Science.gov

Sample records for 1625-aa01 anchorage regulations

  1. 76 FR 20524 - Anchorage Regulations; Port of New York

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-13

    ... Anchorage Regulations; Port of New York in the Federal Register (74 FR 47906). We received one comment on...; Port of New York'' in the Federal Register on April 28, 2010 (75 FR 22323) revising its proposal to... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 110 RIN 1625-AA01 Anchorage Regulations; Port of New York AGENCY:...

  2. 77 FR 45988 - Anchorage Regulations; Great Chebeague Island, ME

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-02

    ... Act notice regarding our public dockets in the January 17, 2008, issue of the Federal Register (73 FR... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 110 RIN 1625-AA01 Anchorage Regulations; Great Chebeague Island, ME AGENCY... six special anchorage areas in the vicinity of Great Chebeague Island, Maine. This proposed action...

  3. 78 FR 12234 - Anchorages; Captain of the Port Puget Sound Zone, WA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 110 RIN 1625-AA01 Anchorages; Captain of the Port Puget Sound Zone, WA Correction In rule document 2013-03121, appearing on pages 9811-9814 in the issue of Tuesday, February...

  4. 77 FR 66942 - Anchorages; Lower Mississippi River, Above Head of Passes, Convent, LA and Point Pleasant, LA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-08

    .... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Table of Acronyms DHS Department of Homeland Security FR Federal Register NPRM Notice... FR 3316). 4. Public Meeting We do not now plan to hold a public meeting. But you may submit a request... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 110 RIN 1625-AA01 Anchorages; Lower Mississippi River, Above Head...

  5. 76 FR 76295 - Anchorage Regulations; Wells, ME

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-07

    ... rulemaking (NPRM) entitled ``Anchorage Regulations; Wells, Maine'' in the Federal Register (76 FR 52599). We... understanding the rule so that they could better evaluate its effects on them and participate in the rulemaking... under Executive Order 13132, Federalism, if it has a substantial direct effect on State or...

  6. 77 FR 22489 - Special Anchorage Regulations, Newport Bay Harbor, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-16

    ... Anchorage Regulations, Newport Bay Harbor, CA'' in the Federal Register (76 FR 78185). We received no... incorporated into area A-11 under revised Sec. 110.95(k). An image of the anchorage areas is available in the... standards bodies. This rule does not use technical standards. Therefore, we did not consider the use...

  7. 76 FR 59596 - Anchorage Regulations; Newport, RI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-27

    ... expand the dimensions of anchorage ``D'' at Newport, Rhode Island, to better accommodate increasing... FR 3316). Public Meeting We do not now plan to hold a public meeting. But, you may submit a request.... This proposed rule would change the shape and expand the dimensions of anchorage ``D'' at...

  8. 77 FR 25587 - Anchorage Regulations; Wells, ME

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-01

    ... Federal Register (73 FR 3316). Public Meeting We do not now plan to hold a public meeting. But, you may... in Wells Harbor, Wells, Maine through a published final rule (76 FR 76295). This action was necessary... Guard that the coordinates in the final rule for the three special anchorage areas were out of...

  9. 77 FR 6010 - Anchorage Regulations; Newport, RI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-07

    ..., DHS. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard is changing the shape and expanding the dimensions...; Newport, RI'' in the Federal Register (76 FR 59596). We received no comments on the proposed rule. Basis... this rule is to change the shape and expand the dimensions of anchorage ``D'' at Newport, Rhode...

  10. 75 FR 22323 - Anchorage Regulations; Port of New York

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-28

    ... prohibited within 500 yards of an anchored vessel displaying a red flag by day or a red light by night. The..., 2008 issue of the Federal Register (73 FR 3316). Public Meeting We do not now plan to hold a public... USCG-2009-1082) in the Federal Register (74 FR 47906). The proposal sought to amend Anchorage Ground...

  11. 33 CFR 165.556 - Regulated Navigation Area; Chesapeake and Delaware Canal, Chesapeake City Anchorage Basin, MD.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... areas, found in 33 CFR 165.13, apply to the regulated navigation area described in paragraph (a) of this...; Chesapeake and Delaware Canal, Chesapeake City Anchorage Basin, MD. 165.556 Section 165.556 Navigation and..., Chesapeake City Anchorage Basin, MD. (a) Location. The following area is a regulated navigation area:...

  12. Anchorage-dependent cell growth: tyrosine kinases and phosphatases meet redox regulation.

    PubMed

    Chiarugi, Paola; Giannoni, Elisa

    2005-01-01

    Recent data have provided new insight concerning the regulation of nontransformed cell proliferation in response to both soluble growth factors and adhesive cues. Nontransformed cells are anchorage-dependent for the execution of the complete mitotic program and cannot avoid the concomitant signals starting from mitogenic molecules, as growth factors, and adhesive agents belonging to the extracellular matrix. Protein tyrosine kinases (PTKs) and phosphotyrosine phosphatases (PTPs) together with soluble small molecules have been included among intracellular signal transducers of growth factor and extracellular matrix receptors. Reactive oxygen species retain a key role during both growth factor and integrin receptor signaling, and these second messengers are recognized to be a synergistic point of confluence for anchorage-dependent growth signaling. Redox-regulated proteins include PTPs and PTKs, although with opposite regulation of enzymatic activity. Transient oxidation of PTPs leads to their inactivation, through the formation of an intramolecular S-S bridge. Conversely, oxidation of PTKs leads to their activation, either by direct SH modification or, indirectly, by concomitant inhibition of PTPs that leads to sustained activation of PTKs. This review will focus on the redox regulation of PTPs and PTKs during anchorage-dependent cell growth and its implications for tumor biology.

  13. Impact of a new gasoline benzene regulation on ambient air pollutants in Anchorage, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yano, Yuriko; Morris, Stephen S.; Salerno, Christopher; Schlapia, Anne M.; Stichick, Mathew

    2016-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to quantify the impact of a new U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) standard that limits the amount of benzene allowed in gasoline on ambient benzene concentrations. This new standard, together with two companion regulations that limit cold-temperature automotive emissions and the permeability of portable fuel containers, was expected to lower the levels of ambient benzene and other volatile organic compounds (VOCs) nationwide. In this study the impact of the gasoline benzene standard was evaluated in Anchorage, Alaska in a two-phase ambient air monitoring study conducted before and after the new gasoline standard was implemented. Gasoline sold by Anchorage retailers was also evaluated in each phase to determine the content of benzene and other gasoline components. The average benzene content in Anchorage gasoline was reduced by 70%, from 5.05% (w/w) to 1.53% (w/w) following the implementation of the standard. The annual mean ambient benzene concentration fell by 51%, from 0.99 ppbv in Phase 1 to 0.49 ppbv in Phase 2. Analysis suggests the change in gasoline benzene content alone reduced benzene emissions by 46%. The changes in toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene content in gasoline between Phase 1 and 2 were relatively small and the differences in the mean ambient concentrations of these compounds between phases were modest. Our results suggest that cold winter communities in high latitude and mountainous regions may benefit more from the gasoline benzene standard because of high benzene emissions resulting from vehicle cold start and a tendency to develop atmospheric stagnation conditions in the winter.

  14. 33 CFR 165.556 - Regulated Navigation Area; Chesapeake and Delaware Canal, Chesapeake City Anchorage Basin, MD.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... areas, found in 33 CFR 165.13, apply to the regulated navigation area described in paragraph (a) of this...; Chesapeake and Delaware Canal, Chesapeake City Anchorage Basin, MD. 165.556 Section 165.556 Navigation and... Areas Fifth Coast Guard District § 165.556 Regulated Navigation Area; Chesapeake and Delaware...

  15. Competitive Nuclear Export of Cyclin D1 and Hic-5 Regulates Anchorage Dependence of Cell Growth and Survival

    PubMed Central

    Mori, Kazunori; Hirao, Etsuko; Toya, Yosuke; Oshima, Yukiko; Ishikawa, Fumihiro; Nose, Kiyoshi

    2009-01-01

    Anchorage dependence of cell growth and survival is a critical trait that distinguishes nontransformed cells from transformed cells. We demonstrate that anchorage dependence is determined by anchorage-dependent nuclear retention of cyclin D1, which is regulated by the focal adhesion protein, Hic-5, whose CRM1-dependent nuclear export counteracts that of cyclin D1. An adaptor protein, PINCH, interacts with cyclin D1 and Hic-5 and potentially serves as an interface for the competition between cyclin D1 and Hic-5 for CRM1. In nonadherent cells, the nuclear export of Hic-5, which is redox-sensitive, was interrupted due to elevated production of reactive oxygen species, and cyclin D1 was exported from the nucleus. When an Hic-5 mutant that was continuously exported in a reactive oxygen species-insensitive manner was introduced into the cells, cyclin D1 was retained in the nucleus under nonadherent conditions, and a significant population of cells escaped from growth arrest or apoptosis. Interestingly, activated ras achieved predominant cyclin D1 nuclear localization and thus, growth in nonadherent cells. We report a failsafe system for anchorage dependence of cell growth and survival. PMID:18946086

  16. 33 CFR 401.50 - Anchorage areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Anchorage areas. 401.50 Section... TRANSPORTATION SEAWAY REGULATIONS AND RULES Regulations Seaway Navigation § 401.50 Anchorage areas. Except in an... of the Seaway except in the following designated anchorage areas: (a) Point Fortier (Lake St....

  17. 33 CFR 401.50 - Anchorage areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Anchorage areas. 401.50 Section... TRANSPORTATION SEAWAY REGULATIONS AND RULES Regulations Seaway Navigation § 401.50 Anchorage areas. Except in an... of the Seaway except in the following designated anchorage areas: (a) Point Fortier (Lake St....

  18. 33 CFR 401.50 - Anchorage areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Anchorage areas. 401.50 Section... TRANSPORTATION SEAWAY REGULATIONS AND RULES Regulations Seaway Navigation § 401.50 Anchorage areas. Except in an... of the Seaway except in the following designated anchorage areas: (a) Point Fortier (Lake St....

  19. 33 CFR 401.50 - Anchorage areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Anchorage areas. 401.50 Section... TRANSPORTATION SEAWAY REGULATIONS AND RULES Regulations Seaway Navigation § 401.50 Anchorage areas. Except in an... of the Seaway except in the following designated anchorage areas: (a) Point Fortier (Lake St....

  20. 33 CFR 401.50 - Anchorage areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Anchorage areas. 401.50 Section... TRANSPORTATION SEAWAY REGULATIONS AND RULES Regulations Seaway Navigation § 401.50 Anchorage areas. Except in an... of the Seaway except in the following designated anchorage areas: (a) Point Fortier (Lake St....

  1. 76 FR 15246 - Anchorage Regulations; Narragansett Bay and Rhode Island Sound, RI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-21

    ... regarding our public dockets in the January 17, 2008 issue of the Federal Register (73 FR 3316). Public... Sound, RI AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard... an offshore anchorage in Rhode Island Sound south of Brenton Point, Rhode Island, for use by...

  2. 33 CFR 110.1a - Anchorages under Ports and Waterways Safety Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Anchorages under Ports and... HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS § 110.1a Anchorages under Ports and Waterways Safety Act. (a) The anchorages listed in this section are regulated under the Ports and Waterways Safety Act...

  3. 33 CFR 110.189a - Key West Harbor, Key West, Fla., naval explosives anchorage area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Key West Harbor, Key West, Fla..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.189a Key West Harbor, Key West, Fla., naval explosives anchorage area. (a) The anchorage ground. A circular area with...

  4. Anchorage, AK

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Anchorage, Alaska and Cook Inlet are seen in this 30 by 30 km (19 by 19 miles) sub-image, acquired May 12, 2000 by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER). Orbiting at an altitude of 705 km (430 miles) on board NASA's Terra satellite, ASTER provides data at a resolution of 15 m (47 feet) and allows creation of this simulated natural color image. At the center of the image is the Ted Stevens Anchorage International Airport; in the upper right corner is Elmendorf Air Force Base. Dark green coniferous forests are seen in the northwest part of the image. A golf course, with its lush green fairways, is just south of the Air Force Base.

    The image covers an area of 30 by 30 km, was acquired May 12, 2000, and is located at 61.2 degrees north latitude and 149.9 degrees west longitude.

    Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of International Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California, is the U.S. science team leader; Moshe Pniel of JPL is the project manager. ASTER is the only high-resolution imaging sensor on Terra. The primary goal of the ASTER mission is to obtain high-resolution image data in 14 channels over the entire land surface, as well as black and white stereo images. With revisit time of between 4 and 16 days, ASTER will provide the capability for repeat coverage of changing areas on Earth's surface.

    The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping and monitoring dynamic conditions and temporal change. Examples of applications include monitoring glacial advances and

  5. 29 CFR 1926.755 - Column anchorage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Column anchorage. 1926.755 Section 1926.755 Labor... (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Steel Erection § 1926.755 Column anchorage. (a) General requirements for erection stability. (1) All columns shall be anchored by a minimum of 4...

  6. 76 FR 35742 - Superfund Site, New Bedford Harbor, New Bedford, MA: Anchorage Ground and Regulated Navigation Area

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-20

    ... Register (76 FR 20287). We received no comments on the proposed rule. A public meeting was not requested... area (RNA) prohibiting activities that disturb the seabed around the site. The RNA would not affect... authorize the Coast Guard to define regulatory anchorage grounds and RNAs. The purpose of the rule is...

  7. 33 CFR 110.237 - Pacific Ocean at Waimea, Hawaii, Naval Anchorage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Pacific Ocean at Waimea, Hawaii, Naval Anchorage. 110.237 Section 110.237 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.237 Pacific Ocean at...

  8. 33 CFR 110.237 - Pacific Ocean at Waimea, Hawaii, Naval Anchorage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Pacific Ocean at Waimea, Hawaii, Naval Anchorage. 110.237 Section 110.237 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.237 Pacific Ocean at...

  9. 33 CFR 110.237 - Pacific Ocean at Waimea, Hawaii, Naval Anchorage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Pacific Ocean at Waimea, Hawaii, Naval Anchorage. 110.237 Section 110.237 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.237 Pacific Ocean at...

  10. 33 CFR 110.237 - Pacific Ocean at Waimea, Hawaii, Naval Anchorage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pacific Ocean at Waimea, Hawaii, Naval Anchorage. 110.237 Section 110.237 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.237 Pacific Ocean at...

  11. 33 CFR 110.237 - Pacific Ocean at Waimea, Hawaii, Naval Anchorage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Pacific Ocean at Waimea, Hawaii, Naval Anchorage. 110.237 Section 110.237 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.237 Pacific Ocean at...

  12. Regulation of the Low Dose Radiation Paracrine-Specific Anchorage-Independent Growth Response by Annexin A2

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, Thomas J.; Opresko, Lee K.; Waisman, David M.; Newton, Gregory J.; Quesenberry, Ryan D.; Bollinger, Nikki; Moore, Ronald J.; Smith, Richard D.

    2009-07-13

    ABSTRACT-Here we identify release of annexin A2 into the culture medium in response to low dose X-ray radiation exposure and establish functional linkages to an established paracrine factor-mediated anchorage-independent growth response. Using a standard bicameral coculture model, we observe that annexin A2 levels associated with non-irradiated neighboring cells seeded in the lower chamber (annexin A2 silenced [shRNA] JB6 cells) are increased upon coculture with irradiated (10-50 cGy) JB6 cells seeded in the upper chamber, relative to coculture with sham exposed JB6 cells seeded in the upper chamber, suggesting that annexin A2 released into the medium is capable of communicating in a paracrine fashion. Using a previously established coculture model, we observed that the paracrine factor-mediated anchorage-independent growth response to low dose X-ray radiation is markedly reduced when irradiated annexin A2 silenced (shRNA) JB6 cells are used, relative to coculture with irradiated annexin A2 competent vector control counterparts. These observations suggest that annexin A2 is functionally linked to the radiation paracrine factor-specific anchorage-independent growth response in JB6 cells.

  13. 76 FR 20287 - Superfund Site, New Bedford Harbor, New Bedford, MA: Anchorage Ground and Regulated Navigation Area

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-12

    ..., 2008, issue of the Federal Register (73 FR 3316). Public Meeting We do not now plan to hold a public... establish a regulated navigation area (RNA) prohibiting activities that disturb the ] seabed around the site. The proposed RNA would not affect transit or navigation of the area. DATES: Comments and...

  14. X-linked Inhibitor of Apoptosis Protein (XIAP) Regulation of Cyclin D1 Protein Expression and Cancer Cell Anchorage-independent Growth via Its E3 Ligase-mediated Protein Phosphatase 2A/c-Jun Axis*

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Zipeng; Zhang, Ruowen; Li, Jingxia; Huang, Haishan; Zhang, Dongyun; Zhang, Jingjie; Gao, Jimin; Chen, Jingyuan; Huang, Chuanshu

    2013-01-01

    The X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP) is a well known potent inhibitor of apoptosis; however, it is also involved in other cancer cell biological behavior. In the current study, we discovered that XIAP and its E3 ligase played a crucial role in regulation of cyclin D1 expression in cancer cells. We found that deficiency of XIAP expression resulted in a marked reduction in cyclin D1 expression. Consistently, cell cycle transition and anchorage-independent cell growth were also attenuated in XIAP-deficient cancer cells compared with those of the parental wild-type cells. Subsequent studies demonstrated that E3 ligase activity within the RING domain of XIAP is crucial for its ability to regulate cyclin D1 transcription, cell cycle transition, and anchorage-independent cell growth by up-regulating transactivation of c-Jun/AP-1. Moreover, we found that E3 ligase within RING domain was required for XIAP inhibition of phosphatase PP2A activity by up-regulation of PP2A phosphorylation at Tyr-307 in its catalytic subunit. Such PP2A phosphorylation and inactivation resulted in phosphorylation and activation of its downstream target c-Jun in turn leading to cyclin D1 expression. Collectively, our studies uncovered a novel function of E3 ligase activity of XIAP in the up-regulation of cyclin D1 expression, providing significant insight into the understanding of the biomedical significance of overexpressed XIAP in cancer development, further offering a new molecular basis for utilizing XIAP E3 ligase as a cancer therapeutic target. PMID:23720779

  15. Temporary Anchorage Device: An Epitome of Anchorage in Orthodontic Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Nayak, US Krishna; Hegde, Amitha M; Jacob, Mary

    2011-01-01

    One of the most important phases of oral health is the form and function of the oral mechanism. Recently, pediatric dentists are concerned with the obvious esthetic disabilities and the pathologic implications of the malposed teeth. Interceptive and functional orthodontic treatment is playing a major role in these discrepancies. Anchorage is an important consideration in orthodontics, particularly if force is applied entirely to the teeth. For many years, clinicians have searched for a form of anchorage that does not rely on patient cooperation. During the last few decades, a wealth of new information has accumulated to such an extent that the present authors thought it appropriate to let these advances make an impact by suggesting a revised definition and classification of anchorage. This paper also gives a brief insight on evolution of anchorage and its application in pediatric dentistry.

  16. Temporary Anchorage Device: An Epitome of Anchorage in Orthodontic Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Nayak, US Krishna; Hegde, Amitha M; Jacob, Mary

    2011-01-01

    One of the most important phases of oral health is the form and function of the oral mechanism. Recently, pediatric dentists are concerned with the obvious esthetic disabilities and the pathologic implications of the malposed teeth. Interceptive and functional orthodontic treatment is playing a major role in these discrepancies. Anchorage is an important consideration in orthodontics, particularly if force is applied entirely to the teeth. For many years, clinicians have searched for a form of anchorage that does not rely on patient cooperation. During the last few decades, a wealth of new information has accumulated to such an extent that the present authors thought it appropriate to let these advances make an impact by suggesting a revised definition and classification of anchorage. This paper also gives a brief insight on evolution of anchorage and its application in pediatric dentistry. PMID:27672255

  17. Friction and anchorage loading revisited.

    PubMed

    Dholakia, Kartik D

    2012-01-01

    Contemporary concepts of sliding mechanics explain that friction is inevitable. To overcome this frictional resistance, excess force is required to retract the tooth along the archwire (ie, individual retraction of canines, en masse retraction of anterior teeth), in addition to the amount of force required for tooth movement. The anterior tooth retraction force, in addition to excess force (to overcome friction), produces reciprocal protraction force on molars, thereby leading to increased anchorage loading. However, this traditional concept was challenged in recent literature, which was based on the finite element model, but did not bear correlation to the clinical scenario. This article will reinforce the fact that clinically, friction increases anchorage loading in all three planes of space, considering the fact that tooth movement is a quasistatic process rather than a purely continuous or static one, and that conventional ways of determining the effects of static or dynamic friction on anchorage load cannot be applied to clinical situations (which consist of anatomical resistance units and a complex muscular force system). The article does not aim to quantify friction and its effect on the amount of anchorage load. Rather, a new perspective regarding the role of various additional factors (which is not explained by contemporary concept) that may influence friction and anchorage loading is provided..

  18. [Bone-based anchorage failure].

    PubMed

    Mer, Grégoria; Brezulier, Damien; Sorel, Olivier

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this article is to list the circumstances likely to give rise to failure of orthodontic temporary bone-supported anchorage and, hence, to attempt to define criteria for correct miniscrew usage. Our study was based on a review of the literature and analyses of clinical cases. Our findings show that, with a sound knowledge of the indications for screw selection and positioning and of the insertion protocols combined with a clear understanding of orthodontic mechanics, bone-based anchorage can henceforth provide orthodontists with an essential tool to enable formerly unachievable dental movements and to stabilize unwanted movements, thus making treatment both more reliable and more effective. PMID:27083224

  19. Integrating Intercultural Education: The Anchorage Alaska Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fenton, Ray

    The desire for students to understand and respect each other is a primary motivation for the effort to integrate multicultural education into all aspects of the Anchorage School District (Alaska) curriculum. The Anchorage curriculum emphasizes the cultural heritage of Alaska Natives, other resident ethnic groups and Pacific Rim cultures. In recent…

  20. 76 FR 52599 - Anchorage Regulations; Wells, ME

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-23

    ... Federal Register (73 FR 3316). Public Meeting We do not now plan to hold a public meeting. But, you may... of the waters enclosed by a line beginning at latitude 43 19'15.7'' N, longitude 070 33'42.1'' W; thence to latitude 43 19'15.7'' N, longitude 070 33'40.3'' W; thence to latitude 43 19'2.6'' N,...

  1. Performance of Sequoyah Containment Anchorage System

    SciTech Connect

    Fanous, F.; Greimann, L.; Wassef, W.; Bluhm, D.

    1993-01-01

    Deformation of a steel containment anchorage system during a severe accident may result in a leakage path at the containment boundaries. Current design criteria are based on either ductile or brittle failure modes of headed bolts that do not account for factors such as cracking of the containment basemat or deformation of the anchor bolt that may affect the behavior of the containment anchorage system. The purpose of this study was to investigate the performance of a typical ice condenser containment`s anchorage system. This was accomplished by analyzing the Sequoyah Containment Anchorage System. Based on a strength of materials approach and assuming that the anchor bolts are resisting the uplift caused by the internal pressure, one can estimate that the failure of the anchor bolts would occur at a containment pressure of 79 psig. To verify these results and to calibrate the strength of materials equation, the Sequoyah containment anchorage system was analyzed with the ABAQUS program using a three-dimensional, finite-element model. The model included portions of the steel containment building, shield building, anchor bolt assembly, reinforced concrete mat and soil foundation material.

  2. 72. Detail of eyebar linkage between main anchorage beams at ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    72. Detail of eyebar linkage between main anchorage beams at base of statue and anchorage beam between levels 4 and 5. February 1984. - Statue of Liberty, Liberty Island, Manhattan, New York County, NY

  3. PEM Anchorage on Titanium Using Catechol Grafting

    PubMed Central

    Marie, Hélène; Barrere, Amélie; Schoentstein, Frédérique; Chavanne, Marie-Hélène; Grosgogeat, Brigitte; Mora, Laurence

    2012-01-01

    Background This study deals with the anchorage of polyelectrolyte films onto titanium surfaces via a cathecol-based linker for biomedical applications. Methodology The following study uses a molecule functionalized with a catechol and a carboxylic acid: 3-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)propanoic acid. This molecule is anchored to the TiO2 substrate via the catechol while the carboxylic acid reacts with polymers bearing amine groups. By providing a film anchorage of chemisorption type, it makes possible to deposit polyelectrolytes on the surface of titanium. Principal Findings Infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), contact angle and atomic force microscopy (AFM) measurements show that the different steps of grafting have been successfully performed. Conclusions This method based on catechol anchorage of polyelectrolytes open a window towards large possibilities of clinical applications. PMID:23226262

  4. Friction does not increase anchorage loading.

    PubMed

    Southard, Thomas E; Marshall, Steve D; Grosland, Nicole M

    2007-03-01

    Conventional wisdom suggests that orthodontists must apply added force to overcome friction during canine retraction (sliding mechanics), the result of which can be increased anchorage loading and anchorage loss. However, for a frictional force to be exerted mesially by the archwire against a canine during retraction, the archwire must be compressed between the canine and the anchor molar, and an equal but opposite force must be applied distally against the molar by the archwire. In other words, the frictional force that reduces the force of retraction on the canine must also reduce the protraction force on the molar. Emphasis on employing reduced-friction (eg, self-ligating) brackets during sliding mechanics to prevent added posterior anchorage loading is unwarranted and based more on bracket salesmanship than on orthodontic biomechanics. PMID:17346599

  5. Orthodontics. Part 9: anchorage control and distal movement.

    PubMed

    Roberts-Harry, D; Sandy, J

    2004-03-13

    Anchorage is an important consideration when planning orthodontic tooth movement. Unwanted tooth movement known as loss of anchorage can have a detrimental effect on the treatment outcome. Anchorage can be sourced from the teeth, the oral mucosa and underlying bone, implants and extra orally. If extra-oral anchorage is used, particularly with a facebow then the use of at least two safety devices is mandatory.

  6. Current Student Survey, Anchorage Campus, Spring 1996.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaul, Gitanjali; Dargan-Steed, Ophelia; Narayanan, Devi; Haddock, Karen; Sprague, Jennifer

    This paper presents the findings of the University of Alaska Anchorage's (UAA) 1996 survey of student needs. The objectives of the survey were to gain insight into the students' goals and motivations, and to measure students' needs and satisfaction as part of institutional accountability. The survey is intended to be used as a guide to…

  7. 76 FR 78185 - Anchorage Regulations: Subpart A-Special Anchorage Regulations, Newport Bay Harbor, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-16

    ... include your name and a mailing address, an email address, or a telephone number in the body of your... Federal Register (73 FR 3316). Public Meeting We do not now plan to hold a public meeting. But, you may... would be incorporated into area A-11 under revised Sec. 110.95(k). An image of the proposed...

  8. Anchorage Dependent Cells Attached to a Polymer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    Biomedical research offers hope for a variety of medical problems, from diabetes to the replacement of damaged bone and tissues. Bioreactors, which are used to grow cells and tissue cultures, play a major role in such research and production efforts. Anchorage dependent cells on STS-95 will be grown on beads similar to these cells produced during previous investigations. Recombinant proteins may offer the possibility of reducing or eliminating transplant rejections. Research by Synthecon, Inc. using the BioDyn Bioreactor will focus on the preliminary process for growing a proprietary recombinant protein that can decrease rejection of transplanted tissue. The cells producing this protein are anchorage dependent, meaning that they must attach to something to grow. These cells will be cultured in the bioreactor in a medium containing polymer microbeads. Synthecon hopes that the data from this mission will lead to the development of a commercial protein that will aid in prevention of transplant rejection.

  9. Anchorage Dependent Cells Attached to a Polymer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    Biomedical research offers hope for a variety of medical problems, from diabetes to the replacement of damaged bone and tissues. Bioreactors, which are used to grow cells and tissue cultures, play a major role in such research and production efforts. Anchorage dependent cells on STS-95 will be grown on beads, similar to these cells produced during previous investigations. Recombinant proteins may offer the possibility of reducing or eliminating transplant rejections. Research by Synthecon, Inc. using the BioDyn Bioreactor will focus on the preliminary process for growing a proprietary recombinant protein that can decrease rejection of transplanted tissue. The cells producing this protein are anchorage dependent, meaning that they must attach to something to grow. These cells will be cultured in the bioreactor in a medium containing polymer microbeads. Synthecon hopes that the data from this mission will lead to the development of a commercial protein that will aid in prevention of transplant rejection.

  10. The Response of Spartium junceum Roots to Slope: Anchorage and Gene Factors

    PubMed Central

    SCIPPA, GABRIELLA STEFANIA; DI MICHELE, MICHELA; DI IORIO, ANTONINO; COSTA, ANTONELLO; LASSERRE, BRUNO; CHIATANTE, DONATO

    2006-01-01

    • Background and Aims Plant anchorage is governed by complex, finely regulated mechanisms that occur at a morphological, architectural and anatomical level. Spanish broom (Spartium junceum) is a woody plant frequently found on slopes—a condition that affects plant anchorage. This plant grows throughout the Mediterranean area where it plays an important role in preventing landslides. Spanish broom seedlings respond promptly to slope by altering stem and root morphology. The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanisms whereby the root system of Spanish broom seedlings adapts to ensure anchorage to the ground. • Methods Seedlings were grown in tilted and untilted pots under controlled conditions. The root apparatus was removed at different times of growth and subjected to morphological, biomechanical and molecular analyses. • Key Results In slope-grown seedlings, changes in root system morphology, pulling strength and chemical lignin content, all features related to plant anchorage in the soil, were related to seedling age. cDNA-AFLP analysis revealed changes in the expression of several genes in root systems of slope-grown plants. BLAST analysis showed that some differentially expressed genes are homologues of genes induced by environmental stresses in other plant species, and/or are involved in the production of strengthening materials. • Conclusion Plants use various mechanisms/strategies to respond to slope depending on their developmental stage. PMID:16352708

  11. Rho-associated kinase connects a cell cycle-controlling anchorage signal to the mammalian target of rapamycin pathway.

    PubMed

    Park, Jung-ha; Arakawa-Takeuchi, Shiho; Jinno, Shigeki; Okayama, Hiroto

    2011-07-01

    When deprived of anchorage to the extracellular matrix, fibroblasts arrest in G(1) phase at least in part due to inactivation of G(1) cyclin-dependent kinases. Despite great effort, how anchorage signals control the G(1)-S transition of fibroblasts remains highly elusive. We recently found that the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) cascade might convey an anchorage signal that regulates S phase entry. Here, we show that Rho-associated kinase connects this signal to the TSC1/TSC2-RHEB-mTOR pathway. Expression of a constitutively active form of ROCK1 suppressed all of the anchorage deprivation effects suppressible by tsc2 mutation in rat embryonic fibroblasts. TSC2 contains one evolutionarily conserved ROCK target-like sequence, and an alanine substitution for Thr(1203) in this sequence severely impaired the ability of ROCK1 to counteract the anchorage loss-imposed down-regulation of both G(1) cell cycle factors and mTORC1 activity. Moreover, TSC2 Thr(1203) underwent ROCK-dependent phosphorylation in vivo and could be phosphorylated by bacterially expressed active ROCK1 in vitro, providing biochemical evidence for a direct physical interaction between ROCK and TSC2.

  12. SATB2 expression increased anchorage-independent growth and cell migration in human bronchial epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Wu, Feng; Jordan, Ashley; Kluz, Thomas; Shen, Steven; Sun, Hong; Cartularo, Laura A; Costa, Max

    2016-02-15

    The special AT-rich sequence-binding protein 2 (SATB2) is a protein that binds to the nuclear matrix attachment region of the cell and regulates gene expression by altering chromatin structure. In our previous study, we reported that SATB2 gene expression was induced in human bronchial epithelial BEAS-2B cells transformed by arsenic, chromium, nickel and vanadium. In this study, we show that ectopic expression of SATB2 in the normal human bronchial epithelial cell-line BEAS-2B increased anchorage-independent growth and cell migration, meanwhile, shRNA-mediated knockdown of SATB2 significantly decreased anchorage-independent growth in Ni transformed BEAS-2B cells. RNA sequencing analyses of SATB2 regulated genes revealed the enrichment of those involved in cytoskeleton, cell adhesion and cell-movement pathways. Our evidence supports the hypothesis that SATB2 plays an important role in BEAS-2B cell transformation. PMID:26780400

  13. 77 FR 50914 - Anchorage; Change to Cottonwood Island Anchorage, Columbia River, Oregon and Washington

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-23

    ... Security FR Federal Register NPRM Notice of Proposed Rulemaking A. Regulatory History and Information On... Island Anchorage on the Columbia River (76 FR 34197). On May 23, 2012, the Coast Guard published a Supplemental NPRM revising that proposal in response to public comments (77 FR 30440). During the...

  14. Anchorage Kindergarten Profile: Implementing the Alaska Kindergarten Developmental Profile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fenton, Ray

    This paper discusses the development of the Anchorage Kindergarten Developmental Profile in the context of the Alaska Kindergarten Developmental Profile and presents some evaluation results from studies of the Anchorage measure. Alaska mandated the completion of an Alaska Developmental Profile (ADP) on each kindergarten student and each student…

  15. 50 CFR Figure 5 to Subpart E of... - Anchorage, Matanuska-Susitna, and Kenai Rural and Non-Rural Areas

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Anchorage, Matanuska-Susitna, and Kenai Rural and Non-Rural Areas 5 Figure 5 to Subpart E of Part 300 Wildlife and Fisheries INTERNATIONAL FISHING AND RELATED ACTIVITIES INTERNATIONAL FISHERIES REGULATIONS Pacific Halibut Fisheries Pt. 300, Subpt. E, Fig. 5 Figure 5 to Subpart E of Part...

  16. 50 CFR Figure 5 to Subpart E of... - Anchorage, Matanuska-Susitna, and Kenai Rural and Non-Rural Areas

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Anchorage, Matanuska-Susitna, and Kenai Rural and Non-Rural Areas 5 Figure 5 to Subpart E of Part 300 Wildlife and Fisheries INTERNATIONAL FISHING AND RELATED ACTIVITIES INTERNATIONAL FISHERIES REGULATIONS Pacific Halibut Fisheries Pt. 300, Subpt. E, Fig. 5 Figure 5 to Subpart E of Part...

  17. 50 CFR Figure 5 to Subpart E of... - Anchorage, Matanuska-Susitna, and Kenai Rural and Non-Rural Areas

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Anchorage, Matanuska-Susitna, and Kenai Rural and Non-Rural Areas 5 Figure 5 to Subpart E of Part 300 Wildlife and Fisheries INTERNATIONAL FISHING AND RELATED ACTIVITIES INTERNATIONAL FISHERIES REGULATIONS Pacific Halibut Fisheries Pt. 300, Subpt. E, Fig. 5 Figure 5 to Subpart E of Part...

  18. 50 CFR Figure 5 to Subpart E of... - Anchorage, Matanuska-Susitna, and Kenai Rural and Non-Rural Areas

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Anchorage, Matanuska-Susitna, and Kenai Rural and Non-Rural Areas 5 Figure 5 to Subpart E of Part 300 Wildlife and Fisheries INTERNATIONAL FISHING AND RELATED ACTIVITIES INTERNATIONAL FISHERIES REGULATIONS Pacific Halibut Fisheries Pt. 300, Subpt. E, Fig. 5 Figure 5 to Subpart E of Part...

  19. 50 CFR Figure 5 to Subpart E of... - Anchorage, Matanuska-Susitna, and Kenai Rural and Non-Rural Areas

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Anchorage, Matanuska-Susitna, and Kenai Rural and Non-Rural Areas 5 Figure 5 to Subpart E of Part 300 Wildlife and Fisheries INTERNATIONAL FISHING AND RELATED ACTIVITIES INTERNATIONAL FISHERIES REGULATIONS Pacific Halibut Fisheries Pt. 300, Subpt. E, Fig. 5 Figure 5 to Subpart E of Part...

  20. 78 FR 3326 - Safety Zone Within the Lower Portion of Anchorage #9, Mantua Creek Anchorage; Paulsboro, NJ

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-16

    ... of Homeland Security FR Federal Register NPRM Notice of Proposed Rulemaking A. Regulatory History and..., Marine safety, Navigation (water), Reporting and recordkeeping requirements, Security measures, Waterways... Anchorage 9 (Mantua Creek Anchorage) due to dredging operations. The Dredge Florida will be working...

  1. Anchorage Arrival Scheduling Under Off-Nominal Weather Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grabbe, Shon; Chan, William N.; Mukherjee, Avijit

    2012-01-01

    Weather can cause flight diversions, passenger delays, additional fuel consumption and schedule disruptions at any high volume airport. The impacts are particularly acute at the Ted Stevens Anchorage International Airport in Anchorage, Alaska due to its importance as a major international portal. To minimize the impacts due to weather, a multi-stage scheduling process is employed that is iteratively executed, as updated aircraft demand and/or airport capacity data become available. The strategic scheduling algorithm assigns speed adjustments for flights that originate outside of Anchorage Center to achieve the proper demand and capacity balance. Similarly, an internal departure-scheduling algorithm assigns ground holds for pre-departure flights that originate from within Anchorage Center. Tactical flight controls in the form of airborne holding are employed to reactively account for system uncertainties. Real-world scenarios that were derived from the January 16, 2012 Anchorage visibility observations and the January 12, 2012 Anchorage arrival schedule were used to test the initial implementation of the scheduling algorithm in fast-time simulation experiments. Although over 90% of the flights in the scenarios arrived at Anchorage without requiring any delay, pre-departure scheduling was the dominant form of control for Anchorage arrivals. Additionally, tactical scheduling was used extensively in conjunction with the pre-departure scheduling to reactively compensate for uncertainties in the arrival demand. For long-haul flights, the strategic scheduling algorithm performed best when the scheduling horizon was greater than 1,000 nmi. With these long scheduling horizons, it was possible to absorb between ten and 12 minutes of delay through speed control alone. Unfortunately, the use of tactical scheduling, which resulted in airborne holding, was found to increase as the strategic scheduling horizon increased because of the additional uncertainty in the arrival times

  2. 78 FR 67300 - Anchorage Regulations: Pacific Ocean at San Nicolas Island, Calif.; Restricted Anchorage Areas

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-12

    ... Act notice regarding our public dockets in the January 17, 2008, issue of the Federal Register (73 FR... requirements. The east-end area was designed to prevent vessels from disturbing barge offloading and fuel... from disturbing the fuel-offloading lines at the mooring buoys offshore Coast Guard Beach. It also...

  3. Suspension Bridge Structural Systems: Cable Suspension & Anchorage; Warren Stiffening ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Suspension Bridge Structural Systems: Cable Suspension & Anchorage; Warren Stiffening Truss; Upper & Lower Decks; Assembled System - San Francisco Oakland Bay Bridge, Spanning San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  4. 60. Ground level view looking E at Brooklyn anchorage abutment. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    60. Ground level view looking E at Brooklyn anchorage abutment. Jet Lowe, photographer, 1982. - Brooklyn Bridge, Spanning East River between Park Row, Manhattan and Sands Street, Brooklyn, New York County, NY

  5. 61. Detail, side view looking at juncture between Brooklyn anchorage ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    61. Detail, side view looking at juncture between Brooklyn anchorage abutment and deck truss. Jet Lowe, photographer, 1982. - Brooklyn Bridge, Spanning East River between Park Row, Manhattan and Sands Street, Brooklyn, New York County, NY

  6. 62. Ground level, angled view looking SE at Brooklyn anchorage ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    62. Ground level, angled view looking SE at Brooklyn anchorage and side span superstructure. Jet Lowe, photographer, 1982. - Brooklyn Bridge, Spanning East River between Park Row, Manhattan and Sands Street, Brooklyn, New York County, NY

  7. Minor tooth movements using microimplant anchorage: case reports.

    PubMed

    Sohn, Dong-Seok; Lee, Jung-Kwang; An, Kyung-Mi

    2008-03-01

    For the treatment of extruded or tipped molars, various conventional techniques have been used. But those methods may lead to undesirable movement of the anchorage units and lengthen treatment time because of limited tooth-borne anchorage potential. Introduction of microimplants as orthodontic anchorage has expanded treatment possibilities because of their advantages. Some advantages are a less complex surgical procedure, decrease in cost, immediate loading, and their ability to be placed in any area of the alveolar bone. This article will illustrate clinical experiences in patients who were treated with the intrusion of overerupted molars, the up-righting of tilted molars, and other clinical applications for minor tooth movements. Anchorage control was achieved with the surgical insertion of titanium microimplants for immediate loading in the alveolar bone. When needed, minimal fixed appliances were used and orthodontic treatment was completed without any other complications.

  8. 75 FR 3641 - Television Broadcasting Services; Anchorage, AK

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 Television Broadcasting Services; Anchorage, AK AGENCY: Federal Communications... broadcasting. 0 For the reasons discussed in the preamble, the Federal Communications Commission amends 47...

  9. 410. Delineator Unknown Revised November 2, 1933 SAN FRANCISCO ANCHORAGE; ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    410. Delineator Unknown Revised November 2, 1933 SAN FRANCISCO ANCHORAGE; SAN FRANCISCO - OAKLAND BAY BRIDGE; "A" - San Francisco Oakland Bay Bridge, Spanning San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  10. 9. CABLE ANCHORAGE DETAIL, NORTHWEST ABUTMENT (NOTE MOSSCOVERED CONCRETE ANCHOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. CABLE ANCHORAGE DETAIL, NORTHWEST ABUTMENT (NOTE MOSS-COVERED CONCRETE ANCHOR LEFT OF ANCHOR BOLTS) - Nisqually Suspension Bridge, Spanning Nisqually River on Service Road, Longmire, Pierce County, WA

  11. Retention of prolyl hydroxylase PHD2 in the cytoplasm prevents PHD2-induced anchorage-independent carcinoma cell growth

    SciTech Connect

    Jokilehto, Terhi; Hoegel, Heidi; Heikkinen, Pekka; Rantanen, Krista; Elenius, Klaus; Sundstroem, Jari; Jaakkola, Panu M.

    2010-04-15

    Cellular oxygen tension is sensed by a family of prolyl hydroxylases (PHD1-3) that regulate the degradation of hypoxia-inducible factors (HIF-1{alpha} and -2{alpha}). The PHD2 isoform is considered as the main downregulator of HIF in normoxia. Our previous results have shown that nuclear translocation of PHD2 associates with poorly differentiated tumor phenotype implying that nuclear PHD2 expression is advantageous for tumor growth. Here we show that a pool of PHD2 is shuttled between the nucleus and the cytoplasm. In line with this, accumulation of wild type PHD2 in the nucleus was detected in human colon adenocarcinomas and in cultured carcinoma cells. The PHD2 isoforms showing high nuclear expression increased anchorage-independent carcinoma cell growth. However, retention of PHD2 in the cytoplasm inhibited the anchorage-independent cell growth. A region that inhibits the nuclear localization of PHD2 was identified and the deletion of the region promoted anchorage-independent growth of carcinoma cells. Finally, the cytoplasmic PHD2, as compared with the nuclear PHD2, less efficiently downregulated HIF expression. Forced HIF-1{alpha} or -2{alpha} expression decreased and attenuation of HIF expression increased the anchorage-independent cell growth. However, hydroxylase-inactivating mutations in PHD2 had no effect on cell growth. The data imply that nuclear PHD2 localization promotes malignant cancer phenotype.

  12. Induction of p27Kip1 degradation and anchorage independence by Ras through the MAP kinase signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Kawada, M; Yamagoe, S; Murakami, Y; Suzuki, K; Mizuno, S; Uehara, Y

    1997-08-01

    While most untransformed cells require substrate attachment for growth (anchorage dependence), the oncogenic transformed cells lack this requirement (anchorage independence) and are often tumorigenic. However, the mechanism of loss of anchorage dependence is not fully understood. When rat normal fibroblasts were cultured in suspension without substrate attachment, the cell cycle arrested in G1 phase and the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p27Kip1 protein and its mRNA accumulated. Conditional expression of oncogenic Ras induced the G1-S transition of the cell cycle and significantly shortened the half-life of p27Kip1 protein without altering its mRNA level. Inhibition of the activation of mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase by cyclic AMP-elevating agents and a MEK inhibitor prevented the oncogenic Ras-induced degradation of p27Kip1. These results suggest that the loss of substrate attachment induces the cell cycle arrest through the up-regulation of p27Kip1 mRNA, but the oncogenic Ras confers anchorage independence by accelerating p27Kip1 degradation through the activation of the MAP kinase signaling pathway. Furthermore, we have found that p27Kip1 is phosphorylated by MAP kinase in vitro and the phosphorylated p27Kip1 cannot bind to and inhibit cdk2.

  13. Advances in cell culture: anchorage dependence

    PubMed Central

    Merten, Otto-Wilhelm

    2015-01-01

    Anchorage-dependent cells are of great interest for various biotechnological applications. (i) They represent a formidable production means of viruses for vaccination purposes at very large scales (in 1000–6000 l reactors) using microcarriers, and in the last decade many more novel viral vaccines have been developed using this production technology. (ii) With the advent of stem cells and their use/potential use in clinics for cell therapy and regenerative medicine purposes, the development of novel culture devices and technologies for adherent cells has accelerated greatly with a view to the large-scale expansion of these cells. Presently, the really scalable systems—microcarrier/microcarrier-clump cultures using stirred-tank reactors—for the expansion of stem cells are still in their infancy. Only laboratory scale reactors of maximally 2.5 l working volume have been evaluated because thorough knowledge and basic understanding of critical issues with respect to cell expansion while retaining pluripotency and differentiation potential, and the impact of the culture environment on stem cell fate, etc., are still lacking and require further studies. This article gives an overview on critical issues common to all cell culture systems for adherent cells as well as specifics for different types of stem cells in view of small- and large-scale cell expansion and production processes. PMID:25533097

  14. Non-destructive evaluation of anchorage zones by ultrasonics techniques.

    PubMed

    Kharrat, M; Gaillet, L

    2015-08-01

    This work aims to evaluate the efficiency and reliability of two Non-Destructive Testing (NDT) methods for damage assessment in bridges' anchorages. The Acousto-Ultrasonic (AU) technique is compared to classical Ultrasonic Testing (UT) in terms of defect detection and structural health classification. The AU technique is firstly used on single seven-wire strands damaged by artificial defects. The effect of growing defects on the waves traveling through the strands is evaluated. Thereafter, three specimens of anchorages with unknown defects are inspected by the AU and UT techniques. Damage assessment results from both techniques are then compared. The structural health conditions of the specimens can be then classified by a damage severity criterion. Finally, a damaged anchorage socket with mastered defects is controlled by the same techniques. The UT allows the detection and localization of damaged wires. The AU technique is used to bring out the effect of defects on acoustic features by comparing a healthy and damaged anchorage sockets. It is concluded that the UT method is suitable for local and crack-like defects, whereas the AU technique enables the assessment of the global structural health of the anchorage zones.

  15. Numerical and Experimental Investigation on Root Anchorage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, F.; Osman, N.; Hashim, R.; Khalilnejad, A.

    2012-04-01

    In more recent times, the roles played by vegetation in some specific geotechnical processes have been recognized. Vegetation may affect slope stability in many ways. The stability of slopes is governed by the load, which is the driving force that causes failure, and the resistance, which is the strength of the soil-root system. The weight of trees growing on a slope adds to the load but the roots of trees serve as a soil reinforcement and increase the resistance. In order to ensure that the weight of the trees on the slope help to enhance its stability it is required that they are planted down-slope of the neutral point. Maximum contribution is produced if the trees are located at the slope toe. Considering a typical slip circle, at this location the direction of shear force acting on the trees may be considered as close-to-vertical for the purpose of analysis. In this study, 3D numerical simulations of root anchorage have been performed to study the mechanism and the factors influencing the pull out capacity of tree roots. The investigation was performed using ABACUS finite element program. Field pull-out tests were also carried out on Melastoma malabathricum which been shown to be very suitable to be grown on slope, and the results are compared with numerical simulations. Parametric studies were also done to study the effects of factors such as root pattern, angle of inclination as well as soil properties. The results show that the 3D finite element analyses are able to approximately simulate the experimental tests. The results of the field tests, simulations and the parametric studies will be presented and discussed in more details in this paper.

  16. Miniscrew implants as temporary anchorage devices in orthodontics: a comprehensive review.

    PubMed

    Jasoria, Gaurav; Shamim, Wamiq; Rathore, Saurabh; Kalra, Amit; Manchanda, Mona; Jaggi, Nitin

    2013-01-01

    In recent times, the use of miniscrew implants to obtain absolute anchorage has gained momentum in clinical orthodontics as rigid anchorage modality. Miniscrew implants offers many advantages when used as temporary anchorage devices like, easy placement and removal, immediate loading, can be used in a variety of locations, provide absolute anchorage, economic and requires less patient cooperation. This makes them as a necessary treatment option in cases with critical anchorage that would have otherwise resulted in anchorage loss if treated with conventional means of anchorage. The aim of this comprehensive review is to highlight the gradual evolution, clinical use, advantages and disadvantages of the miniscrew implants when used to obtain a temporary but absolute skeletal anchorage for orthodontic applications. PMID:24685811

  17. 33 CFR 162.136 - Connecting waters from Lake Huron to Lake Erie; anchorage grounds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...: There is an authorized anchorage in Canadian waters just above Fighting Island and an authorized anchorage in U.S. waters south of Belle Isle (33 CFR 110.206). (b) In the St. Clair River, vessels shall...

