Science.gov

Sample records for 1607-f3 sanitary sewer

  1. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 1607-F3 Sanitary Sewer System, Waste Site Reclassification Form 2006-047

    SciTech Connect

    L. M. Dittmer

    2007-04-26

    The 1607-F3 waste site is the former location of the sanitary sewer system that supported the 182-F Pump Station, the 183-F Water Treatment Plant, and the 151-F Substation. The sanitary sewer system included a septic tank, drain field, and associated pipeline, all in use between 1944 and 1965. In accordance with this evaluation, the verification sampling results support a reclassification of this site to Interim Closed Out. The results of verification sampling demonstrated that residual contaminant concentrations do not preclude any future uses and allow for unrestricted use of shallow zone soils. The results also showed that residual contaminant concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River.

  2. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 100-F-26:10, 1607-F3 Sanitary Sewer Pipelines (182-F, 183-F, and 151-F Sanitary Sewer Lines), Waste Site Reclassification Form 2007-028

    SciTech Connect

    L. M. Dittmer

    2007-12-03

    The 100-F-26:10 waste site includes sanitary sewer lines that serviced the former 182-F, 183-F, and 151-F Buildings. In accordance with this evaluation, the verification sampling results support a reclassification of this site to Interim Closed Out. The results of verification sampling show that residual contaminant concentrations do not preclude any future uses and allow for unrestricted use of shallow zone soils. The results also demonstrate that residual contaminant concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River.

  3. SANITARY SEWER CALCULATION

    SciTech Connect

    Roy D. Clark

    1995-01-13

    This analysis defines and evaluates the surface sanitary sewer system on the North Portal, and addresses the requirements for the collection of sanitary sewage from each of the proposed surface buildings. A sewage treatment system will be defined that meets the needs of the North Portal, conforms to the existing site conditions, and meets the needs of the state and local permitting agencies.

  4. SANITARY-SEWER OVERFLOW CONTROL STRATEGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper presents a strategy for the abatement of pollution from storm-generated sanitary-sewer overflows (SSO). Because of the great lengths of sanitary-sewer systems and their associated vast number of house-service laterals or building connections, it is often less expensive...

  5. SANITARY SEWER OVERFLOW ANALYSIS AND PLANNING (SSOAP) TOOLBOX

    EPA Science Inventory

    Description: The Nation's sanitary-sewer infrastructure is aging, with some sewers dating back over 100 years. Nationwide, there are more than 19,500 municipal sanitary-sewer collection systems serving an estimated 150 million people and about 40,000 SSO events per year. Becau...

  6. CONTROL STRATEGY FOR STORM-GENERATED SANITARY-SEWER OVERFLOWS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper presents a strategy for the abatement of pollution from storm-generated sanitary-sewer overflows (SSO). Because of the great lengths of sanitary-sewer systems and their associated vast number of house-service laterals or building connections, it is often less expensiv...

  7. Control Strategy for Storm-Generated Sanitary Sewer Overflows

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation covers a strategy for the abatement of pollution from sanitary-sewer overflows (SSO). Because of the great lengths of sanitary sewer systems, it is often less expensive to use alternatives to sewerline rehabilitation for infiltration/inflow (I/I) and associated ...

  8. CONTROL STRATEGY FOR STORM-GENERATED SANITARY-SEWER OVERFLOWS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper presents a strategy for the abatement of pollution from storm-generated sanitary-sewer overflows (SSO). Because of the great lengths of sanitary sewer systems, it is often less expensive to use alterantives to sewerline rehabilitation for infiltration/inflow (I/I) and ...

  9. DEVELOPMENT OF SANITARY SEWER OVERFLOW ANALYSIS AND PLANNING (SSOAP) TOOLBOX

    EPA Science Inventory

    Rainfall Derived Infiltration and Inflow (RDII) into sanitary sewer systems has long been recognized as a source of operating problems in sewerage systems. RDII is the main cause of sanitary sewer overflows (SSOs) to basements, streets, or nearby streams. RDII can also cause se...

  10. Sanitary Sewer Overflow Analysis and Planning (SSOAP) Toolbox

    EPA Science Inventory

    Rainfall-derived infiltration and inflow (RDII) into sanitary sewer systems has long been recognized as a source of operating problems in sewerage systems. RDII is the main cause of sanitary sewer overflows (SSOs) to basements, streets, or nearby receiving waters and can also ...

  11. SSOAP - A TOOLBOX FOR SANITARY SEWER OVERFLOW ANALYSIS AND PLANNING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Rainfall Derived Infiltration and Inflow (RDII) into sanitary sewer systems has long been recognized as a source of operating problems in sewerage systems. RDII is the main cause of sanitary sewer overflows (SSOs) to basements, streets, or nearby streams and can also cause seriou...

  12. SSOAP - A TOOLBOX FOR SANITARY SEWER OVERFLOW ANALYSIS AND PLANNING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Rainfall Derived Infiltration and Inflow (RDII) into sanitary sewer systems has long been recognized as a source of operating problems in sewerage systems. RDII is the main cause of sanitary sewer overflows (SSOs) to basements, streets, or nearby streams and can also cause serio...

  13. COMPUTER TOOLS FOR SANITARY SEWER SYSTEM CAPACITY ANALYSIS AND PLANNING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Rainfall-derived infiltration and inflow (RDII) into sanitary sewer systems has long been recognized as a major source of operating problems, causing poor performance of many sewer systems. RDII is the main cause of SSOs to customer basements, streets, or nearby streams and can a...

  14. SSOAP - A USEPA Toolbox for Sanitary Sewer Overflow Analysis and Control Planning - Presentation

    EPA Science Inventory

    The United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) has identified a need to use proven methodologies to develop computer tools that help communities properly characterize rainfall-derived infiltration and inflow (RDII) into sanitary sewer systems and develop sanitary sewer...

  15. COMPUTER MODEL ANALYSIS FOR CONTROL PLANNING OF SANITARY-SEWER OVERFLOWS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Nation's sanitary-sewer infrastructure is aging with some sewers dating back over 100 years. There are more than 19,500 municipal sanitary-sewer collection systems nationwide serving an estimated 150 million people and comprising about 800,000 km (500,000 mi) of municipally ...

  16. Update on the Status of Sanitary Sewer Overflow Analysis and Planning (SSOAP) Toolbox

    EPA Science Inventory

    A properly designed, operated and maintained sanitary sewer system is meant to collect and convey all of the sewage that flows into it to a wastewater treatment plant. However, occasional unintentional discharges of raw sewage from municipal sanitary sewers – called sanitary sewe...

  17. A TOOLBOX FOR SANITARY SEWER OVERFLOW ANALYSIS AND PLANNING (SSOAP) AND APPLICATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Rainfall Derived Infiltration and Inflow (RDII) into sanitary sewer systems has long been recognized as a source of operating problems in sewerage systems. RDII is the main cause of sanitary sewer overflows (SSOs) to basements, streets, or nearby streams and can also cause seriou...

  18. A TOOLBOX FOR SANITARY SEWER OVERFLOW ANALYSIS AND PLANNING (SSOAP) AND APPLICATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Rainfall-derived infiltration and inflow (RDII) into sanitary sewer systems has long been recognized as a source of operating problems in these systems. RDII is the main cause of sanitary sewer overflows (SSOs) to basements, streets, or nearby streams and the resulting high flows...

  19. Condition Assessment of Wastewater Collection Systems Using the Sanitary Sewer Overflow Analysis and Planning (SSOAP) Toolbox

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Sanitary Sewer Overflow Analysis and Planning (SSOAP) Toolbox can serve as the foundation of wastewater collection system infrastructure research, among several applications, for analyzing monitored flow data to prioritize where to inspect, monitor, and to assess the performa...

  20. Sanitary Sewer Systems and Association with Gastrointestinal Illness: A case crossover analysis of Massachusetts Data, 2006-2008

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sanitary sewer overflows (SSOs) occur when untreated sewage is discharged into water sources before reaching the treatment facility potentially contaminating them with gastrointestinal pathogens. Causes of SSOs include heavy rainfall and rupture/blockage of sewer lines. Few studi...

  1. COMPUTER MODEL ANALYSIS FOR MITIGATION PLANNING OF SANITARY-SEWER OVERFLOWS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sanitary sewer overflows (SSOs) are generally difficult to witness or document as they usually occur during rain events when people are indoors or out of sight. To anser where and when an SSO may occur, it is necessary to know the flow conveyance capacity at various parts of the ...

  2. EXFILTRATION IN SANITARY SEWER SYSTEMS IN THE U.S.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Many municipalities throughout the US have sewerage systems (separate and combined) that may experience exfiltration of untreated wastewater. This study was conducted to focus on the magnitude of the exfiltration problem from sewer pipes on a national basis. The method for estima...

  3. A review of the Y-12 Plant discharge of enriched uranium to the sanitary sewer (DEUSS)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-09-01

    The Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant is situated adjacent to the Oak Ridge city limits and is operated by the United States Department of Energy (DOE). The Y-12 Plant is located on 4,860 acres, which is collectively referred to as the Y-12 Plant site. Among the missions for which the facility is in existence are producing nuclear weapons components, supporting weapon design laboratories, and processing special nuclear materials (SNM). The Y-12 Plant is under the regulatory guidance of DOE Order 5400.5 and has complied with the technical requirements governing SNM since its issue. However, an in-depth review with appropriate documentation had not been performed, prior to the effect presented herein, to substantiate this claim. As a result of the solid waste issue, it was determined that other types of waste should be formally reviewed for content with respect to SNM. Therefore, a project was formed to investigate the conveyance of SNM through the sanitary sewer system. It is emphasized that this project addresses only effluent from the sanitary sewer system and not the storm sewer system. The project reviewed sanitary sewer data both for the Y-12 Plant and the Y-12 Plant site.

  4. Post-rehabilitation evaluation of the sanitary sewer system at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Royal, D.

    1995-11-01

    We are updating a CH2M Hill study which found that the sanitary sewer system is sufficient to transport peak dry weather flow. However, under peak wet weather conditions, the system has insufficient capacity to transport the projected flows for existing and future development. This is due to the amount of infiltration/inflow (I/I) that enters the sewer system when it rains. Our goal is to examine the existing system to determine its adequacy to accommodate present and future peak flows, and also to further update and improve the CH2M Hill study. A set of alternatives was also developed to address deficiencies of the existing system.

  5. A risk-based approach to sanitary sewer pipe asset management.

    PubMed

    Baah, Kelly; Dubey, Brajesh; Harvey, Richard; McBean, Edward

    2015-02-01

    Wastewater collection systems are an important component of proper management of wastewater to prevent environmental and human health implications from mismanagement of anthropogenic waste. Due to aging and inadequate asset management practices, the wastewater collection assets of many cities around the globe are in a state of rapid decline and in need of urgent attention. Risk management is a tool which can help prioritize resources to better manage and rehabilitate wastewater collection systems. In this study, a risk matrix and a weighted sum multi-criteria decision-matrix are used to assess the consequence and risk of sewer pipe failure for a mid-sized city, using ArcGIS. The methodology shows that six percent of the uninspected sewer pipe assets of the case study have a high consequence of failure while four percent of the assets have a high risk of failure and hence provide priorities for inspection. A map incorporating risk of sewer pipe failure and consequence is developed to facilitate future planning, rehabilitation and maintenance programs. The consequence of failure assessment also includes a novel failure impact factor which captures the effect of structurally defective stormwater pipes on the failure assessment. The methodology recommended in this study can serve as a basis for future planning and decision making and has the potential to be universally applied by municipal sewer pipe asset managers globally to effectively manage the sanitary sewer pipe infrastructure within their jurisdiction.

  6. Evaluation of exposure pathways to man from disposal of radioactive materials into sanitary sewer systems

    SciTech Connect

    Kennedy, W.E. Jr.; Parkhurst, M.A.; Aaberg, R.L.; Rhoads, K.C.; Hill, R.L.; Martin, J.B.

    1992-05-01

    In accordance with 10 CFR 20, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) regulates licensees` discharges of small quantities of radioactive materials into sanitary sewer systems. This generic study was initiated to examine the potential radiological hazard to the public resulting from exposure to radionuclides in sewage sludge during its treatment and disposal. Eleven scenarios were developed to characterize potential exposures to radioactive materials during sewer system operations and sewage sludge treatment and disposal activities and during the extended time frame following sewage sludge disposal. Two sets of deterministic dose calculations were performed; one to evaluate potential doses based on the radionuclides and quantities associated with documented case histories of sewer system contamination and a second, somewhat more conservative set, based on theoretical discharges at the maximum allowable levels for a more comprehensive list of 63 radionuclides. The results of the stochastic uncertainty and sensitivity analysis were also used to develop a collective dose estimate. The collective doses for the various radionuclides and scenarios range from 0.4 person-rem for {sup 137}Cs in Scenario No. 5 (sludge incinerator effluent) to 420 person-rem for {sup 137}Cs in Scenario No. 3 (sewage treatment plant liquid effluent). None of the 22 scenario/radionuclide combinations considered have collective doses greater than 1000 person-rem/yr. However, the total collective dose from these 22 combinations was found to be about 2100 person-rem.

  7. Sanitary Sewer Overflows and Association with Gastrointestinal Illness: A case crossover analysis of Massachusetts Data, 2006-2007

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sanitary sewer overflows (SSOs) occur when untreated sewage is discharged into water sources potentially causing contamination. SSOs are primarily caused by heavy rainfall, which is expected to become heavier and more episodic due to climate change. We conducted a case-crossover ...

  8. Post-rehabilitation flow monitoring and analysis of the sanitary sewer system at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Brandstetter, E.R.; Littlefield, D.C.; Villegas, M.

    1996-03-01

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is operated by the University of California under contract with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The Livermore site, approximately 50 miles southeast of San Francisco, occupies 819 acres. So far, there have been three phases in an assessment and rehabilitation of the LLNL sanitary sewer system. A 1989 study that used data collected from December 1, 1988, to January 6, 1989, to determine the adequacy of the LLNL sewer system to accommodate present and future peak flows. A Sanitary Sewer Rehabilitation (SSR) project, from October of 1991 to March of 1996, in which the system was assessed and rehabilitated. The third study is the post-rehabilitation assessment study that is reported in this document. In this report, the sanitary sewer system is described, and the goals and results of the 1989 study and the SSR project are summarized. The goals of the post-rehabilitation study are given and the analytical procedures and simulation model are described. Results, conclusions, and recommendations for further work or study are given. Field operations are summarized in Appendix A. References are provided in Appendix B.

  9. An analysis of the Cured-in-Place Pipe (CIPP) subproject of the sanitary sewer rehabilitation project

    SciTech Connect

    Morrow, W.; Siemiatkoski, S.

    1994-01-25

    The comprehensive rehabilitation of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Sanitary Sewer System centers around a Cured-in-Place Pipe project. Driven by regulatory requirements to eliminate the potential for exfiltration, a careful condition assessment of the existing infrastructure was conducted. Under programmatic constraints to maintain continuous operations, the INLINER USA cured-in-place pipe system was selected as the appropriate technology, and the project is currently under contract.

  10. A potential sanitary sewer overflow treatment technology: fixed-media bioreactors.

    PubMed

    Tao, Jing; Mancl, Karen M; Tuovinen, Olli H

    2011-08-01

    Under certain conditions, sanitary sewer overflows (SSOs) containing raw wastewater may be discharged to public land and can contribute to environmental and public health issues. Although this problem has attracted the attention of local, state, and federal government and regulators, relatively little SSO abatement research has been published. This study used fixed-media bioreactors, a proven onsite technology in rural areas, to treat wet weather SSO wastewater and reduce its effects on the receiving water environment. The results of this 32-month laboratory study showed that fixed-media bioreactors, especially sand bioreactors, efficiently removed organic matter, solids, and nutrients during six-hour simulated SSO peak flows. Five-day biochemical oxygen demand (BODs) of the simulated SSO varied between 40 and 125 mg/L. The average effluent concentration of BOD5 was 13 mg/L in sand bioreactors at a hydraulic loading rate of 20.4 cm/h. In addition to having high hydraulic loadings, SSO events occur infrequently. This irregularity requires that treatment systems quickly start up and effectively treat wastewater after a period of no flow. This research found that an interval up to six months between two SSO peak flows did not affect the bioreactor performance. Based on this work, fixed-media bioreactors have the potential to reduce the effects of SSOs on the water environment by following proper design parameters and operation strategies. The pollution loading of approximately 18 g BODs/m2 x h is recommended for the efficient performance of sand bioreactors in the SSO treatment.

  11. Performance of sanitary sewer collection system odour control devices operating in diverse conditions.

    PubMed

    Camarillo, Mary Kay; Stringfellow, William T; Hanlon, Jeremy S; Basha, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Controlling odours from sanitary sewer systems is challenging as a result of the expansive nature of these systems. Addition of oxidizing chemicals is often practiced as a mitigation strategy. One alternative is to remove odorous compounds in the gases vented from manholes using adsorptive media. In this study, odour control devices located at manholes were observed to determine the ability of these systems to reduce hydrogen sulphide from vented gases. The odour control devices incorporated pressure regulation to control gas flow out of manhole covers and adsorptive media to remove hydrogen sulphide in the vented gases prior to release. Pressure regulation was accomplished using a variable volume bladder and two pressure relief valves that permitted gas flow when pressures exceeded 1.3 to 2.5 cm water column. The reduction in gas flow vented from manholes was intended to extend the service life of the adsorptive media, as compared with odour control devices that do not incorporate pressure modulation. Devices were deployed at four locations and three adsorptive media were tested. Although measured collection system hydrogen sulphide concentrations varied from zero to over 1,000 ppm, the removal rates observed using odour control devices were typically above 90%. The lower removal rates observed at one of the sites (50.5 ± 36.1%) appeared related to high gas flow rates being emitted at this location. Activated carbon was used in most of the tests, although use of iron media resulted in the highest removal observed: 97.8 ± 3.6%. The expected service life of the adsorptive media contained within the odour control devices is a function of site-specific hydrogen sulphide concentrations and gas flow rates. The units used in this study were in service for more than 8 to 12 months prior to requiring media replacement.

  12. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 1607-F1 Sanitary Sewer System (124-F-1) and the 100-F-26:8 (1607-F1) Sanitary Sewer Pipelines Waste Sites, Waste Site Reclassification Form 2004-130

    SciTech Connect

    L. M. Dittmer

    2008-03-14

    The 1607-F1 Sanitary Sewer System (124-F-1), consisted of a septic tank, drain field, and associated pipelines that received sanitary waste water from the 1701-F Gatehouse, 1709-F Fire Station, and the 1720-F Administrative Office via the 100-F-26:8 pipelines. The septic tank required remedial action based on confirmatory sampling. In accordance with this evaluation, the verification sampling results support a reclassification of this site to Interim Closed Out. The results of verification sampling show that residual contaminant concentrations do not preclude any future uses and allow for unrestricted use of shallow zone soils. The results also demonstrate that residual contaminant concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River.

  13. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 1607-F4 Sanitary Sewer System, Waste Site Reclassification Form 2004-131

    SciTech Connect

    L. M. Dittmer

    2007-12-03

    The 1607-F4 waste site is the former location of the sanitary sewer system that serviced the former 115-F Gas Recirculation Building. The system included a septic tank, drain field, and associated pipeline that were in use from 1944 to 1965. The 1607-F4 waste site received unknown amounts of sanitary sewage from the 115-F Gas Recirculation Building and may have potentially contained hazardous and radioactive contamination. In accordance with this evaluation, the verification sampling results support a reclassification of this site to Interim Closed Out. The results of verification sampling demonstrated that residual contaminant concentrations do not preclude any future uses and allow for unrestricted use of shallow zone soils. The results also showed that residual contaminant concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River.

  14. 76 FR 35215 - Notice of EPA Workshop on Sanitary Sewer Overflows and Peak Wet Weather Discharges

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-16

    ... Pennsylvania Avenue, NW. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: For further information about this notice, contact... or e-mail: schaner.greg@epa.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: I. Background Properly designed..., line breaks, sewer defects that allow storm water and groundwater to overload the system, lapses...

  15. Identifying pathways for sanitary sewer pathogens to reach deep water supply wells in Madison, Wisconsin

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Previous work conducted by the Wisconsin Geological and Natural History Survey indicated that human enteric viruses from leaking sewers are present in several municipal wells in Madison, WI. These wells are the drinking water source for the City of Madison, are typically 700 to 900 feet deep, and pe...

  16. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 100-C-9:2 Sanitary Sewer Pipelines, Waste Site Reclassification Form 2004-013

    SciTech Connect

    L. M. Dittmer

    2007-07-11

    The 100-C-9:2 sanitary sewer pipelines include the feeder pipelines associated with the 1607-B8, the 1607-B9, the 1607-B10 and the 1607-B11 septic systems. Contaminated soil and piping from the feeder lines to the septic systems were removed and disposed of. The remaining soil in the excavations has been shown to meet the remedial action objectives specified in the Remaining Sites ROD. The results of verification sampling show that residual contaminant concentrations do not preclude any future uses and allow for unrestricted use of shallow zone soils. The results also demonstrate that residual contaminant concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River.

  17. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 1607-B2 Septic System and 100-B-14:2 Sanitary Sewer System, Waste Site Reclassification Form 2004-006

    SciTech Connect

    L. M. Dittmer

    2007-03-21

    The 100-B-14:2 subsite encompasses the former sanitary sewer feeder lines associated with the 1607-B2 and 1607-B7 septic systems. Feeder lines associated with the 185/190-B building have also been identified as the 100-B-14:8 subsite, and feeder lines associated with the 1607-B7 septic system have also been identified as the 100-B-14:9 subsite. These two subsites have been administratively cancelled to resolve the redundancy. The results of verification sampling show that residual contaminant concentrations do not preclude any future uses and allow for unrestricted use of shallow zone soils. The results also demonstrate that residual contaminant concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River.

  18. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 1607-F1 Sanitary Sewer System (124-F-1) and the 100-F-26:8 (1607-F1) Sanitary Sewer Pipelines Waste Sites, Waste Site Reclassification Form 2005-004

    SciTech Connect

    L. M. Dittmer

    2008-03-14

    The 100-F-26:8 waste site consisted of the underground pipelines that conveyed sanitary waste water from the 1701-F Gatehouse, 1709-F Fire Station, and the 1720-F Administrative Office to the 1607-F1 septic tank. The site has been remediated and presently exists as an open excavation. In accordance with this evaluation, the verification sampling results support a reclassification of this site to Interim Closed Out. The results of verification sampling demonstrated that residual contaminant concentrations do not preclude any future uses and allow for unrestricted use of shallow zone soils. The results also showed that residual contaminant concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River.

  19. EXFILTRATION IN SEWER SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study focused on the quantification of leakage of sanitary and industrial sewage from sanitary sewer pipes on a national basis. The method for estimating exfiltration amounts utilized groundwater talbe information to identify areas of the country where the hydraulic gradient...

  20. COMBINED-SEWER OVERFLOW CONTROL AND TREATMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Combined-sewer overflow (CSO), along with sanitary-sewer overflow and stormwater are significant contributors of contamination to surface waters. During a rain event, the flow in a combined sewer system may exceed the capacity of the intercepting sewer leading to the wastewater t...

  1. U.S. EPA Issues Technical Guides and Computer Tools for Sewer Condition and Capacity Assessment

    EPA Science Inventory

    The nation's sanitary sewer infrastructure is aging, with some sewers more than100 years old. Nationwide, there are more than 19,500 municipal sanitary-sewer collection systems serving an estimated 150 million people and about 40,000 sanitary sewer overflow (SSO) events per year...

  2. Advances in Sewer Condition and Capacity Assessment – Development and Applications of EPA SSOAP Toolbox

    EPA Science Inventory

    In the United States, sanitary sewer infrastructure is aging, with some sewers dating back over 100 years. Nationwide, there are more than 19,500 municipal sanitary-sewer collection systems serving an estimated 150 million people and about 40,000 sanitary sewer overflow (SSO) ev...

  3. SEWER SEDIMENT AND CONTROL: A MANAGEMENT PRACTICES REFERENCES GUIDE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sewer-solids sediment is one of major sources of pollutants in urban wet-weather flow (WWF) discharges that include combined-sewer overflow (CSO), separate sanitary-sewer overflow (SSO), and stormwater runoff. During low-flow, dry-weather periods, sanitary wastewater solids depo...

  4. Measuring Flow Reductions in a Combined Sewer System using Green Infrastructure - abstract

    EPA Science Inventory

    In 2009, the Louisville and Jefferson County Metropolitan Sewer District (MSD) submitted an Integrated Overflow Abatement Plan (IOAP) addressing combined sewer overflows (CSOs) and sanitary sewer overflows. Many of the solutions involve gray infrastructure, such as large, end-of...

  5. Review of Sewer Design Criteria and RDII Prediction Methods

    EPA Science Inventory

    Rainfall-derived Infiltration and Inflow (RDII) into sanitary sewer systems has long been recognized as a source of operating problems in sewerage systems. RDII is the main cause of sanitary sewer overflows (SSOs) to basements, streets, or nearby streams and can also cause serio...

  6. Effects of sanitary sewers on ground-water levels and streams in Nassau and Suffolk Counties, New York; Part 1, geohydrology, modeling strategy, and regional evaluation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reilly, T.E.; Buxton, H.T.; Franke, O.L.; Wait, R.L.

    1983-01-01

    A computer simulation of Long Island 's regional groundwater system has been used to evaluate the effects that new-installed sewers will have on ground-water levels. Results indicate maximum water-table decliners of as much as up to 18 feet in central Nassau County and about 9 feet in Suffolk County. Total stream base flows and freshwater outflow to the south shore bay system will decrease by 22%. The regional scale of the model does not permit detailed predictions for individual streams. To quantify the effects of lowered ground-water levels on individual streams, two fine-scale sub-regional models have been designed. This report, the first in a three-part series describing the simulated effects of sewers in southern Nassau and southwestern Suffolk Counties, presents the hydrogeologic setting, pertinent literature, modeling strategy, subregional model design, and the results obtained to date from the regional ground-water model. The regional model results described will be used in the later reports to generate flux boundary conditions for the subregional models. (USGS)

  7. Factors That Influence Properties of FOG Deposits and Their Formation in Sewer Collection Systems.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Understanding the formation of Fat, Oil, and Grease (FOG) deposits in sewer systems is critical to the sustainability of sewer collection systems since they have been implicated in causing sewerage blockages, which eventually lead to sanitary sewer overflows (SSOs). Recently, FOG deposits in sewer ...

  8. Evidence for fat, oil and grease (FOG) deposit formation mechanisms in sewer lines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The presence of hardened and insoluble fats, oil, and grease (FOG) deposits in sewer lines is a major cause of line blockages leading to sanitary sewer overflows (SSOs). Despite the central role that FOG deposits play in SSOs, little is known about the mechanisms of FOG deposit formation in sanitary...

  9. Focused Field Investigations for Sewer Condition Assessment with EPA SSOAP Toolbox

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Nation’s sanitary sewer infrastructure is aging, and is currently one of the top national water program priorities. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) developed the Sanitary Sewer Overflow Analysis and Planning (SSOAP) Toolbox to assist communities in developing ...

  10. Focused Field Investigations for Sewer Condition Assessment with EPA SSOAP Toolbox

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Nation’s sanitary sewer infrastructure is aging, and it is currently one of the top national water program priorities, and is one of the top priorities of the U.S. Conference of Mayors. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) developed the Sanitary Sewer Overflow Anal...

  11. Focused Field Investigations for Sewer Condition Assessment with EPA SSOAP Toolbox - abstract

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Nation’s sanitary sewer infrastructure is aging, and it is currently one of the top national water program priorities, and is one of the top priorities of the U.S. Conference of Mayors. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency developed the Sanitary Sewer Overflow Analysis a...

  12. Focused Field Investigations for Sewer Condition Assessment with EPA SSOAP Toolbox - slides

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Nation’s sanitary sewer infrastructure is aging, and is currently one of the top national water program priorities. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) developed the Sanitary Sewer Overflow Analysis and Planning (SSOAP) Toolbox to assist communities in developing S...

  13. HIGH-RATE DISINFECTION OF COMBINED SEWER OVERFLOW

    EPA Science Inventory

    Wet-weather flow (WWF), including combined-sewer overflow (CSO, sanitary-sewer overflow, and stormwater (SW), is a significant contributor of microbial contamination to surface water and ground water. By using effective wastewater or SW disinfection, introduction of pathogen con...

  14. Contaminant transport pathways between urban sewer networks and water supply wells

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Water supply wells and sanitary sewers are critical components of urban infrastructure, but sewer leakage threatens the quality of groundwater in sewered areas. Previous work by our group has documented the presence of human enteric viruses in deep public supply wells. Our current research uses such...

  15. Sanitary Surveys

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Sanitary survey is on-site review of a public water system’s water source, facilities, equipment, operation, and maintenance. Surveys point out sanitary deficiencies and assess a system’s capability to supply safe drinking water.

  16. Sandia National Laboratories, California sewer system management plan.

    SciTech Connect

    Holland, Robert C.

    2010-02-01

    A Sewer System Management Plan (SSMP) is required by the State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB) Order No. 2006-0003-DWQ Statewide General Waste Discharge Requirements (WDR) for Sanitary Sewer Systems (General Permit). DOE, National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Sandia Site Office has filed a Notice of Intent to be covered under this General Permit. The General Permit requires a proactive approach to reduce the number and frequency of sanitary sewer overflows (SSOs) within the State. SSMPs must include provisions to provide proper and efficient management, operation, and maintenance of sanitary sewer systems and must contain a spill response plan. Elements of this Plan are under development in accordance with the SWRCB's schedule.

  17. Wastewater Collection System Toolbox | Eliminating Sanitary ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    2017-04-10

    Communities across the United States are working to find cost-effective, long-term approaches to managing their aging wastewater infrastructure and preventing the problems that lead to sanitary sewer overflows. The Toolbox is an effort by EPA New England to provide examples of programs and educational efforts from New England and beyond.

  18. Understanding the Spatial Formation and Accumulation of Fats, Oils & Grease Deposits in the Sewer Collection System

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sanitary sewer overflows are caused by the accumulation of insoluble calcium salts of fatty acids, which are formed by the reaction between fats, oils and grease (FOG) and calcium found in wastewaters. Different sewer structural configurations (i.e., manholes, pipes, wet wells), which vary spatially...

  19. DESIGN MANUAL: SULFIDE CONTROL IN SANITARY SEWERAGE SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    One characteristic by which sanitary sewage is known to the public is its potential for creating odor nuisances. Sometimes it is the odors escaping from sewer manholes that cause complaints; more commonly, the source is a wastewater treatment plant. Yet there are wastewater treat...

  20. Sewer Maintenance Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ontario Ministry of the Environment, Toronto.

    Outlined are practices and procedures that should be followed in order to protect and fully realize the benefits of sewer systems and also to maximize service and minimize inconveniences to the public. Written in practical terms, the manual is designed to be of immediate use to municipal employees and others involved in sewer maintenance…

  1. Methane emission from sewers.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yiwen; Ni, Bing-Jie; Sharma, Keshab R; Yuan, Zhiguo

    2015-08-15

    Recent studies have shown that sewer systems produce and emit a significant amount of methane. Methanogens produce methane under anaerobic conditions in sewer biofilms and sediments, and the stratification of methanogens and sulfate-reducing bacteria may explain the simultaneous production of methane and sulfide in sewers. No significant methane sinks or methanotrophic activities have been identified in sewers to date. Therefore, most of the methane would be emitted at the interface between sewage and atmosphere in gravity sewers, pumping stations, and inlets of wastewater treatment plants, although oxidation of methane in the aeration basin of a wastewater treatment plant has been reported recently. Online measurements have also revealed highly dynamic temporal and spatial variations in methane production caused by factors such as hydraulic retention time, area-to-volume ratio, temperature, and concentration of organic matter in sewage. Both mechanistic and empirical models have been proposed to predict methane production in sewers. Due to the sensitivity of methanogens to environmental conditions, most of the chemicals effective in controlling sulfide in sewers also suppress or diminish methane production. In this paper, we review the recent studies on methane emission from sewers, including the production mechanisms, quantification, modeling, and mitigation.

  2. Sewers as a source and sink of chlorinated-solvent groundwater contamination, Marine Corps Recruit Depot, Parris Island, South Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vroblesky, D.A.; Petkewich, M.D.; Lowery, M.A.; Landmeyer, J.E.

    2011-01-01

    Groundwater contamination by tetrachloroethene and its dechlorination products is present in two partially intermingled plumes in the surficial aquifer near a former dry-cleaning facility at Site 45, Marine Corps Recruit Depot, Parris Island, South Carolina. The northern plume originates from the vicinity of former above-ground storage tanks. Free-phase tetrachloroethene from activities in this area entered the groundwater. The southern plume originates at a nearby, new dry-cleaning facility, but probably was the result of contamination released to the aquifer from a leaking sanitary sewer line from the former dry-cleaning facility. Discharge of dissolved groundwater contamination is primarily to leaking storm sewers below the water table. The strong influence of sanitary sewers on source distribution and of storm sewers on plume orientation and discharge at this site indicates that groundwater-contamination investigators should consider the potential influence of sewer systems at their sites. ?? 2011, National Ground Water Association.

  3. City sewer collectors biocorrosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ksiażek, Mariusz

    2014-12-01

    This paper presents the biocorrosion of city sewer collectors impregnated with special polymer sulphur binders, polymerized sulphur, which is applied as the industrial waste material. The city sewer collectors are settled with a colony of soil bacteria which have corrosive effects on its structure. Chemoautotrophic nitrifying bacteria utilize the residues of halites (carbamide) which migrate in the city sewer collectors, due to the damaged dampproofing of the roadway and produce nitrogen salts. Chemoorganotrophic bacteria utilize the traces of organic substrates and produce a number of organic acids (formic, acetic, propionic, citric, oxalic and other). The activity of microorganisms so enables the origination of primary and secondary salts which affect physical properties of concretes in city sewer collectors unfavourably.

  4. Evidence for fat, oil, and grease (FOG) deposit formation mechanisms in sewer lines.

    PubMed

    He, Xia; Iasmin, Mahbuba; Dean, Lisa O; Lappi, Simon E; Ducoste, Joel J; de los Reyes, Francis L

    2011-05-15

    The presence of hardened and insoluble fats, oil, and grease (FOG) deposits in sewer lines is a major cause of line blockages leading to sanitary sewer overflows (SSOs). Despite the central role that FOG deposits play in SSOs, little is known about the mechanisms of FOG deposit formation in sanitary sewers. In this study, FOG deposits were formed under laboratory conditions from the reaction between free fatty acids and calcium chloride. The calcium and fatty acid profile analysis showed that the laboratory-produced FOG deposit displayed similar characteristics to FOG deposits collected from sanitary sewer lines. Results of FTIR analysis showed that the FOG deposits are metallic salts of fatty acid as revealed by comparisons with FOG deposits collected from sewer lines and pure calcium soaps. Based on the data, we propose that the formation of FOG deposits occurs from the aggregation of excess calcium compressing the double layer of free fatty acid micelles and a saponification reaction between aggregated calcium and free fatty acids.

  5. Sewer Lateral Electro Scan Field Verification Pilot (WERF Report INFR4R12)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract:WERF selected a proposed research project to field test an emerging technology for inspecting sanitary sewer lateral pipes. The technology is called Electro Scan and is used to find defects in laterals that allow the infiltration of groundwater into the lateral. Electro ...

  6. Effects of climate and sewer condition on virus transport to groundwater

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pathogen contamination from leaky sanitary sewers poses a threat to groundwater quality in urban areas, yet the spatial and temporal dimensions of this contamination are not well understood. In this study, 16 monitoring wells and six municipal wells were repeatedly sampled for human enteric viruses....

  7. Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Sanitary Sewer Interim Response Action, Construction Documents for New Sanitary Sewer Construction. Volume 2

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-05-01

    curves ; test reports; test cylinders: samples, O&M manuals including parts lists; certifications; warranties and other such required submittals...purpose. 14.4.3. Authority and responsibilities of all quality control personnel. 14.4.4. Schedule of Use of inspection personnel by types and phase of...quality control program shall include four phases of inspection and tests. The Contracting Officer’s representative shall be notified at least 24

  8. Narratives of Public Health in Dickens's Journalism: The Trouble with Sanitary Reform.

    PubMed

    Smith, Ralph F

    2015-01-01

    Although Dickens is still known as having been a highly visible supporter of England's well-known nineteenth-century sanitary movement, he became, in fact, deeply troubled by many of this movement's fundamental tenets, as evidenced by journal narratives on fever that he edited and wrote in the mid-nineteenth century. Rather than water and sewer engineering works and a sanitary regime policed by government agencies as envisaged by Edwin Chadwick and other sanitary reformers, Dickens's view by 1855 was that only a massive erasure of the existing social and political systems and their replacement by an utterly new infrastructure would suffice.

  9. SEWER PIPELINE PERFORMANCE INDICATORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Wastewater collection systems are an extensive part of the nation's infrastructure. In the United States, approximately 150 million people are served by about 19,000 municipal wastewater collection systems representing about 500,000 miles of sewer pipe (not including privately o...

  10. Factors that influence properties of FOG deposits and their formation in sewer collection systems.

    PubMed

    Iasmin, Mahbuba; Dean, Lisa O; Lappi, Simon E; Ducoste, Joel J

    2014-02-01

    Understanding the formation of Fat, Oil, and Grease (FOG) deposits in sewer systems is critical to the sustainability of sewer collection systems since they have been implicated in causing sewerage blockages that leads to sanitary sewer overflows (SSOs). Recently, FOG deposits in sewer systems displayed strong similarities with calcium-based fatty acid salts as a result of a saponification reaction. The objective of this study was to quantify the factors that may affect the formation of FOG deposits and their chemical and rheological properties. These factors included the types of fats used in FSEs, environmental conditions (i.e. pH and temperature), and the source of calcium in sewer systems. The results of this study showed that calcium content in the calcium based salts seemed to depend on the solubility limit of the calcium source and influenced by pH and temperature conditions. The fatty acid profile of the calcium-based fatty acid salts produced under alkali driven hydrolysis were identical to the profile of the fat source and did not match the profile of field FOG deposits, which displayed a high fraction of palmitic, a long chain saturated fatty acid. It is hypothesized that selective microbial metabolism of fats and/or biologically induced hydrogenation may contribute to the FOG deposit makeup in sewer system. Therefore, selective removal of palmitic in pretreatment processes may be necessary prior to the discharge of FSE wastes into the sewer collection system.

  11. Wastewater compounds in urban shallow groundwater wells correspond to exfiltration probabilities of nearby sewers.

    PubMed

    Lee, Do Gyun; Roehrdanz, Patrick R; Feraud, Marina; Ervin, Jared; Anumol, Tarun; Jia, Ai; Park, Minkyu; Tamez, Carlos; Morelius, Erving W; Gardea-Torresdey, Jorge L; Izbicki, John; Means, Jay C; Snyder, Shane A; Holden, Patricia A

    2015-11-15

    Wastewater compounds are frequently detected in urban shallow groundwater. Sources include sewage or reclaimed wastewater, but origins are often unknown. In a prior study, wastewater compounds were quantified in waters sampled from shallow groundwater wells in a small coastal California city. Here, we resampled those wells and expanded sample analyses to include sewage- or reclaimed water-specific indicators, i.e. pharmaceutical and personal care product chemicals or disinfection byproducts. Also, we developed a geographic information system (GIS)-based model of sanitary sewer exfiltration probability--combining a published pipe failure model accounting for sewer pipe size, age, materials of construction, with interpolated depths to groundwater--to determine if sewer system attributes relate to wastewater compounds in urban shallow groundwater. Across the wells, groundwater samples contained varying wastewater compounds, including acesulfame, sucralose, bisphenol A, 4-tert-octylphenol, estrone and perfluorobutanesulfonic acid (PFBS). Fecal indicator bacterial concentrations and toxicological bioactivities were less than known benchmarks. However, the reclaimed water in this study was positive for all bioactivity tested. Excluding one well intruded by seawater, the similarity of groundwater to sewage, based on multiple indicators, increased with increasing sanitary sewer exfiltration probability (modeled from infrastructure within ca. 300 m of each well). In the absence of direct exfiltration or defect measurements, sewer exfiltration probabilities modeled from the collection system's physical data can indicate potential locations where urban shallow groundwater is contaminated by sewage.

  12. Vacuum Flushing of Sewer Solids

    EPA Science Inventory

    The vacuum sewer and tank cleaning (flushing) technology removes sewer solids from urban drainage systems, such as storage tanks and pipes. This technology is both effective and inexpensive. In addition, it can be considered a true green technology. It operates under atmospheri...

  13. [Activity of sanitary supervision in big cities at the time of the second republic of Poland based on example of Lódz].

    PubMed

    Berner, Wlodzimierz

    2006-01-01

    At the time of the Second Republic of Poland łódź was a city with a very unfavourable sanitary and hygienic situation. It resulted from the long-lasting municipal negligence, dating back to the I World War, which included bad living conditions of the working class, problems with sewers and canalisation, and other shortages associated with the sanitary and maintenance status. All these factors contributed to prevalence of infectious diseases and other health threads. Therefore, the Authorities of łódź were obliged to organise the Sanitary Section at the Department of Public Health. Its executive body, i.e. sanitary surveillances dealt with control of acute infectious diseases, sanitary inspection of living quarters, sites of selling and producing food articles, as well as food surveillance. In each sanitary surveillance a doctor was employed together with a secretary and sanitary inspector subordinated to him.

  14. Modelling total suspended solids, E. coli and carbamazepine, a tracer of wastewater contamination from combined sewer overflows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pongmala, Khemngeun; Autixier, Laurène; Madoux-Humery, Anne-Sophie; Fuamba, Musandji; Galarneau, Martine; Sauvé, Sébastien; Prévost, Michèle; Dorner, Sarah

    2015-12-01

    Urban source water protection requires knowledge of sources of fecal contamination upstream of drinking water intakes. Combined and sanitary sewer overflows (CSOs and SSOs) are primary sources of microbiological contamination and wastewater micropollutants (WWMPs) in urban water supplies. To quantify the impact of sewer overflows, predictive simulation models are required and have not been widely applied for microbial contaminants such as fecal indicator bacteria and pathogens in urban drainage networks. The objective of this study was to apply a simulation model to estimate the dynamics of three contaminants in sewer overflows - total suspended solids, Escherichia coli (E. coli) and carbamazepine, a WWMP. A mixed combined and pseudo-sanitary drainage network in Québec, Canada was studied and modelled for a total of 7 events for which water quality data were available. Model results were significantly correlated with field water quality data. The model confirmed that the contributions of E. coli from runoff and sewer deposits were minor and their dominant source was from sewage. In contrast, the main sources of total suspended solids were stormwater runoff and sewer resuspension. Given that it is not present in stormwater, carbamazepine was found to be a useful stable tracer of sewage contributions to total contaminant loads and also provided an indication of the fraction of total suspended solids originating from sewer deposits because of its similar response to increasing flowrates.

  15. Sewer Gas: An Indoor Air Source of PCE to Consider During Vapor Intrusion Investigations.

    PubMed

    Pennell, Kelly G; Scammell, Madeleine Kangsen; McClean, Michael D; Ames, Jennifer; Weldon, Brittany; Friguglietti, Leigh; Suuberg, Eric M; Shen, Rui; Indeglia, Paul A; Heiger-Bernays, Wendy J

    2013-01-01

    The United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) is finalizing its vapor intrusion guidelines. One of the important issues related to vapor intrusion is background concentrations of volatile organic chemicals (VOCs) in indoor air, typically attributed to consumer products and building materials. Background concentrations can exist even in the absence of vapor intrusion and are an important consideration when conducting site assessments. In addition, the development of accurate conceptual models that depict pathways for vapor entry into buildings is important during vapor intrusion site assessments. Sewer gas, either as a contributor to background concentrations or as part of the site conceptual model, is not routinely evaluated during vapor intrusion site assessments. The research described herein identifies an instance where vapors emanating directly from a sanitary sewer pipe within a residence were determined to be a source of tetrachloroethylene (PCE) detected in indoor air. Concentrations of PCE in the bathroom range from 2.1 to 190 ug/m(3) and exceed typical indoor air concentrations by orders of magnitude resulting in human health risk classified as an "Imminent Hazard" condition. The results suggest that infiltration of sewer gas resulted in PCE concentrations in indoor air that were nearly two-orders of magnitude higher as compared to when infiltration of sewer gas was not known to be occurring. This previously understudied pathway whereby sewers serve as sources of PCE (and potentially other VOC) vapors is highlighted. Implications for vapor intrusion investigations are also discussed.

  16. Sewer Gas: An Indoor Air Source of PCE to Consider During Vapor Intrusion Investigations

    PubMed Central

    Pennell, Kelly G.; Scammell, Madeleine Kangsen; McClean, Michael D.; Ames, Jennifer; Weldon, Brittany; Friguglietti, Leigh; Suuberg, Eric M.; Shen, Rui; Indeglia, Paul A.; Heiger-Bernays, Wendy J.

    2013-01-01

    The United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) is finalizing its vapor intrusion guidelines. One of the important issues related to vapor intrusion is background concentrations of volatile organic chemicals (VOCs) in indoor air, typically attributed to consumer products and building materials. Background concentrations can exist even in the absence of vapor intrusion and are an important consideration when conducting site assessments. In addition, the development of accurate conceptual models that depict pathways for vapor entry into buildings is important during vapor intrusion site assessments. Sewer gas, either as a contributor to background concentrations or as part of the site conceptual model, is not routinely evaluated during vapor intrusion site assessments. The research described herein identifies an instance where vapors emanating directly from a sanitary sewer pipe within a residence were determined to be a source of tetrachloroethylene (PCE) detected in indoor air. Concentrations of PCE in the bathroom range from 2.1 to 190 ug/m3 and exceed typical indoor air concentrations by orders of magnitude resulting in human health risk classified as an “Imminent Hazard” condition. The results suggest that infiltration of sewer gas resulted in PCE concentrations in indoor air that were nearly two-orders of magnitude higher as compared to when infiltration of sewer gas was not known to be occurring. This previously understudied pathway whereby sewers serve as sources of PCE (and potentially other VOC) vapors is highlighted. Implications for vapor intrusion investigations are also discussed. PMID:23950637

  17. A model for methane production in sewers.

    PubMed

    Chaosakul, Thitirat; Koottatep, Thammarat; Polprasert, Chongrak

    2014-09-19

    Most sewers in developing countries are combined sewers which receive stormwater and effluent from septic tanks or cesspools of households and buildings. Although the wastewater strength in these sewers is usually lower than those in developed countries, due to improper construction and maintenance, the hydraulic retention time (HRT) could be relatively long and resulting considerable greenhouse gas (GHG) production. This study proposed an empirical model to predict the quantity of methane production in gravity-flow sewers based on relevant parameters such as surface area to volume ratio (A/V) of sewer, hydraulic retention time (HRT) and wastewater temperature. The model was developed from field survey data of gravity-flow sewers located in a peri-urban area, central Thailand and validated with field data of a sewer system of the Gold Coast area, Queensland, Australia. Application of this model to improve construction and maintenance of gravity-flow sewers to minimize GHG production and reduce global warming is presented.

  18. HANDBOOK: SEWER SYSTEM INFRASTRUCTURE ANALYSIS AND REHABILITATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Many of our Nation's sewer systems date back to the 19th Century when brick sewers were common. hese and more recent sewer systems can be expected to fail in time, but because they are placed underground, signs of accelerated deterioration and capacity limitations are not readily...

  19. Nutrient Input and Dynamics in a Restored Urban Stream Impacted by Mixed Sewer Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sikora, M. T.; Elliott, E. M.; Bain, D. J.

    2008-12-01

    Export and retention of nutrients in urban watersheds remains poorly constrained. Available data is often based on studies conducted on large-scale, forested and mixed use watersheds rather than small urbanized systems. Additionally, there is a lack of data on the amount and impact of nutrients introduced into urban waterways as the result of stream-sewer interactions and a varied flow regime. In order to address this knowledge gap, water was sampled during baseflow (bi-weekly from April 2007 to present) and stormflow from a restored urban stream in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (USA) impacted by both Sanitary Sewer and Combined Sewer Overflow (SSO and CSO, respectively) networks. Nine Mile Run (NMR), a restored urban stream, drains a 1600 hectare urban watershed characterized as 38% impervious. Analysis of post-restoration water quality data suggests that atmospheric deposition and sewage both contribute nutrient pollution to the stream. We estimate input of atmospheric nitrate deposition to the watershed is 18.96 kg NO3- ha-1yr-1, yet a preliminary nitrogen budget suggests that nitrate export from the basin is consistently higher (~30 kg NO3- ha-1yr-1). Mean baseflow nitrate concentrations are substantially higher during the wetter portions of 2008 (12.07 mg NO3 -/L) as compared to the drier 2007 year (7.3 mg NO3 -/L). This suggests increased stream/sewer interactions during wetter periods. These results document the effect of Sanitary Sewer systems on an urban stream and highlight the challenges inherent in improving urban water quality through physical stream restorations.

  20. Demonstration of Innovative Sewer System Inspection Technology SewerBatt

    EPA Science Inventory

    The overall objective of this EPA-funded study was to demonstrate innovative a sewer line assessment technology that is designed for rapid deployment using portable equipment. This study focused on demonstration of a technology that is suitable for smaller diameter pipes (less th...

