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Sample records for 16b kepler 34b

  1. HOW NOT TO BUILD TATOOINE: THE DIFFICULTY OF IN SITU FORMATION OF CIRCUMBINARY PLANETS KEPLER 16b, KEPLER 34b, AND KEPLER 35b

    SciTech Connect

    Paardekooper, Sijme-Jan; Baruteau, Clement; Leinhardt, Zoee M.; Thebault, Philippe

    2012-07-20

    We study planetesimal evolution in circumbinary disks, focusing on the three systems Kepler 16, 34, and 35 where planets have been discovered recently. We show that for circumbinary planetesimals, in addition to secular forcing, eccentricities evolve on a dynamical timescale, which leads to orbital crossings even in the presence of gas drag. This makes the current locations of the circumbinary Kepler planets hostile to planetesimal accretion. We then present results from simulations including planetesimal formation and dust accretion, and show that even in the most favorable case of 100% efficient dust accretion, in situ growth starting from planetesimals smaller than {approx}10 km is difficult for Kepler 16b, Kepler 34b, and Kepler 35b. These planets were likely assembled further out in the disk, and migrated inward to their current location.

  2. KEPLER-16b: SAFE IN A RESONANCE CELL

    SciTech Connect

    Popova, Elena A.; Shevchenko, Ivan I.

    2013-06-01

    The planet Kepler-16b is known to follow a circumbinary orbit around a system of two main-sequence stars. We construct stability diagrams in the ''pericentric distance-eccentricity'' plane, which show that Kepler-16b is in a hazardous vicinity to the chaos domain-just between the instability ''teeth'' in the space of orbital parameters. Kepler-16b survives, because it is close to the stable half-integer 11/2 orbital resonance with the central binary, safe inside a resonance cell bounded by the unstable 5/1 and 6/1 resonances. The neighboring resonance cells are vacant, because they are ''purged'' by Kepler-16b, due to overlap of first-order resonances with the planet. The newly discovered planets Kepler-34b and Kepler-35b are also safe inside resonance cells at the chaos border.

  3. Discovery of Kepler-16b

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA’s Kepler mission has turned fiction into fact. A world with a double sunset that was first imagined in "Star Wars" over 30 years ago in a galaxy far, far away has become scientific reality. ...

  4. Kepler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, C.; Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    Johannes Kepler (1571-1630) was arguably the most innovative astronomical theorist in the millennium and a half from Claudius PTOLEMY's Almagest (c. AD 150) to Isaac NEWTON's Principia (1687). Before Kepler, planetary and lunar theory had consisted in combining circular motions, either strictly uniform or angularly uniform about an off-center `equant' point, so as to `save the appearances'. T...

  5. Kepler

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howell, Steve B.

    2011-01-01

    The NASA Kepler mission recently announced over 1200 exoplanet candidates. While some are common Hot Jupiters, a large number are Neptune size and smaller, transit depths suggest sizes down to the radius of Earth. The Kepler project has a fairly high confidence that most of these candidates are real exoplanets. Many analysis steps and lessons learned from Kepler light curves are used during the vetting process. This talk will cover some new results in the areas of stellar variability, solar systems with multiple planets, and how transit-like signatures are vetted for false positives, especially those indicative of small planets.

  6. CIRCUMBINARY PLANET FORMATION IN THE KEPLER-16 SYSTEM. I. N-BODY SIMULATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Meschiari, Stefano

    2012-06-10

    The recently discovered circumbinary planets (Kepler-16 b, Kepler 34-b, Kepler 35-b) represent the first direct evidence of the viability of planet formation in circumbinary orbits. We report on the results of N-body simulations investigating planetesimal accretion in the Kepler-16 b system, focusing on the range of impact velocities under the influence of both stars' gravitational perturbation and friction from a putative protoplanetary disk. Our results show that planet formation might be effectively inhibited for a large range in semimajor axis (1.75 {approx}< a{sub P} {approx}< 4 AU), suggesting that the planetary core must have either migrated from outside 4 AU or formed in situ very close to its current location.

  7. Kepler's Orbit

    NASA Video Gallery

    Kepler does not orbit the Earth, rather it orbits the Sun in concert with the Earth, slowly drifting away from Earth. Every 61 Earth years, Kepler and Earth will pass by each other. Throughout the ...

  8. Johannes Kepler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bialas, Volker

    Johannes Kepler (1571 - 1630) gilt zurecht als einer der bedeutendsten Mathematiker und Astronomen der frühen Neuzeit, doch wurde das Philosophische in seinem Werk bislang kaum in angemessener Weise gewürdigt. Volker Bialas legt eine fundierte und anregende Einführung in Leben, Werk und Weltanschauung Keplers vor und setzt dabei durch die Akzentuierung des philosophisch-ganzheitlichen Denkens bewußt einen Kontrapunkt zum herkömmlichen Kepler-Bild.

  9. Kepler Orrery

    NASA Video Gallery

    Animation showing all the multiple-planet systems discovered by Kepler as of 2/2/2011; orbits go through the entire mission (3.5 years). Hot colors to cool colors (Red to yellow to green to cyan to...

  10. Modelling circumbinary protoplanetary disks. II. Gas disk feedback on planetesimal dynamical and collisional evolution in the circumbinary systems Kepler-16 and 34

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lines, S.; Leinhardt, Z. M.; Baruteau, C.; Paardekooper, S.-J.; Carter, P. J.

    2016-05-01

    Aims: We investigate the feasibility of planetesimal growth in circumbinary protoplanetary disks around the observed systems Kepler-16 and Kepler-34 under the gravitational influence of a precessing eccentric gas disk. Methods: We embed the results of our previous hydrodynamical simulations of protoplanetary disks around binaries into an N-body code to perform 3D, high-resolution, inter-particle gravity-enabled simulations of planetesimal growth and dynamics that include the gravitational force imparted by the gas. Results: Including the full, precessing asymmetric gas disk generates high eccentricity orbits for planetesimals orbiting at the edge of the circumbinary cavity, where the gas surface density and eccentricity have their largest values. The gas disk is able to efficiently align planetesimal pericenters in some regions leading to phased, non-interacting orbits. Outside of these areas eccentric planetesimal orbits become misaligned and overlap leading to crossing orbits and high relative velocities during planetesimal collisions. This can lead to an increase in the number of erosive collisions that far outweighs the number of collisions that result in growth. Gravitational focusing from the static axisymmetric gas disk is weak and does not significantly alter collision outcomes from the gas free case. Conclusions: Due to asymmetries in the gas disk, planetesimals are strongly perturbed onto highly eccentric orbits. Where planetesimals orbits are not well aligned, orbit crossings lead to an increase in the number of erosive collisions. This makes it difficult for sustained planetesimal accretion to occur at the location of Kepler-16b and Kepler-34b and we therefore rule out in situ growth. This adds further support to our initial suggestions that most circumbinary planets should form further out in the disk and migrate inwards.

  11. 17 CFR 240.16b-6 - Derivative securities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Derivative securities. 240.16b-6 Section 240.16b-6 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION (CONTINUED) GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS, SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934 Rules and Regulations Under the...

  12. 17 CFR 240.16b-6 - Derivative securities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Derivative securities. 240.16b-6 Section 240.16b-6 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION (CONTINUED) GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS, SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934 Rules and Regulations Under the...

  13. 17 CFR 240.16b-6 - Derivative securities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Derivative securities. 240.16b-6 Section 240.16b-6 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION (CONTINUED) GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS, SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934 Rules and Regulations Under the...

  14. 17 CFR 240.16b-6 - Derivative securities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Derivative securities. 240.16b-6 Section 240.16b-6 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION (CONTINUED) GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS, SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934 Rules and Regulations Under the...

  15. 17 CFR 240.16b-6 - Derivative securities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Derivative securities. 240.16b-6 Section 240.16b-6 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION (CONTINUED) GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS, SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934 Rules and Regulations Under the...

  16. Kepler's Third Law and NASA's "Kepler Mission"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gould, Alan; Komatsu, Toshi; DeVore, Edna; Harman, Pamela; Koch, David

    2015-01-01

    NASA's "Kepler Mission" has been wildly successful in discovering exoplanets. This paper summarizes the mission goals, briefly explains the transit method of finding exoplanets and design of the mission, provides some key findings, and describes useful education materials available at the "Kepler" website.

  17. Kepler's Third Law and NASA's Kepler Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gould, Alan; Komatsu, Toshi; DeVore, Edna; Harman, Pamela; Koch, David

    2015-04-01

    NASA's Kepler Mission (Fig. 1) has been wildly successful in discovering exoplanets. This paper summarizes the mission goals, briefly explains the transit method of finding exoplanets and design of the mission, provides some key findings, and describes useful education materials available at the Kepler website.

  18. Kepler Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borucki, William J.; DeVincenzi, D. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The first step in discovering, the extent of life in our galaxy is to determine the number of terrestrial planets in the habitable zone (HZ). The Kepler Mission is a 0.95 m aperture photometer scheduled to be launched in 2006. It is designed to continuously monitor the brightness of 100,000 solar-like stars to detect the transits of Earth-size and larger planets. The depth and repetition time of transits provide the size of the planet relative to the star and its orbital period. When combined with ground-based spectroscopy of these stars to fix the stellar parameters, the true planet radius and orbit scale, hence the relation to the HZ are determined. These spectra are also used to discover the relationships between the characteristics of planets and the stars they orbit. In particular, the association of planet size and occurrence frequency with stellar mass and metallicity will be investigated. Based on the results of the current Doppler - velocity discoveries, over a thousand giant planets will be found. Information on the albedos and densities of those giants showing transits will be obtained. At the end of the four year mission, hundreds of terrestrial planets should be discovered in and near the HZ of their stars if such planets are common. A null result would imply that terrestrial planets in the HZ occur in less than 1% of the stars and that life might be quite rare.

  19. DETAIL VIEW OF HYDRAULICS CONTROL PANEL IN ROOM 16B ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL VIEW OF HYDRAULICS CONTROL PANEL IN ROOM 16B - Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Launch Complex 39, Mobile Launcher Platforms, Launcher Road, East of Kennedy Parkway North, Cape Canaveral, Brevard County, FL

  20. Constraining the atmosphere of exoplanet WASP-34b

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Challener, Ryan; Harrington, Joseph; Cubillos, Patricio; Garland, Justin; Foster, Andrew S. D.; Blecic, Jasmina; Foster, Austin James; Smalley, Barry

    2016-01-01

    WASP-34b is a short-period exoplanet with a mass of 0.59 +/- 0.01 Jupiter masses orbiting a G5 star with a period of 4.3177 days and an eccentricity of 0.038 +/- 0.012 (Smalley, 2010). We observed WASP-34b using the 3.6 and 4.5 micron channels of the Infrared Array Camera aboard the Spitzer Space Telescope in 2010 (Program 60003). We applied our Photometry for Orbits, Eclipses, and Transits (POET) code to present eclipse-depth measurements, estimates of infrared brightness temperatures, and a refined orbit. With our Bayesian Atmospheric Radiative Transfer (BART) code, we characterized the atmosphere's temperature and pressure profile, and molecular abundances. Spitzer is operated by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under a contract with NASA. This work was supported by NASA Planetary Atmospheres grant NNX12AI69G and NASA Astrophysics Data Analysis Program grant NNX13AF38G. J. Blecic holds a NASA Earth and Space Science Fellowship.

  1. Stabilization of Kepler's problem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stokes, A.

    1977-01-01

    A regularization of Kepler's problem due to Moser (1970) is used to stabilize the equations of motion. In other words, a particular solution of Kepler's problem is imbedded in a Liapunov stable system. Perturbations can be introduced into the stabilized equations.

  2. Kepler's mathematization of Cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Field, Judith V.

    The paper concerns with mathematical knowledge of Johannes Kepler. A part of the paper describes the mathematical education of Kepler which includes the Euclidean geometry and texts by Ptolemy. The first He knew from the Proclus' Commentary which was published in 1533. The author is pointing out that Kepler's epistemology was close to Plato's. The "polyhedral archetype" is discussed in detail. The greatest error was in the case of Mercury (~20%) Kepler's reaction was otherwise absolutely what one would exopect of a theoretician in the twentieth century: he suggested that better observations would imoprouve matter. The author make an analogy with modern discussions on metal abundances in the outer layers of old stars. The author is mentioning also that the Kepler's version of Copernicus' system is noticeably different from Copernicus' original one, including important improvements.

  3. Kepler's "War on Mars"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorsey, William; Orchiston, W.; Stephenson, F. R.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents an interpretation of how Johannes Kepler changed the study of astronomy. We propose that in his metaphorical "War on Mars,” the Astronomia Nova, Kepler used a revolutionary rhetoric to bring about the usurpation of seventeenth-century astronomy. We discuss how Kepler approached the well-established conceptual framework within which the hypotheses of Ptolemy, Copernicus and Tycho Brahe functioned, and how he sought comprehensive physical principles that could determine the true cause and form of the known Universe. We examine Kepler's need to redefine reality and his use of rhetoric in shaping his astronomical argument for a new astronomy, and we show that his new `laws’ represent a fusion of physics and geometry based upon astronomical observations. We suggest that although Kepler may have believed in and defended some Copernican ideas, his innovative Astronomia Nova opened up a whole new vista for international astronomy.

  4. Near UV Observation of HAT-P-16b

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pearson, Kyle; Turner, J.

    2013-06-01

    We observed the primary transit of the hot Jupiter HAT-P-16b in the near-UV photometric band on December 29, 2012 in an attempt to detect its magnetic field. Vidotto, Jardine & Helling (2011) postulate that the magnetic field of HAT-P-16b can be constrained if its near-UV light curve shows an early ingress compared to its optical light curve, while its egress remains unswayed. Predicted magnetic fields of Jupiter-like planets should range between 8 G (Reiners & Christensen 2010) and 40 G (Sanchez-Lavega 2004). However, we derived an upper limit of the magnetic field strength of HAT-P-16b to range between 0.0082 and 0.82 G (for a 1--100 G magnetic field strength range for the host star, HAT-P-16). Using these magnetic field values and an assumed B* of 100 G, the Vidotto, Jardine & Helling (2011) method predicts a timing difference of 19--38 mins. We did not detect an early ingress in our night of observing when using a cadence of 45 seconds and an average photometric precision of 2.25 mmag. We present the first near-UV light curve of HAT-P-16b and find a near-UV planetary radius of 1.242+-0.056 (R_Jup) which is consistent with its near-IR radius of R=1.289+-0.066 (R_Jup) (Buchhave 2010). We developed an automated reduction pipeline and a modeling package to process our data. The modeling package utilizes the Levenberg-Marquardt minimization algorithm to find a least-squares best fit and a differential evolution Markov Chain Monte Carlo to find the best fit to the light curve, and uses both the residual permutation (rosary bead) method and time-averaging method (Pont 2006) to constrain the red noise in both fitting methods.

  5. Johannes Kepler on Christmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kemp, Martin

    2009-12-01

    Kepler's interpretation of the supernova of 1604, De Stella Nova, interwove the science of astronomy with astrology and theology in an attempt to determine the correct birthdate of Jesus, explains Martin Kemp.

  6. Kepler Field of View

    NASA Video Gallery

    The Kepler mission will be looking continuously at over 100,000 stars in one region of the sky, in the Cygnus and Lyra constellations. The field of view is extremely large for an astronomical teles...

  7. KEPLER SCIENCE OPERATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Haas, Michael R.; Bryson, Steve T.; Dotson, Jessie L.; Koch, David G.; Smith, Marcie; Sobeck, Charles K.; Batalha, Natalie M.; Stober, Jeremy

    2010-04-20

    Kepler's mission design includes a comprehensive plan for commissioning and science operations. The commissioning phase completed all critical tasks and accomplished all mission objectives within a week of the pre-launch plan. Since the start of science data collection, the nominal timeline has been interrupted by two safe-mode events, several losses of fine point, and some small pointing adjustments. The most important anomalies are understood and mitigated, so Kepler's technical performance has improved significantly over this period, and the prognosis for mission success is excellent. The Kepler data archive is established and hosting data for the science team, guest observers, and the public. The first data to become publicly available include the monthly full-frame images and the light curves for targets that are dropped from the exoplanet program or released after publication. Data are placed in the archive on a quarterly basis; the Kepler Results Catalog will be released annually starting in 2011.

  8. 17 CFR 240.16b-3 - Transactions between an issuer and its officers or directors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... and its officers or directors. 240.16b-3 Section 240.16b-3 Commodity and Securities Exchanges... Section 16(b) § 240.16b-3 Transactions between an issuer and its officers or directors. (a) General. A... conversion) or its underlying equity security. (e) Dispositions to the issuer. Any transaction, other than...

  9. 17 CFR 240.16b-3 - Transactions between an issuer and its officers or directors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... and its officers or directors. 240.16b-3 Section 240.16b-3 Commodity and Securities Exchanges... Section 16(b) § 240.16b-3 Transactions between an issuer and its officers or directors. (a) General. A... conversion) or its underlying equity security. (e) Dispositions to the issuer. Any transaction, other than...

  10. 17 CFR 240.16b-3 - Transactions between an issuer and its officers or directors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... and its officers or directors. 240.16b-3 Section 240.16b-3 Commodity and Securities Exchanges... Section 16(b) § 240.16b-3 Transactions between an issuer and its officers or directors. (a) General. A... conversion) or its underlying equity security. (e) Dispositions to the issuer. Any transaction, other than...

  11. 17 CFR 240.16b-3 - Transactions between an issuer and its officers or directors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... and its officers or directors. 240.16b-3 Section 240.16b-3 Commodity and Securities Exchanges... Section 16(b) § 240.16b-3 Transactions between an issuer and its officers or directors. (a) General. A... conversion) or its underlying equity security. (e) Dispositions to the issuer. Any transaction, other than...

  12. 17 CFR 240.16b-3 - Transactions between an issuer and its officers or directors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... and its officers or directors. 240.16b-3 Section 240.16b-3 Commodity and Securities Exchanges... Section 16(b) § 240.16b-3 Transactions between an issuer and its officers or directors. (a) General. A... conversion) or its underlying equity security. (e) Dispositions to the issuer. Any transaction, other than...

  13. Optimized solution of Kepler's equation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kohout, J. M.; Layton, L.

    1972-01-01

    A detailed description is presented of KEPLER, an IBM 360 computer program used for the solution of Kepler's equation for eccentric anomaly. The program KEPLER employs a second-order Newton-Raphson differential correction process, and it is faster than previously developed programs by an order of magnitude.

  14. Kepler and Mach's Principle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbour, Julian

    The definitive ideas that led to the creation of general relativity crystallized in Einstein's thinking during 1912 while he was in Prague. At the centenary meeting held there to mark the breakthrough, I was asked to talk about earlier great work of relevance to dynamics done at Prague, above all by Kepler and Mach. The main topics covered in this chapter are: some little known but basic facts about the planetary motions; the conceptual framework and most important discoveries of Ptolemy and Copernicus; the complete change of concepts that Kepler introduced and their role in his discoveries; the significance of them in Newton's work; Mach's realization that Kepler's conceptual revolution needed further development to free Newton's conceptual world of the last vestiges of the purely geometrical Ptolemaic world view; and the precise formulation of Mach's principle required to place GR correctly in the line of conceptual and technical evolution that began with the ancient Greek astronomers.

  15. Four-Component Bicyclization Approaches to Skeletally Diverse Pyrazolo[3,4-b]pyridine Derivatives

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    A novel four-component bicyclization strategy has been established, allowing a flexible and practical approach to 37 examples of multicyclic pyrazolo[3,4-b]pyridines from low-cost and readily accessible arylglyoxals, pyrazol-5-amines, aromatic amines, 4-hydroxy-6-methyl-2H-pyran-2-one, and cyclohexane-1,3-diones. The polysubstituted cyclopenta[d]pyrazolo[3,4-b]pyridines were stereoselectively synthesized through a microwave-assisted special [3+2+1]/[3+2] bicyclization with good control of the spatial configuration of exocyclic double bonds. The novel [3+2+1]/[2+2+1] bicyclization resulted in 17 examples of unreported pyrazolo[3,4-b]pyrrolo[4,3,2-de]quinolones. Reasonable mechanisms for forming two new types of multicyclic pyrazolo[3,4-b]pyridines are also proposed. PMID:25338160

  16. Johannes Kepler's Intelligent Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallace, Paul M.

    2006-12-01

    In the last decade, the theory labeled "Intelligent Design" has exacerbated long-standing conflicts between religion and science. This issue will be addressed from the perspective of the philosophy and science of Johannes Kepler (1571-1630), whose unconventional belief in design lived in harmony with his revolutionary physical astronomy.

  17. Kepler Planet Formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lissauer, Jack J.

    2015-01-01

    Kepler has vastly increased our knowledge of planets and planetary systems located close to stars. The new data shows surprising results for planetary abundances, planetary spacings and the distribution of planets on a mass-radius diagram. The implications of these results for theories of planet formation will be discussed.

  18. Kepler Field of View

    NASA Video Gallery

    Kepler-10b orbits one of the 150,000 stars that the spacecraft is monitoring between the constellations of Cygnus and Lyra. We aim our mosaic of 42 detectors there, under the swan’s wing, just ab...

  19. MicroRNA-34b promoter hypermethylation induces CREB overexpression and contributes to myeloid transformation.

    PubMed

    Pigazzi, Martina; Manara, Elena; Bresolin, Silvia; Tregnago, Claudia; Beghin, Alessandra; Baron, Emma; Giarin, Emanuela; Cho, Er-Chieh; Masetti, Riccardo; Rao, Dinesh S; Sakamoto, Kathleen M; Basso, Giuseppe

    2013-04-01

    MicroRNA-34b down-regulation in acute myeloid leukemia was previously shown to induce CREB overexpression, thereby causing leukemia proliferation in vitro and in vivo. The role of microRNA-34b and CREB in patients with myeloid malignancies has never been evaluated. We examined microRNA-34b expression and the methylation status of its promoter in cells from patients diagnosed with myeloid malignancies. We used gene expression profiling to identify signatures of myeloid transformation. We established that microRNA-34b has suppressor ability and that CREB has oncogenic potential in primary bone marrow cell cultures and in vivo. MicroRNA-34b was found to be up-regulated in pediatric patients with juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia (n=17) and myelodysplastic syndromes (n=28), but was down-regulated in acute myeloid leukemia patients at diagnosis (n=112). Our results showed that hypermethylation of the microRNA-34b promoter occurred in 66% of cases of acute myeloid leukemia explaining the low microRNA-34b levels and CREB overexpression, whereas preleukemic myelodysplastic syndromes and juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia were not associated with hypermethylation or CREB overexpression. In paired samples taken from the same patients when they had myelodysplastic syndrome and again during the subsequent acute myeloid leukemia, we confirmed microRNA-34b promoter hypermethylation at leukemia onset, with 103 CREB target genes differentially expressed between the two disease stages. This subset of CREB targets was confirmed to associate with high-risk myelodysplastic syndromes in a separate cohort of patients (n=20). Seventy-eight of these 103 CREB targets were also differentially expressed between healthy samples (n=11) and de novo acute myeloid leukemia (n=72). Further, low microRNA-34b and high CREB expression levels induced aberrant myelopoiesis through CREB-dependent pathways in vitro and in vivo. In conclusion, we suggest that microRNA-34b controls CREB expression and

  20. Animation: Kepler-11 and Six Orbiting Planets

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA's Kepler space telescope watches a star, Kepler-11. The star appears to blink in a pattern. It dims like clockwork as six "hands" of differing size orbit around it at different rates. Kepler-1...

  1. Kepler on Light and Sound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duncan, Alistair

    The works by Johannes Kepler on light ("Paralipomena ad Vitelionem" and "Dioptrice") and sound ("Harmonices Mundi") are reviewed. The author underlines that the "Harmonices Mundi" represents a dissertation on musical theory. Kepler assumed, that the human soul got pleasure from musical harmonies received through the ear, and indeed a succession of notes at melodic intervals, because the human mind perceived the ordained mathematically harmonic relationships between the notes. The contribution of Kepler in the understanding of the phenomenon of resonance is pointed out. Some mistakes by Kepler are also examined.

  2. Kepler's Multiple Planet Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lissauer, Jack J.

    2012-01-01

    Among the 1800 Kepler targets that have candidate planets, 20% have two or more candidate planets. While most of these objects have not yet been confirmed as true planets, several considerations strongly suggest that the vast majority of these multi-candidate systems are true planetary systems. Virtually all candidate systems are stable, as tested by numerical integrations (assuming a nominal mass-radius relationship). Statistical studies performed on these candidates reveal a great deal about the architecture of planetary systems, including the typical spacing of orbits and flatness of planetary systems. The distribution of observed period ratios shows that the vast majority of candidate pairs are neither in nor near low-order mean motion resonances. Nonetheless, there are small but statistically significant excesses of candidate pairs both in resonance and spaced slightly too far apart to be in resonance, particularly near the 2:1 resonance. The characteristics of the confirmed Kepler multi-planet systems will also be discussed.

  3. Kepler Mission Overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borucki, William J.; Koch, D. G.; Gautier, T. N., III; Dunham, E. W.; Kepler Science Team

    2011-01-01

    Early Kepler observations show the presence of over 750 candidate planets, 1800 eclipsing binary stars, and variable stars of amazing variety. Many of the planetary candidates are smaller than Neptune. Discoveries of seven new exoplanets are shown including one of with two confirmed transiting planets. The candidate- and the announced-planets are compared with known exoplanets with respect to mass, size, density, and orbital period. Support by the NASA Astrophysics Division is gratefully acknowledged.

  4. Deregulation of MiR-34b/Sox2 Predicts Prostate Cancer Progression.

    PubMed

    Forno, Irene; Ferrero, Stefano; Russo, Maria Veronica; Gazzano, Giacomo; Giangiobbe, Sara; Montanari, Emanuele; Del Nero, Alberto; Rocco, Bernardo; Albo, Giancarlo; Languino, Lucia R; Altieri, Dario C; Vaira, Valentina; Bosari, Silvano

    2015-01-01

    Most men diagnosed with prostate cancer will have an indolent and curable disease, whereas approximately 15% of these patients will rapidly progress to a castrate-resistant and metastatic stage with high morbidity and mortality. Therefore, the identification of molecular signature(s) that detect men at risk of progressing disease remains a pressing and still unmet need for these patients. Here, we used an integrated discovery platform combining prostate cancer cell lines, a Transgenic Adenocarcinoma of the Mouse Prostate (TRAMP) model and clinically-annotated human tissue samples to identify loss of expression of microRNA-34b as consistently associated with prostate cancer relapse. Mechanistically, this was associated with epigenetics silencing of the MIR34B/C locus and increased DNA copy number loss, selectively in androgen-dependent prostate cancer. In turn, loss of miR-34b resulted in downstream deregulation and overexpression of the "stemness" marker, Sox2. These findings identify loss of miR-34b as a robust biomarker for prostate cancer progression in androgen-sensitive tumors, and anticipate a potential role of progenitor/stem cell signaling in this stage of disease. PMID:26107383

  5. Deregulation of MiR-34b/Sox2 Predicts Prostate Cancer Progression

    PubMed Central

    Russo, Maria Veronica; Gazzano, Giacomo; Giangiobbe, Sara; Montanari, Emanuele; Del Nero, Alberto; Rocco, Bernardo; Albo, Giancarlo; Languino, Lucia R.; Altieri, Dario C.; Vaira, Valentina; Bosari, Silvano

    2015-01-01

    Most men diagnosed with prostate cancer will have an indolent and curable disease, whereas approximately 15% of these patients will rapidly progress to a castrate-resistant and metastatic stage with high morbidity and mortality. Therefore, the identification of molecular signature(s) that detect men at risk of progressing disease remains a pressing and still unmet need for these patients. Here, we used an integrated discovery platform combining prostate cancer cell lines, a Transgenic Adenocarcinoma of the Mouse Prostate (TRAMP) model and clinically-annotated human tissue samples to identify loss of expression of microRNA-34b as consistently associated with prostate cancer relapse. Mechanistically, this was associated with epigenetics silencing of the MIR34B/C locus and increased DNA copy number loss, selectively in androgen-dependent prostate cancer. In turn, loss of miR-34b resulted in downstream deregulation and overexpression of the “stemness” marker, Sox2. These findings identify loss of miR-34b as a robust biomarker for prostate cancer progression in androgen-sensitive tumors, and anticipate a potential role of progenitor/stem cell signaling in this stage of disease. PMID:26107383

  6. Kepler Equation solver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markley, F. Landis

    1995-01-01

    Kepler's Equation is solved over the entire range of elliptic motion by a fifth-order refinement of the solution of a cubic equation. This method is not iterative, and requires only four transcendental function evaluations: a square root, a cube root, and two trigonometric functions. The maximum relative error of the algorithm is less than one part in 10(exp 18), exceeding the capability of double-precision computer arithmetic. Roundoff errors in double-precision implementation of the algorithm are addressed, and procedures to avoid them are developed.

  7. THE KEPLER PIXEL RESPONSE FUNCTION

    SciTech Connect

    Bryson, Stephen T.; Haas, Michael R.; Dotson, Jessie L.; Koch, David G.; Borucki, William J.; Tenenbaum, Peter; Jenkins, Jon M.; Chandrasekaran, Hema; Caldwell, Douglas A.; Klaus, Todd; Gilliland, Ronald L.

    2010-04-20

    Kepler seeks to detect sequences of transits of Earth-size exoplanets orbiting solar-like stars. Such transit signals are on the order of 100 ppm. The high photometric precision demanded by Kepler requires detailed knowledge of how the Kepler pixels respond to starlight during a nominal observation. This information is provided by the Kepler pixel response function (PRF), defined as the composite of Kepler's optical point-spread function, integrated spacecraft pointing jitter during a nominal cadence and other systematic effects. To provide sub-pixel resolution, the PRF is represented as a piecewise-continuous polynomial on a sub-pixel mesh. This continuous representation allows the prediction of a star's flux value on any pixel given the star's pixel position. The advantages and difficulties of this polynomial representation are discussed, including characterization of spatial variation in the PRF and the smoothing of discontinuities between sub-pixel polynomial patches. On-orbit super-resolution measurements of the PRF across the Kepler field of view are described. Two uses of the PRF are presented: the selection of pixels for each star that maximizes the photometric signal-to-noise ratio for that star, and PRF-fitted centroids which provide robust and accurate stellar positions on the CCD, primarily used for attitude and plate scale tracking. Good knowledge of the PRF has been a critical component for the successful collection of high-precision photometry by Kepler.

  8. Splicing factor SR34b mutation reduces cadmium tolerance in Arabidopsis by regulating iron-regulated transporter 1 gene

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Wentao; Du, Bojing; Liu, Di; Qi, Xiaoting

    2014-12-12

    Highlights: • Arabidopsis splicing factor SR34b gene is cadmium-inducible. • SR34b T-DNA insertion mutant is sensitive to cadmium due to high cadmium uptake. • SR34b is a regulator of cadmium transporter IRT1 at the posttranscription level. • These results highlight the roles of splicing factors in cadmium tolerance of plant. - Abstract: Serine/arginine-rich (SR) proteins are important splicing factors. However, the biological functions of plant SR proteins remain unclear especially in abiotic stresses. Cadmium (Cd) is a non-essential element that negatively affects plant growth and development. In this study, we provided clear evidence for SR gene involved in Cd tolerance in planta. Systemic expression analysis of 17 Arabidopsis SR genes revealed that SR34b is the only SR gene upregulated by Cd, suggesting its potential roles in Arabidopsis Cd tolerance. Consistent with this, a SR34b T-DNA insertion mutant (sr34b) was moderately sensitive to Cd, which had higher Cd{sup 2+} uptake rate and accumulated Cd in greater amounts than wild-type. This was due to the altered expression of iron-regulated transporter 1 (IRT1) gene in sr34b mutant. Under normal growth conditions, IRT1 mRNAs highly accumulated in sr34b mutant, which was a result of increased stability of IRT1 mRNA. Under Cd stress, however, sr34b mutant plants had a splicing defect in IRT1 gene, thus reducing the IRT1 mRNA accumulation. Despite of this, sr34b mutant plants still constitutively expressed IRT1 proteins under Cd stress, thereby resulting in Cd stress-sensitive phenotype. We therefore propose the essential roles of SR34b in posttranscriptional regulation of IRT1 expression and identify it as a regulator of Arabidopsis Cd tolerance.

  9. 17 CFR 240.16b-5 - Bona fide gifts and inheritance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bona fide gifts and inheritance. 240.16b-5 Section 240.16b-5 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION (CONTINUED) GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS, SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934 Rules and Regulations Under...

  10. 17 CFR 240.16b-5 - Bona fide gifts and inheritance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Bona fide gifts and inheritance. 240.16b-5 Section 240.16b-5 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION... gifts and inheritance. Both the acquisition and the disposition of equity securities shall be...

  11. The Fruits of Kepler's Struggle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belonuchkin, B. E.

    1992-01-01

    Presents six learning activities dealing with planetary motion, the launching of satellites, and Halley's comet, all of which utilize the three laws of Johannes Kepler. These three laws are discussed in detail, and answers to the activities are provided. (KR)

  12. Kepler's Planetary Systems in Motion

    NASA Video Gallery

    The animation shows an overhead view of the orbital position of the planets in systems with multiple transiting planets discovered by NASA's Kepler mission as of Jan. 2012. All the colored planets ...

  13. Simulation of Kepler Supernova Explosion

    NASA Video Gallery

    This video shows a simulation of the Kepler supernova as it interacts with material expelled by the giant star companion to the white dwarf before the latter exploded. It was assumed that the bulk ...

  14. Kepler Data Release 4 Notes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Van Cleve, Jeffrey (Editor); Jenkins, Jon; Caldwell, Doug; Allen, Christopher L.; Batalha, Natalie; Bryson, Stephen T.; Chandrasekaran, Hema; Clarke, Bruce D.; Cote, Miles T.; Dotson, Jessie L.; Gilliland, Ron; Girouard, Forrest; Haas, Michael R.; Hall, Jennifer; Ibrahim, Khadeejah; Klaus, Todd; Kolodziejczak, Jeff; Li, Jie; McCauliff, Sean D.; Middour, Christopher K.; Pletcher, David L.; Quintana, Elisa V.; Tenenbaum, Peter G.; Twicken, Joe; Uddin, Akm Kamal

    2010-01-01

    The Data Analysis Working Group have released long and short cadence materials, including FFIs and Dropped Targets for the Public. The Kepler Science Office considers Data Release 4 to provide "browse quality" data. These notes have been prepared to give Kepler users of the Multimission Archive at STScl (MAST) a summary of how the data were collected and prepared, and how well the data processing pipeline is functioning on flight data. They will be updated for each release of data to the public archive and placed on MAST along with other Kepler documentation, at http://archive.stsci.edu/kepler/documents.html. Data release 3 is meant to give users the opportunity to examine the data for possibly interesting science and to involve the users in improving the pipeline for future data releases. To perform the latter service, users are encouraged to notice and document artifacts, either in the raw or processed data, and report them to the Science Office.

  15. A note on "Kepler's equation".

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutka, J.

    1997-07-01

    This note briefly points out the formal similarity between Kepler's equation and equations developed in Hindu and Islamic astronomy for describing the lunar parallax. Specifically, an iterative method for calculating the lunar parallax has been developed by the astronomer Habash al-Hasib al-Marwazi (about 850 A.D., Turkestan), which is surprisingly similar to the iterative method for solving Kepler's equation invented by Leonhard Euler (1707 - 1783).

  16. Kepler Mission Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koch, David; Borucki, William; Lissauer, J.; Mayer, David; Voss, Janice; Basri, Gibor; Gould, Alan; Brown, Timothy; Cockran, William; Caldwell, Douglas

    2005-01-01

    The Kepler Mission is in the development phase with launch planned for 2007. The mission goal first off is to reliably detect a significant number of Earth-size planets in the habitable zone of solar-like stars. The mission design allows for exploring the diversity of planetary sizes, orbital periods, stellar spectral types, etc. In this paper we describe the technical approach taken for the mission design; describing the flight and ground system, the detection methodology, the photometer design and capabilities, and the way the data are taken and processed. (For Stellar Classification program. Finally the detection capability in terms of planet size and orbit are presented as a function of mission duration and stellar type.

  17. Light curve analysis for eclipsing systems with exoplanets. The systems Kepler-5b, Kepler-6b, and Kepler-7b

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gostev, N. Yu.

    2011-07-01

    High-accuracy light curves for the binaries with exoplanets Kepler-5b, Kepler-6b, and Kepler-7b have been analyzed. The radii of the stars and the planets and the orbital inclinations of the binaries are derived. Reliable estimates of the linear and quadratic limb-darkening coefficients and their confidence intervals (uncertainties) are presented.

  18. miR-34b inhibits nasopharyngeal carcinoma cell proliferation by targeting ubiquitin-specific peptidase 22

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Jianyong; Li, Yingying; Zhang, Wenyin; Jiang, Yanni; Du, Biaoyan; Tan, Yuhui

    2016-01-01

    Objectives This study aimed to investigate the precise role of miR-34b in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Materials and methods: The expression of miR-34b and transcription of ubiquitin-specific peptidase 22 (USP22) were examined using quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Western blot analysis was used to measure the protein expression of USP22. A dualluciferase assay was used to investigate the interaction between miR-34b and USP22. Cell viability was determined by 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide assay. The cell cycle was analyzed by propidium iodide staining followed by flow cytometry analysis. Results miR-34b was significantly downregulated in NPC tissues and NPC cell lines. Overexpression of miR-34b in NPC SUNE-6-10B cells inhibited cell viability and proliferation. USP22 was highly expressed in NPC cells and promoted cell viability and proliferation. Restoration of USP22 expression could reverse the effect of miR-34b on NPC cell viability and proliferation. Conclusion miR-34b acts as a tumor suppressor in NPC, which is mediated via repression of the oncogene USP22. PMID:27051294

  19. Kepler Discovers Its First Rocky Planet

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA's Kepler mission confirmed the discovery of its first rocky planet, named Kepler-10b. Measuring 1.4 times the size of Earth, it is the smallest planet ever discovered outside our solar system....

  20. NASA's Kepler Mission Announces Latest Discoveries

    NASA Video Gallery

    Scientists from NASA's Kepler mission have been busy recently. The team has announced the discovery of Kepler-22b, its first confirmed planet in the habitable zone of its solar system, 600 light ye...

  1. Kepler-Daten von BR Cyg

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pagel, Lienhard

    2015-01-01

    In the Kepler field is the eclipsing binary BR Cyg. He is a BAV program star. In the KIC (Kepler Input Catalogue) he is associated with the identifier kplr009899416 [1]. There have been determined 1084 minima and as many secondary minima. Acknowledgement: This paper makes use of data from the Kepler exoplanetarchive.

  2. Accretion Timescales from Kepler AGN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasliwal, Vishal P.; Vogeley, Michael S.; Richards, Gordon T.

    2015-01-01

    We constrain AGN accretion disk variability mechanisms using the optical light curves of AGN observed by Kepler. AGN optical fluxes are known to exhibit stochastic variations on timescales of hours, days, months and years. The excellent sampling properties of the original Kepler mission - high S/N ratio (105), short sampling interval (30 minutes), and long sampling duration (~ 3.5 years) - allow for a detailed examination of the differences between the variability processes present in various sub-types of AGN such as Type I and II Seyferts, QSOs, and Blazars. We model the flux data using the Auto-Regressive Moving Average (ARMA) representation from the field of time series analysis. We use the Kalman filter to determine optimal mode parameters and use the Akaike Information Criteria (AIC) to select the optimal model. We find that optical light curves from Kepler AGN cannot be fit by low order statistical models such as the popular AR(1) process or damped random walk. Kepler light curves exhibit complicated power spectra and are better modeled by higher order ARMA processes. We find that Kepler AGN typically exhibit power spectra that change from a bending power law (PSD ~ 1/fa) to a flat power spectrum on timescales in the range of ~ 5 - 100 days consistent with the orbital and thermal timescales of a typical 107 solar mass black hole.

  3. The Kepler Full Frame Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dotson, Jessie L.; Batalha, N.; Bryson, S.; Caldwell, D. A.; Clarke, B.; Haas, M. R.; Jenkins, J.; Kolodziejczak, J.; Quintana, E.; Van Cleve, J.; Kepler Team

    2010-01-01

    NASA's exoplanet discovery mission Kepler provides uninterrupted 1-min and 30-min optical photometry of a 100 square degree field over a 3.5 yr nominal mission. Downlink bandwidth is filled at these short cadences by selecting only detector pixels specific to 105 preselected stellar targets. The majority of the Kepler field, comprising 4 x 106 mv < 20 sources, is sampled at much lower 1-month cadence in the form of a full-frame image. The Full Frame Images (FFIs) are calibrated by the Science Operations Center at NASA Ames Research Center. The Kepler Team employ these images for astrometric and photometric reference but make the images available to the astrophysics community through the Multimission Archive at STScI (MAST). The full-frame images provide a resource for potential Kepler Guest Observers to select targets and plan observing proposals, while also providing a freely-available long-cadence legacy of photometric variation across a swathe of the Galactic disk. Kepler was selected as the 10th mission of the Discovery Program. Funding for this mission is provided by NASA, Science Mission Directorate.

  4. Modeling Starspots on Kepler-78

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayo, Andrew; Vanderburg, Andrew; Dumusque, Xavier; Johnson, John A.

    2016-01-01

    Kepler-78 is a late G-type star which hosts Kepler-78b, an Earth-sized planet in an 8.5 hour orbit. The mass of Kepler-78b has been measured using the radial velocity technique, but this measurement is complicated by significant stellar activity, especially starspots. We present a new method for modeling starspots by applying a Markov Chain Monte Carlo process to the SOAP 2.0 starspot model. We apply this method to all available data simultaneously, including measurements of radial velocity, bisector span, and full width at half maximum. We recover the mass of Kepler-78b with excellent agreement to previous mass estimates. We also characterize the starspots of Kepler-78, constraining the latitude, longitude, size, and temperature of each spot group, and finding evidence of starspot evolution. Importantly, using both radial velocity measurements and line shape diagnostics seems to break the degeneracy between spot size and spot temperature. If this is correct, we also find that the starspots are warmer than one would expect of a G-type star. Our method of modeling starspots will allow us to better understand the surface phenomena of stars, as well as the properties of their planetary systems.

  5. Kepler's missing planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steffen, Jason H.

    2013-08-01

    We investigate the distributions of the orbital period ratios of adjacent planets in high-multiplicity Kepler systems (four or more planets) and low-multiplicity systems (two planets). Modelling the low-multiplicity sample as essentially equivalent to the high-multiplicity sample, but with unobserved intermediate planets, we find some evidence for an excess of planet pairs between the 2:1 and 3:1 mean-motion resonances in the low-multiplicity sample. This possible excess may be the result of strong dynamical interactions near these or other resonances or it may be a byproduct of other evolutionary events or processes such as planetary collisions. Three-planet systems show a significant excess of planets near the 2:1 mean-motion resonance that is not as prominent in either of the other samples. This observation may imply a correlation between strong dynamical interactions and observed planet number - perhaps a relationship between resonance pairs and the inclinations or orbital periods of additional planets. The period ratio distributions can also be used to identify targets to search for missing planets in the each of the samples, the presence or absence of which would have strong implications for planet formation and dynamical evolution models.

  6. Dynamics of Kepler's supernova remnant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borkowski, Kazimierz J.; Blondin, John M.; Sarazin, Craig L.

    1992-01-01

    Observations of Kepler's SNR have revealed a strong interaction with the ambient medium, far in excess of that expected at a distance of about 600 pc away from the Galactic plane where Kepler's SNR is located. This has been interpreted as a result of the interaction of supernova ejecta with the dense circumstellar medium (CSM). Based on the bow-shock model of Bandiera (1985), we study the dynamics of this interaction. The CSM distribution consists of an undisturbed stellar wind of a moving supernova progenitor and a dense shell formed in its interaction with a tenuous interstellar medium. Supernova ejecta drive a blast wave through the stellar wind which splits into the transmitted and reflected shocks upon hitting this bow-shock shell. We identify the transmitted shock with the nonradiative, Balmer-dominated shocks found recently in Kepler's SNR. The transmitted shock most probably penetrated the shell in the vicinity of the stagnation point.

  7. Multicomponent Dipolar Cycloaddition Strategy: Combinatorial Synthesis of Novel Spiro-Tethered Pyrazolo[3,4-b]quinoline Hybrid Heterocycles.

    PubMed

    Sumesh, Remani Vasudevan; Muthu, Muthumani; Almansour, Abdulrahman I; Suresh Kumar, Raju; Arumugam, Natarajan; Athimoolam, S; Jeya Yasmi Prabha, E Arockia; Kumar, Raju Ranjith

    2016-05-01

    The stereoselective syntheses of a library of novel spiro-tethered pyrazolo[3,4-b]quinoline-pyrrolidine/pyrrolothiazole/indolizine-oxindole/acenaphthene hybrid heterocycles have been achieved through the 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition of azomethine ylides generated in situ from α-amino acids and 1,2-diketones to dipolarophiles derived from pyrazolo[3,4-b]quinoline derivatives. PMID:27027478

  8. Kepler Data Release 3 Notes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cleve, Jeffrey E.

    2010-01-01

    This describes the collection of data and the processing done on it so when researchers around the world get the Kepler data sets (which are a set of pixels from the telescope of a particular target (star, galaxy or whatever) over a 3 month period) they can adjust their algorithms fro things that were done (like subtracting all of one particular wavelength for example). This is used to calibrate their own algorithms so that they know what it is they are starting with. It is posted so that whoever is accessing the publicly available data (not all of it is made public) can understand it .. (most of the Kepler data is under restriction for 1 - 4 years and is not available, but the handbook is for everyone (public and restricted) The Data Analysis Working Group have released long and short cadence materials, including FFls and Dropped Targets for the Public. The Kepler Science Office considers Data Release 3 to provide "browse quality" data. These notes have been prepared to give Kepler users of the Multimission Archive at STScl (MAST) a summary of how the data were collected and prepared, and how well the data processing pipeline is functioning on flight data. They will be updated for each release of data to the public archive and placed on MAST along with other Kepler documentation, at http:// archive.stsci.edu/kepler/documents.html .Data release 3 is meant to give users the opportunity to examine the data for possibly interesting science and to involve the users in improving the pipeline for future data releases. To perform the latter service, users are encouraged to notice and document artifacts, either in the raw or processed data, and report them to the Science Office.

  9. Secondary eclipse observations and the atmosphere of exoplanet WASP-34b

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Challener, Ryan C.; Harrington, Joseph; Cubillos, Patricio; Garland, Justin; Foster, Andrew S. D.; Blecic, Jasmina; Foster, AJ; Smalley, Barry

    2015-11-01

    WASP-34b is a short-period exoplanet with a mass of 0.59 ± 0.01 Jupiter masses orbiting a G5 star with a period of 4.3177 days and an eccentricity of 0.038 ± 0.012 (Smalley, 2010). We observed WASP-34b using the 3.6 and 4.5 μm channels of the Infrared Array Camera aboard the Spitzer Space Telescope in 2010 (Program 60003). We applied our Photometry for Orbits, Eclipses, and Transits (POET) code to present eclipse-depth measurements, estimates of infrared brightness temperatures, and a refined orbit. With our Bayesian Atmospheric Radiative Transfer (BART) code, we characterized the atmosphere's temperature and pressure profile, and molecular abundances. Spitzer is operated by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under a contract with NASA. This work was supported by NASA Planetary Atmospheres grant NNX12AI69G and NASA Astrophysics Data Analysis Program grant NNX13AF38G. J. Blecic holds a NASA Earth and Space Science Fellowship.

  10. Selecting Pixels for Kepler Downlink

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bryson, Stephen T.; Jenkins, Jon M.; Klaus, Todd C.; Cote, Miles T.; Quintana, Elisa V.; Hall, Jennifer R.; Ibrahim, Khadeejah; Chandrasekaran, Hema; Caldwell, Douglas A.; Van Cleve, Jeffrey E.; Haas, Michael R.

    2010-01-01

    The Kepler mission monitors > 100,000 stellar targets using 42 2200 1024 pixel CCDs. Bandwidth constraints prevent the downlink of all 96 million pixels per 30-minute cadence, so the Kepler spacecraft downlinks a specified collection of pixels for each target. These pixels are selected by considering the object brightness, background and the signal-to-noise of each pixel, and are optimized to maximize the signal-to-noise ratio of the target. This paper describes pixel selection, creation of spacecraft apertures that efficiently capture selected pixels, and aperture assignment to a target. Diagnostic apertures, short-cadence targets and custom specified shapes are discussed.

  11. MicroRNA-34b/c suppresses uveal melanoma cell proliferation and migration through multiple targets

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Feng

    2012-01-01

    Purpose MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are endogenously expressed, small noncoding RNAs that inhibit gene expression by binding to target mRNAs. Recent studies have revealed that miRNAs function as tumor suppressors or oncogenes. In the present study, we investigated the role of miRNA-34b/c in uveal melanoma. Methods Real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was performed to detect the expression level of miR-34b/c in uveal melanoma cells and primary samples. Subsequently, uveal melanoma cell proliferation was examined by the MTS (3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-5-[3-carboxymethoxyphenyl]-2-[4-sulfophenyl] -2H-tetrazolium, inner salt) assay, clone formation assay, and flow cytometry. Cell apoptosis was measured by caspase3/7 assay. Cell migration was evaluated by transwell migration assay. The target of miR-34b/c was predicted by bioinformatics and validated by luciferase assay. In addition, the effect of miR-34b/c on c-Met, cell cycle-related proteins, v-akt murine thymoma viral oncogene homolog (Akt) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathway was determined by western blotting. Results miR-34b/c expression, which was dramatically decreased in uveal melanoma cells and clinical samples, can be upregulated by doxorubicin and epigenetic drugs. The transfection of miR-34b/c into uveal melanoma cells leads to a significant reduction in cell growth and migration. miR-34b/c caused cell cycle G1 arrest rather than the induction of apoptosis. Met proto-oncogene (c-Met) was identified as a target of miR-34b/c in uveal melanoma cells. Furthermore, miR-34b/c was confirmed to downregulate the expression of c-Met, p-Akt, and cell cycle–related proteins by western blotting. Conclusions Our results demonstrate that both miR-34b and miR-34c act as tumor suppressors in uveal melanoma cell proliferation and migration through the downregulation of multiple targets. PMID:22419847

  12. Canonical Transformations of Kepler Trajectories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mostowski, Jan

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, canonical transformations generated by constants of motion in the case of the Kepler problem are discussed. It is shown that canonical transformations generated by angular momentum are rotations of the trajectory. Particular attention is paid to canonical transformations generated by the Runge-Lenz vector. It is shown that these…

  13. The Kepler Full Frame Images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dotson, Jessie L.; Batalha, Natalie; Bryson, Stephen T.; Caldwell, Douglas A.; Clarke, Bruce D.

    2010-01-01

    NASA's exoplanet discovery mission Kepler provides uninterrupted 1-min and 30-min optical photometry of a 100 square degree field over a 3.5 yr nominal mission. Downlink bandwidth is filled at these short cadences by selecting only detector pixels specific to 105 preselected stellar targets. The majority of the Kepler field, comprising 4 x 10(exp 6) m_v < 20 sources, is sampled at much lower 1-month cadence in the form of a full-frame image. The Full Frame Images (FFIs) are calibrated by the Science Operations Center at NASA Ames Research Center. The Kepler Team employ these images for astrometric and photometric reference but make the images available to the astrophysics community through the Multimission Archive at STScI (MAST). The full-frame images provide a resource for potential Kepler Guest Observers to select targets and plan observing proposals, while also providing a freely-available long-cadence legacy of photometric variation across a swathe of the Galactic disk.

  14. Kepler View of the Galaxy

    NASA Video Gallery

    Our Sun is just one out of over 200 billion stars in our galaxy, the Milky Way. The Sun is located in the Orion arm of our galaxy about 75,000 light years from the center of the Galaxy. Kepler will...

  15. 17 CFR 240.16b-7 - Mergers, reclassifications, and consolidations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... exempt from the provisions of section 16(b) of the Act: (1) The acquisition of a security of a company, pursuant to a merger, reclassification or consolidation, in exchange for a security of a company that before the merger, reclassification or consolidation, owned 85 percent or more of either: (i) The...

  16. Rediscovering Kepler's Third Law using NASA data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keith, Jason; Springsteen, Paul

    2009-10-01

    Kepler's three laws of planetary motion were discovered around four hundred years ago using data that was meticulously gathered by Tycho Brahe through naked eye observations. Here we will show that the same Kepler's result illustrated in his third planetary law still holds today, by using modern data from NASA. In addition, we discuss how all three of Kepler's laws of planetary motion can be derived directly from Newton's Gravitational law.

  17. Kepler Mission Development Challenges and Early Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fanson, J.; Duren, R.; Frerking, M.

    2011-01-01

    Kepler is NASA s first mission capable of detecting Earth-size planets orbiting in the habitable zone of stars other than the Sun. Kepler comprises a space telescope designed to continuously monitor the brightnesses of more than 100,000 target stars, and a ground segment to analyze the measured stellar light curves and detect the signatures of orbiting planets. In order to detect Earth-size planets orbiting Sun-like stars Kepler was designed to provide unprecedented photometric sensitivity and stability. This paper addresses some of the technical challenges encountered during the development of the Kepler mission and the measures taken to overcome them. Early scientific results are summarized.

  18. Kepler Mission Development Challenges and Early Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fanson, J.

    2011-01-01

    Kepler is NASA`s first mission capable of detecting Earth-size planets orbiting in the habitable zone of stars other than the sun. Kepler comprises a space telescope designed to continuously monitor the brightnesses of more than 100,000 target stars, and a ground segment to analyze the measured stellar light curves and detect the signatures of orbiting planets. In order to detect Earth-size planets orbiting Sun-like stars Kepler was designed to provide unprecedented photometric sensitivity and stability. This paper addresses some of the technical challenges encountered during the development of the Kepler mission and the measures taken to overcome them. Early scientific results are summarized.

  19. 3,4,6-Trimethyl-1-phenyl-1H-pyrazolo­[3,4-b]pyridine

    PubMed Central

    Hamri, Salha; Hafid, Abderrafia; Zouihri, Hafid; Lazar, Saïd; Khouili, Mostafa

    2010-01-01

    In the title compound, C15H15N3, the 1H-pyrazolo­[3,4-b]pyridine system and the phenyl ring are each individually planar, with r.m.s. deviations of 0.017 (2) and 0.011 (2) Å, respectively; the dihedral angle between the two aromatic systems is 9.33 (10)°. The crystal packing is stabilized by offset π–π stacking between parallel pyrazolo­[3,4-b]pyridine ring systems [face-to-face distance = 3.449 (6) Å]. PMID:21588287

  20. Adsorption and thermal decomposition of 2-octylthieno[3,4-b]thiophene on Au(111).

    PubMed

    Park, Joon B; Zong, Kyukwan; Jeon, Il Chul; Hahn, Jae Ryang; Stacchiola, Dario; Starr, David; Müller, Kathrin; Noh, Jaegeun

    2012-10-15

    The adsorption and thermal stability of 2-octylthieno[3,4-b]thiophene (OTTP) on the Au(111) surfaces have been studied using scanning tunneling microscopy (STM), temperature programmed desorption (TPD), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). UHV-STM studies revealed that the vapor-deposited OTTP on Au(111) generated disordered adlayers with monolayer thickness even at saturation coverage. XPS and TPD studies indicated that OTTP molecules on Au(111) are stable up to 450 K and further heating of the sample resulted in thermal decomposition to produce H(2) and H(2)S via C-S bond scission in the thieno-thiophene rings. Dehydrogenation continues to occur above 600 K and the molecules were ultimately transformed to carbon clusters at 900 K. Highly resolved air-STM images showed that OTTP adlayers on Au(111) prepared from solution are composed of a well-ordered and low-coverage phase where the molecules lie flat on the surface, which can be assigned as a (9×2√33)R5° structure. Finally, based on analysis of STM, TPD, and XPS results, we propose a thermal decomposition mechanism of OTTP on Au(111) as a function of annealing temperature. PMID:22818203

  1. Stochastic mechanics and the Kepler problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garbaczewski, Piotr

    1986-05-01

    The stochastic mechanics of Nelson and Guerra is formulated for the hydrogen atom. We demonstrate that this simple quantum system can be described in terms of three independent Gaussian Markov processes which are driven (controlled) by the classical Kepler problem. It reveals a manifest connection between the classical and quantized versions of the Kepler problem.

  2. Copper Keplerates: High-Symmetry Magnetic Molecules.

    PubMed

    Palacios, Maria A; Moreno Pineda, Eufemio; Sanz, Sergio; Inglis, Ross; Pitak, Mateusz B; Coles, Simon J; Evangelisti, Marco; Nojiri, Hiroyuki; Heesing, Christian; Brechin, Euan K; Schnack, Jürgen; Winpenny, Richard E P

    2016-01-01

    Keplerates are molecules that contain metal polyhedra that describe both Platonic and Archimedean solids; new copper keplerates are reported, with physical studies indicating that even where very high molecular symmetry is found, the low-temperature physics does not necessarily reflect this symmetry. PMID:26530901

  3. SFRP2 augments WNT16B signaling to promote therapeutic resistance in the damaged tumor microenvironment.

    PubMed

    Sun, Y; Zhu, D; Chen, F; Qian, M; Wei, H; Chen, W; Xu, J

    2016-08-18

    Most tumors initially respond to cytotoxic treatments, but acquired resistance often follows. The tumor microenvironment (TME) is a major barrier to clinical success by compromising therapeutic efficacy, and pathological relevance of multiple soluble factors released by a therapeutically remodeled TME remains largely unexplored. Here we show that the secreted frizzled-related protein 2 (SFRP2), a Wnt pathway modulator, is produced by human primary fibroblasts after genotoxic treatments. SFRP2 induction is remarkable in tumor stroma, with transcription mainly modulated by the nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) complex, a property shared by several effectors of the DNA damage secretory program. Instead of directly altering canonical Wnt signaling, SFRP2 augments β-catenin activities initiated by WNT16B, another soluble factor from DNA-damaged stroma. WNT16B recognizes cancer cell surface receptors including frizzled (FZD) 3/4/6, a process enhanced by SFRP2, coordinated by the co-receptor LRP6 but subject to abrogation by DKK1. Importantly, we found WNT16B plays a central role in promoting advanced malignancies particularly acquired resistance by counteracting cell death, an effect that can be minimized by a neutralizing antibody co-administered with classical chemotherapy. Furthermore, DNA damage-triggered expression of WNT16B is systemic, imaged by significant induction among diverse solid organs and circulation in peripheral blood, thereby holding promise as not only a TME-derived anticancer target but also a novel biomarker for clinical evaluation of treatment efficacy. Overall, our study substantiates the biological complexity and pathological implication of a therapy-activated TME, and provides the proof of principle of co-targeting tumor and the TME to prevent acquired resistance, with the aim of improving intervention outcome in an era of precision medicine. PMID:26751775

  4. SFRP2 augments WNT16B signaling to promote therapeutic resistance in the damaged tumor microenvironment

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Y; Zhu, D; Chen, F; Qian, M; Wei, H; Chen, W; Xu, J

    2016-01-01

    Most tumors initially respond to cytotoxic treatments, but acquired resistance often follows. The tumor microenvironment (TME) is a major barrier to clinical success by compromising therapeutic efficacy, and pathological relevance of multiple soluble factors released by a therapeutically remodeled TME remains largely unexplored. Here we show that the secreted frizzled-related protein 2 (SFRP2), a Wnt pathway modulator, is produced by human primary fibroblasts after genotoxic treatments. SFRP2 induction is remarkable in tumor stroma, with transcription mainly modulated by the nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) complex, a property shared by several effectors of the DNA damage secretory program. Instead of directly altering canonical Wnt signaling, SFRP2 augments β-catenin activities initiated by WNT16B, another soluble factor from DNA-damaged stroma. WNT16B recognizes cancer cell surface receptors including frizzled (FZD) 3/4/6, a process enhanced by SFRP2, coordinated by the co-receptor LRP6 but subject to abrogation by DKK1. Importantly, we found WNT16B plays a central role in promoting advanced malignancies particularly acquired resistance by counteracting cell death, an effect that can be minimized by a neutralizing antibody co-administered with classical chemotherapy. Furthermore, DNA damage-triggered expression of WNT16B is systemic, imaged by significant induction among diverse solid organs and circulation in peripheral blood, thereby holding promise as not only a TME-derived anticancer target but also a novel biomarker for clinical evaluation of treatment efficacy. Overall, our study substantiates the biological complexity and pathological implication of a therapy-activated TME, and provides the proof of principle of co-targeting tumor and the TME to prevent acquired resistance, with the aim of improving intervention outcome in an era of precision medicine. PMID:26751775

  5. SOPHIE velocimetry of Kepler transit candidates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santerne, A.; Moutou, C.; Bouchy, F.; Hébrard, G.; Deleuil, M.; Díaz, R. F.; Bonomo, A. S.; Almenara, J.-M.

    2011-10-01

    As CoRoT, the Kepler space mission found a large amount of planetary transit candidates for which radial velocity follow-up is necessary in order to establish the planetary nature and then, to characterize the mass of the transiting companion. We are following up some interesting Kepler candidates with the SOPHIE spectrograph mounted at the 1.93-m telescope in Observatoire de Haute Provence (France). More than one year after the first Kepler release, we will present the strategy used to select the most promising Kepler candidates, within reach of a detection with SOPHIE, using the experience of more than 4 years of CoRoT, SWASP and HAT radial velocity follow-up. We will also highlight the results of the first year of observations that led to the discovery of several new transiting exoplanets and help the understanding of the false positive rate of the Kepler mission.

  6. Measuring Doppler Beaming with Kepler and TESS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayorga, Laura; Jackiewicz, Jason

    2016-01-01

    The Kepler mission offered unparalleled insight into stellar systems. Due to Kepler's high precision photometry, we can study the reflected light from a planet, the ellipsoidal variations of a star, and the small Doppler beaming signal due to the gravitational interaction between a planet and host star. To predict how the beaming signal varies as a function of stellar system parameters, we numerically simulate the beaming signals both Kepler and the upcoming Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS) would detect. We predict what mass planets TESS will be capable of detecting given the solar neighborhood population of stars and known population of exoplanets. Doppler beaming is largest for massive, short-period planets around cool stars and is more easily detectable by Kepler than TESS. Kepler's advantage is its bluer bandpass, longer time baseline, and higher precision.

  7. Planet Detection: The Kepler Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenkins, Jon M.; Smith, Jeffrey C.; Tenenbaum, Peter; Twicken, Joseph D.; Van Cleve, Jeffrey

    2012-03-01

    The search for exoplanets is one of the hottest topics in astronomy and astrophysics in the twenty-first century, capturing the public's attention as well as that of the astronomical community. This nascent field was conceived in 1989 with the discovery of a candidate planetary companion to HD114762 [35] and was born in 1995 with the discovery of the first extrasolar planet 51 Peg-b [37] orbiting a main sequence star. As of March, 2011, over 500 exoplanets have been discovered* and 106 are known to transit or cross their host star, as viewed from Earth. Of these transiting planets, 15 have been announced by the Kepler Mission, which was launched into an Earth-trailing, heliocentric orbit in March, 2009 [1,4,6,15,18,20,22,31,32,34,36,43]. In addition, over 1200 candidate transiting planets have already been detected by Kepler [5], and vigorous follow-up observations are being conducted to vet these candidates. As the false-positive rate for Kepler is expected to be quite low [39], Kepler has effectively tripled the number of known exoplanets. Moreover, Kepler will provide an unprecedented data set in terms of photometric precision, duration, contiguity, and number of stars. Kepler's primary science objective is to determine the frequency of Earth-size planets transiting their Sun-like host stars in the habitable zone, that range of orbital distances for which liquid water would pool on the surface of a terrestrial planet such as Earth, Mars, or Venus. This daunting task demands an instrument capable of measuring the light output from each of over 100,000 stars simultaneously with an unprecedented photometric precision of 20 parts per million (ppm) at 6.5-h intervals. The large number of stars is required because the probability of the geometrical alignment of planetary orbits that permit observation of transits is the ratio of the size of the star to the size of the planetary orbit. For Earth-like planets in 1-astronomical unit (AU) orbits† about sun-like stars

  8. Planet Detection: The Kepler Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenkins, Jon M.; Smith, Jeffrey C.; Tenenbaum, Peter; Twicken, Joseph D.; Van Cleve, Jeffrey

    2012-03-01

    The search for exoplanets is one of the hottest topics in astronomy and astrophysics in the twenty-first century, capturing the public's attention as well as that of the astronomical community. This nascent field was conceived in 1989 with the discovery of a candidate planetary companion to HD114762 [35] and was born in 1995 with the discovery of the first extrasolar planet 51 Peg-b [37] orbiting a main sequence star. As of March, 2011, over 500 exoplanets have been discovered* and 106 are known to transit or cross their host star, as viewed from Earth. Of these transiting planets, 15 have been announced by the Kepler Mission, which was launched into an Earth-trailing, heliocentric orbit in March, 2009 [1,4,6,15,18,20,22,31,32,34,36,43]. In addition, over 1200 candidate transiting planets have already been detected by Kepler [5], and vigorous follow-up observations are being conducted to vet these candidates. As the false-positive rate for Kepler is expected to be quite low [39], Kepler has effectively tripled the number of known exoplanets. Moreover, Kepler will provide an unprecedented data set in terms of photometric precision, duration, contiguity, and number of stars. Kepler's primary science objective is to determine the frequency of Earth-size planets transiting their Sun-like host stars in the habitable zone, that range of orbital distances for which liquid water would pool on the surface of a terrestrial planet such as Earth, Mars, or Venus. This daunting task demands an instrument capable of measuring the light output from each of over 100,000 stars simultaneously with an unprecedented photometric precision of 20 parts per million (ppm) at 6.5-h intervals. The large number of stars is required because the probability of the geometrical alignment of planetary orbits that permit observation of transits is the ratio of the size of the star to the size of the planetary orbit. For Earth-like planets in 1-astronomical unit (AU) orbits† about sun-like stars

  9. The host stars of Kepler's habitable exoplanets: superflares, rotation and activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armstrong, D. J.; Pugh, C. E.; Broomhall, A.-M.; Brown, D. J. A.; Lund, M. N.; Osborn, H. P.; Pollacco, D. L.

    2016-01-01

    We embark on a detailed study of the light curves of Kepler's most Earth-like exoplanet host stars using the full length of Kepler data. We derive rotation periods, photometric activity indices, flaring energies, mass-loss rates, gyrochronological ages, X-ray luminosities and consider implications for the planetary magnetospheres and habitability. Furthermore, we present the detection of superflares in the light curve of Kepler-438, the exoplanet with the highest Earth Similarity Index to date. Kepler-438b orbits at a distance of 0.166 au to its host star, and hence may be susceptible to atmospheric stripping. Our sample is taken from the Habitable Exoplanet Catalogue, and consists of the stars Kepler-22, Kepler-61, Kepler-62, Kepler-174, Kepler-186, Kepler-283, Kepler-296, Kepler-298, Kepler-438, Kepler-440, Kepler-442, Kepler-443 and KOI-4427, between them hosting 15 of the most habitable transiting planets known to date from Kepler.

  10. Novel Pyrazolo[3,4-b]pyridine Derivatives: Synthesis, Characterization, Antimicrobial and Antiproliferative Profile.

    PubMed

    Salem, Marwa Sayed; Ali, Mohamed Ahmed Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    Three novel series of pyridine derivatives, namely Schiff's bases, 4-thiazolidinones and azetidin-2-ones bearing pyrazolo[3,4-b]pyridine moiety, have been synthesized. The chemical structures of the synthesized compounds were characterized. The compounds were tested for their antimicrobial activity using the agar well diffusion and broth macrodilution methods. The compounds were also evaluated for their antiproliferative activity using the sulforhodamine B (SRB) assay. The majority of the tested compounds exhibited slight to high antimicrobial activity against the test microorganisms with minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of 0.12-62.5 µg/mL when compared to that of 3 standard antimicrobial agents (Ampicillin, 0.007-0.03 µg/mL; Gentamicin; 0.015-0.24 µg/mL; and Amphotericin B, 0.03-0.98 µg/mL). Compound (7b) was found to be nearly as active as the standard antimicrobial drug Amphotericin B against Fusarium oxysporum fungal strain with MIC of 0.98 µg/mL. Some of the test compounds showed remarkable cytotoxic activities against Hep G2 (hepatocellular carcinoma) cells (IC50=0.0158-71.3 µM) in comparison to the standard anticancer drug doxorubicin (IC50=0.008 µM). Among the compounds tested, (5), (6a), (6b), (7b), and (10) exhibited antiproliferative potency (IC50=0.0001-0.0211 µM) that was found to be better than that of doxorubicin (IC50=0.099 µM) against MCF7 (breast adenocarcinoma) cells. In particular, (7b) displayed the highest significant antiproliferative efficacy against both Hep G2 and MCF7 cell lines showing IC50 values of 0.0158 µM and 0.0001 µM, respectively. Our findings suggest that the synthesized compounds may be promising candidates as novel antimicrobial and antiproliferative agents. PMID:27040621

  11. KEPLER Mission: development and overview.

    PubMed

    Borucki, William J

    2016-03-01

    The Kepler Mission is a space observatory launched in 2009 by NASA to monitor 170,000 stars over a period of four years to determine the frequency of Earth-size and larger planets in and near the habitable zone of Sun-like stars, the size and orbital distributions of these planets, and the types of stars they orbit. Kepler is the tenth in the series of NASA Discovery Program missions that are competitively-selected, PI-directed, medium-cost missions. The Mission concept and various instrument prototypes were developed at the Ames Research Center over a period of 18 years starting in 1983. The development of techniques to do the 10 ppm photometry required for Mission success took years of experimentation, several workshops, and the exploration of many 'blind alleys' before the construction of the flight instrument. Beginning in 1992 at the start of the NASA Discovery Program, the Kepler Mission concept was proposed five times before its acceptance for mission development in 2001. During that period, the concept evolved from a photometer in an L2 orbit that monitored 6000 stars in a 50 sq deg field-of-view (FOV) to one that was in a heliocentric orbit that simultaneously monitored 170,000 stars with a 105 sq deg FOV. Analysis of the data to date has detected over 4600 planetary candidates which include several hundred Earth-size planetary candidates, over a thousand confirmed planets, and Earth-size planets in the habitable zone (HZ). These discoveries provide the information required for estimates of the frequency of planets in our galaxy. The Mission results show that most stars have planets, many of these planets are similar in size to the Earth, and that systems with several planets are common. Although planets in the HZ are common, many are substantially larger than Earth. PMID:26863223

  12. KEPLER Mission: development and overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borucki, William J.

    2016-03-01

    The Kepler Mission is a space observatory launched in 2009 by NASA to monitor 170 000 stars over a period of four years to determine the frequency of Earth-size and larger planets in and near the habitable zone of Sun-like stars, the size and orbital distributions of these planets, and the types of stars they orbit. Kepler is the tenth in the series of NASA Discovery Program missions that are competitively-selected, PI-directed, medium-cost missions. The Mission concept and various instrument prototypes were developed at the Ames Research Center over a period of 18 years starting in 1983. The development of techniques to do the 10 ppm photometry required for Mission success took years of experimentation, several workshops, and the exploration of many ‘blind alleys’ before the construction of the flight instrument. Beginning in 1992 at the start of the NASA Discovery Program, the Kepler Mission concept was proposed five times before its acceptance for mission development in 2001. During that period, the concept evolved from a photometer in an L2 orbit that monitored 6000 stars in a 50 sq deg field-of-view (FOV) to one that was in a heliocentric orbit that simultaneously monitored 170 000 stars with a 105 sq deg FOV. Analysis of the data to date has detected over 4600 planetary candidates which include several hundred Earth-size planetary candidates, over a thousand confirmed planets, and Earth-size planets in the habitable zone (HZ). These discoveries provide the information required for estimates of the frequency of planets in our galaxy. The Mission results show that most stars have planets, many of these planets are similar in size to the Earth, and that systems with several planets are common. Although planets in the HZ are common, many are substantially larger than Earth.

