to one of three groups: reduced strength training with one (RST1) or two sessions per week (RST2), and ceased training (CT). Both RST1 and RST2 groups had their training frequency and total training volume-load (i.e. RST1 = 50.3% and RST2 = 57.1%) reduced, while the CT group stopped training completely. Half-squat 1 RM (RST1 = 27.9%; RST2 = 26.7%; and CT = 28.4%) and QCSA (RST1 = 6.1%; RST2 = 6.9%; and CT = 5.8%) increased significantly (p < .05) in all groups after eight weeks of ST. No significant changes were observed in 1 RM and QCSA for RST1 and RST2 groups after the RST period, while the CT group demonstrated a decrease in half-squat 1 RM (22.6%) and QCSA (5.4%) when compared to the ST period (p < .05). In conclusion, different RST frequencies applied were able to maintain muscle mass and strength performance obtained over the regular ST period. Thus, it appears that RST frequency does not affect the maintenance of muscle mass and strength in untrained males, as long as volume-load is equated between frequencies.

  19. Hypokalemic periodic paralysis

    MedlinePlus

    Periodic paralysis - hypokalemic; Familial hypokalemic periodic paralysis; HOKPP; HypoKPP; HypoPP ... is not inherited. Unlike other forms of periodic paralysis, people with hypoPP have normal thyroid function. But ...

  20. Hyperkalemic periodic paralysis

    MedlinePlus

    Periodic paralysis - hyperkalemic; Familial hyperkalemic periodic paralysis; HyperKPP; HyperPP; Gamstorp disease ... factors include having other family members with periodic paralysis. It affects men more often than women.

  1. The Study of School Hygiene and Physical Education in Chosun during the Early Japanese Colonial Period Carried Out through Educational Magazines: Focusing on the Time Period before the Manchurian Incident in 1910-1931.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Eui-Ryong; Kim, Tae-Young

    2013-12-01

    This research mainly dealt with sanitation and hygiene related editorials quoted from educational magazines published in Chosun until the Manchurian Incident during the Japanese colonial period. The study revealed that modern Japan became aware of the importance of public sanitation from the late nineteenth century and established modern programs so that schools can comprehensively teach students about sanitation and hygiene so as to enter modern imperial society. Japan particularly introduced and carried out modern physical(gymnastics) education as a means of "complete sanitation and hygiene" to improve students' health. As a result of having two times of war, the Japanese Empire reaffirmed the significance of modern sanitation and hygiene. After colonization of Chosun, Japan organized official educational groups and enlightened the public about sanitation and hygiene through editorials on the educational magazines which the groups had published. In order for schools to promote complete sanitation and hygiene based on modern medicine, Japan actively engaged in suggesting the necessity of physical(gymnastics) education which was critical to human's growth and development. After Japanese Government-General of Korea legislated on school hygiene in 1913, Japanese governments school started hiring school doctors and nurses. They stressed the need of providing sanitation and hygiene education in school to prepare for war in 1910's in advance; highlighted that physical (gymnastics) education should be enforced to help students grow and improve their physical strength from a modern medical point of view. In April, 1919, the Japanese Empire implemented the same instruction to the schools where Chosun people attended. But it was found that the law was not applied well to those schools in effect. The Japanese Empire was seen to proclaim the second educational decree in 1922; proposed international hygienic achievement of the time and comments; enlightened the public by

  2. Beneficial Effect of Short Pretransplant Period of Hypothermic Pulsatile Perfusion of the Warm-Ischemic Kidney after Cold Storage: Experimental Study.

    PubMed

    Lázaro, Alberto; Humanes, Blanca; Jado, Juan Carlos; Mojena, Marina; González-Nicolás, María Ángeles; Del Cañizo, Juan Francisco; Tejedor, Alberto; Lledó-García, Enrique

    2016-01-01

    Warm ischemia (WI) produces a significant deleterious effect in potential kidney grafts. Hypothermic machine perfusion (HMP) seems to improve immediate graft function after transplant. Our aim was to analyze the effect of short pretransplant periods of pulsatile HMP on histology and renal injury in warm-ischemic kidneys. Twelve minipigs were used. WI was achieved in the right kidney by applying a vascular clamp for 45 min. After nephrectomy, autotransplant was performed following one of two strategies: cold storage of the kidneys or cold storage combined with perfusion in pulsatile HMP. The graft was removed early to study renal morphology, inflammation (fibrosis), and apoptosis. Proinflammatory activity and fibrosis were less pronounced after cold storage of the kidneys with HMP than after cold storage only. The use of HMP also decreased apoptosis compared with cold storage only. The detrimental effects on cells of an initial and prolonged period of WI seem to improve with a preservation protocol that includes a short period of pulsatile HMP after cold storage and immediately before the transplant, in comparison with cold storage only.

  3. Beneficial Effect of Short Pretransplant Period of Hypothermic Pulsatile Perfusion of the Warm-Ischemic Kidney after Cold Storage: Experimental Study

    PubMed Central

    Humanes, Blanca; Jado, Juan Carlos; Mojena, Marina; González-Nicolás, María Ángeles; del Cañizo, Juan Francisco; Lledó-García, Enrique

    2016-01-01

    Warm ischemia (WI) produces a significant deleterious effect in potential kidney grafts. Hypothermic machine perfusion (HMP) seems to improve immediate graft function after transplant. Our aim was to analyze the effect of short pretransplant periods of pulsatile HMP on histology and renal injury in warm-ischemic kidneys. Twelve minipigs were used. WI was achieved in the right kidney by applying a vascular clamp for 45 min. After nephrectomy, autotransplant was performed following one of two strategies: cold storage of the kidneys or cold storage combined with perfusion in pulsatile HMP. The graft was removed early to study renal morphology, inflammation (fibrosis), and apoptosis. Proinflammatory activity and fibrosis were less pronounced after cold storage of the kidneys with HMP than after cold storage only. The use of HMP also decreased apoptosis compared with cold storage only. The detrimental effects on cells of an initial and prolonged period of WI seem to improve with a preservation protocol that includes a short period of pulsatile HMP after cold storage and immediately before the transplant, in comparison with cold storage only. PMID:27556029

  4. A 5-Year Study of the Adult Flight Periodicity of 27 Caddisfly (Trichoptera) Species in Forest and Meadow Habitats of a First-Order Lower Michigan (USA) Stream.

    PubMed

    Houghton, David C

    2015-12-01

    Life cycles of 27 caddisfly species were estimated from weekly adult flight periodicity data during 2010-2014 from a forest and a meadow site of a small stream in northern Lower Michigan. Of the 11 species abundant only at the forest site, 10 appeared to be univoltine and 1 appeared bivoltine. Of the 13 species abundant only at the meadow site, 5 appeared univoltine, 5 appeared bivoltine, and 3 were enigmatic due to inconsistent flight peaks between years. Although the sites were separated by ∼400 m, only three species were abundant at both sites due to differences in stream habitat and food availability. Two of these species had notably dissimilar life cycles between sites, reflecting these differences. Despite the study dates encompassing both the warmest and coldest years of the 2000s, most species retained consistent flight periods between years. This consistency with date appeared unrelated to lunar phase. Date was a better predictor of flight periodicity than water temperature for every species except those that emerged earliest in the season. Warming water temperatures appeared to synchronize emergence of species at the meadow site to a greater degree than those of the forest site, probably due to the greater range of temperatures at the meadow site, although date was still the better predictor at both sites. These data suggest that warming water temperatures, although important under certain conditions, may not always be primary life cycle synchronizers in small streams.

  5. Vaginal bleeding between periods

    MedlinePlus

    ... periods; Intermenstrual bleeding; Spotting; Metrorrhagia Images Female reproductive anatomy Bleeding between periods Uterus References Bulun SE. The physiology and pathology of the female reproductive axis. In: ...

  6. Study of adverse events following immunisation with universal and newer vaccines in the Serampore IMA Child Clinic over a period of 7 years.

    PubMed

    Das, Pradip Kumar

    2013-04-01

    Immunisation is an important part of childcare practice. It is one of the most beneficial and cost effective measures for the prevention of diseases. From the previous retrospective studies, it was evident that smallpox has been completely eradicated throughout now-a-days with the wholehearted and sincere efforts of healthcare providers by applying efficient and safe vaccine against smallpox, same is true also to polio which is now close to worldwide eradication and measles and rubella are no longer endemic in certain parts of the world. Not only has that with the introduction of safer and more efficient newer vaccines, the incidence of most other vaccine preventable disease of childhood also reduced considerably. The aim of the present study is to estimate the incidence and clinical presentation of adverse events following immunisation with universal and newer vaccines for a period of seven years using prospective active surveillance. Children under the age of 7 years were taken for universal and newer scheduled vaccinations given in the Serampore IMA Child Clinic under the supervision of the clinicians maintaining strictly the guidelines of Expanded Programme of Immunisation (Government of India). This study of adverse events following immunisation in the Serampore IMA Child Clinic confirms that the adverse events such as fever (0.37%), pain and swelling at the site of injection (0.32%0, urticarial rash (0.02%), anaphylactic shock (0.003%) are negligible. There were only two reports of anaphylaxis following preschool and infant schedule vaccines, including measles, mumps and rubella (MMR), Haemophilus influenzae type B vaccines and typhoid vaccines in approximately 52,000 infants received over a period of 7 years starting from 1st April, 2005 to 31st March, 2012 and there were no deaths or longterm effects reported during the post follow-up period in the Serampore IMA Child Clinic.

  7. Final Report for the Advanced Concept Studies for Supersonic Commercial Transports Entering Service in the 2030 to 2035 Period, N+3 Supersonic Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgenstern, John; Norstrud, Nicole; Stelmack, Marc; Skoch, Craig

    2010-01-01

    The N+3 Final Report documents the work and progress made by Lockheed Martin Aeronautics in response to the NASA sponsored program "N+3 NRA Advanced Concept Studies for Supersonic Commercial Transports Entering Service in the 2030 to 2035 Period." The key technical objective of this effort was to generate promising supersonic concepts for the 2030 to 2035 timeframe and to develop plans for maturing the technologies required to make those concepts a reality. The N+3 program is aligned with NASA's Supersonic Project and is focused on providing alternative system-level solutions capable of overcoming the efficiency, environmental, and performance barriers to practical supersonic flight

  8. Drowning-related fatalities during a 5-year period (2008-2012) in South-West Hungary--a retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Rácz, Evelin; Könczöl, Franciska; Mészáros, Hajnalka; Kozma, Zsolt; Mayer, Mátyás; Porpáczy, Zoltán; Poór, Viktor S; Sipos, Katalin

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate all the drowning-related cases in South-West Hungary between 2008 and 2012. It is a retrospective and descriptive study of 114 drowning-related deaths during that 5-year period. The investigation includes both unintentional and intentional drowning cases. We found that the most considerable risk factor of drowning in this area of Hungary is alcohol consumption, because in more than half of the cases the victims were under the influence of alcohol. We also concluded that more than two third of the cases included males. The cause of drowning in younger victims was mostly accident. In both genders subjects aged 50-70 had the highest risk of drowning in the period investigated. Seniors frequently committed suicide by drowning. Drowning deaths occurred in all types of water, mostly in lakes, rivers, canals and other types of catchment in the vicinity of victims' homes (most commonly in wells). This study might help to understand the circumstances and the causes leading to drowning and it may draw the attention to the possible preventive interventions.

  9. The Comparisons of Cerebral Hemodynamics Induced by Obstructive Sleep Apnea with Arousal and Periodic Limb Movement with Arousal: A Pilot NIRS Study

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhongxing; Schneider, Maja; Laures, Marco; Qi, Ming; Khatami, Ramin

    2016-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSA) and restless legs syndrome (RLS) with periodic limb movement during sleep (PLMS) are two sleep disorders characterized by repetitive respiratory or movement events associated with cortical arousals. We compared the cerebral hemodynamic changes linked to periodic apneas/hypopneas with arousals (AHA) in four OSA-patients with periodic limb movements (PLMA) with arousals in four patients with RLS-PLMS using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). AHA induced homogenous pattern of periodic fluctuations in oxygenated (HbO2) and deoxygenated (HHb) hemoglobin, i.e., the decrease of HbO2 was accompanied by an increase of HHb during the respiratory event and resolved to reverse pattern when cortical arousal started. Blood volume (BV) showed the same pattern as HHb but with relative smaller amplitude in most of the AHA events.These changing patterns were significant as Wilcoxon signed-rank tests gave p < 0.001 when comparing the area under the curve of these hemodynamic parameters to zero. By contrast, in PLMA limb movements induced periodic increments in HbO2 and BV (Wilcoxon signed-rank tests, p < 0.001), but HHb changed more heterogeneously even during the events coming from the same patient. Heart rate (HR) also showed different patterns between AHA and PLMA. It significantly decreased during the respiratory event (Wilcoxon signed-rank test, p < 0.001) and then increased after the occurrence of cortical arousal (Wilcoxon signed-rank test, p < 0.001); while in PLMA HR first increased preceding the occurrence of cortical arousal (Wilcoxon signed-rank test, p < 0.001) and then decreased. The results of this preliminary study show that both AHA and PLMA induce changes in cerebral hemodynamics. The occurrence of cortical arousal is accompanied by increased HR in both events, but by different BV changes (i.e., decreased/increased BV in AHA/PLMA, respectively). HR changes may partially account for the increased cerebral hemodynamics during PLMA

  10. Intermediate period surface waves from mining explosions for crustal structure and source studies: Application in the western United States and northeast China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Rongmao

    The study of intermediate period surface waves from mining explosions in Western USA (Wyoming) and Northeast China (QianAn) provides constraints on the crustal structure in these regions and the source mechanism of the explosions. Large-scale mining explosions as a result of their long time duration and large spatial extent can generate short- to intermediate-period (1--20 s) surface waves. Regional surface waves observed in the Western US were generated by four large-scale cast blasts in a Wyoming coal mine. Intermediate-period surface waves in Northeast China were generated by a mining explosion in an iron mine. Fundamental mode Rayleigh wave group velocities were estimated using multiple filter analysis and refined by phase matched filtering. Station specific velocity models were determined by linear inversion of the dispersion curves and found to complement known shallow crustal structure in each area. Synthetics based on mining source models and the inverted velocity structure suggest that some combination of mine free face orientation, blasting direction and material casting contribute to the observations. The Wyoming and China studies are presented at Paper I and Paper II, respectively. Assessment of surface wave dispersion provides the opportunity to make intermediate period Ms estimates with path correction. These surface wave magnitude estimates are combined with regional body wave magnitude estimates, mb, and compared to M s:mb data from explosions and earthquakes for purposes of identifying the source type. These results suggest that mining explosions are different from simultaneously detonated explosions and may appear earthquake like. This work is discussed in Paper III. The surface wave inversions used in the first part of the study utilized common linearized inversion procedures. In order to assess the effect of the linearization, a niching genetic algorithm (NGA) was introduced, developed and tested for crustal shear-wave velocity inversion in

  11. Impact of infection control activities on the rate of needle stick injuries at a tertiary care hospital of Pakistan over a period of six years: an observational study

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Accidental exposure to blood and body fluids is frequent among health care workers. They are at high risk of nosocomial transmission of blood borne pathogens due to injuries caused by used sharps. We are reporting impact of surveillance and educational program on the rate of needle stick injuries among health care workers at a tertiary care hospital in Pakistan. Methods At Aga Khan University Hospital sharp injuries are reported to infection control office. To reduce these incidents a quality improvement project was inducted in the year 2005. Health care workers were educated; surveillance data from 2002 to 2007 was analyzed and compared with various risk factors. Results During study period 1382 incidents were reported. Junior doctors sustained highest number of injuries (n = 394; 28.5%) followed by registered nurses (n = 283; 20.4%). Highest number of incidents was reported during blood collection (19%). An increasing trend was observed in the pre intervention years (2002–04). However noticeable fall was noted in the post intervention period that is in year 2006 and 2007. Major decline was noted among nurses (from 13 to 5 NSI/100 FTE/year). By relating and comparing the rates with various activities directly linked with the use of syringes a significant reduction in incidents were found including; hospital admissions (p-value 0.01), surgeries and procedures performed (p = 0.01), specimens collected in the laboratory (p = 0.001) and patients visits in clinics (p = 0.01). Conclusion We report significant reduction in needle stick injuries especially during post intervention study period. This is being achieved by constant emphasis on improving awareness by regular educational sessions, implemented as a quality improvement project. PMID:19480683

  12. Importance of root development in autotransplantations: a retrospective study of 137 teeth with a follow-up period varying from 1 week to 14 years.

    PubMed

    Denys, Delphine; Shahbazian, Maryam; Jacobs, Reinhilde; Laenen, Annouschka; Wyatt, Jan; Vinckier, Frans; Willems, Guy

    2013-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to perform a retrospective study of autotransplanted teeth with a variable but individually maximized follow-up period in order to provide information on the long-term clinical outcome. The sample was obtained from patients who were treated at the University Hospitals KU-Leuven, Belgium, during the period 1996-2010. Of the total of 109 subjects (137 teeth), 98 patients were invited for recall, of whom 68 patients (87 teeth) responded positively. Eleven out of the 109 patients were excluded due to loss of the transplanted tooth. Although 41 patients had no re-examination visit, clinical and radiological data from all 109 subjects were included in the sample. The follow-up period varied from 1 week of 14.8 years, with a mean of 4.9 years. Transplanted teeth receiving orthodontic treatment had a lower risk of ankylosis and were less likely to fail. The risk of root resorption was lower for teeth with stages one-half to three-quarters of root length at the time of transplantation. Molars were more susceptible to ankylosis. Almost all teeth showed partial or full obliteration of the pulp. Absence of further root development was higher in donor teeth with root length stage less than one-half. Trans-alveolar transplantation was less successful. Autotransplantation can be a valid alternative method in young adolescents for replacing missing teeth because of agenesis or trauma. The optimal time to transplant is when the root has reached two-thirds to three-quarters of the final root length.

  13. X-ray standing wave studies of strained InxGa1-xAs/InP short-period superlattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aruta, Carmela; Lamberti, Carlo; Gastaldi, Luigi; Boscherini, Federico

    2003-05-01

    We report an x-ray standing wave (XSW) study on a set of structurally well-characterized InxGa1-xAs/InP short-period superlattices grown by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition and chemical-beam epitaxy techniques. It was possible to model the x-ray standing wave profiles only once the superlattice period has been assumed to be constituted by four layers of well-defined chemical composition [barrier (InP), first interface (InAs0.7P0.3), well (In0.53Ga0.47As), and second interface (In0.53Ga0.47As0.7P0.3)], and of variable thickness. The thickness of the four layers have been obtained by fitting the high resolution x-ray diffraction profiles of the heterostructures. The presence of partially disordered interface layers, as evidenced by a transmission electron microscopy study, causes a significant reduction of the coherent fraction, F, of both Ga and As atoms. The difference in F values among measured samples illustrates how the XSW can provide important information on the quality of semiconductor superlattices. Comparison with a "long period (160 Å)" In0.53Ga0.47As/InP superlattice, where the role played by InAs0.7P0.3 and In0.53Ga0.47As0.7P0.3 interface layers is negligible, confirms this picture. The coherent fraction of both As and Ga correlates well with the average perpendicular lattice misfit <Δa⊥/a> determined by x-ray diffraction.

  14. A retrospective study of 572 patients with hand burns treated at the Department of Plastic Surgery Kosovo during the period 2000-2010.