  18. 33 CFR 162.136 - Connecting waters from Lake Huron to Lake Erie; anchorage grounds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...: There is an authorized anchorage in Canadian waters just above Fighting Island and an authorized anchorage in U.S. waters south of Belle Isle (33 CFR 110.206). (b) In the St. Clair River, vessels shall...

  19. 33 CFR 162.136 - Connecting waters from Lake Huron to Lake Erie; anchorage grounds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...: There is an authorized anchorage in Canadian waters just above Fighting Island and an authorized anchorage in U.S. waters south of Belle Isle (33 CFR 110.206). (b) In the St. Clair River, vessels shall...

  20. 33 CFR 162.136 - Connecting waters from Lake Huron to Lake Erie; anchorage grounds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...: There is an authorized anchorage in Canadian waters just above Fighting Island and an authorized anchorage in U.S. waters south of Belle Isle (33 CFR 110.206). (b) In the St. Clair River, vessels shall...

  1. 78 FR 59914 - Foreign-Trade Zone 160-Anchorage, Alaska; Application for Reorganization Under Alternative Site...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-30

    ..., 2013. FTZ 160 was approved by the FTZ Board on July 18, 1989 (Board Order 437, 54 FR 31355, 07/28/1989... Anchorage Industrial Park, 1075 Dock Rd., 1076 Ocean Dock Rd. and 1601 Tidewater Rd, Anchorage; Site 2...

  2. Clinical applications of orthodontic microimplant anchorage in craniofacial patients.

    PubMed

    Vachiramon, Amornpong; Urata, Mark; Kyung, Hee Moon; Yamashita, Dennis-Duke; Yen, Stephen L-K

    2009-03-01

    Microimplant anchors, also known as temporary anchorage devices, mini- and micro-screws, have been used to enhance orthodontic anchorage for difficult tooth movements. Here, the authors describe how microimplants can be used to help treat craniofacial patients by supporting distraction osteogenesis procedures, maxillary protraction procedures, cleft segment expansion and stabilization, and tooth movement into narrow alveolar cleft sites. While most craniofacial patients are treated without microimplants, it would be worthwhile to identify which cases could benefit from microimplant anchorage. As an adjunct to orthodontic treatment, the microimplant offers a potential method for solving troublesome orthodontic and surgical problems such as guiding distraction procedures with orthodontics when primary teeth are exfoliating, addressing residual maxillary cants after vertical distraction osteogenesis of a ramus, stabilizing an edentulous premaxilla, and moving teeth into atrophic alveolar ridges. These cases are presented to open a dialogue on their possible uses in craniofacial patients.

  3. On the biomechanics of seedling anchorage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crouzy, Benoît; Edmaier, Katharina; Perona, Paolo

    2014-05-01

    We propose a minimal model for the response of vegetation to pullout constraints at early development stage. We try to capture both the average mechanical properties of the root system and the stochastic component of the uprooting process of seedlings. We identify a minimal set of relevant physical components in the purpose of quantifying the uprooting process: length of the root fibres, elastic response of the fibres and adhesion between the roots and the soil matrix. We present for validation a dataset extracted from Edmaier et al. (under revision), accounting for 98 uprooting experiments using Avena sativa L. seedlings (common oat), growing in non-cohesive sediment under controlled conditions. The corresponding root system has a very simple architecture, with three root fibres of different lengths. The response of the system to the constraint is however complex: the stress-strain signal presents sudden jumps followed by partial elastic recoveries. The analysis of the jumps and partial recoveries gives an insight into the resilience of the system. The anchorage of less mature seedlings rapidly collapses after the peak force has been reached, while more mature seedlings usually recover from partial failures. We explore this crossover with our validation dataset. The type of seedlings we study has been used in flume experiments investigating the feedbacks between the vegetation and the river morphodynamics (see for example Perona et al. (2012)). An understanding of the characteristics of the uprooting curve (maximal uprooting force and total uprooting work) of such vegetation reveals the ability of seedlings to withstand environmental constraints in terms of duration or intensity (see Edmaier et al., under revision), and is therefore helpful for planning future experiments. REFERENCES - P. Perona, P. Molnar, B. Crouzy, E. Perucca, Z. Jiang, S. McLelland, D. Wüthrich, K. Edmaier, R. Francis, C. Camporeale, et al., Biomass selection by floods and related timescales

  4. 78 FR 44917 - Anchorage Regulations; Port of New York

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-25

    ... INFORMATION: Table of Acronyms DHS Department of Homeland Security FR Federal Register NPRM Notice of Proposed... public dockets in the January 17, 2008, issue of the Federal Register (73 FR 3316). 4. Public Meeting We... accommodate ship traffic awaiting berthing space, favorable weather, daylight hours, tidal conditions...

  5. 75 FR 76275 - Anchorage Regulations; Long Island Sound

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-08

    ... (74 FR 27948). We received four letters commenting on the proposed rule. No request for a public... bunkering or lightering operations are readily identified as they must display a red flag as required by 46 CFR 35.30-1 in addition to the navigation lights and shapes required by 33 U.S.C. 2001-2038....

  6. 33 CFR 109.07 - Anchorages under Ports and Waterways Safety Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Anchorages under Ports and... HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES GENERAL § 109.07 Anchorages under Ports and Waterways Safety Act. The provisions of section 4 (a) and (b) of the Ports and Waterways Safety Act as delegated to the Commandant...

  7. 78 FR 51061 - Special Anchorage Areas; Port of New York, NY

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-20

    ... in these areas and provide safe and secure anchorages for vessels not more than 65 feet in length... safe navigation in these areas and provide safe and secure anchorages for vessels not more than 65 feet... special anchorage area in Sheepshead Bay is useful for transients and visiting vessels under 65 ft...

  8. 33 CFR 110.189a - Key West Harbor, Key West, Fla., naval explosives anchorage area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...., naval explosives anchorage area. 110.189a Section 110.189a Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD..., Key West, Fla., naval explosives anchorage area. (a) The anchorage ground. A circular area with its... this section shall be enforced by the Commander, U.S. Naval Base, Key West, Fla., and any...

  9. Ground-water levels in Anchorage, Alaska, 1985

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Glass, R.L.

    1987-01-01

    Water-level data collected during 1985 for 146 Anchorage wells deeper than 40 feet are presented. Hydrographs of water levels in 20 wells for the period 1970 through 1985 are also given. The report describes groundwater conditions and seasonal fluctuations in water levels, and includes pumpage figures and well-construction data. (USGS)

  10. 52. View at face of Brooklyn anchorage abutment looking up ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    52. View at face of Brooklyn anchorage abutment looking up at underside of deck superstructure showing diagonal cables supporting deck. Jet Lowe, photographer, 1982. - Brooklyn Bridge, Spanning East River between Park Row, Manhattan and Sands Street, Brooklyn, New York County, NY

  11. Allergenic airborne pollen and spores in Anchorage, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, J.H.

    1985-05-01

    Major aeroallergens in Anchorage are birch, alder, poplar, spruce, grass pollen, Cladosporium, and unspecified fungus spores. Lesser pollens are sorrel, willow, pine, juniper, sedge, lamb's-quarters, wormwood, plantain, and others. The aero-flora is discussed in terms of the frequency of allergenically significant events and within-season and year-to-year dynamics.

  12. 409. Delineator Unknown October 25, 1933 (SAN FRANCISCO ANCHORAGE); SAN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    409. Delineator Unknown October 25, 1933 (SAN FRANCISCO ANCHORAGE); SAN FRANCISCO - OAKLAND BAY BRIDGE; BOARD OF CONSULTING ARCHITECTS; TIMOTHY L. PFLUEGER, ARTHUR BROWN JR., JOHN J. DONOVAN; DRAWING NO.33 - San Francisco Oakland Bay Bridge, Spanning San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  13. The Effects of Alaska's Economic Recession on Anchorage Households.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Karen Pyle; And Others

    1988-01-01

    This publication is based on two surveys of the same Anchorage, Alaska households taken in June and November 1987 to study the effects of a strong recession of the previous two years. Different kinds of households were queried about household incomes, housing status, members' occupations, moving plans, and expectations about the financial future.…

  14. Allergenic airborne pollen and spores in Anchorage, Alaska.

    PubMed

    Anderson, J H

    1985-05-01

    Major aeroallergens in Anchorage are birch, alder, poplar, spruce, grass pollen, Cladosporium, and unspecified fungus spores. Lesser pollens are sorrel, willow, pine, juniper, sedge, lamb's-quarters, wormwood, plantain, and others. The aero-flora is discussed in terms of the frequency of allergenically significant events and within-season and year-to-year dynamics.

  15. 33 CFR 110.72aa - Elizabeth River Spectator Vessel Anchorage Areas, between Norfolk and Portsmouth, Virginia.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Anchorage Areas, between Norfolk and Portsmouth, Virginia. 110.72aa Section 110.72aa Navigation and... Anchorage Areas § 110.72aa Elizabeth River Spectator Vessel Anchorage Areas, between Norfolk and Portsmouth, Virginia. (a) Special Anchorage Areas. (1) The waters of the Elizabeth River bounded by the shore and...

  16. 33 CFR 110.72aa - Elizabeth River Spectator Vessel Anchorage Areas, between Norfolk and Portsmouth, Virginia.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Anchorage Areas, between Norfolk and Portsmouth, Virginia. 110.72aa Section 110.72aa Navigation and... Anchorage Areas § 110.72aa Elizabeth River Spectator Vessel Anchorage Areas, between Norfolk and Portsmouth, Virginia. (a) Special Anchorage Areas. (1) The waters of the Elizabeth River bounded by the shore and...

  17. Dissecting the Impact of Matrix Anchorage and Elasticity in Cell Adhesion

    PubMed Central

    Pompe, Tilo; Glorius, Stefan; Bischoff, Thomas; Uhlmann, Ina; Kaufmann, Martin; Brenner, Sebastian; Werner, Carsten

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Extracellular matrices determine cellular fate decisions through the regulation of intracellular force and stress. Previous studies suggest that matrix stiffness and ligand anchorage cause distinct signaling effects. We show herein how defined noncovalent anchorage of adhesion ligands to elastic substrates allows for dissection of intracellular adhesion signaling pathways related to matrix stiffness and receptor forces. Quantitative analysis of the mechanical balance in cell adhesion using traction force microscopy revealed distinct scalings of the strain energy imparted by the cells on the substrates dependent either on matrix stiffness or on receptor force. Those scalings suggested the applicability of a linear elastic theoretical framework for the description of cell adhesion in a certain parameter range, which is cell-type-dependent. Besides the deconvolution of biophysical adhesion signaling, site-specific phosphorylation of focal adhesion kinase, dependent either on matrix stiffness or on receptor force, also demonstrated the dissection of biochemical signaling events in our approach. Moreover, the net contractile moment of the adherent cells and their strain energy exerted on the elastic substrate was found to be a robust measure of cell adhesion with a unifying power-law scaling exponent of 1.5 independent of matrix stiffness. PMID:19843448

  18. Overexpressed EDIL3 predicts poor prognosis and promotes anchorage-independent tumor growth in human pancreatic cancer

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Ming-Xuan; Wang, Ya-Hui; Yang, Xiao-Mei; He, Ping; Tian, Guang-Ang; Zhang, Xiao-Xin; Li, Qing; Cao, Xiao-Yan; Huo, Yan-Miao; Yang, Min-Wei; Fu, Xue-Liang; Li, Jiao; Liu, De-Jun; Dai, Miao; Wen, Shan-Yun; Gu, Jian-Ren; Hong, Jie; Hua, Rong; Zhang, Zhi-Gang; Sun, Yong-Wei

    2016-01-01

    Epidermal Growth Factor-like repeats and Discoidin I-Like Domains 3 (EDIL3), an extracellular matrix (ECM) protein associated with vascular morphogenesis and remodeling, is commonly upregulated in multiple types of human cancers and correlates with tumor progression. However, its expression pattern and underlying cellular functions in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) remain largely unexplored. In current study, we observed that expression of EDIL3 was significantly up-regulated in PDAC compared with normal controls in both cell lines and clinical specimens. In addition, elevated EDIL3 expression was positively correlated with patients’ TNM stage and T classification. Kaplan-Meier analysis indicated that high EDIL3 expression was significantly associated with shorter overall survival times in PDAC patients. Multivariate Cox regression analysis confirmed EDIL3 expression, age, lymph node metastasis and histological differentiation as independent prognostic factors in PDAC. Knockdown of EDIL3 showed no significant influence on cell viability, migration, invasion and starvation-induced apoptosis, but compromised anoikis resistance and anchorage independent tumor growth of PDAC cells. Meanwhile, treatment with recombinant EDIL3 protein markedly promoted anoikis resistance and anchorage independent tumor growth. Mechanistically, we demonstrated that altered protein expression of Bcl-2 family might contribute to the oncogenic activities of EDIL3. In conclusion, this study provides evidences that EDIL3 is a potential predictor and plays an important role in anchorage independent tumor growth of PDAC and EDIL3-related pathways might represent a novel therapeutic strategy for treatment of pancreatic cancer. PMID:26735172

  19. A new non-metallic anchorage system for post-tensioning applications using CFRP tendons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taha, Mahmoud Reda

    The objective of the work described in this thesis is to design, develop and test a new non-metallic anchorage system for post-tensioning applications using CFRP tendons. The use of a non-metallic anchorage system should eliminate corrosion and deterioration concerns in the anchorage zone. The development of a reliable non-metallic anchorage would provide an important contribution to this field of knowledge. The idea of the new anchorage is to hold the tendon through mechanical gripping. The anchorage consists of a barrel with a conical housing and four wedges. The anchorage components are made of ultra high performance concrete (UHPC) specially developed for the anchorage. Sixteen concrete mixtures with different casting and curing regimes were examined to develop four UHPC mixtures with compressive strengths in excess of 200 MPa. The UHPC mixtures showed very dense microstructures with some unique characteristics. To enhance the fracture toughness of the newly developed UHPC, analytical and experimental analyses were performed. Using 3 mm chopped carbon fibres, a significant increase in the fracture toughness of UHPC was achieved. The non-metallic anchorage was developed with the UHPC with enhanced fracture toughness. The barrel required careful wrapping with CFRP sheets to provide the confinement required to utilize the strength and toughness of the UHPC. Thirty-three anchorages were tested under both static and dynamic loading conditions. The non-metallic anchorage showed excellent mechanical performance and fulfilled the different requirements of a post-tensioning anchorage system. The development of the new non-metallic anchorage will widen the inclusion of CFRP tendons in post-tensioned concrete/masonry structures. The new system will offer the opportunity to exploit CFRP tendons effectively creating an innovative generation of corrosion-free, smart structures.

  20. Molar distalization with the assistance of Temporary Anchorage Devices.

    PubMed

    Palencar, Adrian J

    2015-01-01

    This article describes efficient techniques for distalization of maxillary and mandibular molars with the assistance of Temporary Anchorage Devices (TADs). There are numerous occasions where the distalization of molars is required in lieu of the odontectomy of bicuspids. In the past, extra-oral force has been used, (i.e. Cervical or Combination Head Gear, or intra-oral force, i.e. Posterior Sagittal Appliance, Modified Greenfield Appliance, Williams DMJ 20001, CD Distalizer, Magill Sagittal, Pendulum Appliance, etc.). All the intra-oral appliances have a common denominator the orthodontic clinician has to deal with, the undesirable expression of the Third Law of Newton. The utilization of TADs allows us to circumvent this shortcoming, establishing an absolute anchorage, and thus completely negate the expression of the Third Law of Newton. PMID:25881377

  1. Anoikis: a necessary death program for anchorage-dependent cells.

    PubMed

    Chiarugi, Paola; Giannoni, Elisa

    2008-12-01

    Cell to matrix adhesion is a key factor for cellular homeostasis and disruption of such interaction has adverse effects on cell survival. It leads to a specific type of apoptosis known as "anoikis" in most non-transformed cell types. This kind of apoptosis following loss of cell anchorage is important for development, tissue homeostasis and several diseases. Integrins sense mechanical forces arising from the matrix, thereby converting these stimuli to downstream signals modulating cell viability. Anchorage-independent growth is a crucial step during tumorigenesis and in particular during the metastatic spreading of cancer cells. The disruption of the tight control leading an "homeless" cell to death is therefore able to violate the cell defences against transformation. This review analyses the recent investigations into the molecular mechanisms governing anoikis, discussing the different ways in which adhesion can influence this process and addressing the relevance of this unique apoptosis mode in the development of metastatic cancers, as well as in other diseases.

  2. Reductive carboxylation supports redox homeostasis during anchorage-independent growth.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Lei; Shestov, Alexander A; Swain, Pamela; Yang, Chendong; Parker, Seth J; Wang, Qiong A; Terada, Lance S; Adams, Nicholas D; McCabe, Michael T; Pietrak, Beth; Schmidt, Stan; Metallo, Christian M; Dranka, Brian P; Schwartz, Benjamin; DeBerardinis, Ralph J

    2016-04-14

    Cells receive growth and survival stimuli through their attachment to an extracellular matrix (ECM). Overcoming the addiction to ECM-induced signals is required for anchorage-independent growth, a property of most malignant cells. Detachment from ECM is associated with enhanced production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) owing to altered glucose metabolism. Here we identify an unconventional pathway that supports redox homeostasis and growth during adaptation to anchorage independence. We observed that detachment from monolayer culture and growth as anchorage-independent tumour spheroids was accompanied by changes in both glucose and glutamine metabolism. Specifically, oxidation of both nutrients was suppressed in spheroids, whereas reductive formation of citrate from glutamine was enhanced. Reductive glutamine metabolism was highly dependent on cytosolic isocitrate dehydrogenase-1 (IDH1), because the activity was suppressed in cells homozygous null for IDH1 or treated with an IDH1 inhibitor. This activity occurred in absence of hypoxia, a well-known inducer of reductive metabolism. Rather, IDH1 mitigated mitochondrial ROS in spheroids, and suppressing IDH1 reduced spheroid growth through a mechanism requiring mitochondrial ROS. Isotope tracing revealed that in spheroids, isocitrate/citrate produced reductively in the cytosol could enter the mitochondria and participate in oxidative metabolism, including oxidation by IDH2. This generates NADPH in the mitochondria, enabling cells to mitigate mitochondrial ROS and maximize growth. Neither IDH1 nor IDH2 was necessary for monolayer growth, but deleting either one enhanced mitochondrial ROS and reduced spheroid size, as did deletion of the mitochondrial citrate transporter protein. Together, the data indicate that adaptation to anchorage independence requires a fundamental change in citrate metabolism, initiated by IDH1-dependent reductive carboxylation and culminating in suppression of mitochondrial ROS. PMID:27049945

  3. 33 CFR 110.166 - York River, Va., naval anchorage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... anchorage grounds. Between Yorktown and the Naval Mine Depot, beginning at latitude 37°15′34″, longitude 76°31′25″; thence to latitude 37°15′25″, longitude 76°31′39.5″; thence to latitude 37°16′21.5″, longitude 76°32′46″; thence to latitude 37°17′07.5″, longitude 76°34′17″; thence to latitude...

  4. 33 CFR 110.166 - York River, Va., naval anchorage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... anchorage grounds. Between Yorktown and the Naval Mine Depot, beginning at latitude 37°15′34″, longitude 76°31′25″; thence to latitude 37°15′25″, longitude 76°31′39.5″; thence to latitude 37°16′21.5″, longitude 76°32′46″; thence to latitude 37°17′07.5″, longitude 76°34′17″; thence to latitude...

  5. 33 CFR 110.166 - York River, Va., naval anchorage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... anchorage grounds. Between Yorktown and the Naval Mine Depot, beginning at latitude 37°15′34″, longitude 76°31′25″; thence to latitude 37°15′25″, longitude 76°31′39.5″; thence to latitude 37°16′21.5″, longitude 76°32′46″; thence to latitude 37°17′07.5″, longitude 76°34′17″; thence to latitude...

  6. 33 CFR 110.166 - York River, Va., naval anchorage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... anchorage grounds. Between Yorktown and the Naval Mine Depot, beginning at latitude 37°15′34″, longitude 76°31′25″; thence to latitude 37°15′25″, longitude 76°31′39.5″; thence to latitude 37°16′21.5″, longitude 76°32′46″; thence to latitude 37°17′07.5″, longitude 76°34′17″; thence to latitude...

  7. 33 CFR 110.166 - York River, Va., naval anchorage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... anchorage grounds. Between Yorktown and the Naval Mine Depot, beginning at latitude 37°15′34″, longitude 76°31′25″; thence to latitude 37°15′25″, longitude 76°31′39.5″; thence to latitude 37°16′21.5″, longitude 76°32′46″; thence to latitude 37°17′07.5″, longitude 76°34′17″; thence to latitude...

  8. Synergetic material and structure optimization yields robust spider web anchorages.

    PubMed

    Pugno, Nicola M; Cranford, Steven W; Buehler, Markus J

    2013-08-26

    Millions of years of evolution have adapted spider webs to achieve a range of properties, including the well-known capture of prey, with efficient use of materials. One feature that remains poorly understood is the attachment disc, a network of silk fibers that mechanically anchors a web to its environment. Experimental observations suggest that one possible attachment disc adheres to a substrate through multiple symmetrically branched structures composed of sub-micrometer scale silk fibers. Here, a theoretical model is used to explore the adaptation of the strength of attachment of such an anchorage, and complementary mesoscale simulations are applied to demonstrate a novel mechanism of synergetic material and structural optimization, such that the maximum anchorage strength can be achieved regardless of the initial anchor placement or material type. The optimal delamination (peeling) angle is facilitated by the inherent extensibility of silk, and is attained automatically during the process of delamination. This concept of self-optimizing peeling angle suggests that attachment discs do not require precise placement by the spider, irrespective of adhesion strength. Additional hierarchical branching of the anchorage increases efficiency, where both the delamination force and toughness modulus increase with a splitting of the cross-sectional area.

  9. Arsenite-Induced Pseudo-Hypoxia Results in Loss of Anchorage-Dependent Growth in BEAS-2B Pulmonary Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Fei; Malm, Scott W.; Hinchman, Alyssa N.; Li, Hui; Beeks, Connor G.; Klimecki, Walter T.

    2014-01-01

    Epidemiology studies have established a strong link between lung cancer and arsenic exposure. Currently, the role of disturbed cellular energy metabolism in carcinogenesis is a focus of scientific interest. Hypoxia inducible factor-1 alpha (HIF-1A) is a key regulator of energy metabolism, and it has been found to accumulate during arsenite exposure under oxygen-replete conditions. We modeled arsenic-exposed human pulmonary epithelial cells in vitro with BEAS-2B, a non-malignant lung epithelial cell line. Constant exposure to 1 µM arsenite (As) resulted in the early loss of anchorage-dependent growth, measured by soft agar colony formation, beginning at 6 weeks of exposure. This arsenite exposure resulted in HIF-1A accumulation and increased glycolysis, similar to the physiologic response to hypoxia, but in this case under oxygen-replete conditions. This “pseudo-hypoxia” response was necessary for the maximal acquisition of anchorage-independent growth in arsenite-exposed BEAS-2B. The HIF-1A accumulation and induction in glycolysis was sustained throughout a 52 week course of arsenite exposure in BEAS-2B. There was a time-dependent increase in anchorage-independent growth during the exposure to arsenite. When HIF-1A expression was stably suppressed, arsenite-induced glycolysis was abrogated, and the anchorage-independent growth was reduced. These findings establish that arsenite exerts a hypoxia-mimetic effect, which plays an important role in the subsequent gain of malignancy-associated phenotypes. PMID:25513814

  10. Orthodontic anchorage with specific fixtures: related study analysis.

    PubMed

    Favero, Lorenzo; Brollo, Paolo; Bressan, Eriberto

    2002-07-01

    The purpose of this report is to systematically review the relevant major studies published between 1970 and 2000 related to the use of implants for orthodontic anchorage. Analysis of the literature is divided into specific topics: materials, size and shape of fixtures, biomechanics, healing and loading times, forces used, surgery, and criteria for success. Two subjects previously given little consideration in the discussion of implants-the psychological aspects of the doctor-patient relationship and the medical-legal implications of implantology for orthodontic purposes-are briefly addressed.

  11. 77 FR 8252 - Adequacy Status of the Anchorage, Alaska, Carbon Monoxide Maintenance Plan for Transportation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-14

    ... AGENCY Adequacy Status of the Anchorage, Alaska, Carbon Monoxide Maintenance Plan for Transportation... budget (MVEB) in the Anchorage, Alaska, Carbon Monoxide (CO) Maintenance Plan, submitted by the State of... notice of EPA's adequacy finding regarding the motor vehicle emissions budget (MVEB) in the...

  12. 76 FR 24457 - Kenai Peninsula-Anchorage Borough Resource Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-02

    ... agency #0;statements of organization and functions are examples of documents #0;appearing in this section...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Kenai Peninsula--Anchorage Borough Resource Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Kenai Peninsula--Anchorage...

  13. 76 FR 21633 - Disestablishing Special Anchorage Area 2; Ashley River, Charleston, SC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-18

    ... Register (74 FR 27000). We received six submissions, with a total of 24 comments on the proposed rule. No... FR 26587) establishing the four currently designated commercial anchorage areas in the Port of... Coast Guard issued a final rule in 1996 (61 FR 40993) converting the special anchorage area into...

  14. 30 CFR 56.11005 - Fixed ladder anchorage and toe clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Fixed ladder anchorage and toe clearance. 56.11005 Section 56.11005 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... Travelways § 56.11005 Fixed ladder anchorage and toe clearance. Fixed ladders shall be anchored securely...

  15. 30 CFR 57.11005 - Fixed ladder anchorage and toe clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fixed ladder anchorage and toe clearance. 57... MINES Travelways and Escapeways Travelways-Surface and Underground § 57.11005 Fixed ladder anchorage and toe clearance. Fixed ladders shall be anchored securely and installed to provide at least 3 inches...

  16. 30 CFR 56.11005 - Fixed ladder anchorage and toe clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fixed ladder anchorage and toe clearance. 56.11005 Section 56.11005 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... Travelways § 56.11005 Fixed ladder anchorage and toe clearance. Fixed ladders shall be anchored securely...

  17. 30 CFR 57.11005 - Fixed ladder anchorage and toe clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Fixed ladder anchorage and toe clearance. 57... MINES Travelways and Escapeways Travelways-Surface and Underground § 57.11005 Fixed ladder anchorage and toe clearance. Fixed ladders shall be anchored securely and installed to provide at least 3 inches...

  18. 33 CFR 110.220 - Pacific Ocean at San Nicolas Island, Calif.; restricted anchorage areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Pacific Ocean at San Nicolas Island, Calif.; restricted anchorage areas. 110.220 Section 110.220 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST... Pacific Ocean at San Nicolas Island, Calif.; restricted anchorage areas. (a) The restricted areas—(1)...

  19. 33 CFR 110.220 - Pacific Ocean at San Nicolas Island, Calif.; restricted anchorage areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Pacific Ocean at San Nicolas Island, Calif.; restricted anchorage areas. 110.220 Section 110.220 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST... Pacific Ocean at San Nicolas Island, Calif.; restricted anchorage areas. (a) The restricted areas—(1)...

  20. 33 CFR 110.220 - Pacific Ocean at San Nicolas Island, Calif.; restricted anchorage areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Pacific Ocean at San Nicolas Island, Calif.; restricted anchorage areas. 110.220 Section 110.220 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST... Pacific Ocean at San Nicolas Island, Calif.; restricted anchorage areas. (a) The restricted area....

  1. 33 CFR 110.220 - Pacific Ocean at San Nicolas Island, Calif.; restricted anchorage areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Pacific Ocean at San Nicolas Island, Calif.; restricted anchorage areas. 110.220 Section 110.220 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST... Pacific Ocean at San Nicolas Island, Calif.; restricted anchorage areas. (a) The restricted areas—(1)...

  2. 33 CFR 110.220 - Pacific Ocean at San Nicolas Island, Calif.; restricted anchorage areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pacific Ocean at San Nicolas Island, Calif.; restricted anchorage areas. 110.220 Section 110.220 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST... Pacific Ocean at San Nicolas Island, Calif.; restricted anchorage areas. (a) The restricted areas—(1)...

  3. 30 CFR 57.11005 - Fixed ladder anchorage and toe clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Fixed ladder anchorage and toe clearance. 57... MINES Travelways and Escapeways Travelways-Surface and Underground § 57.11005 Fixed ladder anchorage and toe clearance. Fixed ladders shall be anchored securely and installed to provide at least 3 inches...

  4. 30 CFR 56.11005 - Fixed ladder anchorage and toe clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Fixed ladder anchorage and toe clearance. 56.11005 Section 56.11005 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... Travelways § 56.11005 Fixed ladder anchorage and toe clearance. Fixed ladders shall be anchored securely...

  5. 77 FR 19155 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Seat Belt Assembly Anchorages; Incorporation by Reference

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-30

    ... representative of a human form than the upper torso and pelvic body blocks. As noted in the docketed test reports... the seat belt anchorage system during compliance tests of anchorage strength. The device represents a human torso and pelvis. The new device comes in two sizes, one representative of a mid-size adult...

  6. 49 CFR 571.225 - Standard No. 225; Child restraint anchorage systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., consisting of: (a) Two lower anchorages meeting the requirements of S9; and (b) A tether anchorage meeting...) Each vehicle with not more than two forward-facing rear designated seating positions shall be equipped... fewer than two forward-facing rear designated seating positions. In a vehicle with three or more rows...

  7. 49 CFR 571.225 - Standard No. 225; Child restraint anchorage systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ..., consisting of: (a) Two lower anchorages meeting the requirements of S9; and (b) A tether anchorage meeting...) Each vehicle with not more than two forward-facing rear designated seating positions shall be equipped... fewer than two forward-facing rear designated seating positions. In a vehicle with three or more rows...

  8. 49 CFR 571.225 - Standard No. 225; Child restraint anchorage systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., consisting of: (a) Two lower anchorages meeting the requirements of S9; and (b) A tether anchorage meeting...) Each vehicle with not more than two forward-facing rear designated seating positions shall be equipped... fewer than two forward-facing rear designated seating positions. In a vehicle with three or more rows...

  9. 49 CFR 571.225 - Standard No. 225; Child restraint anchorage systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., consisting of: (a) Two lower anchorages meeting the requirements of S9; and (b) A tether anchorage meeting...) Each vehicle with not more than two forward-facing rear designated seating positions shall be equipped... fewer than two forward-facing rear designated seating positions. In a vehicle with three or more rows...

  10. Mini-Implants in the Anchorage Armamentarium: New Paradigms in the Orthodontics

    PubMed Central

    Yamaguchi, Masaru; Inami, Toshihiro; Ito, Ko; Kasai, Kazutaka; Tanimoto, Yasuhiro

    2012-01-01

    Paradigms have started to shift in the orthodontic world since the introduction of mini-implants in the anchorage armamentarium. Various forms of skeletal anchorage, including miniscrews and miniplates, have been reported in the literature. Recently, great emphasis has been placed on the miniscrew type of temporary anchorage device (TAD). These devices are small, are implanted with a relatively simple surgical procedure, and increase the potential for better orthodontic results. Therefore, miniscrews not only free orthodontists from anchorage-demanding cases, but they also enable clinicians to have good control over tooth movement in 3 dimensions. The miniplate type also produces significant improvements in treatment outcomes and has widened the spectrum of orthodontics. The purpose of this paper is to update clinicians on the current concepts and versatile uses and clinical applications of skeletal anchorage in orthodontics. PMID:22719763

  11. Mini-implants in the anchorage armamentarium: new paradigms in the orthodontics.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Masaru; Inami, Toshihiro; Ito, Ko; Kasai, Kazutaka; Tanimoto, Yasuhiro

    2012-01-01

    Paradigms have started to shift in the orthodontic world since the introduction of mini-implants in the anchorage armamentarium. Various forms of skeletal anchorage, including miniscrews and miniplates, have been reported in the literature. Recently, great emphasis has been placed on the miniscrew type of temporary anchorage device (TAD). These devices are small, are implanted with a relatively simple surgical procedure, and increase the potential for better orthodontic results. Therefore, miniscrews not only free orthodontists from anchorage-demanding cases, but they also enable clinicians to have good control over tooth movement in 3 dimensions. The miniplate type also produces significant improvements in treatment outcomes and has widened the spectrum of orthodontics. The purpose of this paper is to update clinicians on the current concepts and versatile uses and clinical applications of skeletal anchorage in orthodontics. PMID:22719763

  12. Evaluation of dredged material proposed for ocean disposal from Gravesend Bay Anchorage, New York

    SciTech Connect

    Barrows, E.S.; Gruendell, B.D.

    1996-09-01

    The Gravesend Bay Anchorage was one of seven waterways that the US Army Corps of Engineers-New York District (USACE-NYD) requested the Battelle Marine Sciences Laboratory (MSL) to sample and evaluate for dredging and disposal in February 1994. Sediment samples were submitted for physical and chemical analyses to provide baseline sediment chemistry data on the Gravesend Bay Anchorage. Individual sediment core samples collected at the Gravesend Bay Anchorage were analyzed for grain size, moisture content, and total organic carbon (TOC). Two samples, one of composited sediment cores representing the southeast corner of the anchorage (COMP GR), and one sediment core representing the northeast corner of the anchorage (Station GR-1 0), were analyzed for bulk density, specific gravity, metals, chlorinated pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), and 1,4-dichlorobenzene.

  13. Summary of Quaternary geology of the Municipality of Anchorage, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schmoll, H.R.; Yehle, L.A.; Updike, R.G.

    1999-01-01

    Quaternary geology of the Upper Cook Inlet region is dominated by deposits of glacier retreats that followed repeated advances from both adjacent and more distant mountains. At several levels high on the mountains, there are remnant glacial deposits and other features of middle or older Pleistocene age. Late Pleistocene lateral moraines along the Chugach Mountain front represent successively younger positions of ice retreat from the last glacial maximum. As the trunk glacier retreated northeastward up the Anchorage lowland, Cook Inlet transgressed the area, depositing the Bootlegger Cove Formation and Tudor Road deposits. The glacier then readvanced to form the latest Pleistocene Elmendorf Moraine, a prominent feature that trends across the Anchorage lowland. Extensive alluvium was deposited both concurrently and somewhat later as Cook Inlet regressed. Mountain valleys contain (1) locally preserved moraines possibly of early Holocene age; (2) poorly preserved moraine remnants of older late Holocene age; and (3) well-preserved moraines formed mainly during the Little Ice Age. Glaciers still occupy large parts of the mountains, the upper ends of some mountain valleys, and small cirques. Holocene landslide deposits, including those formed during the great Alaska earthquake of 1964, occur throughout the area, especially along bluffs containing the Bootlegger Cove Formation.

  14. Treatment of a Class II deepbite with microimplant anchorage.

    PubMed

    Park, Hyo-Sang; Kim, Ji-Yeun; Kwon, Tae-Geon

    2011-03-01

    The goal of this report was to illustrate new treatment mechanics for using microimplants for the treatment of a Class II Division 2 deepbite malocclusion. A 29-year-old woman with a deepbite was treated with the aid of microimplant anchorage. Microimplants placed between the maxillary second premolars and first molars were used as anchorage to apply a distal force to the anterior teeth to correct the Class II canine and molar relationships. A distal force was applied to long hooks that were crimped between the lateral incisors and the canines. By applying a backward force to the long hooks, the maxillary anterior teeth experienced palatal root movement with no change in the vertical and anteroposterior positions of the incisal edges. The distal extrusive movement of the maxillary second molars achieved by disengaging the second molars from the archwire during distal force application and an anterior bite-block bonded on the lingual surface of the maxillary central incisors produced the increase in vertical dimension. The distal force to the long extended hooks from the microimplants was possibly good mechanics for obtaining the palatal root movement and correcting the Class II canine and molar relationships. The anterior bite-block and disengagement of the maxillary second molars during distal force application were effective for increasing the vertical dimension.

  15. [Skeletal anchorage: use of miniscrews for impacted maxillary canine management].

    PubMed

    Kocsis, András; Seres, László; Kocsis-Savanya, Gábor; Kovács, Adám

    2010-03-01

    Impaction of maxillary canines is a frequently encountered clinical problem. Patients' refusal to a long orthodontic treatment or ankylosis of the impacted tooth results in various treatment difficulties. The aim of this study was to evaluate the possible role of miniscrews in the management of impacted upper canines. In a series of 28 consecutive patients with a total of 31 impacted maxillary canines (12 men and 16 women aged from 14 to 63 years, mean 24 years), each impacted tooth was surgically exposed and an attachment was bonded. An intraosseous screw (1.5 mm in diameter and 8-10 mm long) with an endosseous body and intraoral neck section was inserted into the premolar-molar interradicular space. Following soft tissue healing, orthodontic traction was initiated. After correction of the angulation of the canine, the mini-screw was removed and traditional orthodontic therapy was completed. Twenty-seven canines were extruded successfully (87%), the duration of the orthodontic treatment with fixed appliances was decreased. In the 3 cases that failed due to ankylosis, the skeletal anchorage spared the patients and the clinicans the disappointment of a long-term unsuccessful traditional orthodontic treatment. In one patient, the mini-screw was removed because of inflammation and pain before the beginning of the orthodontic traction. This study shows that mini screw anchorage should be taken into consideration when extrusion of an impacted canine is planned. PMID:20443350

  16. Bcl-2 induces cyclin D1 promoter activity in human breast epithelial cells independent of cell anchorage.

    PubMed

    Lin, H M; Lee, Y J; Li, G; Pestell, R G; Kim, H R

    2001-01-01

    Cyclin D1 expression is co-regulated by growth factor and cell adhesion signaling. Cell adhesion to the extracellular matrix activates focal adhesion kinase (FAK), which is essential for cyclin D1 expression. Upon the loss of cell adhesion, cyclin D1 expression is downregulated, followed by apoptosis in normal epithelial cells. Since bcl-2 prevents apoptosis induced by the loss of cell adhesion, we hypothesized that bcl-2 induces survival signaling complementary to cell adhesion-mediated gene regulation. In the present study, we investigated the role of bcl-2 on FAK activity and cyclin D1 expression. We found that bcl-2 overexpression induces cyclin D1 expression in human breast epithelial cell line MCF10A independent of cell anchorage. Increased cyclin D1 expression in stable bcl-2 transfectants is not related to bcl-2-increased G1 duration, but results from cyclin D1 promoter activation. Transient transfection studies confirmed anchorage-independent bcl-2 induction of cyclin D1 promoter activity in human breast epithelial cell lines (MCF10A, BT549, and MCF-7). We provide evidence that bcl-2 induction of cyclin D1 expression involves constitutive activation of focal adhesion kinase, regardless of cell adhesion. The present study suggests a potential oncogenic activity for bcl-2 through cyclin D1 induction, and provides an insight into the distinct proliferation-independent pathway leading to increased cyclin D1 expression in breast cancer.

  17. 1964 Great Alaska Earthquake: a photographic tour of Anchorage, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thoms, Evan E.; Haeussler, Peter J.; Anderson, Rebecca D.; McGimsey, Robert G.

    2014-01-01

    On March 27, 1964, at 5:36 p.m., a magnitude 9.2 earthquake, the largest recorded earthquake in U.S. history, struck southcentral Alaska (fig. 1). The Great Alaska Earthquake (also known as the Good Friday Earthquake) occurred at a pivotal time in the history of earth science, and helped lead to the acceptance of plate tectonic theory (Cox, 1973; Brocher and others, 2014). All large subduction zone earthquakes are understood through insights learned from the 1964 event, and observations and interpretations of the earthquake have influenced the design of infrastructure and seismic monitoring systems now in place. The earthquake caused extensive damage across the State, and triggered local tsunamis that devastated the Alaskan towns of Whittier, Valdez, and Seward. In Anchorage, the main cause of damage was ground shaking, which lasted approximately 4.5 minutes. Many buildings could not withstand this motion and were damaged or collapsed even though their foundations remained intact. More significantly, ground shaking triggered a number of landslides along coastal and drainage valley bluffs underlain by the Bootlegger Cove Formation, a composite of facies containing variably mixed gravel, sand, silt, and clay which were deposited over much of upper Cook Inlet during the Late Pleistocene (Ulery and others, 1983). Cyclic (or strain) softening of the more sensitive clay facies caused overlying blocks of soil to slide sideways along surfaces dipping by only a few degrees. This guide is the document version of an interactive web map that was created as part of the commemoration events for the 50th anniversary of the 1964 Great Alaska Earthquake. It is accessible at the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Alaska Science Center website: http://alaska.usgs.gov/announcements/news/1964Earthquake/. The website features a map display with suggested tour stops in Anchorage, historical photographs taken shortly after the earthquake, repeat photography of selected sites, scanned documents

  18. A preliminary evaluation of child restraints and anchorage systems for an Australian car.

    PubMed

    Charlton, Judith L; Fildes, Brian; Laemmle, Ronald; Smith, Stuart; Douglas, Fiona

    2004-01-01

    This study examined the performance of three rear-facing and two forward-facing child restraints (CRS) with three anchorage systems: standard seatbelt, LATCH (flexible) and ISOFIX (rigid). Frontal (64 km/h) and side impact (15 km/h) HyGe sled tests were conducted using a sedan buck. Overall, the preliminary findings suggested superior performance of rigid over seatbelt and flexible anchorages, particularly in side impacts. The results also suggest a need for design improvement for CRS with flexible anchorages to increase stability in side impacts. The findings have important implications for the proposed introduction of changes to Australian Standards for CRS to permit both flexible and rigid systems to coexist with conventional seatbelt anchorage systems. PMID:15319118

  19. Comparison of Movement of the Upper Dentition According to Anchorage Method: Orthodontic Mini-Implant versus Conventional Anchorage Reinforcement in Class I Malocclusion

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ah-Young; Kim, Young Ho

    2011-01-01

    Objective. To compare the amounts of anchorage loss in the upper first molar (U6) and of retraction of the upper central incisor (U1) in cases with Class I malocclusion between orthodontic mini-implants (OMIs) and conventional anchorage reinforcements (CARs). Methods. The subjects were 40 female adult patients with Class I malocclusion who were treated with extraction of the first premolars and sliding mechanics. The subjects were divided into Groups 1 (N = 20, CAR) and 2 (N = 20, OMI) according to anchorage method. Lateral cephalograms were taken before (T0) and after treatment (T1). Seven skeletal and dental variables and ten anchorage variables were measured. Mann-Whitney test was used for statistical analysis. Results. Group 2 showed significantly larger retraction of U1 (U1E-sag, 9.5 mm : 7.1 mm, P < .05) and less anchorage loss of U6 (U6M-sag, 0.2 mm : 2.2 mm, P < .05; U6A-sag, 0.3 mm versus 2.4 mm, P < .01) than Group 1. There was opposite vertical movement in U1 and U6 between Groups 1 and 2 (U1E-ver, 0.9 mm intrusion : 0.7 mm extrusion; U6F-ver, 1.0 mm intrusion : 0.9 mm extrusion, P < .05). Conclusion. Although OMI could not reduce the treatment duration, it could provide better maximum anchorage of U6, greater retraction of U1, intrusion of U1 and U6 than CAR. PMID:21991465

  20. Energy Metabolism during Anchorage-Independence. Induction by Osteopontin-c

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Zhanquan; Wang, Bo; Chihanga, Tafadzwa; Kennedy, Michael A.; Weber, Georg F.

    2014-01-01

    The detachment of epithelial cells, but not cancer cells, causes anoikis due to reduced energy production. Invasive tumor cells generate three splice variants of the metastasis gene osteopontin, the shortest of which (osteopontin-c) supports anchorage-independence. Osteopontin-c signaling upregulates three interdependent pathways of the energy metabolism. Glutathione, glutamine and glutamate support the hexose monophosphate shunt and glycolysis and can feed into the tricarboxylic acid cycle, leading to mitochondrial ATP production. Activation of the glycerol phosphate shuttle also supports the mitochondrial respiratory chain. Drawing substrates from glutamine and glycolysis, the elevated creatine may be synthesized from serine via glycine and supports the energy metabolism by increasing the formation of ATP. Metabolic probing with N-acetyl-L-cysteine, L-glutamate, or glycerol identified differential regulation of the pathway components, with mitochondrial activity being redox dependent and the creatine pathway depending on glutamine. The multiple skewed components in the cellular metabolism synergize in a flow toward two mechanisms of ATP generation, via creatine and the respiratory chain. It is consistent with a stimulation of the energy metabolism that supports anti-anoikis. Our findings imply a coalescence in cancer cells between osteopontin-a, which increases the cellular glucose levels, and osteopontin-c, which utilizes this glucose to generate energy. PMID:25157961

  1. Hydrologic conditions in the Klatt Bog area, Anchorage, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Glass, R.L.

    1986-01-01

    Klatt Bog is a 2.3 sq mi wetland in Anchorage, Alaska which provides habitat for many wildlife species but also offers potential sites for residential, commercial, and agricultural developments. Precipitation, the main source of water for the area, averages 15 in/yr; during the 1983 study period, precipitation was 12.16 inches. Estimates of evapotranspiration, considered to be the major component of water outflow, range from 10 to 20 inches. Surface runoff and groundwater outflow during 1983 are estimated to be 2.8 and < 0.2 inches, respectively. During summer, most of the runoff is derived from groundwater discharge near the upgradient eastern edge of the wetland. The wetland 's aquifer system is composed of fibrous peat which overlies a poorly permeable layer of silt and clay. The aquifer is recharged by infiltration of precipitation and inflow of groundwater from upland areas east of the wetland. During 1983 the water table was at or within 3 ft of land surface in most areas and its seasonal fluctuation was < 2 feet. Water collected from four shallow observation wells, two ponds, and two sites on a stream had concentrations of dissolved iron ranging from 2,300 to 6,100 micrograms/L. (Author 's abstract)

  2. Maps Showing Seismic Landslide Hazards in Anchorage, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jibson, Randall W.; Michael, John A.

    2009-01-01

    The devastating landslides that accompanied the great 1964 Alaska earthquake showed that seismically triggered landslides are one of the greatest geologic hazards in Anchorage. Maps quantifying seismic landslide hazards are therefore important for planning, zoning, and emergency-response preparation. The accompanying maps portray seismic landslide hazards for the following conditions: (1) deep, translational landslides, which occur only during great subduction-zone earthquakes that have return periods of =~300-900 yr; (2) shallow landslides for a peak ground acceleration (PGA) of 0.69 g, which has a return period of 2,475 yr, or a 2 percent probability of exceedance in 50 yr; and (3) shallow landslides for a PGA of 0.43 g, which has a return period of 475 yr, or a 10 percent probability of exceedance in 50 yr. Deep, translational landslide hazard zones were delineated based on previous studies of such landslides, with some modifications based on field observations of locations of deep landslides. Shallow-landslide hazards were delineated using a Newmark-type displacement analysis for the two probabilistic ground motions modeled.

  3. Responses of fibroblasts to anchorage of dorsal extracellular matrix receptors.

    PubMed

    Beningo, Karen A; Dembo, Micah; Wang, Yu-li

    2004-12-28

    Fibroblasts in 2D cultures differ dramatically in behavior from those in the 3D environment of a multicellular organism. However, the basis of this disparity is unknown. A key difference is the spatial arrangement of anchored extracellular matrix (ECM) receptors to the ventral surface in 2D cultures and throughout the entire surface in 3D cultures. Therefore, we asked whether changing the topography of ECM receptor anchorage alone could invoke a morphological response. By using polyacrylamide-based substrates to present anchored fibronectin or collagen on dorsal cell surfaces, we found that well spread fibroblasts in 2D cultures quickly changed into a bipolar or stellate morphology similar to fibroblasts in vivo. Cells in this environment lacked lamellipodia and large actin bundles and formed small focal adhesions only near focused sites of protrusion. These responses depend on substrate rigidity, calcium ion, and, likely, the calcium-dependent protease calpain. We suggest that fibroblasts respond to both spatial distribution and mechanical input of anchored ECM receptors. Changes in cell shape may in turn affect diverse cellular activities, including gene expression, growth, and differentiation, as shown in numerous previous studies.

  4. Maps showing seismic landslide hazards in Anchorage, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jibson, Randall W.

    2014-01-01

    The devastating landslides that accompanied the great 1964 Alaska earthquake showed that seismically triggered landslides are one of the greatest geologic hazards in Anchorage. Maps quantifying seismic landslide hazards are therefore important for planning, zoning, and emergency-response preparation. The accompanying maps portray seismic landslide hazards for the following conditions: (1) deep, translational landslides, which occur only during great subduction-zone earthquakes that have return periods of =300-900 yr; (2) shallow landslides for a peak ground acceleration (PGA) of 0.69 g, which has a return period of 2,475 yr, or a 2 percent probability of exceedance in 50 yr; and (3) shallow landslides for a PGA of 0.43 g, which has a return period of 475 yr, or a 10 percent probability of exceedance in 50 yr. Deep, translational landslide hazards were delineated based on previous studies of such landslides, with some modifications based on field observations of locations of deep landslides. Shallow-landslide hazards were delineated using a Newmark-type displacement analysis for the two probabilistic ground motions modeled.