  1. Biodegradation of fat, oil and grease (FOG) deposits under various redox conditions relevant to sewer environment.

    PubMed

    He, Xia; Zhang, Qian; Cooney, Michael J; Yan, Tao

    2015-07-01

    Fat, oil and, grease (FOG) deposits are one primary cause of sanitary sewer overflows (SSOs). While numerous studies have examined the formation of FOG deposits in sewer pipes, little is known about their biodegradation under sewer environments. In this study, FOG deposit biodegradation potential was determined by studying the biodegradation of calcium palmitate in laboratory under aerobic, nitrate-reducing, sulfate-reducing, and methanogenic conditions. Over 110 days of observation, calcium palmitate was biodegraded to CO2 under aerobic and nitrate-reducing conditions. An approximate 13 times higher CO2 production rate was observed under aerobic condition than under nitrate-reducing condition. Under sulfate-reducing condition, calcium palmitate was recalcitrant to biodegradation as evidenced by small reduction in sulfate. No evidence was found to support calcium palmitate degradation under methanogenic condition in the simulated sewer environment. Dominant microbial populations in the aerobic and nitrate-reducing microcosms were identified by Illumina seqeuncing, which may contain the capability to degrade calcium palmitate under both aerobic and nitrate-reducing conditions. Further study on these populations and their functional genes could shed more light on this microbial process and eventually help develop engineering solutions for SSOs control in the future.

  2. Mechanisms of fat, oil and grease (FOG) deposit formation in sewer lines.

    PubMed

    He, Xia; de los Reyes, Francis L; Leming, Michael L; Dean, Lisa O; Lappi, Simon E; Ducoste, Joel J

    2013-09-01

    FOG deposits in sewer systems have recently been shown to be metallic salts of fatty acids. However, the fate and transport of FOG deposit reactant constituents and the complex interactions during the FOG deposit formation process are still largely unknown. In this study, batch tests were performed to elucidate the mechanisms of FOG deposit formation that lead to sanitary sewer overflows (SSOs). We report the first formation of FOG deposits on a concrete surface under laboratory conditions that mimic the formation of deposits in sewer systems. Results showed that calcium, the dominant metal in FOG deposits, can be released from concrete surfaces under low pH conditions and contribute to the formation process. Small amounts of additional oil to grease interceptor effluent substantially facilitated the air/water or pipe surface/water interfacial reaction between free fatty acids and calcium to produce surface FOG deposits. Tests of different fatty acids revealed that more viscous FOG deposit solids were formed on concrete surfaces, and concrete corrosion was accelerated, in the presence of unsaturated FFAs versus saturated FFAs. Based on all the data, a comprehensive model was proposed for the mechanisms of FOG deposit formation in sewer systems.

  3. A sewer process model as planning and management tool--hydrogen sulfide simulation at catchment scale.

    PubMed

    Vollertsen, J; Nielsen, L; Blicher, T D; Hvitved-Jacobsen, T; Nielsen, A H

    2011-01-01

    The collection system of a major city at the Persian Gulf was simulated for bulk water hydrogen sulfide and the release of sewer gas to the urban atmosphere. Geometry data on 870 km of sanitary sewer and data on dry weather flow entering all nodes in the catchment was exported from a Mike Urban database and imported to the sewer process model WATS. The process model then routed sewage and sewer gas through the system and simulated relevant physical, chemical and biological processes. In its non-calibrated state, the model was used as a planning tool to identify problem areas and to identify locations to install monitoring equipment and make preliminary choices for control strategies in terms of dosing of nitrate and iron salts. The monitoring equipment consisted of flow meters, level gauges, UV-Vis spectroscopes, and H2S gas sensors. Data from the first set of installed monitoring equipment were applied to calibrate and validate the model. It was illustrated how the calibrated model can be applied to assess compliance with quantitative formulated service levels and to design control strategies in terms of dosing of iron and nitrate salts.

  4. Spatial Models of Sewer Pipe Leakage Predict the Occurrence of Wastewater Indicators in Shallow Urban Groundwater.

    PubMed

    Roehrdanz, Patrick R; Feraud, Marina; Lee, Do Gyun; Means, Jay C; Snyder, Shane A; Holden, Patricia A

    2017-02-07

    Twentieth century municipal wastewater infrastructure greatly improved U.S. urban public health and water quality. However, sewer pipes deteriorate, and their accumulated structural defects may release untreated wastewater to the environment via acute breaks or insidious exfiltration. Exfiltrated wastewater constitutes a loss of potentially reusable water and delivers a complex and variable mix of contaminants to urban shallow groundwater. Yet, predicting where deteriorated sewers impinge on shallow groundwater has been challenging. Here we develop and test a spatially explicit model of exfiltration probability based on pipe attributes and groundwater elevation without prior knowledge of exfiltrating defect locations. We find that models of exfiltration probability can predict the probable occurrence in underlying shallow groundwater of established wastewater indicators including the artificial sweetener acesulfame, tryptophan-like fluorescent dissolved organic matter, nitrate, and a stable isotope of water (δ(18)O). The strength of the association between exfiltration probability and indicators of wastewater increased when multiple pipe attributes, distance weighting, and groundwater flow direction were considered in the model. The results prove that available sanitary sewer databases and groundwater digital elevation data can be analyzed to predict where pipes are likely leaking and contaminating groundwater. Such understanding could direct sewer infrastructure reinvestment toward water resource protection.

  5. Corrosion and odor management in sewer systems.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Guangming; Sun, Jing; Sharma, Keshab R; Yuan, Zhiguo

    2015-06-01

    Sewers emit hydrogen sulfide and various volatile organic sulfur and carbon compounds, which require control and mitigation. In the last 5-10 years, extensive research was conducted to optimize existing sulfide abatement technologies based on newly developed in-depth understanding of the in-sewer processes. Recent advances have also led to low-cost novel solutions targeting sewer biofilms. Online control has been demonstrated to greatly reduce the chemical usage. Dynamic models for both the water, air and solid (concrete) phases have been developed and used for the planning and maintenance of sewer systems. Existing technologies primarily focused on 'hotspots' in sewers. Future research should aim to achieve network-wide corrosion and emission control and management of sewers as an integrated component of an urban water system.

  6. Sanitary Surveys & Significant Deficiencies Presentation

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Sanitary Surveys & Significant Deficiencies Presentation highlights some of the things EPA looks for during drinking water system site visits, how to avoid significant deficiencies and what to do if you receive one.

  7. Understanding the spatial formation and accumulation of fats, oils and grease deposits in the sewer collection system.

    PubMed

    Dominic, Christopher Cyril Sandeep; Szakasits, Megan; Dean, Lisa O; Ducoste, Joel J

    2013-01-01

    Sanitary sewer overflows are caused by the accumulation of insoluble calcium salts of fatty acids, which are formed by the reaction between fats, oils and grease (FOG) and calcium found in wastewaters. Different sewer structural configurations (i.e., manholes, pipes, wet wells), which vary spatially, along with other obstructions (roots intrusion) and pipe deformations (pipe sags), may influence the detrimental buildup of FOG deposits. The purpose of this study was to quantify the spatial variation in FOG deposit formation and accumulation in a pilot-scale sewer collection system. The pilot system contained straight pipes, manholes, roots intrusion, and a pipe sag. Calcium and oil were injected into the system and operated at alkaline (pH = 10) and neutral (pH = 7) pH conditions. Results showed that solid accumulations were slightly higher at neutral pH. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) analysis on the solids samples confirmed that the solids were indeed calcium-based fatty acid salts. However, the fatty acid profiles of the solids deviated from the profile found from FOG deposits in sewer systems, which were primarily saturated fatty acids. These results confirm the work done previously by researchers and suggest an alternative fate of unsaturated fatty acids that does not lead to their incorporation in FOG deposits in full-scale sewer systems.

  8. H. R. 3120: This title may be cited as the Estuarine Zone and Marine Waters Combined Sewer Overflow Control Act. Introduced in the House of Representatives, One Hundredth First Congress, First Session, August 3, 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-01-01

    H.R. 3120 is a bill to establish permit requirements for overflows from combined storm water and sanitary sewer systems discharging into the estuarine zone and marine waters and to require the correction of such systems to minimize discharges into those waters, to mitigate the effects of pollution discharges into estuaries and oceans, and for other purposes.

  9. Boston Water & Sewer Commission (BWSC) | Stormwater ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    2017-04-10

    The Boston Water and Sewer Commission (BWSC) was issued National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) Permit MAS010001, which became effective on October 29, 1999, authorizing stormwater and allowable non-stormwater discharges from its municipal separate storm sewer system (MS4).

  10. Vacuum Flushing of Sewer Solids (Slides)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The vacuum sewer and tank cleaning (flushing) technology removes sewer solids from urban drainage systems, such as storage tanks and pipes. This technology is both effective and inexpensive. In addition, it can be considered a true green technology. It operates under atmospheri...

  11. MANAGEMENT AND CONTROL OF COMBINED SEWER OVERFLOWS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper gives a basic overview of the U.S. government's involvements in developing countermeasures for the abatement of combined sewer overflow pollution. batement or prevention of pollution stormwater runoff and combined sewer overflows is one of the most challenging areas in ...

  12. In-place rehabilitation of process sewers

    SciTech Connect

    Arles, K.R.; Faller, C.C.

    1996-07-01

    The majority of petrochemical manufacturing facilities have thousands of feet of existing underground gravity sewers that convey the site`s industrial wastes to treatment facilities. The integrity of these sewer systems is a serious concern to owners. A potential consequence of leaks is soil and groundwater contamination. Prior to 1992, only two options were available to remedy this situation. The sewer systems could be replaced with either a new dual-walled, monitored underground pipe system via direct bury, or with an above ground pumped system. In 1992, Engineering, in conjunction with several trenchless technology vendors, developed and demonstrated modified relining systems that can rehabilitate existing sewers and result in monitored dual-walled gravity sewer systems. These proven systems have since been enhanced, upgraded, and installed at two operating facilities. With thorough sewer investigation and assessments, industry now has viable, cost effective options to rehabilitate underground chemical process sewers. These upgraded sewer systems provide the environmental security of monitored dual-walled pipe, enhanced flow characteristics, and retain accessibility for maintenance and inspections.

  13. Wastewater temperature decrease in pressure sewers.

    PubMed

    Sallanko, Jarmo; Pekkala, Mari

    2008-12-01

    The centralization of wastewater treatment in large central treatment plants and the connection of sparsely populated areas to sewerage systems have increased the time wastewater is retained in sewers. These retention times lead to a decrease in wastewater temperature and affect wastewater treatment, especially the removal of nitrogen. In this study, temperature changes in long transfer sewers were examined. The temperature change was greatest at the end of winter and in the front part of the sewer. Temperature changes in the front parts of the sewers ranged from 0.16 to 0.27 degree C/km, and in the end parts from 0.02 to 0.10 degree C/km. When expressed in terms of the retention time for wastewater in the sewer, the temperature changes ranged from 0.12 to 0.17 degree C per retention hour.

  14. 40 CFR 35.927-2 - Sewer system evaluation survey.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Sewer system evaluation survey. 35.927... § 35.927-2 Sewer system evaluation survey. (a) The sewer system evaluation survey shall identify the... results of the sewer system evaluation survey. In addition, the report shall include: (1) A...

  15. 40 CFR 35.927-2 - Sewer system evaluation survey.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Sewer system evaluation survey. 35.927... § 35.927-2 Sewer system evaluation survey. (a) The sewer system evaluation survey shall identify the... results of the sewer system evaluation survey. In addition, the report shall include: (1) A...

  16. 40 CFR 35.927-2 - Sewer system evaluation survey.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Sewer system evaluation survey. 35.927... § 35.927-2 Sewer system evaluation survey. (a) The sewer system evaluation survey shall identify the... results of the sewer system evaluation survey. In addition, the report shall include: (1) A...

  17. 40 CFR 35.927-2 - Sewer system evaluation survey.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Sewer system evaluation survey. 35.927... § 35.927-2 Sewer system evaluation survey. (a) The sewer system evaluation survey shall identify the... results of the sewer system evaluation survey. In addition, the report shall include: (1) A...

  18. Sulfide and methane production in sewer sediments.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yiwen; Ni, Bing-Jie; Ganigué, Ramon; Werner, Ursula; Sharma, Keshab R; Yuan, Zhiguo

    2015-03-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated significant sulfide and methane production by sewer biofilms, particularly in rising mains. Sewer sediments in gravity sewers are also biologically active; however, their contribution to biological transformations in sewers is poorly understood at present. In this study, sediments collected from a gravity sewer were cultivated in a laboratory reactor fed with real wastewater for more than one year to obtain intact sediments. Batch test results show significant sulfide production with an average rate of 9.20 ± 0.39 g S/m(2)·d from the sediments, which is significantly higher than the areal rate of sewer biofilms. In contrast, the average methane production rate is 1.56 ± 0.14 g CH4/m(2)·d at 20 °C, which is comparable to the areal rate of sewer biofilms. These results clearly show that the contributions of sewer sediments to sulfide and methane production cannot be ignored when evaluating sewer emissions. Microsensor and pore water measurements of sulfide, sulfate and methane in the sediments, microbial profiling along the depth of the sediments and mathematical modelling reveal that sulfide production takes place near the sediment surface due to the limited penetration of sulfate. In comparison, methane production occurs in a much deeper zone below the surface likely due to the better penetration of soluble organic carbon. Modelling results illustrate the dependency of sulfide and methane productions on the bulk sulfate and soluble organic carbon concentrations can be well described with half-order kinetics.

  19. Model Predictive Control of Sewer Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pedersen, Einar B.; Herbertsson, Hannes R.; Niemann, Henrik; Poulsen, Niels K.; Falk, Anne K. V.

    2017-01-01

    The developments in solutions for management of urban drainage are of vital importance, as the amount of sewer water from urban areas continues to increase due to the increase of the world’s population and the change in the climate conditions. How a sewer network is structured, monitored and controlled have thus become essential factors for effcient performance of waste water treatment plants. This paper examines methods for simplified modelling and controlling a sewer network. A practical approach to the problem is used by analysing simplified design model, which is based on the Barcelona benchmark model. Due to the inherent constraints the applied approach is based on Model Predictive Control.

  20. Performance of partially separate sewer systems and impacts on receiving waters.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, F M; Matos, J S; Rodrigues, A C; do Monte, H M

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this document is to present and discuss the results of the experimental work undertaken in Laje stream, in a section near the village of Oeiras in Portugal. The work was developed with the main objective of characterising stormwater quality in Portuguese drainage systems, and to predict the effects of the performance of partially separate sewer systems on receiving waters. For this purpose, volume and characteristics of stormwater carried by a partially separated sewer system were estimated, both in terms of flow and Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) loads. The study also analyses the eventual implementation of non-conventional solutions, as a way of reducing problems of bacteriological contamination of seawaters. This aspect is particularly important in Portugal, where the population is mainly concentrated in urban areas located down-stream of important drainage basins, close to the coastline. Therefore, sanitary sewer overflows discharging directly into receiving waters are frequent, with possible consequences in terms of bacteriological contamination of bathing areas. Based on experimental research and available data it was possible to collect informations regarding stormwater average COD and overflow coliform loads, and the occurrence of first flush effects.

  1. 300 Area process sewer piping upgrade and 300 Area treated effluent disposal facility discharge to the City of Richland Sewage System, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington

    SciTech Connect

    1995-05-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is proposing to upgrade the existing 300 Area Process Sewer System by constructing and operating a new process sewer collection system that would discharge to the 300 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility. The DOE is also considering the construction of a tie-line from the TEDF to the 300 Area Sanitary Sewer for discharging the process wastewater to the City of Richland Sewage System. The proposed action is needed because the integrity of the old piping in the existing 300 Area Process Sewer System is questionable and effluents might be entering the soil column from leaking pipes. In addition, the DOE has identified a need to reduce anticipated operating costs at the new TEDF. The 300 Area Process Sewer Piping Upgrade (Project L-070) is estimated to cost approximately $9.9 million. The proposed work would involve the construction and operation of a new process sewer collection system. The new system would discharge the effluents to a collection sump and lift station for the TEDF. The TEDF is designed to treat and discharge the process effluent to the Columbia River. The process waste liquid effluent is currently well below the DOE requirements for radiological secondary containment and is not considered a RCRA hazardous waste or a State of Washington Hazardous Waste Management Act dangerous waste. A National Pollutant Discharge Elimination, System (NPDES) permit has been obtained from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency for discharge to the Columbia River. The proposed action would upgrade the existing 300 Area Process Sewer System by the construction and operation of a new combined gravity, vacuum, and pressurized process sewer collection system consisting of vacuum collection sumps, pressure pump stations, and buried polyvinyl chloride or similar pipe. Two buildings would also be built to house a main collection station and a satellite collection station.

  2. SEWER AND TANK SEDIMENT FLUSHING: CASE STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of the report summarized here is to demonstrate that sewer system and storage tank flushing that reduces sediment deposition and accumulation is of prime importance to optimizing performance, maintaining structural integrity, and minimizing pollution of receiving wa...

  3. Structured sanitary preparation to mass gatherings.

    PubMed

    Zieliński, Andrzej; Gładysz, Katarzyna

    2010-01-01

    Structured sanitary preparation to mass gatherings is based on the set of instructions and legal requirements which are different for different jurisdictions. In many countries special checklists are used for itemized scrutiny of the sanitary preparation to the event. Those checklists are present in two forms. One is relatively short list of legal requirements necessary for obtaining permit to organize mass gathering event. Another is much larger set of questions which contains itemized comprehensive review of activities advisable for effective organization of the event. It includes safety measures as well as logistic structure of effective organization. Polish legal bill on mass gatherings deals extensively with security measures, but sanitary supervision is left to Sanitary Inspection without any specifications of points to be checked and without clearly stated norms for sanitary infrastructure at the venues. The Authors stress the need for uniform instruction and checklist for use in scrutiny of sanitary preparation to mass gathering by State Sanitary Inspectors.

  4. The hydraulic capacity of deteriorating sewer systems.

    PubMed

    Pollert, J; Ugarelli, R; Saegrov, S; Schilling, W; Di Federico, V

    2005-01-01

    Sewer and wastewater systems suffer from insufficient capacity, construction flaws and pipe deterioration. Consequences are structural failures, local floods, surface erosion and pollution of receiving waters bodies. European cities spend in the order of five billion Euro per year for wastewater network rehabilitation. This amount is estimated to increase due to network ageing. The project CARE-S (Computer Aided RE-habilitation of Sewer Networks) deals with sewer and storm water networks. The final project goal is to develop integrated software, which provides the most cost-efficient system of maintenance, repair and rehabilitation of sewer networks. Decisions on investments in rehabilitation often have to be made with uncertain information about the structural condition and the hydraulic performance of a sewer system. Because of this, decision-making involves considerable risks. This paper presents the results of research focused on the study of hydraulic effects caused by failures due to temporal decline of sewer systems. Hydraulic simulations are usually carried out by running commercial models that apply, as input, default values of parameters that strongly influence results. Using CCTV inspections information as dataset to catalogue principal types of failures affecting pipes, a 3D model was used to evaluate their hydraulic consequences. The translation of failures effects in parameters values producing the same hydraulic conditions caused by failures was carried out through the comparison of laboratory experiences and 3D simulations results. Those parameters could be the input of 1D commercial models instead of the default values commonly inserted.

  5. Recent findings on sinks for sulfide in gravity sewer networks.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, A H; Hvitved-Jacobsen, T; Vollertsen, J

    2006-01-01

    Sulfide buildup in sewer networks is associated with several problems, including health impacts, corrosion of sewer structures and odor nuisance. In recent years, significant advances in the knowledge of the major processes governing sulfide buildup in sewer networks have been made. This paper summarizes this newly obtained knowledge and emphasizes important implications of the findings. Model simulations of the in-sewer processes important for the sulfur cycle showed that sulfide oxidation in the wetted biofilm is typically the most important sink for dissolved sulfide in gravity sewers. However, sulfide emission and thereby potential hydrogen sulfide buildup in the sewer atmosphere is of particular importance in sewers constructed with large diameter pipes, in sewers constructed with steep slopes and in sewers conveying low pH wastewater. Precipitation of metal sulfides is only important when the sulfide concentration in the wastewater is low; i.e. less than 1 g Sm(-3).

  6. Sewer Lateral Electro Scan Field Verification Pilot (WERF ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Abstract:WERF selected a proposed research project to field test an emerging technology for inspecting sanitary sewer lateral pipes. The technology is called Electro Scan and is used to find defects in laterals that allow the infiltration of groundwater into the lateral. Electro Scan testing involves passing an electrical probe through a pipe filled with water. The probe emits a focused electrical beam that is able to pass through the pipe wall into the surrounding soil, ultimately to complete an electrical circuit with a ground rod. The significance of the electrical signal suggests the significance of the infiltration defect. Over 100 laterals were tested in the City of Wauwatosa, Wisconsin, as a pilot project partially funded by the Milwaukee Metropolitan Sewerage District (MMSD). These tests were then compared to additional information concerning the condition of the laterals, including internal television inspection, infiltration rates produced in a rainfall simulation test, and water exfiltration rates. The results of these comparisons, lessons learned, and costs related to the testing are presented in this report, suggesting that while less expensive than a CCTV inspection, Electro Scan is best when performed with CCTV. [NOTE: For link (url) below – click on “sign in”; sign in or create new account; return to home page; enter project number in “search” box; and click on report title.] Benefits: • Demonstrates the effectiveness of Electro Sca

  7. Sanitary landfill groundwater monitoring report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-02-01

    The Sanitary Landfill at the Savannah River Site (SRS) is composed of the original 32-acre landfill, plus expansion areas to the north and south that added 16 and 22 acres, respectively, to the facility. The landfill is subject to the requirements of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act and currently operates under South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC) Domestic Waste Permit 87A. Fifty-seven wells of the LFW series monitor the groundwater quality in Steed Pond Aquifer (formerly Aquifer Zone I/IIC[sub 2]) (Water Table) beneath the Sanitary Landfill. These wells are sampled quarterly for certain indicator parameters, inorganics, metals, radionuclides, volatile organics, and other constituents as part of the SRS Groundwater Monitoring Program and to comply with the SCDHEC domestic waste permit. This report reviews the 1992 activities of the SRS Groundwater Monitoring Program.

  8. Environmental Assessment: Replace Sanitary Sewer from Building 801 to Lagoons at Grand Forks AFB, North Dakota

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-09-01

    occasional moose and bear. Amphibian State Species of Concern include the Northern Leopard Frog. Mammal State Species of Concern include the bobcat... moose and black bear. One hundred seventy bird species were identified in the 2004 biological survey, many of which include grassland bird species

  9. FLUSHING FOR SEWER SEDIMENT, CORROSION, AND POLLUTION CONTROL

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation overviews causes of sewer deterioration and heavy pollutant discharges caused by rain events together with a discussion of their control methods. In particular, it covers in-sewer- and combined sewer overflow- (CSO-) storage-tank-flushing systems for removal of ...

  10. FLUSHING FOR SEWER SEDIMENT, CORROSION, AND POLLUTION CONTROL

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper overviews causes of combined-sewer deterioration and their heavy pollutant discharges caused by rain events together with a discussion of their control methods. In particular, it covers in-sewer and combined-sewer overflow (CSO) storage-tank-flushing systems for removi...

  11. Predicting concrete corrosion of sewers using artificial neural network.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Guangming; Keller, Jurg; Bond, Philip L; Yuan, Zhiguo

    2016-04-01

    Corrosion is often a major failure mechanism for concrete sewers and under such circumstances the sewer service life is largely determined by the progression of microbially induced concrete corrosion. The modelling of sewer processes has become possible due to the improved understanding of in-sewer transformation. Recent systematic studies about the correlation between the corrosion processes and sewer environment factors should be utilized to improve the prediction capability of service life by sewer models. This paper presents an artificial neural network (ANN)-based approach for modelling the concrete corrosion processes in sewers. The approach included predicting the time for the corrosion to initiate and then predicting the corrosion rate after the initiation period. The ANN model was trained and validated with long-term (4.5 years) corrosion data obtained in laboratory corrosion chambers, and further verified with field measurements in real sewers across Australia. The trained model estimated the corrosion initiation time and corrosion rates very close to those measured in Australian sewers. The ANN model performed better than a multiple regression model also developed on the same dataset. Additionally, the ANN model can serve as a prediction framework for sewer service life, which can be progressively improved and expanded by including corrosion rates measured in different sewer conditions. Furthermore, the proposed methodology holds promise to facilitate the construction of analytical models associated with corrosion processes of concrete sewers.

  12. 2. PORTAL VIEW OF BRIDGE FROM NORTH SIDE OF SANITARY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. PORTAL VIEW OF BRIDGE FROM NORTH SIDE OF SANITARY AND SHIP CANAL, LOOKING SOUTHEAST. - Chicago, Madison & Northern Railroad, Sanitary & Ship Canal Bridge, Spanning Sanitary & Ship Canal, east of Kedzie Avenue, Chicago, Cook County, IL

  13. Dynamic online sewer modelling in Helsingborg.

    PubMed

    Hernebring, C; Jönsson, L E; Thorén, U B; Møller, A

    2002-01-01

    Within the last decade, the sewer system in Helsingborg, Sweden has been rehabilitated in many ways along with the reconstruction of the WWTP Oresundsverket in order to obtain a high degree of nitrogen and phosphorus removal. In that context a holistic view has been applied in order to optimise the corrective measures as seen from the effects in the receiving waters. A sewer catchment model has been used to evaluate several operation strategies and the effect of introducing RTC. Recently, a MOUSE ONLINE system was installed. In this phase the objective is to establish a stable communication with the SCADA system and to generate short-term flow forecasts.

  14. 21 CFR 129.37 - Sanitary operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... HUMAN CONSUMPTION PROCESSING AND BOTTLING OF BOTTLED DRINKING WATER Buildings and Facilities § 129.37 Sanitary operations. (a) The product water-contact surfaces of all multiservice containers, utensils, pipes... sanitary manner so as to preclude contamination of the bottled drinking water....

  15. 21 CFR 129.37 - Sanitary operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... HUMAN CONSUMPTION PROCESSING AND BOTTLING OF BOTTLED DRINKING WATER Buildings and Facilities § 129.37 Sanitary operations. (a) The product water-contact surfaces of all multiservice containers, utensils, pipes... sanitary manner so as to preclude contamination of the bottled drinking water....

  16. Multistakeholder Evaluation of Condominial Sewer Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nance, Earthea

    2005-01-01

    A multistakeholder evaluation procedure is presented to address the many challenges in evaluating the performance of condominial sewer projects in Brazil. Condominial sewerage is a promising appropriate technology that is coproduced by users and public agencies, but little is known about project performance. This article shows that…

  17. OPTIMIZATION OF COMBINED SEWER OVERFLOW CONTROL SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The highly variable and intermittent pollutant concentrations and flowrates associated with wet-weather events in combined sewersheds necessitates the use of storage-treatment systems to control pollution.An optimized combined-sewer-overflow (CSO) control system requires a manage...

  18. OPIMIZATION OF COMBINED SEWER OVERFLOW CONTROL SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The highly variable and intermittent pollutant concentrations and flowrates associated with wet-weather events in combined sewersheds necessitates the use of storage-treatment systems to control pollution. A strategy should be adopted to develop an optimized combined sewer overfl...

  19. Urban Runoff and Combined Sewer Overflow.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Field, Richard; Gardner, Bradford B.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of wastewater treatment, covering publications of 1976-77. This review includes areas such as: (1) urban runoff quality and quantity; (2) urban hydrology; (3) management practices; and (4) combined sewer overflows. A list of 140 references is also presented. (HM)

  20. An Environmental Innovation: The Sewer Mouse

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    In the effort to clean up America's waters, there is a little-known complicating factor: because they leak, sewer systems in many American cities are causing rather than preventing pollution of rivers and lakes. Fixing the leaks is difficult because their locations are unknown. Maintenance crews can't tear up a whole city looking for cracks in the pipes; they must first determine which areas are most likely suspects. An aerospace spinoff is providing help in that regard. The problem starts with heavy rains. Rainwater naturally flows into the sewers from streets, but sewage systems are designed to accommodate it. However, they are not designed to handle the additional flow of "groundwater", rain absorbed by the earth which seeps into the sewers through leaks in pipes and sewer walls. After a storm, groundwater seepage can increase the waterflow to deluge proportions, with the result that sewage treatment plants are incapable of processing the swollen flow. When that happens the sluices must be opened, dumping raw sewage into rivers and lakes.

  1. MANUAL: REAL TIME CONTROL OF COMBINED SEWERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Managers, engineers, and operators of combined urban sewer systems are faced with difficult problems related to the operation and maintenance of their facilities. In addition to the issues related to the operation and upkeep of the system, many sewerage agencies are facing increa...

  2. Effects Of Leaky Sewers On Groundwater Quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leschik, S.; Musolff, A.; Reinstorf, F.; Strauch, G.; Oswald, S. E.; Schirmer, M.

    2007-12-01

    The impact of urban areas on groundwater quality has become an emerging research field in hydrogeology. Urban subsurface infrastructures like sewer networks are often leaky, so untreated wastewater may enter the urban aquifer. The transport of wastewater into the groundwater is still not well understood under field conditions. In the research platform WASSER Leipzig (Water And Sewershed Study of Environmental Risk in Leipzig- Germany) the effects of leaky sewers on the groundwater quality are investigated. The research is focused on the occurrence and transport of so-called "xenobiotics" such as pharmaceuticals and personal care product additives. Xenobiotics may pose a threat on human health, but can also be considered a marker for an urban impact on water resources. A new test site was established in Leipzig to quantify mass fluxes of xenobiotics into the groundwater from a leaky sewer. Corresponding to the leaks which were detected by closed circuit television inspections, monitoring wells were installed up- and downstream of the sewer. Concentrations of eight xenobiotics (technical-nonylphenol, bisphenol-a, caffeine, galaxolide, tonalide, carbamazepine, phenazone, ethinylestradiol) obtained from first sampling programmes were found to be highly heterogeneous, but a relation between the position of the sampling points and the sewer could not be clearly identified. However, concentrations of sodium, chloride, potassium and nitrate increased significantly downstream of the sewer which may be due to wastewater exfiltration, since no other source is known on the water flowpath from the upstream to the downstream wells. Because of the highly heterogeneous spatial distribution of xenobiotics at the test site, a monitoring concept was developed comprising both high-resolution sampling and an integral approach to obtain representative average concentrations. Direct-push techniques were used to gain insight into the fine-scale spatial distribution of the target compounds

  3. Evaluating Cryptosporidium and Giardia concentrations in combined sewer overflow.

    PubMed

    Arnone, Russell D; Walling, Joyce Perdek

    2006-06-01

    Since the first identified Cryptosporidium outbreaks occurred in the 1980s and the massive 1993 Milwaukee, WI outbreak affected more than 400,000 people, the concern over the public health risks linked to protozoan pathogens Cryptosporidium and Giardia has grown. Cryptosporidium and Giardia, found in streams, rivers, groundwater, and soil, form hardy, disinfection-resistant oocysts and cysts. Both organisms are recognized causative agents of gastrointestinal illnesses linked to the consumption of contaminated surface or groundwater. This study, the first in a planned series to estimate the urban contribution to the total Cryptosporidium and Giardia receiving-water loads, focused on combined sewer overflow (CSO). CSOs are discharges of mixed untreated sewage and stormwater released directly into receiving waters during rainfall. This engineered relief is necessary to accommodate hydraulic strain when the combined rain and sanitary flows exceed the system capacity. Limited comprehensive data are available assessing the CSO discharge contribution as a source of these two pathogens. Works by States et al. and Gibson et al. each found Cryptosporidium and much greater Giardia concentrations in CSOs draining parts of Pittsburgh, PA. This project estimated the relative detection frequency and concentration of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in CSO. Analytical results were obtained using a modification of Method 1623, originally developed for much cleaner environmental samples. These data are useful for drinking water treatment plants located downstream of CSOs. It is also significant in determining the potential concentrations of parasites at treatment plant intakes and for assessing health risks for water contact and fishing activities. Commonly monitored indicator organisms (total coliform, fecal coliform, E. coli, Enterococcus, and fecal streptococcus), endospores, and selected physical and chemical parameters were analyzed to further describe the samples. CSO from urban

  4. Acinetobacter, Aeromonas, and Trichococcus populations dominate the microbial community within urban sewer infrastructure

    PubMed Central

    VandeWalle, J. L.; Goetz, G.W.; Huse, S.M.; Morrison, H. G.; Sogin, M.L.; Hoffmann, R.G.; Yan, K.; McLellan, S.L.

    2012-01-01

    We evaluated the population structure and temporal dynamics of the dominant community members within sewage influent from two wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in Milwaukee, WI. We generated >1.1M bacterial pyrotag sequences from the V6 hypervariable region of 16S rRNA genes from 38 influent samples and two samples taken upstream in the sanitary sewer system. Only a small fraction of pyrotags from influent samples (~15%) matched sequences from human fecal samples. The fecal components of the sewage samples included enriched pyrotag populations from Lactococcus and Enterobacteriaceae relative to their fractional representation in human fecal samples. In contrast to the large number of distinct pyrotags that represent fecal bacteria such as Lachnospiraceae and Bacteroides, only one or two unique V6 sequences represented Acinetobacter, Trichococcus and Aeromonas, which collectively account for nearly 35% of the total sewage community. Two dominant Acinetobacter V6 pyrotags (designated Acineto tag 1 and Acineto tag 2) fluctuated inversely with a seasonal pattern over a 3-year period, suggesting two distinct Acinetobacter populations respond differently to ecological forcings in the system. A single nucleotide change in the V6 pyrotags accounted for the difference in these populations and corresponded to two phylogenically distinct clades based on full-length sequences. Analysis of wavelet functions, derived from a mathematical model of temporal fluctuations, demonstrated that other abundant sewer associated populations including Trichococcus and Aeromonas had temporal patterns similar to either Acineto tag 1 or Acineto tag 2. Populations with related temporal fluctuations were found to significantly correlate with the same WWTP variables (5-day BOD, flow, ammonia, total phosphorous, and suspended solids). These findings illustrate that small differences in V6 sequences can represent phylogenetically and ecologically distinct taxa. This work provides insight into

  5. 30 CFR 71.501 - Sanitary toilet facilities; maintenance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sanitary toilet facilities; maintenance. 71.501... COAL MINES Sanitary Toilet Facilities at Surface Worksites of Surface Coal Mines § 71.501 Sanitary toilet facilities; maintenance. Sanitary toilets provided in accordance with the provisions of §...

  6. Hammond Sanitary District Clean Water Act Settlement

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Hammond Sanitary District (HSD), located in Hammond, Indiana, serves over 170,000 customers in the City of Hammond and Town of Munster, and also provides wastewater treatment to the customer communities of Highland, and Griffith.

  7. Dynamics of rain-induced pollutographs of solubles in sewers.

    PubMed

    Rutsch, M; Müller, I; Krebs, P

    2005-01-01

    When looking at acute receiving water impacts due to combined sewer overflows the characteristics of the background diurnal sewage flux variation may influence the peak loads from combined sewer overflows (CSO) and wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluent significantly. In this paper, effects on the dynamic compounds transported in the sewer, on CSO discharges and WWTP loading are evaluated by means of hydrodynamic simulations. The simulations are based on different scenarios for diurnal dry-weather flow variations induced by different infiltration rates.

  8. Assessing the Impact of a Combined Sewer Separation Project on Water Quality in Blackwater Creek, Virginia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pradhan, K.; Warren, K. P.

    2013-12-01

    Over a century ago, the City of Lynchburg constructed a sanitary sewer system to deal with the increasing need for waste water treatment. State and federal environmental mandates require cities to eliminate sewer overflows, so in the 1990s, the City of Lynchburg devised a plan to fix the problem of combined sewer overflow. Since Lynchburg's Combined Sewer Separation (CSS) work began approximately twenty years ago, many of the overflow points have been eliminated, leaving 30 points to be closed in the future. It remains unclear, however, whether Blackwater Creek's freshwater ecosystems have begun to show improvement as a result of the City's CSS separation project. As recently as 2012, the Virginia Department of Environmental Quality characterized Blackwater Creek as a Category 5 Impaired Waterway, as assessed by benthic rapid bioassessment methods. Since 2003, the intro environmental science class at Randolph College has conducted stream assessment and water quality monitoring at two sites in Blackwater Creek, as a required field project. This work has involved nearly 300 students over that time, and includes rapid bioassessment (RBA) of aquatic macroinvertebrates, chemical and physical analysis, and riparian and channel vegetation assessment. Over this same period, the City has progressed through separation of the CSS system in a significant portion of Blackwater Creek's subwatershed, including our study area. We analyzed ten years of stream monitoring data in tandem with a geographic analysis of the progression of the CSS project to determine whether there has been resultant improvement in water quality. When analyzed in conjunction with the progress of the CSS project, the data did not exhibit a detectable difference between data collected before and after 2006. However, a simple linear regression of the data did show improvement in chemical and biological indicators of stream health, with a greater increase in results pertaining to the RBA. Further sampling is

  9. Stream restoration and sewers impact sources and fluxes of water, carbon, and nutrients in urban watersheds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pennino, Michael J.; Kaushal, Sujay S.; Mayer, Paul M.; Utz, Ryan M.; Cooper, Curtis A.

    2016-08-01

    An improved understanding of sources and timing of water, carbon, and nutrient fluxes associated with urban infrastructure and stream restoration is critical for guiding effective watershed management globally. We investigated how sources, fluxes, and flowpaths of water, carbon (C), nitrogen (N), and phosphorus (P) shift in response to differences in urban stream restoration and sewer infrastructure. We compared an urban restored stream with two urban degraded streams draining varying levels of urban development and one stream with upland stormwater management systems over a 3-year period. We found that there was significantly decreased peak discharge in response to precipitation events following stream restoration. Similarly, we found that the restored stream showed significantly lower (p < 0.05) monthly peak runoff (9.4 ± 1.0 mm day-1) compared with two urban degraded streams (ranging from 44.9 ± 4.5 to 55.4 ± 5.8 mm day-1) draining higher impervious surface cover, and the stream-draining stormwater management systems and less impervious surface cover in its watershed (13.2 ± 1.9 mm day-1). The restored stream exported most carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus at relatively lower streamflow than the two more urban catchments, which exported most carbon and nutrients at higher streamflow. Annual exports of total carbon (6.6 ± 0.5 kg ha-1 yr-1), total nitrogen (4.5 ± 0.3 kg ha-1 yr-1), and total phosphorus (161 ± 15 kg ha-1 yr-1) were significantly lower in the restored stream compared to both urban degraded streams (p < 0.05), but statistically similar to the stream draining stormwater management systems, for N exports. However, nitrate isotope data suggested that 55 ± 1 % of the nitrate in the urban restored stream was derived from leaky sanitary sewers (during baseflow), statistically similar to the urban degraded streams. These isotopic results as well as additional tracers, including fluoride (added to drinking water) and iodide (contained in dietary salt

  10. Sanitary Landfill 1991 annual groundwater monitoring report

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, C.Y.; Norrell, G.T.; Bennett, C.B.

    1992-02-01

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) Sanitary Landfill is an approximately seventy acre site located just south of SRS Road C between the Savannah River Site`s B-Area and Upper Three Runs Creek. Results from the first through third quarter 1991 groundwater monitoring date continue to show evidence of elevated levels of several hazardous constituents beneath the Sanitary Landfill: tritium, vinyl chloride, total radium, cadmium, 1,1,1-trichloroethane, 1,2 dichloroethane, 1,4 dichlorobenzene, trichloroethylene (TCE), tetrachloroethylene, and 1,1 dichloroethylene in excess of the primary drinking water standards were observed in at least one well monitoring the Sanitary Landfill during the third quarter of 1991. All of these constituents, except radium, were observed in the lower half of the original thirty-two acre site or the southern expansion site. Trichloroethylene and vinyl chloride are the primary organic contaminants in groundwater beneath the Sanitary Landfill. Vinyl chloride has become the primary contaminant during 1991. Elevated levels of benzene were consistently detected in LFW 7 in the past, but were not present in any LFW wells during the third quarter of 1991. A minor tritium plume is present in the central part of original thirty-two acre landfill. Elevated levels of tritium above the PDWS were consistently present in LFW 10A through 1991. This well has exhibited elevated tritium activities since the second quarter of 1989. Contaminant concentrations in the Sanitary Landfill are presented and discussed in this report.

  11. Sanitary Landfill 1991 annual groundwater monitoring report

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, C.Y.; Norrell, G.T.; Bennett, C.B.

    1992-02-01

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) Sanitary Landfill is an approximately seventy acre site located just south of SRS Road C between the Savannah River Site's B-Area and Upper Three Runs Creek. Results from the first through third quarter 1991 groundwater monitoring date continue to show evidence of elevated levels of several hazardous constituents beneath the Sanitary Landfill: tritium, vinyl chloride, total radium, cadmium, 1,1,1-trichloroethane, 1,2 dichloroethane, 1,4 dichlorobenzene, trichloroethylene (TCE), tetrachloroethylene, and 1,1 dichloroethylene in excess of the primary drinking water standards were observed in at least one well monitoring the Sanitary Landfill during the third quarter of 1991. All of these constituents, except radium, were observed in the lower half of the original thirty-two acre site or the southern expansion site. Trichloroethylene and vinyl chloride are the primary organic contaminants in groundwater beneath the Sanitary Landfill. Vinyl chloride has become the primary contaminant during 1991. Elevated levels of benzene were consistently detected in LFW 7 in the past, but were not present in any LFW wells during the third quarter of 1991. A minor tritium plume is present in the central part of original thirty-two acre landfill. Elevated levels of tritium above the PDWS were consistently present in LFW 10A through 1991. This well has exhibited elevated tritium activities since the second quarter of 1989. Contaminant concentrations in the Sanitary Landfill are presented and discussed in this report.

  12. INNOVATIVE METHODS FOR THE OPTIMIZATION OF GRAVITY STORM SEWER DESIGN

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of this paper is to describe a new method for optimizing the design of urban storm sewer systems. Previous efforts to optimize gravity sewers have met with limited success because classical optimization methods require that the problem be well behaved, e.g. describ...

  13. SEWER AND TANK FLUSHING FOR CORROSION AND POLLUTION CONTROL

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper presents an overview of the causes of sewer deterioration and control methods that can prevent or arrest this deterioration. articular, the paper addresses the use of inline- and combined sewer overflow (CSO) storage tank-flushing systems for removing sediments and mi...

  14. 7. VIEW TO NORTH SHOWING SEWER CONSTRUCTION IN FOREGROUND AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. VIEW TO NORTH SHOWING SEWER CONSTRUCTION IN FOREGROUND AND BUILDING F IN THE LEFT BACKGROUND. 8X10 black and white gelatin print. United States Coast Guard, Air Station Contract 1247, Sewer System. 1956. - U.S. Coast Guard Air Station San Francisco, 1020 North Access Road, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  15. 40 CFR 35.925-21 - Storm sewers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Storm sewers. 35.925-21 Section 35.925... STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works-Clean Water Act § 35.925-21 Storm... treatment works for control of pollutant discharges from a separate storm sewer system (as defined in §...

  16. 40 CFR 35.925-21 - Storm sewers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Storm sewers. 35.925-21 Section 35.925... STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works-Clean Water Act § 35.925-21 Storm... treatment works for control of pollutant discharges from a separate storm sewer system (as defined in §...

  17. 40 CFR 35.925-21 - Storm sewers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Storm sewers. 35.925-21 Section 35.925... STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works-Clean Water Act § 35.925-21 Storm... treatment works for control of pollutant discharges from a separate storm sewer system (as defined in §...

  18. 40 CFR 35.925-21 - Storm sewers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Storm sewers. 35.925-21 Section 35.925... STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works-Clean Water Act § 35.925-21 Storm... treatment works for control of pollutant discharges from a separate storm sewer system (as defined in §...

  19. 40 CFR 35.925-21 - Storm sewers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Storm sewers. 35.925-21 Section 35.925... STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works-Clean Water Act § 35.925-21 Storm... treatment works for control of pollutant discharges from a separate storm sewer system (as defined in §...

  20. GATE AND VACUUM FLUSHING OF SEWER SEDIMENT: LABORATORY TESTING

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of this study was to test the performance of a traditional gate-flushing device and a newly-designed vacuum-flushing device in removing sediment from combined sewers and CSO storage tanks. A laboratory hydraulic flume was used to simulate a reach of sewer or storag...

  1. SEWER AND TANK FLUSHING FOR SEDIMENT, CORROSION AND POLLUTION CONTROL

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper presents an overview of causes of sewer deterioration together with a discussion of control methods that can prevent or arrest this deterioration. In particular, the paper covers inline- and combined sewer overflow- (CSO) storage-tank-flushing systems for removal of se...

  2. Modelling the viability of heat recovery from combined sewers.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Aal, M; Smits, R; Mohamed, M; De Gussem, K; Schellart, A; Tait, S

    2014-01-01

    Modelling of wastewater temperatures along a sewer pipe using energy balance equations and assuming steady-state conditions was achieved. Modelling error was calculated, by comparing the predicted temperature drop to measured ones in three combined sewers, and was found to have an overall root mean squared error of 0.37 K. Downstream measured wastewater temperature was plotted against modelled values; their line gradients were found to be within the range of 0.9995-1.0012. The ultimate aim of the modelling is to assess the viability of recovering heat from sewer pipes. This is done by evaluating an appropriate location for a heat exchanger within a sewer network that can recover heat without impacting negatively on the downstream wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). Long sewers may prove to be more viable for heat recovery, as heat lost can be reclaimed before wastewater reaching the WWTP.

  3. Sulfide elimination by intermittent nitrate dosing in sewer sediments.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yanchen; Wu, Chen; Zhou, Xiaohong; Zhu, David Z; Shi, Hanchang

    2015-01-01

    The formation of hydrogen sulfide in biofilms and sediments in sewer systems can cause severe pipe corrosions and health hazards, and requires expensive programs for its prevention. The aim of this study is to propose a new control strategy and the optimal condition for sulfide elimination by intermittent nitrate dosing in sewer sediments. The study was carried out based on lab-scale experiments and batch tests using real sewer sediments. The intermittent nitrate dosing mode and the optimal control condition were investigated. The results indicated that the sulfide-intermittent-elimination strategy by nitrate dosing is advantageous for controlling sulfide accumulation in sewer sediment. The oxidation-reduction potential is a sensitive indicator parameter that can reflect the control effect and the minimum N/S (nitrate/sulfide) ratio with slight excess nitrate is necessary for optimal conditions of efficient sulfide control with lower carbon source loss. The optimal control condition is feasible for the sulfide elimination in sewer systems.

  4. 60th anniversary of state sanitary inspection and 95th anniversary of sanitary services in Poland.

    PubMed

    Posobkiewicz, Marek; Kalinowska-Morka, Joanna; Świekatowski, Bartosz

    2015-01-01

    2014 was a year of two jubilees in the remit of public health in Poland: 95th anniversary of sanitary services and 60th anniversary of State Sanitary Inspection. It was an opportunity to organize a conference so as to remind the events concerning a birth of the institution which, after the First World War, had originated structures of epidemiological and sanitary supervision in Poland, the one we have nowadays. A conference took place on 16th December 2014 in Warsaw, at Palladium Theatre.

  5. 21 CFR 1210.14 - Sanitary inspection of plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sanitary inspection of plants. 1210.14 Section... FEDERAL IMPORT MILK ACT Inspection and Testing § 1210.14 Sanitary inspection of plants. The sanitary conditions of any plant handling milk or cream any part of which is to be shipped or transported into...

  6. 25 CFR 700.55 - Decent, safe, and sanitary dwelling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Decent, safe, and sanitary dwelling. 700.55 Section 700... PROCEDURES General Policies and Instructions Definitions § 700.55 Decent, safe, and sanitary dwelling. (a) General. The term decent, safe, and sanitary dwelling means a dwelling which— (1) Meets applicable...

  7. 21 CFR 1210.11 - Sanitary inspection of dairy farms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sanitary inspection of dairy farms. 1210.11... UNDER THE FEDERAL IMPORT MILK ACT Inspection and Testing § 1210.11 Sanitary inspection of dairy farms. The sanitary conditions of any dairy farm producing milk or cream to be shipped or transported...

  8. 5. DETAIL OF BUILDER'S PLATE, WHICH READS '1898, THE SANITARY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. DETAIL OF BUILDER'S PLATE, WHICH READS '1898, THE SANITARY DISTRICT OF CHICAGO, BOARD OF TRUSTEES, WILLIAM BOLDENWECK, JOSEPH C. BRADEN, ZINA R. CARTER, BERNARD A. ECKART, ALEXANDER J. JONES, THOMAS KELLY, JAMES P. MALLETTE, THOMAS SMYTHE, FRANK WINTER; ISHAM RANDOLPH, CHIEF ENGINEER.' - Santa Fe Railroad, Sanitary & Ship Canal Bridge, Spanning Sanitary & Ship Canal east of Harlem Avenue, Chicago, Cook County, IL

  9. 21 CFR 1210.14 - Sanitary inspection of plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sanitary inspection of plants. 1210.14 Section... FEDERAL IMPORT MILK ACT Inspection and Testing § 1210.14 Sanitary inspection of plants. The sanitary conditions of any plant handling milk or cream any part of which is to be shipped or transported into...

  10. 21 CFR 1210.14 - Sanitary inspection of plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sanitary inspection of plants. 1210.14 Section... FEDERAL IMPORT MILK ACT Inspection and Testing § 1210.14 Sanitary inspection of plants. The sanitary conditions of any plant handling milk or cream any part of which is to be shipped or transported into...