    PubMed

    Arifi, Hysni M; Duci, Shkelzen B; Zatriqi, Violeta K; Ahmeti, Hasan R; Haxhiu, Isa I; Mekaj, Agon Y; Gashi, Musli M; Buja, Zejn A; Derguti, Shkelqim H

    2014-01-01

    Hands participate in everyday human activities and they are the most vulnerable parts of a human body. The objective of this study is to understand the common causes of hand burns, the methods of surgical interventions, duration of hospitalization and distribution of hand burns in 11 year period regarding the age. This is a retrospective study that included 572 patients with hand burns treated at the Department of Plastic Surgery Kosovo during the period 2000-2010. The data were collected and analyzed from the archives and protocols of the University Clinical Center of Kosovo. Data processing was done with the statistical package InStat 3. From statistical parameters were calculated structural index, arithmetic median and standard deviation. Data testing is done with X (2) test and the difference is significant if P<0.05. The Ministry of Health of our country should make efforts to organize training for health workers about treatment for minor burns in order to reduce the number of referral patients from other primary (Familiar Medicine) and secondary centers (regional Hospitals).

  15. Using Tic-Tac software to reduce anxiety-related behaviour in adults with autism and learning difficulties during waiting periods: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Campillo, Cristina; Herrera, Gerardo; Remírez de Ganuza, Conchi; Cuesta, José L; Abellán, Raquel; Campos, Arturo; Navarro, Ignacio; Sevilla, Javier; Pardo, Carlos; Amati, Fabián

    2014-04-01

    Deficits in the perception of time and processing of changes across time are commonly observed in individuals with autism. This pilot study evaluated the efficacy of the use of the software tool Tic-Tac, designed to make time visual, in three adults with autism and learning difficulties. This research focused on applying the tool in waiting situations where the participants exhibited anxiety-related behaviour. The intervention followed a baseline and intervention (AB) design, and a partial interval recording procedure was used to code the presence of stereotypes, nervous utterances, wandering or other examples of nervousness during the selected waiting situations. The results showed that the use of Tic-Tac resulted in lower levels of anxiety-related behaviour in all three participants, compared to the baseline, suggesting that this software may be an effective technology for helping people with autism with organisation and predictability during waiting periods. The results are discussed in terms of limitations and implications for further study.

  16. Improvement of the Management of Infants, Children and Adults with a Molecular Diagnosis of Enterovirus Meningitis during Two Observational Study Periods

    PubMed Central

    Archimbaud, Christine; Ouchchane, Lemlih; Mirand, Audrey; Chambon, Martine; Demeocq, François; Labbé, André; Laurichesse, Henri; Schmidt, Jeannot; Clavelou, Pierre; Aumaître, Olivier; Regagnon, Christel; Bailly, Jean-Luc; Henquell, Cécile; Peigue-Lafeuille, Hélène

    2013-01-01

    Enteroviruses (EVs) are a major cause of aseptic meningitis, and RNA detection using molecular assay is the gold standard diagnostic test. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of an EV positive diagnosis on the clinical management of patients admitted for meningitis over the course of two observational study periods (2005 and 2008–09) in the same clinical departments. We further investigated in multivariate analysis various factors possibly associated with hospital length of stay (LOS) in all age groups (infants, children, and adults). The results showed an overall improvement in the management of patients (n = 142) between the study periods, resulting in a significantly shorter hospital LOS for adults and children, and a shorter duration of antibiotic use for adults and infants. In multivariate analysis, we observed that the time from molecular test results to discharge of patients and the median duration of antibiotic treatment were associated with an increase in LOS in all age groups. In addition, among adults, the turnaround time of the molecular assay was significantly correlated with LOS. The use of CT scan in children and hospital admission outside the peak of EV prevalence in infants tended to increase LOS. In conclusion, the shorter length of stay of patients with meningitis in this study was due to various factors including the rapidity of the EV molecular test (particularly in adults), greater physician responsiveness after a positive result (in adults and children), and greater experience on the part of physicians in handling EV meningitis, as evidenced by the shorter duration of antibiotic use in adults and infants. PMID:23874676

  17. Studies on orthocephalization. 8. Behaviour of the visceral part of the rat head in the period between 7 and 60 days after gestation.

    PubMed

    Vilmann, H; Moss, M L

    1985-01-01

    The present paper considers the significance of interosseous flexions of the palatal complex in the process of orthocephalization of the rat skull between 7 and 60 d after birth. The study is based on a sample of 25 female rats who have been X-rayed at 7, 14, 30, and 60 d with subsequent analysis of the photographs obtained. During this period the constituents of the bony palate, i.e. the palatine bone, the palatal process of maxilla and the palatal part of premaxilla grow steadily but with decreasing rate of increase with age. The premaxilla grows the most, while the palatal bone grows the least. The angle between the cranial base and the palatal plane decreases, i.e. the rat skull becomes more orthocranial with age. At the same time, the palate becomes more orthopalatal, primarily by an increase in the angle between the palatine bone and maxilla. As the angle between the cranial base and the palatine bone after 14 d increases, i.e. rotates in the opposite direction of the palatal plane, it may be concluded that the process of orthocephalization in this period is caused by the deflexion of the angle between the palatine bone and maxilla, while it before 14 d is caused by a combination of an interosseous deflexion in the palate and an upwards rotation of the palatine bone relative to the cranial base.

  18. Analysis of the southern pre-contact W UMa binary ZZ Eridani: A 34 year period study yields a possible low-mass companion

    SciTech Connect

    Samec, R. G.; Clark, J. D.; Hamme, W. Van; Faulkner, D. R.

    2015-02-01

    Complete Bessel BVRI light curves of ZZ Eridani [2MASS J04130109-1044545, HV 6280, NSVS 14888164 α(2000) = 04{sup h}13{sup m}1{sub ·}{sup s}10, δ(2000) = −10°44′54{sub ·}{sup ″}5 (ICRS), V = 13.9-14.4-15.0] are observed and analyzed. The system is a southern pre-contact W UMa binary. Its light curve has the appearance of an Algol (EA) light curve, however, it is made up of dwarf solar-type components with a period of only 0.4521 days. Our 34 year period study yields a sinusoidal fit or an increasing quadratic fit. The sinusoid may indicate that a third body is orbiting the close binary. The lower-limit mass of the third body is near that of the brown dwarf limit (0.095 M α). Also included is an improved ephemeris, a mass ratio search, and a simultaneous BVRI Wilson–Devinney solution.

  19. Lidocaine-prilocaine cream reduces catheter-related bladder discomfort in male patients during the general anesthesia recovery period: A prospective, randomized, case-control STROBE study.

    PubMed

    Mu, Li; Geng, Li-Cheng; Xu, Hui; Luo, Man; Geng, Jing-Miao; Li, Li

    2017-04-01

    Urethral catheterization is a predictor of agitation during the general anesthesia recovery period. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of intraurethral 5% lidocaine and 25 mg/g prilocaine cream in reducing catheter-related bladder discomfort (CRBD) in male patients during the general anesthesia recovery period. Adult male patients undergoing elective operations that required urinary catheterization under general anesthesia were enrolled and assigned randomly to 2 groups. In the lidocaine-prilocaine cream group (n = 72), approximately 5 g of topical cream was spread in the preputial sac, the glans, the meatus, and on the urinary catheter surface before urinary catheterization. In the control group (n = 74), the urinary catheter was lubricated with lidocaine gel. The incidence and severity of CRBD were assessed 15, 30, 45, and 60 minutes postoperatively. We found that the incidence of CRBD in the lidocaine-prilocaine cream group was significantly lower than in the control group. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that lidocaine-prilocaine cream applications reduced moderate or severe CRBD. Thirty minutes postoperation was the most frequent time point for the incidence of CRBD. Application of lidocaine-prilocaine cream on the surface of the urinary catheter is an efficient and safe method to reduce the incidence and severity of CRBD.

  20. Tracing the cigarette epidemic: an age-period-cohort study of education, gender and smoking using a pseudo-panel approach.

    PubMed

    Vedøy, Tord F

    2014-11-01

    This study examined if temporal variations in daily cigarette smoking and never smoking among groups with different levels of education fit the pattern proposed by the theory of diffusion of innovations (TDI), while taking into account the separate effects of age, period and birth cohort (APC). Aggregated data from nationally representative interview surveys from Norway from 1976 to 2010 was used to calculate probabilities of smoking using an APC approach in which the period variable was normalized to pick up short term cyclical effects. Results showed that educational differences in smoking over time were more strongly determined by birth cohort membership than variations in smoking behavior across the life course. The probability of daily smoking decreased faster across cohorts among higher compared to lower educated. In contrast, the change in probability of never having smoked across cohorts was similar in the two education groups, but stronger among men compared to women. Moreover, educational differences in both daily and never smoking increased among early cohorts and leveled off among late cohorts. The results emphasizes the importance of birth cohort for social change and are consistent with TDI, which posits that smoking behavior diffuse through the social structure over time.

  1. A prospective study of thoughts of self-harm and suicidal ideation during the postpartum period in women with mood disorders.

    PubMed

    Pope, Carley J; Xie, Bin; Sharma, Verinder; Campbell, M Karen

    2013-12-01

    Individuals with mood disorders are at higher risk for self-harm and suicidal ideation than other psychiatric group. However, the risk of self-harm and suicidal ideation after pregnancy for women with mood disorders is unknown. This investigation assessed the prevalence of thoughts of self-harm and suicidal ideation during the 1-year postpartum period in women with major depressive disorder or bipolar II disorder. Data were collected between June 2005 and March 2010 from a convenience sample of women participating in a study on the course of mood disorders during pregnancy and postpartum. Participant diagnosis was confirmed using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV. Thoughts of self-harm were assessed using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale item 10 and suicidal ideation was assessed using the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale item 3. During the 1-year postpartum period, 16.97 % reported thoughts of self-harm while 6.16 % reported suicidal ideation. Further, those reporting thoughts of self-harm or suicidal ideation postpartum also reported higher levels of depression and hypomanic symptoms. We found that a number of women in our sample of women with a diagnosed mood disorder report experiencing thoughts of self-harm and suicidal ideation during the postpartum.

  2. CPMD/GULP QM/MM interface for modeling periodic solids: Implementation and its application in the study of Y-zeolite supported Rhn clusters.

    PubMed

    Sahoo, Sudhir K; Nair, Nisanth N

    2016-07-05

    We report here the development of hybrid quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM/MM) interface between the plane-wave density functional theory based CPMD code and the empirical force-field based GULP code for modeling periodic solids and surfaces. The hybrid QM/MM interface is based on the electrostatic coupling between QM and MM regions. The interface is designed for carrying out full relaxation of all the QM and MM atoms during geometry optimizations and molecular dynamics simulations, including the boundary atoms. Both Born-Oppenheimer and Car-Parrinello molecular dynamics schemes are enabled for the QM part during the QM/MM calculations. This interface has the advantage of parallelization of both the programs such that the QM and MM force evaluations can be carried out in parallel to model large systems. The interface program is first validated for total energy conservation and parallel scaling performance is benchmarked. Oxygen vacancy in α-cristobalite is then studied in detail and the results are compared with a fully QM calculation and experimental data. Subsequently, we use our implementation to investigate the structure of rhodium cluster (Rhn ; n = 2 to 6) formed from Rh(C2 H4 )2 complex adsorbed within a cavity of Y-zeolite in a reducible atmosphere of H2 gas. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Period meter for reactors

    DOEpatents

    Rusch, Gordon K.

    1976-01-06

    An improved log N amplifier type nuclear reactor period meter with reduced probability for noise-induced scrams is provided. With the reactor at low power levels a sampling circuit is provided to determine the reactor period by measuring the finite change in the amplitude of the log N amplifier output signal for a predetermined time period, while at high power levels, differentiation of the log N amplifier output signal provides an additional measure of the reactor period.

  4. The Periodic Pyramid

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hennigan, Jennifer N.; Grubbs, W. Tandy

    2013-01-01

    The chemical elements present in the modern periodic table are arranged in terms of atomic numbers and chemical periodicity. Periodicity arises from quantum mechanical limitations on how many electrons can occupy various shells and subshells of an atom. The shell model of the atom predicts that a maximum of 2, 8, 18, and 32 electrons can occupy…

  5. Community College Periodicals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pederson, Eldor O.

    Drawing from an examination of community college periodicals, their availability and characteristics, the academic affiliations of contributing authors, and the topics of their articles, this paper discusses the minor role which community college periodicals appear to play. A list of 35 periodicals dealing primary with community college education…

  6. Understanding the ε and ζ High-Pressure Solid Phases of Oxygen. Systematic Periodic Density Functional Theory Studies Using Localized Atomic Basis.

    PubMed

    Ochoa-Calle, A J; Zicovich-Wilson, C M; Hernández-Lamoneda, R; Ramírez-Solís, A

    2015-03-10

    The experimentally characterized ε and ζ phases of solid oxygen are studied by periodic Hartree-Fock (HF) and Density Functional Theory calculations at pressures from 10 to 160 GPa using different types of exchange-correlation functionals with Gaussian atomic basis sets. Full geometry optimizations of the monoclinic C2/m (O2)4 unit cell were done to study the evolution of the structural and electronic properties with pressure. Vibrational calculations were performed at each pressure. While periodic HF does not predict the ε-ζ phase transition in the considered range, Local Density approximation and Generalized Gradient approximation methods predict too low transition pressures. The performance of hybrid functional methods is dependent on the amount of non-local HF exchange. PBE0, M06, B3PW91, and B3LYP approaches correctly predict the structural and electronic changes associated with the phase transition. GGA and hybrid functionals predict a pressure range where both phases coexist, but only the latter type of methods yield results in agreement with experiment. Using the optimized (O2)4 unit cell at each pressure we show, through CASSCF(8,8) calculations, that the greater accuracy of the optimized geometrical parameters with increasing pressure is due to a decreasing multireference character of the unit cell wave function. The mechanism of the transition from the non-conducting to the conducting ζ phase is explained through the Electron Pair Localization Function, which clearly reveals chemical bonding between O2 molecules in the ab crystal planes belonging to different unit cells due to much shorter intercell O2-O2 distances.

  7. Electrochemical and optical studies on model photosynthetic systems: Progress report for the period 7/1/84 to 12/1/86

    SciTech Connect

    Cotton, T.M.

    1986-12-01

    Objective of this research is to study the relation between the structure of photosynthetic pigments and their spectroscopic and electrochemical properties. Model systems under study progress from the least ordered (solutions) through the most highly ordered (Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) monolayers) systems containing BChl, BPheo, and UQ. Vesicles, intermediate between solutions and LB monolayers, are also under investigation. Molecules other than the photosynthetic pigments and quinones have been examined, including chromophores (i.e., surface active cyanine dyes and phthalocyanines) and redox active compounds (methyl viologen (MV) and surfactant ferrocenes), in order to develop the techniques needed to study the photosynthetic components. The chlorophylls are photosensitive and labile. Thus, it is easier first to develop procedures using stable species. During this period, we have focused on the application of electrochemical methods for determining the heterogeneous electron transfer rate constants of BChl and BPheo at metal electrodes (Pt and Au). We have also determined the effect of adsorption on the redox properties of quinones. Resonance Raman (RR) and surface enhanced resonance Raman (SERR) spectroscopy were used to study solution and surface species.

  8. Periodic and Quasi-Periodic Orbitsfor the Standard Map

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berretti, Alberto; Gentile, Guido

    We consider both periodic and quasi-periodic solutions for the standard map, and we study the corresponding conjugating functions, i.e. the functions conjugating the motions to trivial rotations. We compare the invariant curves with rotation numbers ω satisfying the Bryuno condition and the sequences of periodic orbits with rotation numbers given by their convergents ωN = pN/qN. We prove the following results for N--> ∞: (1) for rotation numbers ωNN we study the radius of convergence of the conjugating functions and we find lower bounds on them, which tend to a limit which is a lower bound on the corresponding quantity for ω (2) the periodic orbits consist of points which are more and more close to the invariant curve with rotation number ω (3) such orbits lie on analytical curves which tend uniformly to the invariant curve.

  9. What Are the Trends in Tonsillectomy Techniques in Wales? A Prospective Observational Study of 19,195 Tonsillectomies over a 10-Year Period

    PubMed Central

    Walijee, Hussein; Al-Hussaini, Ali; Harris, Andrew; Owens, David

    2015-01-01

    There are a multitude of techniques to undertake tonsillectomy, with hot techniques such as diathermy and coblation being associated with a higher risk of secondary haemorrhage. The UK National Prospective Tonsillectomy Audit (2004) advocated cold steel dissection and ties to be the gold standard. This prospective observational study investigates the trends in tonsillectomy techniques across Wales in the last decade to establish if surgeons have adhered to this national guidance. Data relating to tonsillectomy were extracted over a 10-year period from 1 January 2003 to 31 December 2012 from the Wales Surgical Instrument Surveillance Programme database. A total of 19,195 patients were included. Time-series analysis using linear regression showed there was an increase in the number of bipolar diathermy tonsillectomies by 84% (Pearson's r = 0.762, p = 0.010) and coblation tonsillectomies by 120% (r = 0.825, p = 0.003). In contrast, there was a fall in the number of cold steel dissection tonsillectomies with ties by 60% (r = −0.939, p < 0.001). This observational study suggests that the use of bipolar and coblation techniques for tonsillectomy has increased. This deviation from national guidance may be due to these techniques being faster with less intraoperative bleeding. Further study for the underlying reasons for the increase in these techniques is warranted. PMID:26693228

  10. An open-label, two-period comparative study on pharmacokinetics and safety of a combined ethinylestradiol/gestodene transdermal contraceptive patch.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chao; Li, Haiyan; Xiong, Xin; Zhai, Suodi; Wei, Yudong; Zhang, Shuang; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Xu, Lin; Liu, Li

    2017-01-01

    We investigated the pharmacokinetics and safety profiles of a newly developed combined ethinylestradiol (EE)/gestodene (GSD) transdermal contraceptive patch after a single-dose administration and compared with the market available tablet formulation in healthy adult subjects. An open-label, two-period comparative study was conducted in 12 healthy women volunteers. A single dose of the study combined EE/GE transdermal contraceptive patch and oral tablet (Milunet(®)) were administered. Blood samples at different time points after dose were collected, and concentrations were analyzed. A reliable, highly sensitive and accurate high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC/MS/MS) assay method was developed in this study to determine the plasma concentrations of EE and GSD. Compared to the tablet, the study patch had a significantly decreased maximum plasma concentration (Cmax), extended time to reach the Cmax and half-life, as well as increased clearance and apparent volume of distribution. The half-lives of EE and GSD of the patch were 3.3 and 2.2 times, respectively, than the half-life of the tablet. The areas under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUCs) of EE and GSD of the patch were 8.0 and 16.2 times, respectively, than the AUC of the tablet. No severe adverse event was observed during the whole study, and the general safety was acceptable. In conclusion, compared to the oral tablet Milunet, the study contraceptive patch was well tolerated and showed potent drug exposure, significant extended half-life and stable drug concentrations.