  13. From Kepler problem to skyrmions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazilu, Nicolae; Agop, Maricel; Gatu, Irina; Iacob, Dan Dezideriu; Ghizdovăt, Vlad

    2016-05-01

    The classical treatment of the Kepler problem leaves room for the description of the space region of the central body by a hyperbolic geometry. If the correspondence between the empty space and the space filled with matter is taken to be a harmonic mapping, then the region of atomic nucleus, like the one of the Sun for the planetary system proper, is described by hyperbolic skyrmions. This fact makes possible the description of the nuclear matter within framework of general relativity. The classical “hedgehog” solution for skyrmions can then be classically interpreted in terms of the characterizations of intra-nuclear forces.

  14. The Sp(1)-Kepler problems

    SciTech Connect

    Meng Guowu

    2009-07-15

    Let n{>=}2 be a positive integer. To each irreducible representation {sigma} of Sp(1), an Sp(1)-Kepler problem in dimension (4n-3) is constructed and analyzed. This system is superintegrable, and when n=2 it is equivalent to a generalized MICZ-Kepler problem in dimension of 5. The dynamical symmetry group of this system is O-tilde*(4n) with the Hilbert space of bound states H({sigma}) being the unitary highest weight representation of O*-tilde(4n) with highest weight, (-1,{center_dot}{center_dot}{center_dot},-1,-(1+{sigma})), which occurs at the rightmost nontrivial reduction point in the Enright-Howe-Wallach classification diagram for the unitary highest weight modules. Here {sigma} is the highest weight of {sigma}. Furthermore, it is shown that the correspondence {sigma}{r_reversible}H({sigma}) is the theta-correspondence for dual pair (Sp(1),O*(4n))subset Sp(8n,R)

  15. Kepler Stars with Multiple Transiting Planet Candidates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lissauer, Jack J.

    2012-01-01

    NASA's Kepler spacecraft was launched into an Earth-trailing heliocentric orbit in March of 2009. Kepler is designed to conduct a statistical census of planetary system properties using transit photometry. Among the most exciting early results from Kepler are target stars found to have photometric signatures that suggest the presence of more than one transiting planet. Individual transiting planets provide information on the size and orbital period distributions of exoplanets. Multiple transiting planets provide additional information on the spacing and flatness distributions of planetary systems. Results to d ate and plans for future analysis will be presented.

  16. Advances in exoplanet science from Kepler.

    PubMed

    Lissauer, Jack J; Dawson, Rebekah I; Tremaine, Scott

    2014-09-18

    Numerous telescopes and techniques have been used to find and study extrasolar planets, but none has been more successful than NASA's Kepler space telescope. Kepler has discovered most of the known exoplanets, the smallest planets to orbit normal stars and the planets most likely to be similar to Earth. Most importantly, Kepler has provided us with our first look at the typical characteristics of planets and planetary systems for planets with sizes as small as, and orbits as large as, those of Earth. PMID:25230655

  17. We Do Not Forget Johannes Kepler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wszołek, B.

    2009-12-01

    Year 2009 was announced as the International Year of Astronomy. This was to mark 400th anniversary of the first astronomical observation through a telescope by Galileo. From the other hand, this year marks 400th anniversary of Astronomia Nova, the famous work of Kepler published in Prague in 1609. Two laws of planetary motions opened human efforts to understand gravitational force; so the overall cosmic space conquest, with its great importance not only for astronomy, was developed thankful to Kepler's work. This contribution is thought to show the most inspiring ideas of Johannes Kepler, published in Astronomia Nova and in other his books.

  18. K2flix: Kepler pixel data visualizer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barentsen, Geert

    2015-03-01

    K2flix makes it easy to inspect the CCD pixel data obtained by NASA's Kepler space telescope. The two-wheeled extended Kepler mission, K2, is affected by new sources of systematics, including pointing jitter and foreground asteroids, that are easier to spot by eye than by algorithm. The code takes Kepler's Target Pixel Files (TPF) as input and turns them into contrast-stretched animated gifs or MPEG-4 movies. K2flix can be used both as a command-line tool or using its Python API.

  19. Synthesis of novel hydrazone and azole functionalized pyrazolo[3,4-b]pyridine derivatives as promising anticancer agents.

    PubMed

    Nagender, P; Naresh Kumar, R; Malla Reddy, G; Krishna Swaroop, D; Poornachandra, Y; Ganesh Kumar, C; Narsaiah, B

    2016-09-15

    A series of novel pyrazolo[3,4-b]pyridine based target compounds were synthesized starting from the key intermediate ethyl 2-(3-amino-6-(trifluoromethyl)-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-b]pyridin-1-yl)acetate 5 on reaction with hydrazine hydrate followed by reaction with different aldehydes, acid chlorides and isothiocyanates to form hydrazones 7, oxadiazoles 8, 1,2,4 triazoles 10 and thiadiazoles 11 respectively in high yield. All the final compounds were screened for anticancer activity against four human cancer cell lines. Among them, 1,2,4 triazole derivatives showed promising activity and compound 10d is identified as a lead molecule. PMID:27528432

  20. Photometric observation of HAT-P-16b in the near-UV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pearson, Kyle A.; Turner, Jake D.; Sagan, Thomas G.

    2014-02-01

    We present the first primary transit light curve of the hot Jupiter HAT-P-16b in the near-UV photometric band. We observed this object on December 29, 2012 in order to update the transit ephemeris, constrain its planetary parameters and search for magnetic field interference. Vidotto et al. (2011a) postulate that the magnetic field of HAT-P-16b can be constrained if its near-UV light curve shows an early ingress compared to its optical light curve, while its egress remains unchanged. However, we did not detect an early ingress in our night of observing when using a cadence of 60 seconds and an average photometric precision of 2.26 mmag. We find a near-UV planetary radius of Rp=1.274±0.057RJup which is consistent with its near-IR radius of Rp=1.289±0.066RJup (Buchhave et al., 2010). We developed an automated reduction pipeline and a modeling package to process our data. The data reduction package synthesizes a set of IRAF scripts to calibrate images and perform aperture photometry. The modeling package utilizes the Levenberg-Marquardt minimization algorithm to find a least-squares best fit and a differential evolution Markov Chain Monte Carlo algorithm to find the best fit to the light curve. To constrain the red noise in both fitting models we use the residual permutation (rosary bead) method and time-averaging method.

  1. Constraining the Magnetic Field of HAT-P-16b via Near-UV Photometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pearson, Kyle; Turner, J. D.; Sagan, T.

    2013-10-01

    We present the first primary transit light curve of the hot Jupiter HAT-P-16b in the near-UV photometric band. We observed this object on December 29, 2012 in order to update the transit ephemeris, constrain its planetary parameters and search for magnetic field interference. Vidotto et al. (2011a) postulate that the magnetic field of HAT-P-16b can be constrained if its near-UV light curve shows an early ingress compared to its optical light curve, while its egress remains unchanged. However, we did not detect an early ingress in our night of observing when using a cadence of 60 seconds and an average photometric precision of 2.26 mmag. We find a near-UV planetary radius of Rp = 1.274 ± 0.057 RJup which is consistent with its near-IR radius of Rp = 1.289 ± 0.066 RJup (Buchhave et al., 2010). We developed an automated reduction pipeline (ExoDRPL) and a modeling package (EXOMOP) to process our data. The data reduction package synthesizes a set of IRAF scripts to calibrate images and perform aperture photometry. The modeling package utilizes the Levenberg-Marquardt minimization algorithm to find a least-squares best fit and a differential evolution Markov Chain Monte Carlo algorithm to find the best fit to the light curve. To constrain the red noise in both fitting models we use the residual permutation (rosary bead) method and time-averaging method.

  2. Kepler's winding Path to true Heliocentrism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bialas, Volker

    The paper concerns the evolution of concepts by Johannes Kepler from Aristotelian conception of the Universe to Heliocentrism. Already as young Magister in Tubingen Kepler has taken an active part in Physical disputations of the candidates and has defended the doctrines of Copernik (1). In the Mysterium Cosmographicum he refers the planetary distances no longer to the center of the earth's orbit, but to the center of the true sun. But just by working out his Astronomia Nova Kepler succeeds in creating a strictly heliocentric astronomy as his handwriting Manuscripts give detailed information (2). Notes: 1) fragmentum orations de motu terrae. In Keppler Gesammelte werke Vol. 20.1, Munich 1988, p. 147-149 2) Commentaria in Theoriam Martis. Edition in: Kepler Gessamelete Werke Vol. 20.2 (in preparation)

  3. Conformal triality of the Kepler problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cariglia, Marco

    2016-08-01

    We show that the Kepler problem is projectively equivalent to null geodesic motion on the conformal compactification of Minkowski-4 space. This space realises the conformal triality of Minkowski, dS and AdS spaces.

  4. Kepler Discovers Earth-size Planet Candidates

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA's Kepler mission has discovered its first Earth-size planet candidates and its first candidates in the habitable zone, a region where liquid water could exist on a planet's surface. Five of th...

  5. Identifying Solar Analogs in the Kepler Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buzasi, Derek L.; Lezcano, Andrew; Preston, Heather L.

    2014-06-01

    Since human beings live on a planet orbiting a G2 V star, to us perhaps the most intrinsically interesting category of stars about which planets have been discovered is solar analogs. While Kepler has observed more than 26000 targets which have effective temperatures within 100K of the Sun, many of these are not true solar analogs due to activity, surface gravity, metallicity, or other considerations. Here we combine ground-based measurements of effective temperature and metallicity with data on rotational periods and surface gravities derived from 16 quarters of Kepler observations to produce a near-complete sample of solar analogs in the Kepler field. We then compare the statistical distribution of stellar physical parameters, including activity level, for subsets of solar analogs consisting of KOIs and those with no detected exoplanets. Finally, we produce a list of potential solar twins in the Kepler field.

  6. Contamination in Kepler samples of stellar rotation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cannata, Rachel; Terndrup, Donald M.

    2016-06-01

    We report preliminary results of a survey that identifies contamination among Kepler stars with measured rotational periods. These periods are derived from photometric modulation attributed to star spots. We detect contamination through composite spectral energy distributions, photometric modulation of nearby stars blended in the Kepler PSF, and from radial velocity variations that uncover tidally synchronized binaries. In this poster, we concentrate on our radial velocity survey, and show that the contamination rate among rapid (P < 10d) rotators is low.

  7. Kepler's Cosmos And The Lathe Of Heaven

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brecher, Kenneth

    2011-01-01

    Johannes Kepler's Mysterium Cosmographicum, published in 1596, presented his vision of the geometrical structure of the solar system. Kepler sought to account for the number of planets, thought to be six, as well as their orbital radii. He assigned orbits to the planets in three-dimensional space. Kepler proposed that the planets move on six spheres inscribed within and circumscribed around the five platonic solids. How did he arrive at his model? By his own account reported in the book, the central idea occurred to him while giving a lecture about planetary conjunctions. But was this revelation the origin of the model? In this presentation, we discuss the artistic, scientific and mathematical environment in which Kepler was immersed in late 16th century Europe. Examples will be shown of some of the readily available inscribed polyhedra that he may have seen - printed in widely circulated books, included in well-known paintings and engravings, and displayed as three dimensional ornamentally turned sculptures. It is highly likely that he saw such physical models five years later while in the employ of Rudolf II who was an avid ornamental turner. Layered polyhedral ivory turnings were made by the nobility with what were then fairly common lathes. Kepler himself wanted to have his own celestial model made into a punch bowl! Therefore, it seems plausible that Kepler had seen models of inscribed platonic solids well before 1596. Later in life Kepler reprinted the Mysterium Cosmographicum with very little fundamental change in its outlook, even after having found what we now call Kepler's three laws of planetary motion. His interest in nested polyhedra may well have preceded any astronomical evidence or geometrical reasoning, arising from artistic and aesthetic encounters that occurred early in his life. Project LITE is supported by the NSF through DUE Grant # 0715975.

  8. Kepler Mission IYA Teacher Professional Development Workshops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devore, E. K.; Harman, P.; Gould, A. D.; Koch, D.

    2009-12-01

    NASA's Kepler Mission conducted six teacher professional development workshops on the search for Earth-size in the habitable zone of Sun-like stars. The Kepler Mission launched in March, 2009. As a part of International Year of Astronomy 2009, this series of one-day workshops were designed and presented for middle and high school teachers, and science center and planetarium educators prior to and after the launch. The professional development workshops were designed using the best practices and principals from the National Science Education Standards and similar documents. Sharing the outcome of our plans, strategies and formative evaluation results can be of use to other Education and Public Outreach practitioners who plan similar trainings. Each event was supported by a Kepler team scientist, two Education & Public Outreach staff and local hosts. The workshops combined a science content lecture and discussion, making models, kinesthetic activities, and interpretation of transit data. The emphasis was on inquiry-based instruction and supported science education standards in grades 7-12. Participants’ kit included an orrery, optical sensor and software to demonstrate transit detection. The workshop plan, teaching strategies, and lessons learned from evaluation will be discussed. Future events are planned. Kepler's Education and Public Outreach program is jointly conducted by the SETI Institute and Lawrence Hall of Science at UC Berkeley in close coordination with the Kepler Mission at NASA Ames Research Center. The IYA Kepler Teacher Professional Development workshops were supported by NASA Grants to the E. DeVore, SETI Institute NAG2-6066 Kepler Education and Public Outreach and NNX08BA74G, IYA Kepler Mission Pre-launch Workshops. Teachers participate in human orrery.

  9. Kepler Mission Development Challenges and Early Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fanson, James; Frerking, Margaret; Duren, Riley

    2011-01-01

    Kepler is NASA s first mission capable of detecting Earthsize planets orbiting in Habitable Zone of Sun-like stars. Objective is to measure how frequently planets of various sizes and orbits form around stars in the Milky Way. Kepler detects planets by measuring drop in brightness of star due to "transit" of a planet Earth-size planet transiting Sunlike star causes drop in brightness of only 84 parts per million

  10. The Kepler Project: Mission Update

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borucki, William J.; Koch, David G.

    2009-01-01

    Kepler is a Discovery-class mission designed to determine the frequency of Earth-size planets in and near the habitable zone of solar-like stars. The instrument consists of a 0.95 m aperture photometer designed to obtain high precision photometric measurement of > 100,000 stars to search for patterns of transits. The focal plane of the Schmidt-telescope contains 42 CCDs with at total of 95 mega pixels that cover 116 square degrees of sky. The photometer was launched into an Earth-trailing heliocentric orbit on March 6, 2009, finished its commissioning on May 12, and is now in the science operations mode. During the commissioning of the Kepler photometer, data were obtained at a 30 minute cadence for 53,000 stars for 9.7 days. Although the data have not yet been corrected for the presence of systematic errors and artifacts, the data show the presence of hundreds of eclipsing binary stars and variable stars of amazing variety. To provide some estimate of the capability of the photometer, a quick analysis of the photometric precision was made. Analysis of the commissioning data also show transits, occultations and light emitted from the known exoplanet HAT-P7b. The data show a smooth rise and fall of light: from the planet as it orbits its star, punctuated by a drop of 130 +/- 11 ppm in flux when the planet passes behind its star. We interpret this as the phase variation of the dayside thermal emission plus reflected light from the planet as it orbits its star and is occulted. The depth of the occultation is similar in amplitude to that expected from a transiting Earth-size planet and demonstrates that the Mission has the precision necessary to detect such planets.

  11. Kepler, Galilei, the telescope and the consequences. (German Title: Kepler, Galilei, das Fernrohr und die Folgen)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaulke, Karsten; Hamel, Jürgen

    The papers of this volume are dedicated to Johannes Kepler, the astronomy of his time, and the consequences of his researches. They deal with the reception on the Copernican system of the world at the court of landgrave William IV in Kassel and the use of astronomy at a princely court in the 16th century, exemplified by the Kassel residence. Two contributions discuss a text fragment in Kepler's Astronomia Nova and the dimensions of the geo- and heliocentric systems of the world in Kepler's Mysterium Cosmographicum. Other contributions deal with mathematical aspects un Kepler's exchange of letters, the biography of Kepler's discussion partner Ph. Feselius, as well as the early reception of the Tabulae Rudolphinae in the calendar literature, telescopes in Kepler's time, Chr. Scheiner's optical theory of the eye, and finally in the continuation of the heliocentric world system by Otto von Guericke's natural philosophy and science. In conclusion, the documents of the planned call of Kepler to Rostock university, as well as the first publication of a recently found, hitherto unknown letter by Kepler.

  12. Discourse following award of Kepler Gold Medal. [Kepler Laws, planetary astronomy and physics, and Jupiter studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuiper, G. P.

    1973-01-01

    Kuiper briefly reviews Kepler's contributions to the field of planetary astronomy and physics, along with references to his own background in the study of stars, planets, and the solar system. He mentions his participation in NASA programs related to planetary astronomy. He concludes his remarks with thanks for being honored by the award of the Kepler Gold Medal.

  13. The VPS33B-binding protein VPS16B is required in megakaryocyte and platelet α-granule biogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Urban, Denisa; Li, Ling; Christensen, Hilary; Pluthero, Fred G.; Chen, Shao Zun; Puhacz, Michael; Garg, Parvesh M.; Lanka, Kiran K.; Cummings, James J.; Kramer, Helmut; Wasmuth, James D.; Parkinson, John

    2012-01-01

    Patients with platelet α or dense δ-granule defects have bleeding problems. Although several proteins are known to be required for δ-granule development, less is known about α-granule biogenesis. Our previous work showed that the BEACH protein NBEAL2 and the Sec1/Munc18 protein VPS33B are required for α-granule biogenesis. Using a yeast two-hybrid screen, mass spectrometry, coimmunoprecipitation, and bioinformatics studies, we identified VPS16B as a VPS33B-binding protein. Immunoblotting confirmed VPS16B expression in various human tissues and cells including megakaryocytes and platelets, and also in megakaryocytic Dami cells. Characterization of platelets from a patient with arthrogryposis, renal dysfunction, and cholestasis (ARC) syndrome containing mutations in C14orf133 encoding VPS16B revealed pale-appearing platelets in blood films and electron microscopy revealed a complete absence of α-granules, whereas δ-granules were observed. Soluble and membrane-bound α-granule proteins were reduced or undetectable, suggesting that both releasable and membrane-bound α-granule constituents were absent. Immunofluorescence microscopy of Dami cells stably expressing GFP-VPS16B revealed that similar to VPS33B, GFP-VPS16B colocalized with markers of the trans-Golgi network, late endosomes and α-granules. We conclude that VPS16B, similar to its binding partner VPS33B, is essential for megakaryocyte and platelet α-granule biogenesis. PMID:23002115

  14. The VPS33B-binding protein VPS16B is required in megakaryocyte and platelet α-granule biogenesis.

    PubMed

    Urban, Denisa; Li, Ling; Christensen, Hilary; Pluthero, Fred G; Chen, Shao Zun; Puhacz, Michael; Garg, Parvesh M; Lanka, Kiran K; Cummings, James J; Kramer, Helmut; Wasmuth, James D; Parkinson, John; Kahr, Walter H A

    2012-12-13

    Patients with platelet α or dense δ-granule defects have bleeding problems. Although several proteins are known to be required for δ-granule development, less is known about α-granule biogenesis. Our previous work showed that the BEACH protein NBEAL2 and the Sec1/Munc18 protein VPS33B are required for α-granule biogenesis. Using a yeast two-hybrid screen, mass spectrometry, coimmunoprecipitation, and bioinformatics studies, we identified VPS16B as a VPS33B-binding protein. Immunoblotting confirmed VPS16B expression in various human tissues and cells including megakaryocytes and platelets, and also in megakaryocytic Dami cells. Characterization of platelets from a patient with arthrogryposis, renal dysfunction, and cholestasis (ARC) syndrome containing mutations in C14orf133 encoding VPS16B revealed pale-appearing platelets in blood films and electron microscopy revealed a complete absence of α-granules, whereas δ-granules were observed. Soluble and membrane-bound α-granule proteins were reduced or undetectable, suggesting that both releasable and membrane-bound α-granule constituents were absent. Immunofluorescence microscopy of Dami cells stably expressing GFP-VPS16B revealed that similar to VPS33B, GFP-VPS16B colocalized with markers of the trans-Golgi network, late endosomes and α-granules. We conclude that VPS16B, similar to its binding partner VPS33B, is essential for megakaryocyte and platelet α-granule biogenesis. PMID:23002115

  15. COSPAR-16-B0.1/ICEUM12A: Lunar Exploration and Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foing, Bernard H.

    2016-07-01

    Lunar science and exploration are having a renaissance with as many as twelve missions (and 18 vehicles) sent to Moon during the last "International Lunar decade". This session is aimed at discussing new progress in lunar science from recent missions, latest science results, newer insight into our understanding of Moon, modelling and synthesis of different scientific data, future missions, and science questions. It will include invited, contributed, and poster papers. Papers on new lunar mission concepts, instrumentation for the future missions, the upcoming lunar decade of landers and lunar robotic village, and preparations for human lunar exploration towards a "Moon Village" are also welcome in this session. COSPAR-16-B0.1 will also be ICEUM12A, part of the 12th International Conference on Exploration and Utilisation of the Moon from the ILEWG ICEUM series started in 1994.

  16. First Multi-Planet System Discovered by Kepler

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA's Kepler Mission has discovered the first confirmed planetary system with more than one planet transiting the same star. The announcement of the discovery of the two planets, Kepler 9b and 9c,...

  17. Concise Synthesis of Annulated Pyrido[3,4-b]indoles via Rh(I)-Catalyzed Cyclization.

    PubMed

    Varelas, Jonathan G; Khanal, Satyam; O'Donnell, Michael A; Mulcahy, Seann P

    2015-11-01

    The synthesis of pyridines bearing multiple ring fusions poses a considerable challenge for organic chemists. To address this problem, we describe the synthesis of a small library of pyrido[3,4-b]indoles via an efficient, five-step sequence. The key transformation is a Rh(I)-catalyzed [2 + 2 + 2] cyclization that forms three rings in one reaction flask. Our method is high yielding, accommodates a variety of functional groups, and suffers no entropic costs as ring size increases. PMID:26495834

  18. Thermo-optical properties of 1H[3,4-b] quinoline films used in electroluminescent devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaglarz, Janusz; Kępińska, Mirosława; Sanetra, Jerzy

    2014-06-01

    Electroluminescence cells with H[3,4-b] quinoline layers are promising devices for a blue light emitting EL diode. This work measured the optical reflectance as a function of temperature in copolymers PAQ layers deposited on Si crystalline substrate. Using the extended Cauchy dispersion model of the film refractive index we determined the thermo-optical coefficients for quinoline layers in the temperature range of 76-333 K from combined ellipsometric and spectrofotometric studies. The obtained values of thermo-optical coefficients of thin PAQ film, were negative and ranged in 5-10 × 10-4 [1/K].

  19. Teaching Kepler's Laws as More than Empirical Statements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noll, Ellis D.

    2002-01-01

    At the pre-college and first-year college level of physics instruction, Kepler's laws are generally taught as empirical laws of nature. Introductory physics textbooks only derive Kepler's Second law of areas. It is possible to derive all of Kepler's laws mathematically from the conservation laws, employing only high-school algebra and geometry.…

  20. KEPLER MISSION STELLAR AND INSTRUMENT NOISE PROPERTIES

    SciTech Connect

    Gilliland, Ronald L.; Chaplin, William J.; Elsworth, Yvonne P.; Miglio, Andrea; Dunham, Edward W.; Argabright, Vic S.; Borucki, William J.; Bryson, Stephen T.; Koch, David G.; Walkowicz, Lucianne M.; Basri, Gibor; Buzasi, Derek L.; Caldwell, Douglas A.; Jenkins, Jon M.; Van Cleve, Jeffrey; Welsh, William F.

    2011-11-01

    Kepler mission results are rapidly contributing to fundamentally new discoveries in both the exoplanet and asteroseismology fields. The data returned from Kepler are unique in terms of the number of stars observed, precision of photometry for time series observations, and the temporal extent of high duty cycle observations. As the first mission to provide extensive time series measurements on thousands of stars over months to years at a level hitherto possible only for the Sun, the results from Kepler will vastly increase our knowledge of stellar variability for quiet solar-type stars. Here, we report on the stellar noise inferred on the timescale of a few hours of most interest for detection of exoplanets via transits. By design the data from moderately bright Kepler stars are expected to have roughly comparable levels of noise intrinsic to the stars and arising from a combination of fundamental limitations such as Poisson statistics and any instrument noise. The noise levels attained by Kepler on-orbit exceed by some 50% the target levels for solar-type, quiet stars. We provide a decomposition of observed noise for an ensemble of 12th magnitude stars arising from fundamental terms (Poisson and readout noise), added noise due to the instrument and that intrinsic to the stars. The largest factor in the modestly higher than anticipated noise follows from intrinsic stellar noise. We show that using stellar parameters from galactic stellar synthesis models, and projections to stellar rotation, activity, and hence noise levels reproduce the primary intrinsic stellar noise features.

  1. Mining the Kepler Data using Machine Learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walkowicz, Lucianne; Howe, A. R.; Nayar, R.; Turner, E. L.; Scargle, J.; Meadows, V.; Zee, A.

    2014-01-01

    Kepler's high cadence and incredible precision has provided an unprecedented view into stars and their planetary companions, revealing both expected and novel phenomena and systems. Due to the large number of Kepler lightcurves, the discovery of novel phenomena in particular has often been serendipitous in the course of searching for known forms of variability (for example, the discovery of the doubly pulsating elliptical binary KOI-54, originally identified by the transiting planet search pipeline). In this talk, we discuss progress on mining the Kepler data through both supervised and unsupervised machine learning, intended to both systematically search the Kepler lightcurves for rare or anomalous variability, and to create a variability catalog for community use. Mining the dataset in this way also allows for a quantitative identification of anomalous variability, and so may also be used as a signal-agnostic form of optical SETI. As the Kepler data are exceptionally rich, they provide an interesting counterpoint to machine learning efforts typically performed on sparser and/or noisier survey data, and will inform similar characterization carried out on future survey datasets.

  2. Johannes Kepler and the Supernova of 1604

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boner, P. J.

    2006-08-01

    The brilliant luminary that first appeared in October 1604 was considered by many contemporaries to be a new star of unrivalled magnitude. Shining forth near the historic conjunction of Mars, Jupiter and Saturn, the new star held important implications for several areas of interest, notably astrology, astronomy, chronology and theology. Addressing all of these areas in his comprehensive book, De stella nova (1606), Johannes Kepler (1571-1630) studied the new star extensively under the aegis of Holy Roman Emperor Rudolf II (1552-1612) in Prague. The focus of the following presentation is Kepler's theory of the new star's origins in the celestial ether. Describing the heavens poetically as a fertile expanse of "liquid fields", Kepler suggested that the new star sprung from the celestial ether much like the numerous living beings in the sublunary realm which were spontaneously generated from the Earth. As evidence for his claim, Kepler pointed to the conspicuous mathematical patterns similarly observed in earthly and celestial entities. Kepler's efficient cause for this explanation, known as the animate faculty, accounted for both the generation and form of new phenomena in the celestial and terrestrial realms. The new star of 1604 proved to be no exception.

  3. Image Artifact Flagging in the Kepler Pipeline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clarke, Bruce; Caldwell, Douglas; Kolodziejczak, Jeffery

    2015-08-01

    Systematic instrument noise in the raw Kepler pixel data includes time-varying crosstalk from the fine guidance sensor (FGS) clock signals, manifestations of drifting moiré pattern as locally correlated nonstationary noise and rolling band artifacts (RBA). The Kepler pipeline module Dynablack produces best fit black level estimates per pixel per cadence by modeling a combination of collateral, FFI, reverse clocked and ARP target data. A search for transit features in the fit residuals identifies spatial regions and time intervals of strong time-varying black level which we identify as RBA. Dynablack produces flags marking these these RBA regions on a per row per cadence basis for several different transit time scales. The Photometric Analysis module (PA) generates per target per cadence data quality flags based on the Dynablack RBA flags which are in turn used by the Data Validation pipeline module (DV) in producing a contamination report associated with each target processed. The Dynablack (per row) RBA flags as well as a proxy for the per target flags produced in PA will be included in the final Kepler data release scheduled to arrive at the MAST in 2016.We detail how the RBA flags are produced in Dynablack, how these are then used to produce the per target quality flags used in DV and discuss why they should be considered when searching for transit signatures in the archived Kepler light curves. Funding for the Kepler Mission has been provided by the NASA Science Mission Directorate.

  4. Climate and Habitability of Kepler 452b

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Yongyun; Wang, Yuwei; Liu, Yonggang

    2015-12-01

    The discovery of Kepler 452b marks a milestone of searching for habitable exoplanets. While simple estimation indicates that Kepler 452b is located in the habitable zone of a Sun-like star, the climate state and habitability of Kepler 452b require detailed studies. Using a three-dimensional fully coupled atmosphere-ocean climate model and assuming an aqua-planet, we perform simulations to demonstrate climate states of Kepler 452b for different greenhouse effects and ice-albedo feedbacks. Our simulations show that sea ice can only invade from poles to about 45 degree in latitude for extremely low levels of CO2 (5 ppmv), and that surface temperature near the equator remains as high as 300 K. For high level of CO2 (0.2 bars), the exoplanet becomes ice free, and tropical surface temperature reaches about 335 K. The results suggest that Kepler 452b is very close to the inner edge of the habitable zone, and that its climate state can readily reach the runaway greenhouse limit as greenhouse concentration is higher.

  5. HABITABILITY OF EARTH-MASS PLANETS AND MOONS IN THE KEPLER-16 SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    Quarles, B.; Musielak, Z. E.; Cuntz, M. E-mail: zmusielak@uta.edu

    2012-05-01

    We demonstrate that habitable Earth-mass planets and moons can exist in the Kepler-16 system, known to host a Saturn-mass planet around a stellar binary, by investigating their orbital stability in the standard and extended habitable zone (HZ). We find that Earth-mass planets in satellite-like (S-type) orbits are possible within the standard HZ in direct vicinity of Kepler-16b, thus constituting habitable exomoons. However, Earth-mass planets cannot exist in planetary-like (P-type) orbits around the two stellar components within the standard HZ. Yet, P-type Earth-mass planets can exist superior to the Saturnian planet in the extended HZ pertaining to considerably enhanced back-warming in the planetary atmosphere if facilitated. We briefly discuss the potential detectability of such habitable Earth-mass moons and planets positioned in satellite and planetary orbits, respectively. The range of inferior and superior P-type orbits in the HZ is between 0.657-0.71 AU and 0.95-1.02 AU, respectively.

  6. HATS-15b and HATS-16b: Two Massive Planets Transiting Old G Dwarf Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciceri, S.; Mancini, L.; Henning, T.; Bakos, G.; Penev, K.; Brahm, R.; Zhou, G.; Hartman, J. D.; Bayliss, D.; Jordán, A.; Csubry, Z.; de Val-Borro, M.; Bhatti, W.; Rabus, M.; Espinoza, N.; Suc, V.; Schmidt, B.; Noyes, R.; Howard, A. W.; Fulton, B. J.; Isaacson, H.; Marcy, G. W.; Butler, R. P.; Arriagada, P.; Crane, J. D.; Shectman, S.; Thompson, I.; Tan, T. G.; Lázár, J.; Papp, I.; Sari, P.

    2016-07-01

    We report the discovery of HATS-15 b and HATS-16 b, two massive transiting extrasolar planets orbiting evolved (∼10 Gyr) main-sequence stars. The planet HATS-15 b, which is hosted by a G9 V star (V=14.8 mag), is a hot Jupiter with mass of 2.17\\quad +/- \\quad 0.15 {M}{{J}} and radius of 1.105\\quad +/- \\quad 0.040 {R}{{J}}, and it completes its orbit in about 1.7 days. HATS-16 b is a very massive hot Jupiter with mass of 3.27\\quad +/- \\quad 0.19 {M}{{J}} and radius of 1.30\\quad +/- \\quad 0.15 {R}{{J}}; it orbits around its G3 V parent star (V=13.8 mag) in ∼2.7 days. HATS-16 is slightly active and shows a periodic photometric modulation, implying a rotational period of 12 days, which is unexpectedly short given its isochronal age. This fast rotation might be the result of the tidal interaction between the star and its planet. The HATSouth network is operated by a collaboration consisting of Princeton University (PU), the Max Planck Institute für Astronomie (MPIA), the Australian National University (ANU), and the Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile (PUC). The station at Las Campanas Observatory (LCO) of the Carnegie Institute is operated by PU in conjunction with PUC, the station at the High Energy Spectroscopic Survey (H.E.S.S.) site is operated in conjunction with MPIA, and the station at Siding Spring Observatory (SSO) is operated jointly with ANU. Based in part on observations performed at the ESO La Silla Observatory in Chile, with the Coralie and FEROS spectrographs mounted on the Euler-Swiss and MPG 2.2 m telescopes, respectively. This paper includes data gathered with the 6.5 m Magellan Telescopes located at Las Campanas Observatory, Chile. Based in part on data collected at Keck Telescope. Observations obtained with facilities of the Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope are used in this paper.

  7. Variations on the Kepler problem

    SciTech Connect

    Solem, J.C.

    1997-09-01

    The elliptical orbits resulting from Newtonian gravitation are generated with a multifaceted symmetry, mainly resulting from their conservation of both angular momentum and a vector fixing their orientation in space--the Laplace or Runge-Lenz vector. From the ancient formalisms of celestial mechanics, The author shows a rather counterintuitive behavior of the classical hydrogen atom, whose orbits respond in a direction perpendicular to a weak externally-applied electric field. He then shows how the same results can be obtained more easily and directly from the intrinsic symmetry of the Kepler problem. If the atom is subjected to an oscillating electric field, it enjoys symmetry in the time domain as well, which is manifest by quasi-energy states defined only modulo h{omega}. Using the Runge-Lenz vector in place of the radius vector leads to an exactly-solvable model Hamiltonian for an atom is an oscillating electric field--embodying one of the few meaningful exact solutions in quantum mechanics, and a member of an even more exclusive set of exact solutions having a time-dependent Hamiltonian. He further shows that, as long as the atom suffers no change in principal quantum number, incident radiation will produce harmonic radiation with polarization perpendicular to the incident radiation. This unusual polarization results from the perpendicular response of the wavefunction, and is distinguished from most usual harmonic radiation resulting from a scalar nonlinear susceptibility. Finally, he speculates on how this radiation might be observed.

  8. Kepler Mission: A Technical Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borucki, W. J.

    2003-01-01

    The Kepler Mission is a Discovery-class mission designed to continuously monitor the brightness of 100,000 solar-like stars to detect the transits of Earth-size and larger planets. It is a wide field of view photometer Schmidt-type telescope with an array of 42 CCDs. It has a 0.95 m aperture and 1.4 m primary and is designed to attain a photometric precision of 2 parts in 10(exp 5) for 12th magnitude solar-like stars for a 6 hr transit duration. It will continuously observe 100,000 main-sequence stars from 9th to 14th magnitude in the Cygnus constellation for a period of four years with a cadence of 4/hour. An additional 250 stars can be monitored at a cadence of l/minute to do astro-seismology of stars brighter than 11.5 mv. The photometer is scheduled to be launched into heliocentric orbit in 2007. A ground-based program to classify all 225,000 stars in the FOV and to do a detailed examination of a subset of the stars that show planetary companions is also planned.

  9. An Independent Analysis of Kepler-4b Through Kepler-8b

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kipping, David; Bakos, Gáspár

    2011-03-01

    We present two independent, homogeneous, global analyses of the transit light curves, radial velocities, and spectroscopy of Kepler-4b, Kepler-5b, Kepler-6b, Kepler-7b, and Kepler-8b with numerous differences compared to the previous methods. These include: (1) improved decorrelated parameter fitting set used, (2) new limb-darkening coefficients, (3) time stamps modified to barycentric Julian date for consistency with radial velocity data, (4) two different methods for compensating for the long integration time of Kepler long-cadence data, (5) best-fit secondary eclipse depths and excluded upper limits, and (6) fitted mid-transit times, durations, depths, and baseline fluxes for individual transits. We make several determinations not found in the discovery papers. (1) We detect a secondary eclipse for Kepler-7b of depth (47 ± 14) ppm and statistical significance 3.5σ. We conclude that reflected light is a much more plausible origin than thermal emission and determine a geometric albedo of Ag = (0.38 ± 0.12). (2) We find that an eccentric orbit model for the Neptune-mass planet Kepler-4b is detected at the 2σ level with e = (0.25 ± 0.12). If confirmed, this would place Kepler-4b in a similar category as GJ 436b and HAT-P-11b, as an eccentric, Neptune-mass planet. (3) We find weak evidence for a secondary eclipse in Kepler-5b of 2σ significance and depth (26 ± 17) ppm. The most plausible explanation is reflected light caused by a planet of geometric albedo Ag = (0.15 ± 0.10). (4) A 2.6σ peak in Kepler-6b TTV periodogram is detected and is not easily explained as an aliased frequency. We find that mean-motion resonant (MMR) perturbers, non-resonant perturbers, and a companion extrasolar moon all provide inadequate explanations for this signal and the most likely source is stellar rotation. (5) We find different impact parameters relative to the discovery papers in most cases, but generally self-consistent when compared to the two methods employed here. (6) We

  10. Bertrand spacetimes as Kepler/oscillator potentials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballesteros, Ángel; Enciso, Alberto; Herranz, Francisco J.; Ragnisco, Orlando

    2008-08-01

    Perlick's classification of (3 + 1)-dimensional spherically symmetric and static spacetimes \\big({\\cal M},\\eta=-{\\frac{1}{V}} {d} t^2+g\\big) for which the classical Bertrand theorem holds (Perlick V 1992 Class. Quantum Grav. 9 1009) is revisited. For any Bertrand spacetime ({\\cal M},\\eta) the term V(r) is proven to be either the intrinsic Kepler Coulomb or the harmonic oscillator potential on its associated Riemannian 3-manifold (M, g). Among the latter 3-spaces (M, g) we explicitly identify the three classical Riemannian spaces of constant curvature, a generalization of a Darboux space and the Iwai Katayama spaces generalizing the MIC Kepler and Taub NUT problems. The key dynamical role played by the Kepler and oscillator potentials in Euclidean space is thus extended to a wide class of three-dimensional curved spaces.

  11. OPTICAL PHASE CURVES OF KEPLER EXOPLANETS

    SciTech Connect

    Esteves, Lisa J.; De Mooij, Ernst J. W.; Jayawardhana, Ray E-mail: demooij@astro.utoronto.ca

    2013-07-20

    We conducted a comprehensive search for optical phase variations of all close-in (a/R{sub *} < 10) planet candidates in 15 quarters of Kepler space telescope data. After correcting for systematics, we found eight systems that show secondary eclipses as well as phase variations. Of these, five (Kepler-5, Kepler-6, Kepler-8, KOI-64, and KOI-2133) are new and three (TrES-2, HAT-P-7, and KOI-13) have published phase curves, albeit with many fewer observations. We model the full phase curve of each planet candidate, including the primary and secondary transits, and derive their albedos, dayside and nightside temperatures, ellipsoidal variations, and Doppler beaming. We find that KOI-64 and KOI-2133 have nightside temperatures well above their equilibrium values (while KOI-2133 also has an albedo, >1), so we conclude that they are likely to be self-luminous objects rather than planets. The other six candidates have characteristics consistent with their being planets with low geometric albedos (<0.3). For TrES-2 and KOI-13, the Kepler bandpass appears to probe atmospheric layers hotter than the planet's equilibrium temperature. For KOI-13, we detect a never-before-seen third cosine harmonic with an amplitude of 6.7 {+-} 0.3 ppm and a phase shift of -1.1 {+-} 0.1 rad in the phase curve residual, possibly due to its spin-orbit misalignment. We report derived planetary parameters for all six planets, including masses from ellipsoidal variations and Doppler beaming, and compare our results to published values when available. Our results nearly double the number of Kepler exoplanets with measured phase curve variations, thus providing valuable constraints on the properties of hot Jupiters.

  12. Kepler-80 and the Frequency of STIPs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ragozzine, Darin; MacDonald, Mariah; Ford, Eric B.

    2015-12-01

    At ESS-II, Kepler and detailed radial velocity surveys had confirmed that systems of multiple, small, close-in planets were relatively common, but there was a order of magnitude difference between the estimated frequency of STIPs from Kepler (~5%, Lissauer, Ragozzine et al. 2011) and the frequency from RV surveys (~50%, Mayor et al. 2011). Continued Kepler observations are providing insight into the properties of this new population, now called STIPs (Systems with Tightly-packed Inner Planets), both through individually interesting systems and through a large ~homogeneous population. Kepler-80 (KOI-500) is an important system due to its still-unique extreme three-body resonance configuration and its relatively compact configuration. I will present a full dynamical TTV analysis of this system including densities for the four outer planets. We will also discuss the statistical evidence for whether Kepler-80 and similar extremely-tightly-packed systems could be considered a separate population from the STIPs. Radial Velocity surveys have not detected any of these extremely-tightly-packed systems (~4 planets with periods within a factor of ~3), so with the masses from our TTV analysis, we investigate the ability of radial velocity surveys to detect such systems. We find that it is extremely difficult in practice to correctly disentangle the signals for all five planets of Kepler-80 due to the low-SNR amplitudes and similar frequencies involved (even for circular orbits with no resonance effects). STIPs will, to some degree, inherit this propensity for RV measurements to miss planets with similar periods; this has potentially important effects on the completeness estimates for RV surveys of STIPs. We address current results and present a roadmap for investigating the frequency of such systems in more detail using the Planetary System Simulator (SysSim), an extension of the population analysis of Lissauer, Ragozzine, et al. 2011.

  13. Recent Kepler Results On Circumbinary Planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welsh, William F.; Orosz, Jerome A.; Carter, Joshua A.; Fabrycky, Daniel C.

    2014-04-01

    Ranked near the top of the long list of exciting discoveries made with NASA's Kepler photometer is the detection of transiting circumbinary planets. In just over a year the number of such planets went from zero to seven, including a multi-planet system with one of the planets in the habitable zone (Kepler-47). We are quickly learning to better detect and characterize these planets, including the recognition of their transit timing and duration variation ``smoking gun'' signature. Even with only a handful of such planets, some exciting trends are emerging.

  14. Supervised ensemble classification of Kepler variable stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bass, G.; Borne, K.

    2016-07-01

    Variable star analysis and classification is an important task in the understanding of stellar features and processes. While historically classifications have been done manually by highly skilled experts, the recent and rapid expansion in the quantity and quality of data has demanded new techniques, most notably automatic classification through supervised machine learning. We present an expansion of existing work on the field by analysing variable stars in the Kepler field using an ensemble approach, combining multiple characterization and classification techniques to produce improved classification rates. Classifications for each of the roughly 150 000 stars observed by Kepler are produced separating the stars into one of 14 variable star classes.

  15. Supervised Ensemble Classification of Kepler Variable Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bass, G.; Borne, K.

    2016-04-01

    Variable star analysis and classification is an important task in the understanding of stellar features and processes. While historically classifications have been done manually by highly skilled experts, the recent and rapid expansion in the quantity and quality of data has demanded new techniques, most notably automatic classification through supervised machine learning. We present an expansion of existing work on the field by analyzing variable stars in the Kepler field using an ensemble approach, combining multiple characterization and classification techniques to produce improved classification rates. Classifications for each of the roughly 150,000 stars observed by Kepler are produced separating the stars into one of 14 variable star classes.

  16. Johannes Kepler and his contribution to Applied Mathematics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pichler, Franz

    The worldwide renown of Johannes Kepler is based above all on his contribution to astronomy. The 3 Kepler's Laws relating to the planets are well known and will ensure that his name is remembered by future generations. Besides his astronomical work, Kepler also made important contributions in the fields of theology, physics, phylosophy and mathematics. The actual paper discusses the advances by Kepler in the application of mathematics to the solution of "real life problems". The author made a concise account of some of the disciples by Kepler: Klug, Wieleitner, Caspar, Hammer, paying particular attention to works published by Kepler while he was living in Linz (1612-1628). The Kepler's contribution to applied mathematics is an example supremely worthy of emulation, the author concludes.

  17. Planet Hunters: Kepler by Eye

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwamb, Megan E.; Lintott, C.; Fischer, D.; Smith, A. M.; Boyajian, T. S.; Brewer, J. M.; Giguere, M. J.; Lynn, S.; Parrish, M.; Schawinski, K.; Schmitt, J.; Simpson, R.; Wang, J.

    2014-01-01

    Planet Hunters (http://www.planethunters.org), part of the Zooniverse's (http://www.zooniverse.org) collection of online citizen science projects, uses the World Wide Web to enlist the general public to identify transits in the pubic Kepler light curves. Planet Hunters utilizes human pattern recognition to identify planet transits that may be missed by automated detection algorithms looking for periodic events. Referred to as ‘crowdsourcing’ or ‘citizen science’, the combined assessment of many non-expert human classifiers with minimal training can often equal or best that of a trained expert and in many cases outperform the best machine-learning algorithm. Visitors to the Planet Hunters' website are presented with a randomly selected ~30-day light curve segment from one of Kepler’s ~160,000 target stars and are asked to draw boxes to mark the locations of visible transits in the web interface. 5-10 classifiers review each 30-day light curve segment. Since December 2010, more than 260,000 volunteers world wide have participated, contributing over 20 million classifications. We have demonstrated the success of a citizen science approach with the project’s more than 20 planet candidates, the discovery of PH1b, a transiting circumbinary planet in a quadruple star system, and the discovery of PH2-b, a confirmed Jupiter-sized planet in the habitable zone of a Sun-like star. I will provide an overview of Planet Hunters, highlighting several of project's most recent exoplanet and astrophysical discoveries. Acknowledgements: MES was supported in part by a NSF AAPF under award AST-1003258 and a American Philosophical Society Franklin Grant. We acknowledge support from NASA ADAP12-0172 grant to PI Fischer.

  18. Kepler-1647b: The Largest and Longest-period Kepler Transiting Circumbinary Planet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kostov, Veselin B.; Orosz, Jerome A.; Welsh, William F.; Doyle, Laurance R.; Fabrycky, Daniel C.; Haghighipour, Nader; Quarles, Billy; Short, Donald R.; Cochran, William D.; Endl, Michael; Ford, Eric B.; Gregorio, Joao; Hinse, Tobias C.; Isaacson, Howard; Jenkins, Jon M.; Jensen, Eric L. N.; Kane, Stephen; Kull, Ilya; Latham, David W.; Lissauer, Jack J.; Marcy, Geoffrey W.; Mazeh, Tsevi; Müller, Tobias W. A.; Pepper, Joshua; Quinn, Samuel N.; Ragozzine, Darin; Shporer, Avi; Steffen, Jason H.; Torres, Guillermo; Windmiller, Gur; Borucki, William J.

    2016-08-01

    We report the discovery of a new Kepler transiting circumbinary planet (CBP). This latest addition to the still-small family of CBPs defies the current trend of known short-period planets orbiting near the stability limit of binary stars. Unlike the previous discoveries, the planet revolving around the eclipsing binary system Kepler-1647 has a very long orbital period (∼1100 days) and was at conjunction only twice during the Kepler mission lifetime. Due to the singular configuration of the system, Kepler-1647b is not only the longest-period transiting CBP at the time of writing, but also one of the longest-period transiting planets. With a radius of 1.06 ± 0.01 R Jup, it is also the largest CBP to date. The planet produced three transits in the light curve of Kepler-1647 (one of them during an eclipse, creating a syzygy) and measurably perturbed the times of the stellar eclipses, allowing us to measure its mass, 1.52 ± 0.65 M Jup. The planet revolves around an 11-day period eclipsing binary consisting of two solar-mass stars on a slightly inclined, mildly eccentric (e bin = 0.16), spin-synchronized orbit. Despite having an orbital period three times longer than Earth’s, Kepler-1647b is in the conservative habitable zone of the binary star throughout its orbit.

  19. Kepler-1647b: The Largest and Longest-period Kepler Transiting Circumbinary Planet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kostov, Veselin B.; Orosz, Jerome A.; Welsh, William F.; Doyle, Laurance R.; Fabrycky, Daniel C.; Haghighipour, Nader; Quarles, Billy; Short, Donald R.; Cochran, William D.; Endl, Michael; Ford, Eric B.; Gregorio, Joao; Hinse, Tobias C.; Isaacson, Howard; Jenkins, Jon M.; Jensen, Eric L. N.; Kane, Stephen; Kull, Ilya; Latham, David W.; Lissauer, Jack J.; Marcy, Geoffrey W.; Mazeh, Tsevi; Müller, Tobias W. A.; Pepper, Joshua; Quinn, Samuel N.; Ragozzine, Darin; Shporer, Avi; Steffen, Jason H.; Torres, Guillermo; Windmiller, Gur; Borucki, William J.

    2016-08-01

    We report the discovery of a new Kepler transiting circumbinary planet (CBP). This latest addition to the still-small family of CBPs defies the current trend of known short-period planets orbiting near the stability limit of binary stars. Unlike the previous discoveries, the planet revolving around the eclipsing binary system Kepler-1647 has a very long orbital period (˜1100 days) and was at conjunction only twice during the Kepler mission lifetime. Due to the singular configuration of the system, Kepler-1647b is not only the longest-period transiting CBP at the time of writing, but also one of the longest-period transiting planets. With a radius of 1.06 ± 0.01 R Jup, it is also the largest CBP to date. The planet produced three transits in the light curve of Kepler-1647 (one of them during an eclipse, creating a syzygy) and measurably perturbed the times of the stellar eclipses, allowing us to measure its mass, 1.52 ± 0.65 M Jup. The planet revolves around an 11-day period eclipsing binary consisting of two solar-mass stars on a slightly inclined, mildly eccentric (e bin = 0.16), spin-synchronized orbit. Despite having an orbital period three times longer than Earth’s, Kepler-1647b is in the conservative habitable zone of the binary star throughout its orbit.

  20. Spectral properties of 1H-pyrazolo[3,4-b]quinoline substituted with N,N-diethylamine moiety

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolbus, Anna; Grabka, Danuta; Danel, Andrzej; Szary, Karol

    2016-07-01

    Photophysical properties of 6-N,N-diethyl-3-methyl-1-phenyl-1H-pyrazol[3,4-b]quinoline (DEPQ), a potential material for electroluminescent applications, were investigated. The absorption and fluorescence spectra and fluorescence lifetimes were recorded in a great number of solvents with different polarity. The red shifts in absorption and fluorescence maxima with the solvent's polarity were observed. Different trends in values of quantum yield for non-polar and polar solvents suggest two different deactivation ways of the excited state, depending on solvent polarity. DEPQ in non-polar solvents emits from locally excited states while deactivation DEPQ in polar solvents indicates charge transfer (CT) fluorescence. Several electro-optical parameters were also calculated.

  1. Kepler-79's low density planets

    SciTech Connect

    Jontof-Hutter, Daniel; Lissauer, Jack J.; Rowe, Jason F.; Fabrycky, Daniel C.

    2014-04-10

    Kepler-79 (KOI-152) has four planetary candidates ranging in size from 3.5 to 7 times the size of the Earth, in a compact configuration with orbital periods near a 1:2:4:6 chain of commensurability, from 13.5 to 81.1 days. All four planets exhibit transit timing variations with periods that are consistent with the distance of each planet to resonance with its neighbors. We perform a dynamical analysis of the system based on transit timing measurements over 1282 days of Kepler photometry. Stellar parameters are obtained using a combination of spectral classification and the stellar density constraints provided by light curve analysis and orbital eccentricity solutions from our dynamical study. Our models provide tight bounds on the masses of all four transiting bodies, demonstrating that they are planets and that they orbit the same star. All four of Kepler-79's transiting planets have low densities given their sizes, which is consistent with other studies of compact multiplanet transiting systems. The largest of the four, Kepler-79 d (KOI-152.01), has the lowest bulk density yet determined among sub-Saturn mass planets.

  2. Constraining the oblateness of Kepler planets

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, Wei; Huang, Chelsea X.; Zhou, George; Lin, D. N. C.

    2014-11-20

    We use Kepler short-cadence light curves to constrain the oblateness of planet candidates in the Kepler sample. The transits of rapidly rotating planets that are deformed in shape will lead to distortions in the ingress and egress of their light curves. We report the first tentative detection of an oblate planet outside the solar system, measuring an oblateness of 0.22{sub −0.11}{sup +0.11} for the 18 M{sub J} mass brown dwarf Kepler 39b (KOI 423.01). We also provide constraints on the oblateness of the planets (candidates) HAT-P-7b, KOI 686.01, and KOI 197.01 to be <0.067, <0.251, and <0.186, respectively. Using the Q' values from Jupiter and Saturn, we expect tidal synchronization for the spins of HAT-P-7b, KOI 686.01, and KOI 197.01, and for their rotational oblateness signatures to be undetectable in the current data. The potentially large oblateness of KOI 423.01 (Kepler 39b) suggests that the Q' value of the brown dwarf needs to be two orders of magnitude larger than that of the solar system gas giants to avoid being tidally spun down.

  3. Kepler's Laws: Demonstration and Derivation Without Calculus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapman, Seville

    1969-01-01

    Presents a demonstration apparatus for Kepler's three laws of planetary motion consisting of an air-supported "satellite whose orbit on a level table surface is determined by an inverse square force generated by a Peaucellier linkage and long spring. The device can also be used to illustrate centrifugal force, statics, friction, momentum and…

  4. Spectral Mapping of Kepler's Supernova Remnant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reynolds, Stephen; Blair, William; Borkowski, Kazimierz; Ghavamian, Parviz; Long, Knox; Sankrit, Ravi; Williams, Brian

    2008-03-01

    We propose to leverage our extensive previous multi-wavelength investigations of Kepler's supernova remnant (SN 1604) by obtaining IRS spectral maps of this premier example of a 'massive Type Ia' remnant. Of particular interest is the dense circumstellar medium (CSM) evidently surrounding Kepler. This material is best investigated in infrared, where shock-heated dust reveals the thermal-gas density and possible composition clues such as the 10-micron silicate feature. Full LL coverage (14-38 um) will permit detailed mapping of continuum shape changes with spatial position that are only hinted at from our previous MIPS 24 and 70 um imaging. SL mapping of selected regions will permit detailed studies of changes in the silicate feature with position, suggested by two slit positions in earlier observations. Combined with our deep Chandra observation (750 ks), these data will permit a detailed study of dust destruction in fast shocks. Kepler also shows regions near the remnant edge dominated by synchrotron X-ray emission, indicating electron acceleration to energies of order 100 TeV. However, the dominance of synchrotron continuum means that properties of the thermal medium, important for understanding shock-acceleration physics, cannot be diagnosed with X-rays. Our IRS spectra should allow such diagnosis. Kepler's unique position among Type Ia supernova remnants makes it a critical target for the understanding of the Type Ia phenomenon.

  5. Kepler as astronomical observer in Prague

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bialas, Volker

    Official histories of science have consistently perpetuated the rumour that Kepler's poor eyesight prevented him from undertaking astronomical observations. However the condition of his eyesight could not have been so serious for in 1582, when his father made it possible for him to see a lunar eclipse, Kepler saw the moon emerge clearly. We find quite a lot of his astronomical observations especially of the years in Prague, mostly left in his manuscripts and unpublished until now. They will be edited in Vol. XXI.1 of the Kepler-Edition in the next future. Kepler's astronomical observations in Prague were mostly initiated by spectacular phenomena in the sky. He was self-critical enough to know, that his observations could not compete with those of the best observers of his time. It was not necessary for him to come up to highest standard of accuracy, and it was not possible to do so because he did not possess proper astronomical instruments. But nevertheless it was important for him as a theorist of astronomy and as a philosopher of nature to take a view of the phenomena which he wished to study carefully.

  6. INSTRUMENT PERFORMANCE IN KEPLER's FIRST MONTHS

    SciTech Connect

    Caldwell, Douglas A.; Van Cleve, Jeffrey E.; Jenkins, Jon M.; Gazis, Paul R.; Chandrasekaran, Hema; Li Jie; Tenenbaum, Peter; Wu, Hayley; Argabright, Vic S.; Bachtell, Eric E.; Dunham, Edward W.; Geary, John C.; Gilliland, Ronald L.; Borucki, William J.; Bryson, Stephen T.; Dotson, Jessie L.; Haas, Michael R.; Koch, David G.

    2010-04-20

    The Kepler Mission relies on precise differential photometry to detect the 80 parts per million (ppm) signal from an Earth-Sun equivalent transit. Such precision requires superb instrument stability on timescales up to {approx}2 days and systematic error removal to better than 20 ppm. To this end, the spacecraft and photometer underwent 67 days of commissioning, which included several data sets taken to characterize the photometer performance. Because Kepler has no shutter, we took a series of dark images prior to the dust cover ejection, from which we measured the bias levels, dark current, and read noise. These basic detector properties are essentially unchanged from ground-based tests, indicating that the photometer is working as expected. Several image artifacts have proven more complex than when observed during ground testing, as a result of their interactions with starlight and the greater thermal stability in flight, which causes the temperature-dependent artifact variations to be on the timescales of transits. Because of Kepler's unprecedented sensitivity and stability, we have also seen several unexpected systematics that affect photometric precision. We are using the first 43 days of science data to characterize these effects and to develop detection and mitigation methods that will be implemented in the calibration pipeline. Based on early testing, we expect to attain Kepler's planned photometric precision over 80%-90% of the field of view.

  7. Kepler AutoRegressive Planet Search

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caceres, Gabriel Antonio; Feigelson, Eric

    2016-01-01

    The Kepler AutoRegressive Planet Search (KARPS) project uses statistical methodology associated with autoregressive (AR) processes to model Kepler lightcurves in order to improve exoplanet transit detection in systems with high stellar variability. We also introduce a planet-search algorithm to detect transits in time-series residuals after application of the AR models. One of the main obstacles in detecting faint planetary transits is the intrinsic stellar variability of the host star. The variability displayed by many stars may have autoregressive properties, wherein later flux values are correlated with previous ones in some manner. Our analysis procedure consisting of three steps: pre-processing of the data to remove discontinuities, gaps and outliers; AR-type model selection and fitting; and transit signal search of the residuals using a new Transit Comb Filter (TCF) that replaces traditional box-finding algorithms. The analysis procedures of the project are applied to a portion of the publicly available Kepler light curve data for the full 4-year mission duration. Tests of the methods have been made on a subset of Kepler Objects of Interest (KOI) systems, classified both as planetary `candidates' and `false positives' by the Kepler Team, as well as a random sample of unclassified systems. We find that the ARMA-type modeling successfully reduces the stellar variability, by a factor of 10 or more in active stars and by smaller factors in more quiescent stars. A typical quiescent Kepler star has an interquartile range (IQR) of ~10 e-/sec, which may improve slightly after modeling, while those with IQR ranging from 20 to 50 e-/sec, have improvements from 20% up to 70%. High activity stars (IQR exceeding 100) markedly improve. A periodogram based on the TCF is constructed to concentrate the signal of these periodic spikes. When a periodic transit is found, the model is displayed on a standard period-folded averaged light curve. Our findings to date on real

  8. ALMOST ALL OF KEPLER'S MULTIPLE-PLANET CANDIDATES ARE PLANETS

    SciTech Connect

    Lissauer, Jack J.; Rowe, Jason F.; Bryson, Stephen T.; Howell, Steve B.; Jenkins, Jon M.; Kinemuchi, Karen; Koch, David G.; Marcy, Geoffrey W.; Adams, Elisabeth; Fressin, Francois; Geary, John; Holman, Matthew J.; Ragozzine, Darin; Buchhave, Lars A.; Ciardi, David R.; Fabrycky, Daniel C.; Ford, Eric B.; Morehead, Robert C.; Gilliland, Ronald L.; and others

    2012-05-10

    We present a statistical analysis that demonstrates that the overwhelming majority of Kepler candidate multiple transiting systems (multis) indeed represent true, physically associated transiting planets. Binary stars provide the primary source of false positives among Kepler planet candidates, implying that false positives should be nearly randomly distributed among Kepler targets. In contrast, true transiting planets would appear clustered around a smaller number of Kepler targets if detectable planets tend to come in systems and/or if the orbital planes of planets encircling the same star are correlated. There are more than one hundred times as many Kepler planet candidates in multi-candidate systems as would be predicted from a random distribution of candidates, implying that the vast majority are true planets. Most of these multis are multiple-planet systems orbiting the Kepler target star, but there are likely cases where (1) the planetary system orbits a fainter star, and the planets are thus significantly larger than has been estimated, or (2) the planets orbit different stars within a binary/multiple star system. We use the low overall false-positive rate among Kepler multis, together with analysis of Kepler spacecraft and ground-based data, to validate the closely packed Kepler-33 planetary system, which orbits a star that has evolved somewhat off of the main sequence. Kepler-33 hosts five transiting planets, with periods ranging from 5.67 to 41 days.

  9. Spectroscopy of Kepler Candidate Exoplanet Host Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Everett, Mark E.; Howell, Steve B.; Silva, David R.; Szkody, Paula

    2014-02-01

    Currently the NASA Kepler Mission has identified 3449 exoplanet candidates, one third with estimated radii R_p<2.5R_oplus and orbiting faint (m_Kep>14.5) host stars. The NASA sponsored Kepler Follow-up Program is focusing on small exoplanet candidates (R_p<2.5R_oplus) and those in habitable zone orbits. Planet radii estimates depend on estimates of host star radii. Based on spectra previously obtained at the KPNO Mayall 4-m for 220 stars with candidate exoplanets, Everett et al. (2013) have shown that many host stars are larger than originally assumed (up to factor of 2). Therefore, the exoplanet candidates they host must be larger than originally assumed, which conversely reduces the number of known Earth- sized exoplanet candidates. Determination of the frequency of such Earth-sized planets is a cornerstone Kepler mission objective and of keen general interest. These Mayall spectra were also used to confirm the Buchhave et al. (2012) result that exoplanet candidates larger than 4R_oplus in short-period orbits are preferentially associated with host stars with solar or higher metallicity, using a fainter and larger sample of stars than Buchhave et al. In short, followup Mayall optical spectroscopy is critical to confirming the detection of Earth-sized exoplanets, a Kepler cornerstone goal, as well as characterizing the relationship between host star properties and planetary system properties. Here, we propose to continue our reconnaissance survey with a focus on the smallest (most rare) exoplanet candidates orbiting the faintest Kepler host stars.

  10. The Origin of Kepler's Supernova Remnant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patnaude, Daniel J.; Badenes, Carles; Park, Sangwook; Laming, J. Martin

    2012-09-01

    It is now well established that Kepler's supernova remnant (SNR) is the result of a Type Ia explosion. With an age of 407 yr and an angular diameter of ~4', Kepler is estimated to be between 3.0 and 7.0 kpc distant. Unlike other Galactic Type Ia SNRs such as Tycho and SN 1006, and SNR 0509-67.5 in the Large Magellanic Cloud, Kepler shows evidence for a strong circumstellar interaction. A bowshock structure in the north is thought to originate from the motion of a mass-losing system through the interstellar medium prior to the supernova. We present results of hydrodynamical and spectral modeling aimed at constraining the circumstellar environment of the system and the amount of 56Ni produced in the explosion. Using models that contain either 0.3 M ⊙ (subenergetic) or 1.0 M ⊙ (energetic) of 56Ni, we simulate the interaction between supernova Ia ejecta and various circumstellar density models. Based on dynamical considerations alone, we find that the subenergetic models favor a distance to the SNR of <6.4 kpc, while the model that produces 1 M ⊙ of 56Ni requires a distance to the SNR of >7 kpc. The X-ray spectrum is consistent with an explosion that produced ~1 M ⊙ of 56Ni, ruling out the subenergetic models, and suggesting that Kepler's SNR was an SN 1991T-like event. Additionally, the X-ray spectrum rules out a pure r -2 wind profile expected from isotropic mass loss up to the time of the supernova. Introducing a small cavity around the progenitor system results in modeled X-ray spectra that are consistent with the observed spectrum. If a wind-shaped circumstellar environment is necessary to explain the dynamics and X-ray emission from the shocked ejecta in Kepler's SNR, then we require that the distance to the remnant be greater than 7 kpc.

  11. Using Spitzer to Estimate the Kepler False Positive Rate and to Validate Kepler Candidates.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desert, Jean-Michel; Charbonneau, D.; Fressin, F.; Torres, G.

    2012-01-01

    I present the results from an ongoing large campaign with the Spitzer Space Telescope to gather near-infrared photometric measurements of Kepler Objects of Interest (KOI). Our goals are (1) to validate the planetary status of these Kepler candidates, (2) to estimate observationally the false positive rate, and (3) to study the atmospheres of confirmed planets through measurements of their secondary eclipses. Our target list spans of wide range of candidate sizes and periods orbiting various spectral type stars. The Spitzer observations provide constraints on the possibility of astrophysical false positives resulting from stellar blends, including eclipsing binaries and hierarchical triples. The number of possible blends per star is estimated using stellar population synthesis models and observational probes of the KOI close environments from direct imaging (e.g. Adaptive Optics, Speckle images, Kepler centroids). Combining all the above information with the shape of the transit lightcurves from the Kepler photometry, we compute odd ratios for the 34 candidates we observed in order to determine their false positive probability. Our results suggest that the Kepler false positive rate in this subset of candidates is low. I finally present a new list of Kepler candidates that we were able to validate using this method. This work is based on observations made with the Spitzer, which is operated by JPL/Caltech, under a contract with NASA. Support was provided by NASA through an award issued by JPL/Caltech. Kepler was selected as the 10th mission of the Discovery Program. Funding for this mission is provided by NASA, Science Mission Directorate.

  12. Celebrating 400 Years of Astronomia Nova: Johannes Kepler, the Kepler Mission, and the International Year of Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeVore, Edna; Koch, D.; Gould, A.; Harman, P.

    2009-01-01

    The International Year of Astronomy 2009 is an occasion to celebrate astronomy around the world. In addition to honoring Galileo and the invention of the astronomical telescope, 2009 is the 400th anniversary year of Kepler's publication of the Astronomia Nova containing his first two laws of planetary motion. In recognition of Kepler's accomplishment, the first NASA mission capable of detecting Earth-size and smaller planets in the habitable zone of stars has been named after Johannes Kepler. The Kepler Mission launches in the spring of 2009 and will search for evidence of extrasolar planets as they transit--pass in front of--their parent stars. Using Kepler's Laws, scientists will interpret the Mission data to characterize the planets that are discovered. The Kepler Mission is conducting several Educational and Public Outreach (E/PO) activities leading up to and during IYA. Among these are the "Name In Space” project which offers participants the opportunity to send their name into space along with a statement about the importance of searching for extrasolar Earths. The "Kepler Star Wheel” (planisphere) shows both the Kepler field of view and naked eye stars with known planetary systems. A series of StarDate programs will be broadcast in English and Spanish. Inquiry-based classroom lessons suitable for middle and high school science classes are available for download at the website, and on the Kepler Mission poster. The Kepler Mission poster will be distributed to middle and high school science teachers through the National Science Teacher's Association and other science teacher organizations. Copies will be available at AAS. The Kepler EPO team is presenting pre-launch teacher workshops at several locations around the US. Details about the workshop, and event timeline will be presented. For further information on the Kepler Mission, its E/PO program, and online resources, please visit: http://kepler.nasa.gov. Funded by NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  13. Celebrating 400 Years of Astronomia Nova: Johannes Kepler, the Kepler Mission, and the International Year of Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devore, E. K.; Koch, D.; Gould, A.; Harman, P. K.