  11. 21 CFR 1210.14 - Sanitary inspection of plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sanitary inspection of plants. 1210.14 Section... FEDERAL IMPORT MILK ACT Inspection and Testing § 1210.14 Sanitary inspection of plants. The sanitary conditions of any plant handling milk or cream any part of which is to be shipped or transported into...

  12. 21 CFR 110.37 - Sanitary facilities and controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... HUMAN FOOD Buildings and Facilities § 110.37 Sanitary facilities and controls. Each plant shall be... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sanitary facilities and controls. 110.37 Section... sanitary quality. Running water at a suitable temperature, and under pressure as needed, shall be...

  13. 21 CFR 110.37 - Sanitary facilities and controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... HUMAN FOOD Buildings and Facilities § 110.37 Sanitary facilities and controls. Each plant shall be... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sanitary facilities and controls. 110.37 Section... sanitary quality. Running water at a suitable temperature, and under pressure as needed, shall be...

  14. 21 CFR 110.37 - Sanitary facilities and controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... HUMAN FOOD Buildings and Facilities § 110.37 Sanitary facilities and controls. Each plant shall be... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sanitary facilities and controls. 110.37 Section... sanitary quality. Running water at a suitable temperature, and under pressure as needed, shall be...

  15. 21 CFR 1210.11 - Sanitary inspection of dairy farms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sanitary inspection of dairy farms. 1210.11... UNDER THE FEDERAL IMPORT MILK ACT Inspection and Testing § 1210.11 Sanitary inspection of dairy farms. The sanitary conditions of any dairy farm producing milk or cream to be shipped or transported...

  16. 21 CFR 1210.11 - Sanitary inspection of dairy farms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sanitary inspection of dairy farms. 1210.11... UNDER THE FEDERAL IMPORT MILK ACT Inspection and Testing § 1210.11 Sanitary inspection of dairy farms. The sanitary conditions of any dairy farm producing milk or cream to be shipped or transported...

  17. 21 CFR 1210.11 - Sanitary inspection of dairy farms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sanitary inspection of dairy farms. 1210.11... UNDER THE FEDERAL IMPORT MILK ACT Inspection and Testing § 1210.11 Sanitary inspection of dairy farms. The sanitary conditions of any dairy farm producing milk or cream to be shipped or transported...

  18. 21 CFR 1210.11 - Sanitary inspection of dairy farms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sanitary inspection of dairy farms. 1210.11... UNDER THE FEDERAL IMPORT MILK ACT Inspection and Testing § 1210.11 Sanitary inspection of dairy farms. The sanitary conditions of any dairy farm producing milk or cream to be shipped or transported...

  19. 21 CFR 110.35 - Sanitary operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sanitary operations. 110.35 Section 110.35 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE IN MANUFACTURING, PACKING, OR HOLDING HUMAN...

  20. 21 CFR 110.35 - Sanitary operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sanitary operations. 110.35 Section 110.35 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE IN MANUFACTURING, PACKING, OR HOLDING HUMAN...

  1. [Safety and electromagnetic compatibility in sanitary field].

    PubMed

    Bini, M; Feroldi, P; Ferri, C; Ignesti, A; Olmi, R; Priori, S; Riminesi, C; Tobia, L

    2012-01-01

    In sanitary field and especially in a hospital, multiple sources of non ionizing radiation are used for diagnostic and therapeutic aims. In sanitary sector both workers and users are present at the same time, and in some cases general population could need higher protection than workers in relationship to the exposition to electromagnetic fields. In order to protect health and safety of patients, general population and workers of hospitals and with the aim to identify, analyze, evaluate and study its level of significance, electrical, magnetic and electromagnetic sources Research Italian project Si.C.E.O. (Safety And Electromagnetic Compatibility In Sanitary Field) was instituted. Target of our research project was to deepen risk of exposition elements with analysis of outdoor (e.g. power lines, transmission cabinets) and indoor (e.g. equipment for physical therapy) sources, located in sanitary structures and to verify the level exposition of workers and common population end the respect of specific regulation, and finally to define technical and organizational measures really useful for protection and reduction of risk.

  2. [Toxicological and sanitary characterization of bentonite nanoclay].

    PubMed

    Smirnova, V V; Tananova, O N; Shumakova, A A; Trushina, E N; Avren'eva, L I; Bykova, I B; Minaeva, L P; Soto, S Kh; Lashneva, N V; Gmoshinskiĭ, I V; Khotimchnko, S A

    2012-01-01

    Intragastric administration of nanoclay to rats during 28 days led to reductions in the relative weight of the liver, the activity of its conjugating enzymes, the antagonistic activity of bifidoflora, and the hyperproduction of colonic yeast microflora. The findings lead to the conclusion that nanoclays that may be present in foods must be the object of sanitary regulation.

  3. 9 CFR 416.4 - Sanitary operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... insanitary conditions and the adulteration of product. (b) Non-food-contact surfaces of facilities, equipment....4 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... SANITATION § 416.4 Sanitary operations. (a) All food-contact surfaces, including food-contact surfaces...

  4. 9 CFR 416.4 - Sanitary operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... insanitary conditions and the adulteration of product. (b) Non-food-contact surfaces of facilities, equipment....4 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... SANITATION § 416.4 Sanitary operations. (a) All food-contact surfaces, including food-contact surfaces...

  5. 9 CFR 416.4 - Sanitary operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... insanitary conditions and the adulteration of product. (b) Non-food-contact surfaces of facilities, equipment....4 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... SANITATION § 416.4 Sanitary operations. (a) All food-contact surfaces, including food-contact surfaces...

  6. 9 CFR 416.4 - Sanitary operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... insanitary conditions and the adulteration of product. (b) Non-food-contact surfaces of facilities, equipment....4 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... SANITATION § 416.4 Sanitary operations. (a) All food-contact surfaces, including food-contact surfaces...

  7. 9 CFR 416.4 - Sanitary operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... insanitary conditions and the adulteration of product. (b) Non-food-contact surfaces of facilities, equipment....4 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... SANITATION § 416.4 Sanitary operations. (a) All food-contact surfaces, including food-contact surfaces...

  8. 21 CFR 110.35 - Sanitary operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., when cleaning is necessary to protect against the introduction of microorganisms into food, all food... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sanitary operations. 110.35 Section 110.35 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD...

  9. A sewer ventilation model applying conservation of momentum.

    PubMed

    Ward, M; Hamer, G; McDonald, A; Witherspoon, J; Loh, E; Parker, W

    2011-01-01

    The work presented herein was completed in an effort to characterize the forces influencing ventilation in gravity sewers and to develop a mathematical model, based on conservation of momentum, capable of accounting for friction at the headspace/pipe interface, drag at the air/water interface, and buoyancy caused by air density differences between a sewer headspace and ambient. Experiments were completed on two full scale sewer reaches in Australia. A carbon monoxide-based tracer technique was used to measure the ventilation rate within the sewer headspaces. Additionally, measurements of pressure, relative humidity, and temperature were measured in the ambient air and sewer headspace. The first location was a five kilometre long sewer outfall beginning at a wastewater treatment plant and terminating at the ocean. The second location was a large gravity sewer reach fitted with ventilation fans. At the first location the headspace was entirely sealed except for openings that were controlled during the experiments. In this situation forces acting on the headspace air manifested mostly as a pressure distribution within the reach, effectively eliminating friction at the pipe wall. At the second location, air was forced to move near the same velocity as the wastewater, effectively eliminating drag at the air/water interface. These experiments allowed individual terms of the momentum equation to be evaluated. Experimental results were compared to the proposed mathematical model. Conclusions regarding model accuracy are provided along with model application guidance and assumptions.

  10. The erosion of organic solids in combined sewers.

    PubMed

    Ahyerre, M; Oms, C; Chebbo, G

    2001-01-01

    Many studies undertaken on urban catchments show, thanks to indirect approaches, that the contribution of eroded sewer sediments to pollution of combined sewer overflows is significant and highly organic. An in situ study of the erosion of sewer sediments has been implemented to validate those results with a direct approach and to observe the processes of erosion. Two experiments have been carried out on a 150 m length of combined sewer in "Le Marais" catchment in Paris, in order to determine the rate of erosion and the nature of the particles eroded by an injection of drinking water in the sewer system. Hydraulic and quality parameters have been measured in situ. Those injections have shown that the rate of erosion is important (maximum rate of 146 g/s) at each stage of the injection, which has been conducted in three stages with a maximum flow of 370 m3/h. The erosion does not only occur locally but happens along the entire length of the section even at low shear stresses (0.5 N/m2). The eroded particles are highly organic (VS = 54-86%) and their loads in volatile solids, COD, BOD5 decrease as the flow increases. So, this work confirms, by direct measurements, that eroded sewer sediments are a significant source of organic matter that contribute to combined sewer overflow.

  11. Transport of large solids in sewer pipes.

    PubMed

    Walski, Thomas; Edwards, Bryce; Helfer, Emil; Whitman, Brian E

    2009-07-01

    This paper presents a method for determining the conditions under which large solids (i.e., solids with a vertical dimension greater than the depth of water) are able to move in a pipe. Depending on the value of a dimensionless number [s(d/y) - 1], where s = specific gravity of the solids, d = water depth, and y = height of solids, motion will occur if a sufficient velocity (also reported as a Froude number or modified "solids" Froude number) is exceeded. Flume experiments were used to determine the coefficients to be used in the design. The velocity required to reach fluid movement was approximately 0.6 to 1.0 m/s (2 to 3 ft/s), which is consistent, although slightly higher than values generally used in conventional sewer design practice. However, it was demonstrated that increasing the pipe slope to achieve a higher velocity does not ensure that the solid will move.

  12. Lymphatic Lipid Transport: Sewer or Subway?

    PubMed Central

    Dixon, J. Brandon

    2010-01-01

    The lymphatics began receiving attention in the scientific community as early as 1622, when Gasparo Aselli noted the appearance of milky white vessels in the mesentery of a well-fed dog. Since this time, the lymphatic system has been historically regarded as the sewer of the vasculature, passively draining fluid and proteins from the interstitial spaces (along with lipid from the gut) into the blood. Recent reports, however, suggest that the lymphatic role in lipid transport is an active and intricate process and when lymphatic function is compromised, there are systemic consequences to lipid metabolism and transport. This review highlights these recent findings and suggests future directions for understanding the interplay between lymphatic and lipid biology in health and disease. PMID:20541951

  13. Treatment shaft for combined sewer overflow detention.

    PubMed

    Wright, Steven J; Ghalib, Saad; Eloubaidy, Aziz

    2010-05-01

    A deep, large-diameter underground shaft to provide detention storage for combined sewer overflow control may be advantageous in urban environments, where space limitations require solutions with a small footprint. An underflow baffle wall is provided at the center of the treatment shaft to prevent short-circuiting of the flow. An additional objective is to maintain low headlosses through the structure. A physical model study was conducted to determine the effect of the bottom elevation of the baffle wall on the headloss and breakthrough curve for dye injected to the inflow. It was found that there is a considerable range of elevations for which the structure behaves acceptably in providing adequate contact time for disinfectant while maintaining small headlosses.

  14. Colorado River Sewer System Joint Venture to Upgrade Wastewater System

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    SAN FRANCISCO -Today, the Colorado River Sewer System Joint Venture, located in Parker, Ariz. entered into an agreement with the EPA to upgrade their wastewater treatment system to meet stringent water quality standards. The cost of the upgrade is ap

  15. MANAGEMENT OF COMBINED SEWER OVERFLOW RESEARCH PROGRAM CAPSTONE

    EPA Science Inventory


    Combined-sewer overflow (CSO) is a mixture of urban storm drainage, municipal-industrial wastewater, and subterranean infiltration. Untreated discharges of CSOs have caused substantial pollution impacts on the quality of receiving-water bodies. Problem constituents include ...

  16. MANAGEMENT OF COMBINED SEWER OVERFLOW: RESEARCH PROGRAM CAPSTONE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Combined-sewer overflow (CSO) is a mixture of urban storm drainage, municipal-industrial wastewater, and subterranean infiltration. Untreated discharges of CSOs have caused substantial pollution impacts on the quality of receiving-water bodies. Problem constituents include visi...

  17. Water engineering. Reducing sewer corrosion through integrated urban water management.

    PubMed

    Pikaar, Ilje; Sharma, Keshab R; Hu, Shihu; Gernjak, Wolfgang; Keller, Jürg; Yuan, Zhiguo

    2014-08-15

    Sewer systems are among the most critical infrastructure assets for modern urban societies and provide essential human health protection. Sulfide-induced concrete sewer corrosion costs billions of dollars annually and has been identified as a main cause of global sewer deterioration. We performed a 2-year sampling campaign in South East Queensland (Australia), an extensive industry survey across Australia, and a comprehensive model-based scenario analysis of the various sources of sulfide. Aluminum sulfate addition during drinking water production contributes substantially to the sulfate load in sewage and indirectly serves as the primary source of sulfide. This unintended consequence of urban water management structures could be avoided by switching to sulfate-free coagulants, with no or only marginal additional expenses compared with the large potential savings in sewer corrosion costs.

  18. Sewer deterioration modeling with condition data lacking historical records.

    PubMed

    Egger, C; Scheidegger, A; Reichert, P; Maurer, M

    2013-11-01

    Accurate predictions of future conditions of sewer systems are needed for efficient rehabilitation planning. For this purpose, a range of sewer deterioration models has been proposed which can be improved by calibration with observed sewer condition data. However, if datasets lack historical records, calibration requires a combination of deterioration and sewer rehabilitation models, as the current state of the sewer network reflects the combined effect of both processes. Otherwise, physical sewer lifespans are overestimated as pipes in poor condition that were rehabilitated are no longer represented in the dataset. We therefore propose the combination of a sewer deterioration model with a simple rehabilitation model which can be calibrated with datasets lacking historical information. We use Bayesian inference for parameter estimation due to the limited information content of the data and limited identifiability of the model parameters. A sensitivity analysis gives an insight into the model's robustness against the uncertainty of the prior. The analysis reveals that the model results are principally sensitive to the means of the priors of specific model parameters, which should therefore be elicited with care. The importance sampling technique applied for the sensitivity analysis permitted efficient implementation for regional sensitivity analysis with reasonable computational outlay. Application of the combined model with both simulated and real data shows that it effectively compensates for the bias induced by a lack of historical data. Thus, the novel approach makes it possible to calibrate sewer pipe deterioration models even when historical condition records are lacking. Since at least some prior knowledge of the model parameters is available, the strength of Bayesian inference is particularly evident in the case of small datasets.

  19. [Social medicine's actuality: epidemiology sanitary's foundation].

    PubMed

    Grijalba, Francisco Javier Yuste

    2007-01-01

    Appear the Spanish official data of mortality and morbility, as well as available of obesity and the metabolic syndrome to base the thesis of which the pathogenic style of life is the main determinant of one and others. Considerations become on their meaning epidemiologist as well as the forced repercussions in the decisions on the sanitary policy, that must take care of the social causes of becoming ill than their individual consequences more, in a etiologic perspective than more anatomoclinic.

  20. Exposure to airborne endotoxins among sewer workers: an exploratory study.

    PubMed

    Duquenne, Philippe; Ambroise, Denis; Görner, Pierre; Clerc, Frédéric; Greff-Mirguet, Guylaine

    2014-04-01

    Exploratory bioaerosol sampling was performed in order to assess exposure to airborne endotoxins during sewer work. Personal samples were collected in underground sewer pipes using 37-mm closed-face cassettes containing fibreglass filters (CFC-FG method) or polycarbonate filters (CFC-PC method). Endotoxins were quantified using the limulus amoebocyte lysate assay. Concentrations of airborne endotoxins at sewer workplaces (16-420 EU m(-3)) were higher than those measured outside the sewer network (0.6-122 EU m(-3)). Sewer worker exposure to airborne endotoxins depended on the workplace and on the tasks. Exposure levels were the highest for tasks involving agitation of water and matter, especially for 'chamber cleanup' and 'pipes cleanup' with a high-pressure water jet. Airborne endotoxin levels at the workplace tended to be higher when CFC-FG was used as the sampling method rather than CFC-PC. The adjusted mean of the measured concentrations for CFC-PC represents 57% of the mean observed with CFC-FG. The number of samples collected in the descriptive study was too low for drawing definitive conclusions and further exposure investigations are needed. Therefore, our exploratory study provides new exposure data for the insufficiently documented sewer working environment and it would be useful for designing larger exposures studies.

  1. Hanford 200 area (sanitary) waste water system

    SciTech Connect

    Danch, D.A.; Gay, A.E.

    1994-09-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site is located in southeastern Washington State. The Hanford Site is approximately 1,450 sq. km (560 sq. mi) of semiarid land set aside for activities of the DOE. The reactor fuel processing and waste management facilities are located in the 200 Areas. Over the last 50 years at Hanford dicard of hazardous and sanitary waste water has resulted in billions of liters of waste water discharged to the ground. As part of the TPA, discharges of hazardous waste water to the ground and waters of Washington State are to be eliminated in 1995. Currently sanitary waste water from the 200 Area Plateau is handled with on-site septic tank and subsurface disposal systems, many of which were constructed in the 1940s and most do not meet current standards. Features unique to the proposed new sanitary waste water handling systems include: (1) cost effective operation of the treatment system as evaporative lagoons with state-of-the-art liner systems, and (2) routing collection lines to avoid historic contamination zones. The paper focuses on the challenges met in planning and designing the collection system.

  2. Assessment of sewer source contamination of drinking water wells using tracers and human enteric viruses

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hunt, R.J.; Borchardt, M. A.; Richards, K.D.; Spencer, S. K.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the source, transport, and occurrence of human enteric viruses in municipal well water, focusing on sanitary sewer sources. A total of 33 wells from 14 communities were sampled once for wastewater tracers and viruses. Wastewater tracers were detected in four of these wells, and five wells were virus- positive by qRT-PCR. These results, along with exclusion of wells with surface water sources, were used to select three wells for additional investigation. Viruses and wastewater tracers were found in the groundwater at all sites. Some wastewater tracers, such as ionic detergents, flame retardants, and cholesterol, were considered unambiguous evidence of wastewater. Sampling at any given time may not show concurrent virus and tracer presence; however, given sufficient sampling over time, a relation between wastewater tracers and virus occurrence was identified. Presence of infectious viruses at the wellhead demonstrates that high-capacity pumping induced sufficiently short travel times for the transport of infectious viruses. Therefore, drinking-water wells are vulnerable to contaminants that travel along fast groundwater flowpaths even if they contribute a small amount of virus-laden water to the well. These results suggest that vulnerability assessments require characterization of "low yield-fast transport" in addition to traditional "high yield-slow transport", pathways. ?? 2010 American Chemical Society.

  3. Assessment of sewer source contamination of drinking water wells using tracers and human enteric viruses.

    PubMed

    Hunt, Randall J; Borchardt, Mark A; Richards, Kevin D; Spencer, Susan K

    2010-10-15

    This study investigated the source, transport, and occurrence of human enteric viruses in municipal well water, focusing on sanitary sewer sources. A total of 33 wells from 14 communities were sampled once for wastewater tracers and viruses. Wastewater tracers were detected in four of these wells, and five wells were virus- positive by qRT-PCR. These results, along with exclusion of wells with surface water sources, were used to select three wells for additional investigation. Viruses and wastewater tracers were found in the groundwater at all sites. Some wastewater tracers, such as ionic detergents, flame retardants, and cholesterol, were considered unambiguous evidence of wastewater. Sampling at any given time may not show concurrent virus and tracer presence; however, given sufficient sampling over time, a relation between wastewater tracers and virus occurrence was identified. Presence of infectious viruses at the wellhead demonstrates that high-capacity pumping induced sufficiently short travel times for the transport of infectious viruses. Therefore, drinking-water wells are vulnerable to contaminants that travel along fast groundwater flowpaths even if they contribute a small amount of virus-laden water to the well. These results suggest that vulnerability assessments require characterization of "low yield-fast transport" in addition to traditional "high yield-slow transport", pathways.

  4. [Modern problems of the application of sanitary regulations concerning sanitary protection zones and sanitary classification of enterprises, buildings and other facilities].

    PubMed

    Lomtev, A Iu; Eremin, G B; Mozzhukhina, N A; Kombarova, M Iu; Mel'tser, A V; Giul'mamedov, É Iu

    2013-01-01

    In this paper there was performed an analysis of the application of sanitary norms and rules concerning sanitary protective zones and sanitary classification of enterprises, buildings and other facilities, including requirements for the sufficiency and accuracy of information in the performance of projects in sanitary protection zone (SPZ). There is presented an analysis of regulations that set requirements for implementation of mapping works in drafting the SPZ. The design of the SPZ was shown to be, on the one hand, the element of territorial planning subjects of the Russian Federation, on the other hand, the object of capital construction. The substantiations of requirements for graphic and text content, structure, and composition of data, sources of their obtaining, methods of data convergence are reported. There are revealed inconsistencies in Sanitary Regulations and Norms (SanPins) and in their relationship with the Town Planning and Land Code and other laws, and regulations adopted in their development.

  5. Assessing the Role of Sewers and Atmospheric Deposition as Nitrate Contamination Sources to Urban Surface Waters using Stable Nitrate Isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sikora, M. T.; Elliott, E. M.

    2009-12-01

    Excess nitrate (NO3-) contributes to the overall degraded quality of streams in many urban areas. These systems are often dominated by impervious surfaces and storm sewers that can route atmospherically deposited nitrogen, from both wet and dry deposition, to waterways. Moreover, in densely populated watersheds there is the potential for interaction between urban waterways and sewer systems. The affects of accumulated nitrate in riverine and estuary systems include low dissolved oxygen, loss of species diversity, increased mortality of aquatic species, and general eutrophication of the waterbody. However, the dynamics of nitrate pollution from each source and it’s affect on urban waterways is poorly constrained. The isotopes of nitrogen and oxygen in nitrate have been proven effective in helping to distinguish contamination sources to ground and surface waters. In order to improve our understanding of urban nitrate pollution sources and dynamics, we examined nitrate isotopes (δ15N and δ18O) in base- and stormflow samples collected over a two-year period from a restored urban stream in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (USA). Nine Mile Run drains a 1,600 hectare urban watershed characterized by 38% impervious surface cover. Prior work has documented high nitrate export from the watershed (~19 kg NO3- ha-1 yr-1). Potential nitrate sources to the watershed include observed sewer overflows draining directly to the stream, as well as atmospheric deposition (~23 kg NO3- ha-1 yr-1). In this and other urban systems with high percentages of impervious surfaces, there is likely minimal input from nitrate derived from soil or fertilizer. In this presentation, we examine spatial and temporal patterns in nitrate isotopic composition collected at five locations along Nine Mile Run characterized by both sanitary and combined-sewer cross-connections. Preliminary isotopic analysis of low-flow winter streamwater samples suggest nitrate export from Nine Mile Run is primarily influenced by

  6. On-line monitoring of methane in sewer air

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yiwen; Sharma, Keshab R.; Murthy, Sudhir; Johnson, Ian; Evans, Ted; Yuan, Zhiguo

    2014-01-01

    Methane is a highly potent greenhouse gas and contributes significantly to climate change. Recent studies have shown significant methane production in sewers. The studies conducted so far have relied on manual sampling followed by off-line laboratory-based chromatography analysis. These methods are labor-intensive when measuring methane emissions from a large number of sewers, and do not capture the dynamic variations in methane production. In this study, we investigated the suitability of infrared spectroscopy-based on-line methane sensors for measuring methane in humid and condensing sewer air. Two such sensors were comprehensively tested in the laboratory. Both sensors displayed high linearity (R2 > 0.999), with a detection limit of 0.023% and 0.110% by volume, respectively. Both sensors were robust against ambient temperature variations in the range of 5 to 35°C. While one sensor was robust against humidity variations, the other was found to be significantly affected by humidity. However, the problem was solved by equipping the sensor with a heating unit to increase the sensor surface temperature to 35°C. Field studies at three sites confirmed the performance and accuracy of the sensors when applied to actual sewer conditions, and revealed substantial and highly dynamic methane concentrations in sewer air. PMID:25319343

  7. Wastewater-Enhanced Microbial Corrosion of Concrete Sewers.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Guangming; Zhou, Mi; Chiu, Tsz Ho; Sun, Xiaoyan; Keller, Jurg; Bond, Philip L

    2016-08-02

    Microbial corrosion of concrete in sewers is known to be caused by hydrogen sulfide, although the role of wastewater in regulating the corrosion processes is poorly understood. Flooding and splashing of wastewater in sewers periodically inoculates the concrete surface in sewer pipes. No study has systematically investigated the impacts of wastewater inoculation on the corrosion of concrete in sewers. This study investigated the development of the microbial community, sulfide uptake activity, and the change of the concrete properties for coupons subjected to periodic wastewater inoculation. The concrete coupons were exposed to different levels of hydrogen sulfide under well-controlled conditions in laboratory-scale corrosion chambers simulating real sewers. It was evident that the periodic inoculation induced higher corrosion losses of the concrete in comparison to noninoculated coupons. Instantaneous measurements such as surface pH did not reflect the cumulative corrosion losses caused by long-term microbial activity. Analysis of the long-term profiles of the sulfide uptake rate using a Gompertz model supported the enhanced corrosion activity and greater corrosion loss. The enhanced corrosion rate was due to the higher sulfide uptake rates induced by wastewater inoculation, although the increasing trend of sulfide uptake rates was slower with wastewater. Increased diversity in the corrosion-layer microbial communities was detected when the corrosion rates were higher. This coincided with the environmental conditions of increased levels of gaseous H2S and the concrete type.

  8. Molecular survey of concrete sewer biofilm microbial communities.

    PubMed

    Santo Domingo, Jorge W; Revetta, Randy P; Iker, Brandon; Gomez-Alvarez, Vicente; Garcia, Jarissa; Sullivan, John; Weast, James

    2011-10-01

    The microbial composition of concrete biofilms within wastewater collection systems was studied using molecular assays. SSU rDNA clone libraries were generated from 16 concrete surfaces of manholes, a combined sewer overflow, and sections of a corroded sewer pipe. Of the 2457 sequences analyzed, α-, β-, γ-, and δ-Proteobacteria represented 15%, 22%, 11%, and 4% of the clones, respectively. β-Proteobacteria (47%) sequences were more abundant in the pipe crown than any of the other concrete surfaces. While 178 to 493 Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs) were associated with the different concrete samples, only four sequences were shared among the different clone libraries. Bacteria implicated in concrete corrosion were found in the clone libraries while archaea, fungi, and several bacterial groups were also detected using group-specific assays. The results showed that concrete sewer biofilms are more diverse than previously reported. A more comprehensive molecular database will be needed to better study the dynamics of concrete biofilms.

  9. 40 CFR 35.2208 - Adoption of sewer use ordinance and user charge system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Adoption of sewer use ordinance and user charge system. 35.2208 Section 35.2208 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... § 35.2208 Adoption of sewer use ordinance and user charge system. The grantee shall adopt its sewer...

  10. 40 CFR 35.2208 - Adoption of sewer use ordinance and user charge system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Adoption of sewer use ordinance and user charge system. 35.2208 Section 35.2208 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... § 35.2208 Adoption of sewer use ordinance and user charge system. The grantee shall adopt its sewer...

  11. 40 CFR 35.2208 - Adoption of sewer use ordinance and user charge system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Adoption of sewer use ordinance and user charge system. 35.2208 Section 35.2208 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... § 35.2208 Adoption of sewer use ordinance and user charge system. The grantee shall adopt its sewer...

  12. 40 CFR 35.935-16 - Sewer use ordinance and evaluation/rehabilitation program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    .../rehabilitation program. 35.935-16 Section 35.935-16 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY...-Clean Water Act § 35.935-16 Sewer use ordinance and evaluation/rehabilitation program. (a) The grantee... sewer use ordinance, and the grantee is complying with the sewer system evaluation and...

  13. 46 CFR 189.25-40 - Sanitary inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Sanitary inspection. 189.25-40 Section 189.25-40 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Inspection for Certification § 189.25-40 Sanitary inspection. (a) At each...

  14. Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Sewer System Upgrade Project. Environmental Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-04-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an environmental assessment for a proposed Sewer System Upgrade Project at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) near Idaho Falls, Idaho. The proposed action would include activities conducted at the Central Facilities Area, Test Reactor Area, and the Containment Test Facility at the Test Area North at INEL. The proposed action would consist of replacing or remodeling the existing sewage treatment plants at the Central Facilities Area, Test Reactor Area, and Containment Test Facility. Also, a new sewage testing laboratory would be constructed at the Central Facilities Area. Finally, the proposed action would include replacing, repairing, and/or adding sewer lines in areas where needed.

  15. 78 FR 9908 - Notice of Availability of the Draft Issuance of the Small Municipal Separate Storm Sewer System...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-12

    ... AGENCY Notice of Availability of the Draft Issuance of the Small Municipal Separate Storm Sewer System... Storm Sewer Systems (MS4s) to certain waters of the State of New Hampshire. The draft NPDES general...)(16) define a small municipal separate storm sewer system as ``all separate storm sewers that are:...

  16. Sanitary engineering and water economy in Europe

    PubMed Central

    Krul, W. F. J. M.

    1957-01-01

    The author deals with a wide variety of aspects of water economy and the development of water resources, relating them to the sanitary engineering problems they give rise to. Among those aspects are the balance between available resources and water needs for various purposes; accumulation and storage of surface and ground water, and methods of replenishing ground water supplies; pollution and purification; and organizational measures to deal with the urgent problems raised by the heavy demands on the world's water supply as a result of both increased population and the increased need for agricultural and industrial development. The author considers that at the national level over-all plans for developing the water economy of countries might well be drawn up by national water boards and that the economy of inter-State river basins should receive international study. In such work the United Nations and its specialized agencies might be of assistance. PMID:13472427

  17. ULTRAVIOLET LIGHT DISINFECTION OF COMBINED SEWER OVERFLOW (NEW ORLEANS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of this state-of-the-art review is to examine the performance and effectiveness of ultraviolet (UV) light disinfection for combined sewer overflow (CSO) applications. Topics presented include the use of UV light as a disinfecting agent, its practical applications, d...

  18. REAL TIME CONTROL OF SEWERS: US EPA MANUAL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The problem of sewage spills and local flooding has traditionally been addressed by large scale capital improvement programs that focus on construction alternatives such as sewer separation or construction of storage facilities. The cost of such projects is often high, especiall...

  19. STREET SURFACE STORAGE FOR CONTROL OF COMBINED SEWER SURCHARGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    One type of Best Management Practices (BMPs) available is the use of street storage systems to prevent combined sewer surcharging and to mitigate basement flooding. A case study approach, based primarily on two largely implemented street storage systems, will be used to explain ...

  20. EXFILTRATION IN SEWER SYSTEMS: IS IT A NATIONAL PROBLEM?

    EPA Science Inventory

    Many municipalities throughout the US have sewerage systems (separate and combined) that may experience exfiltration of untreated wastewater. This study was conducted to focus on the magnitude of the exfiltration problem from sewer pipes on a national basis. The method for estima...

  1. 40 CFR 35.927 - Sewer system evaluation and rehabilitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... rehabilitation. 35.927 Section 35.927 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER... § 35.927 Sewer system evaluation and rehabilitation. (a) All applicants for step 2 or step 3 grant... evaluation survey and, if appropriate, a program, including an estimate of costs, for rehabilitation of...

  2. Decision making in flood risk based storm sewer network design.

    PubMed

    Sun, S A; Djordjević, S; Khu, S T

    2011-01-01

    It is widely recognised that flood risk needs to be taken into account when designing a storm sewer network. Flood risk is generally a combination of flood consequences and flood probabilities. This paper aims to explore the decision making in flood risk based storm sewer network design. A multiobjective optimization is proposed to find the Pareto front of optimal designs in terms of low construction cost and low flood risk. The decision making process then follows this multi-objective optimization to select a best design from the Pareto front. The traditional way of designing a storm sewer system based on a predefined design storm is used as one of the decision making criteria. Additionally, three commonly used risk based criteria, i.e., the expected flood risk based criterion, the Hurwicz criterion and the stochastic dominance based criterion, are investigated and applied in this paper. Different decisions are made according to different criteria as a result of different concerns represented by the criteria. The proposed procedure is applied to a simple storm sewer network design to demonstrate its effectiveness and the different criteria are compared.

  3. Demonstration of Innovative Sewer System Inspection Technology: SL-RAT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The overall objective of this EPA-funded study was to demonstrate innovative sewer line assessment technologies that are designed for rapid deployment using portable equipment. This study focused on demonstration of technologies that are suitable for smaller diameter pipes (less ...

  4. PERFORMANCE OF OZONE AS A DISINFECTANT FOR COMBINED SEWER OVERFLOW

    EPA Science Inventory

    Disinfection of combined sewer overflow (CSO) minimizes the amount of disease-causing microorganisms (pathogens) released into receiving waters. Currently, the primary disinfecting agent used in the US for wastewater treatment is chlorine (Cl2); however, Cl2 produces problems in ...

  5. 31. RECORD PLAN, METROPOLITAN SEWER, GENERAL PLAN OF PUMPING STATION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    31. RECORD PLAN, METROPOLITAN SEWER, GENERAL PLAN OF PUMPING STATION GROUNDS, DEER ISLAND. METROPOLITAN SEWERAGE COMMISSION, JUNE 1896. Photocopy of image of aperture card 4977-1. Aperture cards and original drawings at Massachusetts Water Resources Authority Archives, Building 39, Charlestown Navy Yard, Boston, MA - Deer Island Pumping Station, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  6. COMBINED SEWER OVERFLOW CONTROL USING STORAGE IN SEAWATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper describes the flow balance method facility (FBM) used to control a combined sewer overflow (CSO) and a statistically based efficiency evaluation for the system. he FBM uses containment within a receiving water body (in this case seawater) to store CSO followed by pumpb...

  7. Incorporating Storm Sewer Exfiltration into SWMM: Proof of Concept

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study evaluates the peak flow and volume reduction achieved by exfiltration from a perforated storm sewer in an urban catchment. There are three related objectives: [1] quantify peak flow and volume reduction; [2] demonstrate adaptability to climate change; and [3] evaluate ...

  8. A novel cellular automata based approach to storm sewer design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Y.; Walters, G. A.; Khu, S. T.; Keedwell, E.

    2007-04-01

    Optimal storm sewer design aims at minimizing capital investment on infrastructure whilst ensuring good system performance under specified design criteria. An innovative sewer design approach based on cellular automata (CA) principles is introduced in this paper. Cellular automata have been applied as computational simulation devices in various scientific fields. However, some recent research has indicated that CA can also be a viable and efficient optimization engine. This engine is heuristic and largely relies on the key properties of CA: locality, homogeneity, and parallelism. In the proposed approach, the CA-based optimizer is combined with a sewer hydraulic simulator, the EPA Storm Water Management Model (SWMM). At each optimization step, according to a set of transition rules, the optimizer updates all decision variables simultaneously based on the hydraulic situation within each neighbourhood. Two sewer networks (one small artificial network and one large real network) have been tested in this study. The CA optimizer demonstrated its ability to obtain near-optimal solutions in a remarkably small number of computational steps in a comparison of its performance with that of a genetic algorithm.

  9. HIGH-RATE DISINFECTION TECHNIQUES FOR COMBIND SEWER OVERFLOW

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper presents high-rate disinfection technologies for combined sewer overflow (CSO). The high-rate disinfection technologies of interest are: chlorination/dechlorination, ultraviolet light irradiation (UV), chlorine dioxide (ClO2 ), ozone (O3), peracetic acid (CH3COOOH )...

  10. Impervious surfaces and sewer pipe effects on stormwater runoff temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabouri, F.; Gharabaghi, B.; Mahboubi, A. A.; McBean, E. A.

    2013-10-01

    The warming effect of the impervious surfaces in urban catchment areas and the cooling effect of underground storm sewer pipes on stormwater runoff temperature are assessed. Four urban residential catchment areas in the Cities of Guelph and Kitchener, Ontario, Canada were evaluated using a combination of runoff monitoring and modelling. The stormwater level and water temperature were monitored at 10 min interval at the inlet of the stormwater management ponds for three summers 2009, 2010 and 2011. The warming effect of the ponds is also studied, however discussed in detail in a separate paper. An artificial neural network (ANN) model for stormwater temperature was trained and validated using monitoring data. Stormwater runoff temperature was most sensitive to event mean temperature of the rainfall (EMTR) with a normalized sensitivity coefficient (Sn) of 1.257. Subsequent levels of sensitivity corresponded to the longest sewer pipe length (LPL), maximum rainfall intensity (MI), percent impervious cover (IMP), rainfall depth (R), initial asphalt temperature (AspT), pipe network density (PND), and rainfall duration (D), respectively. Percent impervious cover of the catchment area (IMP) was the key parameter that represented the warming effect of the paved surfaces; sensitivity analysis showed IMP increase from 20% to 50% resulted in runoff temperature increase by 3 °C. The longest storm sewer pipe length (LPL) and the storm sewer pipe network density (PND) are the two key parameters that control the cooling effect of the underground sewer system; sensitivity analysis showed LPL increase from 345 to 966 m, resulted in runoff temperature drop by 2.5 °C.

  11. Changes in Microbial Biofilm Communities during Colonization of Sewer Systems

    PubMed Central

    Auguet, O.; Pijuan, M.; Batista, J.; Gutierrez, O.

    2015-01-01

    The coexistence of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) and methanogenic archaea (MA) in anaerobic biofilms developed in sewer inner pipe surfaces favors the accumulation of sulfide (H2S) and methane (CH4) as metabolic end products, causing severe impacts on sewerage systems. In this study, we investigated the time course of H2S and CH4 production and emission rates during different stages of biofilm development in relation to changes in the composition of microbial biofilm communities. The study was carried out in a laboratory sewer pilot plant that mimics a full-scale anaerobic rising sewer using a combination of process data and molecular techniques (e.g., quantitative PCR [qPCR], denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis [DGGE], and 16S rRNA gene pyrotag sequencing). After 2 weeks of biofilm growth, H2S emission was notably high (290.7 ± 72.3 mg S-H2S liter−1 day−1), whereas emissions of CH4 remained low (17.9 ± 15.9 mg COD-CH4 liter−1 day−1). This contrasting trend coincided with a stable SRB community and an archaeal community composed solely of methanogens derived from the human gut (i.e., Methanobrevibacter and Methanosphaera). In turn, CH4 emissions increased after 1 year of biofilm growth (327.6 ± 16.6 mg COD-CH4 liter−1 day−1), coinciding with the replacement of methanogenic colonizers by species more adapted to sewer conditions (i.e., Methanosaeta spp.). Our study provides data that confirm the capacity of our laboratory experimental system to mimic the functioning of full-scale sewers both microbiologically and operationally in terms of sulfide and methane production, gaining insight into the complex dynamics of key microbial groups during biofilm development. PMID:26253681

  12. Network condition simulator for benchmarking sewer deterioration models.

    PubMed

    Scheidegger, A; Hug, T; Rieckermann, J; Maurer, M

    2011-10-15

    An accurate description of aging and deterioration of urban drainage systems is necessary for optimal investment and rehabilitation planning. Due to a general lack of suitable datasets, network condition models are rarely validated, and if so with varying levels of success. We therefore propose a novel network condition simulator (NetCoS) that produces a synthetic population of sewer sections with a given condition-class distribution. NetCoS can be used to benchmark deterioration models and guide utilities in the selection of appropriate models and data management strategies. The underlying probabilistic model considers three main processes: a) deterioration, b) replacement policy, and c) expansions of the sewer network. The deterioration model features a semi-Markov chain that uses transition probabilities based on user-defined survival functions. The replacement policy is approximated with a condition-class dependent probability of replacing a sewer pipe. The model then simulates the course of the sewer sections from the installation of the first line to the present, adding new pipes based on the defined replacement and expansion program. We demonstrate the usefulness of NetCoS in two examples where we quantify the influence of incomplete data and inspection frequency on the parameter estimation of a cohort survival model and a Markov deterioration model. Our results show that typical available sewer inventory data with discarded historical data overestimate the average life expectancy by up to 200 years. Although NetCoS cannot prove the validity of a particular deterioration model, it is useful to reveal its possible limitations and shortcomings and quantifies the effects of missing or uncertain data. Future developments should include additional processes, for example to investigate the long-term effect of pipe rehabilitation measures, such as inliners.

  13. Online dissolved methane and total dissolved sulfide measurement in sewers.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yiwen; Sharma, Keshab R; Fluggen, Markus; O'Halloran, Kelly; Murthy, Sudhir; Yuan, Zhiguo

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies using short-term manual sampling of sewage followed by off-line laboratory gas chromatography (GC) measurement have shown that a substantial amount of dissolved methane is produced in sewer systems. However, only limited data has been acquired to date due to the low frequency and short span of this method, which cannot capture the dynamic variations of in-sewer dissolved methane concentrations. In this study, a newly developed online measuring device was used to monitor dissolved methane concentrations at the end of a rising main sewer network, over two periods of three weeks each, in summer and early winter, respectively. This device uses an online gas-phase methane sensor to measure methane under equilibrium conditions after being stripped from the sewage. The data are then converted to liquid-phase methane concentrations according to Henry's Law. The detection limit and range are suitable for sewer application and can be adjusted by varying the ratio of liquid-to-gas phase volume settings. The measurement presented good linearity (R² > 0.95) during field application, when compared to off-line measurements. The overall data set showed a wide variation in dissolved methane concentration of 5-15 mg/L in summer and 3.5-12 mg/L in winter, resulting in a significant average daily production of 24.6 and 19.0 kg-CH₄/d, respectively, from the network with a daily average sewage flow of 2840 m³/day. The dissolved methane concentration demonstrated a clear diurnal pattern coinciding with flow and sulfide fluctuation, implying a relationship with the wastewater hydraulic retention time (HRT). The total dissolved sulfide (TDS) concentration in sewers can be determined simultaneously with the same principle.

  14. [Evaluation of sanitary-and-epidemiological safety of medical wares].

    PubMed

    Kravchenko, O K

    2008-01-01

    The medical personnel operating currently available medical equipment can be exposed to physical factors. To prevent the adverse consequences of these exposures, medical equipment undergoes sanitary-and-epidemiological examination, resulting in the drawing up of a sanitary-and-epidemiological report. For regulation of this procedure, a management directive has been worked out, which determines an examination procedure, a hygienic classification of medical equipment, allowable values for controlled safety indices during operation, etc. Introduction of the directive makes it possible to upgrade the quality of sanitary-and-epidemiological equipment audit, to improve working conditions, and to keep health in the personnel operating the present-day high-technology equipment.

  15. The emergence of the sanitary inspector in Victorian Britain.

    PubMed

    Brimblecombe, P

    2003-06-01

    Sanitary reform, especially that required by the Public Health Acts (1872, 1875) needed a well trained body of Sanitary Inspectors. The Sanitary Institute and other professional organisations set about improving the qualifications and standing of the people who were charged with creating a healthier urban environment on a day-to-day basis. The structures created at that time have changed much, but we can still recognise the posts, the professional associations and the journals that were created in late Victorian times. This is a testament to the quality and flexibility of the pioneering work done a century ago.

  16. Solar sanitary system (SOL-SAN)

    SciTech Connect

    Cobb, J.C.

    1996-11-01

    Ordinary composting toilets, because of cooling by evaporation, do not heat the product (humus) hot enough to kill all pathogenic viruses, bacteria, or parasite eggs and cysts. The SOL-SAN system uses direct radiation to pasteurize incoming river water for drinking and also, separately, to pasteurize and dry the humus, and to pasteurize the effluent gray/brown water. Work is in progress on simple fool-proof methods of insuring that the water will not flow out unless it has been pasteurized. Heat exchangers recapture the heat from these very hot pasteurized liquids, thereby warming more in-coming water for washing, which is important for preventing transmission of pathogenic microbes. When pasteurized, the humus and gray/brown water can safely be recycled to fertilize and water the family vegetable garden. Thus no sewer would be needed, and the vegetables or fish would grow well. Widespread use of the SOL-SAN system would save water and nutrients, reduce the prevalence of infectious diseases, improve the nutrition and vitality of the population, and save the large fraction of human food now consumed by parasites.

  17. Factors concerned with sanitary landfill site selection: General discussion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graff, W. J.; Stone, L. J.

    1972-01-01

    A general view of factors affecting site selection for sanitary landfill sites is presented. Examinations were made of operational methods, possible environment pollution, types of waste to be disposed, base and cover materials, and the economics involved in the operation.

  18. Fort Carson Sanitary Wastewater Treatment Facility NPDES Permit

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Under NPDES permit no. CO-0021181 the United States Department of the Army, Fort Carson, in authorized to discharge from its sanitary wastewater treatment facility in El Paso County, Colorado, to Clover Ditch, a tributary of Fountain Creek.

  19. Poison-based commensal rodent control strategies in urban ecosystems: some evidence against sewer-baiting.

    PubMed

    Mughini Gras, Lapo; Patergnani, Matteo; Farina, Marco

    2012-03-01

    Sewers are historically considered the main reservoir for commensal rodents, posing threats to urban ecosystem health. Aboveground rodent signs are often assumed to give clues to high sewer infestation, which can chronically restock surface areas. Thus, current sewer-baiting programmes are mostly reactive, responding to increased surface infestation. Conversely, proactive sewer-baiting (regardless of infestation levels) is often disregarded because cost-effectiveness is not always addressed. We explored the extent to which the surface infestation is related to rodent feeding activity on sewer and surface baits by analysing a set of proactive bait records in Bologna city, Italy. Sewer bait intakes were significantly lower than surface ones, suggesting that proactive sewer-baiting is generally less effective. As surface infestation increased, probability of recording surface bait intake increased significantly but this was not reflected by increased sewer bait intake, suggesting that surface infestation is not always a reliable indicator of sewer infestation. This should discourage the use of reactive sewer-baiting as a routine strategy. Poison-based control programmes by themselves are scarcely predictable and strategically limited, and ideally they should be handled within an ecologically based integrated pest management approach for achieving satisfactory results.

  20. Sulfide and methane production in sewer sediments: Field survey and model evaluation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yiwen; Tugtas, A Evren; Sharma, Keshab R; Ni, Bing-Jie; Yuan, Zhiguo

    2016-02-01

    Sewer sediment processes have been reported to significantly contribute to overall sulfide and methane production in sewers, at a scale comparable to that of sewer biofilms. The physiochemical and biological characteristics of sewer sediments are heterogeneous; however, the variability of in-sediments sulfide and methane production rates among sewers has not been assessed to date. In this study, five sewer sediment samples were collected from two cities in Australia with different climatic conditions. Batch assays were conducted to determine the rates of sulfate reduction and methane production under different flow velocity (shear stress) conditions as well as under completely mixed conditions. The tests showed substantial and variable sulfate reduction and methane production activities among different sediments. Sulfate reduction and methane production from sewer sediments were confirmed to be areal processes, and were dependent on flow velocity/shear stress. Despite of the varying characteristics and reactions kinetics, the sulfate reduction and methane production processes in all sediments could be well described by a one-dimensional sewer sediment model recently developed based on results obtained from a laboratory sewer sediment reactor. Model simulations indicated that the in-situ contribution of sewer sediment emissions could be estimated without the requirement of measuring the specific sediment characteristics or the sediment depths.

  1. Degradation of methanethiol in anaerobic sewers and its correlation with methanogenic activities.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jing; Hu, Shihu; Sharma, Keshab Raj; Ni, Bing-Jie; Yuan, Zhiguo

    2015-02-01

    Methanethiol (MT) is considered one of the predominant odorants in sewer systems. Therefore, understanding MT transformation in sewers is essential to sewer odor assessment and abatement. In this study, we investigated the degradation of MT in laboratory anaerobic sewers. Experiments were carried out in seven anaerobic sewer reactors with biofilms at different stages of development. MT degradation was found to be strongly dependent on the methanogenic activity of sewer biofilms. The MT degradation rate accelerated with the increase of methanogenic activity of sewer biofilms, resulting in MT accumulation (i.e. net production) in sewer reactors with relatively low methanogenic activities, and MT removal in reactors with higher methanogenic activities. A Monod-type kinetic expression was developed to describe MT degradation kinetics in anaerobic sewers, in which the maximum degradation rate was modeled as a function of the maximum methane production rate through a power function. It was also found that MT concentration had a linear relationship with acetate concentration, which may be used for preliminary assessment of MT presence in anaerobic sewers.

  2. Study for Reliability Assessment considering the Sedimentation in Urban Sewer Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Yangho; Park, Moojong; Lee, Jungho

    2016-04-01

    In this study, analysis of reliability of sewer network was progressed with the number of overflow nodes and overflow volume simultaneously for urban areas considering sedimentation. Reliability analysis shows that it is possible to quantify the difference in the phenomenon of the destruction of sedimentation in urban sewer system under the same design frequency. This study focuses on the release to bed of sedimentations having being accumulated inside a urban sewer network. It is proposed as one of the indicators evaluated as full reliability for sewer system. To analyze detailed changes in conduit designs in urban sewer networks, tried to reduction of sedimentation in sewer networks using modified pipe slope in Bujeon-dong catchment, Busan. The various sewer designs were applied and then, the most effective improvement of reliability over 10%. Suggested reliability process can produce the quantitative evaluations about sewer systems using the results of the system simulations and use of possible the objective function for the sewer network designed with a relative evaluation. Sewer network is designed to pass the inflow rate depending on the design frequency smoothly. However, taking a look at the example of flooding generated in urban area shows that an increase in the generation and damage of flooding can be often caused by the deposition of sediment in the sewer. This is a problem in the maintenance of sewers, but this implies that the effect of sediment deposition should be considered to some degree for the design of a conduit itself in another aspect. Thus, it is necessary to realize design in a direction to reduce flood damage pursuant to it by considering the deposition aspect of sediment in a conduit when designing a storm sewer.