  11. An open-label, two-period comparative study on pharmacokinetics and safety of a combined ethinylestradiol/gestodene transdermal contraceptive patch

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Chao; Li, Haiyan; Xiong, Xin; Zhai, Suodi; Wei, Yudong; Zhang, Shuang; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Xu, Lin; Liu, Li

    2017-01-01

    We investigated the pharmacokinetics and safety profiles of a newly developed combined ethinylestradiol (EE)/gestodene (GSD) transdermal contraceptive patch after a single-dose administration and compared with the market available tablet formulation in healthy adult subjects. An open-label, two-period comparative study was conducted in 12 healthy women volunteers. A single dose of the study combined EE/GE transdermal contraceptive patch and oral tablet (Milunet®) were administered. Blood samples at different time points after dose were collected, and concentrations were analyzed. A reliable, highly sensitive and accurate high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC/MS/MS) assay method was developed in this study to determine the plasma concentrations of EE and GSD. Compared to the tablet, the study patch had a significantly decreased maximum plasma concentration (Cmax), extended time to reach the Cmax and half-life, as well as increased clearance and apparent volume of distribution. The half-lives of EE and GSD of the patch were 3.3 and 2.2 times, respectively, than the half-life of the tablet. The areas under the plasma concentration–time curve (AUCs) of EE and GSD of the patch were 8.0 and 16.2 times, respectively, than the AUC of the tablet. No severe adverse event was observed during the whole study, and the general safety was acceptable. In conclusion, compared to the oral tablet Milunet, the study contraceptive patch was well tolerated and showed potent drug exposure, significant extended half-life and stable drug concentrations. PMID:28331292

  12. Single d-metal atoms on F(s) and F(s+) defects of MgO(001): a theoretical study across the periodic table.

    PubMed

    Neyman, Konstantin M; Inntam, Chan; Matveev, Alexei V; Nasluzov, Vladimir A; Rösch, Notker

    2005-08-24

    Single d-metal atoms on oxygen defects F(s) and F(s+) of the MgO(001) surface were studied theoretically. We employed an accurate density functional method combined with cluster models, embedded in an elastic polarizable environment, and we applied two gradient-corrected exchange-correlation functionals. In this way, we quantified how 17 metal atoms from groups 6-11 of the periodic table (Cu, Ag, Au; Ni, Pd, Pt; Co, Rh, Ir; Fe, Ru, Os; Mn, Re; and Cr, Mo, W) interact with terrace sites of MgO. We found bonding with F(s) and F(s+) defects to be in general stronger than that with O2- sites, except for Mn-, Re-, and Fe/F(s) complexes. In M/F(s) systems, electron density is accumulated on the metal center in a notable fashion. The binding energy on both kinds of O defects increases from 3d- to 4d- to 5d-atoms of a given group, at variance with the binding energy trend established earlier for the M/O2- complexes, 4d < 3d < 5d. Regarding the evolution of the binding energy along a period, group 7 atoms are slightly destabilized compared to their group 6 congeners in both the F(s) and F(s+) complexes; for later transition elements, the binding energy increases gradually up to group 10 and finally decreases again in group 11, most strongly on the F(s) site. This trend is governed by the negative charge on the adsorbed atoms. We discuss implications for an experimental detection of metal atoms on oxide supports based on computed core-level energies.

  13. Prevalence of psychiatric morbidity and psychological adaptation of the nurses in a structured SARS caring unit during outbreak: a prospective and periodic assessment study in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Su, Tung-Ping; Lien, Te-Cheng; Yang, Chih-Yi; Su, Yiet Ling; Wang, Jia-Horng; Tsai, Sing-Ling; Yin, Jeo-Chen

    2007-01-01

    To assess the rapidly changing psychological status of nurses during the acute phase of the 2003 SARS outbreak, we conducted a prospective and periodic evaluation of psychiatric morbidity and psychological adaptation among nurses in SARS units and non-SARS units. Nurse participants were from two SARS units (regular SARS [N=44] and SARS ICU [N=26]) and two non-SARS units (Neurology [N=15] and CCU [N=17]). Participants periodically self-evaluated their depression, anxiety, post-traumatic stress symptoms, sleep disturbance, attitude towards SARS and family support. Results showed that depression (38.5% vs. 3.1%) and insomnia (37% vs. 9.7%) were, respectively, greater in the SARS unit nurses than the non-SARS unit nurses. No difference between these two groups was found in the prevalence of post-traumatic stress symptoms (33% vs. 18.7%), yet, three unit subjects (SARS ICU, SARS regular and Neurology) had significantly higher rate than those in CCU (29.7% vs. 11.8%, respectively) (p<0.05). For the SARS unit nurses, significant reduction in mood ratings, insomnia rate and perceived negative feelings as well as increasing knowledge and understanding of SARS at the end of the study (all p<0.001) indicated that a gradual psychological adaptation had occurred. The adjustment of nurses in the more structured SARS ICU environment, where nurses care for even more severely ill patients, may have been as good or better than that of nurses in the regular SARS unit. Occurrence of psychiatric symptoms was linked to direct exposure to SARS patient care, previous mood disorder history, younger age and perceived negative feelings. Positive coping attitude and strong social and family support may have protected against acute stress. In conclusion, the psychological impact on the caring staffs facing future bio-disaster will be minimized with lowered risk factors and a safer and more structured work environment.

  14. SU-E-T-639: A Study On the Response of 2D Array Detector for VMAT Delivery for a Period of Two Years

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, Syam; George, Anu

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the 2D array for radiation response for a period of 2 years. Methods: 45 VMAT plans already treated and quality assured before 2 years, 1.5 years and 1 year were selected for the study. Quality assurances of the plans were done using 2D array combined with Octavius phantom. Verification plans were recalculated without changing any parameters in Eclipse 10.0 TPS using the AAA algorithm. Response of 2D array to the plans treated before 2 years, 1.5 years and 1 year where evaluated. The results were analyzed using the Gamma analysis method with the standard gamma passing criteria of 3mm distance to agreement (DTA) and 3% dose difference (DD). Results: All the plans evaluated passed the gamma analysis with a percentage greater than 95, except for three cases. Higher gamma passing criteria where observed for all the analyzed plans, when analysis done before 2 years, 1.5 years and 1 year. The standard deviation of ± 1.38, ± 1.40,± 0.97 where observed between the plans when verification plans did before 2 years, 1.5 years and 1 year respectively. Same set of plans shows a standard deviation of ± 0.70, ± 1.36, and ± 1.18, when analysis done recently. A significance difference in response of the array when analysis done recently for the verification plans treated and quality assured before 2 years.This indicates a slightly reduced response of 2D array towards radiation response as the array gets older. Conclusion: It is found that 2D array shows a reduced response against radiation detection over a period of years. An onsite calibration of the instrument is recommended before the measurements. A dose correction factor can be applied if necessary to the results if the radiation response and efficiency of the array is very poor.

  15. Periodontal health status and implication of periodic acid–Schiff diastase - a key in exfoliative cytology among diabetics mellitus patients: A case–control study

    PubMed Central

    Imran, Aesha; Parakh, Mayank Kumar; Kumar, Satish Muthu; Nachiammai, N.; Sriram, K.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The objectives of the study are: (i) To determine if periodic acid–Schiff (PAS)-Diastase is an effective tool to diagnose DM noninvasively, (ii) to use three different types of staining procedures to identify the staining pattern over the exfoliated cells of normal and diabetic patients, (iii) to study the periodontal health status of DM and normal subjects. Materials and Methods: Basic questions regarding the demographic data were asked, following which community periodontal index (CPI) was recorded. Oral smears were collected from clinically normal buccal mucosa of 150 patients using wooden tongue spatulas. The subjects were asked to gargle their mouth with water and the wooden spatula was scraped at the site from buccal mucosa. The smears were spread evenly on a dry clean glass slide and fixed immediately with absolute ethyl alcohol. Three slides were prepared for each of the patients. PAS, PAS with diastase digestion, and Papanicolaou staining were performed and examined under a microscope. Results: Average CPI for study subjects was 3.2 and control subjects was 2.1. The average loss of attachment was 1.1 in the study group and 0.2 in the control group (P - 0.00) and the result are statistically highly significant. All the 150 cases (100%) were positive for PAS staining, while PAS-diastase (PAS-D) staining showed positivity only for normal subjects and was negative (100%) in the diabetic group (P - 0.00) and the result are statistically highly significant. Conclusions: Results of our study showed that exfoliative cytology of the oral cavity, when stained with PAS and PAS-D, can be used as an effective screening and diagnostic tool for DM patients. PMID:28042261

  16. Chaos in Periodic Discrete Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Yuming; Zhang, Lijuan; Yu, Panpan; Huang, Qiuling

    This paper focuses on chaos in periodic discrete systems, whose state space may vary with time. Some close relationships between some chaotic dynamical behaviors of a periodic discrete system and its autonomous induced system are given. Based on these relationships, several criteria of chaos are established and some sufficient conditions for no chaos are given for periodic discrete systems. Further, it is shown that a finite-dimensional linear periodic discrete system is not chaotic in the sense of Li-Yorke or Wiggins. In particular, an interesting problem of whether nonchaotic rules may generate a chaotic system is studied, with some examples provided, one of which surprisingly shows that a composition of globally asymptotically stable maps can be chaotic. In addition, some properties of sign pattern matrices of non-negative square matrices are given for convenience of the study.

  17. A Study of the Development of Steady and Periodic Unsteady Turbulent Wakes Through Curved Channels at Positive, Zero, and Negative Streamwise Pressure Gradients, Part 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schobeiri, M. T.; John, J.

    1996-01-01

    The turbomachinery wake flow development is largely influenced by streamline curvature and streamwise pressure gradient. The objective of this investigation is to study the development of the wake under the influence of streamline curvature and streamwise pressure gradient. The experimental investigation is carried out in two phases. The first phase involves the study of the wake behind a stationary circular cylinder (steady wake) in curved channels at positive, zero, and negative streamwise pressure gradients. The mean velocity and Reynolds stress components are measured using a X-hot-film probe. The measured quantities obtained in probe coordinates are transformed to a curvilinear coordinate system along the wake centerline and are presented in similarity coordinates. The results of the steady wakes suggest strong asymmetry in velocity and Reynolds stress components. However, the velocity defect profiles in similarity coordinates are almost symmetrical and follow the same distribution as the zero pressure gradient straight wake. The results of Reynolds stress distributions show higher values on the inner side of the wake than the outer side. Other quantities, including the decay of maximum velocity defect, growth of wake width, and wake integral parameters, are also presented for the three different pressure gradient cases of steady wake. The decay rate of velocity defect is fastest for the negative streamwise pressure gradient case and slowest for the positive pressure gradient case. Conversely, the growth of the wake width is fastest for the positive streamwise pressure gradient case and slowest for the negative streamwise pressure gradient. The second phase studies the development of periodic unsteady wakes generated by the circular cylinders of the rotating wake generator in a curved channel at zero streamwise pressure gradient. Instantaneous velocity components of the periodic unsteady wakes, measured with a stationary X-hot-film probe, are analyzed by the

  18. Business Education Index 1987. Volume 48. Index of Business Education Articles, Research Studies, and Textbooks Compiled from a Selected List of Periodicals, Publishers, and Yearbooks Published during the Year 1987.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCauley, Rosemarie, Ed.

    1988-01-01

    This index lists business education articles, research studies, and textbooks that were compiled from a selected list of periodicals, publishers, and yearbooks published during 1987. A total of 19 general publications and 48 periodicals were indexed. The materials are indexed under 94 subject headings, including the following: accounting,…

  19. Prospective study of telephone calls to a hotline for infectious disease consultation: analysis of 7,863 solicited consultations over a 1-year period.

    PubMed

    Gennai, S; François, P; Sellier, E; Vittoz, J-P; Hincky-Vitrat, V; Pavese, P

    2011-04-01

    To respond to the increasing requests of non-infectious disease physicians for access to infectious diseases expertise, a hotline was created in the infectious diseases consultation (IDC) unit of the Grenoble university-affiliated hospital (GUH). This study describes the patterns of solicited consultations provided by the hotline during a 1-year period. We conducted a prospective study of consecutive solicited IDCs requested by physicians in 2008. A total of 7,863 consultations were requested by physicians over 1 year; 4,407 (56.0%) by ambulatory physicians, 2,933 (37.3%) by GUH physicians, and 523 (6.7%) by physicians in public or private hospitals. The majority of consultations were requested via cell phone (58.7%). The main reasons for requesting a consultation were related to antimicrobial treatment for hospital-based physicians and prophylaxis for ambulatory physicians (p < 0.001). Recommendations to perform diagnostic or monitoring tests were less frequent in ambulatory medicine (16%) than in the GUH (59%) or other hospitals (63%, p < 0.001). The route of consultation for patients with nosocomial infections was more likely to be formal (p < 0.001). The activity of the IDC hotline attests to an important need for such expertise consultation, both in hospitals and in ambulatory medicine.

  20. The use of MRI to detect occult fractures of the proximal femur: a study of 102 consecutive cases over a ten-year period.

    PubMed

    Sankey, R A; Turner, J; Lee, J; Healy, J; Gibbons, C E R

    2009-08-01

    An MR scan was performed on all patients who presented to our hospital with a clinical diagnosis of a fracture of the proximal femur, but who had no abnormality on plain radiographs. This was a prospective study of 102 consecutive patients over a ten-year period. There were 98 patients who fulfilled our inclusion criteria, of whom 75 were scanned within 48 hours of admission, with an overall mean time between admission and scanning of 2.4 days (0 to 10). A total of 81 patients (83%) had abnormalities detected on MRI; 23 (23%) required operative management. The use of MRI led to the early diagnosis and treatment of occult hip pathology. We recommend that incomplete intertrochanteric fractures are managed non-operatively with protected weight-bearing. The study illustrates the high incidence of fractures which are not apparent on plain radiographs, and shows that MRI is useful when diagnosing other pathology such as malignancy, which may not be apparent on plain films.

  1. Surgical Treatment of 55 Patients with Pressure Ulcers at the Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery Kosovo during the Period 2000-2010: A Retrospective Study.

    PubMed

    Duci, Shkelzen B; Arifi, Hysni M; Selmani, Mimoza E; Mekaj, Agon Y; Gashi, Musli M; Buja, Zejn A; Ismajli, Vildane H; Kllokoqi, Adem N; Hoxha, Enver T

    2013-01-01

    Objective. The objective of this study is to determine the incidence of PUs, the distribution of PUs, common injuries contributing to the occurrence of PUs in patients admitted to the Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery Kosovo for surgical interventions of PUs, localization of PUs in body, the topical treatment of pressure ulcers before surgical intervention, the methods of surgical interventions, number of surgical interventions, duration of treatment, complications, and mortality. Materials and Methods. This study includes 55 patients with PUs treated surgically in 2000-2010 period in the Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery Kosovo. The data were collected and analyzed from the archives and protocols of the University Clinical Center of Kosovo. Data processing was done with the statistical package In Stat 3. From statistical parameters arithmetic median and standard deviation were calculated. Data testing is done with χ (2)-test and the difference is significant if P < 0.05. Conclusion. Despite preventive measures against PUs, the incidence of Pus remains high.

  2. PBE–DFT theoretical study of organic photovoltaic materials based on thiophene with 1D and 2D periodic boundary conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Saïl, K. Bassou, G.; Gafour, M. H.; Miloua, F.

    2015-12-15

    Conjugated organic systems such as thiophene are interesting topics in the field of organic solar cells. We theoretically investigate π-conjugated polymers constituted by n units (n = 1–11) based on the thiophene (Tn) molecule. The computations of the geometries and electronic structures of these compounds are performed using the density functional theory (DFT) at the 6–31 G(d, p) level of theory and the Perdew–Burke–Eenzerhof (PBE) formulation of the generalized gradient approximation with periodic boundary conditions (PBCs) in one (1D) and two (2D) dimensions. Moreover, the electronic properties (HOCO, LUCO, E{sub gap}, V{sub oc}, and V{sub bi}) are determined from 1D and 2D PBC to understand the effect of the number of rings in polythiophene. The absorption properties—excitation energies (E{sub ex}), the maximal absorption wavelength (λ{sub max}), oscillator strengths, and light harvesting—efficiency are studied using the time-dependent DFT method. Our studies show that changing the number of thiophene units can effectively modulate the electronic and optical properties. On the other hand, our work demonstrates the efficiency of theoretical calculation in the PBCs.

  3. Periodic chiral structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaggard, Dwight L.; Engheta, Nader; Pelet, Philippe; Liu, John C.; Kowarz, Marek W.; Kim, Yunjin

    1989-01-01

    The electromagnetic properties of a structure that is both chiral and periodic are investigated using coupled-mode equations. The periodicity is described by a sinusoidal perturbation of the permittivity, permeability, and chiral admittance. The coupled-mode equations are derived from physical considerations and used to examine bandgap structure and reflected and transmitted fields. Chirality is observed predominantly in transmission, whereas periodicity is present in both reflection and transmission.

  4. Determinants of Aortic Root Dilatation and Reference Values Among Young Adults Over a 20-Year Period: Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults Study.

    PubMed

    Teixido-Tura, Gisela; Almeida, Andre L C; Choi, Eui-Young; Gjesdal, Ola; Jacobs, David R; Dietz, Harry C; Liu, Kiang; Sidney, Stephen; Lewis, Cora E; Garcia-Dorado, David; Evangelista, Artur; Gidding, Samuel; Lima, João A C

    2015-07-01

    Aortic size increases with age, but factors related to such dilatation in healthy young adult population have not been studied. We aim to evaluate changes in aortic dimensions and its principal correlates among young adults over a 20-year time period. Reference values for aortic dimensions in young adults by echocardiography are also provided. Healthy Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study participants aged 23 to 35 years in 1990-1991 (n=3051) were included after excluding 18 individuals with significant valvular dysfunction. Aortic root diameter (ARD) by M-mode echocardiography at year-5 (43.7% men; age, 30.2 ± 3.6 years) and year-25 CARDIA exams was obtained. Univariable and multivariable analyses were performed to assess associations of ARD with clinical data at years-5 and -25. ARD from year-5 was used to establish reference values of ARD in healthy young adults. ARD at year-25 was greater in men (33.3 ± 3.7 versus 28.7 ± 3.4 mm; P<0.001) and in whites (30.9 ± 4.3 versus 30.5 ± 4.1 mm; P=0.006). On multivariable analysis, ARD at year-25 was positively correlated with male sex, white ethnicity, age, height, weight, 20-year gain in weight, active smoking at baseline, and 20-year increase in diastolic, systolic, and mean arterial pressure. A figure showing the estimated 95th percentile of ARD by age and body surface area stratified by race and sex is provided. This study demonstrates that smoking, blood pressure, and increase in body weight are the main modifiable correlates of aortic root dilation during young adulthood. Our study also provides reference values for ARD in young adults.

  5. Oceans: Our Continuing Frontier. A Study Guide for Courses by Newspaper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawkins, Helen S.

    This study guide is one of several supplementary materials for a 16-week newspaper course about oceans. Learning objectives are to help students understand the potential value of the sea, major sources of pollution, contribution of marine archaeology to knowledge of ancient civilizations, and the decline in fictional writing about the sea. Content…

  6. Comparing the Principle-Based SBH Maieutic Method to Traditional Case Study Methods of Teaching Media Ethics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grant, Thomas A.