  5. Responses of fibroblasts to anchorage of dorsal extracellular matrix receptors.

    PubMed

    Beningo, Karen A; Dembo, Micah; Wang, Yu-li

    2004-12-28

    Fibroblasts in 2D cultures differ dramatically in behavior from those in the 3D environment of a multicellular organism. However, the basis of this disparity is unknown. A key difference is the spatial arrangement of anchored extracellular matrix (ECM) receptors to the ventral surface in 2D cultures and throughout the entire surface in 3D cultures. Therefore, we asked whether changing the topography of ECM receptor anchorage alone could invoke a morphological response. By using polyacrylamide-based substrates to present anchored fibronectin or collagen on dorsal cell surfaces, we found that well spread fibroblasts in 2D cultures quickly changed into a bipolar or stellate morphology similar to fibroblasts in vivo. Cells in this environment lacked lamellipodia and large actin bundles and formed small focal adhesions only near focused sites of protrusion. These responses depend on substrate rigidity, calcium ion, and, likely, the calcium-dependent protease calpain. We suggest that fibroblasts respond to both spatial distribution and mechanical input of anchored ECM receptors. Changes in cell shape may in turn affect diverse cellular activities, including gene expression, growth, and differentiation, as shown in numerous previous studies. PMID:15601776

  6. Arsenite-mediated promotion of anchorage-independent growth of HaCaT cells through placental growth factor.

    PubMed

    Yajima, Ichiro; Kumasaka, Mayuko Y; Ohnuma, Shoko; Ohgami, Nobutaka; Naito, Hisao; Shekhar, Hossain U; Omata, Yasuhiro; Kato, Masashi

    2015-04-01

    Various cancers including skin cancer are increasing in 45 million people exposed to arsenic above the World Health Organization's guideline value of 10 μg l(-1). However, there is limited information on key molecules regulating arsenic-mediated carcinogenesis. Our fieldwork in Bangladesh demonstrated that levels of placental growth factor (PlGF) in urine samples from residents of cancer-prone areas with arsenic-polluted drinking water were higher than those in urine samples from residents of an area that was not polluted with arsenic. Our experimental study in human nontumorigenic HaCaT skin keratinocytes showed that arsenite promoted anchorage-independent growth with increased expression and secretion of PlGF, a ligand of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor1 (VEGFR1), and increased VEGFR1/mitogen-activated protein kinase/ERK kinase (MEK)/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) activities. The arsenite-mediated promotion of anchorage-independent growth was strongly inhibited by PlGF depletion with decreased activities of the PlGF/VEGFR1/MEK/ERK pathway. Moreover, arsenite proteasome-dependently degrades metal-regulatory transcription factor-1 (MTF-1) protein, resulting in a decreased amount of MTF-1 protein binding to the PlGF promoter. MTF-1 negatively controlled PlGF transcription in HaCaT cells, resulting in increased PlGF transcription. These results suggest that arsenite-mediated MTF-1 degradation enhances the activity of PlGF/VEGFR1/MEK/ERK signaling, resulting in promotion of the malignant transformation of keratinocytes. Thus, this study proposed a molecular mechanism for arsenite-mediated development of skin cancer. PMID:25493652

  7. Arsenite-mediated promotion of anchorage-independent growth of HaCaT cells through placental growth factor.

    PubMed

    Yajima, Ichiro; Kumasaka, Mayuko Y; Ohnuma, Shoko; Ohgami, Nobutaka; Naito, Hisao; Shekhar, Hossain U; Omata, Yasuhiro; Kato, Masashi

    2015-04-01

    Various cancers including skin cancer are increasing in 45 million people exposed to arsenic above the World Health Organization's guideline value of 10 μg l(-1). However, there is limited information on key molecules regulating arsenic-mediated carcinogenesis. Our fieldwork in Bangladesh demonstrated that levels of placental growth factor (PlGF) in urine samples from residents of cancer-prone areas with arsenic-polluted drinking water were higher than those in urine samples from residents of an area that was not polluted with arsenic. Our experimental study in human nontumorigenic HaCaT skin keratinocytes showed that arsenite promoted anchorage-independent growth with increased expression and secretion of PlGF, a ligand of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor1 (VEGFR1), and increased VEGFR1/mitogen-activated protein kinase/ERK kinase (MEK)/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) activities. The arsenite-mediated promotion of anchorage-independent growth was strongly inhibited by PlGF depletion with decreased activities of the PlGF/VEGFR1/MEK/ERK pathway. Moreover, arsenite proteasome-dependently degrades metal-regulatory transcription factor-1 (MTF-1) protein, resulting in a decreased amount of MTF-1 protein binding to the PlGF promoter. MTF-1 negatively controlled PlGF transcription in HaCaT cells, resulting in increased PlGF transcription. These results suggest that arsenite-mediated MTF-1 degradation enhances the activity of PlGF/VEGFR1/MEK/ERK signaling, resulting in promotion of the malignant transformation of keratinocytes. Thus, this study proposed a molecular mechanism for arsenite-mediated development of skin cancer.

  8. Hydrologic conditions in Connors Bog Area, Anchorage, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Glass, R.L.

    1986-01-01

    Connors Bog is a wetland in Anchorage, Alaska, which provides a habitat for many wildlife species and is a popular area for driving off-road vehicles. A landfill, and residential and commercial developments are present in areas which were once wetland. The main source of water is precipitation, which averages about 15 in/yr. Estimates of evapotranspiration, which is the main component of water outflow, range from 10 to 20 in/yr. Minor amounts of groundwater and surface runoff flow into the area from the northeast and southwest and flow out of the area to the northwest and south. Within the wetland, water in peat and sand is unconfined and becomes more mineralized with depth. A leachate beneath and near an abandoned landfill is characterized by concentrations of dissolved solids, dissolved chloride, and total organics that are higher than those of the area 's natural water. The maximum lateral extent of detectable contamination in 1984 was < 500 ft from the landfill 's edge. Water in glacial deposits that underlie a poorly permeable layer of silt and clay is confined. A well completed in this confined aquifer yielded water that had a low concentration of dissolved solids, 150 mg/L. The potentiometric surface of this aquifer was about 20 ft lower than the water table during 1984. Connors Lake occupies a depression that extends below adjacent groundwater levels. The 40-acre lake has a maximum depth of about 9 ft and a low rate of biological production. The quality of water in the lake has not been adversely impacted by nearby residential development or landfill operations. Lake levels appear to be influenced by precipitation and adjacent groundwater levels. (Author 's abstract)

  9. Ground Water in the Anchorage Area, Alaska--Meeting the Challenges of Ground-Water Sustainability

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moran, Edward H.; Galloway, Devin L.

    2006-01-01

    Ground water is an important component of Anchorage's water supply. During the 1970s and early 80s when ground water extracted from aquifers near Ship Creek was the principal source of supply, area-wide declines in ground-water levels resulted in near record low streamflows in Ship Creek. Since the importation of Eklutna Lake water in the late 1980s, ground-water use has been reduced and ground water has contributed 14-30 percent of the annual supply. As Anchorage grows, given the current constraints on the Eklutna Lake water availability, the increasing demand for water could place an increasing reliance on local ground-water resources. The sustainability of Anchorage's ground-water resources challenges stakeholders to develop a comprehensive water-resources management strategy.

  10. Mini-implants and miniplates generate sub-absolute and absolute anchorage

    PubMed Central

    Consolaro, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    The functional demand imposed on bone promotes changes in the spatial properties of osteocytes as well as in their extensions uniformly distributed throughout the mineralized surface. Once spatial deformation is established, osteocytes create the need for structural adaptations that result in bone formation and resorption that happen to meet the functional demands. The endosteum and the periosteum are the effectors responsible for stimulating adaptive osteocytes in the inner and outer surfaces.Changes in shape, volume and position of the jaws as a result of skeletal correction of the maxilla and mandible require anchorage to allow bone remodeling to redefine morphology, esthetics and function as a result of spatial deformation conducted by orthodontic appliances. Examining the degree of changes in shape, volume and structural relationship of areas where mini-implants and miniplates are placed allows us to classify mini-implants as devices of subabsolute anchorage and miniplates as devices of absolute anchorage. PMID:25162561

  11. STUDY ON CHARACTERISTICS OF RESIDUAL STRENGTH OF RC BEAMS WITH DEFECTIVE ANCHORAGES DUE TO CORROSION OF REINFORCEMENTS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murakami, Yuki; Dong, Wei; Oshita, Hideki; Suzuki, Shuichi; Tsutsumi, Tomoaki

    In this study, to evaluate flexural strength and shear strength with def ective anchorages due to corrosion of reinforcemen t, the bending test of the RC beams r eceived damage in the anchorage region due to corrosion was carried out. As a result, it is se ems that the residual shear strength of RC beams with defective anchorages depends on shear span ratio in addition to the anchorage performance. Furthermore, the authors propose an evaluation model for an shear strength of RC beams with defective anchorages on the basis of these experimental results and analy tical result. The value of residual shear strength calculated using this model corresponds to the test results in the past.

  12. Protein interacting with C kinase 1 suppresses invasion and anchorage-independent growth of astrocytic tumor cells

    PubMed Central

    Cockbill, Louisa M. R.; Murk, Kai; Love, Seth; Hanley, Jonathan G.

    2015-01-01

    Astrocytic tumors are the most common form of primary brain tumor. Astrocytic tumor cells infiltrate the surrounding CNS tissue, allowing them to evade removal upon surgical resection of the primary tumor. Dynamic changes to the actin cytoskeleton are crucial to cancer cell invasion, but the specific mechanisms that underlie the particularly invasive phenotype of astrocytic tumor cells are unclear. Protein interacting with C kinase 1 (PICK1) is a PDZ and BAR domain–containing protein that inhibits actin-related protein 2/3 (Arp2/3)-dependent actin polymerization and is involved in regulating the trafficking of a number of cell-surface receptors. Here we report that, in contrast to other cancers, PICK1 expression is down-regulated in grade IV astrocytic tumor cell lines and also in clinical cases of the disease in which grade IV tumors have progressed from lower-grade tumors. Exogenous expression of PICK1 in the grade IV astrocytic cell line U251 reduces their capacity for anchorage-independent growth, two-dimensional migration, and invasion through a three-dimensional matrix, strongly suggesting that low PICK1 expression plays an important role in astrocytic tumorigenesis. We propose that PICK1 negatively regulates neoplastic infiltration of astrocytic tumors and that manipulation of PICK1 is an attractive possibility for therapeutic intervention. PMID:26466675

  13. 33 CFR 401.65 - Communication-ports, docks and anchorages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Communication-ports, docks and....65 Communication—ports, docks and anchorages. (a) Every vessel entering or leaving a lake port shall report to the appropriate Seaway station at the following check points: (1) For the lake ports of...

  14. 33 CFR 401.65 - Communication-ports, docks and anchorages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Communication-ports, docks and....65 Communication—ports, docks and anchorages. (a) Every vessel entering or leaving a lake port shall report to the appropriate Seaway station at the following check points: (1) For the lake ports of...

  15. 49 CFR 393.93 - Seats, seat belt assemblies, and seat belt assembly anchorages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... § 393.93 Seats, seat belt assemblies, and seat belt assembly anchorages. (a) Buses—(1) Buses manufactured on or after January 1, 1965, and before July 1, 1971. After June 30, 1972, every bus manufactured... Safety Administration. 1200 New Jersey Ave., SE., Washington, DC 20590-0001. (2) Buses manufactured on...

  16. 49 CFR 393.93 - Seats, seat belt assemblies, and seat belt assembly anchorages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... § 393.93 Seats, seat belt assemblies, and seat belt assembly anchorages. (a) Buses—(1) Buses manufactured on or after January 1, 1965, and before July 1, 1971. After June 30, 1972, every bus manufactured... Safety Administration. 1200 New Jersey Ave., SE., Washington, DC 20590-0001. (2) Buses manufactured on...

  17. Evaluating School Wellness Policy in Curbing Childhood Obesity in Anchorage, Alaska

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parsons, Wendy G.; Garcia, Gabriel M.; Hoffman, Pamela K.

    2014-01-01

    In 2006, the Anchorage School District implemented a school wellness policy to address the problem of obesity among its elementary-aged students. We assessed whether the addition of this policy is effective in protecting or preventing students from becoming overweight/obese over time. The methods involved following two cohorts of students for 5…

  18. Characterization of ambient fine particles in the northwestern area and Anchorage, Alaska.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eugene; Hopke, Philip K

    2008-10-01

    Ambient PM2.5 (particulate matter less than 2.5 microm in aerodynamic diameter) in the northwestern United States and Alaska is dominated by carbonaceous compounds associated with wood burning and transportation sources. PM2.5 source characterization studies analyzing recent PM2.5 speciation data have not been previously reported for these areas. In this study, ambient PM2.5 speciation samples collected at two monitoring sites located in the northwestern area, Olympic Peninsula, WA, and Portland, OR, and one monitoring site located in Anchorage, AK, were characterized through source apportionments. Gasoline vehicle, secondary sulfate, and wood smoke were the largest sources of PM2.5 collected at the Anchorage, Olympic, and Portland monitoring sites, respectively. Secondary sulfates showed an April peak at Anchorage and a November peak at Portland that are likely related to the increased photochemical reaction and long-range transport in Anchorage and meteorological stagnation in Portland. Secondary nitrate at the Olympic site showed a weak summer high peak that could be caused by seasonal tourism in the national park. Backward trajectories suggested that the elevated aged sea salt concentrations at the Portland monitoring site could be regional transport of sea salt that passed through other contaminated air sheds along the coast. Oil combustion emissions that might originate from ships and ferries were observed at the Olympic monitoring site. PMID:18939780

  19. 33 CFR 166.200 - Shipping safety fairways and anchorage areas, Gulf of Mexico.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Navigation or danger markings must be installed as required by 33 CFR Subchapter C. (c) Special Conditions...: For Federal Register citations affecting § 166.200, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which... anchorage areas, Gulf of Mexico. 166.200 Section 166.200 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST...

  20. 75 FR 23804 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Alaska State Office, Bureau of Land Management, Anchorage, AK...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-04

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: Alaska State Office, Bureau of Land Management... completion of an inventory of human remains and associated funerary objects in the control of the U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management, Alaska State Office, Anchorage, AK, and in...

  1. Management of post midface distraction occlusal discrepancy using temporary anchorage devices in a cleft patient

    PubMed Central

    Koteswara Prasad, N. K.; Hussain, Syed Altaf; Chitharanjan, Arun B.; Murthy, Jyotsna

    2015-01-01

    Open bite deformity following a successful midface advancement by distraction osteogenesis is a common complication. Temporary anchorage devices can be deployed during the distraction and post-distraction settling phases for restoring the occlusion even in severe cases. The following report describes the management of severe anterior open bite following maxillary distraction. PMID:25991895

  2. 49 CFR 571.225 - Standard No. 225; Child restraint anchorage systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... restraint system conforming to the requirements of Standard No. 213 (49 CFR 571.213) instead of one of the... CFR Part 555, must have a child restraint anchorage system installed at a front passenger designated... passenger designated seating positions pursuant to a temporary exemption granted by NHTSA under 49 CFR...

  3. Experimental evidence of pharmacological management of anchorage in Orthodontics: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-González, Felipe José; Cañigral, Aránzazu; Balbontín-Ayala, Felipe; Gonzalo-Orden, José Manuel; de Carlos, Felix; Cobo, Teresa; Fernández-Vázquez, Jose Pedro; Sánchez-Lasheras, Fernando; Vega, José Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Orthodontic anchorage is one of the most challenging aspects of Orthodontics. Preventing undesired movement of teeth could result in safer and less complicated orthodontic treatment. Recently, several reviews have been published about the effects of different molecules on bone physiology and the clinical side effects in Orthodontics. However, the effects of local application of these substances on the rate of orthodontic tooth movement have not been assessed. Objectives: The aim of this research was to analyze the scientific evidence published in the literature about the effects of different molecules on orthodontic anchorage. Methods: The literature was systematically reviewed using PubMed/Medline, Scopus and Cochrane databases from 2000 up to July 31st, 2014. Articles were independently selected by two different researchers based on previously established inclusion and exclusion criteria, with a concordance Kappa index of 0.86. The methodological quality of the reviewed papers was performed. Results: Search strategy identified 270 articles. Twenty-five of them were selected after application of inclusion/exclusion criteria, and only 11 qualified for final analysis. Molecules involved in orthodontic anchorage were divided into three main groups: osteoprotegerin (OPG), bisphosphonates (BPs) and other molecules (OMs). Conclusions: Different drugs are able to alter the bone remodeling cycle, influencing osteoclast function and, therefore, tooth movement. Thus, they could be used in order to provide maximal anchorage while preventing undesired movements. OPG was found the most effective molecule in blocking the action of osteoclasts, thereby reducing undesired movements. PMID:26560822

  4. 33 CFR 110.231 - Ketchikan Harbor, Alaska, Large Passenger Vessel Anchorage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Island Reef Lighted Buoy “PR”, to Wreck Buoy “WR6”, then following a line bearing 064 degrees true to shore. This anchorage is effective 24 hours per day from 1 May through 30 September, annually. (b)...

  5. 33 CFR 110.231 - Ketchikan Harbor, Alaska, Large Passenger Vessel Anchorage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Island Reef Lighted Buoy “PR”, to Wreck Buoy “WR6”, then following a line bearing 064 degrees true to shore. This anchorage is effective 24 hours per day from 1 May through 30 September, annually. (b)...

  6. 33 CFR 166.200 - Shipping safety fairways and anchorage areas, Gulf of Mexico.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Navigation or danger markings must be installed as required by 33 CFR Subchapter C. (c) Special Conditions...: For Federal Register citations affecting § 166.200, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which... anchorage areas, Gulf of Mexico. 166.200 Section 166.200 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST...

  7. Three-dimensional finite element analysis of a newly designed onplant miniplate anchorage system.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lin; Qu, Yin-Ying; Jiang, Li-Jun; Zhou, Qian; Tang, Tian-Qi

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this research was to evaluate the structural stress and deformation of a newly designed onplant miniplate anchorage system compared to a standard anchorage system. A bone block integrated with a novel miniplate and fixation screw system was simulated in a three-dimensional model and subjected to force at different directions. The stress distribution and deformation of the miniplate system and cortical bone were evaluated using the three-dimensional finite element method. The results showed that the stress on the plate system and bone was linearly proportional to the force magnitude and was higher when the force was in a vertical direction (Y-axis). Stress and deformation values of the two screws (screw 1 and 2) were asymmetric when the force was added along Y-axis and was greater in screw 1. The highest deformation value of the screws was 7.5148 μm, much smaller than the limit value. The load was decreased for each single miniscrew, and the ability of the new anchorage system to bear the load was also enhanced to some degree. It was suggested that the newly designed onplant miniplate anchorage system is effective, easily implanted and minimally invasive.

  8. Sediment discharge data for the lower reach of Campbell Creek, Anchorage, Alaska; May to September 1987

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lipscomb, S.W.

    1988-01-01

    Streamflow and suspended-sediment data were collected at three sites, two upstream and one downstream from the proposed bridge construction site in Anchorage, Alaska. Immediately downstream from the study reach, the creek enters Campbell Lake, an artificial impoundment in which sedimentation is becoming of concern to recreational users and lakeside residents. (USGS)

  9. Sediment discharge data for the lower reach of Campbell Creek, Anchorage, Alaska; May to October 1986

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lipscomb, S.W.

    1987-01-01

    Streamflow and suspended sediment data were collected at two sites in Anchorage, Alaska, one upstream and one downstream from the proposed bridge construction site. Immediately downstream from the study reach, the creek enters Campbell Lake, an artificial impoundment in which sedimentation is becoming of concern to recreational users and lakeside residents. (USGS)

  10. 78 FR 48299 - Establishment of Class D Airspace; Bryant AAF, Anchorage, AK

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-08

    ..., Anchorage AK (77 FR 50646). Interested parties were invited to participate in this rulemaking effort by... would eliminate that portion east of Glenn Highway (FR 78 34608, June 10, 2013). Interested parties were... Executive Order 12866; (2) is not a ``significant rule'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44...

  11. 78 FR 58158 - Establishment of Class D Airspace; Bryant AAF, Anchorage, AK

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-23

    ... Register establishing Class D airspace at Bryant AAF, Anchorage, AK (78 FR 48299, August 8, 2013). In the..., as published in the Federal Register on August 8, 2013 (78 FR 48299), FR Doc. 2013-18866, are... description for Bryant AAF, in that the language indicating Class D airspace as part time was left out....

  12. 49 CFR 571.210 - Standard No. 210; Seat belt assembly anchorages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... range shown in Figure 1, with reference to a two-dimensional drafting template described in SAE Standard... from the vehicle structure. Small occupant seating position is as defined in 49 CFR 571.222. S4... by Standard No. 208 (49 CFR 571.208). Seat belt anchorages for a Type 2 seat belt assembly shall...

  13. 49 CFR 571.210 - Standard No. 210; Seat belt assembly anchorages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... range shown in Figure 1, with reference to a two-dimensional drafting template described in SAE Standard... from the vehicle structure. Small occupant seating position is as defined in 49 CFR 571.222. S4... by Standard No. 208 (49 CFR 571.208). Seat belt anchorages for a Type 2 seat belt assembly shall...

  14. 49 CFR 571.210 - Standard No. 210; Seat belt assembly anchorages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... a two-dimensional drafting template described in SAE Standard J826 MAY87 (incorporated by reference... from the vehicle structure. Small occupant seating position is as defined in 49 CFR 571.222. S4... by Standard No. 208 (49 CFR 571.208). Seat belt anchorages for a Type 2 seat belt assembly shall...

  15. 49 CFR 571.210 - Standard No. 210; Seat belt assembly anchorages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... range shown in Figure 1, with reference to a two-dimensional drafting template described in Society of... from the vehicle structure. Small occupant seating position is as defined in 49 CFR 571.222. S4... by Standard No. 208 (49 CFR 571.208). Seat belt anchorages for a Type 2 seat belt assembly shall...

  16. 33 CFR 110.230 - Anchorages, Captain of the Port Puget Sound Zone, WA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... citations affecting § 110.230, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids... Puget Sound Zone, WA. 110.230 Section 110.230 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... Port Puget Sound Zone, WA. (a) Anchorage grounds. All coordinates are expressed in North American...

  17. 33 CFR 110.230 - Anchorages, Captain of the Port Puget Sound Zone, WA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... citations affecting § 110.230, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids... Puget Sound Zone, WA. 110.230 Section 110.230 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... Port Puget Sound Zone, WA. (a) Anchorage grounds. All coordinates are expressed in North American...

  18. Disruption of both nesprin 1 and desmin results in nuclear anchorage defects and fibrosis in skeletal muscle

    PubMed Central

    Chapman, Mark A.; Zhang, Jianlin; Banerjee, Indroneal; Guo, Ling T.; Zhang, Zhiwei; Shelton, G. Diane; Ouyang, Kunfu; Lieber, Richard L.; Chen, Ju

    2014-01-01

    Proper localization and anchorage of nuclei within skeletal muscle is critical for cellular function. Alterations in nuclear anchoring proteins modify a number of cellular functions including mechanotransduction, nuclear localization, chromatin positioning/compaction and overall organ function. In skeletal muscle, nesprin 1 and desmin are thought to link the nucleus to the cytoskeletal network. Thus, we hypothesize that both of these factors play a key role in skeletal muscle function. To examine this question, we utilized global ablation murine models of nesprin 1, desmin or both nesprin 1 and desmin. Herein, we have created the nesprin-desmin double-knockout (DKO) mouse, eliminating a major fraction of nuclear-cytoskeletal connections and enabling understanding of the importance of nuclear anchorage in skeletal muscle. Globally, DKO mice are marked by decreased lifespan, body weight and muscle strength. With regard to skeletal muscle, DKO myonuclear anchorage was dramatically decreased compared with wild-type, nesprin 1−/− and desmin−/− mice. Additionally, nuclear-cytoskeletal strain transmission was decreased in DKO skeletal muscle. Finally, loss of nuclear anchorage in DKO mice coincided with a fibrotic response as indicated by increased collagen and extracellular matrix deposition and increased passive mechanical properties of muscle bundles. Overall, our data demonstrate that nesprin 1 and desmin serve redundant roles in nuclear anchorage and that the loss of nuclear anchorage in skeletal muscle results in a pathological response characterized by increased tissue fibrosis and mechanical stiffness. PMID:24943590

  19. Numerical implementation of multiple peeling theory and its application to spider web anchorages

    PubMed Central

    Brely, Lucas; Bosia, Federico; Pugno, Nicola M.

    2015-01-01

    Adhesion of spider web anchorages has been studied in recent years, including the specific functionalities achieved through different architectures. To better understand the delamination mechanisms of these and other biological or artificial fibrillar adhesives, and how their adhesion can be optimized, we develop a novel numerical model to simulate the multiple peeling of structures with arbitrary branching and adhesion angles, including complex architectures. The numerical model is based on a recently developed multiple peeling theory, which extends the energy-based single peeling theory of Kendall, and can be applied to arbitrarily complex structures. In particular, we numerically show that a multiple peeling problem can be treated as the superposition of single peeling configurations even for complex structures. Finally, we apply the developed numerical approach to study spider web anchorages, showing how their function is achieved through optimal geometrical configurations. PMID:25657835

  20. Maxillary protraction using skeletal anchorage and intermaxillary elastics in Skeletal Class III patients

    PubMed Central

    Ağlarcı, Cahide; Albayrak, Gayem Eroğlu; Fındık, Yavuz

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this case report is to describe the treatment of a patient with skeletal Class III malocclusion with maxillary retrognathia using skeletal anchorage devices and intermaxillary elastics. Miniplates were inserted between the mandibular lateral incisor and canine teeth on both sides in a male patient aged 14 years 5 months. Self-drilling mini-implants (1.6 mm diameter, 10 mm length) were installed between the maxillary second premolar and molar teeth, and Class III elastics were used between the miniplates and miniscrews. On treatment completion, an increase in the projection of the maxilla relative to the cranial base (2.7 mm) and significant improvement of the facial profile were observed. Slight maxillary counterclockwise (1°) and mandibular clockwise (3.3°) rotations were also observed. Maxillary protraction with skeletal anchorage and intermaxillary elastics was effective in correcting a case of Skeletal Class III malocclusion without dentoalveolar side effects. PMID:25798416

  1. Patterned Anchorage to the Apical Extracellular Matrix Defines Tissue Shape in the Developing Appendages of Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Ray, Robert P; Matamoro-Vidal, Alexis; Ribeiro, Paulo S; Tapon, Nic; Houle, David; Salazar-Ciudad, Isaac; Thompson, Barry J

    2015-08-10

    How tissues acquire their characteristic shape is a fundamental unresolved question in biology. While genes have been characterized that control local mechanical forces to elongate epithelial tissues, genes controlling global forces in epithelia have yet to be identified. Here, we describe a genetic pathway that shapes appendages in Drosophila by defining the pattern of global tensile forces in the tissue. In the appendages, shape arises from tension generated by cell constriction and localized anchorage of the epithelium to the cuticle via the apical extracellular-matrix protein Dumpy (Dp). Altering Dp expression in the developing wing results in predictable changes in wing shape that can be simulated by a computational model that incorporates only tissue contraction and localized anchorage. Three other wing shape genes, narrow, tapered, and lanceolate, encode components of a pathway that modulates Dp distribution in the wing to refine the global force pattern and thus wing shape.

  2. Patterned Anchorage to the Apical Extracellular Matrix Defines Tissue Shape in the Developing Appendages of Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Ray, Robert P.; Matamoro-Vidal, Alexis; Ribeiro, Paulo S.; Tapon, Nic; Houle, David; Salazar-Ciudad, Isaac; Thompson, Barry J.

    2015-01-01

    Summary How tissues acquire their characteristic shape is a fundamental unresolved question in biology. While genes have been characterized that control local mechanical forces to elongate epithelial tissues, genes controlling global forces in epithelia have yet to be identified. Here, we describe a genetic pathway that shapes appendages in Drosophila by defining the pattern of global tensile forces in the tissue. In the appendages, shape arises from tension generated by cell constriction and localized anchorage of the epithelium to the cuticle via the apical extracellular-matrix protein Dumpy (Dp). Altering Dp expression in the developing wing results in predictable changes in wing shape that can be simulated by a computational model that incorporates only tissue contraction and localized anchorage. Three other wing shape genes, narrow, tapered, and lanceolate, encode components of a pathway that modulates Dp distribution in the wing to refine the global force pattern and thus wing shape. PMID:26190146

  3. CEACAM1-4L Promotes Anchorage-Independent Growth in Melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Löffek, Stefanie; Ullrich, Nico; Görgens, André; Murke, Florian; Eilebrecht, Mara; Menne, Christopher; Giebel, Bernd; Schadendorf, Dirk; Singer, Bernhard B.; Helfrich, Iris

    2015-01-01

    Widespread metastasis is the leading course of death in many types of cancer, including malignant melanoma. The process of metastasis can be divided into a number of complex cell biological events, collectively termed the “invasion-metastasis cascade.” Previous reports have characterized the capability of anchorage-independent growth of cancer cells in vitro as a key characteristic of highly aggressive tumor cells, particularly with respect to metastatic potential. Biological heterogeneity as well as drastic alterations in cell adhesion of disseminated cancer cells support escape mechanisms for metastases to overcome conventional therapies. Here, we show that exclusively the carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 1 (CEACAM1) splice variant CEACAM1-4L supports an anchorage-independent signature in malignant melanoma. These results highlight important variant-specific modulatory functions of CEACAM1 for metastatic spread in patients suffering malignant melanoma. PMID:26539411

  4. Intracellular reactive oxygen species activate Src tyrosine kinase during cell adhesion and anchorage-dependent cell growth.

    PubMed

    Giannoni, Elisa; Buricchi, Francesca; Raugei, Giovanni; Ramponi, Giampietro; Chiarugi, Paola

    2005-08-01

    Src tyrosine kinases are central components of adhesive responses and are required for cell spreading onto the extracellular matrix. Among other intracellular messengers elicited by integrin ligation are reactive oxygen species, which act as synergistic mediators of cytoskeleton rearrangement and cell spreading. We report that after integrin ligation, the tyrosine kinase Src is oxidized and activated. Src displays an early activation phase, concurrent with focal adhesion formation and driven mainly by Tyr527 dephosphorylation, and a late phase, concomitant with reactive oxygen species production, cell spreading, and integrin-elicited kinase oxidation. In addition, our results suggest that reactive oxygen species are key mediators of in vitro and in vivo v-Src tumorigenic properties, as both antioxidant treatments and the oxidant-insensitive C245A and C487A Src mutants greatly decrease invasivity, serum-independent and anchorage-independent growth, and tumor onset. Therefore we propose that, in addition to the known phosphorylation/dephosphorylation circuitry, redox regulation of Src activity is required during both cell attachment to the extracellular matrix and tumorigenesis.

  5. Strontium ranelate improved tooth anchorage and reduced root resorption in orthodontic treatment of rats.

    PubMed

    Kirschneck, Christian; Wolf, Michael; Reicheneder, Claudia; Wahlmann, Ulrich; Proff, Peter; Roemer, Piero

    2014-12-01

    The anchorage mechanisms currently used in orthodontic treatment have various disadvantages. The objective of this study was to determine the applicability of the osteoporosis medication strontium ranelate in pharmacologically induced orthodontic tooth anchorage. In 48 male Wistar rats, a constant orthodontic force of 0.25 N was reciprocally applied to the upper first molar and the incisors by means of a Sentalloy(®) closed coil spring for two to four weeks. 50% of the animals received strontium ranelate at a daily oral dosage of 900 mg per kilogramme of body weight. Bioavailability was determined by blood analyses. The extent of tooth movement was measured both optometrically and cephalometrically (CBCT). Relative alveolar gene expression of osteoclastic markers and OPG-RANKL was assessed by qRT-PCR and root resorption area and osteoclastic activity were determined in TRAP-stained histologic sections of the alveolar process. Compared to controls, the animals treated with strontium ranelate showed up to 40% less tooth movement after four weeks of orthodontic treatment. Gene expression and histologic analyses showed significantly less osteoclastic activity and a significantly smaller root resorption area. Blood analyses confirmed sufficient bioavailability of strontium ranelate. Because of its pharmacologic effects on bone metabolism, strontium ranelate significantly reduced tooth movement and root resorption in orthodontic treatment of rats. Strontium ranelate may be a viable agent for inducing tooth anchorage and reducing undesired root resorption in orthodontic treatment. Patients under medication of strontium ranelate have to expect prolonged orthodontic treatment times. PMID:25281203

  6. Acylation of keratinocyte transglutaminase by palmitic and myristic acids in the membrane anchorage region

    SciTech Connect

    Chakravarty, R.; Rice, R.H.

    1989-01-05

    The membrane-bound form of keratinocyte transglutaminase was found to be labeled by addition of (/sup 3/H) acetic, (/sup 3/H)myristic, or (/sup 3/H)palmitic acids to the culture medium of human epidermal cells. Acid methanolysis and high performance liquid chromatography analysis of palmitate-labeled transglutaminase yielded only methyl palmitate. In contrast, analysis of the myristate-labeled protein yielded approximately 40% methyl myristate and 60% methyl palmitate. Incorporation of neither label was significantly affected by cycloheximide inhibition of protein synthesis. The importance of the fatty acid moiety for membrane anchorage was demonstrated in three ways. First, the enzyme was solubilized from the particulate fraction of cell extracts by treatment with neutral 1 M hydroxylamine, which was sufficient to release the fatty acid label. Second, solubilization of active enzyme from the particulate fraction upon mild trypsin treatment resulted in a reduction in size by approximately 10 kDa and removal of the fatty acid radiolabels. Third, the small fraction of soluble transglutaminase in cell extracts was found almost completely to lack fatty acid labeling. Keratinocyte transglutaminase translated from poly(A+) RNA in a reticulocyte cell-free system was indistinguishable in size from the native enzyme, suggesting anchorage requires only minor post-translational processing. Thus, the data are highly compatible with membrane anchorage by means of fatty acid acylation within 10 kDa of the NH/sub 2/ or COOH terminus.

  7. Impedance monitoring at tendon-anchorage via mountable PZT interface and temperature-effect compensation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huynh, Thanh-Canh; Nguyen, Tuan-Cuong; Choi, Sang-Hoon; Kim, Jeong-Tae

    2016-04-01

    In this study, the pre-stress force in pre-stressed concrete (PSC) girders is monitored via mountable PZT interface under varying temperature. Firstly, an impedance-based technique using mountable PZT interface is proposed for pre-stress-loss monitoring in tendon-anchorage systems. A cross correlation-based temperature-effect compensation algorithm using an effective frequency shift (EFS) of impedance signatures is visited. Secondly, lab-scale experiments are performed on a PSC girder instrumented with a mountable PZT interface at tendon-anchorage. A series of temperature variation and pre-stress-loss events are simulated for the lab-scale PSC girder. Thirdly, the feasibility of the mountable PZT interface for pre-stress-loss monitoring in tendon-anchorage is experimentally verified under constant temperature conditions. Finally, the PZT interface device is examined for pre-stress-loss monitoring under temperature changes to validate its applicability. The temperature effect on impedance signatures is compensated by minimizing cross-correlation deviation between impedance patterns of the mountable PZT interface.

  8. 77 FR 43514 - Anchorage Regulations; Narragansett Bay and Rhode Island Sound, RI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-25

    ... Rhode Island Sound, RI,'' in the Federal Register (76 FR 15246). We received nine comments on the... Sound, RI AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard is removing an obsolete... Island Sound south of Brenton Point, Rhode Island, for use by vessels waiting to enter Narragansett...

  9. Cohesin's role as an active chromatin domain anchorage revealed.

    PubMed

    Feig, Christine; Odom, Duncan T

    2013-12-11

    Cohesin is a conserved protein complex indispensible for proper cell division, because it secures sister-chromatid cohesion following DNA replication until segregation is required at the onset of anaphase. Recent studies have revealed functions beyond this, showing that cohesin binds to interphase chromatin regulating gene expression at select loci via long-range chromosomal interactions. In this issue of The EMBO Journal, Sofueva et al (2013) use a combination of chromatin conformation capture methods, classical FISH imaging, and loss-of-function studies to elegantly demonstrate how cohesin controls the 3D architectural organization of the genome.

  10. Stable Ectopic Expression of ST6GALNAC5 Induces Autocrine MET Activation and Anchorage-Independence in MDCK Cells.

    PubMed

    Chu, Chia; Bottaro, Donald P; Betenbaugh, Michael J; Shiloach, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    The epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a complex cancer progression that can boost the metastatic potential of transformed cells by inducing migration, loss of cell adhesion, and promoting proliferation under anchorage-independent conditions. A DNA microarray analysis was performed comparing parental anchorage-dependent MDCK cells and anchorage-independent MDCK cells that were engineered to express human siat7e (ST6GALNAC5). The comparison identified several genes involved in the EMT process that were differentially expressed between the anchorage-dependent and the anchorage-independent MDCK cell lines. The hepatocyte growth factor gene (hgf) was found to be over-expressed in the engineered MDCK-siat7e cells at both transcription and protein expression levels. Phosphorylation analysis of the MET receptor tyrosine kinase confirmed the activation of an autocrine loop of the HGF/ MET signaling pathway in the MDCK-siat7e cells. When MET activities were suppressed by using the small-molecular inhibitor drug PF-02341066 (Crizotinib), the anchorage-independent MDCK-siat7e cells reverted to the cellular morphology of the parental anchorage-dependent MDCK cells. These observations indicate that the MET receptor plays a central role in the growth properties of the MDCK cells and its phosphorylation status is likely dependent on sialylation. Further investigation of the downstream signaling targets in the MET network showed that the degree of MDCK cell adhesion correlated with secretion levels of a matrix metalloproteinase, MMP1, suggesting a role of metalloproteinases in the EMT process. These results demonstrate that in addition to its application in biotechnology processes, MDCK-siat7e may serve as a model cell for metastasis studies to decipher the sequence of events leading up to the activation of EMT. PMID:26848584

  11. Stable Ectopic Expression of ST6GALNAC5 Induces Autocrine MET Activation and Anchorage-Independence in MDCK Cells

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Chia; Bottaro, Donald P.; Betenbaugh, Michael J.; Shiloach, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    The epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a complex cancer progression that can boost the metastatic potential of transformed cells by inducing migration, loss of cell adhesion, and promoting proliferation under anchorage-independent conditions. A DNA microarray analysis was performed comparing parental anchorage-dependent MDCK cells and anchorage-independent MDCK cells that were engineered to express human siat7e (ST6GALNAC5). The comparison identified several genes involved in the EMT process that were differentially expressed between the anchorage-dependent and the anchorage-independent MDCK cell lines. The hepatocyte growth factor gene (hgf) was found to be over-expressed in the engineered MDCK-siat7e cells at both transcription and protein expression levels. Phosphorylation analysis of the MET receptor tyrosine kinase confirmed the activation of an autocrine loop of the HGF/ MET signaling pathway in the MDCK-siat7e cells. When MET activities were suppressed by using the small-molecular inhibitor drug PF-02341066 (Crizotinib), the anchorage-independent MDCK-siat7e cells reverted to the cellular morphology of the parental anchorage-dependent MDCK cells. These observations indicate that the MET receptor plays a central role in the growth properties of the MDCK cells and its phosphorylation status is likely dependent on sialylation. Further investigation of the downstream signaling targets in the MET network showed that the degree of MDCK cell adhesion correlated with secretion levels of a matrix metalloproteinase, MMP1, suggesting a role of metalloproteinases in the EMT process. These results demonstrate that in addition to its application in biotechnology processes, MDCK-siat7e may serve as a model cell for metastasis studies to decipher the sequence of events leading up to the activation of EMT. PMID:26848584

  12. Effects of urbanization on benthic macroinvertebrate communities in streams, Anchorage, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ourso, Robert T.

    2001-01-01

    The effect of urbanization on stream macroinvertebrate communities was examined by using data gathered during a 1999 reconnaissance of 14 sites in the Municipality of Anchorage, Alaska. Data collected included macroinvertebrate abundance, water chemistry, and trace elements in bed sediments. Macroinvertebrate relative-abundance data were edited and used in metric and index calculations. Population density was used as a surrogate for urbanization. Cluster analysis (unweighted-paired-grouping method) using arithmetic means of macroinvertebrate presence-absence data showed a well-defined separation between urbanized and nonurbanized sites as well as extracted sites that did not cleanly fall into either category. Water quality in Anchorage generally declined with increasing urbanization (population density). Of 59 variables examined, 31 correlated with urbanization. Local regression analysis extracted 11 variables that showed a significant impairment threshold response and 6 that showed a significant linear response. Significant biological variables for determining the impairment threshold in this study were the Margalef diversity index, Ephemeroptera-Plecoptera-Trichoptera taxa richness, and total taxa richness. Significant thresholds were observed in the water-chemistry variables conductivity, dissolved organic carbon, potassium, and total dissolved solids. Significant thresholds in trace elements in bed sediments included arsenic, iron, manganese, and lead. Results suggest that sites in Anchorage that have ratios of population density to road density greater than 70, storm-drain densities greater than 0.45 miles per square mile, road densities greater than 4 miles per square mile, or population densities greater than 125-150 persons per square mile may require further monitoring to determine if the stream has become impaired. This population density is far less than the 1,000 persons per square mile used by the U.S. Census Bureau to define an urban area.

  13. Detection of bond failure in the anchorage zone of reinforced concrete beams via acoustic emission monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abouhussien, Ahmed A.; Hassan, Assem A. A.

    2016-07-01

    In this study, acoustic emission (AE) monitoring was utilised to identify the onset of bond failure in reinforced concrete beams. Beam anchorage specimens were designed and tested to fail in bond in the anchorage zone. The specimens included four 250 × 250 × 1500 mm beams with four variable bonded lengths (100, 200, 300, and 400 mm). Meanwhile, an additional 250 × 250 × 2440 mm beam, with 200 mm bonded length, was tested to investigate the influence of sensor location on the identification of bond damage. All beams were tested under four-point loading setup and continuously monitored using three distributed AE sensors. These attached sensors were exploited to record AE signals resulting from both cracking and bond deterioration until failure. The variations in the number of AE hits and cumulative signal strength (CSS) versus test time were evaluated to achieve early detection of crack growth and bar slippage. In addition, AE intensity analysis was performed on signal strength of collected AE signals to develop two additional parameters: historic index (H (t)) and severity (S r). The analysis of these AE parameters enabled an early detection of both first cracks (at almost the mid-span of the beam) and bar slip in either of the anchorage zones at the beams’ end before their visual observation, regardless of sensor location. The results also demonstrated a clear correlation between the damage level in terms of crack development/measured free end bar slip and AE parameters (number of hits, CSS, H(t), and S r).

  14. Dental extrusion with orthodontic miniscrew anchorage: a case report describing a modified method.

    PubMed

    Horliana, Ricardo Fidos; Horliana, Anna Carolina Ratto Tempestini; Wuo, Alexandre do Vale; Perez, Flávio Eduardo Guillin; Abrão, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, the skeletal anchorage through miniscrews has expanded the treatment options in orthodontics (Yamaguchi et al., 2012). We hereby present a modified method for tooth extrusion for cases where crown-lengthening surgery is contraindicated for aesthetic reasons. This modified method uses three orthodontic appliances: a mini-implant, an orthodontic wire, and a bracket. The aim of this case report was to increase the length of the clinical crown of a fractured tooth (tooth 23) by means of an orthodontic extrusion with the modified method of Roth and Diedrich.

  15. Dental Extrusion with Orthodontic Miniscrew Anchorage: A Case Report Describing a Modified Method

    PubMed Central

    Horliana, Ricardo Fidos; Horliana, Anna Carolina Ratto Tempestini; Wuo, Alexandre do Vale; Perez, Flávio Eduardo Guillin; Abrão, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, the skeletal anchorage through miniscrews has expanded the treatment options in orthodontics (Yamaguchi et al., 2012). We hereby present a modified method for tooth extrusion for cases where crown-lengthening surgery is contraindicated for aesthetic reasons. This modified method uses three orthodontic appliances: a mini-implant, an orthodontic wire, and a bracket. The aim of this case report was to increase the length of the clinical crown of a fractured tooth (tooth 23) by means of an orthodontic extrusion with the modified method of Roth and Diedrich. PMID:25713739

  16. Concentrations of fecal coliform bacteria in creeks, Anchorage, Alaska, August and September 1998

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dorava, Joseph M.; Love, Andra

    1999-01-01

    Water samples were collected from five creeks in undeveloped, semi-developed, and developed areas of Anchorage, Alaska, during August and September 1998 to determine concentrations of fecal coliform bacteria. In undeveloped areas of Ship, Chester, and Campbell Creeks, and the semi-developed area of Rabbit Creek, concentrations of fecal coliform bacteria ranged from less than 1 to 16 colonies per 100 milliliters of water. In the semi-developed area of Little Rabbit Creek, concentrations ranged from 30 to 860 colonies per 100 milliliters of water. In developed areas of the creeks, concentrations of fecal coliform bacteria ranged from 6 to 80 colonies per 100 milliliters of water.

  17. Ground-water quality beneath solid-waste disposal sites at anchorage, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zenone, Chester; Donaldson, D.E.; Grunwaldt, J.J.

    1975-01-01

    Studies at three solid-waste disposal sites in the Anchorage area suggest that differences in local geohydrologic conditions influence ground-water quality. A leachate was detected in ground water within and beneath two sites where the water table is very near land surface and refuse is deposited either at or below the water table in some parts of the filled areas. No leachate was detected in ground water beneath a third site where waste disposal is well above the local water table.

  18. Lateral movement of contaminated ground water from Merrill Field Landfill, Anchorage, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brunett, J.O.

    1990-01-01

    A sanitary landfill used in Anchorage, Alaska, since the 1940 's was closed in 1987. Leachate from the landfill does not appear to be contaminating a small creek flowing through a conduit in the landfill, but leachate is being transported by groundwater into a wetlands to the south. An electromagnetic survey of the unconfined aquifer and subsequent sampling from wells indicate that minor amounts of contaminants have reached much of the wetlands as far as Chester Creek, about 2,200 ft to the south. However, concentrations of these contaminants in the groundwater are generally less than U.S. Environmental Protection Agency standards for drinking water except within the landfill itself. (USGS)

  19. 49 CFR 176.4 - Port security and safety regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... the applicable provisions of 33 CFR parts 6, 109, 110, 125, 126, and 160. (b) Division 1.1 and 1.2... hazard as defined in 33 CFR 126.05(b); (2) An explosives anchorage listed in 33 CFR part 110; or (3) A... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Port security and safety regulations....

  20. 49 CFR 176.4 - Port security and safety regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... the applicable provisions of 33 CFR parts 6, 109, 110, 125, 126, and 160. (b) Division 1.1 and 1.2... hazard as defined in 33 CFR 126.05(b); (2) An explosives anchorage listed in 33 CFR part 110; or (3) A... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Port security and safety regulations....

  1. Signal-dependent Slow Leukocyte Rolling Does Not Require Cytoskeletal Anchorage of P-selectin Glycoprotein Ligand-1 (PSGL-1) or Integrin αLβ2*

    PubMed Central

    Shao, Bojing; Yago, Tadayuki; Coghill, Phillip A.; Klopocki, Arkadiusz G.; Mehta-D'souza, Padmaja; Schmidtke, David W.; Rodgers, William; McEver, Rodger P.