  3. Charles Dickens and the movement for sanitary reform.

    PubMed

    Litsios, Socrates

    2003-01-01

    Charles Dickens's adult life parallels the period when the movement for sanitary reform took root in England. Although he was not one of its leaders, he became in time one of its most outspoken advocates. This essay describes Dickens's growing involvement in the sanitary movement and looks at one of the most important ways he supported it--articles published in his weekly journal Household Words

  4. Evaluation of Confining Layer Integrity Beneath the South District Wastewater Treatment Plant, Miami-Dade Water and Sewer Department, Dade County, Florida

    SciTech Connect

    Starr, R.C.; Green, T.S.; Hull, L.C.

    2001-02-28

    A review has been performed of existing information that describes geology, hydrogeology, and geochemistry at the South District Wastewater Treatment Plant, which is operated by the Miami-Dade Water and Sewer Department, in Dade County, Florida. Treated sanitary wastewater is injected into a saline aquifer beneath the plant. Detection of contaminants commonly associated with treated sanitary wastewater in the freshwater aquifer that overlies the saline aquifer has indicated a need for a reevaluation of the ability of the confining layer above the saline aquifer to prevent fluid migration into the overlying freshwater aquifer. Review of the available data shows that the geologic data set is not sufficient to demonstrate that a competent confining layer is present between the saline and freshwater aquifers. The hydrogeologic data also do not indicate that a competent confining layer is present. The geochemical data show that the freshwater aquifer is contaminated with treated wastewater, and the spatial patterns of contamination are consistent with upward migration through localized conduits through the Middle Confining Unit, such as leaking wells or natural features. Recommendations for collection and interpretation of additional site characterization data are provided.

  5. Evaluation of Confining Layer Integrity Beneath the South District Wastewater Treatment Plant, Miami-Dade Water and Sewer Department, Dade County, Florida

    SciTech Connect

    Starr, Robert Charles; Green, Timothy Scott; Hull, Laurence Charles

    2001-02-01

    A review has been performed of existing information that describes geology, hydrogeology, and geochemistry at the South District Wastewater Treatment Plant, which is operated by the Miami-Dade Water and Sewer Department, in Dade County, Florida. Treated sanitary wastewater is injected into a saline aquifer beneath the plant. Detection of contaminants commonly associated with treated sanitary wastewater in the freshwater aquifer that overlies the saline aquifer has indicated a need for a reevaluation of the ability of the confining layer above the saline aquifer to prevent fluid migration into the overlying freshwater aquifer. Review of the available data shows that the geologic data set is not sufficient to demonstrate that a competent confining layer is present between the saline and freshwater aquifers. The hydrogeologic data also do not indicate that a competent confining layer is present. The geochemical data show that the freshwater aquifer is contaminated with treated wastewater, and the spatial patterns of contamination are consistent with upward migration through localized conduits through the Middle Confining Unit, such as leaking wells or natural features. Recommendations for collection and interpretation of additional site characterization data are provided.

  6. Soil gas investigations at the Sanitary Landfill

    SciTech Connect

    Wyatt, D.E.; Pirkle, R.J.; Masdea, D.J.

    1992-07-01

    A soil gas survey was performed at the 740-G Sanitary Landfill of Savannah River Plant during December, 1990. The survey monitored the presence and distribution of the C[sub 1]C[sub 4] hydrocarbons; the C[sub 5]-C[sub 10] normal paraffins; the aromatic hydrocarbons, BTXE; selected chlorinated hydrocarbons; and mercury. Significant levels of several of these contaminants were found associated with the burial site. In the northern area of the Landfill, methane concentrations ranged up to 63% of the soil gas and were consistently high on the western side of the access road. To the east of the access road in the northern and southern area high concentrations of methane were encountered but were not consistently high. Methane, the species found in highest concentration in the landfill, was generated in the landfill as the result of biological oxidation of cellulose and other organics to carbon dioxide followed by reduction of the carbon dioxide to methane. Distributions of other species are the result of burials in the landfill of solvents or other materials.

  7. Soil gas investigations at the Sanitary Landfill

    SciTech Connect

    Wyatt, D.E.; Pirkle, R.J.; Masdea, D.J.

    1992-07-01

    A soil gas survey was performed at the 740-G Sanitary Landfill of Savannah River Plant during December, 1990. The survey monitored the presence and distribution of the C{sub 1}C{sub 4} hydrocarbons; the C{sub 5}-C{sub 10} normal paraffins; the aromatic hydrocarbons, BTXE; selected chlorinated hydrocarbons; and mercury. Significant levels of several of these contaminants were found associated with the burial site. In the northern area of the Landfill, methane concentrations ranged up to 63% of the soil gas and were consistently high on the western side of the access road. To the east of the access road in the northern and southern area high concentrations of methane were encountered but were not consistently high. Methane, the species found in highest concentration in the landfill, was generated in the landfill as the result of biological oxidation of cellulose and other organics to carbon dioxide followed by reduction of the carbon dioxide to methane. Distributions of other species are the result of burials in the landfill of solvents or other materials.

  8. Sanitary engineering aspects of nuclear energy developments*

    PubMed Central

    Kenny, A. W.

    1962-01-01

    So many developments have taken place in the field of nuclear energy since 1956, when the author's previous paper on radioactive waste disposal was published in the Bulletin of the World Health Organization, that a fresh review of the subject is now appropriate. The present paper deals with those aspects of the problem which are of most interest to the sanitary engineer. It considers specific points in the latest recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection in relation to public drinking-water supplies, and examines the problem of fall-out, with special reference to the presence and significance of strontium-90 in drinking-water. A general survey of the various uses of radioactive materials is followed by a discussion of the legislative and control measures necessary to ensure safe disposal of wastes. The methods of waste disposal adopted in a number of nuclear energy establishments are described in detail. The paper concludes with some remarks on solid waste disposal, siting of nuclear energy industries and area monitoring. PMID:14455214

  9. Quality of local control for simple sewer networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolechkina, Alla; van Nooijen, Ronald

    2016-04-01

    Combined sewer networks, where both foul water and storm water are transported through the same system, tend to develop into complex networks due to expansion of towns and villages. The transport capacity of these systems is always limited, so occasional controlled spills into surface water, combined sewer overflows (CSO), are part of the normal operating procedure. Occasionally the ideas and rules present in the original design are not respected when the system is extended to cover a larger area. One way to deal with this problem is to implement central control. Another is to add pipes and hardware to bring the extended system into line with the original rules and ideas. We show that for a design rule often followed in the Netherlands, local control does quite well as long as the rule is respected and there are no large variations in precipitation intensity over the area covered by the system.

  10. A software-based sensor for combined sewer overflows.

    PubMed

    Leonhardt, G; Fach, S; Engelhard, C; Kinzel, H; Rauch, W

    2012-01-01

    A new methodology for online estimation of excess flow from combined sewer overflow (CSO) structures based on simulation models is presented. If sufficient flow and water level data from the sewer system is available, no rainfall data are needed to run the model. An inverse rainfall-runoff model was developed to simulate net rainfall based on flow and water level data. Excess flow at all CSO structures in a catchment can then be simulated with a rainfall-runoff model. The method is applied to a case study and results show that the inverse rainfall-runoff model can be used instead of missing rain gauges. Online operation is ensured by software providing an interface to the SCADA-system of the operator and controlling the model. A water quality model could be included to simulate also pollutant concentrations in the excess flow.

  11. Worcester Municipal Separate Storm Sewer System (MS4) ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    2017-04-10

    Worcester was issued NPDES Permit MAS010002 for discharging storm water from its municipal separate storm sewer system (MS4) which became effective on October 30, 1998. The permit expired five years later on October 30, 2003; however, EPA administratively continued the permit as allowed by regulation. Proceeding to reissue this NPDES permit, EPA and MassDEP have now issued a draft permit and fact sheet (which provides EPA's technical basis for establishing permit conditions).

  12. Life cycle assessment of urban wastewater systems: Quantifying the relative contribution of sewer systems.

    PubMed

    Risch, Eva; Gutierrez, Oriol; Roux, Philippe; Boutin, Catherine; Corominas, Lluís

    2015-06-15

    This study aims to propose a holistic, life cycle assessment (LCA) of urban wastewater systems (UWS) based on a comprehensive inventory including detailed construction and operation of sewer systems and wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). For the first time, the inventory of sewers infrastructure construction includes piping materials and aggregates, manholes, connections, civil works and road rehabilitation. The operation stage comprises energy consumption in pumping stations together with air emissions of methane and hydrogen sulphide, and water emissions from sewer leaks. Using a real case study, this LCA aims to quantify the contributions of sewer systems to the total environmental impacts of the UWS. The results show that the construction of sewer infrastructures has an environmental impact (on half of the 18 studied impact categories) larger than both the construction and operation of the WWTP. This study highlights the importance of including the construction and operation of sewer systems in the environmental assessment of centralised versus decentralised options for UWS.

  13. Aerobic and anaerobic transformations of sulfide in a sewer system--field study and model simulations.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Asbjørn Haaning; Vollertsen, Jes; Jensen, Henriette Stokbro; Madsen, Heidi Ina; Hvitved-Jacobsen, Thorkild

    2008-01-01

    The formation and fate of sulfide in a force main and a downstream-located gravity sewer were investigated in an extensive field study. Sulfide formation in the force main was significant. However, during 14 minutes of transport in the gravity sewer, the sulfide concentration decreased 30%, on average. An application of a conceptual sewer process model for simulating the formation and fate of sulfide was demonstrated. Overall, the model predicted that approximately 90% of the decrease of the sulfide concentration in the gravity sewer was the result of sulfide oxidation and that only a small fraction entered the sewer atmosphere, causing odor and corrosion. Even so, the model predicted concrete corrosion rates of up to 1.2 mm/y in the gravity sewer section.

  14. Investigation of sewer exfiltration using integral pumping tests and wastewater indicators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leschik, Sebastian; Musolff, Andreas; Martienssen, Marion; Krieg, Ronald; Bayer-Raich, Marti; Reinstorf, Frido; Strauch, Gerhard; Schirmer, Mario

    2009-11-01

    Leaky sewers affect urban groundwater by the exfiltration of untreated wastewater. However, the impact of sewer exfiltration on the groundwater is poorly understood. Most studies on sewer exfiltration focus on water exfiltration, but not on the impact on groundwater quality. In this paper we present a new monitoring approach to estimate mass flow rates Mex of different wastewater indicators (WWIs) from leaky sewers by applying integral pumping tests (IPTs). The problem of detecting and assessing heterogeneous concentrations in the vicinity of leaky sewers can be overcome with the IPT approach by the investigation of large groundwater volumes up- and downstream of leaky sewers. The increase in concentrations downstream of a leaky sewer section can be used to calculate Mex with a numerical groundwater model. The new monitoring approach was first applied using four IPT wells in Leipzig (Germany). Over a pumping period of five days we sampled five inorganic WWIs: B , Cl -, K +, NO 3-, NH 4+ and three xenobiotics: bisphenol-a, caffeine and tonalide. The resulting concentration-time series indicated an influence of wastewater at one IPT well downstream of the leaky sewer. We defined ranges of Mex by implementing the uncertainty of chemical analyses. The results showed a Mex of 0-10.9 g m - 1 d - 1 . The combination of Mex with wastewater concentrations from the target sewer yielded an exfiltration rate Qex of 28.0-63.9 L m - 1 d - 1 for the conservative ion Cl -. Most non-conservative WWIs showed reduced mass flow rates in the groundwater downstream of the leaky sewer that indicate a mass depletion during their passage from the sewer to the pumping well. Application of the IPT methodology at other field sites is possible. The IPT monitoring approach provides reliable Mex values that can help to assess the impact of leaky sewers on groundwater.

  15. Mechanism and kinetics of biofilm growth process influenced by shear stress in sewers.

    PubMed

    Ai, Hainan; Xu, Jingwei; Huang, Wei; He, Qiang; Ni, Bingjie; Wang, Yinliang

    2016-01-01

    Sewer biofilms play an important role in the biotransformation of substances for methane and sulfide emission in sewer networks. The dynamic flows and the particular shear stress in sewers are the key factors determining the growth of the sewer biofilm. In this work, the development of sewer biofilm with varying shear stress is specifically investigated to gain a comprehensive understanding of the sewer biofilm dynamics. Sewer biofilms were cultivated in laboratory-scale gravity sewers under different hydraulic conditions with the corresponding shell stresses are 1.12 Pa, 1.29 Pa and 1.45 Pa, respectively. The evolution of the biofilm thickness were monitored using microelectrodes, and the variation in total solids (TS) and extracellular polymer substance (EPS) levels in the biofilm were also measured. The results showed that the steady-state biofilm thickness were highly related to the corresponding shear stresses with the biofilm thickness of 2.4 ± 0.1 mm, 2.7 ± 0.1 mm and 2.2 ± 0.1 mm at shear stresses of 1.12 Pa, 1.29 Pa and 1.45 Pa, respectively, which the chemical oxygen demand concentration is 400 mg/L approximately. Based on these observations, a kinetic model for describing the development of sewer biofilms was developed and demonstrated to be capable of reproducing all the experimental data.

  16. Searching for storm water inflows in foul sewers using fibre-optic distributed temperature sensing.

    PubMed

    Schilperoort, Rémy; Hoppe, Holger; de Haan, Cornelis; Langeveld, Jeroen

    2013-01-01

    A major drawback of separate sewer systems is the occurrence of illicit connections: unintended sewer cross-connections that connect foul water outlets from residential or industrial premises to the storm water system and/or storm water outlets to the foul sewer system. The amount of unwanted storm water in foul sewer systems can be significant, resulting in a number of detrimental effects on the performance of the wastewater system. Efficient removal of storm water inflows into foul sewers requires knowledge of the exact locations of the inflows. This paper presents the use of distributed temperature sensing (DTS) monitoring data to localize illicit storm water inflows into foul sewer systems. Data results from two monitoring campaigns in foul sewer systems in the Netherlands and Germany are presented. For both areas a number of storm water inflow locations can be derived from the data. Storm water inflow can only be detected as long as the temperature of this inflow differs from the in-sewer temperatures prior to the event. Also, the in-sewer propagation of storm and wastewater can be monitored, enabling a detailed view on advection.

  17. Design and performance evaluation of a simplified dynamic model for combined sewer overflows in pumped sewer systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Daal-Rombouts, Petra; Sun, Siao; Langeveld, Jeroen; Bertrand-Krajewski, Jean-Luc; Clemens, François

    2016-07-01

    Optimisation or real time control (RTC) studies in wastewater systems increasingly require rapid simulations of sewer systems in extensive catchments. To reduce the simulation time calibrated simplified models are applied, with the performance generally based on the goodness of fit of the calibration. In this research the performance of three simplified and a full hydrodynamic (FH) model for two catchments are compared based on the correct determination of CSO event occurrences and of the total discharged volumes to the surface water. Simplified model M1 consists of a rainfall runoff outflow (RRO) model only. M2 combines the RRO model with a static reservoir model for the sewer behaviour. M3 comprises the RRO model and a dynamic reservoir model. The dynamic reservoir characteristics were derived from FH model simulations. It was found that M2 and M3 are able to describe the sewer behaviour of the catchments, contrary to M1. The preferred model structure depends on the quality of the information (geometrical database and monitoring data) available for the design and calibration of the model. Finally, calibrated simplified models are shown to be preferable to uncalibrated FH models when performing optimisation or RTC studies.

  18. Association between Gastrointestinal Illness and Precipitation in Areas Impacted by Combined Sewer Systems: Utilizing a Distributed Lag Model

    EPA Science Inventory

    Combined sewer systems collect rainwater runoff, sewage, and industrial wastewater for transit to treatment facilities. With heavy precipitation, volumes can exceed capacity of treatment facilities, and wastewater discharges directly to receiving waters. These combined sewer over...

  19. Interactive design and presentation of ceramic sanitary products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Tian; Yin, Guofu; Pan, Zhigeng

    2003-04-01

    Contemporary demands on ceramic sanitary products tend more and more to emphasize diversification and individuation. How to provide effective techniques to support interactive design and presentation of ceramic sanitary products has become a great challenge for vendors. This paper presents a general framework for ceramic sanitary products design. Some dynamic adjustment algorithms of curves to support surface parameterized modeling of toilet bowl, which is one of the most complex ceramic products, are proposed. Furthermore, the VR-based display and customization environment is also illustrated. With the VRML and Java, our system not only offers users different products, but also allows users to reset selected bathroom scene through replacing products from modeling database and modifying attributes of different products, such as colors, positions, etc. Then a brief discussion and future research directions are put forward in the last part of this paper.

  20. [Sanitary regulation in Mexico and the Free Trade Treaty].

    PubMed

    Juan-López, M

    1994-01-01

    In this paper are discussed essential issues about the concept, characteristics and general functions of sanitary regulation, as well as the principles and main lines of action contained in the Program of Modernization of the Sanitary Regulation, which is being implemented by the Ministry of Health of Mexico. In addition, some considerations are offered regarding the supporting role of such a program, in the context of the free trade era that Mexico is undergoing. After 40 years of an outdated sanitary regulation based in a non-functional licensing concept, the new and improved scheme relies on several ammendments to the General Health Law. Thus, the present approach, focuses on a set of flexible, simple and efficient rules, strengthened by proven scientific and technical procedures.

  1. Superfund record of decision (EPA Region 5): Lauer 1 Sanitary Landfill (Boundary road), Menomonee Falls, WI, March 11, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-06-01

    The Boundary Road Landfill (formerly known as the Lauer 1 Landfill) is located in the northeastern portion of the Village of Menomonee Falls. Construction of a new multi-layer soil cover system over the landfill; installation of leachate extraction measures in the northeastern portion of the site; installation of an active landfill gas extraction system; construction of a new leachate conveyance, likely a forcemain (pressure pipe), to transmit all extracted leachate from the site to the local sanitary sewer system; continued operation and maintenance of an existing slurry cut-off wall and leachate collection system, including conveyance of leachate from the collection system to the new forcemain; implementation of proper institutional controls; installation of new fencing and improvement of existing fencing to restrict site access; long-term monitoring of groundwater, surface water and landfill gas; supplementary studies of groundwater quality and internal landfill leachate elevations; and implementation of additional remedial actions found to be necessary under the additional studies of groundwater quality and internal leachate elevations.

  2. Sanitary Transportation of Human and Animal Food. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2016-04-06

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA or we) is issuing a final rule to establish requirements for shippers, loaders, carriers by motor vehicle and rail vehicle, and receivers engaged in the transportation of food, including food for animals, to use sanitary transportation practices to ensure the safety of the food they transport. This action is part of our larger effort to focus on prevention of food safety problems throughout the food chain and is part of our implementation of the Sanitary Food Transportation Act of 2005 (2005 SFTA) and the Food Safety Modernization Act of 2011 (FSMA).

  3. Sanitary landfill groundwater monitoring report, Third Quarter 1999

    SciTech Connect

    Chase, J.

    1999-12-08

    This report contains analytical data for samples taken during Third Quarter 1999 from wells of the LFW series located at the Sanitary Landfill at the Savannah River Site. The data are submitted in reference to the Sanitary Landfill Operating Permit. The report presents monitoring results that equaled or exceeded the Safe Drinking Water Act final Primary Drinking Water Standards or screening levels, established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, the South Carolina final Primary Drinking Water Standard for lead, or the SRS flagging criteria.

  4. Sanitary Landfill Groundwater Monitoring Report, Second Quarter 1999

    SciTech Connect

    Chase, J.

    1999-07-29

    This report contains analytical data for samples taken during Second Quarter 1999 from wells of the LFW series located at the Sanitary Landfill at the Savannah River Site. The data are submitted in reference to the Sanitary Landfill Operating Permit. The report presents monitoring results that equaled or exceeded the Safe Drinking Water Act final Primary Drinking Water Standards or screening levels, established by the US Environmental Protection Agency, the South Carolina final Primary Drinking Water Standard for lead, or the SRS flagging criteria.

  5. Sanitary landfill groundwater monitoring report (U): second quarter 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-08-01

    This report contains analytical data for samples taken during second quarter 1996 from wells of the LFW series located at the Sanitary Landfill at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The data are submitted in reference to the Sanitary Landfill Operating Permit (DWP-087A). The report presents monitoring results that equaled or exceeded the Safe Drinking Water Act final Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS) or screening levels, established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (Appendix A), the South Carolina final Primary Drinking Water Standard for lead (Appendix A), or the SRS flagging criteria (Appendix B).

  6. Sanitary landfill groundwater monitoring report. Third quarter 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-11-01

    This report contains analytical data for samples taken during third quarter 1995 from wells of the LFW series located at the Sanitary Landfill at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The data are submitted in reference to the Sanitary Landfill Operating Permit (DWP-087A). The report presents monitoring results that equaled or exceeded the Safe Drinking Water Act final Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS) or screening levels, established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, the South Carolina final Primary Drinking Water Standard for lead, or the SRS flagging criteria.

  7. Sanitary Landfill groundwater monitoring report. Third quarter 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-11-01

    This report contains analytical data for samples taken during third quarter 1993 from wells of the LFW series located at the Sanitary Landfill at the Savannah River Site. The data are submitted in reference to the Sanitary Landfill Operating Permit. The report presents monitoring results that equaled or exceeded the Safe Drinking Water Act final Primary Drinking Water Standards or screening levels, established by the US Environmental Protection Agency, the South Carolina final Primary Drinking Water Standard for lead, or the SRS flagging criteria.

  8. Sanitary landfill groundwater monitoring report: Third quarter 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-11-01

    This report contains analytical data for samples taken during third quarter 1996 from wells of the LFW series located at the Sanitary Landfill at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The data are submitted in reference to the Sanitary Landfill Operating Permit (DWP-087A). The report presents monitoring results that equaled or exceeded the Safe Drinking Water Act final Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS) or screening levels, established by the US Environmental Protection Agency (Appendix A), the South Carolina final Primary Drinking Water Standard for lead (Appendix A), or the SRS flagging criteria (Appendix B).

  9. Sanitary Landfill Groundwater Monitoring Report. Second Quarter 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Chase, J.A.

    1995-08-01

    This report contains analytical data for samples taken during second quarter 1995 from wells of the LFW series located at the Sanitary Landfill at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The data are submitted in reference to the Sanitary landfill Operating Permit (DWP-087A). The report presents monitoring results that equaled or exceeded the Safe Drinking Water Act final Primary Water Standards (PDWS) or screening levels, established by the US Environmental Protection Agency (Appendix A), the South Carolina final Primary Drinking Water Standard for lead (Appendix A), or the SRS flagging criteria (Appendix B).

  10. Sanitary Landfill groundwater monitoring report. First quarter 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-05-01

    This report contains analytical data for samples taken during first quarter 1993 from wells of the LFW series located at the Sanitary Landfill at the Savannah River Site. The data are submitted in reference to the Sanitary Landfill Operating Permit (DWP-087A). The report presents monitoring results that equaled or exceeded the Safe Drinking Water Act final Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS) or screening levels, established by the US Environmental Protection Agency, the South Carolina final Primary Drinking Water Standards for lead or the SRS flagging criteria.

  11. Sanitary Landfill groundwater monitoring report: Third quarter 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-11-01

    This report contains analytical data for samples taken during third quarter 1994 from wells of the LFW series located at the Sanitary Landfill at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The data are submitted in reference to the Sanitary Landfill Operating Permit (DWP-087A). The report presents monitoring results that equaled or exceeded the Safe Drinking Water Act final Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS) or screening levels, established the US Environmental Protection Agency, the South Carolina final PDWS for lead (Appendix A), or the SRS flagging criteria.

  12. Sanitary Landfill groundwater monitoring report. Second quarter 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-08-01

    This report contains analytical data for samples taken during second quarter 1993 from wells of the LFW series located at the Sanitary Landfill at the Savannah River Site. The data are submitted in reference to the Sanitary Landfill Operating Permit (DWP-087A). The report represents monitoring results that equaled or exceeded the Safe Drinking Water Act final Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS) or screening levels, established by the US Environmental Protection Agency the South Carolina final Primary Drinking Water Standards for lead or the SRS flagging criteria.

  13. Sanitary Landfill groundwater monitoring report. Second quarter 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-08-01

    This report contains analytical data for samples taken during second quarter 1994 from wells of the LFW series located at the Sanitary Landfill at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The data are submitted in reference to the Sanitary Landfill Operating Permit (DWP-087A). The report presents monitoring results that equaled or exceeded the Safe Drinking Water Act final Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS) or screening levels, established by the US Environmental Protection Agency (Appendix A), the South Carolina final Primary Drinking Water Standard for lead (Appendix A), or the SRS flagging criteria (Appendix B).

  14. Cost Comparison of Conventional Gray Combined Sewer Overflow Control Infrastructure versus a Green/Gray Combination

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper outlines a life-cycle cost analysis comparing a green (rain gardens) and gray (tunnels) infrastructure combination to a gray-only option to control combined sewer overflow in the Turkey Creek Combined Sewer Overflow Basin, in Kansas City, MO. The plan area of this Bas...

  15. HYDRAULIC CHARACTERISTICS OF SEWER SEDIMENT GATE-FLUSHING TANKS: LABORATORY FLUME STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of this study was to test the performance of gate-flushing tanks, simulated in a laboratory flume, to remove sediments from combined sewers and storage tanks. A significant amount of sediment/debris/sludge may accumulate at the bottom of a sewer during dry weather o...

  16. HYDRAULIC CHARACTERISTICS OF SEWER SEDIMENT GATE FLUSHING TANKS: LABORATORY FLUME STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of this study was to test the performance of gate flushing tanks, simulated in a laboratory flume, to remove sediments from combined sewers and storage tanks. A significant amount of sediment/debris/sludge may accumulate at the bottom of a sewer during dry weather o...

  17. SEWER-SEDIMENT CONTROL: OVERVIEW OF AN EPA WET-WEATHER FLOW RESEARCH PROGRAM

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper presents a historical overview of the sewer sediment control projects conducted by the Wet-Weather Flow Research Program of the USEPA. Research presented includes studies of the causes of sewer solids deposition and development/evaluation of control methods that can pr...

  18. SEWER SEDIMENT CONTROL: AN OVERVIEW OF THE EPA WET WEATHER FLOW (WWF) RESEARCH PROGRAM

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper presents an overview of EPA WWF Research Program projects related to causes of sewer solids deposition and control methods that can prevent accumulation of sewer sediments. In particular, discussion will focus on the relationship of wastewater characteristics to flow ...

  19. Flood Grouting for Infiltration Reduction on Private Side Sewers (WERF Report INFR5R11)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The sewers in Seattle’s Broadview neighborhood, built in the 1950s, experience significant inflow and infiltration. Intense wet weather events have resulted in sewer overflows into private residences and the environment and previous work indicates that the majority of this excess...

  20. 40 CFR 35.935-16 - Sewer use ordinance and evaluation/rehabilitation program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...-Clean Water Act § 35.935-16 Sewer use ordinance and evaluation/rehabilitation program. (a) The grantee... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Sewer use ordinance and evaluation/rehabilitation program. 35.935-16 Section 35.935-16 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION...

  1. 40 CFR 35.935-16 - Sewer use ordinance and evaluation/rehabilitation program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...-Clean Water Act § 35.935-16 Sewer use ordinance and evaluation/rehabilitation program. (a) The grantee... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Sewer use ordinance and evaluation/rehabilitation program. 35.935-16 Section 35.935-16 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION...

  2. 40 CFR 35.935-16 - Sewer use ordinance and evaluation/rehabilitation program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...-Clean Water Act § 35.935-16 Sewer use ordinance and evaluation/rehabilitation program. (a) The grantee... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Sewer use ordinance and evaluation/rehabilitation program. 35.935-16 Section 35.935-16 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION...

  3. 40 CFR 35.935-16 - Sewer use ordinance and evaluation/rehabilitation program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...-Clean Water Act § 35.935-16 Sewer use ordinance and evaluation/rehabilitation program. (a) The grantee... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Sewer use ordinance and evaluation/rehabilitation program. 35.935-16 Section 35.935-16 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION...

  4. STORM-SEWER FLOW MEASUREMENT AND RECORDING SYSTEM.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kilpatrick, Frederick A.; Kaehrle, William R.

    1986-01-01

    A comprehensive study and development of instruments and techniques for measuring all components of flow in a storm-sewer drainage system were undertaken by the U. S. Geological Survey under the sponsorship of FHWA. The study involved laboratory and field calibration and testing of measuring flumes, pipe insert meters, weirs, and electromagnetic velocity meters as well as the development and calibration of pneumatic bubbler and pressure transducer head-measuring systems. Tracer dilution and acoustic-flowmeter measurements were used in field verification tests. A single micrologger was used to record data from all the instruments and also to activate on command the electromagnetic velocity meter and tracer dilution systems.

  5. Prioritizing sewer rehabilitation projects using AHP-PROMETHEE II ranking method.

    PubMed

    Kessili, Abdelhak; Benmamar, Saadia

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to develop a methodology for the prioritization of sewer rehabilitation projects for Algiers (Algeria) sewer networks to support the National Sanitation Office in its challenge to make decisions on prioritization of sewer rehabilitation projects. The methodology applies multiple-criteria decision making. The study includes 47 projects (collectors) and 12 criteria to evaluate them. These criteria represent the different issues considered in the prioritization of the projects, which are structural, hydraulic, environmental, financial, social and technical. The analytic hierarchy process (AHP) is used to determine weights of the criteria and the Preference Ranking Organization Method for Enrichment Evaluations (PROMETHEE II) method is used to obtain the final ranking of the projects. The model was verified using the sewer data of Algiers. The results have shown that the method can be used for prioritizing sewer rehabilitation projects.

  6. Comparison of core sampling and visual inspection for assessment of concrete sewer pipe condition.

    PubMed

    Stanić, N; de Haan, C; Tirion, M; Langeveld, J G; Clemens, F H L R

    2013-01-01

    Sewer systems are costly to construct and even more costly to replace, requiring proper asset management. Sewer asset management relies to a large extent on available information. In sewer systems where pipe corrosion is the dominant failure mechanism, visual inspection by closed circuit television (CCTV) and core sampling are among the methods mostly applied to assess sewer pipe condition. This paper compares visual inspection and drill core analysis in order to enhance further understanding of the limitations and potentials of both methods. Both methods have been applied on a selected sewer reach in the city of The Hague, which was reportedly subject to pipe corrosion. Results show that both methods, visual inspection and core sampling, are associated with large uncertainties and that there is no obvious correlation between results of visual inspection and results of drill core analysis.

  7. Simulation of sulfide buildup in wastewater and atmosphere of sewer networks.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, A H; Yongsiri, C; Hvitved-Jacobsen, T; Vollertsen, J

    2005-01-01

    A model concept for prediction of sulfide buildup in sewer networks is presented. The model concept is an extension to--and a further development of--the WATS model (Wastewater Aerobic-anaerobic Transformations in Sewers), which has been developed by Hvitved-Jacobsen and co-workers at Aalborg University. In addition to the sulfur cycle, the WATS model simulates changes in dissolved oxygen and carbon fractions of different biodegradability. The sulfur cycle was introduced via six processes: 1. sulfide production taking place in the biofilm covering the permanently wetted sewer walls; 2. biological sulfide oxidation in the permanently wetted biofilm; 3. chemical and biological sulfide oxidation in the water phase; 4. sulfide precipitation with metals present in the wastewater; 5. emission of hydrogen sulfide to the sewer atmosphere and 6. adsorption and oxidation of hydrogen sulfide on the moist sewer walls where concrete corrosion may take place.

  8. 78 FR 42012 - Safety Zone and Regulated Navigation Area; Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal, Romeoville, IL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-15

    ...; Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal, Romeoville, IL AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Interim rule with... the regulatory text of the Safety zone and Regulated Navigation Area in the Chicago Sanitary and Ship... INFORMATION: Table of Acronyms ACOE U.S. Army Corps of Engineers CSSC Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal CFR...

  9. 75 FR 75145 - Regulated Navigation Area, Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal, Romeoville, IL; Safety Zone, Chicago...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-02

    ... CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA11, 1625-AA00 Regulated Navigation Area, Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal, Romeoville, IL; Safety Zone, Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal, Romeoville, IL AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION... zone and a Regulated Navigation Area (RNA) on the Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal (CSSC)...

  10. 76 FR 34145 - Safety Zone, Barrier Testing Operations, Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal, Romeoville, IL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-13

    ... Sanitary and Ship Canal, Romeoville, IL AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard is establishing a temporary safety zone on the Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal (CSSC... Operations, Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal, Romeoville, IL. (a) Location. The safety zone will encompass...

  11. [Brucellosis zoonoses in Tunisia: critical study of sanitary legislation].

    PubMed

    Gharbi, Mohamed

    2002-07-01

    The author presents a critical study of the sanitary legal texts of zoonotic brucellosis control. The tunisian legal texts are sometimes incomplete and old. The review of these texts, in order to improve the legal frame of control, is now necessary.

  12. 30 CFR 75.1712-10 - Underground sanitary facilities; maintenance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... a clean and sanitary condition. Holding tanks shall be serviced and cleaned when full and in no case... recharging. Transfer tanks and transfer equipment used underground shall be equipped with suitable fittings to permit complete drainage of holding tanks without spillage and allow for the...

  13. [Sanitary epidemiologic safety and technical regulations on railway transport].

    PubMed

    Leksin, A G

    2009-01-01

    The author necessitated that requirements on sanitary and epidemiologic safety of life support systems for engine driver cabin (microclimate maintainance system, protection from vibration and noise, illumination, workplace ergonomics, etc) should be included into technical regulations for railway vehicles, both newly constructed and modernized.

  14. 46 CFR 189.25-40 - Sanitary inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Sanitary inspection. 189.25-40 Section 189.25-40 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS INSPECTION... for certification and periodic inspection, the quarters, toilets, and washing spaces, galleys,...

  15. Interim Sanitary Landfill Groundwater Monitoring Report (1998 Annual Report)

    SciTech Connect

    Wells, D.

    1999-03-18

    The SRS Interim Sanitary Landfill opened in Mid-1992 and operated until 1998 under Domestic Waste Permit No. 025500-1120. Several contaminants have been detected in the groundwater beneath the unit.The well sampling and analyses were conducted in accordance with Procedure 3Q5, Hydrogeologic Data Collection.

  16. Detention storage volume for combined sewer overflow into a river.

    PubMed

    Temprano, J; Tejero, I

    2002-06-01

    This article discusses the storage volume needed in a combined sewer system tank in order to preserve the water quality. There are a lot of design criteria which do not take into account the conditions of the receiving water, and as a result are inappropriate. A model was used to simulate the performance of a theoretical combined sewer system where a tank was located downstream. Results were obtained from the overflows produced by the rain recorded in Santander (Spain) for 11 years, with several combinations of storage volume and treatment capacity in the wastewater treatment plant. Quality criteria were also proposed for faecal coliforms, BOD, and total nitrogen to evaluate the effects from the overflows in the river water quality. Equations have been obtained which relate the number of overflows, the storage volume and the treatment plant capacity. The bacteriological pollution, quantified by means of faecal coliforms, was the analytical parameter which produced the most adverse effects in the river, so that more storage volume is needed (45 to 180 m3 ha(-1) net) than with other simulated pollutants (5 to 50 m3 ha(-1) net for BOD, and less than 4 m3 ha(-1) net for the total nitrogen). The increase in the treatment plant's capacity, from two to three times the flow in dry weather, reduces the impact on the river water in a more effective way, allowing a reduction of up to 65% in the number of overflows rather than increasing the storage volume.

  17. Urban flood risk assessment using sewer flooding databases.

    PubMed

    Caradot, Nicolas; Granger, Damien; Chapgier, Jean; Cherqui, Frédéric; Chocat, Bernard

    2011-01-01

    Sustainable water management is a global challenge for the 21st century. One key aspect remains protection against urban flooding. The main objective is to ensure or maintain an adequate level of service for all inhabitants. However, level of service is still difficult to assess and the high-risk locations difficult to identify. In this article, we propose a methodology, which (i) allows water managers to measure the service provided by the urban drainage system with regard to protection against urban flooding; and (ii) helps stakeholders to determine effective strategies for improving the service provided. One key aspect of this work is to use a database of sewer flood event records to assess flood risk. Our methodology helps urban water managers to assess the risk of sewer flooding; this approach does not seek to predict flooding but rather to inform decision makers on the current level of risk and on actions which need to be taken to reduce the risk. This work is based on a comprehensive definition of risk, including territorial vulnerability and perceptions of urban water stakeholders. This paper presents the results and the methodological contributions from implementing the methodology on two case studies: the cities of Lyon and Mulhouse.

  18. Modeling Sulfides, pH and Hydrogen Sulfide Gas in the Sewers of San Francisco.

    PubMed

    Vollertsen, Jes; Revilla, Nohemy; Hvitved-Jacobsen, Thorkild; Nielsen, Asbjørn Haaning

    2015-11-01

    An extensive measuring campaign targeted on sewer odor problems was undertaken in San Francisco. It was assessed whether a conceptual sewer process model could reproduce the measured concentrations of total sulfide in the wastewater and H2S gas in the sewer atmosphere, and to which degree such simulations have potential for further improving odor and sulfide management. The campaign covered measurement of wastewater sulfide by grab sampling and diurnal sampling, and H2S gas in the sewer atmosphere was logged. The tested model was based on the Wastewater Aerobic/Anaerobic Transformations in Sewers (WATS) sewer process concept, which never had been calibrated to such an extensive dataset. The study showed that the model was capable of reproducing the general levels of wastewater sulfide, wastewater pH, and sewer H2S gas. It could also reproduce the general variability of these parameters, albeit with some uncertainty. It was concluded that the model could be applied for the purpose in mind.

  19. Risk assessment model to prioritize sewer pipes inspection in wastewater collection networks.

    PubMed

    Anbari, Mohammad Javad; Tabesh, Massoud; Roozbahani, Abbas

    2017-04-01

    In wastewater systems as one of the most important urban infrastructures, the adverse consequences and effects of unsuitable performance and failure event can sometimes lead to disrupt part of a city functioning. By identifying high failure risk areas, inspections can be implemented based on the system status and thus can significantly increase the sewer network performance. In this study, a new risk assessment model is developed to prioritize sewer pipes inspection using Bayesian Networks (BNs) as a probabilistic approach for computing probability of failure and weighted average method to calculate the consequences of failure values. Finally to consider uncertainties, risk of a sewer pipe is obtained from integration of probability and consequences of failure values using a fuzzy inference system (FIS). As a case study, sewer pipes of a local wastewater collection network in Iran are prioritized to inspect based on their criticality. Results show that majority of sewers (about 62%) has moderate risk, but 12%of sewers are in a critical situation. Regarding the budgetary constraints, the proposed model and resultant risk values are expected to assist wastewater agencies to repair or replace risky sewer pipelines especially in dealing with incomplete and uncertain datasets.

  20. Parsimonious hydrological modeling of urban sewer and river catchments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coutu, Sylvain; Del Giudice, Dario; Rossi, Luca; Barry, D. A.

    2012-09-01

    SummaryA parsimonious model of flow capable of simulating flow in natural/engineered catchments and at WWTP (Wastewater Treatment Plant) inlets was developed. The model considers three interacting, dynamic storages that account for transfer of water within the system. One storage describes the “flashy” response of impervious surfaces, another pervious areas and finally one storage describes subsurface flow. The sewerage pipe network is considered as an impervious surface and is thus included in the impervious surface storage. In addition, the model assumes that water discharged from several CSOs (combined sewer overflows) can be accounted for using a single, characteristic CSO. The model was calibrated on, and validated for, the Vidy Bay WWTP, which receives effluent from Lausanne, Switzerland (population about 200,000), as well as for an overlapping urban river basin. The results indicate that a relatively simple approach is suitable for predicting the responses of interacting engineered and natural hydrosystems.

  1. Gamma and beta logging of underground sewer and process lines

    SciTech Connect

    Rangel, M.J.; Martz, D.E.; Langner, G.H. Jr.

    1989-11-01

    The GammaSnake can be useful for locating uranium mill tailings used as backfill for sewer lines or storm drains where the lines can be readily accessed from a cleanout access port or other opening. The time required to determine if contamination is present using the GammaSnake method is considerably less than when using the delta gamma or drilling methods. There is, also, less potential hazard to the equipment operators when using the GammaSnake method. The GammaSnake method is generally limited to a distance of 100 feet or less. Used with the MAC-51B line locator, the GammaSnake method can provide useful information without extensive drilling or surveying. 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. Stream restoration and sanitary infrastructure alter sources and fluxes of water, carbon, and nutrients in urban watersheds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pennino, M. J.; Kaushal, S. S.; Mayer, P. M.; Utz, R. M.; Cooper, C. A.

    2015-12-01

    An improved understanding of sources and timing of water and nutrient fluxes associated with urban stream restoration is critical for guiding effective watershed management. We investigated how sources, fluxes, and flowpaths of water, carbon (C), nitrogen (N), and phosphorus (P) shift in response to differences in stream restoration and sanitary infrastructure. We compared a restored stream with 3 unrestored streams draining urban development and stormwater management over a 3 year period. We found that there was significantly decreased peak discharge in response to precipitation events following stream restoration. Similarly, we found that the restored stream showed significantly lower monthly peak runoff (9.4 ± 1.0 mm d-1) compared with two urban unrestored streams (ranging from 44.9 ± 4.5 to 55.4 ± 5.8 mm d-1) draining higher impervious surface cover. Peak runoff in the restored stream was more similar to a less developed stream draining extensive stormwater management (13.2 ± 1.9 mm d-1). Interestingly, the restored stream exported most carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus loads at relatively lower streamflow than the 2 more urban streams, which exported most of their loads at higher and less frequent streamflow. Annual exports of total carbon (6.6 ± 0.5 kg ha-1 yr-1), total nitrogen (4.5 ± 0.3 kg ha-1 yr-1), and total phosphorus (161 ± 15 g ha-1 yr-1) were significantly lower in the restored stream compared to both urban unrestored streams (p < 0.05) and similar to the stream draining stormwater management. Although stream restoration appeared to potentially influence hydrology to some degree, nitrate isotope data suggested that 55 ± 1 % of the nitrate in the restored stream was derived from leaky sanitary sewers (during baseflow), similar to the unrestored streams. Longitudinal synoptic surveys of water and nitrate isotopes along all 4 watersheds suggested the importance of urban groundwater contamination from leaky piped infrastructure. Urban groundwater

  3. Mathematical modelling of landfill gas migration in MSW sanitary landfills.

    PubMed

    Martín, S; Marañón, E; Sastre, H

    2001-10-01

    The laws that govern the displacement of landfill gas in a sanitary landfill are analysed. Subsequently, a 2-D finite difference flow model of a fluid in a steady state in a porous medium with infinite sources of landfill gas is proposed. The fact that landfill gas is continuously generated throughout the entire mass of the landfill differentiates this model from others extensively described in the literature and used in a variety of different applications, such as oil recovery, groundwater flow, etc. Preliminary results are then presented of the application of the model. Finally, the results obtained employing data from the literature and experimental assays carried out at the La Zoreda sanitary landfill (Asturias, Spain) are discussed and future lines of research are proposed.

  4. Sanitary landfill groundwater monitoring report. Annual report, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-02-01

    The Sanitary Landfill at the Savannah River Site (SRS) is composed of the original 32-acre landfill, plus expansion areas to the north and south that added 16 and 22 acres, respectively, to the facility. The landfill is subject to the requirements of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act and currently operates under South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC) Domestic Waste Permit 87A. Fifty-seven wells of the LFW series monitor the groundwater quality in Steed Pond Aquifer (formerly Aquifer Zone I/IIC{sub 2}) (Water Table) beneath the Sanitary Landfill. These wells are sampled quarterly for certain indicator parameters, inorganics, metals, radionuclides, volatile organics, and other constituents as part of the SRS Groundwater Monitoring Program and to comply with the SCDHEC domestic waste permit. This report reviews the 1992 activities of the SRS Groundwater Monitoring Program.

  5. Sanitary Landfill Groundwater Monitoring Report (Data Only) - First Quarter 1999

    SciTech Connect

    Chase, J.

    1999-05-26

    This report contains analytical data for samples taken during First Quarter 1999 from wells of the LFW series located at the Sanitary Landfill at the Savannah River Site (SRS). This report presents monitoring results that equaled or exceeded the Safe Drinking Water Act final Primary Drinking Water Standards or screening levels, established by the U.S. Environmental Proteciton Agency, the South Carolina final Primary Drinking Water Standard for lead, or the SRS flagging criteria.

  6. The economic and social aspects of sanitary landfill site selection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graff, W. J.; Rogers, J. R.

    1972-01-01

    The factors involved in the selection of suitable sites for sanitary land fills are discussed. The economic considerations and problems of social acceptance are considered the most important. The subjects discussed are: (1) accessibility of land, (2) availability of cover material, (3) expected capacity of site, (4) cover material and compaction, (5) fire protection, (6) site location with respect to residential and industrial areas, and (7) land usage after landfill completion.

  7. Sanitary landfills. (Latest citations from the Compendex database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-05-01

    This bibliography contains citations concerning refuse disposal in sanitary landfills. Among the topics reviewed are site selection criteria, leachate analysis and treatment, and economic and management aspects. Hydrologic studies pertaining to contaminant transport, and the use of liners and covers are discussed. Considerable attention is given to gas generation and recovery, and specific operations are described. Citations pertaining specifically to hazardous and industrial waste materials are excluded. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  8. Interim Sanitary Landfill Groundwater Monitoring Report. 1997 Annual Report

    SciTech Connect

    1998-01-01

    Eight wells of the LFW series monitor groundwater quality in the Steed Pond Aquifer (Water Table) beneath the Interim Sanitary Landfill at the Savannah River Site (SRS). These wells are sampled semiannually to comply with the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control Modified Municipal Solid Waste Permit 025500-1120 (formerly dWP-087A) and as part of the SRS Groundwater Monitoring Program.

  9. Sanitary landfill groundwater monitoring report. First Quarter 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-06-01

    This report contains analytical data for samples taken during first quarter 1994 from wells of the LFW series located at the Sanitary Landfill Operating permit (DWP-0874A). The report presents monitoring results that equaled or exceeded the Safe Drinking Water Act final Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS) or screening levels, established by the US Environmental Protection Agency, the South Carolina final Primary Drinking Water Standard for lead, or the SRS flagging criteria.

  10. Sanitary landfill groundwater monitoring report: First quarter 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Chase, J.A.

    1997-05-01

    This report contains analytical data for samples taken during first quarter 1997 from wells of the LFW series located at the Sanitary Landfill at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The data are submitted in reference to the Sanitary Landfill Operating permit (DWP-087A). The report presents monitoring results that equaled or exceeded the Safe Drinking Water Act final primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS) or screening levels, established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, the South Carolina final Primary Drinking Water Standard for lead, or the SRS flagging criteria. Wells LFW6R, LFW8R, LFW10A, LFW18, LFW21, and LFW23R were not sampled due to their proximity to the Sanitary Landfill Closure Cap activities. Wells LFW61D and LFW62D are Purge Water Containment Wells and contain mercury. These wells were not sampled since the purge water cannot be treated at the M-1 Air Stripper until the NPDES permit for the stripper is modified.

  11. ENVIRONMENTAL FOOTPRINT OF PHARMACEUTICALS - THE SIGNIFICANCE OF FACTORS BEYOND DIRECT EXCRETION TO SEWERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The combined excretion of active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) via urine and feces is considered the primary route by which APIs from human pharmaceuticals enter the environment. Disposal of unwanted, leftover medications by flushing into sewers has been considered a secondar...

  12. Demonstration of an Innovative Large-Diameter Sewer Rehabilitation Technology in Houston, Texas

    EPA Science Inventory

    While sewer renewal technologies currently being used for the repair, replacement and/or rehabilitation of deteriorating wastewater collection systems are generally effective, there is still room for improvement of existing technologies and for the development of new technologies...

  13. Demonstration of an Innovative Large-Diameter Sewer Rehabilitation Technology in Houston, Texas - slides

    EPA Science Inventory

    While sewer renewal technologies currently being used for the repair, replacement and/or rehabilitation of deteriorating wastewater collection systems are generally effective, there is still room for improvement of existing technologies and for the development of new technologies...

  14. USING VISUAL PLUMES PREDICTIONS TO MODULATE COMBINED SEWER OVERFLOW (CSO) RATES

    EPA Science Inventory

    High concentrations of pathogens and toxic residues in creeks and rivers can pose risks to human health and ecological systems. Combined Sewer Overflows (CSOs) discharging into these watercourses often contribute significantly to elevating pollutant concentrations during wet weat...

  15. RTC simulations on large branched sewer systems with SmaRTControl.

    PubMed

    de Korte, Kees; van Beest, Dick; van der Plaat, Marcel; de Graaf, Erno; Schaart, Niels

    2009-01-01

    In The Netherlands many large branched sewer systems exist. RTC can improve the performance of these systems. The objective of the universal algorithm of SmaRTControl is to improve the performance of the sewer system and the WWTP. The effect of RTC under rain weather flow conditions is simulated using a hydrological model with 19 drainage districts. The system related inefficiency coefficient (SIC) is introduced for assessment of the performance of sewer systems. The performance can be improved by RTC in combination with increased pumping capacities in the drainage districts, but without increasing the flow to the WWTP. Under dry weather flow conditions the flow to the WWTP can be equalized by storage of wastewater in the sewer system. It is concluded that SmaRTControl can improve the performance, that simulations are necessary and that SIC is an excellent parameter for assessment of the performance.