    2012-01-01

    This quasi-experimental study at a Northwest university compared two methods of teaching media ethics, a class taught with the principle-based SBH Maieutic Method (n = 25) and a class taught with a traditional case study method (n = 27), with a control group (n = 21) that received no ethics training. Following a 16-week intervention, a one-way…

  7. Study protocol for a randomised controlled trial to test the effectiveness of providing information on childbirth and postnatal period to partners of pregnant women

    PubMed Central

    Takehara, Kenji; Okamura, Makoto; Sugiura, Naomi; Suto, Maiko; Sasaki, Hatoko; Mori, Rintaro

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The objective of this study is to investigate the effect of the distribution of a booklet providing information to fathers during their partners' pregnancies on fathers' and mothers' postpartum mental health and quality of life (QOL), as well as on fathers' childcare participation and living situations. Methods and analysis This randomised controlled trial will comprise 554 couples consisting of pregnant women due to give birth at an obstetric institution in Aichi Prefecture, Japan and their partners. Participants will be recruited during prenatal check-ups in the third trimester, and those who provide written consent will be allocated randomly to an intervention and a control group. The pregnant women's partners allocated to the intervention group will be given a booklet written for men containing information on childbirth and postnatal period. Its content will include matters such as what preparations the partner should make before birth and tips for housework and childcare as well as how to prevent unintentional injury to the baby. The control group will not receive any intervention. A baseline survey in the third trimester and follow-up surveys at 1 and 3 months post partum will be carried out using self-administered questionnaires. The primary outcome is the proportion of new mothers' partners at risk for paternal depression (Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale score ≥8). Secondary outcomes include the risk of postnatal depression in new mothers, QOL of new mothers and their partners, partners' knowledge of and engagement in housework and childcare, marital relations and parenting stress on the part of new mothers. Ethics and dissemination This study has been approved by the Ethical Committee at the National Center for Child Health and Development, Tokyo, Japan. The results of the study will be widely disseminated as peer-reviewed papers and at international conferences, with the aim of improving public health services in Japan. Trial

  8. The Living Periodic Table

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nahlik, Mary Schrodt

    2005-01-01

    To help make the abstract world of chemistry more concrete eighth-grade students, the author has them create a living periodic table that can be displayed in the classroom or hallway. This display includes information about the elements arranged in the traditional periodic table format, but also includes visual real-world representations of the…

  9. Multidimensional period doubling structures.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jeong Yup; Flom, Dvir; Ben-Abraham, Shelomo I

    2016-05-01

    This paper develops the formalism necessary to generalize the period doubling sequence to arbitrary dimension by straightforward extension of the substitution and recursion rules. It is shown that the period doubling structures of arbitrary dimension are pure point diffractive. The symmetries of the structures are pointed out.

  10. Latent Period of Relaxation.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, M; Irisawa, H

    1961-10-27

    The latent period of relaxation of molluscan myocardium due to anodal current is much longer than that of contraction. Although the rate and the grade of relaxation are intimately related to both the stimulus condition and the muscle tension, the latent period of relaxation remains constant, except when the temperature of the bathing fluid is changed.

  11. Basis sets for ab initio periodic Hartree-Fock studies of zeolite/adsorbate interactions: He, Ne, and Ar in silica sodalite

    SciTech Connect

    Nada, R.; Nicholas, J.B.; McCarthy, M.I.; Hess, A.C.

    1996-11-15

    Silica sodalite is an ideal model system to establish base-line computer requirements of ab initio periodic Hartree-Fock (PHF) calculations of zeolites. In this article, the authors investigate the effect of various basis sets on the structural and electronic properties of bulk silica sodalite. They also study the interaction of He, Ne, and Ar with the sodalite cage. This work shows that basis-set superposition errors (BSSE) in calculations using STO-3G and 6-21G(*) basis sets are as large as the interaction energies, leading to poor confidence in the results. To cure this problem, the authors present high-quality basis sets for si, O, He, Ne, and Ar, optimized for use with PHF methods, and demonstrate that the new basis set greatly reduces BSSE. The theoretical barriers for transfer of the rare gases between sodalite cages are 5.6, 13.2, and 62.1 kcal/mol for He, Ne, and Ar. 27 refs., 6 figs., 8 tabs.

  12. Periodic density functional theory study of ethylene hydrogenation over Co3O4 (1 1 1) surface: The critical role of oxygen vacancies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Jinhui; Song, JiaJia; Niu, Hongling; Pan, Lun; Zhang, Xiangwen; Wang, Li; Zou, Ji-Jun

    2016-05-01

    Recently, metal oxides are attracting increasing interests as hydrogenation catalyst. Herein we studied the hydrogenation of ethylene on perfect and oxygen defective Co3O4 (1 1 1) using periodic density functional theory. The energetics and pathways of ethylene hydrogenation to ethane were determined. We have demonstrated that (i) H2 dissociation on Co3O4 is a complicated two-step process through a heterolytic cleavage, followed by the migration of H atom and finally yields the homolytic product on both perfect and oxygen defective Co3O4 (1 1 1) surfaces easily. (ii) After introducing the surface oxygen vacancy, the stepwise hydrogenation of ethylene by atomic hydrogen is much easier than that on perfect surface due to the weaker bond strength of OH group. The strength of Osbnd H bond is a crucial factor for the hydrogenation reaction which involves the breakage of Osbnd H bond. The formation of oxygen vacancy increases the electronic charges at the adjacent surface O, which reduces its capability of further gaining electrons from adsorbed atomic hydrogen and then weakens the strength of Osbnd H bond. These results emphasize the importance of the oxygen vacancies for hydrogenation on metal oxides.

  13. Progressing Pollutant Elution from Snowpack and Evolution of its Physicochemical Properties During Melting Period-a Case Study From the Sudetes, Poland.

    PubMed

    Kępski, Daniel; Błaś, Marek; Sobik, Mieczysław; Polkowska, Żaneta; Grudzińska, Katarzyna

    Main aim of the work assumed recognition of physicochemical changes in snowpack occurring during the melting period. Properties of snow cover had been identified at two sites in Western Sudetes mountains (860 and 1228 m asl) in SW Poland since the end of January, and monitored until the disappearance of snow in late Spring. Snow pit measurements and sample collection at both sites were made followed by chemical analyses with the use of ionic chromatography. The results were compared for subsequent stages of snowpack evolution. Thermometers installed above the ground during summer in one site (860 m asl) helped to identify the thermal gradient existing inside snow during winter. During studies, special attention was paid to the pollutant elution with determination the different release rates of individual ions from the snow cover. Results of chemical analysis showed that during the thaw, the first portions of meltwater were responsible for drainage into the ground a substantial part of the impurities. During the first two weeks of thaw at higher elevated site, pollutants released from the snow cover load amounted to 123.5 mMol·m(-2). In those days, there was a release to the ground of approximately 74, 74, and 57 %, respectively of H(+), NO(3-), and SO4(2-) ions contained in the snow cover, while only 14 % of snow mass in the form of meltwater was released.

  14. Molecular Epidemiology of Invasive Listeriosis due to Listeria monocytogenes in a Spanish Hospital over a Nine-Year Study Period, 2006–2014

    PubMed Central

    Ariza-Miguel, Jaime; Fernández-Natal, María Isabel; Soriano, Francisco; Hernández, Marta; Stessl, Beatrix; Rodríguez-Lázaro, David

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the pathogenicity, invasiveness, and genetic relatedness of 17 clinical Listeria monocytogenes stains isolated over a period of nine years (2006–2014). All isolates were phenotypically characterised and growth patterns were determined. The antimicrobial susceptibility of L. monocytogenes isolates was determined in E-tests. Invasion assays were performed with epithelial HeLa cells. Finally, L. monocytogenes isolates were subtyped by PFGE and MLST. All isolates had similar phenotypic characteristics (β-haemolysis and lecithinase activity), and three types of growth curve were observed. Bacterial recovery rates after invasion assays ranged from 0.09% to 7.26% (1.62 ± 0.46). MLST identified 11 sequence types (STs), and 14 PFGE profiles were obtained, indicating a high degree of genetic diversity. Genetic studies unequivocally revealed the occurrence of one outbreak of listeriosis in humans that had not previously been reported. This outbreak occurred in October 2009 and affected three patients from neighbouring towns. In conclusion, the molecular epidemiological analysis clearly revealed a cluster (three human cases, all ST1) of not previously reported listeriosis cases in northwestern Spain. Our findings indicate that molecular subtyping, in combination with epidemiological case analysis, is essential and should be implemented in routine diagnosis, to improve the tracing of the sources of outbreaks. PMID:26539467

  15. Does Cancer Literature Reflect Multidisciplinary Practice? A Systematic Review of Oncology Studies in the Medical Literature Over a 20-Year Period

    SciTech Connect

    Holliday, Emma B.; Ahmed, Awad A.; Yoo, Stella K.; Jagsi, Reshma; Hoffman, Karen E.

    2015-07-15

    Purpose: Quality cancer care is best delivered through a multidisciplinary approach requiring awareness of current evidence for all oncologic specialties. The highest impact journals often disseminate such information, so the distribution and characteristics of oncology studies by primary intervention (local therapies, systemic therapies, and targeted agents) were evaluated in 10 high-impact journals over a 20-year period. Methods and Materials: Articles published in 1994, 2004, and 2014 in New England Journal of Medicine, Lancet, Journal of the American Medical Association, Lancet Oncology, Journal of Clinical Oncology, Annals of Oncology, Radiotherapy and Oncology, International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics, Annals of Surgical Oncology, and European Journal of Surgical Oncology were identified. Included studies were prospectively conducted and evaluated a therapeutic intervention. Results: A total of 960 studies were included: 240 (25%) investigated local therapies, 551 (57.4%) investigated systemic therapies, and 169 (17.6%) investigated targeted therapies. More local therapy trials (n=185 [77.1%]) evaluated definitive, primary treatment than systemic (n=178 [32.3%]) or targeted therapy trials (n=38 [22.5%]; P<.001). Local therapy trials (n=16 [6.7%]) also had significantly lower rates of industry funding than systemic (n=207 [37.6%]) and targeted therapy trials (n=129 [76.3%]; P<.001). Targeted therapy trials represented 5 (2%), 38 (10.2%), and 126 (38%) of those published in 1994, 2004, and 2014, respectively (P<.001), and industry-funded 48 (18.9%), 122 (32.6%), and 182 (54.8%) trials, respectively (P<.001). Compared to publication of systemic therapy trial articles, articles investigating local therapy (odds ratio: 0.025 [95% confidence interval: 0.012-0.048]; P<.001) were less likely to be found in high-impact general medical journals. Conclusions: Fewer studies evaluating local therapies, such as surgery and radiation, are published in

  16. Antiferromagnetic vs. non-magnetic ε phase of solid oxygen. Periodic density functional theory studies using a localized atomic basis set and the role of exact exchange.

    PubMed

    Ramírez-Solís, A; Zicovich-Wilson, C M; Hernández-Lamoneda, R; Ochoa-Calle, A J

    2017-01-25

    The question of the non-magnetic (NM) vs. antiferromagnetic (AF) nature of the ε phase of solid oxygen is a matter of great interest and continuing debate. In particular, it has been proposed that the ε phase is actually composed of two phases, a low-pressure AF ε1 phase and a higher pressure NM ε0 phase [Crespo et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A., 2014, 111, 10427]. We address this problem through periodic spin-restricted and spin-polarized Kohn-Sham density functional theory calculations at pressures from 10 to 50 GPa using calibrated GGA and hybrid exchange-correlation functionals with Gaussian atomic basis sets. The two possible configurations for the antiferromagnetic (AF1 and AF2) coupling of the 0 ≤ S ≤ 1 O2 molecules in the (O2)4 unit cell were studied. Full enthalpy-driven geometry optimizations of the (O2)4 unit cells were done to study the pressure evolution of the enthalpy difference between the non-magnetic and both antiferromagnetic structures. We also address the evolution of structural parameters and the spin-per-molecule vs. pressure. We find that the spin-less solution becomes more stable than both AF structures above 50 GPa and, crucially, the spin-less solution yields lattice parameters in much better agreement with experimental data at all pressures than the AF structures. The optimized AF2 broken-symmetry structures lead to large errors of the a and b lattice parameters when compared with experiments. The results for the NM model are in much better agreement with the experimental data than those found for both AF models and are consistent with a completely non-magnetic (O2)4 unit cell for the low-pressure regime of the ε phase.

  17. Studies on time of death estimation in the early post mortem period -- application of a method based on eyeball temperature measurement to human bodies.

    PubMed

    Kaliszan, Michał

    2013-09-01

    This paper presents a verification of the thermodynamic model allowing an estimation of the time of death (TOD) by calculating the post mortem interval (PMI) based on a single eyeball temperature measurement at the death scene. The study was performed on 30 cases with known PMI, ranging from 1h 35min to 5h 15min, using pin probes connected to a high precision electronic thermometer (Dostmann-electronic). The measured eye temperatures ranged from 20.2 to 33.1°C. Rectal temperature was measured at the same time and ranged from 32.8 to 37.4°C. Ambient temperatures which ranged from -1 to 24°C, environmental conditions (still air to light wind) and the amount of hair on the head were also recorded every time. PMI was calculated using a formula based on Newton's law of cooling, previously derived and successfully tested in comprehensive studies on pigs and a few human cases. Thanks to both the significantly faster post mortem decrease of eye temperature and a residual or nonexistent plateau effect in the eye, as well as practically no influence of body mass, TOD in the human death cases could be estimated with good accuracy. The highest TOD estimation error during the post mortem intervals up to around 5h was 1h 16min, 1h 14min and 1h 03min, respectively in three cases among 30, while for the remaining 27 cases it was not more than 47min. The mean error for all 30 cases was ±31min. All that indicates that the proposed method is of quite good precision in the early post mortem period, with an accuracy of ±1h for a 95% confidence interval. On the basis of the presented method, TOD can be also calculated at the death scene with the use of a proposed portable electronic device (TOD-meter).

  18. Genealogy of periodic trajectories

    SciTech Connect

    de Adguiar, M.A.M.; Maldta, C.P.; de Passos, E.J.V.

    1986-05-20

    The periodic solutions of non-integrable classical Hamiltonian systems with two degrees of freedom are numerically investigated. Curves of periodic families are given in plots of energy vs. period. Results are presented for this Hamiltonian: H = 1/2(p/sub x//sup 2/ + p/sub y//sup 2/) + 1/2 x/sup 2/ + 3/2 y/sup 2/ - x/sup 2/y + 1/12 x/sup 4/. Properties of the families of curves are pointed out. (LEW)

  19. Periodically poled silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hon, Nick K.; Tsia, Kevin K.; Solli, Daniel R.; Jalali, Bahram

    2009-03-01

    We propose a new class of photonic devices based on periodic stress fields in silicon that enable second-order nonlinearity as well as quasi-phase matching. Periodically poled silicon (PePSi) adds the periodic poling capability to silicon photonics and allows the excellent crystal quality and advanced manufacturing capabilities of silicon to be harnessed for devices based on second-order nonlinear effects. As an example of the utility of the PePSi technology, we present simulations showing that midwave infrared radiation can be efficiently generated through difference frequency generation from near-infrared with a conversion efficiency of 50%.

  20. Healing of onlay mandibular bone grafts covered with collagen membrane or bovine bone substitutes: a microscopical and immunohistochemical study in the sheep.

    PubMed

    Adeyemo, W L; Reuther, T; Bloch, W; Korkmaz, Y; Fischer, J H; Zöller, J E; Kuebler, A C

    2008-07-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the role of collagen membrane and Bio-Oss coverage in healing of an onlay graft to the mandible. Twelve adult sheep each received an onlay bone graft (experiment 1), bone graft+Bio-Gide (experiment 2), and bone graft+Bio-Oss/Bio-Gide (experiment 3) on the lateral surface of the mandible. The animals were euthanized at 4, 8, 12 or 16 weeks after surgery, and findings were analysed by routine microscopy and immunohistochemistry for proliferation (Ki67) and apoptotic (Caspase-3) markers. Grafts were fully incorporated in all specimens. Pronounced resorption was observed in experiment 1. Minimal loss of graft volume was seen in experiment 2 specimens without membrane displacement. A remarkable increase in the augmented region of the mandible was observed in experiment 3. A high number of osteoclasts were expressed within the grafts during the early healing period, and thereafter declined markedly. Osteoblasts within the grafts expressed a moderate level of Ki67 at 8 weeks, which thereafter declined markedly. The strongest expression of Caspase-3 on the bone surface was observed after 16 weeks. In conclusion, the effect of collagen membrane coverage on bone graft volume maintenance was dependent on membrane stability during healing. An autogenous bone graft covered with Bio-Oss particles resulted in a remarkable increase in augmented lateral surface of the mandible. The late stage of bone graft healing was associated with a high apoptotic induction pathway of osteoblasts lining the surfaces of the new bone, demonstrated by strong positive Caspase-3 immunoreactivity.

  1. Setting the Periodic Table.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saturnelli, Annette

    1985-01-01

    Examines problems resulting from different forms of the periodic table, indicating that New York State schools use a form reflecting the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry's 1984 recommendations. Other formats used and reasons for standardization are discussed. (DH)

  2. The Periodic Table CD.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banks, Alton J.; Holmes, Jon L.

    1995-01-01

    Describes the characteristics of the digitized version of The Periodic Table Videodisc. Provides details about the organization of information and access to the data via Macintosh and Windows computers. (DDR)

  3. Acceptance of an assistive robot in older adults: a mixed-method study of human–robot interaction over a 1-month period in the Living Lab setting

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Ya-Huei; Wrobel, Jérémy; Cornuet, Mélanie; Kerhervé, Hélène; Damnée, Souad; Rigaud, Anne-Sophie

    2014-01-01

    Background There is growing interest in investigating acceptance of robots, which are increasingly being proposed as one form of assistive technology to support older adults, maintain their independence, and enhance their well-being. In the present study, we aimed to observe robot-acceptance in older adults, particularly subsequent to a 1-month direct experience with a robot. Subjects and methods Six older adults with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and five cognitively intact healthy (CIH) older adults were recruited. Participants interacted with an assistive robot in the Living Lab once a week for 4 weeks. After being shown how to use the robot, participants performed tasks to simulate robot use in everyday life. Mixed methods, comprising a robot-acceptance questionnaire, semistructured interviews, usability-performance measures, and a focus group, were used. Results Both CIH and MCI subjects were able to learn how to use the robot. However, MCI subjects needed more time to perform tasks after a 1-week period of not using the robot. Both groups rated similarly on the robot-acceptance questionnaire. They showed low intention to use the robot, as well as negative attitudes toward and negative images of this device. They did not perceive it as useful in their daily life. However, they found it easy to use, amusing, and not threatening. In addition, social influence was perceived as powerful on robot adoption. Direct experience with the robot did not change the way the participants rated robots in their acceptance questionnaire. We identified several barriers to robot-acceptance, including older adults’ uneasiness with technology, feeling of stigmatization, and ethical/societal issues associated with robot use. Conclusion It is important to destigmatize images of assistive robots to facilitate their acceptance. Universal design aiming to increase the market for and production of products that are usable by everyone (to the greatest extent possible) might help to

  4. A SPECTRAL STUDY OF THE RAPID TRANSITIONS OF TYPE-B QUASI-PERIODIC OSCILLATIONS IN THE BLACK HOLE TRANSIENT XTE J1859+226

    SciTech Connect

    Sriram, K.; Choi, C. S.; Rao, A. R.