    2008-12-01

    The International Year of Astronomy 2009 is an occasion to celebrate astronomy around the world. In addition to honoring Galileo and the invention of the astronomical telescope, 2009 is the 400th anniversary year of Kepler's publication of the Astronomia Nova containing his first two laws of planetary motion. In recognition of Kepler's accomplishment, the first NASA mission capable of detecting Earth-size and smaller planets in the habitable zone of stars has been named after Johannes Kepler. The Kepler Mission launches in the spring of 2009 and will search for evidence of extrasolar planets as they transit--pass in front of--their parent stars. Using Kepler's Laws, scientists will interpret the Mission data to characterize the planets that are discovered. The Kepler Mission is conducting several Educational and Public Outreach (E/PO) activities leading up to and during IYA. Among these are the Name In Space project which offers participants the opportunity to send their name into space along with a statement about the importance of searching for extrasolar Earths. The Kepler Star Wheel (planisphere) shows both the Kepler field of view and naked eye stars with known planetary systems. A series of StarDate programs will be broadcast in English and Spanish. Inquiry-based classroom lessons suitable for middle and high school science classes are available for download at the website, and on the Kepler Mission poster. The Kepler Mission poster will be distributed to middle and high school science teachers through the National Science Teacher's Association and other science teacher organizations. Copies will be available at AGU. The Kepler EPO team is presenting pre-launch teacher workshops at several locations around the US. Details about the workshop, and event timeline will be presented. For further information on the Kepler Mission, its E/PO program, and online resources, please visit: http://Kepler.NASA.gov.

  14. Kepler-454b: Rocky or Not?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-02-01

    Small exoplanets tend to fall into two categories: the smallest ones are predominantly rocky, like Earth, and the larger ones have a lower-density, more gaseous composition, similar to Neptune. The planet Kepler-454b was initially estimated to fall between these two groups in radius. So what is its composition?Small-Planet DichotomyThough Kepler has detected thousands of planet candidates with radii between 1 and 2.7 Earth radii, we have only obtained precise mass measurements for 12 of these planets.Mass-radius diagram (click for a closer look!) for planets with radius 2.7 Earth radii and well-measured masses. The six smallest planets (and Venus and Earth) fall along a single mass-radius curve of Earth-like composition. The six larger planets (including Kepler-454b) have lower-density compositions. [Gettel et al. 2016]These measurements, however, show an interesting dichotomy: planets with radii less than 1.6 Earth radii have rocky, Earth-like compositions, following a single relation between their mass and radius. Planets between 2 and 2.7 Earth radii, however, have lower densities and dont follow a single mass-radius relation. Their low densities suggest they contain a significant fraction of volatiles, likely in the form of a thick gas envelope of water, hydrogen, and/or helium.The planet Kepler-454b, discovered transiting a Sun-like star, was initially estimated to have a radius of 1.86 Earth radii placing it in between these two categories. A team of astronomers led by Sara Gettel (Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics) have since followed up on the initial Kepler detection, hoping to determine the planets composition.Low-Density OutcomeGettel and collaborators obtained 63 observations of the host stars radial velocity with the HARPS-N spectrograph on the Telescopio Nazionale Galileo, and another 36 observations with the HIRES spectrograph at Keck Observatory. These observations allowed them to do several things:Obtain a more accurate radius estimate

  15. What's the Kepler Spacecraft Been Up To?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-03-01

    Remember back in May 2013 when the second of Keplers reaction wheels failed, rendering it unable to control its precision pointing? As a result of a clever backup plan by intrepid scientists, Kepler is still going strong! This January, a paper was published describing some of the results from the first year of the extended Kepler mission, known as K2.K2: A Second ChanceHistograms of the K2 planet candidate sample (solid yellow) compared with planet candidates from the first four months of Kepler observations (blue diagonal lines). The histograms compare planet radius, orbital period, and brightness. [Vanderburg et al. 2016]After an incredibly successful five years discovering transiting exoplanets, the failure of two of Keplers reaction wheels (which allow it to maintain its orientation) looked like it would shut down the mission. Luckily, the scientific community came up with the ingenious plan of stabilizing the telescope using the radiation pressure exerted by the Sun. Though this solution limits Kepler to observing within the ecliptic plane, it has provided a new life lease for the project.Despite the significantly worsened pointing precision in the K2 mission, new analysis techniques have been developed that decouple the motion of the spacecraft from its observations, resulting in an observational precision for K2 thats within 35% of the original precision achieved by Kepler.Using these techniques, a team of scientists led by Andrew Vanderburg (HarvardSmithsonian Center for Astrophysics) analyzed the publicly released data from the first year of the K2 mission. In a new study, they describe the results from the 59,174 targets that Kepler has observed in that time.Planetary CandidatesVanderburg and collaborators report that K2 has detected 234 planetary candidates around 208 stars in its first year. These candidates span a range of sizes from gas-giant to smaller than the Earth, and have orbital periods that range from hours to more than a month. The list

  16. Evaluation of the pri-miR-34b/c rs4938723 polymorphism and its association with breast cancer risk

    PubMed Central

    SANAEI, SARA; HASHEMI, MOHAMMAD; REZAEI, MARYAM; HASHEMI, SEYED MEHDI; BAHARI, GHOLAMREZA; GHAVAMI, SAEID

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs or miRs) are a family of small non-coding RNAs that function as oncogenes or tumor suppressor genes. Recent evidence suggests that the pri-miR-34b/c rs4938723 variant is associated with the development of cancer. At present, there is an inconsistent association between the single-nucleotide polymorphism in pri-miR-34b/c and cancer in the limited studies. The present study is a case-control investigation, with 263 breast cancer (BC) patients and 221 control women, which examined the potential association of the pri-miR-34b/c rs4938723 polymorphisms with BC susceptibility. The polymorphisms were genotyped by the polymerase chain reaction restriction fragment length polymorphism method. No significant association between the pri-miR-34b/c rs4938723 variant and BC was identified [TC vs. TT: Odds ratio (OR), 0.87; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.60–1.26; P=0.506; CC vs. TT: OR, 1.22; 95% CI, 0.61–2.47; P=0.600; TC+CC vs. TT: OR, 0.91; 95% CI, 0.64–1.31; P=0.648; CC vs. TT+TC: OR, 1.32; 95% CI, 0.67–2.59; P=0.498; C vs. T: OR, 0.99; 95% CI, 0.75–1.31; P=0.986]. However, a significant association was observed between the pri-miR-34b/c rs4938723 genotypes and clinicopathological characteristics, such a grade, progesterone receptor and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 status were observed (P<0.05). These findings suggest that the pri-miR-34b/c rs4938723 variant may not be a risk factor for the development of BC. PMID:27347415

  17. THE ATMOSPHERES OF THE HOT-JUPITERS KEPLER-5b AND KEPLER-6b OBSERVED DURING OCCULTATIONS WITH WARM-SPITZER AND KEPLER

    SciTech Connect

    Desert, Jean-Michel; Charbonneau, David; Fressin, Francois; Latham, David W.; Fortney, Jonathan J.; Madhusudhan, Nikku; Knutson, Heather A.; Deming, Drake; Borucki, William J.; Brown, Timothy M.; Caldwell, Douglas; Ford, Eric B.; Gilliland, Ronald L.; Marcy, Geoffrey W.; Seager, Sara

    2011-11-01

    This paper reports the detection and the measurements of occultations of the two transiting hot giant exoplanets Kepler-5b and Kepler-6b by their parent stars. The observations are obtained in the near-infrared with Warm-Spitzer Space Telescope and at optical wavelengths by combining more than a year of Kepler photometry. The investigation consists of constraining the eccentricities of these systems and of obtaining broadband emergent photometric data for individual planets. For both targets, the occultations are detected at the 3{sigma} level at each wavelength with mid-occultation times consistent with circular orbits. The brightness temperatures of these planets are deduced from the infrared observations and reach T{sub Spitzer} = 1930 {+-} 100 K and T{sub Spitzer} = 1660 {+-} 120 K for Kepler-5b and Kepler-6b, respectively. We measure optical geometric albedos A{sub g} in the Kepler bandpass and find A{sub g} = 0.12 {+-} 0.04 for Kepler-5b and A{sub g} = 0.11 {+-} 0.04 for Kepler-6b, leading to upper an limit for the Bond albedo of A{sub B} {<=} 0.17 in both cases. The observations for both planets are best described by models for which most of the incident energy is redistributed on the dayside, with only less than 10% of the absorbed stellar flux redistributed to the nightside of these planets.

  18. Improved Dynamical Parameters for Transiting Circumbinary Planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomadis, Pantelis C.; Orosz, Jerome A.; Welsh, William F.; Friedmann, Matan; Mazeh, Tsevi; Short, Donald R.; Windmiller, Gur

    2016-06-01

    To date, the Kepler space telescope has detected about a dozen transiting circumbinary planets (i.e. planets that orbit a binary star system). Here we present improved dynamical parameters for the following four circumbinary planets: Kepler-16b (Doyle et al. 2011), 34b and 35b (Welsh et al. 2012), and 38b (Orosz et al. 2012). The original analyses contained only a subsample of the entire Kepler dataset available today. In the case of Kepler-16b, we have also obtained additional spectra and an additional transit not present in the Kepler photometry. We present updated parameters for these four systems, including a preliminary search for additional bodies in the Kepler-16 system.

  19. Photometer Performance Assessment in Kepler Science Data Processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Jie; Allen, Christopher; Bryson, Stephen T.; Caldwell, Douglas A.; Chandrasekaran, Hema; Clarke, Bruce D.; Gunter, Jay P.; Jenkins, Jon M.; Klaus, Todd C.; Quintana, Elisa V.; Tenenbaum, Peter; Twicken, Joseph D.; Wohler, Bill; Wu, Hayley

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the algorithms of the Photometer Performance Assessment (PPA) software component in the science data processing pipeline of the Kepler mission. The PPA performs two tasks: One is to analyze the health and performance of the Kepler photometer based on the long cadence science data down-linked via Ka band approximately every 30 days. The second is to determine the attitude of the Kepler spacecraft with high precision at each long cadence. The PPA component is demonstrated to work effectively with the Kepler flight data.

  20. The astronomical revolution. Copernicus - Kepler - Borelli.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koyré, A.

    The work was originally published in 1961 under the title "La révolution astronomique" as part of the series, Histoire de la pensée. This book is an unabridged and unaltered republication of the English translation, by R. E. W. Maddison, originally published in 1973 (see 10.003.074). The author elucidates, precisely and in stages, the revolutionary ideas of Nicolaus Copernicus as well as the work of two other thinkers who made major contributions to the astronomical revolution: Johannes Kepler and Giovanni Borelli. He illuminates the exact contribution of each man, placing his work in its historical context and dispelling a host of misconceptions about it. In order to effectively recapture the ferment and flavor of the times, the author, whenever possible, has allowed Copernicus, Kepler and Borelli to speak for themselves by quoting key passages from their writings. Many of these passages were here translated for the first time.

  1. Tracking Files Using the Kepler Provenance Framework

    SciTech Connect

    Pierre, Mouallem; Vouk, Mladen; Klasky, Scott A; Tchoua, Roselyne B; Podhorszki, Norbert

    2009-01-01

    Workflow Management Systems (WFMS), such as Kepler, are proving to be an important tool in scientific problem solving. They can automate and manage complex processes and huge amounts of data produced by petascale simulations. Typically, the produced data need to be properly visualized and analyzed by scientists in order to achieve the desired scientific goals. Both run-time and post analysis may benefit from, even require, additional meta-data - provenance information. One of the challenges in this context is the tracking of the data files that can be produced in very large numbers during stages of the workflow, such as visualizations. The Kepler provenance framework collects all or part of the raw information flowing through the workflow graph. This information then needs to be further parsed to extract meta-data of interest. This can be done through add-on tools and algorithms. We show how to automate tracking specific information such as data files locations.

  2. Tracking Files Using the Kepler Provenance Framework

    SciTech Connect

    Mouallem, P. A.; Tchoua, Roselyne B; Klasky, Scott A; Podhorszki, Norbert; Vouk, M. A.

    2009-01-01

    Workflow Management Systems (WFMS), such as Kepler, are prov- ing to be an important tool in scientific problem solving. They can automate and manage complex processes and huge amounts of data produced by petas- cale simulations. Typically, the produced data need to be properly visualized and analyzed by scientists in order to achieve the desired scientific goals. Both run-time and post analysis may benefit from, even require, additional meta-data provenance information. One of the challenges in this context is the tracking of the data files that can be produced in very large numbers during stages of the workflow, such as visualizations. The Kepler provenance framework collects all or part of the raw information flowing through the workflow graph. This infor- mation then needs to be further parsed to extract meta-data of interest. This can be done through add-on tools and algorithms. We show how to automate track- ing specific information such as data files locations.

  3. Tracking Files in the Kepler Provenance Framework

    SciTech Connect

    Mouallem, Pierre A; Klasky, Scott A; Podhorszki, Norbert; Vouk, Mladen

    2009-01-01

    Workflow Management Systems (WFMS), such as Kepler, are proving to be an important tool in scientific problem solving. They can automate and manage complex processes and huge amounts of data produced by petascale simulations. Typically, the produced data need to be properly visualized and analyzed by scientists in order to achieve the desired scientific goals. Both run-time and post analysis may benefit from, even require, additional meta-data - provenance information. One of the challenges in this context is the tracking of the data files that can be produced in very large numbers during stages of the workflow, such as visualizations. The Kepler provenance framework collects all or part of the raw information flowing through the workflow graph. This information then needs to be further parsed to extract meta-data of interest. This can be done through add-on tools and algorithms. We show how to automate tracking specific information such as data files locations.

  4. Transiting Planet Search in the Kepler Pipeline

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jenkins, Jon M.; Chandrasekaran, Hema; McCauliff, Sean D.; Caldwell, Douglas A.; Tenebaum, Peter; Li, Jie; Klaus, Todd C.; Cote, Mile T.; Middour, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    The Kepler Mission simultaneously measures the brightness of more than 160,000 stars every 29.4 minutes over a 3.5-year mission to search for transiting planets. Detecting transits is a signal-detection problem where the signal of interest is a periodic pulse train and the predominant noise source is non-white, non-stationary (1/f) type process of stellar variability. Many stars also exhibit coherent or quasi-coherent oscillations. The detection algorithm first identifies and removes strong oscillations followed by an adaptive, wavelet-based matched filter. We discuss how we obtain super-resolution detection statistics and the effectiveness of the algorithm for Kepler flight data.

  5. LAMOST observations in the Kepler field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Cat, P.; Fu, J. N.; Yang, X. H.; Ren, A. B.; Frasca, A.; Molenda-Żakowicz, J.; Catanzaro, G.; Gray, R. O.; Corbally, C. J.; Shi, J. R.; Zhang, H. T.; Luo, A. L.

    2015-09-01

    The Large Sky Area Multi-Object Fiber Spectroscopic Telescope (LAMOST) at the Xinglong observatory in China is a new 4-m telescope equipped with 4,000 optical fibers. In 2010, we initiated the LAMOST-Kepler project. We requested to observe the full field-of-view of the nominal Kepler mission with the LAMOST to collect low-resolution spectra for as many objects from the KIC 10 catalogue as possible. So far, 12 of the 14 requested LAMOST fields have been observed resulting in more than 68,000 low-resolution spectra. Our preliminary results show that the stellar parameters derived from the LAMOST spectra are in good agreement with those found in the literature based on high-resolution spectroscopy. The LAMOST data allows to distinguish dwarfs from giants and can provide the projected rotational velocity for very fast rotators.

  6. Dynamical Origins of the Kepler Dichotomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spalding, Christopher; Batygin, Konstantin

    2016-05-01

    An overabundance of single-transiting planetary systems relative to those with multiple transits within the Kepler dataset, has been interpreted as evidence for mutual inclinations between planetary orbits. The physical origins of this so-called "Kepler Dichotomy,” however, remain elusive. Here we show that the observed prevalence of single-planet systems is a direct consequence of secular evolution of initially planar multi-planet systems that orbit stars whose spin-axes are inclined with respect to the protoplanetary disks they host. Such primordial misalignments arise naturally within the disk-hosting stage by way of gravitational torques from stellar companions, and have been previously invoked as explanations for the commonness of spin-orbit misalignments in hot Jupiter systems. Accordingly, our model places the early dynamical evolution of hot super-Earths and hot Jupiters into a unified theoretical framework.

  7. Kepler-47: a transiting circumbinary multiplanet system.

    PubMed

    Orosz, Jerome A; Welsh, William F; Carter, Joshua A; Fabrycky, Daniel C; Cochran, William D; Endl, Michael; Ford, Eric B; Haghighipour, Nader; MacQueen, Phillip J; Mazeh, Tsevi; Sanchis-Ojeda, Roberto; Short, Donald R; Torres, Guillermo; Agol, Eric; Buchhave, Lars A; Doyle, Laurance R; Isaacson, Howard; Lissauer, Jack J; Marcy, Geoffrey W; Shporer, Avi; Windmiller, Gur; Barclay, Thomas; Boss, Alan P; Clarke, Bruce D; Fortney, Jonathan; Geary, John C; Holman, Matthew J; Huber, Daniel; Jenkins, Jon M; Kinemuchi, Karen; Kruse, Ethan; Ragozzine, Darin; Sasselov, Dimitar; Still, Martin; Tenenbaum, Peter; Uddin, Kamal; Winn, Joshua N; Koch, David G; Borucki, William J

    2012-09-21

    We report the detection of Kepler-47, a system consisting of two planets orbiting around an eclipsing pair of stars. The inner and outer planets have radii 3.0 and 4.6 times that of Earth, respectively. The binary star consists of a Sun-like star and a companion roughly one-third its size, orbiting each other every 7.45 days. With an orbital period of 49.5 days, 18 transits of the inner planet have been observed, allowing a detailed characterization of its orbit and those of the stars. The outer planet's orbital period is 303.2 days, and although the planet is not Earth-like, it resides within the classical "habitable zone," where liquid water could exist on an Earth-like planet. With its two known planets, Kepler-47 establishes that close binary stars can host complete planetary systems. PMID:22933522

  8. Borehole completion data package for SWL facility wells 699-22-35 and 699-23-34B

    SciTech Connect

    Hodges, F.N.

    1997-09-01

    Two groundwater monitoring wells were drilled at the Hanford Solid Waste Landfill in 1993 and 1994 in support of the WAC 173-304 groundwater monitoring program at that size. The wells, 699-22-35 and 699-23-34B, were constructed in accordance with the requirements of WAC 173-160. However, a waver was received from the Washington State Department of Ecology to complete the wells with 10.7-m (35-ft) screens to allow for the expected drop in the water table in the vicinity of the landfill. The wells, drilled with an ODEX air rotary drilling rig, were completed at depths of 54.8 m (180 ft) and 49.8 m (163.5 ft), respectively, and were completed with 4-in. stainless steel casing and continuous-wrap wire screen with a sand pack of 20-40 mesh silica sand. The wells were developed and equipped with Hydrostar sampling pumps. Sampling with the SEAMIST membrane system during drilling indicated significant quantities of carbon tetrachloride vapor to depths of at least 35.6 m (120 ft) within the vadose zone.

  9. Sharp green electroluminescence from 1H-pyrazolo[3,4-b]quinoline-based light-emitting diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, Y. T.; Balasubramaniam, E.; Danel, A.; Jarosz, B.; Tomasik, P.

    2000-09-01

    A multilayer organic light-emitting diode was fabricated using a fluorescent compound {6-N,N-diethylamino-1-methyl-3-phenyl-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-b]quinoline} (PAQ-NEt2) doped into the hole-transporting layer of NPB {4,4'-bis[N-(1-naphthyl-1-)-N-phenyl-amino]-biphenyl}, with the TPBI {2,2',2″-(1,3,5-phenylene)tris[1-phenyl-1H-benzimidazole]} as an electrontransporting material. At 16% PAQ-NEt2 doping concentration, the device gave a sharp, bright, and efficient green electroluminescence (EL) peaked at around 530 nm. The full width at half maximum of the EL is 60 nm, which is 60% of the green emission from typical NPB/AlQ [where AlQ=tris(8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminum] device. For the same concentration, a maximum luminance of 37 000 cd/m2 was obtained at 10.0 V and the maximum power, luminescence, and external quantum efficiencies were obtained 4.2 lm/W, 6.0 cd/A, and 1.6%, respectively, at 5.0 V.

  10. Kepler Science Operations Center Pipeline Framework

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klaus, Todd C.; McCauliff, Sean; Cote, Miles T.; Girouard, Forrest R.; Wohler, Bill; Allen, Christopher; Middour, Christopher; Caldwell, Douglas A.; Jenkins, Jon M.

    2010-01-01

    The Kepler mission is designed to continuously monitor up to 170,000 stars at a 30 minute cadence for 3.5 years searching for Earth-size planets. The data are processed at the Science Operations Center (SOC) at NASA Ames Research Center. Because of the large volume of data and the memory and CPU-intensive nature of the analysis, significant computing hardware is required. We have developed generic pipeline framework software that is used to distribute and synchronize the processing across a cluster of CPUs and to manage the resulting products. The framework is written in Java and is therefore platform-independent, and scales from a single, standalone workstation (for development and research on small data sets) to a full cluster of homogeneous or heterogeneous hardware with minimal configuration changes. A plug-in architecture provides customized control of the unit of work without the need to modify the framework itself. Distributed transaction services provide for atomic storage of pipeline products for a unit of work across a relational database and the custom Kepler DB. Generic parameter management and data accountability services are provided to record the parameter values, software versions, and other meta-data used for each pipeline execution. A graphical console allows for the configuration, execution, and monitoring of pipelines. An alert and metrics subsystem is used to monitor the health and performance of the pipeline. The framework was developed for the Kepler project based on Kepler requirements, but the framework itself is generic and could be used for a variety of applications where these features are needed.

  11. Optical variability of the Kepler AGN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edelson, Rick

    2014-01-01

    Kepler has opened a new era for the study of AGN optical variability, producing light curves with ~0.1% errors (for a ~15th magnitude source), 30 min sampling, >90% duty cycle and durations of years. Thanks to an intensive identification campaign, the number of Seyfert 1s/quasars monitored by Kepler rose from just one (Zw 229-15) in the first year to 37 by the time of May 2013 reaction wheel failure. We measured the optical power spectral density (PSD) functions of these Kepler AGN finding that that on timescales of ~6 hr to 1 month, the PSDs are typically well-fitted with a slop of ~-3, steeper than seen in the X-rays. In a few sources there is also evidence for a flattening at the longest timescales. We also find a broad correlation between rms variability and flux level. These results broadly support the model in which the optical fluctuations are due to vicious instabilities in the accretion disk. I will also present the light curve for W2R1926+42, the only rapidly variable BL Lac object known to be monitored by Kepler. With data covering over a year and sampling rates of 1-30 min, this may be the information-richest AGN light curve ever gathered at any wavelength. The PSD appears to bend from a slope of -2.6 to -1.2 on a ~7 hr timescale, but fits are formally unacceptable. These data indicate that the phenomenon of blazar "microvariability" (sporadic variations on timescales shorter than the ~12 hour window available from the ground) actually results from a combination of rapid, powerful variability interspersed with longer, relatively quiescent periods.

  12. Kepler Mission: A Search for Habitable Planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koch, David; Fonda, Mark (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The Kepler Mission was selected by NASA as one of the next two Discovery Missions. The mission design is based on the search for Earth-size planets in the habitable zone of solar-like stars, but does not preclude the discovery of larger or smaller planets in other orbits of non-solar-like stars. An overview of the mission, the scientific goals and the anticipated results will be presented.

  13. The Kepler End-to-End Model: Creating High-Fidelity Simulations to Test Kepler Ground Processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bryson, Stephen T.; Jenkins, Jon M.; Peters, Dan J.; Tenenbaum, Peter P.; Klaus, Todd C.; Gunter, Jay P.; Cote, Miles T.; Caldwell, Douglas A.

    2010-01-01

    The Kepler mission is designed to detect the transit of Earth-like planets around Sun-like stars by observing 100,000 stellar targets. Developing and testing the Kepler ground-segment processing system, in particular the data analysis pipeline, requires high-fidelity simulated data. This simulated data is provided by the Kepler End-to-End Model (ETEM). ETEM simulates the astrophysics of planetary transits and other phenomena, properties of the Kepler spacecraft and the format of the downlinked data. Major challenges addressed by ETEM include the rapid production of large amounts of simulated data, extensibility and maintainability.

  14. Characterization of Kepler Exoplanet Host Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howell, Steve B.; Everett, M.; Ciardi, D. R.; Silva, D.; Szkody, P.

    2014-01-01

    Using a sample of 220 Exoplanet host stars in the Kepler field for which spectroscopic properties have been determined, we examine their spatial, physical, and time variable properties. Covering effective temperatures from 4670K to 6400K (K4 to F4) and masses from 0.7 to 1.4 M-sun, this sample represents host stars covering the entire Kepler field of view. The majority of the host stars contain one or more Earth-sized exoplanet and range in log g from 4.0 to 4.7 and [Fe/H] from -02.4 to +0.3. Using Yale-Yonsei isochrone fits and photometric information form the Howell-Everett UBV survey of the Kepler field, we examine a complete set of parameters for these stars including their likely residence in the thin or thick disk of the Galaxy. the variability of this sample, in terms of time sale and amplitude, is examined as well.

  15. Fossil Cores In The Kepler Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, Brian

    Most gas giant exoplanets with orbital periods < few days are unstable against tidal decay and may be tidally disrupted before their host stars leave the main sequence. These gas giants probably contain rocky/icy cores, and so their cores will be stranded near their progenitor's Roche limit (few hours orbital period). These fossil cores will evade the Kepler mission's transit search because it is focused on periods > 0.5 days, but finding these fossil cores would provide unprecedented insights into planetary interiors and formation ? e.g., they would be a smoking gun favoring formation of gas giants via core accretion. We propose to search for and characterize fossil cores in the Kepler dataset. We will vet candidates using the Kepler photometry and auxiliary data, collect ground-based spectra of the host stars and radial-velocity (RV) and adaptive optics (AO) data to corroborate candidates. We will also constrain stellar tidal dissipation efficiencies (parameterized by Q) by determining our survey's completeness, elucidating dynamical origins and evolution of exoplanets even if we find no fossil cores. Our preliminary search has already found several dozen candidates, so the proposed survey has a high likelihood of success.

  16. Spectroscopic Orbits for Kepler FOV Eclipsing Binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matson, Rachel A.; Gies, Douglas R.; Williams, Stephen J.; Guo, Zhao

    2013-02-01

    We are currently involved in a four year program of precise eclipsing binary photometry with the NASA Kepler Observatory. Our goal is to search for variations in minimum light timing for intermediate mass eclipsing binaries. Such periodic variations will reveal the reflex motion caused by any distant, low mass object that orbits the close binary. it Kepler's unprecedented accuracy and continuous observations provide a unique opportunity to detect the low mass companions that are predicted to result from the angular momentum of the natal cloud. The goal of this proposal is to obtain blue spectra of short period (0.9-6d) eclipsing binaries, derive radial velocities, and produce a double-lined spectroscopic orbit (as well as estimates of the stellar effective temperatures, gravities, and metallicities). Combined with the it Kepler light curve, we will determine very accurate masses and radii for the members of the close binary, which will yield the mass-inclination product M_3 sin i for any companions detected by light travel time or other effects. An extended sample of eclipsing binaries with longer periods (up to 50d) is now being investigated to test whether the presence of a tertiary companion declines with increasing period. We propose to obtain a single spectrum at quadrature for the brightest 48 stars in this expanded sample to characterize the effective temperatures and total mass contained in these systems.

  17. [Johannes Kepler's contributions to ophthalmologic optics].

    PubMed

    Jaeger, W

    1986-02-01

    Until the beginning of the 17th century it was held that an image is formed in the eye on the anterior surface of the crystalline lens. Ophthalmological optics as a scientific discipline only began with a discovery made by Johannes Kepler. Without performing new experiments, and solely by application of the laws of light refraction, he analyzed the path of light through the eye and demonstrated that an image is formed on the retina and that it is inverted. Acceptance of this discovery was impeded by contemporary prejudices which could imagine nothing but an upright image in the eye, even though this attitude could not explain certain phenomena. Kepler's discovery of the path of light in the eye made it possible to explain the following physical phenomena: central visual acuity, visual field, dark adaptation, and errors of refraction. Physiological diplopia and the mechanism of accommodation were discovered later. The law stating that the intensity of light decreases with the square of distance was also formulated by Johannes Kepler; this law, too, could only be demonstrated after the path of light through the eye had been discovered. In recent years the Keplerian telescope has assumed a practical significance in ophthalmological optics. As a reading aid for individuals with impaired vision it offers a significantly higher magnification than any other optical visual aid. PMID:3520121

  18. Blazhko effect at the time of Kepler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skarka, M.

    2015-02-01

    I focus on the comparison of the knowledge of the enigmatic Blazhko phenomenon before and after space missions CoRoT and Kepler. These two telescopes opened the secret doors of the true diversity of the modulation of RR Lyrae stars. Among many interesting discoveries it was found that higher order multiplets are common characteristics of the frequency spectra of light curves of modulated stars, not unique behaviour of afew objects. This finding resulted in a new mathematical description of modulation which applies methods known from information transfer. Signs of higher radial modes and non - radial modes were detected only due to unprecedented precision of space observations. One of the most important discoveries of the Kepler satellite was the uncovering of the alternation of the height of maxima of light changes in modulated stars, the so called period doubling. Based on this new discovery models for explanation of the Blazhko effect were proposed. In addition, Kepler observations clearly showed that Blazhko effect can be irregular in many ways. Therefore, space missions have a major impact on understanding of the Blazhko effect.

  19. Variability-induced Motion in Kepler Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makarov, Valeri V.; Goldin, Alexey

    2016-06-01

    Variability-induced motion (VIM) is an observable effect in simultaneous astrometric and photometric measurements caused by brightness variation in one of the components of a double source or blended image, which manifests itself as a strongly correlated shift of the optical photocenter. We have processed the entire collection of Kepler long-cadence light curve data, looking for correlated signals in astrometry and photometry on the time basis of a quarter-year. Limiting the VIM correlation coefficient to 0.3, VIM events are detected for 129,525 Kepler stars in at least one quarter. Of 7305 Kepler objects of interest, 4440 are detected as VIM at least once. Known variable stars and resolved double stars have elevated rates of VIM detection. Confident VIM occurrences are found for stars with suggested superflare events, indicating possible signal contamination. We present a complete catalog of all quarterly VIM detections. This catalog should be checked for such astrophysically significant events as transits of exoplanets, new eclipsing stars, and superflares of solar-type stars.

  20. Eclipsing Binaries with the Kepler Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prsa, Andrej; Kepler Eclipsing Binary Working Group

    2012-05-01

    Kepler has revolutionized the eclipsing binary field by providing us essentially uninterrupted data of unprecedented quality. Out of 160,000 targets, we detected over 2500 eclipsing binaries. These range in orbital periods from as short as 0.3 days, all the way to several years, and encompass stellar types across the H-R diagram. In this talk I will present the collaborative effort of the Kepler Eclipsing Binary Working Group to study and characterize these systems on a statistical level: their distribution in periods, galactic latitude, spectral type, fundamental stellar properties and multiplicity as evidenced by eclipse timing variations. I will further show the gems that have sprung from this sample, which were modeled and interpreted to reveal intrinsically pulsating components, runaway encounters with massive tertiaries, stellar objects that populate the lowest end of the main sequence and circumbinary planets. I will critically review and discuss the causes of data systematics and detrending, and introduce a novel algorithm to classify light curves into morphological types using Locally Linear Embedding. Finally, I will touch on the dark side of eclipsing binaries as the primary cause of false positives in extrasolar planet detections with Kepler.

  1. Automatic Classification of Kepler Planetary Transit Candidates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCauliff, Sean D.; Jenkins, Jon M.; Catanzarite, Joseph; Burke, Christopher J.; Coughlin, Jeffrey L.; Twicken, Joseph D.; Tenenbaum, Peter; Seader, Shawn; Li, Jie; Cote, Miles

    2015-06-01

    In the first three years of operation, the Kepler mission found 3697 planet candidates (PCs) from a set of 18,406 transit-like features detected on more than 200,000 distinct stars. Vetting candidate signals manually by inspecting light curves and other diagnostic information is a labor intensive effort. Additionally, this classification methodology does not yield any information about the quality of PCs; all candidates are as credible as any other. The torrent of exoplanet discoveries will continue after Kepler, because a number of exoplanet surveys will have an even broader search area. This paper presents the application of machine-learning techniques to the classification of the exoplanet transit-like signals present in the Kepler light curve data. Transit-like detections are transformed into a uniform set of real-numbered attributes, the most important of which are described in this paper. Each of the known transit-like detections is assigned a class of PC; astrophysical false positive; or systematic, instrumental noise. We use a random forest algorithm to learn the mapping from attributes to classes on this training set. The random forest algorithm has been used previously to classify variable stars; this is the first time it has been used for exoplanet classification. We are able to achieve an overall error rate of 5.85% and an error rate for classifying exoplanets candidates of 2.81%.

  2. The Detectability of Habitable Exomoons with Kepler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campanella, Giammarco; Kipping, David; Fossey, Stephen

    Now that more than 400 exoplanets have been discovered, focus has moved from finding planets to characterise these alien worlds. As well as detecting the atmospheres of these exoplanets, part of the characterisation process undoubtedly involves the search for extrasolar moons. We explore the motivations for undergoing such a search, review some of the proposed detection techniques and introduce a model for the Transit Time Variation (TTV) and Transit Duration Variation (TDV) signals which permits not only the identification of exomoons but also the derivation of some of their characteristics. The detectability of a habitable-zone exomoon around various configurations of exoplanetary systems with the Kepler Mission or photometry of approximately equal quality is investigated. We calculate both the predicted transit timing signal amplitudes and the estimated uncertainty on such measurements in order to calculate the confidence in detecting such bodies across a broad spectrum of orbital arrangements. The effects of photon noise, stellar variability and instrument noise are all accounted for in the analysis. We validate our methodology by simulating synthetic lightcurves and we find that habitable-zone exomoons down to 0.2 Earth masses may be detected and 25,000 stars could be surveyed for habitable-zone exomoons within Kepler`s field-of-view. Finally, we predict how a further characterisation of these bodies can be carried out.

  3. Johannes Kepler - And the New Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voelkel, James R.

    1999-11-01

    Johannes Kepler (1571-1630) is remembered as one of the greatest medieval astronomers in the tradition of Copernicus and Galileo, a man who made major contributions to physics, astronomy, and mathematics. Born in Germany and trained as a theologian, Kepler did not hesitate to challenge church doctrine by supporting the iconoclastic theory of a Sun-centered solar system. As Imperial Mathematician to the Holy Roman Emperor, he conducted careful observations of the night sky, which led to his discovery of the three Laws of Planetary Motion and the orbit of Mars. He also devised the Rudolphine Tables on planetary movements, and made key improvements to the telescope. Voelkel vividly describes the scientific achievements, providing enough background in physics and trigonometry so even beginners can enjoy this book. The author also gives us a captivating account of Kepler's tumultuous life, plagued by misery, disease, and fervent religious prosecution by the Catholic Church.Oxford Portraits in Science is an ongoing series of scientific biographies for young adults. Written by top scholars and writers, each biography examines the personality of its subject as well as the thought process leading to his or her discoveries. These illustrated biographies combine accessible technical information with compelling personal stories to portray the scientists whose work has shaped our understanding of the natural world.

  4. ON THE METALLICITIES OF KEPLER STARS

    SciTech Connect

    Dong, Subo; Zheng, Zheng; Zhu, Zhaohuan; De Cat, P.; Fu, J. N.; Yang, X. H.; Zhang, Haotong; Jin, Ge; Zhang, Yong

    2014-07-01

    We use 12,000 stars from the Large Sky Area Multi-Object Fiber Spectroscopic Telescope (LAMOST) spectroscopic survey data to show that the metallicities of Kepler field stars as given in the Kepler Input Catalog (KIC) systematically underestimate both the true metallicity and the dynamic range of the Kepler sample. Specifically, to the first order approximation, we find [Fe/H]{sub KIC} = –0.20 + 0.43[Fe/H]{sub LAMOST}, with a scatter of ∼0.25 dex, due almost entirely to errors in KIC. This relation is most secure for –0.3 < [Fe/H]{sub LAMOST} < +0.4 where we have >200 comparison stars per 0.1 dex bin and good consistency is shown between metallicities determined by LAMOST and high-resolution spectra. It remains approximately valid in a slightly broader range. When the relation is inverted, the error in true metallicity as derived from KIC is (0.25 dex)/0.43-0.6 dex. We thereby quantitatively confirm the cautionary note by Brown et al. that KIC estimates of [Fe/H] should not be used by {sup a}nyone with a particular interest in stellar metallicities{sup .} Fortunately, many more LAMOST spectroscopic metallicities will be available in the near future.

  5. Opto-electronic properties of low band gap fused-ring thieno[3,4-b]pyrazine analogues - A theoretical study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saranya, G.; Kolandaivel, P.; Senthilkumar, K.

    2013-10-01

    The structural, optical and ionic properties of thieno[3,4-b]pyrazine (TP) analogues have been studied using quantum chemical methods. The density functional theory (DFT) and time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) methods were employed to optimise the ground- and excited-state geometries of TP analogues. Based on the ground- and excited-state geometries, the absorption and emission spectra have been calculated by using TD-DFT method with 6-311G(d,p) basis set. All the calculations were carried out in gas phase and in acetonitrile and chloroform medium. The solvent-phase calculations were performed using the polarisable continuum model (PCM). It has been observed that the effect of medium on the calculated absorption and emission spectra of these analogues is negligible. The calculated absorption and emission spectra are in good agreement with the available experimental results. This theoretical investigation shows that the fused-ring thieno[3,4-b]pyrazine analogues dibenzo[f,h]thieno[3,4-b]quinoxalines and thieno[3‧,4‧:5,6]pyrazino[2,3-f][1,10] phenanthroline have lower band gap than the thieno[3,4-b]pyrazine. Hence, these analogues can be used for the production of low band gap conjugated polymers.

  6. One-Pot Synthesis of Benzo[4,5]imidazo[2,1-a]isoquinolines and Isoquinolino[3,4-b]quinoxalines via Tandem Cyclization Strategies.

    PubMed

    Bagdasarian, Alex L; Nguyen, Huy H; Palazzo, Teresa A; Fettinger, James C; Haddadin, Makhluf J; Kurth, Mark J

    2016-05-01

    Two operationally simple one-pot protocols have been developed for the synthesis of amino-functionalized benzo[4,5]imidazo[2,1-a]isoquinolines and isoquinolino[3,4-b]quinoxalines. Optimization data and substrate scope for these atom-economical transformations, which engage commercially available o-phenylenediamines and o-cyanobenzaldehydes, are discussed. PMID:27030441

  7. Harmonical cosmology: Johannes Kepler and Athanasius Kircher. (German Title: Harmonikale Kosmologie: Johannes Kepler und Athanasius Kircher)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rebohm, Simon

    2011-08-01

    The connection between musical theory and astronomy is an aspect of Pythagorean cosmology, which still played a role in the 17th century, and was advanced at that time in very different ways: while Johannes Kepler conceives a proper geometrical system of harmonics and tries to connect it with accurate astronomical data, Athanasius Kircher, harshly criticising Kepler's ideas, sets a qualitative system against it, which is based on analogies. The reason for this discrepancy is not only found in the basically different systems of harmonics of both researchers, but also in the different positions that were taken by both within the controversy about the heliocentric system of the world.

  8. Kepler, Galilei, the telescope and the consequences. (German Title: Kepler, Galilei, das Fernrohr und die Folgen)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamel, Jürgen

    In the beginning Copernicus' system of the world did not have empirical confirmation. In this situation, Kepler's research, as well as the astronomical observations with the telescope, invented in 1608, played a decisive role. Under the assumption of the central position of the Sun, Kepler discovered the elliptical orbital motion of the planets as a base of the computation of noticeably improved ephemerides. The first telescopic observations - Jupiter's moons, phases of Venus, sunspots, surface features of the moon -, gave important arguments for Copernicus' system. Galilei was one of the first who used the telescope for astronomical research.

  9. Sirolimus induces apoptosis and reverses multidrug resistance in human osteosarcoma cells in vitro via increasing microRNA-34b expression

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Yan; Zhao, Rui-hua; Tseng, Kuo-Fu; Li, Kun-peng; Lu, Zhi-gang; Liu, Yuan; Han, Kun; Gan, Zhi-hua; Lin, Shu-chen; Hu, Hai-yan; Min, Da-liu

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Multi-drug resistance poses a critical bottleneck in chemotherapy. Given the up-regulation of mTOR pathway in many chemoresistant cancers, we examined whether sirolimus (rapamycin), a first generation mTOR inhibitor, might induce human osteosarcoma (OS) cell apoptosis and increase the sensitivity of OS cells to anticancer drugs in vitro. Methods: Human OS cell line MG63/ADM was treated with sirolimus alone or in combination with doxorubicin (ADM), gemcitabine (GEM) or methotrexate (MTX). Cell proliferation and apoptosis were detected using CCK-8 assay and flow cytometry, respectively. MiRNAs in the cells were analyzed with miRNA microarray. The targets of miR-34b were determined based on TargetScan analysis and luciferase reporter assays. The expression of relevant mRNA and proteins was measured using qRT-PCR and Western blotting. MiR-34, PAK1 and ABCB1 levels in 40 tissue samples of OS patients were analyzed using qRT-PCR and in situ hybridization assays. Results: Sirolimus (1–100 nmol/L) dose-dependently suppressed the cell proliferation (IC50=23.97 nmol/L) and induced apoptosis. Sirolimus (10 nmol/L) significantly sensitized the cells to anticancer drugs, leading to decreased IC50 values of ADM, GEM and MTX (from 25.48, 621.41 and 21.72 μmol/L to 4.93, 73.92 and 6.77 μmol/L, respectively). Treatment of with sirolimus increased miR-34b levels by a factor of 7.5 in the cells. Upregulation of miR-34b also induced apoptosis and increased the sensitivity of the cells to the anticancer drugs, whereas transfection with miR-34b-AMO, an inhibitor of miR-34b, reversed the anti-proliferation effect of sirolimus. Two key regulators of cell cycle, apoptosis and multiple drug resistance, PAK1 and ABCB1, were demonstrated to be the direct targets of miR-34b. In 40 tissue samples of OS patients, significantly higher miR-34 ISH score and lower PAK5 and ABCB1 scores were detected in the chemo-sensitive group. Conclusion: Sirolimus increases the sensitivity of human OS

  10. WIN-34B May Have Analgesic and Anti-Inflammatory Effects by Reducing the Production of Pro-Inflammatory Mediators in Cells via Inhibition of IκB Signaling Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kyoung Soo; Choi, Hyun Mi; Yang, Hyung-In; Yoo, Myung Chul

    2012-01-01

    WIN-34B showed analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects in various animal models of pain and osteoarthritis. However, the molecular mechanism by which WIN-34B inhibits pain and inflammation in vivo remains to be elucidated. We investigated the molecular mechanisms of the actions of WIN-34B using various in vitro models using fibroblast-like synoviocytes from patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA FLSs), RAW264.7 cells and peritoneal macrophages. WIN-34B inhibited the level of IL-6, PGE2, and MMP-13 in IL-1β-stimulated RA FLSs in a dose-dependent manner. The mRNA levels were also inhibited by WIN-34B. The level of PGE2, NO, IL-1β, and TNF-α were inhibited by WIN-34B at different concentrations in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. The production of NO and PGE2 was inhibited by WIN-34B in a dose-dependent manner in LPS-stimulated peritoneal macrophages. All of these effects were comparable to the positive control, celecoxib or indomethacin. IκB signaling pathways were inhibited by WIN-34B, and the migration of NF-κB into the nucleus was inhibited, which is consistent with the degradation of IκB-α. Taken together, the results suggest that WIN-34B has potential as a therapeutic drug to reduce pain and inflammation by inhibiting the production of pro-inflammatory mediators. PMID:24116274

  11. Kepler and the Star of Bethlehem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, Rahlf

    Johannes Kepler (1571-1630) was a famous astronomer. But like other astronomers he had a problem to find work that would guarantee a regular income. So he was lucky to get work as "Styrian landscape mathematician" in Graz. One of his tasks was to write an annual calendar of weather forecasts and policital developments on the basis of astrological facts. He correctly predicted a conflict with the Osmanic Empire, although it is not clear whether the stars or the newspapers were the cause for that. Both his horoscope for Wallenstein and his book "Warnung an die Gegner der Astrologie" are well known. Kepler believed in some aspects of astrology, the influence of the planets for example. He deduced this front his ideas about physics. He neglected other aspects of astrology. e.g. the significance of the zodiac. In 1604 Kepler observed a new star and believed in a connection to a special and very rare planetary conjunction. After a Jupiter-Saturn-conjunction Jupiter met Mars. Kepler speculated that the star of Bethlehem might be a new star which was generated after a similar conjunction and recalculated it for 6/7 BC. Nowadays examples of both astronomical (and astrological) interpretations of the star of Bethlehem exist. The best known is the three time conjunction of 6/7 BC. But the interpretation of Martin (1980) for 213 BC seems equally excellent. Vardaman (1989) takes the Halley comet of 12 BC to be the star of Bethlehem. Other speculations arise from two Novae in the years 5 and 4 BC, tabulated in sources from the Far East. But historians tell us that there is no need fo a real star. The text in Matthew, book 2 is a legend. What is important in regard to the understanding of the star of Bethlehem is the "sidus Julium" the comet which could be seen in the sky during Caesar's funeral and the match of the King of Armenia Tiridates to Nero in Rome during. There was no real star over Bethlehem. All we have are interesting speculations, like those by Kepler.

  12. CAN PLANETARY INSTABILITY EXPLAIN THE KEPLER DICHOTOMY?

    SciTech Connect

    Johansen, Anders; Davies, Melvyn B.; Church, Ross P.; Holmelin, Viktor

    2012-10-10

    The planet candidates discovered by the Kepler mission provide a rich sample to constrain the architectures and relative inclinations of planetary systems within approximately 0.5 AU of their host stars. We use the triple-transit systems from the Kepler 16 months data as templates for physical triple-planet systems and perform synthetic transit observations, varying the internal inclination variation of the orbits. We find that all the Kepler triple-transit and double-transit systems can be produced from the triple-planet templates, given a low mutual inclination of around 5 Degree-Sign . Our analysis shows that the Kepler data contain a population of planets larger than four Earth radii in single-transit systems that cannot arise from the triple-planet templates. We explore the hypothesis that high-mass counterparts of the triple-transit systems underwent dynamical instability to produce a population of massive double-planet systems of moderately high mutual inclination. We perform N-body simulations of mass-boosted triple-planet systems and observe how the systems heat up and lose planets by planet-planet collisions, and less frequently by ejections or collisions with the star, yielding transits in agreement with the large planets in the Kepler single-transit systems. The resulting population of massive double-planet systems nevertheless cannot explain the additional excess of low-mass planets among the observed single-transit systems and the lack of gas-giant planets in double-transit and triple-transit systems. Planetary instability of systems of triple gas-giant planets can be behind part of the dichotomy between systems hosting one or more small planets and those hosting a single giant planet. The main part of the dichotomy, however, is more likely to have arisen already during planet formation when the formation, migration, or scattering of a massive planet, triggered above a threshold metallicity, suppressed the formation of other planets in sub-AU orbits.

  13. Kepler Planets: A Tale of Evaporation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Owen, James E.; Wu, Yanqin

    2013-10-01

    Inspired by the Kepler mission's planet discoveries, we consider the thermal contraction of planets close to their parent star, under the influence of evaporation. The mass-loss rates are based on hydrodynamic models of evaporation that include both X-ray and EUV irradiation. We find that only low mass planets with hydrogen envelopes are significantly affected by evaporation, with evaporation being able to remove massive hydrogen envelopes inward of ~0.1 AU for Neptune-mass objects, while evaporation is negligible for Jupiter-mass objects. Moreover, most of the evaporation occurs in the first 100 Myr of stars' lives when they are more chromospherically active. We construct a theoretical population of planets with varying core masses, envelope masses, orbital separations, and stellar spectral types, and compare this population with the sizes and densities measured for low-mass planets, both in the Kepler mission and from radial velocity surveys. This exercise leads us to conclude that evaporation is the driving force of evolution for close-in Kepler planets. In fact, some 50% of the Kepler planet candidates may have been significantly eroded. Evaporation explains two striking correlations observed in these objects: a lack of large radius/low density planets close to the stars and a possible bimodal distribution in planet sizes with a deficit of planets around 2 R ⊕. Planets that have experienced high X-ray exposures are generally smaller than this size, and those with lower X-ray exposures are typically larger. A bimodal planet size distribution is naturally predicted by the evaporation model, where, depending on their X-ray exposure, close-in planets can either hold on to hydrogen envelopes ~0.5%-1% in mass or be stripped entirely. To quantitatively reproduce the observed features, we argue that not only do low-mass Kepler planets need to be made of rocky cores surrounded with hydrogen envelopes, but few of them should have initial masses above 20 M ⊕ and the

  14. Variability Statistics for Galaxies Observed by Kepler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fanelli, Michael N.; Marcum, Pamela M.; Van Cleve, Jeffrey E.

    2016-01-01

    The Kepler / K2 telescope combines high photometric precision with near-continuous observing cadence, permitting a unique perspective on the optical / near-IR variability of galactic systems. In particular, Kepler / K2 data can be exploited to quantify the amplitude of AGN signals in galaxy cores, to directly address this question - What fraction of galactic nuclei are active at any given time ? Alternatively stated, this question becomes - What is the duty cycle for supermassive black hole accretion of sufficient strength to produce a detectable optical signal ? Additionally, the quasi-continuous cadence provides the capability to detect low-level episodic variations from the central AGN, highly luminous stars and other compact objects.Previously we reported on analysis of a subset of the complete galaxy dataset observed during the Kepler prime mission: ~1200 individual light curves of ~150 targeted galaxies observed during Quarters 3-10 and ~1000 light curves of galaxies observed serendipitously by the exoplanet program from Q2 through Q16. Based on an average of 8 quarters of data for ~300 systems and excluding systems specifically targeted as AGNs, we found that the observed occurrence rate of nuclear variability in galaxies with amplitude > 1 millimag is ~2-3%, a value which is ~ 2-3 times smaller than previous estimates from ground-based monitoring.Here we provide an update on galactic nuclear variability statistics using an expanded dataset from the Kepler Prime mission. We combine the previous data with 1200 light curves for ~200 targeted systems from Q11-16 and ~800 additional light curves found in the exoplanet program. These data are the longest continuous time series for galaxies ever obtained - some systems were observed for the entire mission (Q2-16). Our previous result is confirmed using this expanded dataset; only a few percent of galaxies show variability above 0.5 millimag. Several systems exhibiting activity in other bands, or via their optical

  15. KEPLER PLANETS: A TALE OF EVAPORATION

    SciTech Connect

    Owen, James E.; Wu, Yanqin E-mail: wu@astro.utoronto.ca

    2013-10-01

    Inspired by the Kepler mission's planet discoveries, we consider the thermal contraction of planets close to their parent star, under the influence of evaporation. The mass-loss rates are based on hydrodynamic models of evaporation that include both X-ray and EUV irradiation. We find that only low mass planets with hydrogen envelopes are significantly affected by evaporation, with evaporation being able to remove massive hydrogen envelopes inward of ∼0.1 AU for Neptune-mass objects, while evaporation is negligible for Jupiter-mass objects. Moreover, most of the evaporation occurs in the first 100 Myr of stars' lives when they are more chromospherically active. We construct a theoretical population of planets with varying core masses, envelope masses, orbital separations, and stellar spectral types, and compare this population with the sizes and densities measured for low-mass planets, both in the Kepler mission and from radial velocity surveys. This exercise leads us to conclude that evaporation is the driving force of evolution for close-in Kepler planets. In fact, some 50% of the Kepler planet candidates may have been significantly eroded. Evaporation explains two striking correlations observed in these objects: a lack of large radius/low density planets close to the stars and a possible bimodal distribution in planet sizes with a deficit of planets around 2 R{sub ⊕}. Planets that have experienced high X-ray exposures are generally smaller than this size, and those with lower X-ray exposures are typically larger. A bimodal planet size distribution is naturally predicted by the evaporation model, where, depending on their X-ray exposure, close-in planets can either hold on to hydrogen envelopes ∼0.5%-1% in mass or be stripped entirely. To quantitatively reproduce the observed features, we argue that not only do low-mass Kepler planets need to be made of rocky cores surrounded with hydrogen envelopes, but few of them should have initial masses above 20 M

  16. Demystifying Kepler Data: A Primer for Systematic Artifact Mitigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kinemuchi, K.; Barclay, T.; Fanelli, M.; Pepper, J.; Still, M.; Howell, B.

    2012-01-01

    The Kepler spacecraft has collected data of high photometric precision and cadence almost continuously since operations began on 2009 May 2. Primarily designed to detect planetary transits and asteroseismological signals from solar-like stars, Kepler has provided high quality data for many areas of investigation. Unconditioned simple aperture time-series photometry are however affected by systematic structure. Examples of these systematics are differential velocity aberration, thermal gradients across the spacecraft, and pointing variations. While exhibiting some impact on Kepler's primary science, these systematics can critically handicap potentially ground-breaking scientific gains in other astrophysical areas, especially over long timescales greater than 10 days. As the data archive grows to provide light curves for 10(exp 5) stars of many years in length, Kepler will only fulfill its broad potential for stellar astrophysics if these systematics are understood and mitigated. Post-launch developments in the Kepler archive, data reduction pipeline and open source data analysis software have occurred to remove or reduce systematic artifacts. This paper provides a conceptual primer for users of the Kepler data archive to understand and recognize systematic artifacts within light curves and some methods for their removal. Specific examples of artifact mitigation are provided using data available within the archive. Through the methods defined here, the Kepler community will find a road map to maximizing the quality and employment of the Kepler legacy archive.

  17. Demystifying Kepler Data: A Primer for Systematic Artifact Mitigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinemuchi, K.; Barclay, T.; Fanelli, M.; Pepper, J.; Still, M.; Howell, Steve B.

    2012-09-01

    The Kepler spacecraft has collected data of high photometric precision and cadence almost continuously since operations began on 2009 May 2. Primarily designed to detect planetary transits and asteroseismological signals from solar-like stars, Kepler has provided high-quality data for many areas of investigation. Unconditioned simple aperture time-series photometry is, however, affected by systematic structure. Examples of these systematics include differential velocity aberration, thermal gradients across the spacecraft, and pointing variations. While exhibiting some impact on Kepler's primary science, these systematics can critically handicap potentially ground-breaking scientific gains in other astrophysical areas, especially over long timescales greater than 10 days. As the data archive grows to provide light curves for 105 stars of many years in length, Kepler will only fulfill its broad potential for stellar astrophysics if these systematics are understood and mitigated. Post-launch developments in the Kepler archive, data reduction pipeline and open source data analysis software have helped to remove or reduce systematic artifacts. This paper provides a conceptual primer to help users of the Kepler data archive understand and recognize systematic artifacts within light curves and some methods for their removal. Specific examples of artifact mitigation are provided using data available within the archive. Through the methods defined here, the Kepler community will find a road map to maximizing the quality and employment of the Kepler legacy archive.

  18. Biodegradation of Selected Nigerian Fruit Peels by the use of a Non-pathogenic Rhizobium species CWP G34B.

    PubMed

    Esther Boboye, Bolatito; Ajayi, George Olarewaju

    2012-01-01

    This study was carried out to determine the ability of Rhizobium species CWP G34B to degrade the peels of selected Nigerian fruits. The potential of the bacterium to digest some carbon sources (lactose, maltose, sucrose and mannitol) and peels of some Nigerian fruits (pineapple, orange, plantain, banana, pawpaw and mango fruits) was investigated by growing the organism on the substances separately after which DNSA reagent method was used to quantify glucose released into the medium. The results showed that the bacterium was able to degrade all the carbohydrates with the highest and the lowest glucose concentrations of 5.52 mg/ml for lactose and 0.50 mg/ml for mannitol. The carbohydrate-catabolic-enzyme (CCE) activity ranged from 0.169 mg/ml to 1.346 mg/ml glucose per mg/ml protein. Mannitol exhibited the highest CCE activity while the lowest activity was observed in the presence of sucrose. The amount of extracellular protein synthesized was highest (9.803 mg/ml) in the presence of maltose and lowest (0.925 mg/ml) in mannitol. The mean polygalacturonase activity was 0.54 unit/ml when the bacterium was grown in pectin in contrast to 0.28 unit/ml when it was grown in mannitol. The bacterium showed ability to breakdown the peels of the Nigerian fruits with the highest capability in banana and pineapple (0.42 and 0.41 mg/ml glucose per mg/ml protein respectively). The fruit-peel-degrading enzyme activity was lowest in orange peel (0.75 unit/ml). PMID:23166567

  19. Kepler Planet-Detection Mission: Introduction and First Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borucki, William J.; Koch, David; Basri, Gibor; Batalha, Natalie; Brown, Timothy; Caldwell, Douglas; Caldwell, John; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jørgen; Cochran, William D.; DeVore, Edna; Dunham, Edward W.; Dupree, Andrea K.; Gautier, Thomas N.; Geary, John C.; Gilliland, Ronald; Gould, Alan; Howell, Steve B.; Jenkins, Jon M.; Kondo, Yoji; Latham, David W.; Marcy, Geoffrey W.; Meibom, Søren; Kjeldsen, Hans; Lissauer, Jack J.; Monet, David G.; Morrison, David; Sasselov, Dimitar; Tarter, Jill; Boss, Alan; Brownlee, Don; Owen, Toby; Buzasi, Derek; Charbonneau, David; Doyle, Laurance; Fortney, Jonathan; Ford, Eric B.; Holman, Matthew J.; Seager, Sara; Steffen, Jason H.; Welsh, William F.; Rowe, Jason; Anderson, Howard; Buchhave, Lars; Ciardi, David; Walkowicz, Lucianne; Sherry, William; Horch, Elliott; Isaacson, Howard; Everett, Mark E.; Fischer, Debra; Torres, Guillermo; Johnson, John Asher; Endl, Michael; MacQueen, Phillip; Bryson, Stephen T.; Dotson, Jessie; Haas, Michael; Kolodziejczak, Jeffrey; Van Cleve, Jeffrey; Chandrasekaran, Hema; Twicken, Joseph D.; Quintana, Elisa V.; Clarke, Bruce D.; Allen, Christopher; Li, Jie; Wu, Haley; Tenenbaum, Peter; Verner, Ekaterina; Bruhweiler, Frederick; Barnes, Jason; Prsa, Andrej

    2010-02-01

    The Kepler mission was designed to determine the frequency of Earth-sized planets in and near the habitable zone of Sun-like stars. The habitable zone is the region where planetary temperatures are suitable for water to exist on a planet’s surface. During the first 6 weeks of observations, Kepler monitored 156,000 stars, and five new exoplanets with sizes between 0.37 and 1.6 Jupiter radii and orbital periods from 3.2 to 4.9 days were discovered. The density of the Neptune-sized Kepler-4b is similar to that of Neptune and GJ 436b, even though the irradiation level is 800,000 times higher. Kepler-7b is one of the lowest-density planets (~0.17 gram per cubic centimeter) yet detected. Kepler-5b, -6b, and -8b confirm the existence of planets with densities lower than those predicted for gas giant planets.

  20. A Comprehensive Study of Kepler Phase Curves and Secondary Eclipses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeLarme, Emily; Angerhausen, D.; Morse, J. A.

    2014-01-01

    We present the initial results of a comprehensive study of 318 Kepler Objects of Interest (KOI) with R_p > 4 R_e , P < 10d, and V_mag < 15 using all 15 quarters of lightcurve data in the latest Kepler data release. Our analysis quantifies system-level effects from ellipsoidal, Doppler beaming and phase-curve variations, and also characterizes the secondary eclipses. This presentation focuses on 19 confirmed planets from this sample: We were able to confirm and improve the temperatures and albedos for Kepler-1b, 2b, 4b, 5b, 6b, 7b, 8b, 12b , 13b, 17b, and 41b, and present new results for Kepler-3b, 14b, 15b, 18c, 40b, 43b, 44b, and 74b. In addition, we used the same methods to analyze the rocky planets Kepler-10b, 78b, and KOI 1843.03.

  1. Phase curves of the Kepler-11 multi-planet system

    SciTech Connect

    Gelino, Dawn M.; Kane, Stephen R.

    2014-06-01

    The Kepler mission has allowed the detection of numerous multi-planet exosystems where the planetary orbits are relatively compact. The first such system detected was Kepler-11 which has six known planets at the present time. These kinds of systems offer unique opportunities to study constraints on planetary albedos by taking advantage of both the precision timing and photometry provided by Kepler data to monitor possible phase variations. Here we present a case study of the Kepler-11 system in which we investigate the phase modulation of the system as the planets orbit the host star. We provide predictions of maximum phase modulation where the planets are simultaneously close to superior conjunction. We use corrected Kepler data for Q1-Q17 to determine the significance of these phase peaks. We find that data quarters where maximum phase peaks occur are better fit by a phase model than a 'null hypothesis' model.

  2. Kepler Planet-Detection Mission: Introduction and First Results

    SciTech Connect

    Borucki, William J.; Koch, David; Basri, Gibor; Batalha, Natalie; Brown, Timothy; Caldwell, Douglas; Caldwell, John; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jorgen; Cochran, William D.; DeVore, Edna; Dunham, Edward W.; /Lowell Observ. /Harvard-Smithsonian Ctr. Astrophys.

    2010-01-01

    The Kepler mission was designed to determine the frequency of Earth-sized planets in and near the habitable zone of Sun-like stars. The habitable zone is the region where planetary temperatures are suitable for water to exist on a planet's surface. During the first 6 weeks of observations, Kepler monitored 156,000 stars, and five new exoplanets with sizes between 0.37 and 1.6 Jupiter radii and orbital periods from 3.2 to 4.9 days were discovered. The density of the Neptune-sized Kepler-4b is similar to that of Neptune and GJ 436b, even though the irradiation level is 800,000 times higher. Kepler-7b is one of the lowest-density planets ({approx}0.17 gram per cubic centimeter) yet detected. Kepler-5b, -6b, and -8b confirm the existence of planets with densities lower than those predicted for gas giant planets.

  3. Orbital dynamics of exoplanetary systems Kepler-62, HD 200964 and Kepler-11

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mia, Rajib; Kushvah, Badam Singh

    2016-03-01

    The presence of mean-motion resonances (MMRs) in exoplanetary systems is a new exciting field of celestial mechanics which motivates us to consider this work to study the dynamical behaviour of exoplanetary systems by time evolution of the orbital elements of the planets. Mainly, we study the influence of planetary perturbations on semimajor axis and eccentricity. We identify (r + 1): r MMR terms in the expression of disturbing function and obtain the perturbations from the truncated disturbing function. Using the expansion of the disturbing function of three-body problem and an analytical approach, we solve the equations of motion. The solution which is obtained analytically is compared with that of obtained by numerical method to validate our analytical result. In this work, we consider three exoplanetary systems namely Kepler-62, HD 200964 and Kepler-11. We have plotted the evolution of the resonant angles and found that they librate around constant value. In view of this, our opinion is that two planets of each system Kepler-62, HD 200964 and Kepler-11 are in 2:1, 4:3 and 5:4 mean motion resonances, respectively.

  4. Kepler & K2: One spacecraft, Two Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batalha, Natalie

    2015-12-01

    This year, we mark twenty years of exploring the diversity of planets and planetary systems orbiting main sequence stars. Exoplanet discoveries spill into the thousands, and the sensitivity boundaries continue to expand. NASA's Kepler Mission unveiled a galaxy replete with small planets and revealed populations that don't exist in our own solar system. The mission has yielded a sample sufficient for computing planet occurrence rates as a function of size, orbital period, and host star properties. We've learned that every late-type star has at least one planet on average, that terrestrial-sized planets are more common than larger planets within 1 AU, and that the nearest, potentially habitable earth-sized planet is likely within 5pc. After four years of continuous observations, the Kepler prime mission ended in May 2013 with the loss of a second reaction wheel. Thanks to innovative engineering, the spacecraft gained a second lease on life and emerged as the ecliptic surveyor, K2. In many regards, K2 is a distinctly new mission, not only by pointing at new areas of the sky but also by focusing on community-driven goals that diversify the science yield. For exoplanets, this means targeting bright and low mass stars -- the populations harboring planets amenable to dynamical and atmospheric characterization. To date, the mission has executed 7 observing campaigns lasting ~80 days each and has achieved a 6-hour photometric precision of 30 ppm. A couple dozen planets have been confirmed, including two nearby (< 50 pc) systems on the watch-list for future JWST campaigns. While Kepler prime is setting the stage for the direct imaging missions of the future, K2 is easing us into an era of atmospheric characterization -- one spacecraft, two missions, and a bright future for exoplanet science.

  5. DETECTABILITY OF OORT CLOUD OBJECTS USING KEPLER

    SciTech Connect

    Ofek, Eran O.; Nakar, Ehud

    2010-03-01

    The size distribution and total mass of objects in the Oort Cloud have important implications to the theory of planet formation, including the properties of, and the processes taking place in the early solar system. We discuss the potential of space missions, such as Kepler and CoRoT, designed to discover transiting exoplanets, to detect Oort Cloud, Kuiper Belt, and main belt objects by occultations of background stars. Relying on published dynamical estimates of the content of the Oort Cloud, we find that Kepler's main program is expected to detect between 0 and {approx}100 occultation events by deca-kilometer-sized Oort Cloud objects. The occultation rate depends on the mass of the Oort Cloud, the distance to its 'inner edge', and the size distribution of its objects. In contrast, Kepler is unlikely to find occultations by Kuiper Belt or main belt asteroids, mainly due to the fact that it is observing a high ecliptic latitude field. Occultations by solar system objects will appear as a photometric deviation in a single measurement, implying that the information regarding the timescale and light-curve shape of each event is lost. We present statistical methods that have the potential to verify the authenticity of occultation events by solar system objects, to estimate the distance to the occulting population, and to constrain their size distribution. Our results are useful for planning of future space-based exoplanet searches in a way that will maximize the probability of detecting solar system objects, without hampering the main science goals.

  6. Solving Kepler's equation via Smale's -theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avendano, Martín; Martín-Molina, Verónica; Ortigas-Galindo, Jorge

    2014-05-01

    We obtain an approximate solution of Kepler's equation for any and . Our solution is guaranteed, via Smale's -theory, to converge to the actual solution through Newton's method at quadratic speed, i.e. the -th iteration produces a value such that . The formula provided for is a piecewise rational function with conditions defined by polynomial inequalities, except for a small region near and , where a single cubic root is used. We also show that the root operation is unavoidable, by proving that no approximate solution can be computed in the entire region if only rational functions are allowed in each branch.

  7. The Kepler problem in the Snyder space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leiva, Carlos; Saavedra, Joel; Villanueva, J. R.

    2013-06-01

    In this paper we study the Kepler problem in the non commutative Snyder scenario. We characterize the deformations in the Poisson bracket algebra under a mimic procedure from quantum standard formulations and taking into account a general recipe to build the noncommutative phase space coordinates (in the sense of Poisson brackets). We obtain an expression to the deformed potential, and then the consequences in the precession of the orbit of Mercury are calculated. This result allows us to find an estimated value for the non commutative deformation parameter introduced.

  8. Overview and Status of the Kepler Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koch, D.; Borucki, W.; Dunham, E.; Geary, J.; Gilliland, R.; Jenkins, J.; Latham, D.; Mayer, D.; Sobeck, C.; Duren, R.

    2003-01-01

    The Kepler Mission is a search for terrestrial planets with the design optimized for detecting Earth-size planets in the habitable zone (HZ) of solar-like stars. In addition, the mission has a broad detection capability for a wide range of planetary sizes, planetary orbits and spectral types of stars. The mission is in the midst of the development phase with good progress leading to the preliminary design review later this year. Long lead procurements are well under way. An overview in all areas is presented including both the flight system (photometer and spacecraft) and the ground system. Launch is on target for 2007 on a Delta II.

  9. HAT-P-34b-HAT-P-37b: FOUR TRANSITING PLANETS MORE MASSIVE THAN JUPITER ORBITING MODERATELY BRIGHT STARS

    SciTech Connect

    Bakos, G. A.; Hartman, J. D.; Csubry, Z.; Penev, K.; Torres, G.; Beky, B.; Latham, D. W.; Bieryla, A.; Quinn, S.; Szklenar, T.; Esquerdo, G. A.; Noyes, R. W.; Buchhave, L. A.; Kovacs, G.; Shporer, A.; Fischer, D. A.; Johnson, J. A.; Howard, A. W.; Marcy, G. W.; Sato, B.; and others

    2012-07-15

    We report the discovery of four transiting extrasolar planets (HAT-P-34b-HAT-P-37b) with masses ranging from 1.05 to 3.33 M{sub J} and periods from 1.33 to 5.45 days. These planets orbit relatively bright F and G dwarf stars (from V = 10.16 to V = 13.2). Of particular interest is HAT-P-34b which is moderately massive (3.33 M{sub J}), has a high eccentricity of e = 0.441 {+-} 0.032 at a period of P = 5.452654 {+-} 0.000016 days, and shows hints of an outer component. The other three planets have properties that are typical of hot Jupiters.

  10. Kepler Mission to Detect Earth-like Planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kondo, Yoji

    2003-01-01

    Kepler Mission to detect Earth-like planets in our Milky Way galaxy was approved by NASA in December 2001 for a 4-5 year mission. The launch is planned in about 5 years. The Kepler observatory will be placed in an Earth-trailing orbit. The unique feature of the Kepler Mission is its ability to detect Earth-like planets orbiting around solar-type stars at a distance similar to that of Earth (from our Sun); such an orbit could provide an environment suitable for supporting life as we know it. The Kepler observatory accomplishes this feat by looking for the transits of planetary object in front of their suns; Kepler has a photometric precision of 10E-5 (0.00001) to achieve such detections. Other ongoing planetary detection programs (based mostly on a technique that looks for the shifting of spectral lines of the primary star due to its planetary companions' motions around it) have detected massive planets (with masses in the range of Jupiter); such massive planets are not considered suitable for supporting life. If our current theories for the formation of planetary systems are valid, we expect to detect about 50 Earth-like planets during Kepler's 4-year mission (assuming a random distribution of the planetary orbital inclinations with respect to the line of sight from Kepler). The number of detection will increase about 640 planets if the planets to be detected are Jupiter-sized.