  16. Statistical evidence on the effectiveness of sewering to protect groundwater from VOC contamination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willis, Cleve E.; Sacheti, Sandeep

    1996-03-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are an important source of contamination of groundwater supplies in Massachusetts and many parts of the United States. One local response is to require sewering in wellhead protection areas as an easily enforceable policy designed to reduce the probability of VOC contamination of groundwater. Data were collected for 238 wellhead protection areas in Massachusetts on VOC contamination levels and the sewered and unsewered land uses in those aquifer recharge areas. Logistic regression procedures were used to see whether sewering had any statistical effect on likelihood of contamination of well water. The results provided limited, but not overpowering, support for the idea that requiring commercial and industrial land uses to use sewers would reduce the chance of VOC contamination.

  17. Predicting the Probability of Failure of Cementitious Sewer Pipes Using Stochastic Finite Element Method.

    PubMed

    Alani, Amir M; Faramarzi, Asaad

    2015-06-10

    In this paper, a stochastic finite element method (SFEM) is employed to investigate the probability of failure of cementitious buried sewer pipes subjected to combined effect of corrosion and stresses. A non-linear time-dependant model is used to determine the extent of concrete corrosion. Using the SFEM, the effects of different random variables, including loads, pipe material, and corrosion on the remaining safe life of the cementitious sewer pipes are explored. A numerical example is presented to demonstrate the merit of the proposed SFEM in evaluating the effects of the contributing parameters upon the probability of failure of cementitious sewer pipes. The developed SFEM offers many advantages over traditional probabilistic techniques since it does not use any empirical equations in order to determine failure of pipes. The results of the SFEM can help the concerning industry (e.g., water companies) to better plan their resources by providing accurate prediction for the remaining safe life of cementitious sewer pipes.

  18. Status of Civil Judicial Consent Decrees Addressing Combined Sewer Systems (CSOs)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Tracking table of civil consent decrees for combined sewer systems (CSOs). This supports the National Enforcement Initiative (NEI) for Keeping Raw Sewage and Contaminated Stormwater Out of Our Nation's Waters.

  19. Final Storm Sewer General Permit Issued for 260 Massachusetts Municipalities to Help Keep Local Waters Clean

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    BOSTON - Today, EPA issued final general permits updating requirements for small Municipal Separate Storm Sewer Systems (MS4) located in Massachusetts. The new permits will update stormwater management efforts across Massachusetts, better protecti

  20. Optimization of the central automatic control of a small Dutch sewer system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolechkina, A. G.; Hoes, O. A. C.

    2012-04-01

    A sewer control system was developed in the context of a subsidized project aiming at improvement of surface water quality by control of sewer systems and surface water systems. The project was coordinated by the local water board, "Waterschap Hollandse Delta". Other participants were Delft University of Technology, Deltares and the municipalities Strijen, Cromstrijen, Westmaas, Oud Beijerland and Piershil. As part of the project there were two pilot implementations where a central automatic controller was coupled to the existing SCADA system. For these two pilots the system is now operational. A Dutch urban area in the western part of the Netherlands is usually part of a polder, which is effectively an artificially drained catchment. The urban area itself is split into small subcatchments that manage runoff in different ways. In all cases a large fraction goes into the natural hydrological cycle, but, depending on the design of the local sewer system, a larger or smaller part finds its way into the sewer system. Proper control of this flow is necessary to control surface water quality and to avoid health risks from flow from the sewer into the streets. At each time step the controller switches pumps to distribute the remaining water in the system at the end of the time step over the different subcatchments. The distribution is created based on expert judgment of the relative vulnerability and subcatchment sewer system water quality. It is implemented in terms curves of total system stored volume versus subcatchment stored volume. We describe the process of the adaptation of a controller to two different sewer systems and the understanding of the artificial part of the catchment we gained during this process. In the process of adaptation the type of sewer system (combined foul water and storm water transport or separate foul water and storm water transport) played a major role.

  1. Successful Municipal Separate Storm Sewer System Programs Implemented in the Navy - NESDI #494

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-01

    2014 SUCCESSFUL MUNICIPAL SEPARATE STORM SEWER SYSTEM PROGRAMS IMPLEMENTED IN THE NAVY—NESDI #494 Prepared by: Edwin Chiang, P.E...VA 22202-4302. Respondents should be aware that notwithstanding any other provision of law , no person shall be subject to any penalty for failing to...SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER SUCCESSFUL MUNICIPAL SEPARATE STORM SEWER SYSTEM PROGRAMS IMPLEMENTED IN THE NAVY—PROJECT #494 5b. GRANT NUMBER

  2. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 1607-F5 Sanitary Sewer System (124-F-5), Waste Site Reclassification Form 2006-043

    SciTech Connect

    L. M. Dittmer

    2006-09-14

    The 1607-F5 waste site is a former septic tank, tile field, and associated pipeline located within the 100-FR-1 Operable Unit that received sewage from the former 181-F Pumphouse. Lead, gamma-chlordane, and heptachlor epoxide were identified within or around the septic system at concentrations exceeding the direct exposure cleanup criteria. Multiple metal and pesticide constituents were also identified as exceeding the groundwater and river protection cleanup criteria. The results of verification sampling demonstrated that residual contaminant concentrations do not preclude any future uses and allow for unrestricted use of shallow zone soils. The results also showed that residual contaminant concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River.

  3. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 1607-B2 Septic System and 100-B-14:2 Sanitary Sewer System, Waste Site Reclassification Form 2006-055

    SciTech Connect

    L. M. Dittmer

    2007-03-21

    The 1607-B2 waste site is a former septic system associated with various 100-B facilities, including the 105-B, 108-B, 115-B/C, and 185/190-B buildings. The site was evaluated based on confirmatory results for feeder lines within the 100-B-14:2 subsite and determined to require remediation. The 1607-B2 waste site has been remediated to achieve the remedial action objectives specified in the Remaining Sites ROD. The results of verification sampling show that residual contaminant concentrations do not preclude any future uses and allow for unrestricted use of shallow zone soils. The results also demonstrate that residual contaminant concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River.

  4. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 100-F-31, 144-F Sanitary Sewer System, Waste Site Reclassification Form 2006-033

    SciTech Connect

    L. M. Dittmer

    2006-08-24

    The 100-F-31 waste site is a former septic system that supported the inhalation laboratories, also referred to as the 144-F Particle Exposure Laboratory (132-F-2 waste site), which housed animals exposed to particulate material. The 100-F-31 waste site has been remediated to achieve the remedial action objectives specified in the Remaining Sites ROD. The results of verification sampling show that residual contaminant concentrations do not preclude any future uses and allow for unrestricted use of shallow zone soils. The results also demonstrate that residual contaminant concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River.

  5. [Transport and sources of runoff pollution from urban area with combined sewer system].

    PubMed

    Li, Li-Qing; Yin, Cheng-Qing

    2009-02-15

    Sampling and monitoring of runoff and sewage water in Wuhan urban area with combined sewer system were carried out during the period from 2003 to 2006, to study the transport and sources of runoff pollution at the catchment scale coupled with environmental geochemistry method. The results showed a change in quality between the runoff entering the sewer network and the combined storm water flow at the sewer's outlet. A significant increase was observed in the concentrations of total suspended solids (TSS), volatile suspended solids (VSS), COD, TN, and TP, and in the proportion of COD linked to particles. During the runoff production and transport, the concentrations of TSS and COD increased from 18.7 mg/L and 37.0 mg/L in roof runoff, to 225.3 mg/L and 176.5 mg/L in street runoff, and to 449.7 mg/L and 359.9 mg/L in combined storm water flow, respectively. The proportion of COD linked to particles was increased by 18%. In addition, the total phosphorus (P) and iron (Fe) contents in urban ground dust, storm drain sediment, sewage sewer sediment and combined sewer sediment were measured to identify the potential sources of suspended solids in the combined flow. The urban ground dust andstorm drain sediment wererich in Fe, whereas the sewage sewer sediment was rich in P. The P/Fe ratios in these groups were significantly distinct and able to differentiate them. A calculation of the two storm events based on the P/Fe rations showed that 56% +/- 26% of suspended solids in combined flow came from urban ground and storm drain. The rest wer e originated from the sewage sewer sediments which deposited in combined sewer on the dry weather days and were eroded on the wet weather days. The combined sewer network not only acts as a transport system, but also constitutes a physicochemical reactor that degrades the quality of urban water. Reducing the in-sewer pollution stocks would effectively control urban runoff pollution.

  6. [THE IMPROVEMENT OF CITIES AND SANITARY CONTROL IN RUSSIA IN LATE XIX--EARLY XX CENTURIES].

    PubMed

    Sherstneva, E V

    2015-01-01

    The article considers activity of municipal self-governments of Russia concerning support of sanitary epidemiological well-being of cities in the late XIX--early XX centuries. The acuteness of problem of sanitary conditions of urban settlements particularly became visible in post-reform period due to increasing of number of urban population, alteration of setup and rhythm of life in cities, appearance of new forms of worker's daily chores. Al this, against the background of underdevelopment of communal sphere aggravated epidemiological situation in cities. The impulse to improvement and development of sanitary control was made by the city regulations of 1870 presenting to town authorities the right to deal with sanitary issues. The significant input into improvement of cities was made first of all at the expense of construction of water supplies and sewerage and support of sanitary control of these spheres of municipal economy. Under town councils of many cities the sanitary commissions were organized to support permanent sanitary control in town. The development of town sanitation followed the way of specialization. The housing and communal, trade and food, school and sanitary and sanitary and veterinary control were organized.

  7. Multi-objective evolutionary optimization for greywater reuse in municipal sewer systems.

    PubMed

    Penn, Roni; Friedler, Eran; Ostfeld, Avi

    2013-10-01

    Sustainable design and implementation of greywater reuse (GWR) has to achieve an optimum compromise between costs and potable water demand reduction. Studies show that GWR is an efficient tool for reducing potable water demand. This study presents a multi-objective optimization model for estimating the optimal distribution of different types of GWR homes in an existing municipal sewer system. Six types of GWR homes were examined. The model constrains the momentary wastewater (WW) velocity in the sewer pipes (which is responsible for solids movement). The objective functions in the optimization model are the total WW flow at the outlet of the neighborhoods sewer system and the cost of the on-site GWR treatment system. The optimization routing was achieved by an evolutionary multi-objective optimization coupled with hydrodynamic simulations of a representative sewer system of a neighborhood located at the coast of Israel. The two non-dominated best solutions selected were the ones having either the smallest WW flow discharged at the outlet of the neighborhood sewer system or the lowest daily cost. In both solutions most of the GWR types chosen were the types resulting with the smallest water usage. This lead to only a small difference between the two best solutions, regarding the diurnal patterns of the WW flows at the outlet of the neighborhood sewer system. However, in the upstream link a substantial difference was depicted between the diurnal patterns. This difference occurred since to the upstream links only few homes, implementing the same type of GWR, discharge their WW, and in each solution a different type of GWR was implemented in these upstream homes. To the best of our knowledge this is the first multi-objective optimization model aimed at quantitatively trading off the cost of local/onsite GW spatially distributed reuse treatments, and the total amount of WW flow discharged into the municipal sewer system under unsteady flow conditions.

  8. Impact of reduced water consumption on sulfide and methane production in rising main sewers.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jing; Hu, Shihu; Sharma, Keshab Raj; Bustamante, Heriberto; Yuan, Zhiguo

    2015-05-01

    Reduced water consumption (RWC), for water conservation purposes, is expected to change the wastewater composition and flow conditions in sewer networks and affect the in-sewer transformation processes. In this study, the impact of reduced water consumption on sulfide and methane production in rising main sewers was investigated. Two lab-scale rising main sewer systems fed with wastewater of different strength and flow rates were operated to mimic sewers under normal and RWC conditions (water consumption reduced by 40%). Sulfide concentration under the RWC condition increased by 0.7-8.0 mg-S/L, depending on the time of a day. Batch test results showed that the RWC did not change the sulfate-reducing activity of sewer biofilms, the increased sulfide production being mainly due to longer hydraulic retention time (HRT). pH in the RWC system was about 0.2 units lower than that in the normal system, indicating that more sulfide would be in molecular form under the RWC condition, which would result in increased sulfide emission to the atmosphere as confirmed by the model simulation. Model based analysis showed that the cost for chemical dosage for sulfide mitigation would increase significantly per unit volume of sewage, although the total cost would decrease due to a lower sewage flow. The dissolved methane concentration under the RWC condition was over two times higher than that under the normal flow condition and the total methane discharge was about 1.5 times higher, which would potentially result in higher greenhouse gas emissions. Batch tests showed that the methanogenic activity of sewer biofilms increased under the RWC condition, which along with the longer HRT, led to increased methane production.

  9. Characterization and toxicological evaluation of leachate from closed sanitary landfill.

    PubMed

    Emenike, Chijioke U; Fauziah, Shahul H; Agamuthu, P

    2012-09-01

    Landfilling is a major option in waste management hierarchy in developing nations. It generates leachate, which has the potential of polluting watercourses. This study analysed the physico-chemical components of leachate from a closed sanitary landfill in Malaysia, in relation to evaluating the toxicological impact on fish species namely Pangasius sutchi S., 1878 and Clarias batrachus L., 1758. The leachate samples were taken from Air Hitam Sanitary Landfill (AHSL) and the static method of acute toxicity testing was experimented on both fish species at different leachate concentrations. Each fish had an average of 1.3 ± 0.2 g wet weight and length of 5.0 ± 0.1 cm. Histology of the fishes was examined by analysing the gills of the response (dead) group, using the Harris haemtoxylin and eosin (H&E) method. Finneys' Probit method was utilized as a statistical tool to evaluate the data from the fish test. The physico-chemical analysis of the leachate recorded pH 8.2 ± 0.3, biochemical oxygen demand 3500 ± 125 mg L(-1), COD 10 234 ± 175 mg L(-1), ammonical nitrogen of 880 ± 74 mg L(-1), benzene 0.22 ± 0.1 mg L(-1) and toluene 1.2 ± 0.4 mg L(-1). The 50% lethality concentration (LC(50)) values calculated after 96 h exposure were 3.2% (v/v) and 5.9% (v/v) of raw leachate on P. sutchi and C. batrachus, respectively. The H&E staining showed denaturation of the nucleus and cytoplasm of the gills of the response groups. Leachate from the sanitary landfill was toxic to both fish species. The P. sutchi and C. batrachus may be used as indicator organisms for leachate pollution in water.

  10. Sewer and drain swabbing as a means of investigating salmonellosis

    PubMed Central

    Harvey, R. W. S.; Price, T. H.

    1970-01-01

    The use of gauze swabs in drains or sewers to clarify the path followed by a salmonella from source to human host has been reviewed in the light of experience gained in Cardiff over 15 years. This period has seen a marked change in attitudes to salmonella epidemiology in that infected food is now regarded as of greater importance than infected food handlers. In these 15 years, butchers, abattoirs and knackers' yards, markets and bakehouses have been monitored. In the bakehouse survey the existence of staff infection was demonstrated by sewage examination. Sewage investigation has also been used to show frequent entry of salmonellas into households in a residential estate. The estate was carefully chosen to exclude salmonellas from industrial sources and shops. The frequent finding of infection in this sewage implies that a commonly consumed heavily infected food item is involved. The wide range of serotypes isolated suggests an animal usually fed on infected animal feed. Poultry and pigs are put forward as animals liable to spread salmonellosis to man. It is hoped that clarification of the salmonella pathway may eventually lead to measures likely to prevent the transmission of infection to man. It is also suggested that swabs placed in abattoir drains serve as an economical method of obtaining warning of a persistent build-up of contamination. The persistence of a serotype in an abattoir is not infrequently followed by human infection. PMID:5276333

  11. Methods of Sensing Land Pollution from Sanitary Landfills

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nosanov, Myron Ellis; Bowerman, Frank R.

    1971-01-01

    Major cities are congested and large sites suitable for landfill development are limited. Methane and other gases are produced at most sanitary landfills and dumps. These gases may migrate horizontally and vertically and have caused fatalities. Monitoring these gases provides data bases for design and construction of safe buildings on and adjacent to landfills. Methods of monitoring include: (1) a portable combustible gas indicator; and (2) glass flasks valved to allow simultaneous exhaust of the flask and aspiration of the sample into the flask. Samples are drawn through tubing from probes as deep as twenty-five feet below the surface.

  12. [Sanitary and chemical protection during the Great Patriotic War].

    PubMed

    Imangulov, R G; Grebeniuk, A N; Rybalko, V M; Nosov, A V

    2011-05-01

    During the Great Patriotic War (1941-1945) there was a real danger of use by German armies of the chemical weapon against staff of Red Army. However German command didn't risked to go on conducting large-scale chemical war against the USSR that rescued from painful death millions person. A principal cause of this decision was well organized and technically provided system of antigas protection in Red Army, including precisely organized actions of sanitary-chemical protection, qualitative preparation of military doctors on these questions and presence at them effective antidotes and other means of treatment of injuries by fighting poison gases.

  13. [The sanitary protection of Armed Forces employed abroad].

    PubMed

    Pasini, W

    2006-01-01

    After recalling the numerous peace expeditions of the Italian Armed Forces in foreign countries, the author underlines the several health risk factors that such missions imply. The assessment of the biological risk should be based on the knowledge of the local sanitary situation and on the analysis of the operative characteristics of the mission: prevention is based on vaccinations (with plans based on the operative tasks and destinations) and on antimalaric chemoprophylaxis, carried out following WHO indications. In conclusion, the current organization of military field hospitals is briefly described.

  14. The distribution dynamics and desorption behaviour of mobile pharmaceuticals and caffeine to combined sewer sediments.

    PubMed

    Hajj-Mohamad, M; Darwano, H; Duy, S Vo; Sauvé, S; Prévost, M; Arp, H P H; Dorner, S

    2017-01-01

    Pharmaceuticals are discharged to the environment from wastewater resource recovery facilities, sewer overflows, and illicit sewer connections. To understand the fate of pharmaceuticals, there is a need to better understand their sorption dynamics to suspended sediments (SS) and settled sediments (StS) in sewer systems. In this study, such sorption dynamics to both SS and StS were assessed using a batch equilibrium method under both static and dynamic conditions. Experiments were performed with natively occurring and artificially modified concentrations of sewer pharmaceuticals (acetaminophen, theophylline, carbamazepine, and a metabolite of carbamazepine) and caffeine. Differences in apparent distribution coefficients, Kd,app, between SS and StS were related to differences in their organic carbon (OC) content, and the practice of artificially modifying the concentration. Kd,app values of modified contaminant concentrations and high OC sediments were substantially higher. Pseudo-second order desorption rates for these mobile compounds were also quantified. Successive flushing events to simulate the addition of stormwater to sewer networks revealed that aqueous concentrations would not necessarily decrease, because the added water will rapidly return to equilibrium concentrations with the sediments. Sorption and desorption kinetics must be considered in addition to dilution, to avoid underestimating the influence of dilution on concentrations of pharmaceuticals discharged to the environment.

  15. Improving the benefits of sewer condition deterioration modelling through information content analysis.

    PubMed

    Rokstad, M M; Ugarelli, R M

    2016-11-01

    As urban sewer infrastructures age, it becomes increasingly important to make effective decisions to maintain the structural condition of the sewers at an acceptable level. To support the decision-making process, the utility manager can apply sewer deterioration models. However, the quality of the decision support from such models is dependent on the accuracy and reliability of the predictions, and previous research has shown that sewer deterioration predictions can be unreliable. In this paper it is shown, by numerical experiment and analysis of information content, how the accuracy of sewer deterioration models is inhibited by data heterogeneity. The data heterogeneity arises when the condition class is used as a response variable, because the condition class is an aggregation of different failure modes, and contains information that does not describe structural deterioration. Based on these findings, the paper suggests changes to be implemented in the condition classification standard, which can mitigate heterogeneity and improve prediction reliability. The suggestions for improvement include distinguishing between structural and functional defect codes, defining new condition metrics better suited for deterioration modelling, and registration of detailed defect codes to allow distinction of different failure mechanisms.

  16. Long-term impacts on sewers following food waste disposer installation in housing areas.

    PubMed

    Mattsson, Jonathan; Hedström, Annelie; Viklander, Maria

    2014-01-01

    To increase biogas generation and decrease vehicle transportation of solid waste, the integration of food waste disposers (FWDs) into the wastewater system has been proposed. However, concerns have been raised about the long-term impact of the additional load of the FWDs on sewer systems. To examine the said impact, this study has used closed-circuit television inspection techniques to evaluate the status of 181 concrete pipes serving single family housing areas with a diameter of 225 mm, ranging from a 100% connection rate of households with an FWD to none. A minor study was also performed on a multi-family housing area, where mainly plastic pipes (200 mm) were used. The extent and distribution of deposits related to the ratio of FWDs, inclination and pipe sagging (backfalls) were ascertained by using linear regression and analysis of variance. The results showed that FWDs have had an impact on the level of deposits in the sewer, but this has, in turn, been of minor significance. With a high connection rate of FWDs upstream of a pipe, the extent of the total level of deposits, as well as finer sediments, was statistically determined to be greater. However, the majority of the deposits were observed to be small, which would suggest the impact of FWDs on sewer performance to be minor. As food waste not compatible with the FWD was seen in the sewers, educational campaigns could be beneficial to further lower the risks of sewer blocking.

  17. A mathematical model to predict the effect of heat recovery on the wastewater temperature in sewers.

    PubMed

    Dürrenmatt, David J; Wanner, Oskar

    2014-01-01

    Raw wastewater contains considerable amounts of energy that can be recovered by means of a heat pump and a heat exchanger installed in the sewer. The technique is well established, and there are approximately 50 facilities in Switzerland, many of which have been successfully using this technique for years. The planning of new facilities requires predictions of the effect of heat recovery on the wastewater temperature in the sewer because altered wastewater temperatures may cause problems for the biological processes used in wastewater treatment plants and receiving waters. A mathematical model is presented that calculates the discharge in a sewer conduit and the spatial profiles and dynamics of the temperature in the wastewater, sewer headspace, pipe, and surrounding soil. The model was implemented in the simulation program TEMPEST and was used to evaluate measured time series of discharge and temperatures. It was found that the model adequately reproduces the measured data and that the temperature and thermal conductivity of the soil and the distance between the sewer pipe and undisturbed soil are the most sensitive model parameters. The temporary storage of heat in the pipe wall and the exchange of heat between wastewater and the pipe wall are the most important processes for heat transfer. The model can be used as a tool to determine the optimal site for heat recovery and the maximal amount of extractable heat.

  18. Groundwater infiltration, surface water inflow and sewerage exfiltration considering hydrodynamic conditions in sewer systems.

    PubMed

    Karpf, Christian; Hoeft, Stefan; Scheffer, Claudia; Fuchs, Lothar; Krebs, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Sewer systems are closely interlinked with groundwater and surface water. Due to leaks and regular openings in the sewer system (e.g. combined sewer overflow structures with sometimes reverse pressure conditions), groundwater infiltration and surface water inflow as well as exfiltration of sewage take place and cannot be avoided. In the paper a new hydrodynamic sewer network modelling approach will be presented, which includes--besides precipitation--hydrographs of groundwater and surface water as essential boundary conditions. The concept of the modelling approach and the models to describe the infiltration, inflow and exfiltration fluxes are described. The model application to the sewerage system of the City of Dresden during a flood event with complex conditions shows that the processes of infiltration, exfiltration and surface water inflows can be described with a higher reliability and accuracy, showing that surface water inflow causes a pronounced system reaction. Further, according to the simulation results, a high sensitivity of exfiltration rates on the in-sewer water levels and a relatively low influence of the dynamic conditions on the infiltration rates were found.

  19. Cause and effect oriented sewer degradation evaluation to support scheduled inspection planning.

    PubMed

    Fuchs-Hanusch, D; Günther, M; Möderl, M; Muschalla, D

    2015-01-01

    Managing the subsurface urban infrastructure, while facing limited budgets, is one of the main challenges wastewater utilities currently face. In this context targeted planning of inspection and maintenance measures plays a crucial role. This paper introduces a cause and effect oriented sewer degradation evaluation approach to support decisions on inspection frequencies and priorities. Therefore, the application of logistic regression models, to predict the probability of failure categories as an alternative to the prediction of sewer condition classes, was introduced. We assume that analysing the negative effects resulting from different failure categories in extension to a condition class-based planning approach offers new possibilities for targeted inspection planning. In addition, a cross validation process was described to allow for a more accurate prediction of sewer degradation. The described approach was applied to an Austrian sewer system. The results show that the failure category-based regression models perform better than the conventional condition class-oriented models. The results of the failure category predictions are presented with respect to negative effects the failure may have on the hydraulic performance of the system. Finally, suggestions are given for how this performance-oriented sewer section evaluation can support scheduled inspection planning.

  20. Influence of pipe material and surfaces on sulfide related odor and corrosion in sewers.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Asbjørn Haaning; Vollertsen, Jes; Jensen, Henriette Stokbro; Wium-Andersen, Tove; Hvitved-Jacobsen, Thorkild

    2008-09-01

    Hydrogen sulfide oxidation on sewer pipe surfaces was investigated in a pilot scale experimental setup. The experiments were aimed at replicating conditions in a gravity sewer located immediately downstream of a force main where sulfide related concrete corrosion and odor is often observed. During the experiments, hydrogen sulfide gas was injected intermittently into the headspace of partially filled concrete and plastic (PVC and HDPE) sewer pipes in concentrations of approximately 1,000 ppm(v). Between each injection, the hydrogen sulfide concentration was monitored while it decreased because of adsorption and subsequent oxidation on the pipe surfaces. The experiments showed that the rate of hydrogen sulfide oxidation was approximately two orders of magnitude faster on the concrete pipe surfaces than on the plastic pipe surfaces. Removal of the layer of reaction (corrosion) products from the concrete pipes was found to reduce the rate of hydrogen sulfide oxidation significantly. However, the rate of sulfide oxidation was restored to its background level within 10-20 days. A similar treatment had no observable effect on hydrogen sulfide removal in the plastic pipe reactors. The experimental results were used to model hydrogen sulfide oxidation under field conditions. This showed that the gas-phase hydrogen sulfide concentration in concrete sewers would typically amount to a few percent of the equilibrium concentration calculated from Henry's law. In the plastic pipe sewers, significantly higher concentrations were predicted because of the slower adsorption and oxidation kinetics on such surfaces.

  1. Laboratory assessment of bioproducts for sulphide and methane control in sewer systems.

    PubMed

    Sudarjanto, Gatut; Gutierrez, Oriol; Ren, Guo; Yuan, Zhiguo

    2013-01-15

    The effectiveness of three bioproducts (also known as biomaterials) for liquid-phase biological treatment (LPBT) of sewer biofilms to control detrimental build-up of sulphide (H(2)S) and methane (CH(4)) in sewers was tested in a laboratory system mimicking a rising/force main sewer pipe. Bioproduct A claims to disrupt cell-to-cell communication of sewer anaerobic biofilms while Bioproducts B and C claim to enhance sulphidotrophic (sulphide-oxidising) capacity of the sewer biofilm, to avoid sulphide accumulation. The results demonstrated that all three bioproducts tested had no or negligible impact on sulphide or methane control, as opposed to traditional sulphide-controlling chemicals widely used by the wastewater industry such as oxygen, nitrate, iron salts and magnesium hydroxide. Those had previously been demonstrated to be effective using the same laboratory system with the same testing protocol. The implications of the findings are discussed. It is concluded that field application/trials of these three bioproducts are not warranted. It is recommended that other bioproducts should be subject to similar rigorous tests prior to being taken up by the water industry for field trials/application.

  2. Biogenic acids produced on epoxy linings installed in sewer crown and tidal zones.

    PubMed

    Valix, M; Shanmugarajah, K

    2015-09-01

    In this study the biogenic acids generated by microbes on the surface of Bisphenol A epoxy mortar coupons were investigated for up to 30 months. The epoxy coupons were installed in six sewers in three city locations, Sydney, Melbourne and Perth. Coupons were installed in both the crown and the tidal zones of the sewers to capture the effect of location within the pipe on acid production. The coupons were retrieved approximately every 6 months to provide a dynamic analysis of the biogenic acid production. Our results reveal the colonisation of epoxy mortar by the more aggressive acidophilic bacteria occurred within six months to two years of their installation in the sewer pipes. Biogenic acid generation appear to occur homogeneously from the tidal zone to the crown of the sewer pipes. The reduction in the surface pH of the epoxy lining was supported by the successive growth of microbes beginning with fungi followed be neutrophilic and heterotrophic bacteria and finally by the acidophilic bacteria and the corresponding accumulation of organic and sulphuric acids attributed to these organisms. This study also revealed the potential inhibiting effects on the microbes induced by the accumulation of metabolic products on the epoxy surface. The accumulation of organic acids and H2S coincided with the growth and metabolism inhibition of fungi and acidophilic bacteria. These results provide insights into the microbial interaction and biogenic acids production that contribute to lining degradation and corrosion of concrete in sewer pipes.

  3. PLANNING FOR SSO CONTROL: HENRICO COUNTY, VA - CASE STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The nation's sanitary-sewer infrastructure is aging with some sewers over 100 years. There are more than 19,500 municipal sanitary-sewer collecton systems nationwide serving 150M people comprising 500,000 sewer miles. About 40,000 sanitary-sewer overflow (SSO) events nationwide y...

  4. [The challenges of nanotechnology for the sanitary vigilance of medication].

    PubMed

    Batista, Ariane de Jesus Sousa; Pepe, Vera Lúcia Edais

    2014-07-01

    The development of effective and safe nanotechnology medication with a high cost-benefit ratio is a strategic imperative for public health in Brazil. The lack of information demands sanitary regulation geared to protecting health and the environment. This study seeks to assess the current stage of development, the regulatory framework and the challenges facing nanotechnology medication in Brazil, emphasizing sanitary surveillance. Document analysis was conducted in national and international regulatory agency sites. Despite the incipient regulation for this type of medication, 7 registered nanotechnology products were found in Brazil, without clear identification on leaflets or packaging regarding their nanotechnology composition, as well as 4 similar products. Risk assessment and regulation of such medication requires specialized personnel and equipment, as well as the participation of society in the formulation and implementation of regulatory policies. The suggestion proposed is that the regulatory framework should follow the precautionary principle, whereby products are registered as new medication with clear information on the labeling and controlled usage, until further results on the assessment of risk are obtained.

  5. Interim sanitary landfill groundwater monitoring report. 1996 Annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Bagwell, L.A.

    1997-01-01

    Eight wells of the LFW series monitor groundwater quality in the Steed Pond Aquifer (Water Table) beneath the Interim Sanitary Landfill at the Savannah River Site. These wells are sampled semiannually to comply with the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control Modified Municipal Solid Waste Permit 025500-1120 and as part of the SRS Groundwater Monitoring Program. Trichlorofluoromethane and 1,1,1-trichloroethane were elevated in one sidegradient well and one downgradient well during 1996. Zinc was elevated in three downgradient wells and also was detected in the associated laboratory blanks for two of those wells. Specific conductance was elevated in one background well and one sidegradient well. Barium and copper exceeded standards in one sidegradient well, and dichloromethane (a common laboratory contaminant) was elevated in another sidegradient well. Barium, copper, and dichloromethane were detected in the associated blanks for these wells, also. The groundwater flow direction in the Steed Pond Acquifer (Water Table) beneath the Interim Sanitary Landfill was to the southeast (universal transverse Mercator coordinates). The flow rate in this unit was approximately 210 ft/year during first quarter 1996 and 180 ft/yr during third quarter 1996.

  6. Extreme Precipitation and Emergency Room Visits for Gastrointestinal Illness in Areas With and Without Combined Sewer Systems: An Analysis of Massachusetts Data, 2003-2007

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background: Combined sewer overflows (CSOs) occur in combined sewer systems when sewage and stormwater runoff discharge into waterbodies potentially contaminating water sources. CSOs are often caused by heavy precipitation and are expected to increase with increasing extreme pre...

  7. [Scientific and practical substantiation of the methodology for sanitary-epidemiological auditing procedure for educational institutions].

    PubMed

    Safonkina, S G; Ivanenko, A V; Kuchma, B R

    2012-01-01

    The implementation of sanitary and epidemiological auditing - a promising trend in the sanitary-epidemiological well-being of the population including children. Thus, it provides pupils' rights on the safety conditions of educational activities for their life and health without toughening of administrative influence.

  8. 30 CFR 71.500 - Sanitary toilet facilities at surface work sites; installation requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE COAL MINES AND SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Sanitary Toilet Facilities at Surface Worksites of Surface Coal Mines § 71.500 Sanitary toilet facilities at surface work sites; installation requirements....

  9. Navigation Effects on Asian Carp Movement Past Electric Barrier, Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-02-01

    ER D C/ CH L TR -1 6- 2 Navigation Effects on Asian Carp Movement Past Electric Barrier, Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal Co as ta l a...default. ERDC/CHL TR-16-2 February 2016 Navigation Effects on Asian Carp Movement Past Electric Barrier, Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal...14 4 Model Fish and Similarity of Fish Movement

  10. 46 CFR 35.01-5 - Sanitary condition and crew quarters-T/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Sanitary condition and crew quarters-T/ALL. 35.01-5... Operating Requirements § 35.01-5 Sanitary condition and crew quarters—T/ALL. It shall be the duty of the master and chief engineer of every tankship to see that such vessel and crew's quarters are kept in...

  11. Relationships between rainfall and Combined Sewer Overflow (CSO) occurrences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mailhot, A.; Talbot, G.; Lavallée, B.

    2015-04-01

    Combined Sewer Overflow (CSO) has been recognized as a major environmental issue in many countries. In Canada, the proposed reinforcement of the CSO frequency regulations will result in new constraints on municipal development. Municipalities will have to demonstrate that new developments do not increase CSO frequency above a reference level based on historical CSO records. Governmental agencies will also have to define a framework to assess the impact of new developments on CSO frequency and the efficiency of the various proposed measures to maintain CSO frequency at its historic level. In such a context, it is important to correctly assess the average number of days with CSO and to define relationships between CSO frequency and rainfall characteristics. This paper investigates such relationships using available CSO and rainfall datasets for Quebec. CSO records for 4285 overflow structures (OS) were analyzed. A simple model based on rainfall thresholds was developed to forecast the occurrence of CSO on a given day based on daily rainfall values. The estimated probability of days with CSO have been used to estimate the rainfall threshold value at each OS by imposing that the probability of exceeding this rainfall value for a given day be equal to the estimated probability of days with CSO. The forecast skill of this model was assessed for 3437 OS using contingency tables. The statistical significance of the forecast skill could be assessed for 64.2% of these OS. The threshold model has demonstrated significant forecast skill for 91.3% of these OS confirming that for most OS a simple threshold model can be used to assess the occurrence of CSO.

  12. The search for an alternative to piped water and sewer systems in the Alaskan Arctic.

    PubMed

    Hickel, Korie A; Dotson, Aaron; Thomas, Timothy K; Heavener, Mia; Hébert, Jack; Warren, John A

    2017-03-29

    Forty-two communities in rural Alaska are considered unserved or underserved with water and sewer infrastructure. Many challenges exist to provide centralized piped water and sewer infrastructure to the homes, and they are exacerbated by decreasing capital funding. Unserved communities in rural Alaska experience higher rates of disease, supporting the recommendation that sanitation infrastructure should be provided. Organizations are pursuing alternative solutions to conventional piped water and sewer in order to maximize water use and reuse for public health. This paper reviews initiatives led by the State of Alaska, the Alaska Native Tribal Health Consortium, and the Yukon Kuskokwim Health Corporation to identify and develop potential long-term solutions appropriate and acceptable to rural communities. Future developments will likely evolve based on the lessons learned from the initiatives. Recommendations include Alaska-specific research needs, increased end-user participation in the design process, and integrated monitoring, evaluation, and information dissemination in future efforts.

  13. Flow measurements in sewers based on image analysis: automatic flow velocity algorithm.

    PubMed

    Jeanbourquin, D; Sage, D; Nguyen, L; Schaeli, B; Kayal, S; Barry, D A; Rossi, L

    2011-01-01

    Discharges of combined sewer overflows (CSOs) and stormwater are recognized as an important source of environmental contamination. However, the harsh sewer environment and particular hydraulic conditions during rain events reduce the reliability of traditional flow measurement probes. An in situ system for sewer water flow monitoring based on video images was evaluated. Algorithms to determine water velocities were developed based on image-processing techniques. The image-based water velocity algorithm identifies surface features and measures their positions with respect to real world coordinates. A web-based user interface and a three-tier system architecture enable remote configuration of the cameras and the image-processing algorithms in order to calculate automatically flow velocity on-line. Results of investigations conducted in a CSO are presented. The system was found to measure reliably water velocities, thereby providing the means to understand particular hydraulic behaviors.

  14. Application of morphological segmentation to leaking defect detection in sewer pipelines.

    PubMed

    Su, Tung-Ching; Yang, Ming-Der

    2014-05-16

    As one of major underground pipelines, sewerage is an important infrastructure in any modern city. The most common problem occurring in sewerage is leaking, whose position and failure level is typically identified through closed circuit television (CCTV) inspection in order to facilitate rehabilitation process. This paper proposes a novel method of computer vision, morphological segmentation based on edge detection (MSED), to assist inspectors in detecting pipeline defects in CCTV inspection images. In addition to MSED, other mathematical morphology-based image segmentation methods, including opening top-hat operation (OTHO) and closing bottom-hat operation (CBHO), were also applied to the defect detection in vitrified clay sewer pipelines. The CCTV inspection images of the sewer system in the 9th district, Taichung City, Taiwan were selected as the experimental materials. The segmentation results demonstrate that MSED and OTHO are useful for the detection of cracks and open joints, respectively, which are the typical leakage defects found in sewer pipelines.

  15. Application of Morphological Segmentation to Leaking Defect Detection in Sewer Pipelines

    PubMed Central

    Su, Tung-Ching; Yang, Ming-Der

    2014-01-01

    As one of major underground pipelines, sewerage is an important infrastructure in any modern city. The most common problem occurring in sewerage is leaking, whose position and failure level is typically idengified through closed circuit television (CCTV) inspection in order to facilitate rehabilitation process. This paper proposes a novel method of computer vision, morphological segmentation based on edge detection (MSED), to assist inspectors in detecting pipeline defects in CCTV inspection images. In addition to MSED, other mathematical morphology-based image segmentation methods, including opening top-hat operation (OTHO) and closing bottom-hat operation (CBHO), were also applied to the defect detection in vitrified clay sewer pipelines. The CCTV inspection images of the sewer system in the 9th district, Taichung City, Taiwan were selected as the experimental materials. The segmentation results demonstrate that MSED and OTHO are useful for the detection of cracks and open joints, respectively, which are the typical leakage defects found in sewer pipelines. PMID:24841247

  16. Coordinated management of combined sewer overflows by means of environmental decision support systems.

    PubMed

    Murla, Damian; Gutierrez, Oriol; Martinez, Montse; Suñer, David; Malgrat, Pere; Poch, Manel

    2016-04-15

    During heavy rainfall, the capacity of sewer systems and wastewater treatment plants may be surcharged producing uncontrolled wastewater discharges and a depletion of the environmental quality. Therefore there is a need of advanced management tools to tackle with these complex problems. In this paper an environmental decision support system (EDSS), based on the integration of mathematical modeling and knowledge-based systems, has been developed for the coordinated management of urban wastewater systems (UWS) to control and minimize uncontrolled wastewater spills. Effectiveness of the EDSS has been tested in a specially designed virtual UWS, including two sewers systems, two WWTP and one river subjected to typical Mediterranean rain conditions. Results show that sewer systems, retention tanks and wastewater treatment plants improve their performance under wet weather conditions and that EDSS can be very effective tools to improve the management and prevent the system from possible uncontrolled wastewater discharges.

  17. The role of iron in sulfide induced corrosion of sewer concrete.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Guangming; Wightman, Elaine; Donose, Bogdan C; Yuan, Zhiguo; Bond, Philip L; Keller, Jurg

    2014-02-01

    The sulfide-induced corrosion of concrete sewer is a widespread and expensive problem for water utilities worldwide. Fundamental knowledge of the initiation and propagation of sewer corrosion, especially the interactions between chemical reactions and physical structure changes, is still largely unknown. Advanced mineral analytical techniques were applied to identify the distribution of corrosion products and the micro-cracking that developed along the corrosion boundary. It was found that sewer concrete corrosion caused by reactions with sulfuric acid progressed uniformly in the cement of concrete. In contrast to conventional knowledge, iron rust rather than gypsum and ettringite was likely the factor responsible for cracking ahead of the corrosion front. The analysis also allowed quantitative determination of the major corrosion products, i.e., gypsum and ettringite, with the latter found closer to the corrosion front. The conceptual model based on these findings clearly demonstrated the complex interactions among different chemical reactions, diffusion, and micro-structure changes.

  18. Effect of flow rate on growth and oxygen consumption of biofilm in gravity sewer.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jingwei; Li, Muzhi; He, Qiang; Sun, Xingfu; Zhou, Xiangren; Su, Zhenping; Ai, Hainan

    2017-01-01

    The function of sewer as reactors must rely on the biofilm in it. In this paper, the formation, structure, oxygen transfer, and activity of the biofilm under different hydraulic conditions were studied by the microelectrode technology, oxygen uptake rate (OUR) technology, and 454 high-throughput pyrosequencing technology. Results showed that when the wall-shear stresses were 1.12, 1.29, and 1.45 Pa, the porosity of the steady-state biofilm were 69.1, 64.4, and 55.1 %, respectively. The maximum values of OUR were 0.033, 0.027, and 0.022 mg/(L*s), respectively, and the COD removal efficiency in the sewers reached 40, 35, and 32 %, respectively. The research findings had an important significance on how to improve the treatment efficiency of the sewers. Fig. a Graphical Abstract.

  19. Fat, oil and grease deposits in sewers: characterisation of deposits and formation mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Williams, J B; Clarkson, C; Mant, C; Drinkwater, A; May, E

    2012-12-01

    Fat, oil and grease deposits (FOG) in sewers are a major problem and can cause sewer overflows, resulting in environmental damage and health risks. Often simplistically portrayed as cooling of fats, recent research has suggested that saponification may be involved in FOG formation. However there are still questions about the mechanisms effecting transformations in sewers and the role and source of metal cations involved in saponification. This study characterises FOG deposits from pumping stations, sewers and sewage works from different water hardness zones across the UK. The sites all had previous problems with FOG and most catchments contained catering and food preparation establishments. The FOG deposits were highly variable with moisture content ranging from 15 to 95% and oil content from 0 to 548 mg/g. Generally the pumping stations had lower moisture content and higher fat content, followed by the sewers then the sewage works. The water in contact with the FOG had high levels of oil (mean of about 800 mg/L) and this may indicate poor kitchen FOG management practices. FOG fatty acid profiles showed a transformation from unsaturated to saturated forms compared to typical cooking oils. This seems to relate to ageing in the sewer network or the mechanism of formation, as samples from pumping stations had higher proportions of C18:1 compared to C16. This may be due to microbial transformations by bacteria such as Clostridium sp. in a similar process to adipocere formation. There was an association between water hardness and increased Ca levels in FOG along with harder deposits and higher melting points. A link between FOG properties and water hardness has not been previously reported for field samples. This may also be due to microbial processes, such as biocalcification. By developing the understanding of these mechanisms it may be possible to more effectively control FOG deposits, especially when combined with promotion of behavioural change.

  20. Feasibility of sulfide control in sewers by reuse of iron rich drinking water treatment sludge.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jing; Pikaar, Ilje; Sharma, Keshab Raj; Keller, Jürg; Yuan, Zhiguo

    2015-03-15

    Dosage of iron salt is the most commonly used method for sulfide control in sewer networks but incurs high chemical costs. In this study, we experimentally investigate the feasibility of using iron rich drinking water treatment sludge for sulfide control in sewers. A lab-scale rising main sewer biofilm reactor was used. The sulfide concentration in the effluent decreased from 15.5 to 19.8 mgS/L (without dosing) to below 0.7-2.3 mgS/L at a sludge dosing rate achieving an iron to total dissolved inorganic sulfur molar ratio (Fe:S) of 1:1, with further removal of sulfide possible by prolonging the reaction time. In fact, batch tests revealed an Fe consumption to sulfide removal ratio of 0.5 ± 0.02 (mole:mole), suggesting the possible occurrence of other reactions involving the removal of sulfide. Modelling revealed that the reaction between iron in sludge and sulfide has reaction orders of 0.65 ± 0.01 and 0.77 ± 0.02 with respect to the Fe and sulfide concentrations, respectively. The addition of sludge slightly increased the total chemical oxidation demand (tCOD) concentration (by approximately 12%) as expected, but decreased the soluble chemical oxidation demand (sCOD) concentration and methane formation by 7% and 20%, respectively. Some phosphate removal (13%) was also observed at the sludge dosing rate of 1:1 (Fe:S), which is beneficial to nutrient removal from the wastewater. Overall, this study suggests that dosing iron-rich drinking water sludge to sewers could be an effective strategy for sulfide removal in sewer systems, which would also reduce the sludge disposal costs for drinking water treatment works. However, its potential side-effects on sewer sedimentation and on the wastewater treatment plant effluent remain to be investigated.

  1. Sources, nature, and fate of heavy metal-bearing particles in the sewer system.

    PubMed

    Houhou, J; Lartiges, B S; Montarges-Pelletier, E; Sieliechi, J; Ghanbaja, J; Kohler, A

    2009-11-15

    A preliminary insight into metal cycling within the urban sewer was obtained by determining both the heavy metal concentrations (Cu, Zn, Pb, Cd, Ni, Cr) in sewage and sediments, and the nature of metal-bearing particles using TEM-EDX, SEM-EDX and XRD. Particles collected from tap water, sump-pit deposits, and washbasin siphons, were also examined to trace back the origin of some mineral species. The results show that the total levels in Cu, Pb, Zn, Ni, and Cr in sewage are similar to that reported in the literature, thus suggesting that a time-averaged heavy metal fingerprint of domestic sewage can be defined for most developed cities at the urban catchment scale. Household activities represent the main source of Zn and Pb, the water supply system is a significant source of Cu, and in our case, groundwater infiltration in the sewer system provides a supplementary source of Ni and Cd. Concentrations in heavy metals were much higher in sewer sediments than in sewage suspended solids, the enrichment being due to the preferential settling of metal-bearing particles of high density and/or the precipitation of neoformed mineral phases. TEM and SEM-EDX analyses indicated that suspended solids, biofilms, and sewer sediments contained similar heavy metal-bearing particles including alloys and metal fragments, oxidized metals and sulfides. Copper fragments, metal carbonates (Cu, Zn, Pb), and oxidized soldering materials are released from the erosion of domestic plumbing, whereas the precipitation of sulfides and the sulfurization of metal phases occur primarily within the household connections to the sewer trunk. Close examination of sulfide phases also revealed in most cases a complex growth history recorded in the texture of particles, which likely reflects changes in physicochemical conditions associated with successive resuspension and settling of particles within the sewer system.

  2. Global sensitivity analysis of an in-sewer process model for the study of sulfide-induced corrosion of concrete.

    PubMed

    Donckels, B M R; Kroll, S; Van Dorpe, M; Weemaes, M

    2014-01-01

    The presence of high concentrations of hydrogen sulfide in the sewer system can result in corrosion of the concrete sewer pipes. The formation and fate of hydrogen sulfide in the sewer system is governed by a complex system of biological, chemical and physical processes. Therefore, mechanistic models have been developed to describe the underlying processes. In this work, global sensitivity analysis was applied to an in-sewer process model (aqua3S) to determine the most important model input factors with regard to sulfide formation in rising mains and the concrete corrosion rate downstream of a rising main. The results of the sensitivity analysis revealed the most influential model parameters, but also the importance of the characteristics of the organic matter, the alkalinity of the concrete and the movement of the sewer gas phase.

  3. 75 FR 36288 - Amended Safety Zone and Regulated Navigation Area, Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal, Romeoville, IL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-25

    ... Area, Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal, Romeoville, IL AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary... Navigation Area (RNA) on the Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal (CSSC) near Romeoville, IL. This revised... through the Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal (CSSC). The USACE selected an electric barrier because it is...

  4. 33 CFR 165.923 - Safety Zone and Regulated Navigation Area, Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal, Romeoville, IL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Navigation Area, Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal, Romeoville, IL. 165.923 Section 165.923 Navigation and... Areas Ninth Coast Guard District § 165.923 Safety Zone and Regulated Navigation Area, Chicago Sanitary... of the Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal located between mile marker 296.1 and mile marker 296.7....

  5. 40 CFR 141.723 - Requirements to respond to significant deficiencies identified in sanitary surveys performed by EPA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... REGULATIONS Enhanced Treatment for Cryptosporidium Requirements for Sanitary Surveys Performed by Epa § 141.723 Requirements to respond to significant deficiencies identified in sanitary surveys performed by... deficiencies identified in sanitary surveys performed by EPA. 141.723 Section 141.723 Protection of...