    2013-09-20

    The fast transitions of type-B and type-A quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs) are rarely found, and they are observed at the peak of the outburst in black hole transient (BHT) sources. The associated spectral variations during such events are crucial to understand the origin and location of such QPOs in the accretion disk. During the 1999 outburst of XTE J1859+226, on four occasions a rapid transition of type-B/A QPOs was noted. We performed broadband spectral analysis on these four observations to unveil the responsible spectral parameter causing the rapid transitions. After invoking simple spectral models, it was observed that disk parameters were consistently varying along with disk and power-law fluxes, and almost no change was noted in the power-law index parameter. Though using a complex physical model showed consistent results, the spectral parameter variations across the transitions were not significant. It was observed that the type-B QPO was always associated with an inner disk front which is closer to the BH. In one observation, a type-A QPO appeared as the source count rate suddenly dropped, and the power-law index as well as disk normalization parameter considerably changed during this transition. The spectral changes in this particular observation were similar to the changes observed in XTE J1817-330, indicating a common underlying mechanism. We have also examined a similar observation of BHT source GX 339-4, where a sudden transition of a type-A/B QPO was noted. Similar spectral study again revealed that the disk parameters were changing. We discuss the results in the framework of a truncated disk model and conclude that the movement of the coupled inner disk-corona region is responsible for such rapid transitions of type-B QPOs.

  5. Causes of death among detainees: a statistical study on the casework of the Forensic Medicine Institute in Cluj-Napoca during the period 2000–2014

    PubMed Central

    GHERMAN, CRISTIAN; CHIROBAN, OVIDIU

    2015-01-01

    Background and aims The detainees’ right to healthcare is granted by laws, in accordance with EU directives and recommendations to which our country has consented. Prison population is a particularly vulnerable and marginalized group characterized by mortality rates different from the general population. This study aims at providing a picture of the causes of death, quality of healthcare and measures needed to reduce the number of in-prison deaths, including legal medicine expertise in view of sentence postponement/interruption. Methods The present paper is based on the statistical analysis of in-prison deaths casework recorded at the Forensic Medicine Institute of Cluj-Napoca and provided by territorially subordinated counties forensic services. The data collected cover over 15 years (2000–2014), a period long enough for significant retrospective statistical analysis. Results The total number of deaths among the inmates was 113, the majority of male sex (110). Distribution by age groups shows a greater incidence among inmates aged 50 to 59 years (32 cases, 28.31%), followed by those in their 40s’ (30 cases, 26.54%) and 30s’ (25 cases, 22.12%). The most frequent pathological causes of death were cardiovascular (53 cases) followed by tumors (26 cases) and infectious diseases. A significant number of deaths were due to violent causes (14 cases-12,38%). Conclusions Special problems are raised by the high number of deaths among prisoners, especially at a young age, while the high frequency of violent deaths from self- or non-self-inflicted traumatic causes requires supervision, monitoring and continuous analysis. Despite recent improvements, healthcare in prisons still poses some problems, mainly regarding diagnosis and treatment of heart diseases, neurosurgery and cancer. PMID:26609263

  6. Estradiol receptor binding to the epithelium of uterine lumen and glands: region- and time-related changes during preimplantation and periimplantation periods studied by autoradiography.

    PubMed

    Zorn, Telma M T; Soto-Suazo, Mauricio; Pellegrini, Cleusa R; Oliveira, José G; Stumpf, Walter E

    2003-07-01

    The presence and changes of estradiol nuclear binding and related functions in uterine luminal and glandular epithelium were studied before and after blastocyst implantation using receptor autoradiography with (3)H-estradiol-17beta in association with (3)H-thymidine incorporation and immunocytochemical binding of antibody to estrogen receptor ER-alpha. (3)H-estradiol nuclear binding is present but variable during days 1.5-7.5 of pregnancy. Sites of strong nuclear binding of (3)H-estradiol exhibit strong immunocytochemical staining with ER-alpha antibody. Qualitative and quantitative evaluation of autoradiograms reveal that there is a general increase of nuclear (3)H-estradiol binding during the first 3 days after fertilization in both luminal and glandular epithelium. The binding of estradiol is stronger in glandular epithelium from day 2.5 to day 7.5, paralleled by a rise in (3)H-thymidine incorporation on day 2.5. By comparison, in the epithelium of the uterine lumen (3)H-estradiol nuclear binding is low, but relatively high in epithelial cells at lateral branching of the lumen where the increase in (3)H-estradiol binding corresponds to an increased labeling index with (3)H-thymidine. A highly differentiated binding of (3)H-estradiol to luminal and glandular epithelium was demonstrated with region- and time-specific changes of related effects on cell proliferation, differentiation, and secretion, probably involving involution and remodeling. The strong (3)H-estradiol binding to glandular epithelium suggests that estradiol exerts pronounced effects on glandular activities in the periimplantation period.

  7. Acetylene adsorption on δ-MoC(001), TiC(001) and ZrC(001) surfaces: a comprehensive periodic DFT study.

    PubMed

    Jimenez-Orozco, Carlos; Florez, Elizabeth; Moreno, Andres; Liu, Ping; Rodriguez, Jose A

    2017-01-04

    A comprehensive study of acetylene adsorption on δ-MoC(001), TiC(001) and ZrC(001) surfaces was carried out by means of calculations based on periodic density functional theory, using the Perdew-Burke-Ernzerhof exchange-correlation functional. It was found that the bonding of acetylene was significantly affected by the electronic and structural properties of the carbide surfaces. The adsorbate interacted with metal and/or carbon sites of the carbide. The interaction of acetylene with the TiC(001) and ZrC(001) surfaces was strong (binding energies higher than -3.5 eV), while moderate acetylene adsorption energies were observed on δ-MoC(001) (-1.78 eV to -0.66 eV). Adsorption energies, charge density difference plots and Mulliken charges suggested that the binding of the hydrocarbon to the surface had both ionic and covalent contributions. According to the C-C bond lengths obtained, the adsorbed molecule was modified from acetylene-like into ethylene-like on the δ-MoC(001) surface (desired behavior for hydrogenation reactions) but into ethane-like on TiC(001) and ZrC(001). The obtained results suggest that the δ-MoC(001) surface is expected to have the best performance in selective hydrogenation reactions to convert alkynes into alkenes. Another advantage of δ-MoC(001) is that, after C2H2 adsorption, surface carbon sites remain available, which are necessary for H2 dissociation. However, these sites were occupied when C2H2 was adsorbed on TiC(001) and ZrC(001), limiting their application in the hydrogenation of alkynes.

  8. Canakinumab treatment for patients with active recurrent or chronic TNF receptor-associated periodic syndrome (TRAPS): an open-label, phase II study

    PubMed Central

    Gattorno, Marco; Obici, Laura; Cattalini, Marco; Tormey, Vincent; Abrams, Ken; Davis, Nicole; Speziale, Antonio; Bhansali, Suraj G; Martini, Alberto; Lachmann, Helen J

    2017-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the efficacy of canakinumab, a high-affinity human monoclonal anti-interleukin-1β antibody, in inducing complete or almost complete responses in patients with active tumour necrosis factor receptor-associated periodic syndrome (TRAPS). Methods Twenty patients (aged 7–78 years) with active recurrent or chronic TRAPS were treated with canakinumab 150 mg every 4 weeks for 4 months (2 mg/kg for those ≤40 kg) in this open-label, proof-of-concept, phase II study. Canakinumab was then withdrawn for up to 5 months, with reintroduction on relapse, and 4 weekly administration (subsequently increased to every 8 weeks) for 24 months. The primary efficacy variable was the proportion of patients achieving complete or almost complete response at day 15, defined as clinical remission (Physician's Global Assessment score ≤1) and full or partial serological remission. Results Nineteen patients (19/20, 95%; 95% CI 75.1% to 99.9%) achieved the primary efficacy variable. Responses to canakinumab occurred rapidly; median time to clinical remission 4 days (95% CI 3 to 8 days). All patients relapsed after canakinumab was withdrawn; median time to relapse 91.5 days (95% CI 65 to 117 days). On reintroduction of canakinumab, clinical and serological responses were similar to those seen during the first phase, and were sustained throughout treatment. Canakinumab was well tolerated and clinical responses were accompanied by rapid and sustained improvement in health-related quality of life. Weight normalised pharmacokinetics of canakinumab, although limited, appeared to be consistent with historical canakinumab data. Conclusions Canakinumab induces rapid disease control in patients with active TRAPS, and clinical benefits are sustained during long-term treatment. Trial registration number NCT01242813; Results. PMID:27269295

  9. Trends of stomach cancer mortality in Eastern Asia in 1950-2004: comparative study of Japan, Hong Kong and Singapore using age, period and cohort analysis.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Masahiro; Ma, Enbo; Tanaka, Hideo; Ioka, Akiko; Nakahara, Toshitaka; Takahashi, Hideto

    2012-02-15

    To characterize the temporal trends of stomach cancer mortality in Eastern Asia and to better interpret the causes of the trends, we performed age, period and cohort analysis (APC analysis) on the mortality rates in Japan, Hong Kong and Singapore during 1950-2004, as well as the rates in the US as a control population. For the APC analysis, Holford's approach was used to avoid the identification problem. Age-standardized mortality rates (ASMR) decreased consistently in all four areas during the observation period in both males and females. Japan had the highest ASMR in both sexes, followed by Singapore, Hong Kong and the US, but the differences in ASMR among the four areas diminished with time. The results of APC analysis suggested that the decreasing mortality rates in Eastern Asia were caused by the combination of decreasing cohort effect since the end of the 1800s and decreasing period effect from the 1950s. The US showed similar results, but its decreases in the period and cohort effect preceded those of Eastern Asia. Possible causes for the decrease in the cohort effect include improvement in the socioeconomic conditions during childhood and a decrease in the prevalence of H. pylori infection, while possible causes for the decrease in the period effect include a decrease in dietary salt intake and improvements in cancer detection and treatment. These findings may help us to predict future changes in the mortality rates of stomach cancer.

  10. Petro-mineralogy and geochemistry as tools of provenance analysis on archaeological pottery: Study of Inka Period ceramics from Paria, Bolivia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szilágyi, V.; Gyarmati, J.; Tóth, M.; Taubald, H.; Balla, M.; Kasztovszky, Zs.; Szakmány, Gy.

    2012-07-01

    This paper summarized the results of comprehensive petro-mineralogical and geochemical (archeometrical) investigation of Inka Period ceramics excavated from Inka (A.D. 1438-1535) and Late Intermediate Period (A.D. 1000/1200-1438) sites of the Paria Basin (Dept. Oruro, Bolivia). Applying geological analytical techniques we observed a complex and important archaeological subject of the region and the era, the cultural-economic influence of the conquering Inkas in the provincial region of Paria appearing in the ceramic material. According to our results, continuity and changes of raw material utilization and pottery manufacturing techniques from the Late Intermediate to the Inka Period are characterized by analytical methods. The geological field survey provided efficient basis for the identification of utilized raw material sources. On the one hand, ceramic supply of both eras proved to be based almost entirely on local and near raw material sources. So, imperial handicraft applied local materials but with sophisticated imperial techniques in Paria. On the other hand, Inka Imperial and local-style vessels also show clear differences in their material which suggests that sources and techniques functioned already in the Late Intermediate Period subsisted even after the Inka conquest of the Paria Basin. Based on our geological investigations, pottery supply system of the Paria region proved to be rather complex during the Inka Period.

  11. A Study of K-12 Teacher Interns' Incorporation of Multicultural Content and Theory into Their Teaching Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dzoole, Edith Mechelle

    2012-01-01

    This research study examined 394 K-12 teacher interns' incorporation of multicultural content and theory into their teaching practices during a 16-week internship in schools, mostly located within a 30-mile radius of Mississippi State University. The teacher interns had completed all coursework and practicum hours required by their teacher…

  12. Efficacy of Atomoxetine for the Treatment of ADHD Symptoms in Patients with Pervasive Developmental Disorders: A Prospective, Open-Label Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernandez-Jaen, Alberto; Fernandez-Mayoralas, Daniel Martin; Calleja-Perez, Beatriz; Munoz-Jareno, Nuria; Campos Diaz, Maria del Rosario; Lopez-Arribas, Sonia

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Atomoxetine's tolerance and efficacy were studied in 24 patients with pervasive developmental disorder and symptoms of ADHD. Method: Prospective, open-label, 16-week study was performed, using the variables of the Clinical Global Impression Scale and the Conners' Scale, among others. Results: A significant difference was found between…

  13. (abstract) Role of Long Equatorial Wave Reflection in the Low-Frequency Variability Observed During the TOPEX/POSEIDON Period: Data Analysis and Coupled Model Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boulanger, J. P.; Perigaud, C.; Fu, L. L.

    1996-01-01

    The analysis of TOPEX/POSEIDON sea level and ERS-1 zonal wind stress data gives evidence that first mode meridonal long Rossby waves fully reflected into Kelvin waves at the equatorial western Pacific boundary at different periods including the January-June 1994 period. The evolution of the conditions (zonal wind stress, sea surface temperature and sea level anomalies) in the central Pacific suggests that this reflection may have played a role in the reversal of cold to warm anomalies observed in the central Pacific in June-July 1994. To investigate the actual role of reflected Kelvin waves observed by TOPEX/POSEIDON, a simple ocean-atmosphere coupled model is designed. Starting from these initial conditions, several simulations are run for testing the role western bundary reflection evidenced in TOPEX/POSEIDON data. Coupled mechanisms are suggested to explain the low-frequency variability observed during this period.

  14. Liver graft hyperperfusion in the early postoperative period promotes hepatic regeneration 2 weeks after living donor liver transplantation: A prospective observational cohort study.

    PubMed

    Byun, Sung Hye; Yang, Hae Soo; Kim, Jong Hae

    2016-11-01

    Hepatic regeneration is essential to meet the metabolic demands of partial liver grafts following living donor liver transplantation (LDLT). Hepatic regeneration is promoted by portal hyperperfusion of partial grafts, which produces shear stress on the sinusoidal endothelium. Hepatic regeneration is difficult to assess within the first 2 weeks after LDLT as the size of liver graft could be overestimated in the presence of postsurgical graft edema. In this study, we evaluated the effects of graft hyperperfusion on the rate of hepatic regeneration 2 weeks after LDLT by measuring hepatic hemodynamic parameters. Thirty-six patients undergoing LDLT were enrolled in this study. Hepatic hemodynamic parameters including peak portal venous flow velocity (PVV) were measured using spectral Doppler ultrasonography on postoperative day 1. Subsequently, we calculated the ratio of each velocity to 100 g of the initial graft weight (GW) obtained immediately after graft retrieval on the day of LDLT. Ratios of GW to recipient weight (GRWR) and to standard liver volume (GW/SLV) were also obtained. The hepatic regeneration rate was defined as the ratio of the regenerated volume measured using computed tomographic volumetry at postoperative week 2 to the initial GW. Correlations of the hemodynamic parameters, GRWR, and GW/SLV with the hepatic regeneration rate were assessed using a linear regression analysis. The liver grafts regenerated to approximately 1.7 times their initial GW (1.7 ± 0.3 [mean ± standard deviation]). PVV/100 g of GW (r = 0.224, β1 [slope coefficient] = 2.105, P = 0.004) and velocities of the hepatic artery and vein per 100 g of GW positively correlated with the hepatic regeneration rate, whereas GRWR (r = 0.407, β1 = -81.149, P < 0.001) and GW/SLV (r = 0.541, β1 = -2.184, P < 0.001) negatively correlated with the hepatic regeneration rate. Graft hyperperfusion demonstrated by increased hepatic vascular

  15. Differences in Nighttime and Daytime Ambulatory Blood Pressure When Diurnal Periods Are Defined by Self-report, Fixed-Times and Actigraphy: Improving the Detection of Hypertension Study

    PubMed Central

    BOOTH, John N.; MUNTNER, Paul; ABDALLA, Marwah; DIAZ, Keith M.; VIERA, Anthony J.; REYNOLDS, Kristi; SCHWARTZ, Joseph E.; SHIMBO, Daichi

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To determine whether defining diurnal periods by self-report, fixed-time or actigraphy produce different estimates of nighttime and daytime ambulatory blood pressure (ABP). Methods Over a median of 28 days, 330 participants completed two 24-hour ABP and actigraphy monitoring periods with sleep diaries. Fixed nighttime and daytime periods were defined as 00:00–06:00 and 10:00–20:00, respectively. Using the first ABP period, within-individual differences for mean nighttime and daytime ABP and Kappa statistics for nighttime and daytime hypertension (systolic/diastolic ABP ≥120/70 mmHg and ≥135/85 mmHg, respectively) were estimated comparing self-report, fixed-time or actigraphy for defining diurnal periods. Reproducibility of ABP was also estimated. Results Within-individual mean differences in nighttime systolic ABP were small, suggesting little bias, when comparing the three approaches used to define diurnal periods. The distribution of differences, represented by 95% confidence intervals (CI), in nighttime systolic and diastolic ABP and daytime systolic and diastolic ABP was narrowest for self-report versus actigraphy. For example, mean differences (95% CI) in nighttime systolic ABP for self-report versus fixed-time was −0.53 (−6.61,+5.56) mmHg, self-report versus actigraphy was 0.91 (−3.61,+5.43) mmHg and fixed-time versus actigraphy was 1.43 (−5.59,+8.46) mmHg. Agreement for nighttime and daytime hypertension was highest for self-report versus actigraphy: Kappa statistic (95% CI)=0.91 (0.86,0.96) and 1.00 (0.98,1.00), respectively. The reproducibility of mean ABP and hypertension categories was similar using each approach. Conclusion Given the high agreement with actigraphy, these data support using self-report to define diurnal periods on ABP monitoring. Further, the use of fixed-time periods may be a reasonable alternative approach. PMID:26867054

  16. G2(+)M study on N-alkylamino cation affinities of neutral main-group element hydrides: trends across the periodic table.

    PubMed

    Geng, Song; Wu, Ding-Lu; Yang, Jing; Wei, Xi-Guang; Zhu, Jun; Zhang, Hai-Bo; Ren, Yi; Lau, Kai-Chung

    2014-05-08

    We have made an extensive theoretical exploration of gas-phase N-alkylamino cation affinities (NAAMCA), including amino cation affinities (AMCA) and N-dimethylamino cation affinities (NDMAMCA), of neutral main-group element hydrides of groups 15-17 and periods 2-4 in the periodic table by using the G2(+)M method. Some similarities and differences are found between NAAMCA and the corresponding alkyl cation affinities (ACA) of H(n)X. Our calculations show that the AMCA and NDMAMCA are systematically lower than the corresponding proton affinities (PA) for H(n)X. In general, there is no linear correlation between NAAMCA and PA of H(n)X. Instead, the correlations exist only within the central elements X in period 2, or periods 3-4, which is significantly different from the reasonable correlations between ACA and PA for all H(n)X. NAAMCA (H(n)X) are weaker than NAAMCA (H(n-1)X(-)) by more than 700 kJ/mol and generally stronger than ACA (H(n)X), with three exceptions: H2ONR2(+)(R = H, Me) and HFNH2(+). These new findings can be rationalized by the negative hyperconjugation and Pauli repulsion.