  11. A Planet Hunters Search of the Kepler TCE Inventory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwamb, Meg; Lintott, Chris; Fischer, Debra; Smith, Arfon; Boyajian, Tabetha; Brewer, John; Giguere, Matt; Lynn, Stuart; Schawinski, Kevin; Simpson, Rob; Wang, Ji

    2013-07-01

    NASA's Kepler spacecraft has spent the past 4 years monitoring ~160,000 stars for the signatures of transiting exoplanets. Planet Hunters (http://www.planethunters.org), part of the Zooniverse (http://www.zooniverse.org) collection of citizen science projects, uses the power of human pattern recognition via the World Wide Web to identify transits in the Kepler public data. We have demonstrated the success of a citizen science approach with the project's discoveries including PH1 b, a transiting circumbinary planet in a four star system., and over 20 previously unknown planet candidates. The Kepler team has released the list of 18,406 potential transit signals or threshold-crossing events (TCEs) identified in Quarters 1-12 (~1000 days) by their automated Transit Planet Search (TPS) algorithm. The majority of these detections found by TPS are triggered by transient events and are not valid planet candidates. To identify planetary candidates from the detected TCEs, a human review of the validation reports, generated by the Kepler pipeline for each TCE, is performed by several Kepler team members. We have undertaken an independent crowd-sourced effort to perform a systematic search of the Kepler Q1-12 TCE list. With the Internet we can obtain multiple assessments of each TCE's data validation report. Planet Hunters volunteers evaluate whether a transit is visible in the Kepler light curve folded on the expected period identified by TPS. We present the first results of this analysis.

  12. Kepler Mission to Detect Earth-like Planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kondo, Yoji

    2002-01-01

    Kepler Mission to detect Earth-like planets in our Milky Way galaxy was approved by NASA in December 2001 for a 4-5 year mission. The launch is planned in about 5 years. The Kepler observatory will be placed in an Earth-trailing orbit. The unique feature of the Kepler Mission is its ability to detect Earth-like planets orbiting around solar-type stars at a distance similar to that of Earth (from our Sun); such an orbit could provide an environment suitable for supporting life as we know it. The Kepler observatory accomplishes this feat by looking for the transits of planetary object in front of their suns; Kepler has a photometric precision of 10E-5 (0.00001) to achieve such detections. Other ongoing planetary detection programs (based mostly on a technique that looks for the shifting of spectral lines of the primary star due to its planetary companions' motions around it) have detected massive planets (with masses in the range of Jupiter); such massive planets are not considered suitable for supporting life. If our current theories for the formation of planetary systems are valid, we expect to detect about 50 Earth-like planets during Kepler's 4-year mission (assuming a random distribution of the planetary orbital inclinations with respect to the line of sight from Kepler). The number of detection will increase about 640 planets if the planets to be detected are Jupiter-sized.

  13. Construction of pyrazolo[3,4-b]pyridines and pyrazolo[4,3-c]pyridines by ring closure of 3-acylpyridine N-oxide tosylhydrazones.

    PubMed

    Lominac, William J; D'Angelo, Megan L; Smith, Mark D; Ollison, Darius A; Hanna, James M

    2012-02-22

    3-Acylpyridine N-oxide tosylhydrazones give good overall yields of a mixture of pyrazolo[3,4-b]pyridines and pyrazolo[4,3-c]pyridines when treated with an electrophilic additive and an amine base. (Z)-Hydrazones cyclize readily, while (E)-hydrazones fail to react under the reported conditions. The reaction takes place at room temperature, and moderate regiocontrol over the cyclization can be achieved by varying the electrophile/solvent combination. PMID:22345825

  14. Single-layer electroluminescent devices based on fluorene-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-b]quinoxaline co-polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pokladko-Kowar, Monika; Danel, Andrzej; Chacaga, Łukasz

    2013-11-01

    A fluorene based copolymer was synthesized for electroluminescent application. To the main chain of polymer the nitrogen heterocyclic, 1H-pyrazolo[3,4-b]quinoxaline, unit was introduced. The incorporation of this derivative tuned the emission from the blue to yellow-green one. A simple, single layered device was fabricated with the configuration ITO/PEDOT/co-poly-FLU-PQX/Ca/Mg.

  15. Syntheses of dibenzo[d,d']benzo[2,1-b:3,4-b']difuran derivatives and their application to organic field-effect transistors

    PubMed Central

    Truong, Minh Anh

    2016-01-01

    Summary Ladder-type π-conjugated compounds containing a benzo[2,1-b:3,4-b']difuran skeleton, such as dibenzo[d,d']benzo[2,1-b:3,4-b']difuran (syn-DBBDF) and dinaphtho[2,3-d:2',3'-d']benzo[2,1-b:3,4-b']difuran (syn-DNBDF) were synthesized. Their photophysical and electrochemical properties were revealed by UV–vis absorption and photoluminescence spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetry. Organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) were fabricated with these compounds as organic semiconductors, and their semiconducting properties were evaluated. OFETs with syn-DBBDF and syn-DNBDF showed typical p-type characteristics with hole mobilities of <1.5 × 10−3 cm2·V−1·s−1 and <1.0 × 10−1 cm2·V−1·s−1, respectively. PMID:27340471

  16. INITIAL CHARACTERISTICS OF KEPLER SHORT CADENCE DATA

    SciTech Connect

    Gilliland, Ronald L.; Jenkins, Jon M.; Caldwell, Douglas A.; Clarke, Bruce D.; Quintana, Elisa V.; Twicken, Joseph D.; Van Cleve, Jeffrey E.; Hall, Jennifer; Klaus, Todd; McCauliff, Sean

    2010-04-20

    The Kepler Mission offers two options for observations-either long cadence (LC) used for the bulk of core mission science, or short cadence (SC) which is used for applications such as asteroseismology of solar-like stars and transit timing measurements of exoplanets where the 1 minute sampling is critical. We discuss the characteristics of SC data obtained in the 33.5 day long Quarter 1 observations with Kepler which completed on 2009 June 15. The truly excellent time series precisions are nearly Poisson limited at 11th magnitude providing per-point measurement errors of 200 parts-per-million per minute. For extremely saturated stars near seventh magnitude precisions of 40 ppm are reached, while for background limited measurements at 17th magnitude precisions of 7 mmag are maintained. We note the presence of two additive artifacts, one that generates regularly spaced peaks in frequency, and one that involves additive offsets in the time domain inversely proportional to stellar brightness. The difference between LC and SC sampling is illustrated for transit observations of TrES-2.

  17. FIRST KEPLER RESULTS ON RR LYRAE STARS

    SciTech Connect

    Kolenberg, K.; Guggenberger, E.; Szabo, R.; Benko, J. M.; Derekas, A.; Kollath, Z.; Nuspl, J.; Kurtz, D. W.; Gilliland, R. L.; Christensen-Dalsgaard, J.; Kjeldsen, H.; Brown, T. M.; Chadid, M.; Criscienzo, M. Di; Kinemuchi, K.; Kunder, A.; Kopacki, G.; Moskalik, P.; Nemec, J. M.; Silvotti, R.

    2010-04-20

    We present the first results of our analyses of selected RR Lyrae stars for which data have been obtained by the Kepler Mission. As expected, we find a significant fraction of the RRab stars to show the Blazhko effect, a still unexplained phenomenon that manifests itself as periodic amplitude and phase modulations of the light curve, on timescales of typically tens to hundreds of days. The long time span of the Kepler Mission of 3.5 yr and the unprecedentedly high precision of its data provide a unique opportunity for the study of RR Lyrae stars. Using data of a modulated star observed in the first roll as a showcase, we discuss the data, our analyses, findings, and their implications for our understanding of RR Lyrae stars and the Blazhko effect. With at least 40% of the RR Lyrae stars in our sample showing modulation, we confirm the high incidence rate that was only found in recent high-precision studies. Moreover, we report the occurrence of additional frequencies, beyond the main pulsation mode and its modulation components. Their half-integer ratio to the main frequency is reminiscent of a period doubling effect caused by resonances, observed for the first time in RR Lyrae stars.

  18. Photometric Monitoring of Quasars with Kepler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Unwin, Stephen C.; Wehrle, A. E.; Wiita, P. J.; Revalski, M.; Silano, D.; Sprague, D.; Di Lorenzo, P.

    2013-01-01

    We have observed the photometric variability of four flat-spectrum radio quasars, and one radio galaxy (Cyg A) with Kepler, since mid-2010. Kepler’s ability to observe uninterrupted for very extended durations provides a unique opportunity to obtain very long time sequences on active galactic nuclei, something that is hard to do even with dedicated ground-based telescope networks. It allows us to examine these light curves for variability on timescales from hours to weeks, and to probe the physical processes involved in accretion around the central black hole and the organization of some of that energy into jets that ultimately power double-lobed radio sources. Kepler was designed to detect exoplanet transits of stars, and the data analysis pipeline is highly optimized for that purpose. We cannot use the standard analysis tools for the quasi-random variability in quasars, so we re-analysed the raw data, and overcame some of the challenges in calibrating these light curves. We briefly discuss some of the issues in producing calibrated light curves for long timescales. For each quasar we computed power spectra, and found power-law slopes of around -2 for most. Although sensitive to quasi-periodic variations, we did not find any convincing evidence for periodicity in any of our targets. This research was carried out, in part, at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under a contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Copyright 2012. California Institute of Technology. Government sponsorship acknowledged.

  19. A SEARCH FOR EXOZODIACAL CLOUDS WITH KEPLER

    SciTech Connect

    Stark, Christopher C.; Boss, Alan P.; Weinberger, Alycia J.; Jackson, Brian K.; Endl, Michael; Cochran, William D.; Johnson, Marshall; Caldwell, Caroline; Agol, Eric; Ford, Eric B.; Hall, Jennifer R.; Ibrahim, Khadeejah A.

    2013-02-20

    Planets embedded within dust disks may drive the formation of large scale clumpy dust structures by trapping dust into resonant orbits. Detection and subsequent modeling of the dust structures would help constrain the mass and orbit of the planet and the disk architecture, give clues to the history of the planetary system, and provide a statistical estimate of disk asymmetry for future exoEarth-imaging missions. Here, we present the first search for these resonant structures in the inner regions of planetary systems by analyzing the light curves of hot Jupiter planetary candidates identified by the Kepler mission. We detect only one candidate disk structure associated with KOI 838.01 at the 3{sigma} confidence level, but subsequent radial velocity measurements reveal that KOI 838.01 is a grazing eclipsing binary and the candidate disk structure is a false positive. Using our null result, we place an upper limit on the frequency of dense exozodi structures created by hot Jupiters. We find that at the 90% confidence level, less than 21% of Kepler hot Jupiters create resonant dust clumps that lead and trail the planet by {approx}90 Degree-Sign with optical depths {approx}> 5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -6}, which corresponds to the resonant structure expected for a lone hot Jupiter perturbing a dynamically cold dust disk 50 times as dense as the zodiacal cloud.

  20. Kepler and the long-period variables

    SciTech Connect

    Hartig, Erich; Lebzelter, Thomas; Cash, Jennifer; Hinkle, Kenneth H.; Mighell, Kenneth J.; Walter, Donald K. E-mail: thomas.lebzelter@univie.ac.at E-mail: hinkle@noao.edu E-mail: dkw@physics.scsu.edu

    2014-12-01

    High-precision Kepler photometry is used to explore the details of asymptotic giant branch (AGB) light curves. Since AGB variability has a typical timescale on the order of a year, we discuss at length the removal of long-term trends and quarterly changes in Kepler data. Photometry for a small sample of nine semi-regular (SR) AGB stars is examined using a 30 minute cadence over a period of 45 months. While undergoing long-period variations of many magnitudes, the light curves are shown to be smooth at the millimagnitude level over much shorter time intervals. No flares or other rapid events were detected on a sub-day timescale. The shortest AGB period detected is on the order of 100 days. All the SR variables in our sample are shown to have multiple modes. This is always the first overtone, typically combined with the fundamental. A second common characteristic of SR variables is shown to be the simultaneous excitation of multiple closely separated periods for the same overtone mode. Approximately half the sample had a much longer variation in the light curve, likely a long secondary period (LSP). The light curves were all well represented by a combination of sinusoids. However, the properties of the sinusoids are time variable, with irregular variations present at low levels. No non-radial pulsations were detected. It is argued that the LSP variation seen in many SR variables is intrinsic to the star and linked to multiple mode pulsation.

  1. Automatic Classification of Kepler Threshold Crossing Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCauliff, Sean; Catanzarite, Joseph; Jenkins, Jon Michael

    2014-06-01

    Over the course of its 4-year primary mission the Kepler mission has discovered numerous planets. Part of the process of planet discovery has involved generating threshold crossing events (TCEs); a light curve with a repeating exoplanet transit-like feature. The large number of diagnostics 100) makes it difficult to examine all the information available for each TCE. The effort required for vetting all threshold-crossing events (TCEs) takes several months by many individuals associated with the Kepler Threshold Crossing Event Review Team (TCERT). The total number of objects with transit-like features identified in the light curves has increased to as many as 18,000, just examining the first three years of data. In order to accelerate the process by which new planet candidates are classified, we propose a machine learning approach to establish a preliminary list of planetary candidates ranked from most credible to least credible. The classifier must distinguish between three classes of detections: non-transiting phenomena, astrophysical false positives, and planet candidates. We use random forests, a supervised classification algorithm to this end. We report on the performance of the classifier and identify diagnostics that are important for discriminating between these classes of TCEs.Funding for this mission is provided by NASA’s Science Mission Directorate.

  2. First Kepler Results on RR Lyrae Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolenberg, K.; Szabó, R.; Kurtz, D. W.; Gilliland, R. L.; Christensen-Dalsgaard, J.; Kjeldsen, H.; Brown, T. M.; Benkő, J. M.; Chadid, M.; Derekas, A.; Di Criscienzo, M.; Guggenberger, E.; Kinemuchi, K.; Kunder, A.; Kolláth, Z.; Kopacki, G.; Moskalik, P.; Nemec, J. M.; Nuspl, J.; Silvotti, R.; Suran, M. D.; Borucki, W. J.; Koch, D.; Jenkins, J. M.

    2010-04-01

    We present the first results of our analyses of selected RR Lyrae stars for which data have been obtained by the Kepler Mission. As expected, we find a significant fraction of the RRab stars to show the Blazhko effect, a still unexplained phenomenon that manifests itself as periodic amplitude and phase modulations of the light curve, on timescales of typically tens to hundreds of days. The long time span of the Kepler Mission of 3.5 yr and the unprecedentedly high precision of its data provide a unique opportunity for the study of RR Lyrae stars. Using data of a modulated star observed in the first roll as a showcase, we discuss the data, our analyses, findings, and their implications for our understanding of RR Lyrae stars and the Blazhko effect. With at least 40% of the RR Lyrae stars in our sample showing modulation, we confirm the high incidence rate that was only found in recent high-precision studies. Moreover, we report the occurrence of additional frequencies, beyond the main pulsation mode and its modulation components. Their half-integer ratio to the main frequency is reminiscent of a period doubling effect caused by resonances, observed for the first time in RR Lyrae stars.

  3. Generalized Kepler problems. I. Without magnetic charges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Guowu

    2013-01-01

    For each simple euclidean Jordan algebra V of rank ρ and degree δ, we introduce a family of classical dynamic problems. These dynamical problems all share the characteristic features of the Kepler problem for planetary motions, such as the existence of Laplace-Runge-Lenz vector and hidden symmetry. After suitable quantizations, a family of quantum dynamic problems, parametrized by the nontrivial Wallach parameter ν, is obtained. Here, ν in {W}(V):=[ k δ/2mid k=1, ldots, (ρ -1)] \\cup ((ρ -1)δ / 2, infty ) and was introduced by N. Wallach to parametrize the set of nontrivial scalar-type unitary lowest weight representations of the conformal group of V. For the quantum dynamic problem labelled by ν, the bound state spectra is -1/2/ (I+ν frac{ρ { 2})^2}, I = 0, 1, … and its Hilbert space of bound states gives a new realization for the afore-mentioned representation labelled by ν. A few results in the literature about these representations become more explicit and more refined. The Lagrangian for a classical Kepler-type dynamic problem introduced here is still of the simple form: 1/ 2 Vert dot{x}Vert ^2+1/ r. Here, dot{x} is the velocity of a unit-mass particle moving on the space consisting of V's semi-positive elements of a fixed rank, and r is the inner product of x with the identity element of V.

  4. Credentialing Kepler: Transits in the Seventeenth Century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gingerich, O.

    2005-08-01

    Kepler's successful prediction of the 1631 transit of Mercury spurred an interest in his decidedly user-unfriendly Rudolfine Tables. Because his Ephemerides went only to 1636, he did not draw attention to the 1639 transit of Venus, although the tables actually predicted the phenomenon, and the observation by Horrocks again proved the superiority of Kepler's work. By mid-century alternative user-friendly versions of the Rudolfine Tables were published by V. Renieri in Italy, J.B. Morin in France, Maria Cunitia in Germany, and (in a more modified form) by J. Shakerley in England. Transits of Mercury were observed in 1651 (by Shakerley in Surat, India), 1661, 1667, 1690, and 1697, giving astronomers opportunities to compare the predictions from these tables as well as those of Lansbergen (which were a variant of the Copernican Prutenic Tables). Because of the subsequent interest in transits for determining the length of the astronomical unit, the 18th-century French astronomer J-N. Delisle compiled for these early transits extensive systematic records, which are now preserved at the Paris Observatory. By his day, however, the as-yet-unpublished tables of Edmond Halley gave the most successful predictions, and Delisle showed little interest in further credentialing the Rudolfine Tables, a process that had already taken place in the previous century.

  5. Generalized Kepler problems. I. Without magnetic charges

    SciTech Connect

    Meng, Guowu

    2013-01-15

    For each simple euclidean Jordan algebra V of rank {rho} and degree {delta}, we introduce a family of classical dynamic problems. These dynamical problems all share the characteristic features of the Kepler problem for planetary motions, such as the existence of Laplace-Runge-Lenz vector and hidden symmetry. After suitable quantizations, a family of quantum dynamic problems, parametrized by the nontrivial Wallach parameter {nu}, is obtained. Here, {nu} Element-Of W(V):={l_brace}k({delta}/2) Double-Vertical-Line k=1,...,({rho}-1){r_brace} Union (({rho}-1)({delta}/2),{infinity}) and was introduced by N. Wallach to parametrize the set of nontrivial scalar-type unitary lowest weight representations of the conformal group of V. For the quantum dynamic problem labelled by {nu}, the bound state spectra is -(1/2/(I+{nu}({rho}/2)){sup 2}), I= 0, 1, Horizontal-Ellipsis and its Hilbert space of bound states gives a new realization for the afore-mentioned representation labelled by {nu}. A few results in the literature about these representations become more explicit and more refined. The Lagrangian for a classical Kepler-type dynamic problem introduced here is still of the simple form: (1/2) parallel x parallel {sup 2}+(1/r). Here, x is the velocity of a unit-mass particle moving on the space consisting of V's semi-positive elements of a fixed rank, and r is the inner product of x with the identity element of V.

  6. Exploring exoplanet populations with NASA's Kepler Mission.

    PubMed

    Batalha, Natalie M

    2014-09-01

    The Kepler Mission is exploring the diversity of planets and planetary systems. Its legacy will be a catalog of discoveries sufficient for computing planet occurrence rates as a function of size, orbital period, star type, and insolation flux. The mission has made significant progress toward achieving that goal. Over 3,500 transiting exoplanets have been identified from the analysis of the first 3 y of data, 100 planets of which are in the habitable zone. The catalog has a high reliability rate (85-90% averaged over the period/radius plane), which is improving as follow-up observations continue. Dynamical (e.g., velocimetry and transit timing) and statistical methods have confirmed and characterized hundreds of planets over a large range of sizes and compositions for both single- and multiple-star systems. Population studies suggest that planets abound in our galaxy and that small planets are particularly frequent. Here, I report on the progress Kepler has made measuring the prevalence of exoplanets orbiting within one astronomical unit of their host stars in support of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's long-term goal of finding habitable environments beyond the solar system. PMID:25049406

  7. ASTEROSEISMIC INVESTIGATION OF KNOWN PLANET HOSTS IN THE KEPLER FIELD

    SciTech Connect

    Christensen-Dalsgaard, J.; Kjeldsen, H.; Arentoft, T.; Frandsen, S.; Quirion, P.-O.; Brown, T. M.; Gilliland, R. L.; Borucki, W. J.; Koch, D.; Jenkins, J. M.

    2010-04-20

    In addition to its great potential for characterizing extra-solar planetary systems, the Kepler Mission is providing unique data on stellar oscillations. A key aspect of Kepler asteroseismology is the application to solar-like oscillations of main-sequence stars. As an example, we here consider an initial analysis of data for three stars in the Kepler field for which planetary transits were known from ground-based observations. For one of these, HAT-P-7, we obtain a detailed frequency spectrum and hence strong constraints on the stellar properties. The remaining two stars show definite evidence for solar-like oscillations, yielding a preliminary estimate of their mean densities.

  8. Using Kepler Light Curves for Astronomy Education and Public Outreach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cash, Jennifer; Rivers, S.; Eleby, J.; Gould, A.; Komatsu, T.

    2014-01-01

    We will present our efforts related to Education and Public Outreach activities using Kepler Light Curves. We are currently developing interactive web based activities to introduce the public to the general topic of Stellar Variability and Intrinsic Variable Stars in particular using the high quality light curves of over a dozen Kepler targets. Along with the public website, we are exploring areas to develop teacher guides to use Kepler Light Curves in the middle and high school classrooms. These efforts are supported through a NASA EPSCoR grant "South Carolina Joint Venture Program" via a subaward to SC State University.

  9. Marking the 400th Anniversary of Kepler's Astronomia nova

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahoney, T. J.

    2010-11-01

    Special Session 9 of the XXVII General Assembly (11-14 August 2009, Rio de Janeiro) was devoted to the topic “Marking the 400th Anniversary of Kepler's Astronomia nova”. During the two-and-a-half day meeting (spread over four days), there were nine invited and three contributed talks, a round-table discussion on the future of Kepler studies and an open session to propose the setting up of a Johannes Kepler Working Group under the aegis of the IAU.

  10. Kepler unbound: Some elegant curiosities of classical mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacKay, Niall J.; Salour, Sam

    2015-01-01

    We explain two exotic systems of classical mechanics: the McIntosh-Cisneros-Zwanziger ("MICZ") Kepler system, of motion of a charged particle in the presence of a modified dyon; and Gibbons and Manton's description of the slow motion of well-separated solitonic ("BPS") monopoles using Taub-NUT space. Each system is characterized by the conservation of a Laplace-Runge-Lenz vector, and we use elementary vector techniques to show that each obeys a subtly different variation on Kepler's three laws for the Newton-Coulomb two-body problem, including a new modified Kepler third law for BPS monopoles.

  11. Stellar Rotation in Kepler: Forward Modeling of the Kepler Period Distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Saders, Jennifer L.; Pinsonneault, Marc H.; García, Rafael A.; Ceillier, Tugdual

    2015-09-01

    The Kepler mission has made it possible to detect the signatures of surface rotation in tens of thousands of stars across many different spectral types, ages, and evolutionary states. While it is tempting to use these rotation rates as a means to determine the ages of field stars in Kepler via the gyrochronology relationships, we show that 1) only a fraction of these stars should be viable targets for the existing period-age relationships due to "contamination" from hot stars and subgiants, and 2) that apparent age trends in the rotation distributions can be explained with an activity-based detection bias. We have performed a forward modeling exercise in an effort to reproduce the observed distribution of rotation periods.

  12. Kepler 453 b—The 10th Kepler Transiting Circumbinary Planet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welsh, William F.; Orosz, Jerome A.; Short, Donald R.; Cochran, William D.; Endl, Michael; Brugamyer, Erik; Haghighipour, Nader; Buchhave, Lars A.; Doyle, Laurance R.; Fabrycky, Daniel C.; Hinse, Tobias Cornelius; Kane, Stephen R.; Kostov, Veselin; Mazeh, Tsevi; Mills, Sean M.; Müller, Tobias W. A.; Quarles, Billy; Quinn, Samuel N.; Ragozzine, Darin; Shporer, Avi; Steffen, Jason H.; Tal-Or, Lev; Torres, Guillermo; Windmiller, Gur; Borucki, William J.

    2015-08-01

    We present the discovery of Kepler-453 b, a 6.2 {R}\\oplus planet in a low-eccentricity, 240.5 day orbit about an eclipsing binary. The binary itself consists of a 0.94 and 0.195 {M}⊙ pair of stars with an orbital period of 27.32 days. The plane of the planet's orbit is rapidly precessing, and its inclination only becomes sufficiently aligned with the primary star in the latter portion of the Kepler data. Thus three transits are present in the second half of the light curve, but none of the three conjunctions that occurred during the first half of the light curve produced observable transits. The precession period is ˜103 years, and during that cycle, transits are visible only ˜8.9% of the time. This has the important implication that for every system like Kepler-453 that we detect, there are ˜11.5 circumbinary systems that exist but are not currently exhibiting transits. The planet's mass is too small to noticeably perturb the binary, and consequently its mass is not measurable with these data; however, our photodynamical model places a 1σ upper limit of 16 {M}\\oplus . With a period 8.8 times that of the binary, the planet is well outside the dynamical instability zone. It does, however, lie within the habitable zone of the binary, making it the third of 10 Kepler circumbinary planets to do so. Based on observations obtained with the Hobby-Eberly Telescope, which is a joint project of the University of Texas at Austin, the Pennsylvania State University, Stanford University, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München, and Georg-August-Universität Göttingen.

  13. Kepler Eclipsing Binary Stars. III. Classification of Kepler Eclipsing Binary Light Curves with Locally Linear Embedding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matijevič, Gal; Prša, Andrej; Orosz, Jerome A.; Welsh, William F.; Bloemen, Steven; Barclay, Thomas

    2012-05-01

    We present an automated classification of 2165 Kepler eclipsing binary (EB) light curves that accompanied the second Kepler data release. The light curves are classified using locally linear embedding, a general nonlinear dimensionality reduction tool, into morphology types (detached, semi-detached, overcontact, ellipsoidal). The method, related to a more widely used principal component analysis, produces a lower-dimensional representation of the input data while preserving local geometry and, consequently, the similarity between neighboring data points. We use this property to reduce the dimensionality in a series of steps to a one-dimensional manifold and classify light curves with a single parameter that is a measure of "detachedness" of the system. This fully automated classification correlates well with the manual determination of morphology from the data release, and also efficiently highlights any misclassified objects. Once a lower-dimensional projection space is defined, the classification of additional light curves runs in a negligible time and the method can therefore be used as a fully automated classifier in pipeline structures. The classifier forms a tier of the Kepler EB pipeline that pre-processes light curves for the artificial intelligence based parameter estimator.

  14. ASTEROSEISMIC DETERMINATION OF OBLIQUITIES OF THE EXOPLANET SYSTEMS KEPLER-50 AND KEPLER-65

    SciTech Connect

    Chaplin, W. J.; Campante, T. L.; Davies, G. R.; Elsworth, Y.; Hekker, S.; Sanchis-Ojeda, R.; Winn, J. N.; Handberg, R.; Christensen-Dalsgaard, J.; Karoff, C.; Stello, D.; Bedding, T. R.; Basu, S.; Fischer, D. A.; Metcalfe, T. S.; Buchhave, L. A.; Cochran, W. D.; Gilliland, R. L.; Huber, D.; Isaacson, H.; and others

    2013-04-01

    Results on the obliquity of exoplanet host stars-the angle between the stellar spin axis and the planetary orbital axis-provide important diagnostic information for theories describing planetary formation. Here we present the first application of asteroseismology to the problem of stellar obliquity determination in systems with transiting planets and Sun-like host stars. We consider two systems observed by the NASA Kepler mission which have multiple transiting small (super-Earth sized) planets: the previously reported Kepler-50 and a new system, Kepler-65, whose planets we validate in this paper. Both stars show rich spectra of solar-like oscillations. From the asteroseismic analysis we find that each host has its rotation axis nearly perpendicular to the line of sight with the sines of the angles constrained at the 1{sigma} level to lie above 0.97 and 0.91, respectively. We use statistical arguments to show that coplanar orbits are favored in both systems, and that the orientations of the planetary orbits and the stellar rotation axis are correlated.

  15. KEPLER ECLIPSING BINARY STARS. III. CLASSIFICATION OF KEPLER ECLIPSING BINARY LIGHT CURVES WITH LOCALLY LINEAR EMBEDDING

    SciTech Connect

    Matijevic, Gal; Prsa, Andrej; Orosz, Jerome A.; Welsh, William F.; Bloemen, Steven; Barclay, Thomas E-mail: andrej.prsa@villanova.edu

    2012-05-15

    We present an automated classification of 2165 Kepler eclipsing binary (EB) light curves that accompanied the second Kepler data release. The light curves are classified using locally linear embedding, a general nonlinear dimensionality reduction tool, into morphology types (detached, semi-detached, overcontact, ellipsoidal). The method, related to a more widely used principal component analysis, produces a lower-dimensional representation of the input data while preserving local geometry and, consequently, the similarity between neighboring data points. We use this property to reduce the dimensionality in a series of steps to a one-dimensional manifold and classify light curves with a single parameter that is a measure of 'detachedness' of the system. This fully automated classification correlates well with the manual determination of morphology from the data release, and also efficiently highlights any misclassified objects. Once a lower-dimensional projection space is defined, the classification of additional light curves runs in a negligible time and the method can therefore be used as a fully automated classifier in pipeline structures. The classifier forms a tier of the Kepler EB pipeline that pre-processes light curves for the artificial intelligence based parameter estimator.

  16. The Kepler Science Operations Center Pipeline Framework Extensions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klaus, Todd C.; Cote, Miles T.; McCauliff, Sean; Girouard, Forrest R.; Wohler, Bill; Allen, Christopher; Chandrasekaran, Hema; Bryson, Stephen T.; Middour, Christopher; Caldwell, Douglas A.; Jenkins, Jon M.

    2010-01-01

    The Kepler Science Operations Center (SOC) is responsible for several aspects of the Kepler Mission, including managing targets, generating on-board data compression tables, monitoring photometer health and status, processing the science data, and exporting the pipeline products to the mission archive. We describe how the generic pipeline framework software developed for Kepler is extended to achieve these goals, including pipeline configurations for processing science data and other support roles, and custom unit of work generators that control how the Kepler data are partitioned and distributed across the computing cluster. We describe the interface between the Java software that manages the retrieval and storage of the data for a given unit of work and the MATLAB algorithms that process these data. The data for each unit of work are packaged into a single file that contains everything needed by the science algorithms, allowing these files to be used to debug and evolve the algorithms offline.

  17. Kepler: The Search for Earth-Size Planets Begins

    NASA Video Gallery

    Since its launch in March, 2009, the Kepler Mission has announced the discovery of 9 confirmed exoplanets (or planets outside our solar system). This video explores how the team works to combine ph...

  18. The true stellar parameters of the Kepler target list

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farmer, R.; Kolb, U.; Norton, A. J.

    2013-09-01

    We present results of a population synthesis study of the Kepler field. We adapted BiSEPS, a code that includes a fully self-consistent treatment of single and binary star evolution, to generate a sample of synthetic stars that represents the Kepler Input Catalogue (KIC). By subjecting this synthetic sample to the same target selection criteria that defined the actual Kepler target list we obtain a synthetic target list. We analysed the synthetic target list in turn with the methods of the Kepler Stellar Classification Project (SCP), to obtain SCP-derived stellar parameters. From this we find significant differences between the actual physical stellar parameters and those derived by the SCP of the stars in the synthetic sample. For a main sequence (MS) star, we find on average a ˜ 3% increase in stellar radius and a consequent ˜3% overestimate of the radius for any transiting exoplanet, when considered over the whole target list.

  19. NASA's Kepler Discovers Its Smallest 'Habitable Zone' Planets to Date

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA's Kepler mission has discovered two new planetary systems that include three super-Earth-size planets in the "habitable zone," the range of distance from a star where the surface temperature o...

  20. The Conservation Principles and Kepler's Laws of Planetary Motion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Motz, Lloyd

    1975-01-01

    Derives Kepler's three laws of planetary motion algebraically from conservation principles without introducing Newton's law of force explicitly. This procedure can be presented to students who have had no more than high school algebra. (Author)

  1. Introducing Triquetrum, A Possible Future for Kepler and Ptolemy II

    SciTech Connect

    Brooks, Christopher; Billings, Jay Jay

    2016-01-01

    Triquetrum is an open platform for managing and executing scientific workflows that is under development as an Eclipse project. Both Triquetrum and Kepler use Ptolemy II as their execution engine. Triquetrum presents opportunities and risks for the Kepler community. The opportunities include a possibly larger community for interaction and a path for Kepler to move from Kepler's one-off ant-based build environment towards a more common OSGi-based environment and a way to maintain a stable Ptolemy II core. The risks include the fact that Triquetrum is a fork of Ptolemy II that would result in package name changes and other possible changes. In addition, Triquetrum is licensed under the Eclipse Public License v1.0, which includes a patent clause that could conflict with the University of California patent clause. This paper describes these opportunities and risks.

  2. NASA's Kepler Mission Discovers Multiple Planets Orbiting Twin Suns

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA's Kepler mission has discovered the first transiting circumbinary system -- multiple planets orbiting two suns -- 4,900 light-years from Earth, in the constellation Cygnus, proving that more t...

  3. Initial Data Release of the Kepler-INT Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greiss, S.; Steeghs, D.; Gänsicke, B. T.; Martín, E. L.; Groot, P. J.; Irwin, M. J.; González-Solares, E.; Greimel, R.; Knigge, C.; Østensen, R. H.; Verbeek, K.; Drew, J. E.; Drake, J.; Jonker, P. G.; Ripepi, V.; Scaringi, S.; Southworth, J.; Still, M.; Wright, N. J.; Farnhill, H.; van Haaften, L. M.; Shah, S.

    2012-07-01

    This paper describes the first data release of the Kepler-INT Survey (KIS) that covers a 116 deg2 region of the Cygnus and Lyra constellations. The Kepler field is the target of the most intensive search for transiting planets to date. Despite the fact that the Kepler mission provides superior time-series photometry, with an enormous impact on all areas of stellar variability, its field lacks optical photometry complete to the confusion limit of the Kepler instrument necessary for selecting various classes of targets. For this reason, we follow the observing strategy and data reduction method used in the IPHAS and UVEX galactic plane surveys in order to produce a deep optical survey of the Kepler field. This initial release concerns data taken between 2011 May and August, using the Isaac Newton Telescope on the island of La Palma. Four broadband filters were used, U, g, r, i, as well as one narrowband one, Hα, reaching down to a 10σ limit of ~20th mag in the Vega system. Observations covering ~50 deg2, thus about half of the field, passed our quality control thresholds and constitute this first data release. We derive a global photometric calibration by placing the KIS magnitudes as close as possible to the Kepler Input Catalog (KIC) photometry. The initial data release catalog containing around 6 million sources from all the good photometric fields is available for download from the KIS Web site (www.astro.warwick.ac.uk/research/kis/) as well as via MAST (KIS magnitudes can be retrieved using the MAST enhanced target search page http://archive.stsci.edu/kepler/kepler_fov/search.php and also via Casjobs at MAST Web site http://mastweb.stsci.edu/kplrcasjobs/).

  4. Public Kepler Data on the Bright Star Theta Cygni

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haas, Michael Robert; Bryson, S. T.; Rowe, J. F.; Still, M. D.

    2011-01-01

    The bright star Theta Cygni (Kepler ID 11918630) has been observed by Kepler in both short (59 sec) and long (29.4 min) cadence for a period of approximately 50 days starting on MJD 55410. These observations were made at the request of the Kepler Guest Observer Office and are intended for immediate public release. The purpose is to demonstrate Kepler's exquisite photometric precision on bright, highly saturated targets. Theta Cygni is a F3V/M3V binary with a visual magnitude of 4.9/13.0. The short-cadence data show evidence of granulation (i.e., convection) out to about 1 mHz ( 100 c/d) and clear detection of numerous p-modes with a peak near 1.8 mHz ( 150 c/d). The high-frequency noise floor has a 3-sigma upper envelope of 0.4 ppm. The amplitude of the p-modes agrees with the stellar effective temperature, indicating that the star has a thin convective layer. Since a custom aperture was employed, the light curves will be constructed manually and placed on the Guest Observer website (http://keplergo.arc.nasa.gov/). The corresponding pixel-level data will be available from the Kepler archive (http://archive.stsci.edu/kepler/). The Kepler mission can accommodate a small number of such bright targets every quarter. Observing proposals can be submitted annually to the peer-reviewed Guest Observer Program, or much less formally on a quarterly basis for Director's Discretionary Time (see http://keplergo.arc.nasa.gov/GOprogramDDT.shtml). Kepler was selected as the 10th mission of the Discovery Program. Funding for this mission is provided by NASA, Science Mission Directorate.

  5. Johannes Kepler in Prague - and a new museum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKim, R.

    2010-06-01

    Four centuries ago in 1610, the Kepler family were living in their last place of residence in Prague, in a house in a courtyard off Karlova Street (Karlova ulice), very close to the east end of Charles Bridge (Karluv most). The house is No.188, U Francouzske koruny (French Crown House), and has a passage through to Anenska Street. Kepler spent 12 years in the city, publishing his most important works including Astronomia Nova.

  6. INITIAL DATA RELEASE OF THE KEPLER-INT SURVEY

    SciTech Connect

    Greiss, S.; Steeghs, D.; Gaensicke, B. T.; Martin, E. L.; Groot, P. J.; Verbeek, K.; Jonker, P. G.; Scaringi, S.; Greimel, R.; Knigge, C.; Ostensen, R. H.; Drew, J. E.; Farnhill, H.; Drake, J.; Wright, N. J.; Ripepi, V.; Southworth, J.; Still, M. [NASA Ames Research Center, M and others

    2012-07-15

    This paper describes the first data release of the Kepler-INT Survey (KIS) that covers a 116 deg{sup 2} region of the Cygnus and Lyra constellations. The Kepler field is the target of the most intensive search for transiting planets to date. Despite the fact that the Kepler mission provides superior time-series photometry, with an enormous impact on all areas of stellar variability, its field lacks optical photometry complete to the confusion limit of the Kepler instrument necessary for selecting various classes of targets. For this reason, we follow the observing strategy and data reduction method used in the IPHAS and UVEX galactic plane surveys in order to produce a deep optical survey of the Kepler field. This initial release concerns data taken between 2011 May and August, using the Isaac Newton Telescope on the island of La Palma. Four broadband filters were used, U, g, r, i, as well as one narrowband one, H{alpha}, reaching down to a 10{sigma} limit of {approx}20th mag in the Vega system. Observations covering {approx}50 deg{sup 2}, thus about half of the field, passed our quality control thresholds and constitute this first data release. We derive a global photometric calibration by placing the KIS magnitudes as close as possible to the Kepler Input Catalog (KIC) photometry. The initial data release catalog containing around 6 million sources from all the good photometric fields is available for download from the KIS Web site (www.astro.warwick.ac.uk/research/kis/) as well as via MAST (KIS magnitudes can be retrieved using the MAST enhanced target search page http://archive.stsci.edu/kepler/kepler{sub f}ov/search.php and also via Casjobs at MAST Web site http://mastweb.stsci.edu/kplrcasjobs/).

  7. Kepler AutoRegressive Planet Search: Initial Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caceres, Gabriel; Feigelson, Eric; Jogesh Babu, G.; Bahamonde, Natalia; Bertin, Karine; Christen, Alejandra; Curé, Michel; Meza, Cristian

    2015-08-01

    The statistical analysis procedures of the Kepler AutoRegressive Planet Search (KARPS) project are applied to a portion of the publicly available Kepler light curve data for the full 4-year mission duration. Tests of the methods have been made on a subset of Kepler Objects of Interest (KOI) systems, classified both as planetary `candidates' and `false positives' by the Kepler Team, as well as a random sample of unclassified systems. We find that the ARMA-type modeling successfully reduces the stellar variability, by a factor of 10 or more in active stars and by smaller factors in more quiescent stars. A typical quiescent Kepler star has an interquartile range (IQR) of ~10 e-/sec, which may improve slightly after modeling, while those with IQR ranging from 20 to 50 e-/sec, have improvements from 20% up to 70%. High activity stars (IQR exceeding 100) markedly improve, but visual inspection of the residual series shows that significant deviations from Gaussianity remain for many of them. Although the reduction in stellar signal is encouraging, it is important to note that the transit signal is also altered in the resulting residual time series. The periodogram derived from our Transit Comb Filter (TCF) is most effective for shorter period planets with quick ingress/egress times (relative to Kepler's 29-minute sample rate). We do not expect high sensitivity to periods of hundreds of days. Our findings to date on real-data tests of the KARPS methodology will be discussed including confirmation of some Kepler Team `candidate' planets, no confirmation of some `candidate' and `false positive' sytems, and suggestions of mischosen harmonics in the Kepler Team periodograms. We also present cases of new possible planetary signals.

  8. KIC2569073, A second Cepheid in the Kepler FOV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drury, Jason A.; Kuehn, Charles A.; Bellamy, Beau R.; Stello, Dennis; Bedding, Timothy R.

    2015-09-01

    One particularly interesting new variable discovered via Kepler's 200x200 pixel superstamp images is KIC2569073. With a period of 14.66 days and 0.04mag variability it is only the second Cepheid in the Kepler field, or a rotationally modulated variable. We discuss its classification as a Type II W Virginis Class Cepheid, and present the cycle-to-cycle period variations of this star, as well as the first direct observations of granulation noise within a Cepheid.

  9. Statistical eclipses of close-in Kepler sub-Saturns

    SciTech Connect

    Sheets, Holly A.; Deming, Drake

    2014-10-20

    We present a method to detect small atmospheric signals in Kepler's planet candidate light curves by averaging light curves for multiple candidates with similar orbital and physical characteristics. Our statistical method allows us to measure unbiased physical properties of Kepler's planet candidates, even for candidates whose individual signal-to-noise precludes the detection of their secondary eclipse. We detect a secondary eclipse depth of 3.83{sub −1.11}{sup +1.10} ppm for a group of 31 sub-Saturn (R < 6 R {sub ⊕}) planet candidates with the greatest potential for a reflected light signature ((R{sub p} /a){sup 2} > 10 ppm). Including Kepler-10b in this group increases the depth to 5.08{sub −0.72}{sup +0.71} ppm. For a control group with (R{sub p} /a){sup 2} < 1 ppm, we find a depth of 0.36 ± 0.37 ppm, consistent with no detection. We also analyze the light curve of Kepler-10b and find an eclipse depth of 7.08 ± 1.06 ppm. If the eclipses are due solely to reflected light, this corresponds to a geometric albedo of 0.22 ± 0.06 for our group of close-in sub-Saturns, 0.37 ± 0.05 if including Kepler-10b in the group, and 0.60 ± 0.09 for Kepler-10b alone. Including a thermal emission model does not change the geometric albedo appreciably, assuming A{sub B} = (3/2)*A{sub g} . Our result for Kepler-10b is consistent with previous works. Our result for close-in sub-Saturns shows that Kepler-10b is unusually reflective, but our analysis is consistent with the results of Demory for super-Earths. Our results also indicate that hot Neptunes are typically more reflective than hot Jupiters.

  10. Kepler Mission Website: Portal to the International Year of Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harman, Pamela; DeVore, E.; Gould, A.; Koch, D.

    2008-05-01

    The 400th anniversary of Galileo's telescope is an opportunity to turn the public's eyes skyward and to the universe beyond the solar system. The Kepler Mission, launching in 2009, the International Year of Astronomy (IYA) will is specifically designed to survey our region of the Milky Way galaxy to detect and characterize hundreds of Earth-size and smaller planets in or near the habitable zone, using the transit method of detection. The habitable zone encompasses the distances from a star where liquid water can exist on a planet's surface. Results from this mission will allow us to place our solar system within the continuum of planetary systems in the Galaxy. The Kepler Mission is a NASA Discovery Program Mission. The Kepler Mission website http://www.kepler.arc.nasa.gov/ offers classroom activity lesson plans Detecting Planet Transits, The Human Orrery, and Morning Star and Evening Star. The activities are suitable for the informal science education realm. The spacecraft paper model and LEGO model orrerey can be used in the classroom by teachers or at home by families. The mission simulation and animation, as well as lessons and models highlight the science concepts critical to employing the transit method of detection, Kepler's Laws. The Send Your Name to Space on Kepler Spacecraft provides a certificate of participation for all individuals that submit there name to be listed on a DVD placed on the spacecraft. This poster will provide details on each of the items described.

  11. KEPLER OBSERVATIONS OF TRANSITING HOT COMPACT OBJECTS

    SciTech Connect

    Rowe, Jason F.; Borucki, William J.; Koch, David; Lissauer, Jack J.; Howell, Steve B.; Basri, Gibor; Marcy, Geoff; Batalha, Natalie; Brown, Timothy M.; Caldwell, Douglas; Jenkins, Jon; Cochran, William D.; Dunham, Edward; Dupree, Andrea K.; Latham, David W.; Sasselov, Dimitar; Fortney, Jonathan J.; Gautier, Thomas N.; Monet, David G.

    2010-04-20

    Kepler photometry has revealed two unusual transiting companions: one orbiting an early A-star and the other orbiting a late B-star. In both cases, the occultation of the companion is deeper than the transit. The occultation and transit with follow-up optical spectroscopy reveal a 9400 K early A-star, KOI-74 (KIC 6889235), with a companion in a 5.2 day orbit with a radius of 0.08 R {sub sun} and a 10,000 K late B-star KOI-81 (KIC 8823868) that has a companion in a 24 day orbit with a radius of 0.2 R {sub sun}. We infer a temperature of 12,250 K for KOI-74b and 13,500 K for KOI-81b. We present 43 days of high duty cycle, 30 minute cadence photometry, with models demonstrating the intriguing properties of these objects, and speculate on their nature.

  12. Approximate solutions of the hyperbolic Kepler equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avendano, Martín; Martín-Molina, Verónica; Ortigas-Galindo, Jorge

    2015-12-01

    We provide an approximate zero widetilde{S}(g,L) for the hyperbolic Kepler's equation S-g {{arcsinh}}(S)-L=0 for gin (0,1) and Lin [0,∞ ). We prove, by using Smale's α -theory, that Newton's method starting at our approximate zero produces a sequence that converges to the actual solution S( g, L) at quadratic speed, i.e. if S_n is the value obtained after n iterations, then |S_n-S|≤ 0.5^{2^n-1}|widetilde{S}-S|. The approximate zero widetilde{S}(g,L) is a piecewise-defined function involving several linear expressions and one with cubic and square roots. In bounded regions of (0,1) × [0,∞ ) that exclude a small neighborhood of g=1, L=0, we also provide a method to construct simpler starters involving only constants.

  13. Kepler-16: a transiting circumbinary planet.

    PubMed

    Doyle, Laurance R; Carter, Joshua A; Fabrycky, Daniel C; Slawson, Robert W; Howell, Steve B; Winn, Joshua N; Orosz, Jerome A; Prša, Andrej; Welsh, William F; Quinn, Samuel N; Latham, David; Torres, Guillermo; Buchhave, Lars A; Marcy, Geoffrey W; Fortney, Jonathan J; Shporer, Avi; Ford, Eric B; Lissauer, Jack J; Ragozzine, Darin; Rucker, Michael; Batalha, Natalie; Jenkins, Jon M; Borucki, William J; Koch, David; Middour, Christopher K; Hall, Jennifer R; McCauliff, Sean; Fanelli, Michael N; Quintana, Elisa V; Holman, Matthew J; Caldwell, Douglas A; Still, Martin; Stefanik, Robert P; Brown, Warren R; Esquerdo, Gilbert A; Tang, Sumin; Furesz, Gabor; Geary, John C; Berlind, Perry; Calkins, Michael L; Short, Donald R; Steffen, Jason H; Sasselov, Dimitar; Dunham, Edward W; Cochran, William D; Boss, Alan; Haas, Michael R; Buzasi, Derek; Fischer, Debra

    2011-09-16

    We report the detection of a planet whose orbit surrounds a pair of low-mass stars. Data from the Kepler spacecraft reveal transits of the planet across both stars, in addition to the mutual eclipses of the stars, giving precise constraints on the absolute dimensions of all three bodies. The planet is comparable to Saturn in mass and size and is on a nearly circular 229-day orbit around its two parent stars. The eclipsing stars are 20 and 69% as massive as the Sun and have an eccentric 41-day orbit. The motions of all three bodies are confined to within 0.5° of a single plane, suggesting that the planet formed within a circumbinary disk. PMID:21921192

  14. Kepler constraints on planets near hot Jupiters

    SciTech Connect

    Steffen, Jason H.; Ragozzine, Darin; Fabrycky, Daniel C.; Carter, Joshua A.; Ford, Eric B.; Holman, Matthew J.; Rowe, Jason F.; Welsh, William F.; Borucki, William J.; Boss, Alan P.; Ciardi, David R.; /Caltech /Harvard-Smithsonian Ctr. Astrophys.

    2012-05-01

    We present the results of a search for planetary companions orbiting near hot Jupiter planet candidates (Jupiter-size candidates with orbital periods near 3 d) identified in the Kepler data through its sixth quarter of science operations. Special emphasis is given to companions between the 2:1 interior and exterior mean-motion resonances. A photometric transit search excludes companions with sizes ranging from roughly two-thirds to five times the size of the Earth, depending upon the noise properties of the target star. A search for dynamically induced deviations from a constant period (transit timing variations) also shows no significant signals. In contrast, comparison studies of warm Jupiters (with slightly larger orbits) and hot Neptune-size candidates do exhibit signatures of additional companions with these same tests. These differences between hot Jupiters and other planetary systems denote a distinctly different formation or dynamical history.

  15. Autonomous orbital navigation using Kepler's equation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boltz, F. W.

    1974-01-01

    A simple method of determining the six elements of elliptic satellite orbits has been developed for use aboard manned and unmanned spacecraft orbiting the earth, moon, or any planet. The system requires the use of a horizon sensor or other device for determining the local vertical, a precision clock or timing device, and Apollo-type navigation equipment including an inertial measurement unit (IMU), a digital computer, and a coupling data unit. The three elements defining the in-plane motion are obtained from simultaneous measurements of central angle traversed around the planet and elapsed flight time using a linearization of Kepler's equation about a reference orbit. It is shown how Kalman filter theory may also be used to determine the in-plane orbital elements. The three elements defining the orbit orientation are obtained from position angles in celestial coordinates derived from the IMU with the spacecraft vertically oriented after alignment of the IMU to a known inertial coordinate frame.

  16. Efficient inverse solution of Kepler's equation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boltz, Frederick W.

    1986-01-01

    A bicubic polynomial approximation to Kepler's equation for elliptic orbits is shown to provide accurate starting values for efficient numerical solution of this equation for eccentric anomaly. In the approximate equation, a cubic in mean anomaly is set equal to a cubic in eccentric anomaly. The coefficients in the two cubics are obtained as functions of eccentricity by specifying values of function and slope at the midpoint and the endpoint of the complete interval (0 to pi). The initial estimate of eccentric anomaly to use in an iteration formula is obtained by evaluating the cubic in mean anomaly and finding the single real root of the cubic in eccentric anomaly. Numerical results are presented which indicate that the estimate accuracy of this method is roughly an order of magnitude better than that of other recently-reported formulas.

  17. Exoplanet Population Estimate from Kepler Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Traub, Wesley A.

    2015-11-01

    The intrinsic population of exoplanets around Kepler target stars is estimated by comparing the observed numbers of planets at each radius and period against a simulation that accounts for the probability of transit and the estimated instrument sensitivity. By assuming that the population can be modeled as a function of period times a function of radius, and further assuming that these functions are broken power laws, sufficient leverage is gained such that the well-measured short-period planet distribution can effectively be used as a template for the less-well sampled long-period terrestrial planets. The resulting population distribution provides a challenge to models of the origin and evolution of planetary systems.

  18. Extremes of Population Estimated from Kepler Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Traub, Wesley A.

    2015-12-01

    The extremes of exoplanet population (0.5 to 16 Earth radii, 0.5 to 512 days period) are estimated from Kepler observations by comparing the observed numbers of planets at each radius and period against a simulation that accounts for the probability of transit and the estimated instrument sensitivity. By assuming that the population can be modeled as a function of period times a function of radius, and further assuming that these functions are broken power laws, sufficient leverage is gained such that the well-measured short-period extreme of the planet distribution can effectively be used as a template for the less-well sampled long-period extreme. The resulting population distribution over this full range of radius and period provides a challenge to models of the origin and evolution of planetary systems.

  19. Computing on Knights and Kepler Architectures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bortolotti, G.; Caberletti, M.; Crimi, G.; Ferraro, A.; Giacomini, F.; Manzali, M.; Maron, G.; Pivanti, M.; Salomoni, D.; Schifano, S. F.; Tripiccione, R.; Zanella, M.

    2014-06-01

    A recent trend in scientific computing is the increasingly important role of co-processors, originally built to accelerate graphics rendering, and now used for general high-performance computing. The INFN Computing On Knights and Kepler Architectures (COKA) project focuses on assessing the suitability of co-processor boards for scientific computing in a wide range of physics applications, and on studying the best programming methodologies for these systems. Here we present in a comparative way our results in porting a Lattice Boltzmann code on two state-of-the-art accelerators: the NVIDIA K20X, and the Intel Xeon-Phi. We describe our implementations, analyze results and compare with a baseline architecture adopting Intel Sandy Bridge CPUs.

  20. Stellar Populations with APOGEE and Kepler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Jennifer; Pinsonneault, Marc H.; Elsworth, Yvonne P.; Epstein, Courtney R.; Hekker, Saskia; Meszaros, Szabolcs; Chaplin, William J.; Garcia, Rafael; Holtzman, Jon A.; Mathur, Savita; García Pérez, Ana; Basu, Sarbani; Girardi, Leo; Silva Aguirre, Víctor; Shetrone, Matthew D.; Stello, Dennis; Rodrigues, Thaise; Allende-Prieto, Carlos; An, Deokkeun; Beck, Paul; Bizyaev, Dmitry; Bovy, Jo; Cunha, Katia M. L.; De Ridder, Joris; Garcia-Hernandez, D.

    2015-01-01

    The history of the Milky Way is recorded in its stars, but dissecting stellar populations is not a straighforward process. Key information is gained by analyzing the absorption lines from high-resolution spectroscopy of stellar atmospheres by the APOGEE survey and analyzing the frequencies in power spectra of photometric lightcurves by Kepler Asteroseismic Science Consortium, in particular the large frequency separation and the frequency of maximum power. From spectroscopy, we measure effective temperature, rotation, metallicity and abundance ratios, while seismology provides gravities, rotation,and evolutionary state. Combined, these two techniques yield other fundamental parameters such as mass and radius. I will discuss revolutionary insights into Galactic evolution gained by this extensive dataset.

  1. Kepler constraints on planets near hot Jupiters

    PubMed Central

    Steffen, Jason H.; Ragozzine, Darin; Fabrycky, Daniel C.; Carter, Joshua A.; Ford, Eric B.; Holman, Matthew J.; Rowe, Jason F.; Welsh, William F.; Borucki, William J.; Boss, Alan P.; Ciardi, David R.; Quinn, Samuel N.

    2012-01-01

    We present the results of a search for planetary companions orbiting near hot Jupiter planet candidates (Jupiter-size candidates with orbital periods near 3 d) identified in the Kepler data through its sixth quarter of science operations. Special emphasis is given to companions between the 2∶1 interior and exterior mean-motion resonances. A photometric transit search excludes companions with sizes ranging from roughly two-thirds to five times the size of the Earth, depending upon the noise properties of the target star. A search for dynamically induced deviations from a constant period (transit timing variations) also shows no significant signals. In contrast, comparison studies of warm Jupiters (with slightly larger orbits) and hot Neptune-size candidates do exhibit signatures of additional companions with these same tests. These differences between hot Jupiters and other planetary systems denote a distinctly different formation or dynamical history. PMID:22566651

  2. 146 Kepler-Lamost targets fundamental parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Yaqian

    2015-08-01

    Accurate stellar fundamental parameters with high precision are important for distinguishing stellar populationand star study.Turn-off stars are in the relatively vital stellar evolution state. Studying turn-off stars can help us to have a more comprehensive understand of the stellar physics.With the help of observation provided by Lamost project, we obtain atmospheric parameters of 146 turn-off stars from LSP3 pipeline. Combined with stellar pulsation data from Kepler, we can get asteroseismic characteristic of stars,such as Δν and νmax.In this paper,we constructed a grid of evolutionary models, with the mass range from 0.8 to 2.5 M⊙ and metallicities Zini = 0.0085, 0.0105, 0.0130, 0.0165, 0.0200, 0.0250, 0.0300, 0.0400 (i.e.[Fe/H] from -0.3 to 0.4dex).All evolutionary tracks were started in the pre-main sequence birth line and ended at the base of Red Giant Branch.Based on the stellar model grid we constructed,as well as Kepler-Lamost observations, we obtained fundamental parameters of 146 around turn-off stars, and found that 112 targets lied in turn-off state or in the Main Sequence,15 targets are subgiant stars and 7 targets have evolved to the red giants stage.Then we use pulsation code(JIG) of Guenther to extract theorical individual frequencies and calculate theorical Δν.Meanwhile we obtained more precise fundamental parameters of these stars.

  3. Robo-AO Kepler Planetary Candidate Survey. II. Adaptive Optics Imaging of 969 Kepler Exoplanet Candidate Host Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baranec, Christoph; Ziegler, Carl; Law, Nicholas M.; Morton, Tim; Riddle, Reed; Atkinson, Dani; Schonhut, Jessica; Crepp, Justin

    2016-07-01

    We initiated the Robo-AO Kepler Planetary Candidate Survey in 2012 to observe each Kepler exoplanet candidate host star with high angular resolution, visible light, laser adaptive optics (AOs) imaging. Our goal is to find nearby stars lying in Kepler's photometric apertures that are responsible for the relatively high probability of false-positive exoplanet detections and that cause underestimates of the size of transit radii. Our comprehensive survey will also shed light on the effects of stellar multiplicity on exoplanet properties and will identify rare exoplanetary architectures. In this second part of our ongoing survey, we observed an additional 969 Kepler planet candidate hosts and we report blended stellar companions up to {{Δ }}m≈ 6 that contribute to Kepler's measured light curves. We found 203 companions within ˜4″ of 181 of the Kepler stars, of which 141 are new discoveries. We measure the nearby star probability for this sample of Kepler planet candidate host stars to be 10.6% ± 1.1% at angular separations up to 2.″5, significantly higher than the 7.4% ± 1.0% probability discovered in our initial sample of 715 stars; we find the probability increases to 17.6% ± 1.5% out to a separation of 4.″0. The median position of Kepler Objects of Interest (KOIs) observed in this survey are 1.°1 closer to the galactic plane, which may account for some of the nearby star probability enhancement. We additionally detail 50 Keck AO images of Robo-AO observed KOIs in order to confirm 37 companions detected at a <5σ significance level and to obtain additional infrared photometry on higher significance detected companions.

  4. Synthesis and Biological Evaluation of Pyrazolo[3,4-b]pyridin-4-ones as a New Class of Topoisomerase II Inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Tabrizi, Mojgan Aghazadeh; Baraldi, Pier Giovanni; Baraldi, Stefania; Prencipe, Filippo; Preti, Delia; Saponaro, Giulia; Romagnoli, Romeo; Gessi, Stefania; Merighi, Stefania; Stefanelli, Angela; Fazzi, Debora; Borea, Pier Andrea; Maia, Rodolfo Couto; Romeiro, Nelilma C; Fraga, Carlos A M; Barreiro, Eliezer J

    2015-01-01

    A series of 1,3,6-triphenylpyrazolo[3,4-b]pyridin-4-one derivatives was designed, synthesized and evaluated for cytotoxic activity in A375 human melanoma and human erythroleukemia (HEL) cells. The new pyrazolopyridones displayed comparable activities to the antitumor compound etoposide. The inhibitory effect of compounds 17, 18, 27 and 32 against topoisomerase II-mediated cleavage activities was measured finding good correlation with the results obtained from MTS assay. Docking studies into bacterial topoisomerase II (DNA Gyrase), topoisomerase IIα and topoisomerase IIβ binding sites in the DNA binding interface were performed. PMID:25494808

  5. Discovery of Substituted 1H-Pyrazolo[3,4-b]pyridine Derivatives as Potent and Selective FGFR Kinase Inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Bin; Li, Yixuan; Xu, Pan; Dai, Yang; Luo, Cheng; Sun, Yiming; Ai, Jing; Geng, Meiyu; Duan, Wenhu

    2016-06-01

    Fibroblast growth factor receptors (FGFRs) are important targets for cancer therapy. Herein, we describe the design, synthesis, and biological evaluation of a novel series of 1H-pyrazolo[3,4-b]pyridine derivatives as potent and selective FGFR kinase inhibitors. On the basis of its excellent in vitro potency and favorable pharmacokinetic properties, compound 7n was selected for in vivo evaluation and showed significant antitumor activity in a FGFR1-driven H1581 xenograft model. These results indicated that 7n would be a promising candidate for further drug development. PMID:27326339

  6. Optimization of pyrazole-containing 1,2,4-triazolo-[3,4-b]thiadiazines, a new class of STAT3 pathway inhibitors.

    PubMed

    LaPorte, Matthew G; Wang, Zhuzhu; Colombo, Raffaele; Garzan, Atefeh; Peshkov, Vsevolod A; Liang, Mary; Johnston, Paul A; Schurdak, Mark E; Sen, Malabika; Camarco, Daniel P; Hua, Yun; Pollock, Netanya I; Lazo, John S; Grandis, Jennifer R; Wipf, Peter; Huryn, Donna M

    2016-08-01

    Structure-activity relationship studies of a 1,2,4-triazolo-[3,4-b]thiadiazine scaffold, identified in an HTS campaign for selective STAT3 pathway inhibitors, determined that a pyrazole group and specific aryl substitution on the thiadiazine were necessary for activity. Improvements in potency and metabolic stability were accomplished by the introduction of an α-methyl group on the thiadiazine. Optimized compounds exhibited anti-proliferative activity, reduction of phosphorylated STAT3 levels and effects on STAT3 target genes. These compounds represent a starting point for further drug discovery efforts targeting the STAT3 pathway. PMID:27381083

  7. The Kepler DB, a Database Management System for Arrays, Sparse Arrays and Binary Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCauliff, Sean; Cote, Miles T.; Girouard, Forrest R.; Middour, Christopher; Klaus, Todd C.; Wohler, Bill

    2010-01-01

    The Kepler Science Operations Center stores pixel values on approximately six million pixels collected every 30-minutes, as well as data products that are generated as a result of running the Kepler science processing pipeline. The Kepler Database (Kepler DB) management system was created to act as the repository of this information. After one year of ight usage, Kepler DB is managing 3 TiB of data and is expected to grow to over 10 TiB over the course of the mission. Kepler DB is a non-relational, transactional database where data are represented as one dimensional arrays, sparse arrays or binary large objects. We will discuss Kepler DB's APIs, implementation, usage and deployment at the Kepler Science Operations Center.

  8. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Parameters of Kepler stars using LAMOST & seismic data (Wang+, 2016)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, L.; Wang, W.; Wu, Y.; Zhao, G.; Li, Y.; Luo, A.; Liu, C.; Zhang, Y.; Hou, Y.; Wang, Y.; Cao, Z.

    2016-06-01

    We present stellar atmospheric and physical parameters using Large Sky Area Multi-Object Fiber Spectroscopic Telescope (LAMOST) spectra and Kepler global oscillation parameters for 3,060 stars in the Kepler field. (1 data file).

  9. The kinesin KIF16B mediates apical transcytosis of transferrin receptor in AP-1B-deficient epithelia

    PubMed Central

    Perez Bay, Andres E; Schreiner, Ryan; Mazzoni, Francesca; Carvajal-Gonzalez, Jose M; Gravotta, Diego; Perret, Emilie; Lehmann Mantaras, Gullermo; Zhu, Yuan-Shan; Rodriguez-Boulan, Enrique J

    2013-01-01

    Polarized epithelial cells take up nutrients from the blood through receptors that are endocytosed and recycle back to the basolateral plasma membrane (PM) utilizing the epithelial-specific clathrin adaptor AP-1B. Some native epithelia lack AP-1B and therefore recycle cognate basolateral receptors to the apical PM, where they carry out important functions for the host organ. Here, we report a novel transcytotic pathway employed by AP-1B-deficient epithelia to relocate AP-1B cargo, such as transferrin receptor (TfR), to the apical PM. Lack of AP-1B inhibited basolateral recycling of TfR from common recycling endosomes (CRE), the site of function of AP-1B, and promoted its transfer to apical recycling endosomes (ARE) mediated by the plus-end kinesin KIF16B and non-centrosomal microtubules, and its delivery to the apical membrane mediated by the small GTPase rab11a. Hence, our experiments suggest that the apical recycling pathway of epithelial cells is functionally equivalent to the rab11a-dependent TfR recycling pathway of non-polarized cells. They define a transcytotic pathway important for the physiology of native AP-1B-deficient epithelia and report the first microtubule motor involved in transcytosis. PMID:23749212

  10. Multifaceted Regioregular Oligo(thieno[3,4-b]thiophene)s Enabled by Tunable Quinoidization and Reduced Energy Band Gap.

    PubMed

    Liu, Feng; Espejo, Guzmán L; Qiu, Shuhai; Oliva, María Moreno; Pina, João; Seixas de Melo, J Sérgio; Casado, Juan; Zhu, Xiaozhang

    2015-08-19

    Thiophene-based materials have occupied a crucial position in the development of organic electronics. However, the energy band gaps of oligo- and polythiophenes are difficult to modulate without resorting to push-pull electronic effects. We describe herein a new series of monodisperse oligo(thieno[3,4-b]thiophene) derivatives with well-defined regioregular structures synthesized efficiently by direct C-H arylation. These compounds show a unique palette of colors and amphoteric redox properties with widely tunable energy band gaps. The capacity to stabilize both cations and anions results in both anodic and cathodic electrochromism. Under excitation, these compounds can produce photoionized states able to interconvert into neutral triplet or form these through singlet exciton fission or intersystem crossing. These features arise from a progressive increase in quinoidization on a fully planar platform making the largest effective conjugation length among hetero-oligomers. Oligo(thieno[3,4-b]thiophene)s might represent the more distinctive family of oligothiophenes of this decade. PMID:26186503

  11. Synthesis and antimicrobial activity of some novel fused heterocyclic 1,2,4-triazolo [3,4-b][1,3,4] thiadiazine derivatives

    PubMed Central

    Sahu, Jagdish K.; Ganguly, Swastika; Kaushik, Atul

    2014-01-01

    In the present investigation, the synthesis and antimicrobial evaluation of 1,2,4-triazolo [3,4-b][1,3,4] thiadiazine including different pharmacophores are aimed at. In this study, a series of 6-aryl-3- (3,4 -dialkoxyphenyl)-7H -[1,2,4]triazolo [3,4-b][1,3,4] thiadiazine (7a-7k) was synthesized by condensing 4-amino-5-(3,4-dialkoxyphenyl)-4H-[1,2,4]- triazole-3-thiol (6) with various aromatic carboxylic acids in the presence of phenacyl bromides through one-pot reaction. Eleven fused heterocyclic derivatives were successfully synthesized. The structures of these newly synthesized compounds were characterized by IR, 1H NMR and mass spectroscopic studies. All the synthesized compounds were screened for their antimicrobial evaluation. Some of the compounds exhibited promising antimicrobial activity. From the present study it may be concluded that synthesized compounds are fruitful in terms of their structural novelty and marked biological activities. These compounds could be further modified to develop potential and safer antifungal agents. PMID:24959418

  12. Aromatic Heterocycle 1,3,4-Oxadiazole-Substituted Thieno[3,4-b]thiophene to Build Low-Bandgap Polymer for Photovoltaic Application.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Dangqiang; Sun, Liang; Liu, Qian; Wen, Shuguang; Han, Liangliang; Bao, Xichang; Yang, Renqiang

    2015-12-01

    Electron-deficient heterocycle 1,3,4-oxadiazole is first introduced to the 2-position of thieno[3,4-b]thiophene (TT) to construct a new building block 2-(thieno[3,4-b]thiophen-2-yl)-5-(alkylthio)-1,3,4-oxadiazole (TTSO) with alkylthio chain. The polymer PBDT-TTSO based on TTSO and benzodithiophene (BDT) exhibits a deep lying highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) energy level of -5.32 eV and low-bandgap of 1.62 eV. The power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 5.86% is obtained with a relatively high V OC of 0.74 V, a J SC of 13.1 mA cm(-2), and FF of 60.5%. Furthermore, as S atom in thioether can be oxidized easily, the optoelectronic properties of PBDT-TTSO treated with different oxidants are preliminary investigated. Interestingly, the oxidation products still maintain high PCE with reduction less than 30%. This work demonstrates a new method to regulate HOMO energy levels by introducing electron-deficient aromatic heterocyclic moiety. PMID:26332871

  13. Synthesis and Antimicrobial Activity of Bis-[4-methoxy-3-(6-aryl-7H-[1,2,4]triazolo[3,4-b][1,3,4]-thiadiazin-3-yl)phenyl]methanes and Bis-[(triazolo[3,4-b]thiadiazipin-3-yl)phenyl]methanes.

    PubMed

    Srinivas, Avula

    2016-01-01

    A series of novel Bis-[4-methoxy-3-(6-aryl-7H-[1,2,4]tria zolo[3,4-b][1,3,4]-thiadiazin-3-yl)phenyl]methanes and Bis-[(triazolo[3,4-b]thiadiazipin-3-yl)phenyl]methanes ( 5a-e & 6a-e ) has been synthesized and characterized by IR, (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR, MS and elemental analysis. All the newly synthesized compounds were screened for their antibacterial activity against Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Klobsinella aerogenes and Chromobacteriumviolaceum and antifungal activity against Candida albicans, Aspergillus fumigatus, Trichophyton rubrum and Trichophyton mentagrophytes. Compounds 5b, 5d,5e, 6b, 6c and 6e exhibited potent activity against the test bacteria and fungi, and emerged as potential molecules for further development. PMID:26970802

  14. Three Great Eyes on Kepler's Supernova Remnant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Composite

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Chandra X-Ray Data (blue) Chandra X-Ray Data (green)Hubble Telescope (visible-light)Spitzer Telescope (infrared)

    NASA's three Great Observatories -- the Hubble Space Telescope, the Spitzer Space Telescope, and the Chandra X-ray Observatory -- joined forces to probe the expanding remains of a supernova, called Kepler's supernova remnant, first seen 400 years ago by sky watchers, including astronomer Johannes Kepler.