    2012-01-01

    In inflamed venules, neutrophils roll on P- or E-selectin, engage P-selectin glycoprotein ligand-1 (PSGL-1), and signal extension of integrin αLβ2 in a low affinity state to slow rolling on intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1). Cytoskeleton-dependent receptor clustering often triggers signaling, and it has been hypothesized that the cytoplasmic domain links PSGL-1 to the cytoskeleton. Chemokines cause rolling neutrophils to fully activate αLβ2, leading to arrest on ICAM-1. Cytoskeletal anchorage of αLβ2 has been linked to chemokine-triggered extension and force-regulated conversion to the high affinity state. We asked whether PSGL-1 must interact with the cytoskeleton to initiate signaling and whether αLβ2 must interact with the cytoskeleton to extend. Fluorescence recovery after photobleaching of transfected cells documented cytoskeletal restraint of PSGL-1. The lateral mobility of PSGL-1 similarly increased by depolymerizing actin filaments with latrunculin B or by mutating the cytoplasmic tail to impair binding to the cytoskeleton. Converting dimeric PSGL-1 to a monomer by replacing its transmembrane domain did not alter its mobility. By transducing retroviruses expressing WT or mutant PSGL-1 into bone marrow-derived macrophages from PSGL-1-deficient mice, we show that PSGL-1 required neither dimerization nor cytoskeletal anchorage to signal β2 integrin-dependent slow rolling on P-selectin and ICAM-1. Depolymerizing actin filaments or decreasing actomyosin tension in neutrophils did not impair PSGL-1- or chemokine-mediated integrin extension. Unlike chemokines, PSGL-1 did not signal cytoskeleton-dependent swing out of the β2-hybrid domain associated with the high affinity state. The cytoskeletal independence of PSGL-1-initiated, αLβ2-mediated slow rolling differs markedly from the cytoskeletal dependence of chemokine-initiated, αLβ2-mediated arrest. PMID:22511754

  2. Use of onplants as stable anchorage for facemask treatment: a case report.

    PubMed

    Hong, He; Ngan, Peter; Han, Guangli; Li, Han Guang; Qi, Liu Gong; Wei, Stephen H Y

    2005-05-01

    A hexagonal onplant of 7.7 mm diameter was placed on the palatal bone of the maxilla in an 1-year five-month-old female patient with a Class III malocclusion and midface deficiency. Elastic traction (400 g per side) was applied from a facemask to the onplant at 30 degrees to the occlusal plane 12 hours per day for 12 months. The maxilla was found to have displaced forward and downward by 2.9 mm. The mandible was rotated downward and backward. There was a 3 degrees increase in mandibular plane angle and an increase in the lower face height. Clinically, there was a significant improvement in midface esthetics, noted by an increase in fullness of the infraorbital region and correction of the skeletal discrepancy between the maxillary and mandibular jaw relationship. Contrary to the reports that use teeth rather than onplants as anchorage, there was no forward movement of the maxillary molars and minimal extrusion of the maxillary molars. These results suggest that onplants can be used as an extremely stable anchorage for maxillary orthopedic facemask treatment.

  3. Behaviour of plate anchorage in plate-reinforced composite coupling beams.

    PubMed

    Lam, W Y; Li, Lingzhi; Su, R K L; Pam, H J

    2013-01-01

    As a new alternative design, plate-reinforced composite (PRC) coupling beam achieves enhanced strength and ductility by embedding a vertical steel plate into a conventionally reinforced concrete (RC) coupling beam. Based on a nonlinear finite element model developed in the authors' previous study, a parametric study presented in this paper has been carried out to investigate the influence of several key parameters on the overall performance of PRC coupling beams. The effects of steel plate geometry, span-to-depth ratio of beams, and steel reinforcement ratios at beam spans and in wall regions are quantified. It is found that the anchorage length of the steel plate is primarily controlled by the span-to-depth ratio of the beam. Based on the numerical results, a design curve is proposed for determining the anchorage length of the steel plate. The load-carrying capacity of short PRC coupling beams with high steel ratio is found to be controlled by the steel ratio of wall piers. The maximum shear stress of PRC coupling beams should be limited to 15 MPa. PMID:24288465

  4. Behaviour of Plate Anchorage in Plate-Reinforced Composite Coupling Beams

    PubMed Central

    Lam, W. Y.; Li, Lingzhi; Su, R. K. L.; Pam, H. J.

    2013-01-01

    As a new alternative design, plate-reinforced composite (PRC) coupling beam achieves enhanced strength and ductility by embedding a vertical steel plate into a conventionally reinforced concrete (RC) coupling beam. Based on a nonlinear finite element model developed in the authors' previous study, a parametric study presented in this paper has been carried out to investigate the influence of several key parameters on the overall performance of PRC coupling beams. The effects of steel plate geometry, span-to-depth ratio of beams, and steel reinforcement ratios at beam spans and in wall regions are quantified. It is found that the anchorage length of the steel plate is primarily controlled by the span-to-depth ratio of the beam. Based on the numerical results, a design curve is proposed for determining the anchorage length of the steel plate. The load-carrying capacity of short PRC coupling beams with high steel ratio is found to be controlled by the steel ratio of wall piers. The maximum shear stress of PRC coupling beams should be limited to 15 MPa. PMID:24288465

  5. A pathway for cell wall anchorage of Saccharomyces cerevisiae alpha-agglutinin.

    PubMed Central

    Lu, C F; Kurjan, J; Lipke, P N

    1994-01-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae alpha-agglutinin is a cell wall-anchored adhesion glycoprotein. The previously identified 140-kDa form, which contains a glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchor (D. Wojciechowicz, C.-F. Lu, J. Kurjan, and P. N. Lipke, Mol. Cell. Biol. 13:2554-2563, 1993), and additional forms of 80, 150, 250 to 300, and > 300 kDa had the properties of intermediates in a transport and cell wall anchorage pathway. N glycosylation and additional modifications resulted in successive increases in size during transport. The 150- and 250- to 300-kDa forms were membrane associated and are likely to be intermediates between the 140-kDa form and a cell surface GPI-anchored form of > 300 kDa. A soluble form of > 300 kDa that lacked the GPI anchor had properties of a periplasmic intermediate between the plasma membrane form and the > 300-kDa cell wall-anchored form. These results constitute experimental support for the hypothesis that GPI anchors act to localize alpha-agglutinin to the plasma membrane and that cell wall anchorage involves release from the GPI anchor to produce a periplasmic intermediate followed by linkage to the cell wall. Images PMID:8007981

  6. X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP) lacking RING domain localizes to the nuclear and promotes cancer cell anchorage-independent growth by targeting the E2F1/Cyclin E axis.

    PubMed

    Cao, Zipeng; Li, Xueyong; Li, Jingxia; Luo, Wenjing; Huang, Chuanshu; Chen, Jingyuan

    2014-08-30

    The inhibitor of apoptosis protein XIAP (X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein) is a well-documented protein that is located in cytoplasm acting as a potent regulator of cell apoptosis. Here, we showed that expressing XIAP with RING (Really Interesting New Gene) domain deletion (XIAP△RING) in cancer cells promoted cancer cell anchorage-independent growth and G1/S phase transition companied with increasing cyclin e transcription activity and protein expression. Further studies revealed that XIAP△RING was mainly localized in nuclear with increased binding with E2F1, whereas XIAP with BIR (Baculoviral IAP Repeat) domains deletion (XIAP△BIRs) was entirely presented in cytoplasma with losing its binding with E2F1, suggesting that RING domain was able to inhibit BIR domains nuclear localization, by which impaired BIRs binding with E2F1 in cellular nucleus in intact cells. These studies identified a new function of XIAP protein in cellular nucleus is to regulate E2F1 transcriptional activity by binding with E2F1 in cancer cells. Our current finding of an effect of XIAP△RING expression on cancer cell anchorage-independent growth suggests that overexpression of this protein may contribute to genetic instability associated with cell cycle and checkpoint perturbations, in addition to its impact on cellular apoptosis. PMID:25216527

  7. X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP) lacking RING domain localizes to the nuclear and promotes cancer cell anchorage-independent growth by targeting the E2F1/Cyclin E axis

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Zipeng; Li, Xueyong; Li, Jingxia; Luo, Wenjing; Huang, Chuanshu; Chen, Jingyuan

    2014-01-01

    The inhibitor of apoptosis protein XIAP (X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein) is a well-documented protein that is located in cytoplasm acting as a potent regulator of cell apoptosis. Here, we showed that expressing XIAP with RING (Really Interesting New Gene) domain deletion (XIAPΔRING) in cancer cells promoted cancer cell anchorage-independent growth and G1/S phase transition companied with increasing cyclin e transcription activity and protein expression. Further studies revealed that XIAPΔRING was mainly localized in nuclear with increased binding with E2F1, whereas XIAP with BIR (Baculoviral IAP Repeat) domains deletion (XIAPΔBIRs) was entirely presented in cytoplasma with losing its binding with E2F1, suggesting that RING domain was able to inhibit BIR domains nuclear localization, by which impaired BIRs binding with E2F1 in cellular nucleus in intact cells. These studies identified a new function of XIAP protein in cellular nucleus is to regulate E2F1 transcriptional activity by binding with E2F1 in cancer cells. Our current finding of an effect of XIAPΔRING expression on cancer cell anchorage-independent growth suggests that overexpression of this protein may contribute to genetic instability associated with cell cycle and checkpoint perturbations, in addition to its impact on cellular apoptosis. PMID:25216527

  8. Cellular Dichotomy Between Anchorage-Independent Growth Responses to bFGF and TA Reflects Molecular Switch in Commitment to Carcinogenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Waters, Katrina M.; Tan, Ruimin; Opresko, Lee K.; Quesenberry, Ryan D.; Bandyopadhyay, Somnath; Chrisler, William B.; Weber, Thomas J.

    2009-11-01

    We have investigated gene expression patterns underlying reversible and irreversible anchorage-independent growth (AIG) phenotypes to identify more sensitive markers of cell transformation for studies directed at interrogating carcinogenesis responses. In JB6 mouse epidermal cells, basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) induces an unusually efficient and reversible AIG response, relative to 12-O-tetradecanoyl phorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-induced AIG which is irreversible. The reversible and irreversible AIG phenotypes are characterized by largely non-overlapping global gene expression profiles. However, a subset of differentially expressed genes were identified as common to reversible and irreversible AIG phenotypes, including genes regulated in a reciprocal fashion. Hepatic leukemia factor (HLF) and D-site albumin promoter-binding protein (DBP) were increased in both bFGF and TPA soft agar colonies and selected for functional validation. Ectopic expression of human HLF and DBP in JB6 cells resulted in a marked increase in TPA- and bFGF-regulated AIG responses. HLF and DBP expression were increased in soft agar colonies arising from JB6 cells exposed to gamma radiation and in a human basal cell carcinoma tumor tissue, relative to paired non-tumor tissue. Subsequent biological network analysis suggests that many of the differentially expressed genes that are common to bFGF- and TPA-dependent AIG are regulated by c-Myc, SP-1 and HNF-4 transcription factors. Collectively, we have identified a potential molecular switch that mediates the transition from reversible to irreversible AIG.

  9. 33 CFR 165.110 - Safety and Security Zone; Liquefied Natural Gas Carrier Transits and Anchorage Operations, Boston...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...; Liquefied Natural Gas Carrier Transits and Anchorage Operations, Boston, Massachusetts. 165.110 Section 165... Limited Access Areas First Coast Guard District § 165.110 Safety and Security Zone; Liquefied Natural Gas... local law enforcement officer designated by or assisting the Captain of the Port (COTP)...

  10. Anchorage School District Project EXCELS 1994-97. Final Grant Report. Assessment and Evaluation Report #99-6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Leary, Neil

    This document describes the final grant report for the Anchorage School District (Alaska) project titled Extending Curricular Effectiveness through Links among Standards (EXCELS). This grant was a demonstration project designed to provide extensive professional development related to national standards. A process was developed for bringing…

  11. 76 FR 36157 - In the Matter of Alaska Industrial X-Ray, Inc., Anchorage, AK; Confirmatory Order Modifying...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-21

    ... Alaska Industrial X-Ray, Inc., Anchorage, AK; Confirmatory Order Modifying License; Effective Immediately I Alaska Industrial X-Ray, Inc. (AIX or Licensee) is the holder of Materials License 50-16084-01... Industrial X-Ray, Inc. (AIX) and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) relating to the NRC's letter...

  12. [Correction of a mandibular alveolar protrusion using maxillary miniscrew anchorage in the treatment of a Class II division 1 malocclusion].

    PubMed

    Haiim, Frederic

    2011-12-01

    This article describes a relatively simple method of reducing a mandibular alveolar protrusion without compensatory extraction of mandibular bicuspids or advancement of anterior teeth in the treatment of a Class II division 1 malocclusion. The use of well-planned skeletal anchorage specifically adapted to each specific situation is also well elucidated.

  13. "How Will I Sew My Baskets?" Women Vendors, Market Art, and Incipient Political Activism in Anchorage, Alaska

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Molly

    2003-01-01

    In this article the author examines the multifaceted role of the Alaska Federation of Natives crafts fair in the lives of Alaska Native women who have left their home villages and moved into Anchorage, Alaska's largest city. At the same time, this discussion raises broader issues such as the evolving politicization of women traders and the growing…

  14. 33 CFR 165.110 - Safety and Security Zone; Liquefied Natural Gas Carrier Transits and Anchorage Operations, Boston...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...; Liquefied Natural Gas Carrier Transits and Anchorage Operations, Boston, Massachusetts. 165.110 Section 165... Limited Access Areas First Coast Guard District § 165.110 Safety and Security Zone; Liquefied Natural Gas... ahead and one mile astern, and 500 yards on each side of any liquefied natural gas carrier (LNGC)...

  15. 33 CFR 165.110 - Safety and Security Zone; Liquefied Natural Gas Carrier Transits and Anchorage Operations, Boston...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...; Liquefied Natural Gas Carrier Transits and Anchorage Operations, Boston, Massachusetts. 165.110 Section 165... Limited Access Areas First Coast Guard District § 165.110 Safety and Security Zone; Liquefied Natural Gas... ahead and one mile astern, and 500 yards on each side of any liquefied natural gas carrier (LNGC)...

  16. 33 CFR 165.110 - Safety and Security Zone; Liquefied Natural Gas Carrier Transits and Anchorage Operations, Boston...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...; Liquefied Natural Gas Carrier Transits and Anchorage Operations, Boston, Massachusetts. 165.110 Section 165... Limited Access Areas First Coast Guard District § 165.110 Safety and Security Zone; Liquefied Natural Gas... ahead and one mile astern, and 500 yards on each side of any liquefied natural gas carrier (LNGC)...

  17. 33 CFR 165.110 - Safety and Security Zone; Liquefied Natural Gas Carrier Transits and Anchorage Operations, Boston...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...; Liquefied Natural Gas Carrier Transits and Anchorage Operations, Boston, Massachusetts. 165.110 Section 165... Limited Access Areas First Coast Guard District § 165.110 Safety and Security Zone; Liquefied Natural Gas... ahead and one mile astern, and 500 yards on each side of any liquefied natural gas carrier (LNGC)...

  18. The "Real Self" and Inauthenticity: The Importance of Self-Concept Anchorage for Emotional Experiences in the Workplace

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sloan, Melissa M.

    2007-01-01

    I examine the utility of self-concept anchorage (as described by Turner 1976) in the analysis of inauthenticity in the workplace. As controlling internally felt emotion may distance the worker from her true feelings or true self, the management of emotion in the workplace can produce feelings of inauthenticity in the worker. This relationship has…

  19. Assessing Posidonia oceanica Seedling Substrate Preference: An Experimental Determination of Seedling Anchorage Success in Rocky vs. Sandy Substrates

    PubMed Central

    Alagna, Adriana; Fernández, Tomás Vega; Anna, Giovanni D; Magliola, Carlo; Mazzola, Salvatore; Badalamenti, Fabio

    2015-01-01

    In the last decades the growing awareness of the ecological importance of seagrass meadows has prompted increasing efforts to protect existing beds and restore degraded habitats. An in-depth knowledge of factors acting as major drivers of propagule settlement and recruitment is required in order to understand patterns of seagrass colonization and recovery and to inform appropriate management and conservation strategies. In this work Posidonia oceanica seedlings were reared for five months in a land-based culture facility under simulated natural hydrodynamic conditions to identify suitable substrates for seedling anchorage. Two main substrate features were investigated: firmness (i.e., sand vs. rock) and complexity (i.e., size of interstitial spaces between rocks). Seedlings were successfully grown in culture tanks, obtaining overall seedling survival of 93%. Anchorage was strongly influenced by substrate firmness and took place only on rocks, where it was as high as 89%. Anchorage occurred through adhesion by sticky root hairs. The minimum force required to dislodge plantlets attached to rocky substrates reached 23.830 N (equivalent to 2.43 kg), which would potentially allow many plantlets to overcome winter storms in the field. The ability of rocky substrates to retain seedlings increased with their complexity. The interstitial spaces between rocks provided appropriate microsites for seedling settlement, as seeds were successfully retained, and a suitable substrate for anchorage was available. In conclusion P. oceanica juveniles showed a clear-cut preference for hard substrates over the sandy one, due to the root system adhesive properties. In particular, firm and complex substrates allowed for propagule early and strong anchorage, enhancing persistence and establishment probabilities. Seedling substrate preference documented here leads to expect a more successful sexual recruitment on hard bottoms compared with soft ones. This feature could have influenced P

  20. Characteristics of Urbanization in Five Watersheds of Anchorage, Alaska: Geographic Information System Data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moran, Edward H.

    2002-01-01

    The report contains environmental and urban geographic information system data for 14 sites in 5 watersheds in Anchorage, Alaska. These sites were examined during summer in 1999 and 2000 to determine effects of urbanization on water quality. The data sets are Environmental Systems Research Institute, Inc., shapefiles, coverages, and images. Also included are an elevation grid and a triangulated irregular network. Although the data are intended for users with advanced geographic information system capabilities, simple images of the data also are available. ArcView? 3.2 project, an ArcGIS? project, and 16 ArcExplorer2? projects are linked to the PDF file based report. Some of these coverages are large files over 10 MB. The largest coverage, impervious cover, is 208 MB.

  1. Orthodontic retreatment using anchorage with miniplate to camouflage a Class III skeletal pattern.

    PubMed

    Farret, Marcel Marchiori

    2016-06-01

    This manuscript describes the treatment of a 27-year-old patient who was previously treated with two maxillary first premolar extractions. The patient had skeletal Class III malocclusion, Class III canine relationship, anterior crossbite, and a concave profile. As the patient refused orthognathic surgery, a miniplate was used on the right side of the lower arch as an anchorage unit after the extraction of mandibular first premolars, aiding the retraction of anterior teeth. At the end of treatment, anterior crossbite was corrected, in which first molars and canines were in a Class I relationship, and an excellent intercuspation was reached. Furthermore, patient's profile remarkably improved as a result of mandibular incisor retraction. A 30-month follow-up showed good stability of the results obtained. This case was presented to the Brazilian Board of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics (BBO) as one of the requirements to become diplomate by the BBO. PMID:27409659

  2. Unusual extraction treatment of Class I bialveolar protrusion using microimplant anchorage.

    PubMed

    Chae, Jong-Moon

    2007-03-01

    This case report describes the treatment of a 16-year-old girl who had severe bialveolar protrusion. Patients with bialveolar protrusion are commonly treated with four first premolar extractions and retraction of the anterior teeth. Unfortunately in this patient, the mandibular left second molar had to be extracted because of extensive caries. To create sufficient space for retraction of the anterior teeth, the mandibular left posterior teeth were retracted with the mandibular posterior microimplant (1.2 mm in diameter, 6 mm long) placed into the retromolar area followed by en masse retraction of the mandibular anterior teeth. Microimplants can provide anchorage for obtaining a good facial profile even without premolar extraction in the case of bialveolar protrusion with the absence of the second molar.

  3. Comparative measles incidence among exposed military and nonmilitary persons in Anchorage, Alaska.

    PubMed

    Glover, Danny J; DeMain, Jeffrey; Herbold, John R; Schneider, Paula J; Bunning, Michel

    2004-07-01

    An outbreak of measles that occurred in Anchorage, Alaska, in 1998 resulted in 33 diagnosed cases: 26 were laboratory confirmed and 7 were clinically confirmed. Twenty-nine (88%) of 33 cases occurred in individuals who had not been immunized with at least two measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccinations; 25 (76%) of 33 occurred in school-age children, 0 to 19 years of age. This study identifies the difference in the incidence of measles between the civilian school-age population, who was not completely immunized (two MMR vaccinations given at least 30 days apart), and the military dependent population who had been completely immunized. All cases occurred among civilians, and most (25 of 33 confirmed cases) were associated with school attendance. The authors conclude that a two-dose regimen of MMR vaccine is required to adequately protect individuals against measles.

  4. FAK inhibition disrupts a β5 integrin signaling axis controlling anchorage-independent ovarian carcinoma growth

    PubMed Central

    Tancioni, Isabelle; Uryu, Sean; Sulzmaier, Florian J.; Shah, Nina R.; Lawson, Christine; Miller, Nichol L.G.; Jean, Christine; Chen, Xiao Lei; Ward, Kristy K.; Schlaepfer, David D.

    2014-01-01

    Ovarian cancer ascites fluid contains matrix proteins that can impact tumor growth via integrin receptor binding. In human ovarian tumor tissue arrays, we find that activation of the cytoplasmic focal adhesion (FAK) tyrosine kinase parallels increased tumor stage, β5 integrin, and osteopontin (OPN) matrix staining. Elevated OPN, β5 integrin, and FAK mRNA levels are associated with decreased serous ovarian cancer patient survival. FAK remains active within ovarian cancer cells grown as spheroids, and anchorage-independent growth analyses of seven ovarian carcinoma cell lines identified sensitive (HEY, OVCAR8) and resistant (SKOV3-IP, OVCAR10) cells to 0.1 μM FAK inhibitor (VS-4718, formerly PND-1186) treatment. VS-4718 promoted HEY and OVCAR8 G0/G1 cell cycle arrest followed by cell death whereas growth of SKOV3-IP and OVCAR10 cells were resistant to 1.0 μM VS-4718. In HEY cells, genetic or pharmacological FAK inhibition prevented tumor growth in mice with corresponding reductions in β5 integrin and OPN expression. β5 knockdown reduced HEY cell growth in soft agar, tumor growth in mice, and both FAK Y397 phosphorylation and OPN expression in spheroids. FAK inhibitor resistant (SKOV3-IP, OVCAR10) cells exhibited anchorage-independent Akt S473 phosphorylation and expression of membrane-targeted and active Akt in sensitive cells (HEY, OVCAR8) increased growth but did not create a FAK inhibitor resistant phenotype. These results link OPN, β5 integrin, and FAK in promoting ovarian tumor progression.β5 integrin expression may serve as a biomarker for serous ovarian carcinoma cells that possess active FAK signaling. PMID:24899686

  5. The RhoA-ROCK-PTEN pathway as a molecular switch for anchorage dependent cell behavior.

    PubMed

    Yang, Seungwon; Kim, Hyun-Man

    2012-04-01

    The proliferation of anchorage-dependent cells of mesenchymal origin requires the attachment of the cells to substrates. Thus, cells that are poorly attached to substrates exhibit retarded cell cycle progression or apoptotic death. A major disadvantage of most polymers used in tissue engineering is their hydrophobicity; hydrophobic surfaces do not allow cells to attach firmly and, therefore, do not allow normal proliferation rates. In this study, we investigated the molecular mechanism underlying the reduced proliferation rate of cells that are poorly attached to substrates. There was an inverse relationship between the activity of the small GTPase RhoA (RhoA) and the cell proliferation rate. RhoA activity correlated inversely with the strength of cell adhesion to the substrates. The high RhoA activity in the cells poorly attached to substrates caused an increase in the activity of Rho-associated kinase (ROCK), a well-known effector of RhoA that upregulated the activity of phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN). The resulting activated PTEN downregulated Akt activity, which is essential for cell proliferation. Thus, the cells that were poorly attached to substrates showed low levels of cell proliferation because the RhoA-ROCK-PTEN pathway was hyperactive. In addition, RhoA activity seemed to be related to focal adhesion kinase (FAK) activity. Weak FAK activity in these poorly attached cells failed to downregulate the high RhoA activity that restrained cell proliferation. Interestingly, reducing the expression of any component of the RhoA-ROCK-PTEN pathway rescued the proliferation rate without physico-chemical surface modifications. Based on these results, we suggest that the RhoA-ROCK-PTEN pathway acts as a molecular switch to control cell proliferation and determine anchorage dependence. In cells that are poorly attached to substrates, its inhibition is sufficient to restore cell proliferation without the need for physico-chemical modification of the material

  6. Geology and ground-water resources of the Anchorage area, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cederstrom, Dagfin John; Trainer, Frank W.; Waller, Roger Milton

    1964-01-01

    The Anchorage area, at the head of Cook Inlet in south-central Alaska, occupies 150 square miles of a glaciated lowland and lies between two estuaries and the Chugach Mountains. Two military bases are in the area; Anchorage is the largest city in Alaska and the chief transportation center for this part of the State. The bedrock in the Anchorage area is chiefly Tertiary shale in the lowland and metamorphic rocks of Mesozoic age beneath the adjacent mountain slopes. Glacial drift which underlies nearly the entire area has an average thickness of several hundred feet and appears to include at least five sheets of deposits, two of which are exposed. The drift consists of till, outwash stream and lake deposits (sand and gravel), and estuarine (and lake) deposits (clay and silt). The stratigraphy and lateral distribution of the deposits are complex, but data at hand s, how that the thickest deposits, including all the estuarine and lake sediment and most of the stream-deposited sediment, are beneath the lowland away from the mountain wall, and that the deposits near the mountains are till and subordinate outwash sediments. Deposits of sand and gravel laid down by outwash streams in channels and on outwash plains are the most important aquifers, and the only ones which yield large quantities of ground water from single beds. Thin layers of sandy or gravelly material in till are also important aquifers although they yield relatively small quantities of water. Bedded sand and silt associated with the estuarine and lake(?) clay commonly becomes unstable during drilling and pumping, and has been successfully developed in only a few wells. Unconfined aquifers are extensive, but permeable saturated material is thin in many places and water supplies available from them are small or undependable in those places. The most important aquifers are confined or artesian. Clay and till form the confining beds: the till is somewhat 'leaky' in many places. Near Anchorage the buried water

  7. Transdisciplinary treatment of Class III malocclusion using conventional implant-supported anchorage: 10-year posttreatment follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Rinaldi, Mariana Roennau Lemos; Rizzatto, Susana Maria Deon; de Menezes, Luciane Macedo; Polido, Waldemar Daudt; de Lima, Eduardo Martinelli Santayanna

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Combined treatment offers advantages for partially edentulous patients. Conventional implants, used as orthodontic anchorage, enable previous orthodontic movement, which provides appropriate space gain for crown insertion. OBJECTIVE: This case report describes the treatment of a 61-year and 10-month-old patient with negative overjet which made ideal prosthetic rehabilitation impossible, thereby hindering dental and facial esthetics. CASE REPORT: After a diagnostic setup, conventional implants were placed in the upper arch to anchor intrusion and retract anterior teeth. Space gain for lateral incisors was achieved in the lower arch by means of an orthodontic appliance. CONCLUSIONS: Integrated planning combining Orthodontics and Implantology provided successful treatment by means of conventional implant-supported anchorage. The resulting occlusal relationship proved stable after 10 years. PMID:26154459

  8. The U.S. Department of Energy Office of Indian Energy Policy and Programs, Anchorage, Alaska, Roundtable Summary

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2011-04-14

    The Anchorage, Alaska Roundtable on Tribal Energy Policy convened at 10:00 a.m., Thursday April 15th, at the downtown Anchorage Hilton. The meeting was held by the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Indian Energy Policy and Programs (Office of Indian Energy). Tracey LeBeau, Director of the Office of Indian Energy, and Pilar Thomas, Deputy Director-Policy of the Office of Indian Energy, represented DOE. Approximately twenty-seven people attended the meeting, including representatives of three native Alaskan villages, four Alaskan tribal corporations representing more than 40 tribal governments, as well as representatives from tribal associations and conferences. Interested state, federal, and non-profit representatives also were present. A full list of attendees is at the end of this summary. The meeting was facilitated by the Udall Foundation’s U.S. Institute for Environmental Conflict Resolution (U.S. Institute).  

  9. Comparison of tooth displacement between buccal mini-implants and palatal plate anchorage for molar distalization: a finite element study.

    PubMed

    Yu, Il-Jun; Kook, Yoon-Ah; Sung, Sang-Jin; Lee, Kee-Joon; Chun, Youn-Sic; Mo, Sung-Seo

    2014-08-01

    The purposes of this study were to mechanically evaluate distalization modalities through the application of skeletal anchorage using finite element analysis. Base models were constructed from commercial teeth models. A finite element model was created and three treatment modalities were modified to make 10 models. Modalities 1 and 2 placed mini-implants in the buccal side, and modality 3 placed a plate on the palatal side. Distalization with the palatal plate in modality 3 showed bodily molar movement and insignificant displacement of the incisors. Placing mini-implants on the buccal side in modalities 1 and 2 caused the first molar to be distally tipped and extruded, while the incisors were labially flared and intruded. Distalization with the palatal plate rather than mini-implants on the buccal side provided bodily molar movement without tipping or extrusion. It is recommended to use our findings as a clinical guide for the application of skeletal anchorage devices for molar distalization.

  10. Consecutive condylectomy and molar intrusion using temporary anchorage devices as an alternative for correcting facial asymmetry with condylar hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Choi, Yoon Jeong; Lee, Sang-Hwy; Baek, Man-Suk; Kim, Jae-Young; Park, Young-Chel

    2015-04-01

    This case report demonstrates the successful treatment of facial asymmetry with condylar hyperplasia with limited surgical and orthodontic treatment. A high condylectomy was performed to shorten the elongated condyle and to remove its active growth site. The maxillary molars on the affected side were then orthodontically intruded using temporary anchorage devices to improve the occlusal cant and posterior open bite of the unaffected side. This combined surgical-orthodontic treatment provided a satisfactory outcome without additional orthognathic surgery. PMID:25836342

  11. ROCK1 and ROCK2 are required for non-small cell lung cancer anchorage-independent growth and invasion.

    PubMed

    Vigil, Dominico; Kim, Tai Young; Plachco, Ana; Garton, Andrew J; Castaldo, Linda; Pachter, Jonathan A; Dong, Hanqing; Chen, Xin; Tokar, Brianna; Campbell, Sharon L; Der, Channing J

    2012-10-15

    Evidence is emerging that the closely related ROCK1 and ROCK2 serine/threonine kinases support the invasive and metastatic growth of a spectrum of human cancer types. Therefore, inhibitors of ROCK are under preclinical development. However, a key step in their development involves the identification of genetic biomarkers that will predict ROCK inhibitor antitumor activity. One identified mechanism for ROCK activation in cancer involves the loss of function of the DLC1 tumor suppressor gene, which encodes a GTPase activating protein (RhoGAP) for the RhoA and RhoC small GTPases. DLC-1 loss may lead to hyperactivation of RhoA/C and its downstream effectors, the ROCK kinases. We therefore determined whether loss of DLC-1 protein expression identifies non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) cell lines whose growth and invasion phenotypes are sensitive to ROCK inhibition. We identified and characterized a novel small molecule pharmacologic inhibitor of ROCK and additionally applied genetic approaches to impair ROCK1 and/or ROCK2 activity, and we determined that although NSCLC anchorage-dependent growth was ROCK-independent, both anchorage-independent growth and Matrigel invasion were ROCK-dependent. However, loss of DLC-1 expression did not correlate with ROCK activation or with OXA-06 sensitivity. Unexpectedly, suppression of ROCK1 or ROCK2 expression alone was sufficient to impair anchorage-independent growth, supporting their nonoverlapping roles in oncogenesis. Mechanistically, the block in anchorage-independent growth was associated with accumulation of cells in the G(0)-G(1) phase of the cell cycle, but not increased anoikis. We conclude that ROCK may be a useful therapeutic target for NSCLC.

  12. Mitochondrial anchorage and fusion contribute to mitochondrial inheritance and quality control in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Higuchi-Sanabria, Ryo; Charalel, Joseph K; Viana, Matheus P; Garcia, Enrique J; Sing, Cierra N; Koenigsberg, Andrea; Swayne, Theresa C; Vevea, Jason D; Boldogh, Istvan R; Rafelski, Susanne M; Pon, Liza A

    2016-03-01

    Higher-functioning mitochondria that are more reduced and have less ROS are anchored in the yeast bud tip by the Dsl1-family protein Mmr1p. Here we report a role for mitochondrial fusion in bud-tip anchorage of mitochondria. Fluorescence loss in photobleaching (FLIP) and network analysis experiments revealed that mitochondria in large buds are a continuous reticulum that is physically distinct from mitochondria in mother cells. FLIP studies also showed that mitochondria that enter the bud can fuse with mitochondria that are anchored in the bud tip. In addition, loss of fusion and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) by deletion of mitochondrial outer or inner membrane fusion proteins (Fzo1p or Mgm1p) leads to decreased accumulation of mitochondria at the bud tip and inheritance of fitter mitochondria by buds compared with cells with no mtDNA. Conversely, increasing the accumulation and anchorage of mitochondria in the bud tip by overexpression of MMR1 results in inheritance of less-fit mitochondria by buds and decreased replicative lifespan and healthspan. Thus quantity and quality of mitochondrial inheritance are ensured by two opposing processes: bud-tip anchorage by mitochondrial fusion and Mmr1p, which favors bulk inheritance; and quality control mechanisms that promote segregation of fitter mitochondria to the bud. PMID:26764088

  13. Proton-HZE-particle sequential dual-beam exposures increase anchorage-independent growth frequencies in primary human fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Guangming; Bennett, Paula V; Cutter, Noelle C; Sutherland, Betsy M

    2006-09-01

    The radiation field in deep space contains high levels of high-energy protons and substantially lower levels of high-atomic-number, high-energy (HZE) particles. Calculations indicate that cellular nuclei of human space travelers will be hit during a 3-year Mars mission by approximately 400 protons and approximately 0.4 HZE particles. Thus most cells in astronauts will be hit by a proton(s) before being hit by an HZE particle. To investigate effects of dual ion irradiations on human cells, we irradiated primary human neonatal fibroblasts with protons (1 GeV/nucleon, 20 cGy) followed from 2.5 min to 48 h later by iron or titanium ions (1 GeV/nucleon, 20 cGy) and then measured clonogenic survival and frequency of anchorage-independent growth. This frequency depends on the interval between hydrogen- and iron-ion irradiation, with a critical window between 2.5 min and 1 h producing about three times more anchorage-independent colonies per survivor than expected from simple addition of the two ions separately. The hydrogen-titanium-ion dual-beam irradiation produced similar increases that persisted to approximately 6 h. At longer intervals, anchorage-independent growth frequencies were similar to those expected for additivity. However, irradiation of cells with either an iron or a titanium particle first followed by protons produced only additive levels. PMID:16953667

  14. Silver oxide-containing hydroxyapatite coating supports osteoblast function and enhances implant anchorage strength in rat femur.

    PubMed

    Eto, Shuichi; Miyamoto, Hiroshi; Shobuike, Takeo; Noda, Iwao; Akiyama, Takayuki; Tsukamoto, Masatsugu; Ueno, Masaya; Someya, Shinsuke; Kawano, Shunsuke; Sonohata, Motoki; Mawatari, Masaaki

    2015-09-01

    Antibacterial silver with hydroxyapatite (Ag-HA) is a promising coating material for imparting antibacterial properties to implants. We previously reported that 3% (w/w) silver with HA (3% Ag-HA) has both antibacterial activity and osteoconductivity. In this study, we investigated the effects of Ag-HA on the in vitro osteoblast function and the in vivo anchorage strength and osteoconductivity of implants. Production of the osteoblast marker alkaline phosphatase, but not cytotoxicity, was observed in cells of the osteoblast cell line MC3T3-E1 cultured on the 3% Ag-HA-coated surface. These results were similar to those observed with silver-free HA coating. In contrast, a significant high level of cytotoxicity was observed when the cells were cultured on a 50% Ag-HA-coated surface. The anchorage strength of implants inserted into the femur of Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats was enhanced by coating the implants with 3% Ag-HA. On the 3% Ag-HA-coated surface, both metaphyseal and diaphyseal areas were largely covered with new bone and had adequate osteoconductivity. These results suggest that 3% Ag-HA, like conventional HA, promotes osteogenesis by supporting osteoblast viability and function and thereby contributes to sufficient anchorage strength of implants. Application of 3% Ag-HA, which combines the osteoconductivity of HA and the antibacterial activity of silver, to prosthetic joints will help prevent postoperative infections. PMID:25808232

  15. Simulation of ground-water flow at Anchorage, Alaska, 1955-83

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Patrick, Leslie; Brabets, T.P.; Glass, R.L.

    1989-01-01

    The groundwater system at Anchorage, Alaska was analyzed by using a two-layer three-dimensional mathematical model. By use of existing data, both nonpumping and pumping steady-state conditions and transient conditions were simulated. Under steady-state conditions, calculated directions of groundwater flow were similar to observed flow patterns, and calculated stream discharges generally were within 10% of observed values. However, in many parts of the modeled area computed hydraulic head values were more than 20 ft higher or lower than observed values. Hydraulic conductivity and transmissivity are the most sensitive hydraulic parameters under steady-state conditions. Under steady-state conditions, a pumping rate of 18.8 Mgal/d lowers heads in the confined aquifer by as much as 30 ft, but reduces streamflow by less than 5%. Transient conditions show that drawndowns due to withdrawals by production wells follow similar patterns of nearby observation wells. On the basis of analytical techniques, the confining layer does not appear to hold significant quantities of water. (USGS)

  16. An Improved Mechanical Testing Method to Assess Bone-implant Anchorage

    PubMed Central

    Bell, Spencer; Ajami, Elnaz; Davies, John E.

    2014-01-01

    Recent advances in material science have led to a substantial increase in the topographical complexity of implant surfaces, both on a micro- and a nano-scale. As such, traditional methods of describing implant surfaces - namely numerical determinants of surface roughness - are inadequate for predicting in vivo performance. Biomechanical testing provides an accurate and comparative platform to analyze the performance of biomaterial surfaces. An improved mechanical testing method to test the anchorage of bone to candidate implant surfaces is presented. The method is applicable to both early and later stages of healing and can be employed for any range of chemically or mechanically modified surfaces - but not smooth surfaces. Custom rectangular implants are placed bilaterally in the distal femora of male Wistar rats and collected with the surrounding bone. Test specimens are prepared and potted using a novel breakaway mold and the disruption test is conducted using a mechanical testing machine. This method allows for alignment of the disruption force exactly perpendicular, or parallel, to the plane of the implant surface, and provides an accurate and reproducible means for isolating an exact peri-implant region for testing. PMID:24561765

  17. Oral and dental restoration of wide alveolar cleft using distraction osteogenesis and temporary anchorage devices.

    PubMed

    Rachmiel, Adi; Emodi, Omri; Gutmacher, Zvi; Blumenfeld, Israel; Aizenbud, Dror

    2013-12-01

    Closure of large alveolar clefts and restoration by a fixed bridge supported by implants is a challenge in cleft alveolus treatment. A major aesthetic concern with distraction osteogenesis is obtaining a predictable position of the implant in relation to the newly generated bony alveolar ridge. We describe the treatment of a large cleft alveolus and palate reconstruction by distraction osteogenesis utilizing temporary anchorage devices (TADs) followed by a fixed implant-supported bridge. The method consists of segmental bone transport by distraction osteogenesis using a bone-borne distractor to minimize the alveolar cleft, followed by closure of the residual small defect by bone grafting three months later. During the active transport distraction, TADs were used exerting multidirectional forces to control the distraction vector forward and laterally for better interarch relation. A vertical alveolar distraction of the newly reconstructed bone of 15 mm facilitated optimal implant placement. The endosseous implants were osteointegrated and supported a fixed dental prosthesis. In conclusion, the large cleft alveolus defect was repaired in three dimensions by distraction osteogenesis assisted by TADs, and the soft tissues expanded simultaneously. Endosseous implants were introduced in the newly reconstructed bone for a fixed dental prosthesis enabling, rehabilitation of aesthetics, eating and speaking.

  18. A Study of Success Rate of Miniscrew Implants as Temporary Anchorage Devices in Singapore

    PubMed Central

    Yi Lin, Song; Mimi, Yow; Ming Tak, Chew; Kelvin Weng Chiong, Foong; Hung Chew, Wong

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To find out the success rate of miniscrew implants in the National Dental Centre of Singapore (NDCS) and the impact of patient-related, location-related, and miniscrew implant-related factors. Materials and Methods. Two hundred and eighty-five orthodontic miniscrew implants were examined from NDCS patient records. Eleven variables were analysed to see if there is any association with success. Outcome was measured twice, immediately after surgery prior to orthodontic loading (T1) and 12 months after surgery (T2). The outcome at T2 was assessed 12 months after the miniscrew's insertion date or after its use as a temporary anchorage device has ceased. Results. Overall success rate was 94.7% at T1 and 83.3% at T2. Multivariate analysis revealed only the length of miniscrew implant to be significantly associated with success at both T1 (P = 0.002) and T2 (P = 0.030). Miniscrew implants with lengths of 10–12 mm had the highest success rate (98.0%) compared to other lengths, and this is statistically significant (P = 0.035). At T2, lengths of 10–12 mm had significantly (P = 0.013) higher success rates (93.5%) compared to 6-7 mm (76.7%) and 8 mm (82.1%) miniscrew implants. Conclusion. Multivariate statistical analyses of 11 variables demonstrate that length of miniscrew implant is significant in determining success. PMID:25861272

  19. The perception of pain following interdental microimplant treatment for skeletal anchorage: a retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chun-Ming; Chang, Chao-San; Tseng, Yu-Chuan; Hsu, Kun-Rong; Lee, Kun-Tsung; Lee, Huey-Er

    2011-01-01

    During orthodontic therapy, patients frequently complain about pain and discomfort, especially during insertion of fixed appliances. Skeletal anchorage using an interdental microimplant is a new concept in orthodontic treatment. The purpose of this study was to investigate differences and changes in the level of pain among patients in relation to orthodontic microimplant treatments. Forty microimplants were applied to the maxilla as skeletal anchors in the orthodontic treatment. The visual analog scale (VAS) was used to evaluate the patients' perception of pain during this new modality treatment. The premolar extraction VAS core was used as a baseline for the complete orthodontic procedure. The mean VAS score was 35.8 mm at 24 h after premolar extraction. The mean VAS score for insertion and removal of the microimplant 24 h after the operation was 12.3 and 7.8 mm, respectively. Three months after removal of the skeletal anchors, the VAS score had decreased to 3.2 mm and was the same as with the traditional orthodontic treatment. By using the repeated-measure general linear model (GLM), we found that the score 1 day after microimplant placement was significantly less than that 1 day after first premolar extraction or that 1 day after fixed appliance insertion. This result indicates that interdental microimplant did not generate any greater pain than other orthodontic procedures. Therefore, patients were willing to adopt the new orthodontic treatment.

  20. Artificial recharge experiments on the Ship Creek alluvial fan, Anchorage, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderson, Gary S.

    1977-01-01

    During the summers of 1973 and 174, water from Ship Creek, Alaska, was diverted at an average rate of approximately 6 cfs (cubic feet per second) to an 11-acre recharge basin. Maximum sustained unit recharge for the basin was approximately 1.4 feet per day. During 1975 a second basin of 8 acres was also used for recharge, and the total diversion rate was increased to as much as 30 cfs. The second basin was never completely filled, but the unit recharge rate was at least four times as great as that in the first basin. During 1973 and 1974, when only one recharge basin was in operation, a maximum rise of 18 feet was observed in the ground-water table near the basin. In 1975, when both basins were being used, the maximum rise was 30 feet in the same area. During 1973 and 1974, the water-level rise was 12 and 8 feet in the unconfined and confined systems, respectively, at a point 4,400 feet downgradient from the basins; in 1975 the rise at the same point was 31 and 16 feet, respectively. The potentiometric rise that was achieved in the confined aquifer during summer operation of the recharge basins was quickly dissipated when diversion stopped and the basins drained. Thus the benefits of recharge would not persist into late winter, the critical period for water availability in Anchorage, unless diversion to the basins could be continued until January or February. (Woodard-USGS)

  1. A study of success rate of miniscrew implants as temporary anchorage devices in singapore.

    PubMed

    Yi Lin, Song; Mimi, Yow; Ming Tak, Chew; Kelvin Weng Chiong, Foong; Hung Chew, Wong

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To find out the success rate of miniscrew implants in the National Dental Centre of Singapore (NDCS) and the impact of patient-related, location-related, and miniscrew implant-related factors. Materials and Methods. Two hundred and eighty-five orthodontic miniscrew implants were examined from NDCS patient records. Eleven variables were analysed to see if there is any association with success. Outcome was measured twice, immediately after surgery prior to orthodontic loading (T1) and 12 months after surgery (T2). The outcome at T2 was assessed 12 months after the miniscrew's insertion date or after its use as a temporary anchorage device has ceased. Results. Overall success rate was 94.7% at T1 and 83.3% at T2. Multivariate analysis revealed only the length of miniscrew implant to be significantly associated with success at both T1 (P = 0.002) and T2 (P = 0.030). Miniscrew implants with lengths of 10-12 mm had the highest success rate (98.0%) compared to other lengths, and this is statistically significant (P = 0.035). At T2, lengths of 10-12 mm had significantly (P = 0.013) higher success rates (93.5%) compared to 6-7 mm (76.7%) and 8 mm (82.1%) miniscrew implants. Conclusion. Multivariate statistical analyses of 11 variables demonstrate that length of miniscrew implant is significant in determining success. PMID:25861272

  2. Bilateral en-masse distalization of maxillary posterior teeth with skeletal anchorage: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Noorollahian, Saeed; Alavi, Shiva; Shirban, Farinaz

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: The aim of this study was to introduce a new method for bilateral distal movement of the entire maxillary posterior segment. Case report: A 17-year-old girl with Class I skeletal malocclusion (end-to-end molar relationships, deviated midline and space deficiency for left maxillary canine) was referred for orthodontic treatment. She did not accept maxillary first premolars extraction. A modified Hyrax appliance (Dentaurum Ispringen, Germany) was used for bilateral distalization of maxillary posterior teeth simultaneously. Expansion vector was set anteroposteriorly. Posterior legs of Hyrax were welded to first maxillary molar bands. All posterior teeth on each side consolidated with a segment of 0.017 × 0.025-in stainless steel wire from the buccal side. Anterior legs of Hyrax were bent into eyelet form and attached to the anterior palate with two mini-screws (2 × 10 mm) (Jeil Medical Corporation Seoul, South Korea). Hyrax opening rate was 0.8 mm per month. Lateral cephalometric radiographs were used to evaluate the extent of distal movement. 3.5-mm distalization of posterior maxillary teeth was achieved in five months. Results: A nearly bodily distal movement without anchorage loss was obtained. Conclusion: The mini-screw-supported modified Hyrax appliance was found to be helpful for achieving en-masse distal movement of maxillary posterior teeth. PMID:27409657

  3. Identification of linear and threshold responses in streams along a gradient of urbanization in Anchorage, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ourso, R.T.; Frenzel, S.A.

    2003-01-01

    We examined biotic and physiochemical responses in urbanized Anchorage, Alaska, to the percent of impervious area within stream basins, as determined by high-resolution IKONOS satellite imagery and aerial photography. Eighteen of the 86 variables examined, including riparian and instream habitat, macroinvertebrate communities, and water/sediment chemistry, were significantly correlated with percent impervious area. Variables related to channel condition, instream substrate, water chemistry, and residential and transportation right-of-way land uses were identified by principal components analysis as significant factors separating site groups. Detrended canonical correspondence analysis indicated that the macroinvertebrate communities responded to an urbanization gradient closely paralleling the percent of impervious area within the subbasin. A sliding regression analysis of variables significantly correlated with percent impervious area revealed 8 variables exhibiting threshold responses that correspond to a mean of 4.4-5.8% impervious area, much lower than mean values reported in other, similar investigations. As contributing factors to a subbasin's impervious area, storm drains and roads appeared to be important elements influencing the degradation of water quality with respect to the biota.

  4. Liquid marbles for high-throughput biological screening of anchorage-dependent cells.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Nuno M; Correia, Clara R; Reis, Rui L; Mano, João F

    2015-01-28

    Stable liquid marbles (LM) are produced by coating liquid droplets with a hydrophobic powder. The used hydrophobic powder is produced by fluorosi-lanization of diatomaceous earth, used before to produce superhydrophobic structures. Here, the use of LM is proposed for high-throughput drug screening on anchorage-dependent cells. To provide the required cell adhesion sites inside the liquid environment of LM, surface-modified poly(l-lactic acid) microparticles are used. A simple method that takes advantage from LM appealing features is presented, such as the ability to inject liquid on LM without disrupting (self-healing ability), and to monitor color changes inside of LM. After promoting cell adhesion, a cytotoxic screening test is performed as a proof of concept. Fe(3+) is used as a model cytotoxic agent and is injected on LM. After incubation, AlamarBlue reagent is injected and used to assess the presence of viable cells, by monitoring color change from blue to red. Color intensity is measured by image processing and the analysis of pictures takes using an ordinary digital camera. The proposed method is fully validated in counterpoint to an MTS (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5-(3-carbo​xymethoxyphenyl)-2-(4-sulfophenyl)-2H-te​trazolium) colorimetric assay, a well-known method used for the cytotoxicity assessment.