  17. Study of the Problems Associated with Reliance on Civilian Medical Manpower and Non-DoD Facilities during Periods of National Emergency, Mobilization, and War. Volume I

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-03-15

    average length of stay in all hospitals (long-term as well as...care are increasingly being transferred out of hospitals and into nursing homes or extended care facilities. In the same period, the average length of stay 20...presumably because of greater utili- zation controls. It is noteworthy that the average length of stay varies considerably by area of the country. For

  18. Baroreflex and oscillation of heart period at 0.1 Hz studied by α-blockade and cross-spectral analysis in healthy humans

    PubMed Central

    Cevese, Antonio; Gulli, Giosuè; Polati, Enrico; Gottin, Leonardo; Grasso, Renato

    2001-01-01

    Parameters derived from frequency-domain analysis of heart period and blood pressure variability are gaining increasing importance in clinical practice. However, the underlying physiological mechanisms in human subjects are not fully understood. Here we address the question as to whether the low frequency variability (∼0.1 Hz) of the heart period may depend on a baroreflex-mediated response to blood pressure oscillations, induced by the α-sympathetic drive on the peripheral resistance. Heart period (ECG), finger arterial pressure (Finapres) and respiratory airflow were recorded in eight healthy volunteers in the supine position with metronome respiration at 0.25 Hz. We inhibited the vascular response to the sympathetic vasomotor activity with a peripheral α-blocker (urapidil) and maintained mean blood pressure at control levels with angiotensin II. We performed spectral and cross-spectral analysis of heart period (RR) and systolic pressure to quantify the power of low- and high-frequency oscillations, phase shift, coherence and transfer function gain. In control conditions, spectral analysis yielded typical results. In the low-frequency range, cross-spectral analysis showed high coherence (> 0.5) and a negative phase shift (−65.1 ± 18 deg) between RR and systolic pressure, which indicates a 1–2 s lag in heart period changes in relation to pressure. In the high-frequency region, the phase shift was close to zero, indicating simultaneous fluctuations of RR and systolic pressure. During urapidil + angiotensin II infusion the low-frequency oscillations of both blood pressure and heart period were abolished in five cases. In the remaining three cases they were substantially reduced and lost their typical cross-spectral characteristics. We conclude that in supine rest conditions, the oscillation of RR at low frequency is almost entirely accounted for by a baroreflex mechanism, since it is not produced in the absence of a 0.1 Hz pressure oscillation. The results

  19. A synthetic ice core approach to estimate ion relocation in an ice field site experiencing periodical melt: a case study on Lomonosovfonna, Svalbard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vega, Carmen P.; Pohjola, Veijo A.; Beaudon, Emilie; Claremar, Björn; van Pelt, Ward J. J.; Pettersson, Rickard; Isaksson, Elisabeth; Martma, Tõnu; Schwikowski, Margit; Bøggild, Carl E.

    2016-05-01

    Physical and chemical properties of four different ice cores (LF-97, LF-08, LF-09 and LF-11) drilled at Lomonosovfonna, Svalbard, were compared to investigate the effects of meltwater percolation on the chemical and physical stratigraphy of these records. A synthetic ice core approach was employed as reference record to estimate the ionic relocation and meltwater percolation length at this site during the period 2007-2010. Using this method, a partial ion elution sequence obtained for Lomonosovfonna was NO3- > SO42-, Mg2+, Cl-, K+, Na+ with nitrate being the most mobile within the snowpack. The relocation length of most of the ions was on the order of 1 m during this period. In addition, by using both a positive degree day (PDD) and a snow-energy model approaches to estimate the percentage of melt at Lomonosovfonna, we have calculated a melt percentage (MP) of the total annual accumulation within the range between 48 and 70 %, for the period between 2007 and 2010, which is above the MP range suggested by the ion relocation evidenced in the LF-syn core (i.e., MP = 30 %). Using a firn-densification model to constrain the melt range, a MP of 30 % was found over the same period, which is consistent with the results of the synthetic ice core approach, and a 45 % of melt for the last 60 years. Considering the ionic relocation lengths and annual melt percentages, we estimate that the atmospheric ionic signal remains preserved in recently drilled Lomonosovfonna ice cores at an annual or bi-annual resolution when weather conditions were similar to those during the 2007-2010 period.

  20. Muscle Volume Increases Following 16 Weeks of Resistive Exercise Training with the Advanced Resistive Exercise Device (ARED) and Free Weights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nash, R. E.; Loehr, J. A.; Lee, S. M. C.; English, K. L.; Evans, H.; Smith, S. A.; Hagan, R. D.

    2009-01-01

    Space flight-induced muscle atrophy, particularly in the postural and locomotorymuscles, may impair task performance during long-duration space missions and planetary exploration. High intensity free weight (FW) resistive exercise training has been shown to prevent atrophy during bed rest, a space flight analog. NASA developed the Advanced Resistive Exercise Device (ARED) to simulate the characteristics of FW exercise (i.e. constant mass, inertial force) and to be used as a countermeasure during International Space Station (ISS) missions. PURPOSE: To compare the efficacy of ARED and FW training to induce hypertrophy in specific muscle groups in ambulatory subjects prior to deploying ARED on the ISS. METHODS: Twenty untrained subjects were assigned to either the ARED (8 males, 3 females) or FW (6 males, 3 females) group and participated in a periodizedtraining protocol consisting of squat (SQ), heel raise (HR), and deadlift(DL) exercises 3 d wk-1 for 16 wks. SQ, HR, and DL muscle strength (1RM) was measured before, after 8 wks, and after 16 wks of training to prescribe exercise and measure strength changes. Muscle volume of the vastigroup (V), hamstring group (H), hip adductor group (ADD), medial gastrocnemius(MG), lateral gastrocnemius(LG), and deep posterior muscles including soleus(DP) was measured using MRI pre-and post-training. Consecutive cross-sectional images (8 mm slices with a 2 mm gap) were analyzed and summed. Anatomical references insured that the same muscle sections were analyzed pre-and post-training. Two-way repeated measures ANOVAs (p<0.05) were used to test for differences in muscle strength and volume between training devices. RESULTS: SQ, HR, and DL 1RM increased in both FW (SQ: 49+/-6%, HR: 12+/-2%, DL: 23+/-4%) and ARED (SQ: 31+/-4%, HR: 18+/-2%, DL: 23+/-3%) groups. Both groups increased muscle volume in the V (FW: 13+/-2%, ARED: 10+/-2%), H (FW: 3+/-1%, ARED: 3+/-1 %), ADD (FW: 15=/-2%, ARED: 10+/-1%), LG (FW: 7+/-2%, ARED: 4+/-1%), MG (FW: 7+/-2%, ARED: 5+/-2%), and DP (FW: 2+/-1%; ARED: 2+/-1%) after training. There were no between group differences in muscle strength or volume. CONCLUSIONS: The increase in muscle volume and strength following ARED training is not different than FW training. With the training effects similar to FW and a 600 lb load capacity, ARED likely will protect against muscle atrophy in microgravity.

  1. Hyperthyroid hypokalemic periodic paralysis

    PubMed Central

    Neki, N.S.

    2016-01-01

    Hyperthyroid periodic paralysis (HPP) is a rare life threatening complication of hyperthyroidism commonly occurring in young Asian males but sporadically found in other races. It is characterised by hypokalemia and acute onset paraparesis with prevalence of one in one hundred thousand (1 in 100000). The symptoms resolve promptly with potassium supplementation. Nonselective beta blockers like propranol can also be used to ameliorate and prevent subsequent paralytic attack. We report a case of 22 year old male presenting with hyperthyroid periodic paralysis (HPP) having very low serum potassium level. PMID:27648066

  2. Bragg interactions in periodic media

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaggard, D. L.

    1976-01-01

    The interaction of electromagnetic waves of wavelength lambda with periodic structures of spatial period lambda are studied. The emphasis of the work is on Bragg interactions where lambda approximately equal to 2 lambda/N and the Bragg order N takes on the values 1, 2,.... An extended coupled waves (ECW) theory is developed for the case N greater or equal to 2 and the results of the theory are found to compare favorably with the exact results of Floquet theory. Numerous numerical results are displayed as Brillouin diagrams for the first few Bragg orders. Moreover, explicit expressions for coupling coefficients, bandgap shifts and bandgap widths are derived for singly periodic media. Particular note is taken of phase speeding effects.

  3. A Modern Periodic Table.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herrenden-Harker, B. D.

    1997-01-01

    Presents a modern Periodic Table based on the electron distribution in the outermost shell and the order of filling of the sublevels within the shells. Enables a student to read off directly the electronic configuration of the element and the order in which filling occurs. (JRH)

  4. Periodic Table of Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Mike

    1998-01-01

    Presents an exercise in which an eighth-grade science teacher decorated the classroom with a periodic table of students. Student photographs were arranged according to similarities into vertical columns. Students were each assigned an atomic number according to their placement in the table. The table is then used to teach students about…

  5. Periodically poled silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hon, Nick K.; Tsia, Kevin K.; Solli, Daniel R.; Khurgin, Jacob B.; Jalali, Bahram

    2010-02-01

    Bulk centrosymmetric silicon lacks second-order optical nonlinearity χ(2) - a foundational component of nonlinear optics. Here, we propose a new class of photonic device which enables χ(2) as well as quasi-phase matching based on periodic stress fields in silicon - periodically-poled silicon (PePSi). This concept adds the periodic poling capability to silicon photonics, and allows the excellent crystal quality and advanced manufacturing capabilities of silicon to be harnessed for devices based on χ(2)) effects. The concept can also be simply achieved by having periodic arrangement of stressed thin films along a silicon waveguide. As an example of the utility, we present simulations showing that mid-wave infrared radiation can be efficiently generated through difference frequency generation from near-infrared with a conversion efficiency of 50% based on χ(2) values measurements for strained silicon reported in the literature [Jacobson et al. Nature 441, 199 (2006)]. The use of PePSi for frequency conversion can also be extended to terahertz generation. With integrated piezoelectric material, dynamically control of χ(2)nonlinearity in PePSi waveguide may also be achieved. The successful realization of PePSi based devices depends on the strength of the stress induced χ(2) in silicon. Presently, there exists a significant discrepancy in the literature between the theoretical and experimentally measured values. We present a simple theoretical model that produces result consistent with prior theoretical works and use this model to identify possible reasons for this discrepancy.

  6. Oscillations following periodic reinforcement.

    PubMed

    Monteiro, Tiago; Machado, Armando

    2009-06-01

    Three experiments examined behavior in extinction following periodic reinforcement. During the first phase of Experiment 1, four groups of pigeons were exposed to fixed interval (FI 16s or FI 48s) or variable interval (VI 16s or VI 48s) reinforcement schedules. Next, during the second phase, each session started with reinforcement trials and ended with an extinction segment. Experiment 2 was similar except that the extinction segment was considerably longer. Experiment 3 replaced the FI schedules with a peak procedure, with FI trials interspersed with non-food peak interval (PI) trials that were four times longer. One group of pigeons was exposed to FI 20s PI 80s trials, and another to FI 40s PI 160s trials. Results showed that, during the extinction segment, most pigeons trained with FI schedules, but not with VI schedules, displayed pause-peck oscillations with a period close to, but slightly greater than the FI parameter. These oscillations did not start immediately after the onset of extinction. Comparing the oscillations from Experiments 1 and 2 suggested that the alternation of reconditioning and re-extinction increases the reliability and earlier onset of the oscillations. In Experiment 3 the pigeons exhibited well-defined pause-peck cycles since the onset of extinction. These cycles had periods close to twice the value of the FI and lasted for long intervals of time. We discuss some hypotheses concerning the processes underlying behavioral oscillations following periodic reinforcement.

  7. Astrophysical implications of periodicity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muller, Richard A.

    1988-01-01

    Two remarkable discoveries of the last decade have profound implications for astrophysics and for geophysics. These are the discovery by Alvarez et al., that certain mass extinctions are caused by the impact on the earth of a large asteroid or comet, and the discovery by Raup and Sepkoski that such extinctions are periodic, with a cycle time of 26 to 30 million years. The validity of both of these discoveries is assumed and the implications are examined. Most of the phenomena described depend not on periodicity, but just on the weaker assumption that the impacts on the earth take place primarily in showers. Proposed explanations for the periodicity include galactic oscillations, the Planet X model, and the possibility of Nemesis, a solar companion star. These hypotheses are critically examined. Results of the search for the solar companion are reported. The Deccan flood basalts of India have been proposed as the impact site for the Cretaceous impact, but this hypotheisis is in contradiction with the conclusion of Courtillot et al., that the magma flow began during a period of normal magnetic field. A possible resolution of this contradiction is proposed.

  8. Getting Your Period

    MedlinePlus

    ... for a woman to have a baby. During sexual intercourse, the egg can get fertilized by a male’s sperm and then attach to the lining of the uterus ( endometrium ) and grow into a baby. ( Read more about reproduction. ) Does your period come each month? top Menstrual ...

  9. Periodic solar wind density structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viall, Nicholeen Mary

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation addresses a specific aspect of the Sun-Earth connection: we show that coronal activity creates periodic density structures in the solar wind which convect radially outward and interact with Earth's magnetosphere. First, we analyze 11 years (1995-2005) of in situ solar wind density observations from the Wind spacecraft and find that periodic density structures occur at particular sets of radial length-scales more often than others. This indicates that these density fluctuations, which have radial length-scales of hundreds of megameters, cannot be attributed entirely to turbulence. Next, we analyze their effect on Earth's magnetosphere. Though these structures are not waves in the solar wind rest frame, they appear at discrete frequencies in Earth's reference frame. They compress the magnetosphere as they convect past, driving global magnetospheric oscillations at the same discrete frequencies as the periodic density structures. Last, we investigate source regions and mechanisms of the periodic solar wind density structures. We analyze the alpha particle to proton abundance ratio during events of periodic density structures. In many events, the proton and alpha density fluctuations are anti- correlated, which strongly argues for either temporally or spatially varying coronal source plasma. We examine white light images of the solar wind taken with SECCHI HI1 on the STEREO spacecraft and find periodic density structures as near to the Sun as 15 solar radii. The smallest resolvable periodic structures that we identify are of comparable length to those found at 1 AU, providing further evidence that at least some periodic density structures are generated in the solar corona as the solar wind is formed. Guided by the properties observed during previous studies and the characteristics established through the work presented here, we examine possible candidate mechanisms in the solar corona that can form periodic density structures. We conclude that

  10. Organic micro-pollutants in a karst system during low and high flow periods, results of a two-year study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reh, Roland; Licha, Tobias; Geyer, Tobias; Nödler, Karsten; Sauter, Martin

    2013-04-01

    and desethylatrazine, indicates limited aquifer connections and demonstrates a residence time of several years for vertical transport into the deep aquifer. Phenazone originates also from a disused waste disposal and is showing a persistency for more than three decades under the observed redox conditions. References Nödler K, Licha T, Bester K, Sauter M. Development of a multi-residue analytical method, based on liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, for the simultaneous determination of 46 micro-contaminants in aqueous samples. Journal of Chromatography A 2010;1217(42), 6511-6521. Reh R, Licha T, Geyer T, Nödler, K.,Sauter M. Occurrence and spatial distribution of organic micro-pollutants in a complex hydrogeological karst system during low flow and high flow periods, results of a two-year study. Science of The Total Environment 2013, 443,438-445, 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2012.11.005.

  11. Obesity at age 20 and the risk of miscarriages, irregular periods and reported problems of becoming pregnant: the Adventist Health Study-2.

    PubMed

    Jacobsen, Bjarne K; Knutsen, Synnøve F; Oda, Keiji; Fraser, Gary E

    2012-12-01

    In a group of 46,000 North-American Adventist women aged 40 and above, we investigated the relationships between body mass index (BMI, kg/m(2)) at age 20 and the proportion of women who reported at least one miscarriage, periods with irregular menstruation or failing to become pregnant even if trying for more than one straight year. Approximately 31, 14 and 17 %, respectively, reported the three different problems related to reproduction. Positive age- and marital status adjusted relationships were found between BMI at age 20 and periods with irregular menstruation or failing to become pregnant even if trying for more than 1 year, but not with the risk of miscarriages. Women with BMI ≥ 32.5 kg/m(2) when aged 20 had approximately 2.0 (95 % CI: 1.6, 2.4) and 1.5 (95 % CI: 1.3, 1.9) higher odds for irregular periods or failing to get pregnant, respectively, than women with BMI in the 20-24.9 kg/m(2) bracket. These relationships were consistently found in a number of strata of the population, including the large proportion of the women who never had smoked or never used alcohol. Underweight (BMI < 18.5 kg/m(2)) when aged 20 marginally (approximately 15 %) increased the risk of failing to get pregnant within a year. Thus, obesity at age 20 increases the risk of reporting some specific reproductive problems, but not the risk of miscarriages.

  12. Cells anticipate periodic events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakagaki, Toshiyuki

    2009-03-01

    We show that an amoeboid organism can anticipate the timing of periodic events. The plasmodium of the true slime mold Physarum polycephalum moves rapidly under favourable conditions, but stops moving when transferred to less-favourable conditions. Plasmodia exposed to unfavourable conditions, presented in three consecutive pulses at constant intervals, reduced their locomotive speed in response to each episode. When subsequently subjected to favourable conditions, the plasmodia spontaneously reduced their locomotive speed at the time point when the next unfavourable episode would have occurred. This implied anticipation of impending environmental change. After this behaviour had been evoked several times, the locomotion of the plasmodia returned to normal; however, the anticipatory response could subsequently be induced by a single unfavourable pulse, implying recall of the memorized periodicity. We explored the mechanisms underlying these behaviours from a dynamical systems perspective. Our results hint at the cellular origins of primitive intelligence and imply that simple dynamics might be sufficient to explain its emergence.

  13. Periodic minimal surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mackay, Alan L.

    1985-04-01

    A minimal surface is one for which, like a soap film with the same pressure on each side, the mean curvature is zero and, thus, is one where the two principal curvatures are equal and opposite at every point. For every closed circuit in the surface, the area is a minimum. Schwarz1 and Neovius2 showed that elements of such surfaces could be put together to give surfaces periodic in three dimensions. These periodic minimal surfaces are geometrical invariants, as are the regular polyhedra, but the former are curved. Minimal surfaces are appropriate for the description of various structures where internal surfaces are prominent and seek to adopt a minimum area or a zero mean curvature subject to their topology; thus they merit more complete numerical characterization. There seem to be at least 18 such surfaces3, with various symmetries and topologies, related to the crystallographic space groups. Recently, glyceryl mono-oleate (GMO) was shown by Longley and McIntosh4 to take the shape of the F-surface. The structure postulated is shown here to be in good agreement with an analysis of the fundamental geometry of periodic minimal surfaces.

  14. Studies in lipid histochemistry. XIII. The OPA (osmiumtetroxide-periodic acid-alpha-naphthylamine) method for the detection of apolar lipids.

    PubMed

    Elleder, M

    1975-09-29

    A new procedure for the detection of apolar lipids is described. It is a modification of the OTAN method (Adams, 1959) using periodic acid which oxidatively removes lower osmium derivatives from polar sites only, leaving those in apolar lipids intact and demonstrable with alpha-naphthylamine. Control steps for the exclusion of the possible interference of some less polar complex lipids and of lipopigments are described. The described technic is superior to the conventionally used sudan dyes due partly to the fact that only aqueous solutions are employed thus excluding any extraction of lipids, partly to the more distinct coloration.

  15. Two dimensional and zero field NMR studies of coal structure: Final progress report, including the period July 1, 1987 to September 30, 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Zilm, K.W.

    1987-12-01

    This report covers the progress made on the title project during the last quarter and summarizes the accomplishments for the project period. During the last three months we have completed a full analysis of the limitations of our ADIPSHIFT 2D NMR experiment that we have developed to determine the distribution of functional types of carbon in coals. This is an extensive piece of work and will provide a firm foundation for the application of the method to complex organic solids in the future. A particularly useful graphical analysis is described for use with unknowns such as coals. 17 refs.

  16. Radiographic method for anatomic study of the teat canal: characteristics related to resistance to new intramammary infection during lactation and the early dry period.