  6. 40 CFR 141.723 - Requirements to respond to significant deficiencies identified in sanitary surveys performed by EPA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... REGULATIONS Enhanced Treatment for Cryptosporidium Requirements for Sanitary Surveys Performed by Epa § 141.723 Requirements to respond to significant deficiencies identified in sanitary surveys performed by... deficiencies identified in sanitary surveys performed by EPA. 141.723 Section 141.723 Protection of...

  7. 7 CFR 1955.116 - Requirements for sale of property not meeting decent, safe and sanitary (DSS) standards (housing).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ..., safe and sanitary (DSS) standards (housing). 1955.116 Section 1955.116 Agriculture Regulations of the... Requirements for sale of property not meeting decent, safe and sanitary (DSS) standards (housing). For real... guidance. For all other housing inventory property which does not meet decent, safe and sanitary...

  8. Removal of the organic surface layer in combined sewer sediment using a flushing gate.

    PubMed

    Laplace, D; Oms, C; Ahyerre, M; Chebbo, O; Lemasson, J; Felouzis, L

    2003-01-01

    Recent research identified the different sources of pollution of wet weather Combined Sewers Overflows (CSOs): it appeared that the deposits in sewers, and especially an organic layer situated at the water-sediment interface, may contribute 40-70% to the total pollution load of CSOs. Using the cyclic flush Hydrass gate, we generated increased water flows during dry weather. The effects of flushing the deposits have been analysed: the eroded particles sampled during the first flush wave show pollutant characteristics similar to characteristics measured in the organic layer. The organic layer that has formed on the surface of deposits can thus be washed off before rainstorms occur using the cyclic flushing technique.

  9. Effects of wastewater and combined sewer overflows on water quality in the Blue River basin, Kansas City, Missouri and Kansas, July 1998-October 2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilkison, Donald H.; Armstrong, Daniel J.; Blevins, Dale W.

    2002-01-01

    Samples were collected from 16 base-flow events and a minimum of 10 stormflow events between July 1998 and October 2000 to characterize the effects of wastewater and combined sewer overflows on water quality in the Blue River Basin, Kansas City, Missouri and Kansas. Waterquality effects were determined by analysis of nutrients, chloride, chemical and biochemical oxygen demand, and suspended sediment samples from three streams (Blue River, Brush Creek, and Indian Creek) in the basin as well as the determination of a suite of compounds known to be indicative of wastewater including antioxidants, caffeine, detergent metabolites, antimicrobials, and selected over-the-counter and prescription pharmaceuticals. Constituent loads were determined for both hydrologic regimes and a measure of the relative water-quality impact of selected stream reaches on the Blue River and Brush Creek was developed. Genetic fingerprint patterns of Escherichia coli bacteria from selected stream samples were compared to a data base of knownsource patterns to determine possible sources of bacteria. Water quality in the basin was affected by wastewater during both base flows and stormflows; however, there were two distinct sources that contributed to these effects. In the Blue River and Indian Creek, the nearly continuous discharge of treated wastewater effluent was the primary source of nutrients, wastewater indicator compounds, and pharmaceutical compounds detected in stream samples. Wastewater inputs into Brush Creek were largely the result of intermittent stormflow events that triggered the overflow of combined storm and sanitary sewers, and the subsequent discharge of untreated wastewater into the creek. A portion of the sediment, organic matter, and associated constituents from these events were trapped by a series of impoundments constructed along Brush Creek where they likely continued to affect water quality during base flow. Concentrations and loads of most wastewater constituents in

  10. [Sanitary quality of water supply for human consumption in Campeche].

    PubMed

    Isaac-Márquez, A P; Lezama-Dávila, C M; Ku-Pech, P P; Tamay-Segovia, P

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents data of a study undertaken to know the sanitary features of water supply (deep pools) for human consumption in the city of Campeche, Mexico. Levels of intestinal bacteria (total and fecal coliforms) were monitored, as well as heterotrophic plate counts and the surroundings of each deep pool were inspected. Each water supply was monitored three times from January to July, 1993 and presented unacceptable levels of heterotrophic plate counts and coliforms which is a strong evidence of fecal contamination of animal or human origin. These findings are a clear indication of unacceptable contamination of water supply for human consumption which requires an improvement and systematic inspection in order to provide good quality water to the population of Campeche.

  11. [Cremation plant planning and related hygienic-sanitary aspects].

    PubMed

    Santarsiero, A

    2005-01-01

    The number of cremators is set to grow in Italy owing to current increasing demand for cremation, as a system of burial as well as a system of disposal of non-decomposed human remains resulting from operations of exhumation (as provided by the Circular No. 10 of 31 July of 1998 of the Ministry of Health). Some indications on how town planners need to size up the cremation plant with regard to its capacity to face cremation demand, in order to avoid any hygienic-sanitary inconveniences are given. As a matter of fact, for planning the demand for cremation from Circular No. 10 of 31 July of 1998 it is necessary to assess the decomposition time in burial sites.

  12. Brazilian sanitary reform: dilemmas between the instituing and the institutionalized.

    PubMed

    Fleury, Sonia

    2009-01-01

    The article presents the trajectory of social policies in Brazil and identifies, at each stage, the existing social protection model. It affirms that the Federal Constitution of 1988, when it introduced the concept of Social Security and created the National Health Care System, represented a rupture with what came before. The subordination of the principles of justice and social inclusion, which guided the design of this new social protection model, to a liberal and monetarist policy had important impacts in the phase of implementation of the social policies. However, the dilemma that such policies go through and, in particular, the construction of the National Health Care System must be analyzed from a theoretical perspective that encompasses the agreements and disagreements between the three movements that characterize Brazilian Sanitary Reform, which are: subjectivation, constitutionalization and institutionalization.

  13. Spontaneous combustion of shale spoils at a sanitary landfill.

    PubMed

    Hudak, Paul F

    2002-01-01

    Shale deposits excavated from the Upper Cretaceous, Eagle Ford Formation for a sanitary landfill near Dallas, Texas spontaneously combusted. The shale is dark gray in color, with 3-4% fractional organic carbon, and no lignite seams. Gradual sifting and segregation of fine particles, having high surface area per unit volume, along with moisture trapped in the pile as it accumulated led to spontaneous combustion. Hot summer temperatures compounded the problem by heating the pile and preventing heat from efficiently venting to the atmosphere. Maximum temperatures exceeded 960 degrees F (516 degrees C) at several hot spots located approximately 4 m beneath the pile surface. The ongoing combustion problem, which has lasted for approximately 1 year, eventually will be extinguished by spreading the deposits in thin layers, and compacting them to reduce air circulation and segregation of fines.

  14. Sanitary landfill groundwater quality assessment plan Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Wells, D.G.; Cook, J.W.

    1990-06-01

    This assessment monitoring plan has been prepared in accordance with the guidance provided by the SCDHEC in a letter dated December 7, 1989 from Pearson to Wright and a letter dated October 9, 1989 from Keisler to Lindler. The letters are included a Appendix A, for informational purposes. Included in the plan are all of the monitoring data from the landfill monitoring wells for 1989, and a description of the present monitoring well network. The plan proposes thirty-two new wells and an extensive coring project that includes eleven soil borings. Locations of the proposed wells attempt to follow the SCDHEC guidelines and are downgradient, sidegradient and in the heart of suspected contaminant plumes. Also included in the plan is the current Savannah River Site Sampling and Analysis Plan and the well construction records for all of the existing monitoring wells around the sanitary landfill.

  15. [Sanitary regulation as part of health policy in Brazil: gaps and challenges].

    PubMed

    Maia, Christiane; Guilhem, Dirce

    2016-05-01

    Objective To outline and discuss the main challenges for sanitary regulation contained in the federal-level Brazilian health policy. Methods For the present qualitative study, based on the analysis of public policies, information was collected from documents and interviews. Document analysis provided a historical overview of the insertion of sanitary regulation into the Brazilian health policy between 1999 and 2009 (first decade of existence of the national health surveillance agency, Anvisa). In addition, 13 interviews were carried out with actors selected for their historical, technical, or academic role in the field. Content analysis was used to define themes emerging from the materials analyzed with a focus on the "content" category, which refers to strategic and operational guidelines of policy programs, projects, initiatives, and normative framework. Results Content analysis revealed five themes that reflect the challenges to sanitary regulation in Brazil: 1) objects under regulation treated as isolated cases; 2) a Brazilian-specific model of sanitary regulation that is different from other international models; 3) ignorance regarding the role of sanitary surveillance in health care; 4) absence of an information system; and 5) absence of performance indicators and assessment tools. Conclusions Sanitary surveillance must have a mission that is disentangled from inspection tasks to become an effective instrument of health protection. For that, an information system that brings the National Sanitary Surveillance System together toward major objectives is essential. The adoption of tools for assessment of action is also required, with the establishment of adequate indicators.

  16. [Lation in ensuring the sanitary-and-epidemiological well-being under the present conditions].

    PubMed

    Filatov, N N; Ivanenko, A V; Khizgiiaev, V I; Safonkina, S G; Beliavskiĭ, A R; Kicha, D I

    2009-01-01

    The paper describes the basic principles in and approaches to the state regulation in ensuring the sanitary-and-epidemiological well-being. The necessity of enhancing the role of state regulation in ensuring the sanitary-and-epidemiological well-being stems from the intensive development of marketing relations and the complicated realization of the state role in the protection of consumers' rights and human well-being. The investigations provide evidence for the basic tasks of the sanitary-and-epidemiological service of Moscow under the specific conditions of the megalopolis.

  17. [Improving the evaluation of the efficiency of hygiene departments of State Sanitary and Epidemiologic Surveillance Centers].

    PubMed

    Kutsenko, G I; Petruchuk, O E; Beliaev, E N

    2000-01-01

    Methodological, technological, and organization characteristics of efficiency evaluation of specialists and hygienic departments engaged in a State Sanitary Surveillance (SSS) Center of the first level of management are presented. Main notions concerning the efficiency of SSS are formulated. A method for quantitative evaluation of the quality is offered, allowing comparison of compatible and equivalent parameters. Validation for mathematical models of efficiency and quality criteria is offered. Computer technology Sanepidotsenka (Sanitary epidemiological evaluation) is offered, which is used in the regulation of SSS Center activities aimed at maintenance of sanitary and epidemiological well-being of territories.

  18. REMOVAL OF TANK AND SEWER SEDIMENT BY GATE FLUSHING: COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS MODEL STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation will discuss the application of a computational fluid dynamics 3D flow model to simulate gate flushing for removing tank/sewer sediments. The physical model of the flushing device was a tank fabricated and installed at the head-end of a hydraulic flume. The fl...

  19. Assessment of the effects of greywater reuse on gross solids movement in sewer systems.

    PubMed

    Penn, R; Schütze, M; Friedler, E

    2014-01-01

    Onsite greywater reuse (GWR) and installation of water-efficient toilets (WETs) reduce urban freshwater demand and thus enhance urban water use sustainability. Research on GWR and WETs has generally overlooked their potential effects on municipal sewer systems: GWR and WETs affect the flow regime in sewers, and consequently also influence gross solids transport. To asses these impacts, a gross solids transport model was developed. The model is based on approaches found in the literature. Hydrodynamic calculations of sewage flow were performed using the SIMBA6 simulator and then used for the gross solid movement models. Flow characteristics in the up- and downstream sections of the sewer network differ. Therefore different approaches were used to model solids movement in each of these two parts. Each model determines whether a solid moves as a result of a momentary sewage flow, and if it moves, calculation of its velocity is possible. The paper shows the adoption and implementation of two gross solids transport models using SIMBA6 and depicts the results of the effects of various GWR and WET scenarios on gross solids movement in sewers for a real case study in Israel.

  20. Assessment of pollutant load emission from combined sewer overflows based on the online monitoring.

    PubMed

    Brzezińska, Agnieszka; Zawilski, Marek; Sakson, Grażyna

    2016-09-01

    Cities equipped with combined sewer systems discharge during wet weather a lot of pollutants into receiving waters by combined storm overflows (CSOs). According to the Polish legislation, CSOs should be activated no more than ten times per year, but in Lodz, most of the 18 existing CSOs operate much more frequently. To assess the pollutant load emitted by one of the existing CSOs, the sensors for measuring the concentration of total suspended solids (SOLITAX sc) and dissolved chemical oxygen demand (UVAS plus) installed in the overflow chamber as well as two flowmeters placed in the outflow sewer were used. In order to check the data from sensors, laboratory tests of combined wastewater quality were conducted simultaneously. For the analysis of the total pollutant load emitted from the overflow, the raw data was denoised using the Savitzky-Golay method. Comparing the load calculated from the analytical results to online smoothed measurements, negligible differences were found, which confirms the usefulness of applying the sensors in the combined sewer system. Online monitoring of the quantity and quality of wastewater emitted by the combined sewer overflows to water receivers, provides a considerable amount of data very useful for combined sewerage upgrading based on computer modelling, and allows for a significant reduction of laboratory analysis.

  1. Analyzing hydrocarbons in sewer to help in PAH source apportionment in sewage sludges.

    PubMed

    Mansuy-Huault, Laurence; Regier, Annette; Faure, Pierre

    2009-05-01

    A multi-molecular approach for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) source apportionment in sewage sludge was tested. Three simple catchment areas with corresponding wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) were chosen. Sewage sludges of these WWTPs chronically exceeded the French guide values for PAHs. Aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons were quantified in sediments or wastewater suspended particulate matter sampled in different locations of the sewer as well as in sewage sludge. Various molecular indices including PAH ratios were calculated. The results showed that the ratios calculated from sewage sludge analyses provided a rather unspecific hydrocarbon fingerprint where combustion input appear as the main PAH sources. The complexity of the inputs as well as degradation occurring during wastewater treatment prevent any detailed diagnosis. Coupled to the analyses of samples collected in the sewer, the multi-molecular approach becomes more efficient especially for the identification of specific petroleum inputs such as fuel or used lubricating oils which can be important PAH sources. Indeed, the sampling in the sewer allows a spatial screening of the hydrocarbon inputs and facilitates the PAH source apportionment by avoiding the dilution of specific inputs with the whole wastewater inputs and by limiting the degradation of the molecular fingerprint that could occur during transfer and treatment in the WWTP. Then, the combination of PAH ratios and aliphatic distribution analyses is a very valuable approach that can help in sewer and WWTP management.

  2. AN ASSESSMENT OF AUTOMATIC SEWER FLOW SAMPLERS (EPA/600/2-75/065)

    EPA Science Inventory

    A brief review of the characteristics of storm and combined sewer flows is given followed by a general discussion of the purposes for and requirements of a sampling program. The desirable characteristics of automatic sampling equipment are set forth and problem areas are outlined...

  3. Event-driven model predictive control of sewage pumping stations for sulfide mitigation in sewer networks.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yiqi; Ganigué, Ramon; Sharma, Keshab; Yuan, Zhiguo

    2016-07-01

    Chemicals such as Mg(OH)2 and iron salts are widely dosed to sewage for mitigating sulfide-induced corrosion and odour problems in sewer networks. The chemical dosing rate is usually not automatically controlled but profiled based on experience of operators, often resulting in over- or under-dosing. Even though on-line control algorithms for chemical dosing in single pipes have been developed recently, network-wide control algorithms are currently not available. The key challenge is that a sewer network is typically wide-spread comprising many interconnected sewer pipes and pumping stations, making network-wide sulfide mitigation with a relatively limited number of dosing points challenging. In this paper, we propose and demonstrate an Event-driven Model Predictive Control (EMPC) methodology, which controls the flows of sewage streams containing the dosed chemical to ensure desirable distribution of the dosed chemical throughout the pipe sections of interests. First of all, a network-state model is proposed to predict the chemical concentration in a network. An EMPC algorithm is then designed to coordinate sewage pumping station operations to ensure desirable chemical distribution in the network. The performance of the proposed control methodology is demonstrated by applying the designed algorithm to a real sewer network simulated with the well-established SeweX model using real sewage flow and characteristics data. The EMPC strategy significantly improved the sulfide mitigation performance with the same chemical consumption, compared to the current practice.

  4. Controlling chemical dosing for sulfide mitigation in sewer networks using a hybrid automata control strategy.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yiqi; Ganigué, Ramon; Sharma, Keshab; Yuan, Zhiguo

    2013-01-01

    Chemicals such as magnesium hydroxide (Mg(OH)2) and iron salts are widely used to control sulfide-induced corrosion in sewer networks composed of interconnected sewer pipe lines and pumping stations. Chemical dosing control is usually non-automatic and based on experience, thus often resulting in sewage reaching the discharge point receiving inadequate or even no chemical dosing. Moreover, intermittent operation of pumping stations makes traditional control theory inadequate. A hybrid automata-based (HA-based) control method is proposed in this paper to coordinate sewage pumping station operations by considering their states, thereby ensuring suitable chemical concentrations in the network discharge. The performance of the proposed control method was validated through a simulation study of a real sewer network using real sewage flow data. The physical, chemical and biological processes were simulated using the well-established SeweX model. The results suggested that the HA-based control strategy significantly improved chemical dosing control performance and sulfide mitigation in sewer networks, compared to the current common practice.

  5. Identification of sewer pipes to be cleaned for reduction of CSO pollutant load.

    PubMed

    Nagaiwa, Akihiro; Settsu, Katsushi; Nakajima, Fumiyuki; Furumai, Hiroaki

    2007-01-01

    To reduce the CSO (Combined Sewer Overflow) pollutant discharge, one of the effective options is cleaning of sewer pipes before rainfall events. To maximize the efficiency, identification of pipes to be cleaned is necessary. In this study, we discussed the location of pipe deposit in dry weather in a combined sewer system using a distributed model and investigated the effect of pipe cleaning to reduce the pollutant load from the CSO. First we simulated the dry weather flow in a combined sewer system. The pipe deposit distribution in the network was estimated after 3 days of dry weather period. Several specific pipes with structural defect and upper end pipes tend to have an accumulation of deposit. Wet weather simulations were conducted with and without pipe cleaning in rainfall events with different patterns. The SS loads in CSO with and without the pipe cleaning were compared. The difference in the estimated loads was interpreted as the contribution of wash-off in the cleaned pipe. The effect of pipe cleaning on reduction of the CSO pollutant load was quantitatively evaluated (e.g. the cleaning of one specific pipe could reduce 22% of total CSO load). The CSO simulations containing pipe cleaning options revealed that identification of pipes with accumulated deposit using the distributed model is very useful and informative to evaluate the applicability of pipe cleaning option for CSO pollutant reduction.

  6. Water Sensitive Urban Design retrofits in Copenhagen - 40% to the sewer, 60% to the city.

    PubMed

    Fryd, O; Backhaus, A; Birch, H; Fratini, C F; Ingvertsen, S T; Jeppesen, J; Panduro, T E; Roldin, M; Jensen, M B

    2013-01-01

    Water Sensitive Urban Design (WSUD) is emerging in Denmark. This interdisciplinary desk study investigated the options for WSUD retrofitting in a 15 km(2) combined sewer catchment area in Copenhagen. The study was developed in collaboration with the City of Copenhagen and its water utility, and involved researchers representing hydrogeology, sewer hydraulics, environmental chemistry/economics/engineering, landscape architecture and urban planning. The resulting catchment strategy suggests the implementation of five sub-strategies. First, disconnection is focused within sites that are relatively easy to disconnect, due to stormwater quality, soil conditions, stakeholder issues, and the provision of unbuilt sites. Second, stormwater runoff is infiltrated in areas with relatively deep groundwater levels at a ratio that doesn't create a critical rise in the groundwater table to the surface. Third, neighbourhoods located near low-lying streams and public parks are disconnected from the sewer system and the sloping terrain is utilised to convey runoff. Fourth, the promotion of coherent blue and green wedges in the city is linked with WSUD retrofits and urban climate-proofing. Fifth, WSUD is implemented with delayed and regulated overflows to the sewer system. The results are partially adopted by the City of Copenhagen and currently under pilot testing.

  7. HIGH-RATE DISINFECTION OF COMBINED SEWER OVERFLOW USING CHLORINE DIOXIDE

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation is a state-of-the-art review of chlorine dioxide (ClO2) used for high-rate disinfection of combined sewer overflow (CSO). The review includes bench-, pilot-, and fullscale studies on the use of ClO2 as a disinfecting agent for a variety of wastewaters. Specific ...

  8. Demonstration of Green/Gray Infrastructure for Combined Sewer Overflow Control

    EPA Science Inventory

    This project is a major national demonstration of the integration of green and gray infrastructure for combined sewer overflow (CSO) control in a cost-effective and environmentally friendly manner. It will use Kansas City, MO, as a case example. The project will have a major in...

  9. Bayesian analysis for erosion modelling of sediments in combined sewer systems.

    PubMed

    Kanso, A; Chebbo, G; Tassin, B

    2005-01-01

    Previous research has confirmed that the sediments at the bed of combined sewer systems are the main source of particulate and organic pollution during rain events contributing to combined sewer overflows. However, existing urban stormwater models utilize inappropriate sediment transport formulas initially developed from alluvial hydrodynamics. Recently, a model has been formulated and profoundly assessed based on laboratory experiments to simulate the erosion of sediments in sewer pipes taking into account the increase in strength with depth in the weak layer of deposits. In order to objectively evaluate this model, this paper presents a Bayesian analysis of the model using field data collected in sewer pipes in Paris under known hydraulic conditions. The test has been performed using a MCMC sampling method for calibration and uncertainty assessment. Results demonstrate the capacity of the model to reproduce erosion as a direct response to the increase in bed shear stress. This is due to the model description of the erosional strength in the deposits and to the shape of the measured bed shear stress. However, large uncertainties in some of the model parameters suggest that the model could be over-parameterised and necessitates a large amount of informative data for its calibration.

  10. Predicting the Probability of Failure of Cementitious Sewer Pipes Using Stochastic Finite Element Method

    PubMed Central

    Alani, Amir M.; Faramarzi, Asaad

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, a stochastic finite element method (SFEM) is employed to investigate the probability of failure of cementitious buried sewer pipes subjected to combined effect of corrosion and stresses. A non-linear time-dependant model is used to determine the extent of concrete corrosion. Using the SFEM, the effects of different random variables, including loads, pipe material, and corrosion on the remaining safe life of the cementitious sewer pipes are explored. A numerical example is presented to demonstrate the merit of the proposed SFEM in evaluating the effects of the contributing parameters upon the probability of failure of cementitious sewer pipes. The developed SFEM offers many advantages over traditional probabilistic techniques since it does not use any empirical equations in order to determine failure of pipes. The results of the SFEM can help the concerning industry (e.g., water companies) to better plan their resources by providing accurate prediction for the remaining safe life of cementitious sewer pipes. PMID:26068092

  11. Mechanisms of Fat, Oil and Grease (FOG) Deposit Formation in Sewer Lines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    FOG deposits in sewer systems recently have been shown to be metallic salts of fatty acids. However, the fate and transport of FOG deposit reactant constituents and the complex interactions during the FOG deposit formation process are still largely unknown. Batch tests were performed to elucidate ...

  12. High-Rate Disinfection Techniques for Combined Sewer Overflow (Proceedings Paper)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper presents high-rate disinfection technologies for combined sewer overflow (CSO). The high-rate disinfection technologies of interest are: chlorination/dechlorination, ultraviolet light irradiation (UV), chlorine dioxide (ClO2 ), ozone (O3), peracetic acid (CH3COOOH ), a...

  13. Measuring Flow Reductions in a Combined Sewer System Using Green Infrastructure

    EPA Science Inventory

    A green infrastructure (GI) design approach was used in CSO Basin #130, a 17-acre sewershed in the Butchertown section of Louisville, Kentucky, to reduce combined sewer overflows (CSOs). For the design year, the modeled design was expected to reduce the CSO frequency from 34 to ...

  14. Acoustic measurement and morphological features of organic sediment deposits in combined sewer networks.

    PubMed

    Carnacina, Iacopo; Larrarte, Frédérique; Leonardi, Nicoletta

    2017-04-01

    The performance of sewer networks has important consequences from an environmental and social point of view. Poor functioning can result in flood risk and pollution at a large scale. Sediment deposits forming in sewer trunks might severely compromise the sewer line by affecting the flow field, reducing cross-sectional areas, and increasing roughness coefficients. In spite of numerous efforts, the morphological features of these depositional environments remain poorly understood. The interface between water and sediment remains inefficiently identified and the estimation of the stock of deposit is frequently inaccurate. In part, this is due to technical issues connected to difficulties in collecting accurate field measurements without disrupting existing morphologies. In this paper, results from an extensive field campaign are presented; during the campaign a new survey methodology based on acoustic techniques has been tested. Furthermore, a new algorithm for the detection of the soil-water interface, and therefore for the correct esteem of sediment stocks is proposed. Finally, results in regard to bed topography, and morphological features at two different field sites are presented and reveal that a large variability in bed forms is present along sewer networks.

  15. In situ measurements of shear stresses of a flushing wave in a circular sewer using ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Staufer, P; Pinnekamp, J

    2008-01-01

    Deposits build up in sewer networks during both spells of dry weather and in connection with storm water events. In order to reduce the negative effects of deposit on the environment, different cleaning technologies and strategies are applied to remove the deposits. Jet cleaning represents the most widely used method to clean sewers. Another alternative cleaning procedure is flushing. On account of new developments in measurement and control panels, the flushing method is becoming more important. Therefore, in the last few years a number of new flushing devices have been constructed for application in basins, main sewers and initial reaches. Today, automatic flushing gates are able to accomplish cleaning procedures under economical and ecological conditions. The properties of flushing waves for cleaning sewers have been determined by several mathematical-numerical studies. These various investigations use altering numerical schemes, are based on different sets of physical equations and take one- or more dimensional aspects into account. Considering that bottom shear stress is the key value to evaluate the beginning of motion of any deposit, one may use this value that has to be determined by measurements. This paper deals with shear stresses caused by flushing waves which have been measured by an ultrasonic device that can determine the velocity in different depths of flow. Thus, it is possible, within certain limits, to calculate bottom shear stresses based on the log-wall law. Further discussion will deal with the requirements of measurements, its uncertainty and aspects in respect to the application of simulation of flushing waves.

  16. Phosphate dynamics in an urban sewer: a case study of Nancy, France.

    PubMed

    Houhou, J; Lartiges, B S; Hofmann, A; Frappier, G; Ghanbaja, J; Temgoua, A

    2009-03-01

    The nature of phosphate phases present in suspended matter, biofilm, and sediment of Greater Nancy sewer system was investigated over a period of two years. The phosphate speciation was determined by two approaches: a direct identification of phosphorus mineral phases was conducted by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) coupled with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDXS), whereas a chemical extraction of samples provided an estimate of phosphorus pools defined by the fractionation scheme. Quantitative analysis of 1340 individual particles by TEM-EDXS allowed to draw a picture of phosphate species distributions along the sewer system and over time. Amorphous Ca-phosphates (brushite, whitlockite, octacalcium phosphate, Mg-brushite, hydroxyapatite and carbapatite) were ubiquitous although brushite dominated upstream, and octacalcium phosphate and apatite prevailed downstream and in sediments. Al-Ca-phosphate minerals such as foggite, bearthite, gatumbaite, and crandallite appeared downstream and in biofilms. Ca-phosphate phase assemblages in the different locations of the sewer system were dependent on phase transformations from brushite to hydroxyapatite that were shown to be kinetically driven. The restriction of Al-Ca-phosphates to downstream of the sewer system was most probably related to the lower pHs measured at these sites. The pH dependency was confirmed by stability calculations. Chemical extractions were not reliable. TEM examination of extraction residues revealed the presence of neoformed Al-Ca-phosphate species that invalidated the fractionation scheme. Nonetheless, it confirmed that phosphate phases may undergo significant geochemical changes over a short time scale.

  17. Trace element carriers in combined sewer during dry and wet weather: an electron microscope investigation.

    PubMed

    El Samrani, A G; Lartiges, B S; Ghanbaja, J; Yvon, J; Kohler, A

    2004-04-01

    The nature of trace element carriers contained in sewage and combined sewer overflow (CSO) was investigated by TEM-EDX-Electron diffraction and SEM-EDX. During dry weather, chalcophile elements were found to accumulate in sewer sediments as early diagenetic sulfide phases. The sulfurization of some metal alloys was also evidenced. Other heavy metal carriers detected in sewage include metal alloys, some iron oxihydroxide phases and neoformed phosphate minerals such as anapaite. During rain events, the detailed characterization of individual mineral species allowed to differentiate the contributions from various specific sources. Metal plating particles, barite from automobile brake, or rare earth oxides from catalytic exhaust pipes, originate from road runoff, whereas PbSn alloys and lead carbonates are attributed to zinc-works from roofs and paint from building siding. Soil contribution can be traced by the presence of clay minerals, iron oxihydroxides, zircons and rare earth phosphates. However, the most abundant heavy metal carriers in CSO samples were the sulfide particles eroded from sewer sediments. The evolution of relative abundances of trace element carriers during a single storm event, suggests that the pollution due to the "first flush" effect principally results from the sewer stock of sulfides and previously deposited metal alloys, rather than from urban surface runoff.

  18. Impact of dry weather discharges on annual pollution from a separate storm sewer in Toulouse, France.

    PubMed

    Deffontis, S; Breton, A; Vialle, C; Montréjaud-Vignoles, M; Vignoles, C; Sablayrolles, C

    2013-05-01

    The city of Toulouse with its separate sewer system is ideal for studying stormwater. However, during dry weather, the storm sewer also discharges water into the environment, and it is the impact of these discharges on annual pollution from storm sewer that is the object of this study. Samples have been taken from the outlets of two storm drains located in heavily and moderately urbanized areas. Sampling has been undertaken during wet weather and during dry weather between January 2010 and February 2011. Three dry weather and two wet weather samples have been taken every three months and from each outlet. The overall pollution parameters have been analyzed (chemical oxygen demand, biological oxygen demand, total nitrogen, ammonium, nitrate, total phosphorus, suspended solid matter, volatile suspended matter, pH, conductivity, turbidity). Characterization has been completed by analysis of trace organic compounds: polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, total hydrocarbons, methyl tert-butyl ether, diethylhexylphthalate, nonylphenols, hormones (estradiol, ethinylestradiol). For certain parameters, the results obtained did not conform to legislative requirements concerning discharge into the natural environment. Correlations between these parameters have been studied, and identified between several of them using principal component analysis. The most important correlation observed was between conductivity and concentration in total phosphorus for one of the outlet. Results showed that dry weather had an impact on annual pollution load from separate storm sewer and that level of urbanization was also a factor. The effect of season has been studied but no significant impact was found.

  19. High-throughput amplicon sequencing reveals distinct communities within a corroding concrete sewer system.

    PubMed

    Cayford, Barry I; Dennis, Paul G; Keller, Jurg; Tyson, Gene W; Bond, Philip L

    2012-10-01

    Microbially induced concrete corrosion (MICC) is an important problem in sewers. Here, small-subunit (SSU) rRNA gene amplicon pyrosequencing was used to characterize MICC communities. Microbial community composition differed between wall- and ceiling-associated MICC layers. Acidithiobacillus spp. were present at low abundances, and the communities were dominated by other sulfur-oxidizing-associated lineages.

  20. Corrosion of concrete sewers--the kinetics of hydrogen sulfide oxidation.

    PubMed

    Vollertsen, Jes; Nielsen, Asbjørn Haaning; Jensen, Henriette Stokbro; Wium-Andersen, Tove; Hvitved-Jacobsen, Thorkild

    2008-05-01

    Hydrogen sulfide absorption and oxidation by corroding concrete surfaces was quantified in a test rig consisting of 6 concrete pipes operated under sewer conditions. The test rig was placed in an underground sewer monitoring station with access to fresh wastewater. Hydrogen sulfide gas was injected into the pipe every 2nd hour to peak concentrations around 1000 ppm. After some months of operation, the hydrogen sulfide became rapidly oxidized by the corroding concrete surfaces. At hydrogen sulfide concentrations of 1000 ppm, oxidation rates as high as 1 mg S m(-2) s(-1) were observed. The oxidation process followed simple nth order kinetics with a process order of 0.45-0.75. Extrapolating the results to gravity sewer systems showed that hydrogen sulfide oxidation by corroding concrete is a fast process compared to the release of hydrogen sulfide from the bulk water, resulting in low gas concentrations compared with equilibrium. Balancing hydrogen sulfide release with hydrogen sulfide oxidation at steady state conditions demonstrated that significant corrosion rates--several millimeters of concrete per year--can potentially occur at hydrogen sulfide gas phase concentrations well below 5-10 ppm. The results obtained in the study advances the knowledge on prediction of sewer concrete corrosion and the extent of odor problems.

  1. Green Infrastructure in the Mix to Reduce District of Columbia Sewer Overflows

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    District of Columbia's Long Term Control Plan to keep sewage out of the city’s rivers is being modified to include a substantial greening component for the first time, making it a dominant feature of 2 of the 3 drainage areas of the combined sewer system.

  2. High-Throughput Amplicon Sequencing Reveals Distinct Communities within a Corroding Concrete Sewer System

    PubMed Central

    Dennis, Paul G.; Keller, Jurg; Tyson, Gene W.

    2012-01-01

    Microbially induced concrete corrosion (MICC) is an important problem in sewers. Here, small-subunit (SSU) rRNA gene amplicon pyrosequencing was used to characterize MICC communities. Microbial community composition differed between wall- and ceiling-associated MICC layers. Acidithiobacillus spp. were present at low abundances, and the communities were dominated by other sulfur-oxidizing-associated lineages. PMID:22843532

  3. Modelling sewer sediment deposition, erosion, and transport processes to predict acute influent and reduce combined sewer overflows and CO(2) emissions.

    PubMed

    Mouri, Goro; Oki, Taikan

    2010-01-01

    Understanding of solids deposition, erosion, and transport processes in sewer systems has improved considerably in the past decade. This has provided guidance for controlling sewer solids and associated acute pollutants to protect the environment and improve the operation of wastewater systems. Although measures to decrease combined sewer overflow (CSO) events have reduced the amount of discharged pollution, overflows continue to occur during rainy weather in combined sewer systems. The solution lies in the amount of water allotted to various processes in an effluent treatment system, in impact evaluation of water quality and prediction technology, and in stressing the importance of developing a control technology. Extremely contaminated inflow has been a serious research subject, especially in connection with the influence of rainy weather on nitrogen and organic matter removal efficiency in wastewater treatment plants (WWTP). An intensive investigation of an extremely polluted inflow load to WWTP during rainy weather was conducted in the city of Matsuyama, the region used for the present research on total suspended solid (TSS) concentration. Since the inflow during rainy weather can be as much as 400 times that in dry weather, almost all sewers are unsettled and overflowing when a rain event is more than moderate. Another concern is the energy consumed by wastewater treatment; this problem has become important from the viewpoint of reducing CO(2) emissions and overall costs. Therefore, while establishing a prediction technology for the inflow water quality characteristics of a sewage disposal plant is an important priority, the development of a management/control method for an effluent treatment system that minimises energy consumption and CO(2) emissions due to water disposal is also a pressing research topic with regards to the quality of treated water. The procedure to improve water quality must make use of not only water quality and biotic criteria, but also

  4. Constructing and dismantling frameworks of disease etiology: the rise and fall of sewer gas in America, 1870-1910.

    PubMed

    An, Perry G

    2004-05-01

    For roughly forty years, from 1870 to 1910, Americans recognized and feared gases emanating from sewers, believing that they were responsible for causing an array of diseases. Fears of sewer gas arose from deeper anxieties toward contact with decomposing organic matter and the vapors emitted from such refuse. These anxieties were exacerbated by the construction of sewers across the country during the mid-to-late-nineteenth century, which concentrated waste emanations and connected homes to one another. The result was the birth of sewer gas and the attribution of sickness and death to it, as well as the development of a host of plumbing devices and, especially, bathroom fixtures, to combat sewer gas. The rise of the germ theory, laboratory science, and belief in disease specificity, however, transformed the threat of sewer gas, eventually replacing it (and the larger fear of miasmas) with the threat of germs. The germ theory framework, by 1910, proved more suitable than the sewer gas framework in explaining disease causation; it is this suitability that often shapes the relationship between science and society.

  5. Constructing and dismantling frameworks of disease etiology: the rise and fall of sewer gas in America, 1870-1910.

    PubMed Central

    An, Perry G.

    2004-01-01

    For roughly forty years, from 1870 to 1910, Americans recognized and feared gases emanating from sewers, believing that they were responsible for causing an array of diseases. Fears of sewer gas arose from deeper anxieties toward contact with decomposing organic matter and the vapors emitted from such refuse. These anxieties were exacerbated by the construction of sewers across the country during the mid-to-late-nineteenth century, which concentrated waste emanations and connected homes to one another. The result was the birth of sewer gas and the attribution of sickness and death to it, as well as the development of a host of plumbing devices and, especially, bathroom fixtures, to combat sewer gas. The rise of the germ theory, laboratory science, and belief in disease specificity, however, transformed the threat of sewer gas, eventually replacing it (and the larger fear of miasmas) with the threat of germs. The germ theory framework, by 1910, proved more suitable than the sewer gas framework in explaining disease causation; it is this suitability that often shapes the relationship between science and society. PMID:15829149

  6. Getting the max out of past investments in sewer systems by using RTC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Heeringen, Klaas-Jan; van Loenen, Arnejan; van Leeuwen, Elgard; van Nooyen, Ronald; van Velzen, Edwin

    2013-04-01

    We discuss a project in which water quality improvements of surface waters are realised by replacing local control of sewer pumps by central control. The paper focuses on the effect of implementation of real-time control in a specific group of sewer systems in the Netherlands, namely the systems that have been upgraded in the past as a result of new standards. Since these upgrades were often solely based on straightforward so-called upgrade rules and theoretical simulation studies, a thorough analysis of the real life systems by means of measurements to study the system performance or calibrate the models was rarely performed. As a result the potential of many systems is not used to the full. Because of the structure of these systems, (suboptimal distribution of storage and pump capacities) the effect of RTC is much larger than would be expected in the case of a completely new design. But because of implementation of RTC, it was required to do this thorough analysis of the sewer systems. This study focuses on the estimation of this additional RTC effect. RTC both improves the return on past investments and provides the benefits of central information and control. The project considered the sewer systems in the Hoeksche Waard area, south of Rotterdam, the Netherlands. Three RTC improvements have been implemented whereby the abovementioned effects have been achieved. There were many technological challenges to overcome during the project, such as relatively high rates of data communication needed for in systems with relatively small storage capacities, connections to multiple types of SCADA and information systems, the integration of meteo forecasts and the RTC backup architecture based on the use of multiple control modes. The potential of the RTC has been proved as such in the HoekscheWaard area. On the basis of this implementation in a typical dutch sewer system, we expect RTC to have the same potential at a national scale.

  7. Use of iron salts to control dissolved sulfide in trunk sewers

    SciTech Connect

    Padival, N.A.; Kimbell, W.A.; Redner, J.A.

    1995-11-01

    Sewer headspace H{sub 2}S reduction by precipitating dissolved sulfide in wastewater was investigated using iron salt (FeCl{sub 3} and FeCl{sub 2}). Full-scale experiments were conducted in a 40-km (25 mi) sewer with an average flow of 8.7 m{sup 3}/s (200 mgd). Results were sensitive to total Fe dosages and Fe(III)/Fe(II) blend ratios injected. A concentration of 16 mg/L total Fe and a blend ratio of 1.9:1 [Fe(III):Fe(II)] reduced dissolved sulfide levels by 97%. Total sulfide and headspace H{sub 2}S were reduced by 63% and 79%, respectively. Liquid and gas-phase sulfide reductions were largely due to the effective precipitation of sulfide with Fe(III) and Fe(II) and the limited volatilization of H{sub 2}S, respectively. Oxidation of sulfide in the presence of Fe(II) and minute amounts of O{sub 2} may have occurred. A combination of Fe(III) and Fe(II) proved more effective than either salt alone. By using excess Fe(III), dissolved sulfide can be reduced to undetectable levels. No specific relation between the concentration of Fe or Fe(III)/Fe(II) blend ratio and sewer crown pH was inferred. Iron salts may retard crown corrosion rates by precipitating free sulfide and reducing its release to the sewer headspace as H{sub 2}S. A mechanism to inhibit certain responsible bacteria was not established in the 40-km (25 mi) sewer.

  8. [The features of the establishment of zones of sanitary protection of the water source].

    PubMed

    Lopatin, S A; Redko, A A; Terentyev, V I

    2014-01-01

    There are regulatory gaps in sanitary laws, which specify the procedure of approval of projects of sanitary protection zones (SPZ) of water objects. It goes without saying that natural complexes, where water intake is organized, should have a special ecological status, which plays a substantial role in the creation of favorable conditions for human health. Some recommendations are given to improve sanitary legislations. Sanitary regulations and standards (SanPin) 2.1.4.1110-02 as well as the Water Code of the Russian Federation do not fully take into account the statements of some Federal laws regarding the protection of water objects. E.g. according to the Federal law No 33- FL of 14.03.1995 "On specially protected natural reservations" there is a legal base for increasing the status of SPZ of water sources by enlarging the list of Specially Protected Natural Reservations by including SPZ therein.

  9. 10 CFR 20.2003 - Disposal by release into sanitary sewerage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... sanitary sewerage system in a year does not exceed 5 curies (185 GBq) of hydrogen-3, 1 curie (37 GBq) of carbon-14, and 1 curie (37 GBq) of all other radioactive materials combined. (b) Excreta from...

  10. 10 CFR 20.2003 - Disposal by release into sanitary sewerage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... sanitary sewerage system in a year does not exceed 5 curies (185 GBq) of hydrogen-3, 1 curie (37 GBq) of carbon-14, and 1 curie (37 GBq) of all other radioactive materials combined. (b) Excreta from...

  11. 10 CFR 20.2003 - Disposal by release into sanitary sewerage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... sanitary sewerage system in a year does not exceed 5 curies (185 GBq) of hydrogen-3, 1 curie (37 GBq) of carbon-14, and 1 curie (37 GBq) of all other radioactive materials combined. (b) Excreta from...

  12. 10 CFR 20.2003 - Disposal by release into sanitary sewerage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... sanitary sewerage system in a year does not exceed 5 curies (185 GBq) of hydrogen-3, 1 curie (37 GBq) of carbon-14, and 1 curie (37 GBq) of all other radioactive materials combined. (b) Excreta from...

  13. 10 CFR 20.2003 - Disposal by release into sanitary sewerage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... sanitary sewerage system in a year does not exceed 5 curies (185 GBq) of hydrogen-3, 1 curie (37 GBq) of carbon-14, and 1 curie (37 GBq) of all other radioactive materials combined. (b) Excreta from...

  14. Research and development of intelligent controller for high-grade sanitary ware

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bao, Kongjun; Shen, Qingping

    2013-03-01

    With the social and economic development and people's living standards improve, more and more emphasis on modern society, people improve the quality of family life, the use of intelligent controller applications in high-grade sanitary ware physiotherapy students. Analysis of high-grade sanitary ware physiotherapy common functions pointed out in the production and use of the possible risks, proposed implementation of the system hardware and matching, given the system software implementation process. High-grade sanitary ware physiotherapy intelligent controller not only to achieve elegant and beautiful, simple, physical therapy, water power, deodorant, multi-function, intelligent control, to meet the consumers, the high-end sanitary ware market, strong demand, Accelerate the enterprise product Upgrade and improve the competitiveness of enterprises.

  15. [Monitoring programs realized by the State Sanitary Inspection concerning the contamination of selected foodstuffs by mycotoxins].

    PubMed

    Rybińska, Krystyna; Postupolski, Jacek; Ledzion, Ewa; Kurpińska-Jaworska, Jolanta; Szczesna, Małgorzata

    2008-01-01

    National monitoring plans, concerning mycotoxins levels in foodstuffs of plant origin in Poland are showed. The official control program for contaminates in food, including mycotoxins, is created by Chief Sanitary Inspectorate, on the basis of the draft prepared in National Institute of Hygiene and approved by Chief Sanitary Inspector. Results of monitoring programme for domestic market: aflatoxins in selected foodstuffs, mycotoxins in baby food and Fusarium toxin in baby food and maize-based foodstuffs, in years 2004-2006 were presented.

  16. [Importance of sanitary-antiepidemic measures in preventing staphylococcal infections in maternity hospitals].

    PubMed

    Kitel', V S; Chumalo, P G; Gorbatiuk, K P

    1980-01-01

    The results of the realization of antistaphylococcal measures in maternity hospitals, carried out under the guidance and control of the sanitary and epidemiological service, are presented. The sanitary and epidemiological station registered each case of staphylococcal infection in nursing mothers and infants and investigated its epidemiological aspects. The exposure of the causes responsible for the disease allowed to take up the necessary antiepidemic measures in due direction, thus preventing the spread of hospital infections.

  17. Occupational health hazards in sewage and sanitary workers

    PubMed Central

    Tiwari, Rajnarayan R.

    2008-01-01

    An estimated 1.2 million scavengers in the country are involved in the sanitation of our surroundings. The working conditions of these sanitary workers have remained virtually unchanged for over a century. Apart from the social atrocities that these workers face, they are exposed to certain health problems by virtue of their occupation. These health hazards include exposure to harmful gases such as methane and hydrogen sulfide, cardiovascular degeneration, musculoskeletal disorders like osteoarthritic changes and intervertebral disc herniation, infections like hepatitis, leptospirosis and helicobacter, skin problems, respiratory system problems and altered pulmonary function parameters. This can be prevented through engineering, medical and legislative measures. While the engineering measures will help in protecting against exposures, the medical measures will help in early detection of the effects of these exposures. This can be partly achieved by developing an effective occupational health service for this group of workers. Also, regular awareness programs should be conducted to impart education regarding safer work procedures and use of personal protective devices. PMID:20040968

  18. Preliminary control technology assessment of Mansfield Sanitary, Incorporated, Errysville, Ohio

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, T.

    1982-03-01

    A visit was made to the Mansfield Sanitary Facility, Perrysville, Ohio to evaluate control methods in place at the site to protect workers from on the job hazards. This facility used a variety of clays, parting compounds, and color additives to blend, form, dry, fire, package, and ship as ceramic plumbing products. Clays used include feldspar, pearless china clay, and nepheline syenite from various suppliers. Other raw materials included Millwood sand, gum, cultozine-fuchsine, industrial plaster, stain, glaze, magnesium aluminum silicate, talc, feldspar, and zirconium silicate. The company made good use of several ventilation techniques at loading stations, transfer points, automatic assembly lines, and the glazing stations. Parting dust became airborne when applied to the molds and while the mold was being dried. Exhaust-ventilation booths used for the spraying of glaze appeared to be very effective. Several areas in which dust-control methods appeared inadequate were noted. The author recommends that some of the work practices and personal protective equipment used as controls should be examined in an in-depth evaluation and documentation.

  19. Assessing antibiotic resistance of microorganisms in sanitary sewage.

    PubMed

    Kaeseberg, Thomas; Blumensaat, Frank; Zhang, Jin; Krebs, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The release of antimicrobial substances into surface waters is of growing concern due to direct toxic effects on all trophic levels and the promotion of antibiotic resistance through sub-inhibitory concentration levels. This study showcases (1) the variation of antibiotics in sanitary sewage depending on different timescales and (2) a method to assess the antibiotic resistance based on an inhibition test. The test is based on the measurement of the oxygen uptake rate (OUR) in wastewater samples with increasing concentrations of the selected antibiotic agents. The following antibiotics were analysed in the present study: clarithromycin (CLA) was selected due to its high toxicity to many microorganisms (low EC50), ciprofloxacin (CIP) which is used to generally fight all bacteria concerning interstitial infections and doxycyclin (DOX) having a broad spectrum efficacy. Results show that CLA inhibited the OUR by approximately 50% at a concentration of about 10 mg L⁻¹, because Gram-negative bacteria such as Escherichia coli are resistant, whereas CIP inhibited about 90% of the OUR at a concentration equal to or greater than 10 mg L⁻¹. In the case of DOX, a moderate inhibition of about 38% at a concentration of 10 mg L⁻¹ was identified, indicating a significant antibiotic resistance. The results are consistent with the corresponding findings from the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. Thus, the presented inhibition test provides a simple but robust alternative method to assess antibiotic resistance in biofilms instead of more complex clinical tests.

  20. A generic methodology for the optimisation of sewer systems using stochastic programming and self-optimizing control.

    PubMed

    Mauricio-Iglesias, Miguel; Montero-Castro, Ignacio; Mollerup, Ane L; Sin, Gürkan

    2015-05-15

    The design of sewer system control is a complex task given the large size of the sewer networks, the transient dynamics of the water flow and the stochastic nature of rainfall. This contribution presents a generic methodology for the design of a self-optimising controller in sewer systems. Such controller is aimed at keeping the system close to the optimal performance, thanks to an optimal selection of controlled variables. The definition of an optimal performance was carried out by a two-stage optimisation (stochastic and deterministic) to take into account both the overflow during the current rain event as well as the expected overflow given the probability of a future rain event. The methodology is successfully applied to design an optimising control strategy for a subcatchment area in Copenhagen. The results are promising and expected to contribute to the advance of the operation and control problem of sewer systems.

  1. RATES OF GASTROINTESTINAL ILLNESS AMONG AREAS IMPACTED BY COMBINED SEWER FACILITIES: ANALYSIS OF MASSACHUSETTS DATA, 2003-2007

    EPA Science Inventory

    Previous studies have reported a temporal association between heavy rainfall and gastrointestinal infection (GI). Combined sewer systems (CSSs), which are present in many urban areas in the US, were designed to collect rainwater runoff, domestic sewage, and industrial wastewater ...