    The combined image unveils a bubble-shaped shroud of gas and dust that is 14 light-years wide and is expanding at 4 million miles per hour (2,000 kilometers per second). Observations from each telescope highlight distinct features of the supernova remnant, a fast-moving shell of iron-rich material from the exploded star, surrounded by an expanding shock wave that is sweeping up interstellar gas and dust.

    Each color in this image represents a different region of the electromagnetic spectrum, from X-rays to infrared light. These diverse colors are shown in the panel of photographs below the composite image. The X-ray and infrared data cannot be seen with the human eye. By color-coding those data and combining them with Hubble's visible-light view, astronomers are presenting a more complete picture of the supernova remnant.

    Visible-light images from the Hubble telescope (colored yellow) reveal where the supernova shock wave is slamming into the densest regions of surrounding gas. The bright glowing knots are dense clumps from instabilities that form behind the shock wave. The Hubble data also show thin filaments of gas that look like rippled sheets seen edge-on. These filaments reveal where the shock wave is encountering lower-density, more uniform interstellar material.

    The Spitzer telescope shows microscopic dust particles (colored red) that have been heated by the

  15. Take off with NASA's Kepler Mission!: The Search for Other "Earths"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koch, David; DeVore, Edna K.; Gould, Alan; Harman, Pamela

    2009-01-01

    Humans have long wondered about life in the universe. Are we alone? Is Earth unique? What is it that makes our planet a habitable one, and are there others like Earth? NASA's Kepler Mission seeks the answers to these questions. Kepler is a space-based, specially designed 0.95 m aperture telescope. Launching in 2009, Kepler is NASA's first mission…

  16. DENSITY AND ECCENTRICITY OF KEPLER PLANETS

    SciTech Connect

    Wu Yanqin; Lithwick, Yoram

    2013-07-20

    We analyze the transit timing variations (TTV) obtained by the Kepler mission for 22 sub-Jovian planet pairs (19 published, 3 new) that lie close to mean motion resonances. We find that the TTV phases for most of these pairs lie close to zero, consistent with an eccentricity distribution that has a very low root-mean-squared value of e {approx} 0.01; but about a quarter of the pairs possess much higher eccentricities, up to e {approx} 0.1-0.4. For the low-eccentricity pairs, we are able to statistically remove the effect of eccentricity to obtain planet masses from TTV data. These masses, together with those measured by radial velocity, yield a best-fit mass-radius relation M {approx} 3 M{sub Circled-Plus }(R/R{sub Circled-Plus }). This corresponds to a constant surface escape velocity of {approx}20 km s{sup -1}. We separate the planets into two distinct groups: ''mid-sized'' (those greater than 3 R{sub Circled-Plus }) and 'compact' (those smaller). All mid-sized planets are found to be less dense than water and therefore must contain extensive H/He envelopes that are comparable in mass to that of their cores. We argue that these planets have been significantly sculpted by photoevaporation. Surprisingly, mid-sized planets, a minority among Kepler candidates, are discovered exclusively around stars more massive than 0.8 M{sub Sun }. The compact planets, on the other hand, are often denser than water. Combining our density measurements with those from radial velocity studies, we find that hotter compact planets tend to be denser, with the hottest ones reaching rock density. Moreover, hotter planets tend to be smaller in size. These results can be explained if the compact planets are made of rocky cores overlaid with a small amount of hydrogen, {<=}1% in mass, with water contributing little to their masses or sizes. Photoevaporation has exposed bare rocky cores in cases of the hottest planets. Our conclusion that these planets are likely not water worlds contrasts

  17. Adaptive optics images. III. 87 Kepler objects of interest

    SciTech Connect

    Dressing, Courtney D.; Dupree, Andrea K.; Adams, Elisabeth R.; Kulesa, Craig; McCarthy, Don

    2014-11-01

    The Kepler mission has revolutionized our understanding of exoplanets, but some of the planet candidates identified by Kepler may actually be astrophysical false positives or planets whose transit depths are diluted by the presence of another star. Adaptive optics images made with ARIES at the MMT of 87 Kepler Objects of Interest place limits on the presence of fainter stars in or near the Kepler aperture. We detected visual companions within 1'' for 5 stars, between 1'' and 2'' for 7 stars, and between 2'' and 4'' for 15 stars. For those systems, we estimate the brightness of companion stars in the Kepler bandpass and provide approximate corrections to the radii of associated planet candidates due to the extra light in the aperture. For all stars observed, we report detection limits on the presence of nearby stars. ARIES is typically sensitive to stars approximately 5.3 Ks magnitudes fainter than the target star within 1'' and approximately 5.7 Ks magnitudes fainter within 2'', but can detect stars as faint as ΔKs = 7.5 under ideal conditions.

  18. ON THE LOW FALSE POSITIVE PROBABILITIES OF KEPLER PLANET CANDIDATES

    SciTech Connect

    Morton, Timothy D.; Johnson, John Asher E-mail: johnjohn@astro.caltech.edu

    2011-09-10

    We present a framework to conservatively estimate the probability that any particular planet-like transit signal observed by the Kepler mission is in fact a planet, prior to any ground-based follow-up efforts. We use Monte Carlo methods based on stellar population synthesis and Galactic structure models, and report false positive probabilities (FPPs) for every Kepler Object of Interest, assuming a 20% intrinsic occurrence rate of close-in planets in the radius range 0.5 R{sub +} < R{sub p} < 20 R{sub +}. Nearly 90% of the 1235 candidates have FPP <10%, and over half have FPP <5%. This probability varies with the magnitude and Galactic latitude of the target star, and with the depth of the transit signal-deeper signals generally have higher FPPs than shallower signals. We establish that a single deep high-resolution image will be an effective follow-up tool for the shallowest (Earth-sized) transits, providing the quickest route toward probabilistically validating the smallest candidates by potentially decreasing the FPP of an Earth-sized transit around a faint star from >10% to <1%. Since Kepler has detected many more planetary signals than can be positively confirmed with ground-based follow-up efforts in the near term, these calculations will be crucial to using the ensemble of Kepler data to determine population characteristics of planetary systems. We also describe how our analysis complements the Kepler team's more detailed BLENDER false positive analysis for planet validation.

  19. FORMING CIRCUMBINARY PLANETS: N-BODY SIMULATIONS OF KEPLER-34

    SciTech Connect

    Lines, S.; Leinhardt, Z. M.; Paardekooper, S.; Baruteau, C.; Thebault, P.

    2014-02-10

    Observations of circumbinary planets orbiting very close to the central stars have shown that planet formation may occur in a very hostile environment, where the gravitational pull from the binary should be very strong on the primordial protoplanetary disk. Elevated impact velocities and orbit crossings from eccentricity oscillations are the primary contributors to high energy, potentially destructive collisions that inhibit the growth of aspiring planets. In this work, we conduct high-resolution, inter-particle gravity enabled N-body simulations to investigate the feasibility of planetesimal growth in the Kepler-34 system. We improve upon previous work by including planetesimal disk self-gravity and an extensive collision model to accurately handle inter-planetesimal interactions. We find that super-catastrophic erosion events are the dominant mechanism up to and including the orbital radius of Kepler-34(AB)b, making in situ growth unlikely. It is more plausible that Kepler-34(AB)b migrated from a region beyond 1.5 AU. Based on the conclusions that we have made for Kepler-34, it seems likely that all of the currently known circumbinary planets have also migrated significantly from their formation location with the possible exception of Kepler-47(AB)c.

  20. Speckle Imaging of Kepler Exo-planet Transit Candidate Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howell, Steve B.; Horch, Elliott; Sherry, William

    2009-08-01

    The NASA Kepler mission was successfully launched on 6 March 2009 and will begin science operations near 1 May. At the present time, commissioning tests are being performed and all spacecraft and science instruments are nominal. Kepler's main science focus is to discover Earth-like exo-planets via photometric transit detection. ``Hot Jupiters" will be found by the hundreds (using current ground-based statistics) but Earth-sized planets (up to 2.5 Earth radii) will be more difficult, yet are the holy grail of the mission. To take the list of candidate transiting planets found by Kepler and move them to probable or certain exo-planet detections, a decision tree of false positive elimination will occur. While earth-sized exo-planets can not currently be confirmed from the ground, many of the false positive eliminations steps can be performed. This proposal aims to obtain high resolution speckle imaging to 1) finish the characterization of ~500 comparison sample stars in the Kepler field of view prior to any transit information as a sample to place planet host stars in context with and to 2) observe Kepler exo-planet transit candidates in order to eliminate the largest false positive contributor in any transit search - background eclipsing binary stars or faint companion stars.

  1. Adaptive Optics Images. III. 87 Kepler Objects of Interest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dressing, Courtney D.; Adams, Elisabeth R.; Dupree, Andrea K.; Kulesa, Craig; McCarthy, Don

    2014-11-01

    The Kepler mission has revolutionized our understanding of exoplanets, but some of the planet candidates identified by Kepler may actually be astrophysical false positives or planets whose transit depths are diluted by the presence of another star. Adaptive optics images made with ARIES at the MMT of 87 Kepler Objects of Interest place limits on the presence of fainter stars in or near the Kepler aperture. We detected visual companions within 1'' for 5 stars, between 1'' and 2'' for 7 stars, and between 2'' and 4'' for 15 stars. For those systems, we estimate the brightness of companion stars in the Kepler bandpass and provide approximate corrections to the radii of associated planet candidates due to the extra light in the aperture. For all stars observed, we report detection limits on the presence of nearby stars. ARIES is typically sensitive to stars approximately 5.3\\, {{Ks}} magnitudes fainter than the target star within 1'' and approximately 5.7\\, {{Ks}} magnitudes fainter within 2'', but can detect stars as faint as ΔKs = 7.5 under ideal conditions. Observations reported here were obtained at the MMT Observatory, a joint facility of the Smithsonian Institution and the University of Arizona.

  2. Asteroseismology of Stars in NGC 6791 Using Kepler ``Superstamps''

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuehn, Charles A.; Drury, Jason; Bellamy, Beau; Stello, Dennis; Bedding, Timothy R.; Reed, Mike; Quick, Breanna

    2015-01-01

    The Kepler space telescope has been a gold mine for asteroseismology thanks to its unprecedented photometric precision and uninterrupted span of observations. One major drawback of Kepler though was that it only read out a few pixels around pre-selected target stars and thus, no information was gathered for most of the stars in the Kepler field of view. Fortunately, for the open clusters NGC 6791 and NGC 6819, Kepler also read out larger ``superstamps'' which contained complete images of the central region of each cluster. These cluster images can be used to study additional stars in the open clusters that were not originally on Kepler's target list. We adapted conventional crowded-field photometric routines to carry out photometry on these superstamps. We present select results from this study in order to show the power and usefulness of using the superstamps. The techniques created for this project will be even more useful in the new K2 mission which will include additional open clusters and, for the first time, globular clusters in its fields of view.

  3. WHERE TO FIND HABITABLE ''EARTHS'' IN CIRCUMBINARY SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    Liu Huigen; Zhang Hui; Zhou Jilin

    2013-04-20

    Six P-type planets have been found thus far around five binary systems, i.e., Kepler-16b, 34b, 35b, 38b, and 47b and c, which are all Neptune- or Jupiter-like planets. The stability of planets and the habitable zones are influenced by the gravitational and radiative perturbations of binary companions. In this Letter, we check the stability of an additional habitable Earth-mass planet in each system. Based on our simulations in 10 Myr, a habitable ''Earth'' is hardly stable in Kepler-16, while a stable ''Earth'' in Kepler-47 close to the boundaries of the habitable zone is possible. In contrast, Kepler-34, 35, and 38 seem to have high probabilities of being able to tolerante a stable ''Earth'' in their habitable zones. The affects of transit time variations are quite small due to the small mass of an undetected ''Earth,'' except that of Kepler-16b. With a time precision of 10{sup -3} day ({approx}88 s), an ''Earth'' in the corotational resonance with Kepler-16b can be detected in three years, while habitable ''Earths'' in the Kepler-34 and 38 systems can be detected in 10 yr. Habitable ''Earths'' in Kepler-35 and 47 are not likely to be detected in 10 yr under this precision.

  4. HESS upper limits for Kepler's supernova remnant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aharonian, F.; Akhperjanian, A. G.; Barres de Almeida, U.; Bazer-Bachi, A. R.; Behera, B.; Beilicke, M.; Benbow, W.; Berge, D.; Bernlöhr, K.; Boisson, C.; Bolz, O.; Borrel, V.; Braun, I.; Brion, E.; Brucker, J.; Bühler, R.; Bulik, T.; Büsching, I.; Boutelier, T.; Carrigan, S.; Chadwick, P. M.; Chounet, L.-M.; Clapson, A. C.; Coignet, G.; Cornils, R.; Costamante, L.; Dalton, M.; Degrange, B.; Dickinson, H. J.; Djannati-Ataï, A.; Domainko, W.; O'C. Drury, L.; Dubois, F.; Dubus, G.; Dyks, J.; Egberts, K.; Emmanoulopoulos, D.; Espigat, P.; Farnier, C.; Feinstein, F.; Fiasson, A.; Förster, A.; Fontaine, G.; Füßling, M.; Gallant, Y. A.; Giebels, B.; Glicenstein, J. F.; Glück, B.; Goret, P.; Hadjichristidis, C.; Hauser, D.; Hauser, M.; Heinzelmann, G.; Henri, G.; Hermann, G.; Hinton, J. A.; Hoffmann, A.; Hofmann, W.; Holleran, M.; Hoppe, S.; Horns, D.; Jacholkowska, A.; de Jager, O. C.; Jung, I.; Katarzyński, K.; Kendziorra, E.; Kerschhaggl, M.; Khélifi, B.; Keogh, D.; Komin, Nu.; Kosack, K.; Lamanna, G.; Latham, I. J.; Lemoine-Goumard, M.; Lenain, J.-P.; Lohse, T.; Martin, J. M.; Martineau-Huynh, O.; Marcowith, A.; Masterson, C.; Maurin, D.; McComb, T. J. L.; Moderski, R.; Moulin, E.; Naumann-Godo, M.; de Naurois, M.; Nedbal, D.; Nekrassov, D.; Nolan, S. J.; Ohm, S.; Olive, J.-P.; de Oña Wilhelmi, E.; Orford, K. J.; Osborne, J. L.; Ostrowski, M.; Panter, M.; Pedaletti, G.; Pelletier, G.; Petrucci, P.-O.; Pita, S.; Pühlhofer, G.; Punch, M.; Quirrenbach, A.; Raubenheimer, B. C.; Raue, M.; Rayner, S. M.; Renaud, M.; Ripken, J.; Rob, L.; Rosier-Lees, S.; Rowell, G.; Rudak, B.; Ruppel, J.; Sahakian, V.; Santangelo, A.; Schlickeiser, R.; Schöck, F. M.; Schröder, R.; Schwanke, U.; Schwarzburg, S.; Schwemmer, S.; Shalchi, A.; Sol, H.; Spangler, D.; Stawarz, Ł.; Steenkamp, R.; Stegmann, C.; Superina, G.; Tam, P. H.; Tavernet, J.-P.; Terrier, R.; van Eldik, C.; Vasileiadis, G.; Venter, C.; Vialle, J. P.; Vincent, P.; Vivier, M.; Völk, H. J.; Volpe, F.; Wagner, S. J.; Ward, M.; Zdziarski, A. A.; Zech, A.

    2008-09-01

    Aims: Observations of Kepler's supernova remnant (G4.5+6.8) with the HESS telescope array in 2004 and 2005 with a total live time of 13 h are presented. Methods: Stereoscopic imaging of Cherenkov radiation from extensive air showers is used to reconstruct the energy and direction of the incident gamma rays. Results: No evidence for a very high energy (VHE: >100 GeV) gamma-ray signal from the direction of the remnant is found. An upper limit (99% confidence level) on the energy flux in the range 230 GeV{-}12.8 TeV of 8.6 × 10-13 erg cm-2 s-1 is obtained. Conclusions: In the context of an existing theoretical model for the remnant, the lack of a detectable gamma-ray flux implies a distance of at least 6.4 kpc. A corresponding upper limit for the density of the ambient matter of 0.7 cm-3 is derived. With this distance limit, and assuming a spectral index Γ = 2, the total energy in accelerated protons is limited to Ep < 8.6 × 1049 erg. In the synchrotron/inverse Compton framework, extrapolating the power law measured by RXTE between 10 and 20 keV down in energy, the predicted gamma-ray flux from inverse Compton scattering is below the measured upper limit for magnetic field values greater than 52 μ G.

  5. OVERVIEW OF THE KEPLER SCIENCE PROCESSING PIPELINE

    SciTech Connect

    Jenkins, Jon M.; Caldwell, Douglas A.; Chandrasekaran, Hema; Twicken, Joseph D.; Quintana, Elisa V.; Clarke, Bruce D.; Li, Jie; Tenenbaum, Peter; Wu, Hayley

    2010-04-20

    The Kepler Mission Science Operations Center (SOC) performs several critical functions including managing the {approx}156,000 target stars, associated target tables, science data compression tables and parameters, as well as processing the raw photometric data downlinked from the spacecraft each month. The raw data are first calibrated at the pixel level to correct for bias, smear induced by a shutterless readout, and other detector and electronic effects. A background sky flux is estimated from {approx}4500 pixels on each of the 84 CCD readout channels, and simple aperture photometry is performed on an optimal aperture for each star. Ancillary engineering data and diagnostic information extracted from the science data are used to remove systematic errors in the flux time series that are correlated with these data prior to searching for signatures of transiting planets with a wavelet-based, adaptive matched filter. Stars with signatures exceeding 7.1{sigma} are subjected to a suite of statistical tests including an examination of each star's centroid motion to reject false positives caused by background eclipsing binaries. Physical parameters for each planetary candidate are fitted to the transit signature, and signatures of additional transiting planets are sought in the residual light curve. The pipeline is operational, finding planetary signatures and providing robust eliminations of false positives.

  6. An explorative approach for inspecting Kepler data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kügler, S. D.; Gianniotis, N.; Polsterer, K. L.

    2016-02-01

    The Kepler survey has provided a wealth of astrophysical knowledge by continuously monitoring over 150 000 stars. The resulting data base contains thousands of examples of known variability types and at least as many that cannot be classified yet. In order to reveal the knowledge hidden in the data base, we introduce a new visualization method that allows us to inspect regularly sampled time series in an explorative fashion. To that end, we propose dimensionality reduction on the parameters of a model capable of representing time series as fixed-length vector representation. We show that a more refined objective function can be chosen by minimizing the reconstruction error, that is the deviation between prediction and observation, of the observed time series instead of reconstructing model parameters. The proposed visualization exhibits a strong correlation between the variability behaviour of the light curves and their physical properties. As a consequence, temperature and surface gravity can, for some stars, be directly inferred from non- (or quasi-) periodic light curves.

  7. The Kepler Mission and Eclipsing Binaries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koch, David; Borucki, William; Lissauer, J.; Basri, Gibor; Brown, Timothy; Caldwell, Douglas; Cochran, William; Jenkins, Jon; Dunham, Edward; Gautier, Nick

    2006-01-01

    The Kepler Mission is a photometric mission with a precision of 14 ppm (at R=12) that is designed to continuously observe a single field of view (FOV) of greater 100 sq deg in the Cygnus-Lyra region for four or more years. The primary goal of the mission is to monitor greater than 100,000 stars for transits of Earth-size and smaller planets in the habitable zone of solar-like stars. In the process, many eclipsing binaries (EB) will also be detected and light curves produced. To enhance and optimize the mission results, the stellar characteristics for all the stars in the FOV with R less than 16 will have been determined prior to launch. As part of the verification process, stars with transit candidates will have radial velocity follow-up observations performed to determine the component masses and thereby separate eclipses caused by stellar companions from transits caused by planets. The result will be a rich database on EBs. The community will have access to the archive for further analysis, such as, for EB modeling of the high-precision light curves. A guest observer program is also planned to allow for photometric observations of objects not on the target list but within the FOV, since only the pixels of interest from those stars monitored will be transmitted to the ground.

  8. Eclipsing Binaries from the Kepler Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koch, David; Borucki, William; Lissauer, J.; Basri, Gibor; Brown, Timothy; Caldwell, Douglas; Cochran, William; Jenkins, Jon; Dunham, Edward; Gautier, Nick

    2005-01-01

    The Kepler Mission is a photometric space mission that will continuously observe a single 100 sq deg field of view (FOV) of greater than 100,000 stars in the Cygnus-Lyra region for 4 or more years with a precision of 14 ppm (R=12). The primary goal of the mission is to detect Earth-size planets in the habitable zone of solar-like stars. In the process, many eclipsing binaries (EB) will also be detected. Prior to launch, the stellar characteristics will have been detennined for all the stars in the FOV with R<16. As part of the verification process, stars with transits <5% will need to have follow-up radial velocity observations performed to determine the component masses and thereby separate transits caused by stellar companions from those caused by planets. The result will be a rich database on EBs. The community will have access to the archive for uses such as for EB modeling of the high-precision light curves. A guest observer program is also planned for objects not already on the target list.

  9. Classification of Stellar Variability with Kepler Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsiaras, A.

    2013-09-01

    We aim to classify the different kinds of stellar variability as they appear in Kepler data. For that we use the PDC light-curves after a low degree polynomial normalization. The variability factor, which we call relative rms (relrms) and represents the stellar activity, is the standard deviation of the light-curve divided by its median error in order to limit the affect of magnitude on standard deviation. Our first calculations are the distributions of a) relrms and b) standard deviation of relrms in range of 1, 7 and 30 days. According to them we divide stars into categories of low or high activity level and low of high activity variation and try to find the relation between them. The final step is to correlate these categories with stellar physical characteristics such as spectral type, radius and periodicity. We summarize the results in tree basic categories: I) stars with high activity level but low activity variation; II) stars with high activity level and high activity variation; III) stars with activity variation proportional to their activity level. Each category includes stars of different spectral types, giants or dwarfs, periodic or not in a way that helps us add in special subcategories.

  10. Kepler Eclipsing Binary Stars. VII. The Catalog of Eclipsing Binaries Found in the Entire Kepler Data Set

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirk, Brian; Conroy, Kyle; Prša, Andrej; Abdul-Masih, Michael; Kochoska, Angela; Matijevič, Gal; Hambleton, Kelly; Barclay, Thomas; Bloemen, Steven; Boyajian, Tabetha; Doyle, Laurance R.; Fulton, B. J.; Hoekstra, Abe Johannes; Jek, Kian; Kane, Stephen R.; Kostov, Veselin; Latham, David; Mazeh, Tsevi; Orosz, Jerome A.; Pepper, Joshua; Quarles, Billy; Ragozzine, Darin; Shporer, Avi; Southworth, John; Stassun, Keivan; Thompson, Susan E.; Welsh, William F.; Agol, Eric; Derekas, Aliz; Devor, Jonathan; Fischer, Debra; Green, Gregory; Gropp, Jeff; Jacobs, Tom; Johnston, Cole; LaCourse, Daryll Matthew; Saetre, Kristian; Schwengeler, Hans; Toczyski, Jacek; Werner, Griffin; Garrett, Matthew; Gore, Joanna; Martinez, Arturo O.; Spitzer, Isaac; Stevick, Justin; Thomadis, Pantelis C.; Vrijmoet, Eliot Halley; Yenawine, Mitchell; Batalha, Natalie; Borucki, William

    2016-03-01

    The primary Kepler Mission provided nearly continuous monitoring of ∼200,000 objects with unprecedented photometric precision. We present the final catalog of eclipsing binary systems within the 105 deg2 Kepler field of view. This release incorporates the full extent of the data from the primary mission (Q0-Q17 Data Release). As a result, new systems have been added, additional false positives have been removed, ephemerides and principal parameters have been recomputed, classifications have been revised to rely on analytical models, and eclipse timing variations have been computed for each system. We identify several classes of systems including those that exhibit tertiary eclipse events, systems that show clear evidence of additional bodies, heartbeat systems, systems with changing eclipse depths, and systems exhibiting only one eclipse event over the duration of the mission. We have updated the period and galactic latitude distribution diagrams and included a catalog completeness evaluation. The total number of identified eclipsing and ellipsoidal binary systems in the Kepler field of view has increased to 2878, 1.3% of all observed Kepler targets. An online version of this catalog with downloadable content and visualization tools is maintained at http://keplerEBs.villanova.edu.

  11. Revised Masses and Densities of the Planets around Kepler-10

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weiss, Lauren M.; Rogers, Leslie A.; Isaacson, Howard T.; Agol, Eric; Marcy, Geoffrey W.; Rowe, Jason F.; Kipping, David; Fulton, Benjamin J.; Lissauer, Jack J.; Howard, Andrew W.; Fabrycky, Daniel

    2016-03-01

    Determining which small exoplanets have stony-iron compositions is necessary for quantifying the occurrence of such planets and for understanding the physics of planet formation. Kepler-10 hosts the stony-iron world Kepler-10b, and also contains what has been reported to be the largest solid silicate-ice planet, Kepler-10c. Using 220 radial velocities (RVs), including 72 precise RVs from Keck-HIRES of which 20 are new from 2014 to 2015, and 17 quarters of Kepler photometry, we obtain the most complete picture of the Kepler-10 system to date. We find that Kepler-10b ({R}{{p}}=1.47 {R}\\oplus ) has mass 3.72\\quad +/- \\quad 0.42\\quad {M}\\oplus and density 6.46\\quad +/- \\quad 0.73\\quad {{g}} {{cm}}-3. Modeling the interior of Kepler-10b as an iron core overlaid with a silicate mantle, we find that the iron core constitutes 0.17 ± 0.11 of the planet mass. For Kepler-10c ({R}{{p}}=2.35 {R}\\oplus ) we measure mass 13.98\\quad +/- \\quad 1.79\\quad {M}\\oplus and density 5.94\\quad +/- \\quad 0.76\\quad {{g}} {{cm}}-3, significantly lower than the mass computed in Dumusque et al. (17.2+/- 1.9 {M}\\oplus ). Our mass measurement of Kepler-10c rules out a pure stony-iron composition. Internal compositional modeling reveals that at least 10% of the radius of Kepler-10c is a volatile envelope composed of hydrogen-helium (0.2% of the mass, 16% of the radius) or super-ionic water (28% of the mass, 29% of the radius). However, we note that analysis of only HIRES data yields a higher mass for planet b and a lower mass for planet c than does analysis of the HARPS-N data alone, with the mass estimates for Kepler-10 c being formally inconsistent at the 3σ level. Moreover, dividing the data for each instrument into two parts also leads to somewhat inconsistent measurements for the mass of planet c derived from each observatory. Together, this suggests that time-correlated noise is present and that the uncertainties in the masses of the planets (especially planet c) likely

  12. THE KEPLER CLUSTER STUDY: STELLAR ROTATION IN NGC 6811

    SciTech Connect

    Meibom, Soeren; Latham, David W.; Dupree, Andrea K.; Furesz, Gabor; Szentgyorgyi, Andrew H.; Buchhave, Lars A.; Barnes, Sydney A.; Batalha, Natalie; Borucki, William J.; Koch, David G.; Jenkins, Jon; Van Cleve, Jeffrey; Haas, Michael R.; Bryson, Stephen T.; Basri, Gibor; Walkowicz, Lucianne M.; Janes, Kenneth A.; Clarke, Bruce D.; Twicken, Joseph D.; Quintana, Elisa V.

    2011-05-20

    We present rotation periods for 71 single dwarf members of the open cluster NGC 6811 determined using photometry from NASA's Kepler mission. The results are the first from The Kepler Cluster Study, which combines Kepler's photometry with ground-based spectroscopy for cluster membership and binarity. The rotation periods delineate a tight sequence in the NGC 6811 color-period diagram from {approx}1 day at mid-F to {approx}11 days at early-K spectral type. This result extends to 1 Gyr similar prior results in the {approx}600 Myr Hyades and Praesepe clusters, suggesting that rotation periods for cool dwarf stars delineate a well-defined surface in the three-dimensional space of color (mass), rotation, and age. It implies that reliable ages can be derived for field dwarf stars with measured colors and rotation periods, and it promises to enable further understanding of various aspects of stellar rotation and activity for cool stars.

  13. Kepler's Use of Archetypes in his defence against Aristotelian Scepticism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martens, Rhonda M.

    In 1621, looking back over an impresive career, Johannes Kepler commented that "almost every book on astronomy which I have published since that time could be referred to one or another of the important chapters set out in this little book (the Mysterium Cosmographicum) and would contain either an illustration or a completion of it". Kepler viewed the Mysterium, his first book, as the genesis of hist later works; Here the author is focusing on the conceptual foundations it provided for his approach to physical astronomy and the Aristotelian dominant during his time. It turns out that despite Kepler's arowedly Platonic and Pythagorean sympathies, his physical astronomy comports with Aristotle's directives in the Posterior Analytics. Perhaps paradoxically, his arhetypal cosmology as expressed in the Mysterium enabled the merging Platonic and Aristotelian intuitions in his construction of the new astronomy.

  14. Kepler in Curricula of the Agrarian Engineering School of Barcelona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fillet, Jaume Fabregat

    In the Agrarian Engineering school of Barcelona, within the subject of Mathematics some references to history are included, particularly about several great scientists, like Kepler who is famous for his astronomical laws, but he was occupied by other subjects for example he wrote about wine barrels. It is interesting to introduce students to dynamic aspects of science and not only to program an ordered mathematical knowledge of physical systems or, worse, only to offer a collection of numerical recipes or only presenting the foundation of theory; it is important to promote relationships between technical topics and other lateral matters. To instigate an integral education, students did a brief study entitled "Kepler, mathematics and agriculture"; students were guided to link Kepler with agriculture through astronomy.

  15. Management and systems engineering of the Kepler mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fanson, James; Livesay, Leslie; Frerking, Margaret; Cooke, Brian

    2010-07-01

    Kepler is the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA's) first mission capable of detecting Earth-size planets orbiting in the habitable zones around stars other than the sun. Selected for implementation in 2001 and launched in 2009, Kepler seeks to determine whether Earth-like planets are common or rare in the galaxy. The investigation requires a large, space-based photometer capable of simultaneously measuring the brightnesses of 100,000 stars at partper- million level of precision. This paper traces the development of the mission from the perspective of project management and systems engineering and describes various methodologies and tools that were found to be effective. The experience of the Kepler development is used to illuminate lessons that can be applied to future missions.

  16. An Introduction to Exoplanets and the Kepler Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lissauer, Jack

    2014-01-01

    A quarter century ago, the only planets known to humanity were the familiar objects that orbit our Sun. But improved observational techniques allowed astronomers to begin detecting planets around other stars in the 1990s. The first extrasolar planets (often referred to as exoplanets) to be discovered were quite exotic and unfamiliar objects. Most were giant objects that are hundreds of times as massive as the Earth and orbit so close to their star that they are hotter than pizza ovens. But as observational capabilities improved, smaller and cooler planets were found. The most capable planet-hunting tool developed to date is NASA's Kepler telescope, which was launched in 2009. Kepler has found that planets similar in size to our Earth are quite abundant within our galaxy. Results of Kepler's research will be summarized and placed into context within the new and growing discipline of exoplanet studies.

  17. Management and Systems Engineering of the Kepler Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fanson, James; Livesay, Leslie; Frerking, Margaret; Cooke, Brian

    2010-01-01

    Kepler is the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA's) first mission capable of detecting Earth-size planets orbiting in the habitable zones around stars other than the sun. Selected for implementation in 2001 and launched in 2009, Kepler seeks to determine whether Earth-like planets are common or rare in the galaxy. The investigation requires a large, space-based photometer capable of simultaneously measuring the brightnesses of 100,000 stars at part-per-million level of precision. This paper traces the development of the mission from the perspective of project management and systems engineering and describes various methodologies and tools that were found to be effective. The experience of the Kepler development is used to illuminate lessons that can be applied to future missions.

  18. Kepler Ground-Based Photometry Proof-of-Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Timothy M.; Latham, D.; Howell, S.; Everett, M.

    2004-01-01

    We report on our efforts to evaluate the feasibility of using the 4-Shooter CCD camera on the 48-inch reflector at the Whipple Observatory to carry out a multi-band photometric survey of the Kepler target region. We also include recommendations for future work. We were assigned 36 nights with the &hooter during 2003 for this feasibility study. Most of the time during the first two dozen nights was dedicated to the development of procedures, test exposures, and a reconnaissance across the Kepler field. The final 12 nights in September and October 2003 were used for "production" observing in the middle of the Kepler field using the full complement of seven filters (SDSS u, g, r, i, z, plus our special Gred and D51 intermediate-band filters). Nine of these 12 nights were clear and photometric, and production observations were obtained at 109 pointings, corresponding to 14.6 square degrees.

  19. A Measure of Stellar Binarity Among Kepler Target Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nofi, Larissa; Baranec, Christoph; Howard, Andrew; Riddle, Reed; Law, Nicholas; Ziegler, Carl

    2015-12-01

    The dynamical interactions between stars in binary systems create a complex environment for planet formation and evolution. The Kepler mission offers an opportunity to compare binary stars with, and without, detections of inner transiting exoplanets. Kepler stars with no planet detections can act as a control sample in an effort to discover if inner planet formation in binary systems is a rare occurrence. We build a control sample of ~700 serendipitously observed targets from Robo-AO images of Kepler Objects of Interest (KOIs), while also targeting a specific control dataset with parameters matched to an initial dataset of ~300 KOIs. We find that the binary fraction of KOIs, and the control sample with no detected planets, match to within 1-σ. Our findings do not suggest that inner transiting exoplanets are rare in binary systems for this sample.

  20. DISCOVERY OF A ZZ CETI IN THE KEPLER MISSION FIELD

    SciTech Connect

    Hermes, J. J.; Winget, D. E.; Mullally, Fergal; Howell, Steve B.; Oestensen, R. H.; Bloemen, S.; Williams, Kurtis A.; Telting, John; Southworth, John; Everett, Mark

    2011-11-01

    We report the discovery of the first identified pulsating DA white dwarf, WD J1916+3938 (Kepler ID 4552982), in the field of the Kepler mission. This ZZ Ceti star was first identified through ground-based, time-series photometry, and follow-up spectroscopy confirms that it is a hydrogen-atmosphere white dwarf with T {sub eff} = 11,129 {+-} 115 K and log g = 8.34 {+-} 0.06, placing it within the empirical ZZ Ceti instability strip. The object shows up to 0.5% amplitude variability at several periods between 800 and 1450 s. Extended Kepler observations of WD J1916+3938 could yield the best light curve, to date, of any pulsating white dwarf, allowing us to directly study the interior of an evolved object representative of the fate of the majority of stars in our Galaxy.

  1. Photometric Analysis in the Kepler Science Operations Center Pipeline

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Twicken, Joseph D.; Clarke, Bruce D.; Bryson, Stephen T.; Tenenbaum, Peter; Wu, Hayley; Jenkins, Jon M.; Girouard, Forrest; Klaus, Todd C.

    2010-01-01

    We describe the Photometric Analysis (PA) software component and its context in the Kepler Science Operations Center (SOC) pipeline. The primary tasks of this module are to compute the photometric flux and photocenters (centroids) for over 160,000 long cadence (thirty minute) and 512 short cadence (one minute) stellar targets from the calibrated pixels in their respective apertures. We discuss the science algorithms for long and short cadence PA: cosmic ray cleaning; background estimation and removal; aperture photometry; and flux-weighted centroiding. We discuss the end-to-end propagation of uncertainties for the science algorithms. Finally, we present examples of photometric apertures, raw flux light curves, and centroid time series from Kepler flight data. PA light curves, centroid time series, and barycentric timestamp corrections are exported to the Multi-mission Archive at Space Telescope [Science Institute] (MAST) and are made available to the general public in accordance with the NASA/Kepler data release policy.

  2. Using Kepler for Tool Integration in Microarray Analysis Workflows

    PubMed Central

    Gan, Zhuohui; Stowe, Jennifer C.; Altintas, Ilkay; McCulloch, Andrew D.; Zambon, Alexander C.

    2015-01-01

    Increasing numbers of genomic technologies are leading to massive amounts of genomic data, all of which requires complex analysis. More and more bioinformatics analysis tools are being developed by scientist to simplify these analyses. However, different pipelines have been developed using different software environments. This makes integrations of these diverse bioinformatics tools difficult. Kepler provides an open source environment to integrate these disparate packages. Using Kepler, we integrated several external tools including Bioconductor packages, AltAnalyze, a python-based open source tool, and R-based comparison tool to build an automated workflow to meta-analyze both online and local microarray data. The automated workflow connects the integrated tools seamlessly, delivers data flow between the tools smoothly, and hence improves efficiency and accuracy of complex data analyses. Our workflow exemplifies the usage of Kepler as a scientific workflow platform for bioinformatics pipelines. PMID:26605000

  3. From emblems to diagrams: Kepler's new pictorial language of scientific representation.

    PubMed

    Chen-Morris, Raz

    2009-01-01

    Kepler's treatise on optics of 1604 furnished, along with technical solutions to problems in medieval perspective, a mathematically-based visual language for the observation of nature. This language, based on Kepler's theory of retinal pictures, ascribed a new role to geometrical diagrams. This paper examines Kepler's pictorial language against the backdrop of alchemical emblems that flourished in and around the court of Rudolf II in Prague. It highlights the cultural context in which Kepler's optics was immersed, and the way in which Kepler attempted to demarcate his new science from other modes of the investigation of nature. PMID:19618524

  4. Formation, tidal evolution, and habitability of the Kepler-186 system

    SciTech Connect

    Bolmont, Emeline; Raymond, Sean N.; Selsis, Franck; Hersant, Franck; Von Paris, Philip; Quintana, Elisa V.; Barclay, Thomas

    2014-09-20

    The Kepler-186 system consists of five planets orbiting an early M dwarf. The planets have physical radii of 1.0-1.50 R {sub ⊕} and orbital periods of 4-130 days. The 1.1 R {sub ⊕} Kepler-186f with a period of 130 days is of particular interest. Its insolation of roughly 0.32 S {sub ⊕} places it within the surface liquid water habitable zone (HZ). We present a multifaceted study of the Kepler-186 system, using two sets of parameters which are consistent with the data and also self-consistent. First, we show that the distribution of planet masses can be roughly reproduced if the planets were accreted from a high surface density disk presumably sculpted by an earlier phase of migration. However, our simulations predict the existence of one to two undetected planets between planets e and f. Next, we present a dynamical analysis of the system including the effect of tides. The timescale for tidal evolution is short enough that the four inner planets must have small obliquities and near-synchronous rotation rates. The tidal evolution of Kepler-186f is slow enough that its current spin state depends on a combination of its initial spin state, its dissipation rate, and the stellar age. Finally, we study the habitability of Kepler-186f with a one-dimensional climate model. The planet's surface temperature can be raised above 273 K with 0.5-5 bars of CO{sub 2}, depending on the amount of N{sub 2} present. Kepler-186f represents a case study of an Earth-sized planet in the cooler regions of the HZ of a cool star.

  5. The Kepler Mission and the International Year of Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harman, Pamela; DeVore, E.; Gould, A.; Koch, D.

    2008-05-01

    Johannes Kepler was one of Galileo's contemporaries, publishing New Astronomy defining his first two laws, nearly 400 years ago, in 1609. It is a fitting tribute that the Kepler Mission launches in 2009. Kepler continued his studies of motion and made observations of satellites of Jupiter, and published his third law. We now recognize Kepler's laws as 1. Planets move in elliptical; 2. The planets move such that the line between the Sun and the Planet sweeps out equal areas in equal time no matter where in the orbit; and 3. The square of the period of the orbit of a planet is proportional to the mean distance from the Sun cubed. Kepler's laws were deduced empirically from the motions of the planet Mars in the early 17th century, before Newton deduced the law of gravity and his laws of motion. The Kepler Mission, a NASA Discovery mission, is specifically designed to survey our region of the Milky Way galaxy to detect and characterize hundreds of Earth-size and smaller planets in or near the habitable zone. The habitable zone encompasses the distances from a star where liquid water can exist on a planet's surface. Results from this mission will allow us to place our solar system within the continuum of planetary systems in the Galaxy. The Mission Education and Public Outreach (EPO) Program has developed a Night Sky Network (NSN) outreach kit, Shadows and Silhouettes. This NSN kit is used by amateur astronomers at school and public observing events to illustrate a transit, and explain eclipses.

  6. VALFAST: Secure Probabilistic Validation of Hundreds of Kepler Planet Candidates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morton, Tim; Petigura, E.; Johnson, J. A.; Howard, A.; Marcy, G. W.; Baranec, C.; Law, N. M.; Riddle, R. L.; Ciardi, D. R.; Robo-AO Team

    2014-01-01

    The scope, scale, and tremendous success of the Kepler mission has necessitated the rapid development of probabilistic validation as a new conceptual framework for analyzing transiting planet candidate signals. While several planet validation methods have been independently developed and presented in the literature, none has yet come close to addressing the entire Kepler survey. I present the results of applying VALFAST---a planet validation code based on the methodology described in Morton (2012)---to every Kepler Object of Interest. VALFAST is unique in its combination of detail, completeness, and speed. Using the transit light curve shape, realistic population simulations, and (optionally) diverse follow-up observations, it calculates the probability that a transit candidate signal is the result of a true transiting planet or any of a number of astrophysical false positive scenarios, all in just a few minutes on a laptop computer. In addition to efficiently validating the planetary nature of hundreds of new KOIs, this broad application of VALFAST also demonstrates its ability to reliably identify likely false positives. This extensive validation effort is also the first to incorporate data from all of the largest Kepler follow-up observing efforts: the CKS survey of ~1000 KOIs with Keck/HIRES, the Robo-AO survey of >1700 KOIs, and high-resolution images obtained through the Kepler Follow-up Observing Program. In addition to enabling the core science that the Kepler mission was designed for, this methodology will be critical to obtain statistical results from future surveys such as TESS and PLATO.

  7. The Kepler problem from Newton to Johann Bernoulli.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Speiser, D.

    1996-08-01

    Newton solved what was called at the time "the direct Kepler problem": given a curve (e.g., an ellipse) and the center of attraction (e.g., the focus), what is the law of attraction, if Kepler's second law holds? The "inverse problem", the determination of all possible orbit solutions for a given central force field, was systematically treated later, first by Jacob Hermann, and then thoroughly and completely by Johann Bernoulli. This paper traces the history of work on the problem and of the accompanying scientific controversies until the time of Johann Bernoulli and his pupil Leonhard Euler.

  8. The Kepler Q1-Q12 Planet Candidate Catalogue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rowe, Jason; Kepler Team

    2014-01-01

    An update on the Kepler Planetary Candidate Catalogue (http://exoplanetarchive.ipac.caltech.edu/docs/Kepler_KOI_docs.html) will be presented that incorporates results of three years of nearly continuous, high precision photometry. Through a series of tests to exclude false-positives, primarily caused by eclipsing binary stars, over 900 additional planetary candidates have been discovered. Approximately 50 of the new candidates have equilibrium temperatures less than 300 K. More than 400 of the new planetary candidates have a radius less that 1.5 Rearth. A handful of the new candidates meet both criteria, roughly doubling the number of near Earth analogs.

  9. Exoplanet Science from NASA’s Kepler Mission

    SciTech Connect

    Steffen, Jason

    2012-09-12

    NASA's exoplanet mission is the world's premier instrument for the discovery and study of planets orbiting distant stars. As the nominal mission comes to a close, Kepler has discovered nearly 2500 planet candidates, confirmed dozens of multi-planet systems, provided important insights into the orbital architectures of planetary systems, identified specific systems that challenge theories of planet formation and dynamical evolution, has revolutionized our understanding of stellar interiors, and is gearing to measure the frequency of Earth-like planets in the habitable zones of Sun-like stars in its extended mission phase. I present the most recent results from the Kepler mission.

  10. EXPLORING THE HABITABLE ZONE FOR KEPLER PLANETARY CANDIDATES

    SciTech Connect

    Kaltenegger, L.; Sasselov, D.

    2011-08-01

    This Letter outlines a simple approach to evaluate habitability of terrestrial planets by assuming different types of planetary atmospheres and using corresponding model calculations. Our approach can be applied for current and future candidates provided by the Kepler mission and other searches. The resulting uncertainties and changes in the number of planetary candidates in the HZ for the Kepler 2011 February data release are discussed. To first order, the HZ depends on the effective stellar flux distribution in wavelength and time, the planet albedo, and greenhouse gas effects. We provide a simple set of parameters which can be used for evaluating future planet candidates from transit searches.

  11. Improving Kepler Pipeline Sensitivity with Pixel Response Function Photometry.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morris, Robert L.; Bryson, Steve; Jenkins, Jon Michael; Smith, Jeffrey C

    2014-06-01

    We present the results of our investigation into the feasibility and expected benefits of implementing PRF-fitting photometry in the Kepler Science Processing Pipeline. The Kepler Pixel Response Function (PRF) describes the expected system response to a point source at infinity and includes the effects of the optical point spread function, the CCD detector responsivity function, and spacecraft pointing jitter. Planet detection in the Kepler pipeline is currently based on simple aperture photometry (SAP), which is most effective when applied to uncrowded bright stars. Its effectiveness diminishes rapidly as target brightness decreases relative to the effects of noise sources such as detector electronics, background stars, and image motion. In contrast, PRF photometry is based on fitting an explicit model of image formation to the data and naturally accounts for image motion and contributions of background stars. The key to obtaining high-quality photometry from PRF fitting is a high-quality model of the system's PRF, while the key to efficiently processing the large number of Kepler targets is an accurate catalog and accurate mapping of celestial coordinates onto the focal plane. If the CCD coordinates of stellar centroids are known a priori then the problem of PRF fitting becomes linear. A model of the Kepler PRF was constructed at the time of spacecraft commissioning by fitting piecewise polynomial surfaces to data from dithered full frame images. While this model accurately captured the initial state of the system, the PRF has evolved dynamically since then and has been seen to deviate significantly from the initial (static) model. We construct a dynamic PRF model which is then used to recover photometry for all targets of interest. Both simulation tests and results from Kepler flight data demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach. Kepler was selected as the 10th mission of the Discovery Program. Funding for this mission is provided by NASA’s Science

  12. Kepler Mission Discovers Trove of Extrasolar Planet Candidates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2011-02-01

    NASA's Kepler discovery mission is collecting more than just pennies from heaven. Results from the first 4 months of science operations of the Kepler space telescope, announced on 2 February, include the discovery of 1235 candidate planets orbiting 997 stars in a small portion of the Milky Way galaxy examined by the telescope. Follow-up observations likely could confirm about 80% of the candidates as actual planets rather than false positives, according to researchers. This new trove of possible exoplanets could greatly expand the number of known planets outside of our solar system.

  13. 3-(2-Fluoro-phen-yl)-6-(phenoxy-meth-yl)-1,2,4-triazolo[3,4-b][1,3,4]thia-diazole.

    PubMed

    Holm, Melanie; Schollmeyer, Dieter; Laufer, Stefan

    2008-01-01

    The crystal structure of the title compound, C(16)H(11)FN(4)OS, was synthesized in the course of our studies on 1,2,4-triazolo[3,4-b][1,3,4]thia-diazo-les as inhibitors of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK). The three-dimensional data obtained were used to generate a three-dimensional pharmacophore model for in silico database screening. The dihedral angles between the central heterocylic system and the fluoro-phenyl and phenyl rings are 20.21 (3) and 5.43 (1)°, respectively; the dihedral angle between the two benzene rings is 15.80 (4)°. PMID:21202091

  14. Synthesis and fluorescence properties of 1,2,4-triazolo[3,4-b]-1,3,4-thiadiazol derivatives and their terbium complexes.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wu; Chai, Yuchao; Li, Kangyun; Chen, Yanwen; Yan, Dong; Guo, Dongcai

    2014-12-01

    Eight novel 1,2,4-triazolo[3,4-b]-1,3,4-thiadiazol derivatives have been designed and synthesized, and their corresponding Tb(3+) complexes were also prepared successfully. The fluorescence properties and fluorescence quantum yields of the target complexes were investigated, the results showed that the ligands were an efficient sensitizer for Tb(3+) luminescence, and the target complexes exhibited characteristic fluorescence emissions of Tb(3+) ion. The fluorescence intensity of the complex substituted by chlorine was stronger than that of other complexes. The substituents' nature has a great effect upon the electrochemical properties of the target complexes. The results showed that the introduction of the electron-withdrawing groups tended to decrease the oxidation potential and highest occupied molecular orbital energy levels of the target Tb(3+) complexes; however, introduction of the electron-donating groups can increase the corresponding complexes' oxidation potential and highest occupied molecular orbital energy levels. PMID:24846775

  15. Manganese dioxide mediated one-pot synthesis of methyl 9H-pyrido[3,4-b]indole-1-carboxylate: Concise synthesis of alangiobussinine.

    PubMed

    Baiget, Jessica; Llona-Minguez, Sabin; Lang, Stuart; Mackay, Simon P; Suckling, Colin J; Sutcliffe, Oliver B

    2011-01-01

    The carboline ring system is an important pharmacophore found in a number of biologically important targets. Development of synthetic routes for the preparation of these compounds is important in order to prepare a range of analogues containing the carboline heterocyclic moiety. A manganese dioxide mediated one-pot method starting with an activated alcohol and consisting of alcohol oxidation, Pictet-Spengler cyclisation, and oxidative aromatisation, offers a convenient process that allows access to β-carbolines. This one-pot process for the preparation of methyl 9H-pyrido[3,4-b]indole-1-carboxylate has subsequently been used as the key step in the synthesis of alangiobussinine and a closely related analogue. PMID:22043251

  16. The crystal structure of 3-chloro-2-(4-methyl-phenyl)-2H-pyrazolo-[3,4-b]quinoline.

    PubMed

    Sowmya, Haliwana B V; Suresha Kumara, Tholappanavara H; Jasinski, Jerry P; Millikan, Sean P; Yathirajan, Hemmige S; Glidewell, Christopher

    2015-05-01

    In the mol-ecule of 3-chloro-2-(4-methyl-phen-yl)-2H-pyrazolo-[3,4-b]quinoline, C17H12ClN3, (I), the dihedral angle between the planes of the pyrazole ring and the methyl-ated phenyl ring is 54.25 (9)°. The bond distances in the fused tricyclic system provide evidence for 10-π delocalization in the pyrazolo-pyridine portion of the mol-ecule, with diene character in the fused carbocyclic ring. In the crystal, mol-ecules of (I) are linked by two independent C-H⋯N hydrogen bonds, forming sheets containing centrosymmetric R 2 (2)(16) and R 6 (4)(28) rings, and these sheets are all linked together by π-π stacking inter-actions with a ring-centroid separation of 3.5891 (9) Å. PMID:25995882

  17. Manganese dioxide mediated one-pot synthesis of methyl 9H-pyrido[3,4-b]indole-1-carboxylate: Concise synthesis of alangiobussinine

    PubMed Central

    Baiget, Jessica; Llona-Minguez, Sabin; MacKay, Simon P; Suckling, Colin J; Sutcliffe, Oliver B

    2011-01-01

    Summary The carboline ring system is an important pharmacophore found in a number of biologically important targets. Development of synthetic routes for the preparation of these compounds is important in order to prepare a range of analogues containing the carboline heterocyclic moiety. A manganese dioxide mediated one-pot method starting with an activated alcohol and consisting of alcohol oxidation, Pictet–Spengler cyclisation, and oxidative aromatisation, offers a convenient process that allows access to β-carbolines. This one-pot process for the preparation of methyl 9H-pyrido[3,4-b]indole-1-carboxylate has subsequently been used as the key step in the synthesis of alangiobussinine and a closely related analogue. PMID:22043251

  18. Design, synthesis, molecular modeling and biological evaluation of novel 1H-pyrazolo[3,4-b]pyridine derivatives as potential anticancer agents.

    PubMed

    Eissa, Ibrahim H; El-Naggar, Abeer M; El-Hashash, Maher A

    2016-08-01

    In trying to develop new anticancer agents, a series of 1H-pyrazolo[3,4-b]pyridine derivatives was designed and synthesized. Fifteen compounds were evaluated in vitro for their anti-proliferative activity against HePG-2, MCF-7, HCT-116, and PC-3 cell lines. Additionally, DNA binding affinity of the synthesized derivatives was investigated as a potential mechanism for the anticancer activity using DNA/methyl green assay and association constants assay. Compounds 19, 20, 21, 24 and 25 exhibited good activity against the four cancer cells comparable to that of doxorubicin. Interestingly, DNA binding assay results were in agreement with that of the cytotoxicity assays where the most potent anticancer compounds showed good DNA binding affinity comparable to that of doxorubicin and daunorubicin. Furthermore, a molecular docking of the tested compounds was carried out to investigate their binding pattern with the prospective target, DNA (PDB-code: 152d). PMID:27253830

  19. DEBRIS DISKS IN KEPLER EXOPLANET SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    Lawler, S. M.; Gladman, B.

    2012-06-10

    The Kepler mission recently identified 997 systems hosting candidate extrasolar planets, many of which are super-Earths. Realizing these planetary systems are candidates to host extrasolar asteroid belts, we use mid-infrared data from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) to search for emission from dust in these systems. We find excesses around eight stars, indicating the presence of warm to hot dust ({approx}100-500 K), corresponding to orbital distances of 0.1-10 AU for these solar-type stars. The strongest detection, KOI 1099, demands {approx}500 K dust interior to the orbit of its exoplanet candidate. One star, KOI 904, may host very hot dust ({approx}1200 K, corresponding to 0.02 AU). Although the fraction of these exoplanet-bearing stars with detectable warm excesses ({approx}3%) is similar to that found by Spitzer surveys of solar-type field stars, the excesses detectable in the WISE data have much higher fractional luminosities (L{sub dust}/L{sub *}) than most known debris disks, implying that the fraction with debris disks of comparable luminosity may actually be significantly higher. It is difficult to explain the presence of dust so close to the host stars, generally corresponding to dust rings at radii <0.3 AU; both the collisional and Poynting-Robertson drag timescales to remove dust from the system are hundreds of years or less at these distances. Assuming a steady state for these systems implies large mass consumption rates with these short removal timescales, meaning that the dust production mechanism in these systems must almost certainly be episodic in nature.

  20. Stellar activity observed by the Kepler Space Telescope. The M dwarf of the Kepler-32 system with five orbiting planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savanov, I. S.; Dmitrienko, E. S.

    2013-10-01

    The activity of the central star of the Kepler-32 planetary system is studied using continuous 1141-day observations with the Kepler Space Telescope. The Kepler-32 system includes a slowly rotating Mdwarf (rotational period of 37.8 d) with a mass of 0.54 M ⊙ and five planets. One of the unique properties of the system is its compactness: the orbits of all five planets are less than a third of the size of the orbit of Mercury; the planet closest to the star is separated from it by only 4.3 stellar radii. Surface-temperature inhomogeneities of the central star are studied using precise photometric observations of Kepler-32, and their evolution traced. In total, 42 624 individual brightness measurements in the 1141-day (3.1-year) observing interval were selected for the analysis. The calculated amplitude power spectra for the first and second halves of the interval of the Kepler-32 observations indicate appreciable variability of the photometric period, corresponding to the evolution of active regions at various latitudes on the stellar surface. Evidence for the existence of two active regions on the stellar surface separated in phase by 0.42 has been found. Time intervals in which the longitudes of the active regions changed ("flip-flops") with durations of the order of 200-300 days have been established. The spotted area of the star was, on average, about 1% of the total visible surface, and varied from 0.3 to 1.7%. The results for the dwarf Kepler-32 are compared with those from a spectropolarimetric survey of 23 M dwarfs, including both fully convective stars and stars with weakly radiative cores. For a more detailed comparison, temperature inhomogeneities on the surface of one of the survey stars, DS Leo, was reconstructed using the ground-based observations (316 individual measurements of the V-band brightness of the star during seven observing seasons in an all-sky automated survey). The general properties and evolution of the active regions on DS Leo and

  1. Structure Function Analysis of AGN Variability using Kepler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasliwal, Vishal P.; Vogeley, Michael S.; Richards, Gordon T.

    2014-06-01

    We study the variability properties of AGN light-curves observed by the Kepler satellite. AGN optical fluxes are known to exhibit stochastic variations on time-scales of hours, days, months and years. Previous efforts to characterize the stochastic nature of this variability have been hampered by the lack of high-precision space-based measurements of AGN fluxes with regular cadence. Kepler provides light-curves with a S/N ratio of 10-5 for 87 AGN observed over a period of ~ 3 years with a cadence of once every 30 minutes allowing for a detailed examination of the variability process. We probe AGN variability using the Structure Functions of the light-curves of the Kepler AGN. Monte-Carlo simulations of the structure function are used to fit the observed light-curve to models for the Power Spectral Density. We test various models for the form of the PSD including the damped random walk and the powered exponential models. We show that on the shorter time-scales probed by Kepler data, the damped random walk model fails to adequately characterize AGN variability. We find that the PSD may be better modelled by combination of a steep power law of the form 1/f3 on shorter time-scales, and a more shallow power law of the form 1/f2 on the longer time-scales traditionally probed by ground-based variability studies.

  2. A POTENTIAL SUPER-VENUS IN THE KEPLER-69 SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    Kane, Stephen R.; Gelino, Dawn M.; Barclay, Thomas

    2013-06-20

    Transiting planets have greatly expanded and diversified the exoplanet field. These planets provide greater access to characterization of exoplanet atmospheres and structure. The Kepler mission has been particularly successful in expanding the exoplanet inventory, even to planets smaller than the Earth. The orbital period sensitivity of the Kepler data is now extending into the habitable zones of their host stars, and several planets larger than the Earth have been found to lie therein. Here we examine one such proposed planet, Kepler-69c. We provide new orbital parameters for this planet and an in-depth analysis of the habitable zone. We find that, even under optimistic conditions, this 1.7 R{sub Circled-Plus} planet is unlikely to be within the habitable zone of Kepler-69. Furthermore, the planet receives an incident flux of 1.91 times the solar constant, which is similar to that received by Venus. We thus suggest that this planet is likely a super-Venus rather than a super-Earth in terms of atmospheric properties and habitability, and we propose follow-up observations to disentangle the ambiguity.

  3. A Study of Kepler Phase Curves and Secondary Eclipses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeLarme, Em; Angerhausen, Daniel; Harrington, Joeseph; Morse, Jon A.

    2014-11-01

    We study phase curves and secondary eclipses of Kepler planets. Our sample consists of confirmed planets with R_p > 4 R_e , P < 10d, and V_mag < 15. Our analysis models the ellipsoidal, Doppler, and phase curve variations in the light curves as well as their secondary eclipses. From this we constrain the temperatures and albedos of these planets. Our results confirm and in most cases improve parameters derived by previous studies. We present results for Kepler 1b-8b, 12b-15b, 17b, 40b, 41b, 43b, 44b, 76b, 77b, and 412b derived in a consistent manner. All of the planets studied have geometric albedos less than .33, and half have geometric albedos less than .2. This work was supported in part by NASA Planetary Atmospheres grant NNX12AI69G and NASA Astrophysics Data Analysis Program grant NNX13AF38G. This paper includes data collected by the Kepler mission. Funding for the Kepler mission is provided by the NASA Science Mission Directorate.The data presented in this paper were obtained from the Mikulski Archive for Space Telescopes (MAST). STScI is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS5-26555. Support for MAST for non-HST data is provided by the NASA Office of Space Science via grant NNX13AC07G and by other grants and contracts.

  4. PREDICTING PLANETS IN KEPLER MULTI-PLANET SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    Fang, Julia; Margot, Jean-Luc

    2012-05-20

    We investigate whether any multi-planet systems among Kepler candidates (2011 February release) can harbor additional terrestrial-mass planets or smaller bodies. We apply the packed planetary systems hypothesis that suggests all planetary systems are filled to capacity, and use a Hill stability criterion to identify eight two-planet systems with significant gaps between the innermost and outermost planets. For each of these systems, we perform long-term numerical integrations of 10{sup 7} years to investigate the stability of 4000-8000 test particles injected into the gaps. We map out stability regions in orbital parameter space, and therefore quantify the ranges of semimajor axes and eccentricities of stable particles. Strong mean-motion resonances can add additional regions of stability in otherwise unstable parameter space. We derive simple expressions for the extent of the stability regions, which is related to quantities such as the dynamical spacing {Delta}, the separation between two planets in units of their mutual Hill radii. Our results suggest that planets with separation {Delta} < 10 are unlikely to host extensive stability regions, and that about 95 out of a total of 115 two-planet systems in the Kepler sample may have sizeable stability regions. We predict that Kepler candidate systems including KOI 433, KOI 72/Kepler-10, KOI 555, KOI 1596, KOI 904, KOI 223, KOI 1590, and KOI 139 can harbor additional planets or low-mass bodies between the inner and outer detected planets. These predicted planets may be detected by future observations.

  5. Stability of the Kepler-11 system and its origin

    SciTech Connect

    Mahajan, Nikhil; Wu, Yanqin

    2014-11-01

    A significant fraction of Kepler systems are closely packed, largely coplanar, and circular. We study the stability of a six-planet system, Kepler-11, to gain insights on the dynamics and formation history of such systems. Using a technique called 'frequency maps' as fast indicators of long-term stability, we explore the stability of the Kepler-11 system by analyzing the neighborhood space around its orbital parameters. Frequency maps provide a visual representation of chaos and stability, and their dependence on orbital parameters. We find that the current system is stable, but lies within a few percent of several dynamically dangerous two-body mean-motion resonances. Planet eccentricities are restricted below a small value, ∼0.04, for long-term stability, but planet masses can be more than twice their reported values (thus allowing for the possibility of mass loss by past photoevaporation). Based on our frequency maps, we speculate on the origin of instability in closely packed systems. We then proceed to investigate how the system could have been assembled. The stability constraints on Kepler-11 (mainly eccentricity constraints) suggest that if the system were assembled in situ, a dissipation mechanism must have been at work to neutralize the eccentricity excitation. On the other hand, if migration was responsible for assembling the planets, there has to be little differential migration among the planets to avoid them either getting trapped into mean motion resonances, or crashing into each other.

  6. A Simple Derivation of Kepler's Laws without Solving Differential Equations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Provost, J.-P.; Bracco, C.

    2009-01-01

    Proceeding like Newton with a discrete time approach of motion and a geometrical representation of velocity and acceleration, we obtain Kepler's laws without solving differential equations. The difficult part of Newton's work, when it calls for non-trivial properties of ellipses, is avoided by the introduction of polar coordinates. Then a simple…

  7. Student Ideas about Kepler's Laws and Planetary Orbital Motions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yu, Ka Chun; Sahami, Kamran; Denn, Grant

    2010-01-01

    We present the analysis of oral interviews with 112 undergraduate nonmajor students during the first week of a General Education Introduction to Astronomy class before they had received any instruction. The students were asked questions relating to Kepler's three Laws of Motion, as well as their understanding of what keeps planets in orbit around…

  8. PERIOD ERROR ESTIMATION FOR THE KEPLER ECLIPSING BINARY CATALOG

    SciTech Connect

    Mighell, Kenneth J.; Plavchan, Peter

    2013-06-15

    The Kepler Eclipsing Binary Catalog (KEBC) describes 2165 eclipsing binaries identified in the 115 deg{sup 2} Kepler Field based on observations from Kepler quarters Q0, Q1, and Q2. The periods in the KEBC are given in units of days out to six decimal places but no period errors are provided. We present the PEC (Period Error Calculator) algorithm, which can be used to estimate the period errors of strictly periodic variables observed by the Kepler Mission. The PEC algorithm is based on propagation of error theory and assumes that observation of every light curve peak/minimum in a long time-series observation can be unambiguously identified. The PEC algorithm can be efficiently programmed using just a few lines of C computer language code. The PEC algorithm was used to develop a simple model that provides period error estimates for eclipsing binaries in the KEBC with periods less than 62.5 days: log {sigma}{sub P} Almost-Equal-To - 5.8908 + 1.4425(1 + log P), where P is the period of an eclipsing binary in the KEBC in units of days. KEBC systems with periods {>=}62.5 days have KEBC period errors of {approx}0.0144 days. Periods and period errors of seven eclipsing binary systems in the KEBC were measured using the NASA Exoplanet Archive Periodogram Service and compared to period errors estimated using the PEC algorithm.

  9. A Measure of Stellar Binarity Among Kepler Target Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nofi, Larissa; Baranec, Christoph; Howard, Andrew; Riddle, Reed; Law, Nicholas Michael; Ziegler, Carl

    2015-08-01

    We are characterizing the potential bias in the Kepler population by comparing the stellar binary fraction of the ~190,000 Kepler Input Catalog targets (KICs) to the binary fraction of the ~4,000 Kepler Objects of Interest (KOIs). While the Kepler mission has been essential to the search for, and characterization of, extrasolar planets, there are still limitations to our statistical understanding of exoplanets and their formation based on this sample. We still do not fully understand what observational biases may exist and how to adequately correct for them when applying this information to a large scale understanding of exoplanets. Comparing binarity fractions of the KOI sub-sample and KIC population can indicate biases in the KOI subset and may have implications for preferred planet formation environments. Using visible-light adaptive optics images from Robo-AO, we are comparing the binary fraction of the KOIs to the binary fraction of the larger KIC population. Existing KOI images are used to build a sample of serendipitous KIC observations, resulting in ~700 KICs. An additional ~300 KIC targets will be observed in June 2015 with Robo-AO, for a total of ~1,000 KICs. The latter targets are chosen with surface gravities, spectral types, effective temperatures, and galactic latitudes similar to those of the observed KOIs, in order to match the sample parameters.

  10. Searching Kepler Variable Stars with the Eclipsing Binary Factory Pipeline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parvizi, Mahmoud; Paegert, M.

    2014-01-01

    Repositories of large survey data, such as the Mikulski Archive for Space Telescopes, provide an ideally sized sample from which to identify astrophysically interesting eclipsing binary systems (EBs). However, constraints on the rate of human analysis in solving for the characteristic parameters make mining this data using classical techniques prohibitive. The Kepler data set provides both the high precision simple aperture photometry necessary to detect EBs and a corresponding Kepler Eclipsing Binary Catalog - V3 (KEBC3) of 2,406 EBs in the Kepler filed of view (FoV) as a benchmark. We developed a fully automated end-to-end computational pipeline known as the Eclipsing Binary Factory (EBF) that employs pre-classification data processing modules, a feed-forward single layer perception neural network classifier (NNC), and a subsequent neural network solution estimator (NNSE). This paper focuses on the EBF component modules to include NNC, but excludes the NNSE, as a precursor to a fully automated pipeline that uses solution estimates of characteristic parameters to identify astrophysically interesting EBs. The EBF was found to recover ~94% of KEBC3 EBs contained in the Kepler “Q3” data release where the period is less than thirty days.

  11. Humans Need Not Apply: Robotization of Kepler Planet Candidate Vetting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coughlin, Jeffrey; Mullally, Fergal; Thompson, Susan E.; Kepler Team

    2015-01-01

    Until now, the vast majority of Kepler planet candidate vetting has been performed by a dedicated team of humans. While human expertise has been invaluable in understanding the nuances of Kepler data, human vetting is very time-consuming and can be inconsistent. Over 20,000 threshold crossing events have been produced by the latest pipeline run on all 17 quarters of Kepler mission data, and many more artificial planet transits have been injected to estimate completeness. Given these large numbers, human vetting is no longer feasible on a reasonable time-scale, and would be difficult to characterize. We have created automated vetting programs known as "robovetters" that are specifically designed to mimic the decision-making process employed by the humans. They analyze both the light curve and pixel-level data in order to produce specific reasons for identifying false positives. We present benchmark tests on the Q1-Q16 Kepler planet catalog, which was vetted by humans, and present preliminary robovetter results based on a recent transit-search of the newly reprocessed Q1-Q17 data set.

  12. Chandrasekhar's relation and stellar rotation in the Kepler field

    SciTech Connect

    Silva, J. R. P.; Soares, B. B.; De Freitas, D. B. E-mail: brauliosoares@uern.br

    2014-11-20

    According to the statistical law of large numbers, the expected mean of identically distributed random variables of a sample tends toward the actual mean as the sample increases. Under this law, it is possible to test the Chandrasekhar's relation (CR), (V) = (π/4){sup –1}(Vsin i), using a large amount of Vsin i and V data from different samples of similar stars. In this context, we conducted a statistical test to check the consistency of the CR in the Kepler field. In order to achieve this, we use three large samples of V obtained from Kepler rotation periods and a homogeneous control sample of Vsin i to overcome the scarcity of Vsin i data for stars in the Kepler field. We used the bootstrap-resampling method to estimate the mean rotations ((V) and (Vsin i)) and their corresponding confidence intervals for the stars segregated by effective temperature. Then, we compared the estimated means to check the consistency of CR, and analyzed the influence of the uncertainties in radii measurements, and possible selection effects. We found that the CR with (sin i) = π/4 is consistent with the behavior of the (V) as a function of (Vsin i) for stars from the Kepler field as there is a very good agreement between such a relation and the data.

  13. The Sun Among Stars: A Photometric Comparison from Kepler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basri, Gibor

    2015-08-01

    I review what we have learned about the levels of variability and characteristics of precisely measured long-term light curves of solar-type stars compared with the Sun. Both in a general way, and along a number of specific metrics, the Sun is very much an “average” solar-type star. The general levels of variability on different timescales of the large sample of Kepler stars fit in the expected way with the set of behaviors that the Sun displays over a solar cycle. Although some have argued that the Sun is unusually photometrically quiet, the evidence does not support that. On the other hand, there are relatively few stars in the Kepler sample whose light curves over four years could be presented to solar experts as real solar data and actually fool them. I therefore also discuss the ways in which the Sun is not the same most of the Kepler stars, and which metrics highlight those differences. Finally I spend a little time talking about what we might further learn from the Kepler data on solar-type stars, and what tools will be needed to succeed in those projects.