    PubMed

    McDonald, J S

    1975-10-01

    An in vivo radiographic method to determine teat canal anatomy has shown that resistant quarters had teat canals with a smaller diameter than that of susceptible quarters. The length of the teat canal did not appear to be related to resistance to new intramammary infections. These findings relate to new infection caused by Aerobacter aerogenes, Streptococcus agalactiae, and Staphylococcus aureus. Quarters guarded by teat canals with larger diameter were less resistent to new infection during both lactation and the early dry period compared with quarters guarded by teat canals with small diameter.

  17. Safety and tolerability of bosentan for digital ulcers in Japanese patients with systemic sclerosis: Prospective, multicenter, open-label study.

    PubMed

    Hamaguchi, Yasuhito; Sumida, Takayuki; Kawaguchi, Yasushi; Ihn, Hironobu; Tanaka, Sumiaki; Asano, Yoshihide; Motegi, Sei-Ichiro; Kuwana, Masataka; Endo, Hirahito; Takehara, Kazuhiko

    2017-01-01

    A multicenter, open-label study was performed to investigate the safety and tolerability of bosentan in Japanese patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc) and secondary digital ulcers. Twenty-eight patients were enrolled. The safety and tolerability of bosentan was monitored over 52 weeks of study treatment (primary end-point), while incidence and healing of digital ulcers were also assessed up to week 16. The following adverse events occurred in 5% or more of patients during the 52-week treatment period: upper respiratory tract infection (50.0%), abnormal liver function tests (42.9%), digital ulcers (25.0%), anemia (17.9%), peripheral edema (14.3%), diarrhea (10.7%), urinary tract infection (7.1%), arthralgia (7.1%), constipation (7.1%) and herpes zoster (7.1%). Eight patients experienced at least one serious adverse event, including drug-related serious adverse events in two patients, which were abnormal liver function tests and fluid retention (pericardial effusion) in one patient each. During the 16-week observation period, seven out of 28 patients (25%) developed new digital ulcers. In this study, adverse events were comparable with those previously reported with bosentan. Approximately half of the patients had adverse events associated with abnormal liver function tests, thus we conclude that liver function should be monitored regularly during treatment with bosentan.

  18. Stability of underwater periodic locomotion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jing, Fangxu; Kanso, Eva

    2013-07-01

    Most aquatic vertebrates swim by lateral flapping of their bodies and caudal fins. While much effort has been devoted to understanding the flapping kinematics and its influence on the swimming efficiency, little is known about the stability (or lack of) of periodic swimming. It is believed that stability limits maneuverability and body designs/flapping motions that are adapted for stable swimming are not suitable for high maneuverability and vice versa. In this paper, we consider a simplified model of a planar elliptic body undergoing prescribed periodic heaving and pitching in potential flow. We show that periodic locomotion can be achieved due to the resulting hydrodynamic forces, and its value depends on several parameters including the aspect ratio of the body, the amplitudes and phases of the prescribed flapping.We obtain closedform solutions for the locomotion and efficiency for small flapping amplitudes, and numerical results for finite flapping amplitudes. This efficiency analysis results in optimal parameter values that are in agreement with values reported for some carangiform fish. We then study the stability of the (finite amplitude flapping) periodic locomotion using Floquet theory. We find that stability depends nonlinearly on all parameters. Interesting trends of switching between stable and unstable motions emerge and evolve as we continuously vary the parameter values. This suggests that, for live organisms that control their flapping motion, maneuverability and stability need not be thought of as disjoint properties, rather the organism may manipulate its motion in favor of one or the other depending on the task at hand.

  19. Quantum gates by periodic driving

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Z. C.; Wang, W.; Yi, X. X.

    2016-01-01

    Topological quantum computation has been extensively studied in the past decades due to its robustness against decoherence. One way to realize the topological quantum computation is by adiabatic evolutions—it requires relatively long time to complete a gate, so the speed of quantum computation slows down. In this work, we present a method to realize single qubit quantum gates by periodic driving. Compared to adiabatic evolution, the single qubit gates can be realized at a fixed time much shorter than that by adiabatic evolution. The driving fields can be sinusoidal or square-well field. With the sinusoidal driving field, we derive an expression for the total operation time in the high-frequency limit, and an exact analytical expression for the evolution operator without any approximations is given for the square well driving. This study suggests that the period driving could provide us with a new direction in regulations of the operation time in topological quantum computation. PMID:26911900

  20. Numerical study on the impact of the 18.6-year period nodal tidal cycle on water masses in the subarctic North Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osafune, S.; Yasuda, I.

    2012-05-01

    A series of numerical experiments is performed to test the hypothesis that temporal variations in localized strong tidal mixing related to the 18.6-year period nodal tidal cycle induce water mass variations. It is suggested that enhanced mixing around the Bering Sea, as that around the Okhotsk Sea, have an impact on water masses broadly in the North Pacific including the Bering Sea and the Okhotsk Sea. Oscillatory tidal mixing with a 18.6-year period reproduces water mass variations in salinity and isopycnal potential temperature around the subarctic North Pacific that are qualitatively consistent with observed variations. When the amplitude of oscillatory vertical diffusivity is 15% of the long-term mean (and even when the amplitude is as small as 3 cm2/s, as obtained for a long-term mean of 20 cm2/s), the amplitude of the salinity variation near regions of strong mixing is smaller than but on the same order of magnitude as that observed. The induced salinity anomaly spreads broadly, over a distance of several hundreds of kilometers, by mean currents with a short lag time of less than 3 years, and is suggested to influence the model winter mixed layer over broad regions. These results support the hypothesis stated above and suggest that it is necessary to clarify spatial and temporal variations in tidal mixing to reproduce both the mean states of and temporal variations in water masses of the subarctic North Pacific.

  1. Codes in the codons: construction of a codon/amino acid periodic table and a study of the nature of specific nucleic acid-protein interactions.

    PubMed

    Benyo, B; Biro, J C; Benyo, Z

    2004-01-01

    The theory of "codon-amino acid coevolution" was first proposed by Woese in 1967. It suggests that there is a stereochemical matching - that is, affinity - between amino acids and certain of the base triplet sequences that code for those amino acids. We have constructed a common periodic table of codons and amino acids, where the nucleic acid table showed perfect axial symmetry for codons and the corresponding amino acid table also displayed periodicity regarding the biochemical properties (charge and hydrophobicity) of the 20 amino acids and the position of the stop signals. The table indicates that the middle (2/sup nd/) amino acid in the codon has a prominent role in determining some of the structural features of the amino acids. The possibility that physical contact between codons and amino acids might exist was tested on restriction enzymes. Many recognition site-like sequences were found in the coding sequences of these enzymes and as many as 73 examples of codon-amino acid co-location were observed in the 7 known 3D structures (December 2003) of endonuclease-nucleic acid complexes. These results indicate that the smallest possible units of specific nucleic acid-protein interaction are indeed the stereochemically compatible codons and amino acids.

  2. Environmental Conditions in a Carpathian Deep Sea Basin During the Period Preceding Oceanic Anoxic Event 2 - A Case Study from the Skole Nappe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bąk, Krzysztof; Bąk, Marta; Górny, Zbigniew; Wolska, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Hemipelagic green clayey shales and thin muddy turbidites accumulated in a deep sea environment below the CCD in the Skole Basin, a part of the Outer Carpathian realm, during the Middle Cenomanian. The hemipelagites contain numerous radiolarians, associated with deep-water agglutinated foraminifera. These sediments accumulated under mesotrophic conditions with limited oxygen concentration. Short-term periodic anoxia also occurred during that time. Muddy turbidity currents caused deposition of siliciclastic and biogenic material, including calcareous foramini-fers and numerous sponge spicules. The preservation and diversity of the spicules suggests that they originate from disarticulation of moderately diversified sponge assemblages, which lived predominantly in the neritic-bathyal zone. Analyses of radiolarian ecological groups and pellets reflect the water column properties during the sedimentation of green shales. At that time, surface and also intermediate waters were oxygenated enough and sufficiently rich in nutri-ents to enable plankton production. Numerous, uncompacted pellets with nearly pristine radiolarian skeletons inside show that pelletization was the main factor of radiolarian flux into the deep basin floor. Partly dissolved skeletons indicate that waters in the Skole Basin were undersaturated in relation to silica content. Oxygen content might have been depleted in the deeper part of the water column causing periodic anoxic conditions which prevent rapid bacterial degra-dation of the pellets during their fall to the sea floor.

  3. Periodic local Møller-Plesset second order perturbation theory method applied to molecular crystals: study of solid NH3 and CO2 using extended basis sets.

    PubMed

    Maschio, Lorenzo; Usvyat, Denis; Schütz, Martin; Civalleri, Bartolomeo

    2010-04-07

    We have calculated the equilibrium geometry, formation energy, and bulk modulus of two molecular bulk crystals, NH(3) and CO(2), at the periodic post-Hartree-Fock correlated level. The dependence of the results on the basis set has been analyzed, by employing basis sets up to aug-cc-pVQZ quality. In the calculations, we used the periodic local Møller-Plesset second order perturbation theory (LMP2), implemented in the CRYSCOR program. Multipolar expansion techniques, as well as density fitting, are employed in this code to reduce the number of and to factorize the required electron repulsion integrals; as a consequence of that, the computational cost for the correlation part of the calculations is comparable to that of the Hartree-Fock. Auxiliary calculations performed on molecular dimers are also reported to verify the accuracy of the LMP2 approach and of the basis sets used. Furthermore, the effect of spin-component scaling has been investigated for the two crystals. One intention of the present paper is also to lay out and specify the computational setup, which is generally applicable for accurate CRYSCOR calculations on molecular crystals.

  4. Current research trends in early life stress and depression: review of human studies on sensitive periods, gene-environment interactions, and epigenetics.

    PubMed

    Heim, Christine; Binder, Elisabeth B

    2012-01-01

    Early life stress, such as childhood abuse, neglect and loss, is a well established major risk factor for developing depressive disorders later in life. We here summarize and discuss current developments in human research regarding the link between early life stress and depression. Specifically, we review the evidence for the existence of sensitive periods for the adverse effects of early life stress in humans. We further review the current state of knowledge regarding gene×environment (G×E) interactions in the effects of early life stress. While multiple genes operate in multiple environments to induce risk for depression after early life stress, these same genes also seem to enhance the beneficial effects of a positive early environment. Also, we discuss the epigenetic mechanisms that might underlie these G×E interactions. Finally, we discuss the potential importance of identifying sensitive time periods of opportunity, as well as G×E interactions and epigenetic mechanisms, for early interventions that might prevent or reverse the detrimental outcomes of early life stress and its transmission across generations.

  5. Modeling and forecasting daily movement of ambient air mean PM₂.₅ concentration based on the elliptic orbit model with weekly quasi-periodic extension: a case study.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zong-chang

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays, the issue of air pollution has continuously been a global public health concern. Modeling and forecasting daily movement of ambient air mean PM2.5 concentration is an increasingly important task as it is intimately associated with human health that the air pollution has unignorable negative effects in reducing air quality, damaging environment, even causing serious harm to health. It is demonstrated that daily movement of mean PM₂.₅ concentration approximately exhibits weekly cyclical variations as daily particle pollution in the air is largely influenced by human daily activities. Then, based on weekly quasi-periodic extension for daily movement of mean PM₂.₅ concentration, the called elliptic orbit model is proposed to describe its movement. By mapping daily movement of mean PM₂.₅ concentration as one time series into the polar coordinates, each 7-day movement is depicted as one elliptic orbit. Experimental result and analysis indicate workability and effectiveness of the proposed method. Here we show that with the weekly quasi-periodic extension, daily movements of mean PM₂.₅ concentration at the given monitoring stations in Xiangtan of China are well described by the elliptic orbit model, which provides a vivid description for modeling and prediction daily movement of mean PM₂.₅ concentration in a concise and intuitive way.

  6. The postanesthetic period. Complications.

    PubMed

    Malamed, S F

    1987-01-01

    Postanesthetic complications can occur even in the best of circumstances. Proper preparation of the staff, aggressive monitoring of the recovering patient, and early recognition and management of the complications are essential if the outcome is to be successful. In reviewing postanesthetic complications, two factors are present in the overwhelming majority of situations--hypoxia and hypercarbia--often the direct result of inadequate monitoring during the postanesthetic period. The anesthetic procedure is not over once the anesthetic agents are discontinued. The skillful anesthetist is aware of the possibilities of postoperative complications and prevents problems by employing enhanced monitoring techniques during the recovery phase.

  7. Controls on geyser periodicity.

    PubMed

    Ingebritsen, S E; Rojstaczer, S A

    1993-11-05

    Geyser eruption frequency is not constant over time and has been shown to vary with small (periodicity. Much of the responsiveness to remote seismicity and other small strains in the Earth can be explained in terms of variations in permeability and lateral recharge rates.

  8. Controls on geyser periodicity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ingebritsen, S.E.; Rojstaczer, S.A.

    1993-01-01

    Geyser eruption frequency is not constant over time and has been shown to vary with small (???10-6) strains induced by seismic events, atmospheric loading, and Earth tides. The geyser system is approximated as a permeable conduit of intensely fractured rock surrounded by a less permeable rock matrix. Numerical simulation of this conceptual model yields a set of parameters that controls geyser existence and periodicity. Much of the responsiveness to remote seismicity and other small strains in the Earth can be explained in terms of variations in permeability and lateral recharge rates.

  9. Long Periodic Terms in the Solar System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bretagnon, P.

    1982-01-01

    The long period variations of the first eight planets in the solar system are studied. First, the Lagrangian solution is calculated and then the long period terms with fourth order eccentricities and inclinations are introduced into the perturbation function. A second approximation was made taking into account the short period terms' contribution, namely the perturbations of first order with respect to the masses. Special attention was paid to the determination of the integration constants. The relative importance of the different contributions is shown. It is useless, for example, to introduce the long period terms of fifth order if no account has been taken of the short period terms. Meanwhile, the terms that have been neglected would not introduce large changes in the integration constants. Even so, the calculation should be repeated with higher order short period terms and fifth order long periods.

  10. Ab initio study of MF2 (M=Mn, Fe, Co, Ni) rutile-type compounds using the periodic unrestricted Hartree-Fock approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de P. R. Moreira, Ibério; Dovesi, Roberto; Roetti, Carla; Saunders, Victor R.; Orlando, Roberto

    2000-09-01

    The ab initio periodic unrestricted Hartree-Fock method has been applied in the investigation of the ground-state structural, electronic, and magnetic properties of the rutile-type compounds MF2 (M=Mn, Fe, Co, and Ni). All electron Gaussian basis sets have been used. The systems turn out to be large band-gap antiferromagnetic insulators; the optimized geometrical parameters are in good agreement with experiment. The calculated most stable electronic state shows an antiferromagnetic order in agreement with that resulting from neutron scattering experiments. The magnetic coupling constants between nearest-neighbor magnetic ions along the [001], [111], and [100] (or [010]) directions have been calculated using several supercells. The resulting ab initio magnetic coupling constants are reasonably satisfactory when compared with available experimental data. The importance of the Jahn-Teller effect in FeF2 and CoF2 is also discussed.

  11. Basic Study on the Radio Frequency Characteristics of the Transmission Lines Employing Periodically Perforated Ground Metal on GaAs Monolithic Microwave Integrated Circuit and Their Equivalent Ciruits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yun, Young; Ju, Jeong-Gab; Kim, Hong Seung

    2011-01-01

    In this work, basic characteristics of transmission line employing periodically perforated ground metal (PPGM) were investigated using theoretical and experimental analysis. Concretely, bandwidth and impedance were investigated using theoretical analysis, and wavelength and effective permittivity were extracted from experimental results. In addition, insertion loss and isolation characteristics were investigated using equivalent circuit analysis. For simplification of design process, equivalent circuits for the PPGM cell were extracted, and all circuit parameters were expressed by closed-form equation. Above results indicate that the transmission line employing PPGM is a promising candidate for a development of matching and passive elements on monolithic microwave integrated circuit (MMIC) including wireless communication circuit and compound semiconducting devices such as high electron mobility transistor (HEMT), diamond field effect transistor (FET) and light emitting diode (LED).

  12. A study of gravity-wave spectra in the troposphere and stratosphere at 5-min to 5-day periods with the Poker Flat MST radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bemra, R. S.; Rastogi, P. K.; Balsley, B. B.

    1986-01-01

    An analysis of frequency spectra at periods of about 5 days to 5 min from two 20-day sets of velocity measurements in the stratosphere and troposphere region obtained with the Poker Flat mesosphere-stratosphere-troposphere (MST) radar during January and June, 1984 is presented. A technique based on median filtering and averaged order statistics for automatic editing, smoothing and spectral analysis of velocity time series contaminated with spurious data points or outliers is outlined. The validity of this technique and its effects on the inferred spectral index was tested through simulation. Spectra obtained with this technique are discussed. The measured spectral indices show variability with season and height, especially across the tropopause. The discussion briefly outlines the need for obtaining better climatologies of velocity spectra and for the refinements of the existing theories to explain their behavior.

  13. An experimental study of unsteady natural convection in a reservoir model subject to periodic thermal forcing using combined PIV and PIT techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bednarz, Tomasz Piotr; Lei, Chengwang; Patterson, John C.

    2009-07-01

    The present experimental investigation is concerned with the transient flow response in a reservoir model to periodic heating and cooling at the water surface. The experiment reveals a stable stratification of the water body during the heating phase and an unsteady mixing flow in the reservoir during the cooling phase. It is shown that thermal instabilities play an important role in breaking up the residual circulation and initiating a reverse flow circulation in deep waters after the switch of thermal forcing from heating to cooling. Moreover, the heating from the water surface results in a stable large-scale convective roll that is clearly observed in the experiment. The present flow visualization is carried out with the application of thermo-chromic liquid crystals. Quantitative temperature and velocity fields are extracted using Particle Image Thermometry and Particle Image Velocimetry techniques. Understanding of the flow mechanisms pertinent to this problem is important for predicting the transport of nutrients and pollutants across reservoirs.

  14. [Comparative study of the long-term behavioral effects of noopept and piracetam in adult male rats and female rats in postnatal period].

    PubMed

    Voronina, T A; Guzevatykh, L S; Trofimov, S S

    2005-01-01

    Adult male and female rats were treated with the peptide nootrope drug noopept (daily dose, 0.1 mg/kg) and piracetam (200 mg/kg). In the period from 8th to 20th day, both drugs (cognitive enhancers) suppressed the horizontal and vertical activity and the anxiety in test animals as compared to the control group treated with 0.9 % aqueous NaCl solution. Early postnatal injections of the nootropes influenced neither the morphology development nor the behavior of adult female rats in the plus maze, extrapolational escape, passive avoidance, and pain sensitivity threshold tests. Animals in the "intact" group (having received neither drugs not physiological solution, that is, developing in a poor sensor environment), showed less pronounced habituation in the open field test as compared to the control and drug treated groups.

  15. Online Periodic Table: A Cautionary Note

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Izci, Kemal; Barrow, Lloyd H.; Thornhill, Erica

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was (a) to evaluate ten online periodic table sources for their accuracy and (b) to compare the types of information and links provided to users. Limited studies have been reported on online periodic table (Diener and Moore 2011; Slocum and Moore in "J Chem Educ" 86(10):1167, 2009). Chemistry students'…

  16. X-ray standing-wave study of (AlAs){sub m}(GaAs){sub n} short-period superlattices

    SciTech Connect

    Lessmann, A.; Brennan, S.; Munkholm, A.; Materlik, G.