  5. Management of acquired open bite associated with temporomandibular joint osteoarthritis using miniscrew anchorage

    PubMed Central

    Yamano, Eizo; Inubushi, Toshihiro; Kuroda, Shingo

    2012-01-01

    This article reports the orthodontic treatment of a patient with skeletal mandibular retrusion and an anterior open bite due to temporomandibular joint osteoarthritis (TMJ-OA) using miniscrew anchorage. A 46-year-old woman had a Class II malocclusion with a retropositioned mandible. Her overjet and overbite were 7.0 mm and -1.6 mm, respectively. She had limited mouth opening, TMJ sounds, and pain. Condylar resorption was observed in both TMJs. Her TMJ pain was reduced by splint therapy, and then orthodontic treatment was initiated. Titanium miniscrews were placed at the posterior maxilla to intrude the molars. After 2 years and 7 months of orthodontic treatment, an acceptable occlusion was achieved without any recurrence of TMJ symptoms. The retropositioned mandible was considerably improved, and the lips showed less tension upon lip closure. The maxillary molars were intruded by 1.5 mm, and the mandible was subsequently rotated counterclockwise. Magnetic resonance imaging of both condyles after treatment showed avascular necrosis-like structures. During a 2-year retention period, an acceptable occlusion was maintained without recurrence of the open bite. In conclusion, correction of open bite and clockwise-rotated mandible through molar intrusion using titanium miniscrews is effective for the management of TMJ-OA with jaw deformity. PMID:23112945

  6. Management of acquired open bite associated with temporomandibular joint osteoarthritis using miniscrew anchorage.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Eiji; Yamano, Eizo; Inubushi, Toshihiro; Kuroda, Shingo

    2012-06-01

    This article reports the orthodontic treatment of a patient with skeletal mandibular retrusion and an anterior open bite due to temporomandibular joint osteoarthritis (TMJ-OA) using miniscrew anchorage. A 46-year-old woman had a Class II malocclusion with a retropositioned mandible. Her overjet and overbite were 7.0 mm and -1.6 mm, respectively. She had limited mouth opening, TMJ sounds, and pain. Condylar resorption was observed in both TMJs. Her TMJ pain was reduced by splint therapy, and then orthodontic treatment was initiated. Titanium miniscrews were placed at the posterior maxilla to intrude the molars. After 2 years and 7 months of orthodontic treatment, an acceptable occlusion was achieved without any recurrence of TMJ symptoms. The retropositioned mandible was considerably improved, and the lips showed less tension upon lip closure. The maxillary molars were intruded by 1.5 mm, and the mandible was subsequently rotated counterclockwise. Magnetic resonance imaging of both condyles after treatment showed avascular necrosis-like structures. During a 2-year retention period, an acceptable occlusion was maintained without recurrence of the open bite. In conclusion, correction of open bite and clockwise-rotated mandible through molar intrusion using titanium miniscrews is effective for the management of TMJ-OA with jaw deformity. PMID:23112945

  7. Research on the video detection device in the invisible part of stay cable anchorage system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Lin; Deng, Nianchun; Xiao, Zexin

    2012-11-01

    The cables in anchorage zone of cable-stayed bridge are hidden within the embedded pipe, which leads to the difficulty for detecting the damage of the cables with visual inspection. We have built a detection device based on high-resolution video capture, realized the distance observing of invisible segment of stay cable and damage detection of outer surface of cable in the small volume. The system mainly consists of optical stents and precision mechanical support device, optical imaging system, lighting source, drived motor control and IP camera video capture system. The principal innovations of the device are ⑴A set of telescope objectives with three different focal lengths are designed and used in different distances of the monitors by means of converter. ⑵Lens system is far separated with lighting system, so that the imaging optical path could effectively avoid the harsh environment which would be in the invisible part of cables. The practice shows that the device not only can collect the clear surveillance video images of outer surface of cable effectively, but also has a broad application prospect in security warning of prestressed structures.

  8. Liquid marbles for high-throughput biological screening of anchorage-dependent cells.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Nuno M; Correia, Clara R; Reis, Rui L; Mano, João F

    2015-01-28

    Stable liquid marbles (LM) are produced by coating liquid droplets with a hydrophobic powder. The used hydrophobic powder is produced by fluorosi-lanization of diatomaceous earth, used before to produce superhydrophobic structures. Here, the use of LM is proposed for high-throughput drug screening on anchorage-dependent cells. To provide the required cell adhesion sites inside the liquid environment of LM, surface-modified poly(l-lactic acid) microparticles are used. A simple method that takes advantage from LM appealing features is presented, such as the ability to inject liquid on LM without disrupting (self-healing ability), and to monitor color changes inside of LM. After promoting cell adhesion, a cytotoxic screening test is performed as a proof of concept. Fe(3+) is used as a model cytotoxic agent and is injected on LM. After incubation, AlamarBlue reagent is injected and used to assess the presence of viable cells, by monitoring color change from blue to red. Color intensity is measured by image processing and the analysis of pictures takes using an ordinary digital camera. The proposed method is fully validated in counterpoint to an MTS (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5-(3-carbo​xymethoxyphenyl)-2-(4-sulfophenyl)-2H-te​trazolium) colorimetric assay, a well-known method used for the cytotoxicity assessment. PMID:25091700

  9. Aluminium chloride promotes anchorage-independent growth in human mammary epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Sappino, André-Pascal; Buser, Raphaële; Lesne, Laurence; Gimelli, Stefania; Béna, Frédérique; Belin, Dominique; Mandriota, Stefano J

    2012-03-01

    Aluminium salts used as antiperspirants have been incriminated as contributing to breast cancer incidence in Western societies. To date, very little or no epidemiological or experimental data confirm or infirm this hypothesis. We report here that in MCF-10A human mammary epithelial cells, a well-established normal human mammary epithelial cell model, long-term exposure to aluminium chloride (AlCl(3) ) concentrations of 10-300 µ m, i.e. up to 100 000-fold lower than those found in antiperspirants, and in the range of those recently measured in the human breast, results in loss of contact inhibition and anchorage-independent growth. These effects were preceded by an increase of DNA synthesis, DNA double strand breaks (DSBs), and senescence in proliferating cultures. AlCl(3) also induced DSBs and senescence in proliferating primary human mammary epithelial cells. In contrast, it had no similar effects on human keratinocytes or fibroblasts, and was not detectably mutagenic in bacteria. MCF-10A cells morphologically transformed by long-term exposure to AlCl(3) display strong upregulation of the p53/p21(Waf1) pathway, a key mediator of growth arrest and senescence. These results suggest that aluminium is not generically mutagenic, but similar to an activated oncogene, it induces proliferation stress, DSBs and senescence in normal mammary epithelial cells; and that long-term exposure to AlCl(3) generates and selects for cells able to bypass p53/p21(Waf1) -mediated cellular senescence. Our observations do not formally identify aluminium as a breast carcinogen, but challenge the safety ascribed to its widespread use in underarm cosmetics. PMID:22223356

  10. Tongue resting pressure of the tongue anchorage pad in different body positions: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Zeng, J; Xu, K; Gao, X; Xu, T

    2015-06-01

    We designed a modified transpalatal arch (tongue anchorage pad, TAP) to help control the vertical dimension. This study aimed to evaluate its efficiency by measuring the tongue resting pressure at different anteroposterior positions of the TAP in the upright and supine positions and to investigate the effect of changes in body position. Our study recruited 17 volunteers with individual normal occlusion (4 males, 13 females, age 22-33 years). An individualised TAP was designed for each subject. With a miniature sensor (FSS1500NS) installed in the device, we measured the pressure at the level of the distal second premolar (PM2), the first molar (M1) and the second molar (M2) in both the upright and supine positions. Nonparametric analysis was applied with the level of significance set at 0.05. In the upright position, tongue pressures obtained at PM2, M1 and M2 were 183.94, 130.81 and 113.07 Pa, respectively, with the maximum value detected at PM2 (P = 0.001). While in the supine position, pressures of 187.03, 156.87 and 201.69 Pa were detected at the same sites, with significantly higher values for M1 (P = 0.002) and M2 (P = 0.004). Tongue resting pressure decreases from the anterior aspect to the posterior aspect in the upright position. In the supine position, the pressure is consistent across the midline with pressure enhancement at M1 and M2. As many questions remain about this appliance and appropriate intruding force, further clinical and basic studies are required prior to its clinical implementation.

  11. Aluminium chloride promotes anchorage-independent growth in human mammary epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Sappino, André-Pascal; Buser, Raphaële; Lesne, Laurence; Gimelli, Stefania; Béna, Frédérique; Belin, Dominique; Mandriota, Stefano J

    2012-03-01

    Aluminium salts used as antiperspirants have been incriminated as contributing to breast cancer incidence in Western societies. To date, very little or no epidemiological or experimental data confirm or infirm this hypothesis. We report here that in MCF-10A human mammary epithelial cells, a well-established normal human mammary epithelial cell model, long-term exposure to aluminium chloride (AlCl(3) ) concentrations of 10-300 µ m, i.e. up to 100 000-fold lower than those found in antiperspirants, and in the range of those recently measured in the human breast, results in loss of contact inhibition and anchorage-independent growth. These effects were preceded by an increase of DNA synthesis, DNA double strand breaks (DSBs), and senescence in proliferating cultures. AlCl(3) also induced DSBs and senescence in proliferating primary human mammary epithelial cells. In contrast, it had no similar effects on human keratinocytes or fibroblasts, and was not detectably mutagenic in bacteria. MCF-10A cells morphologically transformed by long-term exposure to AlCl(3) display strong upregulation of the p53/p21(Waf1) pathway, a key mediator of growth arrest and senescence. These results suggest that aluminium is not generically mutagenic, but similar to an activated oncogene, it induces proliferation stress, DSBs and senescence in normal mammary epithelial cells; and that long-term exposure to AlCl(3) generates and selects for cells able to bypass p53/p21(Waf1) -mediated cellular senescence. Our observations do not formally identify aluminium as a breast carcinogen, but challenge the safety ascribed to its widespread use in underarm cosmetics.

  12. Life on the Edge: Holocene Tephra Stratigraphy of Tanginak Anchorage, Sitkalidak Island, Kodiak Archipelago, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahrt, E.; Bourgeois, J.; Fitzhugh, J. B.

    2004-12-01

    Geologic hazards associated with volcanism in the North Pacific have profound if usually temporary effects on the environment and human populations. Ash falls associated with these events are often preserved across large areas providing time specific markers. In the past century, volcanic activity and its effects in the North Pacific have been recorded, but much of the Holocene volcanic record in the Alaskan region is still being investigated. The Kodiak Archipelago, while not volcanic itself, is located near both Aleutian and Alaskan peninsula volcanoes. However, little has been published about the Holocene tephrochronology of the Kodiak region. This study focuses on the area around Tanginak Spring Site (KOD481). Located on Sitkalidak Island it is the earliest known human occupation in the Kodiak archipelago. We are documenting Holocene environmental changes on Sitkalidak Island and relating these changes to the archaeological record. As part of this work, we will establish a local tephrochronology using stratigraphy and geochemistry which will allow us to better correlate sedimentary changes across large areas as well as study human interaction with ashfall events. Herein we report a preliminary tephrochronology in peat excavations on Sitkalidak Island dating back to the earliest Holocene. Dates are radiocarbon years BP on peat directly below tephra. Marker tephra present in our reference sections are Katmai 1912, light gray (historic?), medium gray (3370), medium gray (3720), beige 1 (4340), apricot (5390), beige 3 (6790), black (9280), and white (11,520). Geochemical and petrographic analysis will help to determine with which volcanic events these tephra are associated. Establishing a local tephrochronology is important not only for local correlation but also to ascertain the tephra stratigraphy of the Kodiak Archipelago and beyond. The frequency of tephra in Tanginak Anchorage sections suggests that tephra will be a very useful stratigraphic tool in this

  13. Preliminary assessment report for Camp Carroll Training Center, Installation 02045, Anchorage, Alaska. Installation Restoration Program

    SciTech Connect

    Krokosz, M.; Sefano, J.

    1993-08-01

    This report presents the results of the preliminary assessment (PA) conducted by Argonne National Laboratory at the Alaska Army National Guard property known as Camp Carroll Training Center, located on the Fort Richardson Army facility near Anchorage, Alaska. Preliminary assessments of federal facilities are being conducted to compile the information necessary for the completion of preremedial activities and to provide a basis for establishing, corrective actions in response to releases of hazardous substances. The principal objective of the PA is to characterize the site accurately and determine the need for further action by examining site activities, types and quantities of hazardous substances used, the nature and amounts of wastes generated or stored at the facility, and potential pathways by which contamination could affect public health and the environment. The primary environmentally significant operations (ESOs) associated with the property are (1) the Alaska Air National Guard storage area behind Building S57112 (Organizational Maintenance Shop [OMS] 6); (2) the state of Alaska maintenance facility and the soil/tar-type spill north of the state of Alaska maintenance facility; (3) the waste storage area adjacent to OMS 6; (4) the contaminated area from leaking underground storage tanks (USTs) and the oil-water separator; and (5) soil staining in the parking area at the Camp Carroll Headquarters Building. Camp Carroll appears to be in excellent condition from an environmental standpoint, and current practices are satisfactory. Argonne recommends that the Alaska Department of Military Affairs consider remediation of soil contamination associated with all storage areas, as well as reviewing the practices of other residents of the facility. Argonne also recommends that the current methods of storing waste material behind Building S57112 (OMS 6) be reviewed for alternatives.

  14. Nitrate source indicators in ground water of the Scimitar Subdivision, Peters Creek area, Anchorage, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wang, Bronwen; Strelakos, Pat M.; Jokela, Brett

    2000-01-01

    A combination of aqueous chemistry, isotopic measurement, and in situ tracers were used to study the possible nitrate sources, the factors contributing to the spatial distribution of nitrate, and possible septic system influence in the ground water in the Scimitar Subdivision, Municipality of Anchorage, Alaska. Two water types were distinguished on the basis of the major ion chemistry: (1) a calcium sodium carbonate water, which was associated with isotopically heavier boron and with chlorofluorocarbons (CFC's) that were in the range expected from equilibration with the atmosphere (group A water) and (2) a calcium magnesium carbonate water, which was associated with elevated nitrate, chloride, and magnesium concentrations, generally isotopically lighter boron, and CFC's concentrations that were generally in excess of that expected from equilibration with the atmosphere (group B water). Water from wells in group B had nitrate concentrations that were greater than 3 milligrams per liter, whereas those in group A had nitrate concentrations of 0.2 milligram per liter or less. Nitrate does not appear to be undergoing extensive transformation in the ground-water system and behaves as a conservative ion. The major ion chemistry trends and the presence of CFC's in excess of an atmospheric source for group B wells are consistent with waste-water influences. The spatial distribution of the nitrate among wells is likely due to the magnitude of this influence on any given well. Using an expanded data set composed of 16 wells sampled only for nitrate concentration, a significant difference in the static water level relative to bedrock was found. Well water samples with less than 1 milligram per liter nitrate had static water levels within the bedrock, whereas those samples with greater than 1 milligram per liter nitrate had static water levels near or above the top of the bedrock. This observation would be consistent with a conceptual model of a low-nitrate fractured bedrock

  15. Recorded earthquake responses from the integrated seismic monitoring network of the Atwood Building, Anchorage, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Celebi, M.

    2006-01-01

    An integrated seismic monitoring system with a total of 53 channels of accelerometers is now operating in and at the nearby free-field site of the 20-story steel-framed Atwood Building in highly seismic Anchorage, Alaska. The building has a single-story basement and a reinforced concrete foundation without piles. The monitoring system comprises a 32-channel structural array and a 21-channel site array. Accelerometers are deployed on 10 levels of the building to assess translational, torsional, and rocking motions, interstory drift (displacement) between selected pairs of adjacent floors, and average drift between floors. The site array, located approximately a city block from the building, comprises seven triaxial accelerometers, one at the surface and six in boreholes ranging in depths from 15 to 200 feet (???5-60 meters). The arrays have already recorded low-amplitude shaking responses of the building and the site caused by numerous earthquakes at distances ranging from tens to a couple of hundred kilometers. Data from an earthquake that occurred 186 km away traces the propagation of waves from the deepest borehole to the roof of the building in approximately 0.5 seconds. Fundamental structural frequencies [0.58 Hz (NS) and 0.47 Hz (EW)], low damping percentages (2-4%), mode coupling, and beating effects are identified. The fundamental site frequency at approximately 1.5 Hz is close to the second modal frequencies (1.83 Hz NS and 1.43 EW) of the building, which may cause resonance of the building. Additional earthquakes prove repeatability of these characteristics; however, stronger shaking may alter these conclusions. ?? 2006, Earthquake Engineering Research Institute.

  16. Ground motion in Anchorage, Alaska, from the 2002 Denali fault earthquake: Site response and Displacement Pulses

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boore, D.M.

    2004-01-01

    Data from the 2002 Denali fault earthquake recorded at 26 sites in and near Anchorage, Alaska, show a number of systematic features important in studies of site response and in constructing long-period spectra for use in earthquake engineering. The data demonstrate that National Earthquake Hazards Reduction Program (NEHRP) site classes are a useful way of grouping stations according to site amplification. In general, the sites underlain by lower shear-wave velocities have higher amplification. The amplification on NEHRP class D sites exceeds a factor of 2 relative to an average of motions on class C sites. The amplifications are period dependent. They are in rough agreement with those from previous studies, but the new data show that the amplifications extend to at least 10 sec, periods longer than considered in previous studies. At periods longer than about 14 sec, all sites have motion of similar amplitude, and the ground displacements are similar in shape, polarization, and amplitude for all stations. The displacement ground motion is dominated by a series of four pulses, which are associated with the three subevents identified in inversion studies (the first pulse is composed of P waves from the first subevent). Most of the high-frequency ground motion is associated with the S waves from subevent 1. The pulses from subevents 1 and 2, with moment releases corresponding to M 7.1 and 7.0, are similar to the pulse of displacement radiated by the M 7.1 Hector Mine earthquake. The signature from the largest subevent (M 7.6) is more subdued than those from the first two subevents. The two largest pulses produce response spectra with peaks at a period of about 15 sec. The spectral shape at long periods is in good agreement with the recent 2003 NEHRP code spectra but is in poor agreement with the shape obtained from Eurocode 8.

  17. Spheroid Culture of Head and Neck Cancer Cells Reveals an Important Role of EGFR Signalling in Anchorage Independent Survival

    PubMed Central

    Braunholz, Diana; Saki, Mohammad; Niehr, Franziska; Öztürk, Merve; Borràs Puértolas, Berta; Konschak, Robert; Budach, Volker; Tinhofer, Ingeborg

    2016-01-01

    In solid tumours millions of cells are shed into the blood circulation each day. Only a subset of these circulating tumour cells (CTCs) survive, many of them presumable because of their potential to form multi-cellular clusters also named spheroids. Tumour cells within these spheroids are protected from anoikis, which allows them to metastasize to distant organs or re-seed at the primary site. We used spheroid cultures of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) cell lines as a model for such CTC clusters for determining the role of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) in cluster formation ability and cell survival after detachment from the extra-cellular matrix. The HNSCC cell lines FaDu, SCC-9 and UT-SCC-9 (UT-SCC-9P) as well as its cetuximab (CTX)-resistant sub-clone (UT-SCC-9R) were forced to grow in an anchorage-independent manner by coating culture dishes with the anti-adhesive polymer poly-2-hydroxyethylmethacrylate (poly-HEMA). The extent of apoptosis, clonogenic survival and EGFR signalling under such culture conditions was evaluated. The potential of spheroid formation in suspension culture was found to be positively correlated with the proliferation rate of HNSCC cell lines as well as their basal EGFR expression levels. CTX and gefitinib blocked, whereas the addition of EGFR ligands promoted anchorage-independent cell survival and spheroid formation. Increased spheroid formation and growth were associated with persistent activation of EGFR and its downstream signalling component (MAPK/ERK). Importantly, HNSCC cells derived from spheroid cultures retained their clonogenic potential in the absence of cell-matrix contact. Addition of CTX under these conditions strongly inhibited colony formation in CTX-sensitive cell lines but not their resistant subclones. Altogether, EGFR activation was identified as crucial factor for anchorage-independent survival of HNSCC cells. Targeting EGFR in CTC cluster formation might represent an attractive anti

  18. Preliminary tephra-fall records from three lakes in the Anchorage, Alaska area: advances towards a regional tephrochronostratigraphic framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallace, K. L.; Kaufman, D. S.; Schiff, C. J.; Kathan, K.; Werner, A.; Hancock, J.; Hagel, L. A.

    2010-12-01

    Sediment cores recovered from three kettle lakes, all within 10 km of Anchorage, Alaska contain a record of tephra fall from major eruptive events of Cook Inlet volcanoes during the past 11250 yr. Prominent tephra layers from multiple cores within each lake were first correlated within each basin using physical properties, major-oxide glass geochemistry, and constrained by bracketing radiocarbon age. Distinct tephra from each lake were then correlated among all three lakes using the same criteria to develop a composite tephrostratigraphic framework for the Anchorage area. Lorraine Lake, the northern-most lake contains 17 distinct tephra layers; Goose Lake, the eastern most lake contains 10 distinct tephra layers; and Little Campbell Lake, to the west, contains 7 distinct tephra layers. Thinner, less-prominent tephra layers, reflecting smaller or more distant eruptions, also occur but are not included as part of this study. Of the 33 tephra layers, only two could be confidently correlated among all three lakes, and four other correlative deposits were recognized in two of the three lakes. The minimum number of unique major tephra-fall events in the Anchorage area is 22 in the past 11200 years, or about 1 event every 500 years. This number underestimates the actual number of eruptions because not attempt was made to locate crypto-tephra. All but perhaps one tephra deposit originated from Cook Inlet volcanoes with the most prolific source being Mount Spurr/Crater Peak, which is accountable for at least 8 deposits. Combining radiocarbon ages to produce an independent age model for each lake is in progress and will aid in confirming correlations and assigning detailed modeled-tephra age and uncertainty to each tephra layer.

  19. Three-dimensional evaluation of tooth movement in Class II malocclusions treated without extraction by orthodontic mini-implant anchorage

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Dler; Mohammed, Hnd; Koo, Seung-Hwan; Kang, Kyung-Hwa

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to analyze tooth movement and arch width changes in maxillary dentition following nonextraction treatment with orthodontic mini-implant (OMI) anchorage in Class II division 1 malocclusions. Methods Seventeen adult patients diagnosed with Angle's Class II division 1 malocclusion were treated by nonextraction with OMIs as anchorage for distalization of whole maxillary dentition. Three-dimensional virtual maxillary models were superimposed with the best-fit method at the pretreatment and post-treatment stages. Linear, angular, and arch width variables were measured using Rapidform 2006 software, and analyzed by the paired t-test. Results All maxillary teeth showed statistically significant movement posteriorly (p < 0.05). There were no significant changes in the vertical position of the maxillary teeth, except that the second molars were extruded (0.86 mm, p < 0.01). The maxillary first and second molars were rotated distal-in (4.5°, p < 0.001; 3.0°, p < 0.05, respectively). The intersecond molar width increased slightly (0.1 mm, p > 0.05) and the intercanine, interfirst premolar, intersecond premolar, and interfirst molar widths increased significantly (2.2 mm, p < 0.01; 2.2 mm, p < 0.05; 1.9 mm, p < 0.01; 2.0 mm, p < 0.01; respectively). Conclusions Nonextraction treatment with OMI anchorage for Class II division 1 malocclusions could retract the whole maxillary dentition to achieve a Class I canine and molar relationship without a change in the vertical position of the teeth; however, the second molars were significantly extruded. Simultaneously, the maxillary arch was shown to be expanded with distal-in rotation of the molars. PMID:27668191

  20. Three-dimensional evaluation of tooth movement in Class II malocclusions treated without extraction by orthodontic mini-implant anchorage

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Dler; Mohammed, Hnd; Koo, Seung-Hwan; Kang, Kyung-Hwa

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to analyze tooth movement and arch width changes in maxillary dentition following nonextraction treatment with orthodontic mini-implant (OMI) anchorage in Class II division 1 malocclusions. Methods Seventeen adult patients diagnosed with Angle's Class II division 1 malocclusion were treated by nonextraction with OMIs as anchorage for distalization of whole maxillary dentition. Three-dimensional virtual maxillary models were superimposed with the best-fit method at the pretreatment and post-treatment stages. Linear, angular, and arch width variables were measured using Rapidform 2006 software, and analyzed by the paired t-test. Results All maxillary teeth showed statistically significant movement posteriorly (p < 0.05). There were no significant changes in the vertical position of the maxillary teeth, except that the second molars were extruded (0.86 mm, p < 0.01). The maxillary first and second molars were rotated distal-in (4.5°, p < 0.001; 3.0°, p < 0.05, respectively). The intersecond molar width increased slightly (0.1 mm, p > 0.05) and the intercanine, interfirst premolar, intersecond premolar, and interfirst molar widths increased significantly (2.2 mm, p < 0.01; 2.2 mm, p < 0.05; 1.9 mm, p < 0.01; 2.0 mm, p < 0.01; respectively). Conclusions Nonextraction treatment with OMI anchorage for Class II division 1 malocclusions could retract the whole maxillary dentition to achieve a Class I canine and molar relationship without a change in the vertical position of the teeth; however, the second molars were significantly extruded. Simultaneously, the maxillary arch was shown to be expanded with distal-in rotation of the molars.

  1. Spheroid Culture of Head and Neck Cancer Cells Reveals an Important Role of EGFR Signalling in Anchorage Independent Survival.

    PubMed

    Braunholz, Diana; Saki, Mohammad; Niehr, Franziska; Öztürk, Merve; Borràs Puértolas, Berta; Konschak, Robert; Budach, Volker; Tinhofer, Ingeborg

    2016-01-01

    In solid tumours millions of cells are shed into the blood circulation each day. Only a subset of these circulating tumour cells (CTCs) survive, many of them presumable because of their potential to form multi-cellular clusters also named spheroids. Tumour cells within these spheroids are protected from anoikis, which allows them to metastasize to distant organs or re-seed at the primary site. We used spheroid cultures of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) cell lines as a model for such CTC clusters for determining the role of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) in cluster formation ability and cell survival after detachment from the extra-cellular matrix. The HNSCC cell lines FaDu, SCC-9 and UT-SCC-9 (UT-SCC-9P) as well as its cetuximab (CTX)-resistant sub-clone (UT-SCC-9R) were forced to grow in an anchorage-independent manner by coating culture dishes with the anti-adhesive polymer poly-2-hydroxyethylmethacrylate (poly-HEMA). The extent of apoptosis, clonogenic survival and EGFR signalling under such culture conditions was evaluated. The potential of spheroid formation in suspension culture was found to be positively correlated with the proliferation rate of HNSCC cell lines as well as their basal EGFR expression levels. CTX and gefitinib blocked, whereas the addition of EGFR ligands promoted anchorage-independent cell survival and spheroid formation. Increased spheroid formation and growth were associated with persistent activation of EGFR and its downstream signalling component (MAPK/ERK). Importantly, HNSCC cells derived from spheroid cultures retained their clonogenic potential in the absence of cell-matrix contact. Addition of CTX under these conditions strongly inhibited colony formation in CTX-sensitive cell lines but not their resistant subclones. Altogether, EGFR activation was identified as crucial factor for anchorage-independent survival of HNSCC cells. Targeting EGFR in CTC cluster formation might represent an attractive anti

  2. Identification of the plakoglobin-binding domain in desmoglein and its role in plaque assembly and intermediate filament anchorage

    PubMed Central

    1994-01-01

    The carboxyterminal cytoplasmic portions (tails) of desmosomal cadherins of both the desmoglein (Dsg) and desmocollin type are integral components of the desmosomal plaque and are involved in desmosome assembly and the anchorage of intermediate-sized filaments. When additional Dsg tails were introduced by cDNA transfection into cultured human epithelial cells, in the form of chimeras with the aminoterminal membrane insertion domain of rat connexin32 (Co32), the resulting stably transfected cells showed a dominant-negative defect specific for desmosomal junctions: despite the continual presence of all desmosomal proteins, the endogenous desmosomes disappeared and the formation of Co32-Dsg chimeric gap junctions was inhibited. Using cell transfection in combination with immunoprecipitation techniques, we have examined a series of deletion mutants of the Dsg1 tail in Co32-Dsg chimeras. We show that upon removal of the last 262 amino acids the truncated Dsg tail still effects the binding of plakoglobin but not of detectable amounts of any catenin and induces the dominant-negative phenotype. However, further truncation or excision of the next 41 amino acids, which correspond to the highly conserved carboxyterminus of the C-domain in other cadherins, abolishes plakoglobin binding and allows desmosomes to reform. Therefore, we conclude that this short segment provides a plakoglobin-binding site and is important for plaque assembly and the specific anchorage of either actin filaments in adherens junctions or IFs in desmosomes. PMID:7929560

  3. Bst1 is required for Candida albicans infecting host via facilitating cell wall anchorage of Glycosylphosphatidyl inositol anchored proteins

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Wei; Zou, Zui; Huang, Xin; Shen, Hui; He, Li Juan; Chen, Si Min; Li, Li Ping; Yan, Lan; Zhang, Shi Qun; Zhang, Jun Dong; Xu, Zheng; Xu, Guo Tong; An, Mao Mao; Jiang, Yuan Ying

    2016-01-01

    Glycosylphosphatidyl inositol anchored proteins (GPI-APs) on fungal cell wall are essential for invasive infections. While the function of inositol deacylation of GPI-APs in mammalian cells has been previously characterized the impact of inositol deacylation in fungi and implications to host infection remains largely unexplored. Herein we describe our identification of BST1, an inositol deacylase of GPI-Aps in Candida albicans, was critical for GPI-APs cell wall attachment and host infection. BST1-deficient C. albicans (bst1Δ/Δ) was associated with severely impaired cell wall anchorage of GPI-APs and subsequen unmasked β-(1,3)-glucan. Consistent with the aberrant cell wall structures, bst1Δ/Δ strain did not display an invasive ability and could be recognized more efficiently by host immune systems. Moreover, BST1 null mutants or those expressing Bst1 variants did not display inositol deacylation activity and exhibited severely attenuated virulence and reduced organic colonization in a murine systemic candidiasis model. Thus, Bst1 can facilitate cell wall anchorage of GPI-APs in C. albicans by inositol deacylation, and is critical for host invasion and immune escape. PMID:27708385

  4. Cytochrome c impaled: investigation of the extended lipid anchorage of a soluble protein to mitochondrial membrane models.

    PubMed

    Kalanxhi, Erta; Wallace, Carmichael J A

    2007-10-15

    Cyt c (cytochrome c) has been traditionally envisioned as rapidly diffusing in two dimensions at the surface of the mitochondrial inner membrane when not engaged in redox reactions with physiological partners. However, the discovery of the extended lipid anchorage (insertion of an acyl chain of a bilayer phospholipid into the protein interior) suggests that this may not be exclusively the case. The physical and structural factors underlying the conformational changes that occur upon interaction of ferrous cyt c with phospholipid membrane models have been investigated by monitoring the extent of the spin state change that result from this interaction. Once transiently linked by electrostatic forces between basic side chains and phosphate groups, the acyl chain entry may occur between two parallel hydrophobic polypeptide stretches that are surrounded by positively charged residues. Alteration of these charges, as in the case of non-trimethylated (TML72K) yeast cyt c and Arg91Nle horse cyt c (where Nle is norleucine), led to a decline in the binding affinity for the phospholipid liposomes. The electrostatic association was sensitive to ionic strength, polyanions and pH, whereas the hydrophobic interactions were enhanced by conformational changes that contributed to the loosening of the tertiary structure of cyt c. In addition to proposing a mechanistic model for the extended lipid anchorage of cyt c, we consider what, if any, might be the physiological relevance of the phenomenon. PMID:17614790

  5. Response of a 14-story Anchorage, Alaska, building in 2002 to two close earthquakes and two distant Denali fault earthquakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Celebi, M.

    2004-01-01

    The recorded responses of an Anchorage, Alaska, building during four significant earthquakes that occurred in 2002 are studied. Two earthquakes, including the 3 November 2002 M7.9 Denali fault earthquake, with epicenters approximately 275 km from the building, generated long trains of long-period (>1 s) surface waves. The other two smaller earthquakes occurred at subcrustal depths practically beneath Anchorage and produced higher frequency motions. These two pairs of earthquakes have different impacts on the response of the building. Higher modes are more pronounced in the building response during the smaller nearby events. The building responses indicate that the close-coupling of translational and torsional modes causes a significant beating effect. It is also possible that there is some resonance occurring due to the site frequency being close to the structural frequency. Identification of dynamic characteristics and behavior of buildings can provide important lessons for future earthquake-resistant designs and retrofit of existing buildings. ?? 2004, Earthquake Engineering Research Institute.

  6. Water-Quality Conditions of Chester Creek, Anchorage, Alaska, 1998-2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Glass, Roy L.; Ourso, Robert T.

    2006-01-01

    Between October 1998 and September 2001, the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment Program evaluated the water-quality conditions of Chester Creek, a stream draining forest and urban settings in Anchorage, Alaska. Data collection included water, streambed sediments, lakebed sediments, and aquatic organisms samples from urban sites along the stream. Urban land use ranged from less than 1 percent of the basin above the furthest upstream site to 46 percent above the most downstream site. Findings suggest that water quality of Chester Creek declines in the downstream direction and as urbanization in the watershed increases. Water samples were collected monthly and during storms at a site near the stream's mouth (Chester Creek at Arctic Boulevard) and analyzed for major ions and nutrients. Water samples collected during water year 1999 were analyzed for selected pesticides and volatile organic compounds. Concentrations of fecal-indicator bacteria were determined monthly during calendar year 2000. During winter, spring, and summer, four water samples were collected at a site upstream of urban development (South Branch of South Fork Chester Creek at Tank Trail) and five from an intermediate site (South Branch of South Fork Chester Creek at Boniface Parkway). Concentrations of calcium, magnesium, sodium, chloride, and sulfate in water increased in the downstream direction. Nitrate concentrations were similar at the three sites and all were less than the drinking-water standard. About one-quarter of the samples from the Arctic Boulevard site had concentrations of phosphorus that exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) guideline for preventing nuisance plant growth. Water samples collected at the Arctic Boulevard site contained concentrations of the insecticide carbaryl that exceeded the guideline for protecting aquatic life. Every water sample revealed a low concentration of volatile organic compounds, including benzene, toluene

  7. Baseline channel morphology and bank erosion inventory of South Fork Campbell Creek at Campbell Tract, Anchorage, Alaska, 1999 and 2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Curran, Janet H.

    2001-01-01

    South Fork Campbell Creek drains largely undeveloped land in Anchorage, Alaska, but supports heavy use near the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) Campbell Tract facility for recreation and environmental education. To help assess the impacts of human activities in the basin on biological communities, particularly aquatic and terrestrial biota, morphological changes to the channel bed and banks were monitored for 2 years. Erosion conditions and rates of change were measured and 11 transects were surveyed in three reaches of Campbell Creek near the BLM Campbell Creek Science Center in 1999. Repeat measurements at these 33 transects in 2000 documented noticeable differences between horizontal or vertical channel position at eight transects. Repeat measurements of 51 erosion pins at the survey transects provided details of bank erosion between the 2 years. Annual erosion rates at the erosion pins ranged from 0.81 foot per year of erosion to 0.16 foot per year of deposition.

  8. An agent-based model approach to multi-phase life-cycle for contact inhibited, anchorage dependent cells.

    PubMed

    Hoehn, Ross D; Schreder, Ashley M; Rez, Mohammed Fayez Al; Kais, Sabre

    2014-12-01

    Cellular agent-based models are a technique that can be easily adapted to describe nuances of a particular cell type. Within we have concentrated on the cellular particularities of the human Endothelial Cell, explicitly the effects both of anchorage dependency and of heightened scaffold binding on the total confluence time of a system. By expansion of a discrete, homogeneous, asynchronous cellular model to account for several states per cell (phases within a cell's life); we accommodate and track dependencies of confluence time and population dynamics on these factors. Increasing the total motility time, analogous to weakening the binding between lattice and cell, affects the system in unique ways from increasing the average cellular velocity; each degree of freedom allows for control over the time length the system achieves logistic growth and confluence. These additional factors may allow for greater control over behaviors of the system. Examinations of system's dependence on both seed state velocity and binding are also enclosed.

  9. [Low-cost simple anchorage systems in the removable hybrid prosthesis. Locator Root Attachment and Würzburg post].

    PubMed

    Teubner, Eckart; Galindo, Martha L; Arnold, Dario; Marinello, Carlo P

    2009-01-01

    For a simple and provisional retention of a removable prosthesis, less expensive direct retainers are an option compared to indirect cast gold copings with attachment. The Dalbo-Rotex-retainer and the Ticap-system are clinically established. The Locator Root attachment and the Würzburger Stift were recently introduced. The Locator Root attachment uses a massive profiled cylindrical post as a radicular anchorage. The Würzburger Stift has a small endodontic part which is retained by four spreadable lamellae in a convergent cavity. They further differ in the design of the male and female part. Depending on the clinical situation these characteristics can offer benefits and disadvantages. Both systems are documented and their indication, advantages and restrictions are discussed with clinical relevance.

  10. Inhibition of focal adhesion kinase (FAK) activity prevents anchorage-independent ovarian carcinoma cell growth and tumor progression

    PubMed Central

    Ward, Kristy K.; Tancioni, Isabelle; Lawson, Christine; Miller, Nichol L.G.; Jean, Christine; Chen, Xiao Lei; Uryu, Sean; Kim, Josephine; Tarin, David; Stupack, Dwayne G.; Plaxe, Steven C.; Schlaepfer, David D.

    2013-01-01

    Recurrence and spread of ovarian cancer is the 5th leading cause of death for women in the United States. Focal adhesion kinase (FAK) is a cytoplasmic protein-tyrosine kinase located on chromosome 8q24.3 (gene is Ptk2), a site commonly amplified in serous ovarian cancer. Elevated FAK mRNA levels in serous ovarian carcinoma are associated with decreased (logrank P = 0.0007, hazard ratio 1.43) patient overall survival, but how FAK functions in tumor progression remains undefined. We have isolated aggressive ovarian carcinoma cells termed ID8-IP after intraperitoneal (IP) growth of murine ID8 cells in C57Bl6 mice. Upon orthotopic implantation within the periovarian bursa space, ID8-IP cells exhibit greater tumor growth, local and distant metastasis, and elevated numbers of ascites-associated cells compared to parental ID8 cells. ID8-IP cells exhibit enhanced growth under non-adherent conditions with elevated FAK and c-Src tyrosine kinase activation compared to parental ID8 cells. In vitro, the small molecule FAK inhibitor (Pfizer, PF562,271, PF-271) at 0.1 uM selectively prevented anchorage-independent ID8-IP cell growth with the inhibition of FAK tyrosine (Y)397 but not c-Src Y416 phosphorylation. Oral PF-271 administration (30 mg/kg, twice daily) blocked FAK but not c-Src tyrosine phosphorylation in ID8-IP tumors. This was associated with decreased tumor size, prevention of peritoneal metastasis, reduced tumor-associated endothelial cell number, and increased tumor cell-associated apoptosis. FAK knockdown and re-expression assays showed that FAK activity selectively promoted anchorage-independent ID8-IP cell survival. These results support the continued evaluation of FAK inhibitors as a promising clinical treatment for ovarian cancer. PMID:23275034

  11. Supplemental Educational Services and Student Achievement in Waiver Districts: Anchorage and Hillsborough

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Socias, Miguel; deSousa, Juliette-Marie; Le Floch, Kerstin Carlson

    2009-01-01

    Under federal regulations, school districts that have been identified for improvement or corrective action are not eligible to be supplemental educational service providers. However, the U.S. Department of Education granted waivers to five such districts, on a pilot basis, to allow those districts to provide supplemental educational services. Two…

  12. 77 FR 5743 - Special Anchorage Areas; Port of New York, NY

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-06

    ..., 2008, issue of the Federal Register (73 FR 3316). Public Meeting We do not now plan to hold a public... on their vessels at night. Leaving their lights on overnight could result in dead batteries and... Jersey and New York have State Coastal Zone Management or State Navigation regulations with...

  13. The use of cortical screw anchorage for closing a space resulting from the loss of a lower molar--a case report.

    PubMed

    Janiszewska-Olszowska, Joanna; Socha, Alina; Bińczak, Paulina

    2013-01-01

    Orthodontic microscrews are temporary implants providing skeletal anchorage, which may be used for en-masse incisor retraction, as well as for the protraction of posterior segments in order to close spaces without retracting anterior teeth. A patient, aged 16 was reported in whom a miniscrew of 9.5 mm length and 2 mm dimension was inserted distal to the lower left second premolar 2 months after extracting the first molar with periapical bone lesion after failed endodontic treatment. The lower third molar was mesialised using direct anchorage and a power arm to minimize mesial tipping. The space closed within 20 months, followed by a spontaneous eruption of the adjacent third molar. This treatment method constitutes a good alternative to third molar autotransplantation, allowing the avoidance of the risk of surgical procedure. PMID:25026758

  14. Using Kettle Lake Records to Date and Interpret Holocene Ash Deposition in Upper Cook Inlet, Anchorage, AK

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Werner, A.; Kathan, K. M.; Kaufman, D. S.; Hancock, J. R.; Waythomas, C. F.; Wallace, K. L.

    2004-12-01

    Fourteen sediment cores recovered from three kettle lakes (Goose, Little Campbell and Lorraine) near Anchorage, AK were used to document and date Holocene volcanic ash deposition in the upper Cook Inlet area. Small lakes (<0.5 km2) with small (<1.5 km2), low relief (<50 m), and well-vegetated drainage areas were selected in order to minimize ash remobilization by mass wasting and fluvial processes. The resulting stratigraphic records are interpreted as primary terpha-fall stratigraphies. Relative to the surrounding lacustrine sediments, the ash layers exhibit low organic-matter content (as determined by loss-on-ignition, LOI), high magnetic susceptibility (MS), increased density (X-radiographs), and bubble-wall glass shards. Some ash layers are up to 1 cm thick (macrotephra) consisting of pure glass, some occur as light bands, while others (microtephra) can only be located using non-visual techniques (MS, LOI and X-radiography). The thinnest microtephras observed occur either as discrete (1 mm) layers or diffuse laminations composed of tephra mixed with ambient lake sediment. Forty-five AMS C-14 dates on terrestrial macro fossils were used to constrain sedimentation-rate models for the cores, and to assign absolute ages to ash units. Comparison of inferred tephra ages corroborates our intra and inter basin stratigraphic correlations (+/- 200 yrs) based on physical and MS stratigraphy. Ten out of 12 macrotephras can be confidently correlated among all three lakes, whereas, two of the prominent tephras occur in one basin but not in the others. This suggests subtle differences in ash plume extents or differences in tephra preservation between lakes. A total of 24 Holocene ash units (12 macro and 12 micro) have been recognized and dated in the Anchorage area, suggesting an ash-fall frequency of about 2.4/1000 yrs. By comparison, historical records suggest more frequent ash-fall events (120/1000 yrs). Our data indicate that, either the ash layers are not consistently

  15. [The relationship between the movement of molars and the transmitted mechanism of orthodontic forces in extraoral anchorage (2)].

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, K; Arai, H

    1989-04-01

    The relationship between the movement of molars and the transmission of orthodontic forces were especially studied about the upward pull of the outer bow in extraoral anchorage. Molar movements were theoretically analyzed from horizontal pull to upward angle of 40 degree. The transmission mechanism of the orthodontic force was studied from horizontal pull to 40 degree upward angle on each 5 degree with the holography experiment on a human dry skull. 1. Horizontal pull of the outer bow resulted in distal movement of the molar. The long axis of the molar was tipped distally. The dentofacial cranium transformed to the lower and backward direction. 2. When the outer bow was inclined at an upward angle of about 18 degree, the molar moved bodily to the distal and superior direction. But the dentofacial cranium transformed a little to the lower and backward direction. 3. When the outer bow was inclined from 25 to 30 degree upward angle, the molar rotated to the clockwise direction, and the dentofacial cranium rotated to the counter clockwise. The bending deformation was not observed on the dentofacial cranium. 4. The dentofacial cranium was compressed in the pull direction from 25 to 30 degree upward angle. These directions were clinically interpreted as inhibition of the downward and forward growth of the maxillary bone.

  16. A recessive cellular mutation in v-fes-transformed mink cells restores contact inhibition and anchorage-dependent growth.

    PubMed Central

    Haynes, J R; Downing, J R

    1988-01-01

    A contact-inhibited revertant of mink cells transformed by the Gardner-Arnstein strain of feline sarcoma virus was isolated by fluorescence-activated sorting of cells stained with the mitochondria-specific dye rhodamine 123. The revertant cell line exhibited a decrease in its proliferative rate and saturation density and a complete loss of its capacity for anchorage-independent growth, but it remained tumorigenic when inoculated into nude mice. The revertant cells retained a rescuable Gardner-Arnstein feline sarcoma provirus, expressed high levels of the v-fes oncogene product and its associated tyrosine kinase activity, manifested elevated levels of phosphotyrosine-containing cellular proteins similar to those observed in v-fes-transformed cells, and were refractory to retransformation by retroviruses containing the v-fes, v-fms, and v-ras oncogenes. Fusion of the revertant and parental cells generated somatic cell hybrids which formed colonies in semisolid medium, indicating that the block in transformation was recessive. These data together with the observation that the revertant phenotype is unstable in continuous culture suggest that the loss of transformation is due to the presence of limiting quantities of a gene product which functions downstream of the v-fes-coded kinase in the mitogenic pathway. Images PMID:3261387

  17. Fluorinated pickering emulsions impede interfacial transport and form rigid interface for the growth of anchorage-dependent cells.

    PubMed

    Pan, Ming; Rosenfeld, Liat; Kim, Minkyu; Xu, Manqi; Lin, Edith; Derda, Ratmir; Tang, Sindy K Y

    2014-12-10

    This study describes the design and synthesis of amphiphilic silica nanoparticles for the stabilization of aqueous drops in fluorinated oils for applications in droplet microfluidics. The success of droplet microfluidics has thus far relied on one type of surfactant for the stabilization of drops. However, surfactants are known to have two key limitations: (1) interdrop molecular transport leads to cross-contamination of droplet contents, and (2) the incompatibility with the growth of adherent mammalian cells as the liquid-liquid interface is too soft for cell adhesion. The use of nanoparticles as emulsifiers overcomes these two limitations. Particles are effective in mitigating undesirable interdrop molecular transport as they are irreversibly adsorbed to the liquid-liquid interface. They do not form micelles as surfactants do, and thus, a major pathway for interdrop transport is eliminated. In addition, particles at the droplet interface provide a rigid solid-like interface to which cells could adhere and spread, and are thus compatible with the proliferation of adherent mammalian cells such as fibroblasts and breast cancer cells. The particles described in this work can enable new applications for high-fidelity assays and for the culture of anchorage-dependent cells in droplet microfluidics, and they have the potential to become a competitive alternative to current surfactant systems for the stabilization of drops critical for the success of the technology.

  18. Maxillary protraction in adult cleft lip and palate by a rigid external distraction device with dentoskeletal anchorage

    PubMed Central

    Akarsu, Bengisu; Taner, Tulin; Tuncbilek, Gokhan; Mavili, M. Emin

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The objective is to evaluate the effects of maxillary distraction osteogenesis (DO) in an adult patient with unilateral cleft lip and palate (UCLP) by using a rigid external distraction (RED) device with dentoskeletal anchorage. Method: 31-year-old male patient with UCLP with severe maxillary hypoplasia, dolichofacial growth pattern, negative overjet and 1.5 mm openbite. After pre-surgical orthodontic treatment, an intra-oral appliance was modified to prevent extrusion of the molars and clockwise rotation of the mandible. Stainless steel plates were soldered bilaterally to the intra oral appliance at the level of canines. During surgery, miniplates were inserted in the maxillary segment and fixed to the plates of the intra oral appliance with screws. Results: The mean distraction length was 12 mm immediately after DO. SNA increased from 73o to 82o after distraction. A significant advancement of the maxilla and correction of the sagittal Class III skeletal relationship was achieved. The vertical position of the mandible and the face was kept stable, and the soft tissue profile became more balanced. Conclusion: This intra oral appliance design achieved desired skeletal changes during maxillary protraction with RED device in dolichofacial CLP patient. Occlusion and facial profile changes was found to be stable in 1-year follow-up. PMID:22509125

  19. Chlamydia Induces Anchorage Independence in 3T3 Cells and Detrimental Cytological Defects in an Infection Model

    PubMed Central

    Knowlton, Andrea E.; Fowler, Larry J.; Patel, Rahul K.; Wallet, Shannon M.; Grieshaber, Scott S.

    2013-01-01

    Chlamydia are Gram negative, obligate intracellular bacterial organisms with different species causing a multitude of infections in both humans and animals. Chlamydia trachomatis is the causative agent of the sexually transmitted infection (STI) Chlamydia, the most commonly acquired bacterial STI in the United States. Chlamydial infections have also been epidemiologically linked to cervical cancer in women co-infected with the human papillomavirus (HPV). We have previously shown chlamydial infection results in centrosome amplification and multipolar spindle formation leading to chromosomal instability. Many studies indicate that centrosome abnormalities, spindle defects, and chromosome segregation errors can lead to cell transformation. We hypothesize that the presence of these defects within infected dividing cells identifies a possible mechanism for Chlamydia as a cofactor in cervical cancer formation. Here we demonstrate that infection with Chlamydia trachomatis is able to transform 3T3 cells in soft agar resulting in anchorage independence and increased colony formation. Additionally, we show for the first time Chlamydia infects actively replicating cells in vivo. Infection of mice with Chlamydia results in significantly increased cell proliferation within the cervix, and in evidence of cervical dysplasia. Confocal examination of these infected tissues also revealed elements of chlamydial induced chromosome instability. These results contribute to a growing body of data implicating a role for Chlamydia in cervical cancer development and suggest a possible molecular mechanism for this effect. PMID:23308295

  20. Development and evaluation of an anchorage-independent agar-based clonal assay for human primary breast carcinoma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Besch, G.J.