  14. The Measurements of the Solar Diameter at the Kepler's Times

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sigismondi, Costantino; Fraschetti, Federico

    2002-12-01

    We examine five measurements of the solar disk diameter made with a pinhole instrument by Tycho in 1591 and Kepler in 1600-1602 [1]. Those are the first accurate measurements of the solar disk diameter available in literature, even if Ptolemy and Copernicus already did such measurements [2].

  15. Eta-Sub-Earth Projection from Kepler Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Traub, Wesley A.

    2012-01-01

    Outline of talk: (1) The Kepler database (2) Biases (3) The radius distribution (4) The period distribution (5) Projecting from the sam ple to the population (6) Extrapolating the period distribution (7) The Habitable Zone (8) Calculating the number of terrestrial, HZ plan ets (10) Conclusions

  16. THE ALBEDOS OF KEPLER'S CLOSE-IN SUPER-EARTHS

    SciTech Connect

    Demory, Brice-Olivier

    2014-07-01

    Exoplanet research focusing on the characterization of super-Earths is currently limited to the handful of targets orbiting bright stars that are amenable to detailed study. This Letter proposes to look at alternative avenues to probe the surface and atmospheric properties of this category of planets, known to be ubiquitous in our galaxy. I conduct Markov Chain Monte Carlo light-curves analyses for 97 Kepler close-in R{sub P} ≲ 2.0 R {sub ⊕} super-Earth candidates with the aim of detecting their occultations at visible wavelengths. Brightness temperatures and geometric albedos in the Kepler bandpass are constrained for 27 super-Earth candidates. A hierarchical Bayesian modeling approach is then employed to characterize the population-level reflective properties of these close-in super-Earths. I find median geometric albedos A{sub g} in the Kepler bandpass ranging between 0.16 and 0.30, once decontaminated from thermal emission. These super-Earth geometric albedos are statistically larger than for hot Jupiters, which have medians A{sub g} ranging between 0.06 and 0.11. A subset of objects, including Kepler-10b, exhibit significantly larger albedos (A{sub g} ≳ 0.4). I argue that a better understanding of the incidence of stellar irradation on planetary surface and atmospheric processes is key to explain the diversity in albedos observed for close-in super-Earths.

  17. Period Error Estimation for the Kepler Eclipsing Binary Catalog

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mighell, Kenneth J.; Plavchan, Peter

    2013-06-01

    The Kepler Eclipsing Binary Catalog (KEBC) describes 2165 eclipsing binaries identified in the 115 deg2 Kepler Field based on observations from Kepler quarters Q0, Q1, and Q2. The periods in the KEBC are given in units of days out to six decimal places but no period errors are provided. We present the PEC (Period Error Calculator) algorithm, which can be used to estimate the period errors of strictly periodic variables observed by the Kepler Mission. The PEC algorithm is based on propagation of error theory and assumes that observation of every light curve peak/minimum in a long time-series observation can be unambiguously identified. The PEC algorithm can be efficiently programmed using just a few lines of C computer language code. The PEC algorithm was used to develop a simple model that provides period error estimates for eclipsing binaries in the KEBC with periods less than 62.5 days: log σ P ≈ - 5.8908 + 1.4425(1 + log P), where P is the period of an eclipsing binary in the KEBC in units of days. KEBC systems with periods >=62.5 days have KEBC period errors of ~0.0144 days. Periods and period errors of seven eclipsing binary systems in the KEBC were measured using the NASA Exoplanet Archive Periodogram Service and compared to period errors estimated using the PEC algorithm.

  18. Fundamental Parameters of Kepler Eclipsing Binaries. I. KIC 5738698

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matson, Rachel A.; Gies, Douglas R.; Guo, Zhao; Orosz, Jerome A.

    2016-06-01

    Eclipsing binaries serve as a valuable source of stellar masses and radii that inform stellar evolutionary models and provide insight into additional astrophysical processes. The exquisite light curves generated by space-based missions such as Kepler offer the most stringent tests to date. We use the Kepler light curve of the 4.8 day eclipsing binary KIC 5739896 with ground based optical spectra to derive fundamental parameters for the system. We reconstruct the component spectra to determine the individual atmospheric parameters, and model the Kepler photometry with the binary synthesis code Eclipsing Light Curve to obtain accurate masses and radii. The two components of KIC 5738698 are F-type stars with {M}1\\=\\1.39+/- 0.04 {M}ȯ , {M}2\\=\\1.34+/- 0.06 {M}ȯ , and {R}1\\=\\1.84+/- 0.03 {R}ȯ , {R}2\\=\\1.72+/- 0.03 {R}ȯ . We also report a small eccentricity (e≲ 0.0017) and unusual albedo values that are required to match the detailed shape of the Kepler light curve. Comparison with evolutionary models indicate an approximate age of 2.3 Gyr for the system.

  19. Characterizing Cataclysmic Variable Stars in NGC 6791 Using Kepler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garnavich, Peter M.; Magno, Katrina; Still, Martin D.; Barclay, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    B7 (V523 Lyr) and B8 (V516 Lyr) are two cataclysmic variable stars believed to be members of the old, metal-rich open cluster NGC 6791. The cluster fell within the Kepler field and B7 and B8 were continuously monitored primarily using a 30-minute cadence. B7 is a nova-like system and the Kepler light curve shows variations with an amplitude of 0.5 mag and a characteristic time-scale of 10 days. Power-spectral analysis shows a very weak, but coherent, periodic signal at 3.80 hours which we interpret as the orbital period of the binary. B8 is a known dwarf-nova system and the Kepler light curve confirms 1.5 mag amplitude outbursts with an interval ranging between 10 and 20 days. Kepler also observed super-outbursts with an amplitude of 3 magnitudes that last 15 days. Super-humps with an average period of 2.097+/-0.003 hours are clearly seen indicating that B8 has an orbital period below the period gap. This makes B8 a member of the SU UMa class of cataclysmic variable.

  20. Stability of the Kepler-11 System and Its Origin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahajan, Nikhil; Wu, Yanqin

    2014-11-01

    A significant fraction of Kepler systems are closely packed, largely coplanar, and circular. We study the stability of a six-planet system, Kepler-11, to gain insights on the dynamics and formation history of such systems. Using a technique called "frequency maps" as fast indicators of long-term stability, we explore the stability of the Kepler-11 system by analyzing the neighborhood space around its orbital parameters. Frequency maps provide a visual representation of chaos and stability, and their dependence on orbital parameters. We find that the current system is stable, but lies within a few percent of several dynamically dangerous two-body mean-motion resonances. Planet eccentricities are restricted below a small value, ~0.04, for long-term stability, but planet masses can be more than twice their reported values (thus allowing for the possibility of mass loss by past photoevaporation). Based on our frequency maps, we speculate on the origin of instability in closely packed systems. We then proceed to investigate how the system could have been assembled. The stability constraints on Kepler-11 (mainly eccentricity constraints) suggest that if the system were assembled in situ, a dissipation mechanism must have been at work to neutralize the eccentricity excitation. On the other hand, if migration was responsible for assembling the planets, there has to be little differential migration among the planets to avoid them either getting trapped into mean motion resonances, or crashing into each other.

  1. Reactions between arylhydrazinium chlorides and 2-chloroquinoline-3-carbaldehydes: molecular and supramolecular structures of a hydrazone, a 4,9-dihydro-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-b]quinoline and two 1H-pyrazolo[3,4-b]quinolines.

    PubMed

    Kumara, Tholappanavara H Suresha; Nagendrappa, Gopalpur; Chandrika, Nanjappa; Sowmya, Haliwana B V; Kaur, Manpreet; Jasinski, Jerry P; Glidewell, Christopher

    2016-09-01

    Hydrazone derivatives exhibit a wide range of biological activities, while pyrazolo[3,4-b]quinoline derivatives, on the other hand, exhibit both antimicrobial and antiviral activity, so that all new derivatives in these chemical classes are potentially of value. Dry grinding of a mixture of 2-chloroquinoline-3-carbaldehyde and 4-methylphenylhydrazinium chloride gives (E)-1-[(2-chloroquinolin-3-yl)methylidene]-2-(4-methylphenyl)hydrazine, C17H14ClN3, (I), while the same regents in methanol in the presence of sodium cyanoborohydride give 1-(4-methylphenyl)-4,9-dihydro-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-b]quinoline, C17H15N3, (II). The reactions between phenylhydrazinium chloride and either 2-chloroquinoline-3-carbaldehyde or 2-chloro-6-methylquinoline-3-carbaldehyde give, respectively, 1-phenyl-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-b]quinoline, C16H11N3, (III), which crystallizes in the space group Pbcn as a nonmerohedral twin having Z' = 3, or 6-methyl-1-phenyl-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-b]quinoline, C17H13N3, (IV), which crystallizes in the space group R\\overline{3}. The molecules of compound (I) are linked into sheets by a combination of N-H...N and C-H...π(arene) hydrogen bonds, and the molecules of compound (II) are linked by a combination of N-H...N and C-H...π(arene) hydrogen bonds to form a chain of rings. In the structure of compound (III), one of the three independent molecules forms chains generated by C-H...π(arene) hydrogen bonds, with a second type of molecule linked to the chains by a second C-H...π(arene) hydrogen bond and the third type of molecule linked to the chain by multiple π-π stacking interactions. A single C-H...π(arene) hydrogen bond links the molecules of compound (IV) into cyclic centrosymmetric hexamers having \\overline{3} (S6) symmetry, which are themselves linked into a three-dimensional array by π-π stacking interactions. PMID:27585930

  2. New Kepler Data Products At MAST For Stellar Astrophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fleming, Scott W.; Shiao, B.; Tseng, S.; Million, C.; Thompson, R.; Seibert, M.; Abney, F.; Donaldson, T.; Dower, T.; Fraquelli, D. A.; Handy, S.; Koekemoer, A. M.; Levay, K.; Matuskey, J.; McLean, B.; Quick, L.; Rogers, A.; Wallace, G.; White, R. L.

    2014-01-01

    The Kepler Mission has collected high-precision, time-series photometry of over 200,000 stars. The reduced lightcurves, target pixel files, and a variety of catalog metadata are already available at MAST. We present new data products and services at MAST that will further aid researchers as Kepler begins its transition to a legacy mission, particularly in the realm of stellar astrophysics. New photometric catalogs to accompany the Kepler targets have arrived at MAST within the past year, and several more will be coming in the relative future. These include the second half of the Kepler INT survey (U,g,r,i,H_alpha; available now), an improved GALEX source catalog (NUV and FUV; available now), PanSTARRS (g,r,i,z; available soon), and WISE (3.4, 4.6, 12, and 22 microns; planned). We expect searches for variability will become one of the most active areas of archive use, so MAST is including a wide range of variability statistics as part of the archive database. In addition to being searchable through database queries and web forms, each Preview page will now include a summary of these variability indices for each of the target's lightcurves within a Quarter. Along with updated NUV and FUV fluxes, a new tool at MAST called gPhoton will allow users to create time-series lightcurves, including animated movies and intensity images, from any set of GALEX photons with arbitrary aperture and bin sizes. We show some examples of the ways GALEX UV lightcurves generated with gPhoton can be used in conjunction with the Kepler data. Finally, MAST has released an initial version of its Data Discovery Portal. This one-stop, interactive web application gives users the ability to search and access data from any of MAST's missions (HST, GALEX, Kepler, FUSE, IUE, JWST, etc.), as well as any data available through the Virtual Observatory. It includes filtering options, access to interactive displays, an accompanying AstroViewer with data footprints on-sky, the ability to upload your own

  3. THE HIGH ALBEDO OF THE HOT JUPITER KEPLER-7 b

    SciTech Connect

    Demory, Brice-Olivier; Seager, Sara; Madhusudhan, Nikku; Kjeldsen, Hans; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Joergen; Gillon, Michael; Rowe, Jason F.; Borucki, William J.; Koch, David G.; Welsh, William F.; Adams, Elisabeth R.; Dupree, Andrea; McCarthy, Don; Kulesa, Craig

    2011-07-01

    Hot Jupiters are expected to be dark from both observations (albedo upper limits) and theory (alkali metals and/or TiO and VO absorption). However, only a handful of hot Jupiters have been observed with high enough photometric precision at visible wavelengths to investigate these expectations. The NASA Kepler mission provides a means to widen the sample and to assess the extent to which hot Jupiter albedos are low. We present a global analysis of Kepler-7 b based on Q0-Q4 data, published radial velocities, and asteroseismology constraints. We measure an occultation depth in the Kepler bandpass of 44 {+-} 5 ppm. If directly related to the albedo, this translates to a Kepler geometric albedo of 0.32 {+-} 0.03, the most precise value measured so far for an exoplanet. We also characterize the planetary orbital phase light curve with an amplitude of 42 {+-} 4 ppm. Using atmospheric models, we find it unlikely that the high albedo is due to a dominant thermal component and propose two solutions to explain the observed planetary flux. First, we interpret the Kepler-7 b albedo as resulting from an excess reflection over what can be explained solely by Rayleigh scattering, along with a nominal thermal component. This excess reflection might indicate the presence of a cloud or haze layer in the atmosphere, motivating new modeling and observational efforts. Alternatively, the albedo can be explained by Rayleigh scattering alone if Na and K are depleted in the atmosphere by a factor of 10-100 below solar abundances.

  4. CANDIDATE PLANETS IN THE HABITABLE ZONES OF KEPLER STARS

    SciTech Connect

    Gaidos, Eric

    2013-06-20

    A key goal of the Kepler mission is the discovery of Earth-size transiting planets in ''habitable zones'' where stellar irradiance maintains a temperate climate on an Earth-like planet. Robust estimates of planet radius and irradiance require accurate stellar parameters, but most Kepler systems are faint, making spectroscopy difficult and prioritization of targets desirable. The parameters of 2035 host stars were estimated by Bayesian analysis and the probabilities p{sub HZ} that 2738 candidate or confirmed planets orbit in the habitable zone were calculated. Dartmouth Stellar Evolution Program models were compared to photometry from the Kepler Input Catalog, priors for stellar mass, age, metallicity and distance, and planet transit duration. The analysis yielded probability density functions for calculating confidence intervals of planet radius and stellar irradiance, as well as p{sub HZ}. Sixty-two planets have p{sub HZ} > 0.5 and a most probable stellar irradiance within habitable zone limits. Fourteen of these have radii less than twice the Earth; the objects most resembling Earth in terms of radius and irradiance are KOIs 2626.01 and 3010.01, which orbit late K/M-type dwarf stars. The fraction of Kepler dwarf stars with Earth-size planets in the habitable zone ({eta}{sub Circled-Plus }) is 0.46, with a 95% confidence interval of 0.31-0.64. Parallaxes from the Gaia mission will reduce uncertainties by more than a factor of five and permit definitive assignments of transiting planets to the habitable zones of Kepler stars.

  5. MARVELS Radial Velocity Solutions to Seven Kepler Eclipsing Binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heslar, Michael Francis; Thomas, Neil B.; Ge, Jian; Ma, Bo; Herczeg, Alec; Reyes, Alan; SDSS-III MARVELS Team

    2016-01-01

    Eclipsing binaries serve momentous purposes to improve the basis of understanding aspects of stellar astrophysics, such as the accurate calculation of the physical parameters of stars and the enigmatic mass-radius relationship of M and K dwarfs. We report the investigation results of 7 eclipsing binary candidates, initially identified by the Kepler mission, overlapped with the radial velocity observations from the SDSS-III Multi-Object APO Radial-Velocity Exoplanet Large-Area Survey (MARVELS). The RV extractions and spectroscopic solutions of these eclipsing binaries were generated by the University of Florida's 1D data pipeline with a median RV precision of ~60-100 m/s, which was utilized for the DR12 data release. We performed the cross-reference fitting of the MARVELS RV data and the Kepler photometric fluxes obtained from the Kepler Eclipsing Binary Catalog (V2) and modelled the 7 eclipsing binaries in the BinaryMaker3 and PHOEBE programs. This analysis accurately determined the absolute physical and orbital parameters of each binary. Most of the companion stars were determined to have masses of K and M dwarf stars (0.3-0.8 M⊙), and allowed for an investigation into the mass-radius relationship of M and K dwarfs. Among the cases are KIC 9163796, a 122.2 day period "heartbeat star", a recently-discovered class of eccentric binaries known for tidal distortions and pulsations, with a high eccentricity (e~0.75) and KIC 11244501, a 0.29 day period, contact binary with a double-lined spectrum and mass ratio (q~0.45). We also report on the possible reclassification of 2 Kepler eclipsing binary candidates as background eclipsing binaries based on the analysis of the flux measurements, flux ratios of the spectroscopic and photometric solutions, the differences in the FOVs, the image processing of Kepler, and RV and spectral analysis of MARVELS.

  6. THE NEPTUNE-SIZED CIRCUMBINARY PLANET KEPLER-38b

    SciTech Connect

    Orosz, Jerome A.; Welsh, William F.; Short, Donald R.; Windmiller, Gur; Carter, Joshua A.; Torres, Guillermo; Geary, John C.; Brugamyer, Erik; Cochran, William D.; Endl, Michael; MacQueen, Phillip; Buchhave, Lars A.; Ford, Eric B.; Agol, Eric; Barclay, Thomas; Caldwell, Douglas A.; Clarke, Bruce D.; Doyle, Laurance R.; Fabrycky, Daniel C.; Haghighipour, Nader; and others

    2012-10-20

    We discuss the discovery and characterization of the circumbinary planet Kepler-38b. The stellar binary is single-lined, with a period of 18.8 days, and consists of a moderately evolved main-sequence star (M{sub A} = 0.949 {+-} 0.059 M {sub Sun} and R{sub A} = 1.757 {+-} 0.034 R {sub Sun }) paired with a low-mass star (M{sub B} = 0.249 {+-} 0.010 M {sub Sun} and R{sub B} = 0.2724 {+-} 0.0053 R {sub Sun }) in a mildly eccentric (e = 0.103) orbit. A total of eight transits due to a circumbinary planet crossing the primary star were identified in the Kepler light curve (using Kepler Quarters 1-11), from which a planetary period of 105.595 {+-} 0.053 days can be established. A photometric dynamical model fit to the radial velocity curve and Kepler light curve yields a planetary radius of 4.35 {+-} 0.11 R {sub Circled-Plus }, or equivalently 1.12 {+-} 0.03 R {sub Nep}. Since the planet is not sufficiently massive to observably alter the orbit of the binary from Keplerian motion, we can only place an upper limit on the mass of the planet of 122 M {sub Circled-Plus} (7.11 M {sub Nep} or equivalently 0.384 M {sub Jup}) at 95% confidence. This upper limit should decrease as more Kepler data become available.

  7. Preliminary evidence for association of genetic variants in pri-miR-34b/c and abnormal miR-34c expression with attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Martínez, I; Sánchez-Mora, C; Pagerols, M; Richarte, V; Corrales, M; Fadeuilhe, C; Cormand, B; Casas, M; Ramos-Quiroga, J A; Ribasés, M

    2016-01-01

    Attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a prevalent neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by impairment to sustain attention and inability to control impulses and activity level. The etiology of ADHD is complex, with an estimated heritability of 70-80%. Under the hypothesis that alterations in the processing or target binding of microRNAs (miRNAs) may result in functional alterations predisposing to ADHD, we explored whether common polymorphisms potentially affecting miRNA-mediated regulation are involved in this psychiatric disorder. We performed a comprehensive association study focused on 134 miRNAs in 754 ADHD subjects and 766 controls and found association between the miR-34b/c locus and ADHD. Subsequently, we provided preliminary evidence for overexpression of the miR-34c-3p mature form in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of ADHD subjects. Next, we tested the effect on gene expression of single-nucleotide polymorphisms within the ADHD-associated region and found that rs4938923 in the promoter of the pri-miR-34b/c tags cis expression quantitative trait loci for both miR-34b and miR-34c and has an impact on the expression levels of 681 transcripts in trans, including genes previously associated with ADHD. This gene set was enriched for miR-34b/c binding sites, functional categories related to the central nervous system, such as axon guidance or neuron differentiation, and serotonin biosynthesis and signaling canonical pathways. Our results provide preliminary evidence for the contribution to ADHD of a functional variant in the pri-miR-34b/c promoter, possibly through dysregulation of the expression of mature forms of miR-34b and miR-34c and some target genes. These data highlight the importance of abnormal miRNA function as a potential epigenetic mechanism contributing to ADHD. PMID:27576168

  8. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Kepler Mission. VII. Eclipsing binaries in DR3 (Kirk+, 2016)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirk, B.; Conroy, K.; Prsa, A.; Abdul-Masih, M.; Kochoska, A.; Matijevic, G.; Hambleton, K.; Barclay, T.; Bloemen, S.; Boyajian, T.; Doyle, L. R.; Fulton, B. J.; Hoekstra, A. J.; Jek, K.; Kane, S. R.; Kostov, V.; Latham, D.; Mazeh, T.; Orosz, J. A.; Pepper, J.; Quarles, B.; Ragozzine, D.; Shporer, A.; Southworth, J.; Stassun, K.; Thompson, S. E.; Welsh, W. F.; Agol, E.; Derekas, A.; Devor, J.; Fischer, D.; Green, G.; Gropp, J.; Jacobs, T.; Johnston, C.; Lacourse, D. M.; Saetre, K.; Schwengeler, H.; Toczyski, J.; Werner, G.; Garrett, M.; Gore, J.; Martinez, A. O.; Spitzer, I.; Stevick, J.; Thomadis, P. C.; Vrijmoet, E. H.; Yenawine, M.; Batalha, N.; Borucki, W.

    2016-07-01

    The Kepler Eclipsing Binary Catalog lists the stellar parameters from the Kepler Input Catalog (KIC) augmented by: primary and secondary eclipse depth, eclipse width, separation of eclipse, ephemeris, morphological classification parameter, and principal parameters determined by geometric analysis of the phased light curve. The previous release of the Catalog (Paper II; Slawson et al. 2011, cat. J/AJ/142/160) contained 2165 objects, through the second Kepler data release (Q0-Q2). In this release, 2878 objects are identified and analyzed from the entire data set of the primary Kepler mission (Q0-Q17). The online version of the Catalog is currently maintained at http://keplerEBs.villanova.edu/. A static version of the online Catalog associated with this paper is maintained at MAST https://archive.stsci.edu/kepler/eclipsing_binaries.html. (10 data files).

  9. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Kepler Mission. VII. Eclipsing binaries in DR3 (Kirk+, 2016)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirk, B.; Conroy, K.; Prsa, A.; Abdul-Masih, M.; Kochoska, A.; Matijevic, G.; Hambleton, K.; Barclay, T.; Bloemen, S.; Boyajian, T.; Doyle, L. R.; Fulton, B. J.; Hoekstra, A. J.; Jek, K.; Kane, S. R.; Kostov, V.; Latham, D.; Mazeh, T.; Orosz, J. A.; Pepper, J.; Quarles, B.; Ragozzine, D.; Shporer, A.; Southworth, J.; Stassun, K.; Thompson, S. E.; Welsh, W. F.; Agol, E.; Derekas, A.; Devor, J.; Fischer, D.; Green, G.; Gropp, J.; Jacobs, T.; Johnston, C.; Lacourse, D. M.; Saetre, K.; Schwengeler, H.; Toczyski, J.; Werner, G.; Garrett, M.; Gore, J.; Martinez, A. O.; Spitzer, I.; Stevick, J.; Thomadis, P. C.; Vrijmoet, E. H.; Yenawine, M.; Batalha, N.; Borucki, W.

    2016-07-01

    The Kepler Eclipsing Binary Catalog lists the stellar parameters from the Kepler Input Catalog (KIC) augmented by: primary and secondary eclipse depth, eclipse width, separation of eclipse, ephemeris, morphological classification parameter, and principal parameters determined by geometric analysis of the phased light curve. The previous release of the Catalog (Paper II; Slawson et al. 2011, cat. J/AJ/142/160) contained 2165 objects, through the second Kepler data release (Q0-Q2). In this release, 2878 objects are identified and analyzed from the entire data set of the primary Kepler mission (Q0-Q17). The online version of the Catalog is currently maintained at http://keplerEBs.villanova.edu/. A static version of the online Catalog associated with this paper is maintained at MAST https://archive.stsci.edu/kepler/eclipsing_binaries.html. (9 data files).

  10. PREDICTING THE DETECTABILITY OF OSCILLATIONS IN SOLAR-TYPE STARS OBSERVED BY KEPLER

    SciTech Connect

    Chaplin, W. J.; Elsworth, Y.; Verner, G. A.; Kjeldsen, H.; Christensen-Dalsgaard, J.; Karoff, C.; Bedding, T. R.; Gilliland, R. L.; Kawaler, S. D.; Appourchaux, T.; Garcia, R. A.; Metcalfe, T. S.; Thompson, M. J.; Molenda-Zakowicz, J.; Monteiro, M. J. P. F. G.; Batalha, N.; Borucki, W. J.; Bryson, S. T.; Brown, T. M.

    2011-05-01

    Asteroseismology of solar-type stars has an important part to play in the exoplanet program of the NASA Kepler Mission. Precise and accurate inferences on the stellar properties that are made possible by the seismic data allow very tight constraints to be placed on the exoplanetary systems. Here, we outline how to make an estimate of the detectability of solar-like oscillations in any given Kepler target, using rough estimates of the temperature and radius, and the Kepler apparent magnitude.

  11. Asteroseismic Properties of Exoplanet Host Stars from Archival Kepler Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metcalfe, Travis

    The transit of an exoplanet across the visible disk of its host star produces a photometric signal that contains information about the size of the planet relative to the size of the star. To obtain the absolute radius of the exoplanet, a precise estimate of the stellar radius is required. Short cadence (1-minute sampling) Kepler observations are capable of revealing solar-like oscillations in the host star, providing a means for estimating a precise stellar radius and other characteristics of the system. For brighter stars and/or longer time-series, solar-like oscillations are resolved into individual frequencies that can substantially improve the asteroseismic estimates of radius, mass and age through detailed modeling. We have developed an automated stellar model-fitting pipeline for the solar-like oscillations observed by Kepler, which is now available through the Asteroseismic Modeling Portal (AMP, http://amp.ucar.edu/). Taking the individual oscillation frequencies and other observational constraints as input, the pipeline uses a parallel genetic algorithm to derive the optimal stellar radius, mass, age and composition. The recent application of AMP to a Kepler Object of Interest yielded the asteroseismic radius, mass and age with a precision near 1%. Although these quantities are all model- dependent at some level, the absolute accuracy has been demonstrated to be near 2% for the radius and mass, and around 15% for the age. We propose to use AMP to conduct precision asteroseismology of Kepler exoplanet host stars using the public data through Q6 that is already available on MAST. This work will be done in collaboration with the Kepler Asteroseismic Science Operations Center (KASOC). Computing time will be provided through an existing allocation from the TeraGrid/XSEDE. Based on the results of the Kepler Asteroseismic Science Consortium (KASC) survey for solar-like oscillations, we expect data with sufficient quality to derive precise asteroseismic radii

  12. The crystal structure of 3-chloro-2-(4-methyl­phenyl)-2H-pyrazolo­[3,4-b]quinoline

    PubMed Central

    Sowmya, Haliwana B. V.; Suresha Kumara, Tholappanavara H.; Jasinski, Jerry P.; Millikan, Sean P.; Yathirajan, Hemmige S.; Glidewell, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    In the mol­ecule of 3-chloro-2-(4-methyl­phen­yl)-2H-pyrazolo­[3,4-b]quinoline, C17H12ClN3, (I), the dihedral angle between the planes of the pyrazole ring and the methyl­ated phenyl ring is 54.25 (9)°. The bond distances in the fused tricyclic system provide evidence for 10-π delocalization in the pyrazolo­pyridine portion of the mol­ecule, with diene character in the fused carbocyclic ring. In the crystal, mol­ecules of (I) are linked by two independent C—H⋯N hydrogen bonds, forming sheets containing centrosymmetric R 2 2(16) and R 6 4(28) rings, and these sheets are all linked together by π–π stacking inter­actions with a ring-centroid separation of 3.5891 (9) Å. PMID:25995882

  13. Thieno[3,4-b]pyrazine as an Electron Deficient π-Bridge in D-A-π-A DSCs.

    PubMed

    Liyanage, Nalaka P; Yella, Aswani; Nazeeruddin, Mohammad; Grätzel, Michael; Delcamp, Jared H

    2016-03-01

    Thieno[3,4-b]pyrazine (TPz) is examined as an electron deficient π-bridge enabling near-infrared (NIR) spectral access in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs). Seven dissymmetric dyes for DSCs were synthesized (NL2-NL8) with TPz as the π-bridge utilizing palladium catalyzed C-H activation methodology. C-H bond cross-coupling was uniquely effective among the cross-couplings and electrophilic aromatic substitution reactions analyzed in monofunctionalizing the TPz building block. The TPz-based NL2-NL8 dyes examine the effects of various donors, π-spacers, and acceptors within the donor-π bridge-acceptor (D-π-A) dye design. Proaromatic TPz stabilizes the excited-state oxidation potential (E(s+/s*)) of the dyes by maintaining aromaticity upon excitation of the dye molecule. This leads to concise conjugated systems capable of accessing the NIR region. Through judicious structural modifications, dye band gaps were reduced to 1.48 eV, and power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) reached 7.1% in this first generation TPz-dye series. PMID:26866909

  14. Pyrimido[1″,2″:1,5]pyrazolo[3,4-b]quinolines: Novel compounds that reverse ABCG2-mediated resistance in cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Karthikeyan, Chandrabose; Malla, Ritu; Ashby, Charles R; Amawi, Haneen; Abbott, Kodye L; Moore, Joshua; Chen, Joel; Balch, Curt; Lee, Crystal; Flannery, Patrick C; Trivedi, Piyush; Faridi, Jesika S; Pondugula, Satyanarayana R; Tiwari, Amit K

    2016-06-28

    Overexpression of ATP-binding cassette transporter (ABC) subfamily G2 in cancer cells is known to elicit a MDR phenotype, ultimately resulting in cancer chemotherapy failure. Here, we report, for the first time, the effect of eight novel pyrimido[1″,2″:1,5]pyrazolo[3,4-b]quinoline (IND) derivatives that inhibit ABCG2 transporter restoring cancer cell chemosensitivity. IND -4, -5, -6, -7, and -8, at 10 µM, and nilotinib at 5 µM, significantly potentiated (8-10 fold) the cytotoxicity of the ABCG2 substrates mitoxantrone (MX) and doxorubicin in HEK293 cells overexpressing ABCG2 transporter, MX (~14 fold) in MX-resistant NCI-H460/MX-20 small cell lung cancer, and of topotecan (~7 fold) in S1-M1-80 colon cancer cells which all stably expressing ABCG2. In contrast, cytotoxicity of cisplatin, which is not an ABCG2 substrate, was not altered. IND-5,-6,-7, and -8 significantly increased the accumulation of rhodamine-123 in multidrug resistant NCI-H460/MX-20 cells overexpressing ABCG2. Both IND-7 and -8, the most potent ABCG2 inhibitors, had the highest affinities for the binding sites of ABCG2 in modeling studies. In conclusion, the beneficial actions of new class of agents warrant further development as potential MDR reversal agents for clinical anticancer agents that suffer from ABCG2-mediated MDR insensitivity. PMID:27012188

  15. Density functional theory investigation of opto-electronic properties of thieno[3,4-b]thiophene and benzodithiophene polymer and derivatives and their applications in solar cell.

    PubMed

    Khoshkholgh, Mehri Javan; Marsusi, Farah; Abolhassani, Mohammad Reza

    2015-02-01

    PTBs polymers with thieno[3,4-b]thiophene [TT] and benzodithiophene [BDT] units have particular properties, which demonstrate it as one of the best group of donor materials in organic solar cells. In the present work, density functional theory (DFT) is applied to investigate the optimized structure, the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO), the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO), band gap and dihedral angle of PTB7 at B3LYP/6-31G(d). Two different approaches are applied to carry out these investigations: Oligomer extrapolation technique and periodic boundary condition (PBC) method. The results obtained from PBC-DFT method are in fair agreement with experiments. Based on these reliable outcomes; the investigations continued to perform some derivatives of PTB7. In this study, sulfur is substituted by nitrogen, oxygen, silicon, phosphor or selenium atoms in pristine PTB7. Due to the shift of HOMO and LUMO levels, smaller band gaps are predicted to appear in some derivatives in comparison with PTB7. Maximum theoretical efficiencies, η, of the mentioned derivatives as well as local difference of dipole moments between the ground and excited states (Δμge) are computed. The results indicate that substitution of sulfur by nitrogen or oxygen in BDT unit, and silicon or phosphor in TT unit of pristine PTB7 leads to a higher η as well as Δμge. PMID:25311524

  16. Hemoglobin Pitié-Salpétrière [beta 34 (B16) Val-->Phe] showing erythrocytosis and mild hemolysis in a Japanese man.

    PubMed

    Uchida, T; Kinoshita, T; Hirabayashi, N; Saito, H; Harano, K; Harano, T

    2000-04-01

    We report the first case of Hemoglobin Pitié-Salpétrière (Hb P-S) identified among the Japanese population. The patient was a 33-year-old man referred to us because of severe erythrocytosis and mild hemolysis. DEAE high-performance liquid chromatography showed an abnormal broad peak around Hb A2 peak. Isoelectrofocusing detected abnormal Hb at the position of the Hb F band, and the content of abnormal Hb was estimated at about 25%. An instability test according to the isopropanol precipitation method was positive, and the beta/alpha ratio of biosynthesized globin was slightly reduced. Structural analyses demonstrated the substitution of phenylalanine for valine at beta 34, which was also confirmed by DNA sequencing; that is a single base substitution of GTC-->TTC at codon 34 of beta chain. From these findings, the abnormal Hb was identified as being a high-oxygen-affinity variant, Hb P-S (beta 34 [B16] Val-->Phe). Hb P-S was detected in the patient's mother but not in his father, suggesting that the inheritance pattern is autosomal dominant. It was suggested that the slightly unstable state of Hb P-S caused by the looseness of alpha 1 beta 1 contact could result in mild hemolysis. PMID:10846826

  17. Comparative study on pyrido[3,4-b]pyrazine-based sensitizers by tuning bulky donors for dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaoyu; Mao, Jiangyi; Wang, Dan; Li, Xin; Yang, Jiabao; Shen, Zhongjin; Wu, Wenjun; Li, Jing; Ågren, Hans; Hua, Jianli

    2015-02-01

    Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) with cobalt electrolytes have gained increasing attention. In this Research Article, two new pyrido[3,4-b]pyrazine-based sensitizers with different cores of bulky donors (indoline for DT-1 and triphenylamine for DT-2) were designed and synthesized for a comparative study of their photophysical and electrochemical properties and device performance and were also analyzed through density functional theory calculations. The results of density function theory calculations reveal the limited electronic communication between the biphenyl branch at the cis-position of N-phenylindoline and the indoline core, which could act as an insulating blocking group and inhibit the dye aggregation and charge recombination at the interface of TiO2/dye/electrolyte. As expected, DSSCs based on DT-1 with cobalt redox electrolyte gained a higher photoelectric conversion efficiency of 8.57% under standard AM 1.5 G simulated sunlight, with Jsc = 16.08 mA cm(-2), Voc = 802 mV, and FF = 0.66. Both electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and intensity-modulated photovoltage spectroscopy (IMVS) suggest that charge recombination in DSSCs based on DT-1 is much less than that in their counterparts of DT-2, owing to the bigger donor size and the insulating blocking branch in the donor of DT-1. PMID:25580622

  18. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Kepler planetary candidates. VII. 48-month (Coughlin+, 2016)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coughlin, J. L.; Mullally, F.; Thompson, S. E.; Rowe, J. F.; Burke, C. J.; Latham, D. W.; Batalha, N. M.; Ofir, A.; Quarles, B. L.; Henze, C. E.; Wolfgang, A.; Caldwell, D. A.; Bryson, S. T.; Shporer, A.; Catanzarite, J.; Akeson, R.; Barclay, T.; Borucki, W. J.; Boyajian, T. S.; Campbell, J. R.; Christiansen, J. L.; Girouard, F. R.; Haas, M. R.; Howell, S. B.; Huber, D.; Jenkins, J. M.; Li, J.; Patil-Sabale, A.; Quintana, E. V.; Ramirez, S.; Seader, S.; Smith, J. C.; Tenenbaum, P.; Twicken, J. D.; Zamudio, K. A.

    2016-07-01

    This catalog is based on Kepler's 24th data release (DR24), which includes the processing of all data utilizing version 9.2 of the Kepler pipeline (Jenkins et al. 2010ApJ...724.1108J). This marks the first time that all of the Kepler mission data have been processed consistently with the same version of the Kepler pipeline. Over a period of 48 months (2009 May 13 to 2013 May 11), subdivided into 17 quarters (Q1-Q17), a total of 198646 targets were observed. (7 data files).

  19. Photometry using Kepler ``superstamps'' of open clusters NGC 6791 & NGC 6819

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuehn, Charles A.; Drury, Jason; Stello, Dennis; Bedding, Timothy R.

    2014-02-01

    The Kepler space telescope has proven to be a gold mine for the study of variable stars. Unfortunately, Kepler only returns a handful of pixels surrounding each star on the target list, which omits a large number of stars in the Kepler field. For the open clusters NGC 6791 and NGC 6819, Kepler also reads out larger superstamps which contain complete images of the central region of each cluster. These cluster images can potentially be used to study additional stars in the open clusters. We present preliminary results from using traditional photometric techniques to identify and analyze additional variable stars from these images.

  20. Synthesis, crystal structure, and biological activity of 4-methyl-1,2,3-thiadiazole-containing 1,2,4-triazolo[3,4-b][1,3,4]thiadiazoles.

    PubMed

    Fan, Zhijin; Yang, Zhikun; Zhang, Haike; Mi, Na; Wang, Huan; Cai, Fei; Zuo, Xiang; Zheng, Qingxiang; Song, Haibin

    2010-03-10

    Heterocyclic compounds play an important role as the main sources of lead molecules of agrochemicals. Synthesis and biological activity of thiadiazole-containing 1,2,4-triazolo[3,4-b][1,3,4]-thiadiazoles were seldom reported. To find novel lead compounds with various biological activities, a series of 6-substituted-3-(4-methyl-1,2,3-thiadiazolyl)[1,2,4]triazolo[3,4-b][1,3,4]thiadizoles were rationally designed and synthesized according to the principle of combinations of bioactive substructures by the condensation of 3-(4-methyl-1,2,3-thiadiazolyl)-4-amino-1,2,4-triazole-5-thione with various carboxylic acids and phosphorus oxychloride. All newly synthesized compounds were identified by proton nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)H NMR), infrared spectroscopy (IR), electroionization mass spectrometry (EI/MS), and elementary analysis. The crystal structure of 3-(4-methyl-1,2,3-thiadiazolyl)-6-(4-methylphenyl)[1,2,4]triazolo[3,4-b][1,3,4]thiadizole was determined by X-ray diffraction crystallography. In this crystal, two intermolecular hydrogen bonds (N2...H-C12 and N3...H-C13), a weak intermolecular interaction (S...S), and the weak ppi-ppi intermolecular interaction were observed. Fungicide screening indicated that all of the target compounds showed certain extent of growth inhibition against fungi tested. 3-(4-Methyl-1,2,3-thiadiazolyl)-6-n-propyl[1,2,4]triazolo[3,4-b][1,3,4]thiadizole and 3-(4-methyl-1,2,3-thiadiazolyl)-6-trichloromethyl[1,2,4]triazolo[3,4-b][1,3,4]thiadizole were found to have potential wide spectrum of fungicide activity. The median effective concentrations (EC(50)) detected for 3-(4-methyl-1,2,3-thiadiazolyl)-6-trichloromethyl[1,2,4]triazolo[3,4-b][1,3,4]thiadizole to six fungi were from 7.28 micromol/L against Pellicularia sasakii (Shirai) to 42.49 micromol/L against Alternaria solani . The results indicated that thiadiazole-containing 1,2,4-triazolo[3,4-b][1,3,4]-thiadiazoles were potential fungicide lead compounds. PMID:20014761

  1. On the trajectories of Sp(1) -Kepler problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Guowu

    2015-10-01

    The classical Sp(1) -Kepler problems are formulated with the help of an idea from S. Sternberg. The trajectories of these models are determined via an idea originated from Levi-Civita. It is found that, for a non-colliding trajectory, its shadow-its projection to the external configuration space-is an ellipse, a parabola or a branch of hyperbola according as the total energy is negative, zero or positive. Moreover, it is shown that, for the Sp(1) -Kepler problems at level n ≥ 2, the group SL(n, H) ×R+ acts transitively on both the set of elliptic shadow trajectories and the set of parabolic shadow trajectories.

  2. Detailed Abundances of Stars with Small Planets Discovered by Kepler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuler, Simon C.; Vaz, Zachary A.; Katime Santrich, Orlando J.; Cunha, Katia M. L.; Smith, Verne V.; King, Jeremy R.; Ghezzi, Luan; Howell, Steve B.; Teske, Johanna

    2016-01-01

    We present newly derived stellar parameters and the detailed abundances of 19 elements of seven stars with small planets discovered by NASA's Kepler Mission. Each star save one has at least one planet with a radius less than 2 REarth, suggesting a primarily rocky composition. The stellar parameters and abundances are derived from high signal-to-noise ratio, high-resolution echelle spectroscopy obtained with the 10-m Keck I telescope and HIRES spectrometer using standard spectroscopic techniques. We compare the abundances to those of a general Galactic disk population and investigate possible abundance trends with condensation temperature of the elements.S.C.S. acknowledges support provided by grant NNX12AD19G to S.C.S. from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration as part of the Kepler Participating Scientist Program.

  3. COMPOSITIONS OF HOT SUPER-EARTH ATMOSPHERES: EXPLORING KEPLER CANDIDATES

    SciTech Connect

    Miguel, Y.; Kaltenegger, L.; Fegley, B.; Schaefer, L.

    2011-12-15

    This paper outlines a simple approach to evaluate the atmospheric composition of hot rocky planets by assuming different types of planetary composition and using corresponding model calculations. To explore hot atmospheres above 1000 K, we model the vaporization of silicate magma and estimate the range of atmospheric compositions according to the planet's radius and semi-major axis for the Kepler 2011 February data release. Our results show five atmospheric types for hot, rocky super-Earth atmospheres, strongly dependent on the initial composition and the planet's distance to the star. We provide a simple set of parameters that can be used to evaluate atmospheric compositions for current and future candidates provided by the Kepler mission and other searches.

  4. Identifying False Alarms in the Kepler Planet Candidate Catalog

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mullally, F.; Coughlin, Jeffery L.; Thompson, Susan E.; Christiansen, Jessie; Burke, Christopher; Clarke, Bruce D.; Haas, Michael R.

    2016-07-01

    We present a new automated method to identify instrumental features masquerading as small, long-period planets in the Kepler planet candidate catalog. These systematics, mistakenly identified as planet transits, can have a strong impact on occurrence rate calculations because they cluster in a region of parameter space where Kepler’s sensitivity to planets is poor. We compare individual transit-like events to a variety of models of real transits and systematic events and use a Bayesian information criterion to evaluate the likelihood that each event is real. We describe our technique and test its performance on simulated data. Results from this technique are incorporated in the Kepler Q1–Q17 DR24 planet candidate catalog of Coughlin et al.

  5. Ensemble Asteroseismology: How Kepler is Changing Stellar Astrophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basu, Sarbani

    2012-05-01

    Asteroseismic data from NASA's Kepler mission has revolutionized stellar astrophysics. These data allow us to peer inside a star and determine its internal properties and thus allow us to test different aspect of stellar evolution. The Kepler Asteroseismic Science Consortium (KASC) undertook a survey of solar type stars and detected solar-like oscillation is more than 500 stars. About 100 of these stars are still being monitored in order to do detailed seismic studies. Additionally, we have data on red giants in two clusters NGC 6819 and NGC 6791. The observations of these stars give us an unprecedented opportunity to study the ensemble properties of stars as well as properties of stars across the HR diagram. In this talk I shall discuss some of the interesting results that we have obtained so far. These include, for example, the consequence of using the solar mixing length in modelling stars.

  6. WTF- and A- Stars: Spectroscopic Analysis of Kepler Light Curves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grae Short, Miona; Soderblom, David R.

    2016-01-01

    Analysis of Kepler data in 2012 found that in a sample of about 2000 A- and F- stars, 1% of them seemed to exhibit white light flares. However, such stars are not thought to have the convective envelopes needed to produce the magnetic dynamos that yield flares. We use the same Kepler data but examine the flaring stars more comprehensively by analyzing the pixel data in order to predict whether this flare-like behavior may be caused by smaller, less luminous M dwarfs exhibiting genuine flares in the line of sight of the A- and F-stars. The implications of finding verifiable flare activity in a subset of these stars would be enough to incite further investigation of the physical processes that allow this to take place. Yet, if that were not the case, this project would further be able to demonstrate the steps necessary to correct for false-positives in finding flares in A- and F- stars.

  7. Finding Every Stellar Flare in the Kepler Light Curves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davenport, James R. A.

    2016-01-01

    Data from the Kepler and K2 missions continue to challenge our understanding of stellar activity, from complex morphologies of flares on low-mass stars, to rates of "superflares" on stars like the Sun. I will present results from the first uniform search for stellar flares in every Kepler light curve. This is the largest sample of white-light stellar flares ever assembled. Our analysis includes long- and short-cadence data from over 200,000 stars, and will shed light on the possibility of using flares as a stellar age indicator. I will also describe the exciting prospects that K2, TESS, and LSST hold for studying stellar flares in a Galactic context.

  8. "Cosmomorphistic geometry" in the unconscious geometry of Johannes Kepler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adam, Adolf

    Some mathematical aspects of the Music theory by Johannes Kepler are discussed, paying a special attention to the book "De harmonice mundi". Other scientists interested in Music theory are mentioned throughout the paper: The Pythagorean school, Klaudios Ptolemaios, Leonard Euler, Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz, Christian von Goldbach, Hermann Ludwig Ferdinand von Helmholz, Karl Friedrich Gauss. The relation with the ancient chinese schools of cosmography has been discussed: From the the Pythagorean to the ancient Chinese schools of cosmography we find arithmo-geometrical applications of numbers which are emblematic, hold meaning or represent the essence of things, the author writes. It was Johannes Kepler who taught us this "transconstructive method" of forming classical and ancient begginings of structuralistic thinking into a system from which deductions can readily be made.

  9. Detailed Modeling of Higher Order Hierarchical Kepler Star Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gore, Joanna; Orosz, Jerome A.

    2016-06-01

    Most stars have stellar companions (i.e. they exist in double, triple, or higher order configurations). Binary star systems are those which contain two stars. These systems are valued scientifically because they allow for the measurement of fundamental stellar properties such as masses and radii. These properties in turn allow for detailed studies of stellar evolution. The Kepler space telescope has discovered roughly 2900 eclipsing binary stars in its field of view. Various studies have shown that roughly 20% of the Kepler eclipsing binaries contain companions are are most likely triple star systems. We present a preliminary survey of the orbital properties of the tertiary bodies in a sample of thirty triple systems. In addition, a small number of the triple systems show eclipse events due to the third star. We present the results of detailed modeling of two of these systems, and discuss how in some cases these triple systems allow for extremely precise measurements of the fundamental stellar parameters.

  10. Construction of fractal nanostructures based on Kepler-Shubnikov nets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov, V. V.; Talanov, V. M.

    2013-05-01

    A system of information codes for deterministic fractal lattices and sets of multifractal curves is proposed. An iterative modular design was used to obtain a series of deterministic fractal lattices with generators in the form of fragments of 2 D structures and a series of multifractal curves (based on some Kepler-Shubnikov nets) having Cantor set properties. The main characteristics of fractal structures and their lacunar spectra are determined. A hierarchical principle is formulated for modules of regular fractal structures.

  11. Construction of fractal nanostructures based on Kepler-Shubnikov nets

    SciTech Connect

    Ivanov, V. V. Talanov, V. M.

    2013-05-15

    A system of information codes for deterministic fractal lattices and sets of multifractal curves is proposed. An iterative modular design was used to obtain a series of deterministic fractal lattices with generators in the form of fragments of 2D structures and a series of multifractal curves (based on some Kepler-Shubnikov nets) having Cantor set properties. The main characteristics of fractal structures and their lacunar spectra are determined. A hierarchical principle is formulated for modules of regular fractal structures.

  12. Visual Analysis and Comparison of Kepler Transit Timing Variations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kane, Mackenzie; Ragozzine, Darin; Holczer, Tomer; Mazeh, Tsevi; Rowe, Jason

    2016-01-01

    NASA's Kepler Space Telescope is designed to find extrasolar planets by watching a section of the sky and observing if an object transits in front its parent star. By noticing the dimming and brightening of the star as a prospective transit occurs, Kepler records the times when the planet moves in front of its star. If other planets are gravitationally influencing the transiting planet, the planet might transit late or early; these deviations from a perfectly periodic set of transits are called "transit timing variations (TTVs). Therefore, Kepler TTVs are useful in determining exoplanet masses which are hard to measure in other ways.We decided to visually analyze the TTV data of all ~6000 Kepler objects of interest (KOIs) to determine whether interesting TTV signals would be missed by purely statistical analyses. Using data from Rowe et al. 2014 and Holczer et al. 2015, submitted, we created combined TTV plots, periodigrams, and folded quadratic+sinusoid fits. The raw TTV data and ancillary plots were visually inspected for each of the ~6000 KOIs. To find the most likely KOIs containing visible TTVs and to organize the over 6000 KOIs analyzed, a rating system was developed based on numerous visual factors. These rating factors include the amount of outliers, if there is a clear sinusoidal period within the folded plots, and if there is a clear peak in the periodigram. By sorting KOIs as such, we were able to compare our findings of the strongest candidates with the same KOIs statistically analyzed by Holczer et al. 2015 (submitted, see also Mazeh et al. 2013).It was found that the majority of our findings matched those of Holczer et al. 2015, with only small discrepancies that were understandable based on our different methodologies. Our visual inspection of the full list of KOIs contributed multiple systems that were not included in the initial list of KOIs with significant TTVs identified statistically.

  13. Analysis of Kepler Observations of ASAS Variable Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pezzato, Jacklyn M.; Mighell, Kenneth J.

    2016-01-01

    We present preliminary results of a study that compares the performance of period-finding algorithms when using data gathered by ground-based telescopes to their performance when using data gathered by space-based telescopes. In order to make this comparison, the periods reported by the All Sky Automated Survey (ASAS) Catalog for Variable Stars in the Kepler Field of View, a study that identified targets for the Kepler Mission before its launch, were compared to periods determined by this study. Only targets that were identified in the ASAS Catalog and later observed by the Kepler Mission were selected for analysis, for a total of 599 targets. The observations gathered by the Kepler Mission were analyzed using three period-finding algorithms: the Lafler-Kinman algorithm, the Analysis of Variance algorithm, and the Conditional Entropy algorithm. These three algorithms analyzed the light curves of each target, and one of the periods produced was selected to be compared to the period found by the ASAS Catalog. The analysis of the two data sets highlights issues with the performance of period finding algorithms with ground-based data, leading to crude period estimates for all targets with periods longer than 10 days. Since the Large Synoptic Scanning Telescope (LSST), due for first light in 2020, will have a similar observation schedule to that of the ASAS survey, similar issues can be expected with the analysis of LSST data for some types of long period variables, like semiregulars), that have periods longer than 10 days. Pezzato was supported by the NOAO/KPNO Research Experiences for Undergraduates (REU) Program which is funded by the National Science Foundation Research Experiences for Undergraduates Program (AST-1262829).

  14. Extended Kepler-Coulomb quantum superintegrable systems in three dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalnins, E. G.; Kress, J. M.; Miller, W., Jr.

    2013-03-01

    The quantum Kepler-Coulomb system in three dimensions is well known to be second order superintegrable, with a symmetry algebra that closes polynomially under commutators. This polynomial closure is also typical for second order superintegrable systems in 2D and for second order systems in 3D with nondegenerate (four-parameter) potentials. However, the degenerate three-parameter potential for the 3D Kepler-Coulomb system (also second order superintegrable) is an exception, as its symmetry algebra does not close polynomially. The 3D four-parameter potential for the extended Kepler-Coulomb system is not even second order superintegrable, but Verrier and Evans (2008 J. Math. Phys. 49 022902) showed it was fourth order superintegrable, and Tanoudis and Daskaloyannis (2011 arXiv:11020397v1) showed that, if a second fourth order symmetry is added to the generators, the symmetry algebra closes polynomially. Here, based on the Tremblay, Turbiner and Winternitz construction, we consider an infinite class of quantum extended Kepler-Coulomb three- and four-parameter systems indexed by a pair of rational numbers (k1, k2) and reducing to the usual systems when k1 = k2 = 1. We show these systems to be superintegrable of arbitrarily high order and determine the structure of their symmetry algebras. We demonstrate that the symmetry algebras close algebraically; only for systems admitting extra discrete symmetries is polynomial closure achieved. Underlying the structure theory is the existence of raising and lowering operators, not themselves symmetry operators or even defined independent of basis, that can be employed to construct the symmetry operators and their structure relations.

  15. Transit Model Fitting in the Kepler Science Operations Center Pipeline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jie; Burke, C. J.; Jenkins, J. M.; Quintana, E. V.; Rowe, J. F.; Seader, S. E.; Tenenbaum, P.; Twicken, J. D.

    2012-05-01

    We describe the algorithm and performance of the transit model fitting of the Kepler Science Operations Center (SOC) Pipeline. Light curves of long cadence targets are subjected to the Transiting Planet Search (TPS) component of the Kepler SOC Pipeline. Those targets for which a Threshold Crossing Event (TCE) is generated in the transit search are subsequently processed in the Data Validation (DV) component. The light curves may span one or more Kepler observing quarters, and data may not be available for any given target in all quarters. Transit model parameters are fitted in DV to transit-like signatures in the light curves of target stars with TCEs. The fitted parameters are used to generate a predicted light curve based on the transit model. The residual flux time series of the target star, with the predicted light curve removed, is fed back to TPS to search for additional TCEs. The iterative process of transit model fitting and transiting planet search continues until no TCE is generated from the residual flux time series or a planet candidate limit is reached. The transit model includes five parameters to be fitted: transit epoch time (i.e. central time of first transit), orbital period, impact parameter, ratio of planet radius to star radius and ratio of semi-major axis to star radius. The initial values of the fit parameters are determined from the TCE values provided by TPS. A limb darkening model is included in the transit model to generate the predicted light curve. The transit model fitting results are used in the diagnostic tests in DV, such as the centroid motion test, eclipsing binary discrimination tests, etc., which helps to validate planet candidates and identify false positive detections. Funding for the Kepler Mission has been provided by the NASA Science Mission Directorate.

  16. Eclipsing Binary Science through the Monocle of Kepler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prsa, Andrej; Eclipsing Binary Working Group

    2013-07-01

    The notable success of space-borne missions such as MOST, CoRoT and Kepler triggered a surge of exciting new results in stellar astrophysics, ranging from asteroseismology, discoveries of new subclasses of objects such as heartbeat stars, to the literal firehose of extrasolar planets. The nearly continuous observing mode and an unprecedented photometric precision provide us with data that challenge even the most sophisticated models. Eclipsing binary stars play a major role since their accurate modeling provides fundamental stellar parameters (masses, radii, temperatures and luminosities) across the H-R diagram by relying on the uniquely favorable geometry that alleviates the need for any calibrations. NASA's Kepler mission is particularly well suited for the study of binaries; the ~10-ppm precision and the ~105-square degree field of view yield a sample of ~2500 eclipsing systems of varying types and morphologies, that have been observed uninterruptedly for 4 years in a row. I will present statistical results of the complete set of Kepler eclipsing binaries, including the distributions of the periods, galactic latitudes, morphologies, orbital properties and fundamental stellar parameters. The mission provided us with ground-breaking observations of multiple components through the measurements of eclipse timing variations. I will emphasize the pioneering efforts to detect and analyze stellar and substellar tertiaries orbiting binary stars and explore the implications of multiplicity on the evolution of these systems. Several theoretical aspects of reliable modeling still elude our grasp, and I will provide a theorist's perspective of the direction that our field might take in the next several years. Lastly, I will focus on a few notable "head-scratchers", systems that deserve special attention because of their uniqueness and/or general importance to astrophysics. This presentation will encapsulate the results based on the work and dedication of the entire Kepler

  17. Terrestrial Planet Occurrence Rates for the Kepler GK Dwarf Sample

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burke, Christopher J.; Christiansen, Jessie L.; Mullally, F.; Seader, Shawn; Huber, Daniel; Rowe, Jason F.; Coughlin, Jeffrey L.; Thompson, Susan E.; Catanzarite, Joseph; Clarke, Bruce D.; Morton, Timothy D.; Caldwell, Douglas A.; Bryson, Stephen T.; Haas, Michael R.; Batalha, Natalie M.; Jenkins, Jon M.; Tenenbaum, Peter; Twicken, Joseph D.; Li, Jie; Quintana, Elisa; Barclay, Thomas; Henze, Christopher E.; Borucki, William J.; Howell, Steve B.; Still, Martin

    2015-08-01

    We measure planet occurrence rates using the planet candidates discovered by the Q1-Q16 Kepler pipeline search. This study examines planet occurrence rates for the Kepler GK dwarf target sample for planet radii, 0.75 ≤slant {R}{{p}} ≤slant 2.5 {R}\\oplus , and orbital periods, 50 ≤slant {P}{orb} ≤slant 300 days, with an emphasis on a thorough exploration and identification of the most important sources of systematic uncertainties. Integrating over this parameter space, we measure an occurrence rate of F0 = 0.77 planets per star, with an allowed range of 0.3≤slant {F}0 ≤slant 1.9. The allowed range takes into account both statistical and systematic uncertainties, and values of F0 beyond the allowed range are significantly in disagreement with our analysis. We generally find higher planet occurrence rates and a steeper increase in planet occurrence rates toward small planets than previous studies of the Kepler GK dwarf sample. Through extrapolation, we find that the one year orbital period terrestrial planet occurrence rate {\\zeta }1.0 = 0.1, with an allowed range of 0.01≤slant {\\zeta }1.0 ≤slant 2, where {\\zeta }1.0 is defined as the number of planets per star within 20% of the {R}{{p}} and {P}{orb} of Earth. For G dwarf hosts, the {\\zeta }1.0 parameter space is a subset of the larger {η }\\oplus parameter space, thus {\\zeta }1.0 places a lower limit on {η }\\oplus for G dwarf hosts. From our analysis, we identify the leading sources of systematics impacting Kepler occurrence rate determinations as reliability of the planet candidate sample, planet radii, pipeline completeness, and stellar parameters.

  18. Can Kozai-Lidov cycles explain Kepler-78b?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rice, Ken

    2015-04-01

    Kepler-78b is one of a growing sample of planets similar, in composition and size, to the Earth. It was first detected with NASA's Kepler spacecraft and then characterized in more detail using radial velocity follow-up observations. Not only is its size very similar to that of the Earth (1.2 R⊕), it also has a very similar density (5.6 g cm-2). What makes this planet particularly interesting is that it orbits its host star every 8.5 h, giving it an orbital distance of only 0.0089 au. What we investigate here is whether or not such a planet could have been perturbed into this orbit by an outer companion on an inclined orbit. In this scenario, the outer perturber causes the inner orbit to undergo Kozai-Lidov cycles which, if the periapse comes sufficiently close to the host star, can then lead to the planet being tidally circularized into a close orbit. We find that this process can indeed produce such very-close-in planets within the age of the host star (˜600-900 Myr), but it is more likely to find such ultrashort-period planets around slightly older stars (>1 Gyr). However, given the size of the Kepler sample and the likely binarity, our results suggest that Kepler-78b may indeed have been perturbed into its current orbit by an outer stellar companion The likelihood of this happening, however, is low enough that other processes - such as planet-planet scattering - could also be responsible.

  19. The magnetic properties of the star Kepler-78

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moutou, C.; Donati, J.-F.; Lin, D.; Laine, R. O.; Hatzes, A.

    2016-06-01

    Kepler-78 is host to a transiting 8.5-h orbit super-Earth. In this paper, the rotation and magnetic properties of the planet host star are studied. We first revisit the Kepler photometric data for a detailed description of the rotation properties of Kepler-78, showing that the star seems to undergo a cycle in the spot pattern of ˜1300 d duration. We then use spectropolarimetric observations with Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT)/ESPaDOnS to measure the circular polarization in the line profile of the star during its rotation cycle, as well as spectroscopic proxies of the chromospheric activity. The average field has a strength of 16 G. The magnetic topology is characterized by a poloidal and a toroidal component, encompassing 60 per cent and 40 per cent of the magnetic energy, respectively. Differential rotation is detected with an estimated rate of 0.105±0.039 rad d-1. Activity tracers vary with the rotation cycle of the star; there is no hint that a residual activity level is related to the planetary orbit at the precision of our data. The description of the star magnetic field's characteristics then may serve as input for models of interactions between the star and its close-by planet, e.g. Ohmic dissipation and unipolar induction.

  20. The California-Kepler Survey: Precise Planet Radii and Metallicities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howard, Andrew; Marcy, G. W.; Johnson, J. A.; Morton, T. D.; Isaacson, H.

    2012-01-01

    For the small subset of sub-Neptune-size planets with well-measured masses and radii, bulk density varies by an order of magnitude, owing to great diversity in composition and atmospheric content. The ensemble of small planets discovered by Kepler have a radius distribution that rises steeply with decreasing size, with close-in sub-Neptune-size planets being an order of magnitude more common than hot Jupiters. However, the detailed structure of the planet radius distribution remains partially veiled by poorly known stellar properties from the Kepler Input Catalog (KIC). Correlations of planet properties with stellar properties are similarly out of focus or unknown. To measure these crucial properties, our team is compiling a new catalog of stellar parameters for the Kepler planet hosts based on LTE modeling of high-resolution Keck-HIRES spectra. I will present initial results from this catalog. We expect detailed structure of the planet radius distribution to emerge, including deviations from a power-law model that suggest common planet sizes and preferred formation scenarios. It will also shed light on the variations of planet occurrence with orbital distance and stellar mass/metallicity, offering important clues for the formation of small worlds.

  1. Kepler's theory of force and his medical sources.

    PubMed

    Regier, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    Johannes Kepler (1571-1630) makes extensive use of souls and spiritus in his natural philosophy. Recent studies have highlighted their importance in his accounts of celestial generation and astrology. In this study, I would like to address two pressing issues. The first is Kepler's context. The biological side of his natural philosophy is not naively Aristotelian. Instead, he is up to date with contemporary discussions in medically flavored natural philosophy. I will examine his relationship to Melanchthon's anatomical-theological Liber de anima (1552) and to Jean Femel's very popular Physiologia (1567), two Galenic sources with a noticeable impact on how he understands the functions of life. The other issue that will direct my article is force at a distance. Medical ideas deeply inform Kepler's theories of light and solar force (virtus motrix). It will become clear that they are not a hindrance even to the hardcore of his celestial physics. Instead, he makes use of soul and spiritus in order to develop a fully mathematized dynamics. PMID:24988759

  2. A catalogue of temperatures for Kepler eclipsing binary stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armstrong, D. J.; Gómez Maqueo Chew, Y.; Faedi, F.; Pollacco, D.

    2014-02-01

    We have combined the Kepler Eclipsing Binary Catalogue with information from the HES, KIS and 2MASS photometric surveys to produce spectral energy distribution fits to over 2600 eclipsing binaries in the catalogue over a wavelength range of 0.36-2.16 Å. We present primary (T1) and secondary (T2) stellar temperatures, plus information on the stellar radii and system distance ratios. The derived temperatures are on average accurate to 370 K in T1 and 620 K in T2. Our results improve on the similarly derived physical parameters of the Kepler Input Catalogue through consideration of both stars of the binary system rather than a single star model, and inclusion of additional U-band photometry. We expect these results to aid future uses of the Kepler eclipsing binary data, both in target selection and to inform users of the extremely high-precision light curves available. We do not include surface gravities or system metallicities, as these were found to have an insignificant effect on the observed photometric bands.

  3. KIC 11911480: the second ZZ Ceti in the Kepler field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greiss, S.; Gänsicke, B. T.; Hermes, J. J.; Steeghs, D.; Koester, D.; Ramsay, G.; Barclay, T.; Townsley, D. M.

    2014-03-01

    We report the discovery of the second pulsating hydrogen-rich (DA) white dwarf in the Kepler field, KIC 11911480. It was selected from the Kepler-INT Survey (KIS) on the basis of its colours and its variable nature was confirmed using ground-based time series photometry. An atmosphere model fit to an intermediate-resolution spectrum of KIC 11911480 places this DA white dwarf close to the blue edge of the empirical boundaries of the ZZ Ceti instability strip: Teff = 12 160 ± 250 K and log g = 7.94 ± 0.10. Assuming a mass-radius relation and cooling models for DA white dwarfs, the atmospheric parameters yield: MWD = 0.57 ± 0.06 M⊙. We also obtained two quarters (Q12 and Q16) of nearly uninterrupted short-cadence Kepler data on this star. We detect a total of six independent pulsation modes with a ≥3σ confidence in its amplitude power spectrum. These pulsations have periods ranging between 172.9 and 324.5 s, typical of the hotter ZZ Ceti stars. Our preliminary asteroseismic study suggests that KIC 11911480 has a rotation rate of 3.5±0.5 days.

  4. PROSPECTS FOR DETECTING ASTEROSEISMIC BINARIES IN KEPLER DATA

    SciTech Connect

    Miglio, A.; Chaplin, W. J.; Elsworth, Y.; Handberg, R.; Farmer, R.; Kolb, U.; Girardi, L.; Appourchaux, T.

    2014-03-20

    Asteroseismology may in principle be used to detect unresolved stellar binary systems comprised of solar-type stars and/or red giants. This novel method relies on the detection of the presence of two solar-like oscillation spectra in the frequency spectrum of a single light curve. Here, we make predictions of the numbers of systems that may be detectable in data already collected by the NASA Kepler Mission. Our predictions, which are based upon TRILEGAL and BiSEPS simulations of the Kepler field of view, indicate that as many as 200 or more ''asteroseismic binaries'' may be detectable in this manner. Most of these binaries should be comprised of two He-core-burning red giants. Owing largely to the limited numbers of targets with the requisite short-cadence Kepler data, we expect only a small number of detected binaries containing solar-type stars. The predicted yield of detections is sensitive to the assumed initial mass ratio distribution (IMRD) of the binary components and therefore represents a sensitive calibration of the much debated IMRD near mass ratio unity.

  5. A SYSTEMATIC SEARCH FOR TROJAN PLANETS IN THE KEPLER DATA

    SciTech Connect

    Janson, Markus

    2013-09-10

    Trojans are circumstellar bodies that reside in characteristic 1:1 orbital resonances with planets. While all the trojans in our solar system are small ({approx}<100 km), stable planet-size trojans may exist in extrasolar planetary systems, and the Kepler telescope constitutes a formidable tool to search for them. Here we report on a systematic search for extrasolar trojan companions to 2244 known Kepler Objects of Interest (KOIs), with epicyclic orbital characteristics similar to those of the Jovian trojan families. No convincing trojan candidates are found, despite a typical sensitivity down to Earth-size objects. This fact, however, cannot be used to stringently exclude the existence of trojans in this size range, since stable trojans need not necessarily share the same orbital plane as the planet, and thus may not transit. Following this reasoning, we note that if Earth-sized trojans exist at all, they are almost certainly both present and in principle detectable in the full set of Kepler data, although a very substantial computational effort would be required to detect them. Additionally, we also note that some of the existing KOIs could in principle be trojans themselves, with a primary planet orbiting outside of the transiting plane. A few examples are given for which this is a readily testable scenario.

  6. Spacing of Kepler Planets: Sculpting by Dynamical Instability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pu, Bonan; Wu, Yanqin

    2015-07-01

    We study the orbital architecture of multi-planet systems detected by the Kepler transit mission using N-body simulations, focusing on the orbital spacing between adjacent planets in systems showing four or more transiting planets. We find that the observed spacings are tightly clustered around 12 mutual Hill radii, when transit geometry and sensitivity limits are accounted for. In comparison, dynamical integrations reveal that the minimum spacing required for systems of similar masses to survive dynamical instability for as long as 1 billion yr is ∼10 if all orbits are circular and coplanar and ∼12 if planetary orbits have eccentricities of ∼0.02 (a value suggested by studies of planet transit-time variations). This apparent coincidence, between the observed spacing and the theoretical stability threshold, leads us to propose that typical planetary systems were formed with even tighter spacing, but most, except for the widest ones, have undergone dynamical instability, and are pared down to a more anemic version of their former selves, with fewer planets and larger spacings. So while the high-multiple systems (five or more transiting planets) are primordial systems that remain stable, the single or double planetary systems, abundantly discovered by the Kepler mission, may be the descendants of more closely packed high-multiple systems. If this hypothesis is correct, we infer that the formation environment of Kepler systems should be more dissipative than that of the terrestrial planets.

  7. Data Validation in the Kepler Science Operations Center Pipeline

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, Hayley; Twicken, Joseph D.; Tenenbaum, Peter; Clarke, Bruce D.; Li, Jie; Quintana, Elisa V.; Allen, Christopher; Chandrasekaran, Hema; Jenkins, Jon M.; Caldwell, Douglas A.; Wohler, Bill; Girouard, Forrest; McCauliff, Sean; Cote, Miles T.; Klaus, Todd C.