  2. Association between Gastrointestinal Illness and Precipitation in Areas Impacted by Combined Sewer Facilities: Analysis of Massachusetts Data, 2003-2007

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background: Combined sewer systems (CSS) collect rainwater runoff, sewage, and industrial wastewater for transit to treatment facilities. With heavy precipitation, volumes can exceed capacity of treatment facilities, and wastewater discharges directly to receiving waters. These c...

  3. A vision-based tool for the control of hydraulic structures in sewer systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, L.; Sage, D.; Kayal, S.; Jeanbourquin, D.; Rossi, L.

    2009-04-01

    During rain events, the total amount of the wastewater/storm-water mixture cannot be treated in the wastewater treatment plant; the overflowed water goes directly into the environment (lakes, rivers, streams) via devices called combined sewers overflows (CSOs). This water is untreated and is recognized as an important source of pollution. In most cases, the quantity of overflowed water is unknown due to high hydraulic turbulences during rain events; this quantity is often significant. For this reason, the monitoring of the water flow and the water level is of crucial environmental importance. Robust monitoring of sewer systems is a challenging task to achieve. Indeed, the environment inside sewers systems is inherently harsh and hostile: constant humidity of 100%, fast and large water level changes, corrosive atmosphere, presence of gas, difficult access, solid debris inside the flow. A flow monitoring based on traditional probes placed inside the water (such as Doppler flow meter) is difficult to conduct because of the solid material transported by the flow. Probes placed outside the flow such as ultrasonic water level probes are often used; however the measurement is generally done on only one particular point. Experience has shown that the water level in CSOs during rain events is far from being constant due to hydraulic turbulences. Thus, such probes output uncertain information. Moreover, a check of the data reliability is impossible to achieve. The HydroPix system proposes a novel approach to the monitoring of sewers based on video images, without contact with the water flow. The goal of this system is to provide a monitoring tool for wastewater system managers (end-users). The hardware was chosen in order to suit the harsh conditions of sewers system: Cameras are 100% waterproof and corrosion-resistant; Infra-red LED illumination systems are used (waterproof, low power consumption); A waterproof case contains the registration and communication system. The

  4. Identification of controlling factors for the initiation of corrosion of fresh concrete sewers.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Guangming; Sun, Xiaoyan; Keller, Jurg; Bond, Philip L

    2015-09-01

    The development of concrete corrosion in new sewer pipes undergoes an initiation process before reaching an active corrosion stage. This initiation period is assumed to last several months to years but the key factors affecting the process, and its duration, are not well understood. This study is therefore focused on this initial stage of the corrosion process and the effect of key environmental factors. Such knowledge is important for the effective management of corrosion in new sewers, as every year of life extension of such systems has a very high financial benefit. This long-term (4.5 year) study has been conducted in purpose-built corrosion chambers that closely simulated the sewer environment, but with control of three key environmental factors being hydrogen sulfide (H2S) gas phase concentration, relative humidity and air temperature. Fresh concrete coupons, cut from an industry-standard sewer pipe, were exposed to the corrosive conditions in the chambers, both in the gas phase and partially submerged in wastewater. A total of 36 exposure conditions were investigated to determine the controlling factors by regular retrieval of concrete coupons for detailed analysis of surface pH, sulfur compounds (elemental sulfur and sulfate) and concrete mass loss. Corrosion initiation times were thus determined for different exposure conditions. It was found that the corrosion initiation time of both gas-phase and partially-submerged coupons was positively correlated with the gas phase H2S concentration, but only at levels of 10 ppm or below, indicating that sulfide oxidation rate rather than the H2S concentration was the limiting factor during the initiation stage. Relative humidity also played a role for the corrosion initiation of the gas-phase coupons. However, the partially-submerged coupons were not affected by humidity as these coupons were in direct contact with the sewage and hence did have sufficient moisture to enable the microbial processes to proceed. The

  5. Impacts and managerial implications for sewer systems due to recent changes to inputs in domestic wastewater - A review.

    PubMed

    Mattsson, Jonathan; Hedström, Annelie; Ashley, Richard M; Viklander, Maria

    2015-09-15

    Ever since the advent of major sewer construction in the 1850s, the issue of increased solids deposition in sewers due to changes in domestic wastewater inputs has been frequently debated. Three recent changes considered here are the introduction of kitchen sink food waste disposers (FWDs); rising levels of inputs of fat, oil and grease (FOG); and the installation of low-flush toilets (LFTs). In this review these changes have been examined with regard to potential solids depositional impacts on sewer systems and the managerial implications. The review indicates that each of the changes has the potential to cause an increase in solids deposition in sewers and this is likely to be more pronounced for the upstream reaches of networks that serve fewer households than the downstream parts and for specific sewer features such as sags. The review has highlighted the importance of educational campaigns directed to the public to mitigate deposition as many of the observed problems have been linked to domestic behaviour in regard to FOGs, FWDs and toilet flushing. A standardized monitoring procedure of repeat sewer blockage locations can also be a means to identify depositional hot-spots. Interactions between the various changes in inputs in the studies reviewed here indicated an increased potential for blockage formation, but this would need to be further substantiated. As the precise nature of these changes in inputs have been found to be variable, depending on lifestyles and type of installation, the additional problems that may arise pose particular challenges to sewer operators and managers because of the difficulty in generalizing the nature of the changes, particularly where retrofitting projects in households are being considered. The three types of changes to inputs reviewed here highlight the need to consider whether or not more or less solid waste from households should be diverted into sewers.

  6. Estimation of biological oxygen demand and chemical oxygen demand for combined sewer systems using synchronous fluorescence spectra.

    PubMed

    Hur, Jin; Lee, Bo-Mi; Lee, Tae-Hwan; Park, Dae-Hee

    2010-01-01

    Real-time monitoring of water quality for sewer system is required for efficient sewer network design because it provides information on the precise loading of pollutant to wastewater treatment facilities and the impact of loading on receiving water. In this study, synchronous fluorescence spectra and its first derivatives were investigated using a number of wastewater samples collected in sewer systems in urban and non-urban areas, and the optimum fluorescence feature was explored for the estimation of biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and chemical oxygen demand (COD) concentrations of sewer samples. The temporal variations in BOD and COD showed a regular pattern for urban areas whereas they were relatively irregular for non-urban areas. Irrespective of the sewer pipes and the types of the areas, two distinct peaks were identified from the synchronous fluorescence spectra, which correspond to protein-like fluorescence (PLF) and humic-like fluorescence (HLF), respectively. HLF in sewer samples appears to be associated with fluorescent whitening agents. Five fluorescence characteristics were selected from the synchronous spectra and the first-derivatives. Among the selected fluorescence indices, a peak in the PLF region (i.e., Index I) showed the highest correlation coefficient with both BOD and COD. A multiple regression approach based on suspended solid (SS) and Index I used to compensate for the contribution of SS to BOD and COD revealed an improvement in the estimation capability, showing good correlation coefficients of 0.92 and 0.94 for BOD and COD, respectively.

  7. Anoxic transformations of wastewater organic matter in sewers--process kinetics, model concept and wastewater treatment potential.

    PubMed

    Abdul-Talib, S; Hvitved-Jacobsen, T; Vollertsen, J; Ujang, Z

    2002-01-01

    The sewer is an integral part of the urban wastewater system: the sewer, the wastewater treatment plant and the local receiving waters. The sewer is a reactor for microbial changes of the wastewater during transport, affecting the quality of the wastewater and thereby the successive treatment processes or receiving water impacts during combined sewer overflows. This paper presents the results of studies on anoxic processes, namely denitrification, in the bulk water phase of wastewater as it occurs in sewers. Experiments conducted on 12 different wastewater samples have shown that the denitrification process in the bulk wastewater can be simplified by the reduction of nitrate to nitrogen with significant accumulation of nitrite in the water phase. Utilization of nitrate was observed not to be limited by nitrate for concentrations above 5 gNO3-N/m3. The denitrification rates, under conditions of excess substrate and electron acceptor, were found to be in the range of 0.8-2.0 g NO3-N/(m3h). A discussion on the interaction of the sewer processes and the effects on a downstream located wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) is provided.

  8. PID and PLC units for the real-time control of sewer systems.

    PubMed

    Campisano, A; Modica, C

    2002-01-01

    Moveable gates for the real-time control (RTC) of sewer systems storage capacities are usually operated by controllers which, on the basis of local water level or flow velocity measurements, calculate the regulation errors of the monitored variables, determining the necessary regulator movements to lead the flow conditions to the desired set point. In this paper the results of an investigation on the influence of proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controllers and programmable logic controllers (PLC) for the RTC of moveable sluice gates positioned into sewer systems are presented. The analysis of response time, damping and regulation errors provided information on the PID parameter calibration values and on the PLC control function performances. A comparison between the two kind of controllers has also been carried out.

  9. Case study of a fast propagating bacteriogenically induced concrete corrosion in an Austrian sewer system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grengg, Cyrill; Mittermayr, Florian; Baldermann, Andre; Böttcher, Michael; Leis, Albrecht; Koraimann, Günther; Dietzel, Martin

    2015-04-01

    Reaction mechanisms leading to microbially induced concrete corrosion (MICC) are highly complex and often not fully understood. The aim of the present case study is to contribute to a deeper understanding of reaction paths, environmental controls, and corrosion rates related to MICC in a modern Austrian sewer system by introducing an advanced multi proxy approach that comprises gaseous, hydro-geochemical, bacteriological, and mineralogical analyses. Various crucial parameters for detecting alteration features were determined in the field and laboratory, including (i) temperature, pH, alkalinity, chemical compositions of the solutions, (ii) chemical and mineralogical composition of solids, (iii) bacterial analysis, and (iv) concentrations of gaseous H2S, CH4 and CO2 within the sewer pipe atmosphere. An overview of the field site and analytical results, focusing on reaction mechanisms causing the corrosion, as well as possible remediation strategies will be presented.

  10. Reducing pathogens in combined sewer overflows using ozonation or UV irradiation.

    PubMed

    Tondera, Katharina; Klaer, Kassandra; Gebhardt, Jens; Wingender, Jost; Koch, Christoph; Horstkott, Marina; Strathmann, Martin; Jurzik, Lars; Hamza, Ibrahim Ahmed; Pinnekamp, Johannes

    2015-11-01

    Fecal contamination of water resources is a major public health concern in densely populated areas since these water bodies are used for drinking water production or recreational purposes. A main source of this contamination originates from combined sewer overflows (CSOs) in regions with combined sewer systems. Thus, the treatment of CSO discharges is urgent. In this study, we explored whether ozonation or UV irradiation can efficiently reduce pathogenic bacteria, viruses, and protozoan parasites in CSOs. Experiments were carried out in parallel settings at the outflow of a stormwater settling tank in the Ruhr area, Germany. The results showed that both techniques reduce most hygienically relevant bacteria, parasites and viruses. Under the conditions tested, ozonation yielded lower outflow values for the majority of the tested parameters.

  11. Estimation of combined sewer overflow discharge: a software sensor approach based on local water level measurements.

    PubMed

    Ahm, Malte; Thorndahl, Søren; Nielsen, Jesper E; Rasmussen, Michael R

    2016-12-01

    Combined sewer overflow (CSO) structures are constructed to effectively discharge excess water during heavy rainfall, to protect the urban drainage system from hydraulic overload. Consequently, most CSO structures are not constructed according to basic hydraulic principles for ideal measurement weirs. It can, therefore, be a challenge to quantify the discharges from CSOs. Quantification of CSO discharges are important in relation to the increased environmental awareness of the receiving water bodies. Furthermore, CSO discharge quantification is essential for closing the rainfall-runoff mass-balance in combined sewer catchments. A closed mass-balance is an advantage for calibration of all urban drainage models based on mass-balance principles. This study presents three different software sensor concepts based on local water level sensors, which can be used to estimate CSO discharge volumes from hydraulic complex CSO structures. The three concepts were tested and verified under real practical conditions. All three concepts were accurate when compared to electromagnetic flow measurements.

  12. Surface water sewer misconnections in England and Wales: Pollution sources and impacts.

    PubMed

    Ellis, J B; Butler, D

    2015-09-01

    In urban areas served by separate sewerage consisting of separate pipe systems it is not uncommon for misconnections to be made either accidentally or deliberately, whereby the wrong effluent is connected to the wrong sewer. The main focus of this problem has been on in-household appliances that are wrongly connected to separate surface water sewers, potentially leading to pollution of receiving waters and non-compliance with statutory water quality standards. This paper examines the available evidence to evaluate the potential scale, severity and cost of the problem in England and Wales in comparison to that reported from investigations in the United States. The particular difficulties associated with distinguishing specific sewage sources in the wastewater "cocktail" discharged at polluted surface water outfalls are reviewed. The deficiencies of existing legislation and enforcing compliance with respect to misconnections are also discussed and the pollution potential resulting from domestic misconnections is explored based on sampled data.

  13. Environmental and Sanitary Conditions of Guanabara Bay, Rio de Janeiro.

    PubMed

    Fistarol, Giovana O; Coutinho, Felipe H; Moreira, Ana Paula B; Venas, Tainá; Cánovas, Alba; de Paula, Sérgio E M; Coutinho, Ricardo; de Moura, Rodrigo L; Valentin, Jean Louis; Tenenbaum, Denise R; Paranhos, Rodolfo; do Valle, Rogério de A B; Vicente, Ana Carolina P; Amado Filho, Gilberto M; Pereira, Renato Crespo; Kruger, Ricardo; Rezende, Carlos E; Thompson, Cristiane C; Salomon, Paulo S; Thompson, Fabiano L

    2015-01-01

    Guanabara Bay is the second largest bay in the coast of Brazil, with an area of 384 km(2). In its surroundings live circa 16 million inhabitants, out of which 6 million live in Rio de Janeiro city, one of the largest cities of the country, and the host of the 2016 Olympic Games. Anthropogenic interference in Guanabara Bay area started early in the XVI century, but environmental impacts escalated from 1930, when this region underwent an industrialization process. Herein we present an overview of the current environmental and sanitary conditions of Guanabara Bay, a consequence of all these decades of impacts. We will focus on microbial communities, how they may affect higher trophic levels of the aquatic community and also human health. The anthropogenic impacts in the bay are flagged by heavy eutrophication and by the emergence of pathogenic microorganisms that are either carried by domestic and/or hospital waste (e.g., virus, KPC-producing bacteria, and fecal coliforms), or that proliferate in such conditions (e.g., vibrios). Antibiotic resistance genes are commonly found in metagenomes of Guanabara Bay planktonic microorganisms. Furthermore, eutrophication results in recurrent algal blooms, with signs of a shift toward flagellated, mixotrophic groups, including several potentially harmful species. A recent large-scale fish kill episode, and a long trend decrease in fish stocks also reflects the bay's degraded water quality. Although pollution of Guanabara Bay is not a recent problem, the hosting of the 2016 Olympic Games propelled the government to launch a series of plans to restore the bay's water quality. If all plans are fully implemented, the restoration of Guanabara Bay and its shores may be one of the best legacies of the Olympic Games in Rio de Janeiro.

  14. Environmental and Sanitary Conditions of Guanabara Bay, Rio de Janeiro

    PubMed Central

    Fistarol, Giovana O.; Coutinho, Felipe H.; Moreira, Ana Paula B.; Venas, Tainá; Cánovas, Alba; de Paula, Sérgio E. M.; Coutinho, Ricardo; de Moura, Rodrigo L.; Valentin, Jean Louis; Tenenbaum, Denise R.; Paranhos, Rodolfo; do Valle, Rogério de A. B.; Vicente, Ana Carolina P.; Amado Filho, Gilberto M.; Pereira, Renato Crespo; Kruger, Ricardo; Rezende, Carlos E.; Thompson, Cristiane C.; Salomon, Paulo S.; Thompson, Fabiano L.

    2015-01-01

    Guanabara Bay is the second largest bay in the coast of Brazil, with an area of 384 km2. In its surroundings live circa 16 million inhabitants, out of which 6 million live in Rio de Janeiro city, one of the largest cities of the country, and the host of the 2016 Olympic Games. Anthropogenic interference in Guanabara Bay area started early in the XVI century, but environmental impacts escalated from 1930, when this region underwent an industrialization process. Herein we present an overview of the current environmental and sanitary conditions of Guanabara Bay, a consequence of all these decades of impacts. We will focus on microbial communities, how they may affect higher trophic levels of the aquatic community and also human health. The anthropogenic impacts in the bay are flagged by heavy eutrophication and by the emergence of pathogenic microorganisms that are either carried by domestic and/or hospital waste (e.g., virus, KPC-producing bacteria, and fecal coliforms), or that proliferate in such conditions (e.g., vibrios). Antibiotic resistance genes are commonly found in metagenomes of Guanabara Bay planktonic microorganisms. Furthermore, eutrophication results in recurrent algal blooms, with signs of a shift toward flagellated, mixotrophic groups, including several potentially harmful species. A recent large-scale fish kill episode, and a long trend decrease in fish stocks also reflects the bay’s degraded water quality. Although pollution of Guanabara Bay is not a recent problem, the hosting of the 2016 Olympic Games propelled the government to launch a series of plans to restore the bay’s water quality. If all plans are fully implemented, the restoration of Guanabara Bay and its shores may be one of the best legacies of the Olympic Games in Rio de Janeiro. PMID:26635734

  15. Risk assessment study of dioxins in sanitary napkins produced in Japan.

    PubMed

    Ishii, Satoko; Katagiri, Ritsuko; Kataoka, Toshiyuki; Wada, Mitsuhiro; Imai, Shigeo; Yamasaki, Kanji

    2014-10-01

    A risk assessment study of dioxins in sanitary napkins produced in Japan was performed. The daily estimated exposure volume to dioxins was compared with the tolerable daily intake (TDI). The concentrations of dioxins such as polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (DL-PCBs) in seven sanitary napkins were measured using gas chromatography and mass spectroscopy analytical methods. Among the seven napkins, a range of 0.0044-0.076pg TEQ/g dioxins was measured. Daily estimated exposure volume from sanitary napkins was calculated as follows: (dioxin volumes in a sanitary napkin (0.0044-0.076pg TEQ/g)×pulp weight in a sanitary napkin (11.2g)×used napkin numbers/d (7.5)×the number of days/month that women use sanitary napkins (7)×skin absorption rate (0.03)×used years (40))/(average body weight of women (50kg)×the number of days in the month (30)×life years (86)). Daily exposure volumes were estimated to be 0.000024-0.00042pg TEQ/kg/d. For hazard assessment, we used 0.7pg TEQ/kg/d which was the lowest level of TDI among TDI values reported by international agencies. When the daily exposure volume was compared with the TDI, the former was approximately 1666-29,166 times less than the latter. This fact indicated that the risk of exposure to dioxins from sanitary napkins produced in Japan was negligible.

  16. Environmental Assessment for the new sanitary sludge land application sites at the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-01

    Action is necessary to allow the Savannah River Site (SRS) to provide for efficient disposal of sanitary sludge for SRS as forecast by the latest site projections (WSRC, 1991) and modified by the latest US Department of Energy (DOE) planning guidance for SRS (Stello, 1993). From 1986 to 1992, sanitary wastewater sludge was applied on SRS lands in accordance with a South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC) permit as part of the reclamation of SRS`s F- and H-Area borrow pits (disturbed land). This reclamation is essentially complete and, if land disposal of sludge is to continue, new land application sites on SRS must be selected as the extended permit for applying sludge to the borrow pits expired in 1992. Currently, sludge is being trucked offsite for disposal by a subcontractor to a Publicly Owned Treatment Works (POTW) near Augusta, Georgia (WSRC, 1992a). This Environmental Assessment (EA) has been prepared by DOE to assess the potential environmental impacts of onsite land disposal of treated sanitary sewage sludge from SRS. The proposed action is to replace the present offsite disposal of the treated sanitary sludge from existing SRS wastewater treatment plants with onsite reuse through land application. The proposed action is independent of SRS production operations and is necessary for more efficient disposal of SRS sanitary sludge at lower costs. The proposed land application at SRS is treated as part of the preliminary Reconfiguration Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) ``No Action`` alternative (DOE, 1991). The sludge from SRS sanitary wastewater treatment plants is nonhazardous. Onsite disposal of this sludge allows SRS to comply with current DOE policies to keep any DOE wastes onsite where possible and to eliminate any potential accidents due to continuing offsite transportation of sanitary wastes (DOE, 1990a).

  17. EPA SSOAP Toolbox – Evolution and Applications

    EPA Science Inventory

    The nation’s sanitary sewer infrastructure is aging, with some sewers dating back more than 100 years. Nationwide, there are more than 19,500 municipal sanitary-sewer collection systems serving an estimated 150 million people and about 40,000 sanitary sewer overflow (SSO) ...

  18. EPA SSOAP Toolbox Application for Condition and Capacity Assessment of Wastewater Collection Systems - Paper

    EPA Science Inventory

    The nation’s sanitary sewer infrastructure is aging, with some sewers dating back more than 100 years. Nationwide, there are more than 19,500 municipal sanitary-sewer collection systems serving an estimated 150 million people and about 40,000 sanitary sewer overflow (SSO) events ...

  19. EPA SSOAP Toolbox Application for Condition and Capacity Assessment of Wastewater Collection Systems

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Nation’s sanitary sewer infrastructure is aging, with some sewers dating back over 100 years. Nationwide, there are more than 19,500 municipal sanitary-sewer collection systems serving an estimated 150 million people and about 40,000 sanitary sewer overflow (SSO) events per ...

  20. DESIGN MANUAL: ODOR AND CORROSION CONTROL IN SANITARY SEWERAGE SYSTEMS AND TREATMENT PLANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Wastewater is known to the public for its potential to create odor nuisance. Sometimes it is the odors escaping from sewer manholes that cause complaints; more commonly, the odor source is a wastewater treatment facility. Yet there are wastewater treatment facilities that are fr...

  1. Tracking artificial sweeteners and pharmaceuticals introduced into urban groundwater by leaking sewer networks.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Leif; Zwiener, Christian; Zemann, Moritz

    2012-07-15

    There is little quantitative information on the temporal trends of pharmaceuticals and other emerging compounds, including artificial sweeteners, in urban groundwater and their suitability as tracers to inform urban water management. In this study, pharmaceuticals and artificial sweeteners were monitored over 6 years in a shallow urban groundwater body along with a range of conventional sewage tracers in a network of observation wells that were specifically constructed to assess sewer leakage. Out of the 71 substances screened, 24 were detected at above the analytical detection limit. The most frequent compounds were the iodinated X-ray contrast medium amidotrizoic acid (35.3%), the anticonvulsant carbamazepine (33.3%) and the artificial sweetener acesulfame (27.5%), while all other substances occurred in less than 10% of the screened wells. The results from the group of specifically constructed focus wells within 10 m of defective sewers confirmed sewer leaks as being a major entrance pathway into the groundwater. The spatial distribution of pharmaceuticals and artificial sweeteners corresponds well with predictions by pipeline leakage models, which operate on optical sewer condition monitoring data and hydraulic information. Correlations between the concentrations of carbamazepine, iodinated X-ray contrast media and artificial sweeteners were weak to non-existent. Peak concentrations of up to 4130 ng/l of amidotrizoic acid were found in the groundwater downstream of the local hospital. The analysis of 168 samples for amidotrizoic acid, taken at 5 different occasions, did not show significant temporal trends for the years 2002-2008, despite changed recommendations in the medical usage of amidotrizoic acid. The detailed results show that the current mass balance approaches for urban groundwater bodies must be adapted to reflect the spatially distributed leaks and the variable wastewater composition in addition to the lateral and horizontal groundwater fluxes.

  2. Population ecology and movement of the American cockroach (Dictyoptera: Blattidae) in sewers.

    PubMed

    Tee, Hui-Siang; Saad, Ahmad Ramli; Lee, Chow-Yang

    2011-07-01

    The population size, age-class structure, and movement of the American cockroach, Periplaneta americana (L.) (Dictyoptera: Blattidae), were studied in three sewers in Penang, Malaysia, from September 2008 to October 2009. Eighteen to 20 glass-jar traps (two per manhole) were deployed for a 24-h period during each sampling occasion at each sewer. Adults and nymphs were active throughout the study period, with an average monthly trap catch of 57-97 adults and 79-99 nymphs. The mean proportions of adults and nymphs at the three sewers ranged from 0.47 to 0.57. Of the 2177 male and 2717 female cockroaches marked and released over the three sewers, recapture rates were 29.4-45.8 and 30.8-47.0%, respectively. The proportion of marked males and females did not differ significantly from the proportion of recaptured marked males and females. However, the mean number of times a marked female was recaptured was significantly greater than that of males. Of the 783 males and 1,030 females that were marked and recaptured, 19.4 and 24.7%, respectively, had moved between manholes, and significantly more females than males moved between manholes. Of the 406 recaptured marked adults that moved between manholes, 90.4% moved a distance of 2-20 m from their initial release site; one male moved 192 m, the longest distance recorded. Trap catch on each sampling occasion was positively correlated with daily mean temperature. The number of cockroach movements between manholes also was correlated with the mean daily minimum temperature.

  3. Biodegradation of nonionic and anionic surfactants in domestic wastewater under simulated sewer conditions.

    PubMed

    Menzies, Jennifer Z; McDonough, Kathleen; McAvoy, Drew; Federle, Thomas W

    2017-02-01

    The ultimate disposition of chemicals discarded down the drain can be substantially impacted by their fate in the sewer, but to date limited data have been published on the biodegradability of chemicals in sewer systems. The recently established OECD 314 guideline (Simulation tests to assess the biodegradability of chemicals discharged in wastewater, 2008) contains a simulation method (314A) for evaluating the biodegradation of chemicals in sewage under simulated sewer conditions. This research used the OECD 314A method to evaluate the rates and pathways of primary and ultimate biodegradation of a suite of (14)C-labeled homologues representing four classes of high volume surfactants including nonionic alkyl ethoxylates (AE), and anionic alkyl ethoxysulfates (AES), alkyl sulfate (AS) and linear alkyl benzene sulfonate (LAS). All the tested homologues exhibited >97 % loss of parent, formation of metabolites, and some level (16-94 %) of CO2 production after being incubated 96-100 h in raw domestic wastewater. Comparison of C12E3, C14E3, and C16E3 showed that the first order biodegradation rate was affected by alkyl chain length with rates ranging from 6.8 h(-1) for C12E3 to 0.49 h(-1) for C16E3. Conversely, comparison of C14E1, C14E3, and C14E9 showed that the number of ethoxy units did not impact the biodegradation rate. AES and AS degraded quickly with first order kinetic rates of 1.9-3.7 and 41 h(-1) respectively. LAS did not exhibit first order decay kinetics and primary degradation was slow. Biodegradation pathways were also determined. This work shows that biodegradation in the sewer has a substantial impact on levels of surfactants and surfactant metabolites that ultimately reach wastewater treatment plants.

  4. Is H2S a suitable process indicator for odour abatement performance of sewer odours?

    PubMed

    Wang, B; Sivret, E C; Parcsi, G; Wang, X; Le, N M; Kenny, S; Bustamante, H; Stuetz, R M

    2014-01-01

    Odour abatement units are typically designed and maintained on H(2)S concentrations, but operational failures are reported in terms of overall odour removal, suggesting a wide range of malodorous compounds emitted from sewers that may not be efficiently removed by existing odour abatement processes. Towards providing greater insight into this issue, several activated carbon filters and biofilters treating odorous emissions from sewer systems in Sydney (Australia) were monitored by collecting and analysing gas samples before and after treatment. The monitoring studies were conducted by both olfactometric measurements and gas-chromatography-based chemical analysis. Single H(2)S assessment often failed to indicate the odour abatement performance for treatment systems in the abatement units studied, particularly when the incoming H(2)S concentrations were in the sub-ppm range (i.e. below H(2)S odour threshold). Chemical analysis indicated that some non-H(2)S odorous compounds were not removed efficiently during odour treatment. Additionally, when odour eliminations were correlated with the removal of individual compounds (Pearson's correlations) it was observed that the correlation (with a coefficient of 0.79) was best when the overall removal of all the measured odorous compounds that exceeded their odour threshold values was used for the analysis. These findings may help to further advance the design and operation of odour abatement processes to address the treatment of sewer odour emissions.

  5. Predictive optimal control of sewer networks using CORAL tool: application to Riera Blanca catchment in Barcelona.

    PubMed

    Puig, V; Cembrano, G; Romera, J; Quevedo, J; Aznar, B; Ramón, G; Cabot, J

    2009-01-01

    This paper deals with the global control of the Riera Blanca catchment in the Barcelona sewer network using a predictive optimal control approach. This catchment has been modelled using a conceptual modelling approach based on decomposing the catchments in subcatchments and representing them as virtual tanks. This conceptual modelling approach allows real-time model calibration and control of the sewer network. The global control problem of the Riera Blanca catchment is solved using a optimal/predictive control algorithm. To implement the predictive optimal control of the Riera Blanca catchment, a software tool named CORAL is used. The on-line control is simulated by interfacing CORAL with a high fidelity simulator of sewer networks (MOUSE). CORAL interchanges readings from the limnimeters and gate commands with MOUSE as if it was connected with the real SCADA system. Finally, the global control results obtained using the predictive optimal control are presented and compared against the results obtained using current local control system. The results obtained using the global control are very satisfactory compared to those obtained using the local control.

  6. A database and model to support proactive management of sediment-related sewer blockages.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Juan Pablo; McIntyre, Neil; Díaz-Granados, Mario; Maksimović, Cedo

    2012-10-01

    Due to increasing customer and political pressures, and more stringent environmental regulations, sediment and other blockage issues are now a high priority when assessing sewer system operational performance. Blockages caused by sediment deposits reduce sewer system reliability and demand remedial action at considerable operational cost. Consequently, procedures are required for identifying which parts of the sewer system are in most need of proactive removal of sediments. This paper presents an exceptionally long (7.5 years) and spatially detailed (9658 grid squares--0.03 km² each--covering a population of nearly 7.5 million) data set obtained from a customer complaints database in Bogotá (Colombia). The sediment-related blockage data are modelled using homogeneous and non-homogeneous Poisson process models. In most of the analysed areas the inter-arrival time between blockages can be represented by the homogeneous process, but there are a considerable number of areas (up to 34%) for which there is strong evidence of non-stationarity. In most of these cases, the mean blockage rate increases over time, signifying a continual deterioration of the system despite repairs, this being particularly marked for pipe and gully pot related blockages. The physical properties of the system (mean pipe slope, diameter and pipe length) have a clear but weak influence on observed blockage rates. The Bogotá case study illustrates the potential value of customer complaints databases and formal analysis frameworks for proactive sewerage maintenance scheduling in large cities.

  7. Analysis of the microbial communities on corroded concrete sewer pipes--a case study.

    PubMed

    Vincke, E; Boon, N; Verstraete, W

    2001-12-01

    Conventional as well as molecular techniques have been used to determine the microbial communities present on the concrete walls of sewer pipes. The genetic fingerprint of the microbiota on corroded concrete sewer pipes was obtained by means of denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) of 16S rRNA gene fragments. The DGGE profiles of the bacterial communities present on the concrete surface changed as observed by shifts occurring at the level of the dominance of bands from non-corroded places to the most severely corroded places. By means of statistical tools, it was possible to distinguish two different groups, corresponding to the microbial communities on corroded and non-corroded surfaces, respectively. Characterization of the microbial communities indicated that the sequences of typical bands showed the highest level of identity to sequences from the bacterial strains Thiobacillus thiooxidans, Acidithiobacillus sp., Mycobacterium sp. and different heterotrophs belonging to the alpha-, beta- and gamma-Proteobacteria, Acidobacteria and Actinobacteria. In addition, the presence of N-acyl-homoserine lactone signal molecules was shown by two bio-assays of the biofilm on the concrete under the water level and at the most severely corroded places on the concrete surface of the sewer pipe.

  8. Water Quality of Combined Sewer Overflows, Stormwater, and Streams, Omaha, Nebraska, 2006-07

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vogel, Jason R.; Frankforter, Jill D.; Rus, David L.; Hobza, Christopher M.; Moser, Matthew T.

    2009-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the City of Omaha, investigated the water quality of combined sewer overflows, stormwater, and streams in the Omaha, Nebraska, area by collecting and analyzing 1,175 water samples from August 2006 through October 2007. The study area included the drainage area of Papillion Creek at Capeheart Road near Bellevue, Nebraska, which encompasses the tributary drainages of the Big and Little Papillion Creeks and Cole Creek, along with the Missouri River reach that is adjacent to Omaha. Of the 101 constituents analyzed during the study, 100 were detected in at least 1 sample during the study. Spatial and seasonal comparisons were completed for environmental samples. Measured concentrations in stream samples were compared to water-quality criteria for pollutants of concern. Finally, the mass loads of water-quality constituents in the combined sewer overflow discharges, stormwater outfalls, and streams were computed and compared. The results of the study indicate that combined sewer overflow and stormwater discharges are affecting the water quality of the streams in the Omaha area. At the Papillion Creek Basin sites, Escherichia coli densities were greater than 126 units per 100 milliliters in 99 percent of the samples (212 of 213 samples analyzed for Escherichia coli) collected during the recreational-use season from May through September (in 2006 and 2007). Escherichia coli densities in 76 percent of Missouri River samples (39 of 51 samples) were greater than 126 units per 100 milliliters in samples collected from May through September (in 2006 and 2007). None of the constituents with human health criteria for consumption of water, fish, and other aquatic organisms were detected at levels greater than the criteria in any of the samples collected during this study. Total phosphorus concentrations in water samples collected in the Papillion Creek Basin were in excess of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's proposed

  9. [Sanitary and epidemiological supply for the Russian Army during the First World War (1914-1918)].

    PubMed

    gorelova, L E; Loktev, A E

    2014-02-01

    At the beginning of the First World War the most typical diseases in the Russian Army were typhoid, typhus, diphtheria, cholera, smallpox and other infectious diseases. At the beginning of the First World War the level of infectious morbidity was significantly low, but further increased and pandemic risk arose. Servicemen were mostly ill with typhus, relapsing fever, flux, cholera, smallpox and typhoid. The highest mortality rate was registered in patients with cholera, typhus and typhoid. According the prewar deployment program of the Russian Army anti-epidemiologic facilities were established. By the end of war were established 110 sanitary-and-hygienic and 90 disinfection units. However, organization of anti-epidemiologic security was unsatisfactory. Due to lack of specialists and equipment anti-epidemiologic facilities of units were under strength. Commanders of sanitary units and sanitary service had not enough resources for operational service in the Forces and facilities of rear area.

  10. Creation of Integrated System of Cosmonauts Sanitary-Hygienic Supply: Researches, Problems and Prospects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shumilina, I.; Krivobok, S.; Shumilina, G.

    The necessity of Integrated System creation for cosmonauts Sanitary - Hygienic Supply has appeared at realization of joint flights on the International Space Station (ISS). Russian hygiene means manufactured and tested in the long space flights conditions and personal hygiene means of foreign manufacture, which were developed without chamber experiments conditions, are mean to use for Integrated System. The realization of Sanitary - Hygienic Water (SHW) regeneration is supposed for water circulation. The researches directed on equipment creation for clothing washing and clothing drying were carried out for the purposes of goods turnover optimization on ISS The variants of possible realization of water procedures (shower-bath, face washing) are studied. New and essentially date are received for an estimation of efficiency of various ways of cosmonauts Sanitary - Hygienic Supply, including results of tests for new generation regeneration SHW systems with Nanofiltration unit on various kinds real SHW. The improvement of washing-up liquids, individual selection of a complex of personal hygiene means with the man skin condition registration allows to raise of preventive measures use efficiency directed on prevention of adverse skin changes and skin diseases. The analysis of the equipment and methods for clothing washing and clothing drying for conditions of long space flight are carried out. The experimental data on textile materials drying are received. The investigations covered a wide range of issues associated with Sanitary - Hygienic Supply Integrated System including Personal Hygiene complex (items and techniques), ways of Sanitary - Hygienic Supply realization, methods of wastewater regeneration. The results of researches are especially urgent for cosmonauts Sanitary - Hygienic Supply System creation for long space flights, in particular, "Mars" flights at impossibility of updating of water stock, clothing stock etc.

  11. Modelling the effects of on-site greywater reuse and low flush toilets on municipal sewer systems.

    PubMed

    Penn, R; Schütze, M; Friedler, E

    2013-01-15

    On-site greywater reuse (GWR) and installation of water-efficient toilets (WET) reduce urban freshwater demand. Research on GWR and WET has generally overlooked the effects that GWR may have on municipal sewer systems. This paper discusses and quantifies these effects. The effects of GWR and WET, positive and negative, were studied by modelling a representative urban sewer system. GWR scenarios were modelled and analysed using the SIMBA simulation system. The results show that, as expected, the flow, velocity and proportional depth decrease as GWR increases. Nevertheless, the reduction is not evenly distributed throughout the day but mainly occurs during the morning and evening peaks. Examination of the effects of reduced toilet flush volumes revealed that in some of the GWR scenarios flows, velocities and proportional depths in the sewer were reduced, while in other GWR scenarios discharge volumes, velocities and proportional depths did not change. Further, it is indicated that as a result of GWR and installation of WET, sewer blockage rates are not expected to increase significantly. The results support the option to construct new sewer systems with smaller pipe diameters. The analysis shows that as the penetration of GWR systems increase, and with the installation of WET, concentrations of pollutants also increase. In GWR scenarios (when toilet flush volume is not reduced) the increase in pollutant concentrations is lower than the proportional reduction of sewage flow. Moreover, the results show that the spatial distribution of houses reusing GW does not significantly affect the parameters examined.

  12. Disparities in Water and Sewer Services in North Carolina: An Analysis of the Decision-Making Process

    PubMed Central

    Gibson, Jacqueline MacDonald

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We examined the factors that affect access to municipal water and sewer service for unincorporated communities relying on wells and septic tanks. Methods. Using a multisite case study design, we conducted in-depth, semistructured interviews with 25 key informants from 3 unincorporated communities in Hoke, New Hanover, and Transylvania counties, North Carolina, July through September 2013. Interviewees included elected officials, health officials, utility providers, and community members. We coded the interviews in ATLAS.ti to identify common themes. Results. Financing for water and sewer service emerged as the predominant factor that influenced decisions to extend these services. Improved health emerged as a minor factor, suggesting that local officials may not place a high emphasis on the health benefits of extending public water and sewer services. Awareness of failed septic systems in communities can prompt city officials to extend sewer service to these areas; however, failed systems are often underreported. Conclusions. Understanding the health costs and benefits of water and sewer extension and integrating these findings into the local decision-making process may help address disparities in access to municipal services. PMID:26270307

  13. Nitrogen in ground water and surface water from sewered and unsewered areas, Nassau County, Long Island, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ragone, Stephen E.; Katz, B.G.; Kimmel, G.E.; Lindner, J.B.

    1980-01-01

    Data on nitrogen in groundwater and surface waters in the sewered and unsewered parts of Nassau County were analyzed to evaluate the principal sources of nitrogen and to determine what factors significantly affect its concentration in the upper glacial aquifer and the underlying Magothy aquifer. Nitrate data for water samples collected during 1952-76 show that: (1) median nitrate concentration of water in the sewered part of the entire thickness of the upper glacial aquifer is not significantly different (at the 0.95 confidence limit, N = 1400) from that in the unsewered area, (2) median nitrate concentrations in the upper 3 meters of the upper glacial aquifer are significantly lower (at the 0.90 confidence limit, N = 15) in the sewered area than in the unsewered area, (3) in the sewered area, water from 8 of 10 wells in the upper glacial aquifer shows significantly decreasing nitrate concentration with time, (4) total nitrogen concentrations in streams draining the sewered area are significantly lower than in those draining the unsewered area, (5) from more than 2,000 nitrate analyses of water in the Magothy aquifer collected from 1952-76, it was found that nitrate is present at all depths but that nitrate concentrations decrease with depth, and (6) although water from most Magothy wells having long-term nitrate records shows no significant change in nitrate concentration with time, where the change is significant, nitrate is increasing. (USGS)

  14. 30 CFR 71.402 - Minimum requirements for bathing facilities, change rooms, and sanitary flush toilet facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., change rooms, and sanitary flush toilet facilities. 71.402 Section 71.402 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY...-SURFACE COAL MINES AND SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Surface Bathing Facilities, Change... bathing facilities, change rooms, and sanitary flush toilet facilities. (a) All bathing facilities,...

  15. 30 CFR 71.402 - Minimum requirements for bathing facilities, change rooms, and sanitary flush toilet facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., change rooms, and sanitary flush toilet facilities. 71.402 Section 71.402 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY...-SURFACE COAL MINES AND SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Surface Bathing Facilities, Change... bathing facilities, change rooms, and sanitary flush toilet facilities. (a) All bathing facilities,...

  16. 30 CFR 71.402 - Minimum requirements for bathing facilities, change rooms, and sanitary flush toilet facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., change rooms, and sanitary flush toilet facilities. 71.402 Section 71.402 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY...-SURFACE COAL MINES AND SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Surface Bathing Facilities, Change... bathing facilities, change rooms, and sanitary flush toilet facilities. (a) All bathing facilities,...

  17. 30 CFR 71.402 - Minimum requirements for bathing facilities, change rooms, and sanitary flush toilet facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., change rooms, and sanitary flush toilet facilities. 71.402 Section 71.402 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY...-SURFACE COAL MINES AND SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Surface Bathing Facilities, Change... bathing facilities, change rooms, and sanitary flush toilet facilities. (a) All bathing facilities,...

  18. 30 CFR 71.402 - Minimum requirements for bathing facilities, change rooms, and sanitary flush toilet facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., change rooms, and sanitary flush toilet facilities. 71.402 Section 71.402 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY...-SURFACE COAL MINES AND SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Surface Bathing Facilities, Change... bathing facilities, change rooms, and sanitary flush toilet facilities. (a) All bathing facilities,...

  19. Sanitary landfills: Earth fills. January 1981-August 1991 (Citations from the NTIS Data Base). Rept. for Jan 81-Aug 91

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-07-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the design, operation, and management of sanitary landfills as related to earth fills. Topics include liner materials evaluations, leachate analyses, site studies, environmental monitoring, and solid waste management strategies. Hazardous materials, public health, risk assessment, refuse disposal, sanitary engineering, soil contamination, water pollution, solid waste disposal, and wetlands are considered. (Contains 118 citations with title list and subject index.)

  20. Assessing characteristic time and space scales of in-sewer processes by analysis of one year of continuous in-sewer monitoring data.

    PubMed

    Schilperoort, R P S; Dirksen, J; Langeveld, J G; Clemens, F H L R

    2012-01-01

    Long-term and high-frequency in-sewer monitoring opens up a broad range of possibilities to study (influences on) water quantity and quality variations. Using data from the Eindhoven wastewater system in The Netherlands both dry weather flow and wet weather flow situations have been studied. For approximately 160 dry weather days mean diurnal variations of flow and pollutant concentrations have been derived. For wet weather situations (≈ 40 storm events) peak load factors have been studied. Generally, peak load factors for all considered pollutant parameters are larger than one. Peak load factors for particulate matter are larger than for dissolved constituents. Also, the smallest catchment area consistently shows the largest mean peak factors and vice versa.

  1. Dopant-assisted negative photoionization Ion mobility spectrometry coupled with on-line cooling inlet for real-time monitoring H2S concentration in sewer gas.

    PubMed

    Peng, Liying; Jiang, Dandan; Wang, Zhenxin; Hua, Lei; Li, Haiyang

    2016-06-01

    Malodorous hydrogen sulfide (H2S) gas often exists in the sewer system and associates with the problems of releasing the dangerous odor to the atmosphere and causing sewer pipe to be corroded. A simple method is in demand for real-time measuring H2S level in the sewer gas. In this paper, an innovated method based on dopant-assisted negative photoionization ion mobility spectrometry (DANP-IMS) with on-line semiconductor cooling inlet was put forward and successfully applied for the real-time measurement of H2S in sewer gas. The influence of moisture was effectively reduced via an on-line cooling method and a non-equilibrium dilution with drift gas. The limits of quantitation for the H2S in ≥60% relative humidity air could be obtained at ≤79.0ng L(-1) with linear ranges of 129-2064ng L(-1). The H2S concentration in a sewer manhole was successfully determined while its product ions were identified by an ion-mobility time-of-fight mass spectrometry. Finally, the correlation between sewer H2S concentration and the daily routines and habits of residents was investigated through hourly or real-time monitoring the variation of sewer H2S in manholes, indicating the power of this DANP-IMS method in assessing the H2S concentration in sewer system.

  2. Assessing the Impacts of Pulp Loading from Non-Dispersible Materials on Downstream Sewer Systems (WERF Report INFR1R14)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract:This study subjected wipes from five different manufacturers to a variety of tests to determine if changes to their physical characteristics occur when introduced into a sewer systemand what effect the shredded material (pulp) has on the downstream sewer. Shredded and no...

  3. Sewer epidemiology mass balances for assessing the illicit use of methamphetamine, amphetamine and tetrahydrocannabinol.

    PubMed

    Khan, Usman; Nicell, Jim A

    2012-04-01

    In sewer epidemiology, mass balances are used to back-extrapolate measurements of wastewater influent concentrations of appropriate drug residues to assess the parent illicit drug's level of use in upstream populations. This study focussed on developing and refining mass balances for the use of illicit methamphetamine, amphetamine and tetrahydrocannabinol. As a first step, a multi-criteria evaluation was used to select unchanged methamphetamine, unchanged amphetamine and 11-nor-9-carboxy-tetrahydrocannabinol as the most appropriate drug residues to track a selected population's use of illicit methamphetamine, amphetamine and tetrahydrocannabinol, respectively. For each of these selected drug residues, mass balances were developed by utilizing all disposition data available for their release from all their respective sources, incorporating route-of-administration considerations where relevant, and accounting for variations in the metabolic capacity of users of the various relevant licit and illicit sources. Further, since the selected drug residues for the use of methamphetamine and amphetamine cannot only result from their use but numerous other licit and illicit sources, comprehensive general source models were developed for their enantiomeric-specific release to sewers. The relative importance of the sources identified in the general source model was evaluated by performing national substance flow analyses for a number of countries. Results suggested that licit sources of methamphetamine are expected to be only of significance in populations where its illicit use is minor. Similarly, in populations where the use of illicitly produced amphetamine is currently of relevance, licit contributions to the sewer loads of amphetamine are likely to be of negligible importance. Lastly, the study of tetrahydrocannabinol back-extrapolation mass balances suggested that further research is required to assess the importance of fecal elimination of 11-nor-9-carboxy-tetrahydrocannabinol.

  4. Stratified Microbial Structure and Activity in Sulfide- and Methane-Producing Anaerobic Sewer Biofilms

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Jing; Hu, Shihu; Sharma, Keshab Raj; Ni, Bing-Jie

    2014-01-01

    Simultaneous production of sulfide and methane by anaerobic sewer biofilms has recently been observed, suggesting that sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) and methanogenic archaea (MA), microorganisms known to compete for the same substrates, can coexist in this environment. This study investigated the community structures and activities of SRB and MA in anaerobic sewer biofilms (average thickness of 800 μm) using a combination of microelectrode measurements, molecular techniques, and mathematical modeling. It was seen that sulfide was mainly produced in the outer layer of the biofilm, between the depths of 0 and 300 μm, which is in good agreement with the distribution of SRB population as revealed by cryosection-fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). SRB had a higher relative abundance of 20% on the surface layer, which decreased gradually to below 3% at a depth of 400 μm. In contrast, MA mainly inhabited the inner layer of the biofilm. Their relative abundances increased from 10% to 75% at depths of 200 μm and 700 μm, respectively, from the biofilm surface layer. High-throughput pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA amplicons showed that SRB in the biofilm were mainly affiliated with five genera, Desulfobulbus, Desulfomicrobium, Desulfovibrio, Desulfatiferula, and Desulforegula, while about 90% of the MA population belonged to the genus Methanosaeta. The spatial organizations of SRB and MA revealed by pyrosequencing were consistent with the FISH results. A biofilm model was constructed to simulate the SRB and MA distributions in the anaerobic sewer biofilm. The good fit between model predictions and the experimental data indicate that the coexistence and spatial structure of SRB and MA in the biofilm resulted from the microbial types and their metabolic transformations and interactions with substrates. PMID:25192994

  5. Effects of combined-sewer overflows and urban runoff on the water quality of Fall Creek, Indianapolis, Indiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Martin, J.D.

    1995-01-01

    Concentrations of dissolved oxygen measured at the station in the middle of the combined-sewer overflows were less than the Indiana minimum ambient water-quality standard of 4.0 milligrams per liter during all storms. Concentrations of ammonia, oxygen demand, copper, lead, zinc, and fecal coliform bacteria at the stations downstream from the combined-sewer overflows were much higher in storm runoff than in base flow. Increased concentrations of oxygen demand in runoff probably were caused by combined-sewer overflows, urban runoff, and the resuspension of organic material deposited on the streambed. Some of the increased concentrations of lead, zinc, and probably copper can be attributed to the discharge and resuspension of filter backwash

  6. Prioritising sewerage maintenance using inferred sewer age: a case study for Edinburgh.

    PubMed

    Arthur, S; Burkhard, R

    2010-01-01

    The reported research project focuses on using a database which contains details of customer contacts and CCTV data for a key Scottish catchment to construct a GIS based sewer condition model. Given the nature of the asset registry, a key research challenge was estimating the age of individual lengths of pipe. Within this context, asset age was inferred using the estimated age of surface developments-this involved overlaying the network in a GIS with historical digital maps. The paper illustrates that inferred asset age can reliably be used to highlight assets which are more likely to fail.