    1999-04-01

    X-ray standing-waves (XSW) are used for an investigation of the structure of (AlAs){sub m}(GaAs){sub n} short-period superlattices (SL{close_quote}s). The XSW induced modulation of x-ray fluorescence from the Al, As, and Ga atoms and the total photoelectron yield are monitored around the 0th order SL satellite (AlAs)(GaAs)(004,0) and the GaAs(004) substrate Bragg reflection. From the specific shape of these modulations and the sample reflectivity, an atomic model about the interfaces is derived. This is accomplished by comparing the experimental data with dynamical calculations of x-ray wavefield distribution and reflectivity, which are based on the Takagi-Taupin equation. The fluorescence measurements at the 0th order SL satellite reveal a high crystalline order in the AlAs layers of the short-period SL, whereas in the GaAs layers, a fraction of the Ga and As atoms is not on the ideal lattice positions. From the analysis, a model of the atomic distribution along the [001] direction can be determined. This reveals that at each internal interface in the GaAs layers, two Ga atom planes are shifted by up to 0.035 nm and one As atom plane by 0.023 nm. At each interface, the shifts are directed towards the substrate. In addition, the XSW field at the GaAs(004) substrate reflection results in a moir{acute e} or beating effect in the SL structure, which can be used to determine the information depth {Lambda}{sub e} of total electron-yield measurements in a more detailed approach. {copyright} {ital 1999} {ital The American Physical Society}

  17. Multifunctional periodic cellular metals.

    PubMed

    Wadley, Haydn N G

    2006-01-15

    Periodic cellular metals with honeycomb and corrugated topologies are widely used for the cores of light weight sandwich panel structures. Honeycombs have closed cell pores and are well suited for thermal protection while also providing efficient load support. Corrugated core structures provide less efficient and highly anisotropic load support, but enable cross flow heat exchange opportunities because their pores are continuous in one direction. Recent advances in topology design and fabrication have led to the emergence of lattice truss structures with open cell structures. These three classes of periodic cellular metals can now be fabricated from a wide variety of structural alloys. Many topologies are found to provide adequate stiffness and strength for structural load support when configured as the cores of sandwich panels. Sandwich panels with core relative densities of 2-10% and cell sizes in the millimetre range are being assessed for use as multifunctional structures. The open, three-dimensional interconnected pore networks of lattice truss topologies provide opportunities for simultaneously supporting high stresses while also enabling cross flow heat exchange. These highly compressible structures also provide opportunities for the mitigation of high intensity dynamic loads created by impacts and shock waves in air or water. By filling the voids with polymers and hard ceramics, these structures have also been found to offer significant resistance to penetration by projectiles.

  18. Periodic truss structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zok, Frank W.; Latture, Ryan M.; Begley, Matthew R.

    2016-11-01

    Despite the recognition of the enormous potential of periodic trusses for use in a broad range of technologies, there are no widely-accepted descriptors of their structure. The terminology has been based loosely either on geometry of polyhedra or of point lattices: neither of which, on its own, has an appropriate structure to fully define periodic trusses. The present article lays out a system for classification of truss structure types. The system employs concepts from crystallography and geometry to describe nodal locations and connectivity of struts. Through a series of illustrative examples of progressively increasing complexity, a rational taxonomy of truss structure is developed. Its conceptual evolution begins with elementary cubic trusses, increasing in complexity with non-cubic and compound trusses as well as supertrusses, and, finally, with complex trusses. The conventions and terminology adopted to define truss structure yield concise yet unambiguous descriptions of structure types and of specific (finite) trusses. The utility of the taxonomy is demonstrated by bringing into alignment a disparate set of ad hoc and incomplete truss designations previously employed in a broad range of science and engineering fields. Additionally, the merits of a particular compound truss (comprising two interpenetrating elementary trusses) is shown to be superior to the octet truss for applications requiring high stiffness and elastic isotropy. By systematically stepping through and analyzing the finite number of structure types identified through the present classification system, optimal structures for prescribed mechanical and functional requirements are expected to be ascertained in an expeditious manner.

  19. Can Local Citation Analysis of Master's and Doctoral Theses Help Decision-Making about the Management of the Collection of Periodicals? A Case Study in Psychology and Education Sciences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feyereisen, Pierre; Spoiden, Anne

    2009-01-01

    This study analyzed reference lists in a large number of master's and doctoral theses in a university library of psychology and education sciences. It compared citation counts to other indicators of the use of periodicals. The usefulness and limitations of these statistics are discussed in relation to decision-making in subscriptions' management.…

  20. Difference in the effects of switching from Candesartan to Olmesartan or Telmisartan to Olmesartan in hypertensive patients with type 2 diabetes: the COTO study

    PubMed Central

    Daikuhara, Hiroyuki; Fukunaga, Kensaku; Ohshima, Tomie

    2014-01-01

    Purpose This open-label controlled study compared the therapeutic efficacy of three representative angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs) in hypertensive patients with type 2 diabetes attending a hospital outpatient clinic. The primary measure in this study was morning home blood pressure (BP). Patients and methods Two studies were done concurrently to investigate the effects of switching from two different ARBs to olmesartan. Patients prescribed candesartan (8 mg once daily in the morning) or telmisartan (40 mg once daily in the morning) for 16 weeks were switched to olmesartan (20 mg once daily in the morning) for 16 weeks. Then, they were switched back to candesartan (CO group) or telmisartan (TO group) for another 16 weeks. Results Data from all patients in the CO group (n=165) and the TO group (n=152) were analyzed. Clinic and morning home BP and urinary albumin levels showed a significant decrease from baseline at 16 weeks after switching to olmesartan in both the CO and the TO group (clinic BP, morning home diastolic BP, and urinary albumin, P<0.05; morning home systolic BP, P<0.01). In contrast, clinic BP, morning home BP, and urinary albumin were significantly increased again 16 weeks after switching back to candesartan or telmisartan (clinic BP, morning home diastolic BP, and urinary albumin, P<0.05; morning home systolic BP, P<0.01). No subjects experienced an adverse reaction that required withdrawal from the study. No adverse reactions attributable to the study drugs were observed. Conclusion Olmesartan is a promising ARB for BP control in hypertensive type 2 diabetics. PMID:24600204

  1. [Heterogeneity and polymorphism of functionally specialized blood proteins in migratory fish: case study of the North Caspian population of the Russian sturgeon during sea and river periods of life. 1. Albumins].

    PubMed

    Luk'ianenko, V I; Khabarov, M V; Luk'ianenko, V V

    2002-01-01

    A comparative study of the levels of heterogeneity and polymorphism of albumins, the most important functionally specialized blood proteins, has been carried out. The albumin system of Russian sturgeon undergoes distinct changes while the fish change habitat during the spawning migration from sea to river. They are expressed as an increased level of heterogeneity, an increased content of serum albumins in fish during the river period of life as compared to the sea period, and an increased share of a slow component of albuminograms. These changes suggest a significant role of the blood albumin system in adaptation of the Caspian sturgeon migratory species to fresh water life conditions.

  2. A Phase III Randomized, Double-blind, Parallel-group Study to Evaluate the Efficacy and Safety of Acarmet (Metformin HCl 500 mg Plus Acarbose 50 mg Tablets) Versus Acarbose Alone in Subjects With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2010-11-19

    The Objectives of the Study is to Evaluate the Efficacy and Safety of Acarmet (Metformin HCl 500 mg; Plus Acarbose 50 mg Tablets) Thrice Daily Versus Acarbose 50 mg Thrice Daily Over 16 Weeks in; Subjects With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.

  3. Lombards on the move--an integrative study of the migration period cemetery at Szólád, Hungary.

    PubMed

    Alt, Kurt W; Knipper, Corina; Peters, Daniel; Müller, Wolfgang; Maurer, Anne-France; Kollig, Isabelle; Nicklisch, Nicole; Müller, Christiane; Karimnia, Sarah; Brandt, Guido; Roth, Christina; Rosner, Martin; Mende, Balász; Schöne, Bernd R; Vida, Tivadar; von Freeden, Uta

    2014-01-01

    In 2005 to 2007 45 skeletons of adults and subadults were excavated at the Lombard period cemetery at Szólád (6th century A.D.), Hungary. Embedded into the well-recorded historical context, the article presents the results obtained by an integrative investigation including anthropological, molecular genetic and isotopic (δ(15)N, δ(13)C, (87)Sr/(86)Sr) analyses. Skeletal stress markers as well as traces of interpersonal violence were found to occur frequently. The mitochondrial DNA profiles revealed a heterogeneous spectrum of lineages that belong to the haplogroups H, U, J, HV, T2, I, and K, which are common in present-day Europe and in the Near East, while N1a and N1b are today quite rare. Evidence of possible direct maternal kinship was identified in only three pairs of individuals. According to enamel strontium isotope ratios, at least 31% of the individuals died at a location other than their birthplace and/or had moved during childhood. Based on the peculiar 87 Sr/86 Sr ratio distribution between females, males, and subadults in comparison to local vegetation and soil samples, we propose a three-phase model of group movement. An initial patrilocal group with narrower male but wider female Sr isotope distribution settled at Szólád, whilst the majority of subadults represented in the cemetery yielded a distinct Sr isotope signature. Owing to the virtual absence of Szólád-born adults in the cemetery, we may conclude that the settlement was abandoned after approx. one generation. Population heterogeneity is furthermore supported by the carbon and nitrogen isotope data. They indicate that a group of high-ranking men had access to larger shares of animal-derived food whilst a few individuals consumed remarkable amounts of millet. The inferred dynamics of the burial community are in agreement with hypotheses of a highly mobile lifestyle during the Migration Period and a short-term occupation of Pannonia by Lombard settlers as conveyed by written sources.

  4. Lombards on the Move – An Integrative Study of the Migration Period Cemetery at Szólád, Hungary

    PubMed Central

    Peters, Daniel; Müller, Wolfgang; Maurer, Anne-France; Kollig, Isabelle; Nicklisch, Nicole; Müller, Christiane; Karimnia, Sarah; Brandt, Guido; Roth, Christina; Rosner, Martin; Mende, Balász; Schöne, Bernd R.; Vida, Tivadar; von Freeden, Uta

    2014-01-01

    In 2005 to 2007 45 skeletons of adults and subadults were excavated at the Lombard period cemetery at Szólád (6th century A.D.), Hungary. Embedded into the well-recorded historical context, the article presents the results obtained by an integrative investigation including anthropological, molecular genetic and isotopic (δ15N, δ13C, 87Sr/86Sr) analyses. Skeletal stress markers as well as traces of interpersonal violence were found to occur frequently. The mitochondrial DNA profiles revealed a heterogeneous spectrum of lineages that belong to the haplogroups H, U, J, HV, T2, I, and K, which are common in present-day Europe and in the Near East, while N1a and N1b are today quite rare. Evidence of possible direct maternal kinship was identified in only three pairs of individuals. According to enamel strontium isotope ratios, at least 31% of the individuals died at a location other than their birthplace and/or had moved during childhood. Based on the peculiar 87Sr/86Sr ratio distribution between females, males, and subadults in comparison to local vegetation and soil samples, we propose a three-phase model of group movement. An initial patrilocal group with narrower male but wider female Sr isotope distribution settled at Szólád, whilst the majority of subadults represented in the cemetery yielded a distinct Sr isotope signature. Owing to the virtual absence of Szólád-born adults in the cemetery, we may conclude that the settlement was abandoned after approx. one generation. Population heterogeneity is furthermore supported by the carbon and nitrogen isotope data. They indicate that a group of high-ranking men had access to larger shares of animal-derived food whilst a few individuals consumed remarkable amounts of millet. The inferred dynamics of the burial community are in agreement with hypotheses of a highly mobile lifestyle during the Migration Period and a short-term occupation of Pannonia by Lombard settlers as conveyed by written sources. PMID:25369022

  5. Antipsychotic prescribing in care homes before and after launch of a national dementia strategy: an observational study in English institutions over a 4-year period

    PubMed Central

    Szczepura, Ala; Owen, David W; Palmer, Thomas; Muhammad, Tariq; Clark, Michael D

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To assess associations between the launch of the National Dementia Strategy (NDS) and antipsychotic prescribing in long-term residential care (LTC) in England. Setting and participants Retrospective analysis of prescribing patterns in 616 LTC institutions (31 619 residents) following launch of the NDS, using information from electronic medicines management system. Primary and secondary outcome measures Antipsychotic prescribing point prevalence (PP) for all residents in a cross section of LTC settings over a 4-year period following NDS launch. Secondary outcomes included dosages, length of treatment and use of recommended second-generation antipsychotics (SGAs) versus first-generation antipsychotics (FGAs). Associations between facility-level PP values and institutional characteristics, resident demographics were explored. Variations across geographical areas examined. Prescription net ingredient costs calculated. Results No statistically significant difference was observed in overall prescribing rates over the 4-year period (Kolmogorov-Smirnov (KS) test p=0.60), and there was no significant shift towards newer SGAs (KS test p=0.32). Dosages were above the maximum indicated in only 1.3% of cases, but duration of prescribing was excessive in 69.7% of cases. Care homes in the highest prescribing quintile were more likely to be located in a deprived area (rate ratio (Q5/Q1) RR=5.89, 95% CI 4.35 to 7.99), registered for dementia (RR=3.38, 95% CI 3.06 to 3.73) and those in the lowest quintile were more likely to be served by a single general practitioner (GP) practice (RR=0.48; 95% CI 0.37 to 0.63); p<0.001 all. A sixfold variation in PP levels was observed between geographical areas. The average annual expenditure on antipsychotics was £65.6 per person resident (2012 prices). Conclusions The NDS in England was not associated with reduced PP levels or the types of antipsychotic prescribing in care homes. Further research is needed to explore why. Clear

  6. Model Valid Prediction Period

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, P. C.

    2002-12-01

    A new concept, valid prediction period (VPP), is presented here to evaluate model predictability. VPP is defined as the time period when the prediction error first exceeds a pre-determined criterion (i.e., the tolerance level). It depends not only on the instantaneous error growth, but also on the noise level, the initial error, and tolerance level. The model predictability skill is then represented by a single scalar, VPP. The longer the VPP, the higher the model predictability skill is. A theoretical framework on the base of the backward Fokker-Planck equation is developed to determine the probability density function (pdf) of VPP. Verification of a Gulf of Mexico nowcast/forecast model is used as an example to demonstrate the usefulness of VPP. Power law scaling is found in the mean square error of displacement between drifting buoy and model trajectories (both at 50 m depth). The pdf of VPP is asymmetric with a long and broad tail on the higher value side, which suggests long-term predictability. The calculations demonstrate that the long-term (extreme long such as 50-60 day) predictability is not an "outlier" and shares the same statistical properties as the short-term predictions. References Chu P. C., L. M. Ivanov, and C.W. Fan, Backward Fokker-Plank equation for determining model predictability with unknown initial error distribution. J. Geophys. Res., in press, 2002. Chu P.C., L.M.Ivanov, T.M. Margolina, and O.V.Melnichenko, 2002b: On probabilistic stability of an atmospheric model to various amplitude perturbations. J. Atmos. Sci., in press Chu P.C., L.M. Ivanov, L. Kantha, O.V. Melnichenko and Y.A. Poberezhny, 2002c: The long-term correlations and power decay law in model prediction skill. Geophys. Res. Let., in press.

  7. Longitudinal Studies of the Effects of Alternative Types of Early Intervention for Children with Disabilities. Annual Report for Project Period October 1, 1993-September 30, 1994.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Innocenti, Mark S.

    This report is the fourth in a series of follow-up analyses of nine longitudinal studies addressing the costs and effectiveness of alternative types of early intervention for children with disabilities. An introduction provides an historical perspective and conceptual framework for the studies, including common study elements and how research…

  8. A Method to Compute Periodic Sums

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-10-15

    A method to compute periodic sums Nail A. Gumerov∗ and Ramani Duraiswami† Institute for Advanced Computer Studies University of Maryland, College...fast summa- tion algorithms, such as the fast multipole method (FMM), the periodized extension is usually treated via a different algorithm, Ewald...summation algorithm is presented in this paper. The method splits the periodized sum in to two parts. The first, comprising the contribution of all

  9. Summary of Sonic Boom Rise Times Observed During FAA Community Response Studies over a 6-Month Period in the Oklahoma City Area

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maglieri, Domenic J.; Sothcott, Victor E.

    1990-01-01

    The sonic boom signature data acquired from about 1225 supersonic flights, over a 6-month period in 1964 in the Oklahoma City area, was enhanced with the addition of data relating to rise times and total signature duration. These later parameters, not available at the time of publication of the original report on the Oklahoma City sonic boom exposures, are listed in tabular form along with overpressure, positive impulse, positive duration, and waveform category. Airplane operating information along with the surface weather observations are also included. Sonic boom rise times include readings to the 1/2, 3/4, and maximum overpressure values. Rise time relative probabilities for various lateral locations from the ground track of 0, 5, and 10 miles are presented along with the variation of rise times with flight altitude. The tabulated signature data, along with corresponding airplane operating conditions and surface and upper level atmospheric information, are also available on electronic files to provide it in the format for more efficient and effective utilization.

  10. Ability of patients to retain and recall new information in the post-anaesthetic recovery period: a prospective clinical study in day surgery.

    PubMed

    Blandford, C M; Gupta, B C; Montgomery, J; Stocker, M E

    2011-12-01

    Patients are frequently told new information in the early postoperative period and may retain little of it. Two hundred patients undergoing general anaesthesia for day surgery procedures were randomly allocated into two equal groups, 'Early' and 'Late'. Both groups were asked to undertake a simple memory test either in the early or late postoperative phase of their recovery. A list of five objects was verbally presented and recall of these five objects was tested after 30 min. A control group of 100 patients performed the same test. Patients in the control group received no sedative medications. Statistically significant differences (p < 0.001) in recall ability were demonstrable between each of the three groups. Twenty-three percent of patients in the 'Early' group had total amnesia of any test information given. Only 1% of the 'Late' group were unable to remember any information; a mean interval of 40 min separated the two groups. We recommend that verbal information given postoperatively be delayed until a recovery interval of at least 40 in, and should be supported with written material.

  11. Periodic DFT study of acidic trace atmospheric gas molecule adsorption on Ca- and Fe-doped MgO(001) surface basic sites.

    PubMed

    Baltrusaitis, Jonas; Hatch, Courtney; Orlando, Roberto

    2012-08-02

    The electronic properties of undoped and Ca- or Fe-doped MgO(001) surfaces, as well as their propensity toward atmospheric acidic gas (CO2, SO2, and NO2) uptake was investigated with an emphasis on gas adsorption on the basic MgO oxygen surface sites, O(surf), using periodic density functional theory (DFT) calculations. Adsorption energy calculations show that MgO doping will provide stronger interactions of the adsorbate with the O(surf) sites than the undoped MgO for a given adsorbate molecule. Charge transfer from the iron atom in Fe-doped MgO(001) to NO2 was shown to increase the binding interaction between adsorbate by an order of magnitude, when compared to that of undoped and Ca-doped MgO(001) surfaces. Secondary binding interactions of adsorbate oxygen atoms were observed with surface magnesium sites at distances close to those of the Mg-O bond within the crystal. These interactions may serve as a preliminary step for adsorption and facilitate further adsorbate transformations into other binding configurations. Impacts on global atmospheric chemistry are discussed as these adsorption phenomena can affect atmospheric gas budgets via altered partitioning and retention on mineral aerosol surfaces.

  12. [Childhood periodic syndromes].

    PubMed

    Cuvelli