    2010-01-01

    We present an overview of the Data Validation (DV) software component and its context within the Kepler Science Operations Center (SOC) pipeline and overall Kepler Science mission. The SOC pipeline performs a transiting planet search on the corrected light curves for over 150,000 targets across the focal plane array. We discuss the DV strategy for automated validation of Threshold Crossing Events (TCEs) generated in the transiting planet search. For each TCE, a transiting planet model is fitted to the target light curve. A multiple planet search is conducted by repeating the transiting planet search on the residual light curve after the model flux has been removed; if an additional detection occurs, a planet model is fitted to the new TCE. A suite of automated tests are performed after all planet candidates have been identified. We describe a centroid motion test to determine the significance of the motion of the target photocenter during transit and to estimate the coordinates of the transit source within the photometric aperture; a series of eclipsing binary discrimination tests on the parameters of the planet model fits to all transits and the sequences of odd and even transits; and a statistical bootstrap to assess the likelihood that the TCE would have been generated purely by chance given the target light curve with all transits removed. Keywords: photometry, data validation, Kepler, Earth-size planets

  8. Kepler-47: A Three-Planet Circumbinary System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welsh, William; Orosz, Jerome; Quarles, Billy; Haghighipour, Nader

    2015-12-01

    Kepler-47 is the most interesting of the known circumbinary planets. In the discovery paper by Orosz et al. (2012) two planets were detected, with periods of 49.5 and 303 days around the 7.5-day binary. In addition, a single "orphan" transit of a possible third planet was noticed. Since then, five additional transits by this planet candidate have been uncovered, leading to the unambiguous confirmation of a third transiting planet in the system. The planet has a period of 187 days, and orbits in between the previously detected planets. It lies on the inner edge of the optimistic habitable zone, while its outer sibling falls within the conservative habitable zone. The orbit of this new planet is precessing, causing its transits to become significantly deeper over the span of the Kepler observations. Although the planets are not massive enough to measurably perturb the binary, they are sufficiently massive to interact with each other and cause mild transit timing variations (TTVs). This enables our photodynamical model to estimate their masses. We find that all three planets have very low-density and are on remarkably co-planar orbits: all 4 orbits (the binary and three planets) are within ~2 degrees of one another. Thus the Kepler-47 system puts interesting constraints on circumbinary planet formation and migration scenarios.

  9. Variability of Kepler Solar-like Stars Harboring Small Exoplanets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howell, Steve B.; Ciardi, David R.; Giampapa, Mark S.; Everett, Mark E.; Silva, David R.; Szkody, Paula

    2016-02-01

    We examine Kepler light-curve variability on habitable zone transit timescales for a large uniform sample of spectroscopically studied Kepler exoplanet host stars. The stars, taken from Everett et al., are solar-like in their properties and each harbors at least one exoplanet (or candidate) of radius ≤2.5 {R}{{e}}. The variability timescale examined is typical for habitable zone planets orbiting solar-like stars and we note that the discovery of the smallest exoplanets (≤1.2 {R}{{e}}) with corresponding transit depths of less than ∼0.18 mmag occur for the brightest and photometrically quietest stars. Thus, these detections are quite rare in Kepler observations. Some brighter and more evolved stars (subgiants), the latter of which often show large radial velocity jitter, are found to be among the photometrically quietest solar-like stars in our sample and the most likely small planet transit hunting grounds. The Sun is discussed as a solar-like star proxy to provide insight into the nature and cause of photometric variability. It is shown that Kepler’s broad, visible light observations are insensitive to variability caused by chromospheric activity that may be present in the observed stars.

  10. Circumstellar Dust in the Remnant of Kepler's Type Ia Supernova

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Brian J.; Blair, W. P.; Borkowski, K. J.; Ghavamian, P.; Long, K. S.; Reynolds, S. P.; Sankrit, R.

    2012-01-01

    Kepler's Supernova Remnant, the remains of the supernova of 1604, is widely believed to be the result of a Type Ia supernova, and shows IR, optical, and X-ray evidence for an interaction of the blast wave with a dense circumstellar medium (CSM). We present low-resolution 7.5-38 μm IR spectra of selected regions within the remnant, obtained with the Spitzer Space Telescope. Spectra of those regions where the blast wave is encountering circumstellar material show strong features at 10 and 18 μm. These spectral features are most consistent with various silicate particles, likely formed in the stellar outflow from the progenitor system during the AGB stage of evolution. While it is possible that some features may arise from freshly formed ejecta dust, morphological evidence suggests that it is more likely that they originate from dust in the CSM. We isolate the dust grain absorption efficiencies for several regions in Kepler and compare them to laboratory data for dust particles of various compositions. The hottest dust in the remnant originates in the regions of dense, radiatively shocked clumps of gas, identified in optical images. Models of collisionally heated dust show that such shocks are capable of heating grains to temperatures of > 150 K. We confirm the finding that Kepler's SNR is still interacting with CSM in at least part of the remnant after 400 years. The significant quantities of silicate dust are consistent with a relatively massive progenitor.

  11. BLOOD HARMANE (1-METHYL-9H-PYRIDO[3,4-B]INDOLE) CONCENTRATION IN ESSENTIAL TREMOR CASES IN SPAIN

    PubMed Central

    Louis, Elan D.; Benito-León, Julian; Moreno-García, Sara; Vega, Saturio; Romero, Juan Pablo; Bermejo-Pareja, Felix; Gerbin, Marina; Viner, Amanda S.; Factor-Litvak, Pam; Jiang, Wendy; Zheng, Wei

    2012-01-01

    Background Environmental correlates for essential tremor (ET) are largely unexplored. The search for such environmental factors has involved the study of a number of neurotoxins. Harmane (1-methyl-9H-pyrido[3,4-b]indole) is a potent tremor-producing toxin. In two prior case-control studies in New York, we demonstrated that blood harmane concentration was elevated in ET patients vs. controls, and especially in familial ET cases. These findings, however, have been derived from a study of cases ascertained through a single tertiary referral center in New York. Objective Our objective was to determine whether blood harmane concentrations are elevated in familial and sporadic ET cases, ascertained from central Spain, compared to controls without ET. Methods Blood harmane concentrations were quantified by a well-established high performance liquid chromatography method. Results The median harmane concentrations were: 2.09 g−10/ml (138 controls), 2.41 g−10/ml (68 sporadic ET), and 2.90 g−10/ml (62 familial ET). In an unadjusted logistic regression analysis, log blood harmane concentration was not significantly associated with diagnosis (familial ET vs. control): odds ratio = 1.56, p = 0.26. In a logistic regression analysis that adjusted for evaluation start time, which was an important confounding variable, the odds ratio increased to 2.35, p = 0.049. Conclusions Blood harmane levels were slightly elevated in a group of familial ET cases compared to a group of controls in Spain. These data seem to further extend our observations from New York to a second cohort of ET cases in Spain. This neurotoxin continues to be a source of interest for future confirmatory research. PMID:22981972

  12. Passing NASA's Planet Quest Baton from Kepler to TESS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenkins, J.

    Kepler vaulted into the heavens on March 7, 2009, initiating NASAs search for Earth- size planets orbiting Sun-like stars in the habitable zone, where liquid water could exist on a rocky planetary surface. In the 4 years since Kepler began science operations, a flood of photometric data on upwards of 190,000 stars of unprecedented precision and continuity has provoked a watershed of 134+ confirmed or validated planets, 3200+ planetary candidates (most sub-Neptune in size and many compara- ble to or smaller than Earth), and a resounding revolution in asteroseismology and astrophysics. The most recent discoveries include Kepler-62 with 5 planets total of which 2 are in the habitable zone with radii of 1.4 and 1.7 Re. The focus of the mission is shifting towards how to rapidly vet the 18,000+ threshold crossing events produced with each transiting planet search, and towards those studies that will allow us to understand what the data are saying about the prevalence of planets in the solar neighborhood and throughout the galaxy. This talk will provide an overview of the science results from the Kepler Mission and the work ahead to derive the frequency of Earth-size planets in the habitable zone of solar-like stars from the treasure trove of Kepler data. NASAs quest for exoplanets continues with the Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satel- lite (TESS) mission, slated for launch in May 2017 by NASAs Explorer Program. TESS will conduct an all-sky transit survey to identify the 1000 best small exoplanets in the solar neighborhood for follow up observations and characterization. TESSs targets will include all F, G, K dwarfs from +4 to +12 magnitude and all M dwarfs known within ˜200 light-years. 500,000 target stars will be observed over two years with ˜500 square degrees observed continuously for a year in each hemisphere in the James Webb Space Telescopes continuously viewable zones. Since the typical TESS target star is 5 magnitudes brighter than Kepler’s and 10 times

  13. THE SDSS-HET SURVEY OF KEPLER ECLIPSING BINARIES: SPECTROSCOPIC DYNAMICAL MASSES OF THE KEPLER-16 CIRCUMBINARY PLANET HOSTS

    SciTech Connect

    Bender, Chad F.; Mahadevan, Suvrath; Deshpande, Rohit; Wright, Jason T.; Roy, Arpita; Terrien, Ryan C.; Sigurdsson, Steinn; Ramsey, Lawrence W.; Schneider, Donald P.; Fleming, Scott W.

    2012-06-01

    We have used high-resolution spectroscopy to observe the Kepler-16 eclipsing binary as a double-lined system and measure precise radial velocities for both stellar components. These velocities yield a dynamical mass ratio of q = 0.2994 {+-} 0.0031. When combined with the inclination, i 90.{sup 0}3401{sup +0.0016}{sub -0.0019}, measured from the Kepler photometric data by Doyle et al. (D11), we derive dynamical masses for the Kepler-16 components of M{sub A} = 0.654 {+-} 0.017 M{sub Sun} and M{sub B} = 0.1959 {+-} 0.0031 M{sub Sun }, a precision of 2.5% and 1.5%, respectively. Our results confirm at the {approx}2% level the mass-ratio derived by D11 with their photometric-dynamical model (PDM), q = 0.2937 {+-} 0.0006. These are among the most precise spectroscopic dynamical masses ever measured for low-mass stars and provide an important direct test of the results from the PDM technique.

  14. The mass of the super-Earth orbiting the brightest Kepler planet hosting star

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez-Morales, Mercedes; HARPS-N Team

    2016-01-01

    HD 179070, aka Kepler-21, is a V = 8.25 oscillating F6IV star and the brightest exoplanet host discovered by Kepler. An early analysis of the Q0 - Q5 Kepler light curves by Howell et al. (2012) revealed transits of a planetary companion, Kepler-21b, with a radius of 1.6 R_Earth and an orbital period of 2.7857 days. However, they could not determine the mass of the planet from the initial radial velocity observations with Keck-HIRES, and were only able to impose a 2s upper limit of about 10 M_Earth. Here we present 82 new radial velocity observations of this system obtained with the HARPS-N spectrograph. We detect the Doppler shift signal of Kepler-21b at the 3.6s level, and measure a planetary mass of 5.9 ± 1.6 M_Earth. We also update the radius of the planet to 1.65 ± 0.08 R_Earth, using the now available Kepler Q0 - Q17 photometry for this target. The mass of Kepler-21b appears to fall on the apparent dividing line between super-Earths that have lost all the material in their outer layers and those that have retained a significant amount of volatiles. Based on our results Kepler-21b belongs to the first group. Acknowledgement: This work was supported by funding from the NASA XRP Program and the John Templeton Foundation.

  15. Had the Planet Mars Not Existed: Kepler's Equant Model and Its Physical Consequences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bracco, C.; Provost, J.P.

    2009-01-01

    We examine the equant model for the motion of planets, which was the starting point of Kepler's investigations before he modified it because of Mars observations. We show that, up to first order in eccentricity, this model implies for each orbit a velocity, which satisfies Kepler's second law and Hamilton's hodograph, and a centripetal…

  16. VizieR Online Data Catalog: LAMOST obs. in the Kepler field. I. (De Cat+, 2015)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Cat, P.; Fu, J. N.; Ren, A. B.; Yang, X. H.; Shi, J. R.; Luo, A. L.; Yang, M.; Wang, J. L.; Zhang, H. T.; Shi, H. M.; Zhang, W.; Dong, S.; Catanzaro, G.; Corbally, C. J.; Frasca, A.; Gray, R. O.; Molenda-Zakowicz, J.; Uytterhoeven, K.; Briquet, M.; Bruntt, H.; Frandsen, S.; Kiss, L.; Kurtz, D. W.; Marconi, M.; Niemczura, E.; Ostensen, R. H.; Ripepi, V.; Smalley, B.; Southworth, J.; Szabo, R.; Telting, J. H.; Karoff, C.; Silva Aguirre, V.; Wu, Y.; Hou, Y. H.; Jin, G.; Zhou, X. L.

    2015-11-01

    Four observation seasons of the Kepler FOV were needed - from 2011 to 2014 - to finish the first round of observations for the "LAMOST-Kepler project" (LK-project). A total of 38 plates were observed on 27 different observation nights. (3 data files).

  17. The Kepler Data Archive at MAST: What`s in it for me?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fraquelli, Dorothy A.; Thompson, R.; Tseng, S.; Smith, M.

    2011-01-01

    Hosted by MAST, the Multi-Mission Archive at Space Telescope, the Kepler Archive now contains over a year's worth of observations on more than 150,000 objects. The observations consist of light curves, both public and proprietary, target pixel files and full frame images (FFI). Supporting information includes data release notes, the Instrument Handbook, an Archive Manual and SPIE papers describing the instrument and data processing (in advance of the Kepler Data Hand Book). High level science products (HLSP) for the announced planets are available. The archive also contains the Kepler Input Catalog (KIC), the Kepler Target Catalog (KTC) and the Characteristics Table (CT). We will show examples of how to search for and retrieve data, including FFIs and light curves, how Kepler GOs and science team members can download their data from an ftp area, how to view public light curves and FFIs, and, for Kepler proposers, how to locate objects in the KIC. We will discuss the different ways of retrieving Kepler data. A companion poster details MAST's GALEX-Kepler cross-match catalog, a unique product that supplies UV colors to complement the KIC's ground-based observations. Demos of the web site are available at the STScI booth.

  18. An Alternative Way to Achieve Kepler's Laws of Equal Areas and Ellipses for the Earth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsiang, W. Y.; Chang, H. C.; Yao, H.; Chen, P. J.

    2011-01-01

    Kepler's laws of planetary motion are acknowledged as highly significant to the construction of universal gravitation. This paper demonstrates different ways to derive the law of equal areas for the Earth by general geometrical and trigonometric methods, which are much simpler than the original derivation depicted by Kepler. The established law of…

  19. Target Charaterization and Follow-Up Observations in Support of the Kepler Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Latham, David W.

    2004-01-01

    This report covers work carried out at the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory during the period 1 December 2003 to 30 November 2004 to support efforts to prepare the Kepler Input Catalog. The Catalog will be used to select the targets observed for planetary transits by Kepler.

  20. Kepler-432 b: a massive planet in a highly eccentric orbit transiting a red giant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciceri, S.; Lillo-Box, J.; Southworth, J.; Mancini, L.; Henning, Th.; Barrado, D.

    2015-01-01

    We report the first disclosure of the planetary nature of Kepler-432 b (aka Kepler object of interest KOI-1299.01). We accurately constrained its mass and eccentricity by high-precision radial velocity measurements obtained with the CAFE spectrograph at the CAHA 2.2-m telescope. By simultaneously fitting these new data and Kepler photometry, we found that Kepler-432 b is a dense transiting exoplanet with a mass of Mp = 4.87 ± 0.48MJup and radius of Rp = 1.120 ± 0.036RJup. The planet revolves every 52.5 d around a K giant star that ascends the red giant branch, and it moves on a highly eccentric orbit with e = 0.535 ± 0.030. By analysing two near-IR high-resolution images, we found that a star is located at 1.1'' from Kepler-432, but it is too faint to cause significant effects on the transit depth. Together with Kepler-56 and Kepler-91, Kepler-432 occupies an almost-desert region of parameter space, which is important for constraining the evolutionary processes of planetary systems. RV data (Table A.1) are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/573/L5

  1. geoKepler Workflow Module for Computationally Scalable and Reproducible Geoprocessing and Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cowart, C.; Block, J.; Crawl, D.; Graham, J.; Gupta, A.; Nguyen, M.; de Callafon, R.; Smarr, L.; Altintas, I.

    2015-12-01

    The NSF-funded WIFIRE project has developed an open-source, online geospatial workflow platform for unifying geoprocessing tools and models for for fire and other geospatially dependent modeling applications. It is a product of WIFIRE's objective to build an end-to-end cyberinfrastructure for real-time and data-driven simulation, prediction and visualization of wildfire behavior. geoKepler includes a set of reusable GIS components, or actors, for the Kepler Scientific Workflow System (https://kepler-project.org). Actors exist for reading and writing GIS data in formats such as Shapefile, GeoJSON, KML, and using OGC web services such as WFS. The actors also allow for calling geoprocessing tools in other packages such as GDAL and GRASS. Kepler integrates functions from multiple platforms and file formats into one framework, thus enabling optimal GIS interoperability, model coupling, and scalability. Products of the GIS actors can be fed directly to models such as FARSITE and WRF. Kepler's ability to schedule and scale processes using Hadoop and Spark also makes geoprocessing ultimately extensible and computationally scalable. The reusable workflows in geoKepler can be made to run automatically when alerted by real-time environmental conditions. Here, we show breakthroughs in the speed of creating complex data for hazard assessments with this platform. We also demonstrate geoKepler workflows that use Data Assimilation to ingest real-time weather data into wildfire simulations, and for data mining techniques to gain insight into environmental conditions affecting fire behavior. Existing machine learning tools and libraries such as R and MLlib are being leveraged for this purpose in Kepler, as well as Kepler's Distributed Data Parallel (DDP) capability to provide a framework for scalable processing. geoKepler workflows can be executed via an iPython notebook as a part of a Jupyter hub at UC San Diego for sharing and reporting of the scientific analysis and results from

  2. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Properties of Kepler multi-planet candidate systems (Wang+, 2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, J.; Xie, J.-W.; Barclay, T.; Fischer, D. A.

    2016-05-01

    Our sample consists of bright host stars with multi-planet transiting systems from Kepler. Out of 5779 Kepler Objects of Interest (http://exoplanetarchive.ipac.caltech.edu/), we selected all the systems with a Kepler magnitude (KP) brighter than 13.5mag and with at least two planet candidates. The sample includes 343 planet candidates (see Table3) in 138 multi-planet candidate systems (see Table2) from the Kepler mission. For these systems, we used archival data from Kepler to characterize their stellar (see Table2) and orbital properties (see Table3). We used UKIRT images to calculate brightness contrast curves and to detect stellar companions around planet candidate host stars (see Table4). (3 data files).

  3. Photometry Using Kepler "Superstamps" of Open Clusters NGC 6791 & NGC 6819

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuehn, Charles A.; Drury, J.; Stello, D.; Bedding, T. R.

    2014-01-01

    The Kepler space telescope has proven to be a gold mine for the study of variable stars. To conserve bandwidth, Kepler only returns a handful of pixels surrounding each star on the target list. Unfortunately, this omits a large number of stars in the Kepler field. Fortunately, for the open clusters NGC 6791 and NGC 6819, Kepler also reads out larger superstamps which contain complete images of the central region of each cluster. These cluster images can be used to study additional stars in the open clusters which were not originally on Kepler's target list. We present preliminary results from using traditional photometric techniques to identify and analyze additional variable stars from these superstamp images.

  4. Photometry Using Kepler "Superstamps" of Open Clusters NGC 6791 & NGC 6819

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuehn, Charles A.; Drury, Jason A.; Bellamy, Beau R.; Stello, Dennis; Bedding, Timothy R.; Reed, Mike; Quick, Breanna

    2015-09-01

    The Kepler space telescope has proven to be a gold mine for the study of variable stars. Usually, Kepler only reads out a handful of pixels around each pre-selected target star, omitting a large number of stars in the Kepler field. Fortunately, for the open clusters NGC 6791 and NGC 6819, Kepler also read out larger "superstamps" which contained complete images of the central region of each cluster. These cluster images can be used to study additional stars in the open clusters that were not originally on Kepler's target list. We discuss our work on using two photometric techniques to analyze these superstamps and present sample results from this project to demonstrate the value of this technique for a wide variety of variable stars.

  5. Changing Phases of Alien Worlds: Probing Atmospheres of Kepler Planets with High-precision Photometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esteves, Lisa J.; De Mooij, Ernst J. W.; Jayawardhana, Ray

    2015-05-01

    We present a comprehensive analysis of planetary phase variations, including possible planetary light offsets, using eighteen quarters of data from the Kepler space telescope. Our analysis found fourteen systems with significant detections in each of the phase curve components: planet’s phase function, secondary eclipse, Doppler boosting, and ellipsoidal variations. We model the full phase curve simultaneously, including primary and secondary transits, and derive albedos, day- and night-side temperatures and planet masses. Most planets manifest low optical geometric albedos (< 0.25), with the exception of Kepler-10b, Kepler-91b, and KOI-13b. We find that KOI-13b, with a small eccentricity of 0.0006 ± 0.0001, is the only planet for which an eccentric orbit is favored. We detect a third harmonic for HAT-P-7b for the first time, and confirm the third harmonic for KOI-13b reported in Esteves et al.: both could be due to their spin-orbit misalignments. For six planets, we report a planetary brightness peak offset from the substellar point: of those, the hottest two (Kepler-76b and HAT-P-7b) exhibit pre-eclipse shifts or on the evening-side, while the cooler four (Kepler-7b, Kepler-8b, Kepler-12b, and Kepler-41b) peak post-eclipse or on the morning-side. Our findings dramatically increase the number of Kepler planets with detected planetary light offsets, and provide the first evidence in the Kepler data for a correlation between the peak offset direction and the planet’s temperature. Such a correlation could arise if thermal emission dominates light from hotter planets that harbor hot spots shifted toward the evening-side, as theoretically predicted, while reflected light dominates cooler planets with clouds on the planet’s morning-side.

  6. BEER ANALYSIS OF KEPLER AND CoRoT LIGHT CURVES. I. DISCOVERY OF KEPLER-76b: A HOT JUPITER WITH EVIDENCE FOR SUPERROTATION

    SciTech Connect

    Faigler, S.; Tal-Or, L.; Mazeh, T.; Latham, D. W.; Buchhave, L. A.

    2013-07-01

    We present the first case in which the BEER algorithm identified a hot Jupiter in the Kepler light curve, and its reality was confirmed by orbital solutions based on follow-up spectroscopy. The companion Kepler-76b was identified by the BEER algorithm, which detected the BEaming (sometimes called Doppler boosting) effect together with the Ellipsoidal and Reflection/emission modulations (BEER), at an orbital period of 1.54 days, suggesting a planetary companion orbiting the 13.3 mag F star. Further investigation revealed that this star appeared in the Kepler eclipsing binary catalog with estimated primary and secondary eclipse depths of 5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -3} and 1 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -4}, respectively. Spectroscopic radial velocity follow-up observations with Tillinghast Reflector Echelle Spectrograph and SOPHIE confirmed Kepler-76b as a transiting 2.0 {+-} 0.26 M{sub Jup} hot Jupiter. The mass of a transiting planet can be estimated from either the beaming or the ellipsoidal amplitude. The ellipsoidal-based mass estimate of Kepler-76b is consistent with the spectroscopically measured mass while the beaming-based estimate is significantly inflated. We explain this apparent discrepancy as evidence for the superrotation phenomenon, which involves eastward displacement of the hottest atmospheric spot of a tidally locked planet by an equatorial superrotating jet stream. This phenomenon was previously observed only for HD 189733b in the infrared. We show that a phase shift of 10. Degree-Sign 3 {+-} 2. Degree-Sign 0 of the planet reflection/emission modulation, due to superrotation, explains the apparently inflated beaming modulation, resolving the ellipsoidal/beaming amplitude discrepancy. Kepler-76b is one of very few confirmed planets in the Kepler light curves that show BEER modulations and the first to show superrotation evidence in the Kepler band. Its discovery illustrates for the first time the ability of the BEER algorithm to detect short

  7. Atmospheric Characterization of the Hot Jupiter Kepler-13Ab

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shporer, Avi; O'Rourke, Joseph G.; Knutson, Heather A.; Szabó, Gyula M.; Zhao, Ming; Burrows, Adam; Fortney, Jonathan; Agol, Eric; Cowan, Nicolas B.; Desert, Jean-Michel; Howard, Andrew W.; Isaacson, Howard; Lewis, Nikole K.; Showman, Adam P.; Todorov, Kamen O.

    2014-06-01

    Kepler-13Ab (= KOI-13.01) is a unique transiting hot Jupiter. It is one of very few known short-period planets orbiting a hot A-type star, making it one of the hottest planets currently known. The availability of Kepler data allows us to measure the planet's occultation (secondary eclipse) and phase curve in the optical, which we combine with occultations observed by warm Spitzer at 4.5 μm and 3.6 μm and a ground-based occultation observation in the Ks band (2.1 μm). We derive a day-side hemisphere temperature of 2750 ± 160 K as the effective temperature of a black body showing the same occultation depths. Comparing the occultation depths with one-dimensional planetary atmosphere models suggests the presence of an atmospheric temperature inversion. Our analysis shows evidence for a relatively high geometric albedo, A g = 0.33^{+0.04}_{-0.06}. While measured with a simplistic method, a high A g is supported also by the fact that the one-dimensional atmosphere models underestimate the occultation depth in the optical. We use stellar spectra to determine the dilution, in the four wide bands where occultation was measured, due to the visual stellar binary companion 1.''15 ± 0.''05 away. The revised stellar parameters measured using these spectra are combined with other measurements, leading to revised planetary mass and radius estimates of Mp = 4.94-8.09 M J and Rp = 1.406 ± 0.038 R J. Finally, we measure a Kepler midoccultation time that is 34.0 ± 6.9 s earlier than expected based on the midtransit time and the delay due to light-travel time and discuss possible scenarios.

  8. The true stellar parameters of the Kepler target list

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farmer, R.; Kolb, U.; Norton, A. J.

    2013-08-01

    Using population synthesis tools we create a synthetic Kepler Input Catalogue (KIC) and subject it to the Kepler Stellar Classification Program (SCP) method for determining stellar parameters such as the effective temperature Teff and surface gravity g. We achieve a satisfactory match between the synthetic KIC and the real KIC in the log g versus log Teff diagram, while there is a significant difference between the actual physical stellar parameters and those derived by the SCP of the stars in the synthetic sample. We find a median difference ΔTeff = +500 K and ˜Δlog g = -0.2 dex for main-sequence (MS) stars, and ˜ΔTeff = +50 K and Δlog g = -0.5 dex for giants, although there is a large variation across parameter space. For a MS star the median difference in g would equate to a ˜3 per cent increase in stellar radius and a consequent ˜3 per cent overestimate of the radius for any transiting exoplanet. We find no significant difference between ΔTeff and Δlog g for single stars and the primary star in a binary system. We also re-created the Kepler target selection method and found that the binary fraction is unchanged by the target selection. Binaries are selected in similar proportions to single star systems; the fraction of MS dwarfs in the sample increases from about 75 to 80 per cent, and the giant star fraction decreases from 25 to 20 per cent.

  9. Do the Kepler AGN light curves need reprocessing?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasliwal, Vishal P.; Vogeley, Michael S.; Richards, Gordon T.; Williams, Joshua; Carini, Michael T.

    2015-10-01

    We gauge the impact of spacecraft-induced effects on the inferred variability properties of the light curve of the Seyfert 1 AGN Zw 229-15 observed by Kepler. We compare the light curve of Zw 229-15 obtained from the Kepler MAST data base with a reprocessed light curve constructed from raw pixel data. We use the first-order structure function, SF(δt), to fit both light curves to the damped power-law PSD (power spectral density) of Kasliwal et al. On short time-scales, we find a steeper log PSD slope (γ = 2.90 to within 10 per cent) for the reprocessed light curve as compared to the light curve found on MAST (γ = 2.65 to within 10 per cent) - both inconsistent with a damped random walk (DRW) which requires γ = 2. The log PSD slope inferred for the reprocessed light curve is consistent with previous results that study the same reprocessed light curve. The turnover time-scale is almost identical for both light curves (27.1 and 27.5 d for the reprocessed and MAST data base light curves). Based on the obvious visual difference between the two versions of the light curve and on the PSD model fits, we conclude that there remain significant levels of spacecraft-induced effects in the standard pipeline reduction of the Kepler data. Reprocessing the light curves will change the model inferenced from the data but is unlikely to change the overall scientific conclusions reached by Kasliwal et al. - not all AGN light curves are consistent with the DRW.

  10. KEPLER FLARES. I. ACTIVE AND INACTIVE M DWARFS

    SciTech Connect

    Hawley, Suzanne L.; Davenport, James R. A.; Kowalski, Adam F.; Wisniewski, John P.; Deitrick, Russell; Hilton, Eric J.; Hebb, Leslie

    2014-12-20

    We analyzed Kepler short-cadence M dwarf observations. Spectra from the Astrophysical Research Consortium 3.5 m telescope identify magnetically active (Hα in emission) stars. The active stars are of mid-M spectral type, have numerous flares, and have well-defined rotational modulation due to starspots. The inactive stars are of early M type, exhibit less starspot signature, and have fewer flares. A Kepler to U-band energy scaling allows comparison of the Kepler flare frequency distributions with previous ground-based data. M dwarfs span a large range of flare frequency and energy, blurring the distinction between active and inactive stars designated solely by the presence of Hα. We analyzed classical and complex (multiple peak) flares on GJ 1243, finding strong correlations between flare energy, amplitude, duration, and decay time, with only a weak dependence on rise time. Complex flares last longer and have higher energy at the same amplitude, and higher energy flares are more likely to be complex. A power law fits the energy distribution for flares with log E{sub K{sub p}}> 31 erg, but the predicted number of low-energy flares far exceeds the number observed, at energies where flares are still easily detectable, indicating that the power-law distribution may flatten at low energy. There is no correlation of flare occurrence or energy with starspot phase, the flare waiting time distribution is consistent with flares occurring randomly in time, and the energies of consecutive flares are uncorrelated. These observations support a scenario where many independent active regions on the stellar surface are contributing to the observed flare rate.

  11. Kepler mission exoplanet transit data analysis using fractal imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dehipawala, S.; Tremberger, G.; Majid, Y.; Holden, T.; Lieberman, D.; Cheung, T.

    2012-10-01

    The Kepler mission is designed to survey a fist-sized patch of the sky within the Milky Way galaxy for the discovery of exoplanets, with emphasis on near Earth-size exoplanets in or near the habitable zone. The Kepler space telescope would detect the brightness fluctuation of a host star and extract periodic dimming in the lightcurve caused by exoplanets that cross in front of their host star. The photometric data of a host star could be interpreted as an image where fractal imaging would be applicable. Fractal analysis could elucidate the incomplete data limitation posed by the data integration window. The fractal dimension difference between the lower and upper halves of the image could be used to identify anomalies associated with transits and stellar activity as the buried signals are expected to be in the lower half of such an image. Using an image fractal dimension resolution of 0.04 and defining the whole image fractal dimension as the Chi-square expected value of the fractal dimension, a p-value can be computed and used to establish a numerical threshold for decision making that may be useful in further studies of lightcurves of stars with candidate exoplanets. Similar fractal dimension difference approaches would be applicable to the study of photometric time series data via the Higuchi method. The correlated randomness of the brightness data series could be used to support inferences based on image fractal dimension differences. Fractal compression techniques could be used to transform a lightcurve image, resulting in a new image with a new fractal dimension value, but this method has been found to be ineffective for images with high information capacity. The three studied criteria could be used together to further constrain the Kepler list of candidate lightcurves of stars with possible exoplanets that may be planned for ground-based telescope confirmation.

  12. PREDICTING A THIRD PLANET IN THE KEPLER-47 CIRCUMBINARY SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    Hinse, Tobias C.; Haghighipour, Nader; Kostov, Veselin B.; Goździewski, Krzysztof

    2015-01-20

    We have studied the possibility that a third circumbinary planet in the Kepler-47 planetary system is the source of the single unexplained transiting event reported during the discovery of these planets. We applied the MEGNO technique to identify regions in the phase space where a third planet can maintain quasi-periodic orbits, and assessed the long-term stability of the three-planet system by integrating the entire five bodies (binary + planets) for 10 Myr. We identified several stable regions between the two known planets as well as a region beyond the orbit of Kepler-47c where the orbit of the third planet could be stable. To constrain the orbit of this planet, we used the measured duration of the unexplained transit event (∼4.15 hr) and compared that with the transit duration of the third planet in an ensemble of stable orbits. To remove the degeneracy among the orbits with similar transit durations, we considered the planet to be in a circular orbit and calculated its period analytically. The latter places an upper limit of 424 days on the orbital period of the third planet. Our analysis suggests that if the unexplained transit event detected during the discovery of the Kepler-47 circumbinary system is due to a planetary object, this planet will be in a low eccentricity orbit with a semi-major axis smaller than 1.24 AU. Further constraining of the mass and orbital elements of this planet requires a re-analysis of the entire currently available data, including those obtained post-announcement of the discovery of this system. We present details of our methodology and discuss the implication of the results.

  13. Efficient Solutions of Kepler's Equation via Hybrid and Digital Approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oltrogge, Daniel L.

    2015-12-01

    The solution of Kepler's equation is accomplished via families of hybrid and table lookup techniques. A new arithmetic operation timing approach with general application to scientific programming is used to accurately estimate performance of each Kepler's equation solution technique. The hybrid approaches couple a power series expansion starting approximation with nine different types of higher-order corrective step methods. The resulting computationally efficient non-iterative methods avoid "if" statements and directly yield in-plane Euler rotation angles necessary to map orbit elements to orbital position. The best-performing of the nine hybrid methods are up to two times faster than the original efficient Laguerre iterative method and achieve worst-case resultant true anomaly accuracies down to machine precision at 3 × 10-11° for eccentricities up to 0.999999. This matches or exceeds the performance of iterative methods and translates to less than three micro-meters at GEO altitude. Meanwhile, six digital approaches were explored, with the best table lookup approach boasting a ten-fold speed increase with a worst-case accuracy of 1 × 10-6° (154 mm) for an eccentricity of 0.999999. These combinations of accuracy and speed performance make both the hybrid and table lookup approaches well-suited for in-line incorporation into a wide range of low- to high-fidelity semi-analytic orbit propagators and multi-threaded or vector programming languages and computing hardware (GPUs, etc.). And finally, a new operator-based computational timing technique is designed and employed to estimate the performance of math-laden computer programs, with sample application to all of the aforementioned Kepler's equation solution techniques.

  14. Kepler AutoRegressive Planet Search: Motivation & Methodology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caceres, Gabriel; Feigelson, Eric; Jogesh Babu, G.; Bahamonde, Natalia; Bertin, Karine; Christen, Alejandra; Curé, Michel; Meza, Cristian

    2015-08-01

    The Kepler AutoRegressive Planet Search (KARPS) project uses statistical methodology associated with autoregressive (AR) processes to model Kepler lightcurves in order to improve exoplanet transit detection in systems with high stellar variability. We also introduce a planet-search algorithm to detect transits in time-series residuals after application of the AR models. One of the main obstacles in detecting faint planetary transits is the intrinsic stellar variability of the host star. The variability displayed by many stars may have autoregressive properties, wherein later flux values are correlated with previous ones in some manner. Auto-Regressive Moving-Average (ARMA) models, Generalized Auto-Regressive Conditional Heteroskedasticity (GARCH), and related models are flexible, phenomenological methods used with great success to model stochastic temporal behaviors in many fields of study, particularly econometrics. Powerful statistical methods are implemented in the public statistical software environment R and its many packages. Modeling involves maximum likelihood fitting, model selection, and residual analysis. These techniques provide a useful framework to model stellar variability and are used in KARPS with the objective of reducing stellar noise to enhance opportunities to find as-yet-undiscovered planets. Our analysis procedure consisting of three steps: pre-processing of the data to remove discontinuities, gaps and outliers; ARMA-type model selection and fitting; and transit signal search of the residuals using a new Transit Comb Filter (TCF) that replaces traditional box-finding algorithms. We apply the procedures to simulated Kepler-like time series with known stellar and planetary signals to evaluate the effectiveness of the KARPS procedures. The ARMA-type modeling is effective at reducing stellar noise, but also reduces and transforms the transit signal into ingress/egress spikes. A periodogram based on the TCF is constructed to concentrate the signal

  15. χ2 Discriminators for Transiting Planet Detection in Kepler Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seader, Shawn; Tenenbaum, P.; Jenkins, J.

    2012-10-01

    The Kepler Mission continuously observes a host of target stars in a 115 square-degree field of view to discover Earth-like planets transiting Sun-like stars through analysis of photometric data. The Kepler Science Operations Center at NASA Ames Research Center processes the data with the Science Processing Pipeline, which is composed of several modules including the Transiting Planet Search (TPS). To search for transit signatures, TPS employs a bank of wavelet-based matched filters that form a grid on a three dimensional parameter space of transit duration, period, and epoch. Owing to non-stationary and non-Gaussian noise, uncorrected systematics, and poorly mitigated noise events of either astrophysical or non-astrophysical nature, large spurious Threshold Crossing Events (TCE’s) can be produced by the matched filtering performed in TPS. These false alarms waste resources as they propagate through the remainder of the Pipeline, and so a method to discriminate against them is crucial in maintaining the desired sensitivity to true events. Here we describe four separate χ2 tests which represent a novel application of the formalism developed by Allen for false alarm mitigation in searches for gravitational waves. The basic idea behind these vetoes is to break up the matched filter output into several contributions and compare each contribution with what is expected under the assumption that a true signal is present in the data. Vetoes can then be constructed which, under certain assumptions, have been shown to be χ2 distributed with expectation values that are independent of whether or not a true signal is present, thereby making them useful discriminators. The four different ways of breaking up the output and forming χ2 vetoes illustrated here, allow discrimination against different classes of false alarms. Kepler was selected as the 10th mission of the Discovery Program. Funding for this mission is provided by NASA’s Science Mission Directorate.

  16. Atmospheric characterization of the hot Jupiter Kepler-13Ab

    SciTech Connect

    Shporer, Avi; O'Rourke, Joseph G.; Knutson, Heather A.; Szabó, Gyula M.; Zhao, Ming; Burrows, Adam; Fortney, Jonathan; Agol, Eric; Cowan, Nicolas B.; Desert, Jean-Michel; Howard, Andrew W.; Isaacson, Howard; Lewis, Nikole K.; Showman, Adam P.; Todorov, Kamen O.

    2014-06-10

    Kepler-13Ab (= KOI-13.01) is a unique transiting hot Jupiter. It is one of very few known short-period planets orbiting a hot A-type star, making it one of the hottest planets currently known. The availability of Kepler data allows us to measure the planet's occultation (secondary eclipse) and phase curve in the optical, which we combine with occultations observed by warm Spitzer at 4.5 μm and 3.6 μm and a ground-based occultation observation in the K{sub s} band (2.1 μm). We derive a day-side hemisphere temperature of 2750 ± 160 K as the effective temperature of a black body showing the same occultation depths. Comparing the occultation depths with one-dimensional planetary atmosphere models suggests the presence of an atmospheric temperature inversion. Our analysis shows evidence for a relatively high geometric albedo, A {sub g} = 0.33{sub −0.06}{sup +0.04}. While measured with a simplistic method, a high A {sub g} is supported also by the fact that the one-dimensional atmosphere models underestimate the occultation depth in the optical. We use stellar spectra to determine the dilution, in the four wide bands where occultation was measured, due to the visual stellar binary companion 1.''15 ± 0.''05 away. The revised stellar parameters measured using these spectra are combined with other measurements, leading to revised planetary mass and radius estimates of M{sub p} = 4.94-8.09 M {sub J} and R{sub p} = 1.406 ± 0.038 R {sub J}. Finally, we measure a Kepler midoccultation time that is 34.0 ± 6.9 s earlier than expected based on the midtransit time and the delay due to light-travel time and discuss possible scenarios.

  17. Metal-Rich SX Phe Stars in the Kepler Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nemec, James M.; Balona, Luis A.; Kinemuchi, Karen; Murphy, Simon J.; Jeon, Young-Beom; Kurtz, Donald W.; Pigulski, Andrzej

    2015-09-01

    High-resolution spectroscopic observations have been made for 32 of the 34 candidate SX Phe stars identified in the Kepler field by Balona & Nemec (2012). All available long-and short-cadence Q0-Q17 Kepler photometry has been analyzed for the 34 candidates. Radial velocities (RVs), space motions (U, V, W), projected rotation velocities (υ sin i), spectral types, and atmospheric characteristics (Teff, log g, [M/H], υmic, etc.) were derived from ~ 160 spectra taken with the ESPaDOnS spectrograph on the Canada-France-Hawaii 3.6-m telescope and with the ARCES spectrograph on the Apache Point Observatory 3.5-m telescope. Two thirds of the stars are fast rotators with υ sin i > 50 km/s, including four stars with υ sin i > 200 km/s. Three of the stars have (negative) RVs > 250 km/s and retrograde space motions, and seven stars have total space motions > 400 km/s. All the spectroscopically measured SX Phe candidates have positions in a Toomre diagram that are consistent with being bona fide halo and thick-disk stars. Although several stars show a marked metal weakness, the mean [Fe/H] of the sample is near 0.0 dex (σ ~ 0.25 dex), which is considerably more metal-rich than is normally expected for a sample of Pop. II stars. Observed pulsation frequency modulations and optical time delays suggest that at least eight of the SX Phe stars are in binary systems, some of which show significant RV variations. Six of the time-delay binaries have secondary masses ranging from 0.05 to 0.70 M⊙ and orbital periods in the range 9 to 1570 days. Another star appears to be an ellipsoidal variable with a 2.3-day orbital period; and two other systems have orbital periods longer than the ~ 4-year sampling interval of the Kepler data.

  18. KEPLER INPUT CATALOG: PHOTOMETRIC CALIBRATION AND STELLAR CLASSIFICATION

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Timothy M.; Latham, David W.; Esquerdo, Gilbert A.; Everett, Mark E. E-mail: latham@cfa.harvard.edu E-mail: everett@noao.edu

    2011-10-15

    We describe the photometric calibration and stellar classification methods used by the Stellar Classification Project to produce the Kepler Input Catalog (KIC). The KIC is a catalog containing photometric and physical data for sources in the Kepler mission field of view; it is used by the mission to select optimal targets. Four of the visible-light (g, r, i, z) magnitudes used in the KIC are tied to Sloan Digital Sky Survey magnitudes; the fifth (D51) is an AB magnitude calibrated to be consistent with Castelli and Kurucz (CK) model atmosphere fluxes. We derived atmospheric extinction corrections from hourly observations of secondary standard fields within the Kepler field of view. For these filters and extinction estimates, repeatability of absolute photometry for stars brighter than magnitude 15 is typically 2%. We estimated stellar parameters {l_brace}T{sub eff}, log (g), log (Z), E{sub B-V}{r_brace} using Bayesian posterior probability maximization to match observed colors to CK stellar atmosphere models. We applied Bayesian priors describing the distribution of solar-neighborhood stars in the color-magnitude diagram, in log (Z), and in height above the galactic plane. Several comparisons with samples of stars classified by other means indicate that for 4500 K {<=}T{sub eff} {<=} 6500 K, our classifications are reliable within about {+-}200 K and 0.4 dex in log (g) for dwarfs, with somewhat larger log (g) uncertainties for giants. It is difficult to assess the reliability of our log (Z) estimates, but there is reason to suspect that it is poor, particularly at extreme T{sub eff}. Comparisons between the CK models and observed colors are generally satisfactory with some exceptions, notably for stars cooler than 4500 K. Of great importance for the Kepler mission, for T{sub eff} {<=} 5400 K, comparison with asteroseismic results shows that the distinction between main-sequence stars and giants is reliable with about 98% confidence. Larger errors in log (g) occur

  19. Classification of Ultra Blue Sources in the Kepler Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Odden, Caroline; Seebode, S.; Childers, J. M.; Melton, C.; McCutcheon, M.; Ciardi, D.; Howell, S. B.

    2013-01-01

    Our study focused on a sample of ~200 ultra blue sources in the Kepler Field extracted from the Howell-Everett UBV survey. Utilizing data from this survey, the KIC, 2MASS, GALEX, and WISE, we generated spectral energy distributions (SEDs) for every object. We compared these SEDs with known SEDs of a variety of standard blue sources as well as visually examining HEASARC, UBV, DSS, 2MASS, and WISE image data. We were able to categorize our sources as stars, white dwarfs, cataclysmic variables, active galactic nuclei, x-ray binaries, planetary nebula nuclei, or other. We will present examples of our classification process and a table of results.

  20. Ensemble supervised and unsupervised learning with Kepler variable stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bass, Gideon

    Variable star analysis and classification is an important task in the understanding of stellar features and processes. While historically classifications have been done manually by highly skilled experts, the recent and rapid expansion in the quantity and quality of data has demanded new techniques, most notably automatic classification through supervised machine learning. I present a study on variable stars in the Kepler field using these techniques, and the novel work of unsupervised learning. I use new methods of characterization and multiple independent classifiers to produce an ensemble classifier that equals or matches existing classification abilities. I also explore the possibilities of unsupervised learning in making novel feature discovery in stars.

  1. Kepler Planet Detection Mission: Introduction and First Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borucki, William; Koch, David; Basri, Gibor; Batalha, Natalie; Brown, Timothy; Lissauer, Jack J.; Morrison, David; Rowe, Jason; Bryson, Stephen T.; Dotson, Jessie; Haas,Michael; Gautier, Thomas N.

    2010-01-01

    The Kepler Mission is designed to determine the frequency of Earth-size and rocky planets in and near the habitable zone (HZ) of solar-like stars. The HZ is defined to be the region of space where a rocky planet could maintain liquid water on its surface. Kepler is the 10th competitively-selected Discovery Mission and was launched on March 6, 2009. Since completing its commissioning, Kepler has observed over 156,000 stars simultaneously and near continuously to search for planets that periodically pass in front of their host star (transit). The photometric precision is approximately 23 ppm for 50% of the 12th magnitude dwarf stars for an integration period of 6.5 hours. During the first 3 months of operation the photometer detected transit-like signatures from more than 200 stars. Careful examination shows that many of these events are false-positives such as small stars orbiting large stars or blends of target stars with eclipsing binary stars. Ground-based follow-up observations confirm the discovery of five new exoplanets with sizes between 0.37 andl.6 Jupiter radii (R(sub J)) and orbital periods ranging from 3.2 to 4.9 days. Ground-based observations with the Keck 1, Hobby-Ebberly, Hale, WIYN, MMT, Tillinghast, Shane, and Nordic Optical Telescopes are used to vet the planetary candidates and measure the masses of the putative planets. Observations of occultations and phase variations of hot, short-period planets such as HT-P-7b provide a probe of atmospheric properties. Asteroseismic analysis already shows the presence of p-mode oscillations in several stars. Such observations will be used to measure the mean stellar density and infer the stellar size and age. For stars too dim to permit asteroseismology, observations of the centroid motion of target stars will be used to measure the parallax and be combined with photometric measurements to estimate stellar sizes. Four open clusters are being observed to determine stellar rotation rates as a function of age and

  2. Light curve solutions of the ultrashort-period Kepler binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kjurkchieva, D.; Dimitrov, D.

    2015-02-01

    We carried out light curve solutions of the ultrashort-period binaries with MS components observed by $Kepler$. All six targets turned out almost in thermal contact with contact or slightly overcontact configurations. Two of them, KID 4921906 and KID 6309193, are not eclipsing but reveal ellipsoidal and spot variability. One of the components of KID 8108785 exhibits inherent, quasi-sinusoidal, small-amplitude variability. KID 12055255 turned out a very rare case of ultrashort-period overcontact binary consisting of two M dwarfs. Our modeling indicated that the variability of KID 9532219 is due to eclipses but not to $\\delta$ Sct pulsations as it was previously supposed.

  3. Kepler Observations of Rapid Optical Variability in Active Galactic Nuclei

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mushotzky, R. F.; Edelson, R.; Baumgartner, W. H.; Gandhi, P.

    2012-01-01

    Over three quarters in 2010 - 2011, Kepler monitored optical emission from four active galactic nuclei (AGN) with approx 30 min sampling, > 90% duty cycle and approx < 0.1% repeatability. These data determined the AGN optical fluctuation power spectral density functions (PSDs) over a wide range in temporal frequency. Fits to these PSDs yielded power law slopes of -2.6 to -3.3, much steeper than typically seen in the X-rays. We find evidence that individual AGN exhibit intrinsically different PSD slopes. The steep PSD fits are a challenge to recent AGN variability models but seem consistent with first order MRI theoretical calculations of accretion disk fluctuations.

  4. Extension of Gauss' method for the solution of Kepler's equation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Battin, R. H.; Fill, T. J.

    1978-01-01

    Gauss' method for solving Kepler's equation is extended to arbitrary epochs and orbital eccentricities. Although originally developed for near parabolic orbits in the vicinity of pericenter, a generalization of the method leads to a highly efficient algorithm which compares favorably to other methods in current use. A key virtue of the technique is that convergence is obtained by a method of successive substitutions with an initial approximation that is independent of the orbital parameters. The equations of the algorithm are universal, i.e., independent of the nature of the orbit whether elliptic, hyperbolic, parabolic or rectilinear.

  5. Kepler Input Catalog: Photometric Calibration and Stellar Classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Timothy M.; Latham, David W.; Everett, Mark E.; Esquerdo, Gilbert A.

    2011-10-01

    We describe the photometric calibration and stellar classification methods used by the Stellar Classification Project to produce the Kepler Input Catalog (KIC). The KIC is a catalog containing photometric and physical data for sources in the Kepler mission field of view; it is used by the mission to select optimal targets. Four of the visible-light (g, r, i, z) magnitudes used in the KIC are tied to Sloan Digital Sky Survey magnitudes; the fifth (D51) is an AB magnitude calibrated to be consistent with Castelli & Kurucz (CK) model atmosphere fluxes. We derived atmospheric extinction corrections from hourly observations of secondary standard fields within the Kepler field of view. For these filters and extinction estimates, repeatability of absolute photometry for stars brighter than magnitude 15 is typically 2%. We estimated stellar parameters {T eff, log (g), log (Z), E B - V } using Bayesian posterior probability maximization to match observed colors to CK stellar atmosphere models. We applied Bayesian priors describing the distribution of solar-neighborhood stars in the color-magnitude diagram, in log (Z), and in height above the galactic plane. Several comparisons with samples of stars classified by other means indicate that for 4500 K <=T eff <= 6500 K, our classifications are reliable within about ±200 K and 0.4 dex in log (g) for dwarfs, with somewhat larger log (g) uncertainties for giants. It is difficult to assess the reliability of our log (Z) estimates, but there is reason to suspect that it is poor, particularly at extreme T eff. Comparisons between the CK models and observed colors are generally satisfactory with some exceptions, notably for stars cooler than 4500 K. Of great importance for the Kepler mission, for T eff <= 5400 K, comparison with asteroseismic results shows that the distinction between main-sequence stars and giants is reliable with about 98% confidence. Larger errors in log (g) occur for warmer stars, for which our filter set

  6. Kepler Mission to Detect Earth-like Planes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kondo, Yoji

    2005-01-01

    Kepler Mission has been approved and funded for launch into an Earth-trailing orbit in 2007. The satellite observatory is designed to detect Earth-like planets in the Cygnus region of the sky (one hundred square degrees). If all goes as planned, we expect to detect some 60 Earth-like planets, plus a greater number of larger planets. None of the planets that have been discovered so far are not Earth-like; they are mostly Jupiter-sized, large planets.

  7. KIC11560447: An Active Eclipsing Binary From the Kepler Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozavci, Ibrahim; Hussain, Gaitee; Yılmaz, Mesut; O'Neal, Douglas; osman Selam, Selim; Şenavcı, Hakan Volkan

    2016-07-01

    We performed spectroscopic and photometric analysis of the detached eclipsing binary KIC11560447, in order to investigate the spot activity of the system. In this context, we reconstructed the surface maps with the help of the code DoTS, using time series spectra obtained at the 2.1m Otto Struve Telescope of the McDonald Observatory. We also analysed high precision Kepler light curves of the system simultaneously with the code DoTS to reveal the spot migration and activity behaviour.

  8. Characterizing the Period Ratio Distribution of Kepler Exoplanetary Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conaway, James L.; Ragozzine, Darin

    2016-01-01

    Many of the exoplanetary systems discovered by the Kepler space telescope demonstrate unusual properties which need to be explored in order to better understand planetary system formation and evolution. Among these interesting properties is an excess in the number of planets orbiting in resonance or near-resonance with their neighbors. The prevailing assumption in the planetary sciences community is that these are real features of the exoplanet population, but many theories developed on this assumption produce a resonance structure quite different from what we see. In our work we explore the possibility that the actual resonances may not be as we observe them, and may instead be explained by a combination of real resonance features and/or observational bias resulting from geometric effects. In particular, if the near-resonant systems have a different inclination distribution than other systems, then it is possible for them to be over or under-represented.We analyze the existing Kepler data and generate models which approximately represent the empirical period ratio distribution. The 2:1 and 3:2 just-wide-of-resonance excesses are included in the model, along with the deficit of period ratios just short of the 2:1 resonance. We test the Kepler data set against these models using the Python emcee package in order to determine the best-fit parameters for each model. We then address the inclination distribution question by generating two-planet systems with different inclination distributions for the near-resonant systems. We use the CORBITS package (https://github.com/jbrakensiek/CORBITS, Brakensiek & Ragozzine, submitted) to determine the probability of detecting both planets in transit. These tests adjust the relative sizes of the resonance excesses as well as orbital parameters (primarily inclination and nodal alignments) in order to determine which combinations of parameters would create in an observational bias resulting in the resonance excesses seen in the

  9. Ensemble Supervised and Unsupervised Learning with Kepler Variable Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bass, Gideon; Kirk Borne

    2016-06-01

    Variable star analysis and classification is an important task in the understanding of stellar features and processes. While historically classifications have been done manually by highly skilled experts, the recent and rapid expansion in the quantity and quality of data has demanded new techniques, most notably automatic classification through supervised machine learning. I present a study on variable stars in the Kepler field using these techniques, and the novel work of unsupervised learning. I use new methods of characterization and multiple independent classifiers to produce an ensemble classifier that equals or matches existing classification abilities. I also explore the possibilities of unsupervised learning in making novel feature discovery in stars.

  10. Photometry of very bright stars with Kepler and K2 smear data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pope, B. J. S.; White, T. R.; Huber, D.; Murphy, S. J.; Bedding, T. R.; Caldwell, D. A.; Sarai, A.; Aigrain, S.; Barclay, T.

    2016-01-01

    High-precision time series photometry with the Kepler satellite has been crucial to our understanding both of exoplanets, and via asteroseismology, of stellar physics. After the failure of two reaction wheels, the Kepler satellite has been repurposed as Kepler-2 (K2), observing fields close to the ecliptic plane. As these fields contain many more bright stars than the original Kepler field, K2 provides an unprecedented opportunity to study nearby objects amenable to detailed follow-up with ground-based instruments. Due to bandwidth constraints, only a small fraction of pixels can be downloaded, with the result that most bright stars which saturate the detector are not observed. We show that engineering data acquired for photometric calibration, consisting of collateral `smear' measurements, can be used to reconstruct light curves for bright targets not otherwise observable with Kepler/K2. Here we present some examples from Kepler Quarter 6 and K2 Campaign 3, including the δ Scuti variables HD 178875 and 70 Aqr, and the red giant HR 8500 displaying solar-like oscillations. We compare aperture and smear photometry where possible, and also study targets not previously observed. These encouraging results suggest this new method can be applied to most Kepler and K2 fields.

  11. KEPLER ECLIPSING BINARY STARS. II. 2165 ECLIPSING BINARIES IN THE SECOND DATA RELEASE

    SciTech Connect

    Slawson, Robert W.; Doyle, Laurance R.; Prsa, Andrej; Engle, Scott G.; Conroy, Kyle; Coughlin, Jared; Welsh, William F.; Orosz, Jerome A.; Gregg, Trevor A.; Fetherolf, Tara; Short, Donald R.; Windmiller, Gur; Rucker, Michael; Batalha, Natalie; Fabrycky, Daniel C.; Jenkins, Jon M.; Mullally, F.; Seader, Shawn E.

    2011-11-15

    The Kepler Mission provides nearly continuous monitoring of {approx}156,000 objects with unprecedented photometric precision. Coincident with the first data release, we presented a catalog of 1879 eclipsing binary systems identified within the 115 deg{sup 2} Kepler field of view (FOV). Here, we provide an updated catalog augmented with the second Kepler data release which increases the baseline nearly fourfold to 125 days. Three hundred and eighty-six new systems have been added, ephemerides and principal parameters have been recomputed. We have removed 42 previously cataloged systems that are now clearly recognized as short-period pulsating variables and another 58 blended systems where we have determined that the Kepler target object is not itself the eclipsing binary. A number of interesting objects are identified. We present several exemplary cases: four eclipsing binaries that exhibit extra (tertiary) eclipse events; and eight systems that show clear eclipse timing variations indicative of the presence of additional bodies bound in the system. We have updated the period and galactic latitude distribution diagrams. With these changes, the total number of identified eclipsing binary systems in the Kepler FOV has increased to 2165, 1.4% of the Kepler target stars. An online version of this catalog is maintained at http://keplerEBs.villanova.edu.

  12. Determining the architecture of the Kepler-297 system using transit timing variations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diamond-Lowe, Hannah; Stevenson, Kevin B.; Fabrycky, Daniel; Ballard, Sarah; Agol, Eric; Bean, Jacob; Holman, Matthew J.; Ragozzine, Darin

    2015-01-01

    It is essential to explore the architectures of exoplanetary systems as we attempt to understand planet formation histories and determine the rate of occurrence of habitable-zone rocky planets. We focus on the Kepler-297 system which hosts three transiting planets, Kepler-297b, Kepler-297c, and KOI-1426.03. We re-analyze extant Kepler data of the system, as well as new Spitzer data of Kepler-297c, to constrain the transit time variations (TTVs) of the three transiting planets in the system. We feed these results into a dynamical analysis in which the TTVs of the transiting planets constrain their orbital parameters, as well as those of potential non-transiting planets. The gravitational interactions between the Kepler-297 planets allow us to derive their mass ratios. We find that the orbital parameters of the three transiting planets are well-fit by a model that includes a non-transiting fourth planet outside of the three transitors. We are also able to constrain the orbital parameters of the outer-most transitor, thereby confirming it as the planet Kepler-297d.

  13. PLANET HUNTERS: ASSESSING THE KEPLER INVENTORY OF SHORT-PERIOD PLANETS

    SciTech Connect

    Schwamb, Megan E.; Lintott, Chris J.; Lynn, Stuart; Smith, Arfon M.; Simpson, Robert J.; Fischer, Debra A.; Giguere, Matthew J.; Brewer, John M.; Parrish, Michael; Schawinski, Kevin

    2012-08-01

    We present the results from a search of data from the first 33.5 days of the Kepler science mission (Quarter 1) for exoplanet transits by the Planet Hunters citizen science project. Planet Hunters enlists members of the general public to visually identify transits in the publicly released Kepler light curves via the World Wide Web. Over 24,000 volunteers reviewed the Kepler Quarter 1 data set. We examine the abundance of {>=}2 R{sub Circled-Plus} planets on short-period (<15 days) orbits based on Planet Hunters detections. We present these results along with an analysis of the detection efficiency of human classifiers to identify planetary transits including a comparison to the Kepler inventory of planet candidates. Although performance drops rapidly for smaller radii, {>=}4 R{sub Circled-Plus} Planet Hunters {>=}85% efficient at identifying transit signals for planets with periods less than 15 days for the Kepler sample of target stars. Our high efficiency rate for simulated transits along with recovery of the majority of Kepler {>=}4 R{sub Circled-Plus} planets suggests that the Kepler inventory of {>=}4 R{sub Circled-Plus} short-period planets is nearly complete.

  14. Compositional Constraints on the Best Characterized Rocky Exoplanet, Kepler-36 b

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogers, L.; Deck, K.; Lissauer, J. J.; Carter, J.

    2014-12-01

    Kepler-36 is an extreme planetary system, consisting of two transiting sub-Neptune-size planets that revolve around a sub-giant star with orbital periods of 13.84 and 16.24 days. Mutual gravitational interactions between the two planets perturb the planets' transit times, allowing the planets' masses to be measured. Despite the similarity of their masses and orbital radii, the planets show a stark contrast in their mean densities; the inner planet (Kepler-36 b) is more than eight times as dense as its outer companion planet (Kepler-36 c). We perform a photo-dynamical analysis of the Kepler-36 system based on more than three years of Kepler photometry. With N-body integrations of initial conditions sampled from the photo-dynamical fits, we further refine the properties of the system by ruling out solutions that show large scale instability within 5 Giga-days. Ultimately, we measure the planets' masses within 4.2% precision, and the planets' radii with 1.8% precision. Kepler-36 b is currently the rocky exoplanet with the most precisely measured mass and radius. Kepler-36 b's mass and radius are consistent with a Earth-like composition, and an iron-enhanced Mercury-like composition is ruled out.

  15. Compositional Constraints on the Best Characterized Rocky Exoplanet, Kepler-36 b

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogers, Leslie; Deck, Katherine; Lissauer, Jack J.; Carter, Joshua A.

    2015-01-01

    Kepler-36 is an extreme planetary system, consisting of two transiting sub-Neptune-size planets that revolve around a sub-giant star with orbital periods of 13.84 and 16.24 days. Mutual gravitational interactions between the two planets perturb the planets' transit times, allowing the planets' masses to be measured. Despite the similarity of their masses and orbital radii, the planets show a stark contrast in their mean densities; the inner planet (Kepler-36 b) is more than eight times as dense as its outer companion planet (Kepler-36 c). We perform a photo-dynamical analysis of the Kepler-36 system based on more than three years of Kepler photometry. With N-body integrations of initial conditions sampled from the photo-dynamical fits, we further refine the properties of the system by ruling out solutions that show large-scale instability within 5 Giga-days. Ultimately, we measure the planets' masses within 4.2% precision, and the planets' radii with 1.8% precision. Kepler-36 b is currently the rocky exoplanet with the most precisely measured mass and radius. Kepler-36 b's mass and radius are consistent with an Earth-like composition, and an iron-enhanced Mercury-like composition is ruled out.

  16. Compositional Constraints on the Best Characterized Rocky Exoplanet, Kepler-36 b

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogers, Leslie Anne; Deck, Katherine; Lissauer, Jack; Carter, Joshua

    2015-08-01

    Kepler-36 is an extreme planetary system, consisting of two transiting sub-Neptune-size planets that revolve around a sub-giant star with orbital periods of 13.84 and 16.24 days. Mutual gravitational interactions between the two planets perturb the planets' transit times, allowing the planets' masses to be measured. Despite the similarity of their masses and orbital radii, the planets show a stark contrast in their mean densities; the inner planet (Kepler-36 b) is more than eight times as dense as its outer companion planet (Kepler-36 c). We perform a photo-dynamical analysis of the Kepler-36 system based on more than three years of Kepler photometry. With N-body integrations of initial conditions sampled from the photo-dynamical fits, we further refine the properties of the system by ruling out solutions that show large scale instability within 5 Giga-days. Ultimately, we measure the planets' masses within 4.2% precision, and the planets' radii with 1.8% precision. Kepler-36 b is currently the rocky exoplanet with the most precisely measured mass and radius. Kepler-36 b’s mass and radius are consistent with a Earth-like composition, and an iron-enhanced Mercury-like composition is ruled out.

  17. No Timing Variations Observed in Third Transit of Snow-line Exoplanet Kepler-421b

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalba, Paul A.; Muirhead, Philip S.

    2016-07-01

    We observed Kepler-421 during the anticipated third transit of the snow-line exoplanet Kepler-421b in order to constrain the existence and extent of transit timing variations (TTVs). Previously, the Kepler spacecraft only observed two transits of Kepler-421b, leaving the planet’s transit ephemeris unconstrained. Our visible light, time-series observations from the 4.3 m Discovery Channel Telescope were designed to capture pre-transit baseline and the partial transit of Kepler-421b, barring significant TTVs. We use the light curves to assess the probabilities of various transit models using both the posterior odds ratio and the Bayesian Information Criterion, and find that a transit model with no TTVs is favored to 3.6σ confidence. These observations suggest that Kepler-421b is either alone in its system or is only experiencing minor dynamic interactions with an unseen companion. With the Kepler-421b ephemeris constrained, we calculate future transit times and discuss the opportunity to characterize the atmosphere of this cold, long-period exoplanet via transmission spectroscopy. Our investigation emphasizes the difficulties associated with observing long-period exoplanet transits and the consequences that arise from failing to refine transit ephemerides.

  18. TRIPLE-STAR CANDIDATES AMONG THE KEPLER BINARIES

    SciTech Connect

    Rappaport, S.; Deck, K.; Sanchis-Ojeda, R.; Levine, A.; Borkovits, T.; Carter, J.; El Mellah, I.; Kalomeni, B. E-mail: kdeck@mit.edu E-mail: aml@space.mit.edu E-mail: jacarter@cfa.harvard.edu

    2013-05-01

    We present the results of a search through the photometric database of Kepler eclipsing binaries looking for evidence of hierarchical triple-star systems. The presence of a third star orbiting the binary can be inferred from eclipse timing variations. We apply a simple algorithm in an automated determination of the eclipse times for all 2157 binaries. The ''calculated'' eclipse times, based on a constant period model, are subtracted from those observed. The resulting O - C (observed minus calculated times) curves are then visually inspected for periodicities in order to find triple-star candidates. After eliminating false positives due to the beat frequency between the {approx}1/2 hr Kepler cadence and the binary period, 39 candidate triple systems were identified. The periodic O - C curves for these candidates were then fit for contributions from both the classical Roemer delay and so-called physical delay, in an attempt to extract a number of the system parameters of the triple. We discuss the limitations of the information that can be inferred from these O - C curves without further supplemental input, e.g., ground-based spectroscopy. Based on the limited range of orbital periods for the triple-star systems to which this search is sensitive, we can extrapolate to estimate that at least 20% of all close binaries have tertiary companions.

  19. FIVE KEPLER TARGET STARS THAT SHOW MULTIPLE TRANSITING EXOPLANET CANDIDATES

    SciTech Connect

    Steffen, Jason H.; Batalha, Natalie M.; Borucki, William J.; Caldwell, Douglas A.; Haas, Michael J.; Jenkins, Jon M.; Koch, David; Lissauer, Jack J.; Buchhave, Lars A.; Fabrycky, Daniel C.; Fressin, Francois; Holman, Matthew J.; Latham, David W.; Cochran, William D.; Endl, Michael; Ford, Eric B.; Moorhead, Althea V.; Fortney, Jonathan J.; Howell, Steve B.; Isaacson, Howard

    2010-12-10

    We present and discuss five candidate exoplanetary systems identified with the Kepler spacecraft. These five systems show transits from multiple exoplanet candidates. Should these objects prove to be planetary in nature, then these five systems open new opportunities for the field of exoplanets and provide new insights into the formation and dynamical evolution of planetary systems. We discuss the methods used to identify multiple transiting objects from the Kepler photometry as well as the false-positive rejection methods that have been applied to these data. One system shows transits from three distinct objects while the remaining four systems show transits from two objects. Three systems have planet candidates that are near mean motion commensurabilities-two near 2:1 and one just outside 5:2. We discuss the implications that multi-transiting systems have on the distribution of orbital inclinations in planetary systems, and hence their dynamical histories, as well as their likely masses and chemical compositions. A Monte Carlo study indicates that, with additional data, most of these systems should exhibit detectable transit timing variations (TTVs) due to gravitational interactions, though none are apparent in these data. We also discuss new challenges that arise in TTV analyses due to the presence of more than two planets in a system.

  20. Exploring Stellar Populations and Asteroseismology with APOGEE and Kepler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Epstein, Courtney R.; Elsworth, Y. P.; Shetrone, M. D.; Mosser, B.; Tayar, J.; Harding, P.; Pinsonneault, M. H.; Silva Aguirre, V.; Basu, S.; Bizyaev, D.; Bedding, T.; Chaplin, W. J.; Garcia, R.; Garcia Perez, A.; Hearty, F.; Hekker, S.; Huber, D.; Ivans, I. I.; Majewski, S.; Mathur, S.; Serenelli, A.; Schiavon, R. P.; Schoenrich, R.; Sobeck, J.; Zasowski, G.

    2014-01-01

    Accurate measurements of fundamental stellar properties are vital for improving our understanding of stellar populations and galactic evolution. Asteroseismology makes possible precise measurements of stellar mass, radius, and surface gravity. Combining these asteroseismic measurements with spectroscopic temperatures and abundances enables the derivation of precise ages for field stars. To achieve that goal, two complementary surveys, the Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment (APOGEE) and the Kepler Asteroseismic Science Consortium (KASC), are working together to characterize the fundamental properties thousands of red giants in the Kepler field. As a first step toward deriving ages, asteroseismic masses need to be calibrated with independent mass constraints. I will describe how we use a sample of halo stars to test asteroseismic results in the metal-poor regime. The age of halo stars is well constrained by many lines of evidence, including isochrones fits to globular clusters, white dwarf cooling sequence, and the radioactive decay of uranium and thorium. These age constraints translate to a strict prior on halo star masses. I show that the seismic masses are sensitive to the method used to derive seismic parameters and to published, theoretically motivated corrections. The implications of this work for stellar populations are discussed.

  1. Complex Kepler Orbits and Particle Aggregation in Charged Microscopic Grains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Victor; Waitukaitis, Scott; Miskin, Marc; Jaeger, Heinrich

    2015-03-01

    Kepler orbits are usually associated with the motion of astronomical objects such as planets or comets. Here we observe such orbits at the microscale in a system of charged, insulating grains. By letting the grains fall freely under vacuum, we eliminate the effects of air drag and gravity, and by imaging them with a co-falling high-speed camera we track the relative positions of individual particles with high spatial and temporal precision. This makes it possible to investigate the behaviors caused by the combination of long-range electrostatic interactions and short-range, dissipative, contact interactions in unprecedented detail. We make the first direct observations of microscopic elliptical and hyperbolic Kepler orbits, collide-and-capture events between pairs of charged grains, and particle-by-particle aggregation into larger clusters. Our findings provide experimental evidence for electrostatic mechanisms that have been suspected, but not previously observed at the single-event level, as driving the early stages of particle aggregation in systems ranging from fluidized particle bed reactors to interstellar protoplanetary disks. Furthermore, since particles of different net charge and size are seen to aggregate into characteristic spatial configurations, our results suggest new possibilities for the formation of charge-stabilized ``granular molecules''. We can reproduce the observed molecule configurations by taking many-body, dielectric polarization effects into account.