    1985-01-01

    The development and evaluation of an anchorage-independent clonal cytotoxic assay for primary human breast carcinoma cells is described in this thesis. This assay was developed in three stages which include: (1) the optimization of the production of a monodispersed cell suspension from solid breast carcinomas, (2) the systematic development of a growth medium for the clonal growth of these cells, and (3) the adaptation of these methods for use in the quantitation of cytotoxicity. The results of these studies indicated that hydrocortisone, fetal bovine serum and red blood cells stimulated the clonal growth of breast carcinoma cells. The optimal concentrations of these three factors were simultaneously determined using response surface methodology. These culture conditions were then used to develop radiation-cytotoxicity assays for both primary and recurrent breast carcinomas. The methodology developed and evaluated in this thesis may be useful to: (1) study the biology and radiobiology of human breast cancer, (2) customize the treatment of individual breast cancer patients, and (3) identify and/or develop new drugs and/or other treatment modalities for breast cancer.

  1. Health hazard evaluation determination report No. HE 80-41-730, Alaska Husky Battery, Inc. , Anchorage, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Apol, A.G.

    1980-08-01

    Environmental and medical surveys were conducted on January 7 and 10, 1980, to evaluate lead (7439921) exposure among employees engaged in the manufacture of lead acid storage batteries at Alaska Husky Battery, Incorporated (SIC-3691) in Anchorage, Alaska. The evaluation was requested by the owner on behalf of the seven affected workers. Blood lead concentrations ranged from 41 to 75 micrograms per deciliter measured at the NIOSH laboratory, and from 39 to 69 micrograms per deciliter measured at a NIOSH contract laboratory exceeding the recommended limit of 40 micrograms per deciliter. Free erythrocyte protoporphyrin concentrations from 2,000 to 11,100 microgram per liter of red blood cells were well above the normal range of 220 to 870. The 8 hour time weighted average breathing zone air lead on concentrations ranged from 41 to 1,700 (1,700) micrograms per cubic meter. Six of the eight samples exceeded the OSHA standard of 50 micrograms per cubic meter. The four greatest concentrations occurred during the pasting operation. The author concludes that employees are exposed to hazardous concentrations of lead dust and fume. He recommends that engineering controls and better work practices be implemented, that appropriate respirators be used, that each work area be vacuumed or washed on a regular basis, that no food, drinks, or cigarettes be consumed in the work area, that a changing room be provided that protective gloves be used by workers handling the paste, and that blood lead concentrations be monitored monthly.

  2. How substrate rigidity regulates the cellular motility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarvestani, Alireza

    2011-03-01

    Mechanical stiffness of bio-adhesive substrates has been recognized as a major regulator of cell motility. We present a simple physical model to study the crawling locomotion of a contractile cell on a soft elastic substrate. The mechanism of rigidity sensing is accounted for using Schwarz's two spring model (Schwarz et al. (2006) BioSystems 83, 225-232). The predicted dependency between the speed of motility and substrate stiffness is qualitatively consistent with experimental observations. The model demonstrates that the rigidity dependent motility of cells is rooted in the regulation of actomyosin contractile forces by substrate deformation at each anchorage point. On stiffer substrates, the traction forces required for cell translocation acquire larger magnitude but show weaker asymmetry which leads to slower cell motility. On very soft substrates, the model predicts a biphasic relationship between the substrate rigidity and the speed of locomotion, over a narrow stiffness range, which has been observed experimentally for some cell types.

  3. Effects of the earthquake of March 27, 1964, at Anchorage, Alaska: Chapter A in The Alaska earthquake, March 27, 1964: effects on communities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hansen, Wallace R.

    1965-01-01

    Anchorage, Alaska’s largest city, is about 80 miles west-northwest of the epicenter of the March 27 earthquake. Because of its size, Anchorage bore the brunt of property damage from the quake; it sustained greater losses than all the rest of Alaska combined. Damage was caused by direct seismic vibration, by ground cracks, and by landslides. Direct seismic vibration affected chiefly multistory buildings and buildings having large floor areas, probably because of the long period and large amplitude of the seismic waves reaching Anchorage. Most small buildings were spared. Ground cracks caused capricious damage throughout the Anchorage Lowland. Cracking was mast prevalent near the heads or within landslides but was also widespread elsewhere. Landslides themselves caused the most devastating damage. Triggering of landslides by the earthquake was related to the physical-engineering properties of the Bootlegger Cove Clay, a glacial estuarine-marine deposit that underlies much of the Anchorage area. The Bootlegger Cove Clay contains zones of low shear strength, high water content, and high sensitivity that failed under the vibratory stress of the earthquake. Shear strength in sensitive zones ranged from less than 0.2 tsf to about 0.5 tsf; sensitivity ranged from about 10 to more than 40. Sensitive zones generally are centered about 10 to 20 feet above sea level, between zones of stiff insensitive clay. Many physical tests by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers were directed toward analyzing the causes of failure in the Bootlegger Cove Clay and finding possible remedies. Strengths and sensitivities were measured directly in the field by means of vane shear apparatus. A4tterberg limits, natural water contents, triaxial shear, sensitivity, dynamic modulus, consolidation strength, and other properties were measured in the laboratory. Pulsating-load tests simulated earthquake loading. Most of the destructive landslides in the Anchorage area moved primarily by translation rather

  4. A Component-Based Study of the Effect of Diameter on Bond and Anchorage Characteristics of Blind-Bolted Connections.

    PubMed

    Amin, Muhammad Nasir; Zaheer, Salman; Alazba, Abdulrahman Ali; Saleem, Muhammad Umair; Niazi, Muhammad Umar Khan; Khurram, Nauman; Amin, Muhammad Tahir

    2016-01-01

    Structural hollow sections are gaining worldwide importance due to their structural and architectural advantages over open steel sections. The only obstacle to their use is their connection with other structural members. To overcome the obstacle of tightening the bolt from one side has given birth to the concept of blind bolts. Blind bolts, being the practical solution to the connection hindrance for the use of hollow and concrete filled hollow sections play a vital role. Flowdrill, the Huck High Strength Blind Bolt and the Lindapter Hollobolt are the well-known commercially available blind bolts. Although the development of blind bolts has largely resolved this issue, the use of structural hollow sections remains limited to shear resistance. Therefore, a new modified version of the blind bolt, known as the "Extended Hollo-Bolt" (EHB) due to its enhanced capacity for bonding with concrete, can overcome the issue of low moment resistance capacity associated with blind-bolted connections. The load transfer mechanism of this recently developed blind bolt remains unclear, however. This study uses a parametric approach to characterising the EHB, using diameter as the variable parameter. Stiffness and load-carrying capacity were evaluated at two different bolt sizes. To investigate the load transfer mechanism, a component-based study of the bond and anchorage characteristics was performed by breaking down the EHB into its components. The results of the study provide insight into the load transfer mechanism of the blind bolt in question. The proposed component-based model was validated by a spring model, through which the stiffness of the EHB was compared to that of its components combined. The combined stiffness of the components was found to be roughly equivalent to that of the EHB as a whole, validating the use of this component-based approach.

  5. A Component-Based Study of the Effect of Diameter on Bond and Anchorage Characteristics of Blind-Bolted Connections

    PubMed Central

    Amin, Muhammad Nasir; Zaheer, Salman; Alazba, Abdulrahman Ali; Saleem, Muhammad Umair; Niazi, Muhammad Umar Khan; Khurram, Nauman; Amin, Muhammad Tahir

    2016-01-01

    Structural hollow sections are gaining worldwide importance due to their structural and architectural advantages over open steel sections. The only obstacle to their use is their connection with other structural members. To overcome the obstacle of tightening the bolt from one side has given birth to the concept of blind bolts. Blind bolts, being the practical solution to the connection hindrance for the use of hollow and concrete filled hollow sections play a vital role. Flowdrill, the Huck High Strength Blind Bolt and the Lindapter Hollobolt are the well-known commercially available blind bolts. Although the development of blind bolts has largely resolved this issue, the use of structural hollow sections remains limited to shear resistance. Therefore, a new modified version of the blind bolt, known as the “Extended Hollo-Bolt” (EHB) due to its enhanced capacity for bonding with concrete, can overcome the issue of low moment resistance capacity associated with blind-bolted connections. The load transfer mechanism of this recently developed blind bolt remains unclear, however. This study uses a parametric approach to characterising the EHB, using diameter as the variable parameter. Stiffness and load-carrying capacity were evaluated at two different bolt sizes. To investigate the load transfer mechanism, a component-based study of the bond and anchorage characteristics was performed by breaking down the EHB into its components. The results of the study provide insight into the load transfer mechanism of the blind bolt in question. The proposed component-based model was validated by a spring model, through which the stiffness of the EHB was compared to that of its components combined. The combined stiffness of the components was found to be roughly equivalent to that of the EHB as a whole, validating the use of this component-based approach. PMID:26901866

  6. Mitochondrial biogenesis is required for the anchorage-independent survival and propagation of stem-like cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Peiris-Pagès, Maria; Ozsvari, Bela; Smith, Duncan L.; Sanchez-Alvarez, Rosa; Martinez-Outschoorn, Ubaldo E.; Cappello, Anna Rita; Pezzi, Vincenzo; Lisanti, Michael P.; Sotgia, Federica

    2015-01-01

    Here, we show that new mitochondrial biogenesis is required for the anchorage independent survival and propagation of cancer stem-like cells (CSCs). More specifically, we used the drug XCT790 as an investigational tool, as it functions as a specific inhibitor of the ERRα-PGC1 signaling pathway, which governs mitochondrial biogenesis. Interestingly, our results directly demonstrate that XCT790 efficiently blocks both the survival and propagation of tumor initiating stem-like cells (TICs), using the MCF7 cell line as a model system. Mechanistically, we show that XCT790 suppresses the activity of several independent signaling pathways that are normally required for the survival of CSCs, such as Sonic hedgehog, TGFβ-SMAD, STAT3, and Wnt signaling. We also show that XCT790 markedly reduces oxidative mitochondrial metabolism (OXPHOS) and that XCT790-mediated inhibition of CSC propagation can be prevented or reversed by Acetyl-L-Carnitine (ALCAR), a mitochondrial fuel. Consistent with our findings, over-expression of ERRα significantly enhances the efficiency of mammosphere formation, which can be blocked by treatment with mitochondrial inhibitors. Similarly, mammosphere formation augmented by FOXM1, a downstream target of Wnt/β-catenin signaling, can also be blocked by treatment with three different classes of mitochondrial inhibitors (XCT790, oligomycin A, or doxycycline). In this context, our unbiased proteomics analysis reveals that FOXM1 drives the expression of >90 protein targets associated with mitochondrial biogenesis, glycolysis, the EMT and protein synthesis in MCF7 cells, processes which are characteristic of an anabolic CSC phenotype. Finally, doxycycline is an FDA-approved antibiotic, which is very well-tolerated in patients. As such, doxycycline could be re-purposed clinically as a ‘safe’ mitochondrial inhibitor, to target FOXM1 and mitochondrial biogenesis in CSCs, to prevent tumor recurrence and distant metastasis, thereby avoiding patient relapse

  7. Laser-Modified Surface Enhances Osseointegration and Biomechanical Anchorage of Commercially Pure Titanium Implants for Bone-Anchored Hearing Systems

    PubMed Central

    Omar, Omar; Simonsson, Hanna; Palmquist, Anders; Thomsen, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Osseointegrated implants inserted in the temporal bone are a vital component of bone-anchored hearing systems (BAHS). Despite low implant failure levels, early loading protocols and simplified procedures necessitate the application of implants which promote bone formation, bone bonding and biomechanical stability. Here, screw-shaped, commercially pure titanium implants were selectively laser ablated within the thread valley using an Nd:YAG laser to produce a microtopography with a superimposed nanotexture and a thickened surface oxide layer. State-of-the-art machined implants served as controls. After eight weeks’ implantation in rabbit tibiae, resonance frequency analysis (RFA) values increased from insertion to retrieval for both implant types, while removal torque (RTQ) measurements showed 153% higher biomechanical anchorage of the laser-modified implants. Comparably high bone area (BA) and bone-implant contact (BIC) were recorded for both implant types but with distinctly different failure patterns following biomechanical testing. Fracture lines appeared within the bone ~30–50 μm from the laser-modified surface, while separation occurred at the bone-implant interface for the machined surface. Strong correlations were found between RTQ and BIC and between RFA at retrieval and BA. In the endosteal threads, where all the bone had formed de novo, the extracellular matrix composition, the mineralised bone area and osteocyte densities were comparable for the two types of implant. Using resin cast etching, osteocyte canaliculi were observed directly approaching the laser-modified implant surface. Transmission electron microscopy showed canaliculi in close proximity to the laser-modified surface, in addition to a highly ordered arrangement of collagen fibrils aligned parallel to the implant surface contour. It is concluded that the physico-chemical surface properties of laser-modified surfaces (thicker oxide, micro- and nanoscale texture) promote bone bonding

  8. Cellular tumorigenicity in nude mice. Test of associations among loss of cell-surface fibronectin, anchorage independence, and tumor-forming ability

    PubMed Central

    1979-01-01

    Fibronectin (FN; also called large external transformation-sensitive [LETS] protein or cell-surface protein [CSP]) is a large cell-surface glycoprotein that is frequently observed to be either absent or greatly reduced on the surfaces of malignant cells grown in vitro. Because FN may be a useful molecular marker of cellular malignancy, we have carried out an extensive screening to test the specific association among the degree of expression of FN, anchorage-independent growth, and tumorigenicity in the athymic nude mouse. A variety of diploid cell strains and established cell lines were tested for the expression of surface FN by indirect immunofluorescence using rabbit antisera against human cold insoluble globulin, rodent plasma FN, or chicken cell- surface FN. Concomitantly, the cells were assayed for tumor formation in nude mice and for the ability to form colonies in methylcellulose. Tumorigenic cells often showed very low surface fluorescence, confirming earlier reports. However, many highly tumorigenic fibroblast lines from several species stained strongly with all three antisera. In contrast, the anchorage-independent phenotype was nearly always associated with tumorigenicity in approximately 35 cell lines examined in this study. In another series of experiments, FN-positive but anchorage-independent cells were grown as tumors in nude mice and then reintroduced into culture. In five of the six tumor-derived cell lines, cell-surface FN was not significantly reduced; one such cell line showed very little surface FN. Our data thus indicate that the loss of cell-surface FN is not a necessary step in the process of malignant transformation and that the growth of FN-positive cells as tumors does not require a prior selection in vivo for FN-negative subpopulations. PMID:383723

  9. Thermal Pollution Mathematical Model. Volume 6: Verification of Three-Dimensional Free-Surface Model at Anclote Anchorage. [environment impact of thermal discharges from power plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, S. S.; Sengupta, S.; Tuann, S. Y.; Lee, C. R.

    1980-01-01

    The free-surface model presented is for tidal estuaries and coastal regions where ambient tidal forces play an important role in the dispersal of heated water. The model is time dependent, three dimensional, and can handle irregular bottom topography. The vertical stretching coordinate is adopted for better treatment of kinematic condition at the water surface. The results include surface elevation, velocity, and temperature. The model was verified at the Anclote Anchorage site of Florida Power Company. Two data bases at four tidal stages for winter and summer conditions were used to verify the model. Differences between measured and predicted temperatures are on an average of less than 1 C.

  10. Effects of the earthquake of March 27, 1964, on the Eklutna Hydroelectric Project, Anchorage, Alaska, with a section on television examination of earthquake damage to underground communication and electrical systems in Anchorage: Chapter A in The Alaska earthquake, March 27, 1964: effects on transportation, communications, and utilities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Logan, Malcolm H.; with a section on Television Examination of Earthquake Damage to Underground Communication and Electrical Systems in Anchorage by Burton, Lynn R.

    1967-01-01

    The March 27, 1964, Alaska earthquake and its associated aftershocks caused damage requiring several million dollars worth of repair to the Eklwtna Hydroelectric Project, 34 miles northeast of Anchorage. Electric service from the Eklutna powerplant was interrupted during the early phase of the March 27 earthquake, built was restored (intermittently) until May 9,1964, when the plant was closed for inspection and repair. Water for Eklutna project is transported from Eklutna Lake to the powerplant at tidewater on Knik Arm of Cook Inlet by an underwater intake connected to a 4.46-mile tunnel penstock. The primary damage caused by the earthquake was 1at the intake structure in Eklutna Lake. No damage to the power tunnel was observed. The piles-supported powerplant and appurtenant structures, Anchorage and Palmer substations, and the transmission lines suffered minor dammage. Most damage occurred to facilities constructed on un-consolidated sediments and overburden which densified and subsided during the earthquake. Structures built on bedrock experienced little or no damage. Underground communication and electrical systems in Anchorage were examined with a small-diameter television camera to locate damaged areas requiring repair. Most of the damage was concentrated at or near valley slopes. Those parts of the systems within the major slide areas of the city were destroyed.

  11. Sortilin Regulates Progranulin Action in Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Tanimoto, Ryuta; Morcavallo, Alaide; Terracciano, Mario; Xu, Shi-Qiong; Stefanello, Manuela; Buraschi, Simone; Lu, Kuojung G.; Bagley, Demetrius H.; Gomella, Leonard G.; Scotlandi, Katia; Belfiore, Antonino; Iozzo, Renato V.

    2015-01-01

    The growth factor progranulin is as an important regulator of transformation in several cellular systems. We have previously demonstrated that progranulin acts as an autocrine growth factor and stimulates motility, proliferation, and anchorage-independent growth of castration-resistant prostate cancer cells, supporting the hypothesis that progranulin may play a critical role in prostate cancer progression. However, the mechanisms regulating progranulin action in castration-resistant prostate cancer cells have not been characterized. Sortilin, a single-pass type I transmembrane protein of the vacuolar protein sorting 10 family, binds progranulin in neurons and negatively regulates progranulin signaling by mediating progranulin targeting for lysosomal degradation. However, whether sortilin is expressed in prostate cancer cells and plays any role in regulating progranulin action has not been established. Here, we show that sortilin is expressed at very low levels in castration-resistant PC3 and DU145 cells. Significantly, enhancing sortilin expression in PC3 and DU145 cells severely diminishes progranulin levels and inhibits motility, invasion, proliferation, and anchorage-independent growth. In addition, sortilin overexpression negatively modulates Akt (protein kinase B, PKB) stability. These results are recapitulated by depleting endogenous progranulin in PC3 and DU145 cells. On the contrary, targeting sortilin by short hairpin RNA approaches enhances progranulin levels and promotes motility, invasion, and anchorage-independent growth. We dissected the mechanisms of sortilin action and demonstrated that sortilin promotes progranulin endocytosis through a clathrin-dependent pathway, sorting into early endosomes and subsequent lysosomal degradation. Collectively, these results point out a critical role for sortilin in regulating progranulin action in castration-resistant prostate cancer cells, suggesting that sortilin loss may contribute to prostate cancer progression

  12. A pull out test to compare two riparian species, Phyllanthus sellowianus and Sebastiania schottiana in terms of root anchorage ability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hörbinger, Stephan; Sutili, Fabricio J.; Rauch, Hans Peter

    2013-04-01

    Soil bioengineering has become manifold applied in large parts of Brazil in recent years. The first projects were realized in the region of Rio Grande do Sul within river stabilization works to protect agricultural land of small regional farmers. As result of research work the species Sebastiania schottiana and Phyllanthus sellowianus showed very adequate morpho-physiological properties and seem to be appropriate for the use in soil bioengineering. The aim of the present study was to examine a still unknown but crucial factor, the resistance of the above mentioned species against being pulled out. The pull out resistance is an indicator for the stability of the soil-root matrix and expresses the stabilizing effects of plants on soil. Furthermore it is an applicable index to compare the qualification of the species to be used in soil bioengineering works. Another objective was to investigate plant characteristics, which correlate to the pull out resistance of the investigated species, to be able to draft up efficient plant strategies for future restoration works on eroded river embankments. For the experiment a special apparatus was designed, which enables to implement a pull out process with a constant rate and generate a graph of the plants resistance force versus its displacement. P. sellowianus showed a significant higher resistance against being pulled out than S. schottiana. The analyses of root and shoot properties of P. sellowianus showed more favorable morpho-physiological properties in terms of pull out resistance, a bigger amount of biomass, both above and below ground and also a higher amount of anchorage. The Cross-Sectional-Areas (CSA) of the shoots showed in both species the strongest correlation of the investigated shoot and root properties with the maximum resistance against being pulled out. Thus it can be concluded that the CSA can be used as a value to assess the stabilization effects of the plants. The experiments showed that some root and shoot

  13. Phorbol ester phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate promotes anchorage-independent growth and survival of melanomas through MEK-independent activation of ERK1/2

    SciTech Connect

    Jorgensen, Kjersti; Skrede, Martina; Cruciani, Veronique; Mikalsen, Svein-Ole; Slipicevic, Ana; Florenes, Vivi Ann . E-mail: v.a.florenes@labmed.uio.no

    2005-04-01

    The phorbol ester, phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA), an activator of PKCs, is known to stimulate the in vitro growth of monolayer cultures of normal human melanocytes whereas it inhibits the growth of most malignant melanoma cell lines. We examined the effect of PMA on proliferation and survival of melanoma cells grown as multicellular aggregates in suspension (spheroids), and aimed to elucidate downstream targets of PKC signaling. In contrast to monolayer cultures, PMA increased cell proliferation as well as protected melanoma cells from suspension-mediated apoptosis (anoikis). Supporting the importance of PKC in anchorage-independent growth, treatment of anoikis-resistant melanoma cell lines with antisense oligonucleotides against PKC-{alpha}, or the PKC inhibitor Goe6976, strongly induced anoikis. PMA induced activation of ERK1/2, but this effect was not prevented by the MEK inhibitors PD98059 or by U0126. Whereas PD98059 treatment alone led to marked activation of the pro-apoptotic Bim and Bad proteins and significantly increased anoikis, these effects were clearly reversed by PMA. In conclusion, our results indicate that the protective effect of PMA on anchorage-independent survival of melanoma cells at least partly is mediated by MEK-independent activation of ERK1/2 and inactivation of downstream pro-apoptotic effector proteins.

  14. A role for Mfb1p in region-specific anchorage of high-functioning mitochondria and lifespan in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Pernice, Wolfgang M.; Vevea, Jason D.; Pon, Liza A.

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies indicate that replicative lifespan in daughter cells of Sacchraromyces cerevisiae depends on the preferential inheritance of young, high-functioning mitochondria. We report here that mitochondria are functionally segregated even within single mother cells in S. cerevisiae. A high-functioning population of mitochondria accumulates at the tip of the mother cell distal to the bud. We find that the mitochondrial F-box protein (Mfb1p) localizes to mitochondria in the mother tip and is required for mitochondrial anchorage at that site, independent of the previously identified anchorage protein Num1p. Deletion of MFB1 results in loss of the mother-tip-localized mitochondrial population, defects in mitochondrial function and premature replicative ageing. Inhibiting mitochondrial inheritance to buds, by deletion of MMR1, in mfb1Δ cells restores mitochondrial distribution, promotes mitochondrial function and extends replicative lifespan. Our results identify a mechanism that retains a reservoir of high-functioning mitochondria in mother cells and thereby preserves maternal reproductive capacity. PMID:26839174

  15. Comparative pull-out and cyclic-loading strength tests of anchorage of hamstring tendon grafts in anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Giurea, M; Zorilla, P; Amis, A A; Aichroth, P

    1999-01-01

    This study examined four devices for anchorage of hamstring tendons used as anterior cruciate ligament grafts: a stirrup, a clawed washer and screw, and "soft" and round-headed interference screws. Ultimate strength tests were performed using bovine tendons and bones. The stirrup was significantly stronger than the other anchorage devices, failing at 898 N. The clawed washer failed at 502 N, the soft screw at 691 N, and the round-headed screw at 445 N. Cyclic loading to 150 N (to simulate walking) caused elongation of 2.1 mm with the stirrup by 1100 cycles, and 6.7 mm with the clawed washer by 300 cycles. Different hole and soft screw diameters and placements (inside-out versus outside-in) allowed 1-to 3-mm slippage (no significant differences) by 1100 cycles. The round-headed screw allowed 6.8-mm slippage by 1100 cycles, and a sharp edge below the screw head caused tendon damage. Cyclic loads to 450 N (to simulate jogging) were then imposed until failure, and all specimens failed rapidly; only stirrup fixation kept all specimens intact after 300 load cycles. We concluded that anterior cruciate ligament reconstructions using hamstring tendons will slacken if rehabilitation is too aggressive, so forces on the reconstructed ligament should be minimized until tendon-to-bone healing occurs. PMID:10496580

  16. A role for Mfb1p in region-specific anchorage of high-functioning mitochondria and lifespan in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Pernice, Wolfgang M; Vevea, Jason D; Pon, Liza A

    2016-02-03

    Previous studies indicate that replicative lifespan in daughter cells of Sacchraromyces cerevisiae depends on the preferential inheritance of young, high-functioning mitochondria. We report here that mitochondria are functionally segregated even within single mother cells in S. cerevisiae. A high-functioning population of mitochondria accumulates at the tip of the mother cell distal to the bud. We find that the mitochondrial F-box protein (Mfb1p) localizes to mitochondria in the mother tip and is required for mitochondrial anchorage at that site, independent of the previously identified anchorage protein Num1p. Deletion of MFB1 results in loss of the mother-tip-localized mitochondrial population, defects in mitochondrial function and premature replicative ageing. Inhibiting mitochondrial inheritance to buds, by deletion of MMR1, in mfb1Δ cells restores mitochondrial distribution, promotes mitochondrial function and extends replicative lifespan. Our results identify a mechanism that retains a reservoir of high-functioning mitochondria in mother cells and thereby preserves maternal reproductive capacity.

  17. Nonlytic simian virus 40-specific 100K phosphoprotein is associated with anchorage-independent growth in simian virus 40-transformed and revertant mouse cell lines.

    PubMed Central

    Chen, S; Verderame, M; Lo, A; Pollack, R

    1981-01-01

    Normal fibroblasts display two distinct growth controls which can be assayed as requirements for serum or for anchorage. Interaction of mouse 3T3 fibroblasts with simian virus 40 (SV40) thus generates four classes of transformed cells. We have examined viral gene expression in these four classes of cell lines. Immunoprecipitation of [35S]methionine-labeled cell extracts with an antiserum obtained from tumor-bearing hamsters detected the SV40 large T and small t proteins (94,000 molecular weight [94K], 17K) and the nonviral host 54K protein in all cell lines tested. A tumor antigen with an apparent molecular weight of 100,000 was also found in some, but not all, lines. Similar "super T" molecules have been found by others in many rodent transformed lines. We carried out an analysis of the relation of phenotype to relative amounts of these proteins in cell lines of the four classes, using the Spearman rank correlation test. The amount of the 100K T antigen relative to the 94K T antigen or to total viral protein was well correlated with the ability to form colonies in semisolid medium. No significant correlation was found between quantities of labeled 94K T antigen, 54K host antigen, or 17K t antigen and either serum or anchorage independence. Mouse cells transformed with the small t SV40 deletion mutant 884 synthesized a 100K T antigen, suggesting that small t is not required for the production of this protein. The 100K T antigen migrated more slowly than lytic T. Since mixtures of extracts from cells expressing and lacking the 100K T antigen yielded the expected amount of this protein, it is unlikely that the 100K T derives from the 94K protein by a posttranslational modification. Images PMID:6287215

  18. Outcomes and stability in patients with anterior open bite and long anterior face height treated with temporary anchorage devices and a maxillary intrusion splint

    PubMed Central

    Scheffler, Nicole R.; Proffit, William R.; Phillips, Ceib

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Temporary skeletal anchorage devices now offer the possibility of closing anterior open bites and decreasing anterior face height by intruding maxillary posterior teeth, but data for treatment outcomes are lacking. This article presents outcomes and posttreatment changes for consecutive patients treated with a standardized technique. Methods The sample included 33 consecutive patients who had intrusion of maxillary posterior teeth with a maxillary occlusal splint and nickel-titanium coil springs to temporary anchorage devices in the zygomatic buttress area, buccal and apical to the maxillary molars. Of this group, 30 had adequate cephalograms available for the period of treatment, 27 had cephalograms including 1-year posttreatment, and 25 had cephalograms from 2 years or longer. Results During splint therapy, the mean molar intrusion was 2.3 mm. The mean decrease in anterior face height was 1.6 mm, less than expected because of a 0.6-mm mean eruption of the mandibular molars. During the postintrusion orthodontics, the mean change in maxillary molar position was a 0.2-mm extrusion, and there was a mean 0.5-mm increase in face height. Positive overbite was maintained in all patients, with a slight elongation (<2 mm) of the incisors contributing to this. During the 1 year of posttreatment retention, the mean changes were a further eruption of 0.5 mm of the maxillary molars, whereas the mandibular molars intruded by 0.6 mm, and there was a small decrease in anterior face height. Changes beyond 1 year posttreatment were small and attributable to growth rather than relapse in tooth positions. Conclusions Intrusion of the maxillary posterior teeth can give satisfactory correction of moderately severe anterior open bites, but 0.5 to 1.5 mm of reeruption of these teeth is likely to occur. Controlling the vertical position of the mandibular molars so that they do not erupt as the maxillary teeth are intruded is important in obtaining a decrease in face height

  19. Inhibition of IGF-I receptor in anchorage-independence attenuates GSK-3beta constitutive phosphorylation and compromises growth and survival of medulloblastoma cell lines.

    PubMed

    Urbanska, K; Trojanek, J; Del Valle, L; Eldeen, M B; Hofmann, F; Garcia-Echeverria, C; Khalili, K; Reiss, K

    2007-04-01

    We have previously reported that insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) supports growth and survival of mouse and human medulloblastoma cell lines, and that IGF-I receptor (IGF-IR) is constitutively phosphorylated in human medulloblastoma clinical samples. Here, we demonstrate that a specific inhibitor of insulin-like growth factor-I receptor (IGF-IR), NVP-AEW541, attenuated growth and survival of mouse (BsB8) and human (D384, Daoy) medulloblastoma cell lines. Cell cycle analysis demonstrated that G1 arrest and apoptosis contributed to the action of NVP-AEW54. Interestingly, very aggressive BsB8 cells, which derive from cerebellar tumors of transgenic mice expressing viral oncoprotein (large T-antigen from human polyomavirus JC) became much more sensitive to NVP-AEW541 when exposed to anchorage-independent culture conditions. This high sensitivity to NVP-AEW54 in suspension was accompanied by the loss of GSK-3beta constitutive phosphorylation and was independent from T-antigen-mediated cellular events (Supplementary Materials). BsB8 cells were partially rescued from NVP-AEW541 by GSK3beta inhibitor, lithium chloride and were sensitized by GSK3beta activator, sodium nitroprusside (SNP). Importantly, human medulloblastoma cells, D384, which demonstrated partial resistance to NVP-AEW541 in suspension cultures, become much more sensitive following SNP-mediated GSK3beta dephosphorylation (activation). Our results indicate that hypersensitivity of medulloblastoma cells in anchorage-independence is linked to GSK-3beta activity and suggest that pharmacological intervention against IGF-IR with simultaneous activation of GSK3beta could be highly effective against medulloblastomas, which have intrinsic ability of disseminating the CNS via cerebrospinal fluid.

  20. En-masse retraction with a preformed nickel-titanium and stainless steel archwire assembly and temporary skeletal anchorage devices without posterior bonding

    PubMed Central

    Jee, Jeong-Hyun; Ahn, Hyo-Won; Seo, Kyung-Won; Kook, Yoon-Ah; Chung, Kyu-Rhim; Nelson, Gerald

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the therapeutic effects of a preformed assembly of nickel-titanium (NiTi) and stainless steel (SS) archwires (preformed C-wire) combined with temporary skeletal anchorage devices (TSADs) as the sole source of anchorage and to compare these effects with those of a SS version of C-wire (conventional C-wire) for en-masse retraction. Methods Thirty-one adult female patients with skeletal Class I or II dentoalveolar protrusion, mild-to-moderate anterior crowding (3.0-6.0 mm), and stable Class I posterior occlusion were divided into conventional (n = 15) and preformed (n = 16) C-wire groups. All subjects underwent first premolar extractions and en-masse retraction with pre-adjusted edgewise anterior brackets, the assigned C-wire, and maxillary C-tubes or C-implants; bonded mesh-tube appliances were used in the mandibular dentition. Differences in pretreatment and post-retraction measurements of skeletal, dental, and soft-tissue cephalometric variables were statistically analyzed. Results Both groups showed full retraction of the maxillary anterior teeth by controlled tipping and space closure without altered posterior occlusion. However, the preformed C-wire group had a shorter retraction period (by 3.2 months). Furthermore, the maxillary molars in this group showed no significant mesialization, mesial tipping, or extrusion; some mesialization and mesial tipping occurred in the conventional C-wire group. Conclusions Preformed C-wires combined with maxillary TSADs enable simultaneous leveling and space closure from the beginning of the treatment without maxillary posterior bonding. This allows for faster treatment of dentoalveolar protrusion without unwanted side effects, when compared with conventional C-wire, evidencing its clinical expediency. PMID:25309863

  1. Branching out in roots: uncovering form, function, and regulation.

    PubMed

    Atkinson, Jonathan A; Rasmussen, Amanda; Traini, Richard; Voß, Ute; Sturrock, Craig; Mooney, Sacha J; Wells, Darren M; Bennett, Malcolm J

    2014-10-01

    Root branching is critical for plants to secure anchorage and ensure the supply of water, minerals, and nutrients. To date, research on root branching has focused on lateral root development in young seedlings. However, many other programs of postembryonic root organogenesis exist in angiosperms. In cereal crops, the majority of the mature root system is composed of several classes of adventitious roots that include crown roots and brace roots. In this Update, we initially describe the diversity of postembryonic root forms. Next, we review recent advances in our understanding of the genes, signals, and mechanisms regulating lateral root and adventitious root branching in the plant models Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), maize (Zea mays), and rice (Oryza sativa). While many common signals, regulatory components, and mechanisms have been identified that control the initiation, morphogenesis, and emergence of new lateral and adventitious root organs, much more remains to be done. We conclude by discussing the challenges and opportunities facing root branching research. PMID:25136060

  2. Branching Out in Roots: Uncovering Form, Function, and Regulation1

    PubMed Central

    Atkinson, Jonathan A.; Rasmussen, Amanda; Traini, Richard; Voß, Ute; Sturrock, Craig; Mooney, Sacha J.; Wells, Darren M.; Bennett, Malcolm J.

    2014-01-01

    Root branching is critical for plants to secure anchorage and ensure the supply of water, minerals, and nutrients. To date, research on root branching has focused on lateral root development in young seedlings. However, many other programs of postembryonic root organogenesis exist in angiosperms. In cereal crops, the majority of the mature root system is composed of several classes of adventitious roots that include crown roots and brace roots. In this Update, we initially describe the diversity of postembryonic root forms. Next, we review recent advances in our understanding of the genes, signals, and mechanisms regulating lateral root and adventitious root branching in the plant models Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), maize (Zea mays), and rice (Oryza sativa). While many common signals, regulatory components, and mechanisms have been identified that control the initiation, morphogenesis, and emergence of new lateral and adventitious root organs, much more remains to be done. We conclude by discussing the challenges and opportunities facing root branching research. PMID:25136060

  3. Regulation of the NRSF/REST gene by methylation and CREB affects the cellular phenotype of small-cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Kreisler, A; Strissel, P L; Strick, R; Neumann, S B; Schumacher, U; Becker, C-M

    2010-10-28

    The neuron-restrictive silencer factor/RE1-silencing transcription factor (NRSF/REST) is a negative regulator of gene expression restricting the expression of neuronal genes to the nervous system. NRSF/REST is highly expressed in non-neuronal tissues like the lung. In previous work, we identified small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) cell lines with no detectable NRSF/REST expression that, as a consequence, expressed neuronal markers like L1-cell adhesion molecule (L1-CAM) and neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM). The loss of NRSF/REST expression was linked to malignant progression; however, its mechanistic role remained elusive. Here, we show that NRSF/REST itself, rather than one of its regulated genes, acts like a classic tumour suppressor, being in part regulated by methylation. In SCLCs, NRSF/REST is positively regulated by CREB, with an NRSF/REST promoter fragment showing cell type specificity. Downstream, NRSF/REST directly regulates AKT2, in which NRSF/REST loss leads to an epidermal growth factor-mediated de-regulation of AKT-Serine473 phosphorylation, important for cellular proliferation and survival. Assaying anchorage-independent growth, we observed that with reduced NRSF/REST expression, proliferation was significantly enhanced, whereas NRSF/REST rescue decreased the potential of cells to grow anchorage independently. Our observations support the fact that NRSF/REST may act as an important modulator of malignant progression in SCLC. PMID:20697351

  4. A novel antitumor activity of deguelin targeting the insulin-like growth factor (IGF) receptor pathway via up-regulation of IGF-binding protein-3 expression in breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Suh, Young-Ah; Kim, Jai-Hyun; Sung, Myung A; Boo, Hye-Jin; Yun, Hye Jeong; Lee, Sun-Hye; Lee, Hyo-Jong; Suh, Young-Ger; Kim, Kyu-Won; Lee, Ho-Young

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the antitumor effects of deguelin in several human breast cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. Deguelin inhibited cell viability and the anchorage-dependent and anchorage-independent colony formation of triple-negative (MDA-MB-231 and MDA-MB-468) and triple-positive (MCF-7) breast cancer cells, and it significantly reduced the growth of MCF-7 cell xenograft tumors. The induction of apoptosis, inhibition of insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF-1R) signaling activation, and up-regulation of IGF-binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) expression may be associated with deguelin-mediated antitumor effects. Our findings suggest a potential therapeutic use for deguelin in patients with triple-negative breast cancer and for those with breast cancers who are sensitive to endocrine- and HER2-targeted therapies. PMID:23348700

  5. Down-regulation of Rab5 decreases characteristics associated with maintenance of cell transformation

    SciTech Connect

    Silva, Patricio; Soto, Nicolás; Díaz, Jorge; Mendoza, Pablo; Díaz, Natalia; Quest, Andrew F.G.; Torres, Vicente A.

    2015-08-21

    The early endosomal protein Rab5 is highly expressed in tumor samples, although a causal relationship between Rab5 expression and cell transformation has not been established. Here, we report the functional effects of targeting endogenous Rab5 with specific shRNA sequences in different tumor cell lines. Rab5 down-regulation in B16-F10 cells decreased tumor formation by subcutaneous injection into C57/BL6 mice. Accordingly, Rab5 targeting in B16-F10 and A549, but not MDA-MB-231 cells was followed by decreased cell proliferation, increased apoptosis and decreased anchorage-independent growth. These findings suggest that Rab5 expression is required to maintain characteristics associated with cell transformation. - Highlights: • Rab5 is important to the maintenance of cell transformation characteristics. • Down-regulation of Rab5 decreases cell proliferation and increases apoptosis in different cancer cells. • Rab5 is required for anchorage-independent growth and tumorigenicity in-vivo.

  6. A novel role for drebrin in regulating progranulin bioactivity in bladder cancer

    PubMed Central

    Morcavallo, Alaide; Genua, Marco; Shirao, Tomoaki; Peiper, Stephen C.; Gomella, Leonard G.; Birbe, Ruth; Belfiore, Antonino; Iozzo, Renato V.; Morrione, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    We recently established a critical role for the growth factor progranulin in bladder cancer insofar as progranulin promotes urothelial cancer cell motility and contributes, as an autocrine growth factor, to the transformed phenotype by modulating invasion and anchorage-independent growth. In addition, progranulin expression is upregulated in invasive bladder cancer tissues compared to normal controls. However, the molecular mechanisms of progranulin action in bladder cancer have not been fully elucidated. In this study, we searched for novel progranulin-interacting proteins using pull-down assays with recombinant progranulin and proteomics. We discovered that drebrin, an F-actin binding protein, bound progranulin in urothelial cancer cells. We characterized drebrin function in urothelial cancer cell lines and showed that drebrin is critical for progranulin-dependent activation of the Akt and MAPK pathways and modulates motility, invasion and anchorage-independent growth. In addition, drebrin regulates tumor formation in vivo and its expression is upregulated in bladder cancer tissues compared to normal tissue controls. Our data are translationally relevant as indicate that drebrin exerts an essential functional role in the regulation of progranulin action and may constitute a novel target for therapeutic intervention in bladder tumors. In addition, drebrin may serve as novel biomarker for bladder cancer. PMID:25839164

  7. RhoG regulates anoikis through a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-dependent mechanism

    SciTech Connect

    Yamaki, Nao; Negishi, Manabu; Katoh, Hironori . E-mail: hirokato@pharm.kyoto-u.ac.jp

    2007-08-01

    In normal epithelial cells, cell-matrix interaction is required for cell survival and proliferation, whereas disruption of this interaction causes epithelial cells to undergo apoptosis called anoikis. Here we show that the small GTPase RhoG plays an important role in the regulation of anoikis. HeLa cells are capable of anchorage-independent cell growth and acquire resistance to anoikis. We found that RNA interference-mediated knockdown of RhoG promoted anoikis in HeLa cells. Previous studies have shown that RhoG activates Rac1 and induces several cellular functions including promotion of cell migration through its effector ELMO and the ELMO-binding protein Dock180 that function as a Rac-specific guanine nucleotide exchange factor. However, RhoG-induced suppression of anoikis was independent of the ELMO- and Dock180-mediated activation of Rac1. On the other hand, the regulation of anoikis by RhoG required phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) activity, and constitutively active RhoG bound to the PI3K regulatory subunit p85{alpha} and induced the PI3K-dependent phosphorylation of Akt. Taken together, these results suggest that RhoG protects cells from apoptosis caused by the loss of anchorage through a PI3K-dependent mechanism, independent of its activation of Rac1.

  8. Induction of anchorage-independent growth in primary human cells exposed to protons or HZE ions separately or in dual exposures.

    PubMed

    Sutherland, B M; Cuomo, N C; Bennett, P V

    2005-10-01

    Travelers on space missions will be exposed to a complex radiation environment that includes protons and heavy charged particles. Since protons are present at much higher levels than are heavy ions, the most likely scenario for cellular radiation exposure will be proton exposure followed by a hit by a heavy ion. Although the effects of individual ion species on human cells are being investigated extensively, little is known about the effects of exposure to both radiation types. One useful measure of mammalian cell damage is induction of the ability to grow in a semi-solid agar medium highly inhibitory to the growth of normal human cells, termed neoplastic transformation. Using primary human cells, we evaluated induction of soft-agar growth and survival of cells exposed to protons only or to heavy charged particles (600 MeV/nucleon silicon) only as well as of cells exposed to protons followed after a 4-day interval by silicon ions. Both ions alone efficiently transformed the human cells to anchorage-independent growth. Initial experiments indicate that the dose responses for neoplastic transformation of cells exposed to protons and then after 4 days to silicon ions appear similar to that of cells exposed to silicon ions alone.

  9. The effect of canine disimpaction performed with temporary anchorage devices (TADs) before comprehensive orthodontic treatment to avoid root resorption of adjacent teeth

    PubMed Central

    Heravi, Farzin; Shafaee, Hooman; Forouzanfar, Ali; Zarch, Seyed Hossein Hoseini; Merati, Mohsen

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the movement of impacted canines away from the roots of neighboring teeth before full-mouth bracket placement, performed by means of TADs to decrease undesired side effects on adjacent teeth. Methods: The study sample consisted of 34 palatally impacted canines, being 19 in the experimental group and 15 in the control group. In the experimental group, before placement of brackets, the impacted canine was erupted by means of miniscrews. In the control group, after initiation of comprehensive orthodontics, canine disimpaction was performed by means of a cantilever spring soldered to a palatal bar. At the end of treatment, volume of lateral incisors and canine root resorption were measured and compared by means of a CBCT-derived tridimensional model. Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) score, bleeding on probing (BOP) and gingival index (GI) were recorded. Clinical success rate was also calculated. Results: The volume of root resorption of lateral teeth in the control group was significantly greater than in the experimental group (p < 0.001). At the end of treatment, VAS score, GI and BOP were not significantly different between the two groups. Conclusion: Based on our results, it seems that disimpaction of canines and moving them to the arch can be done successfully carried out with minimal side effects by means of skeletal anchorage. PMID:27275617

  10. Induction of anchorage-independent growth in primary human cells exposed to protons or HZE ions separately or in dual exposures.

    PubMed

    Sutherland, B M; Cuomo, N C; Bennett, P V

    2005-10-01

    Travelers on space missions will be exposed to a complex radiation environment that includes protons and heavy charged particles. Since protons are present at much higher levels than are heavy ions, the most likely scenario for cellular radiation exposure will be proton exposure followed by a hit by a heavy ion. Although the effects of individual ion species on human cells are being investigated extensively, little is known about the effects of exposure to both radiation types. One useful measure of mammalian cell damage is induction of the ability to grow in a semi-solid agar medium highly inhibitory to the growth of normal human cells, termed neoplastic transformation. Using primary human cells, we evaluated induction of soft-agar growth and survival of cells exposed to protons only or to heavy charged particles (600 MeV/nucleon silicon) only as well as of cells exposed to protons followed after a 4-day interval by silicon ions. Both ions alone efficiently transformed the human cells to anchorage-independent growth. Initial experiments indicate that the dose responses for neoplastic transformation of cells exposed to protons and then after 4 days to silicon ions appear similar to that of cells exposed to silicon ions alone. PMID:16187755

  11. Fluxes of Water through Aquaporin 9 Weaken Membrane-Cytoskeleton Anchorage and Promote Formation of Membrane Protrusions

    PubMed Central

    Karlsson, Thommie; Bolshakova, Anastasia; Magalhães, Marco A. O.; Loitto, Vesa M.; Magnusson, Karl-Eric

    2013-01-01

    All modes of cell migration require rapid rearrangements of cell shape, allowing the cell to navigate within narrow spaces in an extracellular matrix. Thus, a highly flexible membrane and a dynamic cytoskeleton are crucial for rapid cell migration. Cytoskeleton dynamics and tension also play instrumental roles in the formation of different specialized cell membrane protrusions, viz. lamellipodia, filopodia, and membrane blebs. The flux of water through membrane-anchored water channels, known as aquaporins (AQPs) has recently been implicated in the regulation of cell motility, and here we provide novel evidence for the role of AQP9 in the development of various forms of membrane protrusion. Using multiple imaging techniques and cellular models we show that: (i) AQP9 induced and accumulated in filopodia, (ii) AQP9-associated filopodial extensions preceded actin polymerization, which was in turn crucial for their stability and dynamics, and (iii) minute, local reductions in osmolarity immediately initiated small dynamic bleb-like protrusions, the size of which correlated with the reduction in osmotic pressure. Based on this, we present a model for AQP9-induced membrane protrusion, where the interplay of water fluxes through AQP9 and actin dynamics regulate the cellular protrusive and motile activity of cells. PMID:23573219

  12. VOLTAGE REGULATOR

    DOEpatents

    Von Eschen, R.L.; Scheele, P.F.

    1962-04-24

    A transistorized voltage regulator which provides very close voitage regulation up to about 180 deg F is described. A diode in the positive line provides a constant voltage drop from the input to a regulating transistor emitter. An amplifier is coupled to the positive line through a resistor and is connected between a difference circuit and the regulating transistor base which is negative due to the difference in voltage drop across thc diode and the resistor so that a change in the regulator output causes the amplifier to increase or decrease the base voltage and current and incrcase or decrease the transistor impedance to return the regulator output to normal. (AEC)

  13. The LKB1 tumor suppressor differentially affects anchorage independent growth of HPV positive cervical cancer cell lines

    SciTech Connect

    Mack, Hildegard I.D.; Munger, Karl

    2013-11-15

    Infection with high-risk human papillomaviruses is causally linked to cervical carcinogenesis. However, most lesions caused by high-risk HPV infections do not progress to cancer. Host cell mutations contribute to malignant progression but the molecular nature of such mutations is unknown. Based on a previous study that reported an association between liver kinase B1 (LKB1) tumor suppressor loss and poor outcome in cervical cancer, we sought to determine the molecular basis for this observation. LKB1-negative cervical and lung cancer cells were reconstituted with wild type or kinase defective LKB1 mutants and we examined the importance of LKB1 catalytic activity in known LKB1-regulated processes including inhibition of cell proliferation and elevated resistance to energy stress. Our studies revealed marked differences in the biological activities of two kinase defective LKB1 mutants in the various cell lines. Thus, our results suggest that LKB1 may be a cell-type specific tumor suppressor. - Highlights: • LKB1 is a tumor suppressor that is linked to Peutz-Jeghers syndrome. • Peutz-Jeghers syndrome patients have a high incidence of cervical cancer. • Cervical cancer is caused by HPV infections. • This study investigates LKB1 tumor suppressor activity in cervical cancer.

  14. An hypothesis on the role of cellular colloid osmotic pressure in determining behavior of cells in vitro including anchorage dependency and maintenance of the differentiated state.