  7. Graph theoretical stable allocation as a tool for central control of sewer systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Nooijen, Ronald; Kolechkina, Alla

    2016-04-01

    Dutch sewer networks consist of multiple sub-networks that serve both to collect waste water and as a link in the transport chain of waste water to the Waste Water Treatment Plant. Within sub-networks transport is by gravity driven flow. The sub-networks are linked by pumping stations. If the network of pipes also serves to collect precipitation then the system is called a combined system. For some of these networks it may be beneficial to implement central control. We study whether the graph theoretical concept of stable allocations can be used as a basis for the algorithm underlying such a central conrol system.

  8. Bacterial degradation of polychlorinted biphenyls in sludge from an industrial sewer lagoon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, W. S.; Takacs, A. M.; Kuivinen, D. E.

    1983-01-01

    A laboratory experiment was conducted to determine if polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) found in an industrial sewer sludge can be effectively degraded by mutant bacteria. The aerated sludge was inoculated daily with mutant bacteria in order to augment the existing bacteria with bacteria that were considered to be capable of degrading PCB's. The pH, nitrogen, and phosphorus levels were monitored daily to maintain an optimum growing medium for the bacteria. A gas chromatographic method was used to determine the PCB concentrations of the sludge initially and also throughout the experiment. Results and discussion of the bacterial treatment of polychlorinated biphenyls are presented.

  9. Monitoring and analysis of combined sewer overflows, Riverside and Evanston, Illinois, 1997-99

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Waite, Andrew M.; Hornewer, Nancy J.; Johnson, Gary P.

    2002-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, collected and analyzed flow data in combined sewer systems in Riverside and Evanston, northeastern Illinois, from March 1997 to December 1999. Continuous 2- and 5-minute stage and velocity data were collected during surcharged and nonsurcharged conditions at 12 locations. Mass balances were calculated to determine the volume of water flowing through the tide-gate openings to the Des Plaines River and the North Shore Channel and to determine the volume of water flowing past the sluice gate to the deep tunnel. The sewer systems consist of circular pipes ranging in diameter from 0.83 feet to 10.0 feet, elliptical siphon pipes, ledges, and tide and sluice gates. Pipes were constructed of either brick and mortar or concrete, and ranged from having smooth surfaces to rough, pitted and crumbling surfaces. One pipe was noticeably affected by water infiltration from saturated ground. During data analysis, many assumptions were necessary because of the complexity of the flow data and sewer-system configurations. These assumptions included estimating the volume of water entering an interceptor sewer at the ''Gage Street pipe'' at Riverside, the effect of infiltration on the ''brick pipe'' at Riverside, and the minimum velocity required for the meter to make an accurate velocity determination. Other factors affecting the analysis of flow data included possible non-instrumented sources of inflow, and backwater conditions in some pipes, which could have caused error in the data analysis. Variations of these assumptions potentially could cause appreciable changes to the final massbalance calculations. Mass-balance analysis at Riverside indicated a total inflow volume into chamber 3 of approximately 721,000 cubic feet (ft3) during April 22-26, 1999. Outflow volume to the Des Plaines River at Riverside through the tide gate was approximately 132,000 ft3; outflow volume to the deep tunnel through the

  10. Remediation of Mercury-Contaminated Storm Sewer Sediments from the West End Mercury Area at the Y-12 National Security Complex in Oak Ridge, Tennessee - 12061

    SciTech Connect

    Tremaine, Diana; Douglas, Steven G.

    2012-07-01

    The Y-12 National Security Complex in Oak Ridge, TN has faced an ongoing challenge from mercury entrapped in soils beneath and adjacent to buildings, storm sewers, and process pipelines. Previous actions to reduce the quantity and/or mobilization of mercury-contaminated media have included plugging of building floor drains, cleaning of sediment and sludge from sumps, manholes, drain lines, and storm sewers, lining/relining of storm sewers and replacement of a portion of the storm sewer trunk line, re-routing and removal of process piping, and installation of the Central Mercury Treatment System to capture and treat contaminated sump water. Despite the success of these actions, mercury flux in the storm sewer out-falls that discharge to Upper East Fork Poplar Creek (UEFPC) continues to pose a threat to long-term water quality. A video camera survey of the storm sewer network revealed several sections of storm sewer that had large cracks, separations, swells, and accumulations of sediment/sludge and debris. The selected remedy was to clean and line the sections of storm sewer pipe that were determined to be primary contributors to the mercury flux in the storm sewer out-falls. The project, referred to as the West End Mercury Area (WEMA) Storm Sewer Remediation Project, included cleaning sediment and debris from over 2,460 meters of storm sewer pipe followed by the installation of nearly 366 meters of cure-in-place pipe (CIPP) liner. One of the greatest challenges to the success of this project was the high cost of disposal associated with the mercury-contaminated sludge and wastewater generated from the storm sewer cleaning process. A contractor designed and operated an on-site wastewater pre-treatment system that successfully reduced mercury levels in 191 cubic meters of sludge to levels that allowed it to be disposed at Nevada Nuclear Security Site (NNSS) disposal cell as a non-hazardous, low-level waste. The system was also effective at pre-treating over 1

  11. Assessment of pH shock as a method for controlling sulfide and methane formation in pressure main sewer systems.

    PubMed

    Gutierrez, Oriol; Sudarjanto, Gatut; Ren, Guo; Ganigué, Ramon; Jiang, Guangming; Yuan, Zhiguo

    2014-01-01

    Caustic dosing to raise pH above 10.0 for short periods (hours) is often used by water utilities for controlling sulfide formation in sewers. However the effectiveness of this strategy is rarely reported and the impact of pH level and exposure time on the effectiveness is largely unknown. The effectiveness of this strategy under various pH levels (10.5-12.5) and exposure time (0.5-6.0 h) in controlling sulfide and methane production was evaluated in laboratory scale anaerobic sewer reactors and then in a real sewer system. Laboratory studies showed that the sulfide production rate of the laboratory sewer biofilm was reduced by 70-90% upon the completion of the pH shock, while the methane production rate decreased by 95-100%. It took approximately one week for the sulfate-reducing activity to recover to normal levels. In comparison, the methanogenic activities recovered to only about 10% in 4 weeks. The slow recovery is explained by the substantially loss of cell viability upon pH shocks, which recovered slowly after the shocks. Laboratory studies further revealed that a pH level of 10.5 for 1-2 h represent cost-effective conditions for the pH shock treatment. However, field trials showed a higher pH (11.5) and larger dosing times are needed due to the pH decreases along the sewer line and at the two ends of the caustic-receiving wastewater slugs due to dilution. To have effective sulfide and methane control, it is important to ensure effective conditions (pH > 10.5 and duration >1-2 h) for the entire sewer line.

  12. Hydrocarbons and heavy metals in the different sewer deposits in the 'Le Marais' catchment (Paris, France): stocks, distributions and origins.

    PubMed

    Rocher, Vincent; Azimi, Sam; Moilleron, Régis; Chebbo, Ghassan

    2004-05-05

    The knowledge of the pollution stored in combined sewers is of prime importance in terms of management of wet weather flow pollution since sewer deposits play a significant role as source of pollution in combined sewer overflows. This work, which focused on the hydrocarbon (aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons) and metallic (Fe, Zn, Pb, Cu and Cd) pollution fixed to the different kinds of sewer deposits (gross bed sediment [GBS], organic layer [OL] and biofilm), was performed in order to provide a complete overview of the contaminant storage in the 'Le Marais' combined sewer (Central Paris, France). Firstly, our results have shown that, for all kinds of pollutants, a major part was stored in the GBS (87 to 98%), a lesser part in the OL (2 to 13%) and an insignificant part in the biofilm (<1%). These results demonstrated that the potential contribution of biofilm to wet weather pollution was negligible compared to the OL one. Secondly, the investigation of hydrocarbon fingerprints in each deposit has provided relevant information about contamination origins: (1) aliphatic hydrocarbon distributions were indicative of petroleum input in the GBS and reflected a mixture of biogenic and petroleum inputs in the OL and biofilm, (2) aromatic hydrocarbon distributions suggested an important pyrolytic contamination in all the deposits. Finally, the study of pollutant fingerprints in the different deposits and in the suspended solids going through the collector has shown that: (1) the suspended solids were the major component of OL and biofilm while urban runoff seemed to be the main transport mechanism introducing pollutants in the GBS and (2) the residence times in sewer of OL and biofilm were quite short compared to those for GBS.

  13. 9 CFR 307.3 - Inspectors to furnish and maintain implements in a sanitary condition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Inspectors to furnish and maintain implements in a sanitary condition. 307.3 Section 307.3 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND...

  14. 78 FR 63270 - Request for Public Comments To Compile the Report on Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-23

    ... Measures AGENCY: Office of the United States Trade Representative. ACTION: Notice and Request for Comments... Phytosanitary Measures. With this notice, the Trade Policy Staff Committee (TPSC) is requesting interested... comments concerning SPS measures should be directed to Jane Doherty, Director of Sanitary and...

  15. [On meeting sanitary legal requirements in technical regulation of medical equipment safety].

    PubMed

    Kravchenko, O K; Prokopenko, L V

    2007-01-01

    The article covered observance of sanitary legal requirements in special technical regulations "On requirements to medical equipment and medical products safety". The authors discussed problems of applied terminology, classification of medical products, occupational risk, control over observance of safety requirements on all stages of medical products circulation--design, production, usage.

  16. [The scientific production and research groups on sanitary surveillance at CNPq].

    PubMed

    Pepe, Vera Lúcia Edais; de Noronha, Ana Beatriz Marinho; Figueiredo, Tatiana Aragão; de Souza, Adriana de Alvarenga Linhares; Oliveira, Catia Veronica dos Santos; Pontes Júnior, Durval Martins

    2010-11-01

    Sanitary surveillance is an intersectorial and multidisciplinary practice of health regulation. The aim was to describe the scientific research on sanitary surveillance and its research groups in Brazil during the period of 1997 to 2003, through the Census of 2000, 2002 and 2004 of Directory of Research Groups of the Scientific and Technological Development National Council (CNPq). The term "sanitary surveillance" was used to search the production and the research groups in the Lattes Platform of CNPq. There were 1,194 items, 913 in bibliographic production and 281 in post-graduated production, with an increment of 540% on the period. There were 735 research groups, created mostly from 2000 to 2003 and 6,263 researchers concentrated in the Southeast Region and in CNPq sub area of Public Health. The great increase of the production lead to the conclusion that sanitary surveillance have been a locus of production only in the last decade, presented in scientific events of Public Health and until now concentrated just like others areas in Health.

  17. Sanitary Landfill Groundwater Monitoring Report - Fourth Quarter 1998 and 1998 Summary

    SciTech Connect

    Chase, J.

    1999-04-09

    A maximum of fifty-three wells of the LFW series monitor groundwater quality in the Steed Pond Aquifer (Water Table) beneath the Sanitary Landfill at the Savannah River Site (SRS). These wells are sampled quarterly to comply with the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control Domestic Water permit and as part of the SRS Groundwater Monitoring Program.

  18. 30 CFR 75.1712-6 - Underground sanitary facilities; installation and maintenance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES... in § 75.1712-7, each operator of an underground coal mine shall provide and maintain one sanitary... toilets meet the requirements of this section. Privies and combustion or incinerating toilets...

  19. Sanitary quality, occurrence and identification of Staphylococcus sp. in food services.

    PubMed

    de Mello, Jozi Fagundes; da Rocha, Laura Braga; Lopes, Ester Souza; Frazzon, Jeverson; da Costa, Marisa

    2014-01-01

    Sanitary conditions are essential for the production of meals and control of the presence of pathogensis important to guarantee the health of customers. The aim of this study was to evaluate the sanitary quality of food services by checking the presence of thermotolerant coliforms, Staphylococcus sp. and evaluate the toxigenic potential from the latter. The analysis was performed on water, surfaces, equipment, ready-to-eat foods, hands and nasal cavity of handlers in seven food services. The water used in food services proved to be suitable for the production of meals. Most food, equipment and surfaces showed poor sanitary conditions due to the presence of thermotolerant coliforms (60.6%). Twenty-six Staphylococcus species were identified from the 121 Staphylococcus isolates tested. Staphylococci coagulase-negative species were predominant in the foods, equipment and surfaces. In food handlers and foods, the predominant species was Staphylococcus epidermidis. Twelve different genotypes were found after PCR for the classical enterotoxin genes. The seb gene (19.8%) was the most prevalent among all Staphylococcus sp. Both coagulase-positive and coagulase-negative Staphylococci showed some of the genes of the enterotoxins tested. We conclude that there are hygienic and sanitary deficiencies in the food services analyzed. Although coagulase-positive Staphylococci have not been present in foods there is a wide dispersion of enterotoxigenic coagulase-negative Staphylococci in the environment and in the foods analyzed, indicating a risk to consumer health.

  20. Sampling: the weak link in the sanitary quality control system of agricultural products.

    PubMed

    Blanc, Michel

    2006-05-01

    To ensure a high level of consumer protection, the European Union has in the past years published several regulations setting very low limits for a given number of food contaminants (pesticides, mycotoxins, heavy metals) in many agricultural products (cereals, oilseeds, dry fruits, coffee, spices, etc). These new regulations regarding the sanitary quality of agricultural products, compel both economic operators and officials of different EU member states to set up sampling plans and rigorous analyses aimed at checking whether a product lot complies with the required standards prior to its release on the market. While the laboratory analysis management today is outstanding thanks to the validated and efficient detection methods and procedures available for quality assurance in laboratories (accreditation), this is not necessarily true of the sampling operation, which seems to be the weak link in the sanitary control system for agricultural products. The sampling operation is often the main source of error when assessing the sanitary quality of a lot of agricultural commodities, with both commercial (downgrading of the product) and sanitary (marketing of a product which poses a health risk for the consumer) consequences. Therefore, it is essential for the operators involved to be aware of the significance and difficulties of the sampling operation, which requires important equipment and human resources. Furthermore, drawing up specific standards and guidelines, as well as setting up quality assurance procedures, at the level in charge of carrying out this delicate and important operation, are necessary.

  1. Maintaining a Sanitary Child Care Environment -- Six Tips for Germ Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aronson, Susan S.

    2001-01-01

    Recommends keeping body defenses strong, and keeping all surfaces clean and some surfaces sanitary. Urges using federally mandated precautions for blood spills, avoiding germ-trapping artificial or long fingernails and jewelry, practicing good hand washing, and organizing the environment to avoid contamination. Includes table relating child care…

  2. 49 CFR 228.311 - Minimum space requirements, beds, storage, and sanitary facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... EMPLOYEES; RECORDKEEPING AND REPORTING; SLEEPING QUARTERS Safety and Health Requirements for Camp Cars Provided by Railroads as Sleeping Quarters § 228.311 Minimum space requirements, beds, storage, and sanitary facilities. (a) Each camp car used for sleeping purposes must contain at least 80 square feet...

  3. 49 CFR 228.311 - Minimum space requirements, beds, storage, and sanitary facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... EMPLOYEES; RECORDKEEPING AND REPORTING; SLEEPING QUARTERS Safety and Health Requirements for Camp Cars Provided by Railroads as Sleeping Quarters § 228.311 Minimum space requirements, beds, storage, and sanitary facilities. (a) Each camp car used for sleeping purposes must contain at least 80 square feet...

  4. 49 CFR 228.311 - Minimum space requirements, beds, storage, and sanitary facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... EMPLOYEES; RECORDKEEPING AND REPORTING; SLEEPING QUARTERS Safety and Health Requirements for Camp Cars Provided by Railroads as Sleeping Quarters § 228.311 Minimum space requirements, beds, storage, and sanitary facilities. (a) Each camp car used for sleeping purposes must contain at least 80 square feet...

  5. Sanitary quality of the Jordan River in Salt Lake County, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thompson, K.R.

    1984-01-01

    This investigation of the sanitary quality of the Jordan River was conducted from July 1980 to October 1982 using indicator bacteria rather than specific pathogens. A serious sanitary problem was identified. Concentrations of total coliform bacteria often exceeded 5,000 colonies per 100 milliliters and concentrations of fecal coliform bacteria often exceeded 2,000 colonies per 100 milliliters in the lower reaches of the river. At times these levels were greatly exceeded. The most conspicuous aspect of the bacteriological data is its extreme variability. Seven waste-water treatment plants, seven major tributaries, numerous storm conduits, irrigation-return flow, and other sources all contribute to the dynamic system that determines the sanitary quality of the river. Because of this variability the sanitary quality of the river cannot be predicted at any one time. In general, concentrations of all three indicator bacteria increased in a downstream direction. Storm runoff from urban areas contributed large concentrations of indicator bacteria to the river. Regression analysis of 9 years of data collected at 1700 South Street showed a significant positive correlation between both fecal coliform and fecal streptococcal concentrations versus time. Concentrations of fecal coliform and fecal streptococci have both been increasing since 1974 at 1700 South Street. (USGS)

  6. Sanitary Survey Training. The Need-to-Know Material. Student's Text.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, Anne, Ed.

    A sanitary survey is an onsite inspection of a public water system by competent personnel who use a standard form, procedure, and method to survey the effectiveness and maintenance of the system and to determine its ability to provide continuously safe water to the consuming public. This text, developed as an aid to providing instruction on how to…

  7. 40 CFR 141.401 - Sanitary surveys for ground water systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., maintenance, and monitoring compliance of a public water system to evaluate the adequacy of the system, its...: (1) Source, (2) Treatment, (3) Distribution system, (4) Finished water storage, (5) Pumps, pump... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Sanitary surveys for ground...

  8. 40 CFR 141.401 - Sanitary surveys for ground water systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., maintenance, and monitoring compliance of a public water system to evaluate the adequacy of the system, its...: (1) Source, (2) Treatment, (3) Distribution system, (4) Finished water storage, (5) Pumps, pump... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Sanitary surveys for ground...

  9. Can Sanitary Surveys Replace Water Quality Testing? Evidence from Kisii, Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Misati, Aaron Gichaba; Ogendi, George; Peletz, Rachel; Khush, Ranjiv; Kumpel, Emily

    2017-01-01

    Information about the quality of rural drinking water sources can be used to manage their safety and mitigate risks to health. Sanitary surveys, which are observational checklists to assess hazards present at water sources, are simpler to conduct than microbial tests. We assessed whether sanitary survey results were associated with measured indicator bacteria levels in rural drinking water sources in Kisii Central, Kenya. Overall, thermotolerant coliform (TTC) levels were high: all of the samples from the 20 tested dug wells, almost all (95%) of the samples from the 25 tested springs, and 61% of the samples from the 16 tested rainwater harvesting systems were contaminated with TTC. There were no significant associations between TTC levels and overall sanitary survey scores or their individual components. Contamination by TTC was associated with source type (dug wells and springs were more contaminated than rainwater systems). While sanitary surveys cannot be substituted for microbial water quality results in this context, they could be used to identify potential hazards and contribute to a comprehensive risk management approach. PMID:28178226

  10. Sanitary landfill local-scale flow and transport modeling in support of alternative concentrations limit demonstrations, Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Kelly, V.A.; Beach, J.A.; Statham, W.H.; Pickens, J.F.

    1993-02-19

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) is a Department of Energy (DOE) facility located near Aiken, South Carolina which is currently operated and managed by Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC). The Sanitary Landfill (Sanitary Landfill) at the SRS is located approximately 2,000 feet Northwest of Upper Three Runs Creek (UTRC) on an approximately 70 acre site located south of Road C between the SRS B-Area and UTRC. The Sanitary Landfill has been receiving wastes since 1974 and operates as an unlined trench and fill operation. The original landfill site was 32 acres. This area reached its capacity around 1987 and a Northern Expansion of 16 acres and a Southern Expansion of 22 acres were added in 1987. The Northern Expansion has not been used for waste disposal to date and the Southern Expansion is expected to reach capacity in 1992 or 1993. The waste received at the Sanitary Landfill is predominantly paper, plastics, rubber, wood, metal, cardboard, rags saturated with degreasing solvents, pesticide bags, empty cans, and asbestos in bags. The landfill is not supposed to receive any radioactive wastes. However, tritium has been detected in the groundwater at the site. Gross alpha and gross beta are also evaluated at the landfill. The objectives of this modeling study are twofold: (1) to create a local scale Sanitary Landfill flow model to study hydraulic effects resulting from capping the Sanitary Landfill; and (2) to create a Sanitary Landfill local scale transport model to support ACL Demonstrations for a RCRA Part B Permit Renewal.

  11. Scaling-Free Electrochemical Production of Caustic and Oxygen for Sulfide Control in Sewers.

    PubMed

    Lin, Hui-Wen; Rabaey, Korneel; Keller, Jürg; Yuan, Zhiguo; Pikaar, Ilje

    2015-10-06

    Caustic shock-loading and oxygen injection are commonly used by the water industry for biofilm and sulfide control in sewers. Caustic can be produced onsite from wastewater using a two-compartment electrochemical cell. This avoids the need for import and storage of caustic soda, which typically represents a cost and a hazard. An issue limiting the practical implementation of this approach is the occurrence of membrane scaling due to the almost universal presence of Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) in wastewater. It results in a rapid increase in the cell voltage, thereby increasing the energy consumption of the system. Here, we propose and experimentally demonstrate an innovative solution for this problem involving the inclusion of a middle compartment between the anode and cathode compartments. Caustic was efficiently produced from wastewater over a period of 12 weeks and had an average Coulombic efficiency (CE) of 84.1 ± 1.1% at practically relevant caustic strengths (∼3 wt %). Neither membrane scaling nor an increase in the cell voltage was observed throughout the experiments. In addition, dissolved oxygen was produced in the anode, resulting in continuously oxygenated wastewater leaving the three-compartment cell. This membrane-scaling control strategy represents a major step forward toward practical implementation of on-site simultaneous electrochemical caustic and oxygen generation for sulfide control in sewers and also has the potential to be applied to other (bio)electrochemical systems receiving wastewater as source for product recovery.

  12. Hazardous and odorous pollutants released from sewer manholes and stormwater catch basins in urban areas.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Sudhir Kumar; Kim, Ki-Hyun; Kwon, Eilhann E; Kim, Yong-Hyun

    2016-04-01

    To learn more about the emission characteristics of odorants released from sewer manholes and stormwater catch basins (SCBs) in an urban environment, we measured the emission concentrations of major odorants including 22 target compounds designated as offensive odorants by the Korean Ministry of Environment (KMOE). All of our measurements were made from urban sewer manholes and SCBs in a highly commercialized location in Seoul, Korea. The results of our study were analyzed to identify the major odorants from such sources and to assess their contribution to odor intensity. The malodor strengths at both types of underground sources were considerably higher in the afternoon than in the morning. The assessment of odor intensity (OI) and odor activity value (OAV) confirmed the dominance of key odorants like H2S, CH3SH, and ammonia along with various volatile fatty acids (VFAs) and phenol. The concentration of these major odorants (H2S, CH3SH, and NH3) exceeded the maximum permissible limit given as the odor prevention law in Korea. As such, significantly high levels of odorants released from these underground sources were greatly distinguished from those seen at above ground locations.

  13. Predicting combined sewer overflows chamber depth using artificial neural networks with rainfall radar data.

    PubMed

    Mounce, S R; Shepherd, W; Sailor, G; Shucksmith, J; Saul, A J

    2014-01-01

    Combined sewer overflows (CSOs) represent a common feature in combined urban drainage systems and are used to discharge excess water to the environment during heavy storms. To better understand the performance of CSOs, the UK water industry has installed a large number of monitoring systems that provide data for these assets. This paper presents research into the prediction of the hydraulic performance of CSOs using artificial neural networks (ANN) as an alternative to hydraulic models. Previous work has explored using an ANN model for the prediction of chamber depth using time series for depth and rain gauge data. Rainfall intensity data that can be provided by rainfall radar devices can be used to improve on this approach. Results are presented using real data from a CSO for a catchment in the North of England, UK. An ANN model trained with the pseudo-inverse rule was shown to be capable of predicting CSO depth with less than 5% error for predictions more than 1 hour ahead for unseen data. Such predictive approaches are important to the future management of combined sewer systems.

  14. Innovative framework to simulate the fate and transport of nonconservative constituents in urban combined sewer catchments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morales, V. M.; Quijano, J. C.; Schmidt, A.; Garcia, M. H.

    2016-11-01

    We have developed a probabilistic model to simulate the fate and transport of nonconservative constituents in urban watersheds. The approach implemented here extends previous studies that rely on the geomorphological instantaneous unit hydrograph concept to include nonconservative constituents. This is implemented with a factor χ that affects the transfer functions and therefore accounts for the loss (gain) of mass associated with the constituent as it travels through the watershed. Using this framework, we developed an analytical solution for the dynamics of dissolved oxygen (DO) and biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) in urban networks based on the Streeter and Phelps model. This model breaks down the catchment into a discreet number of possible flow paths through the system, requiring less data and implementation effort than well-established deterministic models. Application of the model to one sewer catchment in the Chicago area with available BOD information proved its ability to predict the BOD concentration observed in the measurements. In addition, comparison of the model with a calibrated Storm Water Management Model (SWMM) of another sewer catchment from the Chicago area showed that the model predicted the BOD concentration as well as the widely accepted SWMM. The developed model proved to be a suitable alternative to simulate the fate and transport of constituents in urban catchments with limited and uncertain input data.

  15. Pilot survey of methamphetamine in sewers using a Polar Organic Chemical Integrative Sampler.

    PubMed

    Boles, Tammy H; Wells, Martha J M

    2014-02-15

    A pilot study for the qualitative detection of methamphetamine at sites within a sewage collection system adjacent to locations suspected to harbor illegal drug activities was investigated and preliminary findings are reported. Sewage samples were collected over a time interval of four weeks using a Polar Organic Chemical Integrative Sampler (POCIS) deployed directly into the sewer line. The POCIS sorbent was extracted and analyzed via high-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS). Methamphetamine was found in sewage from one of three sampling sites at a concentration greater than the HPLC-MS/MS method detection limit (MDL) of 3 ng/mL. The goal of this research was to establish proof-of-concept of the feasibility for sampling and analysis using POCIS devices in the sewage collection system. The data encourage further testing and research. The ability to pinpoint the presence of methamphetamine in the sewer may in the future be used as a forensic tool in law enforcement.

  16. Particle velocity and sediment transport at the limit of deposition in sewers.

    PubMed

    Ota, J J; Perrusquía, G S

    2013-01-01

    This paper focuses on the sediment particle while it is transported at the limit of deposition in storm sewers, i.e. as bed load at the limit of concentration that leads to sediment deposition. Although many empirical sediment transport equations are known in the literature, there is only limited knowledge concerning particle velocity. Sediment particle and sphere velocity measurements were carried out in two pipe channels and these results led to the development of a semi-theoretical equation for sediment transport at the limit of deposition in sewers. Even in the transport process without deposition, sediment movement is slower than water velocity and depends on the angle of repose of sediment with a diameter d on the roughness k of the pipe channel. Instead of classical dimensionless bed shear stress ψ, a modified dimensionless bed shear stress ψ (d/k)(2/3) was suggested, based on the angle of repose and this parameter was proved to be significant for quantifying the transport capacity. The main purpose of this article is to emphasize the importance of careful observation of experiments. Not only number of tests, but physical understanding are essential for better empirical equations.

  17. Contribution of combined sewer overflows to trace contaminant loads in urban streams.

    PubMed

    Weyrauch, Philip; Matzinger, Andreas; Pawlowsky-Reusing, Erika; Plume, Stephan; von Seggern, Dörthe; Heinzmann, Bernd; Schroeder, Kai; Rouault, Pascale

    2010-08-01

    The present study examines the contribution of combined sewer overflows (CSO) to loads and concentrations of trace contaminants in receiving surface water. A simple method to assess the ratio of CSO to wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents was applied to the urban River Spree in Berlin, Germany. The assessment indicated that annual loads are dominated by CSO for substances with removal in WWTP above approximately 95%. Moreover, it showed that substances with high removal in WWTP can lead to concentration peaks in the river during CSO events. The calculated results could be verified based on eight years of monitoring data from the River Spree, collected between 2000 and 2007. Substances that are well removed in WWTP such as NTA (nitrilotriacetic acid) were found to occur in significantly increased concentration during CSO, while the concentration of substances that are poorly removable in WWTP such as EDTA (ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid) decreased in CSO-influenced samples due to dilution effects. The overall results indicate the potential importance of the CSO pathway of well-removable sewage-based trace contaminants to rivers. In particular, high concentrations during CSO events may be relevant for aquatic organisms. Given the results, it is suggested to include well-removable, sewage-based trace contaminants, a substance group often neglected in the past, in future studies on urban rivers in case of combined sewer systems. The presented methodology is suggested for a first assessment, since it is based solely on urban drainage data, which is available in most cities.

  18. Toxicity and pollutant impact analysis in an urban river due to combined sewer overflows loads.

    PubMed

    Casadio, A; Maglionico, M; Bolognesi, A; Artina, S

    2010-01-01

    The Navile Channel (Bologna, Italy) is an ancient artificial water course derived from the Reno river. It is the main receiving water body for the urban catchment of Bologna sewer systems and also for the Waste Water Treatment Plant (WWTP) main outlet. The aim of this work is to evaluate the Combined Sewer Overflows (CSOs) impact on Navile Channel's water quality. In order to collect Navile flow and water quality data in both dry and wet weather conditions, two measuring and sampling stations were installed, right upstream and downstream the WWTP outflow. The study shows that even in case of low intensity rain events, CSOs have a significant effect on both water quantity and quality, spilling a considerable amount of pollutants into the Navile Channel and presenting also acute toxicity effects. The collected data shown a good correlations between the concentrations of TSS and of chemical compounds analyzed, suggesting that the most part of such substances is attached to suspended solids. Resulting toxicity values are fairly high in both measuring points and seem to confirm synergistic interactions between heavy metals.

  19. Dynamics of pollutant discharge in combined sewer systems during rain events: chance or determinism?

    PubMed

    Hannouche, A; Chebbo, G; Joannis, C

    2014-01-01

    A large database of continuous flow and turbidity measurements cumulating data on hundreds of rain events and dry weather days from two sites in Paris (called Quais and Clichy) and one in Lyon (called Ecully) is presented. This database is used to characterize and compare the behaviour of the three sites at the inter-events scale. The analysis is probed through three various variables: total volumes and total suspended solids (TSS) masses and concentrations during both wet and dry weather periods in addition to the contributions of diverse-origin sources to event flow volume and TSS load values. The results obtained confirm the previous findings regarding the spatial consistency of TSS fluxes and concentrations between both sites in Paris having similar land uses. Moreover, masses and concentrations are proven to be correlated between Parisian sites in a way that implies the possibility of some deterministic processes being reproducible from one catchment to another for a particular rain event. The results also demonstrate the importance of the contribution of wastewater and sewer deposits to the total events' loads and show that such contributions are not specific to Paris sewer networks.

  20. Sources of nitrate in ground water in a sewered housing development, Central Long Island, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Flipse, W.J.; Katz, B.G.; Lindner, J.B.; Markel, R.

    1984-01-01

    Nitrate concentrations in ground water on Long Island, New York, have increased markedly in the last 30 years. A significant amount of this increase has been attributed to lawn and garden fertilizers in addition to cesspool and septic-tank discharges. The increase in nitrate concentration is of particular concern in the central and eastern part of the island, where ground water is the sole source of drinking water. Ground-water samples were collected from 14 wells screened near the water table in the sewered Twelve Pines housing development constructed in Medford, Suffolk County, in 1970. Samples were collected during 1972-79 and analyzed for total ammonium, organic nitrogen, and nitrate. Statistical analyses indicate that concentrations of nitrate-nitrogen in water from 10 of the wells increased significantly during 1972-79; those in water from the other four wells did not. Nitrogen loads were estimated to be 2,300 kg/yr from fertilizers, less than 80 kg/yr from irrigation water, 200 kg/yr from animals, and less than 670 kg/yr from precipitation. Leakage from sewers was considered negligible. Nitrate-nitrogen isotope ratios also suggest that the greatest source of nitrogen is from cultivation sources (either mineralized soil nitrogen or fertilizers) rather than human or animal wastes.

  1. A multi-objective optimisation model for sewer rehabilitation considering critical risk of failure.

    PubMed

    Ward, Ben; Savić, Dragan A

    2012-01-01

    A unique methodology for the optimal specification of sewer rehabilitation investment is presented in this paper. By accounting for the critical risk of asset failure, this methodology builds on previously successful work which explored the application of multi-objective optimisation tools to assist engineers with the specification of optimal rehabilitation strategies. The conventional sewerage rehabilitation specification process relies on the expertise of professional engineers to manually evaluate CCTV inspection information when determining the nature and extent of the rehabilitation solution. This process is not only tedious and subjective but it has no quantifiable means of identifying optimal solutions or possible combinations of optimal solutions in the delivery of catchment wide rehabilitation programmes. Therefore, the purely manual process of sewer rehabilitation design leaves a number of unanswered questions, such as: (1) Does the solution offer the greatest structural benefit to the network? (2) Is the solution the most cost-effective solution available? (3) Does the solution most greatly reduce the risk of critical asset failure? The application of a multi-objective genetic algorithm optimisation model, coupled with an enhanced critical risk methodology, has successfully answered these questions when applied to a case study data set provided by South West Water (UK).

  2. Growth kinetics of hydrogen sulfide oxidizing bacteria in corroded concrete from sewers.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Henriette Stokbro; Lens, Piet N L; Nielsen, Jeppe L; Bester, Kai; Nielsen, Asbjørn Haaning; Hvitved-Jacobsen, Thorkild; Vollertsen, Jes

    2011-05-30

    Hydrogen sulfide oxidation by microbes present on concrete surfaces of sewer pipes is a key process in sewer corrosion. The growth of aerobic sulfur oxidizing bacteria from corroded concrete surfaces was studied in a batch reactor. Samples of corrosion products, containing sulfur oxidizing bacteria, were suspended in aqueous solution at pH similar to that of corroded concrete. Hydrogen sulfide was supplied to the reactor to provide the source of reduced sulfur. The removal of hydrogen sulfide and oxygen was monitored. The utilization rates of both hydrogen sulfide and oxygen suggested exponential bacterial growth with median growth rates of 1.25 d(-1) and 1.33 d(-1) as determined from the utilization rates of hydrogen sulfide and oxygen, respectively. Elemental sulfur was found to be the immediate product of the hydrogen sulfide oxidation. When exponential growth had been achieved, the addition of hydrogen sulfide was terminated leading to elemental sulfur oxidation. The ratio of consumed sulfur to consumed oxygen suggested that sulfuric acid was the ultimate oxidation product. To the knowledge of the authors, this is the first study to determine the growth rate of bacteria involved in concrete corrosion with hydrogen sulfide as source of reduced sulfur.

  3. Survival of hydrogen sulfide oxidizing bacteria on corroded concrete surfaces of sewer systems.

    PubMed

    Jensen, H S; Nielsen, A H; Hvitved-Jacobsen, T; Vollertsen, J

    2008-01-01

    The activity of hydrogen sulfide oxidizing bacteria within corroded concrete from a sewer manhole was investigated. The bacteria were exposed to hydrogen sulfide starvation for up till 18 months, upon which their hydrogen sulfide oxidizing activity was measured. It was tested whether the observed reduction in biological activity was caused by a biological lag phase or by decay of the bacteria. The results showed that the bacterial activity declined with approximately 40% pr. month during the first two months of hydrogen sulfide starvation. After 2-3 months of starvation, the activity stabilized. Even after 6 months of starvation, exposure to hydrogen sulfide for 6 hours a day on three successive days could restore the bacteriological activity to about 80% of the initial activity. After 12 months of starvation, the activity could, however, not be restored, and after 18 months the biological activity approached zero. The long-term survival aspect of concrete corroding bacteria has implications for predicting hydrogen sulfide corrosion in sewer systems subject to irregular hydrogen sulfide loadings, e.g. as they occur in temperate climates where hydrogen sulfide often is a summer-problem only.

  4. Combined sewer overflow control with LID based on SWMM: an example in Shanghai, China.

    PubMed

    Liao, Z L; Zhang, G Q; Wu, Z H; He, Y; Chen, H

    2015-01-01

    Although low impact development (LID) has been commonly applied across the developed countries for mitigating the negative impacts of combined sewer overflows (CSOs) on urban hydrological environment, it has not been widely used in developing countries yet. In this paper, a typical combined sewer system in an urbanized area of Shanghai, China was used to demonstrate how to design and choose CSO control solutions with LID using stormwater management model. We constructed and simulated three types of CSO control scenarios. Our findings support the notion that LID measures possess favorable capability on CSO reduction. Nevertheless, the green scenarios which are completely comprised by LID measures fail to achieve the maximal effectiveness on CSO reduction, while the gray-green scenarios (LID measure combined with gray measures) achieve it. The unit cost-effectiveness of each type of scenario sorts as: green scenario > gray-green scenario > gray scenario. Actually, as the storage tank is built in the case catchment, a complete application of green scenario is inaccessible here. Through comprehensive evaluation and comparison, the gray-green scenario F which used the combination of storage tank, bio-retention and rain barrels is considered as the most feasible one in this case.

  5. Integration of sewer system maps in topographically based sub-basin delineation in suburban areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jankowfsky, Sonja; Branger, Flora; Braud, Isabelle; Rodriguez, Fabrice

    2010-05-01

    Due to the increase of urbanization, suburban areas experience a fast change in land use. The impact of such modifications on the watershed hydrological cycle must be quantified. To achieve this goal, distributed hydrological models offer the possibility to take into account land use change, and more particularly to consider urbanized areas and anthropogenic features such as roads or ditches and their impact on the hydrological cycle. A detailed definition of the hydrographical drainage network and a corresponding delineation of sub-basins is therefore necessary as input to distributed models. Sub-basins in natural catchments are usually delineated using standard GIS based terrain analysis. The drainage network in urbanised watersheds is often modified, due to sewer systems, ditches, retention basins, etc.. Therefore, its delineation is not only determined by topography. The simple application of terrain analysis algorithms to delineate sub-basins in suburban areas can consequently lead to erroneous sub-basin borders. This study presents an improved approach for sub-basin delineation in suburban areas. It applies to small catchments connected to a sewage plant, located outside the catchment boundary. The approach assumes that subsurface flow follows topography. The method requires a digital elevation model (DEM), maps of land use, cadastre, sewer system and the location of measurement stations and retention basins. Firstly, the topographic catchment border must be defined for the concerning flow measurement station. Standard GIS based algorithms, like the d8-flow direction algorithm (O'Callaghan and Mark, 1984) can be applied using a high resolution DEM. Secondly, the artificial catchment outlets have to be determined. Each catchment has one natural outlet - the measurement station on the river- but it can have several artificial outlets towards a sewage station. Once the outlets are determined, a first approximation of the "theoretical maximal contributing area

  6. A catchment-scale groundwater model including sewer pipe leakage in an urban system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peche, Aaron; Fuchs, Lothar; Spönemann, Peter; Graf, Thomas; Neuweiler, Insa

    2016-04-01

    Keywords: pipe leakage, urban hydrogeology, catchment scale, OpenGeoSys, HYSTEM-EXTRAN Wastewater leakage from subsurface sewer pipe defects leads to contamination of the surrounding soil and groundwater (Ellis, 2002; Wolf et al., 2004). Leakage rates at pipe defects have to be known in order to quantify contaminant input. Due to inaccessibility of subsurface pipe defects, direct (in-situ) measurements of leakage rates are tedious and associated with a high degree of uncertainty (Wolf, 2006). Proposed catchment-scale models simplify leakage rates by neglecting unsaturated zone flow or by reducing spatial dimensions (Karpf & Krebs, 2013, Boukhemacha et al., 2015). In the present study, we present a physically based 3-dimensional numerical model incorporating flow in the pipe network, in the saturated zone and in the unsaturated zone to quantify leakage rates on the catchment scale. The model consists of the pipe network flow model HYSTEM-EXTAN (itwh, 2002), which is coupled to the subsurface flow model OpenGeoSys (Kolditz et al., 2012). We also present the newly developed coupling scheme between the two flow models. Leakage functions specific to a pipe defect are derived from simulations of pipe leakage using spatially refined grids around pipe defects. In order to minimize computational effort, these leakage functions are built into the presented numerical model using unrefined grids around pipe defects. The resulting coupled model is capable of efficiently simulating spatially distributed pipe leakage coupled with subsurficial water flow in a 3-dimensional environment. References: Boukhemacha, M. A., Gogu, C. R., Serpescu, I., Gaitanaru, D., & Bica, I. (2015). A hydrogeological conceptual approach to study urban groundwater flow in Bucharest city, Romania. Hydrogeology Journal, 23(3), 437-450. doi:10.1007/s10040-014-1220-3. Ellis, J. B., & Revitt, D. M. (2002). Sewer losses and interactions with groundwater quality. Water Science and Technology, 45(3), 195

  7. Fort Smith, Arkansas Agrees to Upgrade Sewer System to Reduce Discharges of Raw Sewage into Local Waterways / City will also develop a program to help low income communities improve sewer infrastructure

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    WASHINGTON - The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the U.S. Department of Justice and the state of Arkansas announced that the city of Fort Smith, Ark. will upgrade its sewer collection and treatment system over the next 12 years to reduce

  8. [Sanitary-and-epidemiological support of town-planning activities at all stages of an investment-construction cycle].

    PubMed

    Khinziiaev, V I; Priadko, A L

    2009-01-01

    The paper provides evidence for a need for a systems approach to the sanitary-and-epidemiological support of construction projects at all stages of an investment-construction cycle, considers individual stages of work execution, and notes the increasing role of laboratory and instrumental studies and measurements at each stage. It is emphasized that sanitary-and-epidemiological support (or, in other words, sanitary-and-epidemiological audit) of a project (construction products) at all stages of an investment-construction cycle is an important and promising line in town-planning activities.

  9. [40th anniversary of the 736th Main Center of State Sanitary and Epidemiological Surveillance of the Russian Defense Ministry].

    PubMed

    Soloveĭ, È P; Berskiĭ, O V; Ian'shin, L A

    2012-11-01

    In November 2012 736th Main Center of State Sanitary and Epidemiological Supervision of the Ministry of Defense of the Russian Federation celebrates 40th anniversary. It is a multidisciplanary prevention and treatment facility of high level standing at the top of the sanitary-epidemiological institutions of the army and navy. The Main Center is included into a united, centralized system of state sanitary-epidemiological control of Russia with the main purpose--organization and conduction of surveillance and anti-epidemic (preventive) measures in the army and navy. The article provides a consistent presentation of historical perspective of creation and development of the institution and its mission today.

  10. Greenville, Mississippi Clean Water Settlement

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The City of Greenville, MS (City) owns and operates the Greenville Wastewater Treatment Facility (WWTP), approximately 200 miles of sanitary sewer lines, and 100 sanitary sewer pump stations and associated appurtenances.

  11. Consent Decree for Greenville, Mississippi

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The City of Greenville, MS (City) owns and operates the Greenville Wastewater Treatment Facility (WWTP), approximately 200 miles of sanitary sewer lines, and 100 sanitary sewer pump stations and associated appurtenances.

  12. STORM AND COMBINED SEWER OVERFLOW: AN OVERVIEW OF EPA'S RESEARCH PROGRAM (EPA/600/8-89/054)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report represents an overview of the EPA's Storm & Combined Sewer Pollution Control Research Program performed over a 20-year period beginning with the mid-1960s. It covers program involvements in the development of a diverse technology including pollution-problem assessment...

  13. Automatic Vacuum Flushing Technology for Combined Sewer Solids: Laboratory Testing and Proposed Improvements (WERF Report INFR7SG09)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This research study included an extensive literature review on existing sewer sediment flushing technologies. An innovative vacuum flush system previously developed by the U.S. EPA was tested under laboratory conditions. The tests revealed a strong correlation between the strengt...

  14. Evaluation of Green Alternatives for Combined Sewer Overflow Mitigation: A Proposed Economic Impact Framework and Illustration of its Application

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report develops a broad framework, or taxonomy, for identifying and organizing the socio-economic impacts of sewer infrastructure projects. It focuses on a green project in Cincinnati, Ohio that has adopted broader economic goals. The report then uses this example to illustr...

  15. 78 FR 27964 - Draft Small Municipal Separate Storm Sewer System NPDES General Permit-New Hampshire; Extension...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Draft Small Municipal Separate Storm Sewer System NPDES General Permit--New Hampshire; Extension... period. SUMMARY: EPA issued a Notice of Availability of the draft Small Municipal Separate Storm...

  16. 78 FR 20316 - Draft Small Municipal Separate Storm Sewer System NPDES General Permit-New Hampshire; Extension...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Draft Small Municipal Separate Storm Sewer System NPDES General Permit--New Hampshire; Extension... period. SUMMARY: EPA issued a Notice of Availability of the draft Small Municipal Separate Storm...

  17. [Interaction of the bodies and institutions of the Russian Inspectorate for the protection of consumer rights and human welfare on sanitary-and-epidemiological examinations and issuing sanitary-and-epidemiological opinions].

    PubMed

    Safonkina, S G

    2009-01-01

    The paper describes problems in the organization of the interaction of the Russian Inspectorate for the Protection of Consumer Rights and Human Welfare in Moscow and the Center for Hygiene and Epidemiology in Moscow to perform sanitary-and-epidemiological examinations and to issue sanitary-and-epidemiological opinions. The goals of setting up a one-window service and measures required for its effective work are defined. Positive results of one-window activities are shown.

  18. Green-blue water in the city: quantification of impact of source control versus end-of-pipe solutions on sewer and river floods.

    PubMed

    De Vleeschauwer, K; Weustenraad, J; Nolf, C; Wolfs, V; De Meulder, B; Shannon, K; Willems, P

    2014-01-01

    Urbanization and climate change trends put strong pressures on urban water systems. Temporal variations in rainfall, runoff and water availability increase, and need to be compensated for by innovative adaptation strategies. One of these is stormwater retention and infiltration in open and/or green spaces in the city (blue-green water integration). This study evaluated the efficiency of three adaptation strategies for the city of Turnhout in Belgium, namely source control as a result of blue-green water integration, retention basins located downstream of the stormwater sewers, and end-of-pipe solutions based on river flood control reservoirs. The efficiency of these options is quantified by the reduction in sewer and river flood frequencies and volumes, and sewer overflow volumes. This is done by means of long-term simulations (100-year rainfall simulations) using an integrated conceptual sewer-river model calibrated to full hydrodynamic sewer and river models. Results show that combining open, green zones in the city with stormwater retention and infiltration for only 1% of the total city runoff area would lead to a 30 to 50% reduction in sewer flood volumes for return periods in the range 10-100 years. This is due to the additional surface storage and infiltration and consequent reduction in urban runoff. However, the impact of this source control option on downstream river floods is limited. Stormwater retention downstream of the sewer system gives a strong reduction in peak discharges to the receiving river. However due to the difference in response time between the sewer and river systems, this does not lead to a strong reduction in river flood frequency. The paper shows the importance of improving the interface between urban design and water management, and between sewer and river flood management.

  19. Wastewater effluent, combined sewer overflows, and other sources of organic compounds to Lake Champlain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Phillips, P.; Chalmers, A.

    2009-01-01

    Some sources of organic wastewater compounds (OWCs) to streams, lakes, and estuaries, including wastewater-treatment-plant effluent, have been well documented, but other sources, particularly wet-weather discharges from combined-sewer-overflow (CSO) and urban runoff, may also be major sources of OWCs. Samples of wastewater-treatment-plant (WWTP) effluent, CSO effluent, urban streams, large rivers, a reference (undeveloped) stream, and Lake Champlain were collected from March to August 2006. The highest concentrations of many OWCs associated with wastewater were in WWTP-effluent samples, but high concentrations of some OWCs in samples of CSO effluent and storm runoff from urban streams subject to leaky sewer pipes or CSOs were also detected. Total concentrations and numbers of compounds detected differed substantially among sampling sites. The highest total OWC concentrations (10-100 ??g/l) were in samples of WWTP and CSO effluent. Total OWC concentrations in samples from urban streams ranged from 0.1 to 10 ??g/l, and urban stream-stormflow samples had higher concentrations than baseflow samples because of contributions of OWCs from CSOs and leaking sewer pipes. The relations between OWC concentrations in WWTP-effluent and those in CSO effluent and urban streams varied with the degree to which the compound is removed through normal wastewater treatment. Concentrations of compounds that are highly removed during normal wastewater treatment [including caffeine, Tris(2-butoxyethyl)phosphate, and cholesterol] were generally similar to or higher in CSO effluent than in WWTP effluent (and ranged from around 1 to over 10 ??g/l) because CSO effluent is untreated, and were higher in urban-stream stormflow samples than in baseflow samples as a result of CSO discharge and leakage from near-surface sources during storms. Concentrations of compounds that are poorly removed during treatment, by contrast, are higher in WWTP effluent than in CSO, due to dilution. Results indicate

  20. [Methodology of assessing and evaluating public health risk in legal regulation of sanitary epidemiologic well-being of population].

    PubMed

    Kuz'min, S V; Gurvich, V B; Dikonskaya, O V; Malykh, O L; Yarushin, S V

    2016-01-01

    The authors describe method to assess and manage risk for public health in system of legal regulation of sanitary epidemiologic well-being of population. Scheme of assessment and management of occupational risks is presented.