  2. Orbital Circularization of Hot and Cool Kepler Eclipsing Binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Eylen, Vincent; Winn, Joshua N.; Albrecht, Simon

    2016-06-01

    The rate of tidal circularization is predicted to be faster for relatively cool stars with convective outer layers, compared to hotter stars with radiative outer layers. Observing this effect is challenging because it requires large and well-characterized samples that include both hot and cool stars. Here we seek evidence of the predicted dependence of circularization upon stellar type, using a sample of 945 eclipsing binaries observed by Kepler. This sample complements earlier studies of this effect, which employed smaller samples of better-characterized stars. For each Kepler binary we measure e cos ω based on the relative timing of the primary and secondary eclipses. We examine the distribution of e cos ω as a function of period for binaries composed of hot stars, cool stars, and mixtures of the two types. At the shortest periods, hot–hot binaries are most likely to be eccentric; for periods shorter than four days, significant eccentricities occur frequently for hot–hot binaries, but not for hot–cool or cool–cool binaries. This is in qualitative agreement with theoretical expectations based on the slower dissipation rates of hot stars. However, the interpretation of our results is complicated by the largely unknown ages and evolutionary states of the stars in our sample.

  3. Starspots and Stellar Rotation: Stellar Activity with Kepler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walkowicz, L. M.; Basri, G. S.

    2011-12-01

    While the telescopic study of starspots dates back to Galileos observations of our own Sun, recent space-borne photometric missions (such as MOST, CoRoT, and Kepler) are opening a new window into understanding these ubiquitous manifestations of stellar activity. Because of the intimate link between stellar rotation and the generation of the magnetic field, starspots cause a modulation in the lightcurve at the rate of stellar rotation. To complicate matters, stars rotate differentially, so the stellar rotation rate is not really best characterized by a single value but rather by a range of rotation rates. Through high-precision, long-term photometric monitoring of stars of different spectral types and activity strengths, it is possible to determine stellar rotation rates and differential rotation measures. In addition, modeling these lightcurves can tell us about the properties of stellar spots, such as location, areal coverage, and lifetime. New observations provide precision photometry for a large cohort of stars, ranging from Sun-like to rather different stellar properties, at a spread of ages, making these lightcurves a powerful tool for understanding magnetic activity for stars of all activity levels. Here, I will discuss how Kepler can provide new insight into the continuum of stellar activity and our own Suns place amongst the stars.

  4. The period ratio distribution of Kepler's candidate multiplanet systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steffen, Jason H.; Hwang, Jason A.

    2015-04-01

    We calculate and analyse the distribution of period ratios observed in systems of Kepler exoplanet candidates including studies of both adjacent planet pairs and all planet pairs. These distributions account for both the geometrical bias against detecting more distant planets and the effects of incompleteness due to planets missed by the data reduction pipeline. In addition to some of the known features near first-order mean-motion resonances (MMRs), there is a significant excess of planet pairs with period ratios near 2.2. The statistical significance of this feature is assessed using Monte Carlo simulation. We also investigate the distribution of period ratios near first-order MMR and compare different quantities used to measure this distribution. We find that beyond period ratios of ˜2.5, the distribution of all period ratios follows a power law with an exponent -1.26 ± 0.05. We discuss implications that these results may have on the formation and dynamical evolution of Kepler-like planetary systems-systems of sub-Neptune/super-Earth planets with relatively short orbital periods.

  5. Spurious Frequencies in the Kepler Short Cadence Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baran, A. S.

    2013-06-01

    We present our search for artifacts in the Kepler short cadence data using a commonly known Fourier technique. We analyzed data on a monthly basis searching for a possible correlation between artifacts and the events attributed to the spacecraft as potential sources of the spurious frequencies. We defined a peak to be an artifact if it shows in at least two, yet preferentially most of the stars, during a given month. Besides the commonly known "long cadence comb" we found a periodic appearance of another two combs, one single artifact and very strange wide artifacts roaming between 10 c/d and 35 c/d. These artifacts evolve on a yearly basis (four of Kepler's rolls) and we may only speculate that their sources are in the reaction wheels since they are the only moving parts, or temperature variation. The orientation of the spacecraft is likely excluded from the possible sources. More resources are needed to provide a definite explanation of the artifacts.

  6. Understanding flaring solar-type stars seen by Kepler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soderblom, David

    2012-02-01

    The early Kepler data show unambiguous and dramatic evidence of large-scale, massive white-light stellar flares on G and early-K dwarfs. The energies released in these flares are at least 103?104 times that of the largest solar flares ever seen, meaning that they put substantial energy into their circumstellar environments, and much of that energy may be in hard x-rays. At the same time, it is not clear from the Kepler data alone why these particular stars flare because there are many other stars with no evident flares that have similar rotation periods and amplitudes of variation. Are bouts of massive flaring episodic? Do the flaring stars have other properties (activity, v sin i, lithium, inter alia) that distinguish them? Are the flaring stars in close binaries? Keck HIRES spectra can address all these questions and more, and help us to more fully understand this important phenomenon that has critical implications for the formation and evolution of planets and, e! specially, for chemistry and astrobiology in those regions. These stars are also of potential great importance for understanding the flaring behavior of the Sun because white-light flares have not been seen on G stars before, and it is crucial to understand if these flaring stars are unusually young, in close pairs, or if they represent a broader phenomenon that has not yet been appreciated.

  7. The Exoplanet Census: A General Method Applied to Kepler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Youdin, Andrew N.

    2011-11-01

    We develop a general method to fit the underlying planetary distribution function (PLDF) to exoplanet survey data. This maximum likelihood method accommodates more than one planet per star and any number of planet or target star properties. We apply the method to announced Kepler planet candidates that transit solar-type stars. The Kepler team's estimates of the detection efficiency are used and are shown to agree with theoretical predictions for an ideal transit survey. The PLDF is fit to a joint power law in planet radius, down to 0.5 R ⊕, and orbital period, up to 50 days. The estimated number of planets per star in this sample is ~0.7-1.4, where the range covers systematic uncertainties in the detection efficiency. To analyze trends in the PLDF we consider four planet samples, divided between shorter and longer periods at 7 days and between large and small radii at 3 R ⊕. The size distribution changes appreciably between these four samples, revealing a relative deficit of ~3 R ⊕ planets at the shortest periods. This deficit is suggestive of preferential evaporation and sublimation of Neptune- and Saturn-like planets. If the trend and explanation hold, it would be spectacular observational support of the core accretion and migration hypotheses, and would allow refinement of these theories.

  8. EPiK-a Workflow for Electron Tomography in Kepler*

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jianwu; Crawl, Daniel; Phan, Sébastien; Lawrence, Albert; Ellisman, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Scientific workflows integrate data and computing interfaces as configurable, semi-automatic graphs to solve a scientific problem. Kepler is such a software system for designing, executing, reusing, evolving, archiving and sharing scientific workflows. Electron tomography (ET) enables high-resolution views of complex cellular structures, such as cytoskeletons, organelles, viruses and chromosomes. Imaging investigations produce large datasets. For instance, in Electron Tomography, the size of a 16 fold image tilt series is about 65 Gigabytes with each projection image including 4096 by 4096 pixels. When we use serial sections or montage technique for large field ET, the dataset will be even larger. For higher resolution images with multiple tilt series, the data size may be in terabyte range. Demands of mass data processing and complex algorithms require the integration of diverse codes into flexible software structures. This paper describes a workflow for Electron Tomography Programs in Kepler (EPiK). This EPiK workflow embeds the tracking process of IMOD, and realizes the main algorithms including filtered backprojection (FBP) from TxBR and iterative reconstruction methods. We have tested the three dimensional (3D) reconstruction process using EPiK on ET data. EPiK can be a potential toolkit for biology researchers with the advantage of logical viewing, easy handling, convenient sharing and future extensibility. PMID:25621086

  9. Characterizing the shortest-period planets found by Kepler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchis Ojeda, Roberto; Winn, Joshua N.; Rappaport, Saul A.

    2015-01-01

    It is no coincidence that the first exoplanets known to have rocky compositions, CoRoT-7b and Kepler-10b, both have orbital periods shorter than one day. Such ultra-short periods facilitate planet discovery and characterization, by enabling a large number of transits to be observed, enhancing the amplitude of the radial-velocity signal, and allowing a cleaner separation of the radial-velocity signal from the slower spurious variations due to stellar activity. We have constructed a list of 106 planet candidates with periods shorter than one day, based on an independent search of the Kepler database as well as a critical review of previously published candidates. Our survey has revealed that ultra-short-period planets are approximately as common as hot Jupiters, but are almost always smaller than 2 RE. In addition, the ultra-short-period planets tend to be found as part of compact multi-planet systems, in contrast to the 'loneliness' of hot Jupiters. I will describe our ongoing efforts to characterize this new family of planets, with a combination of stellar spectroscopy and radial-velocity monitoring using the Keck telescopes.

  10. EXPLORING A 'FLOW' OF HIGHLY ECCENTRIC BINARIES WITH KEPLER

    SciTech Connect

    Dong Subo; Katz, Boaz; Socrates, Aristotle

    2013-01-20

    With 16-month of Kepler data, 15 long-period (40-265 days) eclipsing binaries on highly eccentric orbits (minimum e between 0.5 and 0.85) are identified from their closely separated primary and secondary eclipses ({Delta}t{sub I,II} = 3-10 days). These systems confirm the existence of a previously hinted binary population situated near a constant angular momentum track at P(1 - e {sup 2}){sup 3/2} {approx} 15 days, close to the tidal circularization period P{sub circ}. They may be presently migrating due to tidal dissipation and form a steady-state 'flow' ({approx}1% of stars) feeding the close-binary population (few % of stars). If so, future Kepler data releases will reveal a growing number (dozens) of systems at longer periods, following dN/dlgP {proportional_to} P {sup 1/3} with increasing eccentricities reaching e {yields} 0.98 for P {yields} 1000 days. Radial-velocity follow-up of long-period eclipsing binaries with no secondary eclipses could offer a significantly larger sample. Orders of magnitude more (hundreds) may reveal their presence from periodic 'eccentricity pulses', such as tidal ellipsoidal variations near pericenter passages. Several new few-day-long eccentricity-pulse candidates with long periods (P = 25-80 days) are reported.

  11. Data validation in the Kepler Science Operations Center pipeline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Hayley; Twicken, Joseph D.; Tenenbaum, Peter; Clarke, Bruce D.; Li, Jie; Quintana, Elisa V.; Allen, Christopher; Chandrasekaran, Hema; Jenkins, Jon M.; Caldwell, Douglas A.; Wohler, Bill; Girouard, Forrest; McCauliff, Sean; Cote, Miles T.; Klaus, Todd C.

    2010-07-01

    We present an overview of the Data Validation (DV) software component and its context within the Kepler Science Operations Center (SOC) pipeline and overall Kepler Science mission. The SOC pipeline performs a transiting planet search on the corrected light curves for over 150,000 targets across the focal plane array. We discuss the DV strategy for automated validation of Threshold Crossing Events (TCEs) generated in the transiting planet search. For each TCE, a transiting planet model is fitted to the target light curve. A multiple planet search is conducted by repeating the transiting planet search on the residual light curve after the model flux has been removed; if an additional detection occurs, a planet model is fitted to the new TCE. A suite of automated tests are performed after all planet candidates have been identified. We describe a centroid motion test to determine the significance of the motion of the target photocenter during transit and to estimate the coordinates of the transit source within the photometric aperture; a series of eclipsing binary discrimination tests on the parameters of the planet model fits to all transits and the sequences of odd and even transits; and a statistical bootstrap to assess the likelihood that the TCE would have been generated purely by chance given the target light curve with all transits removed.

  12. Triple-star Candidates among the Kepler Binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rappaport, S.; Deck, K.; Levine, A.; Borkovits, T.; Carter, J.; El Mellah, I.; Sanchis-Ojeda, R.; Kalomeni, B.

    2013-05-01

    We present the results of a search through the photometric database of Kepler eclipsing binaries looking for evidence of hierarchical triple-star systems. The presence of a third star orbiting the binary can be inferred from eclipse timing variations. We apply a simple algorithm in an automated determination of the eclipse times for all 2157 binaries. The "calculated" eclipse times, based on a constant period model, are subtracted from those observed. The resulting O - C (observed minus calculated times) curves are then visually inspected for periodicities in order to find triple-star candidates. After eliminating false positives due to the beat frequency between the ~1/2 hr Kepler cadence and the binary period, 39 candidate triple systems were identified. The periodic O - C curves for these candidates were then fit for contributions from both the classical Roemer delay and so-called physical delay, in an attempt to extract a number of the system parameters of the triple. We discuss the limitations of the information that can be inferred from these O - C curves without further supplemental input, e.g., ground-based spectroscopy. Based on the limited range of orbital periods for the triple-star systems to which this search is sensitive, we can extrapolate to estimate that at least 20% of all close binaries have tertiary companions.

  13. THE EXOPLANET CENSUS: A GENERAL METHOD APPLIED TO KEPLER

    SciTech Connect

    Youdin, Andrew N.

    2011-11-20

    We develop a general method to fit the underlying planetary distribution function (PLDF) to exoplanet survey data. This maximum likelihood method accommodates more than one planet per star and any number of planet or target star properties. We apply the method to announced Kepler planet candidates that transit solar-type stars. The Kepler team's estimates of the detection efficiency are used and are shown to agree with theoretical predictions for an ideal transit survey. The PLDF is fit to a joint power law in planet radius, down to 0.5 R{sub Circled-Plus }, and orbital period, up to 50 days. The estimated number of planets per star in this sample is {approx}0.7-1.4, where the range covers systematic uncertainties in the detection efficiency. To analyze trends in the PLDF we consider four planet samples, divided between shorter and longer periods at 7 days and between large and small radii at 3 R{sub Circled-Plus }. The size distribution changes appreciably between these four samples, revealing a relative deficit of {approx}3 R{sub Circled-Plus} planets at the shortest periods. This deficit is suggestive of preferential evaporation and sublimation of Neptune- and Saturn-like planets. If the trend and explanation hold, it would be spectacular observational support of the core accretion and migration hypotheses, and would allow refinement of these theories.

  14. Refining Mass Measurements of Kepler Planets with Keck/HIRES.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isaacson, Howard T.; Marcy, Geoffrey W.; Howard, Andrew

    2015-12-01

    We present improved radial velocity mass measurements from Keck/HIRES for exoplanets detected by NASA’s Kepler Mission. Since Kepler’s launch 6 years ago, ~30 planetary systems have been monitored with radial velocities, resulting in measured masses for many planets between 1.0 and 4.0 Earth radii. The resulting planet masses have been used to determine the transition between planets with a rocky interior and those with a lower density interior which requiring significant H/He atmospheres. We provide updated masses and densities for those planets published in Marcy et al (2014) based on two additional observing seasons with HIRES of the Kepler field. These radial velocities also reveal non-transiting planets in systems with previously found transiting planets. One such system has a non-transiting planet with a period between two transiting planets, providing a constraint on the co-planarity of the system. Finally, we provide an updated mass-radius relation, showing the distinction between planets that must have a substantial iron-silicate interior, and those requiring significant contributions from volatiles such as hydrogen and helium.

  15. The Rotational Behavior of Kepler Stars with Planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paz-Chinchón, F.; Leão, I. C.; Bravo, J. P.; de Freitas, D. B.; Ferreira Lopes, C. E.; Alves, S.; Catelan, M.; Canto Martins, B. L.; De Medeiros, J. R.

    2015-04-01

    We analyzed the host stars of the present sample of confirmed planets detected by Kepler and Kepler Objects of Interest to compute new photometric rotation periods and to study the behavior of their angular momentum. Lomb-Scargle periodograms and wavelet maps were computed for 3807 stars. For 540 of these stars, we were able to detect rotational modulation of the light curves at a significance level of greater than 99%. For 63 of these 540 stars, no rotation measurements were previously available in the literature. According to the published masses and evolutionary tracks of the stars in this sample, the sample is composed of M- to F-type stars (with masses of 0.48-1.53 M ) with rotation periods that span a range of 2-89 days. These periods exhibit an excellent agreement with those previously reported (for the stars for which such values are available), and the observed rotational period distribution strongly agrees with theoretical predictions. Furthermore, for the 540 sources considered here, the stellar angular momentum provides an important test of Kraft’s relation based on the photometric rotation periods. Finally, this study directly contributes in a direct approach to our understanding of how angular momentum is distributed between the host star and its (detected) planetary system; the role of angular momentum exchange in such systems is an unavoidable piece of the stellar rotation puzzle.

  16. Creating Kepler's Final KOI Catalog while Balancing Completeness and Reliability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, Susan E.; Coughlin, Jeffrey L.; Mullally, Fergal R.; Christiansen, Jessie; Burke, Christopher J.; Kepler Team

    2016-06-01

    We report on the Kepler Mission's plan to create the final planetary candidate catalog (Data Release 25 KOI catalog), which will be fully automated and uniformly vetted. This catalog is based on evaluating the periodic events reported in the DR25 TCE table (Twicken et al. 2016) available at the NASA exoplanet archive. As with the previous KOI catalog (DR24) the intent is to prioritize uniformity and completeness over obtaining 100% accuracy. In this way, the completeness and the reliability of the KOI table can be measured so that exoplanet occurrence rates can easily be calculated. We use, and improve upon, the DR24 rule-based vetter (Robovetter, Coughlin et al. 2016) to create the final dispositions in the catalog. As done before, the Robovetter's decisions will be tested against injected transits to show that true transit-like signatures are retained. Additionally, the Robovetter will be tested against TCEs found in inverted light curves as a way of showing that the Robovetter is effectively removing false alarms. We will discuss our current methods, any obstacles in our path, and the timeline for delvering Kepler's final planet candidate catalog.

  17. THE CLASSIFICATION OF KEPLER B-STAR VARIABLES

    SciTech Connect

    McNamara, Bernard J.; Jackiewicz, Jason; McKeever, Jean E-mail: jasonj@nmsu.edu

    2012-04-15

    The light curves of 252 B-star candidates in the Kepler database are analyzed in a similar fashion to that done by Balona et al. to further characterize B-star variability, increase the sample of variable B stars for future study, and to identify stars whose power spectra include particularly interesting features such as frequency groupings. Stars are classified as either constant light emitters, {beta} Cep stars, slowly pulsating B stars (SPBs), hybrid pulsators, binaries or stars whose light curves are dominated by rotation (Bin/Rot), hot subdwarfs, or white dwarfs. One-hundred stars in our sample were found to be either light constants or to be variable at a level of less than 0.02 mmag. We increase the number of candidate B-star variables found in the Kepler database by Balona et al. in the following fashion: {beta} Cep stars from 0 to 10, SPBs from eight to 54, hybrid pulsators from seven to 21, and Bin/Rot stars from 23 to 82. For comparison purposes, approximately 51 SPBs and six hybrids had been known prior to 2007. The number of {beta} Cep stars known prior to 2004 was 93. A secondary result of this study is the identification of an additional 11 pulsating white dwarf candidates, four of which possess frequency groupings.

  18. The X-ray surface brightness of Kepler's supernova remnant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, R. L.; Long, K. S.

    1983-01-01

    The first X-ray images of Kepler's supernova remnant (SN Ophiuchi 1604) are presented, and consequences for SNR models are discussed. Observations made with the Einstein Observatory Imaging Proportional Counter and High Resolution Imager show the remnant to be circular, with a strong shell brighter in the north than in the south. A flux of 1.2 x 10 to the -10th ergs/sq cm per sec was measured in the 0.15-4.5 keV region, which corresponds to an X-ray luminosity of 1.0 x 10 to the 36th ergs/sec at a distance of 5 kpc and an interstellar medium density of 2.8 x 10 to the 21st/sq cm. The X-ray observations do not allow the determination of whether the SNR is in the adiabatic or free expansion phase, but in either case it is shown that the mean ISM density must be greater than about 0.1/cu cm. In addition, the density of the X-ray emitting gas must be high, and its electron temperature must be fairly low. The high ISM densities derived for Kepler's SNR and other SNRs thus suggest an atypical ISM, possibly influenced by mass lost from the pre-supernova star.

  19. Presearch Data Conditioning in the Kepler Science Operations Center Pipeline

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Twicken, Joseph D.; Chandrasekaran, Hema; Jenkins, Jon M.; Gunter, Jay P.; Girouard, Forrest; Klaus, Todd C.

    2010-01-01

    We describe the Presearch Data Conditioning (PDC) software component and its context in the Kepler Science Operations Center (SOC) pipeline. The primary tasks of this component are to correct systematic and other errors, remove excess flux due to aperture crowding, and condition the raw flux light curves for over 160,000 long cadence (thirty minute) and 512 short cadence (one minute) targets across the focal plane array. Long cadence corrected flux light curves are subjected to a transiting planet search in a subsequent pipeline module. We discuss the science algorithms for long and short cadence PDC: identification and correction of unexplained (i.e., unrelated to known anomalies) discontinuities; systematic error correction; and excess flux removal. We discuss the propagation of uncertainties from raw to corrected flux. Finally, we present examples of raw and corrected flux time series for flight data to illustrate PDC performance. Corrected flux light curves produced by PDC are exported to the Multi-mission Archive at Space Telescope [Science Institute] (MAST) and will be made available to the general public in accordance with the NASA/Kepler data release policy.

  20. Prevalence and Properties of Planets from Kepler and K2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petigura, Erik; Marcy, Geoffrey W.; Howard, Andrew; Crossfield, Ian; Beichman, Charles; Sinukoff, Evan

    2015-12-01

    Discoveries from the prime Kepler mission demonstrated that small planets (< 3 Earth-radii) are common outcomes of planet formation around G, K, and M stars. While Kepler detected many such planets, all but a handful orbit faint, distant stars, which are not amenable to precise follow up measurements. NASA's K2 mission has the potential to increase the number of known small, transiting planets around bright stars by an order of magnitude. I will present the latest results from my team's efforts to detect, confirm, and characterize planets using the K2 mission. I will highlight some of the progress and remaining challenges involved with generating denoised K2 photometry and with detecting planets in the presence of severe instrument systematics. Among our recent discoveries are the K2-3 and K2-21 planetary systems: M dwarfs hosting multiple transiting Earth-size planets with low equilibrium temperatures. These systems offer a convenient laboratory for studying the bulk composition and atmospheric properties of small planets receiving low levels of stellar irradiation, where processes such as mass loss by photo-evaporation could play a weaker role.

  1. OBSERVATIONS OF DOPPLER BOOSTING IN KEPLER LIGHT CURVES

    SciTech Connect

    Van Kerkwijk, Marten H.; Breton, Rene P.; Justham, Stephen; Rappaport, Saul A.; Podsiadlowski, Philipp; Han, Zhanwen

    2010-05-20

    Among the initial results from Kepler were two striking light curves, for KOI 74 and KOI 81, in which the relative depths of the primary and secondary eclipses showed that the more compact, less luminous object was hotter than its stellar host. That result became particularly intriguing because a substellar mass had been derived for the secondary in KOI 74, which would make the high temperature challenging to explain; in KOI 81, the mass range for the companion was also reported to be consistent with a substellar object. We re-analyze the Kepler data and demonstrate that both companions are likely to be white dwarfs. We also find that the photometric data for KOI 74 show a modulation in brightness as the more luminous star orbits, due to Doppler boosting. The magnitude of the effect is sufficiently large that we can use it to infer a radial velocity amplitude accurate to 1 km s{sup -1}. As far as we are aware, this is the first time a radial-velocity curve has been measured photometrically. Combining our velocity amplitude with the inclination and primary mass derived from the eclipses and primary spectral type, we infer a secondary mass of 0.22 {+-} 0.03 M{sub sun}. We use our estimates to consider the likely evolutionary paths and mass-transfer episodes of these binary systems.

  2. Exploring exoplanet populations with NASA’s Kepler Mission

    PubMed Central

    Batalha, Natalie M.

    2014-01-01

    The Kepler Mission is exploring the diversity of planets and planetary systems. Its legacy will be a catalog of discoveries sufficient for computing planet occurrence rates as a function of size, orbital period, star type, and insolation flux. The mission has made significant progress toward achieving that goal. Over 3,500 transiting exoplanets have been identified from the analysis of the first 3 y of data, 100 planets of which are in the habitable zone. The catalog has a high reliability rate (85–90% averaged over the period/radius plane), which is improving as follow-up observations continue. Dynamical (e.g., velocimetry and transit timing) and statistical methods have confirmed and characterized hundreds of planets over a large range of sizes and compositions for both single- and multiple-star systems. Population studies suggest that planets abound in our galaxy and that small planets are particularly frequent. Here, I report on the progress Kepler has made measuring the prevalence of exoplanets orbiting within one astronomical unit of their host stars in support of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration’s long-term goal of finding habitable environments beyond the solar system. PMID:25049406

  3. Five Kepler target stars that show multiple transiting exoplanet candidates

    SciTech Connect

    Steffen, Jason H.; Batalha, Natalie M.; Borucki, William J.; Buchhave, Lars A.; Caldwell, Douglas A.; Cochran, William D.; Endl, Michael; Fabrycky, Daniel C.; Fressin, Francois; Ford, Eric B.; Fortney, Jonathan J.; /UC, Santa Cruz, Phys. Dept. /NASA, Ames

    2010-06-01

    We present and discuss five candidate exoplanetary systems identified with the Kepler spacecraft. These five systems show transits from multiple exoplanet candidates. Should these objects prove to be planetary in nature, then these five systems open new opportunities for the field of exoplanets and provide new insights into the formation and dynamical evolution of planetary systems. We discuss the methods used to identify multiple transiting objects from the Kepler photometry as well as the false-positive rejection methods that have been applied to these data. One system shows transits from three distinct objects while the remaining four systems show transits from two objects. Three systems have planet candidates that are near mean motion commensurabilities - two near 2:1 and one just outside 5:2. We discuss the implications that multitransiting systems have on the distribution of orbital inclinations in planetary systems, and hence their dynamical histories; as well as their likely masses and chemical compositions. A Monte Carlo study indicates that, with additional data, most of these systems should exhibit detectable transit timing variations (TTV) due to gravitational interactions - though none are apparent in these data. We also discuss new challenges that arise in TTV analyses due to the presence of more than two planets in a system.

  4. KEPLER-15b: A HOT JUPITER ENRICHED IN HEAVY ELEMENTS AND THE FIRST KEPLER MISSION PLANET CONFIRMED WITH THE HOBBY-EBERLY TELESCOPE

    SciTech Connect

    Endl, Michael; MacQueen, Phillip J.; Cochran, William D.; Brugamyer, Erik J.; Buchhave, Lars A.; Rowe, Jason; Lucas, Phillip; Isaacson, Howard; Bryson, Steve; Howell, Steve B.; Borucki, William J.; Caldwell, Douglas; Christiansen, Jessie L.; Haas, Michael R.; Fortney, Jonathan J.; Hansen, Terese; Ciardi, David R.; Everett, Mark; Ford, Eric B.; and others

    2011-11-01

    We report the discovery of Kepler-15b (KOI-128), a new transiting exoplanet detected by NASA's Kepler mission. The transit signal with a period of 4.94 days was detected in the quarter 1 (Q1) Kepler photometry. For the first time, we have used the High Resolution Spectrograph (HRS) at the Hobby-Eberly Telescope (HET) to determine the mass of a Kepler planet via precise radial velocity (RV) measurements. The 24 HET/HRS RVs and 6 additional measurements from the Fibre-fed Echelle Spectrograph spectrograph at the Nordic Optical Telescope reveal a Doppler signal with the same period and phase as the transit ephemeris. We used one HET/HRS spectrum of Kepler-15 taken without the iodine cell to determine accurate stellar parameters. The host star is a metal-rich ([Fe/H] = 0.36 {+-} 0.07) G-type main-sequence star with T{sub eff} = 5515 {+-} 124 K. The semi-amplitude K of the RV orbit is 78.7{sup +8.5}{sub -9.5} m s{sup -1}, which yields a planet mass of 0.66 {+-} 0.1 M{sub Jup}. The planet has a radius of 0.96 {+-} 0.06 R{sub Jup} and a mean bulk density of 0.9 {+-} 0.2 g cm{sup -3}. The radius of Kepler-15b is smaller than the majority of transiting planets with similar mass and irradiation level. This suggests that the planet is more enriched in heavy elements than most other transiting giant planets. For Kepler-15b we estimate a heavy element mass of 30-40 M{sub Circled-Plus }.

  5. SPECTROSCOPY OF NEW AND POORLY KNOWN CATACLYSMIC VARIABLES IN THE KEPLER FIELD

    SciTech Connect

    Howell, Steve B.; Still, Martin; Everett, Mark E.; Seebode, Sally A.; Szkody, Paula; Wood, Matt; Ramsay, Gavin; Cannizzo, John

    2013-04-15

    The NASA Kepler mission has been in science operation since 2009 May and is providing high precision, high cadence light curves of over 150,000 targets. Prior to launch, nine cataclysmic variables were known to lie within Kepler's field of view. We present spectroscopy for seven systems, four of which were newly discovered since launch. All of the stars presented herein have been observed by, or are currently being observed by, the Kepler space telescope. Three historic systems and one new candidate could not be detected at their sky position and two candidates are called into question as to their true identity.

  6. Die Keplersche Supernova - Entdeckung vor 400 Jahren [Kepler's supernova: its discovery 400 years ago

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Posch, Thomas; Maitzen, Hans Michael

    2004-10-01

    We summarize the early observations of SN 1604 made by Johannes Brunowsky and Johannes Kepler in Prague in October 1604. Quoting from Kepler's two books on this subject ("Gründlicher Bericht" and "De stella nova"), we point out that he compared the supernova with respect to its twinkling with an "exquisite multifaceted diamond" and that he thought this object to be rather something like a newly born (proto-)star than a star in its final phase of evolution, as we would call it today. The twinkling of the star was interpreted by Kepler as intrinsic to it rather than an effect of the Earth's atmosphere.

  7. Population synthesis of RR Lyrae stars in the original Kepler and K2 fields of view

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanyecz, O.; Szabo, R.

    2016-05-01

    It is interesting to ask what fraction of the total available RR Lyrae (RRL) sample that falls in the Kepler and K2 Fields of View (FoV) is known or discovered. In order to answer this question we compared the known RRL sam- ple in the Kepler and K2 fields with synthetic Galactic models. The Catalina Sky Survey RRL sample was used to calibrate our method. We found that a large number of faint RRL stars is missing from Kepler and K2 fields.

  8. Secure Mass Measurements from Transit Timing: 10 Kepler Exoplanets between 3 and 8 M⊕ with Diverse Densities and Incident Fluxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jontof-Hutter, Daniel; Ford, Eric B.; Rowe, Jason F.; Lissauer, Jack J.; Fabrycky, Daniel C.; Van Laerhoven, Christa; Agol, Eric; Deck, Katherine M.; Holczer, Tomer; Mazeh, Tsevi

    2016-03-01

    We infer dynamical masses in eight multiplanet systems using transit times measured from Kepler's complete data set, including short-cadence data where available. Of the 18 dynamical masses that we infer, 10 pass multiple tests for robustness. These are in systems Kepler-26 (KOI-250), Kepler-29 (KOI-738), Kepler-60 (KOI-2086), Kepler-105 (KOI-115), and Kepler-307 (KOI-1576). Kepler-105 c has a radius of 1.3 R⊕ and a density consistent with an Earth-like composition. Strong transit timing variation (TTV) signals were detected from additional planets, but their inferred masses were sensitive to outliers or consistent solutions could not be found with independently measured transit times, including planets orbiting Kepler-49 (KOI-248), Kepler-57 (KOI-1270), Kepler-105 (KOI-115), and Kepler-177 (KOI-523). Nonetheless, strong upper limits on the mass of Kepler-177 c imply an extremely low density of ˜0.1 g cm-3. In most cases, individual orbital eccentricities were poorly constrained owing to degeneracies in TTV inversion. For five planet pairs in our sample, strong secular interactions imply a moderate to high likelihood of apsidal alignment over a wide range of possible eccentricities. We also find solutions for the three planets known to orbit Kepler-60 in a Laplace-like resonance chain. However, nonlibrating solutions also match the transit timing data. For six systems, we calculate more precise stellar parameters than previously known, enabling useful constraints on planetary densities where we have secure mass measurements. Placing these exoplanets on the mass-radius diagram, we find that a wide range of densities is observed among sub-Neptune-mass planets and that the range in observed densities is anticorrelated with incident flux.

  9. Assessment of the Olfactory Function in Italian Patients with Type 3 von Willebrand Disease Caused by a Homozygous 253 Kb Deletion Involving VWF and TMEM16B/ANO2

    PubMed Central

    Cenedese, Valentina; Mezzavilla, Massimo; Morgan, Anna; Marino, Renato; Ettorre, Cosimo Pietro; Margaglione, Maurizio; Gasparini, Paolo; Menini, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Type 3 Von Willebrand disease is an autosomal recessive disease caused by the virtual absence of the von Willebrand factor (VWF). A rare 253 kb gene deletion on chromosome 12, identified only in Italian and German families, involves both the VWF gene and the N-terminus of the neighbouring TMEM16B/ANO2 gene, a member of the family named transmembrane 16 (TMEM16) or anoctamin (ANO). TMEM16B is a calcium-activated chloride channel expressed in the olfactory epithelium. As a patient homozygous for the 253 kb deletion has been reported to have an olfactory impairment possibly related to the partial deletion of TMEM16B, we assessed the olfactory function in other patients using the University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test (UPSIT). The average UPSIT score of 4 homozygous patients was significantly lower than that of 5 healthy subjects with similar sex, age and education. However, 4 other members of the same family, 3 heterozygous for the deletion and 1 wild type, had a slightly reduced olfactory function indicating that socio-cultural or other factors were likely to be responsible for the observed difference. These results show that the ability to identify odorants of the homozygous patients for the deletion was not significantly different from that of the other members of the family, showing that the 253 kb deletion does not affect the olfactory performance. As other genes may compensate for the lack of TMEM16B, we identified some predicted functional partners from in silico studies of the protein-protein network of TMEM16B. Calculation of diversity for the corresponding genes for individuals of the 1000 Genomes Project showed that TMEM16B has the highest level of diversity among all genes of the network, indicating that TMEM16B may not be under purifying selection and suggesting that other genes in the network could compensate for its function for olfactory ability. PMID:25635880

  10. The search for ZZ Ceti stars in the original Kepler mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greiss, S.; Hermes, J. J.; Gänsicke, B. T.; Steeghs, D. T. H.; Bell, Keaton J.; Raddi, R.; Tremblay, P.-E.; Breedt, E.; Ramsay, G.; Koester, D.; Carter, P. J.; Vanderbosch, Z.; Winget, D. E.; Winget, K. I.

    2016-04-01

    We report the discovery of 42 white dwarfs in the original Kepler mission field, including nine new confirmed pulsating hydrogen-atmosphere white dwarfs (ZZ Ceti stars). Guided by the Kepler-Isaac Newton Telescope Survey, we selected white dwarf candidates on the basis of their U - g, g - r, and r - Hα photometric colours. We followed up these candidates with high-signal-to-noise optical spectroscopy from the 4.2-m William Herschel Telescope. Using ground-based, time series photometry, we put our sample of new spectroscopically characterized white dwarfs in the context of the empirical ZZ Ceti instability strip. Prior to our search, only two pulsating white dwarfs had been observed by Kepler. Ultimately, four of our new ZZ Cetis were observed from space. These rich data sets are helping initiate a rapid advancement in the asteroseismic investigation of pulsating white dwarfs, which continues with the extended Kepler mission, K2.

  11. How the Sausage is Made: Kepler's False Alarms, False Positives, and Planet Candidates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coughlin, J.

    2014-04-01

    The Kepler mission has now designated over 7,000 Kepler objects of interest (KOIs), or transit-like signatures, utilizing up to four years of data. The number of potentially habitable planet candidates (PCs) among this sample has risen significantly over time. However, starting with Kepler threshold crossing events (TCEs), there are initially about as many false alarms (FAs) detected as there are KOIs. Furthermore, due to its design, contamination from eclipsing binaries, variable stars, and other transiting planets result in a significant number of KOIs being designated as false positives (FPs). Many of these FAs and FPs occur at long orbital periods, where habitable planets are typically found. I will review the process of how an initial TCE becomes a KOI, and then is ultimately classified as a FA, FP, or PC, along with the various vetting tools employed. The understanding of this process is crucial to performing accurate statistical analyses on populations of habitable planet candidates discovered by Kepler.

  12. Investigating AGN Variability Using Combined Multi-Quarter Kepler Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Revalski, Mitchell; Nowak, D.; Wiita, P. J.; Wehrle, A. E.; Unwin, S. C.

    2014-01-01

    The study of long and short term variability in active galactic nuclei (AGN) yields deeper insight into the physical nature of their emissions from the accretion disk around, and relativistic jets powered by, a galaxy’s central super-massive black hole. We have now obtained a total of eleven quarters of Kepler data on four radio-loud AGN. Our prior work involved calculating power spectral densities (PSDs) on these data both with and without corrections for various instrumental artifacts. We now focus on combining these data sets into one continuous set for each object which spans approximately 2.5 years at a 30 minute sampling rate with >98% duty cycle. The process of stringing together these data is complicated by the quarterly rolls the Kepler space satellite telescope conducts, which causes each target to fall on a different CCD four times per year. We attempt to overcome this problem with a scaling procedure that maintains the original percentage of variations and scales all eleven quarters to the overall average. We calculate PSDs on these stitched light curves both with and without various end-matching techniques applied to increase the accuracy of the PSDs. The PSDs computed for the stitched light curves allow us to probe a full decade lower in frequency than our previous work and show comparable slopes to the PSDs calculated for individual quarters, suggesting we are linking the quarters appropriately. Our average PSD slopes are consistent with ground based observations of other quasars, falling approximately between -1.6 and -1.9. In addition, we have used original codes to bin and average individual PSDs to reduce the bias introduced on the slope fitting process induced by the uneven population of points in the PSDs. This allows for a more accurate power law fitting and tends to steepen the overall slope by approximately 0.1 in the majority of cases. We note increased flaring in one of our objects on the order of 15%, with our remaining three objects

  13. Kepler Observations of Starspot Evolution, Differential Rotation, and Flares on Late-Type Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Alexander; Korhonen, H.; Berdyugina, S.; Walkowicz, L.; Kowalski, A.; Hawley, S.; Neff, J.; Ramsey, L.; Redman, S.; Saar, S.; Furesz, G.; Piskunov, N.; Harper, G.; Ayres, T.; Tofany, B.

    2011-05-01

    The Kepler satellite is providing spectacular optical photometric light-curves of unprecedented precision and duration that routinely allow detailed studies of stellar magnetic activity on late-type stars that were difficult, if not impossible, to attempt previously. Rotational modulation due to starspots is commonly seen in the Kepler light-curves of late-type stars, allowing detailed study of the surface distribution of their photospheric magnetic activity. Kepler is providing multi-year duration light-curves that allow us to investigate how activity phenomena -- such as the growth, migration, and decay of starspots, differential rotation, activity cycles, and flaring -- operate on single and binary stars with a wide range of mass and convection zone depth. We present the first results from detailed starspot modeling using newly-developed light-curve inversion codes for a range of GALEX-selected stars with typical rotation periods of a few days, that we have observed as part of our 200 target Kepler Cycle 1/2 Guest Observer programs. The physical properties of the stars have been measured using high resolution optical spectroscopy, which allows the Kepler results to be placed within the existing framework of knowledge regarding stellar magnetic activity. These results demonstrate the powerful diagnostic capability provided by tracking starspot evolution essentially continuously for more than 16 months. The starspots are clearly sampling the stellar rotation rate at different latitudes, enabling us to measure the differential rotation and starspot lifetimes. As would be expected, stars with few day rotation show frequent flaring that is easily seen as "white-light" flares in Kepler light-curves. We compare the observed flare rates and occurrence with the starspot properties. This work contains results obtained using the NASA Kepler satellite and from the Apache Point Observatory, the MMT (using NOAO community access time), and the Hobby-Eberly Telescope. Funding

  14. Kepler-424 b: A "Lonely" Hot Jupiter that Found a Companion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Endl, Michael; Caldwell, Douglas A.; Barclay, Thomas; Huber, Daniel; Isaacson, Howard; Buchhave, Lars A.; Brugamyer, Erik; Robertson, Paul; Cochran, William D.; MacQueen, Phillip J.; Havel, Mathieu; Lucas, Phillip; Howell, Steve B.; Fischer, Debra; Quintana, Elisa; Ciardi, David R.

    2014-11-01

    Hot Jupiter systems provide unique observational constraints for migration models in multiple systems and binaries. We report on the discovery of the Kepler-424 (KOI-214) two-planet system, which consists of a transiting hot Jupiter (Kepler-424b) in a 3.31 day orbit accompanied by a more massive outer companion in an eccentric (e = 0.3) 223 day orbit. The outer giant planet, Kepler-424c, is not detected transiting the host star. The masses of both planets and the orbital parameters for the second planet were determined using precise radial velocity (RV) measurements from the Hobby-Eberly Telescope (HET) and its High Resolution Spectrograph (HRS). In stark contrast to smaller planets, hot Jupiters are predominantly found to be lacking any nearby additional planets; they appear to be "lonely". This might be a consequence of these systems having a highly dynamical past. The Kepler-424 planetary system has a hot Jupiter in a multiple system, similar to \\upsilon Andromedae. We also present our results for Kepler-422 (KOI-22), Kepler-77 (KOI-127), Kepler-43 (KOI-135), and Kepler-423 (KOI-183). These results are based on spectroscopic data collected with the Nordic Optical Telescope (NOT), the Keck 1 telescope, and HET. For all systems, we rule out false positives based on various follow-up observations, confirming the planetary nature of these companions. We performed a comparison with planetary evolutionary models which indicate that these five hot Jupiters have heavy element contents between 20 and 120 M ⊕. Based on observations obtained with the Hobby-Eberly Telescope, which is a joint project of the University of Texas at Austin, the Pennsylvania State University, Stanford University, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München, and Georg-August-Universität Göttingen.

  15. Kepler-424 b: A 'lonely' hot Jupiter that found A companion

    SciTech Connect

    Endl, Michael; Caldwell, Douglas A.; Barclay, Thomas; Huber, Daniel; Havel, Mathieu; Howell, Steve B.; Quintana, Elisa; Isaacson, Howard; Buchhave, Lars A.; Brugamyer, Erik; Robertson, Paul; Cochran, William D.; MacQueen, Phillip J.; Lucas, Phillip; Fischer, Debra; Ciardi, David R.

    2014-11-10

    Hot Jupiter systems provide unique observational constraints for migration models in multiple systems and binaries. We report on the discovery of the Kepler-424 (KOI-214) two-planet system, which consists of a transiting hot Jupiter (Kepler-424b) in a 3.31 day orbit accompanied by a more massive outer companion in an eccentric (e = 0.3) 223 day orbit. The outer giant planet, Kepler-424c, is not detected transiting the host star. The masses of both planets and the orbital parameters for the second planet were determined using precise radial velocity (RV) measurements from the Hobby-Eberly Telescope (HET) and its High Resolution Spectrograph (HRS). In stark contrast to smaller planets, hot Jupiters are predominantly found to be lacking any nearby additional planets; they appear to be {sup l}onely{sup .} This might be a consequence of these systems having a highly dynamical past. The Kepler-424 planetary system has a hot Jupiter in a multiple system, similar to υ Andromedae. We also present our results for Kepler-422 (KOI-22), Kepler-77 (KOI-127), Kepler-43 (KOI-135), and Kepler-423 (KOI-183). These results are based on spectroscopic data collected with the Nordic Optical Telescope (NOT), the Keck 1 telescope, and HET. For all systems, we rule out false positives based on various follow-up observations, confirming the planetary nature of these companions. We performed a comparison with planetary evolutionary models which indicate that these five hot Jupiters have heavy element contents between 20 and 120 M {sub ⊕}.

  16. Observational Verification of the Limb-Darkening Law Based on Kepler Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zola, S.; Baran, A.; Debski, B.; Jableka, D.

    2015-07-01

    We present preliminary results obtained from modeling of light curves of a sample of contact binaries observed by the Kepler spacecraft. Our study was aimed at verifying which of the three most commonly used limb-darkening formulations fits the high quality Kepler data the best. We limited our work to twelve binary systems showing flat-bottomed minima, and we found that for ten of them the square root limb-darkening law led to the best fits.

  17. Constraining the Radiation and Plasma Environment of the Kepler Circumbinary Habitable-zone Planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuluaga, Jorge I.; Mason, Paul A.; Cuartas-Restrepo, Pablo A.

    2016-02-01

    The discovery of many planets using the Kepler telescope includes 10 planets orbiting eight binary stars. Three binaries, Kepler-16, Kepler-47, and Kepler-453, have at least one planet in the circumbinary habitable zone (BHZ). We constrain the level of high-energy radiation and the plasma environment in the BHZ of these systems. With this aim, BHZ limits in these Kepler binaries are calculated as a function of time, and the habitability lifetimes are estimated for hypothetical terrestrial planets and/or moons within the BHZ. With the time-dependent BHZ limits established, a self-consistent model is developed describing the evolution of stellar activity and radiation properties as proxies for stellar aggression toward planetary atmospheres. Modeling binary stellar rotation evolution, including the effect of tidal interaction between stars in binaries, is key to establishing the environment around these systems. We find that Kepler-16 and its binary analogs provide a plasma environment favorable for the survival of atmospheres of putative Mars-sized planets and exomoons. Tides have modified the rotation of the stars in Kepler-47, making its radiation environment less harsh in comparison to the solar system. This is a good example of the mechanism first proposed by Mason et al. Kepler-453 has an environment similar to that of the solar system with slightly better than Earth radiation conditions at the inner edge of the BHZ. These results can be reproduced and even reparameterized as stellar evolution and binary tidal models progress, using our online tool http://bhmcalc.net.

  18. VizieR Online Data Catalog: de Houtman, Kepler and Halley star catalogs (Verbunt+ 2011)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verbunt, F.; van Gent, R. H.

    2011-04-01

    We present Machine-readable versions of the star catalogues of de Houtman (1602), Kepler (1627: Secunda Classis and Tertia Classis) and Halley (1679). In addition to the data from the Historical catalogue, the machine-readable version contains the modern identification with a Hipparcos star and the latter's magnitude, and based on this identification the positional accuracy. For Kepler's catalogues we also give cross references to the catalogue of Ptolemaios (in the edition by Toomer 1998). (4 data files).

  19. ROTATIONAL SYNCHRONIZATION MAY ENHANCE HABITABILITY FOR CIRCUMBINARY PLANETS: KEPLER BINARY CASE STUDIES

    SciTech Connect

    Mason, Paul A.; Zuluaga, Jorge I.; Cuartas-Restrepo, Pablo A.; Clark, Joni M.

    2013-09-10

    We report a mechanism capable of reducing (or increasing) stellar activity in binary stars, thereby potentially enhancing (or destroying) circumbinary habitability. In single stars, stellar aggression toward planetary atmospheres causes mass-loss, which is especially detrimental for late-type stars, because habitable zones are very close and activity is long lasting. In binaries, tidal rotational breaking reduces magnetic activity, thus reducing harmful levels of X-ray and ultraviolet (XUV) radiation and stellar mass-loss that are able to erode planetary atmospheres. We study this mechanism for all confirmed circumbinary (p-type) planets. We find that main sequence twins provide minimal flux variation and in some cases improved environments if the stars rotationally synchronize within the first Gyr. Solar-like twins, like Kepler 34 and Kepler 35, provide low habitable zone XUV fluxes and stellar wind pressures. These wide, moist, habitable zones may potentially support multiple habitable planets. Solar-type stars with lower mass companions, like Kepler 47, allow for protected planets over a wide range of secondary masses and binary periods. Kepler 38 and related binaries are marginal cases. Kepler 64 and analogs have dramatically reduced stellar aggression due to synchronization of the primary, but are limited by the short lifetime. Kepler 16 appears to be inhospitable to planets due to extreme XUV flux. These results have important implications for estimates of the number of stellar systems containing habitable planets in the Galaxy and allow for the selection of binaries suitable for follow-up searches for habitable planets.

  20. KEPLER OBSERVATIONS OF THE SEYFERT 1 GALAXY II ZW 229.015

    SciTech Connect

    Carini, M. T.; Ryle, Wesley T.

    2012-04-10

    The Seyfert 1 galaxy II ZW 229.015 has been observed with the Kepler spacecraft since quarter 4 of Kepler science operations. The results of the quarters 4-7 (1 year) Kepler observations are presented in this paper. We find the source to be highly variable on multiple timescales, with discrete variations occurring on timescales as short as tens of hours with amplitudes as small as 0.5%. Such small amplitude, rapid variability has never before been detected in active galactic nuclei. The presence of a strong galaxy component dilutes the variability determined from the photometric aperture used in the standard Kepler PDC analysis. Using the tools provided by the Kepler Guest Observer Office and simultaneous V-band photometry found in the literature, we determine an optimal customized aperture for photometry of this source with Kepler. The results of a PSRESP analysis reveal tentative evidence of a characteristic variability timescale in the power spectrum. Using this timescale, we estimate the mass of the central supermassive black hole and this estimate is consistent with the virial mass estimate from reverberation mapping studies.

  1. Accurate parameters of the oldest known rocky-exoplanet hosting system: Kepler-10 revisited

    SciTech Connect

    Fogtmann-Schulz, Alexandra; Hinrup, Brian; Van Eylen, Vincent; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jørgen; Kjeldsen, Hans; Silva Aguirre, Víctor; Tingley, Brandon

    2014-02-01

    Since the discovery of Kepler-10, the system has received considerable interest because it contains a small, rocky planet which orbits the star in less than a day. The system's parameters, announced by the Kepler team and subsequently used in further research, were based on only five months of data. We have reanalyzed this system using the full span of 29 months of Kepler photometric data, and obtained improved information about its star and the planets. A detailed asteroseismic analysis of the extended time series provides a significant improvement on the stellar parameters: not only can we state that Kepler-10 is the oldest known rocky-planet-harboring system at 10.41 ± 1.36 Gyr, but these parameters combined with improved planetary parameters from new transit fits gives us the radius of Kepler-10b to within just 125 km. A new analysis of the full planetary phase curve leads to new estimates on the planetary temperature and albedo, which remain degenerate in the Kepler band. Our modeling suggests that the flux level during the occultation is slightly lower than at the transit wings, which would imply that the nightside of this planet has a non-negligible temperature.

  2. Rotational Synchronization May Enhance Habitability for Circumbinary Planets: Kepler Binary Case Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mason, Paul A.; Zuluaga, Jorge I.; Clark, Joni M.; Cuartas-Restrepo, Pablo A.

    2013-09-01

    We report a mechanism capable of reducing (or increasing) stellar activity in binary stars, thereby potentially enhancing (or destroying) circumbinary habitability. In single stars, stellar aggression toward planetary atmospheres causes mass-loss, which is especially detrimental for late-type stars, because habitable zones are very close and activity is long lasting. In binaries, tidal rotational breaking reduces magnetic activity, thus reducing harmful levels of X-ray and ultraviolet (XUV) radiation and stellar mass-loss that are able to erode planetary atmospheres. We study this mechanism for all confirmed circumbinary (p-type) planets. We find that main sequence twins provide minimal flux variation and in some cases improved environments if the stars rotationally synchronize within the first Gyr. Solar-like twins, like Kepler 34 and Kepler 35, provide low habitable zone XUV fluxes and stellar wind pressures. These wide, moist, habitable zones may potentially support multiple habitable planets. Solar-type stars with lower mass companions, like Kepler 47, allow for protected planets over a wide range of secondary masses and binary periods. Kepler 38 and related binaries are marginal cases. Kepler 64 and analogs have dramatically reduced stellar aggression due to synchronization of the primary, but are limited by the short lifetime. Kepler 16 appears to be inhospitable to planets due to extreme XUV flux. These results have important implications for estimates of the number of stellar systems containing habitable planets in the Galaxy and allow for the selection of binaries suitable for follow-up searches for habitable planets.

  3. KEPLER OBSERVATIONS OF RAPID OPTICAL VARIABILITY IN ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI

    SciTech Connect

    Mushotzky, R. F.; Edelson, R.; Baumgartner, W.

    2011-12-10

    Over three quarters in 2010-2011, Kepler monitored optical emission from four active galactic nuclei (AGNs) with {approx}30 minute sampling, >90% duty cycle, and {approx}<0.1% repeatability. These data determined the AGN optical fluctuation power spectral density (PSD) functions over a wide range in temporal frequency. Fits to these PSDs yielded power-law slopes of -2.6 to -3.3, much steeper than typically seen in the X-rays. We find evidence that individual AGNs exhibit intrinsically different PSD slopes. The steep PSD fits are a challenge to recent AGN variability models but seem consistent with first-order magnetorotational instability theoretical calculations of accretion disk fluctuations.

  4. Searching for Circumprimary and Circumbinary Planets in Kepler Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haghighipour, Nader

    We propose to use the currently available data from the Kepler space telescope (specifically, variations in transit and eclipse timing) to detect planets in circumprimary and circumbinary orbits in binary star systems. The detection of planets in close binary stars during the past decade and the recent success of the Kepler space telescope in detecting planets in circumbinary orbits strongly suggest that planet formation in and around binary stars is robust and planets of variety of sizes may exist in dual-star systems. Given that approximately 60% of the main and pre-main sequence stars are in binaries, many of such planet-hosting dual-stars are expected to exist which naturally leads to several fundamental questions on the formation, characteristics, frequency, and habitability of their planets. However, the small number of the currently known planets in binary star systems (only 8) does not allow for arriving at statistically meaningful answers to these questions. The success of the Kepler space telescope in identifying more than 2300 planetary candidates (of which many may be in close dual-stars) and over 2100 eclipsing binaries has provided rich grounds for searching for planet-hosting binary stars and increasing the number of their planets. We propose to use the data from quarter 0 (Q0) to quarter 6 (Q6), to identify the signature(s) of planet(s) in and around binary stars by analyzing the variations in the times of planetary transit or the eclipses of the binary. We will use the transit timing variations of the +2300 planetary candidates for detecting stellar companions to their planet-hosting stars, and the eclipse timing variations of the +2100 binary star systems to detect circumbinary planets. We have developed a powerful algorithm dubbed as QATS that allows us to analyze eclipse and transit timing variations accurately and efficiently. To properly account for the frequency of planets in binary stars systems and comparing that with the frequency of

  5. Investigating the A-Type Stars Using Kepler Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, Simon J.

    2014-10-01

    Rotation is a key physical process operating in the A stars. We present a method by which rotation periods might be measured with Fourier transforms of Kepler data, potentially removing the requirement of spectroscopic observations to acquire similar information. Angular rotational velocities reach their maximum at about A5, but slowly rotating A stars are also seen and these tend to be chemically peculiar. For Ap stars, rotational braking is understood, but too few progenitors are observed. A review of a rare class of stars, the `sn' stars, leads us to suggest these may contribute to the `missing' Ap progenitors. For Am stars, we find the tidal braking mechanisms proposed in the literature induce mixing that is incompatible with observed abundance anomalies. At the other end of the scale are the λ Boo stars, whose rotation velocities are above average. The two main theories for the origin of their metal underabundances are discussed and it is suggested that both of them imply the λ Boo stars contain a high fraction of pulsators -- a suggestion that is backed up by observations in the literature. Many λ Boo stars also have circumstellar material, suggesting they are potential planet hosts. This, and the use of asteroseismology to study their interiors, are two excellent reasons to adopt them as prime targets for detailed investigation with Kepler. Pulsation is a common phenomenon in A stars. The δ Sct stars receive wide attention but the fraction of stars that pulsate at the 50 μmag level is shown to be only 56 percent. The non-δ Sct stars in the δ Sct instability strip receive far less attention. Some of these stars, without appreciable granulation or stellar winds, are probably the least variable objects on the HR diagram. It is shown that they have the potential to be among the most peculiar Am stars. Their investigation has led to two important conclusions: (1) the presence of γ Dor pulsation in non-δ Sct stars in the δ Sct instability strip may

  6. DISCOVERY OF THE TRANSITING PLANET KEPLER-5b

    SciTech Connect

    Koch, David G.; Borucki, William J.; Rowe, Jason F.; Lissauer, Jack J.; Morrison, David; Batalha, Natalie M.; Brown, Timothy M.; Caldwell, Douglas A.; DeVore, Edna; Jenkins, Jon M.; Caldwell, John; Cochran, William D.; Dunham, Edward W.; Dupree, Andrea K.; Geary, John C.; Latham, David W.; Gautier, Thomas N.; Howell, Steve B.; Marcy, Geoff W.

    2010-04-20

    We present 44 days of high duty cycle, ultra precise photometry of the 13th magnitude star Kepler-5 (KIC 8191672, T {sub eff}= 6300 K, log g= 4.1), which exhibits periodic transits with a depth of 0.7%. Detailed modeling of the transit is consistent with a planetary companion with an orbital period of 3.548460 {+-} 0.000032 days and a radius of 1.431{sup +0.041} {sub -0.052} R {sub J}. Follow-up radial velocity measurements with the Keck HIRES spectrograph on nine separate nights demonstrate that the planet is more than twice as massive as Jupiter with a mass of 2.114{sup +0.056} {sub -0.059} M {sub J} and a mean density of 0.894 {+-} 0.079 g cm{sup -3}.

  7. KEPLER-7b: A TRANSITING PLANET WITH UNUSUALLY LOW DENSITY

    SciTech Connect

    Latham, David W.; Buchhave, Lars A.; Furesz, Gabor; Geary, John C.; Borucki, William J.; Koch, David G.; Lissauer, Jack J.; Rowe, Jason F.; Brown, Timothy M.; Basri, Gibor; Batalha, Natalie M.; Caldwell, Douglas A.; Jenkins, Jon M.; Cochran, William D.; Dunham, Edward W.; Gautier, Thomas N.; Howell, Steve B.; Marcy, Geoffrey W.; Monet, David G.

    2010-04-20

    We report on the discovery and confirmation of Kepler-7b, a transiting planet with unusually low density. The mass is less than half that of Jupiter, M {sub P} = 0.43 M {sub J}, but the radius is 50% larger, R {sub P} = 1.48 R {sub J}. The resulting density, {rho}{sub P} = 0.17 g cm{sup -3}, is the second lowest reported so far for an extrasolar planet. The orbital period is fairly long, P = 4.886 days, and the host star is not much hotter than the Sun, T {sub eff} = 6000 K. However, it is more massive and considerably larger than the Sun, M {sub *} = 1.35 M {sub sun} and R {sub *} = 1.84 R {sub sun}, and must be near the end of its life on the main sequence.

  8. KEPLER MISSION DESIGN, REALIZED PHOTOMETRIC PERFORMANCE, AND EARLY SCIENCE

    SciTech Connect

    Koch, David G.; Borucki, William J.; Lissauer, Jack J.; Basri, Gibor; Marcy, Geoffrey; Batalha, Natalie M.; Brown, Timothy M.; Caldwell, Douglas; DeVore, Edna; Jenkins, Jon; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Joergen; Cochran, William D.; Dunham, Edward W.; Gautier, Thomas N.; Gilliland, Ronald L.; Gould, Alan; Kondo, Yoji; Monet, David

    2010-04-20

    The Kepler Mission, launched on 2009 March 6, was designed with the explicit capability to detect Earth-size planets in the habitable zone of solar-like stars using the transit photometry method. Results from just 43 days of data along with ground-based follow-up observations have identified five new transiting planets with measurements of their masses, radii, and orbital periods. Many aspects of stellar astrophysics also benefit from the unique, precise, extended, and nearly continuous data set for a large number and variety of stars. Early results for classical variables and eclipsing stars show great promise. To fully understand the methodology, processes, and eventually the results from the mission, we present the underlying rationale that ultimately led to the flight and ground system designs used to achieve the exquisite photometric performance. As an example of the initial photometric results, we present variability measurements that can be used to distinguish dwarf stars from red giants.

  9. Convection in Cool Stars, as Seen Through Kepler's Eyes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bastien, Fabienne A.

    2015-01-01

    Stellar surface processes represent a fundamental limit to the detection of extrasolar planets with the currently most heavily-used techniques. As such, considerable effort has gone into trying to mitigate the impact of these processes on planet detection, with most studies focusing on magnetic spots. Meanwhile, high-precision photometric planet surveys like CoRoT and Kepler have unveiled a wide variety of stellar variability at previously inaccessible levels. We demonstrate that these newly revealed variations are not solely magnetically driven but also trace surface convection through light curve ``flicker.'' We show that ``flicker'' not only yields a simple measurement of surface gravity with a precision of ˜0.1 dex, but it may also improve our knowledge of planet properties, enhance radial velocity planet detection and discovery, and provide new insights into stellar evolution.

  10. Galilean Moons, Kepler's Third Law, and the Mass of Jupiter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bates, Alan

    2013-10-01

    Simulations of physical systems are widely available online, with no cost, and are ready to be used in our classrooms. ,2 Such simulations offer an accessible tool that can be used for a range of interactive learning activities. The Jovian Moons Applet2 allows the user to track the position of Jupiter's four Galilean moons with a variety of viewing options. For this activity, data are obtained from the orbital period and orbital radii charts. Earlier experiments have used telescopes to capture the orbital motion of the Galilean moons,3 although observation of astronomical events and the measurement of quantities may be difficult to achieve due to a combination of cost, training, and observing conditions. The applet allows a suitable set of data to be generated and data analysis that verifies Kepler's third law of planetary motion, which leads to a calculated value for the mass of Jupiter.

  11. Kepler-108: A Mutually Inclined Giant Planet System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mills, Sean M.; Fabrycky, Daniel

    2016-06-01

    The vast majority of well studied giant-planet systems, including the Solar System, are nearly coplanar which implies dissipation within a primordial gas disk. However, intrinsic instability may lead to planet-planet scattering, which often produces non-coplanar, eccentric orbits. Planet scattering theories have been developed to explain observed high eccentricity systems and possibly hot Jupiters; thus far their predictions for mutual inclination (I) have barely been tested. Here we characterize a highly mutually-inclined (I ~ 15-60 degrees), moderately eccentric (e > 0.1) giant planet system: Kepler-108. This system consists of two Saturn mass planets with periods of ~49 and ~190 days around a star with a wide (~300 AU) binary companion in an orbital configuration inconsistent with a purely disk migration origin.

  12. Analysis of the exoplanet containing system Kepler-91

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budding, E.; Püsküllü, Ç.; Rhodes, M. D.; Demircan, O.; Erdem, A.

    2016-01-01

    We have applied the graphical user interfaced close binary system analysis program WinFitter to an intensive study of Kepler-91 using all the available photometry from the NASA Exoplanet Archive (NEA) at the Caltech website: http://exoplanetarchive.ipac.caltech.edu. Our fitting function for the tidal distortion derives from the relevant Radau equation and includes terms up to the fifth power of the fractional radius. This results in a systematic improvement in the mass ratio estimation over that of Lillo-Box et al. (Astron. Astrophys. 562:A109, 2014a) and our derived value for the mass ratio is in close agreement with that inferred from recent high-resolution spectroscopic data.

  13. A Search for Hierarchical Triples using Kepler Eclipse Timing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gies, D. R.; Williams, S. J.; Matson, R. A.; Guo, Z.; Thomas, S. M.; Orosz, J. A.; Peters, G. J.

    2012-06-01

    We present the first results of a Kepler survey of 41 eclipsing binaries that we undertook to search for third star companions. Such tertiaries will periodically alter the eclipse timings through light travel time and dynamical effects. We discuss the prevalence of starspots and pulsation among these binaries and how these phenomena influence the eclipse times. There is no evidence of short-period companions (P < 700 days) among this sample, but we do find evidence for long-term timing variations in 14 targets (34%). We argue that this finding is consistent with the presence of tertiary companions among a significant fraction of the targets, especially if many have orbits measured in decades. This result supports the idea that the formation of close binaries involves the deposition of angular momentum into the orbital motion of a third star.

  14. Seven-period asteroseismic fit of the Kepler DBV

    SciTech Connect

    Bischoff-Kim, Agnès; Østensen, Roy H.; Hermes, J. J.; Provencal, Judith L. E-mail: roy@ster.kuleuven.be E-mail: jlp@udel.edu

    2014-10-10

    We present a new, better-constrained asteroseismic analysis of the helium-atmosphere (DB) white dwarf discovered in the field of view of the original Kepler mission. Observations obtained over the course of 2 yr yield at least seven independent modes, two more than were found in the discovery paper for the object. With several triplets and doublets, we are able to fix the ℓ and m identification of several modes before performing the fitting, greatly reducing the number of assumptions we must make about mode identification. We find a very thin helium layer for this relatively hot DB, which adds evidence to the hypothesis that helium diffuses outward during DB cooling. At least a few of the modes appear to be stable on evolutionary timescales and could allow us to obtain a measurement of the rate of cooling with monitoring of the star over the course of the next few years with ground-based follow-up.

  15. A SEARCH FOR HIERARCHICAL TRIPLES USING KEPLER ECLIPSE TIMING

    SciTech Connect

    Gies, D. R.; Williams, S. J.; Matson, R. A.; Guo, Z.; Thomas, S. M.; Orosz, J. A.; Peters, G. J. E-mail: swilliams@chara.gsu.edu E-mail: guo@chara.gsu.edu E-mail: orosz@sciences.sdsu.edu

    2012-06-15

    We present the first results of a Kepler survey of 41 eclipsing binaries that we undertook to search for third star companions. Such tertiaries will periodically alter the eclipse timings through light travel time and dynamical effects. We discuss the prevalence of starspots and pulsation among these binaries and how these phenomena influence the eclipse times. There is no evidence of short-period companions (P < 700 days) among this sample, but we do find evidence for long-term timing variations in 14 targets (34%). We argue that this finding is consistent with the presence of tertiary companions among a significant fraction of the targets, especially if many have orbits measured in decades. This result supports the idea that the formation of close binaries involves the deposition of angular momentum into the orbital motion of a third star.

  16. Kepler's Copernican Campaign and the New Star of 1604

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boner, Patrick J.

    In a letter of 27 October 1604, David Fabricius (1564-1617) eagerly reported to Johannes Kepler (1571-1630) his observations of a brilliant new luminary in the constellation of Sagittarius. Fabricius had first observed the new luminary "near the location of the great conjunction,"1 which had occurred just 10 months earlier. His eyes had been drawn to the area by the proximity of the three superior planets when "Mars and Jupiter were conjoined and Saturn had by then returned directly to the location of the great conjunction."2 There, Fabricius had identified "a new star, with no motion of its own," in the outer sphere encasing the cosmos.3 The star had surpassed Jupiter "in diameter and silvery splendor,"4 and its scintillation had proven incomparably swift.

  17. The distribution of period ratios in Kepler planetary systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steffen, Jason H.; Hwang, Jason A.

    2015-01-01

    Kepler's multi-planet systems are a valuable tool to understand the architectures and dynamics of the inner parts of planetary systems. I present an analysis of the distribution of orbital period ratios from candidate systems identified in the Quarter 8 catalog (Burke et al. 2014). This distribution is corrected for the effects of geometric transit probabilities and the completeness of the data reduction pipeline. We find that the distribution of period ratios falls as a power law with exponent -1.26 ± 0.05. We also identify a new, statistically significant feature near a period ratio of 2.2. These observations may provide insights into the formation and evolution of these systems.

  18. Spitzer Space Telescope Spectroscopy of the Kepler Supernova Remnant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roellig, T. L.; Onaka, T.

    2004-01-01

    The Infrared Spectrograph on the Spitzer Space Telescope was used for observations of the Kepler supernova remnant, with all four instrument modules targeted on the bright infrared knot located at 17h30m35.80s,-21d28m54.0s (J2000). The low spectral resolution modules data show a dust continuum spectrum consistent with dust grains heated by high-energy electrons, while the high resolution modules data show atomic emission line ratios consistent with excitation by a high velocity shock of greater than 100 kilometers per second and electron densities of approximately 1,000 per centimeter. The abundance ratios for the six detected elements show signs of heavy-element enhancement. This work is based on observations made with the Spitzer Space Telescope, which is operated by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology. Support for this work was provided by NASA's Office of Space Science.

  19. Search for Variables in the Kepler Field on DASCH Plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Sumin; Grindlay, J.; Los, E.; Servillat, M.

    2011-01-01

    The Digital Access to a Sky Century @ Harvard (DASCH) is a project to digitize the half a million glass photographic plates over the period 1880s-1980s. This 100 year coverage is a unique resource for studying temporal variations in the universe. Here we present our variable search algorithms and variable catalog in the Kepler fields based on 3000 scanned plates. We use the KIC spectral classifications to search for long-term variability of any main sequence stars, particularly M dwarfs. We apply a variability search technique developed for DASCH and set limits on the fraction of main sequence stars, by spectral type, which show detectable (>0.2mag) variability on timescales 10-100y. Such limits are of particular interest for M dwarfs given the recent discoveries of their planet systems.

  20. First integrals for the Kepler problem with linear drag

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Margheri, Alessandro; Ortega, Rafael; Rebelo, Carlota

    2016-07-01

    In this work we consider the Kepler problem with linear drag, and prove the existence of a continuous vector-valued first integral, obtained taking the limit as t→ +∞ of the Runge-Lenz vector. The norm of this first integral can be interpreted as an asymptotic eccentricity e_{∞} with 0≤ e_{∞} ≤ 1 . The orbits satisfying e_{∞} <1 approach the singularity by an elliptic spiral and the corresponding solutions x(t)=r(t)e^{iθ (t)} have a norm r(t) that goes to zero like a negative exponential and an argument θ (t) that goes to infinity like a positive exponential. In particular, the difference between consecutive times of passage through the pericenter, say T_{n+1} -T_n , goes to zero as 1/n.