    PubMed

    Rappaport, C

    1984-12-21

    The osmotic problems involved when cells are isolated from tissues are analyzed. Evidence is considered which indicates that in vivo the Na pump is operating at maximal or near maximal rates and that this depends on low leak rates for salts and water due to various aspects of the tissues structure. Dispersion of the tissue results in breakdown of these barriers on free diffusion and the isolated cell is subjected to an enormous increase in passive influx due to colloid osmotic pressure without being able to increase its pumping rate to the extent needed to maintain volume control. It is proposed that the primary problem the cell faces in vitro is to compensate for the effective increase in its colloid pressure, e.g. the colloid osmotic pressure excess, emerging with the breakdown of the tissue structure. The finding that most normal cells have to adhere to a surface in order to grow or "anchorage dependency" is analyzed in terms of the way adhesion and spreading result in changes in ion and water movements into cells enabling them to achieve fluid balance in the face of the colloid pressure excess. It is also proposed that the differentiated state is more dependent on colloid osmotic balance than proliferation. The failure of conditions used in tissue culture to compensate adequately for the colloid pressure excess results in limiting the amount of protein which can be synthesized, dissipation of cellular energy, and changes in orientation of cellular components which contribute directly to the loss of differentiation which occurs during growth in vitro.

  15. MiR-424-5p reversed epithelial-mesenchymal transition of anchorage-independent HCC cells by directly targeting ICAT and suppressed HCC progression

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ying; Li, Tao; Guo, Pengbo; Kang, Jia; Wei, Qing; Jia, Xiaoqing; Zhao, Wei; Huai, Wanwan; Qiu, Yumin; Sun, Lei; Han, Lihui

    2014-01-01

    Resistance to anoikis and Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) are two processes critically involved in cancer metastasis. In this study, we demonstrated that after anchorage deprival, hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells not only resisted anoikis, but also exhibited EMT process. Microarray expression profiling revealed that expression of miR-424-5p was significantly decreased in anoikis-resistant HCC cells. Ectopic overexpression of miR-424-5p was sufficient to reverse resistance to anoikis, block EMT process and inhibit malignant behaviors of HCC cells. Target analysis showed that a potent β-catenin inhibitor, ICAT/CTNNBIP1 was a direct target of miR-424-5p. Further study demonstrated that miR-424-5p reversed resistance to anoikis and EMT of HCCs by directly targeting ICAT and further maintaining the E-cadherin/β-catanin complex on the cellular membrance. In vivo study further demonstrated that miR-424-5p significantly inhibited the tumorigenicity of HCC cells in nude mice. Clinical investigation demonstrated that miR-424-5p was significantly downregulated in HCC tissues compared with that of the non-cancerous liver tissues, and this decreased expression of miR-424-5p was significantly correlated with higher pathological grades and more advanced TNM stages. Therefore, aberrant expression of miR-424-5p is critically involved in resistance to anoikis and EMT during the metastatic process of HCC, and its downregulation significantly contributes to liver cancer progression. PMID:25175916

  16. Comparative Proteomics of Ovarian Cancer Aggregate Formation Reveals an Increased Expression of Calcium-activated Chloride Channel Regulator 1 (CLCA1)*

    PubMed Central

    Musrap, Natasha; Tuccitto, Alessandra; Karagiannis, George S.; Saraon, Punit; Batruch, Ihor; Diamandis, Eleftherios P.

    2015-01-01

    Ovarian cancer is a lethal gynecological disease that is characterized by peritoneal metastasis and increased resistance to conventional chemotherapies. This increased resistance and the ability to spread is often attributed to the formation of multicellular aggregates or spheroids in the peritoneal cavity, which seed abdominal surfaces and organs. Given that the presence of metastatic implants is a predictor of poor survival, a better understanding of how spheroids form is critical to improving patient outcome, and may result in the identification of novel therapeutic targets. Thus, we attempted to gain insight into the proteomic changes that occur during anchorage-independent cancer cell aggregation. As such, an ovarian cancer cell line, OV-90, was cultured in adherent and non-adherent conditions using stable isotope labeling with amino acids in cell culture (SILAC). Anchorage-dependent cells (OV-90AD) were grown in tissue culture flasks, whereas anchorage-independent cells (OV-90AI) were grown in suspension using the hanging-drop method. Cellular proteins from both conditions were then identified using LC-MS/MS, which resulted in the quantification of 1533 proteins. Of these, 13 and 6 proteins were up-regulated and down-regulated, respectively, in aggregate-forming cells compared with cells grown as monolayers. Relative gene expression and protein expression of candidates were examined in other cell line models of aggregate formation (TOV-112D and ES-2), which revealed an increased expression of calcium-activated chloride channel regulator 1 (CLCA1). Moreover, inhibitor and siRNA transfection studies demonstrated an apparent effect of CLCA1 on cancer cell aggregation. Further elucidation of the role of CLCA1 in the pathogenesis of ovarian cancer is warranted. PMID:26004777

  17. Comparative Proteomics of Ovarian Cancer Aggregate Formation Reveals an Increased Expression of Calcium-activated Chloride Channel Regulator 1 (CLCA1).

    PubMed

    Musrap, Natasha; Tuccitto, Alessandra; Karagiannis, George S; Saraon, Punit; Batruch, Ihor; Diamandis, Eleftherios P

    2015-07-10

    Ovarian cancer is a lethal gynecological disease that is characterized by peritoneal metastasis and increased resistance to conventional chemotherapies. This increased resistance and the ability to spread is often attributed to the formation of multicellular aggregates or spheroids in the peritoneal cavity, which seed abdominal surfaces and organs. Given that the presence of metastatic implants is a predictor of poor survival, a better understanding of how spheroids form is critical to improving patient outcome, and may result in the identification of novel therapeutic targets. Thus, we attempted to gain insight into the proteomic changes that occur during anchorage-independent cancer cell aggregation. As such, an ovarian cancer cell line, OV-90, was cultured in adherent and non-adherent conditions using stable isotope labeling with amino acids in cell culture (SILAC). Anchorage-dependent cells (OV-90AD) were grown in tissue culture flasks, whereas anchorage-independent cells (OV-90AI) were grown in suspension using the hanging-drop method. Cellular proteins from both conditions were then identified using LC-MS/MS, which resulted in the quantification of 1533 proteins. Of these, 13 and 6 proteins were up-regulated and down-regulated, respectively, in aggregate-forming cells compared with cells grown as monolayers. Relative gene expression and protein expression of candidates were examined in other cell line models of aggregate formation (TOV-112D and ES-2), which revealed an increased expression of calcium-activated chloride channel regulator 1 (CLCA1). Moreover, inhibitor and siRNA transfection studies demonstrated an apparent effect of CLCA1 on cancer cell aggregation. Further elucidation of the role of CLCA1 in the pathogenesis of ovarian cancer is warranted.

  18. 33 CFR 110.238 - Apra Harbor, Guam.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Apra Harbor, Guam. 110.238 Section 110.238 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.238 Apra Harbor, Guam. (a) The anchorage grounds (Datum: WGS 84). (1) General Anchorage. The...

  19. 33 CFR 110.50d - Mystic Harbor, Noank, Conn.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.50d Mystic Harbor, Noank, Conn. (a) The area... or buoys for marking anchors will be allowed but fixed piles or stakes are prohibited. All...

  20. Abduction of Toe-excavation Induced Failure Process from LEM and FDM for a Dip Slope with Rock Anchorage in Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, W.-S.; Lin, M.-L.; Liu, H.-C.; Lin, H.-H.

    2012-04-01

    On April 25, 2010, without rainfall and earthquake triggering a massive landslide (200000 m3) covered a 200m stretch of Taiwan's National Freeway No. 3, killing 4 people, burying three cars and destroying a bridge. The failure mode appears to be a dip-slope type failure occurred on a rock anchorage cut slope. The strike of Tertiary sedimentary strata is northeast-southwest and dip 15˚ toward southeast. Based on the investigations of Taiwan Geotechnical Society, there are three possible factors contributing to the failure mechanism as follow:(1) By toe-excavation during construction in 1998, the daylight of the sliding layer had induced the strength reduction in the sliding layer. It also caused the loadings of anchors increased rapidly and approached to their ultimate capacity; (2) Although the excavated area had stabilized soon with rock anchors and backfills, the weathering and groundwater infiltration caused the strength reduction of overlying rock mass; (3) The possible corrosion and age of the ground anchors deteriorate the loading capacity of rock anchors. Considering the strength of sliding layer had reduced from peak to residual strength which was caused by the disturbance of excavation, the limit equilibrium method (LEM) analysis was utilized in the back analysis at first. The results showed the stability condition of slope approached the critical state (F.S.≈1). The efficiency reduction of rock anchors and strength reduction of overlying stratum (sandstone) had been considered in following analysis. The results showed the unstable condition (F.S. <1). This research also utilized the result of laboratory test, geological strength index(GSI) and finite difference method (FDM, FLAC 5.0) to discuss the failure process with the interaction of disturbance of toe-excavation, weathering of rock mass, groundwater infiltration and efficiency reduction of rock anchors on the stability of slope. The analysis indicated that the incremental load of anchors have

  1. Partially transformed, anchorage-independent human diploid fibroblasts result from overexpression of the c-sis oncogene: Mitogenic activity of an apparent monomeric platelet-derived growth factor 2 species

    SciTech Connect

    Stevens, C.W.; Brondyk, W.H.; Burgess, J.A.; Manoharan, T.H.; Hane, B.G.; Fahl, W.E.

    1988-05-01

    A human c-sis cDNA in an expression vector was introduced into human diploid fibroblasts by transfection or electroporation. Fibroblast clones showing an aberrant, densely packed colony morphology were isolated and found to overexpress a 3.6-kilobase sis mRNA species and associated immunoprecipitable platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) 2 proteins. Parallel analyses in cell clones of sis mRNA expression and colony formation in agar indicated that, above a threshold, a linear, positive correlation existed between sis overexpression and acquired anchorage independence. The sis-overexpressing cells formed transient, regressing tumor nodules when injected into nude mice, consistent with the finite life span which they retained. Protein products generated from the transfected c-sis construct in two overexpressing clones were immunoprecipitated with anti-human PDGF antibodies. One clone contained an apparent PDGF dimer of 21 kilodaltons; the second clone contained only on apparent PDGF monomer of 12 kilodaltons, which was shown to account for all of the mitogenic activity present in the cells, essentially all of which was concentrated in the membrane fraction. The results demonstrate a clear link between sis overexpression and acquisition of a partially transformed, anchorage-independent phenotype, and when combined with previous observations of sis overexpression in human tumors, clearly implicate sis overexpression as a genetic mechanism which contributes to human cell transformation.

  2. The role of Rac1 in the regulation of NF-kB activity, cell proliferation, and cell migration in non-small cell lung carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Gastonguay, Adam; Berg, Tracy; Hauser, Andrew D.; Schuld, Nathan; Lorimer, Ellen; Williams, Carol L.

    2012-01-01

    The small GTPase Rac1 regulates many cellular processes, including cytoskeletal reorganization, cell migration, proliferation, and survival. Additionally, Rac1 plays a major role in activating NF-κB-mediated transcription. Both Rac1 and NF-κB regulate many properties of the malignant phenotype, including anchorage-independent proliferation and survival, metastasis, and angiogenesis. Despite these findings, the roles of Rac1and NF-κB in non-small cell lung carcinoma, a leading cause of cancer deaths, have not been thoroughly investigated. Here, we compared the effects of Rac1 siRNA to that of the Rac1 inhibitor NSC23766 on multiple features of the NSCLC malignant phenotype, including NF-κB activity. We show that the siRNA-mediated silencing of Rac1 in lung cancer cells results in decreased cell proliferation and migration. The decrease in proliferation was observed in both anchorage-dependent and anchorage-independent assays. Furthermore, cells with decreased Rac1 expression have a slowed progression through the G1 phase of the cell cycle. These effects induced by Rac1 siRNA correlated with a decrease in NF-κB transcriptional activity. Additionally, inhibition of NF-κB signaling with BAY 11–7082 inhibited proliferation; indicating that the loss of cell proliferation and migration induced by the silencing of Rac1 expression may be attributed in part to loss of NF-κB activity. Interestingly, treatment with the Rac1 inhibitor NSC23766 strongly inhibits cell proliferation, cell cycle progression, and NF-κB activity in lung cancer cells, to an even greater extent than the inhibition induced by Rac1 siRNA. These findings indicate that Rac1 plays an important role in lung cancer cell proliferation and migration, most likely through its ability to promote NF-κB activity, and highlight Rac1 pathways as therapeutic targets for the treatment of lung cancer. PMID:22549160

  3. The role of Rac1 in the regulation of NF-κB activity, cell proliferation, and cell migration in non-small cell lung carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Gastonguay, Adam; Berg, Tracy; Hauser, Andrew D; Schuld, Nathan; Lorimer, Ellen; Williams, Carol L

    2012-06-01

    The small GTPase Rac1 regulates many cellular processes, including cytoskeletal reorganization, cell migration, proliferation, and survival. Additionally, Rac1 plays a major role in activating NF-κB-mediated transcription. Both Rac1 and NF-κB regulate many properties of the malignant phenotype, including anchorage-independent proliferation and survival, metastasis, and angiogenesis. Despite these findings, the roles of Rac1and NF-κB in non-small cell lung carcinoma, a leading cause of cancer deaths, have not been thoroughly investigated. Here, we compared the effects of Rac1 siRNA to that of the Rac1 inhibitor NSC23766 on multiple features of the NSCLC malignant phenotype, including NF-κB activity. We show that the siRNA-mediated silencing of Rac1 in lung cancer cells results in decreased cell proliferation and migration. The decrease in proliferation was observed in both anchorage-dependent and anchorage-independent assays. Furthermore, cells with decreased Rac1 expression have a slowed progression through the G 1 phase of the cell cycle. These effects induced by Rac1 siRNA correlated with a decrease in NF-κB transcriptional activity. Additionally, inhibition of NF-κB signaling with BAY 11-7082 inhibited proliferation; indicating that the loss of cell proliferation and migration induced by the silencing of Rac1 expression may be attributed in part to loss of NF-κB activity. Interestingly, treatment with the Rac1 inhibitor NSC23766 strongly inhibits cell proliferation, cell cycle progression, and NF-κB activity in lung cancer cells, to an even greater extent than the inhibition induced by Rac1 siRNA. These findings indicate that Rac1 plays an important role in lung cancer cell proliferation and migration, most likely through its ability to promote NF-κB activity, and highlight Rac1 pathways as therapeutic targets for the treatment of lung cancer.

  4. Selective down-regulation of the alpha6-integrin subunit in melanocytes by UVB light.

    PubMed

    Krengel, Sven; Stark, Imke; Geuchen, Christian; Knoppe, Bettina; Scheel, Gabriele; Schlenke, Peter; Gebert, Andreas; Wünsch, Lutz; Brinckmann, Jürgen; Tronnier, Michael

    2005-06-01

    In vivo, melanocytes bind to laminin (LM) molecules of the basement membrane (BM) via the integrins alpha3beta1 and alpha6beta1, and they adhere to neighbouring keratinocytes via E-cadherin. Only few studies have addressed the impact of ultraviolet (UV) light on the interaction of melanocytes with their microenvironment. In this report, we examined the influence of UVB irradiation on the expression of the most important melanocyte-adhesion molecules (E-, N-cadherin, alpha2-, alpha3-, alpha5-, alpha6-, alphaV-, beta1-, beta3-integrins and ICAM-1) in vitro by flow cytometry. We were able to demonstrate that the alpha6-integrin subunit is selectively and reversibly down-regulated by UVB in a dwzm 150ose-dependent manner. In comparison, keratinocytes lacked UVB-inducible alterations in the expression of alpha6-integrin. In the presence of LM-1, the UVB-induced down-regulation of alpha6-integrin in melanocytes was significantly reduced. Moreover, LM-1 increased the resistance of melanocytes to UVB-induced cell death, as measured by annexinV-binding analysis. This effect was reversed by preincubation with an alpha6-integrin-blocking antibody. By immunofluorescence, we could demonstrate that UVB leads to a dose-dependent internalization of alpha6-integrin, providing an obvious explanation for the down-regulation on the outer cell surface observed by flow cytometry. We suggest that adhesion to LM-1 through alpha6-integrin represents a protective mechanism for melanocytes to withstand UVB damage. Through alpha6-integrin internalization, sunburns might alter the interaction between melanocytes and the BM, resulting in apoptosis induced by loss of anchorage (anoikis). Repeated sunburns may then lead to the selection of a population of melanocytes which are capable of anchorage-independent survival, culminating in solar nevogenesis and melanoma development.

  5. The ERK signaling target RNF126 regulates anoikis resistance in cancer cells by changing the mitochondrial metabolic flux.

    PubMed

    Yoshino, Seiko; Hara, Toshiro; Nakaoka, Hiroki J; Kanamori, Akane; Murakami, Yoshinori; Seiki, Motoharu; Sakamoto, Takeharu

    2016-01-01

    Loss of anchorage to the extracellular matrix leads to apoptosis (anoikis) in normal cells, but cancerous cells are usually resistant to such stress. Here we report the pivotal role of an E3 ubiquitin ligase, ring-finger protein 126 (RNF126), in the resistance of cancer cells to the stress associated with non-adherent conditions. Non-adherent cancer cells exhibited increased flux through the tricarboxylic acid cycle via increased conversion of pyruvate to acetyl-CoA. RNF126 was found to act as a ubiquitin ligase for pyruvate dehydrogenase kinases (PDKs), resulting in their proteasomal degradation. This decrease in PDK levels allowed pyruvate dehydrogenases to catalyze the conversion of pyruvate to acetyl-CoA. Moreover, depletion of RNF126 or increased expression of PDK1 in cancer cells suppressed colony formation in soft agar as well as tumorigenicity in mice. RNF126 expression in cancer cells was found to be under the control of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase signaling pathway, which is essential for anoikis resistance. Thus, RNF126 is an attractive molecule for treating cancer by selectively targeting anchorage-independent growth. PMID:27462466

  6. The ERK signaling target RNF126 regulates anoikis resistance in cancer cells by changing the mitochondrial metabolic flux

    PubMed Central

    Yoshino, Seiko; Hara, Toshiro; Nakaoka, Hiroki J; Kanamori, Akane; Murakami, Yoshinori; Seiki, Motoharu; Sakamoto, Takeharu

    2016-01-01

    Loss of anchorage to the extracellular matrix leads to apoptosis (anoikis) in normal cells, but cancerous cells are usually resistant to such stress. Here we report the pivotal role of an E3 ubiquitin ligase, ring-finger protein 126 (RNF126), in the resistance of cancer cells to the stress associated with non-adherent conditions. Non-adherent cancer cells exhibited increased flux through the tricarboxylic acid cycle via increased conversion of pyruvate to acetyl-CoA. RNF126 was found to act as a ubiquitin ligase for pyruvate dehydrogenase kinases (PDKs), resulting in their proteasomal degradation. This decrease in PDK levels allowed pyruvate dehydrogenases to catalyze the conversion of pyruvate to acetyl-CoA. Moreover, depletion of RNF126 or increased expression of PDK1 in cancer cells suppressed colony formation in soft agar as well as tumorigenicity in mice. RNF126 expression in cancer cells was found to be under the control of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase signaling pathway, which is essential for anoikis resistance. Thus, RNF126 is an attractive molecule for treating cancer by selectively targeting anchorage-independent growth. PMID:27462466

  7. [The mechanism of root hair development and molecular regulation in plants].

    PubMed

    Wang, Yue-Ping; Li, Ying-Hui; Guan, Rong-Xia; Liu, Zhang-Xiong; Chen, Xiong-Ting; Chang, Ru-Zhen; Qiu, Li-Juan

    2007-04-01

    The formation of the root epidermis in Arabidopsis thaliana provides a simple model to study mechanisms underlying patterning in plants. Root hair increases the root surface area and effectively increases the root diameter, so root hair is thought to aid plants in nutrient uptake, anchorage and microbe interactions. The determination of root hair development has two types, lateral inhibition with feedback and position-dependent pattern of cell differentiation. The initiation and development of root hair in Arabidopsis provide a simple and efficacious model for the study of cell fate determination in plants. Molecular genetic studies identify a suite of putative transcription factors which regulate the epidermal cell pattern. The homeodomain protein GLABRA2 (GL2), R2R3 MYB-type transcription factor WEREWOLF (WER) and WD-repeat protein TRANSPARENTT TESTA GLABRA (TTG) are required for specification of non-hair cell type. The CAPRICE (CPC) and TRYPTICHON (TRY) are involved in specifying the hair cell fate.

  8. NORM regulations

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, P.

    1997-02-01

    The author reviews the question of regulation for naturally occuring radioactive material (NORM), and the factors that have made this a more prominent concern today. Past practices have been very relaxed, and have often involved very poor records, the involvment of contractors, and the disposition of contaminated equipment back into commercial service. The rationale behind the establishment of regulations is to provide worker protection, to exempt low risk materials, to aid in scrap recycling, to provide direction for remediation and to examine disposal options. The author reviews existing regulations at federal and state levels, impending legislation, and touches on the issue of site remediation and potential liabilities affecting the release of sites contaminated by NORM.

  9. 33 CFR 110.131 - Sheepscot River in the vicinity of Edgecomb, Maine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.131 Sheepscot River in... the point of beginning. DATUM: NAD 83 (b) Regulations. (1) This anchorage is reserved for vessels of... through October. (3) Vessels are limited to a maximum stay of 1 week. (4) Fixed moorings, piles or...

  10. Kinase Suppressor of Ras 2 (KSR2) Regulates Tumor Cell Transformation via AMPK

    PubMed Central

    Fernandez, Mario R.; Henry, MaLinda D.

    2012-01-01

    Kinase suppressor of Ras 1 (KSR1) and KSR2 are scaffolds that promote extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signaling but have dramatically different physiological functions. KSR2−/− mice show marked deficits in energy expenditure that cause obesity. In contrast, KSR1 disruption has inconsequential effects on development but dramatically suppresses tumor formation by activated Ras. We examined the role of KSR2 in the generation and maintenance of the transformed phenotype in KSR1−/− mouse embryo fibroblasts (MEFs) expressing activated RasV12 and in tumor cell lines MIN6 and NG108-15. KSR2 rescued ERK activation and accelerated proliferation in KSR1−/− MEFs. KSR2 expression alone induced anchorage-independent growth and synergized with the transforming effects of RasV12. Similarly, RNA interference (RNAi) of KSR2 in MIN6 and NG108-15 cells inhibited proliferation and colony formation, with concomitant defects in AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling, nutrient metabolism, and metabolic capacity. While constitutive activation of AMPK was sufficient to complement the loss of KSR2 in metabolic signaling and anchorage-independent growth, KSR2 RNAi, MEK inhibition, and expression of a KSR2 mutant unable to interact with ERK demonstrated that mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase signaling is dispensable for the transformed phenotype of these cells. These data show that KSR2 is essential to tumor cell energy homeostasis and critical to the integration of mitogenic and metabolic signaling pathways. PMID:22801368

  11. 77 FR 4466 - Certifications and Exemptions Under the International Regulations for Preventing Collisions at...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-30

    ... as follows: 0 A. In Table Three by adding, in alpha numerical order, by vessel number, an entry for USS ANCHORAGE (LPD 23); and 0 B. In Table Four by adding, in alpha numerical order, by vessel number, and entry for USS ANCHORAGE (LPD 23); and 0 C. In Table Five by adding, in alpha numerical order,...

  12. 33 CFR 110.130 - Bar Harbor, Maine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.130 Bar Harbor, Maine. (a) Anchorage grounds. (1) Anchorage “A...″ N 068°11′41″ W; thence to 44°24′02″ N 068°13′03″ W; returning to start. (b) Regulations. (1... buoys for marking anchors will be allowed in all anchorage areas. (4) Fixed moorings, piles or...

  13. 33 CFR 110.250 - St. Thomas Harbor, Charlotte Amalie, V.I.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false St. Thomas Harbor, Charlotte Amalie, V.I. 110.250 Section 110.250 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.250 St. Thomas Harbor, Charlotte Amalie, V.I. (a) The anchorage grounds—(1)...

  14. 33 CFR 110.208 - Buffalo Harbor, N.Y.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Buffalo Harbor, N.Y. 110.208 Section 110.208 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.208 Buffalo Harbor, N.Y. (a) The anchorage...

  15. 33 CFR 110.150 - Block Island Sound, N.Y.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Block Island Sound, N.Y. 110.150 Section 110.150 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.150 Block Island Sound, N.Y. (a) The anchorage ground. A...

  16. 33 CFR 110.193a - St. Joseph Bay, Fla.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false St. Joseph Bay, Fla. 110.193a... ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.193a St. Joseph Bay, Fla. (a) The anchorage grounds—(1... northeast of the north entrance channel to Port St. Joe, Florida. (2) Explosives Anchorage Area 2....

  17. 33 CFR 110.239 - Island of Tinian, CNMI.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Island of Tinian, CNMI. 110.239 Section 110.239 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.239 Island of Tinian, CNMI. (a) The anchorage grounds...

  18. 33 CFR 110.239 - Island of Tinian, CNMI.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Island of Tinian, CNMI. 110.239 Section 110.239 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.239 Island of Tinian, CNMI. (a) The anchorage grounds...

  19. 33 CFR 110.239 - Island of Tinian, CNMI.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Island of Tinian, CNMI. 110.239 Section 110.239 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.239 Island of Tinian, CNMI. (a) The anchorage grounds...

  20. 33 CFR 110.239 - Island of Tinian, CNMI.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Island of Tinian, CNMI. 110.239 Section 110.239 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.239 Island of Tinian, CNMI. (a) The anchorage grounds...

  1. 33 CFR 110.239 - Island of Tinian, CNMI.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Island of Tinian, CNMI. 110.239 Section 110.239 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.239 Island of Tinian, CNMI. (a) The anchorage grounds...

  2. 33 CFR 110.240 - San Juan Harbor, P.R.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false San Juan Harbor, P.R. 110.240 Section 110.240 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.240 San Juan Harbor, P.R. (a) The anchorage...

  3. 33 CFR 110.240 - San Juan Harbor, P.R.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false San Juan Harbor, P.R. 110.240 Section 110.240 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.240 San Juan Harbor, P.R. (a) The anchorage...

  4. 33 CFR 110.240 - San Juan Harbor, P.R.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false San Juan Harbor, P.R. 110.240 Section 110.240 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.240 San Juan Harbor, P.R. (a) The anchorage...

  5. 33 CFR 110.142 - Nantucket Harbor, Mass.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Nantucket Harbor, Mass. 110.142 Section 110.142 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.142 Nantucket Harbor, Mass. (a) The anchorage grounds. In...

  6. 33 CFR 110.142 - Nantucket Harbor, Mass.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Nantucket Harbor, Mass. 110.142 Section 110.142 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.142 Nantucket Harbor, Mass. (a) The anchorage grounds. In...

  7. 33 CFR 110.142 - Nantucket Harbor, Mass.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Nantucket Harbor, Mass. 110.142 Section 110.142 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.142 Nantucket Harbor, Mass. (a) The anchorage grounds. In...

  8. 33 CFR 110.208 - Buffalo Harbor, N.Y.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Buffalo Harbor, N.Y. 110.208 Section 110.208 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.208 Buffalo Harbor, N.Y. (a) The anchorage...

  9. 33 CFR 110.240 - San Juan Harbor, P.R.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false San Juan Harbor, P.R. 110.240 Section 110.240 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.240 San Juan Harbor, P.R. (a) The anchorage...

  10. 33 CFR 110.210 - San Diego Harbor, CA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false San Diego Harbor, CA. 110.210... ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.210 San Diego Harbor, CA. (a) The anchorage grounds. (1... Commander, Naval Base, San Diego, CA. The administration of these anchorages is exercised by the...

  11. 33 CFR 110.210 - San Diego Harbor, CA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false San Diego Harbor, CA. 110.210... ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.210 San Diego Harbor, CA. (a) The anchorage grounds. (1... Commander, Naval Base, San Diego, CA. The administration of these anchorages is exercised by the...

  12. 33 CFR 110.240 - San Juan Harbor, P.R.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false San Juan Harbor, P.R. 110.240 Section 110.240 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.240 San Juan Harbor, P.R. (a) The anchorage...

  13. 33 CFR 110.142 - Nantucket Harbor, Mass.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Nantucket Harbor, Mass. 110.142 Section 110.142 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.142 Nantucket Harbor, Mass. (a) The anchorage grounds. In...

  14. 33 CFR 110.142 - Nantucket Harbor, Mass.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Nantucket Harbor, Mass. 110.142 Section 110.142 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.142 Nantucket Harbor, Mass. (a) The anchorage grounds. In...

  15. 33 CFR 110.233 - Prince William Sound, Alaska.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Prince William Sound, Alaska. 110... ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.233 Prince William Sound, Alaska. (a) The anchorage grounds. In Prince William Sound, Alaska, beginning at a point at latitude 60°40′00″ N., longitude...

  16. 33 CFR 110.233 - Prince William Sound, Alaska.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Prince William Sound, Alaska. 110... ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.233 Prince William Sound, Alaska. (a) The anchorage grounds. In Prince William Sound, Alaska, beginning at a point at latitude 60°40′00″ N., longitude...

  17. 33 CFR 110.233 - Prince William Sound, Alaska.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Prince William Sound, Alaska. 110... ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.233 Prince William Sound, Alaska. (a) The anchorage grounds. In Prince William Sound, Alaska, beginning at a point at latitude 60°40′00″ N., longitude...

  18. 33 CFR 110.233 - Prince William Sound, Alaska.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Prince William Sound, Alaska. 110... ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.233 Prince William Sound, Alaska. (a) The anchorage grounds. In Prince William Sound, Alaska, beginning at a point at latitude 60°40′00″ N., longitude...

  19. 33 CFR 110.233 - Prince William Sound, Alaska.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Prince William Sound, Alaska. 110... ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.233 Prince William Sound, Alaska. (a) The anchorage grounds. In Prince William Sound, Alaska, beginning at a point at latitude 60°40′00″ N., longitude...

  20. Charge regulation circuit

    DOEpatents

    Ball, Don G.

    1992-01-01

    A charge regulation circuit provides regulation of an unregulated voltage supply in the range of 0.01%. The charge regulation circuit is utilized in a preferred embodiment in providing regulated voltage for controlling the operation of a laser.

  1. KSR1 Is Overexpressed in Endometrial Carcinoma and Regulates Proliferation and TRAIL-Induced Apoptosis by Modulating FLIP Levels

    PubMed Central

    Llobet, David; Eritja, Nuria; Domingo, Monica; Bergada, Laura; Mirantes, Cristina; Santacana, Maria; Pallares, Judit; Macià, Anna; Yeramian, Andree; Encinas, Mario; Moreno-Bueno, Gema; Palacios, Jose; Lewis, Robert E.; Matias-Guiu, Xavier; Dolcet, Xavi

    2011-01-01

    The Raf/MEK/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathway participates in many processes altered in development and progression of cancer in human beings such as proliferation, transformation, differentiation, and apoptosis. Kinase suppressor of Ras 1 (KSR1) can interact with various kinases of the Raf/MEK/extracellular signal-regulated kinase pathway to enhance its activation. The role of KSR1 in endometrial carcinogenesis was investigated. cDNA and tissue microarrays demonstrated that expression of KSR1 was up-regulated in endometrial carcinoma. Furthermore, inhibition of KSR1 expression by specific small hairpin RNA resulted in reduction of both proliferation and anchorage-independent cell growth properties of endometrial cancer cells. Because inhibition of apoptosis has a pivotal role in endometrial carcinogenesis, the effects of KSR1 in regulation of tumor necrosis factor–related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL)–induced apoptosis were investigated. KSR1 knock-down sensitized resistant endometrial cell lines to both TRAIL- and Fas-induced apoptosis. Sensitization to TRAIL and agonistic anti-Fas antibody was caused by down-regulation of FLIP (FLICE-inhibitory protein). Also investigated was the molecular mechanism by which KSR1 regulates FLIP protein levels. It was demonstrated that KSR1 small hairpin RNA did not affect FLIP transcription or degradation. Rather, FLIP down-regulation was caused by Fas-associated death domain protein–dependent inhibition of FLIP translation triggered after TRAIL stimulation in KSR1-silenced cells. Re-expression of heterologous KSR1 in cells with down-regulated endogenous KSR1 restored FLIP protein levels and TRAIL resistance. In conclusion, KSR1 regulates endometrial sensitivity to TRAIL by regulating FLIP levels. PMID:21435442

  2. Radixin regulates synaptic GABAA receptor density and is essential for reversal learning and short-term memory

    PubMed Central

    Hausrat, Torben J.; Muhia, Mary; Gerrow, Kimberly; Thomas, Philip; Hirdes, Wiebke; Tsukita, Sachiko; Heisler, Frank F.; Herich, Lena; Dubroqua, Sylvain; Breiden, Petra; Feldon, Joram; Schwarz, Jürgen R; Yee, Benjamin K.; Smart, Trevor G.; Triller, Antoine; Kneussel, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    Neurotransmitter receptor density is a major variable in regulating synaptic strength. Receptors rapidly exchange between synapses and intracellular storage pools through endocytic recycling. In addition, lateral diffusion and confinement exchanges surface membrane receptors between synaptic and extrasynaptic sites. However, the signals that regulate this transition are currently unknown. GABAA receptors containing α5-subunits (GABAAR-α5) concentrate extrasynaptically through radixin (Rdx)-mediated anchorage at the actin cytoskeleton. Here we report a novel mechanism that regulates adjustable plasma membrane receptor pools in the control of synaptic receptor density. RhoA/ROCK signalling regulates an activity-dependent Rdx phosphorylation switch that uncouples GABAAR-α5 from its extrasynaptic anchor, thereby enriching synaptic receptor numbers. Thus, the unphosphorylated form of Rdx alters mIPSCs. Rdx gene knockout impairs reversal learning and short-term memory, and Rdx phosphorylation in wild-type mice exhibits experience-dependent changes when exposed to novel environments. Our data suggest an additional mode of synaptic plasticity, in which extrasynaptic receptor reservoirs supply synaptic GABAARs. PMID:25891999

  3. Extracellularly Extruded Syntaxin-4 Is a Potent Cornification Regulator of Epidermal Keratinocytes

    PubMed Central

    Kadono, Nanako; Hagiwara, Natsumi; Tagawa, Takashi; Maekubo, Kenji; Hirai, Yohei

    2015-01-01

    In the skin epidermis, keratinocytes undergo anchorage-dependent cornification, which gives rise to stratified multilayers, each with a distinct differentiation feature. The active formation of the cornified cell envelope (CCE), an important element in the skin barrier, occurs in keratinocytes of the upper epidermal layers and impacts their terminal differentiation. In the present study, we identified the extracellularly extruded syntaxin-4 as a potent differentiation regulator of epidermal keratinocytes. We found that differentiation stimuli led to the acceleration of syntaxin-4 exposure at the keratinocyte cell surface and that the artificial control of extracellular syntaxin-4, either by the forced expression of several syntaxin-4 mutants with structural alterations at the putative functional core site (AIEPQK), or by using antagonistic circular peptides containing this core sequence, dramatically influenced the CCE formation, with spatial misexpression of TGase1 and involucrin. We also found that the topical application of a peptide that exerted the most prominent antagonistic activity for syntaxin-4, named ST4n1, evidently prevented the formation of the hyperplastic and hyperkeratotic epidermis generated by physical irritation in HR-1 mice skin. Collectively, these results demonstrate that extracellularly extruded syntaxin-4 is a potent regulator of CCE differentiation, and that ST4n1 has potential as a clinically applicable reagent for keratotic skin lesions. PMID:25611434

  4. Nud1p, the yeast homolog of Centriolin, regulates spindle pole body inheritance in meiosis.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Oren; Taxis, Christof; Keller, Philipp J; Benjak, Aleksander; Stelzer, Ernst H K; Simchen, Giora; Knop, Michael

    2006-08-23

    Nud1p, a protein homologous to the mammalian centrosome and midbody component Centriolin, is a component of the budding yeast spindle pole body (SPB), with roles in anchorage of microtubules and regulation of the mitotic exit network during vegetative growth. Here we analyze the function of Nud1p during yeast meiosis. We find that a nud1-2 temperature-sensitive mutant has two meiosis-related defects that reflect genetically distinct functions of Nud1p. First, the mutation affects spore formation due to its late function during spore maturation. Second, and most important, the mutant loses its ability to distinguish between the ages of the four spindle pole bodies, which normally determine which SPB would be preferentially included in the mature spores. This affects the regulation of genome inheritance in starved meiotic cells and leads to the formation of random dyads instead of non-sister dyads under these conditions. Both functions of Nud1p are connected to the ability of Spc72p to bind to the outer plaque and half-bridge (via Kar1p) of the SPB. PMID:16888627

  5. The neurofibromatosis 2 tumor suppressor gene product, merlin, regulates human meningioma cell growth by signaling through YAP.

    PubMed

    Striedinger, Katherine; VandenBerg, Scott R; Baia, Gilson S; McDermott, Michael W; Gutmann, David H; Lal, Anita

    2008-11-01

    Neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2) is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by the occurrence of schwannomas and meningiomas. Several studies have examined the ability of the NF2 gene product, merlin, to function as a tumor suppressor in diverse cell types; however, little is known about merlin growth regulation in meningiomas. In Drosophila, merlin controls cell proliferation and apoptosis by signaling through the Hippo pathway to inhibit the function of the transcriptional coactivator Yorkie. The Hippo pathway is conserved in mammals. On the basis of these observations, we developed human meningioma cell lines matched for merlin expression to evaluate merlin growth regulation and investigate the relationship between NF2 status and Yes-associated protein (YAP), the mammalian homolog of Yorkie. NF2 loss in meningioma cells was associated with loss of contact-dependent growth inhibition, enhanced anchorage-independent growth and increased cell proliferation due to increased S-phase entry. In addition, merlin loss in both meningioma cell lines and primary tumors resulted in increased YAP expression and nuclear localization. Finally, siRNA-mediated reduction of YAP in NF2-deficient meningioma cells rescued the effects of merlin loss on cell proliferation and S-phase entry. Collectively, these results represent the first demonstration that merlin regulates cell growth in human cancer cells by suppressing YAP.

  6. 78 FR 4785 - Inland Waterways Navigation Regulation: Sacramento River, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-23

    ... the January 17, 2008, issue of the Federal Register (73 FR 3316). D. Public Meeting We do not now plan... transiting through or anchoring in the United States Army's tug and barge anchorage zones. The United States... associated with the United States government from navigating or anchoring within 50 feet of any...

  7. Ganodermanontriol (GDNT) exerts its effect on growth and invasiveness of breast cancer cells through the down-regulation of CDC20 and uPA

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, Jiahua; Jedinak, Andrej; Sliva, Daniel

    2011-11-18

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ganodermanontriol (GDNT), a Ganoderma mushroom alcohol, inhibits growth of breast cancer cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CDC20 is over-expressed in tumors but not in the tumor surrounding tissue in breast cancer patients. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer GDNT inhibits expression of CDC20 in breast cancer cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer GDNT inhibits cell adhesion, cell migration and cell invasion of breast cancer cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer GDNT inhibits secretion of uPA and down-regulates expression of uPAR in breast cancer cells. -- Abstract: Ganoderma lucidum is a medicinal mushroom that has been recognized by Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM). Although some of the direct anticancer activities are attributed to the presence of triterpenes-ganoderic and lucidenic acids-the activity of other compounds remains elusive. Here we show that ganodermanontriol (GDNT), a Ganoderma alcohol, specifically suppressed proliferation (anchorage-dependent growth) and colony formation (anchorage-independent growth) of highly invasive human breast cancer cells MDA-MB-231. GDNT suppressed expression of the cell cycle regulatory protein CDC20, which is over-expressed in precancerous and breast cancer cells compared to normal mammary epithelial cells. Moreover, we found that CDC20 is over-expressed in tumors when compared to the tissue surrounding the tumor in specimens from breast cancer patients. GDNT also inhibited invasive behavior (cell adhesion, cell migration, and cell invasion) through the suppression of secretion of urokinase-plasminogen activator (uPA) and inhibited expression of uPA receptor. In conclusion, mushroom GDNT is a natural agent that has potential as a therapy for invasive breast cancers.

  8. Chromosome 6 encoded RNaseT2 protein is a cell growth regulator

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jinglan; Zhawar, Vikramjit K; Kaur, Gurpreet; Kaur, G Pal; DeRiel, Jon Kimball; Kandpal, Raj P; Athwal, Raghbir S

    2010-01-01

    Abstract We have previously shown by chromosome transfer technique that chromosome 6 alters the phenotype of a variety of tumour cells and SV40 immortalized cells. We present here the phenotypic effects of the ectopic expression of RNaseT2, a highly conserved ribonuclease encoded by chromosome 6q27, in SV40 immortalized cell lines. We contrast our findings with those reported for ovarian carcinoma cell lines and an SV40 immortalized cell line transfected with RNaseT2. Although RNaseT2 expression is elevated in normal diploid fibroblasts approaching senescence (passage 64), forced expression of the gene in immortalized cells does not cause them to senesce. A significant reduction was observed in colony forming efficiency, anchorage independence and growth rate of cells transfected with RNaseT2. The levels of transcripts involved in Akt signalling pathway, cell cycle control and pathways related to cell proliferation decreased 2–10-folds in SV40 immortalized cells in response to RNaseT2 expression. Interestingly, some immortalized cells expressed alternatively spliced transcript variants instead of the full-length RNaseT2 transcript. Our results are consistent with the conclusion that RNaseT2 is a cell growth regulator and it does not induce senescence in SV40 immortalized cell lines. PMID:19382914

  9. Substrate flexibility regulates growth and apoptosis of normal but not transformed cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, H. B.; Dembo, M.; Wang, Y. L.

    2000-01-01

    One of the hallmarks of oncogenic transformation is anchorage-independent growth (27). Here we demonstrate that responses to substrate rigidity play a major role in distinguishing the growth behavior of normal cells from that of transformed cells. We cultured normal or H-ras-transformed NIH 3T3 cells on flexible collagen-coated polyacrylamide substrates with similar chemical properties but different rigidity. Compared with cells cultured on stiff substrates, nontransformed cells on flexible substrates showed a decrease in the rate of DNA synthesis and an increase in the rate of apoptosis. These responses on flexible substrates are coupled to decreases in cell spreading area and traction forces. In contrast, transformed cells maintained their growth and apoptotic characteristics regardless of substrate flexibility. The responses in cell spreading area and traction forces to substrate flexibility were similarly diminished. Our results suggest that normal cells are capable of probing substrate rigidity and that proper mechanical feedback is required for regulating cell shape, cell growth, and survival. The loss of this response can explain the unregulated growth of transformed cells.

  10. Key diffusion mechanisms involved in regulating bidirectional water permeation across E. coli outer membrane lectin.

    PubMed

    Sachdeva, Shivangi; Kolimi, Narendar; Nair, Sanjana Anilkumar; Rathinavelan, Thenmalarchelvi

    2016-01-01

    Capsular polysaccharides (CPSs) are major bacterial virulent determinants that facilitate host immune evasion. E. coli group1 K30CPS is noncovalently attached to bacterial surface by Wzi, a lectin. Intriguingly, structure based phylogenetic analysis indicates that Wzi falls into porin superfamily. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations further shed light on dual role of Wzi as it also functions as a bidirectional passive water specific porin. Such a functional role of Wzi was not realized earlier, due to the occluded pore. While five water specific entry points distributed across extracellular &periplasmic faces regulate the water diffusion involving different mechanisms, a luminal hydrophobic plug governs water permeation across the channel. Coincidently, MD observed open state structure of "YQF" triad is seen in sugar-binding site of sodium-galactose cotransporters, implicating its involvement in K30CPS surface anchorage. Importance of Loop 5 (L5) in membrane insertion is yet another highlight. Change in water diffusion pattern of periplasmic substitution mutants suggests Wzi's role in osmoregulation by aiding in K30CPS hydration, corroborating earlier functional studies. Water molecules located inside β-barrel of Wzi crystal structure further strengthens the role of Wzi in osmoregulation. Thus, interrupting water diffusion or L5 insertion may reduce bacterial virulence.

  11. Cholesterol segregates into submicrometric domains at the living erythrocyte membrane: evidence and regulation.

    PubMed

    Carquin, Mélanie; Conrard, Louise; Pollet, Hélène; Van Der Smissen, Patrick; Cominelli, Antoine; Veiga-da-Cunha, Maria; Courtoy, Pierre J; Tyteca, Donatienne

    2015-12-01

    Although cholesterol is essential for membrane fluidity and deformability, the level of its lateral heterogeneity at the plasma membrane of living cells is poorly understood due to lack of appropriate probe. We here report on the usefulness of the D4 fragment of Clostridium perfringens toxin fused to mCherry (theta*), as specific, non-toxic, sensitive and quantitative cholesterol-labeling tool, using erythrocyte flat membrane. By confocal microscopy, theta* labels cholesterol-enriched submicrometric domains in coverslip-spread but also gel-suspended (non-stretched) fresh erythrocytes, suggesting in vivo relevance. Cholesterol domains on spread erythrocytes are stable in time and space, restricted by membrane:spectrin anchorage via 4.1R complexes, and depend on temperature and sphingomyelin, indicating combined regulation by extrinsic membrane:cytoskeleton interaction and by intrinsic lipid packing. Cholesterol domains partially co-localize with BODIPY-sphingomyelin-enriched domains. In conclusion, we show that theta* is a useful vital probe to study cholesterol organization and demonstrate that cholesterol forms submicrometric domains in living cells.

  12. Key diffusion mechanisms involved in regulating bidirectional water permeation across E. coli outer membrane lectin

    PubMed Central

    Sachdeva, Shivangi; Kolimi, Narendar; Nair, Sanjana Anilkumar; Rathinavelan, Thenmalarchelvi

    2016-01-01

    Capsular polysaccharides (CPSs) are major bacterial virulent determinants that facilitate host immune evasion. E. coli group1 K30CPS is noncovalently attached to bacterial surface by Wzi, a lectin. Intriguingly, structure based phylogenetic analysis indicates that Wzi falls into porin superfamily. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations further shed light on dual role of Wzi as it also functions as a bidirectional passive water specific porin. Such a functional role of Wzi was not realized earlier, due to the occluded pore. While five water specific entry points distributed across extracellular & periplasmic faces regulate the water diffusion involving different mechanisms, a luminal hydrophobic plug governs water permeation across the channel. Coincidently, MD observed open state structure of “YQF” triad is seen in sugar-binding site of sodium-galactose cotransporters, implicating its involvement in K30CPS surface anchorage. Importance of Loop 5 (L5) in membrane insertion is yet another highlight. Change in water diffusion pattern of periplasmic substitution mutants suggests Wzi’s role in osmoregulation by aiding in K30CPS hydration, corroborating earlier functional studies. Water molecules located inside β-barrel of Wzi crystal structure further strengthens the role of Wzi in osmoregulation. Thus, interrupting water diffusion or L5 insertion may reduce bacterial virulence. PMID:27320406

  13. MEK-dependent IL-8 induction regulates the invasiveness of triple-negative breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sangmin; Lee, Jeongmin; Jeon, Myeongjin; Lee, Jeong Eon; Nam, Seok Jin

    2016-04-01

    Interleukin-8 (IL-8) serves as a prognostic marker for breast cancer, and its expression level correlates with metastatic breast cancer and poor prognosis. Here, we investigated the levels of IL-8 expression in a variety of breast cancer cells and the regulatory mechanism of IL-8 in triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) cells. Our results showed that IL-8 expression correlated positively with overall survival in basal-type breast cancer patients. The levels of IL-8 mRNA expression and protein secretion were significantly increased in TNBC cells compared with non-TNBC cells. In addition, the invasiveness of the TNBC cells was dramatically increased by IL-8 treatment and then augmented invasion-related proteins such as matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 or MMP-9. We observed that elevated IL-8 mRNA expression and protein secretion were suppressed by a specific MEK1/2 inhibitor, UO126. In contrast, the overexpression of constitutively active MEK significantly increased the level of IL-8 mRNA expression in BT474 non-TNBC cells. Finally, we investigated the effect of UO126 on the tumorigenecity of TNBC cells. Our results showed that anchorage-independent growth, cell invasion, and cell migration were also decreased by UO126 in TNBC cells. As such, we demonstrated that IL-8 expression is regulated through MEK/ERK-dependent pathways in TNBC cells. A diversity of MEK blockers, including UO126, may be promising for treating TNBC patients.

  14. 29 CFR 1926.755 - Column anchorage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) General requirements for erection stability. (1) All columns shall be anchored by a minimum of 4 anchor rods (anchor bolts). (2) Each column anchor rod (anchor bolt) assembly, including the column-to-base... of anchor rods (anchor bolts). (1) Anchor rods (anchor bolts) shall not be repaired, replaced...

  15. 33 CFR 109.05 - Anchorage grounds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Commander as provided in 33 CFR 1.05-1(e)(1)(i). (b) District Commanders will, whenever matters relating to...(j) of the Coast Guard and Maritime Transportation Act of 2006 (Pub. L. 109-241, 120 Stat. 516), and... CFR 1.46(c) and 1.45(b))...

  16. Anchorage Land Conveyance Act of 2013

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Rep. Young, Don [R-AK-At Large

    2013-02-06

    12/16/2013 Placed on the Union Calendar, Calendar No. 216. (All Actions) Notes: For further action, see H.R.3979, which became Public Law 113-291 on 12/19/2014. Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  17. Anchorage Land Conveyance Act of 2014

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Sen. Murkowski, Lisa [R-AK

    2013-01-30

    12/10/2014 Placed on Senate Legislative Calendar under General Orders. Calendar No. 629. (All Actions) Notes: For further action, see H.R.3979, which became Public Law 113-291 on 12/19/2014. Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  18. Transformation phenotype of polyoma virus-transformed rat fibroblasts: plasminogen activator production is modulated by the growth state of the cells and regulated by the expression of an early viral gene function.

    PubMed Central

    Perbal, B

    1980-01-01

    The expression of two transformation parameters, namely, ability to grow in agar and plasminogen activator production, was studied in several rat fibroblasts transformed by either wild-type or thermo-sensitive (tsa and ts25) polyoma viruses. The production of plasminogen activator was found to be dependent upon the growth state of the infected cells during a period of several days after infection. The analysis of the transformed phenotype of 25 tsa transformants and of 19 ts25 transformants independently isolated under various growth conditions led to the conclusion that there is no correlation between the regulation processes involved in plasminogen activator production and ability to grow without anchorage. The results obtained also suggested that the production of plasminogen activator is under the control of a functional large T antigen. PMID:6255182

  19. Load regulating expansion fixture

    DOEpatents

    Wagner, L.M.; Strum, M.J.

    1998-12-15

    A free standing self contained device for bonding ultra thin metallic films, such as 0.001 inch beryllium foils is disclosed. The device will regulate to a predetermined load for solid state bonding when heated to a bonding temperature. The device includes a load regulating feature, whereby the expansion stresses generated for bonding are regulated and self adjusting. The load regulator comprises a pair of friction isolators with a plurality of annealed copper members located therebetween. The device, with the load regulator, will adjust to and maintain a stress level needed to successfully and economically complete a leak tight bond without damaging thin foils or other delicate components. 1 fig.

  20. Load regulating expansion fixture

    DOEpatents

    Wagner, Lawrence M.; Strum, Michael J.

    1998-01-01

    A free standing self contained device for bonding ultra thin metallic films, such as 0.001 inch beryllium foils. The device will regulate to a predetermined load for solid state bonding when heated to a bonding temperature. The device includes a load regulating feature, whereby the expansion stresses generated for bonding are regulated and self adjusting. The load regulator comprises a pair of friction isolators with a plurality of annealed copper members located therebetween. The device, with the load regulator, will adjust to and maintain a stress level needed to successfully and economically complete a leak tight bond without damaging thin foils or other delicate components.

  1. Regulation of osteosarcoma cell lung metastasis by the c-Fos/AP-1 target FGFR1

    PubMed Central

    Weekes, Daniel; Zandueta, Carolina; Perurena, Naiara; Thomas, David P; Sunters, Andrew; Vuillier, Céline; Bozec, Aline; El-Emir, Ethaar; Miletich, Isabelle; Patiño-Garcia, Ana; Lecanda, Fernando; Grigoriadis, Agamemnon E

    2015-01-01

    Osteosarcoma is the most common primary malignancy of the skeleton and is prevalent in children and adolescents. Survival rates are poor and have remained stagnant due to chemoresistance and the high propensity to form lung metastases. In this study, we used in vivo transgenic models of c-fos oncogene-induced osteosarcoma and chondrosarcoma in addition to c-Fos-inducible systems in vitro to investigate downstream signaling pathways that regulate osteosarcoma growth and metastasis. Fgfr1 was identified as a novel c-Fos/AP-1 regulated gene. Induction of c-Fos in vitro in osteoblasts and chondroblasts caused an increase in Fgfr1 RNA and FGFR1 protein expression levels that resulted in increased and sustained activation of MAPKs, morphological transformation and increased anchorage-independent growth in response to FGF2 ligand treatment. High levels of FGFR1 protein and activated pFRS2α signalling were observed in murine and human osteosarcomas. Pharmacological inhibition of FGFR1 signalling blocked MAPK activation and colony growth of osteosarcoma cells in vitro. Orthotopic injection in vivo of FGFR1 silenced osteosarcoma cells caused a marked 2- to 5-fold decrease in spontaneous lung metastases. Similarly, inhibition of FGFR signalling in vivo with the small molecule inhibitor AZD4547 markedly reduced the number and size of metastatic nodules. Thus, deregulated FGFR signalling plays an important role in osteoblast transformation and osteosarcoma formation and regulates the development of lung metastases. Our findings support the development of anti-FGFR inhibitors as potential antimetastatic therapy. PMID:26387545

  2. Emerging role of long non-coding RNA SOX2OT in SOX2 regulation in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Askarian-Amiri, Marjan E; Seyfoddin, Vahid; Smart, Chanel E; Wang, Jingli; Kim, Ji Eun; Hansji, Herah; Baguley, Bruce C; Finlay, Graeme J; Leung, Euphemia Y

    2014-01-01

    The transcription factor SOX2 is essential for maintaining pluripotency in a variety of stem cells. It has important functions during embryonic development, is involved in cancer stem cell maintenance, and is often deregulated in cancer. The mechanism of SOX2 regulation has yet to be clarified, but the SOX2 gene lies in an intron of a long multi-exon non-coding RNA called SOX2 overlapping transcript (SOX2OT). Here, we show that the expression of SOX2 and SOX2OT is concordant in breast cancer, differentially expressed in estrogen receptor positive and negative breast cancer samples and that both are up-regulated in suspension culture conditions that favor growth of stem cell phenotypes. Importantly, ectopic expression of SOX2OT led to an almost 20-fold increase in SOX2 expression, together with a reduced proliferation and increased breast cancer cell anchorage-independent growth. We propose that SOX2OT plays a key role in the induction and/or maintenance of SOX2 expression in breast cancer.

  3. Emerging Role of Long Non-Coding RNA SOX2OT in SOX2 Regulation in Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Askarian-Amiri, Marjan E.; Seyfoddin, Vahid; Smart, Chanel E.; Wang, Jingli; Kim, Ji Eun; Hansji, Herah; Baguley, Bruce C.; Finlay, Graeme J.; Leung, Euphemia Y.

    2014-01-01

    The transcription factor SOX2 is essential for maintaining pluripotency in a variety of stem cells. It has important functions during embryonic development, is involved in cancer stem cell maintenance, and is often deregulated in cancer. The mechanism of SOX2 regulation has yet to be clarified, but the SOX2 gene lies in an intron of a long multi-exon non-coding RNA called SOX2 overlapping transcript (SOX2OT). Here, we show that the expression of SOX2 and SOX2OT is concordant in breast cancer, differentially expressed in estrogen receptor positive and negative breast cancer samples and that both are up-regulated in suspension culture conditions that favor growth of stem cell phenotypes. Importantly, ectopic expression of SOX2OT led to an almost 20-fold increase in SOX2 expression, together with a reduced proliferation and increased breast cancer cell anchorage-independent growth. We propose that SOX2OT plays a key role in the induction and/or maintenance of SOX2 expression in breast cancer. PMID:25006803

  4. 33 CFR 110.185 - Atlantic Ocean, off the Port of Palm Beach, FL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Atlantic Ocean, off the Port of... HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.185 Atlantic Ocean, off the Port... regulations. (1) Vessels in the Atlantic Ocean near Lake Worth Inlet awaiting berthing space at the Port...

  5. 33 CFR 110.185 - Atlantic Ocean, off the Port of Palm Beach, FL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Atlantic Ocean, off the Port of... HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.185 Atlantic Ocean, off the Port... regulations. (1) Vessels in the Atlantic Ocean near Lake Worth Inlet awaiting berthing space at the Port...

  6. 33 CFR 110.185 - Atlantic Ocean, off the Port of Palm Beach, FL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Atlantic Ocean, off the Port of... HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.185 Atlantic Ocean, off the Port... regulations. (1) Vessels in the Atlantic Ocean near Lake Worth Inlet awaiting berthing space at the Port...

  7. 33 CFR 110.185 - Atlantic Ocean, off the Port of Palm Beach, FL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Atlantic Ocean, off the Port of... HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.185 Atlantic Ocean, off the Port... regulations. (1) Vessels in the Atlantic Ocean near Lake Worth Inlet awaiting berthing space at the Port...

  8. 33 CFR 110.185 - Atlantic Ocean, off the Port of Palm Beach, FL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Atlantic Ocean, off the Port of... HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.185 Atlantic Ocean, off the Port... regulations. (1) Vessels in the Atlantic Ocean near Lake Worth Inlet awaiting berthing space at the Port...

  9. The calcium ATPase SERCA2 regulates desmoplakin dynamics and intercellular adhesive strength through modulation of PKCα signaling

    PubMed Central

    Hobbs, Ryan P.; Amargo, Evangeline V.; Somasundaram, Agila; Simpson, Cory L.; Prakriya, Murali; Denning, Mitchell F.; Green, Kathleen J.

    2011-01-01

    Darier's disease (DD) is an inherited autosomal-dominant skin disorder characterized histologically by loss of adhesion between keratinocytes. DD is typically caused by mutations in sarcoendoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase isoform 2 (SERCA2), a major regulator of intracellular Ca2+ homeostasis in the skin. However, a defined role for SERCA2 in regulating intercellular adhesion remains poorly understood. We found that diminution of SERCA2 function by pharmacological inhibition or siRNA silencing in multiple human epidermal-derived cell lines was sufficient to disrupt desmosome assembly and weaken intercellular adhesive strength. Specifically, SERCA2-deficient cells exhibited up to a 60% reduction in border translocation of desmoplakin (DP), the desmosomal cytolinker protein necessary for intermediate filament (IF) anchorage to sites of robust cell-cell adhesion. In addition, loss of SERCA2 impaired the membrane translocation of protein kinase C α (PKCα), a known regulator of DP-IF association and desmosome assembly, to the plasma membrane by up to 70%. Exogenous activation of PKCα in SERCA2-deficient cells was sufficient to rescue the defective DP localization, desmosome assembly, and intercellular adhesive strength to levels comparable to controls. Our findings indicate that SERCA2-deficiency is sufficient to impede desmosome assembly and weaken intercellular adhesive strength via a PKCα-dependent mechanism, implicating SERCA2 as a novel regulator of PKCα signaling.—Hobbs, R. P., Amargo, E. V., Somasundaram, A., Simpson, C. L., Prakriya, M., Denning, M. F., Green, K. J. The calcium ATPase SERCA2 regulates desmoplakin dynamics and intercellular adhesive strength through modulation of PKCα signaling. PMID:21156808

  10. Pressure reducing regulator

    DOEpatents

    Whitehead, J.C.; Dilgard, L.W.

    1995-10-10

    A pressure reducing regulator that controls its downstream or outlet pressure to a fixed fraction of its upstream or inlet pressure is disclosed. The regulator includes a housing which may be of a titanium alloy, within which is located a seal or gasket at the outlet end which may be made of annealed copper, a rod, and piston, each of which may be made of high density graphite. The regulator is insensitive to temperature by virtue of being without a spring or gas sealed behind a diaphragm, and provides a reference for a system in which it is being used. The rod and piston of the regulator are constructed, for example, to have a 1/20 ratio such that when the downstream pressure is less than 1/20 of the upstream pressure the regulator opens and when the downstream pressure exceeds 1/20 of the upstream pressure the regulator closes. 10 figs.

  11. Pressure reducing regulator

    DOEpatents

    Whitehead, John C.; Dilgard, Lemoyne W.

    1995-01-01

    A pressure reducing regulator that controls its downstream or outlet pressure to a fixed fraction of its upstream or inlet pressure. The regulator includes a housing which may be of a titanium alloy, within which is located a seal or gasket at the outlet end which may be made of annealed copper, a rod, and piston, each of which may be made of high density graphite. The regulator is insensitive to temperature by virtue of being without a spring or gas sealed behind a diaphragm, and provides a reference for a system in which it is being used. The rod and piston of the regulator are constructed, for example, to have a 1/20 ratio such that when the downstream pressure is less than 1/20 of the upstream pressure the regulator opens and when the downstream pressure exceeds 1/20 of the upstream pressure the regulator closes.

  12. TOWARD MORE EFFECTIVE REGULATION

    SciTech Connect

    J. GRAF

    2000-06-01

    This paper proposes a model relationship between the operator engaged in a hazardous activity, the regulator of that activity, and the general public. The roles and responsibilities of each entity are described in a way that allows effective communication flow. The role of the regulator is developed using the steam boiler as an example of a hazard subject to regulation; however, the model applies to any regulated activity. In this model the safety analyst has the extremely important role of communicating sometimes difficult technical information to the regulator in a way that the regulator can provide credible assurance to the general public as to the adequacy of the control of the hazardous activity. The conclusion asserts that acceptance of the model, understanding of the roles and responsibilities and definition of who communicates what information to whom will mitigate frustration on the part of each of the three entities.

  13. [Epigenetic regulation in spermatogenesis].

    PubMed

    Xu, Chen; Song, Ning

    2014-05-01

    Spermatogenesis is a process consisting of spermatogonial proliferation, spermatocytic meiosis, and spermiogenesis, and is also considered to be a process in which heterochromatins gradually aggregate and finally reach a highly condensed formation in the sperm head. Recent studies show that epigenetic regulation plays a key role in spermatogenesis. This review discusses the mechanisms of epigenetic regulation in spermatogenesis in three aspects, DNA methylation, histone modification, and noncoding RNAs. These factors are essential for spermatogenesis, fertilization, and embryogenesis by mutual regulation as well as by gene expression regulation, transposon activation, sex chromosome inactivation, and genome imprinting. PMID:24908726

  14. Plant Growth Regulators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nickell, Louis G.

    1978-01-01

    Describes the effect of "plant growth regulators" on plants, such as controlling the flowering, fruit development, plant size, and increasing crop yields. Provides a list of plant growth regulators which includes their chemical, common, and trade names, as well as their different use(s). (GA)

  15. Regulation of University Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindblom-Ylanne, Sari; Nevgi, Anne; Trigwell, Keith

    2011-01-01

    The aims of the present study are twofold: firstly, to explore dimensions in the regulation of teaching in a multidisciplinary sample of university teachers, and secondly, to analyse factors related to the regulation of university teaching. Seventy-three university teachers representing several disciplines participated in the study. These teachers…

  16. PTK7 regulates Id1 expression in CD44-high glioma cells

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Qing; Zhang, Chi; Yuan, Jian; Fu, Jun; Wu, Minghua; Su, Jun; Wang, Xiangyu; Yuan, Xianrui; Jiang, Weixi

    2015-01-01

    Background CD44 is a molecular marker associated with molecular subtype and treatment resistance in glioma. More effective therapies will result from approaches aimed at targeting the CD44-high gliomas. Methods Protein tyrosine kinase 7 (PTK7) mRNA expression was analyzed based on The Cancer Genome Atlas glioblastoma dataset. PTK7 expression was depleted through lentivirus-mediated short hairpin RNA knockdown. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick-end labeling was used to evaluate cell apoptosis following PTK7 knockdown. Gene expression analysis was performed on Affymetrix microarray. A nude mice orthotopic tumor model was used to evaluate the in vivo effect of PTK7 depletion. Results PTK7 is highly expressed in CD44-high glioblastoma and predicts unfavorable prognosis. PTK7 knockdown attenuated cell proliferation, impaired tumorigenic potential, and induced apoptosis in CD44-high glioma cell lines. Gene expression analysis identified inhibitor of DNA Binding 1 (Id1) gene as a potential downstream effector for PTK7. Overexpression of Id1 mostly restored the cell proliferation and colony formation attenuated by PTK7 depletion. PTK7 enhanced anchorage-independent growth in normal human astrocytes, which was attenuated by Id1 knockdown. Furthermore, PTK7 regulated Id1 expression through modulating TGF-β/Smad signaling, while pharmacological inhibition on TGF-β/Smad signaling or PTK7/Id1 depletion attenuated TGF-β–stimulated cell proliferation. PTK7 depletion consistently reduced Id1 expression, suppressed tumor growth, and induced apoptosis in a murine orthotopic tumor model, which could be translated into prolonged survival in tumor-bearing mice. Conclusions PTK7 regulates Id1 expression in CD44-high glioma cell lines. Targeting PTK7 could be an effective strategy for treating glioma with high CD44 expression. PMID:25204555

  17. Phosphoinositides regulate ion channels

    PubMed Central

    Hille, Bertil; Dickson, Eamonn J.; Kruse, Martin; Vivas, Oscar; Suh, Byung-Chang

    2014-01-01

    Phosphoinositides serve as signature motifs for different cellular membranes and often are required for the function of membrane proteins. Here, we summarize clear evidence supporting the concept that many ion channels are regulated by membrane phosphoinositides. We describe tools used to test their dependence on phosphoinositides, especially phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate, and consider mechanisms and biological meanings of phosphoinositide regulation of ion channels. This lipid regulation can underlie changes of channel activity and electrical excitability in response to receptors. Since different intracellular membranes have different lipid compositions, the activity of ion channels still in transit towards their final destination membrane may be suppressed until they reach an optimal lipid environment. PMID:25241941

  18. ras-induced Up-regulation of CTP:Phosphocholine Cytidylyltransferase α Contributes to Malignant Transformation of Intestinal Epithelial Cells*

    PubMed Central

    Arsenault, Daniel J.; Yoo, Byong H.; Rosen, Kirill V.; Ridgway, Neale D.

    2013-01-01

    Cancer cells have enhanced lipogenic capacity characterized by increased synthesis of fatty acids and complex lipids, including phosphatidylcholine (PC). As the rate-limiting enzyme in the CDP-choline pathway for PC synthesis, CTP:phosphocholine cytidylyltransferase α (CCTα) is implicated in the provision of membranes and bioactive lipids necessary of cell proliferation. In this study, we assessed the role of CCTα in malignant intestinal epithelial cells transformed with activated H-ras (IEC-ras). Three IEC-ras clones had significant up-regulation CCTα expression, but PC synthesis and in vitro activity of CCTα were similar to control IEC. RNA interference of CCTα in adherent IEC-ras did not affect PC synthesis, confirming that the enzyme was relatively inactive. However, CCTα silencing in ras-transformed IEC reduced anchorage-independent growth, a criterion for malignant transformation, as well as tumorigenicity in mice. Relative to their adherent counterparts, detached IEC-ras had increased PC synthesis that was attenuated by inducible CCTα silencing. Detachment of IEC-ras was accompanied by increased CCTα phosphorylation and cytosolic enzyme activity. We conclude that the expanded pool of CCTα in IEC-ras is activated by detachment. This provides the increased PC biosynthetic capacity that contributes to malignant transformation of intestinal epithelial cells when detached from the extracellular matrix. PMID:23155050

  19. Ubiquitin-specific protease 28 is overexpressed in human glioblastomas and contributes to glioma tumorigenicity by regulating MYC expression

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zengwu; Song, Qimin; Xue, Jian; Zhao, Yumei

    2015-01-01

    The transcription factor MYC, which is dysregulated in the majority of gliomas, is difficult to target directly. Deubiquitinase ubiquitin-specific protease 28 (USP28) stabilizes oncogenic factors, including MYC. However, the contribution of USP28 in tumorigenesis, particularly in glioma, is unknown. Here, we determined the expression of USP28 and assessed its clinical significance in human glioma. We found that USP28 is overexpressed in human glioma but not in normal brain tissue. The level of USP28 protein expression in human glioma tissues was directly correlated with glioma grade. Meanwhile, the level of USP28 protein expression in human glioblastoma tissues was inversely correlated with patient survival. Enforced USP28 expression promotes SW1783 glioma cell proliferation. Moreover, gliomas that arose from USP28-transfected SW1783 cells displayed tumorigenicity in nude mouse model systems. Inhibition of USP28 expression in glioblastoma U373 cells suppressed anchorage-independent growth in vitro and tumorigenicity in vivo. Furthermore, USP28 regulates the expression of MYC protein, which is essential in USP28-induced cell growth in glioma cells. These results showed that USP28 is overexpressed in human glioblastomas and it contributes to glioma tumorigenicity. Therefore, USP28 could be a new target of therapy for human malignant glioma. PMID:26209720

  20. κB-Ras proteins regulate both NF-κB-dependent inflammation and Ral-dependent proliferation.

    PubMed

    Oeckinghaus, Andrea; Postler, Thomas S; Rao, Ping; Schmitt, Heike; Schmitt, Verena; Grinberg-Bleyer, Yenkel; Kühn, Lars I; Gruber, Christian W; Lienhard, Gustav E; Ghosh, Sankar

    2014-09-25

    The transformation of cells generally involves multiple genetic lesions that undermine control of both cell death and proliferation. We now report that κB-Ras proteins act as regulators of NF-κB and Ral pathways, which control inflammation/cell death and proliferation, respectively. Cells lacking κB-Ras therefore not only show increased NF-κB activity, which results in increased expression of inflammatory mediators, but also exhibit elevated Ral activity, which leads to enhanced anchorage-independent proliferation (AIP). κB-Ras deficiency consequently leads to significantly increased tumor growth that can be dampened by inhibiting either Ral or NF-κB pathways, revealing the unique tumor-suppressive potential of κB-Ras proteins. Remarkably, numerous human tumors show reduced levels of κB-Ras, and increasing the level of κB-Ras in these tumor cells impairs their ability to undergo AIP, thereby implicating κB-Ras proteins in human disease.

  1. BVES regulates EMT in human corneal and colon cancer cells and is silenced via promoter methylation in human colorectal carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Christopher S.; Zhang, Baolin; Smith, J. Joshua; Jayagopal, Ashwath; Barrett, Caitlyn W.; Pino, Christopher; Russ, Patricia; Presley, Sai H.; Peng, DunFa; Rosenblatt, Daniel O.; Haselton, Frederick R.; Yang, Jin-Long; Washington, M. Kay; Chen, Xi; Eschrich, Steven; Yeatman, Timothy J.; El-Rifai, Wael; Beauchamp, R. Daniel; Chang, Min S.

    2011-01-01

    The acquisition of a mesenchymal phenotype is a critical step in the metastatic progression of epithelial carcinomas. Adherens junctions (AJs) are required for suppressing this epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) but less is known about the role of tight junctions (TJs) in this process. Here, we investigated the functions of blood vessel epicardial substance (BVES, also known as POPDC1 and POP1), an integral membrane protein that regulates TJ formation. BVES was found to be underexpressed in all stages of human colorectal carcinoma (CRC) and in adenomatous polyps, indicating its suppression occurs early in transformation. Similarly, the majority of CRC cell lines tested exhibited decreased BVES expression and promoter DNA hypermethylation, a modification associated with transcriptional silencing. Treatment with a DNA-demethylating agent restored BVES expression in CRC cell lines, indicating that methylation represses BVES expression. Reexpression of BVES in CRC cell lines promoted an epithelial phenotype, featuring decreased proliferation, migration, invasion, and anchorage-independent growth; impaired growth of an orthotopic xenograft; and blocked metastasis. Conversely, interfering with BVES function by expressing a dominant-negative mutant in human corneal epithelial cells induced mesenchymal features. These biological outcomes were associated with changes in AJ and TJ composition and related signaling. Therefore, BVES prevents EMT, and its epigenetic silencing may be an important step in promoting EMT programs during colon carcinogenesis. PMID:21911938

  2. Oct4 Mediates Tumor Initiating Properties in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinomas through the Regulation of Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Lo-Lin; Hu, Fang-Wei; Lee, Shiuan-Shinn; Yu, Chuan-Hang; Yu, Cheng-Chia; Chang, Yu-Chao

    2014-01-01

    Background Overexpression of Oct4, an important transcription factor of embryonic stem cells (ESC), has been reported in several cancers. The aim of this study was to determine the emerging role of Oct4 in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) both in vitro and in vivo. Methodology/Principal Finding Tumourigenic activity and molecular mechanisms of Oct4 overexpression or knockdown by lentiviral infection in OSCC was investigated in vitro and in vivo. Initially, we demonstrated that Oct4 expression was increased in OSCC cell lines as compared to a normal oral epithelial cell line SG. Overexpression of Oct4 was demonstrated to enhance cell proliferation, invasiveness, anchorage-independent growth and xenotransplantation tumourigenicity. These findings were coupled with epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) transformation in OSCCs. In contrast, the silence of Oct4 significantly blocked the xenograft tumorigenesis of OSCC-derived cancer stem cells (OSCC-CSCs) and significantly improved the recipient survival. Clinically, the level of Oct4 expression was higher in recurrent and metastatic OSCC specimens but lower in primary OSCC specimens. Conclusion/Significance Our results suggest that Oct4-mediated tumorigenecity is associated with the regulation of EMT. Oct4 might be a therapeutic target for OSCC. PMID:24475251

  3. HIGH PRESSURE GAS REGULATOR

    DOEpatents

    Ramage, R.W.

    1962-05-01

    A gas regulator operating on the piston and feedback principle is described. The device is particularly suitable for the delicate regulation of high pressure, i.e., 10,000 psi and above, gas sources, as well as being perfectly adaptable for use on gas supplies as low as 50 psi. The piston is adjustably connected to a needle valve and the movement of the piston regulates the flow of gas from the needle valve. The gas output is obtained from the needle valve. Output pressure is sampled by a piston feedback means which, in turn, regulates the movement of the main piston. When the output is other than the desired value, the feedback system initiates movement of the main piston to allow the output pressure to be corrected or to remain constant. (AEC)

  4. Stable hydraulic pressure regulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gold, H.

    1979-01-01

    Neither sensing line restrictors nor frictional dampers are required for stability. Analysis presents method by which stability margin, response, and droop magnitude can be incorporated during design of direct-acting hydraulic pressure regulators.

  5. Proposed EEOC Regulations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farrell, Michael

    1978-01-01

    This article explains how proposed Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) regulations attempt to circumvent the case of Weber vs Kaiser Aluminum Corp. by providing employers with backpay immunity in reverse discrimination suits. (Author)

  6. The Hippo pathway: regulators and regulations

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Fa-Xing; Guan, Kun-Liang

    2013-01-01

    Control of cell number is crucial in animal development and tissue homeostasis, and its dysregulation may result in tumor formation or organ degeneration. The Hippo pathway in both Drosophila and mammals regulates cell number by modulating cell proliferation, cell death, and cell differentiation. Recently, numerous upstream components involved in the Hippo pathway have been identified, such as cell polarity, mechanotransduction, and G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) signaling. Actin cytoskeleton or cellular tension appears to be the master mediator that integrates and transmits upstream signals to the core Hippo signaling cascade. Here, we review regulatory mechanisms of the Hippo pathway and discuss potential implications involved in different physiological and pathological conditions. PMID:23431053

  7. 33 CFR 110.186 - Port Everglades, Florida.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Port Everglades, Florida. 110.186... ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.186 Port Everglades, Florida. (a) The anchorage grounds. The... entrance to Port Everglades, is an area bounded by a line connecting points with the following...

  8. 33 CFR 110.147 - New London Harbor, Conn.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false New London Harbor, Conn. 110.147... ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.147 New London Harbor, Conn. (a) The anchorage grounds—(1... Thames River southward of New London, bounded by lines connecting points which are the following...

  9. 33 CFR 110.79c - Fish Creek Harbor, Fish Creek, Wisconsin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Fish Creek Harbor, Fish Creek, Wisconsin. 110.79c Section 110.79c Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.79c Fish Creek Harbor, Fish...

  10. 33 CFR 110.79c - Fish Creek Harbor, Fish Creek, Wisconsin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Fish Creek Harbor, Fish Creek, Wisconsin. 110.79c Section 110.79c Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.79c Fish Creek Harbor, Fish...

  11. 33 CFR 110.79c - Fish Creek Harbor, Fish Creek, Wisconsin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Fish Creek Harbor, Fish Creek, Wisconsin. 110.79c Section 110.79c Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.79c Fish Creek Harbor, Fish...

  12. 33 CFR 110.79c - Fish Creek Harbor, Fish Creek, Wisconsin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Fish Creek Harbor, Fish Creek, Wisconsin. 110.79c Section 110.79c Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.79c Fish Creek Harbor, Fish...

  13. 33 CFR 110.79c - Fish Creek Harbor, Fish Creek, Wisconsin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fish Creek Harbor, Fish Creek, Wisconsin. 110.79c Section 110.79c Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.79c Fish Creek Harbor, Fish...

  14. 33 CFR 110.52 - Thames River, New London, Conn.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Thames River, New London, Conn. 110.52 Section 110.52 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.52 Thames River, New London, Conn. (a) Area No. 1. An area in the westerly part of...

  15. 33 CFR 110.52 - Thames River, New London, Conn.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Thames River, New London, Conn. 110.52 Section 110.52 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.52 Thames River, New London, Conn. (a) Area No. 1. An area in the westerly part of...

  16. 33 CFR 110.52 - Thames River, New London, Conn.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Thames River, New London, Conn. 110.52 Section 110.52 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.52 Thames River, New London, Conn. (a) Area No. 1. An area in the westerly part of...

  17. 33 CFR 110.52 - Thames River, New London, Conn.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Thames River, New London, Conn. 110.52 Section 110.52 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.52 Thames River, New London, Conn. (a) Area No. 1. An area in the westerly part of...

  18. 33 CFR 110.85 - Niagara River, Youngstown, N.Y.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Niagara River, Youngstown, N.Y. 110.85 Section 110.85 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.85 Niagara River, Youngstown, N.Y. (a) Area...

  19. 33 CFR 110.84b - Buffalo, N.Y.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Buffalo, N.Y. 110.84b Section 110.84b Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.84b Buffalo, N.Y. The area within the Port of Buffalo known as...

  20. 33 CFR 110.8 - Lake Champlain, N.Y. and Vt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Lake Champlain, N.Y. and Vt. 110... ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.8 Lake Champlain, N.Y. and Vt. (a) Ticonderoga, N.Y. An area shoreward of a line bearing 312° from Ticonderoga Light to the southeast corner of...

  1. 33 CFR 110.87 - Henderson Harbor, N.Y.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Henderson Harbor, N.Y. 110.87 Section 110.87 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.87 Henderson Harbor, N.Y. (a) Area A. The area in...

  2. 33 CFR 110.129a - Apra Harbor, Guam. (Datum: WGS 84)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Apra Harbor, Guam. (Datum: WGS 84) 110.129a Section 110.129a Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.129a Apra Harbor, Guam. (Datum: WGS 84) (a) The waters bounded by a...

  3. 33 CFR 110.65 - Indian River Bay, Del.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Indian River Bay, Del. 110.65 Section 110.65 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.65 Indian River Bay, Del. Beginning at a point...

  4. 33 CFR 110.65 - Indian River Bay, Del.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Indian River Bay, Del. 110.65 Section 110.65 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.65 Indian River Bay, Del. Beginning at a point...

  5. 33 CFR 110.65 - Indian River Bay, Del.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Indian River Bay, Del. 110.65 Section 110.65 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.65 Indian River Bay, Del. Beginning at a point...

  6. 33 CFR 110.188 - Atlantic Ocean off Miami and Miami Beach, Fla.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Atlantic Ocean off Miami and... HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.188 Atlantic Ocean off Miami and... in cases of great emergency, no vessel shall be anchored in the Atlantic Ocean in the vicinity of...

  7. 33 CFR 110.182 - Atlantic Ocean off Fort George Inlet, near Mayport, Fla.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Atlantic Ocean off Fort George Inlet, near Mayport, Fla. 110.182 Section 110.182 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.182 Atlantic...

  8. 33 CFR 110.188 - Atlantic Ocean off Miami and Miami Beach, Fla.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Atlantic Ocean off Miami and... HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.188 Atlantic Ocean off Miami and... in cases of great emergency, no vessel shall be anchored in the Atlantic Ocean in the vicinity of...

  9. 33 CFR 110.182 - Atlantic Ocean off Fort George Inlet, near Mayport, Fla.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Atlantic Ocean off Fort George Inlet, near Mayport, Fla. 110.182 Section 110.182 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.182 Atlantic...

  10. 33 CFR 110.188 - Atlantic Ocean off Miami and Miami Beach, Fla.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Atlantic Ocean off Miami and... HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.188 Atlantic Ocean off Miami and... in cases of great emergency, no vessel shall be anchored in the Atlantic Ocean in the vicinity of...

  11. 33 CFR 110.182 - Atlantic Ocean off Fort George Inlet, near Mayport, Fla.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Atlantic Ocean off Fort George Inlet, near Mayport, Fla. 110.182 Section 110.182 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.182 Atlantic...

  12. 33 CFR 110.182 - Atlantic Ocean off Fort George Inlet, near Mayport, Fla.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Atlantic Ocean off Fort George Inlet, near Mayport, Fla. 110.182 Section 110.182 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.182 Atlantic...

  13. 33 CFR 110.182 - Atlantic Ocean off Fort George Inlet, near Mayport, Fla.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Atlantic Ocean off Fort George Inlet, near Mayport, Fla. 110.182 Section 110.182 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.182 Atlantic...

  14. 33 CFR 110.74b - Apollo Beach, Fla.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Apollo Beach, Fla. 110.74b Section 110.74b Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.74b Apollo Beach, Fla. Beginning at a...

  15. 33 CFR 110.73b - Indian River at Vero Beach, Fla.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Indian River at Vero Beach, Fla. 110.73b Section 110.73b Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.73b Indian River at Vero Beach, Fla. (a)...

  16. 33 CFR 110.74b - Apollo Beach, Fla.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Apollo Beach, Fla. 110.74b Section 110.74b Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.74b Apollo Beach, Fla. Beginning at a...

  17. 33 CFR 110.74b - Apollo Beach, Fla.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Apollo Beach, Fla. 110.74b Section 110.74b Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.74b Apollo Beach, Fla. Beginning at a...

  18. 33 CFR 110.73b - Indian River at Vero Beach, Fla.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Indian River at Vero Beach, Fla. 110.73b Section 110.73b Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.73b Indian River at Vero Beach, Fla. (a)...

  19. 33 CFR 110.73b - Indian River at Vero Beach, Fla.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Indian River at Vero Beach, Fla. 110.73b Section 110.73b Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.73b Indian River at Vero Beach, Fla. (a)...

  20. 33 CFR 110.73b - Indian River at Vero Beach, Fla.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Indian River at Vero Beach, Fla. 110.73b Section 110.73b Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.73b Indian River at Vero Beach, Fla. (a)...

  1. 33 CFR 110.74b - Apollo Beach, Fla.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Apollo Beach, Fla. 110.74b Section 110.74b Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.74b Apollo Beach, Fla. Beginning at a...

  2. 33 CFR 110.73b - Indian River at Vero Beach, Fla.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Indian River at Vero Beach, Fla. 110.73b Section 110.73b Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.73b Indian River at Vero Beach, Fla. (a)...

  3. 33 CFR 110.74b - Apollo Beach, Fla.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Apollo Beach, Fla. 110.74b Section 110.74b Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.74b Apollo Beach, Fla. Beginning at a...

  4. 33 CFR 110.250 - St. Thomas Harbor, Charlotte Amalie, V.I.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false St. Thomas Harbor, Charlotte... SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.250 St. Thomas Harbor, Charlotte Amalie... the outer end of a pier at latitude 18°20′19″, longitude 64°56′26″ (approximate) and ranging 85°....

  5. 33 CFR 110.183 - St. Johns River, Florida.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false St. Johns River, Florida. 110.183... ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.183 St. Johns River, Florida. (a) The anchorage grounds—(1... anchor in the St. Johns River, as depicted on NOAA chart 11491, between the entrance buoy (STJ) and...

  6. 33 CFR 110.250 - St. Thomas Harbor, Charlotte Amalie, V.I.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false St. Thomas Harbor, Charlotte... SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.250 St. Thomas Harbor, Charlotte Amalie... the outer end of a pier at latitude 18°20′19″, longitude 64°56′26″ (approximate) and ranging 85°....

  7. 33 CFR 110.183 - St. Johns River, Florida.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false St. Johns River, Florida. 110.183... ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.183 St. Johns River, Florida. (a) The anchorage grounds—(1... anchor in the St. Johns River, as depicted on NOAA chart 11491, between the entrance buoy (STJ) and...

  8. 33 CFR 110.183 - St. Johns River, Florida.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false St. Johns River, Florida. 110.183... ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.183 St. Johns River, Florida. (a) The anchorage grounds—(1... anchor in the St. Johns River, as depicted on NOAA chart 11491, between the entrance buoy (STJ) and...

  9. 33 CFR 110.150 - Block Island Sound, N.Y.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Block Island Sound, N.Y. 110.150... ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.150 Block Island Sound, N.Y. (a) The anchorage ground. A 3/4- by 2-mile rectangular area approximately 3 miles east-northeast of Gardiners Island with...

  10. 33 CFR 110.156 - Randall Bay, Freeport, Long Island, N.Y.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Island, N.Y. 110.156 Section 110.156 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.156 Randall Bay, Freeport, Long Island, N... available, may be assigned to any vessel by the Captain of the Port of Long Island Sound. (2) The Captain...

  11. 33 CFR 110.77b - Madeline Island, Wisconsin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Madeline Island, Wisconsin. 110... ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.77b Madeline Island, Wisconsin. The waters off of La Pointe Harbor, Madeline Island, Wisconsin, encompassed by the following: starting at...

  12. 33 CFR 110.50a - Fishers Island Sound, Stonington, Conn.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Fishers Island Sound, Stonington... SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.50a Fishers Island Sound, Stonington, Conn. An area on the east side of Mason Island bounded as follows: Beginning at the shore line...

  13. 33 CFR 110.128d - Island of Oahu, Hawaii. (Datum: OHD)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Island of Oahu, Hawaii. (Datum: OHD) 110.128d Section 110.128d Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.128d Island of Oahu, Hawaii....

  14. 33 CFR 110.128d - Island of Oahu, Hawaii. (Datum: OHD)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Island of Oahu, Hawaii. (Datum: OHD) 110.128d Section 110.128d Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.128d Island of Oahu, Hawaii....

  15. 33 CFR 110.128b - Island of Hawaii, Hawaii.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Island of Hawaii, Hawaii. 110.128b Section 110.128b Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.128b Island of Hawaii, Hawaii. (a) Hilo...

  16. 33 CFR 110.50a - Fishers Island Sound, Stonington, Conn.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Fishers Island Sound, Stonington... SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.50a Fishers Island Sound, Stonington, Conn. An area on the east side of Mason Island bounded as follows: Beginning at the shore line...

  17. 33 CFR 110.74 - Marco Island, Marco River, Fla.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Marco Island, Marco River, Fla. 110.74 Section 110.74 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.74 Marco Island, Marco River, Fla....

  18. 33 CFR 110.128b - Island of Hawaii, Hawaii.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Island of Hawaii, Hawaii. 110.128b Section 110.128b Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.128b Island of Hawaii, Hawaii. (a) Hilo...

  19. 33 CFR 110.72b - St. Simons Island, Georgia.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false St. Simons Island, Georgia. 110... ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.72b St. Simons Island, Georgia. The area beginning at a point southwest of Frederica River Bridge, St. Simons Island Causeway at latitude 31°09′58″...

  20. 33 CFR 110.128c - Island of Kauai, Hawaii.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Island of Kauai, Hawaii. 110.128c Section 110.128c Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.128c Island of Kauai, Hawaii. (a) Nawiliwili Bay....

  1. 33 CFR 110.50a - Fishers Island Sound, Stonington, Conn.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fishers Island Sound, Stonington... SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.50a Fishers Island Sound, Stonington, Conn. An area on the east side of Mason Island bounded as follows: Beginning at the shore line...

  2. 33 CFR 110.128c - Island of Kauai, Hawaii.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Island of Kauai, Hawaii. 110.128c Section 110.128c Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.128c Island of Kauai, Hawaii. (a) Nawiliwili Bay....

  3. 33 CFR 110.156 - Randall Bay, Freeport, Long Island, N.Y.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Island, N.Y. 110.156 Section 110.156 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.156 Randall Bay, Freeport, Long Island, N... available, may be assigned to any vessel by the Captain of the Port of Long Island Sound. (2) The Captain...

  4. 33 CFR 110.128b - Island of Hawaii, Hawaii.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Island of Hawaii, Hawaii. 110.128b Section 110.128b Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.128b Island of Hawaii, Hawaii. (a) Hilo...

  5. 33 CFR 110.77b - Madeline Island, Wisconsin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Madeline Island, Wisconsin. 110... ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.77b Madeline Island, Wisconsin. The waters off of La Pointe Harbor, Madeline Island, Wisconsin, encompassed by the following: starting at...

  6. 33 CFR 110.156 - Randall Bay, Freeport, Long Island, N.Y.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Randall Bay, Freeport, Long Island, N.Y. 110.156 Section 110.156 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.156 Randall Bay, Freeport, Long Island,...

  7. 33 CFR 110.77b - Madeline Island, Wisconsin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Madeline Island, Wisconsin. 110... ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.77b Madeline Island, Wisconsin. The waters off of La Pointe Harbor, Madeline Island, Wisconsin, encompassed by the following: starting at...

  8. 33 CFR 110.72b - St. Simons Island, Georgia.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false St. Simons Island, Georgia. 110... ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.72b St. Simons Island, Georgia. The area beginning at a point southwest of Frederica River Bridge, St. Simons Island Causeway at latitude 31°09′58″...

  9. 33 CFR 110.156 - Randall Bay, Freeport, Long Island, N.Y.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Island, N.Y. 110.156 Section 110.156 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.156 Randall Bay, Freeport, Long Island, N... available, may be assigned to any vessel by the Captain of the Port of Long Island Sound. (2) The Captain...

  10. 33 CFR 110.77b - Madeline Island, Wisconsin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Madeline Island, Wisconsin. 110... ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.77b Madeline Island, Wisconsin. The waters off of La Pointe Harbor, Madeline Island, Wisconsin, encompassed by the following: starting at...

  11. 33 CFR 110.74 - Marco Island, Marco River, Fla.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Marco Island, Marco River, Fla. 110.74 Section 110.74 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.74 Marco Island, Marco River, Fla....

  12. 33 CFR 110.50a - Fishers Island Sound, Stonington, Conn.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Fishers Island Sound, Stonington... SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.50a Fishers Island Sound, Stonington, Conn. An area on the east side of Mason Island bounded as follows: Beginning at the shore line...

  13. 33 CFR 110.128d - Island of Oahu, Hawaii. (Datum: OHD)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Island of Oahu, Hawaii. (Datum: OHD) 110.128d Section 110.128d Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.128d Island of Oahu, Hawaii....

  14. 33 CFR 110.150 - Block Island Sound, N.Y.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Block Island Sound, N.Y. 110.150... ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.150 Block Island Sound, N.Y. (a) The anchorage ground. A 3/4- by 2-mile rectangular area approximately 3 miles east-northeast of Gardiners Island with...

  15. 33 CFR 110.72b - St. Simons Island, Georgia.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false St. Simons Island, Georgia. 110... ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.72b St. Simons Island, Georgia. The area beginning at a point southwest of Frederica River Bridge, St. Simons Island Causeway at latitude 31°09′58″...

  16. 33 CFR 110.74 - Marco Island, Marco River, Fla.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Marco Island, Marco River, Fla. 110.74 Section 110.74 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.74 Marco Island, Marco River, Fla....

  17. 33 CFR 110.128c - Island of Kauai, Hawaii.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Island of Kauai, Hawaii. 110.128c Section 110.128c Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.128c Island of Kauai, Hawaii. (a) Nawiliwili Bay....

  18. 33 CFR 110.128d - Island of Oahu, Hawaii. (Datum: OHD)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Island of Oahu, Hawaii. (Datum: OHD) 110.128d Section 110.128d Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.128d Island of Oahu, Hawaii....

  19. 33 CFR 110.128c - Island of Kauai, Hawaii.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Island of Kauai, Hawaii. 110.128c Section 110.128c Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.128c Island of Kauai, Hawaii. (a) Nawiliwili Bay....

  20. 33 CFR 110.150 - Block Island Sound, N.Y.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Block Island Sound, N.Y. 110.150... ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.150 Block Island Sound, N.Y. (a) The anchorage ground. A 3/4- by 2-mile rectangular area approximately 3 miles east-northeast of Gardiners Island with...

  1. 33 CFR 110.150 - Block Island Sound, N.Y.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Block Island Sound, N.Y. 110.150... ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.150 Block Island Sound, N.Y. (a) The anchorage ground. A 3/4- by 2-mile rectangular area approximately 3 miles east-northeast of Gardiners Island with...

  2. 33 CFR 110.72b - St. Simons Island, Georgia.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false St. Simons Island, Georgia. 110... ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.72b St. Simons Island, Georgia. The area beginning at a point southwest of Frederica River Bridge, St. Simons Island Causeway at latitude 31°09′58″...

  3. 33 CFR 110.72b - St. Simons Island, Georgia.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false St. Simons Island, Georgia. 110... ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.72b St. Simons Island, Georgia. The area beginning at a point southwest of Frederica River Bridge, St. Simons Island Causeway at latitude 31°09′58″...

  4. 33 CFR 110.128b - Island of Hawaii, Hawaii.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Island of Hawaii, Hawaii. 110.128b Section 110.128b Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.128b Island of Hawaii, Hawaii. (a) Hilo...

  5. 33 CFR 110.128d - Island of Oahu, Hawaii. (Datum: OHD)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Island of Oahu, Hawaii. (Datum: OHD) 110.128d Section 110.128d Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.128d Island of Oahu, Hawaii....

  6. 33 CFR 110.77b - Madeline Island, Wisconsin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Madeline Island, Wisconsin. 110... ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.77b Madeline Island, Wisconsin. The waters off of La Pointe Harbor, Madeline Island, Wisconsin, encompassed by the following: starting at...

  7. 33 CFR 110.128b - Island of Hawaii, Hawaii.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Island of Hawaii, Hawaii. 110.128b Section 110.128b Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.128b Island of Hawaii, Hawaii. (a) Hilo...

  8. 33 CFR 110.74 - Marco Island, Marco River, Fla.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Marco Island, Marco River, Fla. 110.74 Section 110.74 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.74 Marco Island, Marco River, Fla....

  9. 33 CFR 110.50a - Fishers Island Sound, Stonington, Conn.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Fishers Island Sound, Stonington... SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.50a Fishers Island Sound, Stonington, Conn. An area on the east side of Mason Island bounded as follows: Beginning at the shore line...

  10. 33 CFR 110.128c - Island of Kauai, Hawaii.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Island of Kauai, Hawaii. 110.128c Section 110.128c Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.128c Island of Kauai, Hawaii. (a) Nawiliwili Bay....

  11. 33 CFR 110.74 - Marco Island, Marco River, Fla.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Marco Island, Marco River, Fla. 110.74 Section 110.74 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.74 Marco Island, Marco River, Fla....

  12. 33 CFR 110.48 - Thompson Cove on east side of Pawcatuck River below Westerly, R.I.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Thompson Cove on east side of Pawcatuck River below Westerly, R.I. 110.48 Section 110.48 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.48 Thompson Cove on east side of Pawcatuck River...

  13. 33 CFR 110.48 - Thompson Cove on east side of Pawcatuck River below Westerly, R.I.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Thompson Cove on east side of Pawcatuck River below Westerly, R.I. 110.48 Section 110.48 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.48 Thompson Cove on east side of Pawcatuck River...

  14. 33 CFR 110.48 - Thompson Cove on east side of Pawcatuck River below Westerly, R.I.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Thompson Cove on east side of Pawcatuck River below Westerly, R.I. 110.48 Section 110.48 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.48 Thompson Cove on east side of Pawcatuck River...

  15. 33 CFR 110.48 - Thompson Cove on east side of Pawcatuck River below Westerly, R.I.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Thompson Cove on east side of Pawcatuck River below Westerly, R.I. 110.48 Section 110.48 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.48 Thompson Cove on east side of Pawcatuck River...

  16. 33 CFR 110.48 - Thompson Cove on east side of Pawcatuck River below Westerly, R.I.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Thompson Cove on east side of Pawcatuck River below Westerly, R.I. 110.48 Section 110.48 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.48 Thompson Cove on east side of Pawcatuck River...

  17. 33 CFR 110.40 - Silver Beach Harbor, North Falmouth, Mass.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Silver Beach Harbor, North Falmouth, Mass. 110.40 Section 110.40 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.40 Silver Beach Harbor,...

  18. 33 CFR 110.40 - Silver Beach Harbor, North Falmouth, Mass.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Silver Beach Harbor, North Falmouth, Mass. 110.40 Section 110.40 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.40 Silver Beach Harbor,...

  19. 33 CFR 110.40 - Silver Beach Harbor, North Falmouth, Mass.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Silver Beach Harbor, North Falmouth, Mass. 110.40 Section 110.40 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.40 Silver Beach Harbor,...

  20. 33 CFR 110.40 - Silver Beach Harbor, North Falmouth, Mass.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Silver Beach Harbor, North Falmouth, Mass. 110.40 Section 110.40 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.40 Silver Beach Harbor,...